WorldWideScience

Sample records for anadromous species habitat

  1. Habitat Quality and Anadromous Fish Production on the Warm Springs Reservation. Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, Mark A.

    1995-06-01

    The number of anadromous fish returning to the Columbia River and its tributaries has declined sharply in recent years. Changes in their freshwater, estuarine, and ocean environments and harvest have all contributed to declining runs of anadromous fish. Restoration of aquatic resources is of paramount importance to the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs (CTWS) Reservation of Oregon. Watersheds on the Warm Springs Reservation provide spawning and rearing habitat for several indigenous species of resident and anadromous fish. These streams are the only ones in the Deschutes River basin that still sustain runs of wild spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus, tshawytscha. Historically, reservation streams supplied over 169 km of anadromous fish habitat. Because of changes in flows, there are now only 128 km of habitat that can be used on the reservation. In 1981, the CTWS began a long-range, 3-phase study of existing and potential fish resources on the reservation. The project, consistent with the Northwest Power Planning Council`s Fish and Wildlife Program, was designed to increase the natural production of anadromous salmonids on the reservation.

  2. Habitat quality and anadromous fish production on the Warm Springs Reservation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, M.A.

    1995-06-01

    The number of anadromous fish returning to the Columbia River and its tributaries has declined sharply in recent years. Changes in their freshwater, estuarine, and ocean environments and harvest have all contributed to declining runs of anadromous fish. Restoration of aquatic resources is of paramount importance to the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs (CTWS) Reservation of Oregon. Watersheds on the Warm Springs Reservation provide spawning and rearing habitat for several indigenous species of resident and anadromous fish. These streams are the only ones in the Deschutes River basin that still sustain runs of wild spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus, tshawytscha. Historically, reservation streams supplied over 169 km of anadromous fish habitat. Because of changes in flows, there are now only 128 km of habitat that can be used on the reservation. In 1981, the CTWS began a long-range, 3-phase study of existing and potential fish resources on the reservation. The project, consistent with the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, was designed to increase the natural production of anadromous salmonids on the reservation

  3. Influences of recreation influence of forest and rangeland management on anadromous fish habitat in Western North America: influences of recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger N. Clark; Dave R. Gibbons; Gilbert B. Pauley

    1985-01-01

    Public and private lands in the United States are used by millions of people for recreational activities. Many of these activities occur in or near streams and coastal areas that produce various species of anadromous fish. A major concern of fishery managers is the possible adverse effect of recreational uses on fish habitat. Conversely, the management of fish habitats...

  4. Stream network geomorphology mediates predicted vulnerability of anadromous fish habitat to hydrologic change in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloat, Matthew R; Reeves, Gordon H; Christiansen, Kelly R

    2017-02-01

    In rivers supporting Pacific salmon in southeast Alaska, USA, regional trends toward a warmer, wetter climate are predicted to increase mid- and late-21st-century mean annual flood size by 17% and 28%, respectively. Increased flood size could alter stream habitats used by Pacific salmon for reproduction, with negative consequences for the substantial economic, cultural, and ecosystem services these fish provide. We combined field measurements and model simulations to estimate the potential influence of future flood disturbance on geomorphic processes controlling the quality and extent of coho, chum, and pink salmon spawning habitat in over 800 southeast Alaska watersheds. Spawning habitat responses varied widely across watersheds and among salmon species. Little variation among watersheds in potential spawning habitat change was explained by predicted increases in mean annual flood size. Watershed response diversity was mediated primarily by topographic controls on stream channel confinement, reach-scale geomorphic associations with spawning habitat preferences, and complexity in the pace and mode of geomorphic channel responses to altered flood size. Potential spawning habitat loss was highest for coho salmon, which spawn over a wide range of geomorphic settings, including steeper, confined stream reaches that are more susceptible to streambed scour during high flows. We estimated that 9-10% and 13-16% of the spawning habitat for coho salmon could be lost by the 2040s and 2080s, respectively, with losses occurring primarily in confined, higher-gradient streams that provide only moderate-quality habitat. Estimated effects were lower for pink and chum salmon, which primarily spawn in unconfined floodplain streams. Our results illustrate the importance of accounting for valley and reach-scale geomorphic features in watershed assessments of climate vulnerability, especially in topographically complex regions. Failure to consider the geomorphic context of stream

  5. Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in the Lapwai Creek Watershed, Technical Report 2003-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lynn

    2007-02-01

    The Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in the Lapwai Creek Watershed is a multi-phase project to enhance steelhead trout in the Lapwai Creek watershed by improving salmonid spawning and rearing habitat. Habitat is limited by extreme high runoff events, low summer flows, high water temperatures, poor instream cover, spawning gravel siltation, and sediment, nutrient and bacteria loading. Funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, the project assists in mitigating damage to steelhead runs caused by the Columbia River hydroelectric dams. The project is sponsored by the Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District). Target fish species include steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Steelhead trout within the Snake River Basin were listed in 1997 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Accomplishments for the contract period December 1, 2003 through February 28, 2004 include; seven grade stabilization structures, 0.67 acres of wetland plantings, ten acres tree planting, 500 linear feet streambank erosion control, two acres grass seeding, and 120 acres weed control.

  6. Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, R.Todd

    1996-05-01

    During the 1995 - 96 project period, four new habitat enhancement projects were implemented under the Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) in the upper Umatilla River Basin. A total of 38,644 feet of high tensile smooth wire fencing was constructed along 3.6 miles of riparian corridor in the Meacham Creek, Wildhorse Creek, Greasewood Creek, West Fork of Greasewood Creek and Mission Creek watersheds. Additional enhancements on Wildhorse Creek and the lower Greasewood Creek System included: (1) installation of 0.43 miles of smooth wire between river mile (RM) 10.25 and RM 10.5 Wildhorse Creek (fence posts and structures had been previously placed on this property during the 1994 - 95 project period), (2) construction of 46 sediment retention structures in stream channels and maintenance to 18 existing sediment retention structures between RM 9.5 and RM 10.25 Wildhorse Creek, and (3) revegetation of stream corridor areas and adjacent terraces with 500 pounds of native grass seed or close species equivalents and 5,000 native riparian shrub/tree species to assist in floodplain recovery, stream channel stability and filtering of sediments during high flow periods. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funds were cost shared with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funds, provided under this project, to accomplish habitat enhancements. Water quality monitoring continued and was expanded for temperature and turbidity throughout the upper Umatilla River Watershed. Physical habitat surveys were conducted on the lower 13 river miles of Wildhorse Creek and within the Greasewood Creek Project Area to characterize habitat quality and to quantify various habitat types by area.

  7. Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in Big Canyon Creek Watershed, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lynn (Nez Perce Soil and Conservation District, Lewiston, ID)

    2006-07-01

    The ''Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in the Big Canyon Creek Watershed'' is a multi-phase project to enhance steelhead trout in the Big Canyon Creek watershed by improving salmonid spawning and rearing habitat. Habitat is limited by extreme high runoff events, low summer flows, high water temperatures, poor instream cover, spawning gravel siltation, and sediment, nutrient and bacteria loading. Funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, the project assists in mitigating damage to steelhead runs caused by the Columbia River hydroelectric dams. The project is sponsored by the Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District. Target fish species include steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Steelhead trout within the Snake River Basin were listed in 1997 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Accomplishments for the contract period September 1, 2004 through October 31, 2005 include; 2.7 riparian miles treated, 3.0 wetland acres treated, 5,263.3 upland acres treated, 106.5 riparian acres treated, 76,285 general public reached, 3,000 students reached, 40 teachers reached, 18 maintenance plans completed, temperature data collected at 6 sites, 8 landowner applications received and processed, 14 land inventories completed, 58 habitat improvement project designs completed, 5 newsletters published, 6 habitat plans completed, 34 projects installed, 2 educational workshops, 6 displays, 1 television segment, 2 public service announcements, a noxious weed GIS coverage, and completion of NEPA, ESA, and cultural resources requirements.

  8. CTUIR Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project : A Columbia River Basin Fish Habitat Project 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoverson, Eric D.; Amonette, Alexandra

    2009-02-09

    The Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project (UAFHP) is an ongoing effort to protect, enhance, and restore riparian and instream habitat for the natural production of anadromous salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin, Northeast Oregon. Flow quantity, water temperature, passage, and lack of in-stream channel complexity have been identified as the key limiting factors in the basin. During the 2008 Fiscal Year (FY) reporting period (February 1, 2008-January 31, 2009) primary project activities focused on improving instream and riparian habitat complexity, migrational passage, and restoring natural channel morphology and floodplain function. Eight primary fisheries habitat enhancement projects were implemented on Meacham Creek, Birch Creek, West Birch Creek, McKay Creek, West Fork Spring Hollow, and the Umatilla River. Specific restoration actions included: (1) rectifying one fish passage barrier on West Birch Creek; (2) participating in six projects planting 10,000 trees and seeding 3225 pounds of native grasses; (3) donating 1000 ft of fencing and 1208 fence posts and associated hardware for 3.6 miles of livestock exclusion fencing projects in riparian areas of West Birch and Meacham Creek, and for tree screens to protect against beaver damage on West Fork Spring Hollow Creek; (4) using biological control (insects) to reduce noxious weeds on three treatment areas covering five acres on Meacham Creek; (5) planning activities for a levee setback project on Meacham Creek. We participated in additional secondary projects as opportunities arose. Baseline and ongoing monitoring and evaluation activities were also completed on major project areas such as conducting photo point monitoring strategies activities at the Meacham Creek Large Wood Implementation Project site (FY2006) and at additional easements and planned project sites. Fish surveys and aquatic habitat inventories were conducted at project sites prior to implementation. Proper selection and implementation of

  9. 78 FR 4836 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... steelhead promulgated under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The plan specifies fishery management...: January 17, 2013. Angela Somma, Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected Resources...

  10. 78 FR 4834 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC444 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... species. Dated: January 16, 2013. Angela Somma, Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected...

  11. 77 FR 34349 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... and steelhead under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The HGMPs specify the operations of four... Somma, Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries...

  12. 77 FR 31835 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC049 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., 2012. Angela Somma, Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine...

  13. 76 FR 49735 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA631 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... Therese Conant, Acting Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine...

  14. 78 FR 60254 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... regulations governing listed fish and wildlife permits (50 CFR 222-226). NMFS issues permits based on findings... conduct water quality, [[Page 60255

  15. 78 FR 43145 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC767 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This...

  16. 78 FR 34653 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC717 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of decision and availability of...

  17. 76 FR 14923 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... knowledge of species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and help guide management and... harvested groundfish species. The survey would collect data on 90+ fish species in the ocean to fulfill the...

  18. 76 FR 27016 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... increase knowledge of species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and help guide management and... during the species' upstream migration. Captured fish would be transported in a tanker truck and released...

  19. 77 FR 75611 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... promulgated under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The plans specify the propagation of five species of... 10, 2000). Dated: December 17, 2012. Angela Somma, Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of...

  20. 75 FR 50746 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... is intended to increase knowledge of species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and to..., Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries Service...

  1. 78 FR 6298 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... listed species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. NMFS also announced the availability for public... provided above in the addresses section. Dated: January 24, 2013. Angela Somma, Chief, Endangered Species...

  2. 75 FR 2106 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... NMFS regulations (50 CFR parts 222-226) governing listed fish and wildlife permits. Species Covered in... steelhead not to exceed 2 percent of the total number of fish captured for each life stage and species...

  3. 75 FR 16738 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... River fall Chinook salmon under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The FMEP specifies the future... fish, sturgeon, carp, and other species.'' The FMEP describes the management of recreational fisheries...

  4. 75 FR 14134 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... modifications, as required by the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531 1543) (ESA), is based on a... trap and beach seine, anesthesize and sample fish for species identification, tags, marks and fin clips...

  5. 77 FR 27186 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Endangered Species Act (ESA) and to help guide management and conservation efforts. The applications may be... salmon, and LCR steelhead. The purpose of this research is to determine fish species presence and...

  6. 76 FR 43986 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., in the form of Hatchery and Genetic Management Plans (HGMPs) pursuant to the Endangered Species Act... the ``taking'' of a species listed as endangered or threatened. The term ``take'' is defined under the...

  7. 76 FR 51352 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), for a direct take permit pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Section 9 of the ESA and Federal regulations prohibit the ``taking'' of a species listed as endangered or...

  8. 77 FR 41168 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... available for review pursuant to section 10(c) of the Endangered Species Act (ESA). DATES: Comments and... the ESA. NMFS regulations governing permits for threatened and endangered species are promulgated at...

  9. 75 FR 14133 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., in the form of Hatchery and Genetic Management Plans (HGMPs) pursuant to the Endangered Species Act... the ``taking'' of a species listed as endangered or threatened. The term ``take'' is defined under the...

  10. 76 FR 57717 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). Permits Permit 15926... will be captured by fyke net, identified to species, enumerated and measured. Dead or moribund fish...

  11. 77 FR 21084 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The proposed research program is intended to increase knowledge.... Lisa Manning, Acting Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine...

  12. 75 FR 78226 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... permits and permit modifications, as required by the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531-1543... electrofisher and dipnet; sample fish for species identification, tags, marks and finclips, lengths and weights...

  13. 75 FR 82212 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Chinook salmon under Limit 6 of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) 4(d) Rule for salmon and steelhead, a.... Dated: December 22, 2010. Susan Pultz, Acting Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected...

  14. 77 FR 51763 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... INFORMATION: Authority The issuance of permits and permit modifications, as required by the Endangered Species... (50 CFR parts 222-226) governing listed fish and wildlife permits. Species Covered in This Notice This...

  15. 75 FR 33243 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531-1543) (ESA), is based on a finding that such permits... NMFS regulations (50 CFR parts 222-226) governing listed fish and wildlife permits. Species Covered in...

  16. 76 FR 61344 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... modifications, as required by the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531-1543) (ESA), is based on a.... Species Covered in This Notice This notice is relevant to federally endangered Central California Coast...

  17. 75 FR 23671 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish; Research Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish; Research Permit Applications AGENCY: National Marine... listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and to help guide management and conservation efforts. The... capture, handle, and release juvenile fish from all the species covered by this notice. They would also...

  18. 75 FR 14132 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA). The proposed modification is to extend the existing permit... regulations prohibit the ``taking'' of a species listed as endangered or threatened. The term ``take'' is...

  19. 76 FR 39856 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... permits and permit modifications, as required by the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531-1543... and wildlife permits. Species Covered in This Notice This notice is relevant to federally endangered...

  20. 77 FR 27188 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... regulations promulgated for Pacific salmon and steelhead under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The HGMPs...). Dated: May 3, 2012. Angela Somma, Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected Resources...

  1. 76 FR 15946 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... research permit application request relating to salmonids listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA... research activities. The purpose of the research program is to collect warmwater fish species to analyze...

  2. 76 FR 20956 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... regulations promulgated for salmon and steelhead listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The FMEP... July 10, 2000, Endangered Species Act (ESA) 4(d) rule for salmon and steelhead (65 FR 42422) and...

  3. Influence of forest and rangeland management on anadromous fish habitat in Western North America: impacts of natural events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas N. Swanston

    1980-01-01

    Natural events affecting vegetative cover and the hydrology and stability of a stream and its parent watershed are key factors influencing the quality of anadromous fish habitat. High intensity storms, drought, soil mass movement, and fire have the greatest impacts. Wind, stream icing, and the influence of insects and disease are important locally...

  4. 78 FR 28806 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Resources (CDWR), Permit 17428 to the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Permit 17777 to... NMFS regulations (50 CFR parts 222-226) governing listed fish and wildlife permits. Species Covered in...

  5. 76 FR 2663 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... and steelhead, and natural juvenile green sturgeon while carrying out a study measuring fish response... species, taking of length measurements), tissue sampling, release of moribund fish or fish carcasses back...

  6. 76 FR 78242 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA866 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Endangered Species Act (ESA) and to help guide management and conservation efforts. The application may be...

  7. 75 FR 25205 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW33 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... permit. Dated: May 4, 2010. Therese Conant, Acting Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of...

  8. 78 FR 23222 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC630 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... CFR parts 222-226) governing listed fish and wildlife permits. Species Covered in This Notice This...

  9. Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, R. Todd

    1993-04-01

    The Umatilla Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project is funded under the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Measure 704 (d) (1) 34.02 and targets the improvement of water quality and restoration of riparian areas, holding, spawning and rearing habitats of steelhead, spring and fall chinook and coho salmon. The project focused on implementing instream and riparian habitat improvements on private lands on the Umatilla Indian Reservation (hereafter referred to as Reservation) from April 1, 1988 to March 31, 1992. These efforts resulted in enhancement of the lower 1/4 mile of Boston Canyon Creek, the lower 4 river miles of Meacham Creek and 3.2 river miles of the Umatilla River (downstream of the Meacham Creek confluence upstream to the Reservation East Boundary). In 1993, the project shifted emphasis to a comprehensive watershed approach consistent with other basin efforts and began to identify upland and riparian watershed-wide causative factors impacting fisheries habitat and natural fisheries production capabilities throughout the Umatilla River Watershed. Maintenance of existing habitat improvement projects was included under this comprehensive approach. Maintenance of existing gravel traps, instream and bank stabilization structures was required within project areas during the reporting period due to spring flooding damage and high bedload movement. Maintenance activities were completed between river mile (RM) 0.0 and RM 0.25 Boston Canyon Creek, between RM 0.0 and RM 4 Meacham Creek and between RM 78.5 and RM 79 Umatilla River. Habitat enhancement areas were seeded with native grass, legume, shrub and wildflower mixes and planted with willow cuttings to assist in floodplain recovery, stream channel stability and filtering of sediments during high flow periods. Water quality monitoring continued for temperature and turbidity throughout the upper Umatilla River Watershed. Survey of cross sections and

  10. Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, R. Todd; Sexton, Amy D.

    2003-02-01

    The Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project continued to identify impacted stream reaches throughout the Umatilla River Basin for habitat improvements during the 2001 project period. Public outreach efforts, biological and physical monitoring, and continued development of a Umatilla Subbasin Watershed Assessment assisted the project in fostering public cooperation, targeting habitat deficiencies and determining habitat recovery measures. Projects continued to be maintained on 49 private properties, one 25-year Non-Exclusive Bureau of Indian Affairs' Easement was secured, six new projects implemented and two existing project areas improved to enhance anadromous fish habitat. New project locations included sites on the mid Umatilla River, upper Umatilla River, Mission Creek, Cottonwood Creek and Buckaroo Creek. New enhancements included: (1) construction of 11,264 feet of fencing between River Mile 43.0 and 46.5 on the Umatilla River, (2) a stream bank stabilization project implemented at approximately River Mile 63.5 Umatilla River to stabilize 330 feet of eroding stream bank and improve instream habitat diversity, included construction of eight root wad revetments and three boulder J-vanes, (3) drilling a 358-foot well for off-stream livestock watering at approximately River Mile 46.0 Umatilla River, (4) installing a 50-foot bottomless arch replacement culvert at approximately River Mile 3.0 Mission Creek, (5) installing a Geoweb stream ford crossing on Mission Creek (6) installing a 22-foot bottomless arch culvert at approximately River Mile 0.5 Cottonwood Creek, and (7) providing fence materials for construction of 21,300 feet of livestock exclusion fencing in the Buckaroo Creek Drainage. An approximate total of 3,800 native willow cuttings and 350 pounds of native grass seed was planted at new upper Umatilla River, Mission Creek and Cottonwood Creek project sites. Habitat improvements implemented at existing project sites included

  11. 76 FR 5338 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA183 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... regulations (50 CFR parts 222-226) governing listed fish and wildlife permits. [[Page 5339

  12. 78 FR 77659 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XD040 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... NMFS regulations (50 CFR parts 222-226) governing listed fish and wildlife permits. [[Page 77660...

  13. 78 FR 43858 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... number of predicted adults increase, the number of fish escaping to the spawning grounds will also... fish; and (3) application of a sliding scale approach to determine appropriate ESA take limits on...

  14. 76 FR 2664 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...) and 14092 (applicant: California Department of Fish and Game). In that notice, the permit application... American green sturgeon associated with conducting surveys measuring fish response to initial and...

  15. 78 FR 28805 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., NMFS received an application, including an HGMP, from the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, a section... the Snake River basin, rear juveniles, and release eggs, juveniles, and adult fish into upper Salmon...

  16. 76 FR 5339 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA182 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... are issued in accordance with and are subject to the ESA and NMFS regulations governing listed fish...

  17. 78 FR 59005 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... with Section 10(a)(1)(A) of the ESA of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531-1543) and regulations governing listed fish.... Applications Received Permit 1415 The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services' (USFWS) Red Bluff Fish and Wildlife...

  18. 78 FR 79674 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... the ESA (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and regulations governing listed fish and wildlife permits (50 CFR.... Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) submitted an application and supporting documents to NMFS for a...

  19. 78 FR 31518 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC690 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and U.S. Bureau of...

  20. 77 FR 2037 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA928 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... advises the public that a direct take permit has been issued to the Washington Department of Fish and...

  1. 76 FR 6401 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA110 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife submitted to NMFS, pursuant to the protective...

  2. 78 FR 32378 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... application was provided by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) and the Public Utility... Department of Fish and Wildlife submitted an application for an ESA permit to operate the Nason Creek spring...

  3. 78 FR 74116 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... plans and request for comment. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Oregon Department of Fish and... River and Columbia River basins by providing hatchery fish to support fishing opportunities while...

  4. 77 FR 3743 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... with section 10(a)(1)(A) of the ESA of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531-1543) and regulations governing listed fish... listed fish but a small number may die as an unintended result of the research activities. The objectives...

  5. 76 FR 8713 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... (16 U.S.C. 1531-1543) and regulations governing listed fish and wildlife permits (50 CFR parts 222-226... handling of fish is already covered under the Incidental Take Statement associated with the Biological...

  6. 78 FR 7755 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...)(A) of the ESA of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531-1543) and regulations governing listed fish and wildlife.... In situations where the SWFSC are unable to rely on collaborators to capture fish through rotary...

  7. 78 FR 17355 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... 10(a)(1)(A) of the ESA of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531-1543) and regulations governing listed fish and... expect to kill any listed fish but a small number may die as an unintended result of the research...

  8. 77 FR 67796 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC342 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... NMFS regulations governing listed fish and wildlife permits (50 CFR parts 222-226). Those individuals...

  9. 77 FR 51520 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... (16 U.S.C. 1531-1543) and regulations governing listed fish and wildlife permits (50 CFR parts 222-226... expect to kill any listed fish but a small number, up to 20 percent (equivalent to one fish), may die as...

