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Sample records for anaemia virus isav-infected

  1. In situ localisation of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II and CD8 positive cells in infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV)-infected Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, Dyveke Lem; Jørgensen, Sven Martin; Skjødt, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    It is assumed that the mobilisation of a strong cellular immune response is important for the survival of Atlantic salmon infected with infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). In this study, the characterisation of immune cell populations in tissues of non-ISAV infected Atlantic salmon and during...... the early viraemia of ISAV was undertaken. Immunohistochemical investigations of spleen, head kidney and gills using monoclonal antibodies against recombinant proteins from MHC I, II and CD8 were performed on tissues from Atlantic salmon collected day 17 post-challenge in a cohabitant infection model....... The localisations of MHC I and II in control salmon were consistent with previous reports but this study presents novel observations on the distribution of CD8 labelled cell populations in Atlantic salmon including the description of significant mucosal populations in the gills. The distribution of MHC I, MHC II...

  2. Investigation into the susceptibility of saithe Pollachius virens to infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) and their potential role as a vector for viral transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snow, M.; Raynard, R.; Bruno, D.W.

    2002-01-01

    salmon Salmo salar. Despite the individual testing of 120 ISAV-exposed saithe, ISAV was not detectable using RT-PCR, the most sensitive ISAV diagnostic tool demonstrated to date. Furthermore, saithe exposed to ISAV-infected salmon were not capable of transmitting virus when transferred to tanks...

  3. Prevalence of Anaemia Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anaemia is the most commonly encountered haematological abnormality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients with estimates climbing as high as 95% depending on clinical settings. The twin effects of HIV infection and anaemia in pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and ...

  4. Characterization of gene expression on genomic segment 7 of infectious salmon anaemia virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Biao

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA virus (ISAV, an important pathogen of fish that causes disease accompanied by high mortality in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon, is the only species in the genus Isavirus, one of the five genera of the Orthomyxoviridae family. The Isavirus genome consists of eight single-stranded RNA species, and the virions have two surface glycoproteins; haemagglutinin-esterase (HE protein encoded on segment 6 and fusion (F protein encoded on segment 5. Based on the initial demonstration of two 5'-coterminal mRNA transcripts by RT-PCR, ISAV genomic segment 7 was suggested to share a similar coding strategy with segment 7 of influenza A virus, encoding two proteins. However, there appears to be confusion as to the protein sizes predicted from the two open reading frames (ORFs of ISAV segment 7 which has in turn led to confusion of the predicted protein functions. The primary goal of the present work was to clone and express these two ORFs in order to assess whether the predicted protein sizes match those of the expressed proteins so as to clarify the coding assignments, and thereby identify any additional structural proteins of ISAV. Results In the present study we show that ISAV segment 7 encodes 3 proteins with estimated molecular masses of 32, 18, and 9.5 kDa. The 18-kDa and 9.5-kDa products are based on removal of an intron each from the primary transcript (7-ORF1 so that the translation continues in the +2 and +3 reading frames, respectively. The segment 7-ORF1/3 product is variably truncated in the sequence of ISAV isolates of the European genotype. All three proteins are recognized by rabbit antiserum against the 32-kDa product of the primary transcript, as they all share the N-terminal 22 amino acids. This antiserum detected a single 35-kDa protein in Western blots of purified virus, and immunoprecipitated a 32-kDa protein in ISAV-infected TO cells. Immunofluorescence staining of infected cells with the

  5. Epidemiology and molecular characterization of chicken anaemia virus from commercial and native chickens in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, S-C; Lin, H-L; Liu, P-C; Huang, H-J; Lee, M-S; Lien, Y-Y; Tsai, Y-L

    2018-04-25

    Chicken infectious anaemia (CIA) is a disease with a highly economic impact in the poultry industry. The infected chickens are characterized by aplastic anaemia and extreme immunosuppression, followed by the increased susceptibility to secondary infectious pathogens and suboptimal immune responses for vaccination. Commercially available CIA vaccines are routinely used in the breeders in Taiwan to protect their progeny with maternal-derived antibodies. However, CIA cases still occur in the field and little is known about the genetic characteristics of Taiwanese chicken anaemia viruses (CAVs). In this study, CAV DNA was detected in 72 of 137 flocks collected during 2010-2015. Among the PCR-positive samples, the coding regions of 51 CAVs were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene revealed that, although most of Taiwanese CAVs belonged to genotypes II and III, some isolates were clustered into a novel genotype (genotype IV). Moreover, a Taiwanese isolate in this novel genotype IV appeared to be derived from a recombination event between genotypes II and III viruses. Five Taiwanese CAV isolates were highly similar to the vaccine strains, 26P4 or Del-Ros. Taken together, these results indicate that the sequences of CAVs in Taiwan are variable, and inter-genotypic recombination had occurred between viruses of different genotypes. Moreover, vaccine-like strains might induce clinical signs of CIA in chickens. Our findings could be useful for understanding the evolution of CAVs and development of a better control strategy for CIA. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Cloning, expression and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) gp45 ectodomain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Pei-Long; Lv, Shu-Xia; Zhou, Jian-Hua; Liu, Xin-Qi

    2011-01-01

    The equine infectious anaemia virus gp45 ectodomain was cloned, expressed and crystallized. Preliminary crystallographic analysis showed that the protein belonged to space group P6 3 and contained one molecule per asymmetric unit. Like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) belongs to the lentivirus genus. The first successful lentiviral vaccine was developed for EIAV. Thus, EIAV may serve as a valuable model for HIV vaccine research. EIAV glycoprotein 45 (gp45) plays a similar role to gp41 in HIV by mediating virus–host membrane fusion. The gp45 ectodomain was constructed according to the structure of HIV gp41, with removal of the disulfide-bond loop region. The protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized following purification. However, most of the crystals grew as aggregates and could not be used for data collection. By extensively screening hundreds of crystals, a 2.7 Å resolution data set was collected from a single crystal. The crystal belonged to space group P6 3 , with unit-cell parameters a = b = 46.84, c = 101.61 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. Molecular replacement was performed using the coordinates of various lengths of HIV gp41 as search models. A long bent helix was identified and a well defined electron-density map around the long helix was obtained. This primary model provided the starting point for further refinement

  7. Freedom from equine infectious anaemia virus infection in Spanish Purebred horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fatima; Fores, Paloma; Ireland, Joanne; Moreno, Miguel A.; Newton, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction No cases of equine infectious anaemia (EIA) have been reported in Spain since 1983. Factors that could increase the risk of reintroducing equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) into Spain include the recent occurrence of the disease in Europe and the absence of compulsory serological testing before importation into Spain. Aims and objectives Given the importance of the Spanish Purebred (SP) horse breeding industry in Spain, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to provide evidence of freedom from EIAV in SP stud farms in Central Spain. Materials and methods Serum samples from 555 SP horses, collected between September 2011 and November 2013, were tested using a commercially available EIAV ELISA with a published sensitivity of 100 per cent. Results All 555 samples were negative for antibody to EIAV, providing evidence of a true EIAV seroprevalence between 0 per cent and 0.53 per cent (95% CIs of the sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA technique used Q10 were 100 per cent and 99.3 per cent, respectively) among the SP breeding population in Central Spain. Conclusions These findings should serve to increase confidence when exporting SP horses to other countries. PMID:26392894

  8. Oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in horses infected with equine infectious anaemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolfă, Pompei Florin; Leroux, Caroline; Pintea, Adela; Andrei, Sanda; Cătoi, Cornel; Taulescu, Marian; Tăbăran, Flaviu; Spînu, Marina

    2012-06-01

    This study assesses the impact of equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) infection on the oxidant/antioxidant equilibrium of horses. Blood samples from 96 Romanian horses aged 1-25 years, were divided into different groups according to their EIAV-infection status, age, and time post-seroconversion. The effect of infection on oxidative stress was estimated by measuring enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione peroxidase [GPx] and catalase), non-enzymatic antioxidants (uric acid and carotenoids), and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA]). Infection modified the oxidant/antioxidant equilibrium in the horses, influencing GPx and uric acid levels (P5 years old, represented the most vulnerable category in terms of oxidative stress, followed by recently infected animals <5 years old. The results of this study are novel in implicating EIAV infection in the development of oxidative stress in horses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwayelu, D O; Todd, D; Olaleye, O D

    2008-12-01

    This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6% and 4% nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2% amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/CI-8 and NGR/CI-9) were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  10. Evolutionary mechanisms involved in the virulence of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), a piscine orthomyxovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markussen, Turhan; Jonassen, Christine Monceyron; Numanovic, Sanela; Braaen, Stine; Hjortaas, Monika; Nilsen, Hanne; Mjaaland, Siri

    2008-01-01

    Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is an orthomyxovirus causing a multisystemic, emerging disease in Atlantic salmon. Here we present, for the first time, detailed sequence analyses of the full-genome sequence of a presumed avirulent isolate displaying a full-length hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) gene (HPR0), and compare this with full-genome sequences of 11 Norwegian ISAV isolates from clinically diseased fish. These analyses revealed the presence of a virulence marker right upstream of the putative cleavage site R 267 in the fusion (F) protein, suggesting a Q 266 → L 266 substitution to be a prerequisite for virulence. To gain virulence in isolates lacking this substitution, a sequence insertion near the cleavage site seems to be required. This strongly suggests the involvement of a protease recognition pattern at the cleavage site of the fusion protein as a determinant of virulence, as seen in highly pathogenic influenza A virus H5 or H7 and the paramyxovirus Newcastle disease virus

  11. Detection and molecular characterisation of equine infectious anaemia virus from field outbreaks in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhar, U; Završnik, J; Toplak, I; Malovrh, T

    2014-05-01

    In 2009, a surprisingly high number of animals seropositive for equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV; 26 horses from 13 farms) were detected in Slovenia. To develop a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of the proviral nucleic acid, to phylogenetically characterise the Slovenian EIAV strains and to investigate whether transmission in utero occurred. Cross-sectional clinical study. In total, 26 horses (including 2 foals and 4 pregnant mares) and 4 fetuses were examined in this study. A PCR assay using the EIAV F1 and EIAV R1 primers was designed and tested using genomic DNA extracted from 28 spleen samples, 18 whole blood samples and 17 peripheral blood leucocyte samples. Amplicons of 22 PCRs obtained from the spleen samples were subjected to direct DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. All spleen samples from 22 adult animals were positive for EIAV by PCR, whereas whole blood and the peripheral blood leucocyte samples were positive from only 4 animals. Spleen samples from foals and fetuses were negative by PCR. The Slovenian EIAV sequences could be mapped to 9 different branches of the phylogenetic tree. The PCR was able to detect different EIAV strains from spleen samples of seropositive animals detected in Slovenia. Phylogenetic analysis revealed high genetic diversity of the EIAV strains detected in Slovenia, with their closest relatives being European strains. In utero transmission in pregnant mares did not occur. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  12. [Immunotherapy in aplastic anaemia as a cause of reactivation of hepatitis B virus-immunologic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczyński, Włodzimierz; Muszyńska-Rosłan, Katarzyna; Krawczuk-Rybak, Maryna; Lebensztejn, Dariusz M

    2005-01-01

    We present history of 16-year-old boy, HBsAg carrier, treated with interferon alpha at the age of 6 because of hepatitis B (HBeAg/antyHBe seroconversion). In August 2002--admitted to Department of Pediatric Oncology due to pancytopenia--diagnosis of severe aplastic anaemia was made (bone marrow cellularity--10%). We found no relative donor for hematopoietic cells transplantation and started immunosuppresive therapy (ATG, G-CSF, methyloprednisolon, cyclosporin). Haematologic parameters were improving. At day +60 he was admitted to our Department due to the increase in aminotransferases and cyclosporin activity. He was treated with cefuroxim, acyclovir and drugs improving liver cell function, cyclosporin was stopped. Presence of HBV DNA in serum confirmed HBV reactivation--a boy received lamivudine and cyclosporin again (as a maintenance therapy of aplastic anaemia). Aminotransferase activity and haematological parameters returned to normal. This case indicates the possibility of HBV reactivation in the course of immunosuppressive therapy (e.g. after antithymocytic globulin and cyclosporin) for aplastic anaemia.

  13. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Oluwayelu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6 % and 4 % nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2 % amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/Cl-8 and NGR/Cl-9 were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  14. Fanconi anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masthan Saheb D

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of Fanconi anaemia in a 7 - year-old male child is reported. He was grossly anaemic with typical cutaneous pigmentary changes. Peripheral smear revealed normocytic hypochromic anaemia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed absence of right kidney.

  15. A systematic surveillance programme for infectious salmon anaemia virus supports its absence in the Pacific Northwest of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Lori L.; Creekmore, Lynn H.; Snekvik, Kevin R.; Ferguson, Jayde A.; Warg, Janet V.; Blair, Marilyn; Meyers, Theodore R.; Stewart, Bruce; Warheit, Kenneth I.; Kerwin, John; Goodwin, Andrew E.; Rhodes, Linda D.; Whaley, Janet E.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Bentz, Collette; Shasa, Desiree; Bader, Joel; Winton, James R.

    2018-01-01

    In response to reported findings of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in British Columbia (BC), Canada, in 2011, U.S. national, state and tribal fisheries managers and fish health specialists developed and implemented a collaborative ISAV surveillance plan for the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Accordingly, over a 3-1/2-year period, 4,962 salmonids were sampled and successfully tested by real-time reverse-transcription PCR. The sample set included multiple tissues from free-ranging Pacific salmonids from coastal regions of Alaska and Washington and farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) from Washington, all representing fish exposed to marine environments. The survey design targeted physiologically compromised or moribund animals more vulnerable to infection as well as species considered susceptible to ISAV. Samples were handled with a documented chain of custody and testing protocols, and criteria for interpretation of test results were defined in advance. All 4,962 completed tests were negative for ISAV RNA. Results of this surveillance effort provide sound evidence to support the absence of ISAV in represented populations of free-ranging and marine-farmed salmonids on the northwest coast of the United States.

  16. Anemia hemolítica autoinmune postinfección por virus de la hepatitis A. Informe de caso; Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia associated to hepatitis A. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lucía Sossa Melo, MD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La anemia hemolítica autoinmune se asocia con una variedad de virus hepatotrópicos, en particular citomegalovirus (CMV, virus del Epstein-Barr y de la hepatitis B. No es frecuente dentro de la historia natural de la hepatitis A, la aparición de anemia hemolítica, y cuando se presenta, generalmente se asocia a deficiencia de glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa. Presentamos el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino sin hemólisis previa, con astenia e ictericia de dos meses de evolución y hepatomegalia 14 cm por debajo del reborde costal derecho. Los hallazgos en los exámenes de laboratorios mostraron anemia hemolítica con Coombs directo positivo, anticuerpos tipo inmunoglobulina M contra el virus de la hepatitis A positivos, niveles de bilirrubinas 20 veces y aminotrasferasas cuatro veces por arriba del rango normal; con estos datos el paciente fue diagnosticado como hepatitis A complicada con anemia hemolítica y probable hepatitis autoinmune asociada, por lo que se inició manejo con corticoides, alcanzándose mejoría clínica. Resaltamos la importancia de descartar la infección por el virus de la hepatitis A como posible etiología de anemia hemolítica autoinmune.______________________________________________________________________ Acute auto inmune haemolytic anaemia is associated with a variety of hepatotropic viruses, in particular cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus and hepatitis B. The typical course of hepatitis A is rarely complicated with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Wepresent the case of a man without previous haemolysis, he had been unwell for two months with fatigue and jaundice, the liver edge was palpable and tender 14 cm below the costal margin. Clinical chemistry showed haemolytic anaemia with positive direct coombs test, immunoglobulin M antibodies to hepatitis A virus were detected, the total bilirrubin concentration 20 times the upper and transaminase 4 times upper limit for normal levels; with this

  17. High genetic diversity of equine infectious anaemia virus strains from Slovenia revealed upon phylogenetic analysis of the p15 gag gene region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhar, U; Malovrh, T

    2016-03-01

    The equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV), which belongs to the Retroviridae family, infects equids almost worldwide. Every year, sporadic EIAV cases are detected in Slovenia. To characterise the Slovenian EIAV strains in the p15 gag gene region phylogenetically in order to compare the Slovenian EIAV strains with EIAV strains from abroad, especially with the recently published European strains. Cross-sectional study using material derived from post mortem examination. In total, 29 EIAV serologically positive horses from 18 different farms were examined in this study. Primers were designed to amplify the p15 gag gene region. Amplicons of 28 PCRs were subjected to direct DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Altogether, 28 EIAV sequences were obtained from 17 different farms and were distributed between 4 separate monophyletic groups and 9 branches upon phylogenetic analysis. Among EIAV strains from abroad, the closest relatives to Slovenian EIAV strains were European EIAV strains from Italy. Phylogenetic analysis also showed that some animals from distantly located farms were most probably infected with the same EIAV strains, as well as animals from the same farm and animals from farms located in the same geographical region. This is the first report of such high genetic diversity of EIAV strains from one country. This led to speculation that there is a potential virus reservoir among the populations of riding horses, horses kept for pleasure and horses for meat production, with some farmers or horse-owners not following legislation, thus enabling the spread of infection with EIAV. The low sensitivity of the agar gel immunodiffusion test may also contribute to the spread of infection with EIAV, because some infected horses might have escaped detection. The results of the phylogenetic analysis also provide additional knowledge about the highly heterogeneous nature of the EIAV genome. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  18. Aplastic anaemia: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Sleijfer (Stefan); P.J. Lugtenburg (Pieternella)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAplastic anaemia is featured by bone marrow hypocellularity and peripheral pancytopenia and is a potentially fatal disease. In recent years, insight in it pathogenesis has increased. It appears that activated autoreactive T lymphocytes induce apoptosis of haematopoietic

  19. Fanconi's anaemia and anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    endocrinopathies such as growth hormone deficiency and hy- ... International Fanconi Anaemia Registry of 388 patients they calculated ... transplantation), renal ultrasound, hearing tests and cardiac ... oral androgens enhance erythropoietin production and in- crease bone marrow cellularity. Cytokine therapy can improve.

  20. Anaemia in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonewardene, Malik; Shehata, Mishkat; Hamad, Asma

    2012-02-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy, defined as a haemoglobin concentration (Hb) anaemia in pregnancy, nutritional iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) being the commonest. Underlying inflammatory conditions, physiological haemodilution and several factors affecting Hb and iron status in pregnancy lead to difficulties in establishing a definitive diagnosis. IDA is associated with increased maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, and long-term adverse effects in the new born. Strategies to prevent anaemia in pregnancy and its adverse effects include treatment of underlying conditions, iron and folate supplementation given weekly for all menstruating women including adolescents and daily for women during pregnancy and the post partum period, and delayed clamping of the umbilical cord at delivery. Oral iron is preferable to intravenous therapy for treatment of IDA. B12 and folate deficiencies in pregnancy are rare and may be due to inadequate dietary intake with the latter being more common. These vitamins play an important role in embryo genesis and hence any relative deficiencies may result in congenital abnormalities. Finding the underlying cause are crucial to the management of these deficiencies. Haemolytic anaemias rare also rare in pregnancy, but may have life-threatening complications if the diagnosis is not made in good time and acted upon appropriately. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cytogenetic profile of aplastic anaemia in Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vineeta; Kumar, Akash; Saini, Isha; Saxena, Ajit Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Aplastic anaemia is a rare haematological disorder characterized by pancytopenia with a hypocellular bone marrow. It may be inherited/genetic or acquired. Acquired aplastic anaemia has been linked to many drugs, chemicals and viruses. Cytogenetic abnormalities have been reported infrequently with acquired aplastic anaemia. Majority of the studies are in adult patients from the West. We report here cytogenetic studies on paediatric patients with acquired aplastic anaemia seen in a tertiary care hospital in north India. Patients (n=71, age 4-14 yr) were diagnosed according to the guidelines of International Agranulocytosis and Aplastic Anaemia Study. Conventional cytogenetics with Giemsa Trypsin Giemsa (GTG) banding was performed. Karyotyping was done according to the International System for Human Cytogenetics Nomenclature (ISCN). Of the 71 patients, 42 had successful karyotyping where median age was 9 yr; of these 42, 27 (64.3%) patients had severe, nine (21.4%) had very severe and six (14.3%) had non severe aplastic anaemia. Five patients had karyotypic abnormalities with trisomy 12 (1), trisomy 8 (1) and monosomy 7 (1). Two patients had non numerical abnormalities with del 7 q - and t (5:12) in one each. Twenty nine patients had uninformative results. There was no difference in the clinical and haematological profile of patients with normal versus abnormal cytogenetics although the number of patients was small in the two groups. Five (11.9%) patients with acquired aplastic anaemia had chromosomal abnormalities. Trisomy was found to be the commonest abnormality. Cytogenetic abnormalities may be significant in acquired aplastic anaemia although further studies on a large sample are required to confirm the findings.

  2. A retrospective study of the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy at booking in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoh, Dorathry Adaunwo; Iyalla, Caroline; Omunakwe, Hannah; Iwo-Amah, Rose Sitonma; Nwabuko, Collins

    2016-07-01

    We reviewed the records of antenatal clinic attendees over a period of 9 years to determine the prevalence of anaemia at booking. The laboratory records of 8751 out of a total of 37,506 pregnant women who booked for antenatal care between 2004 and 2013 at the BMSH were reviewed. The effects of maternal age, educational status, parity, gestational age, haemoglobin genotype and infections on the prevalence of anaemia were investigated. The prevalence of anaemia at booking was 69.6%, most of whom had moderate anaemia. Anaemia was significantly prevalent in the 10-19 year age group, and in women with secondary education, in their 2nd trimester and with SS genotype. Anaemia also increased with gestational age, this however was not statistically significant. There was no statistical difference between those who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and had anaemia and those who are HIV negative who also had anaemia. This study shows that anaemia in pregnant women is still unacceptably high considering the consequences and despite interventions on the ground to reduce prevalence. There is a need to review the intervention measures with emphasis on programmes that would increase awareness among pregnant women and the general public.

  3. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in Chilean Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture: emergence of low pathogenic ISAV-HPR0 and re-emergence of virulent ISAV-HPR∆: HPR3 and HPR14

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Abstact Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a serious disease of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by ISA virus (ISAV), which belongs to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. ISA is caused by virulent ISAV strains with deletions in a highly polymorphic region (HPR) of the hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein (designated virulent ISAV-HPR∆). This study shows the historic dynamics of ISAV-HPR∆ and ISAV-HPR0 in Chile, the genetic relationship among ISAV-HPR0 reported worldwide and between ISAV-HPR0 and ISAV-HPR∆ in Chile, and reports the 2013 ISA outbreak in Chile. The first ISA outbreak in Chile occurred from mid-June 2007 to 2010 and involved the virulent ISAV-HPR7b, which was then replaced by a low pathogenic ISAV-HPR0 variant. We analyzed this variant in 66 laboratory-confirmed ISAV-HPR0 cases in Chile in comparison to virulent ISAV-HPR∆ that caused two new ISA outbreaks in April 2013. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis of HE sequences from all ISAV-HPR0 viruses allowed us to identify three genomic clusters, which correlated with three residue patterns of ISAV-HPR0 (360PST362, 360PAN362 and 360PAT362) in HPR. The virus responsible for the 2013 ISAV-HPR∆ cases in Chile belonged to ISAV-HPR3 and ISAV-HPR14, and in phylogenetic analyses, both clustered with the ISAV-HPR0 found in Chile. The ISAV-HPR14 had the ISAV-HPR0 residue pattern 360PAT362, which is the only type of ISAV-HPR0 variant found in Chile. This suggested to us that the 2013 ISAV-HPR∆ re-emerged from ISAV-HPR0 that is enzootic in Chilean salmon aquaculture and were not new introductions of virulent ISAV-HPR∆ to Chile. The clinical presentations and diagnostic evidence of the 2013 ISA cases indicated a mixed infection of ISAV with the ectoparasite Caligus rogercresseyi and the bacterium Piscirickettsia salmonis, which underscores the need for active ISAV surveillance in areas where ISAV-HPR0 is enzootic, to ensure early detection and control of new ISA

  4. Haemoglobin status and predictors of anaemia among pregnant women in Mpigi, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ononge, Sam; Campbell, Oona; Mirembe, Florence

    2014-10-10

    Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health problem especially in the low-income countries where it is highly prevalent. There has been no recent study in Uganda about the factors associated with anaemia in pregnancy. We aimed to assess the current haemoglobin (Hb) status and factors associated with anaemia (Hb anaemia were estimated using linear and logistic regression analysis. The mean Hb was 11.5 (± 1.38) g/dl and prevalence of anaemia (Hb anaemia in pregnancy were malaria infection (OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.58), Human Immuno-deficiency Virus infection (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.36, 2.90) and lack of iron supplementation (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.36, 2.03). Intermittent presumptive treatment of malaria, maternal age and parity showed a weak association with anaemia in pregnancy The high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy in our setting highlights the need to put more effort in the fight against malaria and HIV, and also ensure that pregnant women access iron supplements early in pregnancy.

  5. [Pregnancy-induced haemolytic anaemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiozova, J; Masseva, A; Ivanov, St; Marinov, B; Kulinska, R; Boiadjiev, D; Jordanova, D

    2014-01-01

    This is the clinical case of a primiparous eight month pregnant female, presenting with symptoms of pregnancy-induced acute haemolytic anaemia (haemolytic aneamia provoked by an immune mechanism, intra- and extra-erythrocyte defects, and HELLP syndrome were excluded). The anaemia progressed to become life-threatening for both the pregnant women and the foetus, which brought the following questions into consideration: diagnosis of anaemia during pregnancy; dosing of corticosteroid therapy; possibility of giving birth to a viable foetus and prognosis for next pregnancies. Owing to the inter-disciplinary efforts, the life and health of this pregnant woman were preserved, but the foetus was lost.

  6. Anaemia – a pale ale?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    literal translation as a definition would be a gross exaggeration. Still, the modern definition is simple: anaemia is any condition characterised by an abnormal decrease in the body's total red blood cell mass. Historical perspective. The ancients ...

  7. Roth spots in pernicious anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Macauley, Mavin; Nag, Satyajit

    2011-01-01

    Roth spots are white-centred retinal haemorrhages, previously thought to be pathognomonic for subacute bacterial endocarditis. A number of other conditions can be associated with Roth spots. In this case, the authors describe the association of Roth spots and pernicious anaemia. This association has been rarely described in the medical literature. Correct diagnosis and treatment with intramuscular vitamin B12 injections resulted in complete resolution of the anaemia and Roth spots. The author...

  8. [Aplastic anaemia associated with pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhinova, S; Kirovakov, Zl; Porozhanova, K; Kostova, S; Bozhinov, P

    2012-01-01

    Aplastic anaemia is rear disease caused by destruction of pluripotent stem cells in bone marrow. Pregnancy is one of the main factor that lead to immunosuppression. During pregnancy aplastic anaemia could be life-threatening for both mother and child, because of the variety of complications like bleeding and infections. We introduce the first case of pregnant woman with aplastic anaemia in Bulgaria. The woman was diagnosed in 12-13 gestational week. All biometric characteristics of the foetus were normal. The patient was consulted with oncohaematologists, pediatricians, specialists of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, and intensivists. Methylprednisolone, antibiotics, packed cells and platelet transfusions were initiated. However, the moment for interruption of the pregnancy was missed (first trimester). The woman developed a fever and vomited bloody material. Despite the optimal supportive treatment, the patient died. The pathoanatomy diagnose is Aplastic anaemia, induced by the pregnancy. From our experience with that case and other references from the literature we conclude that all pregnant woman with aplastic anaemia should interrupt their pregnancy during first trimester. In those patients who are diagnosed at later terms of pregnancy very supportive infusions and immunosuppressive therapy should be made, including antithymocyte globulin and/or cyclosporine. Women with no improvement from that therapy should achieve a bone-marrow transplantation.

  9. Roth spots in pernicious anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, Mavin; Nag, Satyajit

    2011-04-19

    Roth spots are white-centred retinal haemorrhages, previously thought to be pathognomonic for subacute bacterial endocarditis. A number of other conditions can be associated with Roth spots. In this case, the authors describe the association of Roth spots and pernicious anaemia. This association has been rarely described in the medical literature. Correct diagnosis and treatment with intramuscular vitamin B(12) injections resulted in complete resolution of the anaemia and Roth spots. The authors hope to alert clinicians to think of various differentials of Roth spots, and initiate prompt investigation and management.

  10. From the viral perspective: infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) transcriptome during the infective process in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Miranda, Diego; Cabrejos, María Eugenia; Yañez, José Manuel; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-04-01

    The infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) is a severe disease that mainly affects the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture industry. Although several transcriptional studies have aimed to understand Salmon-ISAV interaction through the evaluation of host-gene transcription, none of them has focused their attention upon the viral transcriptional dynamics. For this purpose, RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR analyses were conducted in gills, liver and head-kidney of S. salar challenged by cohabitation with ISAV. Results evidence the time and tissue transcript patterns involved in the viral expression and how the transcription levels of ISAV segments are directly linked with the protein abundance found in other virus of the Orthomyxoviridae family. In addition, RT-qPCR result evidenced that quantification of ISAV through amplification of segment 3 would result in a more sensitive approach for detection and quantification of ISAV. This study offers a more comprehensive approach regarding the ISAV infective process and gives novel knowledge for its molecular detection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of fish movements and the spread of infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) in Chile, 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardones, F O; Martinez-Lopez, B; Valdes-Donoso, P; Carpenter, T E; Perez, A M

    2014-04-01

    Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) infection is a constant major threat to farmed and wild Atlantic salmon worldwide. Many epidemics have recently been reported in the most important salmon farming regions of the world, including Chile (2007-2009), where ISAV generated the most important disease and economic crisis in history of the salmon industry of the country. The spread of ISAV within a region is most likely by local or neighborhood spread from an infected farm; however, there is evidence that anthropogenic activities, such as movement of live or harvested fish or their byproduct, may have played a more important role than environmental or passive transmission in the 2007-2009 outbreak. Atlantic salmon farms (n=421) were retrospectively followed from stocking to harvesting in southern Chile at the time of the ISAV epidemic (2007-2009). The effect of husbandry and spatial risk factors, in addition to contact-network risk factors, which were obtained from the social network analyses, on time to first ISAV infection was estimated using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. Five variables were retained in the final fitted model: co-existing multiple generations on a farm (hazard ratio [HR]=2.585), mean smolt weight at stocking greater than 120g (HR=1.165), farm area (perkm(2)) (HR=1.005), and increased number of shipments entering a farm, i.e. the farm input degree (HR=1.876) were associated with reduced time to infection; whereas time-to-infection was longer for farms located farther from an ongoing ISAV outbreak (HR=0.943). It was demonstrated that movements of latently infected fish resulted in approximately 7 outbreaks, and potentially explain about 6% of the total number of cases during the epidemic. Results from this study provide new information about the mechanisms of spread of ISAV in one the largest documented ISAV epidemics in the world. Findings may be used to support the design and implementation of risk-based surveillance and control

  12. Prepartum anaemia: prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, Nils

    2008-12-01

    This review focuses on the occurrence, prevention and treatment of anaemia during pregnancy in Western societies. Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most prevalent deficiency disorder and the most frequent form of anaemia in pregnant women. Minor causes of anaemia are folate and vitamin B12 deficiency, haemoglobinopathy and haemolytic anaemia. Anaemia is defined as haemoglobin of pregnancy. The prevalence of prepartum anaemia in the third trimester ranges 14-52% in women taking placebo and 0-25% in women taking iron supplements, dependent on the doses of iron. In studies incorporating serum ferritin, the frequency of IDA in placebo-treated women ranges 12-17% and in iron-supplemented women 0-3%. Requirements for absorbed iron increase during pregnancy from 0.8 mg/day in the first trimester to 7.5 mg/day in the third trimester, on the average approximately 4.4 mg/day, and dietary measures are inadequate to reduce the frequency of prepartum IDA. However, IDA is efficiently prevented by oral iron supplements in doses of 30-40 mg ferrous iron taken between meals from early pregnancy to delivery. Treatment of IDA should aim at replenishing body iron deficits by oral and/or intravenous administration of iron. In women with slight to moderate IDA, i.e. haemoglobin of 90-105 g/L, treatment with oral ferrous iron of approximately 100 mg/day between meals is the therapeutic option in the first and second trimester; haemoglobin should be checked after 2 weeks and provided an increase of >or=10 g/L, oral iron therapy has proved effective and should continue. Treatment with intravenous iron is superior to oral iron with respect to the haematological response. Intravenous iron is considered safe in the second and third trimester, while there is little experience in the first trimester. Intravenous iron of 600-1,200 mg should be considered: (1) as second option if oral iron fails to increase haemoglobin within 2 weeks; (2) as first option at profound IDA, i.e. haemoglobin of

  13. Association between anaemia and infections (HIV, malaria and hookworm) among children admitted at Muhimbili National Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magesa, A S; Magesa, P M

    2012-09-01

    Anaemia is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in paediatric age with much aetiology. The magnitude of childhood anaemia has been inadequately studied at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH). The study was aimed at determining the frequency of anaemia and associated infections in patients admitted in general paediatric wards at MNH in Dar es Salaam. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. This was conducted at MNH in general paediatric wards from 20th August, 2009 to 15th December, 2009. Patients, aged 1-84 months, consecutively admitted were recruited in the study. After informed verbal consent from the guardian or parent was obtained, information on demographic and clinical characteristics was collected from the parent or guardian. Physical examination and laboratory tests on blood ; stool samples for hookworm screening; blood slides for malaria parasites; Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) screening; and blood peripheral smears were done on all subjects. Additional information was taken from medical files. Data management: The prevalence of anemia was determined as a percentage of all paediatric patients recruited during the time of data collection. All information was recorded using questionnaires and analysis was done using SPSS version 13.0. A p value of 1.0, p > 0.05). Anaemia in paediatric patients admitted at MNH is a disease of high public health importance in Dar es Salaam and may well carry a high burden in the rest of the country. Other risk factors of anaemia should be investigated with a goal of reducing the burden of anaemia.

  14. Prevalence and risk factors of anaemia in paediatric patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intrinsic potential to cause anaemia,[8,9] and the relative contribution of these ... aim of preventing and controlling childhood anaemia.[18,19] In spite ..... moderate anaemia in pregnancy and helminth, malaria and HIV infection in Entebbe ...

  15. Soluble transferrin receptor: a differentiating marker between iron deficiency anaemia and anaemia of chronic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboor, M.; Moinuddin, A.; Naureen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Iron deficiency anaemia and anaemia of chronic disorders are the two major causes of microcytic and hypochromic anaemia. Many times the diagnosis of these conditions becomes difficult through conventional laboratory tests. Determination of soluble transferrin receptors is a helpful laboratory test for the differential diagnosis of these conditions. The study was conducted to evaluate the role of soluble transferrin receptors in the differential diagnosis between iron deficiency anaemia and anaemia of chronic disorders. Methods: A total of 80 blood samples were evaluated, i.e., 20 samples from normal adult male, 20 samples from normal adult female, 20 samples from iron deficiency anaemia group and 20 samples from patients with anaemia of chronic disorders. Soluble transferrin receptors were determined by ELISA technique using Quantikine IVD kit (R and D Systems). Results: There was significant difference in the levels of sTfR in iron deficiency anaemia and anaemia of chronic disorders. Statistically non-significant difference was observed between the levels of sTfR in patients with anaemia of chronic disorders as compared to normal control group. Conclusion: The sTfR determination can be used as a reliable differentiating marker in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia and anaemia of chronic disorders. (author)

  16. Anaemia and pregnancy: Anaesthetic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Grewal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia in pregnancy defined as haemoglobin (Hb level of < 10 gm/dL, is a qualitative or quantitative deficiency of Hb or red blood cells in circulation resulting in reduced oxygen (O 2 -carrying capacity of the blood. Compensatory mechanisms in the form of increase in cardiac output (CO, PaO 2 , 2,3 diphosphoglycerate levels, rightward shift in the oxygen dissociation curve (ODC, decrease in blood viscosity and release of renal erythropoietin, get activated to variable degrees to maintain tissue oxygenation and offset the decreases in arterial O 2 content. Parturients with concomitant medical diseases or those with acute ongoing blood losses may get decompensated, leading to serious consequences like right heart failure, angina or tissue hypoxemia in severe anaemia. Preoperative evaluation is aimed at assessing the severity and cause of anaemia. The concept of an acceptable Hb level varies with the underlying medical condition, extent of physiological compensation, the threat of bleeding and ongoing blood losses. The main anaesthetic considerations are to minimize factors interfering with O 2 delivery, prevent any increase in oxygen consumption and to optimize the partial pressure of O 2 in the arterial blood. Both general anaesthesia and regional anaesthesia can be employed judiciously. Monitoring should focus mainly on the adequacy of perfusion and oxygenation of vital organs. Hypoxia, hyperventilation, hypothermia, acidosis and other conditions that shift the ODC to left should be avoided. Any decrease in CO should be averted and aggressively treated.

  17. Severe Anaemia during Late Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahenaz Akhtar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency is uncommon in pregnancy, it occurs in 10–28% of uncomplicated pregnancies, and is associated with a few complications. We present a case report of a 21-year-old patient with severe anaemia during late pregnancy caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. At 38 weeks gestation and with a BMI of 48.9, a history of rupture of membranes was given but not confirmed. On examination, she appeared pale and therefore full blood counts were done. Interestingly her haemoglobin (Hb levels were 3.7 g/dL. Folate and vitamin B12 levels were also found to be low, and the diagnosis of anaemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency was made. After treatment with vitamin B12 injections, folic acid and blood transfusions, the patient’s haemoglobin levels improved from 3.7 g/dL to 10.7 g/dL. The conclusion is that effective history taking, diagnosis, and management can prevent many complications that are usually associated with vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia.

  18. Maternal Anaemia and Neonatal Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Deswanto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aims to determine whether maternal anaemia would affect birth outcome – birth weight and length – of the baby and compare this with that of non-anaemicmothers. We used secondary data from Puskesmas Kecamatan Ciracas medical records. Alldelivery records from October – November 2012 were collected and analysed; samples weredivided into two group: Group 1 included anaemic pregnant women and Group 2 non-anaemicpregnant women. Inclusion criteria was all pregnant women 16 years and older and a singletonpregnancy with a complete medical record. All women with a past history of preterm delivery,obstetrical complications or any medical illness, except anaemia, were excluded from the study inorder to control for the confounding factors. Out of one hundred and one records, 79 non anaemicsubjects and 22 anaemic subjects, were included for the analysis. No significant difference wasfound in both groups in terms of baby’s birth weight and birth length.Keywords: maternity anaemia, birth weight, birth length

  19. Prevalence & consequences of anaemia in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivani, K

    2009-11-01

    Prevalence of anaemia in India is among the highest in the world. Prevalence of anaemia is higher among pregnant women and preschool children. Even among higher income educated segments of population about 50 per cent of children, adolescent girls and pregnant women are anaemic. Inadequate dietary iron, folate intake due to low vegetable consumption, perhaps low B12 intake and poor bioavailability of dietary iron from the fibre, phytate rich Indian diets are the major factors responsible for high prevalence of anaemia. Increased requirement of iron during growth and pregnancy and chronic blood loss contribute to higher prevalence in specific groups. In India, anaemia is directly or indirectly responsible for 40 per cent of maternal deaths. There is 8 to 10-fold increase in MMR when the Hb falls below 5 g/dl. Early detection and effective management of anaemia in pregnancy can contribute substantially to reduction in maternal mortality. Maternal anaemia is associated with poor intrauterine growth and increased risk of preterm births and low birth weight rates. This in turn results in higher perinatal morbidity and mortality, and higher infant mortality rate. A doubling of low birth weight rate and 2 to 3 fold increase in the perinatal mortality rates is seen when the Hb is anaemia contributes to intergenerational cycle of poor growth in the offspring. Early detection and effective management of anaemia in pregnancy can lead to substantial reduction in undernutrition in childhood, adolescence and improvement in adult height.

  20. Successful allogeneic stem cells transplantation in severe aplastic anaemia complicated by dengue fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, K.; Satti, T.M.; Ahmed, P.; Raza, A.; Akhtar, F.M.; Tariq, W.U.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Aplastic anaemia is characterized by severe compromise of haematopoiesis and hypocellular bone marrow. Haemorrhagic episodes in patients with aplastic anemia occur usually secondary to thrombocytopenia and require frequent support with platelet concentrates and other blood products. Infection with dengue virus (particularly dengue sero type-2 of South Asian genotype) is associated with dengue haemorrhagic fever. Dengue infection further worsens the disease process in patients with aplastic anaemia due to uncontrolled haemorrhagic diathesis and major organ failure, which may prove fatal in these already immunocompromised patients, if not treated in time. Recent epidemics of dengue haemorrhagic fever has not only affected the southern region of our country but also spread to other areas of the country. With this background, we report a case of aplastic anaemia complicated by dengue haemorrhagic fever who achieved successful engraftment after allogeneic stem cell transplantation from sibling brother and is having normal healthy post transplant life. (author)

  1. Expert services for rare anaemias across Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Gulbis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available New challenges and priorities are given in the EU Health programme 2007-2013. The objectives of the programme are to improve citizens’ health security, to promote health to improve prosperity and solidarity, and to generate and disseminate health knowledge. If challenges and priorities have been defined globally for rare diseases by the European Commission, persons involved in rare anaemias have taken the opportunity to contribute to the empowerment of patients with rare anaemias. One of the ENERCA partners objectives was the mapping of existing centres that take care of patients with rare anaemias in Europe. Another goal was to obtain a directory of facilities available per centre for patients with rare anaemias. We thought that with those results it could realistically help to define a consensus regarding the criteria to be recognised as a centre of expertise for haemoglobinopathies and very rare anaemias.

  2. Electrostatic Architecture of the Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus (ISAV) Core Fusion Protein Illustrates a Carboxyl-Carboxylate pH Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jonathan D; Soto-Montoya, Hazel; Korpela, Markus K; Lee, Jeffrey E

    2015-07-24

    Segment 5, ORF 1 of the infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) genome, encodes for the ISAV F protein, which is responsible for viral-host endosomal membrane fusion during a productive ISAV infection. The entry machinery of ISAV is composed of a complex of the ISAV F and ISAV hemagglutinin esterase (HE) proteins in an unknown stoichiometry prior to receptor engagement by ISAV HE. Following binding of the receptor to ISAV HE, dissociation of the ISAV F protein from HE, and subsequent endocytosis, the ISAV F protein resolves into a fusion-competent oligomeric state. Here, we present a 2.1 Å crystal structure of the fusion core of the ISAV F protein determined at low pH. This structure has allowed us to unambiguously demonstrate that the ISAV entry machinery exhibits typical class I viral fusion protein architecture. Furthermore, we have determined stabilizing factors that accommodate the pH-dependent mode of ISAV transmission, and our structure has allowed the identification of a central coil that is conserved across numerous and varied post-fusion viral glycoprotein structures. We then discuss a mechanistic model of ISAV fusion that parallels the paramyxoviral class I fusion strategy wherein attachment and fusion are relegated to separate proteins in a similar fashion to ISAV fusion. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Anaemia with inflammation responding to lenalidomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroun, Faysal; Mener, Andrew; Elkon, Jacob; Tabbara, Imad

    2016-10-13

    We present a case of a 73-year-old woman with transfusion-dependent anaemia thought to be secondary to an unidentifiable inflammatory condition. Anaemia evaluation including multiple bone marrow biopsies was unrevealing, with the exception of a non-specific elevation of her erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein. She had no identifiable inflammatory condition and did not meet the criteria for myelodysplastic syndrome. She was empirically treated with lenalidomide and achieved a complete response, suggesting that this immunomodulatory drug could potentially have a role in treating a subgroup of patients with immune-mediated anaemia. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  4. [Revised practice guideline 'Anaemia in midwifery practice'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, M.; Jans, S.M.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    The practice guideline of the Royal Dutch Organization of Midwives 'Anaemia in primary care midwifery practice' published in 2000, has recently been revised. The revised guideline takes physiological haemodilution during pregnancy into consideration and provides gestation specific reference values

  5. Expert services for rare anaemias across Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Beatrice Gulbis

    2013-01-01

    New challenges and priorities are given in the EU Health programme 2007-2013. The objectives of the programme are to improve citizens’ health security, to promote health to improve prosperity and solidarity, and to generate and disseminate health knowledge. If challenges and priorities have been defined globally for rare diseases by the European Commission, persons involved in rare anaemias have taken the opportunity to contribute to the empowerment of patients with rare anaemias. One o...

  6. Cerebral microcirculation during experimental normovolaemic anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith eBellapart

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia is accepted amongst critically ill patients as an alternative to elective blood transfusion. This practice has been extrapolated to head injury patients with only one study comparing the effects of mild anaemia on neurological outcome. There are no studies quantifying microcirculation during anaemia. Experimental studies suggest that anaemia leads to cerebral hypoxia and increased rates of infarction, but the lack of clinical equipoise when testing the cerebral effects of transfusion amongst critically injured patients, supports the need of experimental studies. The aim of this study was to quantify cerebral microcirculation and the potential presence of axonal damage in an experimental model exposed to normovolaemic anaemia, with the intention of describing possible limitations within management practices in critically ill patients. Under non-recovered anaesthesia, six Merino sheep were instrumented using an intracardiac transeptal catheter to inject coded microspheres into the left atrium to ensure systemic and non-chaotic distribution. Cytometric analyses quantified cerebral microcirculation at specific regions of the brain. Amyloid precursor protein staining was used as an indicator of axonal damage. Animals were exposed to normovolaemic anaemia by blood extractions from the indwelling arterial catheter with simultaneous fluid replacement through a venous central catheter. Simultaneous data recording from cerebral tissue oxygenation, intracranial pressure and cardiac output was monitored. A regression model was used to examine the effects of anaemia on microcirculation with a mixed model to control for repeated measures. Homogeneous and normal cerebral microcirculation with no evidence of axonal damage was present in all cerebral regions, with no temporal variability, concluding that acute normovolaemic anaemia does not result in short term effects on cerebral microcirculation in the ovine brain.

  7. Iron Refractory Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Rare Cause of Iron Deficiency Anaemia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, T

    2018-01-01

    We describe the case of a 17-month-old boy with a hypochromic microcytic anaemia, refractory to oral iron treatment. After exclusion of dietary and gastrointestinal causes of iron deficiency, a genetic cause for iron deficiency was confirmed by finding two mutations in the TMPRSS6 gene, consistent with a diagnosis of iron-refractory iron deficiency anaemia (IRIDA).

  8. An investigation of equine infectious anaemia infection in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yapkic

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 162 horses, 80 donkeys and 51 mule serum samples were collected in Konya city. Additionally, 64 horse serum samples from Ankara and 49 samples from Kayseri city were included in the study. A total of 406 serum samples were examined by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for antibody to equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV and no positive result was detected.

  9. Socio-Demographic and Maternal Factors in Anaemia in Pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Anaemia in pregnancy still causes significant maternal morbidity and mortality in the developing countries including ... Blood film of 74.5%, 15.7% and 11.8% anaemic women showed ...... is the primary cause of megaloblastic anaemia in.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of anaemia in paediatric patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    milestones. Anaemia was not associated with ... contrast to expectation, as the region has seen an overall reduction in malaria burden. .... M. Epidemiological factors that promote the development of severe malaria anaemia in children in ...

  11. Management of aplastic anaemia in pregnancy in a resource poor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of aplastic anaemia in pregnancy in a resource poor centre. ... This is case of a 37 year old Nigerian woman G6P0+5managed with repeated blood ... aplastic anaemia following presentation with weakness and gingival bleeds.

  12. Patterns of Perception of Causes and Prevalence of Anaemia at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patterns of Perception of Causes and Prevalence of Anaemia at Booking in Tropical ... of pregnant women attending antenatal clinic on common causes of anaemia. ... half (53.3%) knew its mode of transmission and 33.5% knew its prevention.

  13. Aetiological considerations of acquired aplastic anaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, S.; Sarwar, I.; Mehmood, T.; Naz, F.

    2009-01-01

    Acquired aplastic anaemia is one of the important causes of pancytopenia. This study was conducted to observe the mode of presentation of acquired aplastic anaemia and to find out its possible etiological factors. Methods: It is a hospital based descriptive study of 100 patients of acquired aplastic anaemia. Results: Out of 100 patients 60 were male and 40 female. Majority (44%) of the patients were between 12 - 20 years of age. Patient presented with variable symptoms majority (40%) with fever. Most of the patients had haemoglobin levels between 4 - 6 gm/dl. (53%). Seventy percent of the cases had no obvious cause, while in 30% some known causative factors were found. Chloramphenicol was found to be the most common causative drug. Mortality was 35%. Thirty patients were partially treated and 15 were lost to follow up. Twenty patients showed improvement with treatment. Conclusions: Acquired aplastic anaemia is common among males and more prevalent in younger age group. It is idiopathic in 70% cases while 30% had some cause. It has very high mortality. Doctors need to keep in mind this fatal condition in patients presenting with anaemia and should properly investigate before prescribing antibiotics and haematinics. (author)

  14. Prevalence of Anaemia in Pregnancy at Uthungulu Health district of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal anaemia is a risk factor for infant iron deficiency anaemia and, if left uncorrected, can be associated with adverse behavioural and cognitive development in children. The prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy is estimated at between 35% and 75% in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the area-specific health problems ...

  15. Anaemia in Pregnancy in Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective study of incidence of anaemia in pregnancy at Abia state University Teaching Hospital, Aba was conducted over a six-month period spanning from 31st January 2000 to 31st July 2000. The incidence of anaemia in pregnancy was 29%. The vast majority (97.6%) had mild anaemia. The result showed that most ...

  16. Anaemia among HIV infected children attending care and treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Anaemia is common among HIV infected patients; causes of anaemia in these patients are multifactorial. Anemia is noted as one of important predictors of outcome in HIV infected patients. Tis study was carried out to determine the prevalence of anaemia among HIV infected children attending HIV clinic at ...

  17. [Insufficient evidence supporting iron supplementation in anaemia during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegerinck, Melanie M; Mol, Ben Willem J

    2012-01-01

    The Royal Dutch Organization of Midwives (KNOV) recently presented their practice guideline 'Anaemia in midwifery practice'. The guideline identified available evidence on diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of anaemia in pregnancy. Anaemia based on iron deficiency and subsequent treatment with iron supplementation are probably the most frequent aspects of care for pregnant women. However, there is surprisingly enough no evidence of the efficacy of iron supplementation treatment on relevant clinical outcomes in pregnant women with anaemia. We plead to make the next guideline a multidisciplinary one. Such a guideline may lead to a large pragmatic trial evaluating the efficacy of iron supplementation treatment for patients with anaemia.

  18. Timing of umbilical cord-clamping and infant anaemia: the role of maternal anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Brittany; Penny, Mary E; Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Casapía, Martín; Aguilar, Eder; Silva, Hermánn; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M; Joseph, Serene A; Gagnon, Anita; Rahme, Elham; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2013-05-01

    Evidence from randomized controlled trials has shown that delayed cord-clamping is beneficial to infant iron status. The role of maternal anaemia in this relationship, however, has not been established. To determine the effect of maternal anaemia at delivery on the association between timing of umbilical cord-clamping and infant anaemia at 4 and 8 months of age. A cohort of pregnant women admitted to the labour room of Hospital Iquitos (Iquitos, Peru) and their newborns were recruited into the study during two time periods (18 May to 3 June and 6-20 July 2009). Between the two recruitment periods, the hospital's policy changed from early to delayed umbilical cord-clamping. Maternal haemoglobin levels were measured before delivery, and the time between delivery and cord-clamping was recorded at delivery for the entire cohort. Mother-infant pairs were followed-up at 4 (n = 207) and 8 months (n = 184) post partum. Infant haemoglobin levels were measured at follow-up visits. Data were analysed using logistic regression models. The prevalence of maternal anaemia (Hb anaemia was modified by the mother's anaemia status. Significant benefits of delayed cord-clamping in preventing anaemia were found in infants born to anaemic mothers at both 4 months (aOR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.36-0.99) and 8 months (aOR = 0.38, 95% CI 0.19-0.76) of age. The study contributes additional evidence in support of delayed cord-clamping. This intervention is likely to have most public health impact in areas with a high prevalence of anaemia during pregnancy.

  19. Transplant results in adults with Fanconi anaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bierings, Marc; Bonfim, Carmem M.; Peffault De Latour, Regis; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Mehta, Parinda A.; Knol, Cora; Boulad, Farid; Tbakhi, Abdelghani; Esquirol, Albert; Mcquaker, Grant; Sucak, Gulsan A.; Othman, Tarek B.; Halkes, Constantijn J.M.; Carpenter, Ben; Niederwieser, Dietger; Zecca, Marco; Kro¨ger, Nicolaus; Michallet, Mauricette; Risitano, Antonio M.; Ehninger, Gerhard; Porcher, Raphael; Dufour, Carlo

    The outcomes of adult patients transplanted for Fanconi anaemia (FA) have not been well described. We retrospectively analysed 199 adult patients with FA transplanted between 1991 and 2014. Patients were a median of 16 years of age when diagnosed with FA, and underwent transplantation at a median

  20. Iron deficiency anaemia in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liyanage, K.D.C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The commonest cause of nutritional anaemia in the Sri Lankan population is iron deficiency. The diets of the population belonging to the lower socio-economic groups contain little food of animal origin. Thus, their diets are deficient in easily absorbable (haem) iron; and are also heavily cereal-based. Therefore interference in the absorption of dietary iron also occurs. Iron-deficiency anaemia is not restricted to the so-called ''vulnerable groups'' in Sri Lanka, however, their greater demands make the problem not only commoner but also more severe. Among pregnant and lactating women anaemia is often associated with folate deficiency. It must also be noted that the low availability of dietary iron is compounded in large population groups. Malaria, presently raging on an epidemic scale is also a major contributory factor to the incidence of anaemia. The purpose of this study was to examine the iron status of pre-school children and pregnant women; to establish normal levels of biochemical indices at different trimesters; to record the effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy; and to record the bioavailability of iron from weaning foods and common adult diets. 6 figs, 14 tabs

  1. prevalence of parasitaemia, anaemia and treatment outcomes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2 Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Dept. of Population Family and ... anaemia among school children is high and warrants investment to reduce these levels. These ... nism for interventions but data are lacking to ... consented to their participation in the study, and their weights and temperatures were re-.

  2. Anaemia prevalence and factors associated with haemoglobin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on social-clinical characteristics, cancer type and associated factors as well as haemoglobin level before and after radiation were obtained. The prevalence of anaemia was determined as a proportion and linear regression was used to determine factors associated with haemoglobin change. Results: A total of ...

  3. Anaemia in Apparently Healthy Adult Nigerians | Olayemi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a direct relationship between health and social position, especially between anaemia, level of education and social development. ... Among female students 69.4% had hypochromic red cells while all the male students had normochromic red cell; 75.0% of female students had mircrocytic red cells ...

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Anaemia among patients with congestive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... 25% of men and 38% of women still alive at 5 years.5 Effective management depends on knowledge ... average length of stay in hospital of 7.4 days.6 There are limited data on long- and ..... to evolve. Mechanisms of anaemia ...

  5. Anaemia management in cardio renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Donald S; Wexler, Dov; Iaina, Adrian; Schwartz, Doron

    2010-05-01

    Anaemia is common in congestive heart failure (CHF) and is associated with increased mortality, morbidity and progressive renal failure. The common causes of the anaemia are the associated renal failure and excessive cytokine production, both of which can cause depression of the erythropoietin (EPO) production in the kidney and depression of EPO response in bone marrow. The cytokines can also induce iron deficiency by increasing hepcidin production from the liver, which both reduces gastrointestinal iron absorption and reduces iron release from iron stores located in the macrophages and hepatocytes. Attempts to control this anaemia will have to consider the use of both erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) as well as oral and, probably more importantly, intravenous (IV) iron. Studies of anaemia in CHF with ESA and oral or IV iron and even with IV iron alone have shown a positive effect on hospitalisation, fatigue and shortness of breath, cardiac and renal function, quality-of-life, exercise capacity and reduced beta natriuretic peptide and have not demonstrated an increase in cardiovascular damage related to therapy. Although some studies and meta-analyses have revealed improvement in these parameters others have not. Adequately powered long-term placebo-controlled studies of ESA and of IV iron in CHF are needed and are currently being carried out.

  6. Auto-immune Haemolytic Anaemia and Paroxys

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    who presented with an acute auto-immune haemolytic anaemia. In addition to a persistently positive Coombs test, with specific red cell auto-antibodies, the acidified serum test and the sucrose haemolysis test were repeatedly positive. CASE REPORT. A 24-year-old Indian woman was admitted to hospital in. July 1969.

  7. Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose for anaemia in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froessler, Bernd; Collingwood, Joshua; Hodyl, Nicolette A; Dekker, Gustaaf

    2014-03-25

    Iron deficiency is a common nutritional deficiency amongst women of childbearing age. Peri-partum iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is associated with significant maternal, fetal and infant morbidity. Current options for treatment are limited: these include oral iron supplementation, which can be ineffective and poorly tolerated, and red blood cell transfusions, which carry an inherent risk and should be avoided. Ferric carboxymaltose is a new treatment option that may be better tolerated.The study was designed to assess the safety and efficacy of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) correction with intravenous ferric carboxymaltose in pregnant women with mild, moderate and severe anaemia in the second and third trimester. Prospective observational study; 65 anaemic pregnant women received ferric carboxymaltose up to 15 mg/kg between 24 and 40 weeks of pregnancy (median 35 weeks gestational age, SD 3.6). Treatment effectiveness was assessed by repeat haemoglobin (Hb) measurements and patient report of well-being in the postpartum period. Safety was assessed by analysis of adverse drug reactions and fetal heart rate monitoring during the infusion. Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose infusion significantly increased Hb values (p anaemia in pregnancy.

  8. The clinical and radiological features of Fanconi's anaemia pictorial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Kerviler, E.; Guermazi, A.; Zagdanski, A.-M.; Gluckman, E.; Frija, J.

    2000-01-01

    Fanconi's anaemia is a severe refractory anaemia, associated with congenital malformations in approximately two-thirds of cases. Although these malformations may involve every organ system, suggestive dysmorphic features include growth retardation, radial ray deformities and urinary malformations. These malformations are not specific for Fanconi's anaemia, but should be recognized during pregnancy, or later in childhood, and suggest the possibility of inherited haematopoiesis disorders. De Kerviler, E. (2000)

  9. An uncommon cause of anaemia: Sheehan's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchardt, Thomas; Namberger, Konrad; Weiss, Lukas; Egle, Alexander; Faber, Viktoria; Greil, Richard

    2010-12-01

    Ischemic pituitary necrosis due to severe postpartum haemorrhage called Sheehan's syndrome is a rare cause of hypopituitarism in the western world, but much more common in developing countries. A 45-year-old female patient being a war refugee from Chechnya with severe anaemia and fatigue was diagnosed at our outpatient department with Sheehan's syndrome after severe postpartum haemorrhage and emergency hysterectomy 15 years ago. Panhypopituitarism was adequately treated with substitution of hydrocortisone, thyroxine and transdermal oestrogen which resulted in haemoglobin increase to nearly normal levels and symptoms improved immediately. Severe anaemia caused by panhypopituitarism shows the importance of the hormonal system for erythropoiesis. Clinical and basic scientific evidence indicates thyroidal hormones to be the main cause.

  10. Anaemia in pregnancy is associated with advanced HIV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandlal, Vikesh; Moodley, Dhayendre; Grobler, Anneke; Bagratee, Jayanthilall; Maharaj, Niren R; Richardson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Anaemia is a common clinical finding in HIV infected women and has been associated with advanced disease. The use of antiretroviral drugs such as Zidovudine (ZDV) either for prevention of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV or used in combination with other antiretrovirals have been implicated in the development or increased severity of anaemia. We report the prevalence, type, severity and incidence of anaemia in a cohort of HIV infected women who initiated antiretroviral prophylaxis or treatment during pregnancy. This is a retrospective cohort data analysis of 408 HIV infected pregnant women who participated in a breastfeeding intervention study (HPTN 046 Study, ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00074412) in South Africa. Women initiated zidovudine prophylaxis for PMTCT or triple antiretroviral treatment in pregnancy according to the standard of care. Laboratory and clinical data in pregnancy, anaemia (Hbpregnancy, 48/146 (32.9%) subsequently developed anaemia intrapartum or postpartum and 89/310 (28.7%) of all cases of anaemia remained unresolved by 2 weeks postdelivery. In a univariate analysis, CD4 count and gravidity were significant risk factors for anaemia in pregnancy, RR 1.41; 1.23-1.61 (panaemia in pregnancy and postdelivery. In conclusion, anaemia was most common among women in the advanced stage of HIV infection (CD4anaemia.