  10. 77 FR 63294 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Klallam Tribe and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife have submitted five Hatchery and Genetic... programs are currently operating, and all five hatchery programs raise fish native to the Elwha River basin...

  11. 78 FR 25954 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... 15, 2012, NMFS received an application, including an HGMP, from the Idaho Department of Fish and Game... salmon returning to the Snake River basin, rear juveniles, and release eggs, juveniles, and adult fish...

  12. 78 FR 18963 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... governing listed fish and wildlife permits (50 CFR parts 222-226). NMFS issues permits based on findings... Administrator for Fisheries, NMFS. Applications Received Permit 17551 The California Department of Fish and...

  13. 77 FR 42278 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... regulations governing listed fish and wildlife permits (50 CFR parts 222-226). NMFS issues permits based on.... This project will examine predation by introduced fishes (striped bass, largemouth bass, smallmouth...

  14. 77 FR 76001 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... regulations governing listed fish and wildlife permits(50 CFR parts 222-226). NMFS issues permits based on... described below, researchers do not expect to kill any listed fish but a small number may die as an...

  15. Increased Levels of Harvest and Habitat Law Enforcement and Public Awareness for Anadromous Salmonids and Resident Fish in the Columbia River Basin -- Demonstration Period, 1992--1994, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NeSmith, Frank (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID); Long, Mack (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Paks, Kalispell, MT); Matthews, Dayne (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    1995-06-01

    This report was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), US Department of Energy, as part of BPA`s program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Illegal harvest and violation of habitat protection regulations are factors affecting the survival of many native species of anadromous and resident fish in the Columbia Basin.

  16. Increased levels of harvest and habitat law enforcement and public awareness for anadromous salmonids and resident fish in the Columbia River Basin - Demonstration period, 1992-1994. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This report was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), US Department of Energy, as part of BPA's program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Illegal harvest and violation of habitat protection regulations are factors affecting the survival of many native species of anadromous and resident fish in the Columbia Basin

  17. Influence of forest and rangeland management on anadromous fish habitat in Western North America: economic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. tech. ed. Meehan

    1985-01-01

    Although many effects of forest and rangeland management on anadromous fisheries are difficult to measure, economic methods for the evaluation of costs and benefits can be helpful. Such methods can be used to address questions of equity as well as efficiency. Evaluations of equity can show who bears the costs and who captures the benefits of management actions, but...

  18. Marine migration and habitat use of anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldøy, Sindre Håvarstein; Davidsen, Jan Grimsrud; Thorstad, Eva Bonsak

    2015-01-01

    The biology and ecology of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta) at sea is poorly understood. This study provided information on spatial and temporal distribution of sea trout in the ocean. The behaviour of 115 individuals (veteran migrants, 270–700 mm) was tracked by using acoustic telemetry...

  19. Endangered Species Act Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Critical habitat (CH) is designated for the survival and recovery of species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Critical...

  20. Confederated Tribes Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project : A Columbia River Basin Fish Habitat Project : Annual Report Fiscal Year 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoverson, Eric D.; Amonette, Alexandra

    2008-12-02

    The Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project (UAFHP) is an ongoing effort to protect, enhance, and restore riparian and instream habitat for the natural production of anadromous salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin, Northeast Oregon. Flow quantity, water temperature, passage, and lack of in-stream channel complexity have been identified as the key limiting factors in the basin. During the 2007 Fiscal Year (FY) reporting period (February 1, 2007-January 31, 2008) primary project activities focused on improving instream and riparian habitat complexity, migrational passage, and restoring natural channel morphology and floodplain function. Eight fisheries habitat enhancement projects were implemented on Meacham Creek, Camp Creek, Greasewood Creek, Birch Creek, West Birch Creek, and the Umatilla River. Specific restoration actions included: (1) rectifying five fish passage barriers on four creeks, (2) planting 1,275 saplings and seeding 130 pounds of native grasses, (3) constructing two miles of riparian fencing for livestock exclusion, (4) coordinating activities related to the installation of two off-channel, solar-powered watering areas for livestock, and (5) developing eight water gap access sites to reduce impacts from livestock. Baseline and ongoing monitoring and evaluation activities were also completed on major project areas such as conducting photo point monitoring strategies activities at the Meacham Creek Large Wood Implementation Project site (FY2006) and at all existing easements and planned project sites. Fish surveys and aquatic habitat inventories were conducted at project sites prior to implementation. Monitoring plans will continue throughout the life of each project to oversee progression and inspire timely managerial actions. Twenty-seven conservation easements were maintained with 23 landowners. Permitting applications for planned project activities and biological opinions were written and approved. Project activities were based on a variety

  1. Aquatic species and habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danny C. Lee; James R. Sedell; Bruce E. Rieman; Russell F. Thurow; Jack E. Williams

    1998-01-01

    Continuing human activities threaten the highly prized aquatic resources of the interior Columbia basin. Precipitous declines in native species, particularly Pacific salmon, and a large influx of introduced species have radically altered the composition and distribution of native fishes. Fortunately, areas of relatively high aquatic integrity remain, much of it on...

  2. Fish population and habitat analysis in Buck Creek, Washington, prior to recolonization by anadromous salmonids after the removal of Condit Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. Brady; Burkhardt, Jeanette; Munz, Carrie; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the physical and biotic conditions in the part of Buck Creek, Washington, potentially accessible to anadromous fishes. This creek is a major tributary to the White Salmon River upstream of Condit Dam, which was breached in October 2011. Habitat and fish populations were characterized in four stream reaches. Reach breaks were based on stream gradient, water withdrawals, and fish barriers. Buck Creek generally was confined, with a single straight channel and low sinuosity. Boulders and cobble were the dominant stream substrate, with limited gravel available for spawning. Large-cobble riffles were 83 percent of the available fish habitat. Pools, comprising 15 percent of the surface area, mostly were formed by bedrock with little instream cover and low complexity. Instream wood averaged 6—10 pieces per 100 meters, 80 percent of which was less than 50 centimeters in diameter. Water temperature in Buck Creek rarely exceeded 16 degrees Celsius and did so for only 1 day at river kilometer (rkm) 3 and 11 days at rkm 0.2 in late July and early August 2009. The maximum temperature recorded was 17.2 degrees Celsius at rkm 0.2 on August 2, 2009. Minimum summer discharge in Buck Creek was 3.3 cubic feet per second downstream of an irrigation diversion (rkm 3.1) and 7.7 cubic feet per second at its confluence with the White Salmon River. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was the dominant fish species in all reaches. The abundance of age-1 or older rainbow trout was similar between reaches. However, in 2009 and 2010, the greatest abundance of age-0 rainbow trout (8 fish per meter) was in the most downstream reach. These analyses in Buck Creek are important for understanding the factors that may limit fish abundance and productivity, and they will help identify and prioritize potential restoration actions. The data collected constitute baseline information of pre-dam removal conditions that will allow assessment of changes in fish populations now that Condit Dam has

  3. A Multiple Watershed Approach to Assessing the Effects of Habitat Restoration Actions on Anadromous and Resident Fish Populations, Technical Report 2003-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmorek, David

    2004-03-01

    Habitat protection and restoration is a cornerstone of current strategies to restore ecosystems, recover endangered fish species, and rebuild fish stocks within the Columbia River Basin. Strategies featuring habitat restoration include the 2000 Biological Opinion on operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS BiOp) developed by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the 2000 Biological Opinion on Bull Trout developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Sub-Basin Plans developed under the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NWPCC). There is however little quantitative information about the effectiveness of different habitat restoration techniques. Such information is crucial for helping scientists and program managers allocate limited funds towards the greatest benefits for fish populations. Therefore, it is critical to systematically test the hypotheses underlying habitat restoration actions for both anadromous and resident fish populations. This pilot project was developed through a proposal to the Innovative Projects fund of the NWPCC (ESSA 2002). It was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) following reviews by the Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP 2002), the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority (CBFWA 2002), the NWPCC and BPA. The study was designed to respond directly to the above described needs for information on the effectiveness of habitat restoration actions, including legal measures specified in the 2000 FCRPS BiOp (RPA 183, pg. 9-133, NMFS 2000). Due to the urgency of addressing these measures, the timeline of the project was accelerated from a duration of 18 months to 14 months. The purpose of this pilot project was to explore methods for evaluating past habitat restoration actions and their effects on fish populations. By doing so, the project will provide a foundation of retrospective analyses, on which to build prospective, multi-watershed designs

  4. 50 CFR 223.203 - Anadromous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anadromous fish. 223.203 Section 223.203... Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.203 Anadromous fish. Available guidance documents cited in the...)(1) of the ESA (16 U.S.C. 1538(a)(1)) relating to endangered species apply to fish with an intact...

  5. Stream network geomorphology mediates predicted vulnerability of anadromous fish habitat to hydrologic change in southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew R. Sloat; Gordon H. Reeves; Kelly R. Christiansen

    2016-01-01

    In rivers supporting Pacific salmon in southeast Alaska, USA, regional trends toward a warmer, wetter climate are predicted to increase mid- and late-21st-century mean annual flood size by 17% and 28%, respectively. Increased flood size could alter stream habitats used by Pacific salmon for reproduction, with negative consequences for the substantial economic, cultural...

  6. 77 FR 41167 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... disadvantage of the listed species which are the subject of the permits; and (3) are consistent with the... research to be conducted in Lagunitas Creek in Marin County, CA. The primary objectives to which ESA-listed salmonids may be taken are to provide baseline data on salmonid presence, habitat use, and abundance in...

  7. Habitats and Species Covered by the EEC Habitats Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, S.; Søgaard, B.; Ejrnæs, R.

    of Conservation (SAC's), Natura 2000. The designations are based upon the presence of 60 of the natural habitat types listed in Annex I of the Directive and approx. 44 of the species listed in Annex II which occur within the territory of Denmark and for the conservation of which the Community has a special...... and the Danish county authorities have initiated a co-operative programme to provide and compile the data necessary to assess the conservation status of the natural habitat types and species concerned. The purpose of this report is to present the conservation status of the habitats and species in Denmark...

  8. Island Species Richness Increases with Habitat Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortal, J.; Triantis, K.A.; Meiri, S.; Thebault, E.M.C.; Sfenthourakis, S.

    2009-01-01

    Species richness is commonly thought to increase with habitat diversity. However, a recent theoretical model aiming to unify niche and island biogeography theories predicted a hump-shaped relationship between richness and habitat diversity. Given the contradiction between model results and previous

  9. Genetic divergence of a sympatric lake-resident-anadromous three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus species pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevecky, C J; Falco, R; Aguirre, W E

    2013-07-01

    The genetic relationship between sympatric, morphologically divergent populations of anadromous and lake-resident three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus in the Jim Creek drainage of Cook Inlet, Alaska, was examined using microsatellite loci and mitochondrial d-loop sequence data. Resident samples differed substantially from sympatric anadromous samples in the Jim Creek drainage with the magnitude of the genetic divergence being similar to that between allopatric resident and anadromous populations in other areas. Resident samples were genetically similar within the Jim Creek drainage, as were the anadromous samples surveyed. Neighbour-joining and Structure cluster analysis grouped the samples into four genetic clusters by ecomorph (anadromous v. all resident) and geographic location of the resident samples (Jim Creek, Mat-Su and Kenai). There was no evidence of hybridization between resident and anadromous G. aculeatus in the Jim Creek drainage, which thus appear to be reproductively isolated. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Chamaedorea: diverse species in diverse habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available DIVERSES ESPÈCES DANS DIVERS HABITATS. Des espèces extraordinairement diverses se trouvant dans des habitats également divers caractérisent Chamaedorea, un genre qui compte environ 90 espèces dioïques limitées aux sous-bois des forêts néo-tropicales constamment dans la pluie et les nuages du Mexique à la Bolivie et à l’Équateur. Une vaste gamme de formes biologiques, de tiges, de feuilles, d’inflorescences, de fleurs, et de fruits reflète la diversité des espèces. Bien que le genre soit plus riche en espèces dans les forêts denses et humides situées entre 800-1,500 mètres d’altitude, quelques espèces exceptionnelles se trouvent dans des forêts moins denses et/ou occasionnellement sèches, sur des substances dures ou dans d’autres habitats inhabituels. DIVERSAS ESPECIES EN DIVERSOS HÁBITATS. Especies notablemente diversas presentes en habitats igualmente diversos caracterizan a Chamaedorea, un genero de aproximadamente 90 especies dioicas limitadas al sotobosque de los bosques lluviosos y nubosos neotropicales desde Mexico hasta Bolivia y Ecuador. Una amplia gama de formas biológicas, tallos, hojas, inflorescencias, flores, y frutos refleja la diversidad de las especies. Aunque el género es más rico en especies en los bosques densos y húmedos de 800-1,500 metros de altura, unas pocas especies excepcionales ocurren en bosques abiertos o ocasionalmente secos, en substrato severo o en otros habitats extraordinarios. Remarkably diverse species occurring in equally diverse habitats characterize Chamaedorea, a genus of about 90, dioecious species restricted to the understory of neotropical rain and cloud forests from Mexico to Bolivia and Ecuador. A vast array of habits, stems, leaves, inflorescences, flowers, and fruits reflect the diversity of species. Although the genus is most species-rich in dense, moist or wet, diverse forests from 800-1,500 meters elevation, a few exceptional species occur in open and/or seasonally

  11. 76 FR 71315 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... species and population level abundance and timing, (2) determine growth rate, size, food habits, and... benefit listed species by helping managers at the power facility tailor their operations to cause the... research would benefit the fish by helping managers at the power facility determine the best way to conduct...

  12. 78 FR 69374 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... these species is captured dead or deemed nonviable, it would be retained for genetic analysis. The... Speckled Dace based on genetic and morphological data. The genetic sequence data would be used to better... salmonid populations. In addition, any new data regarding listed species presence would be used to inform...

  13. Influence of forest and rangeland management on anadromous fish habitat in Western North America: water transportation and storage of logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Sedell; W.S. Duval

    1985-01-01

    Environmental effects of water transportation of logs in western North America include the historical driving of logs in rivers and streams, and the current dumping, sorting, transportation, and storage of logs in rivers and estuaries in British Columbia and southeastern Alaska. The historical discussion focuses on habitat losses and volumes of...

  14. 78 FR 24382 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... design forest management activities (e.g., timber sales, grazing plans, road building) in such a way as to conserve listed species. The USFS does not intend to kill any of the listed fish being captured... projects. The researchers do not propose to kill any of the listed salmonids being captured, but a small...

  15. 76 FR 31590 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... online at: https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov/preview/preview_open_for_comment.cfm . These documents are also... to the disadvantage of the listed species which are the subject of the permits; and (3) are... included in the annual California Department of Fish and Game research program under the ESA 4(d) rule for...

  16. 77 FR 24469 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... be viewed online at: https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov/preview/preview_open_for_comment.cfm . These... operate to the disadvantage of the listed species which are the subject of the permits; and (3) are... Fisheries, NMFS. Applications Received Permit 14808 The California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) is...

  17. 78 FR 1203 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... faith; (2) would not operate to the disadvantage of the listed species which are the subject of the... Sacramento River at two different sites before they enter the Delta. Data can then be forwarded to various... Pumping Plant, Glenn County, California. The primary objectives to which ESA- listed salmonids and SDPS...

  18. 75 FR 56986 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... with the purposes and policy of section 2 of the ESA. The authority to take listed species is subject...-year permit to expand on and extend work previously conducted under Permit 1532. They wish to take... are expected to die during these activities. Permit 15695 The Western Washington University (WWU) is...

  19. Influence of forest and rangeland management on anadromous fish habitat in Western North America: processing mills and camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald C. Schmiege

    1980-01-01

    For nearly 50 years, effluents from pulp and paper mills have been known to be toxic to fish and other aquatic animals. Lethal concentrations have been determined for several species of fish and other organisms. Many factors- -such as water temperature, age of fish, and additional stresses—affect the ability of fish to withstand pollution. Kraft mill wastes...

  20. Improvement of Anadromous Fish Habitat and Passage in Omak Creek, 2008 Annual Report : February 1, 2008 to January 31, 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasher, Rhonda; Fisher, Christopher [Colville Confederated Tribes

    2009-06-09

    During the 2008 season, projects completed under BPA project 2000-100-00 included installation of riparian fencing, maintenance of existing riparian fencing, monitoring of at-risk culverts and installation of riparian vegetation along impacted sections of Omak Creek. Redd and snorkel surveys were conducted in Omak Creek to determine steelhead production. Canopy closure surveys were conducted to monitor riparian vegetation recovery after exclusion of cattle since 2000 from a study area commonly known as the Moomaw property. Additional redd and fry surveys were conducted above Mission Falls and in the lower portion of Stapaloop Creek to try and determine whether there has been successful passage at Mission Falls. Monitoring adult steelhead trying to navigate the falls resulted in the discovery of shallow pool depth at an upper pool that is preventing many fish from successfully navigating the entire falls. The Omak Creek Habitat and Passage Project has worked with NRCS to obtain additional funds to implement projects in 2009 that will address passage at Mission Falls, culvert replacement, as well as additional riparian planting. The Omak Creek Technical Advisory Group (TAG) is currently revising the Omak Creek Watershed Assessment. In addition, the group is revising strategy to focus efforts in targeted areas to provide a greater positive impact within the watershed. In 2008 the NRCS Riparian Technical Team was supposed to assess areas within the watershed that have unique problems and require special treatments to successfully resolve the issues involved. The technical team will be scheduled for 2009 to assist the TAG in developing strategies for these special areas.

  1. Habitat use and implications for avian species in Sambisa game ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Habitat use and implications for avian species in Sambisa game reserve, Borno state, Nigeria. ... avian species diversity and abundance in Sambisa Game Reserve in Borno State, Sudano-Sahelian vegetation. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. Effects of habitat structure and altitudinal gradients on avian species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... effect on bird species diversity. Bird species diversity increased with increase in tree height. A significant decline in bird species diversity with increased number of trees and canopy cover was noted. This result probably suggests an accumulation of forest edge species and generalist species in the less forested habitat.

  3. A resilience approach can improve anadromous fish restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, John R.; Wilson, Karen A.; Mather, Martha E.; Snyder, Noah P.

    2016-01-01

    Most anadromous fish populations remain at low levels or are in decline despite substantial investments in restoration. We explore whether a resilience perspective (i.e., a different paradigm for understanding populations, communities, and ecosystems) is a viable alternative framework for anadromous fish restoration. Many life history traits have allowed anadromous fish to thrive in unimpacted ecosystems but have become contemporary curses as anthropogenic effects increase. This contradiction creates a significant conservation challenge but also makes these fish excellent candidates for a resilience approach. A resilience approach recognizes the need to maintain life history, population, and habitat characteristics that increase the ability of a population to withstand and recover from multiple disturbances. To evaluate whether a resilience approach represents a viable strategy for anadromous fish restoration, we review four issues: (1) how resilience theory can inform anadromous fish restoration, (2) how a resilience-based approach is fundamentally different than extant anadromous fish restoration strategies, (3) ecological characteristics that historically benefited anadromous fish persistence, and (4) examples of how human impacts harm anadromous fish and how a resilience approach might produce more successful outcomes. We close by suggesting new research and restoration directions for implementation of a resilience-based approach.

  4. Anopheline larval habitats seasonality and species distribution: a prerequisite for effective targeted larval habitats control programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliningaya J Kweka

    Full Text Available Larval control is of paramount importance in the reduction of malaria vector abundance and subsequent disease transmission reduction. Understanding larval habitat succession and its ecology in different land use managements and cropping systems can give an insight for effective larval source management practices. This study investigated larval habitat succession and ecological parameters which influence larval abundance in malaria epidemic prone areas of western Kenya.A total of 51 aquatic habitats positive for anopheline larvae were surveyed and visited once a week for a period of 85 weeks in succession. Habitats were selected and identified. Mosquito larval species, physico-chemical parameters, habitat size, grass cover, crop cycle and distance to nearest house were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction revealed that An. gambiae s.l was the most dominant vector species comprised of An.gambiae s.s (77.60% and An.arabiensis (18.34%, the remaining 4.06% had no amplification by polymerase chain reaction. Physico-chemical parameters and habitat size significantly influenced abundance of An. gambiae s.s (P = 0.024 and An. arabiensis (P = 0.002 larvae. Further, larval species abundance was influenced by crop cycle (P≤0.001, grass cover (P≤0.001, while distance to nearest houses significantly influenced the abundance of mosquito species larvae (r = 0.920;P≤0.001. The number of predator species influenced mosquito larval abundance in different habitat types. Crop weeding significantly influenced with the abundance of An.gambiae s.l (P≤0.001 when preceded with fertilizer application. Significantly higher anopheline larval abundance was recorded in habitats in pasture compared to farmland (P = 0.002. When habitat stability and habitat types were considered, hoof print were the most productive followed by disused goldmines.These findings suggest that implementation of effective larval control programme should be targeted with larval

  5. Landscape Metrics to Assess Habitat Suitability for Conversation Bird Species in the Southeastern United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dove, Linda

    2001-01-01

    .... The degree to which a given species is affected by habitat fragmentation is dependent on the complex interaction of the habitat requirements of the species and the shape, size, and makeup of the fragmented habitat...

  6. Cle Elum Lake anadromous salmon restoration feasibility study: Summary of research, Final Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flagg A, Thomas; Ruehle E, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The focus of this research was to study the feasibility for anadromous salmonids to recolonize the habitat above reservoirs in the Yakima River without disruption to irrigation withdrawals. A primary concern was whether anadromous fish could successfully exit reservoirs and survive downstream passage through the Yakima and Columbia Rivers to the ocean

  7. Newly Discovered Orangutan Species Requires Urgent Habitat Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Sean; Supriatna, Jatna; Campbell, Mason J; Alamgir, Mohammed; Laurance, William F

    2018-05-03

    Nater, et al.[1] recently identified a new orangutan species (Pongo tapanuliensis) in northern Sumatra, Indonesia-just the seventh described species of living great ape. The population of this critically-endangered species is perilously small, at only ∼800 individuals [1], ranking it among the planet's rarest fauna. We assert that P. tapanuliensis is highly vulnerable to extinction because its remaining habitat is small, fragmented, and poorly protected. While road incursions within its habitat are modest-road density is only one-eighth that of northern Sumatra-over one-fifth of its habitat is zoned for agricultural conversion or is comprised of mosaic agricultural and regrowth/degraded forest. Additionally, a further 8% will be affected by flooding and infrastructure development for a hydroelectric project. We recommend urgent steps to increase the chance that P. tapanuliensis will persist in the wild. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Habitat use of age 0 Alabama shad in the Pascagoula River drainage, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. F. Mickle; J.F. Schaefer; S.B. Adams; B.R. Kreiser

    2010-01-01

    Alabama shad (Alosa alabamae) is an anadromous species that spawns in Gulf of Mexico drainages and is a NOAA Fisheries Species of Concern. Habitat degradation and barriers to migration are considered contributing factors to range contraction that has left just the Pascagoula River drainage population in Mississippi. We studied juvenile life history and autecology in...