  11. Determinants of anaemia among pregnant women in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbule, Marjorie A; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B; Kabahenda, Magaret; Lubowa, Abdulrahman

    2013-01-01

    In spite of intervention efforts, in Uganda, as in other developing countries, high levels of anaemia among pregnant women continue. Anaemia among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) is a matter of national concern. This study was carried out to assess determinants of anaemia in Kiboga district. This was a single cross-sectional, descriptive survey. The anaemia status of the pregnant women was determined by measuring their haemoglobin levels. Possible determinant factors including socio-economic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, practices and food intake were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Results showed that the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in Kiboga district was high enough (63.1%) to be described as a severe public health problem. The uptake and utilisation of the public-health intervention package to combat anaemia in pregnancy was low, with iron/folic acid supplementation at 13.2%, use of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria 45.4%, and use of de-worming medicines 14.5%. Women from households without a functional radio were 2.07 times more likely be anaemic (95%CI, 1.08-3.00) compared with women from households where there was a functional radio. There was little awareness and functional knowledge about anaemia among pregnant women. The high prevalence of anaemia observed in Kiboga district can be attributed to poverty and limited access to nutrition and health education information which lead to low uptake and utilization of the public-health intervention package to combat anaemia in pregnancy.

  12. Transfusion-dependent anaemia of undetermined origin: a distinctive syndrome in paediatric medical tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anselm C W

    2012-07-01

    The underlying diagnosis of severe anaemic illnesses in children may not be easy to identify at times, especially when regular blood transfusion has been started. International children patients attending a haematology clinic for diagnostic evaluation were identified retrospectively if they had to receive repeated blood transfusions with an undiagnosed illness or an incorrect diagnosis. Their demographic data, presenting features, and eventual diagnosis were described. Twelve children including 7 boys were enrolled from March 2007 to August 2011. Five came from Vietnam; 2 each came from Bangladesh and Indonesia; and 1 each from Hong Kong, Myanmar, and Ukraine. Their illnesses started at a mean age of 1.5 years (0.1 to 6.6) and they had been receiving blood transfusion for a mean duration of 2.5 years (0.1 to 9.9) years prior to the evaluation. Thalassemia major was the fi rst diagnosis in 5 cases; one had been treated for autoimmune haemolytic anaemia while the rest had not been given a diagnosis. After the evaluation, 4 children were diagnosed with Diamond Blackfan anaemia, 3 were diagnosed with hereditary spherocytosis, and one each with hereditary pyropoikilocytosis, congenital sideroblastic anaemia, congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, transient erythroblastopenia of childhood, and autoimmune myelofibrosis associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. A definitive diagnosis can be identified in this cohort of children on medical tourism with severe anaemic illnesses requiring repeated transfusions with diagnostic approaches that circumvent the interference of transfused cells.

  13. Chemical Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation of a Phage Display-Derived Peptide Active against Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Nicolás; Cárdenas, Constanza; Guzmán, Fanny; Marshall, Sergio H

    2016-04-01

    pathogen has made prophylactic control extremely difficult. The identified antiviral peptide efficiently impairs ISAV infection in vitro by specifically blocking hemagglutinin-esterase, a pivotal surface protein of this virus. Peptide synthesis could further modify the primary structure of the identified peptide to improve specific activity and stability. The present results form the foundation for developing a new pharmacological treatment against ISAV. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Socio-Demographic and Maternal Factors in Anaemia in Pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low educational attainment [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=2.13], being single or divorced [AOR=2.02], high parity [AOR=2.06], late booking [AOR=2.71] and short intervals between pregnancies [AOR=2.37] were significant predictors of anaemia in pregnancy. The high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy related to low ...

  15. Correlates and management of anaemia of chronic kidney disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anaemia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease. There is paucity of published local and regional data regarding its associated factors and management. Objective: To assess the correlates and management of anaemia in chronic kidney disease. Design: Cross sectional descriptive study

  16. Prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in anaemic under-5 children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Iron deficiency anaemia has been described as the commonest type of nutritional anaemia in infancy and childhood. The associated adverse health sequelae include permanent behavioural and cognitive impairments. Early detection and prompt treatment are necessary to prevent these complications. Aim: To ...

  17. Iron deficiency anaemia among apparently healthy pre-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Iron deficiency, and specifically iron deficiency anaemia, remains one of the most severe and important nutritional deficiencies in the world today. Objective: To estimate the prevalence and associated factors for iron deficiency anaemia among pre-school children in Lagos. Methodology: The study was ...

  18. Relationship between vitamin A status and anaemia among school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anaemia and vitamin A deficiency are two major public health problems affecting many developing countries world-wide. Vitamin A deficiency, in addition to other health problems, can contribute to anaemia. Therefore, the objective of this study is to determine the relationship between vitamin A status and ...

  19. NURSE STAFFING AND RENAL ANAEMIA OUTCOMES IN HAEMODIALYSIS CARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlingmark, Julia; Hedström, Mariann; Lindberg, Magnus

    2016-09-01

    Current trends in renal anaemia management place greater emphasis, and thus increased workload, on the role of the nurse in haemodialysis settings. However, there is little evidence that demonstrates the relationship between nurse staffing and patient outcomes. To describe nurse staffing in haemodialysis settings, its relationship with target levels of renal anaemia management and to describe target level achievement for different ways of organising anaemia management. Cross-sectional audit. Forty (out of 78) haemodialysis centres in Sweden reported quality assurance data. The numbers of bedside registered nurses, licensed nurse assistants and patients undergoing haemodialysis during a predefined morning shift; type of anaemia management and achieved target levels of anaemia management. The mean patient:registered nurse ratio was 2.4 and the mean patient:nurse assistant ratio was 12.8. There were no significant relationships between registered nurse staffing and target level achievement. On average, 45.6% of the patients had haemoglobin within the target levels at centres applying nurse-driven anaemia management, compared with 47.3% at physician-driven centres. These cross-sectional data suggest that renal anaemia outcomes are unrelated to the patient:registered nurse ratio. There is, however, room for improvement in renal anaemia management in the units included in this study, particularly the achievement of target levels of haemoglobin and transferrin saturation. © 2016 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  20. Alpha thalassemia among sickle cell anaemia patients in Kampala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Alpha thalassemia, sickle cell anaemia patients, Kampala, Uganda. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v15i2.48. Introduction. In the early 1960's many adults with sickle cell anaemia. (SCA) as well as those with mild disease were reported in Jamaica1. Various factors, both genetic and environmental, are.

  1. Malaria, anaemia and antimalarial drug resistance in African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obonyo, C.O.

    2006-01-01

    Malaria-associated anaemia is a potentially preventable cause of severe morbidity and mortality in children < 5years of age, in areas of high malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. In a cross-sectional study of 3586 children, 80% were anaemic (haemoglobin [Hb]<11g/dL) and 3% had severe anaemia

  2. Sociodemographic factors in anaemia in pregnancy in south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anaemia in pregnancy persists, especially in third world countries where poor diet, low levels of literacy, infections, infestations and cultural practices predispose pregnant women to being anaemic. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy and to identify the possible ...

  3. Anaemia in pregnancy: a survey of pregnant women in Abeokuta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anaemia in pregnancy is a common problem in most developing countries and a major cause of morbidity and mortality especially in malaria endemic areas. In pregnancy, anaemia has a significant impact on the health of the foetus as well as that of the mother. 20% of maternal deaths in Africa have been ...

  4. Pyridoxine responsive megaloblastic anaemia in pregnancy: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In pregnancy megaloblastic anaemia commonly results from folic acid deficiency partly due to placenta transfer to fetus, but mainly because of increased folate catabolism due to cleavage of folate coenzymes in rapidly proliferating tissues. Cobalamin deficiency causing megaloblastic anaemia has been described in infants ...

  5. Anaemia and its associated factors among pregnant women in Koko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anaemia in pregnancy remains a common problem affecting women in northern Nigeria. It is associated with several adverse consequences. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia and its associated factors among pregnant women in Koko/Besse local government area of ...

  6. Cytogenetic profile of aplastic anaemia in Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineeta Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Five (11.9% patients with acquired aplastic anaemia had chromosomal abnormalities. Trisomy was found to be the commonest abnormality. Cytogenetic abnormalities may be significant in acquired aplastic anaemia although further studies on a large sample are required to confirm the findings.

  7. Worm Infestation And Anaemia Among Pre-school Children Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Worm infection and anaemia are common childhood conditions in Nigeria. We assessed the status of helminthiasis and associated anaemia among pre school children of peasant farmers aged 1-5 years living in a rubber plantation near Calabar, Nigeria. Design: Cross sectional. Method: Three hundred and ...

  8. Intestinal Worm Infestation and Anaemia in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Bahadur Raut

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Aanaemia is prevalent in pregnant women of PHCRC, chapagaun and there was a significant correlation between anaemia and worm infestation. However, the relation among the haemoglobin level, iron, folic acid and albendazole was not significant. Keywords: anaemia; infestation; pregnant women; worm. | PubMed

  9. Risk factors for anaemia among HIV infected children attending care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is paucity of data describing the risk factors for anaemia among HIV infected children in Tanzania. This cross sectional study was carried out to determine the contributing factors for anaemia among HIV-infected children attending Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam. Both univariate and multivariate logistic ...

  10. Ameliorative effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on anaemia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of dietary supplementation of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf on anaemia and changes in erythrocyte osmotic fragility in protein energy malnourished rats. Protein energy malnutrition has been associated with anaemia and changes in osmotic fragility, deformability ...

  11. Cytokine Expression in Homozygous Sickle Cell Anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnodim Johnkennedy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sickle cell anaemia is an inherited disease in which the red blood cells become rigid and sticky, and change from being disc-shaped to being crescent-shaped. The change in shape is due to the presence of an abnormal form of haemoglobin. This results in severe pain and damage to some organs. Aim and Objective: The study was carried out to determine the levels of cytokine in sickle cell anemia. Material and Methods: Thirty confirmed sickle cell patients in steady state (HbSS-SS and thirty persons with normal haemoglobin (HbAA as well as sixteen sickle cell disease in crises (HbSS-cr between the ages of 15 to 30 years were selected in this study. Cytokines including interleukin 1 beta (IL- 1β, interleukin 2 (IL- 2, interleukin (IL-6, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and interferon gamma (IFN- λ were measured by commercially available ELISA kits. Results: The results obtained showed that the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in sickle cell anaemia patients in crisis were significantly elevated when compared with sickle cell in steady state (P<0.05. Similarly, the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN- λ were significantly increased in sickle cell anaemia stable state when compared to HbAA subjects (P<0.05. Conclusion: This may probably implies that cytokine imbalance is implicated in the pathogenesis of sickle cell crisis. Also, cytokines could be used as an inflammatory marker as well as related marker in disease severity and hence therapeutic intervention.

  12. Anaemia in pregnancy is associated with advanced HIV disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikesh Nandlal

    Full Text Available Anaemia is a common clinical finding in HIV infected women and has been associated with advanced disease. The use of antiretroviral drugs such as Zidovudine (ZDV either for prevention of mother to child transmission (MTCT of HIV or used in combination with other antiretrovirals have been implicated in the development or increased severity of anaemia. We report the prevalence, type, severity and incidence of anaemia in a cohort of HIV infected women who initiated antiretroviral prophylaxis or treatment during pregnancy.This is a retrospective cohort data analysis of 408 HIV infected pregnant women who participated in a breastfeeding intervention study (HPTN 046 Study, ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00074412 in South Africa. Women initiated zidovudine prophylaxis for PMTCT or triple antiretroviral treatment in pregnancy according to the standard of care. Laboratory and clinical data in pregnancy, <72 hours and 2 weeks postdelivery were extracted from the main database and analysed.The mean Hb concentration was 10.6 g/dL at baseline and 262/408 (64.2% women were diagnosed with anaemia (Hb<11 g/dL in pregnancy, 48/146 (32.9% subsequently developed anaemia intrapartum or postpartum and 89/310 (28.7% of all cases of anaemia remained unresolved by 2 weeks postdelivery. In a univariate analysis, CD4 count and gravidity were significant risk factors for anaemia in pregnancy, RR 1.41; 1.23-1.61 (p<0.001 and 1.10; 1.01-1.18 (p = 0.02 respectively. After adjusting for antiretroviral regimen, age and gravidity in a multivariable analysis, only the CD4 count remains a significant risk factor for anaemia in pregnancy and postdelivery.In conclusion, anaemia was most common among women in the advanced stage of HIV infection (CD4<200 cells/mm3. There was no evidence of an association between ZDV or triple ARVs and anaemia.

  13. Antibodies to actin in autoimmune haemolytic anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritzmann Mathias

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA, autoreactive antibodies directed against red blood cells are up-regulated, leading to erythrocyte death. Mycoplasma suis infections in pigs induce AIHA of both the warm and cold types. The aim of this study was to identify the target autoantigens of warm autoreactive IgG antibodies. Sera from experimentally M. suis-infected pigs were screened for autoreactivity. Results Actin-reactive antibodies were found in the sera of 95% of all animals tested. The reactivity was species-specific, i.e. reactivity with porcine actin was significantly higher than with rabbit actin. Sera of animals previously immunised with the M. suis adhesion protein MSG1 showed reactivity with actin prior to infection with M. suis indicating that molecular mimicry is involved in the specific autoreactive mechanism. A potentially cross-reactive epitope was detected. Conclusions This is the first report of autoreactive anti-actin antibodies involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia.

  14. CLINICAL PROFILE OF ANAEMIA IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ather Akhtar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anaemia causes a reduction in the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood resulting in tissue hypoxia. Cardiac output at rest is not usually increased in most chronic anaemia until haemoglobin levels fall below 7 g/dL, but abnormal rise in output with exercise may occur with levels as high as 10 g/dL. The increase in cardiac output has been observed to correlate well with the degree of anaemia. Other compensatory mechanisms to chronic anaemia available to the body include decreased circulation time and increased tissue oxygen uptake. The latter is facilitated by a shift to the right of the oxygen haemoglobin dissociation curve. Cardiomegaly may also be as a result of the increased workload on the heart from the increased viscosity of blood in anaemia patients. Anaemia in the elderly is an extremely common problem that is associated with increased mortality and poorer health-related quality of life, regardless of the underlying cause of the low haemoglobin. A study of anaemia in elderly patients found a wide variation in prevalence, ranging from 2.9% to 61% in men and 3.3% to 41% in women. Higher rates were found in hospitalised patients than in community dwellers. It is easy to overlook anaemia in the elderly, since such symptoms as fatigue, weakness, or shortness of breath may be attributed to the ageing process itself. Our objective is to show the prevalence of anaemia even in a tertiary health care centre. METHODS One hundred patients were identified who were admitted in the Department of Medicine, Deccan College of Medical Sciences. Among the 100 patients, 38 were male and 62 were female. The study was conducted from Jan 2014 To Jan 2015. Patients having haemoglobin less than 10 g% in the medical wards were enrolled in the study. RESULTS Among the 100 patients, 38 were male and 62 were female. The average haemoglobin was 6.4 g%, the lowest being 2.8 g%. Peripheral blood smear showed hypochromic picture in 58, macrocytic picture in

  15. Frequency of Anaemia in Married Women in Jutial, Gilgit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, U.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of anaemia in married women in Jutial, and to find out the relationship of risk factors of anaemia with levels of anaemia. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Household survey carried out in Jutial, Gilgit 1st February 2008 to 30th April 2009. Patients and Method: Interview administered questionnaire along with blood sample collection using sterilized disposable syringes was used in this study on a total of 382 randomly selected, willing, married, non-pregnant, non-lactating women with one or more children. Results were considered significant if r-value was more than 0.5 with p-value less than 0.05. Results: Clinical analysis of the blood samples showed that the average haemoglobin (Hb) level was 12.8 g/dl. According to WHO standards, no woman had severe anaemia with Hb level below 7 g/dl. Majority of the women (77.5%) had normal Hb >= 12 g/dl. The calculated anaemia frequency of 22.5% was found to be little lower than that of national anaemia frequency of around 29 to 33%. Conclusion: Frequency of anaemia 22.5% can be attributed to good education system in Northern Area and the awareness of people towards health concerns. Another reason can be the initiatives by different NGOs working in the area specially Aga Khan Foundation to eradicate anaemia by developing a vast network of health facilities. Further research on the native foods, their extract nutritional values / iron contents and any special foods at higher altitudes may be more than 1500 meters can open new horizon to our understanding of anaemia in the northern areas. (author)

  16. Anaemia in human immunodeficiency virus infection: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    206. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njm.v15i3.37203 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  17. Anaemia and thyrotoxicosis: The need to look for an alternative cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, S; Tamatea, J A U; Conaglen, J V; Elston, M S

    2018-03-22

    Anaemia and thyrotoxicosis are both relatively common. It is unclear whether thyrotoxicosis results in anaemia in the absence of other causes. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of anaemia in patients with thyrotoxicosis. A prospective cohort study of patients with thyrotoxicosis. 353 patients referred to a regional endocrinology centre in New Zealand from March 2013 to November 2014 for new-onset thyrotoxicosis. Detailed assessment including thyroid function tests, full blood count, inflammatory markers, haematological parameters and coeliac serology. Anaemia was defined as a haemoglobin value cause(s) for the anaemia. Only 10 patients (2.8% of the entire cohort) had anaemia not clearly attributable to another cause. Median free thyroid hormone levels were higher in those with anaemia of unknown cause compared to patients with thyrotoxicosis alone. The median duration of anaemia was shorter in patients with thyrotoxicosis-associated anaemia compared to those with anaemia due to an underlying cause (1 vs 6 months, P = .001). In all patients with thyrotoxicosis-associated anaemia, the anaemia resolved, either prior to, or on becoming euthyroid. Anaemia coexisting with thyrotoxicosis is less common than previously reported and is mild and transient. Patients with thyrotoxicosis and significant anaemia should be investigated for other potential causes, particularly when anaemia persists. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. [Severe macrocytic anaemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism in a vegan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Førland, Elizabeth Siren Bjerga; Lindberg, Mats Jacob Hermansson

    2015-08-10

    Nutritional deficiency anaemia in vegans is common and usually due to lack of vitamin B12, as this vitamin is found almost exclusively in animal-based food products. In this case report we present a 39-year-old male vegan with severe macrocytic anaemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency as well as secondary hyperparathyroidism due to severe vitamin D deficiency. We want to emphasize the importance of a detailed nutritional history for patients with anaemia, and the need for vitamin B12 and vitamin D supplements for people who comply with a vegan diet.

  19. Anaemia is typical of pregnancies: capturing community perception and management of anaemia in pregnancy in Anambra State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeneho, Nkechi G; Igweonu, Obianuju U

    2016-08-31

    Anaemia during pregnancy continues to constitute significant challenge to maternal health in Nigeria and contributes substantially to the worsening maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Nigeria despite a global reduction in MMR in response to effort to improve safe motherhood. The incidence of anaemia during pregnancy is still high (>40 %) in Nigeria, and attitudes and management practices are yet unclear as the peoples' understanding of the phenomenon remains unclear. This study explored the perceptions/attitudes on anaemia during pregnancy and practices to prevent and/or manage it in Anambra State. In-depth interview and focus group discussion data were collected from health workers and mothers who delivered within 6 months preceding the study and from mothers and husbands of women who delivered within 6 months preceding the study, respectively. The people expressed some knowledge of anaemia, being common in pregnancies. However, some expressed the view that anaemia being a typical sign of pregnancy cannot be prevented. Some mothers expressed desire for focused antenatal care services to control anaemia but lamented the attitude of the health workers, who make access to these interventions difficult. Control of anaemia in pregnancy should start with providing health education to pregnant women and their partners, who reinforce what the women are told during antenatal care, and with training health workers for friendlier attitudes to clients.

  20. Hepatitis B, C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    BACKGROUND. Nigeria which has one of the world's highest burden of children living with. Sickle cell anaemia is also endemic for hepatitis B, C and the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This study set out to determine the prevalence of. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and.

  1. Transfusion associated hepatitis B virus infection among sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Transfusion of blood products is a recognised way of transmitting infections particularly viruses. The extent to which blood transfusion contributes to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in transfused patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) has been found to be 20% in Lagos, Nigeria. Mamman in Zaria however ...

  2. Evaluation of some predisposing factors to malaria related anaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of some predisposing factors to malaria related anaemia among children in Benin City, Nigeria. ... Tropical Journal of Health Sciences ... It was carried out at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City between June and ...

  3. Erectile Dysfunction in patients with Sickle Cell Anaemia | Ibidapo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erectile Dysfunction in patients with Sickle Cell Anaemia. ... leading to an increased haemolysis as well as vaso-occlusive complications including ... bone pain crises, blood transfusion (over a 3 year period) as well as erectile dysfunction.

  4. Anaemia in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus attending regular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaemia in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus attending regular Diabetic ... Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences ... some patients may omit important food items in their daily diet for fear of increasing their blood sugar level.

  5. The straight and marrow - a primary care approach to anaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    therefore requires a structured approach.3. This article is by no ... Several independent studies have reported the .... cause of the anaemia is critical for appropriate management of patients. ... Peripheral blood film – A review. Ann Ibd Pg Med.

  6. Role of cytokines in Trypanosoma brucei-induced anaemia: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    species Trypanosoma brucei that are transmitted by a tsetse fly (Glossina spp.) ... of autologous immunoglobulin antibodies on the red cell surfaces and also to ... development for the detection and management of anaemia in trypanosomiasis.

  7. Anaemia impedes functional mobility after hip fracture surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, N.B.; Kristensen, M.T.; Kehlet, H.

    2008-01-01

    mobility in the early post-operative phase after a hip fracture surgery and is an independent risk factor for patients not being able to walk post-operatively. The potential for a liberal transfusion policy to improve the rehabilitation potential in hip fracture patients with anaemia should be investigated......BACKGROUND: the impact of anaemia on the outcome after a hip fracture surgery is controversial, but anaemia can potentially decrease the physical performance and thereby impede post-operative rehabilitation. We therefore conducted a prospective study to establish whether anaemia affected functional...... mobility in the early post-operative phase after a hip fracture surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: four hundred and eighty seven consecutive hip fracture patients, treated according to a well-defined multimodal rehabilitation programme with a uniform, liberal transfusion threshold, were studied. Hb...

  8. Cardio–Pulmonary Response Of Patients With Sickle Cell Anaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardio–Pulmonary Response Of Patients With Sickle Cell Anaemia ... any risk of adverse cardio-respiratory response during the course of physical rehabilitation. A total of 70 subjects participated in the study; 30 of these had Haemoglobin ...

  9. IS OBESITY ASSOCIATED WITH ANAEMIA IN KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie Chan

    2012-06-01

    This study demonstrated that overall adiposity correlates positively with inflammation but this is not applicable to indices of visceral fat. However, no correlation was established between obesity and anaemia in this study.

  10. Fanconi anaemia in South African patients with Afrikaner ancestry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a rare genetic condition of impaired DNA ... An earlier age of diagnosis of FA in Afrikaner patients, a high frequency of somatic anomalies and a ... median current age and median age of presentation with symptoms in.

  11. The prevalence and risk factors associated with anaemia among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence and risk factors associated with anaemia among HIV patients ... haematological complications of HIV, and most of the studies in Nigeria and outside ... Methods: This was a cross – sectional study conducted over a period of 6 ...

  12. Investigation of manganese homeostasis in dogs with anaemia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of manganese homeostasis in dogs with anaemia and chronic enteropathy. Marisa da Fonseca Ferreira, Arielle Elizabeth Ann Aylor, Richard John Mellanby, Susan Mary Campbell, Adam George Gow ...

  13. THE IMMUNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF RA PATIENTS WITH ANAEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Sizikov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the investigation was to study the immunological characteristics of RA patients with anaemia. Clinical and laboratory data including the percentage of the main lymphocyte subclasses, phagocyte and DTH-effector activity, serum concentration of immunoglobulins, the percentage of cells producing IFNγ and/or IL-4 and percent of monocytes producing TNF. We revealed some significant clinical, laboratory and immunological differences between RA patients and healthy donors and between patients with and without anaemia. Our data demonstrate RA anemic patients to have more severe disorders than patients without anaemia. We also revealed some significant immunological differences between RA patients and healthy donors and between patients with and without anaemia, including percent of cells producing IFNγ and/or IL-4. Our data permit to conclude that RA patients have many different immunological disturbances, more severe in anaemic patients.

  14. Iron Deficiency Anaemia In Reproductive Age Women Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron Deficiency Anaemia In Reproductive Age Women Attending Obstetrics And ... prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in reproductive age women, and their relation to ... Thus iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy in well-educated set up ...

  15. CLINICAL PROFILE AND COMMON CAUSES OF HAEMOLYTIC ANAEMIA IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, NORTHERN KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jog Antony

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Haemolytic anaemia is a well-recognised clinical problem. This study looks into the clinical profile of haemolytic anaemia and also attempts to find out the common underlying causative disease. It also tries to group the patients according to the clinical manifestations and underlying causes. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a hospital-based observational study conducted in a tertiary care centre in Northern Kerala. Forty-four adult patients with clinical manifestations and laboratory evidence of haemolytic anaemia were identified and studied for a period of one year. RESULTS Maximum number of cases were seen in the age group of 20-40 years. The overall male-female ratio was 1.1:1. The most common presenting symptoms were features of anaemia like breathlessness, easy fatigability, headache and tiredness. Family history of anaemia was present in 34.1%. The most common signs observed were pallor and jaundice. The most common causes were autoimmune haemolytic anaemia and sickle cell anaemia. CONCLUSION Haemolytic anaemia mostly affects individuals in their 3rd and 4th decade. There is no significant difference in gender distribution of haemolytic anaemia. Haemolytic anaemia most commonly presents with symptoms of anaemia and jaundice. Commonest causes of haemolytic anaemia are autoimmune haemolytic anaemia and sickle cell anaemia.

  16. e-ENERCA: telemedicine platform for rare anaemias

    OpenAIRE

    Béatrice Gulbis; María del Mar Mañú Pereira; Emilio J. Armaza Armaza; Pilar Nicolás; for the ENERCA working group

    2014-01-01

    The creation of a telemedicine, tele-expertise platform opens a new challenge within the European Network for Rare and Congenital Anaemias (ENERCA; www.enerca.org). This is a cornerstone in the field of rare anaemias, in which national expertise is usually scarce and a significant number of patients remain undiagnosed. Experts in rare diseases are specially needed of shared knowledge platforms offering the possibility of a faster and more accurate diagnosis and the availability of a better pa...

  17. Trichuris and hookworm infections associated with anaemia during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyorkos, Theresa W; Gilbert, Nicolas L; Larocque, Renée; Casapía, Martín

    2011-04-01

    To assess the following associations between the second and third trimesters of pregnancy: (i) the intensity of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection and haemoglobin/anaemia, (ii) the effect of mebendazole treatment on the occurrence of STH infection, and (iii) the effect of mebendazole treatment on haemoglobin/anaemia. Data originated from a trial of 1042 pregnant women recruited in their second trimester and followed to delivery. Baseline assessments included socio-demographic/health information from questionnaires, haemoglobin/anaemia from HemoCue ascertainment of fingerprick blood, and the presence and intensity of STH (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms and Trichuris trichiura) infections from Kato-Katz examination. All women were given iron supplements; half were randomly allocated to receive single dose 500 mg mebendazole, and half, placebo. Haemoglobin/anaemia and STH infection status were determined again in the third trimester of pregnancy. Complete information was available from 935 (89.7%) women. Mebendazole significantly reduced the prevalence and intensity of all three STH infections. Higher intensities of hookworm and Trichuris infections in the second trimester were associated with a higher risk of anaemia in the third trimester. Overall, women with moderate/heavy Trichuris infection were found to be at a higher risk of anaemia; the highest risk was observed among those with moderate/heavy hookworm co-infection (adjusted OR = 2.77; 95% CI: 1.26, 6.11). Mebendazole treatment did not reduce the risk of anaemia. Higher intensities of both Trichuris and hookworm infections are associated with anaemia in pregnancy. The importance of Trichuris infections during pregnancy requires renewed attention. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Intraclutch variation in avian eggshell pigmentation: the anaemia hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coster, Greet; De Neve, Liesbeth; Lens, Luc

    2012-10-01

    Many passerine species lay eggs that are speckled with dark protoporphyrin pigmentation. Because protoporphyrin is mainly derived from the blood, we here formulate and test a new hypothesis that links an increase in anaemia along the laying sequence to within-clutch variation in egg pigmentation. More intense pigmentation is expected if pigments accumulate during enhanced red blood cell production in response to anaemia. Reduced pigmentation is expected if pigments are derived from the degradation of red blood cells that circulate in smaller numbers due to blood loss. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated anaemia in great tit (Parus major) females by infesting the nests with hen fleas (Ceratophyllus gallinae) prior to egg laying. Polychromatophil (i.e., immature red blood cells) percentage, as a measure of blood cell production, was positively correlated with parasite load confirming that female great tits experienced stronger anaemia when infested with haematophagous parasites during egg laying. We found a positive relationship between spot darkness and laying order that weakened under high parasite load. This result suggests that anaemia in females due to blood-sucking parasites led to diminished protoporphyrin from disintegrated red blood cells and hence a decreased deposition of protoporphyrin. However, the overall increase in pigment darkness along the laying sequence suggests that pigments also accumulate by enhanced red blood cell production caused by anaemia due to egg production itself.

  19. Alpha thalassemia among sickle cell anaemia patients in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubega, Irene; Ndugwa, Christopher M; Mworozi, Edison A; Tumwine, James K

    2015-06-01

    Sickle cell anaemia is prevalent in sub Saharan Africa. While α+-thalassaemia is known to modulate sickle cell anaemia, its magnitude and significance in Uganda have hitherto not been described. To determine the prevalence of α+thalassaemia among sickle cell anaemia patients in Mulago Hospital and to describe the clinical and laboratory findings in these patients. A cross sectional study was carried out on patients with sickle cell anaemia in Kampala. Dried blood spots were used to analyze for the deletional α+ thalassaemia using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Of the 142 patients with sickle cell anaemia, 110 (77.5%) had the αα+thalassaemia deletion. The gene frequency of (-α) was 0.425. Ninety one percent (100/110) of those with α+thalassaemia were heterozygous (αα/α-). Amongst the patients older than 60 months, 15 (83.3%) of those without αα+thalassaemia had significant hepatomegaly of greater than 4 cm compared to 36 (45.6%) of those with α+thalassaemia (p=0.003). The gene frequency of (-α) of 0.425 noted in this study is higher than that reported from many places in Africa. Concurrent alpha thalassemia might be a protective trait against significant hepatomegaly in sickle cell anaemia patients more than 60 months of age at Mulago hospital.

  20. MATERNAL ANAEMIA AND NEWBORN MORBIDITY IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garuda Rama

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anaemia is the commonest nutritional deficiency disorder in the world and in India prevalence in pregnancy is 50-80%. It is a risk factor for preterm delivery, low birth weight, stillbirth and foetal anaemia. The aim of the study is to find out correlation between maternal and cord haemoglobin and birth weight of newborn. MATERIALS AND METHODS Prospective observational study of 150 pregnant women delivering in KIMS from December 2014 to June 2016 for antenatal and newborn haemoglobin and newborn weight. RESULTS Of 150 mothers, 89.33% are anaemic (24% mild, 44% moderate and 21.3% severe. The incidence of low birth weight and low cord haemoglobin varied directly with severity of anaemia. Out of 150 babies, 119 (79.3% of babies had anaemia in our study. The mean haemoglobin among babies was 12.9 g/dL with a S.D. of 2.01. CONCLUSION A significant positive correlation with maternal haemoglobin and newborn weight and cord haemoglobin. RecommendationAntenatal prophylaxis with iron and folic acid to prevent anaemia and incidence of low birth weight and infantile anaemia.

  1. Anaemia is typical of pregnancies: capturing community perception and management of anaemia in pregnancy in Anambra State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Onyeneho, Nkechi G.; Igweonu, Obianuju U.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anaemia during pregnancy continues to constitute significant challenge to maternal health in Nigeria and contributes substantially to the worsening maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Nigeria despite a global reduction in MMR in response to effort to improve safe motherhood. The incidence of anaemia during pregnancy is still high (>40 %) in Nigeria, and attitudes and management practices are yet unclear as the peoples’ understanding of the phenomenon remains unclear. This study expl...

  2. Treatments for iron-deficiency anaemia in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveiz, Ludovic; Gyte, Gillian Ml; Cuervo, Luis Gabriel; Casasbuenas, Alexandra

    2011-10-05

    Iron deficiency, the most common cause of anaemia in pregnancy worldwide, can be mild, moderate or severe. Severe anaemia can have very serious consequences for mothers and babies, but there is controversy about whether treating mild or moderate anaemia provides more benefit than harm. To assess the effects of different treatments for anaemia in pregnancy attributed to iron deficiency (defined as haemoglobin less than 11 g/dL or other equivalent parameters) on maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (7 June 2011), CENTRAL (2011, Issue 5), PubMed (1966 to June 2011), the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (2 May 2011), Health Technology Assessment Program (HTA) (2 May 2011) and LATINREC (Colombia) (2 May 2011). Randomised controlled trials comparing treatments for anaemia in pregnancy attributed to iron deficiency. We identified 23 trials, involving 3.198 women. We assessed their risk of bias. Three further studies identified are awaiting classification. Many of the trials were from low-income countries; they were generally small and frequently methodologically poor. They covered a very wide range of differing drugs, doses and routes of administration, making it difficult to pool data. Oral iron in pregnancy showed a reduction in the incidence of anaemia (risk ratio 0.38, 95% confidence interval 0.26 to 0.55, one trial, 125 women) and better haematological indices than placebo (two trials). It was not possible to assess the effects of treatment by severity of anaemia. A trend was found between dose and reported adverse effects. Most trials reported no clinically relevant outcomes nor adverse effects. Although the intramuscular and intravenous routes produced better haematological indices in women than the oral route, no clinical outcomes were assessed and there were insufficient data on adverse effects, for example, on venous thrombosis and severe allergic reactions

  3. Preoperative anaemia and newly diagnosed cancer 1 year after elective total hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C. C.; Jans, Ø.; Kehlet, H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative anaemia is a well-established risk factor for use of blood transfusions and postoperative morbidity. Consequently, focus on preoperative evaluation of haemoglobin levels is increasing. In this context, iron deficiency anaemia may be a symptom of undiscovered gastrointesti......BACKGROUND: Preoperative anaemia is a well-established risk factor for use of blood transfusions and postoperative morbidity. Consequently, focus on preoperative evaluation of haemoglobin levels is increasing. In this context, iron deficiency anaemia may be a symptom of undiscovered...

  4. Anaemia in women of reproductive age in Tanzania : A study in Dar es Salaam

    OpenAIRE

    Massawe, Siriel Nanzia

    2002-01-01

    The overall aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of anaemia in women of reproductive age and to investigate the underlying causes, as well as assess the effectiveness of antenatal care (ANC) interventions for anaemia prevention. Consecutive pregnant women booking for ANC (n=2235) were screened for anaemia, followed up and screened again late in pregnancy. Basic ANC interventions included iron and folate supplementation, malaria chemoprophylaxis and referral of severe anaemia cas...

  5. Risk factors for fetal anaemia in a malarious area of Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brabin, B. J.; Kalanda, B. F.; Verhoeff, F. H.; Chimsuku, L. H.; Broadhead, R. L.

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of infants born with low cord haemoglobin (fetal anaemia) is high in areas where malaria and iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy are common. The objective of the present study was to determine risk factors for fetal anaemia in an area of high malaria transmission in southern Malawi.

  6. Research Priorities in the field of Anaemia in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Sinha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia is a health problem that caused most disability in India over a decade (2005-2016 according to the Global Burden of Disease study(1.  India has the maximum number of anaemic women and children in the world(2. As per the recent National Family Health Survey-4 (2015-16, about 58% children (6-59 months, 53% women (15-49 y and 23% men were suffering from various degrees of anaemia(3. Aanaemia affects the general health of the total population taking toll for high mortality as well as morbidity and attenuating the optimal expression of the potentials of both physical and mental capacity of our population. Improving nutritional status of the vulnerable sections of the population and reducing anaemia is of paramount importance for improving health and the human capital development in the country(4.

  7. Pathophysiological mechanisms of severe anaemia in Malawian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Boele van Hensbroek

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Severe anaemia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in African children. The aetiology is multi-factorial, but interventions have often targeted only one or a few causal factors, with limited success.We assessed the contribution of different pathophysiological mechanisms (red cell production failure [RCPF], haemolysis and blood loss to severe anaemia in Malawian children in whom etiological factors have been described previously. More complex associations between etiological factors and the mechanisms were explored using structural equation modelling. In 235 children with severe anaemia (haemoglobin<3.2 mMol/L [5.0 g/dl] studied, RCPF, haemolysis and blood loss were found in 48.1%, 21.7% and 6.9%, respectively. The RCPF figure increased to 86% when a less stringent definition of RCPF was applied. RCPF was the most common mechanism in each of the major etiological subgroups (39.7-59.7%. Multiple aetiologies were common in children with severe anaemia. In the final model, nutritional and infectious factors, including malaria, were directly or indirectly associated with RCPF, but not with haemolysis.RCPF was the most common pathway leading to severe anaemia, from a variety of etiological factors, often found in combination. Unlike haemolysis or blood loss, RCPF is a defect that is likely to persist to a significant degree unless all of its contributing aetiologies are corrected. This provides a further explanation for the limited success of the single factor interventions that have commonly been applied to the prevention or treatment of severe anaemia. Our findings underline the need for a package of measures directed against all of the local aetiologies of this often fatal paediatric syndrome.

  8. EVALUATION OF ANAEMIA USING RED CELL AND RETICULOCYTE PARAMETERS USING AUTOMATED HAEMATOLOGY ANALYSER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadhar Rao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Use of current models of Automated Haematology Analysers help in calculating the haemoglobin contents of the mature Red cells, Reticulocytes and percentages of Microcytic and hypochromic Red cells. This has helped the clinician in reaching early diagnosis and management of Different haemopoietic disorders like Iron Deficiency Anaemia, Thalassaemia and anaemia of chronic diseases. AIM This study is conducted using an Automated Haematology Analyser to evaluate anaemia using the Red Cell and Reticulocyte parameters. Three types of anaemia were evaluated; iron deficiency anaemia, anaemia of long duration and anaemia associated with chronic disease and Iron deficiency. MATERIALS AND METHODS The blood samples were collected from 287 adult patients with anaemia differentiated depending upon their iron status, haemoglobinopathies and inflammatory activity. Iron deficiency anaemia (n=132, anaemia of long duration (ACD, (n=97 and anaemia associated with chronic disease with iron deficiency (ACD Combi, (n=58. Microcytic Red cells, hypochromic red cells percentage and levels of haemoglobin in reticulocytes and matured RBCs were calculated. The accuracy of the parameters was analysed using receiver operating characteristic analyser to differentiate between the types of anaemia. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS There was no difference in parameters between the iron deficiency group or anaemia associated with chronic disease and iron deficiency. The hypochromic red cells percentage was the best parameter in differentiating anaemia of chronic disease with or without absolute iron deficiency with a sensitivity of 72.7% and a specificity of 70.4%. CONCLUSIONS The parameters of red cells and reticulocytes were of reasonably good indicators in differentiating the absolute iron deficiency anaemia with chronic disease.

  9. Anaemia among pregnant women in northern Tanzania: prevalence, risk factors and effect on perinatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msuya, Sia E; Hussein, Tamara H; Uriyo, Jacqueline; Sam, Noel E; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2011-01-01

    Anaemia during pregnancy is associated with negative maternal and neonatal outcomes. However, there is limited data regarding prevalence and effects of anaemia during pregnancy in northern Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible risk factors for anaemia and its effect on perinatal outcomes among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Moshi Municipality in northern Tanzania. A cohort of pregnant women aged 14-43 years and in their 3rd trimester, was recruited from two primary health care clinics between June 2002 and March 2004. Interviews, anthropometric measurements and haematological examinations were conducted on 2654 consenting women. Perinatal outcomes were recorded during delivery and at 1 week after delivery. Of the 2654 participants, 47.4% had anaemia (haemoglobin [Hb] anaemia (Hb= 9-10.9g/dl), 9.9% had moderate anaemia (Hb =7- 8.9g/dl), and 2.1% had severe anaemia (Hb Anaemia was significantly more prevalent in HIV-positive (56.4%) than in HIV-negative women (46.7%), (P = 0.01). In logistic regression anaemia was independently associated with maternal HIV (OR= 1.5), malaria (OR= 5.2), clinic of recruitment (OR= 1.5) and low income (OR= 1.9). Pregnant women with anaemia were more likely to have low birth weight (LBW) infants. Compared with non-anaemic women, the risk of LBW was 1.6 times and 4.8 times higher for children born to women with moderate and severe anaemia, respectively. In conclusion, anaemia in pregnancy is a severe public health problem in northern Tanzania. Control of maternal anaemia may be one important strategy to prevent LBW in this setting. Measures to prevent malaria and to control anaemia among all pregnant women irrespective of HIV status, should be strengthened. Outside of the health sector broader approaches for anaemia prevention targeting women of lower income, are required.

  10. Radioisotopes of iron in investigation of anaemia in malnutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, K [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Dacca (Bangladesh)

    1979-06-01

    Iron absorption from a simple breakfast meal by a normal adult was done by the whole body counting system and blood radioactivity measurement. Results seem to be in good agreement and both the methods are found to be standard for measurements of iron absorption from food. In iron deficiency anaemia associated with malnutrition improvement of nutritional condition has been found to increase both haemoglobin level and iron absorption possibly by way of improving the ability of intestinal mucosa to absorb more iron from food and by better utilization of iron by erythropoietic system. Thus improvement of nutritional status is a prerequisite to treatment of iron deficiency anaemia.

  11. Radioisotopes of iron in investigation of anaemia in malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.

    1979-01-01

    Iron absorption from a simple breakfast meal by a normal adult was done by the whole body counting system and blood radioactivity measurement. Results seem to be in good agreement and both the methods are found to be standard for measurements of iron absorption from food. In iron deficiency anaemia associated with malnutrition improvement of nutritional condition has been found to increase both haemoglobin level and iron absorption possibly by way of improving the ability of intestinal mucosa to absorb more iron from food and by better utilization of iron by erythropoietic system. Thus improvement of nutritional status is a prerequisite to treatment of iron deficiency anaemia. (author)

  12. The adaptive response of mouse tumours to anaemia and retransfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirst, D.G.; Wood, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Exchange transfusion methods have been developed to alter the haematocrit of tumour-bearing mice. The effects of anaemia and its correction by blood transfusion on the radiosensitivity of two mouse tumours (SCCVII/St and RIF-1) were studied using excision, in vivo/in vitro assay. Acute reduction in haematocrit caused a high degree of radioresistance equivalent to an increase in the hypoxic fractions by factors of 10 (SCCVII/St) and 30 (RIF-1). As the duration of anaemia was prolonged, radioresistance was lost until within about 6 h normal radiosensitivity was observed even though the anaemia persisted. The restoration of the normal haematocrit by red blood cell transfusion after 24 h of anaemia caused increased radiosensitivity equivalent to a reduction in the hypoxic fraction by factors of 5 (SCCVII/St) and 10 (RIF-1), but again the effect was transient and normal radiosensitivity re-established within 24-48 h of retransfusion. Measurements of 14 C misonidazole (MISO) binding to RIF-1 tumours after these procedures indicated changes in the number of hypoxic cells which were qualitatively almost identical to those using the cell survival endpoint, leading to the belief that changes in oxygenation were reponsible for the altered radiosensitivity. (author)

  13. Left ventricular systolic function in sickle cell anaemia: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Left ventricular systolic function, sickle cell anaemia, echocardiographic evaluation, adult Nigerian patients. ..... Quadratic .505. -0.390. 12.231. 8.587 .001*. Cubic .510. -0.180. 8.264. 8.619 .001*. This relationship was further evaluated by means of scat- ter plots and subsequently by regression analysis. The.

  14. Severe anaemia in childhood cerebral malaria is associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Severe anaemia in children with cerebral malaria has been associated with respiratory distress secondary to lactic acidosis and/or hypoxia. The ensuing metabolic derangement may further depress the level of consciousness culminating in presentation with profound coma. This association has poorly been ...

  15. Anaemia among clinically well under-fives attending a community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A blood sample was collected from each child, and haemoglobin levels were assessed with a point-of-care haemoglobin testing system. Anaemia was defined as having a haemoglobin value <2 standard deviations below age-altitude adjusted normal values. Results. Three-quarters (39/52 – 75%) of children were anaemic.

  16. Aplastic anaemia in Christchurch Hospital 1979-89.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B W; Smith, M P; Abbott, G D; Beard, M E; Spearing, R L; Heaton, D C

    1991-11-13

    We have reviewed the records of all patients referred to our departments with aplastic anaemia during the 11 years from 1979 to 1989. Of the 22 patients identified, 19 fulfilled the standard criteria for severe aplastic anaemia. There were 11 females and 11 males. Their mean age was 35 (range 2-85 years). Five cases followed exposure to drugs known to cause aplastic anaemia and one had a recent history of viral hepatitis. A variety of treatments were used. Four patients received an allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) from matched sibling donors and two of these were alive and well 65 and 120 months post BMT. Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) treatment has been followed by lasting complete remission in two of the six patients treated and a partial response was seen in one other patient. Cyclosporin therapy was associated with unmaintained complete remission in one of the three patients given this drug after ATG had failed. The remaining 13 patients received only supportive care with or without androgens and six (46%) had early recovery of bone marrow function with lasting complete remission. These patients illustrate some of the therapeutic options available for aplastic anaemia.

  17. Nutrition education and anaemia outcome in inner city black children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seugnet

    die “Special Supplementary Food Program for Wo- ... from the third National Health and Nutrition Ex- amination Survey ... of sickle cell-anaemia or Thalassemia trait, (4) .... iron were whole grain breads, green peas, broc- ... garding risk factors for childhood iron deficiency ... processed by an office-based screening instru-.

  18. Left ventricular systolic function in sickle cell anaemia: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    42) and 24.17 ± 4.39 ... Aortic root diameter (Ao), left atrial dimension (LAD), left ventricu- ... Key: *Statistically significant, a= Chi-square, SCA= sickle cell anaemia, SD= standard deviation. ..... of fluctuations in response to changes in sympathetic.

  19. Dietary determination of stunting and anaemia among pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morocco is undergoing nutrition transition with more than one third of women and children presenting anaemia while about 20% of children under the age of 15 years have stunted growth. Meanwhile the prevalence of obesity is increasing yearly by 0.5 to 1 point among women. Many nutritional strategies have been ...

  20. Risk Factors of Anaemia Among Rural School Children in Kenitra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of anaemia and factors associated with iron deficiency among school children in rural Kenitra, Morocco. Methods: 295 students between 6 and 16 years old composed the study group. The level of haemoglobin was measured in a group of 295 school children. The iron status was ...

  1. Prevalence of vitamin a, zinc, iodine deficiency and anaemia among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children are the most nutritionally vulnerable group of society as children are dependants and they are also at a critical stage of the growing process. They need adequate vitamin A, zinc, iron and iodine for their development and school performance. Most often iron deficiency causes anaemia with resultant fatigue and low ...

  2. The effects of iron deficiency and anaemia on primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the age of 5 years do not reach their developmental potential.[1,2]. ID and ID anaemia (IDA) are widespread health problems among children. Approximately 40% of ..... withdraw at any time without providing a reason, or it affecting their schooling. ... also included in the cases, leaving 45 cases (23.2%) of mild non-. IDA.

  3. Prognosis in canine idiopathic immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Canine idiopathic immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (iIMHA) is one of the most frequently occurring immune-mediated diseases in dogs. A gel-based Coombs' test was shown to perform equally well as a classical Coombs' test. Since the gel-based Coombs' test can be commercially produced and is easy and

  4. Bacterial pyomyositis in a patient with aplastic anaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsuyasu, R.; Gale, R. P.

    1980-01-01

    Bacterial pyomyositis is common in the tropids but is rare in temperate climates. A patient with aplastic anaemia who had never left the continental United States developed bacterial pyomyositis secondary to Staphylococcus aureus which responded to antibiotics and surgical drainage. Bacterial pyomyositis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of fever and myalgias in the immunocompromised patient.

  5. Management of severe malarial anaemia in Gambian children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bojang, K. A.; Palmer, A.; Boele van Hensbroek, M.; Banya, W. A.; Greenwood, B. M.

    1997-01-01

    The optimum management of children with severe malarial anaemia is still uncertain. Hence, we have undertaken a study to determine whether iron treatment is as effective at restoring haemoglobin levels one month after presentation as blood transfusion without iron treatment in children with

  6. Beta thalassaemia traits in Nigerian patients with sickle cell anaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research ... These three patients (1.2%) were found to have positive co-inheritance of thalassaemia trait and sickle cell anaemia. The erythrocyte indices were all reduced in these selected families except for one family whose mean cell haemoglobin concentration was within normal ...

  7. Anaemia in HIV infected Nigerian children on HAART | Sadoh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Biomedical Sciences ... Background: Most studies evaluating anaemia and associated factors in HIV infected children have been done on those that are HAART naïve. This study evaluated ... Data on age, gender, CD4 counts, CD4 percentage in those younger than 5years and tuberculosis status were obtained.

  8. p53 downregulates the Fanconi anaemia DNA repair pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Sara; Toufektchan, Eléonore; Lejour, Vincent; Bardot, Boris; Toledo, Franck

    2016-04-01

    Germline mutations affecting telomere maintenance or DNA repair may, respectively, cause dyskeratosis congenita or Fanconi anaemia, two clinically related bone marrow failure syndromes. Mice expressing p53(Δ31), a mutant p53 lacking the C terminus, model dyskeratosis congenita. Accordingly, the increased p53 activity in p53(Δ31/Δ31) fibroblasts correlated with a decreased expression of 4 genes implicated in telomere syndromes. Here we show that these cells exhibit decreased mRNA levels for additional genes contributing to telomere metabolism, but also, surprisingly, for 12 genes mutated in Fanconi anaemia. Furthermore, p53(Δ31/Δ31) fibroblasts exhibit a reduced capacity to repair DNA interstrand crosslinks, a typical feature of Fanconi anaemia cells. Importantly, the p53-dependent downregulation of Fanc genes is largely conserved in human cells. Defective DNA repair is known to activate p53, but our results indicate that, conversely, an increased p53 activity may attenuate the Fanconi anaemia DNA repair pathway, defining a positive regulatory feedback loop.

  9. Coinheritance of Β-Thalassemia and Sickle Cell Anaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2016-11-06

    Nov 6, 2016 ... ABSTRACT. BACKGROUND: Genes for haemoglobin S are found in high frequencies in Nigeria. However, there is little information on beta thalassemia in sickle cell anaemia in this population. The clinical presentation of HbS- β thalassemia is enormously variable, ranging from an asymptomatic state to a ...

  10. Anaemia in pregnancy among pregnant women in Lusaka District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study investigated the problem of anaemia in pregnancy and its associated factors. Methods: The study involved 216 women booking for antenatal care between September 2015 and January 2016. A structured questionnaire was administered to all eligible women to determine their socio demographic and ...

  11. Prevalence of malaria and anaemia in pregnancy in Ibadan, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the episode of malaria infection and anaemia in pregnancy of 226 women. The overall prevalence of malaria infection among pregnant women was 23.08%, while only 7.1% of non-pregnant women were malaria positive. The mean parasite density was significantly higher in the primigravidae than in ...

  12. Malaria Parasitemia and Anaemia among Pregnant Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and anaemia among pregnant women attending Federal Medical Centre (FMC), Umuahia and Nwachinemere Maternity and Child-Care (NMCCD) Ihie in Umuahia metropolis in Abia State Nigeria was carried out between April and October 2010. Blood samples were ...

  13. Haemolytic anaemia as a complication to intravenous immunoglobulin infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvardsen, Lars Høj; Harbo, Thomas; Christiansen, Ingelise

    performed before and two weeks after infusion of IVIg. Following treatment blood haemoglobin declined from 8.6±0.8 to 8.1±1.3mmol/l, p... naive patients are susceptible to develop haemolysis. Haemolytic anaemia is a severe side effect that seems to be more frequent after immunoglobulin infusions than previously recognized....

  14. Effect of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces on anaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces on anaemia-induced and normal wistar albino rats were investigated using standard protocols. The haematological parameters which include haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Red Blood Cell count and White Blood ...

  15. Fanconi anaemia in South African patients with Afrikaner ancestry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a rare genetic disorder of impaired DNA repair that results in physical and haematological consequences in affected individuals. In South Africa (SA), individuals with Afrikaner ancestry are at an increased risk of inheriting disease-causing FA mutations, owing to the three common ...

  16. Malnutrition and iron deficiency anaemia in lactating women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the status of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) and malnutrition in lactating women. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Six urban slum communities in Teklehaimanot district, Addis Ababa. Subjects: One thousand and seventeen lactating women were enrolled and assessed for their haemoglobin ...

  17. Cardiac Arrhythmias in Children with Sickle Cell Anaemia | Bode ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background : Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical Africa. Recurrent episodes of vaso-occlusive crisis often lead to organ ischaemia and/or infarction. Arrythmias are common and reliable manifestations of myocardial ischaemia and often follow infarction. The prevalence and ...

  18. Urinary abnormalities in children with sickle cell anaemia | Ugwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is a health problem worldwide. Almost all the organs of the body are affected by the combined effect of chronic hypoxia, repeated infarction and recurrent infections. Renal function may be progressively impaired in them as a result of sickling in the renal medulla. Microscopic ...

  19. the prevalence and risk factors associated with anaemia among hiv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated with the development of anaemia among HIV patients attending the special ... Methods: This was a cross – sectional study conducted over a period of 6 months from June ..... reflected in other studies (Mukund B.K. et al 2015, Alem.

  20. Anaemia in pregnant adolescent girls with malaria and practicing pica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intiful, Freda Dzifa; Wiredu, Edwin Kwame; Asare, George Awuku; Asante, Matilda; Adjei, David Nana

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy during the adolescent period is challenging mainly because of the nutritional demands of both the adolescent and pregnancy period. The risk for anaemia increases especially in developing countries such as Ghana where malaria is endemic and the practice of pica is common. In this study, we sought to determine the prevalence of anaemia, pica practice and malaria infection among pregnant adolescent girls and assess the extent to which these factors are associated. Two hundred and sixty five (265) pregnant adolescent girls were recruited from three hospitals in Accra. Haemoglobin levels, malaria infection and the practice of pica were assessed. Pearson's Chi squared tests were used to determine associations and logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds of being anaemic. Significance was set at p≤0.05. Anaemia prevalence was 76% with severity ranging from mild (47.8%) to severe (0.8%). About 27.5% were moderately anaemic. Pica was practiced in only 9.1% of the girls. Malaria infection was prevalent in 17.7% of the girls. The logistic regression analysis indicated that pregnant girls with malaria infection were 3.56 times more likely to be anaemic when compared to those without malaria. Also, those who practiced pica were 1.23 times more likely to be anaemic when compared to those who did not practice pica. Anaemia is very prevalent in pregnant adolescent girls and is a public health problem. Drastic measures should be taken to reduce the high prevalence.

  1. Plasmodium falciparum multiplicity correlates with anaemia in symptomatic malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Ehrhardt, Stephan; Eggelte, Teunis A.; Markert, Miriam; Anemana, Sylvester; Otchwemah, Rowland; Bienzle, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    In 366 Ghanaian children with symptomatic Plasmodium falciparum malaria, low haemoglobin levels and severe anaemia were associated with a high multiplicity of infection (MOI) and with distinct merozoite surface protein alleles. High MOI not only reflects premunition but may also contribute to

  2. Hepatitis B Virus Infection In Patients With Homozygous Sickle Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnebe-Agumadu U H, and Abiodun P O. Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Patients with Homozygous Sickle Cell Disease (HbSS): Need for Intervention. Annals Biomedical Sciences 2002; 1:79-87. This is a prospective study of 213 patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) (112 males and 101 females) aged 6 months to 18 years ...

  3. Anaemia worsens early functional outcome after traumatic brain injury: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litofsky, N Scott; Miller, Douglas C; Chen, Zhenzhou; Simonyi, Agnes; Klakotskaia, Diana; Giritharan, Andrew; Feng, Qi; McConnell, Diane; Cui, Jiankun; Gu, Zezong

    2018-01-01

    To determine early effects on outcome from traumatic brain injury (TBI) induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) associated with anaemia in mice. Outcome from TBI with concomitant anaemia would be worse than TBI without anaemia. CCI was induced with electromagnetic impaction in four groups of C57BL/6J mice: sham, sham+anaemia; TBI; and TBI+anaemia. Anaemia was created by withdrawal of 30% of calculated intravascular blood volume and saline replacement of equal volume. Functional outcome was assessed by beam-walking test and open field test (after pre-injury training) on post-injury days 3 and 7. After functional assessment, brains removed from sacrificed animals were pathological reviewed with haematoxylin and eosin, cresyl violet, Luxol Fast Blue, and IBA-1 immunostains. Beam-walking was similar between animals with TBI and TBI+anaemia (p = 0.9). In open field test, animals with TBI+anaemia walked less distance than TBI alone or sham animals on days 3 (p < 0.001) and 7 (p < 0.05), indicating less exploratory and locomotion behaviours. No specific pathologic differences could be identified. Anaemia associated with TBI from CCI is associated with worse outcome as measured by less distance travelled in the open field test at three days than if anaemia is not present.

  4. PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA IN A SEMI-URBAN POPULATION OF PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suganthi Ramalingam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Anaemia is a serious and prominent problem in the developing countries. This study evaluates the prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women attending the outpatient clinic in a semi-urban hospital for a period of six months. MATERIALS AND METHODS Data from a sample of 500 pregnant women was collected and the patients were screened for anaemia on their booking visit in KFMS&R for a period of six months from March-August 2015. Haemoglobin was estimated by cyanmethaemoglobin method using Systronic photocolorimeter on their first antenatal visit. The degree of anaemia was categorised according to ICMR datamild (10-10.99 g/dL, moderate (7-9.99 g/dL, severe (<7 g/dL. RESULTS It was observed that the prevalence of anaemia was 51.8% in the population under study. The prevalence of mild anaemia was 18.53%, that of moderate anaemia was 63.70% and that of severe anaemia was 17.76%. It was also noticed that the prevalence of anaemia was higher in young pregnant women between 17-21 years of age (63.26%. CONCLUSION Anaemia continues to be a major health problem in India and prevention and early diagnosis will significantly reduce maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality.

  5. High rate of sickle cell anaemia in Sub-Saharan Africa underlines the need to screen all children with severe anaemia for the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadima, Bertin Tshimanga; Gini Ehungu, Jean Lambert; Ngiyulu, René Makwala; Ekulu, Pépé Mfutu; Aloni, Michel Ntetani

    2015-12-01

    Neonatal screening for sickle cell anaemia is not common practice in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and we determined the prevalence in children with unknown electrophoresis of haemoglobin and anaemia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four hospitals in the country's capital Kinshasa. We screened 807 patients with anaemia (Hb history of hand foot syndrome, in children who had received more than three transfusions and in children up to 36 months of age at their first transfusion. The high prevalence of sickle cell anaemia in children in Sub-Saharan Africa underlines the need for neonatal screening or, if that is not possible, screening of all children with severe anaemia to identify patients with the disease and provide early management. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Low plasma concentrations of interleukin 10 in severe malarial anaemia compared with cerebral and uncomplicated malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Adabayeri, V; Goka, B Q

    1998-01-01

    -back regulation of TNF, stimulates bone-marrow function in vitro and counteracts anaemia in mice. We investigated the associations of these cytokines with malarial anaemia. METHODS: We enrolled 175 African children with malaria into two studies in 1995 and 1996. In the first study, children were classified...... as having severe anaemia (n=10), uncomplicated malaria (n=26), or cerebral anaemia (n=41). In the second study, patients were classified as having cerebral malaria (n=33) or being fully conscious (n=65), and the two groups were subdivided by measured haemoglobin as normal (>110 g/L), moderate anaemia (60...... anaemia was 270 pg/mL (95% CI 152-482) compared with 725 pg/mL (465-1129) in uncomplicated malaria and 966 pg/mL (612-1526) in cerebral malaria (pcerebral...