  9. Disentangling urban habitat and matrix effects on wild bee species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Leonie K; Eichfeld, Julia; Kowarik, Ingo; Buchholz, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    In face of a dramatic decline of wild bee species in many rural landscapes, potential conservation functions of urban areas gain importance. Yet effects of urbanization on pollinators, and in particular on wild bees, remain ambiguous and not comprehensively understood. This is especially true for amenity grassland and extensively managed wastelands within large-scale residential housing areas. Using Berlin as a study region, we aimed to investigate (a) if these greenspaces are accepted by wild bee assemblages as foraging habitats; (b) how assemblage structure of bees and individual bee species are affected by different habitat (e.g., management, flower density) and urban matrix variables (e.g., isolation, urbanization); and (c) to what extent grassland restoration can promote bees in urban environments. In summer 2012, we collected 62 bee species belonging to more than 20% of the taxa known for Berlin. Urbanization significantly affected species composition of bees; 18 species were affiliated to different levels of urbanization. Most bee species were not affected by any of the environmental variables tested, and urbanization had a negative effect only for one bee species. Further, we determined that restoration of diverse grasslands positively affected bee species richnesss in urban environments. We conclude that differently structured and managed greenspaces in large-scale housing areas can provide additional foraging habitats and refuges for pollinators. This supports approaches towards a biodiversity friendly management within urban regions and may be of particular importance given that anthropogenic pressure is increasing in many rural landscapes.

  10. Disentangling urban habitat and matrix effects on wild bee species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie K. Fischer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In face of a dramatic decline of wild bee species in many rural landscapes, potential conservation functions of urban areas gain importance. Yet effects of urbanization on pollinators, and in particular on wild bees, remain ambiguous and not comprehensively understood. This is especially true for amenity grassland and extensively managed wastelands within large-scale residential housing areas. Using Berlin as a study region, we aimed to investigate (a if these greenspaces are accepted by wild bee assemblages as foraging habitats; (b how assemblage structure of bees and individual bee species are affected by different habitat (e.g., management, flower density and urban matrix variables (e.g., isolation, urbanization; and (c to what extent grassland restoration can promote bees in urban environments. In summer 2012, we collected 62 bee species belonging to more than 20% of the taxa known for Berlin. Urbanization significantly affected species composition of bees; 18 species were affiliated to different levels of urbanization. Most bee species were not affected by any of the environmental variables tested, and urbanization had a negative effect only for one bee species. Further, we determined that restoration of diverse grasslands positively affected bee species richnesss in urban environments. We conclude that differently structured and managed greenspaces in large-scale housing areas can provide additional foraging habitats and refuges for pollinators. This supports approaches towards a biodiversity friendly management within urban regions and may be of particular importance given that anthropogenic pressure is increasing in many rural landscapes.

  11. 77 FR 37656 - Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... by any of the following methods: Mail: Address comments to: Lisa Roberts, NMFS, 1655 Heindon Road..., kill, trap, capture, or collect listed species, or attempt to engage in such conduct. ``Harm'' has been defined by FWS to include ``significant habitat modification or degradation where it actually kills or...

  12. Ecogeographical Amplitude and Habitat of Two Species of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A systematic study involving phytogeography was carried out on two species of the genus-Terminalia in the Central Niger Delta Areas in River State. This research was aimed at establishing their biodynamic distribution and habitat in the study areas using the simple random sampling method based on standard procedure ...

  13. Multi-species genetic connectivity in a terrestrial habitat network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrotte, Robby R; Bowman, Jeff; Brown, Michael G C; Cordes, Chad; Morris, Kimberley Y; Prentice, Melanie B; Wilson, Paul J

    2017-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation reduces genetic connectivity for multiple species, yet conservation efforts tend to rely heavily on single-species connectivity estimates to inform land-use planning. Such conservation activities may benefit from multi-species connectivity estimates, which provide a simple and practical means to mitigate the effects of habitat fragmentation for a larger number of species. To test the validity of a multi-species connectivity model, we used neutral microsatellite genetic datasets of Canada lynx ( Lynx canadensis ), American marten ( Martes americana ), fisher ( Pekania pennanti ), and southern flying squirrel ( Glaucomys volans ) to evaluate multi-species genetic connectivity across Ontario, Canada. We used linear models to compare node-based estimates of genetic connectivity for each species to point-based estimates of landscape connectivity (current density) derived from circuit theory. To our knowledge, we are the first to evaluate current density as a measure of genetic connectivity. Our results depended on landscape context: habitat amount was more important than current density in explaining multi-species genetic connectivity in the northern part of our study area, where habitat was abundant and fragmentation was low. In the south however, where fragmentation was prevalent, genetic connectivity was correlated with current density. Contrary to our expectations however, locations with a high probability of movement as reflected by high current density were negatively associated with gene flow. Subsequent analyses of circuit theory outputs showed that high current density was also associated with high effective resistance, underscoring that the presence of pinch points is not necessarily indicative of gene flow. Overall, our study appears to provide support for the hypothesis that landscape pattern is important when habitat amount is low. We also conclude that while current density is proportional to the probability of movement per unit area

  14. Anadromous fish behaviour important for fish passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kynard, B.E.

    1993-01-01

    An understanding of the behavior of target fish species is necessary for proper design, location, and operation of a successful upstream or downstream fishway for anadromous migrants. Important fish behaviors are seasonal and daily timing of migration; rheotaxis and near field behavior; stimulus-response behavior; swimming capability; shoaling behavior; response to physical environmental factors such as illumination, sound, water depth, current velocity, and structure; response to chemicals; and response to biological factors such as competition for space and response to predators. The information on migrant fish behavior is reviewed, using examples from the literature on the behavior of eastern anadromous species, particularly Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and American shad (Alosa sapidissima). 87 refs

  15. Predicting recolonization patterns and interactions between potamodromous and anadromous salmonids in response to dam removal in the Elwha River, Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenkman, S.J.; Pess, G.R.; Torgersen, C.E.; Kloehn, K.K.; Duda, J.J.; Corbett, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    The restoration of salmonids in the Elwha River following dam removal will cause interactions between anadromous and potamodromous forms as recolonization occurs in upstream and downstream directions. Anadromous salmonids are expected to recolonize historic habitats, and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) isolated above the dams for 90 years are expected to reestablish anadromy. We summarized the distribution and abundance of potamodromous salmonids, determined locations of spawning areas, and mapped natural barriers to fish migration at the watershed scale based on data collected from 1993 to 2006. Rainbow trout were far more abundant than bull trout throughout the watershed and both species were distributed up to river km 71. Spawning locations for bull trout and rainbow trout occurred in areas where we anticipate returning anadromous fish to spawn. Nonnative brook trout were confined to areas between and below the dams, and seasonal velocity barriers are expected to prevent their upstream movements. We hypothesize that the extent of interaction between potamodromous and anadromous salmonids will vary spatially due to natural barriers that will limit upstream-directed recolonization for some species of salmonids. Consequently, most competitive interactions will occur in the main stem and floodplain downstream of river km 25 and in larger tributaries. Understanding future responses of Pacific salmonids after dam removal in the Elwha River depends upon an understanding of existing conditions of the salmonid community upstream of the dams prior to dam removal.

  16. Lessons learned while integrating habitat, dispersal, disturbance, and life-history traits into species habitat models under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Anantha M. Prasad; Stephen N. Matthews; Matthew P. Peters

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach to modeling potential climate-driven changes in habitat for tree and bird species in the eastern United States. First, we took an empirical-statistical modeling approach, using randomForest, with species abundance data from national inventories combined with soil, climate, and landscape variables, to build abundance-based habitat models for 134...

  17. Mapping habitat for multiple species in the Desert Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Richard D.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Esque, Todd C.; Vandergast, Amy G.; Hathaway, Stacie A.; Wood, Dustin A.; Barr, Kelly R.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Many utility scale renewable energy projects are currently proposed across the Mojave Ecoregion. Agencies that manage biological resources throughout this region need to understand the potential impacts of these renewable energy projects and their associated infrastructure (for example, transmission corridors, substations, access roads, etc.) on species movement, genetic exchange among populations, and species’ abilities to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these factors will help managers’ select appropriate project sites and possibly mitigate for anticipated effects of management activities. We used species distribution models to map habitat for 15 species across the Mojave Ecoregion to aid regional land-use management planning. Models were developed using a common 1 × 1 kilometer resolution with maximum entropy and generalized additive models. Occurrence data were compiled from multiple sources, including VertNet (http://vertnet.org/), HerpNET (http://www.herpnet.org), and MaNIS (http://manisnet.org), as well as from internal U.S. Geological Survey databases and other biologists. Background data included 20 environmental covariates representing terrain, vegetation, and climate covariates. This report summarizes these environmental covariates and species distribution models used to predict habitat for the 15 species across the Mojave Ecoregion.

  18. Testing projected wild bee distributions in agricultural habitats: predictive power depends on species traits and habitat type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Leon; Carvalheiro, Luísa G; Aguirre-Gutiérrez, Jesús; Bos, Merijn; de Groot, G Arjen; Kleijn, David; Potts, Simon G; Reemer, Menno; Roberts, Stuart; Scheper, Jeroen; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C

    2015-10-01

    Species distribution models (SDM) are increasingly used to understand the factors that regulate variation in biodiversity patterns and to help plan conservation strategies. However, these models are rarely validated with independently collected data and it is unclear whether SDM performance is maintained across distinct habitats and for species with different functional traits. Highly mobile species, such as bees, can be particularly challenging to model. Here, we use independent sets of occurrence data collected systematically in several agricultural habitats to test how the predictive performance of SDMs for wild bee species depends on species traits, habitat type, and sampling technique. We used a species distribution modeling approach parametrized for the Netherlands, with presence records from 1990 to 2010 for 193 Dutch wild bees. For each species, we built a Maxent model based on 13 climate and landscape variables. We tested the predictive performance of the SDMs with independent datasets collected from orchards and arable fields across the Netherlands from 2010 to 2013, using transect surveys or pan traps. Model predictive performance depended on species traits and habitat type. Occurrence of bee species specialized in habitat and diet was better predicted than generalist bees. Predictions of habitat suitability were also more precise for habitats that are temporally more stable (orchards) than for habitats that suffer regular alterations (arable), particularly for small, solitary bees. As a conservation tool, SDMs are best suited to modeling rarer, specialist species than more generalist and will work best in long-term stable habitats. The variability of complex, short-term habitats is difficult to capture in such models and historical land use generally has low thematic resolution. To improve SDMs' usefulness, models require explanatory variables and collection data that include detailed landscape characteristics, for example, variability of crops and

  19. Using habitat suitability models to target invasive plant species surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crall, Alycia W; Jarnevich, Catherine S; Panke, Brendon; Young, Nick; Renz, Mark; Morisette, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Managers need new tools for detecting the movement and spread of nonnative, invasive species. Habitat suitability models are a popular tool for mapping the potential distribution of current invaders, but the ability of these models to prioritize monitoring efforts has not been tested in the field. We tested the utility of an iterative sampling design (i.e., models based on field observations used to guide subsequent field data collection to improve the model), hypothesizing that model performance would increase when new data were gathered from targeted sampling using criteria based on the initial model results. We also tested the ability of habitat suitability models to predict the spread of invasive species, hypothesizing that models would accurately predict occurrences in the field, and that the use of targeted sampling would detect more species with less sampling effort than a nontargeted approach. We tested these hypotheses on two species at the state scale (Centaurea stoebe and Pastinaca sativa) in Wisconsin (USA), and one genus at the regional scale (Tamarix) in the western United States. These initial data were merged with environmental data at 30-m2 resolution for Wisconsin and 1-km2 resolution for the western United States to produce our first iteration models. We stratified these initial models to target field sampling and compared our models and success at detecting our species of interest to other surveys being conducted during the same field season (i.e., nontargeted sampling). Although more data did not always improve our models based on correct classification rate (CCR), sensitivity, specificity, kappa, or area under the curve (AUC), our models generated from targeted sampling data always performed better than models generated from nontargeted data. For Wisconsin species, the model described actual locations in the field fairly well (kappa = 0.51, 0.19, P guiding invasive species monitoring, and we support the use of an iterative sampling design for

  20. Species coexistence and the superior ability of an invasive species to exploit a facilitation cascade habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H. Altieri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Facilitation cascades generated by co-occurring foundation species can enhance the abundance and diversity of associated organisms. However, it remains poorly understood how differences among native and invasive species in their ability to exploit these positive interactions contribute to emergent patterns of community structure and biotic acceptance. On intertidal shorelines in New England, we examined the patterns of coexistence between the native mud crabs and the invasive Asian shore crab in and out of a facilitation cascade habitat generated by mid intertidal cordgrass and ribbed mussels. These crab species co-occurred in low intertidal cobbles adjacent to the cordgrass–mussel beds, despite experimental findings that the dominant mud crabs can kill and displace Asian shore crabs and thereby limit their successful recruitment to their shared habitat. A difference between the native and invasive species in their utilization of the facilitation cascade likely contributes to this pattern. Only the Asian shore crabs inhabit the cordgrass–mussel beds, despite experimental evidence that both species can similarly benefit from stress amelioration in the beds. Moreover, only Asian shore crabs settle in the beds, which function as a nursery habitat free of lethal mud crabs, and where their recruitment rates are particularly high (nearly an order of magnitude higher than outside beds. Persistence of invasive adult Asian shore crabs among the dominant native mud crabs in the low cobble zone is likely enhanced by a spillover effect of the facilitation cascade in which recruitment-limited Asian shore crabs settle in the mid intertidal cordgrass–mussel beds and subsidize their vulnerable populations in the adjacent low cobble zone. This would explain why the abundances of Asian shore crabs in cobbles are doubled when adjacent to facilitation cascade habitats. The propensity for this exotic species to utilize habitats created by facilitation cascades

  1. Decline of the North Sea houting: protective measures for an endangered anadromous fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Niels; Deacon, Michael; Koed, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Once an abundant fish species in the rivers of the Wadden Sea in northwest Europe, the North Sea houting Coregonus oxyrinchus (NSH) was at the brink of extinction 25 yr ago. The very last stronghold for this species was in the small Danish River Vidaa. In an attempt to preserve this anadromous...... whitefish species, juveniles were hatchery-reared and stocked in 6 Danish rivers flowing into the Wadden Sea. These stocking efforts were fairly successful, and the houting established populations in at least 2 of the rivers, but the underlying problem of habitat degradation and migration obstacles...... they reach sexual maturity, NSH grow relatively slowly (mean: 2.55 cm yr−1, ranging from 0 to 13.8 cm yr−1) and can reach an age of 10 to 12 yr. The number of repeated recaptures year after year indicates low mortality for adult fish. Six individuals were recaptured in rivers other than the one in which...

  2. Response of chironomid species (Diptera, Chironomidae to water temperature: effects on species distribution in specific habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Marziali

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The response of 443 chironomid species to water temperature was analyzed, with the aim of defining their thermal optimum, tolerance limits and thermal habitat. The database included 4442 samples mainly from Italian river catchments collected from the 1950s up to date. Thermal preferences were calculated separately for larval and pupal specimens and for different habitats: high altitude and lowland lakes in the Alpine ecoregion; lowland lakes in the Mediterranean ecoregion; heavily modified water bodies; kryal, krenal, rhithral and potamal in running waters. Optimum response was calculated as mean water temperature, weighted by species abundances; tolerance as weighted standard deviation; skewness and kurtosis as 3rd and 4th moment statistics. The responses were fitted to normal uni- or plurimodal Gaussian models. Cold stenothermal species showed: i unimodal response, ii tolerance for a narrow temperature range, iii optima closed to their minimum temperature values, iv leptokurtic response. Thermophilous species showed: i optima at different temperature values, ii wider tolerance, iii optima near their maximum temperature values, iv platikurtic response, often fitting a plurimodal model. As expected, lower optima values and narrower tolerance were obtained for kryal and krenal, than for rhithral, potamal and lakes. Thermal response curves were produced for each species and were discussed according to species distribution (i.e. altitudinal range in running water and water depth in lakes, voltinism and phylogeny. Thermal optimum and tolerance limits and the definition of the thermal habitat of species can help predicting the impact of global warming on freshwater ecosystems.

  3. Current practices in the identification of critical habitat for threatened species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camaclang, Abbey E; Maron, Martine; Martin, Tara G; Possingham, Hugh P

    2015-04-01

    The term critical habitat is used to describe the subset of habitat that is essential to the survival and recovery of species. Some countries legally require that critical habitat of listed threatened and endangered species be identified and protected. However, there is little evidence to suggest that the identification of critical habitat has had much impact on species recovery. We hypothesized that this may be due at least partly to a mismatch between the intent of critical habitat identification, which is to protect sufficient habitat for species persistence and recovery, and its practice. We used content analysis to systematically review critical habitat documents from the United States, Canada, and Australia. In particular, we identified the major trends in type of information used to identify critical habitat and in occupancy of habitat identified as critical. Information about population viability was used to identify critical habitat for only 1% of the species reviewed, and for most species, designated critical habitat did not include unoccupied habitat. Without reference to population viability, it is difficult to determine how much of a species' occupied and unoccupied habitat will be required for persistence. We therefore conclude that the identification of critical habitat remains inconsistent with the goal of protecting sufficient habitat to support persistence and recovery of the species. Ensuring that critical habitat identification aligns more closely with its intent will improve the accuracy of the designations and may therefore help improve the benefits to species recovery when combined with adequate implementation and enforcement of legal protections. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Species diversity and qualitative assessment of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in three riparian habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, G J; Carney, V A; Jones, E N; Pollock, D A

    2010-06-01

    In a 3-yr study involving saltcedar-free, saltcedar-infested, and burned habitats in a riparian area at Lake Meredith, TX, the number of carabid species collected, diversity indices, and indicator species varied significantly among habitats. A 3-yr average of 15, 14, and 24 carabid species were collected from the saltcedar-free, saltcedar-infested, and burned habitats, respectively. Values for species richness, Shannon's and Simpson's diversity indices, and evenness index for pooled data collected from 2005 to 2007 were higher in the burned habitat followed by the saltcedar-free habitat and the saltcedar-infested habitat. Within-year parameters across the three habitats generally followed the pooled data results with some variation. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analyses clearly indicated groups of carabid species preferred specific habitats. Five species in the burned area had indicator species percentage values >50% (Agonum punctiforme, Agonum texanum, Brachinus alternans, Harpalus pensylvanicus, and Poecilus chalcites). In the saltcedar-infested and saltcedar-free habitats, only one species in each habitat had indicator species percentage values that exceeded 50%: Calathus opaculus and Cicindela punctulata punctulata, respectively.

  5. Habitat availability does not explain the species richness patterns of European lentic and lotic freshwater animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehling, D.M.; Hof, C.; Brandle, M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim In Europe, the relationships between species richness and latitude differ for lentic (standing water) and lotic (running water) species. Freshwater animals are highly dependent on suitable habitat, and thus the distribution of available habitat should strongly influence large-scale patterns...... of species richness. We tested whether habitat availability can account for the differences in species richness patterns between European lentic and lotic freshwater animals. Location Europe. Methods We compiled occurrence data of 1959 lentic and 2445 lotic species as well as data on the amount of lentic...... for previously reported latitudinal patterns in species richness. For lotic species, richness declined with latitude, whereas there was no relationship between habitat availability and latitude. For lentic species, richness showed a hump-shaped relationship with latitude, whereas available habitat increased...

  6. Moving Targets and Biodiversity Offsets for Endangered Species Habitat: Is Lesser Prairie Chicken Habitat a Stock or Flow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd K. BenDor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The US Fish and Wildlife Service will make an Endangered Species Act listing decision for the lesser prairie chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus; “LPC” in March 2014. Based on the findings of a single, Uzbek antelope study, conservation plans put forth for the LPC propose to modify and re-position habitat in the landscape through a series of temporary preservation/restoration efforts. We argue that for certain species, including the LPC, dynamic habitat offsets represent a dangerous re-interpretation of habitat provision and recovery programs, which have nearly-universally viewed ecosystem offsets (habitat, wetlands, streams, etc. as “stocks” that accumulate characteristics over time. Any effort to create a program of temporary, moving habitat offsets must consider species’ (1 life history characteristics, (2 behavioral tendencies (e.g., avoidance of impacted areas, nesting/breeding site fidelity, and (3 habitat restoration characteristics, including long temporal lags in reoccupation. If misapplied, species recovery programs using temporary, moving habitat risk further population declines.

  7. Habitat types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and plant species of concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, J.L.; Rickard, W.H.; Brandt, C.A. [and others

    1993-12-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive source of the best available information on Hanford Site sensitive and critical habitats and plants and animals of importance or special status. In this report, sensitive habitats include areas known to be used by threatened, endangered, or sensitive plant or animal species, wetlands, preserves and refuges, and other sensitive habitats outlined in the Hanford Site Baseline Risk Assessment Methodology. Potentially important species for risk assessment and species of special concern with regard to their status as threatened, endangered, or sensitive are described, and potential habitats for these species identified.

  8. Urban habitat complexity affects species richness but not environmental filtering of morphologically-diverse ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ossola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Habitat complexity is a major determinant of structure and diversity of ant assemblages. Following the size-grain hypothesis, smaller ant species are likely to be advantaged in more complex habitats compared to larger species. Habitat complexity can act as an environmental filter based on species size and morphological traits, therefore affecting the overall structure and diversity of ant assemblages. In natural and semi-natural ecosystems, habitat complexity is principally regulated by ecological successions or disturbance such as fire and grazing. Urban ecosystems provide an opportunity to test relationships between habitat, ant assemblage structure and ant traits using novel combinations of habitat complexity generated and sustained by human management. We sampled ant assemblages in low-complexity and high-complexity parks, and high-complexity woodland remnants, hypothesizing that (i ant abundance and species richness would be higher in high-complexity urban habitats, (ii ant assemblages would differ between low- and high-complexity habitats and (iii ants living in high-complexity habitats would be smaller than those living in low-complexity habitats. Contrary to our hypothesis, ant species richness was higher in low-complexity habitats compared to high-complexity habitats. Overall, ant assemblages were significantly different among the habitat complexity types investigated, although ant size and morphology remained the same. Habitat complexity appears to affect the structure of ant assemblages in urban ecosystems as previously observed in natural and semi-natural ecosystems. However, the habitat complexity filter does not seem to be linked to ant morphological traits related to body size.

  9. Urban habitat complexity affects species richness but not environmental filtering of morphologically-diverse ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Michael A.; Christie, Fiona J.; Hahs, Amy K.; Livesley, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat complexity is a major determinant of structure and diversity of ant assemblages. Following the size-grain hypothesis, smaller ant species are likely to be advantaged in more complex habitats compared to larger species. Habitat complexity can act as an environmental filter based on species size and morphological traits, therefore affecting the overall structure and diversity of ant assemblages. In natural and semi-natural ecosystems, habitat complexity is principally regulated by ecological successions or disturbance such as fire and grazing. Urban ecosystems provide an opportunity to test relationships between habitat, ant assemblage structure and ant traits using novel combinations of habitat complexity generated and sustained by human management. We sampled ant assemblages in low-complexity and high-complexity parks, and high-complexity woodland remnants, hypothesizing that (i) ant abundance and species richness would be higher in high-complexity urban habitats, (ii) ant assemblages would differ between low- and high-complexity habitats and (iii) ants living in high-complexity habitats would be smaller than those living in low-complexity habitats. Contrary to our hypothesis, ant species richness was higher in low-complexity habitats compared to high-complexity habitats. Overall, ant assemblages were significantly different among the habitat complexity types investigated, although ant size and morphology remained the same. Habitat complexity appears to affect the structure of ant assemblages in urban ecosystems as previously observed in natural and semi-natural ecosystems. However, the habitat complexity filter does not seem to be linked to ant morphological traits related to body size. PMID:26528416

  10. [Species composition, diversity and density of small fishes in two different habitats in Niushan Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shao-Wen; Li, Zhong-Jie; Cao, Wen-Xuan

    2007-07-01

    This paper studied the spatial distribution of small fishes in a shallow macrophytic lake, Niushan Lake in spring 2003, and its relations with habitat heterogeneity. Based on the macrophyte cover condition, distance from lake shore and water depth, two representative habitat types in the lake were selected. Habitat A was near the shore with dense submersed macrophyte, while habitat B was far from the shore with sparse submersed macrophyte. Small fishes were sampled quantitatively by block net (180 m2), and their densities within the net area were estimated by multiple mark-recapture or Zippin's removal method. The results showed that there were some differences in species composition, biodiversity measurement, and estimated density of small fishes between the two habitats: 1) the catches in habitat A consisted of 14 small fish species from 5 families, among which, benthopelagic species Rhodeus ocellatus, Paracheilognathus imberbis and Pseudorasbora parva were considered as dominant species, while those in habitat B consisted of 9 small fish species from 3 families, among which, bottom species Rhinogobius giurinus and Micropercops swinhonis were dominant; 2) the Bray-Curtis index between the two small fish communities was 0.222, reflecting their low structure similarity, and no significant difference was observed between their rank/ abundance distributions, both of which belonged to log series distribution; 3) the total density of 9 major species in habitat A was 8.71 ind x m(-2), while that of 5 major species in habitat B was only 3.54 ind x m(-2). The fact that the spatial distribution of the small fishes differed with habitats might be related to their habitat need for escaping predators, feeding, and breeding, and thus, aquatic macrophyte habitat should be of significance in the rational exploitation of small fish resources as well as the conservation of fish resource diversity.

  11. Life stage and species identity affect whether habitat subsidies enhance or simply redistribute consumer biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Danielle A; Gittman, Rachel K; Bouchillon, Rachel K; Fodrie, F Joel

    2017-10-01

    Quantifying the response of mobile consumers to changes in habitat availability is essential for determining the degree to which population-level productivity is habitat limited rather than regulated by other, potentially density-independent factors. Over landscape scales, this can be explored by monitoring changes in density and foraging as habitat availability varies. As habitat availability increases, densities may: (1) decrease (unit-area production decreases; weak habitat limitation); (2) remain stable (unit-area production remains stable; habitat limitation) or (3) increase (unit-area production increases; strong habitat limitation). We tested the response of mobile estuarine consumers over 5 months to changes in habitat availability in situ by comparing densities and feeding rates on artificial reefs that were or were not adjacent to neighbouring artificial reefs or nearby natural reefs. Using either constructed or natural reefs to manipulate habitat availability, we documented threefold density decreases among juvenile stone crabs as habitat increased (i.e. weak habitat imitation). However, for adult stone crabs, density remained stable across treatments, demonstrating that habitat limitation presents a bottleneck in this species' later life history. Oyster toadfish densities also did not change with increasing habitat availability (i.e. habitat limitation), but densities of other cryptic fishes decreased as habitat availability increased (i.e. weak limitation). Feeding and abundance data suggested that some mobile fishes experience habitat limitation, or, potentially in one case, strong limitation across our habitat manipulations. These findings of significant, community-level habitat limitation provide insight into how global declines in structurally complex estuarine habitats may have reduced the fishery production of coastal ecosystems. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  12. Apparent foraging success reflects habitat quality in an irruptive species, the Black-backed Woodpecker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher T. Rota; Mark A. Rumble; Chad P. Lehman; Dylan C. Kesler; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2015-01-01

    Dramatic fluctuations in food resources are a key feature of many habitats, and many species have evolved a movement strategy to exploit food resources that are unpredictable in space and time. The availability of food resources may be a particularly strong determinant of habitat quality for irruptive bird species. We studied the apparent foraging success of Black-...

  13. An artificial water body provides habitat for an endangered estuarine seahorse species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassens, Louw

    2016-10-01

    Anthropogenic development, especially the transformation of natural habitats to artificial, is a growing concern within estuaries and coastal areas worldwide. Thesen Islands marina, an artificial water body, added 25 ha of new estuarine habitat to the Knysna Estuary in South Africa, home to the Knysna seahorse. This study aimed to answer: (I) Can an artificial water body provide suitable habitat for an endangered seahorse species? And if so (II) what characteristics of this new habitat are important in terms of seahorse utilization? Four major habitat types were identified within the marina canals: (I) artificial reno mattress (wire baskets filled with rocks); (II) Codium tenue beds; (III) mixed vegetation on sediment; and (IV) barren canal floor. Seahorses were found throughout the marina system with significantly higher densities within the reno mattress habitat. The artificial water body, therefore, has provided suitable habitat for Hippocampus capensis, a noteworthy finding in the current environment of coastal development and the increasing shift from natural to artificial.

  14. Use of Occupancy Models to Evaluate Expert Knowledge-based Species-Habitat Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica N. Iglecia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Expert knowledge-based species-habitat relationships are used extensively to guide conservation planning, particularly when data are scarce. Purported relationships describe the initial state of knowledge, but are rarely tested. We assessed support in the data for suitability rankings of vegetation types based on expert knowledge for three terrestrial avian species in the South Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States. Experts used published studies, natural history, survey data, and field experience to rank vegetation types as optimal, suitable, and marginal. We used single-season occupancy models, coupled with land cover and Breeding Bird Survey data, to examine the hypothesis that patterns of occupancy conformed to species-habitat suitability rankings purported by experts. Purported habitat suitability was validated for two of three species. As predicted for the Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens and Brown-headed Nuthatch (Sitta pusilla, occupancy was strongly influenced by vegetation types classified as "optimal habitat" by the species suitability rankings for nuthatches and wood-pewees. Contrary to predictions, Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus models that included vegetation types as covariates received similar support by the data as models without vegetation types. For all three species, occupancy was also related to sampling latitude. Our results suggest that covariates representing other habitat requirements might be necessary to model occurrence of generalist species like the woodpecker. The modeling approach described herein provides a means to test expert knowledge-based species-habitat relationships, and hence, help guide conservation planning.

  15. 77 FR 60457 - Draft Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan Within Eight-State Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ...-FF03E00000] Draft Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan Within Eight-State Planning... of comments pertaining to the development of the Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat..., intend to prepare the Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan (MSHCP) under the...

  16. Characterization of habitat preferences for selected wildlife species in encinal savannas of the Southwest [Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendy D. Jones; Carlton M. Jones; Peter F. Ffolliott; Gerald J. Gottfried

    2005-01-01

    The encinal savannas of the sub-mogollon southwestern United States are important for livestock grazing and wildlife habitat. Little data have been collected on the ecology of these Sierra Madrean types of woodland land areas, which makes management difficult. Obtaining information such as habitat preferences for selected wildlife species and livestock can be an...

  17. Anadromous sea lampreys recolonize a Maine coastal river tributary after dam removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Robert; Coghlan, Stephen M.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Sedgeunkedunk Stream, a third-order tributary to the Penobscot River, Maine, historically supported several anadromous fishes, including the Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar, AlewifeAlosa pseudoharengus, and Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus. However, two small dams constructed in the 1800s reduced or eliminated spawning runs entirely. In 2009, efforts to restore marine–freshwater connectivity in the system culminated with removal of the lowermost dam, thus providing access to an additional 4.6 km of lotic habitat. Because Sea Lampreys utilized accessible habitat prior to dam removal, they were chosen as a focal species with which to quantify recolonization. During spawning runs of 2008–2011 (before and after dam removal), individuals were marked with PIT tags and their activity was tracked with daily recapture surveys. Open-population mark–recapture models indicated a fourfold increase in the annual abundance of spawning-phase Sea Lampreys, with estimates rising from 59±4 () before dam removal (2008) to 223±18 and 242±16 after dam removal (2010 and 2011, respectively). Accompanying the marked increase in annual abundance was a greater than fourfold increase in nesting sites: the number of nests increased from 31 in 2008 to 128 and 131 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. During the initial recolonization event (i.e., in 2010), Sea Lampreys took 6 d to move past the former dam site and 9 d to expand into the furthest upstream reaches. Conversely, during the 2011 spawning run, Sea Lampreys took only 3 d to penetrate into the upstream reaches, thus suggesting a potential positive feedback in which larval recruitment into the system may have attracted adult spawners via conspecific pheromone cues. Although more research is needed to verify the migratory pheromone hypothesis, our study clearly demonstrates that small-stream dam removal in coastal river systems has the potential to enhance recovery of declining anadromous fish populations.

  18. Variation in habitat connectivity generates positive correlations between species and genetic diversity in a metacommunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, T; Jarne, P; Laroche, F; Pointier, J-P; Huth, G; Segard, A; David, P

    2013-09-01

    An increasing number of studies are simultaneously investigating species diversity (SD) and genetic diversity (GD) in the same systems, looking for 'species- genetic diversity correlations' (SGDCs). From negative to positive SGDCs have been reported, but studies have generally not quantified the processes underlying these correlations. They were also mostly conducted at large biogeographical scales or in recently degraded habitats. Such correlations have not been looked for in natural networks of connected habitat fragments (metacommunities), and the underlying processes remain elusive in most systems. We investigated these issues by studying freshwater snails in a pond network in Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles). We recorded SD and habitat characteristics in 232 ponds and assessed GD in 75 populations of two species. Strongly significant and positive SGDCs were detected in both species. Based on a decomposition of SGDC as a function of variance-covariance of habitat characteristics, we showed that connectivity (opportunity of water flow between a site and the nearest watershed during the rainy season) has the strongest contribution on SGDCs. More connective sites received both more alleles and more species through immigration resulting in both higher GD and higher SD. Other habitat characteristics did not contribute, or contributed negatively, to SGDCs. This is true of the desiccation frequency of ponds during the dry season, presumably because species markedly differ in their ability to tolerate desiccation. Our study shows that variation in environmental characteristics of habitat patches can promote SGDCs at metacommunity scale when the studied species respond homogeneously to these environmental characteristics. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Food and habitat resource partitioning between three estuarine fish species on the Swedish west coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorman, Staffan

    1983-12-01

    In 1978 the food and habitat resource partitioning of three small and common fish species, viz. Pomatoschistus microps (Krøyer), Gasterosteus aculeatus (L.) and Pungitius pungitius (L.) were studied in river Broälven estuary on the Swedish west coast (58°22'N, 11°29'E). The area was divided into three habitats, based on environmental features. In July, September, and October stomach contents and size distribution of each species present were analysed. In July there was high food and habitat overlap between the species. Interference interactions probably occurred between some size classes of P. microps and the other two species. P. pungitius was exposed to both intra- and interspecific interactions. In September the food and habitat overlaps between G. aculeatus and P. pungitius were high, while both had low food and habitat overlaps in relation to P. microps. Interactions between G. aculeatus and P. pungitius were probably influenced by more severe abiotic conditions in one habitat, which caused lower abundances there, and higher abundances in the other two habitats. In October no interactions were observed. These results indicate that competition for food at least temporarily determines the species distribution in a temperate estuary, and that estuarine fish populations are sometimes food limited.

  20. Species richness in natural and disturbed habitats: Asteraceae and Flower-head insects (Tephritidae: Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Soraia; Prado, Paulo I; Lewinsohn, Thomas M

    2010-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in the landscape result in an environmental mosaic with serious consequences for biodiversity. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of the anthropogenic changes on Asteraceae richness and abundance, and to evaluate the consequences for the richness of Tephritidae assemblages in five sampling sites, with three sampled habitats in each: cerrado (Brazilian savanna), eucalyptus stands and pasture. Sampling was carried out in 15 random transects (cerrados and one pasture) and in 30 transects (eucalyptus stands and the remaining pastures). Composition, species richness and insect abundance in each habitat type was estimated by sampling the flower heads for each species of host plant, collected by four people for 1h. Differences in mean abundance of plant population between habitats and sites were tested by two-way ANOVA. Differences in plant species richness between habitats and sites and effects of habitat, site and host plant richness on insect richness were tested using a generalized linear model with Poisson errors. Within each sampling site, cerrados showed higher species richness of Asteraceae than pastures and eucalyptus stands. There were also significant differences in plant richness among sites. Mean population abundance values were significantly different among habitats, but not among sites. Increased host plant richness led to significant insect species richness. There were no additional significant effects of habitat on insect richness. Therefore, anthropogenic alterations in landscape determined the impoverishment of plant assemblages and therefore of insect assemblages, because of the positive relationship between host plant richness and insect richness.

  1. Remote Sensing for Threatened and Endangered Species Habitat Assessment on Military Lands: A Literature Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tweddale, Scott A; Melton, Robert H

    2005-01-01

    .... To meet the requirements of the Endangered Species Act, the DoD requires accurate, cost-effective surveying and monitoring methods to characterize and monitor the habitats of TES on military training and testing lands...

  2. Species, functional groups, and habitat preferences of birds in five agroforestry classes in Tabasco, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der J.C.; Peña-Álvarez, B.; Arriaga-Weiss, S.L.; Hernández-Daumás, S.

    2012-01-01

    We studied species, functional groups, and habitat preferences of birds in five classes of agroforestry systems: agroforests, animal agroforestry, linear agroforestry, sequential agroforestry, and crops under tree cover in Tabasco, Mexico. Sampling sites were >2 km from natural forest fragments.

  3. Two new species of the Pterostichus macrogenys species group (Coleoptera, Carabidae discovered in shallow subterranean habitats in northern Honshu, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kôji Sasakawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shallow subterranean environments have recently received attention as a habitat for Carabidae beetles, and many new species have been discovered using collection techniques devised for this habitat. We report the discovery of two new species of the macrogenys species group of the Pterostichus subgenus Nialoe Tanaka, 1958, collected by subterranean baited traps in northern Honshu, Japan. Pterostichus shinbodakensis Sasakawa & Itô, sp. n. is described from Mt. Shinbodake, Niigata Prefecture, and P. tateishiyamanus Sasakawa & Itô, sp. n. is described from the southeastern foot of Mt. Tateishiyama, Fukushima Prefecture. Comparative male genital morphology shows that among the known species, the two new species are most closely related to P. falcispinus Sasakawa, 2005 and P. chokaisanus Sasakawa, 2009, respectively. In addition, sympatric occurrence of P. shinbodakensis with a smaller, unidentified species of the species group was also confirmed. The implications of these results for future studies of the macrogenys species group, as well as those of Nialoe, are discussed.

  4. Estimating species richness and status of solitary bees and bumblebees in agricultural semi-natural habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calabuig, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    Estimation of Western Europe number of bee species varies between 2000 and 4500 (Williams 1995) but there are substantial indications of a decline in bee species in Europe and other regions. In Denmark, wild bee species richness, distribution, and abundance have not been studied in detail for about...... 75 years, and nothing is known about which species are potentially vulnerable or endangered. A rough estimate of solitary bees and bumblebees includes approximately 238 species (26 genera) and 29 species respectively. In a pan-trap survey of six kilometres of semi-natural habitats in a Danish...... agricultural landscape, 72 solitary bee species and 19 species of bumblebees were recorded, several of which are considered vulnerable or endangered in neighbouring countries. Nesting conditions for rare cavity-nesting species and the possible role of the semi-natural habitats as corridors for species...

  5. Spatial distribution and habitat characterisation of mosquito species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Infections with mosquito-borne parasites are common in human populations inhabiting tropical regions of the world. Malaria is endemic along Kenyan Lake Victoria basin and its vectors are fresh water breeders. However, much less is known about the current spatial distribution and habitat characterisation of ...

  6. Integrating DNA-based data into bioassessments improves our understanding of species distributions and species habitat relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    The integration of DNA-based identification methods into bioassessments could result in more accurate representations of species distributions and species-habitat relationships. DNA-based approaches may be particularly informative for tracking the distributions of rare and/or inv...

  7. Predicting habitat suitability for rare plants at local spatial scales using a species distribution model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogol-Prokurat, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    If species distribution models (SDMs) can rank habitat suitability at a local scale, they may be a valuable conservation planning tool for rare, patchily distributed species. This study assessed the ability of Maxent, an SDM reported to be appropriate for modeling rare species, to rank habitat suitability at a local scale for four edaphic endemic rare plants of gabbroic soils in El Dorado County, California, and examined the effects of grain size, spatial extent, and fine-grain environmental predictors on local-scale model accuracy. Models were developed using species occurrence data mapped on public lands and were evaluated using an independent data set of presence and absence locations on surrounding lands, mimicking a typical conservation-planning scenario that prioritizes potential habitat on unsurveyed lands surrounding known occurrences. Maxent produced models that were successful at discriminating between suitable and unsuitable habitat at the local scale for all four species, and predicted habitat suitability values were proportional to likelihood of occurrence or population abundance for three of four species. Unfortunately, models with the best discrimination (i.e., AUC) were not always the most useful for ranking habitat suitability. The use of independent test data showed metrics that were valuable for evaluating which variables and model choices (e.g., grain, extent) to use in guiding habitat prioritization for conservation of these species. A goodness-of-fit test was used to determine whether habitat suitability values ranked habitat suitability on a continuous scale. If they did not, a minimum acceptable error predicted area criterion was used to determine the threshold for classifying habitat as suitable or unsuitable. I found a trade-off between model extent and the use of fine-grain environmental variables: goodness of fit was improved at larger extents, and fine-grain environmental variables improved local-scale accuracy, but fine-grain variables

  8. Habitat associations drive species vulnerability to climate change in boreal forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Triviño, María; Tikkanen, Olli-Pekka

    2016-01-01

    if species sensitivity, the species ability to tolerate climatic variations determined by traits, plays a key role in determining vulnerability. We analyse the role of species’ habitat associations, a proxy for sensitivity, in explaining vulnerability for two poorly-known but species-rich taxa in boreal...... forest, saproxylic beetles and fungi, using three IPCC emissions scenarios. Towards the end of the 21st century we projected an improvement in habitat quality associated with an increase of deadwood, an important resource for species, as a consequence of increased tree growth under high emissions...... scenarios. However, climate change will potentially reduce habitat suitability for ~9–43 % of the threatened deadwood-associated species. This loss is likely caused by future increase in timber extraction and decomposition rates causing higher deadwood turnover, which have a strong negative effect on boreal...

  9. Variability in leaf optical properties among 26 species from a broad range of habitats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, A.K.; Carter, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Leaves from 26 species with growth forms from annual herbs to trees were collected from open, intermediate, and shaded understory habitats in Mississippi and Kansas, USA. Leaf optical properties including reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance in visible and near infrared (NIR) wavelengths were measured along with leaf thickness and specific leaf mass (SLM). These leaf properties and internal light scattering have been reported to vary with light availability in studies that have focused on a limited number of species. Our objective was to determine whether these patterns in leaf optics and light availability were consistent when a greater number of species were evaluated. Leaf thickness and SLM varied by tenfold among species sampled, but within-habitat variance was high. Although there was a strong trend toward thicker leaves in open habitats, only SLM was significantly greater in open vs. understory habitats. In contrast, leaf optical properties were strikingly similar among habitats. Reflectance and reflectance/transmittance in the NIR were used to estimate internal light scattering and there were strong relationships (r2 0.65) between these optical properties and leaf thickness. We concluded that leaf thickness, which did not vary consistently among habitats, was the best predictor of NIR reflectance and internal light scattering. However, because carbon allocation to leaves was lower in understory species (low SLM) yet gross optical properties were similar among all habitats, the energy investment by shade leaves required to achieve optical equivalence with sun leaves was lower. Differences in leaf longevity and growth form within a habitat may help explain the lack of consistent patterns in leaf optics as the number of species sampled increases

  10. Species effects on ecosystem processes are modified by faunal responses to habitat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulling, Mark T; Solan, Martin; Dyson, Kirstie E; Hernandez-Milian, Gema; Luque, Patricia; Pierce, Graham J; Raffaelli, Dave; Paterson, David M; White, Piran C L

    2008-12-01

    Heterogeneity is a well-recognized feature of natural environments, and the spatial distribution and movement of individual species is primarily driven by resource requirements. In laboratory experiments designed to explore how different species drive ecosystem processes, such as nutrient release, habitat heterogeneity is often seen as something which must be rigorously controlled for. Most small experimental systems are therefore spatially homogeneous, and the link between environmental heterogeneity and its effects on the redistribution of individuals and species, and on ecosystem processes, has not been fully explored. In this paper, we used a mesocosm system to investigate the relationship between habitat composition, species movement and sediment nutrient release for each of four functionally contrasting species of marine benthic invertebrate macrofauna. For each species, various habitat configurations were generated by selectively enriching patches of sediment with macroalgae, a natural source of spatial variability in intertidal mudflats. We found that the direction and extent of faunal movement between patches differs with species identity, density and habitat composition. Combinations of these factors lead to concomitant changes in nutrient release, such that habitat composition effects are modified by species identity (in the case of NH4-N) and by species density (in the case of PO4-P). It is clear that failure to accommodate natural patterns of spatial heterogeneity in such studies may result in an incomplete understanding of system behaviour. This will be particularly important for future experiments designed to explore the effects of species richness on ecosystem processes, where the complex interactions reported here for single species may be compounded when species are brought together in multi-species combinations.