  7. The clinical and radiological features of Fanconi's anaemia pictorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Kerviler, E.; Guermazi, A.; Zagdanski, A.-M.; Gluckman, E.; Frija, J

    2000-05-01

    Fanconi's anaemia is a severe refractory anaemia, associated with congenital malformations in approximately two-thirds of cases. Although these malformations may involve every organ system, suggestive dysmorphic features include growth retardation, radial ray deformities and urinary malformations. These malformations are not specific for Fanconi's anaemia, but should be recognized during pregnancy, or later in childhood, and suggest the possibility of inherited haematopoiesis disorders. De Kerviler, E. (2000)

  8. Risk factors and birth outcomes of anaemia in early pregnancy in a nulliparous cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwinyai Masukume

    Full Text Available Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health and economic problem worldwide, that contributes to both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.The aim of the study was to calculate the prevalence of anaemia in early pregnancy in a cohort of 'low risk' women participating in a large international multicentre prospective study (n = 5 609, to identify the modifiable risk factors for anaemia in pregnancy in this cohort, and to compare the birth outcomes between pregnancies with and without anaemia in early gestation.The study is an analysis of data that were collected prospectively during the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints study. Anaemia was defined according to the World Health Organization's definition of anaemia in pregnancy (haemoglobin < 11g/dL. Binary logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders (country, maternal age, having a marital partner, ethnic origin, years of schooling, and having paid work was the main method of analysis.The hallmark findings were the low prevalence of anaemia (2.2%, that having no marital partner was an independent risk factor for having anaemia (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.01-1.78, and that there was no statistically significant effect of anaemia on adverse pregnancy outcomes (small for gestational age, pre-tem birth, mode of delivery, low birth weight, APGAR score < 7 at one and five minutes. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were however more common in those with anaemia than in those without.In this low risk healthy pregnant population we found a low anaemia rate. The absence of a marital partner was a non-modifiable factor, albeit one which may reflect a variety of confounding factors, that should be considered for addition to anaemia's conceptual framework of determinants. Although not statistically significant, clinically, a trend towards a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes was observed in women that were anaemic in early pregnancy.

  9. A study on status of anaemia in pregnant women attending urban health training centre, RIMS, Ranchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia in pregnant women has been regarded as very dangerous as it causes many maternal, fetal and neonatal complications. Fetal growth and pregnancy outcome largely depend upon the status of anaemia in pregnant women. Anaemia affects pregnant  women all over the world - 52% in  developing  countries  compared  with  23%  in  the  developed  world. The difference in prevalence of anaemia in different parts of India including Jharkhand can be attributed to the different factors. A knowledge of these factors associated with anemia will help to formulate multipronged strategies to curtail this important public health problem in pregnancy. Aims & Objectives: (1 To know the socio-demographic profile of pregnant women attending Urban Health and Training Centre (UHTC, RIMS, Ranchi. (2 To know the status of anaemia among those pregnant women and its association with different factors. Material & Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study done at ANC clinic of UHTC, RIMS, Ranchi to determine the status of anaemia in pregnant women and various socio-demographic factors associated with it. Hemoglobin level of 149 pregnant women selected by consecutive sampling was estimated by Cyanmethemoglobin method. Statistical Analysis: Template generated in MS excel sheet and analysis was done on SPSS software. Result: Out of total 149 pregnant women anaemia was found to be present in 99 (66.4% women. A statistically significant association of anaemia (p<.05 was found with parity and birth interval from last birth.  But the association of anaemia with ethnicity, education and other factors like gestational age (trimester was not found to be statistically significant (p>.05.  Conclusion: Occurrence of anaemia was much higher in this area as compared to national average. It indicates that the anaemia continues to be a major public health problem.  Efforts should be geared towards the early detection and treatment of anaemia before delivery. 

  10. Risk factors and birth outcomes of anaemia in early pregnancy in a nulliparous cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masukume, Gwinyai; Khashan, Ali S; Kenny, Louise C; Baker, Philip N; Nelson, Gill

    2015-01-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health and economic problem worldwide, that contributes to both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to calculate the prevalence of anaemia in early pregnancy in a cohort of 'low risk' women participating in a large international multicentre prospective study (n = 5 609), to identify the modifiable risk factors for anaemia in pregnancy in this cohort, and to compare the birth outcomes between pregnancies with and without anaemia in early gestation. The study is an analysis of data that were collected prospectively during the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints study. Anaemia was defined according to the World Health Organization's definition of anaemia in pregnancy (haemoglobin prevalence of anaemia (2.2%), that having no marital partner was an independent risk factor for having anaemia (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.01-1.78), and that there was no statistically significant effect of anaemia on adverse pregnancy outcomes (small for gestational age, pre-tem birth, mode of delivery, low birth weight, APGAR score pregnancy outcomes were however more common in those with anaemia than in those without. In this low risk healthy pregnant population we found a low anaemia rate. The absence of a marital partner was a non-modifiable factor, albeit one which may reflect a variety of confounding factors, that should be considered for addition to anaemia's conceptual framework of determinants. Although not statistically significant, clinically, a trend towards a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes was observed in women that were anaemic in early pregnancy.

  11. Pregnancy in fanconi anaemia with bone marrow failure: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Sorbi, Flavia; Mecacci, Federico; Di Filippo, Alessandro; Fambrini, Massimiliano

    2017-01-01

    Background Fanconi anaemia is a rare inherited disease characterized by congenital abnormalities, progressive bone marrow failure and predisposition to malignancy. Successful pregnancies in transplanted patients have been reported. In this paper we will describe the pregnancy of a patient with Fanconi anaemia without transplantation. Case presentation A 34-year-old nulliparous woman with Fanconi anaemia was referred to our institution. Pregnancy was complicated by progressive pancytopenia and...

  12. e-ENERCA: telemedicine platform for rare anaemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Gulbis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The creation of a telemedicine, tele-expertise platform opens a new challenge within the European Network for Rare and Congenital Anaemias (ENERCA; www.enerca.org. This is a cornerstone in the field of rare anaemias, in which national expertise is usually scarce and a significant number of patients remain undiagnosed. Experts in rare diseases are specially needed of shared knowledge platforms offering the possibility of a faster and more accurate diagnosis and the availability of a better patients’ follow-up. The platform developed by e- ENERCA will be user friendly and intuitive so it will be used by the majority of professionals without requiring a specific formation. The idea of inter professional consultation is to bring medical experts together for collaborative involvement in activities that maximize the benefits and improvement in patient care.

  13. Iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy: The role of parenteral iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Umo I

    2017-01-01

    Maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality remain major challenges in the delivery of safe maternity care worldwide. Anaemia in pregnancy is an important contributor to this dismal picture, especially where blood transfusion services are poorly developed. An early diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy using the new generation dextran-free parenteral iron preparations can save lives and reduce morbidity in selected pregnancies. It is time to cast aside the fears associated with the use of the old parenteral iron preparations which were associated a high incidence of anaphylaxis, and embrace the use of new parenteral iron products which have better side effect profiles and can deliver total dose infusions without the need for test dosing. In selected women, the benefits of this treatment far outweigh any disadvantages.

  14. Gastroscopic screening in 80 patients with pernicious anaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Stockbrügger, R W; Menon, G G; Beilby, J O; Mason, R R; Cotton, P B

    1983-01-01

    We have studied 80 patients with pernicious anaemia. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (with biopsy and cytology) showed no lesion other than atrophic gastritis in 34 patients. Thirty three patients, however, had varying degrees of gastric mucosal dysplasia, which was detected more frequently by histology than by cytology. The endoscopic appearance of the mucosa was abnormal in four of the six patients with moderate dysplasia, and in all three patients with severe dysplasia. One patient was fo...

  15. [Acute oliguric renal failure and haemolytic anaemia following infectious mononucleosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkovic, Natasa; Jørgensen, Kit Riegels; Rosenbæk, Jeppe Bakkestrøm; Pedersen, Erling Bjerregaard

    2015-11-09

    A 19-year-old man was admitted to hospital due to fatigue, nausea, abdominal pain and faint. He was pale and icteric, awake with sufficient respiration and circulation. He had infectious mononucleosis complicated with acute oliguric renal failure and severe haemolytic anaemia with a positive Coombs test. He had a cold agglutinin syndrome. The treatment comprised intermittent haemodialysis, plasmapheresis and heating. He recovered completely after two months.

  16. Maternal Risk Factors for Childhood Anaemia in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    A total of 8260 children between the ages of 6-59 months were analyzed to ... Maternal anaemia and socio-economic status were found to be associated with ... était de 10,7 (2,2) g / dl et 50,3% étaient anémiques. ... economic status, environmental factors, food ... For the current ... Anthelmintic treatment in the previous six.

  17. Anaemia and long term mortality in heart failure patients: a retrospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlot, Mette; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Valeur, Nana

    2010-01-01

    Anaemia has been demonstrated as a risk factor in patients with heart failure over periods of a few years, but long term data are not available. We examined the long-term risk of anaemia in heart failure patients during 15 years of follow-up.......Anaemia has been demonstrated as a risk factor in patients with heart failure over periods of a few years, but long term data are not available. We examined the long-term risk of anaemia in heart failure patients during 15 years of follow-up....

  18. Assessment of knowledge level on anaemia among pregnant women in Putrajaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adznam, Siti Nur'Hidayah; Sedek, Razalee; Kasim, Zalifah Mohd

    2018-04-01

    Anaemia during pregnancy is a common problem which affects both the mother's and her child's health. The aim of this study was to determine knowledge level on anaemia among pregnant women in Putrajaya. This study was also been carried out to identify the relationship between knowledge according to socio-demographic and antenatal characteristics. A total of 370 subjects were participated in this study. Subjects comprised of pregnant women who attended four health clinics in Putrajaya to undergo first antenatal visit for the current pregnancy. Socio-demographic information, antenatal characteristics and knowledge related to anaemia were collected using questionnaires. Blood samples were taken to identify hemoglobin level of subjects using Sysmex Hematology Analyzer machine (Sysmex Europe GmbH). The mean age of subjects was 30.2 ± 4.2 years and the mean hemoglobin level was 12.1 ± 4.8 g/dL. The median score for subject's knowledge towards anaemia was 84.2 corresponding to a high level of anaemia knowledge. Result of this study revealed that 55.7% of subjects had high knowledge on anaemia during pregnancy while 28.6% had moderate knowledge followed by 15.7% with low knowledge score. Most subjects correctly answered the general questions on the survey but under the assumption regarding the cause of anaemia. They were also lacking in knowledge regarding the risks of anaemia. Knowledge score was significantly associated with gestational week (peducation for pregnant women with regard to anaemia.

  19. Investigation of FANCA gene in Fanconi anaemia patients in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffar Moghadam, Ali Akbar; Mahjoubi, Frouzandeh; Reisi, Nahid; Vosough, Parvaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a syndrome with a predisposition to bone marrow failure, congenital anomalies and malignancies. It is characterized by cellular hypersensitivity to cross-linking agents such as mitomycin C (MMC). In the present study, a new approach was selected to investigate FANCA (Fanconi anaemia complementation group A) gene in patients clinically diagnosed with cellular hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agent MMC. Methods: Chromosomal breakage analysis was performed to prove the diagnosis of Fanconi anaemia in 318 families. Of these, 70 families had a positive result. Forty families agreed to molecular genetic testing. In total, there were 27 patients with unknown complementary types. Genomic DNA was extracted and total RNA was isolated from fresh whole blood of the patients. The first-strand cDNA was synthesized and the cDNA of each patient was then tested with 21 pairs of overlapping primers. High resolution melting curve analysis was used to screen FANCA, and LinReg software version 1.7 was utilized for analysis of expression. Results: In total, six sequence alterations were identified, which included two stop codons, two frames-shift mutations, one large deletion and one amino acid exchange. FANCA expression was downregulated in patients who had sequence alterations. Interpretation & conclusions: The results of the present study show that high resolution melting (HRM) curve analysis may be useful in the detection of sequence alteration. It is simpler and more costeffective than the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) procedure. PMID:27121516

  20. Investigation of FANCA gene in Fanconi anaemia patients in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Ali Akbar Saffar; Mahjoubi, Frouzandeh; Reisi, Nahid; Vosough, Parvaneh

    2016-02-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a syndrome with a predisposition to bone marrow failure, congenital anomalies and malignancies. It is characterized by cellular hypersensitivity to cross-linking agents such as mitomycin C (MMC). In the present study, a new approach was selected to investigate FANCA (Fanconi anaemia complementation group A) gene in patients clinically diagnosed with cellular hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agent MMC. Chromosomal breakage analysis was performed to prove the diagnosis of Fanconi anaemia in 318 families. Of these, 70 families had a positive result. Forty families agreed to molecular genetic testing. In total, there were 27 patients with unknown complementary types. Genomic DNA was extracted and total RNA was isolated from fresh whole blood of the patients. The first-strand cDNA was synthesized and the cDNA of each patient was then tested with 21 pairs of overlapping primers. High resolution melting curve analysis was used to screen FANCA, and LinReg software version 1.7 was utilized for analysis of expression. In total, six sequence alterations were identified, which included two stop codons, two frames-shift mutations, one large deletion and one amino acid exchange. FANCA expression was downregulated in patients who had sequence alterations. The results of the present study show that high resolution melting (HRM) curve analysis may be useful in the detection of sequence alteration. It is simpler and more cost-effective than the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) procedure.

  1. Malaria, Moderate to Severe Anaemia, and Malarial Anaemia in Children at Presentation to Hospital in the Mount Cameroon Area: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwe, Germain Sotoing

    2016-01-01

    Background. Malaria remains a major killer of children in Sub-Saharan Africa, while anaemia is a public health problem with significant morbidity and mortality. Examining the factors associated with moderate to severe anaemia (MdSA) and malarial anaemia as well as the haematological characteristics is essential. Methodology. Children (1–14 years) at presentation at the Regional Hospital Annex-Buea were examined clinically and blood samples were collected for malaria parasite detection and full blood count evaluation. Results. Plasmodium falciparum, anaemia, and malarial anaemia occurred in 33.8%, 62.0%, and 23.6% of the 216 children, respectively. Anaemia prevalence was significantly higher in malaria parasite positive children and those with fever than their respective counterparts. MdSA and moderate to severe malarial anaemia (MdSMA) were detected in 38.0% and 15.3% of the participants, respectively. The prevalence of MdSA was significantly higher in children whose household head had no formal education, resided in the lowland, or was febrile, while MdSMA was significantly higher in febrile children only. Children with MdSMA had significantly lower mean white blood cell, lymphocyte, and platelet counts while the mean granulocyte count was significantly higher. Conclusion. Being febrile was the only predictor of both MdSA and MdSMA. More haematological insult occurred in children with MdSMA compared to MdSA. PMID:27895939

  2. The anaemia control model: Does it help nephrologists in therapeutic decision-making in the management of anaemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucalo, María Laura; Barbieri, Carlo; Roca, Susana; Ion Titapiccolo, Jasmine; Ros Romero, Maria Soledad; Ramos, Rosa; Albaladejo, Mercedes; Manzano, Diana; Mari, Flavio; Molina, Manuel

    2018-06-03

    Anaemia is common in haemodialysis patients and treating it with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) is complex due to many factors. To assess the usefulness of the Anaemia Control Model (ACM) in the treatment of anaemia in haemodialysis. ACM is a software that predicts the optimal dose of darbepoetin and iron sucrose to achieve target haemoglobin (Hb) and ferritin levels, and makes prescription suggestions. Study conducted in dialysis clinics lasting 18months with two intervention phases (IPs) with ACM (IP1, n:213; IP2, n:218) separated by a control phase (CP, n:219). The primary outcome was the percentage of Hb in range and the median dose of ESAs, and the secondary outcomes were transfusion, hospitalisation and cardiovascular events. Clinical and patient analyses were performed. Hb variability was assessed by the standard deviation (SD) of the Hb. We also analysed the patients with most of the suggestions confirmed (ACM compliant group). ACM increased the percentage of Hb in range: 80.9% in IP2, compared with 72.7% in the CP and reduced the intake of darbepoetin (IP1: 20 [70]; CP 30 [80] μg P=0.032) with less Hb fluctuation (0.91±0.49 in the CP to 0.82±0.37g/dl in IP2, P<0.05), improving in the ACM compliant group. The secondary outcomes decreased with the use of ACM. ACM helps to obtain better anaemia results in haemodialysis patients, minimising the risks of treatment with ESAs and reducing costs. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Inosine triphosphatase allele frequency and association with ribavirin-induced anaemia in Brazilian patients receiving antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Delvaux

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inosine triphosphatase (ITPA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are strongly associated with protection against ribavirin (RBV-induced anaemia in European, American and Asian patients; however, there is a paucity of data for Brazilian patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ITPA SNP (rs7270101/rs1127354 frequency in healthy and hepatitis C virus (HCV-infected patients from Brazil and the association with the development of severe anaemia during antiviral therapy. ITPA SNPs were determined in 200 HCV infected patients and 100 healthy individuals by sequencing. Biochemical parameters and haemoglobin (Hb levels were analysed in 97 patients who underwent antiviral therapy. A combination of AArs7270101+CCrs1127354 (100% ITPase activity was observed in 236/300 individuals. Anaemia was observed in 87.5% and 86.2% of treated patients with AA (rs7270101 and CC genotypes (rs1127354, respectively. Men with AA (rs7270101 showed a considerable reduction in Hb at week 12 compared to those with AC/CC (p = 0.1475. In women, there was no influence of genotype (p = 0.5295. For rs1127354, men with the CC genotype also showed a sudden reduction in Hb compared to those with AC. Allelic distribution of rs7270101 and rs1127354 shows high rates of the genotypes AA and CC, respectively, suggesting that the study population had a great propensity for developing RBV-induced anaemia. A progressive Hb reduction during treatment was observed; however, this reduction was greater in men at week 12 than in women.

  4. Anaemia in pregnancy: a cross-sectional study of pregnant women in a Sahelian tertiary hospital in Northeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagu, M B; Kawuwa, M B; Gadzama, G B

    2007-10-01

    This prospective study was carried out between June 2005 and June 2006, to determine the prevalence and determinants of anaemia among pregnant women attending a tertiary Sahelian Hospital in Northeastern Nigeria. A total of 1,040 pregnant women enrolled at their first antenatal visit were monitored through pregnancy for anaemia. The overall prevalence of anaemia, malaria parasitaemia and schistosomiasis was 72.0%, 22.1% and 3.8%, respectively. Mild, moderate and severe anaemia constituted 31.8%, 39.4% and 0.9%, respectively. Anaemia was most common among the multipara and women presenting in late stages of pregnancy. More multipara and primigravidae had malaria parasitaemia than grandmultipara. Schistosomiasis, malaria infestation and a short birth interval as well as illiteracy are additional risk factors for anaemia in pregnancy. This study confirms the high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy in this area. Appropriate intervention strategies are necessary to reduce the prevalence of anaemia.

  5. A study on status of anaemia in pregnant women attending urban health training centre, RIMS, Ranchi

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    Vijay Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia in pregnant women has been regarded as very dangerous as it causes many maternal, fetal and neonatal complications. Fetal growth and pregnancy outcome largely depend upon the status of anaemia in pregnant women. Anaemia affects pregnant  women all over the world - 52% in  developing  countries  compared  with  23%  in  the  developed  world. The difference in prevalence of anaemia in different parts of India including Jharkhand can be attributed to the different factors. A knowledge of these factors associated with anemia will help to formulate multipronged strategies to curtail this important public health problem in pregnancy. Aims & Objectives: (1 To know the socio-demographic profile of pregnant women attending Urban Health and Training Centre (UHTC, RIMS, Ranchi. (2 To know the status of anaemia among those pregnant women and its association with different factors. Material & Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study done at ANC clinic of UHTC, RIMS, Ranchi to determine the status of anaemia in pregnant women and various socio-demographic factors associated with it. Hemoglobin level of 149 pregnant women selected by consecutive sampling was estimated by Cyanmethemoglobin method. Statistical Analysis: Template generated in MS excel sheet and analysis was done on SPSS software. Result: Out of total 149 pregnant women anaemia was found to be present in 99 (66.4% women. A statistically significant association of anaemia (p.05.  Conclusion: Occurrence of anaemia was much higher in this area as compared to national average. It indicates that the anaemia continues to be a major public health problem.  Efforts should be geared towards the early detection and treatment of anaemia before delivery. 

  6. Severe anaemia is associated with a higher risk for preeclampsia and poor perinatal outcomes in Kassala hospital, eastern Sudan

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    Elbashir Mustafa I

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia during pregnancy is major health problem. There is conflicting literature regarding the association between anaemia and its severity and maternal and perinatal outcomes. Methods This is a retrospective case-control study conducted at Kassala hospital, eastern Sudan. Medical files of pregnant women with severe anaemia (haemoglobin (Hb 11 g/dl, n = 303. Logistic regression analysis was performed separately for each of the outcome measures: preeclampsia, eclampsia, preterm birth, low birth weight (LBW and stillbirth. Results There were 9578 deliveries at Kassala hospital, 4012 (41.8% women had anaemia and 303 (3.2% had severe anaemia. The corrected risk for preeclampsia increased only in severe anaemia (OR = 3.6, 95% CI: 1.4-9.1, P = 0.007. Compared with women with no anaemia, the risk of LBW was 2.5 times higher in women with mild/moderate anaemia (95% CI: 1.1-5.7, and 8.0 times higher in women with severe anaemia (95% CI: 3.8-16.0. The risk of preterm delivery increased significantly with the severity of anaemia (OR = 3.2 for women with mild/moderate anaemia and OR = 6.6 for women with severe anaemia, compared with women with no anaemia. The corrected risk for stillbirth increased only in severe anaemia (OR = 4.3, 95% CI: 1.9-9.1, P Conclusions The greater the severity of the anaemia during pregnancy, the greater the risk of preeclampsia, preterm delivery, LBW and stillbirth. Preventive measures should be undertaken to decrease the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy.

  7. Algorithm for the diagnosis of anaemia without laboratory facilities among small children in a malaria endemic area of rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Christian B; Soerensen, Jeff; Bjorkman, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Anaemia among small children in tropical Africa is common and often caused by infection with Plasmodium falciparum. The diagnosis of anaemia is difficult without a laboratory estimation of haemoglobin. The aim of this study was to examine if clinical findings related to malaria and anaemia would...

  8. Beyond the cardiorenal anaemia syndrome : recognizing the role of iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macdougall, Iain C.; Canaud, Bernard; de Francisco, Angel L. M.; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Ponikowski, Piotr; Silverberg, Donald; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Anker, Stefan D.

    Growing awareness that heart failure, renal impairment, and anaemia are frequent co-morbidities which can exacerbate one another in a vicious circle of clinical deterioration has led to the concept of the cardiorenal anaemia syndrome (CRAS). The role of iron deficiency within this complex interplay

  9. Megaloblastic anaemia, diabetes and deafness in a 2-year-old child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Megaloblastic anaemia in childhood usually occurs as a result of dietary folate deficiency or, rarely, congenital disorders of vitamin B12 metabolism. We present a 2-year-old girl with megaloblastic anaemia and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, both of which proved responsive to pharmacological doses of thiamine.

  10. Risk factors of anaemia among rural school children in Kenitra, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hioui, M; Ahami, A O T; Aboussaleh, Y; Rusinek, S; Dik, K; Soualem, A; Azzaoui, F-Z; Loutfi, H; Elqaj, M

    2008-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of anaemia and factors associated with iron deficiency among school children in rural Kenitra, Morocco. 295 students between 6 and 16 years old composed the study group. The level of haemoglobin was measured in a group of 295 school children. The iron status was determined by ferritin level in serum, and anaemia was defined when haemoglobin educational status of the parents. The mean haemoglobin concentration was 12.4 g/dl in boys and 12.5 g/dl in girls, whereas the mean ferritin level was 26.7 microg/l in boys and 27.9 microg/l in girls. The overall prevalence of anaemia in the studied population was 12.2% and iron deficiency was 20.4%. There was a significant relationship between education of the mother and anaemia in children (p= 0.01). Serum ferritin (SF), serum iron concentrations and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were significantly correlated with haemoglobin by multiple regression analysis. However, using logistic regression analysis, the results showed that anaemia was not significantly associated with gender, parents' employment and monthly family income. Anaemia remains a common problem in the young children particularly the primary education school boys of the households of low income. The results suggest also, that iron deficiency is an important determinant of anaemia in this population; however, whole anaemia cannot be solely explained by iron deficiency. Further studies are needed to consider micronutrients status and exposure to environmental pollutants.

  11. Point-of-Care Testing for Anaemia in Children Using Portable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Prompt and accurate diagnosis is needed to prevent the untoward effects of anaemia on children. Although haematology analyzers are the gold standard for accurate measurement of haemoglobin or haematocrit for anaemia diagnosis, they are often out of the reach of most health facilities in resource-poor ...

  12. Anaemia among pregnant women at the booking clinic of a teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anaemia in pregnancy is a global public health challenge. It is the commonest medical disorder of pregnancy and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in most developing countries. Aim : This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy and to identify the confounding ...

  13. Pallor as a sign of anaemia in small Tanzanian children at different health care levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Christian B; Sørensen, Jeff E; Bjorkman, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Anaemia is a major complication of Plasmodium falciparum malaria among small children in sub-Saharan Africa. We studied the performance of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) recommended assessment of no/some/severe pallor as predictor of anaemia in health surveys at community...

  14. Rational Management of Iron-Deficiency Anaemia in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikner, Malene Elbaek; Weiss, Günter

    2018-01-01

    Anaemia is the most frequent, though often neglected, comorbidity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here we want to briefly present (1) the burden of anaemia in IBD, (2) its pathophysiology, which mostly arises from bleeding-associated iron deficiency, followed by (3) diagnostic evaluation of anaemia, (4) a balanced overview of the different modes of iron replacement therapy, (5) evidence for their therapeutic efficacy and subsequently, (6) an updated recommendation for the practical management of anaemia in IBD. Following the introduction of various intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, questions persist about when to use these preparations as opposed to traditional and other novel oral iron therapeutic agents. At present, oral iron therapy is generally preferred for patients with quiescent IBD and mild iron-deficiency anaemia. However, in patients with flaring IBD that hampers intestinal iron absorption and in those with inadequate responses to or side effects with oral preparations, intravenous iron supplementation is the therapy of choice, although information on the efficacy of intravenous iron in patients with active IBD and anaemia is scare. Importantly, anaemia in IBD is often multifactorial and a careful diagnostic workup is mandatory for optimized treatment. Nevertheless, limited information is available on optimal therapeutic start and end points for treatment of anaemia. Of note, neither oral nor intravenous therapies seem to exacerbate the clinical course of IBD. However, additional prospective studies are still warranted to determine the optimal therapy in complex conditions such as IBD. PMID:29342861

  15. Malaria and anaemia among pregnant women at first antenatal clinic visit in Kisumu, western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouma, Peter; van Eijk, Anna M.; Hamel, Mary J.; Parise, Monica; Ayisi, John G.; Otieno, Kephas; Kager, Piet A.; Slutsker, Laurence

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of malaria and anaemia among urban and peri-urban women attending their first antenatal clinic (ANC) in an area of perennial malaria transmission. METHODS: Between November 2003 and May 2004 we screened first ANC attenders for malaria and anaemia in a large

  16. PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA IN PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING A PRIMARY HEALTH CENTRE IN BARPETA DISTRICT, ASSAM

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    Dhritishna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anaemia in pregnancy has serious adverse effects on the health of the mother and the developing foetus. OBJECTIVES The study aims to estimate the prevalence of anaemia in pregnant woman attending the Nagaon Primary Health Centre (PHC in Barpeta district, Assam. METHODS A cross-sectional study was carried out from 1 April, 2014 to 1 May, 2014. 100 pregnant women attending Nagaon PHC were interviewed using a predesigned and pretested interview schedule followed by a short clinical examination for pallor and laboratory estimation of haemoglobin. Sahli’s (Acid Haematin method was used for haemoglobin estimation. Haemoglobin level below the cut-off 11 g/dL was used to label a pregnant woman as anaemic and further classified as mild (10-10.9 g/dL, moderate anaemia (7-9.9 g/dL and severe anaemia (<7 g/dL. RESULTS 77% women were suffering from anaemia. Out of these, 57 %were mildly anaemic and 20% were moderately anaemic. Women of younger age groups, greater parity, a gap less than 3 years between subsequent pregnancies, less education and practising Hinduism had a greater prevalence of anaemia. CONCLUSION Awareness about the serious consequences that anaemia can lead to and advocacy of a proper iron-rich diet, regular intake of IFA tablets and purification of water to prevent infestation by parasites can help in reduction of anaemia.

  17. Anaemia in pregnancy at booking in Gombe, North-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukar, M; Audu, B M; Yahaya, U R; Melah, G S

    2008-11-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy is an important reproductive health problem associated with increased maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy at booking in Gombe, North-eastern Nigeria. A cross-sectional study of 461 women attending the antenatal clinic was carried out. Anaemia in pregnancy was defined as a packed cell volume (PCV) of prevalence of anaemia at booking of 51.8%. The majority of these patients, 67.4%, were mildly anaemic, 30.5% were moderately anaemic while only 2.1% had severe anaemia. Most, 316 (68.5%) of the women booked in the second trimester while only 3.0% booked in the first trimester. There was no relationship between parity and anaemia in pregnancy in this study The majority of the women, 293 (63.5%) were in the lower social class. Because the majority of the anaemic gravidae are in the low social class, provision of haematinics at little or no cost will go a long way towards reducing the high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy. In the long run, educational and economic empowerment of the women is the key to reducing the overall prevalence of anaemia to the barest minimum.

  18. Prevalence of anaemia at booking in a semi-urban community in north-central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewara, E O; Omokanye, L O; Olatinwo, A W O; Durowade, K A; Panti, A A; Salaudeen, A G

    2014-12-01

    This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of anaemia at booking clinic, describe the antenatal booking pattern, and categorize the degree of anaemia with certain demographic features. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out over a six month period between 1st April and 30th September 2008. A questionnaire was used to obtain demographic information and venous blood samples were collected from 1,086 consecutive patients who consented to participate in the study. The blood samples were tested for haemoglobin levels, genotype and blood group. Seven hundred and thirty two (67.4%) of the women anaemic at booking. Anaemia was more prevalent among multgravidae than primigravidae (panaemia while 40(4.4%) had moderate anaemia and 15 (1.4%) were severely anaemic, of which 8 (53.3%) were below 18 years of age. Varied degrees of anaemia were more common among women aged 24-28 years and in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy (80.7%) (ppregnancies. Thirteen (1.2%) had sickle cell anaemia. Prevalence of anaemia at booking remains high in our society. Urgent need for public health education on early antenatal booking and improved literacy level of women is suggested to reduce the burden of anaemia in pregnancy.

  19. A study of risk factors for anaemia in pregnancy at the first antenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of risk factors for anaemia in pregnancy at the first antenatal clinic visit at ... anaemia in pregnancy is very common in this country and it is a major cause of ... Moreover, early institution of intermittent preventive therapy for malaria ...

  20. Maternal anaemia as an indicator for monitoring malaria control in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savage, E. J.; Msyamboza, K.; Gies, S.; D'Alessandro, U.; Brabin, B. J.

    2007-01-01

    DESIGN: Malarial anaemia is a major problem in many developing countries and often occurs more frequently in first pregnancies, as primigravidae are more susceptible to Plasmodium falciparum malaria and are at excess risk of malarial anaemia. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: To analyse the excess risk of

  1. Gaps in the evidence for prevention and treatment of maternal anaemia: a review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jacqui A; Barroso, Filipa; Stanworth, Simon J; Spiby, Helen; Hopewell, Sally; Doree, Carolyn J; Renfrew, Mary J; Allard, Shubha

    2012-06-24

    Anaemia, in particular due to iron deficiency, is common in pregnancy with associated negative outcomes for mother and infant. However, there is evidence of significant variation in management. The objectives of this review of systematic reviews were to analyse and summarise the evidence base, identify gaps in the evidence and develop a research agenda for this important component of maternity care. Multiple databases were searched, including MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library. All systematic reviews relating to interventions to prevent and treat anaemia in the antenatal and postnatal period were eligible. Two reviewers independently assessed data inclusion, extraction and quality of methodology. 27 reviews were included, all reporting on the prevention and treatment of anaemia in the antenatal (n = 24) and postnatal periods (n = 3). Using AMSTAR as the assessment tool for methodological quality, only 12 of the 27 were rated as high quality reviews. The greatest number of reviews covered antenatal nutritional supplementation for the prevention of anaemia (n = 19). Iron supplementation was the most extensively researched, but with ongoing uncertainty about optimal dose and regimen. Few identified reviews addressed anaemia management post-partum or correlations between laboratory and clinical outcomes, and no reviews reported on clinical symptoms of anaemia. The review highlights evidence gaps including the management of anaemia in the postnatal period, screening for anaemia, and optimal interventions for treatment. Research priorities include developing standardised approaches to reporting of laboratory outcomes, and information on clinical outcomes relevant to the experiences of pregnant women.

  2. Sociodemographic factors associated with anaemia in pregnancy at booking for antenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adanikin, A I; Awoleke, J O

    2016-01-01

    Late patronage of antenatal care by women in low-resource areas makes timely intervention at correcting anaemia difficult. This study aimed to identify modifiable sociodemographic factors that predict anaemia before commencing antenatal care and make appropriate recommendation. A survey of sociodemographic features and haemoglobin concentrations of 232 women booking for antenatal care was conducted. Anaemia was diagnosed in 119 (51.3%), of which 87 (37.5%) had mild anaemia and 32 (13.8%) were moderately anaemic. There was no severe anaemia. Anaemia was highest among respondents who were 35 years of age, Muslims, of Igbo ethnicity (64.3%), single (55.0%), student/unemployed (58.8%), nulliparous (57.3%) and those who registered at 21 weeks' gestation (54.2%). Only occupation of the woman showed association with anaemia before antenatal care (p 0.007). A personal source of income may reduce anaemia in pregnancy; and it is advisable to have a social welfare package for unemployed pregnant women.

  3. The prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanbhai, M; Dubb, S; Patel, K; Ahmed, A; Richards, T

    2015-01-01

    As bariatric surgery rates continue to climb, anaemia will become an increasing concern. We assessed the prevalence of anaemia and length of hospital stay in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Prospective data (anaemia [haemoglobin bariatric surgery. Results from a prospective database of 1530 patients undergoing elective general surgery were used as a baseline. Fifty-seven patients (14%) were anaemic pre-operatively, of which 98% were females. Median MCV (fL) and overall median ferritin (μg/L) was lower in anaemic patients (83 vs. 86, p=0.001) and (28 vs. 61, psurgery patients, prevalence of anaemia was similar (14% vs. 16%) but absolute iron deficiency was more common in those undergoing bariatric surgery; microcytosis pbariatric surgery. In bariatric patients with anaemia there was an overall increased length of hospital stay. Copyright © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anaemia Among School Children in Kenitra, Northwest of Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achouri, I; Aboussaleh, Y; Sbaibi, R; Ahami, A; El Hioui, M

    2015-04-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is an important health problem in Morocco. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of anaemia among school children in Kenitra. The sample represents school children of all educational levels and age ranged between 6-15 years. The level of hemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was measured in a group of 271 school children. The seric iron was assessed and anaemia was defined when hemoglobin education of the mother and anaemia in children (p = 0.004) but not with the family income. It is concluded that improving the economic status of the family, women education and health education about balanced animal and plant food consumption are recommended strategies to reduce the burden of anaemia.

  5. The frequency and severity of epistaxis in children with sickle cell anaemia in eastern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nardo-Marina, Amina Nielsen; Williams, Thomas N; Olupot-Olupot, Peter

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are a paucity of data on epistaxis as it pertains to sickle cell anaemia. Some case studies suggest epistaxis to be a significant complication in patients with sickle cell anaemia in sub-Saharan Africa; however, no robust studies have sought to establish the epidemiology...... or pathophysiology of this phenomenon. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study with the aim of investigating the importance of epistaxis among children presenting with sickle cell anaemia at the Mbale Regional Referral Hospital in eastern Uganda. Cases were children aged 2-15 years with an existing diagnosis...... of laboratory confirmed sickle cell anaemia, while controls were children without sickle cell anaemia who were frequency matched to cases on the basis of age group and gender. The frequency and severity of epistaxis was assessed using a structured questionnaire developed specifically for this study. Odds ratios...

  6. Hazard classification of chemicals inducing haemolytic anaemia: An EU regulatory perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, A.; Jacobsen, Helene; Healy, E.

    2006-01-01

    Haemolytic anaemia is often induced following prolonged exposure to chemical substances. Currently, under EU Council Directive 67/548/EEC, substances which induce such effects are classified as dangerous and assigned the risk phrase R48 'Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure......! Whilst the general classification criteria for this endpoint are outlined in Annex VI of this Directive, they do not provide specific information to assess haemolytic anaemia. This review produced by the EU Working Group on Haemolytic Anaemia provides a toxicological assessment of haemolytic anaemia...... and proposes criteria that can be used in the assessment for classification of substances which induce such effects. An overview of the primary and secondary effects of haemolytic anaemia which can occur in rodent repeated dose toxicity studies is given. A detailed analysis of the toxicological significance...

  7. Blood lead level and correlation with pregnancy-associated anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehan Hamadneh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The most common reason that leads to anaemia is related to the reduction in certain trace elements such as Fe. However, it has been found that an elevation in some other heavy metals such as Pb could also lead to anaemia. Aims This research aims to assess the Correlation between Pb blood levels and Fe, Haemoglobin levels during pregnancy among Jordanian women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Northern area of Jordan. Venous blood samples collected from 167 pregnant women for the determination of haemoglobin (Hb, Fe and Pb levels of which 17 in the first trimester, 19 in second trimesters, 131 in third trimesters. Women were classified into two groups, the first group included cases with blood Pb Levels ≥10µg/dL (high blood Pb level group, n=118 and the second with blood Lead levels less than 10µg/dL (low blood Lead level group, n=49. Results About 71.4 per cent of women had anaemia (n=120; Hb>10.5g/dl and 70.7 per cent of women had a high blood Pb level of ≥10µg/dL. Pb blood levels ranged from 6.45 to 28.0μg/dL. The mean (SD of blood Pb level was 12.1 (4.1 µg/dL. The mean haemoglobin and Fe levels did not differ significantly between women with low and high levels of Pb. Blood Pb levels were not significantly correlated with haemoglobin levels (r=-0.025; P=0.747 nor with iron levels (r=0.099; P=0.241. After adjusting for important variables, Pb was not significantly associated with haemoglobin (P=0.223 and with iron (P=0.116. Conclusion The level of Pb in the blood of pregnant women has no any association with haemoglobin and Fe levels during pregnancy.

  8. Association between dietary patterns and anaemia in adults from Jiangsu Province in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zumin; Hu, Xiaoshu; Yuan, Baojun; Pan, Xiaoqun; Dai, Yue; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd

    2006-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between food patterns and anaemia among Chinese adults. It was a cross-sectional household survey undertaken in 2002. The sample contained 2849 men and women aged 20 years and above, and had a response rate of 89.0 %. Factor analysis was used to identify food patterns based on a food-frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to relate food patterns to anaemia. A four-factor solution explained 30.5 % of the total variance. After adjusting for socio-demographic factors and four distinct food patterns, the 'traditional' (rice, vegetable, wheat flour), 'sweet tooth' (drinks, cake) and 'healthy' (whole grains, fruits, vegetables) patterns were independently associated with anaemia. 'Traditional' and 'sweet tooth' patterns were positively associated with anaemia, whereas the association with 'healthy' food pattern was negative. No association was observed between the 'macho' pattern (meat and alcohol) and anaemia. Compared with the lowest quartile (Q1) of the 'traditional' pattern, the highest quartile (Q4) had a higher risk of anaemia (men: odds ratio (OR) 2.60, 95 % CI 1.38, 4.88; women: OR 3.40, 95 % CI 2.14, 5.39). For the 'sweet tooth' pattern, compared with the lowest quartile (Q1), the OR of the highest quartile was 2.34 (95 % CI 1.47, 3.73) for men and 2.02 (95 %CI 1.31, 3.13) for women. The fourth quartile of healthy food was associated with a lower risk of anaemia (men: OR 0.50, 95 % CI 0.31, 0.79; women: OR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.34, 0.75). Women in the north had a higher risk of anaemia (OR 2.49, 95 %CI 1.80, 3.43). Food patterns were associated with anaemia in this area with a high prevalence of anaemia.

  9. Prevalence of anaemia, deficiencies of iron and folic acid and their determinants in Ethiopian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, Jemal

    2010-08-01

    A cross-sectional community-based study with analytic component was conducted among Ethiopian women during June-July 2005 to assess the magnitude of anaemia and deficiencies of iron and folic acid and to compare the factors responsible for anaemia among anaemic and non-anaemic cases. In total, 970 women, aged 15-19 years, were selected systematically for haematological and other important parameters. The overall prevalence of anaemia, iron deficiency, iron-deficiency anaemia, deficiency of folic acid, and parasitic infestations was 30.4%, 50.1%, 18.1%, 31.3%, and 13.7% respectively. Women who had more children aged less than five years but above two years, open-field toilet habits, chronic illnesses, and having intestinal parasites were positively associated with anaemia. Women who had no formal education and who did not use contraceptives were negatively associated with anaemia. The major determinants identified for anaemia were chronic illnesses [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.55), deficiency of iron (AOR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.35-0.64), and deficiency of folic acid (AOR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.50-0.90). The odds for developing anaemia was 1.1 times more likely among women with chronic illnesses, 60% more likely in the iron-deficient and 40% more likely in the folic acid-deficient than their counterparts. One in every three women had anaemia and deficiency of folic acid while one in every two had iron deficiency, suggesting that deficiencies of both folic acid and iron constitute the major micronutrient deficiencies in Ethiopian women. The risk imposed by anaemia to the health of women ranging from impediment of daily activities and poor pregnancy outcome calls for effective public-health measures, such as improved nutrient supplementation, health education, and timely treatment of illnesses.

  10. Treatment for women with postpartum iron deficiency anaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markova, Veronika; Norgaard, Astrid; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2015-01-01

    Literature database (LILACS) (8 April 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials that compared a treatment for postpartum iron deficiency anaemia with placebo, no treatment, or another treatment......), but no difference between groups was seen at six weeks. Maternal mortality was not reported.The remaining comparisons evaluated oral iron (with or without other food substances) versus placebo (three studies), intravenous iron with oral iron versus oral iron (two studies) and erythropoietin (alone or combined...

  11. Fanconi anaemia in South Africa: Past present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Feben

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi anaemia (FA is an inherited genetic disorder characterised by somatic anomalies, bone marrow failure and an increased predisposition to solid tumours and haematological malignancies. South African (SA black and Afrikaner individuals are at higher than average risk for this condition owing to genetic founder mutations in certain Fanconi-associated genes. This review explores the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic modalities and recommended care of affected patients, focusing on the founder population groups in SA. The early diagnosis of FA is important and provides improved opportunities for early intervention, but remains challenging.

  12. Hookworm-related anaemia among pregnant women: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Brooker

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Hookworm infection is among the major causes of anaemia in poor communities, but its importance in causing maternal anaemia is poorly understood, and this has hampered effective lobbying for the inclusion of anthelmintic treatment in maternal health packages. We sought to review existing evidence on the role of hookworm as a risk factor for anaemia among pregnant women. We also estimate the number of hookworm infections in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA.Structured searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE as well as manual searches of reference lists were conducted, and unpublished data were obtained by contacting authors. Papers were independently reviewed by two authors, and relevant data were extracted. We compared haemoglobin concentration (Hb according to intensity of hookworm infection and calculated standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals. To estimate the number of pregnant women, we used population surfaces and a spatial model of hookworm prevalence.One hundred and five reports were screened and 19 were eligible for inclusion: 13 cross-sectional studies, 2 randomised controlled trials, 2 non-randomised treatment trials and 2 observational studies. Comparing uninfected women and women lightly (1-1,999 eggs/gram [epg] infected with hookworm, the standardised mean difference (SMD was -0.24 (95% CI: -0.36 to -0.13. The SMD between women heavily (4000+ epg infected and those lightly infected was -0.57 (95% CI: -0.87 to -0.26. All identified intervention studies showed a benefit of deworming for maternal or child health, but since a variety of outcomes measures were employed, quantitative evaluation was not possible. We estimate that 37.7 million women of reproductive age in SSA are infected with hookworm in 2005 and that approximately 6.9 million pregnant women are infected.Evidence indicates that increasing hookworm infection intensity is associated with lower haemoglobin levels in pregnant women in poor countries

  13. Severe aplastic anaemia and Grave's disease in a paediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manjusha; Goldman, Jeffrey

    2002-07-01

    Severe aplastic anaemia (SAA) is considered to be an autoimmune disorder affecting the haematopoietic cells and most often is idiopathic. An association between SAA and other autoimmune diseases is rare and has been described in adults for eosinophilic fasciitis, thymomas, systemic lupus erythematosus and thyroid disorders. We describe the first paediatric patient with chronic relapsing SAA and Grave's disease. We discuss the difficulty in diagnosis of Grave's disease, the possibility of its manifestation due to withdrawal of immunosuppressants, and issues to consider in the treatment of this disease in the setting of bone marrow failure.

  14. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reperant, L A; Brown, I H; Haenen, O L; de Jong, M D; Osterhaus, A D M E; Papa, A; Rimstad, E; Valarcher, J-F; Kuiken, T

    2016-07-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance. In total, 138 virus species reportedly capable of infecting companion animals were of concern for human and food production animal health: 59 of these viruses were infectious for human beings, 135 were infectious for food production mammals and birds, and 22 were infectious for food production fishes. Viruses of highest concern for human health included hantaviruses, Tahyna virus, rabies virus, West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Aichi virus, European bat lyssavirus, hepatitis E virus, cowpox virus, G5 rotavirus, influenza A virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production mammals and birds included bluetongue virus, African swine fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus, porcine circovirus, classical swine fever virus, equine herpesvirus 9, peste des petits ruminants virus and equine infectious anaemia virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production fishes included cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Of particular concern as sources of zoonotic or food production animal viruses were domestic carnivores, rodents and food production animals kept as companion animals. The current list of viruses provides an objective

  15. Anaemia in pregnancy: associations with parity, abortions and child spacing in primary healthcare clinic attendees in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uche-Nwachi, E O; Odekunle, A; Jacinto, S; Burnett, M; Clapperton, M; David, Y; Durga, S; Greene, K; Jarvis, J; Nixon, C; Seereeram, R; Poon-King, C; Singh, R

    2010-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of anaemia in antenatal clinic attendees; to investigate the effects of parity, age, gravidity, previous abortions, child spacing and other factors on the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy. This was a retrospective and cross-sectional study. Antenatal records of 2287 pregnant women attending 40 public healthcare centres from January 2000 to December 2005 in Trinidad and Tobago were used. Data pertaining to the investigated variables were recorded. The national prevalence of anaemia was calculated and chi-square tests, odds ratios and logistic regression were used to assess the relationship between anaemia and each variable. The prevalence of anaemia was 15.3% (95% CI 13.4%, 16.6%). No significant difference in the prevalence of anaemia was found among the different clinics or counties. At the first haemoglobin reading, age was inversely related to the presence of anaemia, whereas gestational age at first visit was directly related. At the final haemoglobin reading, parity, gravidity, and previous spontaneous abortions were directly related to the prevalence of anaemia, while the number of visits was inversely related. Age was inversely associated to the severity of anaemia while gravidity was directly related. The prevalence of anaemia decreased by 18.7% from 1967. Despite this positive indication, women under 24 years and those commencing antenatal care after the first trimester are still at a higher risk for developing anaemia. Early commencement of antenatal care and close monitoring of the risk groups identified should be strongly advocated.

  16. Magnitude of Maternal Anaemia in Rural Burkina Faso: Contribution of Nutritional Factors and Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Meda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Maternal anaemia is a worldwide public health problem affecting particularly developing countries. In Burkina Faso, little data is available for rural areas. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of maternal anaemia and the risk factors associated with it in the rural health district of Hounde in Burkina Faso but also to define better control measures of maternal anaemia. Methods. This cross-sectional study conducted in 2010 had a sample of 3,140 pregnant women attending antenatal care in all the 18 primary health care facilities of the district. The women’s characteristics and their knowledge about contraceptives and sexually transmitted infections (STI were collected. Also, physical and gynaecological examination, completed by vaginal, cervix, blood, and stool samplings, were collected. Results. A prevalence of 63.1% was recorded for maternal anaemia. Geophagy rate was 16.3% and vitamin A deficiency 69.3%. In addition, anaemia was independently associated with low education, low brachial perimeter, geophagy, and primigravida. But no statically significant relationship was found between maternal anaemia and infectious diseases or vitamin A deficiency. Conclusion. The magnitude of maternal anaemia was found to be higher in rural Hounde health district and should be addressed by adequate policy including education and the fight against malnutrition.

  17. Anaemia in Pregnancy: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Adverse Perinatal Outcomes in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Grace; Mgongo, Melina; Hussein Hashim, Tamara; Katanga, Johnson; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Msuya, Sia Emmanueli

    2018-01-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy is a public health problem in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, risk factors, and adverse perinatal outcomes of anaemia among pregnant women in Moshi Municipal, Northern Tanzania. This was a follow-up study conducted from October 2013 to June 2015. A total of 539 pregnant women were enrolled in this study. Interviews were conducted followed by determination of haemoglobin level. Women were followed up at delivery and at 7 days and 28 days after delivery. A total of 529 women were included in this analysis. Their mean age was 25.8 (SD 5.73). The prevalence of anaemia was 18.0% and 2% had severe anaemia. The clinic of recruitment and low education level of the women were the factors that were independently associated with anaemia during pregnancy. At delivery, there were 10 stillbirths, 16 low birth weight (LBW) newborns, and 2 preterm birth cases. No association was found between anaemia and LBW, preterm birth, or stillbirths. Anaemia in pregnancy was a mild public health problem in the study setting of Northern Tanzania.

  18. Prevalence and socio-demographic factors affecting anaemia in pregnant women of Dibrugarh District, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Gogoi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia is the most common nutritional deficiency observed globally. Anaemia worsens during pregnancy leading to adverse maternal and fetal outcome. Dibrugarh district has the highest maternal mortality in the country, one of the major factor being anaemia during pregnancy. Aims & Objectives: To assess the prevalence and socio-demographic determinants of anaemia in pregnant women of Dibrugarh District. Material & Methods: A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in a block selected randomly. Study period was for the period from May’2015 to February’2016. Study sample included 290 participants. Results: Prevalence of anaemia among study participants was found to be 73.1%. (Mild 10%, moderate 43.1 % and severe 20%. Mean haemoglobin of study subjects was 9.07±2.26 g/dl. Average age of the study subjects was 23.24±4. Majority (27.2% had their education upto primary school level and belong to class IV socioeconomic status. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis shows educational qualification, socioeconomic status and type of housing are statistically associated with anaemia during pregnancy. Conclusion: Anaemia is rampant in the community needing urgent action to prevent morbidity amongst both mother and child

  19. Prevalence and socio-demographic factors affecting anaemia in pregnant women of Dibrugarh District, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Gogoi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia is the most common nutritional deficiency observed globally. Anaemia worsens during pregnancy leading to adverse maternal and fetal outcome. Dibrugarh district has the highest maternal mortality in the country, one of the major factor being anaemia during pregnancy. Aims & Objectives: To assess the prevalence and socio-demographic determinants of anaemia in pregnant women of Dibrugarh District. Material & Methods: A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in a block selected randomly. Study period was for the period from May’2015 to February’2016. Study sample included 290 participants. Results: Prevalence of anaemia among study participants was found to be 73.1%. (Mild 10%, moderate 43.1 % and severe 20%. Mean haemoglobin of study subjects was 9.07±2.26 g/dl. Average age of the study subjects was 23.24±4. Majority (27.2% had their education upto primary school level and belong to class IV socioeconomic status. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis shows educational qualification, socioeconomic status and type of housing are statistically associated with anaemia during pregnancy. Conclusion: Anaemia is rampant in the community needing urgent action to prevent morbidity amongst both mother and child

  20. Risk of anaemia in HIV positive pregnant women in Ibadan, south west Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesina, O; Oladokun, A; Akinyemi, O; Akingbola, T; Awolude, O; Adewole, I

    2011-03-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy is an important cause of maternal and neonatal mortality. It is a recognized co-morbidity of HIV infection. This study aimed to determine the risk of anaemia in HIV positive pregnant women. This is a cross sectional study of healthy pregnant women attending Adeoyo Hospital, a secondary health centre in South-western Nigeria over a 1-month period (January 2007). During the study period, 2737 eligible women presented for antenatal care. About 98% (2682) of these women consented to HIV testing. Over all, their mean (+ S.D) packed cell volume was 30.96% (+/- 4.13). The prevalence of HIV infection was 2.9% (95% CI 2.3% - 3.6%) and the overall prevalence of anaemia was 33.1%. Frequency of anaemia was significantly higher in HIV +ve women (57.3% vs. 42.7%, p = 0.00. OR = 2.81., CI = 1.72-4.58). HIV +ve women presented more frequently with moderate or severe anaemia. In the logistic regression analysis only HIV infection (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.37-4.21) and primigravidity (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.04-15.2) remained independently associated with anemia. Anaemia is common in HIV positive pregnant women in this environment. Care providers must endeavor to determine the HIV status of every pregnant woman especially if she presents with anaemia with a view to providing appropriate interventions.

  1. The burden of anaemia and associated factors in HIV positive Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezechi, O C; Kalejaiye, O O; Gab-Okafor, C V; Oladele, D A; Oke, B; Ekama, S O; Odunukwe, N N; Ujah, I A O

    2013-02-01

    Anaemia is the most common complication of pregnancy and a predictor of poor maternal and foetal outcomes. HIV infection is now recognized as one of the major contributors to anaemia in pregnancy. It is therefore important to determine the burden and risk factors of anaemia in maternal HIV infection in others to plan effective prevention strategies as well as optimize management outcomes. To determine the prevalence and risk factors of anaemia in pregnant HIV positive Nigerians. The prevalence and possible risk factors of anaemia were investigated in HIV positive pregnant Nigerian women at a large HIV treatment clinic in southwestern Nigeria using a cross-sectional design between January 2006 and December 2011. Nine hundred and eighty-five (42.5 %) women of 2,318 HIV positive pregnant women seen during the period were anaemic by WHO standard defined by haemoglobin anaemia in HIV positive pregnant women after controlling for confounding variables. Anaemia was found to be high at 42.5 % among the HIV positive women studied and was found to be independently associated with short inter birth interval, presence of OIs, advanced HIV disease and use of zidovudine containing HAART regimen.

  2. Anaemia in Pregnancy: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Adverse Perinatal Outcomes in Northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Anaemia in pregnancy is a public health problem in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, risk factors, and adverse perinatal outcomes of anaemia among pregnant women in Moshi Municipal, Northern Tanzania. Methods. This was a follow-up study conducted from October 2013 to June 2015. A total of 539 pregnant women were enrolled in this study. Interviews were conducted followed by determination of haemoglobin level. Women were followed up at delivery and at 7 days and 28 days after delivery. Results. A total of 529 women were included in this analysis. Their mean age was 25.8 (SD 5.73. The prevalence of anaemia was 18.0% and 2% had severe anaemia. The clinic of recruitment and low education level of the women were the factors that were independently associated with anaemia during pregnancy. At delivery, there were 10 stillbirths, 16 low birth weight (LBW newborns, and 2 preterm birth cases. No association was found between anaemia and LBW, preterm birth, or stillbirths. Conclusion. Anaemia in pregnancy was a mild public health problem in the study setting of Northern Tanzania.

  3. A STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL TYPES OF ANAEMIA IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL - A TWO-YEAR STUDY

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    Kiran Kumar Epari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In this tertiary care hospital, one of the common condition of all the patients attending the hospital is Anaemia, which is a decrease in haemoglobin content or decrease in haematocrit below the lower limit of the 95% reference range for the individual’s age and sex. The patient presents with varied symptoms of different grades, depending on the severity of anaemia, in different clinical settings. Common presenting symptoms of anaemia are generalised weakness, malaise, loss of appetite and muscular pains. METHODS All the patient samples received at the central laboratory for haemogram, complete blood counts and peripheral smear examination over the period of two years between June 2014 to May 2016 were included in the study. Anaemia cases were diagnosed depending on the criteria of the definition of anaemia, and morphological typing of anaemia was done based on the peripheral smear examination of all the cases with decreased haemoglobin level. Standard cell counter was used to estimate the Hb and other red cell indices, and corroborated with peripheral blood smear examination by standard Romanowsky stains. RESULTS A total of 810 cases of anaemia were diagnosed over the period of two years, of which morphological typing yielded 685 cases of Microcytic and hypochromic anaemia, 15 cases of Dimorphic anaemia, 22 cases of Macrocytic anaemia and 88 cases of Normocytic and normochromic anaemia. CONCLUSION Anaemia is one of the most common problems of patients attending this tertiary care hospital, and detection and morphological typing of anaemia is very helping in guiding the clinicians in diagnosis and further management of anaemias for better patient care.

  4. The role of blood transfusion on the prevalence of hepatitis c virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The hepatitis C Virus (HCV) has become an important cause of chronic liver disease and liver cancerworldwide. Blood transfusion is one of the importantmodes of transmission. There is need to study the prevalence among those at risk such as sickle cell anaemia (SCA) patients. Such information will broaden ...

  5. Malaria and anaemia among children in two communities of Kumasi, Ghana: a cross-sectional survey

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    Boakye Isaac

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A survey in Kumasi, Ghana found a marked Plasmodium falciparum prevalence difference between two neighbouring communities (Moshie Zongo and Manhyia. The primary objective of this follow-up study was to determine whether this parasite rate difference was consistent over time. Secondary objectives were to compare prevalences of clinical malaria, anaemia, intestinal parasite infections, and malnutrition between these communities; and to identify potential risk factors for P. falciparum infection and anaemia. Methods A cross-sectional house-to-house survey of P. falciparum parasitaemia, clinical malaria, anaemia, anthropometric indices, and intestinal helminths was conducted in April-May 2005. Data collection included child and household demographics, mosquito avoidance practices, distance to nearest health facility, child's travel history, symptoms, and anti-malarial use. Risk factors for P. falciparum and anaemia (Hb Results In total, 296 children were tested from 184 households. Prevalences of P. falciparum, clinical malaria, anaemia, and stunting were significantly higher in Moshie Zongo (37.8%, 16.9%, 66.2% and 21.1%, respectively compared to Manhyia (12.8%, 3.4%, 34.5% and 7.4%. Of 197 children tested for helminths, four were positive for Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Population attributable risks (PAR% of anaemia were 16.5% (P. falciparum and 7.6% (malnutrition. Risk factors for P. falciparum infection were older age, rural travel, and lower socioeconomic status. Risk factors for anaemia were P. falciparum infection, Moshie Zongo residence, male sex, and younger age. Conclusion Heterogeneities in malariometric indices between neighbouring Kumasi communities are consistent over time. The low helminth prevalence, and the twofold higher PAR% of anaemia attributable to P. falciparum infection compared to malnutrition, indicate the importance of malaria as a cause of anaemia in this urban population.

  6. The yield of colorectal cancer among fast track patients with normocytic and microcytic anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotopoulou, I G; Fitzrol, D; Parker, R A; Kuzhively, J; Luscombe, N; Wells, A D; Menon, M; Bajwa, F M; Watson, M A

    2014-05-01

    We receive fast track referrals on the basis of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) for patients with normocytic anaemia or for patients with no iron studies. This study examined the yield of colorectal cancer (CRC) among fast track patients to ascertain whether awaiting confirmation of IDA is necessary prior to performing bowel investigations. A review was undertaken of 321 and 930 consecutive fast track referrals from Centre A and Centre B respectively. Contingency tables were analysed using Fisher's exact test. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate significant predictors of CRC. Overall, 229 patients were included from Centre A and 689 from Centre B. The odds ratio for microcytic anaemia versus normocytic anaemia in the outcome of CRC was 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5-3.9) for Centre A and 1.6 (95% CI: 0.8-3.3) for Centre B. In a logistic regression analysis (Centre B only), no significant difference in CRC rates was seen between microcytic and normocytic anaemia (adjusted odds ratio: 1.9, 95% CI: 0.9-3.9). There was no statistically significant difference in the yield of CRC between microcytic and normocytic anaemia (p=0.515, Fisher's exact test) in patients with anaemia only and no colorectal symptoms. Finally, CRC cases were seen in both microcytic and normocytic groups with or without low ferritin. There is no significant difference in the yield of CRC between fast track patients with microcytic and normocytic anaemia. This study provides insufficient evidence to support awaiting confirmation of IDA in fast track patients with normocytic anaemia prior to requesting bowel investigations.

  7. Prevalence of anaemia and its socio demographic determinants among pregnant women in Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh

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    Paramatma Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: About one-third of the global population is anaemic. WHO has estimated that prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women is 18% in developed countries and relatively high 56% in developing countries. Prevalence of anaemia in South East Asian countries is highest in the world. WHO estimates that even among the South East Asian countries, India has the highest prevalence of anaemia. Aims & Objectives: To determine the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women and to determine association of anaemia with its socio-demographic factors. Material & Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among pregnant women 2nd trimester onwards who came to ante natal clinic of obstetrics and gynaecology department during January-March 2014 by using pre-designed, pretested schedule. A total of 300 pregnant women were clinically examined. Written consent was taken. Haemoglobin estimation was done by Cyanmethaemoglobin method and anaemia was graded according to WHO criteria. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS Version 17. Results: Overall prevalence of anaemia among the pregnant women was found to be 58.3%. It was seen that 31% of women were illiterate and 38.7% of them belong to upper middle class. Factors such as level of education of women, occupation and consumption of Iron Folic Acid were found to be significantly associated with prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy. Conclusion: A very high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy needs awareness about late marriage, birth spacing, one or two child norm, antenatal care, green leafy vegetable in diet, mandatory regular supply of IFA tablets to adolescent and pregnant women along with correction of other nutritional deficiencies.

  8. Prevalence of anaemia and its socio demographic determinants among pregnant women in Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramatma Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: About one-third of the global population is anaemic. WHO has estimated that prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women is 18% in developed countries and relatively high 56% in developing countries. Prevalence of anaemia in South East Asian countries is highest in the world. WHO estimates that even among the South East Asian countries, India has the highest prevalence of anaemia. Aims & Objectives: To determine the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women and to determine association of anaemia with its socio-demographic factors. Material & Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among pregnant women 2nd trimester onwards who came to ante natal clinic of obstetrics and gynaecology department during January-March 2014 by using pre-designed, pretested schedule. A total of 300 pregnant women were clinically examined. Written consent was taken. Haemoglobin estimation was done by Cyanmethaemoglobin method and anaemia was graded according to WHO criteria. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS Version 17. Results: Overall prevalence of anaemia among the pregnant women was found to be 58.3%. It was seen that 31% of women were illiterate and 38.7% of them belong to upper middle class. Factors such as level of education of women, occupation and consumption of Iron Folic Acid were found to be significantly associated with prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy. Conclusion: A very high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy needs awareness about late marriage, birth spacing, one or two child norm, antenatal care, green leafy vegetable in diet, mandatory regular supply of IFA tablets to adolescent and pregnant women along with correction of other nutritional deficiencies.

  9. Prevalence and nature of anaemia in a prospective, population-based sample of people with diabetes: Teesside anaemia in diabetes (TAD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S C; Smith, D; Nag, S; Bilous, M T; Winship, S; Wood, A; Bilous, R W

    2010-06-01

    Anaemia occurs in 25% of people attending hospital diabetes clinics, but this may not be representative of all people with diabetes. We aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia in a prospective population-based sample stratified by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the 4-point Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. All 7331 patients on our district register were stratified by eGFR. Seven hundred and thirty were approached by letter on two occasions. Two hundred and thirty-four (32%) returned questionnaires and blood samples. Responders (R), non-responders (NR) and the whole cohort (C) were similar: mean +/- sd age R 61.7 +/- 12.7 years; NR 61.3 +/- 15.1 years; C 61.8 +/- 14.2 years; diabetes duration R 8.8 +/- 8.6 years; NR 8.2 +/- 7.9 years; C 7.5 +/- 7.8 years, Type 1 diabetes R 10.1%, NR 10.8%, C 9.4%. Anaemia was defined using World Health Organization criteria: haemoglobin 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). Anaemia was as a result of erythropoietin deficiency in 34%, abnormal haematinics in 40% and was unexplained in 26% of patients. Five per cent of the patients had anaemia below the treatment threshold of 11 g/dl. The prevalence of unrecognized anaemia in population-based cohorts is lower than that in hospital-based studies. Current clinical surveillance in the UK is failing to detect anaemia in stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease (eGFR 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2).

  10. Fanconi anaemia and the repair of Watson and Crick DNA crosslinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottemann, Molly C; Smogorzewska, Agata

    2013-01-17

    The function of Fanconi anaemia proteins is to maintain genomic stability. Their main role is in the repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks, which, by covalently binding the Watson and the Crick strands of DNA, impede replication and transcription. Inappropriate repair of interstrand crosslinks causes genomic instability, leading to cancer; conversely, the toxicity of crosslinking agents makes them a powerful chemotherapeutic. Fanconi anaemia proteins can promote stem-cell function, prevent tumorigenesis, stabilize replication forks and inhibit inaccurate repair. Recent advances have identified endogenous aldehydes as possible culprits of DNA damage that may induce the phenotypes seen in patients with Fanconi anaemia.

  11. International consensus statement on the peri-operative management of anaemia and iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, M.; Acheson, A. G.; Auerbach, M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite current recommendations on the management of pre-operative anaemia, there is no pragmatic guidance for the diagnosis and management of anaemia and iron deficiency in surgical patients. A number of experienced researchers and clinicians took part in an expert workshop and developed...... in the peri-operative period. These statements include: a diagnostic approach for anaemia and iron deficiency in surgical patients; identification of patients appropriate for treatment; and advice on practical management and follow-up. We urge anaesthetists and peri-operative physicians to embrace...

  12. Dietary pattern, serum magnesium, ferritin, C-reactive protein and anaemia among older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyue; Hall, John; Byles, Julie; Shi, Zumin

    2017-04-01

    Epidemiological data of dietary patterns and anaemia among older Chinese remains extremely scarce. We examined the association between dietary patterns and anaemia in older Chinese, and to assess whether biomarkers of serum magnesium, C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum ferritin can mediate these associations. We analysed the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey data (2401 individuals aged ≥60 years for whom both dietary and biomarker data are available). Dietary data was obtained using 24 h-recall over three consecutive days. Fasting blood samples and anthropometry measurement were also collected. Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Factor scores representing dietary patterns were used in Poisson regression models to explore the association between each dietary pattern and anaemia. Of the 2401 participants, 18.9% had anaemia, 1.9% had anaemia related to inflammation (AI), and 1.3% had iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA). A traditional dietary pattern (high intake of rice, pork and vegetables) was positively associated with anaemia; a modern dietary pattern (high intake of fruit and fast food) was inversely associated with anaemia. Progressively lower magnesium and BMI levels were associated with increasing traditional dietary quartiles; while a progressively higher magnesium and BMI levels were associated with increasing modern dietary quartiles (p  0.05) in CRP and serum ferritin across quartiles for either dietary pattern. In the fully adjusted model, the prevalence ratio (PR) of anaemia, comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile, was 1.75 (95% CI: 1.33; 2.29) for a traditional dietary pattern, and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.68; 1.16) for a modern dietary pattern. The association between dietary patterns and anaemia is mediated by serum magnesium. Traditional dietary pattern is associated with a higher prevalence of anaemia among older Chinese. Future studies need to examine whether correcting micronutrient deficiency (e.g. magnesium) by

  13. Prevalence of anaemia among patients with heart failure at the Brazzaville University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikama, Méo Stéphane; Nsitou, Bernice Mesmer; Kocko, Innocent; Mongo, Ngamami Solange; Kimbally-Kaky, Gisèle; Nkoua, Jean Louis

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a frequent cause of ospitalisation in cardiology. Its prognosis depends on several risk factors, one of which is anaemia. We aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia in patients with heart failure, and evaluate its impact on their prognosis. This article describes a cross-sectional study with prospective collection of data, carried out from 1 January to 31 December 2010 in the Department of Cardiology at Brazzaville University Hospital, Congo. Patients admitted for heart failure were included. Anaemia was defined as a haemoglobin level failure, and it had a negative effect on the prognosis.

  14. Prevalence, risk factors and associated adverse pregnancy outcomes of anaemia in Chinese pregnant women: a multicentre retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Wei, Yumei; Zhu, Weiwei; Wang, Chen; Su, Rina; Feng, Hui; Yang, Huixia

    2018-04-23

    Anaemia in pregnant women is a public health problem, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and related risk factors of anaemia during pregnancy in a large multicentre retrospective study (n = 44,002) and to determine the adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with or without anaemia. The study is a secondary data analysis of a retrospective study named "Gestational diabetes mellitus Prevalence Survey (GPS) study in China". Structured questionnaires were used to collect socio-demographic characteristics, haemoglobin levels and pregnancy outcomes from all the participants. Anaemia in pregnancy is defined as haemoglobin anaemia and associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 23.5%. Maternal anaemia was significantly associated with maternal age ≥ 35 years (AOR = 1.386), family per capita monthly incomepregnancy BMI pregnancy outcomes, including GDM, polyhydramnios, preterm birth, low birth weight (anaemia than those without. The results indicated that anaemia continues to be a severe health problem among pregnant women in China. Anaemia is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Pregnant women should receive routine antenatal care and be given selective iron supplementation when appropriate.

  15. Recent advances in understanding clonal haematopoiesis in aplastic anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Natasha; Olson, Timothy S; Babushok, Daria V

    2017-05-01

    Acquired aplastic anaemia (AA) is an immune-mediated bone marrow failure disorder inextricably linked to clonal haematopoiesis. The majority of AA patients have somatic mutations and/or structural chromosomal abnormalities detected as early as at diagnosis. In contrast to other conditions linked to clonal haematopoiesis, the clonal signature of AA reflects its immune pathophysiology. The most common alterations are clonal expansions of cells lacking glycophosphotidylinositol-anchored proteins, loss of human leucocyte antigen alleles, and mutations in BCOR/BCORL1, ASXL1 and DNMT3A. Here, we present the current knowledge of clonal haematopoiesis in AA as it relates to aging, inherited bone marrow failure, and the grey-zone overlap of AA and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). We conclude by discussing the significance of clonal haematopoiesis both for improved diagnosis of AA, as well as for a more precise, personalized approach to prognostication of outcomes and therapy choices. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a child with fanconi's anaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, N.; Fadoo, Z.; Saleem, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder with progressive bone marrow failure, associated congenital malformation and solid and haematological malignancies. Acute myeloid leukemia is the commonest haematological malignancy followed by myelodysplastic syndrome in children with FA. FA transformed into acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a rare phenomenon and one of the rarest haematological malignancies associated with this disorder. We are reporting a 13 years old girl with FA and positive chromosomal breakage. She required regular blood product transfusion. She was planned for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) but the sibling-matched donor was found to have chromosomal breaks as well. Later on, her peripheral smear showed blast cell. Bone marrow showed pre-B ALL. She was started on chemotherapy but died shortly due to complications of the treatment. For this rare condition conservative management is indeed essential, however, safe and appropriate chemotherapy regimen is needed. (author)

  17. Risk factors for anaemia in pregnancy in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health problem in developing countries. ..... The distribution and comparison of age, parity, gestation and Hb of cases .... between the rates of birth defects among infants of mothers who had.

  18. Milk versus medicine for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in hospitalised infants

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, C; Grant, C; Taua, N; Wilson, C; Thompson, J

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To compare iron fortified follow-on milk (iron follow-on), iron fortified partially modified cows' milk (iron milk), and iron medicine for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) in hospitalised infants.

  19. Iron status and anaemia of chronic disease in HIV-infected African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-03-11

    Mar 11, 2009 ... A large percentage of women had anaemia of chronic disease, with HIV-infected ... subjects were recruited per week over a 25-week period (March 2000 ..... Washington DC: Academy for Educational Development; 1993.

  20. Prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy in a regional health facility in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % of pregnant women worldwide. There is a paucity of South African (SA) data on anaemia in pregnancy, despite the fact that parasitic infections are endemic and the nutritional status of sections of the population is poor. Objective.

  1. Excessive apoptosis of bone marrow erythroblasts in a patient with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia with reticulocytopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Loosdrecht, AA; Blom, NR; Smit, JW; De Wolf, JTM; Vellenga, E

    We report a patient with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) with reticulocytopenia, who showed excessive apoptosis of erythroblasts. Ultrastructural analysis of bone marrow cells showed that 50% of erythroblasts had characteristic features of apoptosis, which was confirmed by staining with

  2. Pentazocine abuse in sickle cell anaemia patients: a report of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pentazocine abuse in sickle cell anaemia patients: a report of two case vignetes. ... African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies ... to review guidelines for the use of analgesics in the management of bone pain crisis or other chronic pains.

  3. Anaemia among pregnant women at the booking clinic of a teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-07-26

    Jul 26, 2014 ... women at their booking antenatal visit in a teaching hospital in South- western ... cell volume (PCV) was used to assess level of anaemia. ..... that poverty as a result of unemployment .... Tirupato, India – A multivariate analysis.

  4. Determinants of post-partum anaemia – a cross sectional study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevention and treatment of anaemia in post-natal women is essential in reducing maternal ... (WHO) criteria had further investigations done to determine the cause. ... Intermittent Preventive Therapy (IPT) administration during pregnancy were ...

  5. NON-INVASIVE MONITORING OF FOETAL ANAEMIA IN KELL SENSITIZED PREGNANCY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Zaibunnisa; Sheikh, Sana Sadiq

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of Kell sensitized pregnancy with good neonatal outcome. Anti-K antibodies were detected in maternal serum in early pregnancy as a part of routine antibody screening test. The middle cerebral artery doppler monitoring and serial titers were carried out to screen for foetal anaemia. Despite of rising antibody titers, serial middle cerebral artery doppler was normal and did not showed foetal anaemia. The pregnancy was carried out till term and patient delivered at 37 weeks of pregnancy with no evidence of foetal anaemia. This case underlines the need of general screening on rare antibodies in all pregnant women and that non-invasive monitoring of foetal anaemia can be done with anti-k titers and middle cerebral artery Doppler.

  6. Pregnancy in fanconi anaemia with bone marrow failure: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbi, Flavia; Mecacci, Federico; Di Filippo, Alessandro; Fambrini, Massimiliano

    2017-02-03

    Fanconi anaemia is a rare inherited disease characterized by congenital abnormalities, progressive bone marrow failure and predisposition to malignancy. Successful pregnancies in transplanted patients have been reported. In this paper we will describe the pregnancy of a patient with Fanconi anaemia without transplantation. A 34-year-old nulliparous woman with Fanconi anaemia was referred to our institution. Pregnancy was complicated by progressive pancytopenia and two severe infections. C-section was performed at 36 weeks. Both infant and mother are well. Successful pregnancy in a Fanconi anaemia patient with bone marrow failure is possible. The mode of delivery in patients with bone marrow failure should be determined by obstetric indications. The case highlights the safe outcome of the pregnancy with strict clinical and laboratory control by a multidisciplinary team.

  7. Pernicious anaemia and Campylobacter like organisms; is the gastric antrum resistant to colonisation?

    OpenAIRE

    Flejou, J F; Bahame, P; Smith, A C; Stockbrugger, R W; Rode, J; Price, A B

    1989-01-01

    Gastric biopsies from 86 patients with pernicious anaemia were examined for Campylobacter like organisms with particular attention to those showing an antral gastritis in addition to the usual pattern of body gastritis. All the patients had chronic atrophic gastritis in the body but Campylobacter like organisms were found at this site in only three patients. Thus the Type A pattern of gastritis (autoimmune) seen in patients with pernicious anaemia is only rarely associated with Campylobacter ...

  8. Pernicious anaemia and mucosal endocrine cell proliferation of the non-antral stomach.

    OpenAIRE

    Rode, J; Dhillon, A P; Papadaki, L; Stockbrügger, R; Thompson, R J; Moss, E; Cotton, P B

    1986-01-01

    There is a recognised association between pernicious anaemia and the development of gastric carcinoma, endocrine cell hyperplasia, and carcinoid tumour. Multiple endoscopic biopsies from the body mucosa of seven patients with pernicious anaemia showed small intestinal metaplasia with varying degrees of inflammation, fibrosis, and expansion of the lamina propria. Using conventional silver and lead stains, endocrine cells were inconspicuous. Staining for the general neural and neuroendocrine ma...

  9. CLINICAL PROFILE AND COMMON CAUSES OF HAEMOLYTIC ANAEMIA IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, NORTHERN KERALA

    OpenAIRE

    Jog Antony; Reeta J; Sreelakshmi S; Rohit Mathew4; Adarsh Surendran

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Haemolytic anaemia is a well-recognised clinical problem. This study looks into the clinical profile of haemolytic anaemia and also attempts to find out the common underlying causative disease. It also tries to group the patients according to the clinical manifestations and underlying causes. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a hospital-based observational study conducted in a tertiary care centre in Northern Kerala. Forty-four adult patients with clinical manifestati...

  10. Reporting new cases of anaemia in primary care settings in Crete, Greece: a rural practice study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionis Christos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagnosis of anaemia represents an important task within primary care settings. This study reports on the frequency of new cases of anaemia among patients attending rural primary care settings in Crete (Greece and to offer an estimate of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA frequency in this study group. Methods All patients attending the rural primary health care units of twelve general practitioners (GPs on the island of Crete for ten consecutive working days were eligible to participate in this study. Hemoglobin (Hb levels were measured by portable analyzers. Laboratory tests to confirm new cases of anaemia were performed at the University General Hospital of Heraklion. Results One hundred and thirteen out of 541 recruited patients had a low value of Hb according to the initial measurement obtained by the use of the portable analyzer. Forty five (45.5% of the 99 subjects who underwent laboratory testing had confirmed anaemia. The mean value of the Hb levels in the group with confirmed anaemia, as detected by the portable analyzer was 11.1 g/dl (95% Confidence Interval (CI from 10.9 to 11.4 and the respective mean value of the Hb levels obtained from the full blood count was 11.4 g/dl (95% CI from 11.2 to 11.7 (P = 0.01. Sixteen out of those 45 patients with anaemia (35.6% had IDA, with ferritin levels lower than 30 ng/ml. Conclusion Keeping in mind that this paper does not deal with specificity or sensitivity figures, it is suggested that in rural and remote settings anaemia is still invisible and point of care testing may have a place to identify it.

  11. Morphological differentiation of severe aplastic anaemia from hypocellular refractory cytopenia of childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Irith; Führer, Monika; Behrendt, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the reproducibility and reliability of the histomorphological criteria differentiating severe aplastic anaemia (SAA) and hypoplastic refractory cytopenia of childhood (RCC), the most frequently acquired hypocellular bone marrow conditions of childhood.......To evaluate the reproducibility and reliability of the histomorphological criteria differentiating severe aplastic anaemia (SAA) and hypoplastic refractory cytopenia of childhood (RCC), the most frequently acquired hypocellular bone marrow conditions of childhood....

  12. Prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in South-East China, 1993-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lei; Yeung, Lorraine F; Cogswell, Mary E; Ye, Rongwei; Berry, Robert J; Liu, Jianmeng; Hu, Dale J; Zhu, Li

    2010-10-01

    To report the prevalence of anaemia by demographic characteristics and its secular trend over 13 years for south-east Chinese pregnant women, and to determine the focus of anaemia prevention in Chinese pregnant women. Prospective study of the data on Hb concentration and other demographic information from a large-scale population-based perinatal health surveillance system in south-east China. Fourteen cities or counties in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces. A total of 467 057 prenatal women who had participated in the perinatal health-care surveillance system and delivered babies from 1 January 1993 to 31 December 2005 and had a record of Hb in all three pregnancy trimesters. The overall prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women was 39.6 % from 1993 to 2005. Anaemia prevalence increased from the first (29.6 %) to the second (33.0 %) and third (56.2 %) trimesters. The prevalence of anaemia was higher in villagers, in women with less education and in women with higher gravidity or parity. The prevalence of anaemia in all of the trimesters was higher in the spring, summer and autumn and lower in the winter. The prevalence decreased from 1993 to 2005, from 53.3 % to 11.4 % for the first trimester, 45.6 % to 22.8 % for the second trimester and 64.6 % to 44.6 % for the third trimester. The prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces decreased substantially from 1993 to 2005. However, anaemia in the third trimester is still a severe public health problem among pregnant women in these areas.

  13. The prevalence of anaemia and associated factors in pregnant women in a rural Indian community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Ahmad

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors suggest that the very high prevalence of anaemia early in pregnancy (74.8% is an indication of the failure of World Health Organisation and national programmes to tackle the issue in this group. Those pregnant for the first time are at greatest risk of developing anaemia. A highly significant association was found with the mother‘s age, educational and socio-economic status, religion, parity and Body Mass Index (BMI.

  14. Gaps in the evidence for prevention and treatment of maternal anaemia: a review of systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Jacqui A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia, in particular due to iron deficiency, is common in pregnancy with associated negative outcomes for mother and infant. However, there is evidence of significant variation in management. The objectives of this review of systematic reviews were to analyse and summarise the evidence base, identify gaps in the evidence and develop a research agenda for this important component of maternity care. Methods Multiple databases were searched, including MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library. All systematic reviews relating to interventions to prevent and treat anaemia in the antenatal and postnatal period were eligible. Two reviewers independently assessed data inclusion, extraction and quality of methodology. Results 27 reviews were included, all reporting on the prevention and treatment of anaemia in the antenatal (n = 24 and postnatal periods (n = 3. Using AMSTAR as the assessment tool for methodological quality, only 12 of the 27 were rated as high quality reviews. The greatest number of reviews covered antenatal nutritional supplementation for the prevention of anaemia (n = 19. Iron supplementation was the most extensively researched, but with ongoing uncertainty about optimal dose and regimen. Few identified reviews addressed anaemia management post-partum or correlations between laboratory and clinical outcomes, and no reviews reported on clinical symptoms of anaemia. Conclusions The review highlights evidence gaps including the management of anaemia in the postnatal period, screening for anaemia, and optimal interventions for treatment. Research priorities include developing standardised approaches to reporting of laboratory outcomes, and information on clinical outcomes relevant to the experiences of pregnant women.

  15. Exploring socioeconomic vulnerability of anaemia among women in eastern Indian States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Saswata

    2009-11-01

    The present study investigates the socioeconomic risk factors of anaemia among women belonging to eastern Indian states. An attempt has been made to find out differences in anaemia related to social class and place of residence, and age and marital status. It was hypothesized that rural women would have a higher prevalence of anaemia compared with their urban counterparts, particularly among the poorest social strata, and that ever-married women would be at elevated risk of anaemia compared with never-married women, particularly in the adolescent age group. Using data from National Family Health Survey-3, 2005-6, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey that provided information on anaemia level among 19,695 women of this region, the present study found that the prevalence of anaemia was high among all women cutting across social class, location and other attributes. In all 47.9% were mildly anaemic (10.0-11.9.9 g/dl), 16.1% were moderately anaemic (7.0-9.9 g/dl) and 1.6% were severely anaemic (nutritional status of women throughout the life-cycle.

  16. Relationship between dynamic infrared thermal images and blood perfusion rate of the tongue in anaemia patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haiwei; Zhang, Yan

    2018-03-01

    The relationship between dynamic infrared (IR) thermal images and blood perfusion rate of the tongues of anaemia patients was investigated. Blood perfusion rates at multiple locations on the tongues of 62 anaemia patients and 70 control subjects were measured. For both groups of subjects, dynamic IR thermal images were also recorded within 16 s after the mouth opened. The results showed that the blood perfusion rates at different sites (apex, middle, left side and right side) on the tongues in anaemia patients (3.49, 3.71, 3.85 and 3.77 kg/s m-3) were significantly lower than those at the corresponding sites in control subjects (4.45, 4.66, 4.81 and 4.70 kg/s m-3). After the mouth opened, the tongue temperature decreased more rapidly in anaemia patients than in control subjects. To analyse the heat transfer mechanism, a transient heat transfer model of the tongue was developed. The tongue temperatures in anaemia patients and control subjects were calculated using this model and compared to the tongue temperatures measured by the IR thermal imager. The relationship between the tongue surface temperature and the tongue blood perfusion rate was analysed. The simulation results indicated that the low blood perfusion rate and the correlated changes in anaemia patients can cause faster temperature decreases of the tongue surface.

  17. Role of Intravenous Ferric Carboxy-maltose in Pregnant Women with Iron Deficiency Anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vineet; Gandhi, Khusaili; Roy, Priyankur; Hokabaj, Shaheen; Shah, Kunur N

    2017-09-08

    Iron deficiency is a common nutritional deficiency amongst women of childbearing age. Peri-partum iron deficiency anaemia is associated with significant maternal, foetal and infant morbidity. Current options for treatment include oral iron, which can be ineffective and poorly tolerated, and red blood cell transfusions, which carry an inherent risk and should be avoided. Ferric carboxymaltose is a modern treatment option. The study was designed to assess the safety and efficacy of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose for correction of iron deficiency anaemia in pregnant women. A prospective study was conducted at Institute of Kidney Disease and Research Centre, Ahmedabad from January 2014 to December 2016. Antenatal women (108) with iron deficiency anaemia were the study subjects. Socio-demographic profile was recorded and anaemia was assessed based on recent haemoglobin reports. Iron deficiency was diagnosed on basis of serum ferritin value. Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose as per total correction dose (maximum 1500mg) was administered to all women; the improvement in haemoglobin levels were assessed after 3 weeks of total dose infusion. Most of the women(n= 45, 41.7%), were in the age group of 27-30 years. Most of the women (n = 64, 59.3%) had moderate anaemia as per WHO guidelines. Mean haemoglobin levels significantly increased over a period of 3 weeks after Ferric carboxymaltose administrationand no serious life threatening adverse events were observed. Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose was safe and effective in pregnent women with iron deficiency anaemia.

  18. Accuracy of clinical pallor in the diagnosis of anaemia in children: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalco, Juan P; Huicho, Luis; Alamo, Carlos; Carreazo, Nilton Y; Bada, Carlos A

    2005-01-01

    Background Anaemia is highly prevalent in children of developing countries. It is associated with impaired physical growth and mental development. Palmar pallor is recommended at primary level for diagnosing it, on the basis of few studies. The objective of the study was to systematically assess the accuracy of clinical signs in the diagnosis of anaemia in children. Methods A systematic review on the accuracy of clinical signs of anaemia in children. We performed an Internet search in various databases and an additional reference tracking. Studies had to be on performance of clinical signs in the diagnosis of anaemia, using haemoglobin as the gold standard. We calculated pooled diagnostic likelihood ratios (LR's) and odds ratios (DOR's) for each clinical sign at different haemoglobin thresholds. Results Eleven articles met the inclusion criteria. Most studies were performed in Africa, in children underfive. Chi-square test for proportions and Cochran Q for DOR's and for LR's showed heterogeneity. Type of observer and haemoglobin technique influenced the results. Pooling was done using the random effects model. Pooled DOR at haemoglobin outliers. Conclusion This meta-analysis did not document a highly accurate clinical sign of anaemia. In view of poor performance of clinical signs, universal iron supplementation may be an adequate control strategy in high prevalence areas. Further well-designed studies are needed in settings other than Africa. They should assess inter-observer variation, performance of combined clinical signs, phenotypic differences, and different degrees of anaemia. PMID:16336667

  19. Prevalence of maternal anaemia and its predictors: a multi-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Filipa; Allard, Shubha; Kahan, Brennan C; Connolly, Catriona; Smethurst, Heather; Choo, Louise; Khan, Khalid; Stanworth, Simon

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the prevalence, predictors, and management of anaemia in pregnancy. A multi centre study across 11 maternity units in the UK. Data were collected over a two week study period in 2008 on maternal history, haemoglobin (Hb) and ferritin concentrations, iron therapy during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. Logistic regression models were used to explore factors associated with anaemia during pregnancy. Main outcomes included anaemia, defined as Hbanaemia by 32 weeks gestation included young maternal age (odds ratio 1.96, 95% CI 1.38-2.79), non-white ethnic origin (odds ratios varied 1.37-2.89 depending on ethnic origin) and increasing parity (odds ratio 1.24, 95% CI 1.08-1.41). Of women who had postnatal Hb levels checked, 30% (309/1031) were anaemic and, depending on centre, 16% to 86% of these received iron therapy. Anaemia was reported in nearly one in four women in the antenatal period, and nearly one in three of the women who had a postpartum Hb checked. Despite national guidelines, there was considerable variation in administration of iron including low utilisation of parenteral iron therapy. Future research needs to focus on the consequences of iron deficiency anaemia for maternal and infant health outcomes and effectiveness of implementation strategies to reduce anaemia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Anaemia in pregnancy: a public health problem in Enugu, southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezugwu, E C; Mbah, B O; Chigbu, C O; Onah, H E

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy at booking and to determine factors associated with its occurrence in order to proffer solutions. This was a 12-month cross-sectional study of pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic for the first time (booking visit) at ESUTTH, Enugu, Nigeria from 1 April 2009 to 31 March 2010. Sociodemographic characteristics of the mothers were extracted using an already prepared proforma. The blood haemoglobin concentration and HIV status of the women were determined and the results were analysed. The prevalence rate of anaemia in pregnancy was 64.1%. Based on severity, 94.6%, 4.3%, 1.1% of them had mild, moderate and severe anaemia. The mean age of the anaemic women was significantly lower than that of the non-anaemic women (p = 0.0001). Those that had no formal education and those that booked for antenatal care in the 3rd trimester had a significantly higher prevalence of anaemia. HIV-positive pregnant women had a significantly higher prevalence of anaemia than HIV-negative pregnant women (p = 0.0072, odds ratio 2.37). It was concluded that the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy from the study is unacceptably high. To achieve Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5, efforts must be geared towards its prevention to ensure a healthy baby and mother.

  1. Severe anaemia is associated with a higher risk for preeclampsia and poor perinatal outcomes in Kassala hospital, eastern Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Elbashir Mustafa I; Abdallah Tajeldin M; Rayis Duria A; Ali AbdelAziem A; Adam Ishag

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Anaemia during pregnancy is major health problem. There is conflicting literature regarding the association between anaemia and its severity and maternal and perinatal outcomes. Methods This is a retrospective case-control study conducted at Kassala hospital, eastern Sudan. Medical files of pregnant women with severe anaemia (haemoglobin (Hb) < 7 g/dl, n = 303) who delivered from January 2008 to December 2010 were reviewed. Socio-demographic and obstetric data were analyse...

  2. Adverse perinatal outcomes associated with moderate or severe maternal anaemia based on parity in Finland during 2006-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räisänen, Sari; Kancherla, Vijaya; Gissler, Mika; Kramer, Michael R; Heinonen, Seppo

    2014-09-01

    Anaemia during pregnancy is an important public health problem. We investigated whether the association between maternal anaemia during pregnancy and adverse perinatal outcomes differed between nulliparous and multiparous women. A retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted using data on all singleton births (n = 290 662) recorded in the Finnish Medical Birth Register during 2006-10. Maternal anaemia was defined as a maternal haemoglobin level of anaemia and adverse outcomes was assessed by logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of anaemia during pregnancy was 2.5% among nulliparous women and 2.3% among multiparous women. Among nulliparous women, anaemia was not associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. Among multiparous women, anaemia was associated with preterm delivery (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.32, [95% CI 1.14, 1.53]), SGA (aOR 1.27, [95% CI 1.04, 1.55]), and admission to neonatal intensive care (aOR 1.23, [95% CI 1.10, 1.38]); there was a trend towards increased odds of major congenital anomalies (aOR 1.15, [95% CI 0.99, 1.34]). These data underscore that maternal anaemia is associated with several adverse perinatal outcomes. This association was, however, confined to multiparous women. Future research should explore in detail the timing of anaemia in these associations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebola virus and Marburg virus Overview Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers — illnesses marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many ...

  4. Effect of severe anaemia on renal function: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Hentok, P.; Chandrashekar, N.; Thomas, E.J.; Tripathi, M.; Bal, C.S.; Ghosh, A.; Jailkhani, B.L.; Malhotra, O.P.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Anaemia, if severe, causes multi systemic functional changes. We tried to find out the effect of severe anaemia on renal function. Materials and Methods: A total of 66 patients with severe anemia and 10 healthy controls were recruited in this study. The cases were divided into following groups: group A: patients with Hb≤3 gm/dl (n=33); group B: patients with Hb≤6 but > 3 gm/dl (n=33); group C: healthy controls with normal renal function and Hb>12gm/dl. Out of 66 anaemic patients, 36 had nutritional anaemia (mainly iron deficiency; group A=20, group B=16), 24 patients were suffering from aplastic anaemia (group A=11, group B=13) and rest 6 had megaloblastic anaemia (group A=2, group B=4). No subject had hypertension, diabetes, primary renal dysfunction or any other systemic illness, affecting kidney. Various renal function test parameters and diagnostic renal failure indices were obtained for all subjects. GFR with 2-sample method after injection of 99m-Tc DTPA and ERPF with single sample method after injection of 131-I OIH were also calculated. Results: Fourteen patients had mild to moderate pedal edema (10 in group A and 4 in group B). Out of these patients, 8 had palpable liver and signs of systemic congestion. Signs of raised systemic venous pressure (raised JVP) were found in 7 patients of group A. In about 55% of patients, chest x-ray showed mild to moderately enlarged heart with disturbed cardiophrenic angle. Urine output was >600 ml/day in all cases. Results are presented. All renal functional parameters and indices were significantly reduced in anaemic patients and were suggestive of pre-renal failure. The reduction was correlating well with the severity of anaemia.Conclusion: Severe anaemia leads to renal dysfunction with alteration of minor and major renal failure indices, which can be characterized by sub-clinical and pre-biochemical non-oliguric pre-renal failure

  5. Iron deficiency anaemia -a risk factor for febrile seizures in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherjil, A.; Saeed, Z.U.; Shehzad, S.; Amjad, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Iron deficiency anaemia and febrile seizures are two common diseases in children worldwide as well as in our country. Iron insufficiency is known to cause neurological symptoms like behavioural changes, poor attention span and learning deficits in children. Therefore, it may also be associated with other neurological disturbances like febrile seizures in children. Objective of our case-control study was to find association between iron deficiency anaemia and febrile seizures in children. Methods: This multicentre study was conducted in Department of Paediatrics HIT Hospital Taxila Cantt, Department of Paediatrics CMH Mangla and Department of Paediatrics POF Hospital Wah Cantt, from June 2008 to June 2010. Three hundred and ten children aged between 6 months to 6 years were included in the study. One hundred and fifty-seven children who presented with febrile seizures were our cases, while, 153 children who presented with febrile illnesses without seizures were recruited as controls. All patients were assessed for iron deficiency anaemia by measuring haemoglobin level, serum ferritin level, Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) and Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV). Patients with iron deficiency anaemia amongst controls and cases were documented. Percentages and Odds ratio were derived from the collected data. Results: 31.85% of cases (50 out of 157) had iron deficiency anaemia whereas, 19.6% of controls (30 out of 153) were found to have iron deficiency anaemia as revealed by low levels of haemoglobin level, serum ferritin level, Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration and Mean Corpuscular Volume. Odds ratio was 1.93. Conclusion: Patients with febrile seizures are 1.93 times more likely to have iron deficiency anaemia compared to febrile patients without seizures. (author)

  6. Factors associated with maternal anaemia among pregnant women in Dhaka city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Hasina Akhter; Ahmed, Kazi Rumana; Jebunessa, Fatema; Akter, Jesmin; Hossain, Sharmin; Shahjahan, Md

    2015-09-22

    Maternal anaemia is a common problem in pregnancy, particularly in developing countries. The study was aimed at determining the factors associated with anaemia among a group of pregnant mothers who attended an antenatal clinic in Dhaka city. This cross-sectional study included 224 pregnant women, who visited the antenatal clinic of the Marie Stops, Dhaka. Demographic data and information on maternal age, gestational age, educational and income level, and socioeconomic status were collected from all the subjects. Haemoglobin status was measured to assess their anaemia. A qualified technician drew venous blood samples from them. The reference values of haemoglobin were categorized according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria as follows: normal (11 g/dL or higher), mild (10-10.9 g/dL), and moderate (7-9.9 g/dL). Mild and moderate levels of haemoglobin were defined as anaemic (haemoglobin levels of anaemia was significantly associated with age (p = 0.036), education (p = 0.002), income (p = 0.001), living area (p = 0.031). Results of binary logistic regression analysis showed that maternal anaemia was also significantly associated with age (p = 0.006), educational status (primary to 8th grade, p = 0.004; secondary and above, p = 0.002), living area (0.022), and income (0.021). A significant proportion of pregnant women were found anaemic. Most data showed education has animpact on awareness to use of health services and iron supplementation should be encouraged to improve the haemoglobin levels in pregnancy. The results indicate that anaemia is alarmingly high among pregnant women in Dhaka city. Maternal anaemia is associated with age, education level, income level, and living area. The results suggest that pregnant women and members of their families should be urgently educated to understand the importance of antenatal care.

  7. Anaemia and Iron Homeostasis in a Cohort of HIV-Infected Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Obirikorang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We determined the prevalence of anaemia and evaluated markers of iron homeostasis in a cohort of HIV patients. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study on 319 participants was carried out at the Tamale Teaching Hospital from July 2013 to December 2013, 219 patients on HAART (designated On-HAART and 100 HAART-naive patients. Data gathered include sociodemography, clinical history, and selected laboratory assays. Results. Prevalence of anaemia was 23.8%. On-HAART participants had higher CD4/CD3 lymphocyte counts, Hb, HCT/PCV, MCV, MCH, iron, ferritin, and TSAT (P<0.05. Hb, iron, ferritin, and TSAT decreased from grade 1 to grade 3 anaemia and CD4/CD3 lymphocyte count was lowest in grade 3 anaemia (P<0.05. Iron (P=0.0072 decreased with disease severity whilst transferrin (P=0.0143 and TIBC (P=0.0143 increased with disease severity. Seventy-six (23.8% participants fulfilled the criteria for anaemia, 86 (26.9% for iron deficiency, 41 (12.8% for iron deficiency anaemia, and 17 (5.3% for iron overload. The frequency of anaemia was higher amongst participants not on HAART (OR 2.6 for grade 1 anaemia; OR 3.0 for grade 3 anaemia. Conclusion. In this study population, HIV-associated anaemia is common and is related to HAART status and disease progression. HIV itself is the most important cause of anaemia and treatment of HIV should be a priority compared to iron supplementation.

  8. Role of malnutrition and parasite infections in the spatial variation in children’s anaemia risk in northern Angola

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    Ricardo J. Soares Magalhães

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia is known to have an impact on child development and mortality and is a severe public health problem in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the consistency between ecological and individual-level approaches to anaemia mapping by building spatial anaemia models for children aged ≤15 years using different modelling approaches. We aimed to (i quantify the role of malnutrition, malaria, Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs in anaemia endemicity; and (ii develop a high resolution predictive risk map of anaemia for the municipality of Dande in northern Angola. We used parasitological survey data for children aged ≤15 years to build Bayesian geostatistical models of malaria (PfPR≤15, S. haematobium, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura and predict small-scale spatial variations in these infections. Malnutrition, PfPR≤15, and S. haematobium infections were significantly associated with anaemia risk. An estimated 12.5%, 15.6% and 9.8% of anaemia cases could be averted by treating malnutrition, malaria and S. haematobium, respectively. Spatial clusters of high risk of anaemia (>86% were identified. Using an individual-level approach to anaemia mapping at a small spatial scale, we found that anaemia in children aged ≤15 years is highly heterogeneous and that malnutrition and parasitic infections are important contributors to the spatial variation in anaemia risk. The results presented in this study can help inform the integration of the current provincial malaria control programme with ancillary micronutrient supplementation and control of neglected tropical diseases such as urogenital schistosomiasis and STH infections.

  9. Clinical significance of acquired somatic mutations in aplastic anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J C W; Mufti, G J

    2016-08-01

    Aplastic anaemia (AA) is frequently associated with other disorders of clonal haemopoiesis such as paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and T-large granular lymphocytosis. Certain clones may escape the immune attack within the bone marrow environment and proliferate and attain a survival advantage over normal haemopoietic stem cells, such as trisomy 8, loss of heterozygosity of short arm of chromosome 6 and del13q clones. Recently acquired somatic mutations (SM), excluding PNH clones, have been reported in around 20-25 % of patients with AA, which predispose to a higher risk of later malignant transformation to MDS/acute myeloid leukaemia. Furthermore, certain SM, such as ASXL1 and DNMT3A are associated with poor survival following immunosuppressive therapy, whereas PIGA, BCOR/BCORL1 predict for good response and survival. Further detailed and serial analysis of the immune signature in AA is needed to understand the pathogenetic basis for the presence of clones with SM in a significant proportion of patients.

  10. Fanconi Anaemia in South African Patients with Afrikaner Ancestry

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    C Feben

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fanconi anaemia (FA is a rare genetic disorder of impaired DNA repair that results in physical and haematological consequences in affected individuals. In South Africa (SA, individuals with Afrikaner ancestry are at an increased risk of inheriting disease-causing FA mutations, owing to the three common FANCA (FA, complementation group A founder mutations present in this population subgroup. Objectives. To describe the physical phenotype of SA patients with FANCA mutations for the purpose of recommending appropriate care for affected individuals. Methods. A structured clinical examination and file-based review were used to evaluate the physical phenotype of 7 patients with compound heterozygous and homozygous FANCA founder mutations, and 1 patient with confirmed FANCA complementation analysis. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to determine the frequency of physical anomalies in Afrikaner patients and to compare the described phenotype to other FA cohorts, including a previously clinically characterised black SA FA cohort. Results. An earlier age of diagnosis of FA in Afrikaner patients, a high frequency of somatic anomalies and a higher-than-expected incidence of the VACTERL/H phenotype were noted. Conclusions. Based on our findings, recommendations for the care of FA patients with Afrikaner ancestry are made, including renal ultrasound evaluation at diagnosis and hearing screening

  11. Cardiovascular features in adolescents and adults with sickle cell anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuo, P O; Abinya, N A; Joshi, M D; Lore, W

    1993-05-01

    Fifty five sickle cell anaemia (SCA) patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital were studied with a view to elucidating their cardiovascular status. Their age range was 13 to 27 years (median 18.9 years). They comprised 27 males and 28 females and their mean haemoglobin concentration was 8.5 +/- 1.4 g/dl. Haemoglobin level of 8.0-9.9 g/dl seen in 30 patients was noted to confer the lowest incidence of exertional dyspnoea and palpitation. Similarly, patients with this haemoglobin level had the lowest mean heart rate. The mean blood pressure was 114.9 +/- 9.9 mmHg systolic and 64.6 +/- 10 mmHg diastolic. Blood pressures, ejection fraction (EF) and differential fibre shortening (%D) were found to be directly related to haemoglobin level, whereas cardio-thoracic index (CTI) and left ventricular dimensions were inversely related to haemoglobin level. Mean echocardiographic measurements were within normal limits and left ventricular functions were found to be normal in 80.9% of the patients indicating that the majority of SCA patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital have good cardiac function.

  12. [Iron-deficiency anaemia in everyday gynaecological practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukanova, M; Popov, I

    2004-01-01

    Iron-deficiency anaemia /IDA/ is of utmost significance to clinical practice. Chronic haemorrhages from the genital tract are the major etiological factor for its appearance in 60-70% of the patients. Abnormal genital bleeding for the specialist in Obstetrics and gynaecology and IDA for the haematologist are frequently met problems in their everyday practice, which require detailed examination, good colaboration and synchronization between the work of both specialists. Diagnosing and etiological treatment of IDA of gynaecologic origin by mutual timely and adequate co-operation of gynaecologist and haematologist. Clinical survey based on the algorithm worked out. Its everyday application started in July-August 2001 and till today /30.04.2003/ 253 cases with IDA in the Department of Gynaecology are taken in. A record of proceedings was made for every patient and that helped the further diagnostic and therapeutic activity and respective data processing. The data and results obtained verify the achievement of final diagnostic specification of IDA, the role of the algorithm as a stepping-stone to its etiological treatment, complete and durable correction of iron deficiency.

  13. Prevention of gamma radiation induced anaemia in mice by diltiazem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunia, V.; Goyal, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of diltiazem (DTZ), half an hour prior to whole body gamma irradiation (2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 Gy), showed the protection of animals from radiation-induced anaemia. Radiation exposure significantly (p<0.001) reduced the number of pro- and normoblasts in bone marrow and red blood cell (RBC) counts, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), and erythropoietin (EPO) level in blood, but increased myeloid/erythroid ratio. At all the radiation doses, the maximum decrease in these values was noted on the 3rd day, followed by a gradual recovery from the 7th day, but it was not recorded as normal even until the end of experimentation. In animals pretreated with DTZ, these values were measured higher at all the time periods in comparison to corresponding control, and these were almost normal at the last autopsy interval only at 2.5 Gy radiation dose. DTZ maintained the higher EPO level in blood, which acted on bone marrow and spleen colony forming unit for erythroblast (CFU-E), and stimulated such cells to produce RBCs. These results confirm that DTZ has the potency to alter anaemic condition favorably through the protection of bone marrow stem cells, and subsequently it maintains the higher number of pro-and normoblasts in bone marrow, RBC counts, Hb, Hct percentage, and EPO level in blood and the lower myeloid/erythroid ratio in bone marrow. (author)

  14. Pernicious anaemia and Campylobacter like organisms; is the gastric antrum resistant to colonisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flejou, J F; Bahame, P; Smith, A C; Stockbrugger, R W; Rode, J; Price, A B

    1989-01-01

    Gastric biopsies from 86 patients with pernicious anaemia were examined for Campylobacter like organisms with particular attention to those showing an antral gastritis in addition to the usual pattern of body gastritis. All the patients had chronic atrophic gastritis in the body but Campylobacter like organisms were found at this site in only three patients. Thus the Type A pattern of gastritis (autoimmune) seen in patients with pernicious anaemia is only rarely associated with Campylobacter like organisms. Forty four of these patients had biopsies from body and antrum, 16 showed an antral gastritis of whom only one had Campylobacter like organism present. Twenty five of this latter group of patients were rebiopsied after five years. There was no change in the pattern of gastritis, and the same single patient remained colonised. The frequency of an antral gastritis in patients with pernicious anaemia was 36% yet the frequency of antral colonisation by Campylobacter like organisms was very low (6%). These results show that, as in the body, Campylobacter like organisms are not associated with gastritis when it occurs at this site in pernicious anaemia. The antral gastritis that may accompany body gastritis in pernicious anaemia seems more likely therefore to be an extension of primary type A body gastritis (autoimmune) rather than a secondary type B (chronic) gastritis and, it is argued, the antrum may exhibit resistance to colonisation. PMID:2920929

  15. Haemoglobin, anaemia, dementia and cognitive decline in the elderly, a systematic review

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    Poulter Ruth

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia may increase risk of dementia or cognitive decline. There is also evidence that high haemoglobin levels increase risk of stroke, and consequently possible cognitive impairment. The elderly are more at risk of developing dementia and are also more likely to suffer from anaemia, although there is relatively little longitudinal literature addressing this association. Methods To evaluate the evidence for any relationship between incident cognitive decline or dementia in the elderly and anaemia or haemoglobin level, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of peer reviewed publications. Medline, Embase and PsychInfo were searched for English language publications between 1996 and 2006. Criteria for inclusion were longitudinal studies of subjects aged ≥65, with primary outcomes of incident dementia or cognitive decline. Other designs were excluded. Results Three papers were identified and only two were able to be combined into a meta-analysis. The pooled hazard ratio for these two studies was 1.94 (95 percent confidence intervals of 1.32–2.87 showing a significantly increased risk of incident dementia with anaemia. It was not possible to investigate the effect of higher levels of haemoglobin. Conclusion Anaemia is one factor to bear in mind when evaluating risk of incident dementia. However, there are few data available and the studies were methodologically varied so a cautionary note needs to be sounded and our primary recommendation is that further robust research be carried out.

  16. The overlap of overweight and anaemia among women in three countries undergoing the nutrition transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, C L; Torheim, L E; Monterrubio, E; Barquera, S; Ruel, M T

    2008-02-01

    To compare the odds of anaemia in overweight and obese (OVWT) (body mass index (BMI) > or =25) versus non-overweight (non-OVWT) (BMIPeru and Egypt (2000 Demographic and Health Surveys) were analyzed. Data from non-pregnant women ages 18-49 years were used. Logistic regression was used to test whether the odds of anaemia differed by BMI category, controlling for sociodemographic factors. More than half of the women were OVWT in all three countries and the prevalence of OVWT reached 77% in Egypt. Anaemia prevalence was similar across countries (28, 31 and 23% in Egypt, Peru and Mexico respectively). In Egypt, OVWT women had significantly lower odds of anaemia than non-OVWT women (OR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.90). Similar results were found in Peru, but the difference was smaller in magnitude (OR=0.83, 95% CI: 0.71, 0.96). In Mexico, there were no differences in the odds of anaemia by BMI group. These findings show that the iron needs of OVWT women in developing countries are not necessarily being met. The intakes of other micronutrients might also be insufficient. Diet quality remains an important issue even among women with sufficient energy intakes.

  17. Incidence of nutritional anaemia among the under five children attending Ahmed Gasim hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Hager Elrasheed Ali

    1998-11-01

    A survey was carried out in Khartoum North Ahmed Gasim specialist Hospital for children to identify aetiological factors that lead to incidence of nutritional anaemia among children under under five years of age. The sample consists of 192 patients taken from the hospital wards (experimental group), and 60 healthy children taken from out patient vaccination department of same hospital. A questionnaire was used as a tool for collection data regarding children and their families with emphasis to general information, socio-economic information, dietary information, anthropometric information, medical history and laboratory investigations including haemoglobin, hematocrit (PCV)%, peripheral blood picture, serum ferritin, serum folate and serum B 12 . Results show no correlation between anaemia and age R(0.1048) p 1 2 deficiency. Some children affected had mixed deficiency anaemia (3.182). Iron deficiency without anaemia was common among healthy children (control) 22.8%. Some recommendations were set for the improvement of the existing situation e.g. health education, nutrition education with emphasis on intake of supplements and weaning diets rich in iron and folate. Follow up and surveillance program to compact nutritional anaemia should be adopted.(Author)

  18. Anaemia and malaria in Yanomami communities with differing access to healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, P; Fanello, C I; Magris, M; Goncalves, J; Metzger, W G; Vivas-Martínez, S; Curtis, C; Vivas, L

    2008-07-01

    Inequitable access to healthcare has a profound impact on the health of marginalised groups that typically suffer an excess burden of infectious disease morbidity and mortality. The Yanomami are traditionally semi-nomadic people living in widely dispersed communities in Amazonian Venezuela and Brazil. Only communities living in the vicinity of a health post have relatively constant access to healthcare. To monitor the improvement in the development of Yanomami healthcare a cross-sectional survey of 183 individuals was conducted to investigate malaria and anaemia prevalence in communities with constant and intermittent access to healthcare. Demographic and clinical data were collected. Malaria was diagnosed by microscopy and haemoglobin concentration by HemoCue. Prevalence of malaria, anaemia, splenomegaly, fever and diarrhoea were all significantly higher in communities with intermittent access to healthcare (anaemia 80.8% vs. 53.6%, P<0.001; malaria 18.2% vs. 6.0%, P=0.013; splenomegaly 85.4% vs.12.5%, P<0.001; fever 50.5% vs. 28.6%, P=0.003; diarrhoea 30.3% vs.10.7% P=0.001). Haemoglobin level (10.0 g/dl vs. 11.5 g/dl) was significantly associated with access to healthcare when controlling for age, sex, malaria and splenomegaly (P=0.01). These findings indicate a heavy burden of anaemia in both areas and the need for interventions against anaemia and malaria, along with more frequent medical visits to remote areas.

  19. Frequency of anaemia an d renal insufficiency in patients with heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.; Jehangir, W.; Daood, M.S.; Khan, A.; Mallick, N.H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Heart Failure (HF) is a common disease with a high mortality rate. Anaemia and renal failure (RF) are often present in patients with HF and associated with worse prognosis. Objective of study was to evaluate the prevalence of anaemia and RF in patients with HF. Methods: Patients admitted in Punjab institute of cardiology Lahore with diagnosis of heart failure were enrolled from February, 2008 to December, 2008. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin levels <13 mg/dl for men and 12 mg/dl for women. Renal function was assessed by the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), calculated by the simplified formula of the MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) study. Results : Of the 276 patients included in this study, 42.03% (116) had anaemia and 38.40% (106) had moderate to severe renal failure (GFR <60 ml/min). Conclusion: The prevalence of anaemia and renal failure was high in this population and was associated with the severity of the HF (functional classes III and IV). (author)

  20. Socio-demographic and maternal factors in anaemia in pregnancy at booking in Kano, northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwizu, E N; Iliyasu, Z; Ibrahim, S A; Galadanci, H S

    2011-12-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy still causes significant maternal morbidity and mortality in the developing countries including Nigeria. The burden and underlying factors are varied even within countries. We studied the prevalence of anaemia at booking and underlying factors in a teaching hospital in northern Nigeria. Using the capillary technique and blood film, the packed cell volume (PCV) and red cell morphology of 300 pregnant women was determined. Additional information was obtained on sociodemographic characteristics, obstetric and past medical history using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Of the 300 pregnant women studied, 51 (17%) [95% Confidence Interval (CI)=12.9%-21.7%] were anaemic. Specifically, 12.7% and 4.3% of the women had mild and moderate anaemia respectively. Blood film of 74.5%, 15.7% and 11.8% anaemic women showed normochromic normocytic, haemolytic and microcytic hypochromic pictures respectively. Low educational attainment [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=2.13], being single or divorced [AOR=2.02], high parity [AOR=2.06], late booking [AOR=2.71] and short intervals between pregnancies [AOR=2.37] were significant predictors of anaemia in pregnancy. The high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy related to low educational and economic status especially among women with background obstetric risk factors calls for vigilance, sustained health education and chemoprophylaxis for pregnant women.

  1. Occurrence of Anaemia in the First Year of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a European Population-based Inception Cohort-An ECCO-EpiCom Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burisch, Johan; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Katsanos, Konstantinnos H.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Anaemia is an important complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia and the practice of anaemia screening during the first year following diagnosis in a European prospective population-based inception coho...

  2. The association between malaria parasitaemia, erythrocyte polymorphisms, malnutrition and anaemia in children less than 10 years in Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tine, Roger C K; Ndiaye, Magatte; Hansson, Helle Holm

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Malaria and anaemia (Haemoglobin= 11 g/dl. For each participant, a physical examination was done and anthropometric data collected prior to a biological assessment which included: malaria parasitaemia infection, intestinal worm carriage, G6PD deficiency, sickle cell disorders, and alph....... Anaemia control in this area could be achieved by developing integrated interventions targeting both malaria and malnutrition....

  3. The role of vitamin A in nutritional anaemia : a study in pregnant women in West Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suharno, D.

    1994-01-01

    Nutritional anaemia affects 50-70% of pregnant women in the developing world where vitamin A deficiency is also a problem. Since previous studies have indicated that vitamin A deficiency can be involved in the aetiology of nutritional anaemia, the role of vitamin A deficiency in nutritional

  4. The impact of anaemia on treatment outcome in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal and anal margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oblak Irena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Radiochemotherapy is the main treatment for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Anaemia is reported to have adverse effect on survival in cancer patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of anaemia on radiochemotherapy treatment outcome in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

  5. Gene expression profiles associated with anaemia and ITPA genotypes in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CH-C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birerdinc, A; Estep, M; Afendy, A; Stepanova, M; Younossi, I; Baranova, A; Younossi, Z M

    2012-06-01

    Anaemia is a common side effect of ribavirin (RBV) which is used for the treatment of hepatitis C. Inosine triphosphatase gene polymorphism (C to A) protects against RBV-induced anaemia. The aim of our study was to genotype patients for inosine triphosphatase gene polymorphism rs1127354 SNP (CC or CA) and associate treatment-induced anaemia with gene expression profile and genotypes. We used 67 hepatitis C patients with available gene expression, clinical, laboratory data and whole-blood samples. Whole blood was used to determine inosine triphosphatase gene polymorphism rs1127354 genotypes (CC or CA). The cohort with inosine triphosphatase gene polymorphism CA genotype revealed a distinct pattern of protection against anaemia and a lower drop in haemoglobin. A variation in the propensity of CC carriers to develop anaemia prompted us to look for additional predictors of anaemia during pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and RBV. Pretreatment blood samples of patients receiving a full course of PEG-IFN and RBV were used to assess expression of 153 genes previously implicated in host response to viral infections. The gene expression data were analysed according to presence of anaemia and inosine triphosphatase gene polymorphism genotypes. Thirty-six genes were associated with treatment-related anaemia, six of which are involved in the response to hypoxia pathway (HIF1A, AIF1, RHOC, PTEN, LCK and PDGFB). There was a substantial overlap between sustained virological response (SVR)-predicting and anaemia-related genes; however, of the nine JAK-STAT pathway-related genes associated with SVR, none were implicated in anaemia. These observations exclude the direct involvement of antiviral response in the development of anaemia associated with PEG-IFN and RBV treatment, whereas another, distinct component within the SVR-associated gene expression response may predict anaemia. We have identified baseline gene expression signatures associated with RBV-induced anaemia and identified

  6. Hydroxyurea therapy in UK children with sickle cell anaemia: A single-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kate; Healy, Laura; Smith, Louise; Keenan, Russell

    2018-02-01

    Despite the demonstrated efficacy of hydroxyurea therapy, children with sickle cell anaemia in the UK are preferentially managed with supportive care or transfusion. Hydroxyurea is reserved for children with severe disease phenotype. This is in contrast to North America and other countries where hydroxyurea is widely used for children of all clinical phenotypes. The conservative UK practice may in part be due to concerns about toxicity, in particular marrow suppression with high doses, and growth in children. We monitored 37 paediatric patients with sickle cell anaemia who were treated with hydroxyurea at a single UK treatment centre. Therapy was well tolerated and mild transient cytopenias were the only toxicity observed. Comparative analysis of patients receiving ≥26 mg/kg/day versus hydroxyurea as a disease-modifying therapy, which we advocate for all children with sickle cell anaemia. © 2017 The Authors. Pediatric Blood & Cancer Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Normal cellular radiosensitivity in an adult Fanconi anaemia patient with marked clinical radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcou, Yiola; D'Andrea, Andrew; Jeggo, Penelope A.; Plowman, Piers N.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Fanconi anaemia is a rare disease associated with cellular sensitivity to chemicals (e.g. mitomycin C and diepoxybutane); variable but mild cellular radiosensitivity has also been reported. Materials and methods: A 32-year-old patient with Fanconi anaemia and tonsillar carcinoma, treated by radiotherapy, was found to exhibit profound clinical radiosensitivity. Confluent, ulcerating oropharyngeal mucositis developed after a conventionally fractionated dose of 34 Gy and healing was incomplete by 2 months after cessation of therapy. Results: Cellular radiosensitivity assays and RPLD studies from this patient did not suggest any major detectable radiosensitivity. Conclusion: There is a discrepancy between the observed clinical radiosensitivity and the usual 'predictive' radiosensitivity assays in this patient with Fanconi anaemia

  8. Management of aplastic anaemia in pregnancy in a resource poor centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Celestine Osita; Korubo, Kaladada; Ogu, Rosemary; Mmom, Chigozirim Faith; Mba, Alpheus Gogo; Chidiadi, Ezenwa-Ahanene; Akani, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Aplastic anaemia occurring in pregnancy is a rare event with life threatening challenges for both mother and child. We present a successful fetomaternal outcome despite the challenges in the management of this rare condition in a tertiary but resource poor centre. This is case of a 37 year old Nigerian woman G6P0 +5 managed with repeated blood transfusions from 28 weeks of gestation for bone marrow biopsy confirmed aplastic anaemia following presentation with weakness and gingival bleeds. She had a cesarean section at 37 weeks for pre-eclampsia and oligohydraminous with good feto-maternal outcome. She was managed entirely with fresh whole blood and received 21 units. Aplastic Anaemia in Pregnancy is a rare event with poor feto maternal prognosis. Successful management is possible with good multi-disciplinary approach and availability of supportive comprehensive obstetric care.