  11. A method for assigning species into groups based on generalized Mahalanobis distance between habitat model coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.J.; Heglund, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Habitat association models are commonly developed for individual animal species using generalized linear modeling methods such as logistic regression. We considered the issue of grouping species based on their habitat use so that management decisions can be based on sets of species rather than individual species. This research was motivated by a study of western landbirds in northern Idaho forests. The method we examined was to separately fit models to each species and to use a generalized Mahalanobis distance between coefficient vectors to create a distance matrix among species. Clustering methods were used to group species from the distance matrix, and multidimensional scaling methods were used to visualize the relations among species groups. Methods were also discussed for evaluating the sensitivity of the conclusions because of outliers or influential data points. We illustrate these methods with data from the landbird study conducted in northern Idaho. Simulation results are presented to compare the success of this method to alternative methods using Euclidean distance between coefficient vectors and to methods that do not use habitat association models. These simulations demonstrate that our Mahalanobis-distance- based method was nearly always better than Euclidean-distance-based methods or methods not based on habitat association models. The methods used to develop candidate species groups are easily explained to other scientists and resource managers since they mainly rely on classical multivariate statistical methods. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  12. Species composition, richness and nestedness of lizard assemblages from Restinga habitats along the brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CFD. Rocha

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation is well known to adversely affect species living in the remaining, relatively isolated, habitat patches, especially for those having small range size and low density. This negative effect has been critical in coastal resting habitats. We analysed the lizard composition and richness of restinga habitats in 16 restinga habitats encompassing three Brazilian states (Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and Bahia and more than 1500km of the Brazilian coast in order to evaluate if the loss of lizard species following habitat reduction occur in a nested pattern or at random, using the “Nestedness Temperature Calculator” to analyse the distribution pattern of lizard species among the restingas studied. We also estimated the potential capacity that each restinga has to maintain lizard species. Eleven lizard species were recorded in the restingas, although not all species occurred in all areas. The restinga with the richest lizard fauna was Guriri (eight species whereas the restinga with the lowest richness was Praia do Sul (located at Ilha Grande, a large coastal island. Among the restingas analysed, Jurubatiba, Guriri, Maricá and Praia das Neves, were the most hospitable for lizards. The matrix community temperature of the lizard assemblages was 20.49° (= P <0.00001; 5000 randomisations; randomisation temperature = 51.45° ± 7.18° SD, indicating that lizard assemblages in the coastal restingas exhibited a considerable nested structure. The degree in which an area is hospitable for different assemblages could be used to suggest those with greater value of conservation. We concluded that lizard assemblages in coastal restingas occur at a considerable level of ordination in restinga habitats and that some restinga areas such as Jurubatiba, Guriri, Maricá and Praia das Neves are quite important to preserve lizard diversity of restinga environments.

  13. Species composition, richness and nestedness of lizard assemblages from Restinga habitats along the brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C F D; Vrcibradic, D; Kiefer, M C; Menezes, V A; Fontes, A F; Hatano, F H; Galdino, C A B; Bergallo, H G; Van Sluys, M

    2014-05-01

    Habitat fragmentation is well known to adversely affect species living in the remaining, relatively isolated, habitat patches, especially for those having small range size and low density. This negative effect has been critical in coastal resting habitats. We analysed the lizard composition and richness of restinga habitats in 16 restinga habitats encompassing three Brazilian states (Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and Bahia) and more than 1500km of the Brazilian coast in order to evaluate if the loss of lizard species following habitat reduction occur in a nested pattern or at random, using the "Nestedness Temperature Calculator" to analyse the distribution pattern of lizard species among the restingas studied. We also estimated the potential capacity that each restinga has to maintain lizard species. Eleven lizard species were recorded in the restingas, although not all species occurred in all areas. The restinga with the richest lizard fauna was Guriri (eight species) whereas the restinga with the lowest richness was Praia do Sul (located at Ilha Grande, a large coastal island). Among the restingas analysed, Jurubatiba, Guriri, Maricá and Praia das Neves, were the most hospitable for lizards. The matrix community temperature of the lizard assemblages was 20.49° (= P restingas exhibited a considerable nested structure. The degree in which an area is hospitable for different assemblages could be used to suggest those with greater value of conservation. We concluded that lizard assemblages in coastal restingas occur at a considerable level of ordination in restinga habitats and that some restinga areas such as Jurubatiba, Guriri, Maricá and Praia das Neves are quite important to preserve lizard diversity of restinga environments.

  14. Habitat preferences of ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) species in the northern Black Hills of South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, David J; Brandenburg, Dylan; Petit, Samantha; Gabel, Mark

    2012-10-01

    Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are a major component of terrestrial invertebrate communities and have been used as bioindicators of habitat change and disturbance. The Black Hills of South Dakota is a small area with a high biodiversity, but the ground beetles of this region are little studied. The habitat preferences of ground beetles in the Black Hills are unknown, and baseline data must be collected if these beetles are to be used in the future as bioindicators. Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were collected from pitfall traps at two sites in each of five kinds of habitats (grassland, bur oak-ironwood forests, ponderosa pine-common juniper forests, aspen-pine forests, and a spruce forest) from which habitat structure characteristics and plant abundance data also were collected. In total, 27 species of ground beetles were identified. Although some species, such as Dicaelus sculptilis Say were found in most habitats, other species showed distinct habitat preferences: Poecilus lucublandus (Say) preferred oak forests, Pasimachus elongatus LeConte preferred grasslands, and Calathus ingratus Dejean preferred high-elevation aspen-pine forests. Pterostichus adstrictus Escholtz was found only in woodlands, and Carabus taedatus Say strictly in higher elevation (over 1,500 m) aspen or coniferous woods, and may represent relict populations of boreal species. Elevation, exposure to sunlight, and cover of woody plants strongly influence the structure of carabid communities in the Black Hills.

  15. Forest species in an agricultural landscape in The Netherlands: effects of habitat fragmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grashof-Bokdam, C.

    1997-01-01

    For 312 forest patches on sandy soils in the Netherlands, effects of fragmentation are studied of forest habitat in the past on the present occurrence of forest plato species. Using regression techniques, the numbers of forest edge, interior, zoochorous and anemochorous species, as well as

  16. Improving extinction projections across scales and habitats using the countryside species-area relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Inês Santos; Pereira, Henrique Miguel

    2017-10-10

    The species-area relationship (SAR) has been often used to project species extinctions as a consequence of habitat loss. However, recent studies have suggested that the SAR may overestimate species extinctions, at least in the short-term. We argue that the main reason for this overestimation is that the classic SAR ignores the persistence of species in human-modified habitats. We use data collected worldwide to analyse what is the fraction of bird and plant species that remain in different human-modified habitats at the local scale after full habitat conversion. We observe that both taxa have consistent responses to the different land-use types, with strongest reductions in species richness in cropland across the globe, and in pasture in the tropics. We show that the results from these studies cannot be linearly scaled from plots to large regions, as this again overestimates the impacts of land-use change on biodiversity. The countryside SAR provides a unifying framework to incorporate both the effect of species persistence in the landscape matrix and the non-linear response of the proportion of species extinctions to sampling area, generating more realistic projections of biodiversity loss.

  17. Canopy cover negatively affects arboreal ant species richness in a tropical open habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. M. Queiroz

    Full Text Available Abstract We tested the hypothesis of a negative relationship between vegetation characteristics and ant species richness in a Brazilian open vegetation habitat, called candeial. We set up arboreal pitfalls to sample arboreal ants and measured the following environmental variables, which were used as surrogate of environmental heterogeneity: tree richness, tree density, tree height, circumference at the base of the plants, and canopy cover. Only canopy cover had a negative effect on the arboreal ant species richness. Vegetation characteristics and plant species composition are probably homogeneous in candeial, which explains the lack of relationship between other environmental variables and ant richness. Open vegetation habitats harbor a large number of opportunistic and generalist species, besides specialist ants from habitats with high temperatures. An increase in canopy cover decreases sunlight incidence and may cause local microclimatic differences, which negatively affect the species richness of specialist ants from open areas. Canopy cover regulates the richness of arboreal ants in open areas, since only few ant species are able to colonize sites with dense vegetation; most species are present in sites with high temperature and luminosity. Within open vegetation habitats the relationship between vegetation characteristics and species richness seems to be the opposite from closed vegetation areas, like forests.

  18. Cadmium Accumulation in Small Mammals: Species Traits, Soil Properties, and Spatial Habitat Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den N.W.; Lammertsma, D.R.; Dimmers, W.J.; Boerwinkel, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the impact of species-specific spatial habitat use, diet preferences, and soil concentrations and properties on the accumulation of cadmium in small mammals was investigated. The results show that for the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus), a mobile species with a large range in diet

  19. Spawning and nursery habitats of neotropical fish species in the tributaries of a regulated river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrakis, Maristela Cavicchioli; da Silva, Patrícia S.; Makrakis, Sergio; de Lima, Ariane F.; de Assumpção, Lucileine; de Paula, Salete; Miranda, Leandro E.; Dias, João Henrique Pinheiro

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides information on ontogenetic patterns of neotropical fish species distribution in tributaries (Verde, Pardo, Anhanduí, and Aguapeí rivers) of the Porto Primavera Reservoir, in the heavily dammed Paraná River, Brazil, identifying key spawning and nursery habitats. Samplings were conducted monthly in the main channel of rivers and in marginal lagoons from October through March during three consecutive spawning seasons in 2007-2010. Most species spawn in December especially in Verde River. Main river channels are spawning habitats and marginal lagoons are nursery areas for most fish, mainly for migratory species. The tributaries have high diversity of larvae species: a total of 56 taxa representing 21 families, dominated by Characidae. Sedentary species without parental care are more abundant (45.7%), and many long-distance migratory fish species are present (17.4%). Migrators included Prochilodus lineatus, Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos, Pimelodus maculatus, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Sorubim lima, two threatened migratory species: Salminus brasiliensis and Zungaro jahu, and one endangered migratory species: Brycon orbignyanus. Most of these migratory species are vital to commercial and recreational fishing, and their stocks have decreased drastically in the last decades, attributed to habitat alteration, especially impoundments. The fish ladder at Porto Primavera Dam appears to be playing an important role in re-establishing longitudinal connectivity among critical habitats, allowing ascent to migratory fish species, and thus access to upstream reaches and tributaries. Establishment of Permanent Conservation Units in tributaries can help preserve habitats identified as essential spawning and nursery areas, and can be key to the maintenance and conservation of the fish species in the Paraná River basin.

  20. Evaluation of habitat quality for selected wildlife species associated with back channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James T.; Zadnik, Andrew K.; Wood, Petra Bohall; Bledsoe, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    The islands and associated back channels on the Ohio River, USA, are believed to provide critical habitat features for several wildlife species. However, few studies have quantitatively evaluated habitat quality in these areas. Our main objective was to evaluate the habitat quality of back and main channel areas for several species using habitat suitability index (HSI) models. To test the effectiveness of these models, we attempted to relate HSI scores and the variables measured for each model with measures of relative abundance for the model species. The mean belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon) HSI was greater on the main than back channel. However, the model failed to predict kingfisher abundance. The mean reproduction component of the great blue heron (Ardea herodias) HSI, total common muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) HSI, winter cover component of the snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) HSI, and brood-rearing component of the wood duck (Aix sponsa) HSI were all greater on the back than main channel, and were positively related with the relative abundance of each species. We found that island back channels provide characteristics not found elsewhere on the Ohio River and warrant conservation as important riparian wildlife habitat. The effectiveness of using HSI models to predict species abundance on the river was mixed. Modifications to several of the models are needed to improve their use on the Ohio River and, likely, other large rivers.

  1. The fog of war: Why the environmental crusade for anadromous fish species in California could disarm the State’s local vector control districts in their war against mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Siptroth

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In California, local mosquito and vector control districts have successfully controlled mosquito and vector-borne diseases by improving drainage patterns and applying pesticides. The Bay-Delta Conservation Plan, which is a proposed habitat conservation plan for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Bay-Delta estuary, proposes to add over 70,000 acres of habitat in the Delta to improve conditions for threatened and endangered aquatic and terrestrial species. This habitat could also be a suitable mosquito breeding habitat, which will be located in close proximity to urban and suburban communities. Wetland management practices and continued pesticide applications in the Delta could mitigate the effects of a new mosquito breeding habitat. Recent legal developments, however, require districts to obtain and comply with Clean Water Act permits, which restrict the application of pesticides in or near waters of the United States. Moreover, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has taken the first step in a rulemaking process that could further limit or prohibit the use of certain vector control pesticides in the Delta. In the near term and until less harmful methods for mosquito control are available, local vector control districts’ application of mosquito control pesticides should be exempt from Clean Water Act permit requirements.

  2. Traits related to species persistence and dispersal explain changes in plant communities subjected to habitat loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marini, Lorenzo; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Heikkinen, Risto

    2012-01-01

    Aim Habitat fragmentation is a major driver of biodiversity loss but it is insufficiently known how much its effects vary among species with different life-history traits; especially in plant communities, the understanding of the role of traits related to species persistence and dispersal in dete...... rural landscapes in NW Europe, mitigating the spatial isolation of remaining grasslands should be accompanied by restoration measures aimed at improving habitat quality for low competitors, abiotically dispersed and perennial, clonal species.......Aim Habitat fragmentation is a major driver of biodiversity loss but it is insufficiently known how much its effects vary among species with different life-history traits; especially in plant communities, the understanding of the role of traits related to species persistence and dispersal...... in determining dynamics of species communities in fragmented landscapes is still limited. The primary aim of this study was to test how plant traits related to persistence and dispersal and their interactions modify plant species vulnerability to decreasing habitat area and increasing isolation. Location Five...

  3. Sintopy of two Tropidurus lizard species (Squamata: Tropiduridae) in a rocky Cerrado habitat in Central Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Faria,R. G.; Araujo,A. F. B.

    2004-01-01

    We studied the ecology of Tropidurus itambere and T. oreadicus that occur syntopically in rocky habitats of Cerrado vegetation in central Brazil during the dry season (April to September 2000). The two species are ecologically similar, but somewhat differentiated in vertical microhabitat use. The two species preferred rocky surface microhabitat. Both species demonstrated a unimodal activity pattern, with a peak between 10 and 15 h. Their diets were similar in composition and prey size. The mo...

  4. Determinants of Mammal and Bird Species Richness in China Based on Habitat Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haigen Xu

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial patterns in species richness is a central issue in macroecology and biogeography. Analyses that have traditionally focused on overall species richness limit the generality and depth of inference. Spatial patterns of species richness and the mechanisms that underpin them in China remain poorly documented. We created a database of the distribution of 580 mammal species and 849 resident bird species from 2376 counties in China and established spatial linear models to identify the determinants of species richness and test the roles of five hypotheses for overall mammals and resident birds and the 11 habitat groups among the two taxa. Our result showed that elevation variability was the most important determinant of species richness of overall mammal and bird species. It is indicated that the most prominent predictors of species richness varied among different habitat groups: elevation variability for forest and shrub mammals and birds, temperature annual range for grassland and desert mammals and wetland birds, net primary productivity for farmland mammals, maximum temperature of the warmest month for cave mammals, and precipitation of the driest quarter for grassland and desert birds. Noteworthily, main land cover type was also found to obviously influence mammal and bird species richness in forests, shrubs and wetlands under the disturbance of intensified human activities. Our findings revealed a substantial divergence in the species richness patterns among different habitat groups and highlighted the group-specific and disparate environmental associations that underpin them. As we demonstrate, a focus on overall species richness alone might lead to incomplete or misguided understanding of spatial patterns. Conservation priorities that consider a broad spectrum of habitat groups will be more successful in safeguarding the multiple services of biodiversity.

  5. Guild-specific responses of avian species richness to LiDAR-derived habitat heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Peter J.; Dilts, Thomas E.; Becker, Miles E.; Young, Jock S.; Wong-Kone, Diane C.; Newton, Wesley E.; Ammon, Elisabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological niche theory implies that more heterogeneous habitats have the potential to support greater biodiversity. Positive heterogeneity-diversity relationships have been found for most studies investigating animal taxa, although negative relationships also occur and the scale dependence of heterogeneity-diversity relationships is little known. We investigated multi-scale, heterogeneity-diversity relationships for bird communities in a semi-arid riparian landscape, using airborne LiDAR data to derive key measures of structural habitat complexity. Habitat heterogeneity-diversity relationships were generally positive, although the overall strength of relationships varied across avian life history guilds (R2 range: 0.03–0.41). Best predicted were the species richness indices of cavity nesters, habitat generalists, woodland specialists, and foliage foragers. Heterogeneity-diversity relationships were also strongly scale-dependent, with strongest associations at the 200-m scale (4 ha) and weakest associations at the 50-m scale (0.25 ha). Our results underscore the value of LiDAR data for fine-grained quantification of habitat structure, as well as the need for biodiversity studies to incorporate variation among life-history guilds and to simultaneously consider multiple guild functional types (e.g. nesting, foraging, habitat). Results suggest that certain life-history guilds (foliage foragers, cavity nesters, woodland specialists) are more susceptible than others (ground foragers, ground nesters, low nesters) to experiencing declines in local species richness if functional elements of habitat heterogeneity are lost. Positive heterogeneity-diversity relationships imply that riparian conservation efforts need to not only provide high-quality riparian habitat locally, but also to provide habitat heterogeneity across multiple scales.

  6. Differential adaptation to a harsh granite outcrop habitat between sympatric Mimulus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Kathleen G; Willis, John H

    2018-03-31

    Understanding which environmental variables and traits underlie adaptation to harsh environments is difficult because many traits evolve simultaneously as populations or species diverge. Here, we investigate the ecological variables and traits that underlie Mimulus laciniatus' adaptation to granite outcrops compared to its sympatric, mesic-adapted progenitor, Mimulus guttatus. We use fine-scale measurements of soil moisture and herbivory to examine differences in selective forces between the species' habitats, and measure selection on flowering time, flower size, plant height, and leaf shape in a reciprocal transplant using M. laciniatus × M. guttatus F 4 hybrids. We find that differences in drought and herbivory drive survival differences between habitats, that M. laciniatus and M. guttatus are each better adapted to their native habitat, and differential habitat selection on flowering time, plant stature, and leaf shape. Although early flowering time, small stature, and lobed leaf shape underlie plant fitness in M. laciniatus' seasonally dry environment, increased plant size is advantageous in a competitive mesic environment replete with herbivores like M. guttatus'. Given that we observed divergent selection between habitats in the direction of species differences, we conclude that adaptation to different microhabitats is an important component of reproductive isolation in this sympatric species pair. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Risk assessment for the reintroduction of anadromous salmonids upstream of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams, Northeastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Jill M.; Breyta, Rachel B.; Haskell, Craig A.; Ostberg, Carl O.; Hatten, James R.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2017-09-12

    The Upper Columbia United Tribes (UCUT; Spokane, Colville, Kootenai, Coeur d’Alene, and Kalispel Tribes) and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife want to reintroduce anadromous salmonids to their historical range to restore ecosystem function and lost cultural and spiritual relationships in the upper Columbia River, northeastern Washington. The UCUT contracted with the U.S. Geological Survey to assess risks to resident taxa (existing fish populations in the reintroduction area upstream of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams) and reintroduced salmon associated with reintroduction. We developed a risk assessment framework for reintroduction of anadromous salmonids upstream of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. To accomplish this goal, we applied strategies identified in previous risk assessment frameworks for reintroduction. The risk assessment is an initial step towards an anadromous reintroduction strategy. An initial list of potential donor sources for reintroduction species was developed from previous published sources for Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) donors in the Transboundary Reach of the Columbia River, British Columbia; an ecological risk assessment of upper Columbia River hatchery programs on non-target taxa of concern; and a review of existing hatchery programsDuring two workshops, we further identified and ranked potential donor sources of anadromous Redband Trout (steelhead; O. mykiss), Chinook Salmon, Sockeye Salmon (O. nerka), and Coho Salmon (O. kisutch). We also identified resident fish populations of interest and their primary habitat, location, status, and pathogen concerns to determine the potential risks of reintroduction. Species were deemed of interest based on resource management and potential interactions (that is, genetics, competition, and predation) with introduced species. We developed tables of potential donors by species and characterized potential sources (hatchery and natural origins), populations (individual runs

  8. Functional diversity measures revealed impacts of non-native species and habitat degradation on species-poor freshwater fish assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Nicole; Villéger, Sébastien; Wilkes, Martin; de Sostoa, Adolfo; Maceda-Veiga, Alberto

    2018-06-01

    Trait-based ecology has been developed for decades to infer ecosystem responses to stressors based on the functional structure of communities, yet its value in species-poor systems is largely unknown. Here, we used an extensive dataset in a Spanish region highly prone to non-native fish invasions (15 catchments, N=389 sites) to assess for the first time how species-poor communities respond to large-scale environmental gradients using a taxonomic and functional trait-based approach in riverine fish. We examined total species richness and three functional trait-based indices available when many sites have ≤3 species (specialization, FSpe; originality, FOri and entropy, FEnt). We assessed the responses of these taxonomic and functional indices along gradients of altitude, water pollution, physical habitat degradation and non-native fish biomass. Whilst species richness was relatively sensitive to spatial effects, functional diversity indices were responsive across natural and anthropogenic gradients. All four diversity measures declined with altitude but this decline was modulated by physical habitat degradation (richness, FSpe and FEnt) and the non-native:total fish biomass ratio (FSpe and FOri) in ways that varied between indices. Furthermore, FSpe and FOri were significantly correlated with Total Nitrogen. Non-native fish were a major component of the taxonomic and functional structure of fish communities, raising concerns about potential misdiagnosis between invaded and environmentally-degraded river reaches. Such misdiagnosis was evident in a regional fish index widely used in official monitoring programs. We recommend the application of FSpe and FOri to extensive datasets from monitoring programs in order to generate valuable cross-system information about the impacts of non-native species and habitat degradation, even in species-poor systems. Scoring non-native species apart from habitat degradation in the indices used to determine ecosystem health is

  9. Morphological and molecular analyses of larval taeniid species in small mammals from contrasting habitats in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Jensen, P. M.; Chrestensen, M. U.