  9. Parasitic infections and maternal anaemia among expectant mothers in the Dangme East District of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Samuel Crowther Kofi; Nani, Emmanuel Agbeko; Walana, Williams

    2017-01-03

    Parasitic infections are of public health concern globally, particular among at risk groups such as pregnant women in developing countries. The presence of these parasites during pregnancy potentiate adverse effects to both the mother and the unborn baby. This study sought to establish the prevalence of some parasitic agents among antenatal attendees in the Dangme East District of Ghana. A cross-sectional prospective study was conduct between April and July, 2012. Venous blood specimens were collected from each participant for haemoglobin estimation and malaria microscopy. In addition participants' early morning mid-stream urine and stool specimens were analyzed microscopically for parasitic agents. A total of 375 pregnant women were involved in the study, of which anaemia was present in 66.4% (249/375). However, parasitic infections associated anaemia prevalence was 49.6% (186/375). In all, 186 cases of parasitic infections were observed; 171 (44.0%) were single isolated infections while 15 (4.0%) were co-infections. Plasmodium species were significantly associated with anaemia (13.3%, χ 2  = 23.290, p anaemia in pregnancy. Except where co-infections exist (3.7%, χ 2  = 11.267, p = 0.001), the rest of the single infections were insignificantly associated with anaemia. Collectively, intestinal helminthes were predominantly significant with anaemia in pregnancy (p = 0.001, χ 2  = 107.800). The study revealed relatively high prevalence of parasitic infections among the study population, suggesting that about three-quarters of the anaemic mothers are either single or co-infected with parasitic agents.

  10. Determinants of academic performance in children with sickle cell anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwosu, Osita U; Emodi, Ifeoma J; Ikefuna, Anthony N; Chukwu, Barth F; Osuorah, Chidiebere D

    2013-11-19

    Some factors are known to influence the academic performance of children with Sickle Cell Anaemia (SCA). Information on their effects in these children is limited in Nigeria. The factors which influence academic performance of children with SCA in Enugu, Nigeria are determined in this study. Consecutive children with SCA aged 5-11 years were recruited at the weekly sickle cell clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu, Nigeria. Their age- and sex- matched normal classmates were recruited as controls. The total number of days of school absence for 2009/2010 academic session was obtained for each pair of pupils from the class attendance register. Academic performance was assessed using the average of the overall scores in the three term examinations of same session. Intelligence ability was determined with Draw-A-Person Quotient (DAPQ) using the Draw-A-Person Test while socio-economic status was determined using the occupational status and educational attainment of each parent. Academic performance of children with SCA showed statistically significant association with their socio-economic status (χ2 = 9.626, p = 0.047), and significant correlation with DAPQ (r = 0.394, p = 0.000) and age (r = -0.412, p = 0.000). However, no significant relationship existed between academic performance and school absence in children with SCA (r = -0.080, p = 0.453). Academic performance of children with SCA is influenced by their intelligence ability, age and socio-economic status but not negatively affected by their increased school absenteeism.

  11. ANAEMIA AS A RISK FACTOR FOR MICROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS IN TYPE 2 DM- A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamanuru Ethirajulu Govindarajulu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND It is well known that diabetes adversely affects the kidneys finally leading to anaemia by various mechanisms. Several studies had postulated that anaemia developing before renal complications has an independent association with microvascular complication in type 2 diabetic patients. The aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of anaemia in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its role as a risk factor for the presence and the severity of microvascular complication in a populationbased study. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a cross-sectional study conducted in patients coming to OPD of the Department of General Medicine in Government Vellore Medical College for a duration of 3 months from June 01, 2016, to August 31, 2016. Type 2 DM patients between the age group 20-60 years attending our diabetic clinic of both sex were included in our study. RESULTS From a total of 100 patients, 41% had anaemia including 34% with normochromic normocytic, 65.85% with hyperchromic microcytic anaemia and none of the patient had macrocytic anaemia. Patients who are anaemic had more frequent microvascular complications. There was no significant difference between males and females. The average duration of diabetes has a positive correlation with anaemia. All the microvascular complications like neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy had significant association with the presence of anaemia in type 2 patients. Nephropathy had a significant higher frequency compared to others as a complication in type 2 DM. CONCLUSION Our study shows that there is increased prevalence of anaemia in type 2 DM patients and the prevalence of microvascular complications is significantly higher among the diabetic patients with anaemia.

  12. Ibrutinib Is Effective in the Treatment of Autoimmune Haemolytic Anaemia in Mantle Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliénor Galinier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL is a rare but life-threatening complication. To date, there are no relevant data for treatment of AIHA in MCL. Ibrutinib, which has been approved for relapse/refractory MCL, is an immunomodulatory drug inhibiting Th2 activation and consequently the production of autoantibodies. We report a case of MCL with AIHA in which this form of anaemia was not controlled with the usual chemotherapy. Ibrutinib was used when MCL with AIHA relapsed, and it allowed rapid remission of AIHA and rapid discontinuation of steroid therapy.

  13. Incidence of nutritional anaemia among the under five children attending Ahmed Gasim hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Hager Elrasheed Ali [Home Science Department, Faculty of Education, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1998-11-01

    A survey was carried out in Khartoum North Ahmed Gasim specialist Hospital for children to identify aetiological factors that lead to incidence of nutritional anaemia among children under under five years of age. The sample consists of 192 patients taken from the hospital wards (experimental group), and 60 healthy children taken from out patient vaccination department of same hospital. A questionnaire was used as a tool for collection data regarding children and their families with emphasis to general information, socio-economic information, dietary information, anthropometric information, medical history and laboratory investigations including haemoglobin, hematocrit (PCV)%, peripheral blood picture, serum ferritin, serum folate and serum B{sup 12}. Results show no correlation between anaemia and age R(0.1048) p<0.148 and there was no significant difference between anaemia and sex p<(0.104). There is a high significant difference between control and experimental group for Hb and PCV (p<0.00). Aetiological factors related to nutritional anaemia are: poor intake as a supplement or weaning food was poor in iron and folate content. Weaning is sudden because of pregnancy, insufficient milk, mother or child illness and also other causes: low income and many mouths to feed, crowded and unhealthy living conditions, some families had latrines in their houses while others hadn`t. Drinking water is brought from a far distance. The most prevailing type of anaemia is iron deficiency about 26% followed by megaloblastic (10.69%). Which is due to folate deficiency (6.41%), folate and B{sup 1}2 deficiency. Some children affected had mixed deficiency anaemia (3.182). Iron deficiency without anaemia was common among healthy children (control) 22.8%. Some recommendations were set for the improvement of the existing situation e.g. health education, nutrition education with emphasis on intake of supplements and weaning diets rich in iron and folate. Follow up and surveillance program

  14. Prevalence and public-health significance of HIV infection and anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in south-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, C J; Duhlinska, D D; Igbinedion, E B

    2007-09-01

    HIV infection and anaemia are major public-health problems in Africa and are important factors associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV infection and anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in southeastern Nigeria. To achieve this, a cross-sectional survey was conducted during July 2005-June 2006 using standard techniques. Of 815 pregnant women studied, 31 (3.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5-5.1) were HIV-positive. Maternal age and gestational age were not associated with HIV infection (p > 0.05). The prevalence of anaemia (Hb anaemia (Hb prevalence of anaemia was observed among individuals in their second pregnancy trimester (p anaemia are preventable, antenatal care services could serve as a pivotal entry point for simultaneous delivery of interventions for the prevention and control of HIV infection and anaemia in pregnant women.

  15. Identification and characterisation of TLR18-21 genes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P T; Zou, J; Holland, J W; Martin, S A M; Collet, B; Kanellos, T; Secombes, C J

    2014-12-01

    Teleost fish possess many types of toll-like receptor (TLR) some of which exist in other vertebrate groups and some that do not (ie so-called "fish-specific" TLRs). In this study, we identified in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) whole-genome shotgun (WGS) contigs seven TLRs that are not found in mammals, including six types of fish-specific TLRs (one TLR18, one TLR19, and four TLR20 members (two of which are putative soluble forms (s)) and one TLR21. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that teleost TLR19-21 are closely related with murine TLR11-TLR13, whilst teleost TLR18 groups with mammalian TLR1, 2, 6 and 10. A typical TLR protein domain structure was found in all these TLRs with the exception of TLR20b(s) and TLR20c(s). TLR-GFP expression plasmids transfected into SHK-1 cells showed that salmon TLR19, TLR20a and TLR20d were preferentially localised to the intracellular compartment. Real time PCR analysis suggested that salmon TLR19-TLR21 are mainly expressed in immune related organs, such as spleen, head kidney and gills, while TLR18 transcripts are more abundant in muscle. In vitro stimulation of primary head kidney cells with type I IFN, IFNγ and IL-1β had no impact on TLR expression. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) infection, in vivo, down-regulated TLR20a, TLR20b(s), TLR20d and TLR21 in infected salmon kidney tissue. In contrast, up-regulation of TLR19 and TLR20a expression was found in posterior kidney in rainbow trout with clinical proliferative kidney disease (PKD). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk factors for intestinal parasitosis, anaemia, and malnutrition among school children in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Mahmud Abdulkader; Spigt, Mark; Mulugeta Bezabih, Afework; López Pavon, Ignacio; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Blanco Velasco, Roman

    2013-03-01

    Research on associated risk factors for intestinal parasitic infections and malnutrition in various geographic regions is needed for the development of appropriate control strategies. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections, anaemia, and malnutrition in school children, living in urban and rural areas of northern Ethiopia. Six hundred school children, aged 6-15 years, were randomly selected in a cross-sectional survey from 12 primary schools. Sociodemographic and anthropometric data were collected. Faecal samples were examined using direct, concentration, and the Kato-Katz methods. Urine specimens were analysed for Schistosoma haematobium ova. Haemoglobin was measured using a HemoCue spectrometer. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was 72% (95% confidence interval (CI): 66-76%). The prevalence of anaemia, stunting, and thinness were 11% (95% CI: 8-13%), 35% (95% CI: 31-38%), and 34% (95% CI: 30-38%), respectively. Poor personal hygiene habits were generally associated with anaemia and nutritional deficiency (low body mass index). Multivariate logistic regression models related Schistosoma mansoni infection with boys. Boys were also more likely to be malnourished. Hookworm infection was associated with anaemia and unhygienic finger nails. Access to clean water and latrines, with some hygiene and sanitation communication activities, could improve health of children in Ethiopia. The use of smartphone technology in demographic data collection proved to be successful. The potential advantage offered by this technology for parasitological field surveys merits further investigation.

  17. AcSDKP is down-regulated in anaemia induced by Trypanosoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to get ... IL-10 is a type II anti-inflammatory cytokine, produced by ... Anaemia commonly results from destruction of erythrocytes in the peripheral blood and failure of the bone marrow .... nonviable cells that have compromised membranes and was used to .... where it shows that AcSDKP is maintained in stable levels.

  18. The energy cost of kidney proton dialysis in sickle cell anaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-01-18

    Jan 18, 2007 ... kidney as most of the energy for proton dialysis is wasted as a result of high entropy. Key words: Sickle cell, anaemia, energy, kidney, dialysis, proton, and enthalpy. INTRODUCTION. Evidence exists that for those with sickle cell syndromes. “kidney damage starts very early and progresses throu- ghout life” ...

  19. Cost-effective on-site screening for anaemia in pregnancy in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    syphilis serology. Results are returned days or weeks later depending on local circumstances.2 For some mobile clinics in rural areas, this delay may be as long as a month. On-site screening for ... probably anaemic still require a diagnostic test to determine ... accurate and cheap screening for and diagnosis of anaemia,.

  20. Influence of Schistosoma mansoni and Hookworm Infection Intensities on Anaemia in Ugandan Villages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chami, Goylette F.; Fenwick, Alan; Bulte, Erwin; Kontoleon, Andreas A.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Dunne, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The association of anaemia with intestinal schistosomiasis and hookworm infections are poorly explored in populations that are not limited to children or pregnant women. Methods: We sampled 1,832 individuals aged 5–90 years from 30 communities in Mayuge District, Uganda. Demographic,

  1. Hepcidin in chronic kidney disease : not an anaemia management tool, but promising as a cardiovascular biomarker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Weerd, N. C.; Grooteman, M. P. C.; Nube, M. J.; ter Wee, P. M.; Swinkels, D. W.; Gaillard, C. A. J. M.

    Hepcidin is a key regulator of iron homeostasis and plays a role in the pathogenesis of anaemia of chronic disease. Its levels are increased in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to diminished renal clearance and an inflammatory state. Increased hepcidin levels in CKD patients are

  2. Treatment of severe aplastic anaemia with total lymphoid irradiation and methylprednisolone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, J.; Singhal, S.; Huilgol, N.; Merchant, R.; Mehta, B.C.

    1992-01-01

    This case report briefly summarizes the treatment of aplastic anaemia with total lymphoid irradiation and methylprednisolone and recommends that this procedure should be considered a therapeutic option in patients who are not candidates for bone marrow transplantation or antithymocyte globulin, or those who have failed one course of the latter. (Author)

  3. Iron deficiency in children with HIV-associated anaemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esan, Michael O.; Jonker, Femkje A. M.; Hensbroek, Michael Boele van; Calis, Job C. J.; Phiri, Kamija S.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency in HIV-infected children from high- and low-income settings and compared it with that of HIV-uninfected controls. We searched five major databases for primary studies reporting on anaemia and iron

  4. Low birth weight and fetal anaemia as risk factors for infant morbidity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low birth weight (LBW) and fetal anaemia (FA) are common in malaria endemic areas. To investigate the ... In sub-Saharan Africa, infant morbidity and mortality are excessively high and reductions in mortality rates .... lower respiratory infection for children under two months of age, for older infants, a cut-off value of 50 per ...

  5. Four decades of stem cell transplantation for Fanconi anaemia in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smetsers, Stephanie E.; Smiers, Frans J.; Bresters, Dorine; Sonnevelt, Martine C.; Bierings, Marc B.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) results of the complete Dutch Fanconi anaemia (FA) patient cohort. Sixty-eight Dutch FA patients have been transplanted since 1972. In total, 63 (93%) patients engrafted, 54 after first SCT and 9 after second SCT. Fludarabine

  6. Bi-allelic silencing of the Fanconi anaemia gene FANCF in acute myeloid leukaemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tischkowitz, M; Ameziane, N.; Waisfisz, Q.; Winter, de J.P.; Harris, R; Taniguchi, T; Andrea, d' A; Hodgson, SV; Mathew, C.G.; Joenje, H.

    2003-01-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a chromosomal instability disorder associated with a high risk of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Previous work has shown that the AML cell line CHRF-288, derived from a sporadic AML-M7 patient, does not express FANCF protein and exhibits a cellular FA phenotype. We show that

  7. Fanconi anaemia proteins are associated with sister chromatid bridging in mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ying, Songmin; Hickson, Ian D

    2011-01-01

    exist in man where a breakdown in genome maintenance is associated with cancer predisposition. Amongst these are Bloom's syndrome (BS) and Fanconi anaemia (FA). The BS and FA gene products co-operate in the repair of damaged DNA. In this review, we focus on interactions between BS and FA proteins...

  8. A novel Fanconi anaemia subtype associated with a dominant-negative mutation in RAD51

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ameziane, Najim; May, Patrick; Haitjema, Anneke; van de Vrugt, Henri J.; van Rossum-Fikkert, Sari E.; Ristic, Dejan; Williams, Gareth J.; Balk, Jesper; Rockx, Davy; Li, Hong; Rooimans, Martin A.; Oostra, Anneke B.; Velleuer, Eunike; Dietrich, Ralf; Bleijerveld, Onno B.; Maarten Altelaar, A. F.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Joenje, Hans; Glusman, Gustavo; Roach, Jared; Hood, Leroy; Galas, David; Wyman, Claire; Balling, Rudi; den Dunnen, Johan; de Winter, Johan P.; Kanaar, Roland; Gelinas, Richard; Dorsman, Josephine C.

    2015-01-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a hereditary disease featuring hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linker-induced chromosomal instability in association with developmental abnormalities, bone marrow failure and a strong predisposition to cancer. A total of 17 FA disease genes have been reported, all of which act

  9. Clonal structure of Staphylococcus aureus colonizing children with sickle cell anaemia and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaumburg, F.; Biallas, B.; Alabi, A. S.; Grobusch, M. P.; Feugap, E. N.; Lell, B.; Mellmann, A.; Peters, G.; Kremsner, P. G.; Becker, K.; Adegnika, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) might carry hospital-associated bacterial lineages due to frequent hospital stays and antibiotic treatments. In this study we compared Staphylococcus aureus from SCA patients (n=73) and healthy children (n=143) in a cross-sectional study in Gabon. S. aureus

  10. Evaluation of Ferric and Ferrous Iron Therapies in Women with Iron Deficiency Anaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Ilhami; Erkurt, Mehmet Ali; Aydogdu, Ismet; Kuku, Irfan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Different ferric and ferrous iron preparations can be used as oral iron supplements. Our aim was to compare the effects of oral ferric and ferrous iron therapies in women with iron deficiency anaemia. Methods. The present study included 104 women diagnosed with iron deficiency anaemia after evaluation. In the evaluations performed to detect the aetiology underlying the iron deficiency anaemia, it was found and treated. After the detection of the iron deficiency anaemia aetiology and treatment of the underlying aetiology, the ferric group consisted of 30 patients treated with oral ferric protein succinylate tablets (2 × 40 mg elemental iron/day), and the second group consisted of 34 patients treated with oral ferrous glycine sulphate tablets (2 × 40 mg elemental iron/day) for three months. In all patients, the following laboratory evaluations were performed before beginning treatment and after treatment. Results. The mean haemoglobin and haematocrit increases were 0.95 g/dL and 2.62% in the ferric group, while they were 2.25 g/dL and 5.91% in the ferrous group, respectively. A significant difference was found between the groups regarding the increase in haemoglobin and haematocrit values (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Data are submitted on the good tolerability, higher efficacy, and lower cost of the ferrous preparation used in our study. PMID:25006339

  11. High intravascular tissue factor expression in dogs with idiopathic immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, C.J.; Brinkhof, B.; Teske, E.; Rothuizen, J.; Dekker, A.; Penning, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    A high mortality occurs in dogs with idiopathic immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA) during the first 2 weeks after the diagnosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the inflammatory response and coagulation abnormalities in dogs with IMHA in relation to the prognosis and to establish the

  12. Iron deficiency anaemia: with the conclusion of a need for iron reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai Feng; Yap, Boon Kar; Lai, Mei I.; Talik, Noorazrina; Nasser, Ammar Ahmed; Al-Haiqi, Ahmed Mubarak Ahmed; Sankar Krishnan, Prajindra

    2017-10-01

    In our bloodstream, there are plenty of red blood cells (RBC), which function as an important oxygen carrier in our bodies. Each RBC consists of millions of haemoglobin (Hb), which is made up from globin and iron. If any deficiency/malfunction of any globin, it will lead to anaemia as indicated in low Hb level while iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is anaemic due to the lacking of iron as indicated in low Hb and ferritin levels. IDA affects almost two billion people globally while anaemia without iron deficiency, such as thalassaemia, affects almost 4.5% in Malaysian population. These anaemic conditions have similar clinical symptoms like fatigue, dizziness, in which disturb their cognitive development and productivity in workplace. In areas without proper medical access, many anaemic individuals were misdiagnosed and treated with iron tablets because they were thought to have iron deficiency anaemia due to low Hb content. But, excess iron is toxic to the body. Misdiagnosis can be avoided by iron status assessment. We hereby review the currently available iron status parameters in laboratory and field study with the conclusion of demonstrating the importance of a need for iron reader, in the effort to reduce the prevalence of IDA globally.

  13. Persistent and new-onset anaemia in children aged 6 - 8 years from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and is implicated as both a cause and an effect of adverse social and economic family circumstances.[1]. Global estimates of ... This high anaemia burden among children of sub-Saharan Africa is generally attributed to poverty, communicable diseases, food insecurity, HIV and other associated concerns such as access to.

  14. Iron dextran in the treatment of iron-deficiency anaemia of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    deficiency anaemia were randomly allocated to two treatment groups. Group A received the usual recommended dose of iron dextran (Imferon; Fisons) and group 8 received two-thirds of the recommended dose. A further 30 patients received oral iron ...

  15. Assessment of renal function in children with sickle cell anaemia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of renal function in children with sickle cell anaemia in University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. A.G. Farouk, A.H. Elechi, M.S. Yauba, M.G. Mustapha, B.A. Ibrahim, H.A. Ibrahim, L.M. Ibrahim, J.P. Ambe ...

  16. Variations in the β-Globin genes of Sickle Cell Anaemia Patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-28

    Jul 28, 2016 ... Context: Sickle Cell Anaemia (SCA) is a genetic disorder with a life-long disability .... also cause diagnostic difficulties with routine diagnostic facilities.[10] ..... doi: 10.1038/npg.els.0005005. Available at www.els.net. [Last.

  17. Anaemia, iron deficiency and susceptibility to infection in children in sub-Saharan Africa, guideline dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Femkje A. M.; te Poel, Elodie; Bates, Imelda; Boele van Hensbroek, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Globally, anaemia, iron deficiency and infections are responsible for a majority of the morbidity and mortality that occurs among children. As iron is essential for erythropoiesis and the human immune system, as well as a crucial element for many pathogens, these three conditions often interact.

  18. Splenic Size in Sickle Cell Anaemia Patients in A Tertiary Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sickle cell disease is one of the common haemoglobinopathies in the world. It can affect any organ in the body and one of the most common and an early organ to be affected in SCA is the spleen. Reports have shown that patients with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS) have an increased susceptibility to infection leading to ...

  19. Prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and malaria related anaemia among pregnant women in Abakaliki, South East Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwonwu, E U; Ibekwe, P C; Ugwu, J I; Obarezi, H C; Nwagbara, O C

    2009-06-01

    Malaria currently is regarded as the most common and potentially the most serious infection occurring in pregnancy in many sub Saharan African countries. This study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and malaria related anaemia among pregnant women in Abakaliki, South East, Nigeria. This is a cross sectional, descriptive study conducted in two tertiary health institutions in Abakaliki, South East, Nigeria (Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital And Federal Medical Centre). Using systematic sampling method, 193 pregnant women were selected from the health institutions for the study. Their blood were analysed for haemoglobin status and malaria parasite. Data were also collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire. All the data were analysed using Epi info version 6 statistical software. Response rate was 100%. Twenty nine percent prevalence of malaria parasitaemia was detected, more common among primigravidae. Women with higher parity had higher frequency of anaemia in pregnancy. More than half of the pregnant women (51%) were in their second trimester at the time of booking. There was no case of severe anaemia requiring blood transfusion. Our pregnant women register late for antenatal care. Prevalence of malaria parasitaemia is high in our environment as well as anaemia in pregnancy, using the standard WHO definition. It is suggested that effort should be intensified to make our women register early for antenatal care in order to identify complications early. Intermittent preventive treatment for malaria should be incorporated into routine drugs for antenatal women.

  20. Subclinical anaemia of chronic disease in adult patients with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'connor, T M

    2012-02-03

    Patients with chronic hypoxaemia develop secondary polycythaemia that improves oxygen-carrying capacity. Therefore, normal haemoglobin and haematocrit values in the presence of chronic arterial hypoxaemia in cystic fibrosis constitute \\'relative anaemia\\'. We sought to determine the cause of this relative anaemia in patients with cystic fibrosis. We studied haematological indices and oxygen saturation in healthy volunteers (n=17) and in adult patients with cystic fibrosis (n=15). Patients with cystic fibrosis had lower resting arterial oxygen saturation when compared with normal volunteers (P<0.0001), and exercise led to a greater reduction in arterial oxygen saturation (P<0.0001). However, haemoglobin and haematocrit values in patients with cystic fibrosis did not significantly differ from normal volunteers. Serum iron (P=0.002), transferrin (P=0.02), and total iron-binding capacity (P=0.01) were lower in patients with cystic fibrosis. There were no significant differences in serum ferritin, percentage iron saturation, serum erythropoietin or red cell volume between the groups. The data presented demonstrate a characteristic picture of anaemia of chronic disease in adult patients with cystic fibrosis, except for normal haemoglobin and haematocrit values. Normal haemoglobin and haematocrit values in patients with cystic fibrosis appear to represent a combination of the effects of arterial hypoxaemia promoting polycythaemia, counterbalanced by chronic inflammation promoting anaemia of chronic disease.

  1. Social dimensions related to anaemia among women of childbearing age from rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shobha; Joshi, Smita; Bhide, Pradnya; Puranik, Bhairavi; Kanade, Asawari

    2011-02-01

    To examine various sociodemographic aspects related to consumption of micronutrient-rich foods like green leafy vegetables (GLV), which will be helpful in modifying dietary habits, a strategy that merits consideration for prevention of anaemia. Cross-sectional study for collecting data on socio-economic and anthropometric (weight, height) variables, Hb, dietary pattern (FFQ) and peripheral smear examination for classifying nutritional and iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA). Three villages near Pune city, Maharashtra, India. Rural women (n 418) of childbearing age (15-35 years). Mean Hb was 11·07 g/dl. Seventy-seven per cent of the women were anaemic (Hb women had nutritional anaemia. Higher prevalence of IDA was associated with several sociodemographic and maternal parameters, but multiple logistic regression analysis showed significant (P lack of awareness about different recipes for GLV. Our findings highlight that low consumption of GLV, which are treasures of micronutrients including Fe, is associated with genuine social reasons. This indicates a need for developing action programmes to improve nutritional knowledge and awareness leading to enhanced consumption of Fe-rich foods for preventing anaemia in rural India.

  2. Comparison of screening methods for anaemia in pregnant women in Awassa, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gies, S.; Brabin, B. J.; Yassin, M. A.; Cuevas, L. E.

    2003-01-01

    Screening for anaemia in pregnancy is essential for implementing and monitoring effective antenatal programmes. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of invasive and non-invasive screening methods in a cross-sectional survey of 403 pregnant women attending an urban health centre in Awassa, southern

  3. Hazard classification of chemicals inducing haemolytic anaemia: An EU regulatory perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Andre; Jacobsen, Helene; Healy, Edel; McMickan, Sinead; Istace, Fréderique; Blaude, Marie-Noëlle; Howden, Peter; Fleig, Helmut; Schulte, Agnes

    2006-01-01

    Haemolytic anaemia is often induced following prolonged exposure to chemical substances. Currently, under EU Council Directive 67/548/EEC, substances which induce such effects are classified as dangerous and assigned the risk phrase R48 'Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure.'

  4. Anaemia of pregnancy, perinatal outcomes and children's developmental vulnerability: a whole-of-population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, Lisa G; Gialamas, Angela; Scheil, Wendy; Brinkman, Sally; Lynch, John W

    2014-09-01

    There is limited longitudinal data from high-income countries on the sequelae of anaemia during pregnancy. The aim of this study is to examine whether anaemia of pregnancy is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and with children's developmental vulnerability. We conducted a population-based study to link routinely collected government administrative data that involved all live births in the state of South Australia 1999-2005 (n = 124 061) and a subset for whom developmental data were collected during a national census of children attending their first year of school in 2009 (n = 13 654). Perinatal outcomes were recorded by midwives using a validated, standardised form. Development was recorded by schoolteachers using the Australian Early Development Index (AEDI). Children in the lowest 10% of AEDI scores are indicative of developmental vulnerability. There were 8764/124 061 (7.1%) cases of anaemia. After adjustment for a range of potentially confounding factors, anaemia of pregnancy was associated with a higher risk of fetal distress [incident rate ratio (IRR) 1.20 [95% CI 1.13, 1.27

  5. Anaemia, Malaria and malnutrition in the first two years of life in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaemia, Malaria and malnutrition in the first two years of life in Nigeria. B M Afolabi, A G Mafe. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Malaria in Africa and the Tropics Vol. 1 (3) 2005: pp. 15-27. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  6. Risk factors for intestinal parasitosis, anaemia, and malnutrition among school children in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Mahmud Abdulkader; Spigt, Mark; Mulugeta Bezabih, Afework; López Pavon, Ignacio; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Blanco Velasco, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Research on associated risk factors for intestinal parasitic infections and malnutrition in various geographic regions is needed for the development of appropriate control strategies. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections, anaemia, and malnutrition in school children, living in urban and rural areas of northern Ethiopia. Six hundred school children, aged 6–15 years, were randomly selected in a cross-sectional survey from 12 primary schools. Sociodemographic and anthropometric data were collected. Faecal samples were examined using direct, concentration, and the Kato–Katz methods. Urine specimens were analysed for Schistosoma haematobium ova. Haemoglobin was measured using a HemoCue spectrometer. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was 72% (95% confidence interval (CI): 66–76%). The prevalence of anaemia, stunting, and thinness were 11% (95% CI: 8–13%), 35% (95% CI: 31–38%), and 34% (95% CI: 30–38%), respectively. Poor personal hygiene habits were generally associated with anaemia and nutritional deficiency (low body mass index). Multivariate logistic regression models related Schistosoma mansoni infection with boys. Boys were also more likely to be malnourished. Hookworm infection was associated with anaemia and unhygienic finger nails. Access to clean water and latrines, with some hygiene and sanitation communication activities, could improve health of children in Ethiopia. The use of smartphone technology in demographic data collection proved to be successful. The potential advantage offered by this technology for parasitological field surveys merits further investigation. PMID:23683331

  7. [Anaemia in pregnancy and in the immediate postpartum period. Prevalence and risk factors in pregnancy and childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquizu I Brichs, Xavier; Rodriguez Carballeira, Mónica; García Fernández, Antonio; Perez Picañol, Emilio

    2016-05-20

    The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of anaemia in the immediate postpartum period (48-72hours), determine the risk factors and the value of haemoglobin before birth to reduce postpartum anaemia. A prospective, observational and longitudinal study that included 1,426 women who delivered consecutively and agreed to participate in the study. Different variables, analytical, epidemiological, foetal and maternal symptoms were studied. The prevalence of anaemia in the postpartum period was 49.7%. The most important risk factors were antepartum anaemia and type of delivery. The types of delivery most influencing postpartum anaemia were, forceps (82.3%), the ventouse 67%, cesarean section (58,2%) and vaginal delivery (37.2%). In the multivariate study was found as the most important independent risk factors, the haemoglobin in the delivery day (OR 6.16, CI: 3.73 to 10.15) and instrumental delivery (OR: 4.61, CI: 3.44 to 6, 19). Other independent risk factors were haemoglobin in the third trimester, episiotomy and perineal tears, ethnicity, birth weight, parity and intra/postpartum complications. Anaemia in the immediate postpartum is a prevalent problem. The factors most associated postpartum anaemia were antepartum anaemia and instrumental delivery. If patients arrive at the day of delivery with haemoglobins≥12,6g/dl and were restricted to necessary instrumented deliveries and cesarean sections, episiotomies and we could avoid perineal tears we can decrease anaemia in the immediate postpartum period very significantly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for anaemia in pregnant women: a population-based prospective cohort study in China.

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    Zhang, Qiaoyi; Li, Zhu; Ananth, Cande V

    2009-07-01

    Maternal anaemia is a common pregnancy complication in developing countries; however, its epidemiology remains largely unexplored in China. This study was designed to explore the epidemiology and risk factors of anaemia during pregnancy. A prospective cohort study was conducted, using data from a population-based pregnancy-monitoring system in 13 counties in East China (1993-96). Women who delivered singleton infants at 20-44 weeks with at least one haemoglobin assessment during pregnancy were included (n = 164 667). The prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin pregnancy as well as in each trimester was estimated. Multivariable log-binomial regression models were used to evaluate risk factors. The overall prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy was 32.6%, with substantial variations across trimesters (11.2%, 20.1% and 26.2% in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters respectively). Risk factors for anaemia included older maternal age, education below junior high school (prevalence rate ratio [RR] 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08, 1.12), farming occupation (1.05, 95% CI 1.03, 1.06), and mild pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) (RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.05, 1.13) and severe PIH (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.06, 1.19). Peri-conception folic acid use was associated with a reduced risk for anaemia in the 1st trimester (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.72, 0.78). Initiating prenatal care after the 1st trimester was associated with increased risk of anaemia in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Our study found anaemia during pregnancy is highly prevalent in this indigenous Chinese population. The risk increases with the severity of hypertensive disorders. Folic acid supplementation during the peri-conception period is associated with reduced risk of 1st trimester anaemia.

  9. Reproductive risk factors assessment for anaemia among pregnant women in India using a multinomial logistic regression model.

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    Perumal, Vanamail

    2014-07-01

    To assess reproductive risk factors for anaemia among pregnant women in urban and rural areas of India. The International Institute of Population Sciences, India, carried out third National Family Health Survey in 2005-2006 to estimate a key indicator from a sample of ever-married women in the reproductive age group 15-49 years. Data on various dimensions were collected using a structured questionnaire, and anaemia was measured using a portable HemoCue instrument. Anaemia prevalence among pregnant women was compared between rural and urban areas using chi-square test and odds ratio. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors. Anaemia prevalence was assessed among 3355 pregnant women from rural areas and 1962 pregnant women from urban areas. Moderate-to-severe anaemia in rural areas (32.4%) is significantly more common than in urban areas (27.3%) with an excess risk of 30%. Gestational age specific prevalence of anaemia significantly increases in rural areas after 6 months. Pregnancy duration is a significant risk factor in both urban and rural areas. In rural areas, increasing age at marriage and mass media exposure are significant protective factors of anaemia. However, more births in the last five years, alcohol consumption and smoking habits are significant risk factors. In rural areas, various reproductive factors and lifestyle characteristics constitute significant risk factors for moderate-to-severe anaemia. Therefore, intensive health education on reproductive practices and the impact of lifestyle characteristics are warranted to reduce anaemia prevalence. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Anaemia in pregnancy in the district of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka--need for updating prevalence data and screening strategies.

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    Chathurani, U; Dharshika, I; Galgamuwa, D; Wickramasinghe, N D; Agampodi, T C; Agampodi, S B

    2012-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of anaemia during pregnancy in Anuradhapura district and evaluate present screening methods for anaemia. Modified WHO 30 cluster sampling method with increased precision was used to estimate the prevalence of anaemia in the Anuradhapura district, Sri Lanka. Serum haemoglobin was measured using methemoglobin method. Clinical examination was carried out to evaluate the conjunctival method in anaemia screening. Values recorded from haemoglobin colour scale method used in the field antenatal clinics were collected. A total of 990 pregnant women participated in the study. In the first, second and third trimesters, prevalence of anaemia was 7.6%, 19.7% and 19.3% respectively. Gestational age adjusted anaemia prevalence among pregnant women in this study population was 14.1% (95% CI 12.0-16.4%). Mean and median haemoglobin concentration of the study sample was 11.8g/dL (SD 1.02g/dl and IQR 11.2-12.5g/dl). Among anaemic pregnant women, average values for Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH), and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) were, 82.9 fl (SD 11.5), 27.6 (SD-3.6) pg/cell and 32.9g/dl (SD 1.8) respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of haemoglobin colour scale method was 50% (95% CI 29.0-71.0%) and 76.3% (95% CI 66.9-83.7%) respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of conjunctival method in detecting anaemia during pregnancy was 18.8% (95% CI 11.9-28.4) and 69.3% (95% CI 58.2- 78.6%). Prevalence of anaemia in the district of Anuradhapura was less than 50% of the estimated prevalence for Sri Lanka. Both haemoglobin colour scale and conjunctival method were having low validity in detecting anaemia in pregnancy.

  11. Prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with anaemia in pregnancy in a primary health centre in Rivers State, Nigeria

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    Geraldine U. Ndukwu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia, though a common problem in Nigeria, has not been adequately studied amongst pregnant women in primary health care facilities. Objective: This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of anaemia and sociodemographic factors associated with anaemia in pregnancy in a primary health centre in Rivers State, Nigeria. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study carried out in a primary health centre. Association between variables was analysed using the Chi-square test. Results: Two hundred and twenty-seven pregnant women whose ages ranged from 16 to 40 years with a mean age of 26.8 ± 4.3 years were recruited for the study. The haemoglobin concentration ranged from 6 g/dL – 15 g/dL with a mean of 10.10 ± 1.27g/dL. A total of 142 (62.6% participants were anaemic. Anaemia was observed to be least prevalent in women within the extremes of reproductive age (≤ 20 years and 36–40 years. There was no statistically significant association between age, educational level and marital status (p > 0.05. The association of anaemia with social class was statistically significant (p = 0.000. Severe anaemia was not a common finding amongst the patients but it was significantly associated with educational status (p = 0.02 and socio-economic status (p = 0.03. Conclusion: The prevalence of anaemia amongst the pregnant participants in the primary health centre was high. Out of all the socio-demographic characteristics, only socio-economic status was significantly associated with anaemia. It is recommended that the socio-economic status of women should be enhanced in line with the Millennium Development Goals to prevent anaemia and to enhance pregnancy outcomes.

  12. Prevalence, types, risk factors and clinical correlates of anaemia in older people in a rural Ugandan population.

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    Joseph O Mugisha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies conducted in high income countries have shown that anaemia is a common medical condition among older people, but such data are scarce in Africa. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence, types, risk factors and clinical correlates of anaemia in older people. METHODS: Participants were aged (≥ 50 years recruited from a general population cohort from January 2012 to January 2013. Blood samples were collected for assessing hemoglobin, serum ferritin, serum vitamin B12, serum folate, C-reactive protein, malaria infection and stool samples for assessment of hookworm infection. HIV status was assessed using an algorithm for HIV rapid testing. Questionnaires were used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics and other risk factors for anaemia. RESULTS: In total, 1449 people participated (response rate 72.3%. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 20.3 % (95% CI 18.2-22.3%, and this was higher for males (24.1%, 95% CI=20.7-27.7% than females (17.5%, 95% CI=15.0-20.1%. In males, the prevalence of anaemia increased rapidly with age almost doubling between 50 and 65 years (p-trend<0.001. Unexplained anaemia was responsible for more than half of all cases (59.7%. Anaemia was independently associated with infections including malaria (OR 3.49, 95% CI 1.78-6.82, HIV (OR 2.17, 1.32-3.57 heavy hookworm infection (OR 3.45, 1.73-6.91, low fruit consumption (OR 1.55, 1.05-2.29 and being unmarried (OR 1.37 , 95% CI 1.01-1.89. However, the odds of anaemia were lower among older people with elevated blood pressure (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.29-0.77. CONCLUSION: Anaemia control programmes in Uganda should target older people and should include interventions to treat and control hookworms and educational programs on diets that enhance iron absorption. Clinicians should consider screening older people with HIV or malaria for anaemia. Further studies should be done on unexplained anaemia and serum ferritin levels that predict

  13. Recurrent life-threatening reactions to platelet transfusion in an aplastic anaemia patient with a paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, M; Bates, G; Richardson, D; Burrows, L

    2014-09-01

    A 60-year-old woman was diagnosed with non-severe aplastic anaemia when she presented with anaemia and thrombocytopenia. She developed recurrent life-threatening hypotensive reactions during transfusion of leukodepleted platelet concentrates, and washed platelet concentrates prevented the development of such reactions subsequently. A paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria clone was detected on investigating for aplastic anaemia, which has been speculated to play a role in the recurrent hypotensive reactions. © 2014 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  14. Cost and effectiveness comparison of two methods for screening potential blood donors for anaemia in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, A; Worrall, E; Que, T N; Bates, I

    2011-06-01

    To compare the cost and effectiveness of Copper Sulphate (CS) and HemoCue (HC) methods for screening blood donors for anaemia. Robust information from developing countries about cost and effectiveness of anaemia screening methods for blood donors is scarce. In such countries there are widespread shortages of blood, so the most cost-effective method should maximise blood supply without compromising donor safety. Economic data (e.g. staff time, equipment and buildings) were collected from direct observation of procedures and purchase data from Hanoi's Central Blood Bank administrative department. A framework for comparing the cost and effectiveness of anaemia screening methods was developed and a cost per effective (i.e. usable and accurate) test was generated for each method. Samples from 100 potential donors from the Hanoi Central Blood Bank (static) and 198 from two mobile units were tested. The mean probability of an ineffective anaemia test was 0·1 (0·05-0·2). The average cost of an HC test was $0·75 (static $0·61 and mobile $0·89) and a CS test was $0·31 (static $0·17 and mobile $0·45). The difference between static and mobile units was predominantly due to transport costs; the difference between the two methods was predominantly due to the HC microcuvettes. In this setting the CS yields greater value for money than the HC method for screening blood donors. The relative cost and effectiveness of CS and HC may be different in places with higher staff turnover, lower test accuracy, higher anaemia prevalence or lower workload than in Vietnam. © 2010 Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. Transfusion Medicine © 2010 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  15. Fanconi anaemia with bilateral diffuse pulmonary arterio venous fistulae: a case report

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    Samarakoon Lasitha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report a patient with cytogenetically confirmed Fanconi anaemia with associated diffuse bilateral pulmonary arterio-venous fistulae. This is only the second reported case of diffuse pulmonary arterio-venous fistulae with Fanconi anaemia. Case Presentation A 16 year old Sri Lankan boy, with a cytogenetically confirmed Fanconi anaemia was admitted to University Medical Unit, National Hospital of Sri Lanka for further assessment and treatment. Both central and peripheral cyanosis plus clubbing were noted on examination. The peripheral saturation was persistently low on room air and did not improve with supplementary Oxygen. Contrast echocardiography failed to demonstrate an intra cardiac shunt but showed early crossover of contrast, suggesting the possibility of pulmonary arterio-venous fistulae. Computed tomography pulmonary angiogram was inconclusive. Subsequent right heart catheterisation revealed bilateral diffuse arterio-venous fistulae not amenable for device closure or surgical intervention. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the second reported patient with diffuse pulmonary arterio-venous fistulae associated with Fanconi anaemia. We report this case to create awareness among clinicians regarding this elusive association. We recommend screening patients with Fanconi anaemia using contrast echocardiography at the time of assessment with transthoracic echocardiogram. Though universal screening may be impossible given the cost constraints, such screening should at least be performed in patients with clinical evidence of desaturation or when a therapeutic option such as haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is considered. Treatment of pulmonary arteriovenous fistulae would improve patient outcome as desaturation by shunting worsens the anaemic symptoms by reducing the oxygen carrying capacity of blood.

  16. Intravenous iron vs blood for acute post-partum anaemia (IIBAPPA): a prospective randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Seng; Gupta, Sarika; Curnow, Jennifer; Gidaszewski, Beata; Khajehei, Marjan; Diplock, Hayley

    2017-12-19

    Acute post-partum anaemia can be associated with significant morbidity including a predisposition for postnatal depression. Lack of clear practice guidelines means a number of women are treated with multiple blood transfusions. Intravenous iron has the potential to limit the need for multiple blood transfusions but its role in the post-partum setting is unclear. IIBAPPA is a multi-centre randomised non-inferiority trial. Women with a primary post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) >1000 mL and resultant haemoglobin (Hb) 5.5-8.0 g/dL after resuscitation with ongoing symptomatic anaemia who are otherwise stable (no active bleeding) are eligible to participate. Patients with sepsis or conditions necessitating rapid Hb restoration are excluded. Eligible participants are randomised to receive a blood transfusion or a single dose of intravenous iron polymaltose calculated using the Ganzoni formula. Primary outcome measures include Hb, Ferritin and C-Reactive Protein levels on Day 7. Secondary outcomes evaluate (i) Hb, Ferritin and CRP levels on Day 14, 28, (ii) anaemia symptoms on Day 0, 7, 14 and 28 using structured health related quality of life questionnaires, (iii) treatment safety by assessing adverse reactions and infection endpoints and (iv) the quantitative impact of anaemia on breast feeding quality using a hospital designed questionnaire. If equivalence in Hb and ferritin levels, symptom scores and safety endpoints is demonstrated, intravenous iron may become the preferred treatment for women with acute post-partum anaemia to minimise transfusion reactions and costs. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12615001370594 on 16th December, 2015 (prospective approval).

  17. Laboratory diagnosis of the rare anaemias: external quality assessment benefits patient care

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    Barbara De La Salle

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction in the 1960s, external quality assessment has developed to become an essential component of the quality management system of the diagnostic laboratory. External quality assessment provides a long term, retrospective view of laboratory performance, demonstrating the competence of the laboratory to others. The ENERCA project (the European Network for Rare and Congenital Anaemias has established a list of core laboratory tests that are used in the diagnosis of rare and congenital anaemias, which has been used as the basis for questionnaires to laboratories, to establish the use and quality assurance of diagnostic testing in the congenital and rare anaemias, and to European EQA providers for services in this key area. In general, the provision of EQA for rare and congenital anaemias is widely variable with little provision for the very rare disorders. For the more common congenital anaemias, such as the haemoglobinopathies and thalassaemias, provision is better but there is variation in aspects of the scheme design, especially the frequency of distribution. Where laboratories did not take part in EQA for individual tests, or there was no EQA available, a desire to participate was expressed in 66% (102/154 of cases. The provision of external quality assessment (EQA services for rare disorders is a challenge. For many of these conditions, the number of patients in any one member state is very small with only a few laboratories providing diagnostic testing. In these cases, the development of pan-European or cross-border EQA may be the only means by which standardisation of methods and results can be achieved. An EQA survey of 243 laboratories for performance in Hb A2 quantification showed encouraging results in that there was a clear differentiation in the results from a beta Thalassaemia carrier and an individual with no evidence of Thalassaemia; however, a bias was observed between different methods of measurement.

  18. Impact of hookworm infection and deworming on anaemia in non-pregnant populations: a systematic review.

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    Smith, Jennifer L; Brooker, Simon

    2010-07-01

    To summarise age- and intensity-stratified associations between human hookworm infection and anaemia and to quantify the impact of treatment with the benzimidazoles, albendazole and mebendazole, on haemoglobin and anaemia in non-pregnant populations. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed) were searched for relevant studies published between 1980 and 2009, regardless of language, and researchers contacted about potential data. Haemoglobin concentration (Hb) was compared between uninfected individuals and individuals harbouring hookworm infections of different intensities, expressed as standardised mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Meta-analysis of randomised control trials (RCTs) investigated the impact of treatment on Hb and anaemia. Twenty-three cross-sectional studies, six pre- and post-intervention studies and 14 trials were included. Among cross-sectional studies, moderate- and heavy-intensity hookworm infections were associated with lower Hb in school-aged children, while all levels of infection intensity were associated with lower Hb in adults. Among RCTs using albendazole, impact of treatment corresponded to a 1.89 g/l increase (95%CI: 0.13-3.63) in mean Hb while mebendazole had no impact. There was a positive impact of 2.37 g/l (95%CI: 1.33-3.50) on mean Hb when albendazole was co-administered with praziquantel, but no apparent additional benefit of treatment with benzimidazoles combined with iron supplementation. The mean impact of treatment with benzimidazoles alone on moderate anaemia was small (relative risk (RR) 0.87) with a larger effect when combined with praziquantel (RR 0.61). Anaemia is most strongly associated with moderate and heavy hookworm infection. The impact of anthelmintic treatment is greatest when albendazole is co-administered with praziquantel.

  19. Routine Iron Supplementation and Anaemia by Third Trimester in a Nigerian Hospital.

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    Adanikin, Abiodun I; Awoleke, Jacob O; Olofinbiyi, Babatunde A; Adanikin, Pipeloluwa O; Ogundare, Omobolanle R

    2015-10-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcome. Unfortunately, in developing countries its prevalence has continued to rise. To improve the situation, iron supplement is routinely prescribed during pregnancy. We therefore examine the impact of the intervention as being currently practised in our clinical setting. In total, 255 prenatal clinic attendees who had more than 8 weeks of prescribed iron supplements were sampled. Data was obtained on their socio-demographic features, haemoglobin concentration at booking, compliance with iron supplements and third trimester haemoglobin value. Observed iron supplementation compliance rate was 184(72.2%). There was a significant drop in mean haemoglobin (Hb) concentration between the two time points (booking Hb: 32.56±2.99; third trimester Hb: 31.67±3.01; mean diff: 0.89±3.04; t = 4.673; 95% CI= 0.52-1.27; p= Anaemia increased from 132(51.8%) to 150(58.8%) by the third trimester. Increase in anaemia occurred in both iron-compliant and non-compliant groups. Non-compliance however had higher odds of predicting anaemia by the third trimester (OR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.03-3.26; p: 0.04). Although iron supplementation is still a good intervention in developing countries, it is not sufficient to reduce overall prevalence of anaemia by the third trimester. There is a need to look beyond the approach and reinforce the importance of better feeding practices, food fortification and reduced frequency of pregnancies.

  20. Association between anaemia, iron deficiency anaemia, neglected parasitic infections and socioeconomic factors in rural children of West Malaysia.

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    Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Chong Kin, Liam; Sek Chuen, Chow; Jaffar, Shukri

    2012-01-01

    Given that micronutrient deficiency, neglected intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) and poor socioeconomic status are closely linked, we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the relationship between IPIs and nutritional status of children living in remote and rural areas in West Malaysia. A total of 550 children participated, comprising 520 (94.5%) school children aged 7 to 12 years old, 30 (5.5%) young children aged 1 to 6 years old, 254 (46.2%) boys and 296 (53.8%) girls. Of the 550 children, 26.2% were anaemic, 54.9% iron deficient and 16.9% had iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). The overall prevalence of helminths was 76.5% comprising Trichuris trichiura (71.5%), Ascaris lumbricoides (41.6%) and hookworm infection (13.5%). It was observed that iron deficiency was significantly higher in girls (p = 0.032) compared to boys. Univariate analysis demonstrated that low level of mother's education (OR = 2.52; 95% CI = 1.38-4.60; p = 0.002), non working parents (OR = 2.18; 95% CI = 2.06-2.31; p = 0.013), low household income (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.14-3.59; p = 0.015), T. trichiura (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.21-3.81; p = 0.008) and A. lumbricoides infections (OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.04-2.55; p = 0.032) were significantly associated with the high prevalence of IDA. Multivariate analysis confirmed that low level of mother's education (OR = 1.48; 95 CI% = 1.33-2.58; pchildren. It is crucial that a comprehensive primary health care programme for these communities that includes periodic de-worming, nutrition supplement, improved household economy, education, sanitation status and personal hygiene are taken into consideration to improve the nutritional status of these children.

  1. Association between Anaemia, Iron Deficiency Anaemia, Neglected Parasitic Infections and Socioeconomic Factors in Rural Children of West Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Chong Kin, Liam; Sek Chuen, Chow; Jaffar, Shukri

    2012-01-01

    Background Given that micronutrient deficiency, neglected intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) and poor socioeconomic status are closely linked, we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the relationship between IPIs and nutritional status of children living in remote and rural areas in West Malaysia. Methods/Findings A total of 550 children participated, comprising 520 (94.5%) school children aged 7 to 12 years old, 30 (5.5%) young children aged 1 to 6 years old, 254 (46.2%) boys and 296 (53.8%) girls. Of the 550 children, 26.2% were anaemic, 54.9% iron deficient and 16.9% had iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). The overall prevalence of helminths was 76.5% comprising Trichuris trichiura (71.5%), Ascaris lumbricoides (41.6%) and hookworm infection (13.5%). It was observed that iron deficiency was significantly higher in girls (p = 0.032) compared to boys. Univariate analysis demonstrated that low level of mother's education (OR = 2.52; 95% CI = 1.38–4.60; p = 0.002), non working parents (OR = 2.18; 95% CI = 2.06–2.31; p = 0.013), low household income (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.14–3.59; p = 0.015), T. trichiura (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.21–3.81; p = 0.008) and A. lumbricoides infections (OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.04–2.55; p = 0.032) were significantly associated with the high prevalence of IDA. Multivariate analysis confirmed that low level of mother's education (OR = 1.48; 95 CI% = 1.33–2.58; peconomy, education, sanitation status and personal hygiene are taken into consideration to improve the nutritional status of these children. PMID:22413027

  2. The Importance of Haematological and Biochemical Findings in Patients with West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

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    Urošević Aleksandar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease (WNND occurs in less than 1% of infected people. Leukocytosis with lymphocytopenia, mild anaemia, thrombocytopenia, elevated liver and muscle enzymes and hyponatremia are occasionally present in patients with WNND. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF findings resemble other viral neuroinfections. The purpose of this study is to present some of the most important laboratory findings of our patients with WNND and to evaluate their correlation with fatal outcome.

  3. ECHO virus

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    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that can lead ...

  4. Occurrence of Anaemia in the First Year of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a European Population-based Inception Cohort-An ECCO-EpiCom Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burisch, Johan; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Katsanos, Konstantinnos H; Christodoulou, Dimitrios K; Lazar, Daniela; Goldis, Adrian; O'Morain, Colm; Fernandez, Alberto; Pereira, Santos; Myers, Sally; Sebastian, Shaji; Pedersen, Natalia; Olse, Jóngerð; Rubek Nielsen, Kári; Schwartz, Doron; Odes, Selwyn; Almer, Sven; Halfvarson, Jonas; Turk, Niksa; Cukovic-Cavka, Silvja; Nikulina, Inna; Belousova, Elena; Duricova, Dana; Bortlik, Martin; Shonová, Olga; Salupere, Riina; Barros, Louisa; Magro, Fernando; Jonaitis, Laimas; Kupcinskas, Limas; Turcan, Svetlana; Kaimakliotis, Ioannis; Ladefoged, Karin; Kudsk, Karen; Andersen, Vibeke; Vind, Ida; Thorsgaard, Niels; Oksanen, Pia; Collin, Pekka; Dal Piaz, Giulia; Santini, Alessia; Niewiadomski, Ola; Bell, Sally; Moum, Bjørn; Arebi, Naila; Kjeldsen, Jens; Carlsen, Katrine; Langholz, Ebbe; Lakatos, Peter Laszlo; Munkholm, Pia; Gerdes, Lars Ulrik; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik

    2017-10-01

    Anaemia is an important complication of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia and the practice of anaemia screening during the first year following diagnosis, in a European prospective population-based inception cohort. Newly diagnosed IBD patients were included and followed prospectively for 1 year in 29 European and one Australian centre. Clinical data including demographics, medical therapy, surgery and blood samples were collected. Anaemia was defined according to the World Health Organization criteria. A total of 1871 patients (Crohn's disease [CD]: 686, 88%; ulcerative colitis [UC]: 1,021, 87%; IBD unclassified [IBDU] 164. 81%) were included in the study. The prevalence of anaemia was higher in CD than in UC patients and, overall, 49% of CD and 39% of UC patients experienced at least one instance of anaemia during the first 12 months after diagnosis. UC patients with more extensive disease and those from Eastern European countries, and CD patients with penetrating disease or colonic disease location, had higher risks of anaemia. CD and UC patients in need of none or only mild anti-inflammatory treatment had a lower risk of anaemia. In a significant proportion of patients, anaemia was not assessed until several months after diagnosis, and in almost half of all cases of anaemia a thorough work-up was not performed. Overall, 42% of patients had at least one instance of anaemia during the first year following diagnosis. Most patients were assessed for anaemia regularly; however, a full anaemia work-up was frequently neglected in this community setting. Copyright © 2017 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Preventive Treatments of Iron Deficiency Anaemia in Pregnancy: A Review of Their Effectiveness and Implications for Health System Strengthening

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    Kayode O. Osungbade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We conducted a review of effectiveness of preventive treatments of iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy in developing countries and highlighted their constraints as well as interventions required to strengthen the health services. Methods. Literature from Pubmed (MEDLINE, AJOL, Google Scholar, and Cochrane database was reviewed. Results. Evidence-based preventive treatment options for iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy include prophylaxis iron supplements and food fortification with iron. Evidence abounds on their effectiveness in reducing the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy. However, these prospects are threatened by side effects of iron supplements, low utilization of maternal health service in developing countries, partial implementation of preventive treatments, and weak infrastructure and political commitment to implement mass fortification of local staple foods by national governments. Conclusion. Sustainability of effectiveness of preventive treatments of iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy could be achieved if the identified threats are adequately addressed.

  6. The impact of renal insufficiency and anaemia on survival in patients with cardiovascular disease: a cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anderson, Jocelyn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The simultaneous occurrence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), kidney disease, and anaemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In the community setting, little data exists about the risk associated with milder levels of anaemia when it is present concurrently with CVD and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of CKD and anaemia in patients with CVD in the community and to examine whether the presence of anaemia was associated with increased morbidity and mortality. METHODS: This study was designed as a retrospective cohort study and involved a random sample of 35 general practices in the West of Ireland. A practice-based sample of 1,609 patients with established cardiovascular disease was generated in 2000\\/2001 and followed for five years. The primary endpoint was death from any cause. Statistical analysis involved using one-way ANOVA and Chi-squared tests for baseline data and Cox proportional-hazards models for mortality data. RESULTS: Of the study sample of 617 patients with blood results, 33% (n = 203) had CKD while 6% (n = 37) had CKD and anaemia. The estimated risk of death from any cause, when compared to patients with cardiovascular disease only, was almost double (HR = 1.98, 95% CI 0.99 to 3.98) for patients with both CVD and CKD and was over 4 times greater (HR = 4.33, 95% CI 1.76 to 10.68) for patients with CVD, CKD and anaemia. CONCLUSION: In patients with cardiovascular disease in the community, chronic kidney disease and anaemia occur commonly. The presence of chronic kidney disease carries an increased mortality risk which increases in an additive way with the addition of anaemia. These results suggest that early primary care diagnosis and management of this high risk group may be worthwhile.

  7. Iron deficiency and preoperative anaemia in patients scheduled for elective hip- and knee arthroplasty - an observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, Ø; Nielsen, C S; Khan, N

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Preoperative anaemia is prevalent in elderly patients scheduled for major orthopaedic surgery and is associated with increased transfusion risk and postoperative morbidity. New guidelines recommend preoperative correction of anaemia and iron deficiency in all patients......-five (10·8%) and 243 (27·6%) of the study population were WHO anaemic or had a Hb Transfusion was more common in anaemic vs. non-anaemic patients 43 vs. 13%; (P 13 g/dl 28 vs. 11% (P

  8. Risk of maternal mortality in women with severe anaemia during pregnancy and post partum: a multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahnavi Daru, MBBS

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Anaemia affects as many as half of all pregnant women in low-income and middle-income countries, but the burden of disease and associated maternal mortality are not robustly quantified. We aimed to assess the association between severe anaemia and maternal death with data from the WHO Multicountry Survey on maternal and newborn health. Methods: We used multilevel and propensity score regression analyses to establish the relation between severe anaemia and maternal death in 359 health facilities in 29 countries across Latin America, Africa, the Western Pacific, eastern Mediterranean, and southeast Asia. Severe anaemia was defined as antenatal or postnatal haemoglobin concentrations of less than 70 g/L in a blood sample obtained before death. Maternal death was defined as death any time after admission until the seventh day post partum or discharge. In regression analyses, we adjusted for post-partum haemorrhage, general anaesthesia, admission to intensive care, sepsis, pre-eclampsia or eclampsia, thrombocytopenia, shock, massive transfusion, severe oliguria, failure to form clots, and severe acidosis as confounding variables. These variables were used to develop the propensity score. Findings: 312 281 women admitted in labour or with ectopic pregnancies were included in the adjusted multilevel logistic analysis, and 12 470 were included in the propensity score regression analysis. The adjusted odds ratio for maternal death in women with severe anaemia compared with those without severe anaemia was 2·36 (95% CI 1·60–3·48. In the propensity score analysis, severe anaemia was also associated with maternal death (adjusted odds ratio 1·86 [95% CI 1·39–2·49]. Interpretation: Prevention and treatment of anaemia during pregnancy and post partum should remain a global public health and research priority. Funding: Barts and the London Charity.

  9. Anaemia in pregnancy and associated factors: a cross sectional study of antenatal attendants at the Sunyani Municipal Hospital, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anlaakuu, Peter; Anto, Francis

    2017-08-11

    Anaemia in pregnancy is an important health issue resulting in high maternal morbidity and mortality. The purpose of the current study was to identify factors associated with anaemia among pregnant women receiving antenatal care at the Sunyani Municipal Hospital in Ghana. A cross-sectional study involving pregnant women seeking antenatal care at the Sunyani Municipal Hospital was conducted between May and June, 2015. It involved the collection of data on socio demographic and obstetric variables, medical interventions and malaria infection, consumption of iron containing foods and supplements using a case record form and a structured questionnaire. Also, data on haemoglobin concentrations at first and current antenatal visit were collected. Bivariate and multivariate statistical analysis were done to determine factors associated with anaemia. Out of the 316 participants, 129 (40.8%) were found to be anaemic (Hb prevalence of anaemia was found to be similar to that of the first visit with 131 (41.5%) of them being anaemic [mean Hb: 11.24 g/dl, range 8.10-14.5 g/dl]. The haemoglobin levels however improved significantly during the most recent visit compared to the first with none of the women being severely anaemic (Hb prevalence of moderate anaemia reduced from 37.2% (CI 28.9-46.2) during the first visit to 19.1% (12.7-26.9) during the most recent visit, a reduction of 48.7%. Malaria infection, frequency at which one consumed fish/snails and gestational age at first ANC visit were the main factors found to be associated with anaemia among the pregnant women. Malaria infection, fish/snails intake and gestational age at first ANC visit were significantly associated with anaemia. Addressing these factors can reduce the incidence of anaemia in pregnancy.

  10. Prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with anaemia in pregnancy in a primary health centre in Rivers State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine U. Ndukwu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia, though a common problem in Nigeria, has not been adequatelystudied amongst pregnant women in primary health care facilities.Objective: This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of anaemia and sociodemographicfactors associated with anaemia in pregnancy in a primary health centre inRivers State, Nigeria.Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study carried out in a primary health centre. Associationbetween variables was analysed using the Chi-square test.Results: Two hundred and twenty-seven pregnant women whose ages ranged from 16 to40 years with a mean age of 26.8 ± 4.3 years were recruited for the study. The haemoglobinconcentration ranged from 6 g/dL – 15 g/dL with a mean of 10.10 ± 1.27g/dL. A total of142 (62.6% participants were anaemic. Anaemia was observed to be least prevalent inwomen within the extremes of reproductive age (≤ 20 years and 36–40 years. There was nostatistically significant association between age, educational level and marital status (p > 0.05.The association of anaemia with social class was statistically significant (p = 0.000. Severeanaemia was not a common finding amongst the patients but it was significantly associatedwith educational status (p = 0.02 and socio-economic status (p = 0.03.Conclusion: The prevalence of anaemia amongst the pregnant participants in the primaryhealth centre was high. Out of all the socio-demographic characteristics, only socio-economicstatus was significantly associated with anaemia. It is recommended that the socio-economicstatus of women should be enhanced in line with the Millennium Development Goals toprevent anaemia and to enhance pregnancy outcomes.

  11. Anaemia, prenatal iron use, and risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Batool A; Olofin, Ibironke; Wang, Molin; Spiegelman, Donna; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2013-06-21

    To summarise evidence on the associations of maternal anaemia and prenatal iron use with maternal haematological and adverse pregnancy outcomes; and to evaluate potential exposure-response relations of dose of iron, duration of use, and haemoglobin concentration in prenatal period with pregnancy outcomes. Systematic review and meta-analysis Searches of PubMed and Embase for studies published up to May 2012 and references of review articles. Randomised trials of prenatal iron use and prospective cohort studies of prenatal anaemia; cross sectional and case-control studies were excluded. 48 randomised trials (17 793 women) and 44 cohort studies (1 851 682 women) were included. Iron use increased maternal mean haemoglobin concentration by 4.59 (95% confidence interval 3.72 to 5.46) g/L compared with controls and significantly reduced the risk of anaemia (relative risk 0.50, 0.42 to 0.59), iron deficiency (0.59, 0.46 to 0.79), iron deficiency anaemia (0.40, 0.26 to 0.60), and low birth weight (0.81, 0.71 to 0.93). The effect of iron on preterm birth was not significant (relative risk 0.84, 0.68 to 1.03). Analysis of cohort studies showed a significantly higher risk of low birth weight (adjusted odds ratio 1.29, 1.09 to 1.53) and preterm birth (1.21, 1.13 to 1.30) with anaemia in the first or second trimester. Exposure-response analysis indicated that for every 10 mg increase in iron dose/day, up to 66 mg/day, the relative risk of maternal anaemia was 0.88 (0.84 to 0.92) (P for linear trendtrend=0.005) and risk of low birth weight decreased by 3% (relative risk 0.97, 0.95 to 0.98) for every 10 mg increase in dose/day (P for linear trendtrend=0.002); however, mean haemoglobin was not associated with the risk of low birth weight and preterm birth. No evidence of a significant effect on duration of gestation, small for gestational age births, and birth length was noted. Daily prenatal use of iron substantially improved birth weight in a linear dose-response fashion

  12. Prevalence of anaemia and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Gulu and Hoima Regional Hospitals in Uganda: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obai, Gerald; Odongo, Pancras; Wanyama, Ronald

    2016-04-11

    Anaemia is a public health problem affecting over 1.62 billion people globally. It affects all age groups of people and is particularly more prevalent in pregnant women. Africa carries a high burden of anaemia; in Uganda 24 % of women of child bearing age have anaemia. Pregnant women living in poverty are at greater risk of developing iron deficiency anaemia. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia and the associated risk factors in pregnant women attending antenatal care at Gulu and Hoima Regional Hospitals in Northern and Western Uganda respectively. We conducted a cross sectional study in Gulu and Hoima Regional Hospitals from July to October 2012. Our study participants were pregnant women attending antenatal care. Socio-demographic data were collected using structured questionnaires and blood samples were collected for haemoglobin estimation. Haemoglobin concentration was determined using an automated analyzer closed mode of blood sampling. Data were analysed using Stata version 12. Odds ratio was used as a measure of association, with 95% confidence interval; and independent risk factors for anaemia were investigated using logistic regression analyses. Ethical approval was obtained from Gulu University Research Ethics Committee and written informed consent was obtained from each study participant. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 22.1%; higher in Gulu (32.9%) than in Hoima (12.1%), p prevalence of mild anaemia was 23%, moderate anaemia was 9%, and severe anaemia was 0.8%, while in Hoima, the prevalence of mild anaemia was 9%, moderate anaemia was 2.5%, and severe anaemia was 0.5%. Independent risk factors for anaemia were: being a housewife [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.05-2.68]; and being a resident in Gulu (AOR = 3.6, 95% CI: 2.41-5.58). The prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women in Gulu is higher than in Hoima. Amongst pregnancy women, being a housewife is an independent risk factor for anaemia

  13. A comprehensive strategy for the subtyping of patients with Fanconi anaemia: conclusions from the Spanish Fanconi Anemia Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio Casado, José; Callén, Elsa; Jacome, Ariana; Río, Paula; Castella, Maria; Lobitz, Stephan; Ferro, Teresa; Muñoz, Arturo; Sevilla, Julián; Cantalejo, Angeles; Cela, Elena; Cervera, José; Sánchez-Calero, Jesús; Badell, Isabel; Estella, Jesús; Dasí, Angeles; Olivé, Teresa; José Ortega, Juan; Rodriguez-Villa, Antonia; Tapia, María; Molinés, Antonio; Madero, Luis; Segovia, José C; Neveling, Kornelia; Kalb, Reinhard; Schindler, Detlev; Hanenberg, Helmut; Surrallés, Jordi; Bueren, Juan A

    2007-04-01

    Fanconi anaemia is a heterogeneous genetic disease, where 12 complementation groups have been already described. Identifying the complementation group in patients with Fanconi anaemia constitutes a direct procedure to confirm the diagnosis of the disease and is required for the recruitment of these patients in gene therapy trials. To determine the subtype of Fanconi anaemia patients in Spain, a Mediterranean country with a relatively high population (23%) of Fanconi anaemia patients belonging to the gypsy race. Most patients could be subtyped by retroviral complementation approaches in peripheral blood T cells, although some mosaic patients were subtyped in cultured skin fibroblasts. Other approaches, mainly based on western blot analysis and generation of nuclear RAD51 and FANCJ foci, were required for the subtyping of a minor number of patients. From a total of 125 patients included in the Registry of Fanconi Anaemia, samples from 102 patients were available for subtyping analyses. In 89 cases the subtype could be determined and in 8 cases exclusions of common complementation groups were made. Compared with other international studies, a skewed distribution of complementation groups was observed in Spain, where 80% of the families belonged to the Fanconi anaemia group A (FA-A) complementation group. The high proportion of gypsy patients, all of them FA-A, and the absence of patients with FA-C account for this characteristic distribution of complementation groups.

  14. Associations between mild-to-moderate anaemia in pregnancy and helminth, malaria and HIV infection in Entebbe, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhangi, Lawrence; Woodburn, Patrick; Omara, Mildred; Omoding, Nicholas; Kizito, Dennison; Mpairwe, Harriet; Nabulime, Juliet; Ameke, Christine; Morison, Linda A; Elliott, Alison M

    2007-09-01

    It is suggested that helminths, particularly hookworm and schistosomiasis, may be important causes of anaemia in pregnancy. We assessed the associations between mild-to-moderate anaemia (haemoglobin >8.0 g/dl and pregnancy in Entebbe, Uganda. The prevalence of anaemia was 39.7%. The prevalence of hookworm was 44.5%, Mansonella perstans 21.3%, Schistosoma mansoni 18.3%, Strongyloides 12.3%, Trichuris 9.1%, Ascaris 2.3%, asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia 10.9% and HIV 11.9%. Anaemia showed little association with the presence of any helminth, but showed a strong association with malaria (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.22, 95% CI 2.43-4.26) and HIV (AOR 2.46, 95% CI 1.90-3.19). There was a weak association between anaemia and increasing hookworm infection intensity. Thus, although highly prevalent, helminths showed little association with mild-to-moderate anaemia in this population, but HIV and malaria both showed a strong association. This result may relate to relatively good nutrition and low helminth infection intensity. These findings are pertinent to estimating the disease burden of helminths and other infections in pregnancy. [Clinical Trial No. ISRCTN32849447].

  15. Anaemia during pregnancy: impact on birth outcome and infant haemoglobin level during the first 18 months of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, Ghislain K; Ouedraogo, Smaïla; Le Port, Agnès; Watier, Laurence; Cottrell, Gilles; Guerra, José; Choudat, Isabelle; Rachas, Antoine; Bouscaillou, Julie; Massougbodji, Achille; Garcia, André

    2012-03-01

    To determine the effect of maternal anaemia on pregnancy outcome and describe its impact on infant haemoglobin level in the first 18 months of life, we conducted a prospective study of 617 pregnant women and their children in Benin. Prevalence of maternal anaemia at delivery was 39.5%, and 61.1% of newborns were anaemic at birth. Maternal anaemia was not associated with low birth weight [OR = 1.2 (0.6-2.2)] or preterm birth [OR = 1.3 (0.7-2.4)], whereas the newborn's anaemia was related to maternal anaemia [OR = 1.8 (1.2-2.5)]. There was no association between an infant's haemoglobin level until 18 months and maternal anaemia. However, malaria attacks during follow-up, male gender and sickle cell trait were all associated with a lower infant haemoglobin level until 18 months, whereas good infant feeding practices and a polygamous family were positively associated with a higher haemoglobin level during the first 18 months of life. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. The Health of Pregnant Women in Rural Tanzania with Specific Emphasis on Anaemia and the Impact of Socially Marketed Insecticide Treated Bednets

    OpenAIRE

    Marchant, Tanya Jayne

    2002-01-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy is one of the main maternal health problems globally, affecting over 50% of pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. Although not always shown to have a causal link, severe anaemia contributes to maternal morbidity and mortality and to poor pregnancy outcomes and infant survival. The work encompassed in this thesis describes fertility and health in pregnancy with a specific emphasis on anaemia. In addition, the applicability of ITNs for the prevention of ma...

  17. Profile of red blood cell morphologies and causes of anaemia among pregnant women at first clinic visit in the mount Cameroon area: a prospective cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Anchang-Kimbi, Judith K.; Nkweti, Vera Ngenwie; Ntonifor, Helen Ngum; Apinjoh, Tobias O.; Chi, Hanesh Fru; Tata, Rolland Bantar; Achidi, Eric Akum

    2017-01-01

    Objective Anaemia is a serious problem in pregnancy in malaria-endemic countries. This study investigated red cell morphologies and possible causes of anaemia among pregnant women at first clinic visit. Venous blood samples from consented women were used to determine haemoglobin (Hb) levels, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) using an automated haematology analyzer. Malaria parasitaemia was diagnosed by microscopy. Definitions were as follows: anaemia (Hb 

  18. Fulminant limb and retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis in a 15-year-old girl with Fanconi anaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Regan, Kevin; Maher, Michael M.; O'Mahony, Edward; MacEneaney, Peter; Fitzgerald, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an uncommon soft-tissue infection in children that carries a high mortality rate. We present a 15-year-old girl with chronic pancytopenia secondary to Fanconi anaemia who developed extensive NF of the lower limb, which unfortunately resulted in a fatal outcome. Immunodeficiency is a known risk factor for the development of this condition. The findings in this case demonstrate that patients with Fanconi anaemia may be susceptible to NF and that the clinical course may be more aggressive due to underlying immunosuppression. Prompt diagnosis of NF is vital in order to initiate appropriate treatment and to optimize patient outcome. Radiological investigation demonstrated extensive soft-tissue gas and destruction affecting the entire lower limb, abdominal wall and retroperitoneum, which led to timely definitive diagnosis and management. (orig.)

  19. Fulminant limb and retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis in a 15-year-old girl with Fanconi anaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Regan, Kevin; Maher, Michael M. [Mercy University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); Cork University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); O' Mahony, Edward; MacEneaney, Peter; Fitzgerald, Edward [Mercy University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland)

    2009-10-15

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an uncommon soft-tissue infection in children that carries a high mortality rate. We present a 15-year-old girl with chronic pancytopenia secondary to Fanconi anaemia who developed extensive NF of the lower limb, which unfortunately resulted in a fatal outcome. Immunodeficiency is a known risk factor for the development of this condition. The findings in this case demonstrate that patients with Fanconi anaemia may be susceptible to NF and that the clinical course may be more aggressive due to underlying immunosuppression. Prompt diagnosis of NF is vital in order to initiate appropriate treatment and to optimize patient outcome. Radiological investigation demonstrated extensive soft-tissue gas and destruction affecting the entire lower limb, abdominal wall and retroperitoneum, which led to timely definitive diagnosis and management. (orig.)

  20. Multiple causes of anaemia amongst children living near a lead smelter in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, F M; Barreto, M L; Silvany-Neto, A M; Waldron, H A; Tavares, T M

    1984-04-05

    A prevalence study of anaemia was carried out amongst children, aged one to nine years, living near a lead smelter in Santo Amaro City, Northeast Brazil. It was found that the variation in haemoglobin levels was significantly associated with malnutrition and with the interaction between malnutrition and iron deficiency, but not with lead poisoning, iron deficiency, or hookworm infection, having allowed for the effects of age, area of residence, family per capita income and race. The effect of the interaction between malnutrition and iron deficiency on haemoglobin levels was most prominent amongst children aged one year and amongst those living in the most deprived area. The lack of demonstrable interaction between lead poisoning and iron deficiency in the causation of anaemia amongst these children is discussed.

  1. Molecular biology of Fanconi anaemia--an old problem, a new insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shamim I; Hanaoka, Fumio; Kirk, Sandra H

    2002-05-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) comprises a group of autosomal recessive disorders resulting from mutations in one of eight genes (FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1, FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF and FANCG). Although caused by relatively simple mutations, the disease shows a complex phenotype, with a variety of features including developmental abnormalities and ultimately severe anaemia and/or leukemia leading to death in the mid teens. Since 1992 all but two of the genes have been identified, and molecular analysis of their products has revealed a complex mode of action. Many of the proteins form a nuclear multisubunit complex that appears to be involved in the repair of double-strand DNA breaks. Additionally, at least one of the proteins, FANCC, influences apoptotic pathways in response to oxidative damage. Further analysis of the FANC proteins will provide vital information on normal cell responses to damage and allow therapeutic strategies to be developed that will hopefully supplant bone marrow transplantation. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Mathematical analysis of 51Cr-labelled red cell survival curves in congenital haemolytic anaemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasfiki, A.G.; Antipas, S.E.; Dimitriou, P.A.; Gritzali, F.A.; Melissinos, K.G.

    1982-01-01

    The parameters of 51 Cr labelled red cell survival curves were calculated in 26 patients with homozygous β-thalassaemia, 8 with sickle-cell anaemia and 3 with s-β-thalassaemia, using a non-linear weighted least squares analysis computer program. In thalassaemic children the calculated parameters denote that the shorting of the mean cell life is due to early senescence alone, while there is some evidence that in thalassaemic adults additional extracellular destruction mechanisms participate as well. Red cell survival curves from patients with sickle-cell anaemia and s-β-thalassaemia resemble each other, while their parameters indicate an initial rapid loss of radioactivity, early senescence and the presence of extracellular red cell destruction factors. (orig.)

  3. Fulminant limb and retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis in a 15-year-old girl with Fanconi anaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Regan, Kevin

    2009-10-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an uncommon soft-tissue infection in children that carries a high mortality rate. We present a 15-year-old girl with chronic pancytopenia secondary to Fanconi anaemia who developed extensive NF of the lower limb, which unfortunately resulted in a fatal outcome. Immunodeficiency is a known risk factor for the development of this condition. The findings in this case demonstrate that patients with Fanconi anaemia may be susceptible to NF and that the clinical course may be more aggressive due to underlying immunosuppression. Prompt diagnosis of NF is vital in order to initiate appropriate treatment and to optimize patient outcome. Radiological investigation demonstrated extensive soft-tissue gas and destruction affecting the entire lower limb, abdominal wall and retroperitoneum, which led to timely definitive diagnosis and management.

  4. Fulminant limb and retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis in a 15-year-old girl with Fanconi anaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Regan, Kevin

    2012-01-31

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an uncommon soft-tissue infection in children that carries a high mortality rate. We present a 15-year-old girl with chronic pancytopenia secondary to Fanconi anaemia who developed extensive NF of the lower limb, which unfortunately resulted in a fatal outcome. Immunodeficiency is a known risk factor for the development of this condition. The findings in this case demonstrate that patients with Fanconi anaemia may be susceptible to NF and that the clinical course may be more aggressive due to underlying immunosuppression. Prompt diagnosis of NF is vital in order to initiate appropriate treatment and to optimize patient outcome. Radiological investigation demonstrated extensive soft-tissue gas and destruction affecting the entire lower limb, abdominal wall and retroperitoneum, which led to timely definitive diagnosis and management.

  5. Body mass index and other anthropometric variables in children with sickle cell anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odetunde, Odutola Israel; Chinawa, Josephat Maduabuchi; Achigbu, Kingsley Ihedioha; Achigbu, Eberechukwu O

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the anthropometric variables of children with sickle cell anaemia and comparing it with those with normal haemoglobin genotype. A cross sectional study of anthropometric measurements was conducted over a period of six months. Children with sickle cell anaemia in steady state aged between 6-20 years were recruited. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometrical variables. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences program (SPSS), version 20. The sickle cell patients comprised of 20 males and 20 females. There were an equal number of controls with an equal male to female ratio of 1:1. Forty eight percent (19) of the children with sickle cell anemia were underweight (sickle cell anemia were low when compared with children with normal Haemoglobin genotype.

  6. The Bacterial Overgrowth Syndrome is Uncommon in Pernicious Anaemia: Results of a Follow-up Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stockbrügger, R. W.; Armbrecht, U.; Rode, J. W.; Teall, A. J.; Oberholzer, V. G.; Croker, J. R.; Cotton, P. B.

    2011-01-01

    It is still uncertain whether upper gastrointestinal bacterial overgrowth in patients with permanent achlorhydria causes malassimilation in more than just the occasional case. In an attempt to clarify this, 19 patients with pernicious anaemia who had undergone a thorough investigation 6.6 y (mean) previously, were reinvestigated with clinical history, upper GI endoscopy including multiple duodenal biopsies, microbial cultures of gastric juice and duodenal mucosa, a xylose absorption test, and...

  7. Immunological bases of increased susceptibility to invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella infection in children with malaria and anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirenda, Tonney S; Mandala, Wilson L; Gordon, Melita A; Mastroeni, Pietro

    2017-12-15

    Malaria and anaemia are key underlying factors for iNTS disease in African children. Knowledge of clinical and epidemiological risk-factors for iNTS disease has not been paralleled by an in-depth knowledge of the immunobiology of the disease. Herein, we review human and animal studies on mechanisms of increased susceptibility to iNTS in children. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  8. Laboratory diagnosis of the rare anaemias: external quality assessment benefits patient care

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara De La Salle; Andrea Mosca; Renata Paleari; Vasileios Rapanakis; Keith Hyde

    2013-01-01

    Since its introduction in the 1960s, external quality assessment has developed to become an essential component of the quality management system of the diagnostic laboratory. External quality assessment provides a long term, retrospective view of laboratory performance, demonstrating the competence of the laboratory to others. The ENERCA project (the European Network for Rare and Congenital Anaemias) has established a list of core laboratory tests that are used in the diagnosis of rare and co...

  9. Pegylated interferon de novo-induce autoimmune haemolytic anaemia in chronic hepatitis C patient

    OpenAIRE

    Said, Ashraf; Elbahrawy, Ashraf; Alfiomy, Mohamed; Abdellah, Mohamed; Shahat, Khaled; Salah, Mohamed; Mostafa, Sadek; Elwassief, Ahmed; Aboelfotoh, Attef; Abdelhafeez, Hafez; El-Sherif, Assem

    2011-01-01

    A 55-year-old Egyptian woman with chronic hepatitis C undergoing treatment with pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) alfa-2a plus ribavirin was referred to our hospital on November 2010 with prolonged easy fatigability and an attack of syncope; she had no prior history of autoimmune disorders or allergy. Laboratory investigations documented the presence of Peg-IFN induced autoimmune haemolytic anaemia and autoimmune thyroiditis. Intravenous γ globulin (IVGG) failed to correct the autoimmune process...

  10. Optimal and continuous anaemia control in a cohort of dialysis patients in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Denes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines for the management of anaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD recommend a minimal haemoglobin (Hb target of 11 g/dL. Recent surveys indicate that this requirement is not met in many patients in Europe. In most studies, Hb is only assessed over a short-term period. The aim of this study was to examine the control of anaemia over a continuous long-term period in Switzerland. Methods A prospective multi-centre observational study was conducted in dialysed patients treated with recombinant human epoetin (EPO beta, over a one-year follow-up period, with monthly assessments of anaemia parameters. Results Three hundred and fifty patients from 27 centres, representing 14% of the dialysis population in Switzerland, were included. Mean Hb was 11.9 ± 1.0 g/dL, and remained stable over time. Eighty-five % of the patients achieved mean Hb ≥ 11 g/dL. Mean EPO dose was 155 ± 118 IU/kg/week, being delivered mostly by subcutaneous route (64–71%. Mean serum ferritin and transferrin saturation were 435 ± 253 μg/L and 30 ± 11%, respectively. At month 12, adequate iron stores were found in 72.5% of patients, whereas absolute and functional iron deficiencies were observed in only 5.1% and 17.8%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that diabetes unexpectedly influenced Hb towards higher levels (12.1 ± 0.9 g/dL; p = 0.02. One year survival was significantly higher in patients with Hb ≥ 11 g/dL than in those with Hb Conclusion In comparison to European studies of reference, this survey shows a remarkable and continuous control of anaemia in Swiss dialysis centres. These results were reached through moderately high EPO doses, mostly given subcutaneously, and careful iron therapy management.

  11. Bone marrow transplantation in aplastic anaemia using cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.; Zwaan, F.E.; Noordijk, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Six patients with severe aplastic anaemia received a bone-marrow graft after conditioning with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation (TLI). No rejections occurred. Acute graft-versus-host disease developed in 3 patients and was fatal in one. Another patient died from systemic aspergillus infection. Chronic GVHD of the skin developed in a patient who was grafted with bone marrow from her HLA-phenotypically identical father. These data suggest that conditioning with cyclophosphamide and TLI is a promising regimen. (orig.) [de

  12. Aggressive Recurrence of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a patient with Fanconi’s Anaemia (FA)

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nolan, M.

    2017-03-01

    Fanconi’s Anaemia is a rare autosomal recessive disease for which the incidence of head and neck cancer can be increased 700-fold1. We report a case of a 31-year old Caucasian male with FA who initially presented in July 2007 with oral squamous cell carcinoma for which he received radical surgery and radiotherapy. He was disease-free until August 2015 when he presented with an extremely aggressive recurrence.

  13. Gastric antral vascular ectasia--a cause of refractory anaemia in systemic sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Busteed, S

    2012-02-03

    Recurrent gastrointestinal haemorrhage is an uncommon manifestation of systemic sclerosis. We report a case of gastrointestinal bleeding due to gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) in a patient with systemic sclerosis. Failure to recognise the condition as a cause of gastrointestinal bleeding may delay the instigation of appropriate treatment. GAVE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of anaemia in patients with autoimmune conditions such as systemic sclerosis and primary biliary cirrhosis.

  14. Common occurrence of anaemia at the end of pregnancy following exposure to zidovudine-free regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnetti, Carmela; Baroncelli, Silvia; Molinari, Atim; Nardini, Giulia; Genovese, Orazio; Ricerca, Bianca Maria; Cavaliere, Anna Franca; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Antoni, Anna Degli; Tamburrini, Enrica; Floridia, Marco

    2011-08-01

    Although zidovudine-free regimens are increasingly used in pregnancy, their haematological effects in mothers and newborns are incompletely defined. The haematological profiles of 119 HIV-infected women and their neonates with highly active antiretroviral regimens (HAART) in pregnancy including or not zidovudine (ZDV) were investigated. Three groups were compared: 1) women who started ZDV-lamivudine (3TC)-based HAART during pregnancy (ZDVs, n = 60); 2) women on ZDV-3TC-based HAART from conception (ZDVc, n = 18); 3) women on ZDV-free HAART from conception (ZDVf, n = 41). At the beginning of pregnancy, haemoglobin levels were similar in the three groups. By week 36 compared to baseline, haemoglobin levels had a significantly greater decrease in ZDVf women compared to ZDVs women (ZDVf: -2.03 g/dl; ZDVs: -1.36 g/dl, p = 0.036). A similar trend was observed for occurrence of maternal anaemia at 36 weeks. Newborns with no prenatal ZDV exposure had significantly higher haemoglobin levels at birth (ZDVf: 16.1 ± 1.4 g/dl, ZDVs: 14.3 ± 2.0 g/dl; ZDVc: 14.6 ± 2.4 g/dl, p = 0.044 and 0.003, respectively). Half of ZDV-unexposed mothers had anaemia at the end of pregnancy, but their neonates had normal haemoglobin levels. ZDV initiation was associated with a lower occurrence of maternal anaemia during the third trimester and decreased haemoglobin levels in the newborns. We hypothesize that foetal iron requirements could represent a major determinant of maternal anaemia at the end of pregnancy. Copyright © 2011 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Haemoglobin changes and risk of anaemia following treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwang, Julien; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Ndiaye, Jean-Louis; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A; Dorsey, Grant; Mårtensson, Andreas A; Karema, Corine; Olliaro, Piero L

    2017-06-23

    Anaemia is common in malaria. It is important to quantitate the risk of anaemia and to distinguish factors related to the natural history of disease from potential drug toxicity. Individual-patient data analysis based on nine randomized controlled trials of treatments of uncomplicated falciparum malaria from 13 sub-Saharan African countries. Risk factors for reduced haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations and anaemia on presentation and after treatment were analysed using mixed effect models. Eight thousand eight hundred ninety-seven patients (77.0% <5 years-old) followed-up through 28 days treated with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT, 90%, n = 7968) or non-ACT. At baseline, under 5's had the highest risk of anaemia (77.6% vs. 32.8%) and higher parasitaemia (43,938 μl) than older subjects (2784 μl). Baseline anaemia increased the risk of parasitological recurrence. Hb began to fall after treatment start. In under 5's the estimated nadir was ~35 h (range 29-48), with a drop of -12.8% from baseline (from 9.8 g/dl to 8.7 g/dl, p = 0.001); in under 15's, the mean Hb decline between day 0-3 was -4.7% (from 9.4 to 9.0 g/dl, p = 0.001). The degree of Hb loss was greater in patients with high pre-treatment Hb and parasitaemia and with slower parasite reduction rates, and was unrelated to age. Subsequently, Hb increased linearly (+0.6%/day) until day 28, to reach +13.8% compared to baseline. Severe anaemia (<5 g/dl, 2 per 1000 patients) was transient and all patients recovered after day 14, except one case of very severe anaemia associated with parasite recurrence at day 28. There was no systematic difference in Hb concentrations between treatments and no case of delayed anaemia. On presentation with acute malaria young children with high parasitaemia have the highest risk of anaemia. The majority of patients experience a drop in Hb while on treatment as early as day 1-2, followed by a linear increase through follow-up. The degree of the early Hb dip is

  16. Predictors of anaemia and iron deficiency in HIV-infected pregnant women in Tanzania: a potential role for vitamin D and parasitic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Julia L; Mehta, Saurabh; Duggan, Christopher P; Spiegelman, Donna; Aboud, Said; Kupka, Roland; Msamanga, Gernard I; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2012-05-01

    Anaemia is common during pregnancy, and prenatal Fe supplementation is the standard of care. However, the persistence of anaemia despite Fe supplementation, particularly in HIV infection, suggests that its aetiology may be more complex and warrants further investigation. The present study was conducted to examine predictors of incident haematological outcomes in HIV-infected pregnant women in Tanzania. Prospective cohort study. Cox proportional hazards and binomial regression models were used to identify predictors of incident haematological outcomes: anaemia (Hb anaemia (Hb anaemia and hypochromic microcytosis during follow-up. Higher baseline erythrocyte sedimentation rate and CD8 T-cell concentrations, and lower Hb concentrations and CD4 T-cell counts, were independent predictors of incident anaemia and Fe deficiency. Low baseline vitamin D (anaemia and hypochromic microcytosis, respectively, during the follow-up period. Parasitic infections, vitamin D insufficiency, low CD4 T-cell count and high erythrocyte sedimentation rate were the main predictors of anaemia and Fe deficiency in pregnancy and the postpartum period in this population. A comprehensive approach to prevent and manage anaemia, including micronutrient supplementation and infectious disease control, is warranted in HIV-infected women in resource-limited settings - particularly during the pre- and postpartum periods.

  17. Radiosensitivity in Fanconi anaemia: application to the conditioning regimen for bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluckman, E.; Devergie, A.; Dutreix, J.

    1983-01-01

    Fanconi anaemia, an autosomal recessive constitutional aplastic anaemia, seems to be related to a DNA repair mechanism defect. Bone marrow transplantation is the only treatment which can cure these patients. Previous attempts at BMT have shown an increased sensitivity to Cyclophosphamide used for the conditioning. Such a sensitivity has also been observed in vitro when Fanconi anaemia cells were incubated with alkylating agents. We have tested the in vivo radiosensitivity and cell repair after skin contact radiotherapy to calculate the irradiation dose which could be tolerated by FA patients. Eight patients have been tested and the results confirmed the suspected increased radiosensitivity in the majority of patients. Following these results, four patients were conditioned with low dose Cyclophosphamide (20 mg/kg) associated with 5 Grays thoraco-abdominal irradiation. all had a take and no major complication of the conditioning regimen. All are alive in good condition from day 51 to day 330 after transplant. Oesophagitis was one major unexpected complication. This study confirms the possibility of curing FA patients with BMT when the conditioning regimen is modified according to the pathophysiology of the disease. (author)

  18. Radiosensitivity in Fanconi anaemia: application to the conditioning regimen for bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluckman, E.; Devergie, A. (Hopital Saint-Louis, 75 - Paris (France)); Dutreix, J. (Institut Gustave Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France))

    1983-07-01

    Fanconi anaemia, an autosomal recessive constitutional aplastic anaemia, seems to be related to a DNA repair mechanism defect. Bone marrow transplantation is the only treatment which can cure these patients. Previous attempts at BMT have shown an increased sensitivity to Cyclophosphamide used for the conditioning. Such a sensitivity has also been observed in vitro when Fanconi anaemia cells were incubated with alkylating agents. We have tested the in vivo radiosensitivity and cell repair after skin contact radiotherapy to calculate the irradiation dose which could be tolerated by FA patients. Eight patients have been tested and the results confirmed the suspected increased radiosensitivity in the majority of patients. Following these results, four patients were conditioned with low dose Cyclophosphamide (20 mg/kg) associated with 5 Grays thoraco-abdominal irradiation. All had a take and no major complication of the conditioning regimen. All are alive in good condition from day 51 to day 330 after transplant. Oesophagitis was one major unexpected complication. This study confirms the possibility of curing FA patients with BMT when the conditioning regimen is modified according to the pathophysiology of the disease.

  19. Successful application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis for beta-thalassaemia and sickle cell anaemia in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamayou, S; Alecci, C; Ragolia, C; Giambona, A; Siciliano, S; Maggio, A; Fichera, M; Guglielmino, A

    2002-05-01

    In Italy, the autosomal recessive diseases beta-thalassaemia and sickle cell anaemia are so widespread that in some regions they can be defined as 'social diseases'. In this study, nine clinical applications of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) were performed for beta-thalassaemia and sickle cell anaemia on seven Sicilian couples and carriers of beta-globin gene mutations. The studied mutations were: Cd39, HbS, IVS1 nt1, IVS1 nt6 and IVS1 nt110. ICSI was performed with partner's sperm on 131 out of 147 retrieved oocytes, and this resulted in 72 zygotes; 32 embryos were successfully biopsied on day 3. The biopsied blastomeres were lysed and the beta-globin alleles amplified by nested PCR. The mutation diagnosis was performed by restriction enzyme digestion and reverse dot-blot. The amplification efficacy was 97.2%. The genotype study of non-transferred and surplus embryos showed that the allele drop-out rate was 8.6%. Seventeen embryos were transferred in utero on day 4. All couples received an embryo transfer; of the four pregnancies obtained, three resulted in live births and one miscarried at 11 weeks. Prenatal diagnosis at the 11th week and miscarriage material analysis confirmed the PGD results. These studies represent the first successful application of PGD for beta-thalassaemia and sickle cell anaemia in Italy.

  20. Diagnostic and management dilemma of a pancreas-kidney transplant recipient with aplastic anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viecelli, Andrea; Hessamodini, Hannah; Augustson, Bradley; Lim, Wai Hon

    2014-09-25

    We report a case of a 57-year-old woman with type I diabetes who had received a simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplant maintained on tacrolimus, mycophenolic acid (MPA) and prednisolone. Her renal allograft failed 6 years post-transplant but she continued to have a normal functioning pancreatic allograft. Over the course of 5 years, she developed progressive bone marrow failure with repeat bone marrow aspirates demonstrating an evolution from erythroid hypoplasia to hypocellular marrow and eventual aplastic anaemia despite discontinuation of MPA and reduction of tacrolimus. She was transfusion-dependent and had frequent admissions for sepsis. Despite treatment with antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine for aplastic anaemia, she developed fatal invasive pulmonary aspergillosis within 3 weeks of treatment. Even though the cause of aplastic anaemia is likely multifactorial, this case highlights the difficulty in balancing the need for versus the risk of ongoing immunosuppression in a SPK transplant recipient who continues to have normal pancreatic graft function. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  1. A case of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia after 39 cycles of nivolumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Hira; Daboul, Nour; Albrethsen, Mary; Fazal, Salman

    2018-04-18

    With growing use of nivolumab, rare but serious side effects have surfaced in some patients. We present a case of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia that developed after 39 cycles of nivolumab. A 78-year-old man with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma, refractory to multiple lines of chemotherapy was switched to nivolumab. After around 2 years of stable course on nivolumab, he developed transfusion-dependent anaemia with haemoglobin of 8.6 g/dL. Nivolumab was held immediately. Bone marrow biopsy findings were inconclusive of myelodysplastic syndrome. Further testing was suggestive of haemolysis with haptoglobin <10 mg/dL, elevated reticulocyte count and identification of immunoglobulin G antibody. Haemoglobin improved significantly with initiation of 1 mg/kg prednisone in addition to rituximab weekly × four doses. The development of transfusion-dependent anaemia with the exposure to cytotoxic chemotherapy usually raises the question for myelodysplastic syndrome. In contradiction, our patient was diagnosed to have a haematological autoimmune complication related to immunotherapy. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Current opinion on the management of iron deficiency anaemia in gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derovs, Aleksejs; Pokrotnieks, Juris; Derova, Jelena; Danilans, Anatolijs; Pukitis, Aldis; Dombure, Polina; Leiniece, Sandra; Zeltina Indra

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anaemia in the world. Despite frequently weak and masked clinical presentation of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), this disease is very serious with complications leading to early mortality. In the developed countries IDA is predominantly diagnosed as the complication of another disease or as the result of major bleeding events. Diagnosis of IDA should be based on laboratory findings i.e. haemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and ferritin. Latter is the most sensitive marker for iron deficiency. Anaemia of chronic disease should be taken into an account as a potential differential diagnosis or coexisting state. For women in fertility age with IDA, gynaecological disorders should be ruled out first. Males and postmenopausal women with IDA should undergo upper, lower and in certain cases capsule endoscopy and/or enteroscopy to find a plausible cause of IDA. The ultimate goal of therapy is to find out and treat the primary cause of IDA. Iron body stores should be restored using either oral or parenteral iron preparations. The use of parenteral iron preparations in patients with gastrointestinal pathologies is often clinically substantiated for the treatment of IDA. Red blood cell transfusion should be administered in emergency cases only.

  3. PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA AMONG RURAL PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN OF MAHARASHTRA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Arlappa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia continues to be a severe public health nutritional problem in India affecting all physiological groups, even after the National Nutritional Anaemia Prophylaxis Programme has been in operation for more than three decades. Objective: To assess the prevalence of anaemia among rural pre-school (1-5-years children of Maharashtra. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried by National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB covering a total of 404 (Boys-243; Girls-161 pre-school children. Information of socio-demographic particulars was obtained and the finger prick blood samples were collected for the estimation of haemoglobin levels by cyanmethmoglobin method. Results: The result shows that 59.2 % (CI: 54.4-64.0 of the rural pre-school children of Maharashtra were anaemic, and the prevalence was significantly (p40% among rural pre-school children of Maharashtra. Therefore, appropriate intervention measures such as supplementary iron & folic acid, periodic deworming and health & nutrition education should be strengthened. The community needs to be encouraged to diversify their diets by consuming iron rich foods.

  4. Unclassified haemolytic anaemia with splenomegaly and erythrocyte cation abnormalities - a disease of the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.F.; Bournier, O.; Renoux, M.; Charron, D.; Boivin, P.

    1976-01-01

    An unclassified case of haemolytic anaemia with voluminous splenomegaly is reported. This anaemia was normocytic without any specific morphologic aspect of red blood cells (RBC); Coombs test was negative; the osmotic fragility was normal; the increased autohaemolysis was not affected by the presence of glucose; Hb studies were normal; no RBC enzyme deficiency was found; RBC lipids and membrane proteins were normal; there was a marked reduction in RBC survival with exclusive splenic uptake of erythrocytes. Before splenectomy, RBC cations and water content were abnormal: 1) the RBC water was decreased moderately; 2) the RBC sodium was about twice the normal mean with an increased 22 Na turn-over; 3) the RBC potassium was markedly reduced and 42 K influx was twice the normal mean; 4) the RBC calcium content was increased. Splenectomy was followed by rapid disappearance of haemolysis and RBC water and cation disturbances. Because of this extremely rapid disappearance after splenectomy the authors suggest this case of haemolytic anaemia could be a primary disease of the spleen. (author)

  5. Iron Deficiency Anaemia in Pregnancy and Postpartum: Pathophysiology and Effect of Oral versus Intravenous Iron Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhossain A. Khalafallah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA is the most common disorder in the world, affecting more than two billion people. The World Health Organization’s global database on anaemia has estimated a prevalence of 14% based on a regression-based analysis. Recent data show that the prevalence of IDA in pregnant women in industrialized countries is 17.4% while the incidence of IDA in developing countries increases significantly up to 56%. Although oral iron supplementation is widely used for the treatment of IDA, not all patients respond adequately to oral iron therapy. This is due to several factors including the side effects of oral iron which lead to poor compliance and lack of efficacy. The side effects, predominantly gastrointestinal discomfort, occur in a large cohort of patients taking oral iron preparations. Previously, the use of intravenous iron had been associated with undesirable and sometimes serious side effects and therefore was underutilised. However, in recent years, new type II and III iron complexes have been developed, which offer better compliance and toleration as well as high efficacy with a good safety profile. In summary, intravenous iron can be used safely for a rapid repletion of iron stores and correction of anaemia during and after pregnancy.

  6. Burden of anaemia in rural and urban jat women in haryana state, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maninder, Kaur; Kochar, G K

    2009-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 600 Jat women (rural=300, urban=300), aged 40 to 70 years from Haryana state in North India. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia and the dietary intake of rural and urban middle-aged (40-59 years) and older (60 and above) Jat women. The findings indicated that all the subjects exhibited a decline in the mean values of haemoglobin (Hb) concentration with advancement in age. The mean blood Hb concentration of urban middle-aged and older women was 10.1±1.3g/dl and 9.91.4g/dl respectively, which was higher than their rural counterparts at all age groups, although the differences were statistically non-significant (p>0.05). The overall prevalence of anaemia reached 88.7% (rural women= 91.3%, urban women =86%). Daily dietary intake of rural and urban subjects was below the recommended dietary allowances. Physical performance of both groups of the women showed a decline with a decrease in Hb concentration. A significant and positive correlation of Hb status was observed with grip strength and vital capacity while a negative association was witnessed with blood pressure and pulse rate in both the rural and urban women. Anaemia among these women may be attributed to inadequate dietary intake, illiteracy, and poor access to health services.

  7. Intravenous iron sucrose therapy for moderate to severe anaemia in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriplani, Alka; Mahey, Reeta; Dash, Biswa Bhusan; Kulshreshta, Vidushi; Agarwal, Nutan; Bhatla, Neerja

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional deficiency in pregnancy. Prophylactic oral iron is recommended during pregnancy to meet the increased requirement. In India, women become pregnant with low baseline haemoglobin level resulting in high incidence of moderate to severe anaemia in pregnancy where oral iron therapy cannot meet the requirement. Pregnant women with moderate anaemia are to be treated with parentral iron therapy. This study was undertaken to evaluate the response and effect of intravenous iron sucrose complex (ISC) given to pregnant women with IDA. A prospective study was conducted (June 2009 to June 2011) in the department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. One hundred pregnant women with haemoglobin between 5-9 g% with diagnosed iron deficiency attending antenatal clinic were given intravenous iron sucrose complex in a dose of 200 mg twice weekly schedule after calculating the dose requirement. The mean haemoglobin raised from 7.63 ± 0.61 to 11.20 ± 0.73 g% (Panaemia. Intravenous iron sucrose can be used in hospital settings and tertiary urban hospitals where it can replace intramuscular therapy due to injection related side effects. Further, long-term comparative studies are required to recommend its use at peripheral level.

  8. A fast-track anaemia clinic in the Emergency Department: cost-analysis of intravenous iron administration for treating iron-deficiency anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana-Díaz, Manuel; Muñoz-Romo, Raúl; Gómez-Ramírez, Susana; Pavía, José; Borobia, Alberto M; García-Erce, José A; Muñoz, Manuel

    2017-09-01

    A fast-track anaemia clinic (FTAC) for the management of moderate-to-severe iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) was established in our Emergency Department in 2010. In this FTAC, the replacement of packed red cell transfusion by ferric carboxymaltose administration was proven to be safe and effective. The aim of this study was a cost-analysis of IDA management in the FTAC, comparing this management with the previous standard care pathway consisting of packed red cell transfusion, if needed, and referral to outpatient specialised care. A cost study was performed for patients with IDA who were at risk of requiring transfusion (haemoglobin costs in the FTAC were compared to those theoretically incurred if these patients had been managed using the standard care pathway. In addition, a sensitivity analysis considering variations of up to ±30% in ferric carboxymaltose and packed red cell acquisition costs was performed (49 possible scenarios). Between 2012 and 2015, 238 IDA patients were treated in the FTAC. The average treatment cost was € 594±337/patient in the FTAC group and € 672±301/patient in the standard care pathway group, with a saving of € 78±28/patient (95% CI, 22-133; pcosts in the FTAC (€ 480-722/patient), compared with those of the standard care pathway (€ 550-794/patient), resulted in significant cost-savings for all studied scenarios (€ 51-104/patient; pcost-saving compared with the standard care pathway.

  9. Malaria and anaemia in pregnancy: a cross-sectional study of pregnant women in rural communities of Southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, Emmanuel O; Dim, Cyril C; Uzochukwu, Benjamin S; Iloghalu, Emeka I; Ugwu, Angela O

    2014-06-01

    Several strategies are used in the care of pregnant women accessing antenatal care in primary health centres in Nigeria, with the aim of reducing the burden of malaria and anaemia. The objective of the study was to appraise the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and anaemia in pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in rural communities of Southeastern Nigeria where malaria preventive strategies are in place. We undertook a cross-sectional study of 300 pregnant women receiving antenatal care in randomly selected primary health centres in the Nkanu West local government area (LGA), Enugu state, Nigeria from August to September 2010. The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia was 92.0% (276/300) (mild in 86.7% [260/300] and moderate in 15.3% [16/300]). The prevalence of anaemia was 49.3% (148/300) (mild in 29.3% [88/300] and moderate in 20% [60/300]). There were no severe cases of malaria parasitaemia or anaemia. The educational status and occupation of participants were significantly associated with the occurrence of peripheral parasitaemia and anaemia respectively (pprevalence of malaria and anaemia is very high in the Nkanu West LGA of Enugu State, Nigeria. Efforts to reduce the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and anaemia in pregnancy should be intensified in rural settings of Enugu state and Nigeria as a whole. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Coeliac disease as the cause of resistant sideropenic anaemia in children with Down's syndrome: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Momčilo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Coeliac disease (CD is a permanent intolerance of gluten, i.e. of gliadin and related proteins found in the endosperm of wheat, rye and barley. It is characterized by polygenic predisposition, autoimmune nature, predominantly asymptomatic or atypical clinical course, as well as by high prevalence in patients with Down's syndrome (DS and some other diseases. Outline of Cases. We are presenting a girl and two boys, aged 6-7 (X=6.33 years with DS and CD recognized under the feature of sideropenic anaemia resistant to oral therapy with iron. Beside mental retardation, low stature and the morphological features characteristic of DS, two patients had a congenital heart disease; one ventricular septal defect and the other atrioventricular canal. In two patients, trisomy on the 21st chromosome pair (trisomy 21 was disclosed in all cells, while one had a mosaic karyotype. All three patients had classical laboratory parameters of sideropenic anaemia: blood Hb 77-89 g/l (X=81.67, HCT 0.26-0.29% (X=0.28, MCV 69-80 fl (X=73, MCH 24.3-30 pg (X=26.77 and serum iron 2-5 μmol/L (X=4.0. Beside anaemia and in one patient a mild isolated hypertransaminasemia (AST 67 U/l, ALT 62 U/l, other indicators of CD were not registered in any of the children. In addition, in all three patients, we also detected an increased level of antibodies to tissue transglutaminase (atTG of IgA class (45-88 U/l so that we performed endoscopic enterobiopsy in order to reliably confirm the diagnosis of CD. In all three patients, the pathohistological finding of the duodenal mucosa specimen showed mild to moderate destructive enteropathy associated with high intraepithelial lymphocyte infiltration, cryptic hyperplasia and lympho-plasmocytic infiltration of the stroma. In all three patients, the treatment with a strict gluten-free diet and iron therapy applied orally for 3-4 months resulted in blood count normalization and the correction of sideropenia. Serum level of the at

  11. Association of extraintestinal manifestations and anaemia with disease outcomes in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Kurti, Zsuzsanna; Gonczi, Lorant; Golovics, Petra Anna; Lovasz, Barbara Dorottya; Szita, Istvan; Balogh, Mihaly; Pandur, Tunde; Vavricka, Stephan R; Rogler, Gerhard; Lakatos, Laszlo; Lakatos, Peter Laszlo

    2016-07-01

    The association between extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) and disease activity suggest a common pathogenetic link with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We report on the association of EIMs and anaemia with long-term disease outcomes, including treatment steps, hospitalization, and surgery in the prospective population-based IBD inception cohort from Veszprem province. Data of 678 incident IBD patients (Crohn's disease/ulcerative colitis(CD/UC): 331/347) diagnosed from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2012 were analyzed (CD: m/f: 176/155, median age at diagnosis: 28, IQR: 21-40 years, disease duration: 6, IQR: 2-9 years; UC: m/f: 200/147, median age at diagnosis: 36, IQR: 26-50 years, duration: 7, IQR: 4-10 years). EIMs were present in 30% of the CD and 17.3% of the UC patients. In CD, female gender (p = 0.02) need for steroid (p  < 0.001) and azathioprine (AZA) (p = 0.02), while in UC, young age at onset (p = 0.03), extensive disease (p = 0.003), female gender (p = 0.07), need for steroids (p < 0.001) and AZA (p = 0.004) and need for IBD-related hospitalization (p = 0.01) were associated with the presence of EIMs. Anaemia was present in 56.7% of the CD and 30.2% of the UC patients. In both CD and UC anaemia was associated with age at onset (pCD = 0.001, pUC = 0.04), disease location/extent (pCD = 0.02, pUC < 0.001), steroid and AZA use (for both pCD,UC < 0.001), need for surgery/colectomy (pCD < 0.001, pUC = 0.002) and hospitalization (pCD = 0.004, pUC < 0.001) and in CD, it was associated with anti TNF therapy(p = 0.002). The presence of EIMs was associated with disease phenotype in UC and with treatment strategy in both CD and UC. Additionally, anaemia was associated with hospitalization and surgery in both CD and UC, suggesting that EIMs and anaemia may be helpful in stratifying disease severity in IBD.

  12. Prevalence of anaemia and associated factors among children below five years of age in Cape Verde, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo, Rosa M L; Santos, Marta M A S; Baião, Mirian R; Luiz, Ronir R; da Veiga, Gloria V

    2014-12-01

    This study estimated the prevalence of anaemia and associated factors in a probability sample of 993 chil- dren aged 6-59 months in Cape Verde, West Africa. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated from a hierarchical model for multiple analysis to assess the association between anaemia and explanatory variables. The prevalence of anaemia was 51.8% (95% CI 47.7-55.8). Children who resided within poor household conditions (OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.06-3.71) were below 24 months of age (OR 3.23; 95% CI 2.03-5.15) and recently experienced diarrhoea (OR 1.58; 95% CI 0.99-2.50) were at high risk of anaemia. Anaemia should be considered a serious public-health concern in Cape Verde, mainly for chil- dren below 24 months. Further, special consideration should be given to children who have experienced recent diarrhoea and belong to families residing in poor household conditions.

  13. Effectiveness of routine antihelminthic treatment on anaemia in pregnancy in Rufiji District, Tanzania: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urassa, David P; Nystrom, Lennarth; Carlsted, Anders

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of an antihelminthic drug, given at booking and at term to antenatal care visits, on the prevalence of anaemia at term and 4 months post-partum in Rufiji district, Tanzania, the area with high prevalence of intestinal parasites. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted on 3080 pregnant women. Out of these 1475 (study arm) received albendazole and 1605 (control arm) placebo. All women also received routine daily iron folate supplements (36 mg iron and 5 mg folate), and sulphadoxine pyramethamine (SP) to prevent malaria. Haemoglobin levels were assessed at booking, at term and 4 months post-partum. At term, median and mean haemoglobin level and the prevalence of severe (anaemia did not differ. The reduction in the prevalence of anaemia from booking to term, was significantly larger in the study arm compared to control arm (26.1% vs. 18.8%; p anaemia (Hb pregnancy. However benefits for deworming may be limited in areas with an antenatal iron supplementation programme or low intensity of hookworm infections and hence future research should be directed towards the cost-effectiveness of the de-worming compared to other interventions for reducing anaemia in pregnancy.

  14. Chikungunya virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya virus infection; Chikungunya ... Where Chikungunya is Found Before 2013, the virus was found in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific oceans. In late 2013, outbreaks occurred for the first time in the ...

  15. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, the ... not travel to areas where there is a Zika virus outbreak. If you do decide to travel, first ...

  16. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Funding CDC Activities For Healthcare Providers Clinical Evaluation & Disease Sexual Transmission HIV Infection & Zika Virus Testing for Zika Test Specimens – At Time of Birth Diagnostic Tests Understanding Zika Virus Test Results ...

  17. Resolution of anaemia in a cohort of HIV-infected patients with a high prevalence and incidence of tuberculosis receiving antiretroviral therapy in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, Andrew D.; Wood, Robin; Cobelens, Frank G.; Gupta-Wright, Ankur; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Lawn, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anaemia is frequently associated with both HIV-infection and HIV-related tuberculosis (TB) in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive patients in sub-Saharan Africa and is strongly associated with poor prognosis. However, the effect of ART on the resolution of anaemia in patient cohorts with

  18. A randomised controlled trial on the Four Pillars Approach in managing pregnant women with anaemia in Yogyakarta-Indonesia: a study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widyawati, W.; Jans, S.; Bor, H.; Siswishanto, R.; Dillen, J. van; Lagro-Janssen, A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anaemia is a common health problem among pregnant women and a contributing factor with a major influence on maternal mortality in Indonesia. The Four Pillars Approach is a new approach to anaemia in pregnancy, combining four strategies to improve antenatal and delivery care. The primary

  19. Markers of inflammation and activation of coagulation are associated with anaemia in antiretroviral-treated HIV disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; Weitz, Jeffrey I; Collins, Gary

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and the presence and type of anaemia among HIV-positive individuals. DESIGN: A cross-sectional...... study. METHODS: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated adults participating in an international HIV trial with haemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) measurements at entry were categorized by presence of anaemia (haemoglobin ≤14 g/dl in men and ≤12 g/dl in women) and, for those...... with anaemia, by type [microcytic (MCV 100 fl)]. We analysed the association between inflammation (IL-6 and hsCRP) and coagulation (D-dimer) and haemoglobin, controlling for demographics (age, race and sex), BMI, HIV plasma RNA levels, CD4⁺ T-cell counts (nadir...

  20. Increased microerythrocyte count in homozygous alpha(+-thalassaemia contributes to protection against severe malarial anaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freya J I Fowkes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The heritable haemoglobinopathy alpha(+-thalassaemia is caused by the reduced synthesis of alpha-globin chains that form part of normal adult haemoglobin (Hb. Individuals homozygous for alpha(+-thalassaemia have microcytosis and an increased erythrocyte count. Alpha(+-thalassaemia homozygosity confers considerable protection against severe malaria, including severe malarial anaemia (SMA (Hb concentration 1.1 x 10(12/l as a result of the reduced mean cell Hb in homozygous alpha(+-thalassaemia. In addition, children homozygous for alpha(+-thalassaemia require a 10% greater reduction in erythrocyte count than children of normal genotype (p = 0.02 for Hb concentration to fall to 50 g/l, the cutoff for SMA. We estimated that the haematological profile in children homozygous for alpha(+-thalassaemia reduces the risk of SMA during acute malaria compared to children of normal genotype (relative risk 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.24-1.12, p = 0.09.The increased erythrocyte count and microcytosis in children homozygous for alpha(+-thalassaemia may contribute substantially to their protection against SMA. A lower concentration of Hb per erythrocyte and a larger population of erythrocytes may be a biologically advantageous strategy against the significant reduction in erythrocyte count that occurs during acute infection with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. This haematological profile may reduce the risk of anaemia by other Plasmodium species, as well as other causes of anaemia. Other host polymorphisms that induce an increased erythrocyte count and microcytosis may confer a similar advantage.

  1. Anaemia, its determinants and effect of different interventions amongst tea tribe adolescent girls living in Dibrugarh district of Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Goswami Mahanta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional anaemia, one of the major public health problems in India is associated with lower productivity, higher sickness rate and absenteeism having inter-generational effect. Morbidity during adolescent has implication on future safe motherhood, optimum growth and development of foetus and children. Aims and Objective: To assess, prevalence and determinants of anaemia and effect of different interventions amongst tea tribe adolescent girls. Materials & Methods: A community based intervention study was conducted covering 16 tea estates of Dibrugarh District, Assam. Variables includes socio-demographic, environmental, anthropometry, history of present and past illness, clinical examination and laboratory investigation including haemoglobin, serum ferritin, haemoglobin typing and routine stool examination. Interventions given were weekly IFA supplementation, dietary diversification, health promotion by monthly NHED, cooking demonstration, cooking competition and kitchen garden promotion and counselling to improve IFA compliance and remove barriers was done. SPSS and EpiInfo software, used to calculate of rates, ratios, chi-square test, Fisher Exact test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Enrolments were 802, with mean age, 14.8 years. Anaemia prevalence was 96.3% with median serum ferritin, 22.9 ng/ml. Prevalence of Sickle cell anaemia was,12% and helminthiasis 84.20%.  History of passage of worms (9.1%, night blindness (5.6%, weakness (62.1%, loss of appetite (37.5%, gum bleeding (23.6%, loose motion (13%, loss of weight (9.9%, menstrual problem (19.3% was common. Following intervention mean haemoglobin difference was 1.48 gm/dl with 13.5% difference in prevalence. Associated morbidities showed significant reduction following active intervention. Conclusions: High anaemia prevalence requires urgent attention to avoid preventable morbidities. Implementation of different intervention in an integrated manner

  2. Prevalence of Malaria Infection and Risk Factors Associated with Anaemia among Pregnant Women in Semiurban Community of Hazaribag, Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, Mohammad; Shakeel, Shayan; Kumari, Shweta; Bharti, Aakanksha; Zahid, Faisal; Anwar, Shadab; Singh, Krishn Pratap; Islam, Mazahirul; Sharma, Ajay Kumar; Lata, Sneh; Ali, Vahab; Adak, Tridibes; Das, Pradeep; Raziuddin, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The escalating burden, pathogenesis, and clinical sequel of malaria during pregnancy have combinatorial adverse impact on both mother and foetus that further perplexed the situation of diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. This prompted us to evaluate the status of population at risk of MIP in Hazaribag, Jharkhand, India. Cross-sectional study was conducted over a year at Sadar Hospital, Hazaribag. Malaria was screened using blood smear and/or RDT. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin concentration. Pretested questionnaires were used to gather sociodemographic, clinical, and obstetrical data. The prevalence of MIP was 5.4% and 4.3% at ANC and DU, and 13.2% malaria was in women without pregnancy. Interestingly, majority were asymptomatically infected with P. vivax (over 85%) at ANC and DU. Peripheral parasitemia was significantly associated with fever within past week, rural origin of subjects, and first/second pregnancies in multivariate analysis, with the highest risk factor associated with fever followed by rural residence. Strikingly in cohort, anaemia was prevalent in 86% at ANC as compared to 72% at DU, whereas severe anaemia was 13.6% and 7.8% at ANC and DU. Even more anaemia prevalence was observed in MIP group (88% and 89% at ANC and DU), whereas severe anaemia was 23% and 21%, respectively. In view of observed impact of anaemia, parasitemia and asymptomatic infection of P. vivax during pregnancy and delivery suggest prompt diagnosis regardless of symptoms and comprehensive drug regime should be offered to pregnant women in association with existing measures in clinical spectrum of MIP, delivery, and its outcome.