    2015-01-01

    according to habitat type, potentially identifying a ‘sylvatic’ transmission and an ‘urban’ transmission with marked variation among different taeniid species. Versteria mustelae and T. polyacantha were more prevalent in rural forests, while infections with H. taeniaeformis were dominant in urban parks......) for species determination. Small mammals (N=719) were trapped in three different types of habitats in north-east Zealand, Denmark. The sensitivity of the multiplex PCR (90.5%) exceeded that of morphological examination (57.9%) for identifying 95 taeniid infections. The use of the multiplex PCR resulted...

  10. VisTrails SAHM: visualization and workflow management for species habitat modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Talbert, Colin B.; Ignizio, Drew A.; Talbert, Marian; Silva, Claudio; Koop, David; Swanson, Alan; Young, Nicholas E.

    2013-01-01

    The Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling (SAHM) has been created to both expedite habitat modeling and help maintain a record of the various input data, pre- and post-processing steps and modeling options incorporated in the construction of a species distribution model through the established workflow management and visualization VisTrails software. This paper provides an overview of the VisTrails:SAHM software including a link to the open source code, a table detailing the current SAHM modules, and a simple example modeling an invasive weed species in Rocky Mountain National Park, USA.

  11. Northeast and Midwest regional species and habitats at greatest risk and most vulnerable to climate impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudinger, Michelle D.; Hilberg, Laura; Janowiak, Maria; Swanton, C.O.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this Chapter are to describe climate change vulnerability, it’s components, the range of assessment methods being implemented regionally, and examples of training resources and tools. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments (CCVAs) have already been conducted for numerous Regional Species of Greatest Conservation Need and their dependent 5 habitats across the Northeast and Midwest. This chapter provides a synthesis of different assessment frameworks, information on the locations (e.g., States) where vulnerability assessments were conducted, lists of individual species and habitats with their respective vulnerability rankings, and a comparison of how vulnerability rankings were determined among studies.

  12. A multiscale investigation of habitat use and within-river distribution of sympatric sand darter species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Patricia A.; Welsh, Stuart A.; Strager, Michael P.; Rizzo, Austin A.

    2018-01-01

    The western sand darter Ammocrypta clara, and eastern sand darter Ammocrypta pellucida, are sand-dwelling fishes of conservation concern. Past research has emphasized the importance of studying individual populations of conservation concern, while recent research has revealed the importance of incorporating landscape scale processes that structure habitat mosaics and local populations. We examined habitat use and distributions of western and eastern sand darters in the lower Elk River of West Virginia. At the sandbar habitat use scale, western sand darters were detected in sandbars with greater area, higher proportions of coarse grain sand and faster bottom current velocity, while the eastern sand darter used a wider range of sandbar habitats. The landscape scale analysis revealed that contributing drainage area was an important predictor for both species, while sinuosity, which presumably represents valley type, also contributed to the western sand darter’s habitat suitability. Sandbar quality (area, grain size, and velocity) and fluvial geomorphic variables (drainage area and valley type) are likely key driving factors structuring sand darter distributions in the Elk River. This multiscale study of within-river species distribution and habitat use is unique, given that only a few sympatric populations are known of western and eastern sand darters.

  13. Historical habitat connectivity affects current genetic structure in a grassland species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzbergová, Z; Cousins, S A O; Herben, T; Plačková, I; Mildén, M; Ehrlén, J

    2013-01-01

    Many recent studies have explored the effects of present and past landscape structure on species distribution and diversity. However, we know little about the effects of past landscape structure on distribution of genetic diversity within and between populations of a single species. Here we describe the relationship between present and past landscape structure (landscape connectivity and habitat size estimated from historical maps) and current genetic structure in a perennial herb, Succisa pratensis. We used allozymes as co-dominant markers to estimate genetic diversity and deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in 31 populations distributed within a 5 km(2) agricultural landscape. The results showed that current genetic diversity of populations was related to habitat suitability, habitat age, habitat size and habitat connectivity in the past. The effects of habitat age and past connectivity on genetic diversity were in most cases also significant after taking the current landscape structure into account. Moreover, current genetic similarity between populations was affected by past connectivity after accounting for current landscape structure. In both cases, the oldest time layer (1850) was the most informative. Most populations showed heterozygote excess, indicating disequilibrium due to recent gene flow or selection against homozygotes. These results suggest that habitat age and past connectivity are important determinants of distribution of genetic diversity between populations at a scale of a few kilometres. Landscape history may significantly contribute to our understanding of distribution of current genetic structure within species and the genetic structure may be used to better understand landscape history, even at a small scale. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Linking pipefishes and seahorses to their habitat: implications for species conservation in the Venice lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Scapin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass meadows of the Venice lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy are spatially heterogeneous systems, with attributes such as degree of coverage and plant assemblages varying along multiple environmental gradients. They play a particularly relevant role in conservation of fish diversity, since they provide vital habitats for pipefish and seahorse species (family Syngnathidae. Aim of the study was to investigate the diversity of syngnathid assemblages in the Venice lagoon and link species distributions to habitat characteristics, in order to evaluate the importance of seagrass meadows of the lagoon for the conservation of these species. The analyses of this work are based on eight years of fish data collected between 2001 and 2014 in 186 shallow water sites across the entire lagoon. Water parameters, presence of macroalgae, seagrass presence and coverage, as well as meadows species composition, were considered as predictors in a modelling framework, to explain the distribution of each species. Overall, two species of seahorses and seven species of pipefishes including the Adriatic endemism Syngnathus taenionotus were found. Three species (S. abaster, S. typhle and Nerophis ophidion were the most abundant, together accounting for 98% of total individuals caught. Both seagrass presence and its coverage resulted significant predictors, with densities of S. abaster, S. typhle, N. ophidion and Hippocampus guttulatus being positively associated with higher percentages of seagrass cover. In addition, some evidences suggested a different functionality of different meadow types in supporting both S. typhle and N. ophidion. The study highlighted the role of Venice lagoon as biodiversity hotspot for syngnathids, since it supports nine out of the 10 species known in the Mediterranean (with only S. phlegon being absent. Results also suggested the importance of habitat management, which should aim at compensating for seagrass habitat loss and therefore

  15. Scaling local species-habitat relations to the larger landscape with a hierarchical spatial count model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogmartin, W.E.; Knutson, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Much of what is known about avian species-habitat relations has been derived from studies of birds at local scales. It is entirely unclear whether the relations observed at these scales translate to the larger landscape in a predictable linear fashion. We derived habitat models and mapped predicted abundances for three forest bird species of eastern North America using bird counts, environmental variables, and hierarchical models applied at three spatial scales. Our purpose was to understand habitat associations at multiple spatial scales and create predictive abundance maps for purposes of conservation planning at a landscape scale given the constraint that the variables used in this exercise were derived from local-level studies. Our models indicated a substantial influence of landscape context for all species, many of which were counter to reported associations at finer spatial extents. We found land cover composition provided the greatest contribution to the relative explained variance in counts for all three species; spatial structure was second in importance. No single spatial scale dominated any model, indicating that these species are responding to factors at multiple spatial scales. For purposes of conservation planning, areas of predicted high abundance should be investigated to evaluate the conservation potential of the landscape in their general vicinity. In addition, the models and spatial patterns of abundance among species suggest locations where conservation actions may benefit more than one species. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  16. Marine effect of introduced salmonids: Prey consumption by exotic steelhead and anadromous brown trout in the Patagonian Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancio, J.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Pascual, M.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of stable isotope analysis, we estimated the marine diet of the most abundant anadromous salmonid species in Patagonian Atlantic basins. The results were coupled with bioenergetic and population models to estimate the consumption of food by salmonids and was compared with that by seabirds, the most abundant top predators in the area. Amphipods were the main salmonid prey, followed by sprat, silversides, squid, and euphausiids. The total consumption, even assuming large anadromous salmonid populations, represented Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  17. Hard-bottom bathyal habitats and keystone epibenthic species on Le Danois Bank (Cantabrian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, F.; Rodríguez Basalo, A.; García-Alegre, A.; Gómez-Ballesteros, M.

    2017-12-01

    "El Cachucho" Marine Protected Area (MPA), which comprises Le Danois Bank and its intraslope basin, was included during 2008 in the Nature 2000 network mainly because of the presence of the habitat "1170 Reefs" according to the EU Habitat Directive. To review the effectiveness of existing management measures, several activities aimed at characterizing the most structurally complex hard-bottom habitats were planned and carried out during the ESMAREC 0514 survey. For identification of these habitats, several transects using the photogrammetric towed sled Politolana were carried out on Le Danois Bank, in the depth range between 427 and 1379 m, searching for the sea beds with higher values of slope and backscatter. Photogrammetric techniques were used for image scaling, so we could determine the surface areas of different substrata types (facies) and their species densities. A total area of 28,762 m2 was analyzed in the still images of 23 transects, verifying that 85% of the substrata of our study area are occupied by 4 different facies: Bedrock, bedrock with mixed sediments, mixed sediments with pebbles and boulders, and mixed sediments. Acoustic data and ground-truth visual data were combined to evaluate distinctive benthic scenarios. The relative abundances of the 123 epibenthic species identified by image analyses show that the most abundant are sponges (29%), cnidarians (26%), crustaceans (26%) and echinoderms (14%), i.e. mostly sessile species or those with low mobility. The keystone species of the "1170 Reefs" habitat are 3 cnidarians: Callogorgia verticillata, Paramuricea cf. placomus and Dendrophyllia cornigera, and 3 sponges, Asconema setubalense, Geodia msp.1 and Phakellia robusta. Eight new habitats (biotopes) have been identified on Le Danois Bank, six of which occur on the hard bottoms, with depth, substratum, BPI (Bathymetric Position Index) and slope as determining environmental variables that explain their spatial distributions.

  18. Dental microwear of sympatric rodent species sampled across habitats in southern Africa: Implications for environmental influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgman, Jenny H E; Leichliter, Jennifer; Avenant, Nico L; Ungar, Peter S

    2016-03-01

    Dental microwear textures have proven to be a valuable tool for reconstructing the diets of a wide assortment of fossil vertebrates. Nevertheless, some studies have recently questioned the efficacy of this approach, suggesting that aspects of habitat unrelated to food preference, especially environmental grit load, might have a confounding effect on microwear patterning that obscures the diet signal. Here we evaluate this hypothesis by examining microwear textures of 3 extant sympatric rodent species that vary in diet breadth and are found in a variety of habitat types: Mastomys coucha, Micaelamys namaquensis and Rhabdomys pumilio. We sample each of these species from 3 distinct environmental settings in southern Africa that differ in rainfall and vegetative cover: Nama-Karoo shrublands (semi-desert) and Dry Highveld grasslands in the Free State Province of South Africa, and Afromontane (wet) grasslands in the highlands of Lesotho. While differences between habitat types are evident for some of the species, inconsistency in the pattern suggests that the microwear signal is driven by variation in foods eaten rather than grit-level per se. It is clear that, at least for species and habitats sampled in the current study, environmental grit load does not swamp diet-related microwear signatures. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Biodiversity in Finnish wilderness areas: Historical and cultural constraints to preserve species and habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna-Liisa Sippola

    2002-01-01

    The present status of species and habitats in Finnish wilderness areas is largely a consequence of past administrative, use, and management traditions in northern Finland. The existing wilderness legislation sets a framework for management, but historical uses and administrative decisions have influenced many prevailing practices. In addition, management of many uses...

  20. Biomonitoring: Guide for the Use of Biological Endpoints in Monitoring Species, Habitats, and Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    et al ., 1991; Welsh and Ollivier 1998), behavior (Daly et al ., 1995; Maltby et al ., 2002 ...include changes in species diversity and community structure (Karr 1981; Bramblett and Fausch 1991; Barbour et al ., 1999; Zweig and Rabeni 2001; Martin et ...programs in aquatic habitats; these programs typically employ benthic invertebrates such as molluscs (Maltby et al ., 2002 ; Applied Biomonitoring

  1. Plant invasions in the Czech Republic: current state, introduction dynamics, invasive species and invaded habitats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pyšek, Petr; Chytrý, M.; Pergl, Jan; Sádlo, Jiří; Wild, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 3 (2012), s. 575-629 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : invasive species * invaded habitats * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.833, year: 2012

  2. Guidelines for assessing favourable conservation status of Natura 2000 species and habitat types in Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zingstra, H.L.; Kovachev, A.; Kitnaes, K.; Tzonev, R.; Dimova, D.; Tzvetkov, P.

    2009-01-01

    This executive summary describes the methodology for assessing the favourable conservation status of N2000 habitats and species on site level in Bulgaria and gives guidelines for its application. The methodology was developed in the frame of the BBI/Matra project 2006/014 “Favourable Conservation

  3. Selecting a Conservation Surrogate Species for Small Fragmented Habitats Using Ecological Niche Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Anne-Isola Nekaris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flagship species are traditionally large, charismatic animals used to rally conservation efforts. Accepted flagship definitions suggest they need only fulfil a strategic role, unlike umbrella species that are used to shelter cohabitant taxa. The criteria used to select both flagship and umbrella species may not stand up in the face of dramatic forest loss, where remaining fragments may only contain species that do not suit either set of criteria. The Cinderella species concept covers aesthetically pleasing and overlooked species that fulfil the criteria of flagships or umbrellas. Such species are also more likely to occur in fragmented habitats. We tested Cinderella criteria on mammals in the fragmented forests of the Sri Lankan Wet Zone. We selected taxa that fulfilled both strategic and ecological roles. We created a shortlist of ten species, and from a survey of local perceptions highlighted two finalists. We tested these for umbrella characteristics against the original shortlist, utilizing Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt modelling, and analysed distribution overlap using ArcGIS. The criteria highlighted Loris tardigradus tardigradus and Prionailurus viverrinus as finalists, with the former having highest flagship potential. We suggest Cinderella species can be effective conservation surrogates especially in habitats where traditional flagship species have been extirpated.

  4. Tanytarsini (Diptera: Chironomidae) from madicolous habitat in Southeast Brazil: new species and new records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivinho-Strixino, Susana; Shimabukuro, Erika Mayumi

    2017-05-23

    Tanytarsini (Diptera: Chironomidae: Chironominae) collected from madicolous habitats in Brazil are analyzed, and three new species of Tanytarsus van der Wulp are described and illustrated: T. angelae sp. n. and T. alaidae sp. n. as adult male and T. alienus sp. n. as male and female. New records of another Brazilian Tanytarsus species are also presented, and immature stages of Paratanytarsus silentii Trivinho-Strixino are described.

  5. Quantifying shark distribution patterns and species-habitat associations: implications of marine park zoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Mario; Cappo, Mike; Heupel, Michelle R; Tobin, Andrew J; Simpfendorfer, Colin A

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying shark distribution patterns and species-specific habitat associations in response to geographic and environmental drivers is critical to assessing risk of exposure to fishing, habitat degradation, and the effects of climate change. The present study examined shark distribution patterns, species-habitat associations, and marine reserve use with baited remote underwater video stations (BRUVS) along the entire Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) over a ten year period. Overall, 21 species of sharks from five families and two orders were recorded. Grey reef Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, silvertip C. albimarginatus, tiger Galeocerdo cuvier, and sliteye Loxodon macrorhinus sharks were the most abundant species (>64% of shark abundances). Multivariate regression trees showed that hard coral cover produced the primary split separating shark assemblages. Four indicator species had consistently higher abundances and contributed to explaining most of the differences in shark assemblages: C. amblyrhynchos, C. albimarginatus, G. cuvier, and whitetip reef Triaenodon obesus sharks. Relative distance along the GBRMP had the greatest influence on shark occurrence and species richness, which increased at both ends of the sampling range (southern and northern sites) relative to intermediate latitudes. Hard coral cover and distance across the shelf were also important predictors of shark distribution. The relative abundance of sharks was significantly higher in non-fished sites, highlighting the conservation value and benefits of the GBRMP zoning. However, our results also showed that hard coral cover had a large effect on the abundance of reef-associated shark species, indicating that coral reef health may be important for the success of marine protected areas. Therefore, understanding shark distribution patterns, species-habitat associations, and the drivers responsible for those patterns is essential for developing sound management and conservation approaches.

  6. Hierarchical faunal filters: An approach to assessing effects of habitat and nonnative species on native fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, M.C.; Rahel, F.J.; Hubert, W.A.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding factors related to the occurrence of species across multiple spatial and temporal scales is critical to the conservation and management of native fishes, especially for those species at the edge of their natural distribution. We used the concept of hierarchical faunal filters to provide a framework for investigating the influence of habitat characteristics and normative piscivores on the occurrence of 10 native fishes in streams of the North Platte River watershed in Wyoming. Three faunal filters were developed for each species: (i) large-scale biogeographic, (ii) local abiotic, and (iii) biotic. The large-scale biogeographic filter, composed of elevation and stream-size thresholds, was used to determine the boundaries within which each species might be expected to occur. Then, a local abiotic filter (i.e., habitat associations), developed using binary logistic-regression analysis, estimated the probability of occurrence of each species from features such as maximum depth, substrate composition, submergent aquatic vegetation, woody debris, and channel morphology (e.g., amount of pool habitat). Lastly, a biotic faunal filter was developed using binary logistic regression to estimate the probability of occurrence of each species relative to the abundance of nonnative piscivores in a reach. Conceptualising fish assemblages within a framework of hierarchical faunal filters is simple and logical, helps direct conservation and management activities, and provides important information on the ecology of fishes in the western Great Plains of North America. ?? Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004.

  7. Distribution, habitat affinities and phenology of the Micrargus herbigradus-species group (Araneae: Linyphiidae) in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewski, Konrad; Rozwałka, Robert; Wesołowska, Wanda

    2018-01-01

    We review the known information on the distribution and habitat affinities of the Micrargus herbigradus -species group in Poland. The analysis is based on a thorough literature survey, our own materials, and verification of some older collections. We give new diagnostic drawings and review the characters that are useful in identification of species within the group. Three species are present in Poland: M. herbigradus (Blackwall, 1854), M. apertus (O.-P. Cambridge, 1870) and M. georgescuae Millidge, 1976. The latter is recorded for the first time in the country, and we add numerous new localities for the two former species. Micrargus herbigradus is common and widespread in Poland, living in various habitats, with only a slight preference to forests. In contrast, M. apertus is widely distributed but rarely found, while its affinity to forests is the highest within the group. The records of this species are most numerous in lowland forests (up to c. 300 m a.s.l), but it can also be found at higher altitudes. M. georgescuae is found only in montane habitats, both in the Sudetes and the Carpathian Mountains, from above 650 m a.s.l. The adults of all three species occur the whole year round, but seem to be most abundant in May and June.

  8. Can a native rodent species limit the invasive potential of a non-native rodent species in tropical agroforest habitats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Alexander M; Prescott, Colin V; Singleton, Grant R

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about native and non-native rodent species interactions in complex tropical agroecosystems. We hypothesised that the native non-pest rodent Rattus everetti may be competitively dominant over the invasive pest rodent Rattus tanezumi within agroforests. We tested this experimentally by using pulse removal for three consecutive months to reduce populations of R. everetti in agroforest habitat, and assessed over 6 months the response of R. tanezumi and other rodent species. Following removal, R. everetti individuals rapidly immigrated into removal sites. At the end of the study period, R. tanezumi were larger and there was a significant shift in their microhabitat use with respect to the use of ground vegetation cover following the perturbation of R. everetti. Irrespective of treatment, R. tanezumi selected microhabitat with less tree canopy cover, indicative of severely disturbed habitat, whereas R. everetti selected microhabitat with a dense canopy. Our results suggest that sustained habitat disturbance in agroforests favours R. tanezumi, while the regeneration of agroforests towards a more natural state would favour native species and may reduce pest pressure in adjacent crops. In addition, the rapid recolonisation of R. everetti suggests this species would be able to recover from non-target impacts of short-term rodent pest control. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Correlated factors in amphibian decline: Exotic species and habitat change in western Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Amphibian declines may frequently be associated with multiple, correlated factors. In western North America, exotic species and hydrological changes are often correlated and are considered 2 of the greatest threats to freshwater systems. Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) introductions are frequently cited as a threat to lentic-breeding anurans native to western North America and are a suspected factor in the decline of red-legged frogs (Rana aurora) in California. Introduced fish and habitat change are cited less frequently but are equally viable hypotheses. I examined the relation among introduced species, habitat, and the distribution and abundance of red-legged frogs in western Washington. Red-legged frog occurrence in the Puget Lowlands was more closely associated with habitat structure and the presence of exotic fish than with the presence of bull-frogs. The spread of exotics is correlated with a shift toward greater permanence in wetland habitats regionally. Conservation of more ephemeral wetland habitats may have direct benefits for some native amphibians and may also reduce the threat of exotic fish and bullfrogs, both of which were associated with permanent wetlands. Research and conservation efforts for lowland anurans in the West should emphasize the complexities of multiple contributing factors to amphibian losses.

  10. Habitat predictors of genetic diversity for two sympatric wetland-breeding amphibian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Anna M; Maerz, John C; Smith, Lora L; Glenn, Travis C

    2017-08-01

    Population genetic diversity is widely accepted as important to the conservation and management of wildlife. However, habitat features may differentially affect evolutionary processes that facilitate population genetic diversity among sympatric species. We measured genetic diversity for two pond-breeding amphibian species (Dwarf salamanders, Eurycea quadridigitata ; and Southern Leopard frogs, Lithobates sphenocephalus ) to understand how habitat characteristics and spatial scale affect genetic diversity across a landscape. Samples were collected from wetlands on a longleaf pine reserve in Georgia. We genotyped microsatellite loci for both species to assess population structures and determine which habitat features were most closely associated with observed heterozygosity and rarefied allelic richness. Both species exhibited significant population genetic structure; however, structure in Southern Leopard frogs was driven primarily by one outlier site. Dwarf salamander allelic richness was greater at sites with less surrounding road area within 0.5 km and more wetland area within 1.0 and 2.5 km, and heterozygosity was greater at sites with more wetland area within 0.5 km. In contrast, neither measure of Southern Leopard frog genetic diversity was associated with any habitat features at any scale we evaluated. Genetic diversity in the Dwarf salamander was strongly associated with land cover variables up to 2.5 km away from breeding wetlands, and/or results suggest that minimizing roads in wetland buffers may be beneficial to the maintenance of population genetic diversity. This study suggests that patterns of genetic differentiation and genetic diversity have associations with different habitat features across different spatial scales for two syntopic pond-breeding amphibian species.

  11. High Resolution Habitat Suitability Modelling For Restricted-Range Hawaiian Alpine Arthropod Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N. M.