  3. Prevalence of Malaria Infection and Risk Factors Associated with Anaemia among Pregnant Women in Semiurban Community of Hazaribag, Jharkhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sohail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The escalating burden, pathogenesis, and clinical sequel of malaria during pregnancy have combinatorial adverse impact on both mother and foetus that further perplexed the situation of diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. This prompted us to evaluate the status of population at risk of MIP in Hazaribag, Jharkhand, India. Cross-sectional study was conducted over a year at Sadar Hospital, Hazaribag. Malaria was screened using blood smear and/or RDT. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin concentration. Pretested questionnaires were used to gather sociodemographic, clinical, and obstetrical data. The prevalence of MIP was 5.4% and 4.3% at ANC and DU, and 13.2% malaria was in women without pregnancy. Interestingly, majority were asymptomatically infected with P. vivax (over 85% at ANC and DU. Peripheral parasitemia was significantly associated with fever within past week, rural origin of subjects, and first/second pregnancies in multivariate analysis, with the highest risk factor associated with fever followed by rural residence. Strikingly in cohort, anaemia was prevalent in 86% at ANC as compared to 72% at DU, whereas severe anaemia was 13.6% and 7.8% at ANC and DU. Even more anaemia prevalence was observed in MIP group (88% and 89% at ANC and DU, whereas severe anaemia was 23% and 21%, respectively. In view of observed impact of anaemia, parasitemia and asymptomatic infection of P. vivax during pregnancy and delivery suggest prompt diagnosis regardless of symptoms and comprehensive drug regime should be offered to pregnant women in association with existing measures in clinical spectrum of MIP, delivery, and its outcome.

  4. Anaemia, its determinants and effect of different interventions amongst tea tribe adolescent girls living in Dibrugarh district of Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Goswami Mahanta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional anaemia, one of the major public health problems in India is associated with lower productivity, higher sickness rate and absenteeism having inter-generational effect. Morbidity during adolescent has implication on future safe motherhood, optimum growth and development of foetus and children. Aims and Objective: To assess, prevalence and determinants of anaemia and effect of different interventions amongst tea tribe adolescent girls. Materials & Methods: A community based intervention study was conducted covering 16 tea estates of Dibrugarh District, Assam. Variables includes socio-demographic, environmental, anthropometry, history of present and past illness, clinical examination and laboratory investigation including haemoglobin, serum ferritin, haemoglobin typing and routine stool examination. Interventions given were weekly IFA supplementation, dietary diversification, health promotion by monthly NHED, cooking demonstration, cooking competition and kitchen garden promotion and counselling to improve IFA compliance and remove barriers was done. SPSS and EpiInfo software, used to calculate of rates, ratios, chi-square test, Fisher Exact test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Enrolments were 802, with mean age, 14.8 years. Anaemia prevalence was 96.3% with median serum ferritin, 22.9 ng/ml. Prevalence of Sickle cell anaemia was,12% and helminthiasis 84.20%.  History of passage of worms (9.1%, night blindness (5.6%, weakness (62.1%, loss of appetite (37.5%, gum bleeding (23.6%, loose motion (13%, loss of weight (9.9%, menstrual problem (19.3% was common. Following intervention mean haemoglobin difference was 1.48 gm/dl with 13.5% difference in prevalence. Associated morbidities showed significant reduction following active intervention. Conclusions: High anaemia prevalence requires urgent attention to avoid preventable morbidities. Implementation of different intervention in an integrated manner was

  5. The severity of malarial anaemia in Plasmodium chabaudi infections of BALB/c mice is determined independently of the number of circulating parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamb Tracey J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe malarial anaemia is a major complication of malaria infection and is multi-factorial resulting from loss of circulating red blood cells (RBCs from parasite replication, as well as immune-mediated mechanisms. An understanding of the causes of severe malarial anaemia is necessary to develop and implement new therapeutic strategies to tackle this syndrome of malaria infection. Methods Using analysis of variance, this work investigated whether parasite-destruction of RBCs always accounts for the severity of malarial anaemia during infections of the rodent malaria model Plasmodium chabaudi in mice of a BALB/c background. Differences in anaemia between two different clones of P. chabaudi were also examined. Results Circulating parasite numbers were not correlated with the severity of anaemia in either BALB/c mice or under more severe conditions of anaemia in BALB/c RAG2 deficient mice (lacking T and B cells. Mice infected with P. chabaudi clone CB suffered more severe anaemia than mice infected with clone AS, but this was not correlated with the number of parasites in the circulation. Instead, the peak percentage of parasitized RBCs was higher in CB-infected animals than in AS-infected animals, and was correlated with the severity of anaemia, suggesting that the availability of uninfected RBCs was impaired in CB-infected animals. Conclusion This work shows that parasite numbers are a more relevant measure of parasite levels in P. chabaudi infection than % parasitaemia, a measure that does not take anaemia into account. The lack of correlation between parasite numbers and the drop in circulating RBCs in this experimental model of malaria support a role for the host response in the impairment or destruction of uninfected RBC in P. chabaudi infections, and thus development of acute anaemia in this malaria model.

  6. Association between preoperative anaemia with length of hospital stay among patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty in Singapore: a single-centre retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Hairil Rizal; Sim, Yilin Eileen; Hao, Ying; Lin, Geng Yu; Liew, Geoffrey Haw Chieh; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Tan, Mann Hong

    2017-06-08

    Studies in western healthcare settings suggest that preoperative anaemia is associated with poor outcomes after elective orthopaedic surgery. We investigated the prevalence of preoperative anaemia among patients with primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in Singapore and its association with length of hospital stay (LOS), perioperative blood transfusion and hospital readmission rates. Retrospective cohort study performed in a tertiary academic medical centre in Singapore, involving patients who underwent primary unilateral TKA between January 2013 and June 2014. Demographics, comorbidities, preoperative haemoglobin (Hb) level, LOS and 30-day readmission data were collected. Anaemia was classified according to WHO definition. Prolonged LOS was defined as more than 6 days, which corresponds to >75th centile LOS of the data. We analysed 2394 patients. The prevalence of anaemia was 23.7%. 403 patients (16.8%) had mild anaemia and 164 patients (6.8%) had moderate to severe anaemia. Overall mean LOS was 5.4±4.8 days. Based on multivariate logistic regression, preoperative anaemia significantly increased LOS (mild anaemia, adjusted OR (aOR) 1.71, p70 years were associated with prolonged LOS. Our 30-day related readmission rate was 1.7% (42) cases. Anaemia is common among patients undergoing elective TKA in Singapore and is independently associated with prolonged LOS and increased perioperative blood transfusion. We suggest measures to correct anaemia prior to surgery, including the use of non-gender-based Hb cut-off for establishing diagnosis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Association of anaemia in primary care patients with chronic kidney disease: cross sectional study of quality improvement in chronic kidney disease (QICKD) trial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Anaemia is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease and treating anaemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) may improve outcomes. However, little is known about the scope to improve primary care management of anaemia in CKD. Methods An observational study (N = 1,099,292) with a nationally representative sample using anonymised routine primary care data from 127 Quality Improvement in CKD trial practices (ISRCTN5631023731). We explored variables associated with anaemia in CKD: eGFR, haemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), iron status, cardiovascular comorbidities, and use of therapy which associated with gastrointestinal bleeding, oral iron and deprivation score. We developed a linear regression model to identify variables amenable to improved primary care management. Results The prevalence of Stage 3–5 CKD was 6.76%. Hb was lower in CKD (13.2 g/dl) than without (13.7 g/dl). 22.2% of people with CKD had World Health Organization defined anaemia; 8.6% had Hb ≤ 11 g/dl; 3% Hb ≤ 10 g/dl; and 1% Hb ≤ 9 g/dl. Normocytic anaemia was present in 80.5% with Hb ≤ 11; 72.7% with Hb ≤ 10 g/dl; and 67.6% with Hb ≤ 9 g/dl; microcytic anaemia in 13.4% with Hb ≤ 11 g/dl; 20.8% with Hb ≤ 10 g/dl; and 24.9% where Hb ≤ 9 g/dl. 82.7% of people with microcytic and 58.8% with normocytic anaemia (Hb ≤ 11 g/dl) had a low ferritin (stores may be depleted in over >60% of people with normocytic anaemia. Prescribing oral iron has not corrected anaemia. PMID:23351270

  8. Anaemia and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Gilgel Gibe dam area, Southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew Million

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia is known to be one of the outcomes of parasitic infection and it may result in impaired cognitive development, reduced physical work capacity and in severe cases increased risk of mortality, particularly during the prenatal period. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of anaemia among pregnant women in Gilgel-Gibe dam area, southwestern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional community based study was conducted on 388 pregnant women living in three districts around Gilgel Gibe Dam area, southwestern Ethiopia. Socio-demographic and socio-economic data were collected from each participant. A single stool sample was also collected from each selected pregnant woman. Haemoglobin concentration was determined by the cyanmethemoglobin method. Plasmodium infection prevalence and intensity were assessed with thin and thick blood film examination. Results Of the total 388 study participants, 209 (53.9% were anaemic. Pregnant woman who were rural residents (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.62, 95% C.I: 1.02-2.62, P= 0.042, not using insecticide treated nets (ITNs during the study period (AOR = 2.84, 95% C.I: 1.33-6.05, p = 0.007, those who were Plasmodium malaria infected (AOR = 11.19, 95% C.I: 3.31-37.7, p= 0.01 and those with Soil Transmitted Helminth (STH infections (AOR=1.82, 95% C.I: 1.16-2.87, p=0.001 had higher odds of being anaemic than those who were urban residents, using ITNs, free of Plasmodium malaria and Soil transmitted helminth infection, respectively. There was a significant correlation between increasing hookworm parasite load (r = −.110, PAscaris lumbricoides (r = −.122, P Trichuris trichiura (r = −.025, P Conclusion The high prevalence of anaemia indicates it is currently a serious health problem of pregnant women living in Gilgel Gibe Dam area. Plasmodium malaria and soil transmitted helminth infections were significantly associated with anaemia. Antenatal care

  9. Mineral Elements in Relation to Protein-Calorie Malnutrition and the Nutritional Anaemias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstead, H. H. [Division of Nutrition, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1970-07-01

    Protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) and the nutritional anaemias are problems of major importance the world over. The metabolism of the major elements in PCM has been clarified during the last decade. However, relatively little is known about the trace elements. Of the trace elements, evidence has recently been reported which suggests that deficiencies of copper, zinc, selenium and chromium may occur in PCM. The pathological effects of potassium and magnesium deficiency in PCM have come under increased scrutiny. The mineral elements of importance in haematopoiesis include iron, copper, cobalt and possibly selenium. Studies of the effect of copper and selenium are in the formative stage. (author)

  10. Immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia : possible association with Ancylostoma caninum infection in three dogs : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Lobetti

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA may be primary or secondary. In primary IMHA, no underlying cause can be found, whereas secondary IMHA is triggered by an underlying cause, such as neoplasia, infectious diseases, or drugs. This paper describes 3 dogs with typical signs of IMHA that was possibly associated with the intestinal parasite Ancylostoma caninum. As intestinal helminths can be difficult to diagnose on faecal examination, it would be pertinent to performmultiple faecal examinations on any animal that has IMHA with no apparent underlying cause, as part of the therapy.

  11. [Anaemia as a cause of haemodynamic angina in a patient with chronic ischaemic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguéns Blanco, I; Bravo Amaro, M

    2014-01-01

    Ischaemic heart disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity and one of the primary causes of morbidity in Spain. The variability in the clinical presentation of this condition at both primary care and emergency services level requires a careful history and a thorough physical examination. In the case presented, the main symptoms of angina and dyspnea reported in the anamnesis, and the obvious pallor in the physical examination, were the key data to identify anaemia as a cause of angina. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Aplastic anaemia preceding acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in an adult with isolated deletion of chromosome 9q.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, Kevin

    2008-12-01

    Aplastic anaemia (AA) can precede acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in 2% of children but this is rarely reported to occur in adults. A 21-year-old male presented with bone marrow failure and bone marrow biopsy showed a profoundly hypocellular marrow. He recovered spontaneously but represented 2 months later when he was diagnosed with pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Chromosomal examination revealed 46,XY,del(9)(q13q34). To the best of our knowledge this is the first case to be reported of aplasia preceding ALL with 9q minus as the sole chromosomal abnormality.

  13. P-wave dispersion: relationship to left ventricular function in sickle cell anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguanobi, N I; Onwubere, B J; Ike, S O; Anisiuba, B C; Ejim, E C; Ibegbulam, O G

    2011-01-01

    The prognostic implications of P-wave dispersion in patients with a variety of cardiac disease conditions are increasingly being recognised. The relationship between P-wave dispersion and left ventricular function in sickle cell anaemia is unknown. This study was aimed at evaluating the relationship between P-wave dispersion and left ventricular function in adult Nigerian sickle cell anaemia patients. Between February and August 2007, a total of 62 sickle cell anaemia patients (aged 18-44 years; mean 28.27 ± 5.58) enrolled in the study. These were drawn from patients attending the adult sickle cell clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu. An equal number of age- and gender-matched normal subjects served as controls. All the participants were evaluated with electrocardiography and echocardiography. P-wave dispersion was defined as the difference between the maximum and minimum P-wave duration measured in a 12-lead electrocardiogram. P-wave duration and P-wave dispersion were significantly higher in patients than in controls. Significant correlation was demonstrated between P-wave dispersion and age in the patients (r = 0.387; p = 0.031). A comparison of subsets of sickle cell anaemia patients and controls with comparable haematocrit values (30-35%) showed significantly higher P-wave duration and P-wave dispersion in the patients than in the controls. The P-wave duration in patients and controls, respectively, was 111.10 ± 14.53 ms and 89.14 ± 16.45 ms (t = 3.141; p = 0.006). P-wave dispersion was 64.44 ± 15.86 ms in the patients and 36.43 ± 10.35 ms in the controls (t = 2.752; p = 0.013). Significant negative correlation was found between P-wave dispersion and left ventricular transmitral E/A ratio (r = -0.289; p = 0.023). These findings suggest that P-wave dispersion could be useful in the evaluation of sickle cell patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Further prospective studies are recommended to evaluate

  14. Fanconi anaemia: genetics, molecular biology, and cancer – implications for clinical management in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M; Chandler, K; Tischkowitz, M; Meyer, S

    2015-07-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is an inherited disease with congenital and developmental abnormalities, cross-linker hypersensitivity and extreme cancer predisposition. With better understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of the disease, and improved clinical management, FA has been transformed from a life-limiting paediatric disease to an uncommon chronic condition that needs lifelong multidisciplinary management, and a paradigm condition for the understanding of the gene-environment interaction in the aetiology of congenital anomalies, haematopoiesis and cancer development. Here we review genetic, molecular and clinical aspects of FA, and discuss current controversies and future prospects. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Intravenous iron sucrose therapy for moderate to severe anaemia in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Kriplani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA is the most common nutritional deficiency in pregnancy. Prophylactic oral iron is recommended during pregnancy to meet the increased requirement. In India, women become pregnant with low baseline haemoglobin level resulting in high incidence of moderate to severe anaemia in pregnancy where oral iron therapy cannot meet the requirement. Pregnant women with moderate anaemia are to be treated with parentral iron therapy. This study was undertaken to evaluate the response and effect of intravenous iron sucrose complex (ISC given to pregnant women with IDA. Methods: A prospective study was conducted (June 2009 to June 2011 in the department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. One hundred pregnant women with haemoglobin between 5-9 g% with diagnosed iron deficiency attending antenatal clinic were given intravenous iron sucrose complex in a dose of 200 mg twice weekly schedule after calculating the dose requirement. Results: The mean haemoglobin raised from 7.63 ± 0.61 to 11.20 ± 0.73 g% (P<0.001 after eight wk of therapy. There was significant rise in serum ferritin levels (from 11.2 ± 4.7 to 69 ± 23.1 μg/l (P<0.001. Reticulocyte count increased significantly after two wk of starting therapy (from 1.5 ± 0.6 to 4.6±0.8%.Other parameters including serum iron levels and red cell indices were also improved significantly. Only one woman was lost to follow up. No major side effects or anaphylactic reactions were noted during study period. Interpretation & conclusions: Parentral iron therapy was effective in increasing haemoglobin, serum ferritin and other haematological parameters in pregnant women with moderate anaemia. Intravenous iron sucrose can be used in hospital settings and tertiary urban hospitals where it can replace intramuscular therapy due to injection related side effects. Further, long-term comparative studies are required to recommend its

  16. Towards a strategy for malaria in pregnancy in Afghanistan: analysis of clinical realities and women's perceptions of malaria and anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Natasha; Enayatullah, Sayed; Mohammad, Nader; Mayan, Ismail; Shamszai, Zohra; Rowland, Mark; Leslie, Toby

    2015-11-04

    Afghanistan has some of the worst maternal and infant mortality indicators in the world and malaria is a significant public health concern. Study objectives were to assess prevalence of malaria and anaemia, related knowledge and practices, and malaria prevention barriers among pregnant women in eastern Afghanistan. Three studies were conducted: (1) a clinical survey of maternal malaria, maternal anaemia, and neonatal birthweight in a rural district hospital delivery-ward; (2) a case-control study of malaria risk among reproductive-age women attending primary-level clinics; and (3) community surveys of malaria and anaemia prevalence, socioeconomic status, malaria knowledge and reported behaviour among pregnant women. Among 517 delivery-ward participants (1), one malaria case (prevalence 1.9/1000), 179 anaemia cases (prevalence 346/1000), and 59 low-birthweight deliveries (prevalence 107/1000) were detected. Anaemia was not associated with age, gravidity, intestinal parasite prevalence, or low-birthweight at delivery. Among 141 malaria cases and 1010 controls (2), no association was found between malaria infection and pregnancy (AOR 0.89; 95 % CI 0.57-1.39), parity (AOR 0.95; 95 % CI 0.85-1.05), age (AOR 1.02; 95 % CI 1.00-1.04), or anaemia (AOR 1.00; 95 % CI 0.65-1.54). Those reporting insecticide-treated net usage had 40 % reduced odds of malaria infection (AOR 0.60; 95 % CI 0.40-0.91). Among 530 community survey participants (3), malaria and anaemia prevalence were 3.9/1000 and 277/1000 respectively, with 34/1000 experiencing severe anaemia. Despite most women having no formal education, malaria knowledge was high. Most expressed reluctance to take malaria preventive medication during pregnancy, deeming it potentially unsafe. Given the low malaria risk and reported avoidance of medication during pregnancy, intermittent preventive treatment is hard to justify or implement. Preventive strategy should instead focus on long-lasting insecticidal nets for all pregnant

  17. ANAEMIA IN PREGNANT WOMEN- A COMMUNITY-BASED STUDY IN TEA GARDEN AREAS OF CACHAR DISTRICT, ASSAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debojit Chutia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND India is one of the countries with very high prevalence of anaemia in the world. In India, almost 59% of pregnant women are anaemic and it accounts for 20-40% of total maternal deaths. Anaemia in pregnancy is one of the major risks and associated with abortions, premature births, postpartum haemorrhage and low birth weight. In view of the above, the present study was carried out to find out the prevalence of anaemia amongst pregnant women and sociodemographic factors associated with anaemia in pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out among 200 pregnant women with gestational period 12-20 weeks attending the antenatal sessions in 4 tea garden areas under Dholai BPHC, Cachar District, for 6 months from April 2016 to September 2016. Data were presented in proportion, mean and standard deviation. Association was seen by using Chi-square test and Fischer’s exact test. RESULTS Among 200 pregnant women, majority (38.5% were in 20-24 years of age, 98% Hindu by religion and 56% from class IV socioeconomic class. Regarding the educational status, 34.5% were educated up to primary school, while 33.5% were illiterate. Majority, i.e. 45.5% and 31.5% were having parity 0 and 1, respectively. Prevalence of anaemia in the present study was found to be 81% and among which 77.2% were moderately anaemic. The study showed significant association of anaemia among pregnant women with lower socioeconomic status and high parity. CONCLUSION In the present study, there is high prevalence (81% of anaemia among pregnant women. The study also noted that lower socioeconomic status and high parity had a significant role in anaemia during pregnancy. So, there is a need to intensify IEC activities to promote early antenatal care, increased compliance of intake of iron and folic acid tablets, dietary modification and utilisation of family planning services among pregnant women of this region.

  18. Risk of maternal mortality in women with severe anaemia during pregnancy and post partum: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daru, Jahnavi; Zamora, Javier; Fernández-Félix, Borja M; Vogel, Joshua; Oladapo, Olufemi T; Morisaki, Naho; Tunçalp, Özge; Torloni, Maria Regina; Mittal, Suneeta; Jayaratne, Kapila; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Togoobaatar, Ganchimeg; Thangaratinam, Shakila; Khan, Khalid S

    2018-05-01

    Anaemia affects as many as half of all pregnant women in low-income and middle-income countries, but the burden of disease and associated maternal mortality are not robustly quantified. We aimed to assess the association between severe anaemia and maternal death with data from the WHO Multicountry Survey on maternal and newborn health. We used multilevel and propensity score regression analyses to establish the relation between severe anaemia and maternal death in 359 health facilities in 29 countries across Latin America, Africa, the Western Pacific, eastern Mediterranean, and southeast Asia. Severe anaemia was defined as antenatal or postnatal haemoglobin concentrations of less than 70 g/L in a blood sample obtained before death. Maternal death was defined as death any time after admission until the seventh day post partum or discharge. In regression analyses, we adjusted for post-partum haemorrhage, general anaesthesia, admission to intensive care, sepsis, pre-eclampsia or eclampsia, thrombocytopenia, shock, massive transfusion, severe oliguria, failure to form clots, and severe acidosis as confounding variables. These variables were used to develop the propensity score. 312 281 women admitted in labour or with ectopic pregnancies were included in the adjusted multilevel logistic analysis, and 12 470 were included in the propensity score regression analysis. The adjusted odds ratio for maternal death in women with severe anaemia compared with those without severe anaemia was 2·36 (95% CI 1·60-3·48). In the propensity score analysis, severe anaemia was also associated with maternal death (adjusted odds ratio 1·86 [95% CI 1·39-2·49]). Prevention and treatment of anaemia during pregnancy and post partum should remain a global public health and research priority. Barts and the London Charity. Copyright This is an Open Access article published under the CC BY 3.0 IGO license which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium

  19. Serum Iron and Haemoglobin Estimation in Oral Submucous Fibrosis and Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Diagnostic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Divya; Dinkar, Ajit D; Satoskar, Sujata K; Desai, Sapna Raut

    2016-12-01

    Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) is a premalignant condition with potential malignant behaviour characterized by juxta-epithelial fibrosis of the oral cavity. In the process of collagen synthesis, iron gets utilized, by the hydroxylation of proline and lysine, leading to decreased serum iron levels. The trace element like iron is receiving much attention in the detection of oral cancer and precancerous condition like OSMF as it was found to be significantly altered in these conditions. The aim of this study was to compare the haemoglobin and serum iron values of OSMF subjects with that of iron deficiency anaemia subjects. Total of 120 subjects were included, 40 subjects with the OSMF, 40 with the iron deficiency anemia without tobacco chewing habit, 40 healthy control subjects without OSMF and iron deficiency anaemia. A total of 5ml of venous blood was withdrawn from all the subjects and serum iron and haemoglobin levels were estimated for all the subjects. Estimation of iron was done using Ferrozine method and haemoglobin by Sahli's method. The statistical method applied were Kruskal Wallis, Mann Whitney and Pearson correlation coefficient test. There was a statistically significant difference in serum iron and haemoglobin level in all three groups (pauxillary test in assessment of prognosis of the disease.

  20. Marrow uptake index (MUI): A quantitative scintigraphic study of bone marrow in aplastic anaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhy, A.K.; Garg, A.; Kochupillai, V.; Gopinath, P.G.; Basu, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Aplastic anaemia affects the entire bone marrow. This prospective study was undertaken to develop and standardise a new nuclear medicine technique called 'dynamic bone marrow imaging'. Eleven patients and ten controls were studied. Serial images of the pelvis were obtained in frame mode following intravenous injection of 185-370 mBq of 99m Tc S. Colloid, and an index, called the bone marrow uptake index was calculated by taking into consideration the time activity curve obtained over the iliac crest. This was followed by static imaging of the entire bone marrow in all cases. It was possible to obtain excellent information regarding topographic distribution of bone marrow as well as detect early changes in bone marrow function following treatment. An attempt was also made to correlate bone marrow cellularity as obtained by bone marrow biopsy with results of dynamic bone marrow scintigraphy. On the basis of the encouraging results obtained in the present study, the authors feel that dynamic bone marrow imaging is an excellent technique for the objective evaluation of bone marrow in aplastic anaemia. 20 refs.; 4 figs.; 5 tabs

  1. Haemolytic anaemia and acute pancreatitis associated with zinc toxicosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, R; Adam, F

    2013-01-05

    We describe a case of zinc toxicity in a 14-month-old, female, neutered, Cavalier King Charles spaniel with a 48-hour history of haematochezia, icterus and collapse. Regenerative anaemia with a packed-cell volume of 7 per cent was seen. Prior to referral, radiography had revealed a gastric, metallic foreign body which was removed at exploratory laparotomy. On presentation, the dog was comatose, hypothermic and bradycardic - resuscitation was performed successfully, but the dog then displayed marked abdominal pain. The dog died 12 hours after presentation. At postmortem examination, the animal showed severe icterus. Both kidneys were diffusely dark red; the pancreas was diffusely pale and nodular. Histopathological examination revealed evidence of intravascular haemolysis with blood vessel lumens containing haemoglobin. The renal tubules also contained large amounts of intraluminal haemoglobin with haemoglobin crystals scattered throughout the cortex and medulla. The pancreas exhibited multifocal coagulative necrosis, surrounded by a neutrophil-dominated inflammatory infiltrate. Zinc levels were markedly increased above the normal reference range in both liver and kidney. This report describes the clinical and pathological findings of a case of acute zinc toxicity in a dog following ingestion of a metallic object which resulted in marked haemolytic anaemia and acute pancreatitis.

  2. Direct interactions of the five known Fanconi anaemia proteins suggest a common functional pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhurst, A L; Huber, P A; Waisfisz, Q; de Winter , J P; Mathew, C G

    2001-02-15

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder associated with a progressive aplastic anaemia, diverse congenital abnormalities and cancer. The condition is genetically heterogeneous, with at least seven complementation groups (A-G) described. Cells from individuals who are homozygous for mutations in FA genes are characterized by chromosomal instability and hypersensitivity to DNA interstrand crosslinking agents. These features suggest a possible role for the encoded proteins in the recognition or repair of these lesions, but neither their function nor whether they operate in a concerted or discrete functional pathways is known. The recent cloning of the FANCF and FANCE genes has allowed us to investigate the interaction of the proteins encoded by five of the seven complementation groups of FA. We used the yeast two-hybrid system and co-immunoprecipitation analysis to test the 10 possible pairs of proteins for direct interaction. In addition to the previously described binding of FANCA to FANCG, we now demonstrate direct interaction of FANCF with FANCG, of FANCC with FANCE and a weaker interaction of FANCE with both FANCA and FANCG. These findings show that the newly identified FANCE protein is an integral part of the FA pathway, and support the concept of a functional link between all known proteins encoded by the genes that are mutated in this disorder. These proteins may act either as a multimeric complex or by sequential recruitment of subsets of the proteins in a common pathway that protects the genomic integrity of mammalian cells.

  3. Characterization, expression and complex formation of the murine Fanconi anaemia gene product Fancg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vrugt, Henri J; Koomen, Mireille; Berns, Mariska A D; de Vries, Yne; Rooimans, Martin A; van der Weel, Laura; Blom, Eric; de Groot, Jan; Schepers, Rik J; Stone, Stacie; Hoatlin, Maureen E; Cheng, Ngan Ching; Joenje, Hans; Arwert, Fré

    2002-03-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive chromosomal instability disorder. Six distinct FA disease genes have been identified, the products of which function in an integrated pathway that is thought to support a nuclear caretaker function. Comparison of FA gene characteristics in different species may help to unravel the molecular function of the FA pathway. We have cloned the murine homologue of the Fanconi anaemia complementation group G gene, FANCG/XRCC9. The murine Fancg protein shows an 83% similarity to the human protein sequence, and has a predicted molecular weight of 68.5 kDa. Expression of mouse Fancg in human FA-G lymphoblasts fully corrects their cross-linker hypersensitivity. At mRNA and protein levels we detected the co-expression of Fancg and Fanca in murine tissues. In addition, mouse Fancg and Fanca proteins co-purify by immunoprecipitation. Upon transfection into Fanca-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts EGFP-Fancg chimeric protein was detectable in the nucleus. We identified a murine cDNA, Fancg, which cross-complements the cellular defect of human FA-G cells and thus represents a true homologue of human FANCG. Spleen, thymus and testis showed the highest Fancg expression levels. Although Fancg and Fanca are able to form a complex, this interaction is not required for Fancg to accumulate in the nuclear compartment.

  4. Red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels in children with hereditary haemolytic anaemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidas, S; Zannos-Mariolea, L; Matsaniotis, N

    1975-12-01

    The role of red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) in increasing the availability of haemoglobin oxygen in neonatal jaundice and hereditary haemolytic anaemias was investigated. Measurements of 2,3-DPG were carried out on 58 normal children and six normal adults, 18 full-term newborns with neonatal jaundice and 57 cases (51 children and six adults) with hereditary haemolytic anaemias. In normal children and adults, with a mean haemoglobin of 12.69 g/dl, mean 2,3-DPG was 14.90 mumol/g Hb. In jaundiced newborns with a mean haemoglobin of 16.04 g/dl mean 2,3-DPG levels were 14.51 mumol/g Hb, i.e. normal. 2,3-DPG levels were increased in patients with beta-thalassaemia major, alpha-thalassaemia, sickle-cell disease, favism, hereditary spherocytosis and in heterozygotes for beta-thalassaemia with increased haemoglobin F. In heterozygotes for beta-thalassaemia with increased haemoglobin A2 only and in sickle cell trait 2,3-DPG levels were normal.

  5. Constitutional sequence variation in the Fanconi anaemia group C (FANCC) gene in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Lisa M; McGrath, Helen E N; Meyer, Stefan; Will, Andrew M; Birch, Jillian M; Eden, Osborn B; Taylor, G Malcolm

    2003-04-01

    The extent to which genetic susceptibility contributes to the causation of childhood acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is not known. The inherited bone marrow failure disorder Fanconi anaemia (FA) carries a substantially increased risk of AML, raising the possibility that constitutional variation in the FA (FANC) genes is involved in the aetiology of childhood AML. We have screened genomic DNA extracted from remission blood samples of 97 children with sporadic AML and 91 children with sporadic acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), together with 104 cord blood DNA samples from newborn children, for variations in the Fanconi anaemia group C (FANCC) gene. We found no evidence of known FANCC pathogenic mutations in children with AML, ALL or in the cord blood samples. However, we detected 12 different FANCC sequence variants, of which five were novel to this study. Among six FANCC variants leading to amino-acid substitutions, one (S26F) was present at a fourfold greater frequency in children with AML than in the cord blood samples (odds ratio: 4.09, P = 0.047; 95% confidence interval 1.08-15.54). Our results thus do not exclude the possibility that this polymorphic variant contributes to the risk of a small proportion of childhood AML.

  6. The role of host nutrition in the pathogensis of liver fluke anaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, C.I.; Dargie, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that the course of many helminth diseases of sheep is determined by two main variables, namely the level of infection and the host's nutritional status, the importance of the latter in the pathogenesis of ovine fascioliasis remains to be determined. The results of the experiment described here demonstrate that dietary quality has no significant effect upon fluke establishment but profoundly influences the severity of the disease as evidenced by the more rapid development of anaemia and by earlier mortalities among sheep restricted to a maintenance ration (containing about 6% crude protein) compared with similarly infected animals receiving a diet commensurate with growth (13% crude protein). Concurrent measurements of blood volume and of red cell turnover using radioisotopic methods revealed that in all animals the anaemia was caused by a combination of haemodilution, intra-hepatic and biliary haemorrhage, but that the earlier and more severe disturbances in protein-restricted sheep reflected the earlier development of these changes in association with a faster rate of fluke migration, and was ultimately complicated by impaired erythropoiesis arising from iron deficiency. (author)

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of iron-deficiency anaemia in pregnancy and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breymann, C; Honegger, C; Hösli, I; Surbek, D

    2017-12-01

    Iron deficiency occurs frequently in pregnancy and can be diagnosed by serum ferritin-level measurement (threshold value iron-deficiency anemia is recommended in every pregnant women, and should be done by serum ferritin-level screening in the first trimester and regular hemoglobin checks at least once per trimester. In the case of iron deficiency with or without anaemia in pregnancy, oral iron therapy should be given as first-line treatment. In the case of severe iron-deficiency anemia, intolerance of oral iron, lack of response to oral iron, or in the case of a clinical need for rapid and efficient treatment of anaemia (e.g., advanced pregnancy), intravenous iron therapy should be administered. In the postpartum period, oral iron therapy should be administered for mild iron-deficiency anemia (haemorrhagic anemia), and intravenous iron therapy for moderately severe-to-severe anemia (Hb iron therapy in pregnancy or postpartum, iron-containing drugs which have been studied in well-controlled clinical trials in pregnancy and postpartum such as ferric carboxymaltose must be preferred for safety reasons. While anaphylactic reactions are extremely are with non-dextrane products, close surveillance during administration is recommended for all intravenous iron products.

  8. Is intrauterine exchange transfusion a safe procedure for management of fetal anaemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabedian, C; Philippe, M; Vaast, P; Wibaut, B; Salleron, J; Delsalle, A; Rakza, T; Subtil, D; Houfflin-Debarge, V

    2014-08-01

    To study modalities and complications of intrauterine exchange transfusion (IUET) for the management of severe fetal anaemia. Retrospective study of all IUET procedures performed between January 1999 and January 2012 at a regional centre. Characteristics of each procedure were studied to identify risk factors for complications. Survival rates according to the different aetiologies of anaemia were evaluated. In total, 225 IUET procedures were performed in 96 fetuses. Major indications were feto-maternal erythrocyte alloimmunization (n=80/96, 83.3%) and parvovirus B19 infection (n=13/96, 13.5%). Twenty-six percent of the fetuses (25/96) had hydrops fetalis before the first IUET. Intrauterine fetal death occurred after 2.7% (6/225) of procedures, premature rupture of the membranes occurred after 0.9% (2/225) of procedures, and emergency caesarean section was required after 3.6% (8/225) of procedures. Fetal bradycardia [odds ratio (OR) 37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 8.3-170; prate in the study cohort was 87.5% (84/96): 90% (72/80) in the alloimmunization group and 76.9% (10/13) in the parvovirus-infected group (NS). IUET has a higher complication rate than simple intrauterine transfusion, and should be performed by well-trained specialists. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. [Avascular necrosis of the femoral head in a patient with severe aplastic anaemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plichta, Piotr; Pawelec, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) is a pathological condition associated with numerous processes. Most frequent causes of ischaemia of the femoral head include trauma, corticosteroid therapy, radiation therapy, alcoholism, Gaucher's disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis. Corticosteroid therapy is considered the most frequent risk factor for developing avascular necrosis. In this paper we report a case of a 19-year old female patient who developed avascular necrosis of the right femoral head following treatment of severe aplastic anaemia. Clinical symptoms included groin pain and fever, painful abduction and internal rotation, tenderness over the right hip joint. The plain X-ray was not specific. However magnetic resonance imaging of the hip revealed changes characteristic for avascular necrosis. Conservative treatment was administrated. Two years after the onset of first clinical symptoms the patient is able to walk without pain, although the range of motion of the right hip joint is partially diminished. We evaluated the possible risk factors of AVN, diagnostic methods and prognosis. The onset of avascular necrosis should be considered as one of the relevant complications in patients with severe aplastic anaemia following immunosuppressive treatment.

  10. Cormic Index Profile of Children with Sickle Cell Anaemia in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Olufemi Akodu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sickle cell disorders are known to have a negative effect on linear growth. This could potentially affect proportional growth and, hence, Cormic Index. Objective. To determine the Cormic Index in the sickle cell anaemia population in Lagos. Methodology. A consecutive sample of 100 children with haemoglobin genotype SS, aged eight months to 15 years, and 100 age and sex matched controls (haemoglobin genotype AA was studied. Sitting height (upper segment and full length or height were measured. Sitting height was then expressed as a percentage of full length/height (Cormic Index. Results. The mean Cormic Index decreased with age among primary subjects (SS and AA controls. The overall mean Cormic Index among primary subjects was comparable to that of controls (55.0±4.6% versus 54.5±5.2%; 54.8±4.5% versus 53.6±4.9% in boys and girls, respectively. In comparison with AA controls, female children with sickle cell anaemia who were older than 10 years had a significantly lower mean Cormic Index. Conclusion. There was a significant negative relationship between Cormic Index and height in subjects and controls irrespective of gender. Similarly, a significant negative correlation existed between age, sitting height, subischial leg length, weight, and Cormic Index in both subjects and controls.

  11. Anaemia and fever in Kidney transplant. The role of human parvovirus B19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodis López, Yanet; Santana Estupiñán, Raquel; Marrero Robayna, Silvia; Gallego Samper, Roberto; Henríquez Palop, Fernando; Rivero Vera, José Carlos; Camacho Galán, Rafael; Pena López, María José; Sablón González, Nery; González Cabrera, Fayna; Oliva Dámaso, Elena; Vega Díaz, Nicanor; Rodríguez Pérez, José Carlos

    Infections remain an issue of particular relevance in renal transplant patients, particularly viral infections. Human parvovirus B19 infection causes severe refractory anaemia, pancytopenia and thrombotic microangiopathy. Its presence is recognized by analysing blood polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and by the discovery of typical giant proerythroblasts in the bone marrow. We report the case of a 65 year-old man with a history of deceased donor renal transplant in September 2014. At 38 days after the transplant, the patient presented progressive anaemia that was resistant to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. At 64 days after transplant, hyperthermia occurred with progressive deterioration of the patient's general condition. The viral serology and the first blood PCR for human parvovirus B19 were both negative. At 4 months and 19 days after, a bone marrow biopsy was conducted, showing giant erythroblasts with nuclear viral inclusions that were compatible with parvovirus; a PCR in the tissue confirmed the diagnosis. A second blood PCR was positive for parvovirus. After treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and the temporary discontinuation of mycophenolate mofetil, a complete remission of the disease occurred, although the blood PCR for parvovirus B19 remained positive, so monitoring is necessary for future likely recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Intestinal parasitosis and anaemia among patients in a Health Center, North Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Megbaru; Kinfe, Birhane; Tadesse, Desalegn; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Hailu, Tadesse; Yizengaw, Endalew

    2017-11-28

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the magnitude of intestinal parasitosis and anaemia in a Health Center, North Ethiopia. A total of 427 outpatients were enrolled and the median age of the participants was 22 years. The prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was 143 (33.5%). Age, place of residence and occupation were significantly associated with intestinal parasitosis. When we see parasite specific factors, significant associations were observed for source of drinking water (P = 0.02), age (P intestinal parasite -infected and non-infected participants was 10.7 and 7.0%, respectively. Study participants infected with S. stercoralis and hookworm were more likely to develop anaemia than the non- infected ones; AOR (adjusted odds ratio) = 5.3, 95% CI (1.01-27.4); P = 0.028 and AOR = 11.1, 95% CI (3.36-36.9); P = 0.000, respectively.

  13. FANCD2 protein is expressed in proliferating cells of human tissues that are cancer-prone in Fanconi anaemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzel, M; Diest, van P.J.; Bier, P; Wallisch, M; Hoatlin, M.E.; Joenje, H.; Winter, de J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is an inherited form of progressive pancytopenia associated with developmental defects, chromosomal instability, and cancer predisposition. At least seven distinct FA proteins function in concert to protect the genome, a key step being the activation of FANCD2 by

  14. Good agreement of conventional and gel-based direct agglutination test in immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, C.J.; Teske, E.; van Leeuwen, M.W.; Day, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare a gel-based test with the traditional direct agglutination test (DAT) for the diagnosis of immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA). Methods Canine (n = 247) and feline (n = 74) blood samples were submitted for DAT testing to two

  15. A phase III randomized trial comparing glucocorticoid monotherapy versus glucocorticoid and rituximab in patients with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgens, Henrik Sverre; Frederiksen, Henrik; Hasselbalch, Hans C

    2013-01-01

    The impact of first-line treatment with the anti-CD 20 chimeric monoclonal antibody rituximab in patients with warm-antibody reactive autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (WAIHA) is unknown. We report the first randomized study of 64 patients with newly diagnosed WAIHA who received prednisolone and ritu...

  16. Effect of a School Feeding Programme on Nutritional Status and Anaemia in an Urban Slum: A Preliminary Evaluation in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neervoort, F.; Von Rosenstiel, I.; Bongers, K.; Demetriades, M.; Shacola, M.; Wolffers, I.N.

    2013-01-01

    To reduce malnutrition and improve child survival, school feeding programmes have been established in many parts of Africa, although prevalence of child malnutrition and anaemia remains high, especially in urban slums. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of a school feeding

  17. Primary care requests for anaemia chemistry tests in Spain: potential iron, transferrin and folate over-requesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Maria; López-Garrigós, Maite; Flores, Emilio; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos

    2017-09-01

    To study the regional variability of requests for anaemia chemistry tests in primary care in Spain and the associated economic costs of potential over-requesting. Requests for anaemia tests were examined in a cross-sectional study. Clinical laboratories from different autonomous communities (AACCs) were invited to report on primary care anaemia chemistry tests requested during 2014. Demand for iron, ferritin, vitamin B12 and folate tests per 1000 inhabitants and the ratios of the folate/vitamin B12 and transferrin/ferritin requests were compared between AACCs. We also calculated reagent costs and the number of iron, transferrin and folate tests and the economic saving if every AACC had obtained the results achieved by the AACC with best practice. 110 laboratories participated (59.8% of the Spanish population). More than 12 million tests were requested, resulting in reagent costs exceeding €16.5 million. The serum iron test was the most often requested, and the ferritin test was the most costly (over €7 million). Close to €4.5 million could potentially have been saved if iron, transferrin and folate had been appropriately requested (€6 million when extrapolated to the whole Spanish population). The demand for and expenditure on anaemia chemistry tests in primary care in Spain is high, with significant regional differences between different AACCs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Dietary Intake of Iron Rich Food and Awareness on Iron Deficiency Anaemia among Female Students in Rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, F. R.; Usmani, A. Q.; Shahid, A.; Sadiq, T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the awareness and intake of iron rich diet amongst college girls with a particular focus on the knowledge about the iron deficiency anaemia. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted in Government College for Women Rawalpindi, during September - December 2010. One hundred and thirty five students of intermediate level aged 17-19 years were selected through convenient sampling technique. The sample size was calculated by WHO-sample size calculator, keeping 95 percent Cl, p<0.05 statistically significant, anticipated population proportion of iron deficiency anaemia 35 percent and absolute precision at 0.08. Results: The awareness about iron rich diet and iron deficiency anaemia was satisfactory (86 percent), while poor intake of iron rich diet amongst adolescent college girls (52 percent) was found. About 65 percent of the participants had knowledge about the causes of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA); while 72 percent and 80 percent knew about the prevention and treatment of IDA respectively. Conclusions: Results indicate the gap between knowledge and practices about IDA; it highlights the need of an effective health promotional programme to raise awareness about the significance of iron in young female diet and to highlight the consequences when it is absent. (author)

  19. Increasing the effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen in enhancing tumor oxygenation: Effect of perfluorochemical emulsion and moderate anaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photiou, A.

    1987-01-01

    Attempts were made to increase the effectiveness of HBO in overcoming tumor hypoxia. Tumor blood flow and O/sub 2/ content were modified by inducing moderate anaemia and giving a perfluorochemical emulsion (PFC-E). Mice were anaesthetized with Ketamine and Diazepam. The PFC-E, FC-43 (0.35 ml/25 g mouse), given iv 1-2 h before irradiation, produced a favourable effect on regrowth delay in those mice treated with HBO. A 25 Gy dose produced a significantly longer regrowth delay (p<0.01) of 44 days in PFC-treated mice compared with a delay of 29 days for mice treated with HBO alone. O/sub 2/ toxicity was observed in some anesthetized mice, with or without PFC-E. Attempts were made to increase the O/sub 2/ sensitization afforded by FC-43/HBO/anaesthesia. Blood viscosity was reduced by inducing a moderate level of acute anaemia by the administration of a single of acute anaemia by the administration of a single ip injection of Phenylhydrazine HCl (40 mg/kg). This reduced the haematocrit from 42% to 32%. Tumour regrowth delay after 25 Gy was significantly reduced (p<0.02) from 44 to 37.3 days be anaemia. PFC's may prove the be useful adjuncts to radiotherapy. However, it must be established that they have no adverse effects and that normal tissue radiosensitivity is not enhanced

  20. Anaemia in patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis in South Africa: predictive/prognostic value, aetiologies and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death among people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa and worldwide. The clinical presentation in such patients is often so non-specific that much tuberculosis remains unsuspected, undiagnosed and is therefore untreated prior to death. Anaemia is one of

  1. Prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women at booking in the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunbosun, Olujimi A; Abasiattai, Aniekan M; Bassey, Emem A; James, Robert S; Ibanga, Godwin; Morgan, Anyiekere

    2014-01-01

    Anaemia with an estimated prevalence of 35-75% among pregnant women is a major cause of maternal deaths in Nigeria. objective: To determine the prevalence of anaemia, associated sociodemographic factors and red cell morphological pattern among pregnant women during booking at the University Teaching Hospital, Uyo. A cross-sectional analytical study of 400 women at the booking clinic over a 16-week period. The packed cell volume and red cell morphology of each pregnant woman were determined. Their biodata, obstetric and medical histories, and results of other routine investigations were obtained with questionnaires and analyzed with SPSS Package version 17.0. The mean packed cell volume was 31.8% ±3.2 and 54.5% of the women were anaemic. The commonest blood picture was microcytic hypochromia and normocytic hypochromia suggesting iron deficiency anaemia. Anaemia was significantly and independently related to a history of fever in the index pregnancy (OR = 0.4; P = 0.00; 95% CI = 0.3-0.7), HIV positive status (OR = 0.2; P = 0.01; 95% CI = 0.1-0.6), and low social class (OR = 0.3; P = 0.00; 95% CI = 0.2-0.7). Women need to be economically empowered and every pregnant woman should be encouraged to obtain antenatal care, where haematinics supplementation can be given and appropriate investigations and treatment of causes of fever and management of HIV can be instituted.

  2. Reduced prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection and of concomitant anaemia in pregnant women with heterozygous G6PD deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Mandelkow, Jantina; Till, Holger; Ehrhardt, Stephan; Eggelte, Teunis A.; Bienzle, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency confers protection against malaria in children, yet its role in malaria in pregnancy is unknown. In a cross-sectional study among 529 pregnant Ghanaian women, Plasmodium falciparum infection, anaemia and G6PD genotypes were assessed. Of these,

  3. Why is multiple micronutrient powder ineffective at reducing anaemia among 12–24 month olds in Colombia? Evidence from a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Andrew

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia’s bottom socio-economic strata, 46.6% of children under two are anaemic. A prevalence of above 20% falls within the WHO guidelines for daily supplementation with multiple micronutrient powder (MNP. To evaluate the effect of daily MNP supplementation on anaemia amongst Colombian children aged 12–24 months we ran a cluster RCT (n=1440. In previous work, we found the intervention had no impact on haemoglobin or anaemia in this population. In this current paper, we investigate this null result and find it cannot be explained by an underpowered study design, inaccurate measurements, low adoption of and compliance with the intervention, or crowding out through dietary substitution. We conclude that our intervention was ineffective at reducing rates of childhood anaemia because MNP itself was inefficacious in our population, rather than poor implementation of or adherence to the planned intervention. Further analysis of our data and secondary data suggests that the evolution with age of childhood anaemia in Colombia, and its causes, appear different from those in settings where MNP has been effective. Firstly, rates of anaemia peak at much earlier ages and then fall rapidly. Secondly, anaemia that remains after the first year of life is relatively, and increasingly as children get older, unrelated to iron deficiency. We suggest that factors during gestation, birth, breastfeeding and early weaning may be important in explaining very high rates of anaemia in early infancy. However, the adverse effects of these factors appear to be largely mitigated by the introduction of solid foods that often include meat. This renders population wide MNP supplementation, provided after a diet of solid foods has become established, an ineffective instrument with which to target Colombia’s childhood anaemia problem. Keywords: Anaemia, Iron-deficiency, Haemoglobin, Colombia, Micronutrients, Multiple micronutrient powder, Child, Nutrition

  4. Prevalence and determinants of anaemia among children aged 0-59 months in a rural region of Armenia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirchyan, Anahit; Petrosyan, Varduhi; Sargsyan, Viktoria; Hekimian, Kim

    2016-05-01

    Despite the trend of increasing prevalence of childhood anaemia in Armenia, no studies exploring its risk factors have been conducted in the country. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of childhood anaemia in rural Armenia. Blood Hb level was measured among a representative sample of children using the HemoCue Hb201+ analyser. The revealed cases with anaemia were compared with randomly selected non-anaemic controls. Mothers of cases and controls were interviewed. Logistic and linear regression models were fitted to identify the risk factors of anaemia and low Hb level, respectively. Talin communities, Aragatsotn Province, Armenia. Children under 5 years of age in Talin region. Of the 729 studied children, 32·4% were anaemic with 14·7% having moderate/severe anaemia. Infants were the most affected group with 51·1% being anaemic before 6 months and 67·9% at 6-12 months of age. Fitted regression models identified the following predictors of anaemia: younger age, male gender, shorter birth length, anaemia during pregnancy, lower meal frequency per day, lack of meat in the diet, using dung cakes for heating and living in a community that received an incomplete set of nutrition interventions. The study identified several modifiable risk factors that could be targeted to reduce childhood anaemia in rural Armenia and, possibly, in rural areas in other low-/middle-income countries. The suggested interventions include prevention and treatment of anaemia during pregnancy, provision of adequate complementary feeding to children with inclusion of meat in their daily diet and reduction of their exposure to biomass fuel smoke.

  5. Livestock ownership is associated with higher odds of anaemia among preschool-aged children, but not women of reproductive age in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew D; Colecraft, Esi K; Awuah, Raphael B; Boatemaa, Sandra; Lambrecht, Nathalie J; Adjorlolo, Leonard Kofi; Wilson, Mark L

    2018-04-02

    Livestock ownership may influence anaemia through complex and possibly contradictory mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to determine the association of household livestock ownership with anaemia among women aged 15-49 years and children aged 6-59 months in Ghana and to examine the contribution of animal source foods (ASFs) to consumption patterns as a potential mechanism mediating this association. We analysed data on 4,441 women and 2,735 children from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and 16,772 households from the Ghana Living Standards Survey Round 6. Haemoglobin measurements were used to define anaemia (non-pregnant women: <120 g/L; children: <110 g/L). Child- and household-level ASF consumption data were collected from 24-hour food group intake and food consumption and expenditure surveys, respectively. In multiple logistic regression models, household livestock ownership was associated with anaemia among children (OR, 95% CI: 1.5 [1.1, 2.0]), but not women (1.0 [0.83, 1.2]). Household ownership of chickens was associated with higher odds of anaemia among children (1.6 [1.2, 2.2]), but ownership of other animal species was not associated with anaemia among women or children. In path analyses, we observed no evidence of mediation of the association of household livestock ownership with child anaemia by ASF consumption. Ownership of livestock likely has limited importance for consumption of ASFs among young children in Ghana and may in fact place children at an increased risk of anaemia. Further research is needed to elucidate if and how pathogen exposure associated with livestock rearing may underlie this increased risk of anaemia. © 2018 The Authors. Maternal and Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. PARENTERAL IRON SUCROSE AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO PACKED CELLS/BLOOD TRANSFUSION IN MODERATE-TO-SEVERE ANAEMIA IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Sarala

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM This case study focuses on the efficacy of iron sucrose in moderate-to-severe anaemia in pregnancy and to compare the efficacy of iron sucrose with packed cell transfusion and based on the study to establish whether iron sucrose could be an alternative to packed cells transfusion for the management of moderate-to-severe anaemia complicating pregnancy remote from the term gestation. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a case control study for a period of 2 years. Women were randomly selected where for the study group 50 patients intravenous iron sucrose was given and for control group 50 patients packed cells transfusion was given. RESULTS The study group and the control group had 50 subjects each. On an average 80% were in the age group of 15-24 yrs. in both groups. In both groups, on an average 85% were with moderate anaemia (6-8 g/dL and 15% were with severe anaemia (<6 g/dL. Mean requirement of iron sucrose for moderate anaemia was 1100 mg and for severe anaemia it was 1300 mg. Mean requirement of packed cells for moderate anaemia was 3 units and for severe anaemia 4-5 units. In iron sucrose group, mean haemoglobin% at baseline 7.1±0.8 g/dL, after 1 week 7.9±0.6, after 4 weeks 11±0.5 g/dL and at delivery 11.7±0.6 g/dL. In packed cells group, mean haemoglobin% at baseline 7.0±0.7 g/dL, after 1 week 10.2±0.5 g/dL, after 4 weeks 10.3±0.5 g/dL and at delivery 10.4±0.4 g/dL. The mean haematocrit values in iron sucrose group at baseline 20.9±2.5%, after 1 week 25.3±2.2% and after 4 weeks 33.6±2.0%. The mean haematocrit values in packed cells group at baseline 20.8±2.3%, after 1 week 30.0±1.9% and after 4 weeks 30.2±2.0%. Mean rise of haematocrit from baseline to 1 week in iron sucrose and packed cells group were 4.4±1.3% and 9.1±2.0% respectively. Mean rise of haematocrit from baseline to 4 weeks in iron sucrose and packed cell group were 12.7±2.1% and 9.3±2.3 respectively. The mean ferritin values in iron sucrose group at baseline

  7. Early home-based recognition of anaemia via general danger signs, in young children, in a malaria endemic community in north-east Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Frank M; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Samuelsen, Helle

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ethnographic studies from East Africa suggest that cerebral malaria and anaemia are not classified in local knowledge as malaria complications, but as illnesses in their own right. Cerebral malaria 'degedege' has been most researched, in spite of anaemia being a much more frequent...... complication in infants, and not much is known on how this is interpreted by caretakers. Anaemia is difficult to recognize clinically, even by health workers. METHODS: Ethnographic longitudinal cohort field study for 14 months, with monthly home-visits in families of 63 newborn babies, identified by community...

  8. Safety and Efficacy of Intravenous Ferric Carboxy Maltose in Iron Deficiency Anaemia During Post-partum Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vineet; Roy, Priyankar; Gandhi, Khushali; Choudhary, Sumesh; Aggarwal, Rohina; Sokabaj, Shaheen

    2018-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the commonest treatable cause of postpartum anaemia. Parenteral iron therapy results in faster and higher replenishment of iron stores and correction of haemoglobin levels with better compliance. Ferric Carboxy Maltose is an effective and a safe option which can be administered intravenously in single total correction dose without any serious adverse effects.The study was done to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ferric Carboxy Maltose in the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in post-natal patients. It was an open, single arm study including 615 women with diagnosis of Iron deficiency anaemia and haemoglobin (Hb) levels between 4gm% and 11gm% from January 2013 to December 2016. Intravenous Ferric Carboxy Maltose(500-1500mg) was administered and the improvement in haemoglobin levels and iron stores were assessed after three weeks of total dose infusion. Out of the 615 women, 595 women were included in the analysis. Most of the women were in the age group of 27-30 years. Most of the women had mild anaemia as per World Health Organisation guidelines. Mean hemoglobin levels significantly increased over a period of three weeks after Ferric Carboxy Maltose administration. Other parameters like total iron binding capacity, Ferritin and Iron also had a significant improvement after Ferric Carboxy Maltose administration. No serious adverse events were observed after Ferric Carboxy Maltose. Intravenous Ferric Carboxy Maltose was an effective and a safe treatment option for iron deficiency anaemia and has an advantage of single administration of high doses without serious adverse effects.

  9. Effect of a school feeding programme on nutritional status and anaemia in an urban slum: a preliminary evaluation in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neervoort, Femke; von Rosenstiel, Ines; Bongers, Karlien; Demetriades, Matthew; Shacola, Marina; Wolffers, Ivan

    2013-06-01

    To reduce malnutrition and improve child survival, school feeding programmes have been established in many parts of Africa, although prevalence of child malnutrition and anaemia remains high, especially in urban slums. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of a school feeding programme in the slums of Nairobi (Kenya) on anaemia and nutritional status, together with an investigation for socioeconomic determinants that may overrule this effect. Sixty-seven children at the St. George primary school in Kibera participated in the school feeding programme for 1 year and data concerning anaemia rate, nutritional status and socioeconomic status were collected during a medical health check. Data were compared with a control group of children attending the same school, of the same age and with the same gender distribution without participation in a feeding programme. Data were analyzed with statistical software (SPSS 17.0). Children participating in the school feeding programme were less stunted (p = 0.02) and wasted (p = 0.02) than children in the control group, and levels of anaemia were lower (p = 0.01). Having no father (p = 0.01) and living in small families (p = 0.003) overruled the effect of the feeding programme. Also, the higher the mother's education, the more wasting was seen (p = 0.04) despite participation in the programme. The programme reduced anaemia and malnutrition and has improved child growth in our study group greatly, but we found that education level of the mother, family size and absence of a father overruled the effect of the school feeding programme. Because sample size of our study is small, we encourage further large-scaled research on reviewing programmatic interventions to develop optimal feeding strategies and improve nutritional status of children.

  10. A community based field research project investigating anaemia amongst young children living in rural Karnataka, India: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Jim

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia is an important problem amongst young children living in rural India. However, there has not previously been a detailed study of the biological aetiology of this anaemia, exploring the relative contributions of iron, vitamin B12, folate and Vitamin A deficiency, inflammation, genetic haemoglobinopathy, hookworm and malaria. Nor have studies related these aetiologic biological factors to household food security, standard of living and child feeding practices. Barriers to conducting such work have included perceived reluctance of village communities to permit their children to undergo venipuncture, and logistical issues. We have successfully completed a community based, cross sectional field study exploring in detail the causes of anaemia amongst young children in a rural setting. Methods and design A cross sectional, community based study. We engaged in extensive community consultation and tailored our study design to the outcomes of these discussions. We utilised local women as field workers, harnessing the capacity of local health workers to assist with the study. We adopted a programmatic approach with a census rather than random sampling strategy in the village, incorporating appropriate case management for children identified to have anaemia. We developed a questionnaire based on existing standard measurement tools for standard of living, food security and nutrition. Specimen processing was conducted at the Primary Health Centre laboratory prior to transport to an urban research laboratory. Discussion Adopting this study design, we have recruited 415 of 470 potentially eligible children who were living in the selected villages. We achieved support from the community and cooperation of local health workers. Our results will improve the understanding into anaemia amongst young children in rural India. However, many further studies are required to understand the health problems of the population of rural India, and

  11. A community based field research project investigating anaemia amongst young children living in rural Karnataka, India: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Vijaykumar, Varalaxmi; Prashanth, N S; Sudarshan, H; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Black, Jim; Shet, Arun

    2009-02-17

    Anaemia is an important problem amongst young children living in rural India. However, there has not previously been a detailed study of the biological aetiology of this anaemia, exploring the relative contributions of iron, vitamin B12, folate and Vitamin A deficiency, inflammation, genetic haemoglobinopathy, hookworm and malaria. Nor have studies related these aetiologic biological factors to household food security, standard of living and child feeding practices. Barriers to conducting such work have included perceived reluctance of village communities to permit their children to undergo venipuncture, and logistical issues. We have successfully completed a community based, cross sectional field study exploring in detail the causes of anaemia amongst young children in a rural setting. A cross sectional, community based study. We engaged in extensive community consultation and tailored our study design to the outcomes of these discussions. We utilised local women as field workers, harnessing the capacity of local health workers to assist with the study. We adopted a programmatic approach with a census rather than random sampling strategy in the village, incorporating appropriate case management for children identified to have anaemia. We developed a questionnaire based on existing standard measurement tools for standard of living, food security and nutrition. Specimen processing was conducted at the Primary Health Centre laboratory prior to transport to an urban research laboratory. Adopting this study design, we have recruited 415 of 470 potentially eligible children who were living in the selected villages. We achieved support from the community and cooperation of local health workers. Our results will improve the understanding into anaemia amongst young children in rural India. However, many further studies are required to understand the health problems of the population of rural India, and our study design and technique provide a useful demonstration of a

  12. Phytophthora viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guohong; Hillman, Bradley I

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora sp. is a genus in the oomycetes, which are similar to filamentous fungi in morphology and habitat, but phylogenetically more closely related to brown algae and diatoms and fall in the kingdom Stramenopila. In the past few years, several viruses have been characterized in Phytophthora species, including four viruses from Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen, and an endornavirus from an unnamed Phytophthora species from Douglas fir. Studies on Phytophthora viruses have revealed several interesting systems. Phytophthora infestans RNA virus 1 (PiRV-1) and PiRV-2 are likely the first members of two new virus families; studies on PiRV-3 support the establishment of a new virus genus that is not affiliated with established virus families; PiRV-4 is a member of Narnaviridae, most likely in the genus Narnavirus; and Phytophthora endornavirus 1 (PEV1) was the first nonplant endornavirus at the time of reporting. Viral capsids have not been found in any of the above-mentioned viruses. PiRV-1 demonstrated a unique genome organization that requires further examination, and PiRV-2 may have played a role in late blight resurgence in 1980s-1990s. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Schmallenberg Virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    explore the potential of this infection crossing the species barrier and thereby .... The virus targets mainly the brain of the unborn animal resulting in neurological ... The virus is located in the blood of the adult infected animal or in the central ...

  14. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Zika Virus Credit: NIAID A female Aedes mosquito. This type of mosquito can transmit Zika, ... transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Zika virus can be transmitted from an infected pregnant woman ...

  15. CHANDIPURA VIRUS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. CHANDIPURA VIRUS. First isolated from a village called Chandipura near Nagpur in 1965 in India. Belongs to rhabdoviridae family. Used as a Model System to study RNA virus multiplication in the infected cell at molecular level. Notes:

  16. A 3-marker index improves the identification of iron disorders in CKD anaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile Mercadal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iron disorders are common and complex in chronic kidney disease (CKD. We sought to determine whether a 3-marker index would improve the classification of iron disorders in CKD anaemia. METHODS: We studied the association between Hb level and iron indexes combining 2 or 3 of the following markers: serum ferritin (<40 ng/mL, transferrin saturation (TSAT<20% and total iron binding capacity (TIBC<50 µmol/L in 1011 outpatients with non-dialysis CKD participating in the Nephrotest study. All had glomerular filtration rates measured (mGFR by (51Cr-EDTA renal clearance; 199 also had hepcidin measures. RESULTS: The TSAT-TIBC-ferritin index explained Hb variation better than indexes combining TSAT-TIBC or ferritin-TSAT. It showed hypotransferrinaemia and non-inflammatory functional iron deficiency (ID to be more common than either absolute or inflammatory ID: 20%, 19%, 6%, and 2%, respectively. Hb was lower in all abnormal, compared with normal, iron profiles, and decreased more when mGFR was below 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2 (interaction p<0.0001. In patients with mGFR<30 mL/min/1.73 m(2, the Hb decreases associated with hypotransferrinaemia, non-inflammatory functional ID, and absolute ID were 0.83±0.16 g/dL, 0.51±0.18 and 0.89±0.29, respectively. Compared with normal iron profiles, hepcidin was severely depressed in absolute ID but higher in hypotransferrinaemia. CONCLUSIONS: The combined TSAT-TIBC-ferritin index identifies hypotransferrinaemia and non-inflammatory functional ID as the major mechanisms of iron disorders in CKD anaemia. Both disorders were associated with a greater decrease in Hb when mGFR was <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2. Taking these iron profiles into account may be useful in stratifying patients in clinical trials of CKD anaemia and might improve the management of iron therapy.

  17. Sports anaemia and anthropometric evaluation of footballers at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opoku-Okrah, Clement; Sam, Daniel Kwasi; Nkum, Bernard; Dogbe, Elliot Eli; Antwi-Boateng, Lilian; Sackey, Benedict; Gyamfi, Daniel; Danquah, Kwabena Owusu

    2016-01-01

    Sports anaemia is a physiological activity that occurs amongst footballers and may be due to poor diet, over-training, as well as an increase in plasma volume in endurance training activities. High plasma volume leads to changes in haematological parameters that may impact on endurance of footballers. The objective of the study was to determine the correlation between haematological and an-thropometric indices and their role in sports anaemia in a tropical setting. Venous blood was taken into EDTA for 12 soccer players of KNUST soccer team before training and after training for the first (W1) and fifth (W5) weeks of training sessions. Complete blood count analysis was done for each blood sample and anthropometric parameters such as height, weight, body mass index, body fat percent and lean body mass were also measured. Cross-tabulations with mean and standard deviation or median and range were computed. Paired t-test & and Mann-Whitney test for parametric and non-parametric data computations were carried out and a p-value ≤ 0.05 was taken to rep-resent significant difference between data groups. There was significant reduction in haemoglobin (p = 0.003), haematocrit (p = 0.002), mean cell volume (MCV) (p = 0.034) and red blood cell (RBC) count (p = 0.011) as a result of a significant expansion of plasma volume (p= 0.006). Neutrophil, lymphocyte and eosinophil counts were reduced significantly (p= 0.043, 0.001 and 0.007, respectively) after the training at W5. Lean body mass (LBM) inversely correlated with haemoglobin (r = -0.787, p = 0.002) and haematocrit (r = -0.588, p = 0.044). Body fat percentage (BFP) also negatively correlated with lymphocyte count (r = -0.700, p = 0.011). Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between body mass index (BMI) and plasma volume change after the training programme (r = 0.689, p = 0.013). The results suggest that sports anaemia was induced by an increase in plasma volume that resulted in changes in haematological

  18. Intravenous versus oral iron supplementation for correction of post-transplant anaemia in renal transplant patients

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    Mudge David W

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-transplant anaemia remains a common problem after kidney transplantation, with an incidence ranging from nearly 80% at day 0 to about 25% at 1 year. It has been associated with poor graft outcome, and recently has also been shown to be associated with increased mortality. Our transplant unit routinely administers oral iron supplements to renal transplant recipients but this is frequently accompanied by side effects, mainly gastrointestinal intolerance. Intravenous iron is frequently administered to dialysis patients and we sought to investigate this mode of administration in transplant recipients after noticing less anaemia in several patients who had received intravenous iron just prior to being called in for transplantation. Methods This study is a single-centre, prospective, open-label, randomised, controlled trial of oral versus intravenous iron supplements in renal transplant recipients and aims to recruit approximately 100 patients over a 12-month period. Patients will be randomised to receive a single dose of 500 mg iron polymaltose (intravenous iron group or 2 ferrous sulphate slow-release tablets daily (oral iron group. The primary outcome is time to normalisation of haemoglobin post-transplant. Prospective power calculations have indicated that a minimum of 48 patients in each group would have to be followed up for 3 months in order to have a 90% probability of detecting a halving of the time to correction of haemoglobin levels to ≥110 g/l in iron-treated patients, assuming an α of 0.05. All eligible adult patients undergoing renal transplantation at the Princess Alexandra Hospital will be offered participation in the trial. Exclusion criteria will include iron overload (transferrin saturation >50% or ferritin >800 μg/l, or previous intolerance of either oral or intravenous iron supplements. Discussion If the trial shows a reduction in the time to correction of anaemia with intravenous iron or less side

  19. Anaemia in HIV-infected pregnant women receiving triple antiretroviral combination therapy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission: a secondary analysis of the Kisumu breastfeeding study (KiBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, Collins; Zeh, Clement; Angira, Frank; Opollo, Valarie; Akinyi, Brenda; Masaba, Rose; Williamson, John M; Otieno, Juliana; Mills, Lisa A; Lecher, Shirley Lee; Thomas, Timothy K

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of anaemia during pregnancy is estimated to be 35-75% in sub-Saharan Africa and is associated with an increased risk of maternal mortality. We evaluated the frequency and factors associated with anaemia in HIV-infected women undergoing antiretroviral (ARV) therapy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) enrolled in The Kisumu Breastfeeding Study 2003-2009. Maternal haematological parameters were monitored from 32 to 34 weeks of gestation to 2 years post-delivery among 522 enrolled women. Clinical and laboratory assessments for causes of anaemia were performed, and appropriate management was initiated. Anaemia was graded using the National Institutes of Health Division of AIDS 1994 Adult Toxicity Tables. Data were analysed using SAS software, v 9.2. The Wilcoxon two-sample rank test was used to compare groups. A logistic regression model was fitted to describe the trend in anaemia over time. At enrolment, the prevalence of any grade anaemia (Hb anaemia (Hb anaemia events occurred around delivery (48.8%; n = 20). Anaemia (Hb ≥ 7 and anaemia at delivery (OR 5.87; 95% CI: 4.48, 7.68, P anaemia coincided with clinical malaria (24.4%; n = 10) and helminth (7.3%; n = 3) infections. Resolution of anaemia among most participants during study follow-up was likely related to receipt of ARV therapy. Efforts should be geared towards addressing common causes of anaemia in HIV-infected pregnant women, prioritising initiation of ARV therapy and management of peripartum blood loss. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Analysis of the Fanconi anaemia complementation group A gene in acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condie, Alison; Powles, Raymond L; Hudson, Chantelle D; Shepherd, Valerie; Bevan, Stephen; Yuille, Martin R; Houlston, Richard S

    2002-09-01

    Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is the most common acute leukaemia in adults. Around 10-15% of individuals with recessively inherited Fanconi anaemia (FA) develop AML. FA is one of a group of recessive syndromes characterized by excessive spontaneous chromosomal breakage in which heterozygote carriers appear to display an increased risk of cancer and there is some indirect evidence that FA carriers may also be at increased risk of AML. This suggests that FA genes may play a role in the development of AML in the wider context. To examine this proposition, further, we have screened samples from 79 AML patients for mutations in the major FA gene, FANCA. No truncating FANCA mutations were detected. One missense mutation previously designated as pathogenic and five novel missense mutations causing non-conservative amino acid substitutions were detected. The data suggests that while FANCA mutations are rare, FANCA mutations may contribute to the development of the disease in a subset of AML.

  1. Osteopoikilosis associated with keloids formation, rheumatoid arthritis, myasthenia, Graves` disease and megaloblastic anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Zimmermann-Górska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteopoikilosis is an uncommon hereditary dysplasia of skeleton characterized by small sclerotic foci clustered mainly in periarticular osseus regions. The radiographic pattern is pathognomonic. The disease can be a result of the loss-of-function mutations in LEMD3 – the gene responsible for bone density which can influence also on the expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 signalling. TGF-β1 is a key mediator of fibrosis and a modulator of immune responses. Patients with osteopoikilosis demonstrate a higher incidence of keloid formation and autoimmune diseases. In the presented case osteopoikilosis was associated with keloids formation and autoimmune diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, myasthenia, Graves’ disease and megaloblastic anaemia.

  2. The Fanconi anaemia components UBE2T and FANCM are functionally linked to nucleotide excision repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R Kelsall

    Full Text Available The many proteins that function in the Fanconi anaemia (FA monoubiquitylation pathway initiate replicative DNA crosslink repair. However, it is not clear whether individual FA genes participate in DNA repair pathways other than homologous recombination and translesion bypass. Here we show that avian DT40 cell knockouts of two integral FA genes--UBE2T and FANCM are unexpectedly sensitive to UV-induced DNA damage. Comprehensive genetic dissection experiments indicate that both of these FA genes collaborate to promote nucleotide excision repair rather than translesion bypass to protect cells form UV genotoxicity. Furthermore, UBE2T deficiency impacts on the efficient removal of the UV-induced photolesion cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer. Therefore, this work reveals that the FA pathway shares two components with nucleotide excision repair, intimating not only crosstalk between the two major repair pathways, but also potentially identifying a UBE2T-mediated ubiquitin-signalling response pathway that contributes to nucleotide excision repair.

  3. Prevention of post-operative anaemia in hip and knee arthroplasty - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Nissa; Troelsen, Anders; Husted, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    and length of hospital stay. The papers were evidence-graded. Non-randomised clinical studies and papers not concerning total hip or knee arthroplasty were excluded as were studies lacking a control group. Subanalyses were performed for tran-examic acid, tourniquet and fibrin use. RESULTS: A total of 49...... studies were found eligible which is equivalent to a total of 4,752 patients. Tranexamic acid administered either orally, topically, intravenously or in combination decreased blood loss, increased the post-operative haemoglobin level, decreased the number of patients receiving blood transfusions...... and minimised the length of stay. A similar result was found for fibrin spray in total hip arthroplasty. However, for total knee arthroplasty, the outcome was blurred. Tourniquet use was uniformly not significant in the measured parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Tranexamic acid is useful in managing anaemia and blood...

  4. Asymptomatic Malaria Correlates with Anaemia in Pregnant Women at Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

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    Zoenabo Douamba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa records each year about thirty-two million pregnant women living in areas of high transmission of Plasmodium falciparum causing malaria. The aim of this study was to carve out the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria among pregnant women and to emphasize its influence on haematological markers. The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic infection among pregnant women was 30% and 24% with rapid detection test (RDT and microscopy, respectively. The prevalence of P. falciparum asymptomatic malaria was reduced among pregnant women using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine's intermittent preventive treatment and 61% of them were anaemic. Anaemia was significantly more common in women infected with P. falciparum compared with the uninfected pregnant women. Most of the women had normal levels of homocysteine and low levels of folate, respectively. Therefore, the systematic diagnosis of malaria should be introduced to pregnant women as a part of the antenatal care.

  5. Electron microscope autoradiographic studies of the erythroblasts of a case of congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia, type II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickramasinghe, S N [Saint Mary' s Hospital Medical School, London (UK); Parry, T E [Department of Haematology, Llandough Hospital, Penarth, Glamorgan, Wales; Hughes, M [Division of Experimental Pathology, The Mathilda and Terence Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Bute Gardens, London, England

    1978-01-01

    The bone marrow cells of a patient with congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia, type II, were incubated with /sup 3/H-thymidine /sup 3/H-uridine or /sup 3/H-leucine for 1 h and studied using the technique of electron microscope autoradiography. Several of the erythroblasts which either displayed the characteristic subsurface double membranes or showed various non-specific abnormalities of the nuclear membrane were found to be actively engaged in DNA, RNA and protein synthesis. Both members of some pairs of erythroblasts which were joined together by a spindle bridge were found to be engaged in DNA synthesis, indicating that some spindle bridges persist for a period longer than the duration of the G/sub 1/ phase. A small proportion of mononucleate and binucleate late (non-dividing) erythroblasts showed a marked depression or arrest of protein synthesis and some or all of such cells were presumably destined to be phagocytosed by the bone marrow macrophages.

  6. Pegylated interferon de novo-induce autoimmune haemolytic anaemia in chronic hepatitis C patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Ashraf; Elbahrawy, Ashraf; Alfiomy, Mohamed; Abdellah, Mohamed; Shahat, Khaled; Salah, Mohamed; Mostafa, Sadek; Elwassief, Ahmed; Aboelfotoh, Attef; Abdelhafeez, Hafez; El-Sherif, Assem

    2011-08-11

    A 55-year-old Egyptian woman with chronic hepatitis C undergoing treatment with pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) alfa-2a plus ribavirin was referred to our hospital on November 2010 with prolonged easy fatigability and an attack of syncope; she had no prior history of autoimmune disorders or allergy. Laboratory investigations documented the presence of Peg-IFN induced autoimmune haemolytic anaemia and autoimmune thyroiditis. Intravenous γ globulin (IVGG) failed to correct the autoimmune process; on the other hand steroid therapy dramatically corrected both haematological and thyroid values, and step down the immune process. Our report indicated that Peg-IFN de novo-induce autoimmune haemolysis, documenting a previous report. IVGG failed to step down the immune process in our case.

  7. Myeloneuropathy following nitrous oxide anesthaesia in a patient with macrocytic anaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sesso, R.M.C.C.; Iunes, Y.; Melo, A.C.P. [Department of Neurology, Instituto de Assistencia Medica ao Servidor Publico Estadual, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1999-08-01

    The neurological condition triggered by anaesthesia with nitrous oxide involves the cyanocobalamine pathway and is characterised by progressive demyelination and axonal lesions of the peripheral nerves and cervicothoracic spinal cord (posterior and anterolateral columns) giving a peripheral neuropathy and very frequently subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord. It is possible to show these demyelinating lesions by MRI of the spine, allowing early diagnosis and follow-up. We describe a case of myeloneuropathy with onset a few hours after nitrous oxide anaesthesia in a patient with macrocytic anaemia and possible subclinical vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency and MRI evidence of a lesion of the cervical spinal cord. Neurological and haematological improvement followed cyanocobalamine replacement. (orig.) With 2 figs., 15 refs.

  8. Sickle-cell anaemia: an explanation for the ancient myth of reincarnation in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwubalili, J K

    1983-08-27

    The belief in reincarnation, widely held in Nigeria for many centuries, has waned in the past 30 years. It is most probable that the "reincarnate" child had sickle-cell anaemia, since this disease would explain all the clinical features and natural history of "reincarnation". Most reincarnate children died of Plasmodium falciparum or bacterial infection. The prevailing high birth rate and familial predisposition almost ensured that another sickler was born to the family. The widespread introduction of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis and therapy, the recognition of sickle-cell disease, and some measure of improvement in health care and socioeconomic standards have resulted in an increase in life expectancy for children with HbSS and consequently near-total total extinction of the people's belief in reincarnation.

  9. Anaemia and fever in kidney transplant. The role of human parvovirus B19

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanet Parodis López

    2017-03-01

    We report the case of a 65 year-old man with a history of deceased donor renal transplant in September 2014. At 38 days after the transplant, the patient presented progressive anaemia that was resistant to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. At 64 days after transplant, hyperthermia occurred with progressive deterioration of the patient's general condition. The viral serology and the first blood PCR for human parvovirus B19 were both negative. At 4 months and 19 days after, a bone marrow biopsy was conducted, showing giant erythroblasts with nuclear viral inclusions that were compatible with parvovirus; a PCR in the tissue confirmed the diagnosis. A second blood PCR was positive for parvovirus. After treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and the temporary discontinuation of mycophenolate mofetil, a complete remission of the disease occurred, although the blood PCR for parvovirus B19 remained positive, so monitoring is necessary for future likely recurrence.

  10. Appraisal on the prevalence of malaria and anaemia in pregnancy and factors influencing uptake of intermittent preventive therapy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in Kibaha district, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarimo, S Donath

    2007-10-01

    To appraise the prevalence of malaria and anaemia in antenatal mothers; and explore the factors influencing coverage of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) under operational conditions in the national programme for malaria control in pregnancy. Descriptive cross-sectional survey. The reproductive and child health clinic in Kibaha district hospital, Tanzania SUBECTS: Pregnant mothers on routine antenatal visits Prevalence of malaria (peripheral parasitaemia) and anaemia, coverage of IPT with SP and the factors influencing coverage. A total of 395 mothers were recruited; 27.3% had malaria. Moderate anaemia i.e. haemoglobin (Hb) level 8. -10.9 g/dl was detected in 56.7% of mothers; 34.2% had severe anaemia (Hb 8.0 g/dl was strongly associated with negative parasitaemia while Hb < 8.0 gidl was strongly associated with positive parasitaemia. About a third (40.0%) of the mothers did not receive SP for IPT

  11. Learning from a paradox: recent insights into Fanconi anaemia through studying mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sietske T. Bakker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi anaemia (FA is a rare autosomal recessive or X-linked inherited disease characterised by an increased incidence of bone marrow failure (BMF, haematological malignancies and solid tumours. Cells from individuals with FA show a pronounced sensitivity to DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL-inducing agents, which manifests as G2-M arrest, chromosomal aberrations and reduced cellular survival. To date, mutations in at least 15 different genes have been identified that cause FA; the products of all of these genes are thought to function together in the FA pathway, which is essential for ICL repair. Rapidly following the discovery of FA genes, mutant mice were generated to study the disease and the affected pathway. These mutant mice all show the characteristic cellular ICL-inducing agent sensitivity, but only partially recapitulate the developmental abnormalities, anaemia and cancer predisposition seen in individuals with FA. Therefore, the usefulness of modelling FA in mice has been questioned. In this Review, we argue that such scepticism is unjustified. We outline that haematopoietic defects and cancer predisposition are manifestations of FA gene defects in mice, albeit only in certain genetic backgrounds and under certain conditions. Most importantly, recent work has shown that developmental defects in FA mice also arise with concomitant inactivation of acetaldehyde metabolism, giving a strong clue about the nature of the endogenous lesion that must be repaired by the functional FA pathway. This body of work provides an excellent example of a paradox in FA research: that the dissimilarity, rather than the similarity, between mice and humans can provide insight into human disease. We expect that further study of mouse models of FA will help to uncover the mechanistic background of FA, ultimately leading to better treatment options for the disease.

  12. Exfoliative Cytology in the Oral Mucosa of Patients with Fanconi Anaemia: A Morphometric Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Naval Machado

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Fanconi anaemia (FA are prone to develop squamous cell carcinomas at an early age. Exfoliative cytology can be used to detect changes to the health of the oral mucosa. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate morphometrical and morphological changes using exfoliative cytology and to analyse and quantify the proliferative activity using silver nucleolar organiser regions (AgNOR in epithelial cells of the tongue in FA patients,after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. Methods: Oral smears were collected from the tongues of 20 FA children and adolescents after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (FA and 20 healthy children (C using exfoliative cytology. The smears were stained using the Papanicolaou technique and silver impregnation. The cells were morphologically analysed and the nuclear area (NA, the cytoplasmic area (CA, and the nucleusto-cytoplasm area ratio (NA/CA were calculated. Results: Mean values for the FA and C groups were: NA (71.85 and 55.21μm.; p< 0.01; CA (2127.48 and 1441.61μm.; p< 0.01; NA/CA (0.03 and 0.04; p< 0.01, respectively. A significant increase in the NA and CA for the FA group (p< 0.01 was seen, and an alteration in the NA/CA ratio. No morphological differences were found between the groups. Class I smears were predominant in both groups. No differences were found between the groups for the mean values of AgNORs per nucleus. Conclusion: This study suggests that morphological changes occurred in the oral epithelium cells of children and adolescents with Fanconi anaemia when subjected to HSCT.

  13. Erythrokinetics, ferrokinetics and red cell survival in sickle cell anaemia under subtropical climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, R.

    1975-01-01

    Ferrokinetic parameters were evaluated with 59 Fe and red-cell survival with 51 Cr by classical techniques in a total of 17 patients with sickle-cell disease. The mean plasma 59 Fe half-disappearance time in these patients was 29.5 min as compared with a normal value of 92 min, and the t1/2 51 Cr 8.0 days as compared with a normal value of 26.0 days. The mean red-cell iron turnover rate was elevated to 9 times normal. The increased destruction of red cells appeared to take place predominantly, though not entirely, in the spleen. Eight of the 17 patients studied were identified as having intercurrent complications, but these did not significantly affect the results of the investigations. A group of 5 boys in whom the red-cell iron turnover rate was elevated to a lesser degree than in the other patients were subjected to more detailed studies of plasma 59 Fe clearance with particular reference to ineffective erythropoiesis. In these patients, the plasma 59 Fe clearance curves showed precocious humps characteristic of ineffective erythropoiesis. Detailed analysis of the results indicated ineffective erythropoiesis corresponding to 3.6, 16.0, 22.6, 32.0 and 50.0 % of the iron initially taken up by the bone marrow. It is concluded that while the anaemia in most patients with sickle-cell disease is mainly due to shortened survival of the circulating red cells, with increased destruction of red cells in the spleen, ineffective erythropoiesis may none the less be an important factor determining the actual degree of this anaemia

  14. The Iron Status of Sickle Cell Anaemia Patients in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa A. Sani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Sickle cell anaemia (SCA is one of the commonest genetic disorders in the world. It is characterized by anaemia, periodic attacks of thrombotic pain, and chronic systemic organ damage. Recent studies have suggested that individuals with SCA especially from developing countries are more likely to be iron deficient rather than have iron overload. The study aims to determine the iron status of SCA patients in Ilorin, Nigeria. Methods. A cross-sectional study of 45 SCA patients in steady state and 45 non-SCA controls was undertaken. FBC, blood film, sFC, sTfR, and sTfR/log sFC index were done on all subjects. Results. The mean patients’ serum ferritin (589.33 ± 427.61 ng/mL was significantly higher than the mean serum ferritin of the controls (184.53 ± 119.74 ng/mL. The mean serum transferrin receptor of the patients (4.24 ± 0.17 μg/mL was higher than that of the controls (3.96 ± 0.17 μg/mL (p=0.290. The mean serum transferrin receptor (sTfR/log serum ferritin index of the patients (1.65 ± 0.27 μg/mL was significantly lower than that of the control (1.82 ± 0.18 μg/mL (p=0.031. Conclusion. Iron deficiency is uncommon in SCA patients and periodic monitoring of the haematological, biochemical, and clinical features for iron status in SCA patients is advised.

  15. Unwanted road to anaemia in transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy may continue irrespective of tafamidis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Tokunori; Masuda, Teruaki; Ueda, Mitsuharu; Yamashita, Taro; Misumi, Yohei; Shinriki, Satoru; Ando, Yukio

    2018-01-01

    Background This retrospective longitudinal study was performed to determine whether tafamidis treatment leads to improvements in commonly used blood data for transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP). Methods Commonly used blood data (complete blood count [including a haemogram], total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, total bilirubin [T-Bil], creatine kinase, choline esterase, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR], serum amyloid A protein, TTR, haemoglobin A1c, free triiodothyronine [FT3] and free thyroxine [FT4]) were investigated in 33 TTR-FAP patients. These values included longitudinal data at three time points: six months before or after tafamidis treatment and one year after tafamidis treatment. Longitudinal changes in each blood item were examined using a linear mixed model, adjusting for age at starting tafamidis, sex, TTR-FAP stage and value before tafamidis treatment. Results Our results show elevated TTR concentrations after tafamidis treatment. In contrast, haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width, T-Bil, eGFR, FT3 and FT4, gradually decreased through a reference range. There were no characteristic observations in any other items. TTR binds to thyroid hormone; therefore, FT3 and FT4 decreased in inverse proportion to increased TTR concentrations. Conclusion Unfortunately, progression to anaemia may occur regardless of tafamidis treatment. Because anaemia is sometimes present in TTR-FAP, attention should be paid to longitudinal changes in commonly used blood data, irrespective of tafamidis treatment.

  16. Resolution of anaemia in a cohort of HIV-infected patients with a high prevalence and incidence of tuberculosis receiving antiretroviral therapy in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoff, Andrew D; Wood, Robin; Cobelens, Frank G; Gupta-Wright, Ankur; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Lawn, Stephen D

    2014-12-21

    Anaemia is frequently associated with both HIV-infection and HIV-related tuberculosis (TB) in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients in sub-Saharan Africa and is strongly associated with poor prognosis. However, the effect of ART on the resolution of anaemia in patient cohorts with a high prevalence and incidence of tuberculosis is incompletely defined and the impact of TB episodes on haemoglobin recovery has not previously been reported. We therefore examined these issues using data from a well-characterised cohort of patients initiating ART in South Africa. Prospectively collected clinical and haematological data were retrospectively analysed from patients receiving ART in a South African township ART service. TB diagnoses and time-updated haemoglobin concentrations, CD4 counts and HIV viral loads were recorded. Anaemia severity was classified according to WHO criteria. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors independently associated with anaemia after 12 months of ART. Of 1,140 patients with baseline haemoglobin levels, 814 were alive in care and had repeat values available after 12 months of ART. The majority of patients were female (73%), the median CD4 count was 104 cells/uL and 30.5% had a TB diagnosis in the first year of ART. At baseline, anaemia (any severity) was present in 574 (70.5%) patients and was moderate/severe in 346 (42.5%). After 12 months of ART, 218 (26.8%) patients had anaemia of any severity and just 67 (8.2%) patients had moderate/severe anaemia. Independent predictors of anaemia after 12 months of ART included greater severity of anaemia at baseline, time-updated erythrocyte microcytosis and receipt of an AZT-containing regimen. In contrast, prevalent and/or incident TB, gender and baseline and time-updated CD4 cell count and viral load measurements were not independent predictors. Although anaemia was very common among ART-naive patients, the anaemia resolved during the first year of ART in a

  17. Gender inequalities in excess adiposity and anaemia combine in a large double burden of malnutrition gap detrimental to women in an urban area in North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traissac, Pierre; El Ati, Jalila; Gartner, Agnès; Ben Gharbia, Houda; Delpeuch, Francis

    2016-06-01

    The nutrition transition has exacerbated the gender gap in health in the Middle East and North Africa region as the increase in excess adiposity has been much higher among women than men. This is not exclusive of the persistence of anaemia, generally also more prevalent among women. We assessed the magnitude and sociodemographic factors associated with gender inequality vis-à-vis the double burden of excess adiposity and anaemia. Cross-sectional study, stratified two-stage cluster sample. BMI (=weight/height2) ≥25·0 kg/m2 defined overweight and BMI≥30·0 kg/m2 obesity. Anaemia was defined as Hb Gender inequalities vis-à-vis the within-subject coexistence of excess adiposity and anaemia were assessed by women v. men relative prevalence ratios (RPR). Their variation with sociodemographic characteristics used models including gender × covariate interactions. Greater Tunis area in 2009-2010. Adults aged 20-49 years (women, n 1689; men, n 930). Gender inequalities in excess adiposity were high (e.g. overweight: women 64·9 % v. men 48·4 %; RPR=2·1; 95 % CI 1·6, 2·7) and much higher for anaemia (women 38·0 % v. men 7·2 %; RPR=8·2; 95 % CI 5·5, 12·4). They were striking for overweight and anaemia (women 24·1 % v. men 3·4 %; RPR=16·2; 95 % CI 10·3, 25·4). Gender inequalities in overweight adjusted for covariates increased with age but decreased with professional activity and household wealth score; gender inequality in anaemia or overweight and anaemia was more uniformly distributed. Women were much more at risk than men, from both over- and undernutrition perspectives. Both the underlying gender-related and sex-linked biological determinants of this remarkable double burden of malnutrition inequality must be addressed to promote gender equity in health.

  18. 'This is normal during pregnancy': a qualitative study of anaemia-related perceptions and practices among pregnant women in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Nilesh; Fernandes, Genevie

    2014-03-01

    to explore anaemia-related perceptions and practices among pregnant women in Mumbai, India. descriptive qualitative study using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. three government-run maternity hospitals in Mumbai, India. 31 pregnant women aged 18-33 years; three women completed higher secondary school; 28 were homemakers. respondents described anaemia as 'lack of blood in the body' because that was the term used by health providers; yet they did not seem worried about the consequence on their own health. Women perceived anaemia as 'normal during pregnancy' because their body had to simply share resources with the fetus and every female relative had suffered from it during pregnancy. Respondents did recognise weakness and dizziness as symptoms of anaemia. They attributed the cause to a poor diet, but did not know the specific link with iron-deficiency. They listed various negative effects of anaemia on the fetus, but very few stated ill-effects on the mother, and none stated maternal death as an outcome. Women saw their role primarily as child-bearers and prioritised newborn's health over their own. anaemia stands at the intersection of health, nutrition, culture and gender. Interventions in the country have to go beyond distributing or monitoring compliance with iron-folic acid (IFA) supplements. Health education programmes for women and household members have to highlight the seriousness of anaemia and address socio-cultural norms and gendered behaviours in families with respect to nutrition and health. There is an urgent need in maternal and child health programmes to emphasise the importance of the mother's own health. Anaemia interventions have the potential to become proxies for women's health and empowerment programmes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of malaria and anaemia among HIV infected pregnant women receiving co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in Tanzania: a cross sectional study in Kinondoni Municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyanga, Vicent P; Minzi, Omary; Ngasala, Billy

    2014-04-24

    HIV-infected pregnant women are particularly more susceptible to the deleterious effects of malaria infection particularly anaemia. In order to prevent opportunistic infections and malaria, a policy of daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis without the standard Suphadoxine-Pyrimethamine intermittent preventive treatment (SP-IPT) was introduced to all HIV infected pregnant women in the year 2011. However, there is limited information about the effectiveness of this policy. This was a cross sectional study conducted among HIV-infected pregnant women receiving co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in eight public health facilities in Kinondoni Municipality from February to April 2013. Blood was tested for malaria infection and anaemia (haemoglobin anaemia. Pearson chi-square test, Fischer's exact test and multivariate logistic regression were used in the statistical analysis. This study enrolled 420 HIV infected pregnant women. The prevalence of malaria infection was 4.5%, while that of anaemia was 54%. The proportion of subjects with poor adherence to co-trimoxazole was 50.5%. As compared to HIV infected pregnant women with good adherence to co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, the poor adherents were more likely to have a malaria infection (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR = 6.81, 95% CI = 1.35-34.43, P = 0.02) or anaemia (AOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.03-2.98, P = 0.039). Other risk factors associated with anaemia were advanced WHO clinical stages, current malaria infection and history of episodes of malaria illness during the index pregnancy. The prevalence of malaria was low; however, a significant proportion of subjects had anaemia. Good adherence to co-trimoxazole prophylaxis was associated with reduction of both malaria infection and anaemia among HIV infected pregnant women.

  20. Maternal anaemia and duration of zidovudine in antiretroviral regimens for preventing mother-to-child transmission: a randomized trial in three African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Benn K D; Chersich, Matthew F; Mwaura, Mary; Meda, Nicolas; Temmerman, Marleen; Newell, Marie Louise; Farley, Timothy M M; Luchters, Stanley

    2013-11-06

    Although substantiated by little evidence, concerns about zidovudine-related anaemia in pregnancy have influenced antiretroviral (ARV) regimen choice for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, especially in settings where anaemia is common. Eligible HIV-infected pregnant women in Burkina Faso, Kenya and South Africa were followed from 28 weeks of pregnancy until 12-24 months after delivery (n = 1070). Women with a CD4 count of 200-500 cells/mm(3) and gestational age 28-36 weeks were randomly assigned to zidovudine-containing triple-ARV prophylaxis continued during breastfeeding up to 6-months, or to zidovudine during pregnancy plus single-dose nevirapine (sd-NVP) at labour. Additionally, two cohorts were established, women with CD4 counts: 500 cells/mm(3) received zidovudine during pregnancy plus sd-NVP at labour. Mild (haemoglobin 8.0-10.9 g/dl) and severe anaemia (haemoglobin anaemia occurred subsequently in 194 (18.1%) women, mostly in those with low baseline haemoglobin, lowest socio-economic category, advanced HIV disease, prolonged breastfeeding (≥ 6 months) and shorter ARV exposure. Severe anaemia incidence was similar in the randomized arms (equivalence P-value = 0.32). After 1-2 months of ARV's, severe anaemia was significantly reduced in all groups, though remained highest in the low CD4 cohort. Severe anaemia occurs at a similar rate in women receiving longer triple zidovudine-containing regimens or shorter prophylaxis. Pregnant women with pre-existing anaemia and advanced HIV disease require close monitoring. ISRCTN71468401.

  1. Vitamin B12 deficiency - a major cause of megaloblastic anaemia in patients attending a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, S.P.; Kakepoto, G.N.; Iqbal, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    Folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies have been known to cause megaloblastic anaemia. Since the deficiencies of these two vitamins are very common in Pakistani population, it would be imperative to investigate their role in causing megaloblastic anaemia. The objective of this study was to find out the contribution of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies in causing megaloblastic anaemia in our patient population. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, clinical records of 220 patients (101 females and 119 males with an age range of 1 - 80 years) who presented themselves with macrocytic anaemia at the Aga Khan University Hospital were collected. Data pertaining to complete blood count and serum levels of folate and vitamin B12 were analysed. Results: The mean haemoglobin (Hb) level was 6.8 +- 0.2 gm/dl. Sixty-nine percent of the patients had severe anaemia (Hb<8 gm/dl). Mean +- SEM values of haemoglobin, serum folate and serum B12 were not significantly different between males and females (Hb 6.4 +- 0.3 gm/dl vs 6.3 +- 0.3 gm/dl; folate 6.9 +- 0.8 mu g/ml vs 7.8 +- 1 mu g/ml; B12 259 +- 65 mu g/ml vs 225 +- 45 mu g/ml, respectively). Linear regression analysis showed that serum folate was inversely related with the mean corpuscular volume (MCV, p=0.04). Spearman's correlation analysis indicated an inverse mild association between MCV and serum folate (correlation coefficient= -0.18). Folate deficiency was 43.4%, while vitamin B12 deficiency was 78.5% in these patients. Seventy-one percent of folate-deficient patients had vitamin B12 deficiency as well, while 26.1% of patients with B12 deficiency had a co-occurrence of folate deficiency. Conclusion: Vitamin B12 deficiency appears to be the major factor leading to megaloblastic anaemia in our study population. Inadequate dietary intake, over-cooking of our food and poor absorption might be contributing to high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in this population. (author)

  2. Anaemia prevalence and associated factors among lactating mothers in Ethiopia: evidence from the 2005 and 2011 demographic and health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, Yihunie; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Haile, Demewoz

    2015-04-14

    To identify factors associated with anaemia in lactating mothers in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional secondary analysis of data pooled from two rounds of the 2005 and 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) was used. A multivariate logistic regression model was applied to determine the factors associated with anaemia. A total of 7332 lactating mothers (2285 from EDHS 2005 and 5047 from EDHS 2011) were included from 11 administrative states of Ethiopia. Lactating mothers considered anaemic if haemoglobin level prevalence of anaemia among lactating mothers was 22.1% (95% CI 21.13% to 23.03%). The highest prevalence was 48.7% (95% CI 40.80% to 56.62%) found in the Somali region, followed by 43.8% (95% CI 31.83% to 56.87%) in the Afar region. The multivariate statistical model showed that having a husband who had attended primary education (adjusted OR (AOR) 0.79; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.91), working during the 12 months preceding the survey (AOR 0.71; 95% CI 0.63 to 0.80), having a normal maternal body mass index (18.5-24.99 kg/m(2)) (AOR 0.78; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.89), being in the middle wealth quintile (AOR 0.83; 95% CI 0.71 to 0.98) or rich wealth quintile (AOR 0.83; 95% CI 0.70 to 0.98), having ever used family planning (AOR 0.68; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.80), having attended antenatal care (ANC) for the indexed pregnancy four times or more (AOR 0.73; 95% CI 0.59 to 0.91), having experienced time variation between the two surveys (AOR 0.73; 95% CI 0.64 to 0.85), and breastfeeding for 2 years (AOR 0.76; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.87) were factors associated with lower odds of having anaemia in lactating mothers. Anaemia is highly prevalent among lactating mothers, particularly in the pastoralist communities of Somali and Afar. Promoting partner education, improving maternal nutritional status, and creating behavioural change to use family planning and ANC services at health facilities are recommended interventions to reduce the prevalence of anaemia among lactating mothers in

  3. Cluster analysis of the clinical histories of cattle affected with bovine anaemia associated with Theileria orientalis Ikeda type infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, K E; Forsyth, S F; Vaatstra, B L; McFadden, Amj; Pulford, D J; Govindaraju, K; Pomroy, W E

    2017-11-01

    AIM To determine the most commonly used words in the clinical histories of animals naturally infected with Theileria orientalis Ikeda type; whether these words differed between cases categorised by age, farm type or haematocrit (HCT), and if there was any clustering of the common words in relation to these categories. METHODS Clinical histories were transcribed for 605 cases of bovine anaemia associated with T. orientalis (TABA), that were submitted to laboratories with blood samples which tested positive for T. orientalis Ikeda type infection by PCR analysis, between October 2012 and November 2014. χ 2 tests were used to determine whether the proportion of submissions for each word was similar across the categories of HCT (normal, moderate anaemia or severe anaemia), farm type (dairy or beef) and age (young or old). Correspondence analysis (CA) was carried out on a contingency table of the frequency of the 28 most commonly used history words, cross-tabulated by age categories (young, old or unknown). Agglomerative hierarchical clustering, using Ward's method, was then performed on the coordinates from the correspondence analysis. RESULTS The six most commonly used history words were jaundice (204/605), lethargic (162/605), pale mucous membranes (161/605), cow (151/605), anaemia (147/605), and off milk (115/605). The proportion of cases with some history words differed between categories of age, farm type and HCT. The cluster analysis indicated that the recorded history words were grouped in two main clusters. The first included the words weight loss, tachycardia, pale mucous membranes, anaemia, lethargic and thin, and was associated with adult (pcluster included the words deaths, ill-thrift, calves, calf and diarrhoea, and was associated with young (pCluster analysis of words recorded in clinical histories submitted with blood samples from cases of TABA indicates that two potentially different disease syndromes were associated with T. orientalis Ikeda type

  4. Screening for iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy: a structured review and gap analysis against UK national screening criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukuni, Ruramayi; Knight, Marian; Murphy, Michael F; Roberts, David; Stanworth, Simon J

    2015-10-20

    Iron deficiency anaemia is a common problem in pregnancy despite national recommendations and guidelines for treatment. The aim of this study was to appraise the evidence against the UK National Screening Committee (UKNSC) criteria as to whether a national screening programme could reduce the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia and/or iron deficiency in pregnancy and improve maternal and fetal outcomes. Search strategies were developed for the Cochrane library, Medline and Embase to identify evidence relevant to UK National Screening Committee (UKNSC) appraisal criteria which cover the natural history of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia, the tests for screening, clinical management and evidence of cost effectiveness. Many studies evaluated haematological outcomes of anaemia, but few analysed clinical consequences. Haemoglobin and ferritin appeared the most suitable screening tests, although future options may follow recent advances in understanding iron homeostasis. The clinical consequences of iron deficiency without anaemia are unknown. Oral and intravenous iron are effective in improving haemoglobin and iron parameters. There have been no trials or economic evaluations of a national screening programme for iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy. Iron deficiency in pregnancy remains an important problem although effective tests and treatment exist. A national screening programme could be of value for early detection and intervention. However, high quality studies are required to confirm whether this would reduce maternal and infant morbidity and be cost effective.

  5. Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeep, A B; Jadi, R S; Mishra, A C

    2009-11-01

    Ganjam virus (GANV), a member of genus Nairovirus of family Bunyavirdae is of considerable veterinary importance in India. Though, predominantly tick borne, GANV was also isolated from mosquitoes, man and sheep. Neutralizing and complement fixing antibodies to GANV have been detected in animal and human sera collected from different parts of the country. Thirty three strains of GANV have been isolated from India, mainly from Haemaphysalis ticks. The virus replicated in certain vertebrate and mosquito cell lines and found pathogenic to laboratory animals. One natural infection and five laboratory-acquired infections in men were also reported. GANV is antigenically related to Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) of Africa, which is highly pathogenic for sheep and goats causing 70-90 per cent mortality among the susceptible population. Recent molecular studies have demonstrated that GANV is an Asian variant of NSDV and both these viruses are related to the dreaded Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) group viruses. The versatility of the virus to replicate in different arthropod species, its ability to infect sheep, goat and man makes it an important zoonotic agent.

  6. Impact of combined intermittent preventive treatment of malaria and helminths on anaemia, sustained attention, and recall in Northern Ghanaian schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opoku, Ernest Cudjoe; Olsen, Annette; Browne, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    albendazole plus praziquantel compared to albendazole plus praziquantel on anaemia, sustained attention, and recall in schoolchildren. DESIGN: This three-arm, open-label intervention study was carried out in Ghana among class three schoolchildren. Artemether-lumefantrine and albendazole were co...... to measure haemoglobin (Hb), while the code transmission test (CTT), adapted from the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch), was used to measure sustained attention and recall before-and-after interventions in June 2011 and June 2012. RESULTS: We observed significant malaria parasite prevalence...... and deworming reduced prevalence of anaemia and improved sustained attention and recall in schoolchildren. Best results for sustained attention and recall were seen in Study Arm 2....

  7. Relationship of anaemia and morbidities among children aged 5-14 years in a resettlement area, Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Motilal Kasdekar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Partnership for Child Development (1998, “The anthropometric status of school children in five countries in the Partnership for Child Development”. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 57: 149- 158.World Health Organization. Anaemia. WHO (2010.World Health Organization (WHO. WHO global database on anaemia: Worldwide prevalence of anaemia 1993-2005. Ge¬neva: WHO, 2008a. [Cited 2014 Aug 24]. Available from: URL: http://www.who. int/vmnis/anaemia/prevalence/en/index. htmlWorld Health Organization (WHO. Health in Asia and the Pacific: Reproductive health, child and adolescent health, nutrition, and health for older persons. Geneva: WHO, 2008b. [Cited 2014 Jul 6]. Available from: URL: http://www.wpro.who.int/publica-tions/Health+in+Asia+and+the+Pacific. Html. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3 (2005-06, Nutrition in India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Government of India,World Health Organisation. Criteria Anaemia 1985; WHO.World Bank.Rema N, Vasanthamani G. Prevalence of nutritional and lifestyle disorders among school going children in urban and rural areas of Coimbatore, Tamilnadu: Indian Journal of Science and Technology 2011; Vol. 4 (2.Bhoite R, et al. Magnitude of malnutrition and Iron deficiency anaemia among rural school children: Asian J Exp Biol Sci 2003; Vol 2(2: 354-361.Handa R, Ahamad F, Prasad R, “Assessment of nutritional status of 7-10    Years School going children of Allahabad District”. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 2008; 3(3:109-115.Verma A, et al. Factors influencing anaemia among girls of school going age (6-18 years from the slums of Ahmedabad city. IJCM 2004; Vol 29 (1.Hasan I, Zulkifle M, A study of malnutrition in government school children in the field area of azad nagar Bangalore, India. (MD thesis.2010.Dept. of preventive and social medicine; National Institute of Unani Medicine.Ananthakrishnan S, Pani SP, Nalini P. A comprehensive study of morbidity in school age children. Indian

  8. Relationship of anaemia and morbidities among children aged 5-14 years in a resettlement area, Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Motilal Kasdekar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available • Partnership for Child Development (1998, “The anthropometric status of school children in five countries in the Partnership for Child Development”. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 57: 149- 158. • World Health Organization. Anaemia. WHO (2010. • World Health Organization (WHO. WHO global database on anaemia: Worldwide prevalence of anaemia 1993-2005. Ge¬neva: WHO, 2008a. [Cited 2014 Aug 24]. Available from: URL: http://www.who. int/vmnis/anaemia/prevalence/en/index. html • World Health Organization (WHO. Health in Asia and the Pacific: Reproductive health, child and adolescent health, nutrition, and health for older persons. Geneva: WHO, 2008b. [Cited 2014 Jul 6]. Available from: URL: http://www.wpro.who.int/publica-tions/Health+in+Asia+and+the+Pacific. Html.  • National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3 (2005-06, Nutrition in India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Government of India, • World Health Organisation. Criteria Anaemia 1985; WHO.World Bank. • Rema N, Vasanthamani G. Prevalence of nutritional and lifestyle disorders among school going children in urban and rural areas of Coimbatore, Tamilnadu: Indian Journal of Science and Technology 2011; Vol. 4 (2. • Bhoite R, et al. Magnitude of malnutrition and Iron deficiency anaemia among rural school children: Asian J Exp Biol Sci 2003; Vol 2(2: 354-361. • Handa R, Ahamad F, Prasad R, “Assessment of nutritional status of 7-10    Years School going children of Allahabad District”. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 2008; 3(3:109-115. • Verma A, et al. Factors influencing anaemia among girls of school going age (6-18 years from the slums of Ahmedabad city. IJCM 2004; Vol 29 (1. • Hasan I, Zulkifle M, A study of malnutrition in government school children in the field area of azad nagar Bangalore, India. (MD thesis.2010.Dept. of preventive and social medicine; National Institute of Unani Medicine. • Ananthakrishnan S, Pani SP, Nalini P. A

  9. Marfan syndrome with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated systemic vasculitis presenting as severe anaemia and haematuria after the Bentall procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijia, Li; Shuangxin, Liu; Wei, Shi; Yanhai, Cui

    2013-08-01

    One month previously, a 28-year old male underwent an emergency modified Bentall procedure because of Marfan syndrome with acute aortic dissection Stanford Class A. Computed tomography of the chest did not reveal severe graft stenosis of the anastomosis. To explore the cause of anaemia, renal dysfunction and macroscopic haematuria, the patient was tested for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated systemic vasculitis (AASV). Antimyeloperoxidase antibodies (MPO)-ANCA and antiproteinase 3 antibodies (PR3)-ANCA were strongly positive. Corticosteroid therapy was applied, followed by cyclophosphamide and azathioprine. In response to treatment, the MPO-ANCA and PR3-ANCA levels gradually decreased, proteinuria was alleviated and haemoglobin levels returned to normal after 6 months. This is the first report to highlight haemolytic anaemia and AASV with Marfan syndrome after surgery for aortic dissection.

  10. Single-dose intravenous iron infusion versus red blood cell transfusion for the treatment of severe postpartum anaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, C; Thomsen, L L; Norgaard, A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are no randomized trials comparing intravenous iron to RBC transfusion for the treatment of severe postpartum anaemia. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of randomizing women with severe postpartum anaemia secondary to postpartum...... haemorrhage to RBC transfusion or intravenous iron, and to describe patient-reported outcomes, and haematological and iron parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women with a postpartum haemorrhage exceeding 1000 ml and an Hb between 5·6 and 8·1 g/dl were randomized to 1500 mg of intravenous iron (n = 7......) isomaltoside or RBC transfusion (n = 6). Participants completed the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and blood samples were drawn at inclusion, daily during the first week and at weeks 3, 8 and 12. RESULTS: We screened 162 women and included 13 (8...

  11. Somatostatin and serum gastrin in normal subjects and in patients with pernicious anaemia, chronic liver and renal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Roith, D; Vinik, A I; Epstein, S; Baron, P; Olkenitzky, M N; Pimstone, B L

    1975-09-13

    The effects of somatostatin (growth hormone release inhibiting hormone) on basal gastrin were studied in patients suffering from pernicious anaemia and chronic renal and liver disease, and during sequential arginine/insulin-stimulated gastrin release in normal subjects. When basal gastrin concentrations were normal (10-50 pg/ml) in controls and in patients who were in renal and liver failure, somatostatin had no effect on gastrin levels. Raised basal gastrin levels in pernicious anaemia and in 2 cases of chronic renal disease, were significantly inhibited by somatostatin with a half-life (T-half) of 3 to 4 minutes. Arginine infusion caused an insignificant rise in serum gastrin which was unaffected by somatostatin, whereas insulin hypoglycaemia significantly stimulated gastrin release, which was inhibited by somatostatin.

  12. Powassan (POW) Virus Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professionals Related Topics For International Travelers Powassan Virus Disease Basics Download this fact sheet formatted for ... Virus Disease Fact Sheet (PDF) What is Powassan virus? Powassan virus is a tickborne flavivirus that is ...

  13. Iron deficiency anaemia in pre-school (1- 6 years) in Al Shigla area (Khartoum State) :Prevalence and Aetiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Faiza Mohamed

    1999-04-01

    iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a public health problem throughout the world. Childhood iron deficiency anaemia. A prospective survey (systematic, cluster sampling) was carried out among pre-school children in Alshigla area (Khartoum State), to study the prevalence and aetological factors of IDA. 170 children selected for general nutritional evaluation, 110 of them for haemoglobin levels and morphological classification of anaemia, 70 for further investigations(serum iron, unsaturated iron binding capacity, total iron binding capacity). The population at Alshigla were living in poor condition 85.3% relied on water brought by tankers which showed poor hygienic standard, 90% lived in extended families 54.1% had income level less than LS 3000/day irrespective of family size or mode of spending. A sample of 170 children showed (84.1%) normal nutritional status with 4.7% severe cases with high consumption of cereals low meat, fish and poultry group and vitamin C(22.9%). Disease episodes showed 67.7% had diarrhoea, 22.4% had giardia, 12.9% had malaria and 10.6% had worm infestation. This most probably due to unsanitary living condition. Haemoglobin analysis using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay technique (ELISA) for 110 of the children, showed high prevalence of anaemia (96.4%), 66% prevalence of IDA. Further haematological investigations of 50 of the children confirmed them as IDA cases.Thus the high prevalence of IDA in Alshigla was multi-factorial, inadequate take of dietary iron and of vitamin C, high intake of cereals and legumes, low intake of meat, poultry and fish group (MPF),and high tea consumption, thus food provides inadequate supply of iron and were rich in inhibitors of iron absorption. In addition episodes of diseases that may influence food (hence iron) utilisation contributed to the prevalence of IDA

  14. Development of gastric dysplasia in pernicious anaemia: a clinical and endoscopic follow up study of 80 patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Armbrecht, U; Stockbrügger, R W; Rode, J; Menon, G G; Cotton, P B

    1990-01-01

    The development of gastric dysplasia and neoplasia in patients with pernicious anaemia has been evaluated in a prospective clinical and endoscopic follow up study. After initial screening of 80 patients between 1978 and 1980, one patient underwent total gastrectomy for a gastric malignancy and 12 were kept under surveillance and underwent endoscopy at a mean interval of 14 months. In the remaining 67 patients further investigation was attempted six to seven years after the initial investigati...

  15. A CASE REPORT ON SHEEHAN’S SYNDROME WITH IRON DEFICIENCY ANAEMIA- A HAEMATOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE OF PANHYPOPITUITARISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Rani Pegu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND SS occurs due to ischaemic pituitary necrosis after severe Postpartum Haemorrhage (PPH and is characterised by typical history of severe postpartum blood loss, hypotension or shock, postpartum lactation failure, discontinuation of the menses after the delivery, partial or complete anterior pituitary insufficiency and empty sella on CT or MRI. 1,2,3,4 Although unclear, anaemia is well recognised as a feature of hypopituitarism.

  16. Molecular analysis of the most prevalent mutations of the FANCA and FANCC genes in Brazilian patients with Fanconi anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, David Enrique Aguilar; Lima, Carmen Silvia Passos; Lourenço, Gustavo Jacob; Figueiredo, Maria Estela; Carneiro, Jorge David Aivazoglu; Tone, Luiz Gonzaga; Llerena Jr., Juan Clinton; Toscano, Raquel Alves; Brandalise, Silvia; Pinto Júnior, Walter; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; Bertuzzo, Carmen Sílvia

    2005-01-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a recessive autosomal disease determined by mutations in genes of at least eleven complementation groups, with distinct distributions in different populations. As far as we know, there are no reports regarding the molecular characterisation of the disease in unselected FA patients in Brazil. OBECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the most prevalent mutations of FANCA and FANCC genes in Brazilian patients with FA. METHODS: Genomic DNA obtained from 22 racially and et...

  17. Effects of Vitamin A Supplementation on Iron Status Indices and Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M. Al-Mekhlafi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world including developed and developing countries. Despite intensive efforts to improve the quality of life of rural and aboriginal communities in Malaysia, anaemia and IDA are still major public health problems in these communities particularly among children. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 250 Orang Asli (aboriginal schoolchildren in Malaysia to investigate the effects of a single high-dose of vitamin A supplementation (200,000 IU on iron status indices, anaemia and IDA status. The effect of the supplement was assessed after 3 months of receiving the supplements; after a complete 3-day deworming course of 400 mg/day of albendazole tablets. The prevalence of anaemia was found to be high: 48.5% (95% CI = 42.3, 54.8. Moreover, 34% (95% CI = 28.3, 40.2 of the children had IDA, which accounted for 70.1% of the anaemic cases. The findings showed that the reduction in serum ferritin level and the increments in haemoglobin, serum iron and transferrin saturation were found to be significant among children allocated to the vitamin A group compared to those allocated to the placebo group (p < 0.01. Moreover, a significant reduction in the prevalence of IDA by almost 22% than prevalence at baseline was reported among children in the vitamin A group compared with only 2.3% reduction among children in the placebo group. In conclusion, vitamin A supplementation showed a significant impact on iron status indices and IDA among Orang Asli children. Hence, providing vitamin A supplementation and imparting the knowledge related to nutritious food should be considered in the efforts to improve the nutritional and health status of these children as a part of efforts to improve the quality of life in rural and aboriginal communities.

  18. Therapeutic Phlebotomy is Safe in Children with Sickle Cell Anaemia and can be Effective Treatment for Transfusional Iron Overload

    OpenAIRE

    Aygun, Banu; Mortier, Nicole A.; Kesler, Karen; Lockhart, Alexandre; Schultz, William H.; Cohen, Alan R.; Alvarez, Ofelia; Rogers, Zora R.; Kwiatkowski, Janet L.; Miller, Scott T.; Sylvestre, Pamela; Iyer, Rathi; Lane, Peter A.; Ware, Russell E.

    2015-01-01

    Serial phlebotomy was performed on sixty children with sickle cell anaemia, stroke and transfusional iron overload randomized to hydroxycarbamide in the Stroke With Transfusions Changing to Hydroxyurea trial. There were 927 phlebotomy procedures with only 33 adverse events, all of which were grade 2. Among 23 children completing 30 months of study treatment, the net iron balance was favourable (−8.7 mg Fe/kg) with significant decrease in ferritin, although liver iron concentration remained un...

  19. Elephant trunk in a small-calibre true lumen for chronic aortic dissection: cause of haemolytic anaemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Haruna; Kitamura, Tadashi; Horai, Tetsuya; Shibata, Ko; Miyaji, Kagami

    2014-12-01

    The elephant trunk technique for aortic dissection is useful for reducing false lumen pressure; however, a folded vascular prosthesis inside the aorta can cause haemolysis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether an elephant trunk in a small-calibre lumen can cause haemolysis. Inpatient and outpatient records were retrospectively reviewed. Two cases of haemolytic anaemia after aortic surgery using the elephant trunk technique were identified from 2011 to 2013. A 64-year-old man, who underwent graft replacement of the ascending aorta for acute Stanford type A aortic dissection, presented with enlargement of the chronic dissection of the descending aorta and moderate aortic regurgitation. A two-stage surgery was scheduled. Total arch replacement with an elephant trunk in the true lumen and concomitant aortic valve replacement were performed. Postoperatively, he developed severe haemolytic anaemia because of the folded elephant trunk. The anaemia improved after the second surgery, including graft replacement of the descending aorta. Similarly, a 61-year-old man, who underwent total arch replacement for acute Stanford type A aortic dissection, presented with enlargement of the chronic dissection of the descending aorta. Graft replacement of the descending aorta with an elephant trunk inserted into the true lumen was performed. The patient postoperatively developed haemolytic anaemia because of the folded elephant trunk, which improved after additional stent grafting into the elephant trunk. A folded elephant trunk in a small-calibre lumen can cause haemolysis. Therefore, inserting an elephant trunk in a small-calibre true lumen during surgery for chronic aortic dissection should be avoided. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of Anaemia among Pregnant Women at Booking in the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olujimi A. Olatunbosun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Anaemia with an estimated prevalence of 35–75% among pregnant women is a major cause of maternal deaths in Nigeria. Objective. To determine the prevalence of anaemia, associated sociodemographic factors and red cell morphological pattern among pregnant women during booking at the University Teaching Hospital, Uyo. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional analytical study of 400 women at the booking clinic over a 16-week period. The packed cell volume and red cell morphology of each pregnant woman were determined. Their biodata, obstetric and medical histories, and results of other routine investigations were obtained with questionnaires and analyzed with SPSS Package version 17.0. Results. The mean packed cell volume was 31.8% ±3.2 and 54.5% of the women were anaemic. The commonest blood picture was microcytic hypochromia and normocytic hypochromia suggesting iron deficiency anaemia. Anaemia was significantly and independently related to a history of fever in the index pregnancy (OR=0.4; P=0.00; 95% CI=0.3–0.7, HIV positive status (OR=0.2; P=0.01; 95% CI=0.1–0.6, and low social class (OR=0.3; P=0.00; 95% CI=0.2–0.7. Conclusion. Women need to be economically empowered and every pregnant woman should be encouraged to obtain antenatal care, where haematinics supplementation can be given and appropriate investigations and treatment of causes of fever and management of HIV can be instituted.