    2016-12-01

    Mapping potentially suitable habitat is critical for effective species conservation and management but can be challenging in areas exhibiting complex heterogeneity. An approach that combines non-intrusive spatial data collection techniques and field data can lead to a better understanding of landscapes and species distributions. Nysius wekiuicola, commonly known as the wēkiu bug, is the most studied arthropod species endemic to the Maunakea summit in Hawai`i, yet details about its geographic distribution and habitat use remain poorly understood. To predict the geographic distribution of N. wekiuicola, MaxEnt habitat suitability models were generated from a diverse set of input variables, including fifteen years of species occurrence data, high resolution digital elevation models, surface mineralogy maps derived from hyperspectral remote sensing, and climate data. Model results indicate that elevation (78.2 percent), and the presence of nanocrystalline hematite surface minerals (13.7 percent) had the highest influence, with lesser contributions from aspect, slope, and other surface mineral classes. Climatic variables were not included in the final analysis due to auto-correlation and coarse spatial resolution. Biotic factors relating to predation and competition also likely dictate wēkiu bug capture patterns and influence our results. The wēkiu bug range and habitat suitability models generated as a result of this study will be directly incorporated into management and restoration goals for the summit region and can also be adapted for other arthropod species present, leading to a more holistic understanding of metacommunity dynamics. Key words: Microhabitat, Structure from Motion, Lidar, MaxEnt, Habitat Suitability

  12. Species interactions can maintain resistance of subtidal algal habitats to an increasingly modified world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Falkenberg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Current trends in habitat loss have been forecast to accelerate under anticipated global change, thereby focusing conservation attention on identifying the circumstances under which key species interactions retard habitat loss. Urbanised coastlines are associated with broad-scale loss of kelp canopies and their replacement by less productive mats of algal turf, a trend predicted to accelerate under ocean acidification and warming (i.e. enhanced CO2 and temperature. Here we use kelp forests as a model system to test whether efforts to maintain key species interactions can maintain habitat integrity under forecasted conditions. First, we assessed whether increasing intensity of local human activity is associated with more extensive turf mats and sparser canopies via structured field observations. Second, we experimentally tested the hypothesis that intact canopies can resist turf expansion under enhanced CO2 and temperature in large mesocosms. In the field, there was a greater proportion of turf patches on urbanised coasts of South Australia than in agricultural and urban catchments in which there was a greater proportion of canopy-forming algae. Mesocosm experiments revealed this expansion of turfs is likely to accelerate under increases in CO2 and temperature, but may be limited by the presence of intact canopies. We note that even in the presence of canopy, increases in CO2 and temperature facilitate greater turf covers than occurs under contemporary conditions. The influence of canopy would likely be due to shading of the understorey turfs which, in turn, can modify their photosynthetic activity. These results suggest that resistance of habitat to change under human-dominated conditions may be managed via the retention of key species and their interactions. Management that directly reduces the disturbance of habitat-forming organisms (e.g. harvesting or reverses loss through restoration may, therefore, reinforce habitat resistance in an

  13. A guide to calculating habitat-quality metrics to inform conservation of highly mobile species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieri, Joanna A.; Sample, Christine; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Earl, Julia E.; Erickson, Richard A.; Federico, Paula; Flockhart, D. T. Tyler; Nicol, Sam; Semmens, Darius J.; Skraber, T.; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Mattsson, Brady J.

    2018-01-01

    Many metrics exist for quantifying the relative value of habitats and pathways used by highly mobile species. Properly selecting and applying such metrics requires substantial background in mathematics and understanding the relevant management arena. To address this multidimensional challenge, we demonstrate and compare three measurements of habitat quality: graph-, occupancy-, and demographic-based metrics. Each metric provides insights into system dynamics, at the expense of increasing amounts and complexity of data and models. Our descriptions and comparisons of diverse habitat-quality metrics provide means for practitioners to overcome the modeling challenges associated with management or conservation of such highly mobile species. Whereas previous guidance for applying habitat-quality metrics has been scattered in diversified tracks of literature, we have brought this information together into an approachable format including accessible descriptions and a modeling case study for a typical example that conservation professionals can adapt for their own decision contexts and focal populations.Considerations for Resource ManagersManagement objectives, proposed actions, data availability and quality, and model assumptions are all relevant considerations when applying and interpreting habitat-quality metrics.Graph-based metrics answer questions related to habitat centrality and connectivity, are suitable for populations with any movement pattern, quantify basic spatial and temporal patterns of occupancy and movement, and require the least data.Occupancy-based metrics answer questions about likelihood of persistence or colonization, are suitable for populations that undergo localized extinctions, quantify spatial and temporal patterns of occupancy and movement, and require a moderate amount of data.Demographic-based metrics answer questions about relative or absolute population size, are suitable for populations with any movement pattern, quantify demographic

  14. 77 FR 52754 - Draft Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan Within Eight-State Planning Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ...-FF03E00000] Draft Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan Within Eight-State Planning... our planning partners, intend to prepare the Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation... decommissioning of wind energy facilities within all or portions of the eight-State planning area. Activities...

  15. Trust Species and Habitat Branch: using the innovative approaches of today to conserve biodiversity for tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Patricia; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    Some of the biggest challenges facing wildlife today are changes to their environment from both natural and anthropogenic causes. Natural resource managers, planners, policy makers, industry and private landowners must make informed decisions and policies regarding management, conservation, and restoration of species, habitats, and ecosystem function in response to these changes. Specific needs include (1) a better understanding of population status and trends; (2) understanding of species’ habitat needs and roles in supporting ecosystem functions; (3) the ability to assess species’ responses to environmental changes and predict future responses; and (4) the development of innovative techniques and tools to better understand, minimize or prevent any unintended consequences of environmental change.

  16. Frog species richness, composition and beta-diversity in coastal Brazilian restinga habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C F D; Hatano, F H; Vrcibradic, D; Van Sluys, M

    2008-02-01

    We studied the species richness and composition of frogs in 10 restinga habitats (sand dune environments dominated by herbaceous and shrubby vegetation) along approximately 1500 km of coastal areas of three Brazilian States: Rio de Janeiro (Grumari, Maricá, Massambaba, Jurubatiba and Grussaí), Espírito Santo (Praia das Neves and Setiba) and Bahia (Prado and Trancoso). We estimated beta-diversity and similarity among areas and related these parameters to geographic distance between areas. All areas were surveyed with a similar sampling procedure. We found 28 frog species belonging to the families Hylidae, Microhylidae, Leptodactylidae and Bufonidae. Frogs in restingas were in general nocturnal with no strictly diurnal species. The richest restinga was Praia das Neves (13 species), followed by Grussaí and Trancoso (eight species in each). The commonest species in the restingas was Scinax alter (found in eight restingas), followed by Aparasphenodon brunoi (seven areas). Our data shows that richness and composition of frog communities vary consistently along the eastern Brazilian coast and, in part, the rate of species turnover is affected by the distance among areas. Geographic distance explained approximately 12% of species turnover in restingas and about 9.5% of similarity among frog assemblages. Although geographic distance somewhat affects frog assemblages, other factors (e.g. historical factors, disturbances) seem to be also involved in explaining present frog assemblage composition in each area and species turnover among areas. The frog fauna along restinga habitats was significantly nested (matrix community temperature = 26.13 degrees; p = 0.007). Our data also showed that the most hospitable restinga was Praia das Neves and indicated that this area should be protected as a conservation unit. Frog assemblage of each area seems to partially represent a nested subset of the original assemblage, although we should not ignore the importance of historical

  17. Frog species richness, composition and beta-diversity in coastal Brazilian restinga habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CFD. Rocha

    Full Text Available We studied the species richness and composition of frogs in 10 restinga habitats (sand dune environments dominated by herbaceous and shrubby vegetation along approximately 1500 km of coastal areas of three Brazilian States: Rio de Janeiro (Grumari, Maricá, Massambaba, Jurubatiba and Grussaí, Espírito Santo (Praia das Neves and Setiba and Bahia (Prado and Trancoso. We estimated beta-diversity and similarity among areas and related these parameters to geographic distance between areas. All areas were surveyed with a similar sampling procedure. We found 28 frog species belonging to the families Hylidae, Microhylidae, Leptodactylidae and Bufonidae. Frogs in restingas were in general nocturnal with no strictly diurnal species. The richest restinga was Praia das Neves (13 species, followed by Grussaí and Trancoso (eight species in each. The commonest species in the restingas was Scinax alter (found in eight restingas, followed by Aparasphenodon brunoi (seven areas. Our data shows that richness and composition of frog communities vary consistently along the eastern Brazilian coast and, in part, the rate of species turnover is affected by the distance among areas. Geographic distance explained approximately 12% of species turnover in restingas and about 9.5% of similarity among frog assemblages. Although geographic distance somewhat affects frog assemblages, other factors (e.g. historical factors, disturbances seem to be also involved in explaining present frog assemblage composition in each area and species turnover among areas. The frog fauna along restinga habitats was significantly nested (matrix community temperature = 26.13°; p = 0.007. Our data also showed that the most hospitable restinga was Praia das Neves and indicated that this area should be protected as a conservation unit. Frog assemblage of each area seems to partially represent a nested subset of the original assemblage, although we should not ignore the importance of historical

  18. Balancing urban development and endangered species: The coachella valley habitat conservation plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatley, Timothy

    1992-01-01

    Habitat conservation plans (HCPs) permitted under Section 10(A) of the federal Endangered Species Act, have been increasingly used to overcome conflicts between urban development and species conservation. This article profiles one such HCP, the Coachella Valley (CA) Fringe-Toed Lizard Habitat Conservation Plan. The second HCP officially approved by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the Coachella Valley case is frequently cited as a model for resolving conservation and development conflicts. The article begins with a discussion of the use of HCPs, and then provides a detailed discussion of Coachella Valley experience, its history, specific provisions, and success to date. A final section examines whether Coachella Valley does in fact represent a positive model. It is argued that the HCP has been less than fully successful and leaves unresolved a series of fundamental ethical and policy questions concerning the protection of endangered species.

  19. Populus species from diverse habitats maintain high night-time conductance under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirelli, Damián; Equiza, María Alejandra; Lieffers, Victor James; Tyree, Melvin Thomas

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the interspecific variability in nocturnal whole-plant stomatal conductance under well-watered and drought conditions in seedlings of four species of Populus from habitats characterized by abundant water supply (mesic and riparian) or from drier upland sites. The study was carried out to determine whether (i) nocturnal conductance varies across different species of Populus according to their natural habitat, (ii) nocturnal conductance is affected by water stress similarly to daytime conductance based on species habitat and (iii) differences in conductance among species could be explained partly by differences in stomatal traits. We measured whole-plant transpiration and conductance (G) of greenhouse-grown seedlings using an automated high-resolution gravimetric technique. No relationship was found between habitat preference and daytime G (GD), but night-time G (GN) was on average 1.5 times higher in riparian and mesic species (P. deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. and P. trichocarpa Torr. & Gray) than in those from drier environments (P. tremuloides Michx. and P. × petrowskyana Schr.). GN was not significantly reduced under drought in riparian species. Upland species restricted GN significantly in response to drought, but it was still at least one order of magnitude greater that the cuticular conductance until leaf death was imminent. Under both well-watered and drought conditions, GN declined with increasing vapour pressure deficit (D). Also, a small increase in GN towards the end of the night period was observed in P. deltoides and P. × petrowskyana, suggesting the involvement of endogenous regulation. The anatomical analyses indicated a positive correlation between G and variable stomatal pore index among species and revealed that stomata are not likely to be leaky but instead seem capable of complete occlusion, which raises the question of the possible physiological role of the significant GN observed under drought. Further comparisons among

  20. Habitats at Risk. Global Warming and Species Loss in Globally Significant Terrestrial Ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, J.R.; Liu, Canran; Miller, L.B.; Allnutt, T.; Hansen, L.

    2002-02-01

    In this study, a suite of models of global climate and vegetation change is used to investigate three important global warming-induced threats to the terrestrial Global 200 ecoregions: (1) Invasions by new habitat types (and corresponding loss of original habitat types); (2) Local changes of habitat types; (3) High rates of required species migration. Seven climate models (general circulation models or GCMs) and two vegetation models (BIOME3 and MAPSS) were used to produce 14 impact scenarios under the climate associated with a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations, which is expected to occur in less than 100 years. Previous analyses indicated that most of the variation among the impact scenarios was attributable to the particular vegetation model used, hence the authors provide results separately for the two models. The models do not provide information on biodiversity per se, but instead simulate current and future potential distributions of major vegetation types (biomes) such as tundra and broadleaf tropical rain forest

  1. Assessing species habitat using Google Street View: a case study of cliff-nesting vultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P Olea

    Full Text Available The assessment of a species' habitat is a crucial issue in ecology and conservation. While the collection of habitat data has been boosted by the availability of remote sensing technologies, certain habitat types have yet to be collected through costly, on-ground surveys, limiting study over large areas. Cliffs are ecosystems that provide habitat for a rich biodiversity, especially raptors. Because of their principally vertical structure, however, cliffs are not easy to study by remote sensing technologies, posing a challenge for many researches and managers working with cliff-related biodiversity. We explore the feasibility of Google Street View, a freely available on-line tool, to remotely identify and assess the nesting habitat of two cliff-nesting vultures (the griffon vulture and the globally endangered Egyptian vulture in northwestern Spain. Two main usefulness of Google Street View to ecologists and conservation biologists were evaluated: i remotely identifying a species' potential habitat and ii extracting fine-scale habitat information. Google Street View imagery covered 49% (1,907 km of the roads of our study area (7,000 km². The potential visibility covered by on-ground surveys was significantly greater (mean: 97.4% than that of Google Street View (48.1%. However, incorporating Google Street View to the vulture's habitat survey would save, on average, 36% in time and 49.5% in funds with respect to the on-ground survey only. The ability of Google Street View to identify cliffs (overall accuracy = 100% outperformed the classification maps derived from digital elevation models (DEMs (62-95%. Nonetheless, high-performance DEM maps may be useful to compensate Google Street View coverage limitations. Through Google Street View we could examine 66% of the vultures' nesting-cliffs existing in the study area (n = 148: 64% from griffon vultures and 65% from Egyptian vultures. It also allowed us the extraction of fine-scale features of

  2. Assessing species habitat using Google Street View: a case study of cliff-nesting vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, Pedro P; Mateo-Tomás, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of a species' habitat is a crucial issue in ecology and conservation. While the collection of habitat data has been boosted by the availability of remote sensing technologies, certain habitat types have yet to be collected through costly, on-ground surveys, limiting study over large areas. Cliffs are ecosystems that provide habitat for a rich biodiversity, especially raptors. Because of their principally vertical structure, however, cliffs are not easy to study by remote sensing technologies, posing a challenge for many researches and managers working with cliff-related biodiversity. We explore the feasibility of Google Street View, a freely available on-line tool, to remotely identify and assess the nesting habitat of two cliff-nesting vultures (the griffon vulture and the globally endangered Egyptian vulture) in northwestern Spain. Two main usefulness of Google Street View to ecologists and conservation biologists were evaluated: i) remotely identifying a species' potential habitat and ii) extracting fine-scale habitat information. Google Street View imagery covered 49% (1,907 km) of the roads of our study area (7,000 km²). The potential visibility covered by on-ground surveys was significantly greater (mean: 97.4%) than that of Google Street View (48.1%). However, incorporating Google Street View to the vulture's habitat survey would save, on average, 36% in time and 49.5% in funds with respect to the on-ground survey only. The ability of Google Street View to identify cliffs (overall accuracy = 100%) outperformed the classification maps derived from digital elevation models (DEMs) (62-95%). Nonetheless, high-performance DEM maps may be useful to compensate Google Street View coverage limitations. Through Google Street View we could examine 66% of the vultures' nesting-cliffs existing in the study area (n = 148): 64% from griffon vultures and 65% from Egyptian vultures. It also allowed us the extraction of fine-scale features of cliffs

  3. Non-target effects on songbirds from habitat manipulation for Greater Sage-Grouse: Implications for the umbrella species concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Jason D.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Smith, Kurt T.; Beck, Jeffery L.

    2018-01-01

    The “umbrella species” concept is a conservation strategy in which creating and managing reserve areas to meet the needs of one species is thought to benefit other species indirectly. Broad-scale habitat protections on behalf of an umbrella species are assumed to benefit co-occurring taxa, but targeted management actions to improve local habitat suitability for the umbrella species may produce unintended effects on other species. Our objective was to quantify the effects of a common habitat treatment (mowing of big sagebrush [Artemisia tridentata]) intended to benefit a high-profile umbrella species (Greater Sage-Grouse [Centrocercus urophasianus]) on 3 sympatric songbird species of concern. We used a before–after control-impact experimental design spanning 3 yr in Wyoming, USA, to quantify the effect of mowing on the abundance, nest-site selection, nestling condition, and nest survival of 2 sagebrush-obligate songbirds (Brewer's Sparrow [Spizella breweri] and Sage Thrasher [Oreoscoptes montanus]) and one open-habitat generalist songbird (Vesper Sparrow [Pooecetes gramineus]). Mowing was associated with lower abundance of Brewer's Sparrows and Sage Thrashers but higher abundance of Vesper Sparrows. We found no Brewer's Sparrows or Sage Thrashers nesting in the mowed footprint posttreatment, which suggests complete loss of nesting habitat for these species. Mowing was associated with higher nestling condition and nest survival for Vesper Sparrows but not for the sagebrush-obligate species. Management prescriptions that remove woody biomass within a mosaic of intact habitat may be tolerated by sagebrush-obligate songbirds but are likely more beneficial for open-habitat generalist species. By definition, umbrella species conservation entails habitat protections at broad spatial scales. We caution that habitat manipulations to benefit Greater Sage-Grouse could negatively affect nontarget species of conservation concern if implemented across large spatial extents.

  4. Explorations on Temperature, Oxygen, Nutrients and Habitat Demands of Fish Species Found in River Coruh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Akbulut

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available For the protection of our natural resources, fish species being economic and ecological richness of the natural in the basin of the Çoruh to know their request is extremely a vital important issue. In this study, temperature and oxygen demand, food and habitat of 18 fish species in six families found in river Çoruh assessed and discussed with the literature and database. Limiting the impact of water temperature on the reproductive, growth and nutrition emphasized. The fish species in the basin spawn at temperatures between 14-30°C according to database. Three species belonging to a family feed with animal food floating in the water. The species belonging to the other families more feed mixed with plant and animal foods diet in the floor or near the ground. Importance of their environmental demands has clarified for conservation and sustainable use of these fish species inhabiting in Çoruh River.

  5. The importance of incorporating functional habitats into conservation planning for highly mobile species in dynamic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Matthew H; Terauds, Aleks; Tulloch, Ayesha; Bell, Phil; Stojanovic, Dejan; Heinsohn, Robert

    2017-10-01

    The distribution of mobile species in dynamic systems can vary greatly over time and space. Estimating their population size and geographic range can be problematic and affect the accuracy of conservation assessments. Scarce data on mobile species and the resources they need can also limit the type of analytical approaches available to derive such estimates. We quantified change in availability and use of key ecological resources required for breeding for a critically endangered nomadic habitat specialist, the Swift Parrot (Lathamus discolor). We compared estimates of occupied habitat derived from dynamic presence-background (i.e., presence-only data) climatic models with estimates derived from dynamic occupancy models that included a direct measure of food availability. We then compared estimates that incorporate fine-resolution spatial data on the availability of key ecological resources (i.e., functional habitats) with more common approaches that focus on broader climatic suitability or vegetation cover (due to the absence of fine-resolution data). The occupancy models produced significantly (P increase or decrease in the area of one functional habitat (foraging or nesting) did not necessarily correspond to an increase or decrease in the other. Thus, an increase in the extent of occupied area may not equate to improved habitat quality or function. We argue these patterns are typical for mobile resource specialists but often go unnoticed because of limited data over relevant spatial and temporal scales and lack of spatial data on the availability of key resources. Understanding changes in the relative availability of functional habitats is crucial to informing conservation planning and accurately assessing extinction risk for mobile resource specialists. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. The relevance of morphology for habitat use and locomotion in two species of wall lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Verónica; Carretero, Miguel A.; Kaliontzopoulou, Antigoni

    2016-01-01

    Understanding if morphological differences between organisms that occupy different environments are associated to differences in functional performance can suggest a functional link between environmental and morphological variation. In this study we examined three components of the ecomorphological paradigm - morphology, locomotor performance and habitat use - using two syntopic wall lizards endemic to the Iberian Peninsula as a case study to establish whether morphological variation is associated with habitat use and determine the potential relevance of locomotor performance for such an association. Differences in habitat use between both lizards matched patterns of morphological variation. Indeed, individuals of Podarcis guadarramae lusitanicus, which are more flattened, used more rocky environments, whereas Podarcis bocagei, which have higher heads, used more vegetation than rocks. These patterns translated into a significant association between morphology and habitat use. Nevertheless, the two species were only differentiated in some of the functional traits quantified, and locomotor performance did not exhibit an association with morphological traits. Our results suggest that the link between morphology and habitat use is mediated by refuge use, rather than locomotor performance, in this system, and advise caution when extrapolating morphology-performance-environment associations across organisms.

  7. The roles of competition and habitat in the dynamics of populations and species distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackulic, Charles B; Reid, Janice; Nichols, James D; Hines, James E; Davis, Raymond; Forsman, Eric

    2014-02-01

    The role of competition in structuring biotic communities at fine spatial scales is well known from detailed process-based studies. Our understanding of competition's importance at broader scales is less resolved and mainly based on static species distribution maps. Here, we bridge this gap by examining the joint occupancy dynamics of an invading species (Barred Owl, Strix varia) and a resident species (Northern Spotted Owl, Strix occidentalis caurina) in a 1000-km study area over a 22-year period. Past studies of these competitors have focused on the dynamics of one species at a time, hindering efforts to parse out the roles of habitat and competition and to forecast the future of the resident species. In addition, while these studies accounted for the imperfect detection of the focal species, no multi-season analysis of these species has accounted for the imperfect detection of the secondary species, potentially biasing inference. We analyzed survey data using models that combine the general multistate-multi-season occupancy modeling framework with autologistic modeling, allowing us to account for important aspects of our study system. We found that local extinction probability increases for each species when the other is present; however, the effect of the invader on the resident is greater. Although the species prefer different habitats, these habitats are highly correlated at the patch scale, and the impacts of invader on the resident are greatest in patches that would otherwise be optimal. As a consequence, competition leads to a weaker relationship between habitat and Northern Spotted Owl occupancy. Colonization and extinction rates of the invader are closely related to neighborhood occupancy, and over the first half of the study the availability of colonists limited the rate of population growth. Competition is likely to exclude the resident species, both through its immediate effects on local extinction and by indirectly lowering colonization rates as

  8. Habitat shift in invading species: Zebra and quagga mussel population characteristics on shallow soft substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, P.A.; Garton, D.W.; Haltuch, M.A.; Kennedy, G.W.; Febo, L.R.

    2000-01-01

    Unexpected habitat innovations among invading species are illustrated by the expansion of dreissenid mussels across sedimentary environments in shallow water unlike the hard substrates where they are conventionally known. In this note, records of population characteristics of invading zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena bugensis) mussels from 1994 through 1998 are reported from shallow (less than 20 m) sedimentary habitats in western Lake Erie. Haphazard SCUBA collections of these invading species indicated that combined densities of zebra and quagga mussels ranged from 0 to 32,500 individuals per square meter between 1994 and 1998, with D. polymorpha comprising 75-100% of the assemblages. These mixed mussel populations, which were attached by byssal threads to each other and underlying sand-grain sediments, had size-frequency distributions that were typical of colonizing populations on hard substrates. Moreover, the presence of two mussel cohorts within the 1994 samples indicated that these species began expanding onto soft substrates not later than 1992, within 4 years of their initial invasion in western Lake Erie. Such historical data provide baselines for interpreting adaptive innovations, ecological interactions and habitat shifts among the two invading dreissenid mussel species in North America.

  9. Phylogenetic resolution and habitat specificity of members of the Photobacterium phosphoreum species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ast, Jennifer C; Dunlap, Paul V

    2005-10-01

    Substantial ambiguity exists regarding the phylogenetic status of facultatively psychrophilic luminous bacteria identified as Photobacterium phosphoreum, a species thought to be widely distributed in the world's oceans and believed to be the specific bioluminescent light-organ symbiont of several deep-sea fishes. Members of the P. phosphoreum species group include luminous and non-luminous strains identified phenotypically from a variety of different habitats as well as phylogenetically defined lineages that appear to be evolutionarily distinct. To resolve this ambiguity and to begin developing a meaningful knowledge of the geographic distributions, habitats and symbiotic relationships of bacteria in the P. phosphoreum species group, we carried out a multilocus, fine-scale phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of the 16S rRNA, gyrB and luxABFE genes of many newly isolated luminous strains from symbiotic and saprophytic habitats, together with previously isolated luminous and non-luminous strains identified as P. phosphoreum from these and other habitats. Parsimony analysis unambiguously resolved three evolutionarily distinct clades, phosphoreum, iliopiscarium and kishitanii. The tight phylogenetic clustering within these clades and the distinct separation between them indicates they are different species, P. phosphoreum, Photobacterium iliopiscarium and the newly recognized 'Photobacterium kishitanii'. Previously reported non-luminous strains, which had been identified phenotypically as P. phosphoreum, resolved unambiguously as P. iliopiscarium, and all examined deep-sea fishes (specimens of families Chlorophthalmidae, Macrouridae, Moridae, Trachichthyidae and Acropomatidae) were found to harbour 'P. kishitanii', not P. phosphoreum, in their light organs. This resolution revealed also that 'P. kishitanii' is cosmopolitan in its geographic distribution. Furthermore, the lack of phylogenetic variation within 'P. kishitanii' indicates that this facultatively

  10. Modelling seasonal habitat suitability for wide-ranging species: Invasive wild pigs in northern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G Froese

    Full Text Available Invasive wildlife often causes serious damage to the economy and agriculture as well as environmental, human and animal health. Habitat models can fill knowledge gaps about species distributions and assist planning to mitigate impacts. Yet, model accuracy and utility may be compromised by small study areas and limited integration of species ecology or temporal variability. Here we modelled seasonal habitat suitability for wild pigs, a widespread and harmful invader, in northern Australia. We developed a resource-based, spatially-explicit and regional-scale approach using Bayesian networks and spatial pattern suitability analysis. We integrated important ecological factors such as variability in environmental conditions, breeding requirements and home range movements. The habitat model was parameterized during a structured, iterative expert elicitation process and applied to a wet season and a dry season scenario. Model performance and uncertainty was evaluated against independent distributional data sets. Validation results showed that an expert-averaged model accurately predicted empirical wild pig presences in northern Australia for both seasonal scenarios. Model uncertainty was largely associated with different expert assumptions about wild pigs' resource-seeking home range movements. Habitat suitability varied considerably between seasons, retracting to resource-abundant rainforest, wetland and agricultural refuge areas during the dry season and expanding widely into surrounding grassland floodplains, savanna woodlands and coastal shrubs during the wet season. Overall, our model suggested that suitable wild pig habitat is less widely available in northern Australia than previously thought. Mapped results may be used to quantify impacts, assess risks, justify management investments and target control activities. Our methods are applicable to other wide-ranging species, especially in data-poor situations.

  11. Distribution and larval breeding habitats of Aedes mosquito species in residential areas of northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferede, Getachew; Tiruneh, Moges; Abate, Ebba; Kassa, Wondmeneh Jemberie; Wondimeneh, Yitayih; Damtie, Demekech; Tessema, Belay

    2018-01-01

    The Aedes mosquito is a vector for transmitting many arboviruses. Knowledge of the breeding habitat of this vector is vital for implementing appropriate interventions. Thus, this study was conducted to determine the breeding habitats and presence of Aedes mosquito species in the study areas. A house-to-house cross-sectional survey of Aedes mosquito breeding habitats was carried out in Metema and Humera, Ethiopia, in August 2017. All available water-holding containers present in and around houses were inspected for the presence of immature stages of Aedes mosquitoes, and they were collected and reared to the adult stage for species identification. In the larval survey, the house index, container index, and Breteau index were computed as risk indices. Of the 384 houses surveyed for the presence of Aedes mosquito larval breeding, 98 were found to be positive for larvae. During the survey, a total of 566 containers were inspected, of which 186 were found to be infested with Aedes mosquito larvae, with a container index of 32.9, a house index of 25.5, and a Breteau index of 48.4. The most common Aedes mosquito breeding habitats were discarded tires (57.5%), followed by mud pots (30.0%). Of the 1,077 larvae and pupae collected and reared, Aedes aegypti (49.3%), Ae. vittatus (6.5%), and Culex species (44.2%) were identified. Discarded tires were the most preferred breeding habitats for Aedes mosquitoes. Moreover, Ae. aegypti , the main vector of dengue and other arboviruses, was identified for the first time in this region, suggesting a high potential for arbovirus transmission in the study areas.

  12. The roles of competition and habitat in the dynamics of populations and species distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackulic, Charles Brandon; Reid, Janice; Nichols, James D.; Hines, James E.; Davis, Raymond; Forsman, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The role of competition in structuring biotic communities at fine spatial scales is well known from detailed process-based studies. Our understanding of competition's importance at broader scales is less resolved and mainly based on static species distribution maps. Here, we bridge this gap by examining the joint occupancy dynamics of an invading (barred owl: Strix varia) and a resident species (Northern spotted owl: Strix occidentalis caurina) in a 1000 km2 study area over a 22 - year period. Past studies of these competitors have focused on the dynamics of one species at a time, hindering efforts to parse out the roles of habitat and competition and to forecast the future of the resident species. In addition, while these studies accounted for the imperfect detection of the focal species, no multiseason analysis of these species has accounted for the imperfect detection of the secondary species, potentially biasing inference. We analyze survey data using models that combine the general multistate-multiseason occupancy modeling framework with autologistic modeling - allowing us to account for important aspects of our study system. We find that local extinction probability increases for each species when the other is present; however, the effect of the invader on the resident is greater. Although the species prefer different habitats, these habitats are highly correlated at the patch scale and the impacts of invader on the resident are greatest in patches that would otherwise be optimal. As a consequence, competition leads to a weaker relationship between habitat and Northern spotted owl occupancy. Colonization and extinction rates of the invader are closely related to neighborhood occupancy, and over the first half of the study the availability of colonists limited the rate of population growth. Competition is likely to exclude the resident species both through its immediate effects on local extinction, and by indirectly lowering colonization rates as Northern

  13. Seasonal Habitat Patterns of Japanese Common Squid (Todarodes Pacificus Inferred from Satellite-Based Species Distribution Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene D. Alabia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the spatio-temporal distributions of the species habitat in the marine environment is central to effectual resource management and conservation. Here, we examined the potential habitat distributions of Japanese common squid (Todarodes pacificus in the Sea of Japan during a four-year period. The seasonal patterns of preferential habitat were inferred from species distribution models, built using squid occurrences detected from night-time visible images and remotely-sensed environmental factors. The predicted squid habitat (i.e., areas with high habitat suitability revealed strong seasonal variability, characterized by a reduction of potential habitat, confined off of the southern part of the basin during the winter–spring period (December–May. Apparent expansion of preferential habitat occurred during summer–autumn months (June–November, concurrent with the formation of highly suitable habitat patches in certain regions of the Sea of Japan. These habitat distribution patterns were in response to changes in oceanographic conditions and synchronous with seasonal migration of squid. Moreover, the most important variables regulating the spatio-temporal patterns of suitable habitat were sea surface temperature, depth, sea surface height anomaly, and eddy kinetic energy. These variables could affect the habitat distributions through their impacts on growth and survival of squid, local nutrient transport, and the availability of favorable spawning and feeding grounds.

  14. Study of Plant Species Richness in Habitats with Different Grazing Intensities at Golestan National Park and Surrounding Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bagheri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of plant diversity and to evaluate the effect of grazing pressure on species richness and structure of plant communities, this experiment was conducted at Golestan National Park and its surrounding areas in the north east of Iran. Sampling was conducted in intact and abandoned habitats and habitats under seasonal and heavy grazing, using Modified Whitaker Plot in 1, 10,100 and 1000 m2 spatial scales. Results showed that the composition of plant species from different habitats was different. In addition the increasing intensity of grazing increased the importance of therophytes and decreased the role of hemicryptophytes and phanerophytes and also decreasd the amount of species richness. Mean species richness of studied habitat showed a significant difference in all four sampling spatial scales. The results showed that plant species richness decreased in the areas affected by heavy grazing and conservation against grazing plays an important role in maintaining species richness.

  15. Offsets and conservation of the species of the EU habitats and birds directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnery, Baptiste; Couvet, Denis; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Biodiversity offsets are intended to achieve no net loss of biodiversity due to economic and human development. A variety of biodiversity components are addressed by offset policies. It is required that loss of protected species due to development be offset under the EU Habitats and Birds Directives in Europe. We call this type of offset a species-equality offset because the offset pertains to the same species affected by the development project. Whether species equality can be achieved by offset design is unknown. We addressed this gap by reviewing derogation files (i.e., specific files that describe mitigation measures to ensure no net loss under the EU Habitats and Birds Directives) from 85 development projects in France (2009-2010). We collected information on type of effect (reversible vs. irreversible) and characteristics of affected and offset sites (i.e., types of species, total area). We analyzed how the type of effect and the affected-site characteristics influenced the occurrence of offset measures. The proportion of species targeted by offset measures (i.e., offset species) increased with the irreversibility of the effect of development and the conservation status of the species affected by development (i.e., affected species). Not all effects on endangered species (International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List) were offset; on average, 82% of affected species would be offset. Twenty-six percent of species of least concern were offset species. Thirty-five percent of development projects considered all affected species in their offset measures. Species richness was much lower in offset sites than in developed sites even after offset proposals. For developed areas where species richness was relatively high before development, species richness at offset sites was 5-10 times lower. The species-equality principle appears to have been applied only partially in offset policies, as in the EU directives. We suggest the application of this principle

  16. Multilevel landscape utilization of the Siberian flying squirrel: Scale effects on species habitat use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remm, Jaanus; Hanski, Ilpo K; Tuominen, Sakari; Selonen, Vesa

    2017-10-01

    Animals use and select habitat at multiple hierarchical levels and at different spatial scales within each level. Still, there is little knowledge on the scale effects at different spatial levels of species occupancy patterns. The objective of this study was to examine nonlinear effects and optimal-scale landscape characteristics that affect occupancy of the Siberian flying squirrel, Pteromys volans , in South- and Mid-Finland. We used presence-absence data ( n  = 10,032 plots of 9 ha) and novel approach to separate the effects on site-, landscape-, and regional-level occupancy patterns. Our main results were: landscape variables predicted the placement of population patches at least twice as well as they predicted the occupancy of particular sites; the clear optimal value of preferred habitat cover for species landscape-level abundance is a surprisingly low value (10% within a 4 km buffer); landscape metrics exert different effects on species occupancy and abundance in high versus low population density regions of our study area. We conclude that knowledge of regional variation in landscape utilization will be essential for successful conservation of the species. The results also support the view that large-scale landscape variables have high predictive power in explaining species abundance. Our study demonstrates the complex response of species occurrence at different levels of population configuration on landscape structure. The study also highlights the need for data in large spatial scale to increase the precision of biodiversity mapping and prediction of future trends.

  17. Regional species pools of vascular plants in habitats of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sádlo, Jiří; Chytrý, M.; Pyšek, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 4 (2007), s. 303-321 ISSN 0032-7786 Grant - others:ALARM(XE) GOCE-CT-2003-506675; DAISIE(XE) SSPI-CT-2003-511202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK ; R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : habitat * species pool * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.064, year: 2007

  18. Endemic palm species shed light on habitat shifts and the assembly of the Cerrado and Restinga floras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Christine D; Moraes R, Monica; Jaramillo, Carlos; Antonelli, Alexandre

    2017-05-01

    Species expansions into new habitats are often associated with physiological adaptations, for instance when rain forest lineages colonize dry habitats. Although such shifts have been documented for the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado), little is known about the biogeographic origin of species occupying an extreme South American habitat type, the coastal dunes (Restinga). We examined the formation of this poorly known, endangered habitat by reconstructing the evolutionary history of two endemic species. Due to the proposed recency and uniqueness of this habitat, we hypothesized that Restinga species of the palm genus Allagoptera to be recently evolved and to present derived morphological characters. To detect habit shifts in absolute time, we used one plastid and nine nuclear genes to reconstruct the phylogenetic and biogeographic history of Allagoptera. We used light microscopy and stable isotope analysis to explore whether morphological adaptations occurred concomitantly with habitat shifts. Phylogenetic relationships were well supported and we found ancestral lineages of Allagoptera to be widely distributed throughout habitats that are currently occupied by extant species. Over the last ca. 7Ma Allagoptera has shifted its preference to increasingly dry habitats. Coincident with the colonization of the Cerrado and Restinga, morphological adaptations also evolved, including subterranean stems that are fire-resistant and long underground stem and root systems that facilitate water access. We did not find differences in metabolic pathway or modifications to pollen morphology when compared to other palm lineages. Assuming that the evolutionary history of Allagoptera is indicative of the habitat in which it occurs, our results infer a recent origin for Cerrado species. Although little is known about the formation of the Restinga habitat, our results also suggest a longer history than currently proposed; with an origin of Restinga habitats dating back to the Late Pliocene

  19. Habitats and landscapes associated with bird species in a lowland conifer-dominated ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund J. Zlonis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human-induced effects on lowland conifer forests in hemiboreal regions are increasing because of expanded use of these northern ecosystems for raw materials, energy, and minerals as well as the potential effects of climatic changes. These forests support many breeding bird species across the Holarctic and allow the persistence of several boreal bird species in hemiboreal and even temperate regions. These bird species are of particular conservation concern as shifting patterns northward in forest composition caused by climate change will likely affect their populations. However, effective management and conservation options are limited because the specifics of these species' breeding habitats are not well understood. We modeled and mapped habitat suitability for 11 species of boreal birds that breed in the lowland conifer forests of the Agassiz Lowlands Ecological Subsection in northern Minnesota and are likely to have reduced breeding habitat in the future: Spruce Grouse (Falcipennis canadensis, Black-backed Woodpecker (Picoides arcticus, Olive-sided Flycatcher (Contopus cooperi, Yellow-bellied Flycatcher (Empidonax flaviventris, Boreal Chickadee (Poecile hudsonicus, Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa, Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula, Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus, Connecticut Warbler (Oporornis agilis, Palm Warbler (Setophaga palmarum, and Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis. Sets of 7 to 16 potential environmental covariates, including both stand-level and landscape attributes, were used to develop individual species models. Within this lowland conifer-dominated ecosystem, we found significant selection for specific forest and landscape characteristics by all but one of these species, with the best models including between one and nine variables. Habitat suitability maps were developed from these models and predictions tested with an independent dataset. Model performance depended on species, correctly predicting 56-96% of

  20. From inter-specific behavioural interactions to species distribution patterns along gradients of habitat heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiolo, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The strength of the behavioural processes associated with competitor coexistence may vary when different physical environments, and their biotic communities, come into contact, although empirical evidence of how interference varies across gradients of environmental complexity is still scarce in vertebrates. Here, I analyse how behavioural interactions and habitat selection regulate the local distribution of steppeland larks (Alaudidae) in a gradient from simple to heterogeneous agricultural landscapes in Spain, using crested lark Galerida cristata and Thekla lark G. theklae as study models. Galerida larks significantly partitioned by habitat but frequently co-occurred in heterogeneous environments. Irrespective of habitat divergence, however, the local densities of the two larks were negatively correlated, and the mechanisms beyond this pattern were investigated by means of playback experiments. When simulating the intrusion of the congener by broadcasting the species territorial calls, both larks responded with an aggressive response as intense with respect to warning and approach behaviour as when responding to the intrusion of a conspecific. However, birds promptly responded to playbacks only when congener territories were nearby, a phenomenon that points to learning as the mechanisms through which individuals finely tune their aggressive responses to the local competition levels. Heterospecifics occurred in closer proximity in diverse agro-ecosystems, possibly because of more abundant or diverse resources, and here engage in antagonistic interactions. The drop of species diversity associated with agricultural homogenisation is therefore likely to also bring about the disappearance of the behavioural repertoires associated with species interactions.

  1. Habitat Modeling of Alien Plant Species at Varying Levels of Occupancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Brown

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Distribution models of invasive plants are very useful tools for conservation management. There are challenges in modeling expanding populations, especially in a dynamic environment, and when data are limited. In this paper, predictive habitat models were assessed for three invasive plant species, at differing levels of occurrence, using two different habitat modeling techniques: logistic regression and maximum entropy. The influence of disturbance, spatial and temporal heterogeneity, and other landscape characteristics is assessed by creating regional level models based on occurrence records from the USDA Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis database. Logistic regression and maximum entropy models were assessed independently. Ensemble models were developed to combine the predictions of the two analysis approaches to obtain a more robust prediction estimate. All species had strong models with Area Under the receiver operator Curve (AUC of >0.75. The species with the highest occurrence, Ligustrum spp., had the greatest agreement between the models (93%. Lolium arundinaceum had the most disagreement between models at 33% and the lowest AUC values. Overall, the strength of integrative modeling in assessing and understanding habitat modeling was demonstrated.

  2. Warm season chloride concentrations in stream habitats of freshwater mussel species at risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, Aaron K.; Kaltenecker, M. Georgina

    2012-01-01

    Warm season (May–October) chloride concentrations were assessed in stream habitats of freshwater mussel species at risk in southern Ontario, Canada. Significant increases in concentrations were observed at 96% of 24 long-term (1975–2009) monitoring sites. Concentrations were described as a function of road density indicating an anthropogenic source of chloride. Linear regression showed that 36% of the variation of concentrations was explained by road salt use by the provincial transportation ministry. Results suggest that long-term road salt use and retention is contributing to a gradual increase in baseline chloride concentrations in at risk mussel habitats. Exposure of sensitive mussel larvae (glochidia) to increasing chloride concentrations may affect recruitment to at risk mussel populations. - Highlights: ► Warm season chloride concentrations were assessed in habitats of mussel species at risk. ► Concentrations increased significantly at 96% of 24 long-term monitoring sites. ► Concentrations increased with increases in road density and road salt use. ► Retention of road salt likely contributed to elevated warm season concentrations. ► Glochidia exposure to increasing concentrations may affect mussel reproduction. - Warm season chloride concentrations increased in southern Ontario streams with road salt use, such that reproduction of freshwater mussel species at risk may be affected.

  3. [Features of calcium crystals and calcium components in 54 plant species in salinized habitats of Tianjin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing-Jing; Ci, Hua-Cong; He, Xing-Dong; Xue, Ping-Ping; Zhao, Xue-Lai; Guo, Jian-Tan; Gao, Yu-Bao

    2012-05-01

    Plant calcium (Ca) is composed of dissociated Ca2+ and easily soluble, slightly soluble, and hard soluble combined Ca salts. The hard soluble Ca salts can often engender Ca crystals. To understand the Ca status in different growth form plants in salinized habitats, 54 plant species were sampled from the salinized habitats in Tianjin, with the Ca crystals examined by microscope and the Ca components determined by sequential fractionation procedure. More Ca crystals were found in 38 of the 54 plant species. In 37 of the 38 plant species, drusy and prismatic Ca oxalate crystals dominated, whereas the cystolith of Ca carbonate crystal only appeared in the leaves of Ficus carica of Moraceae. The statistics according to growth form suggested that deciduous arbors and shrubs had more Ca oxalate crystal, liana had lesser Ca oxalate crystal, and herbs and evergreen arbors had no Ca oxalate crystal. From arbor, shrub, liana to herb, the concentration of HCl-soluble Ca decreased gradually, while that of water soluble Ca was in adverse. The concentration of water soluble Ca in herbs was significantly higher than that in arbors and shrubs. This study showed that in salinized habitats, plant Ca crystals and Ca components differed with plant growth form, and the Ca oxalate in deciduous arbors and shrubs played an important role in withstanding salt stress.

  4. Variability of Secondary Metabolites of the Species Cichorium intybus L. from Different Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad M. Zlatić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of this paper is to show the influence of soil characteristics on the quantitative variability of secondary metabolites. Analysis of phenolic content, flavonoid concentrations, and the antioxidant activity was performed using the ethanol and ethyl acetate plant extracts of the species Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae. The samples were collected from one saline habitat and two non-saline habitats. The values of phenolic content from the samples taken from the saline habitat ranged from 119.83 to 120.83 mg GA/g and from non-saline habitats from 92.44 to 115.10 mg GA/g. The amount of flavonoids in the samples from the saline locality varied between 144.36 and 317.62 mg Ru/g and from non-saline localities between 86.03 and 273.07 mg Ru/g. The IC50 values of antioxidant activity in the samples from the saline habitat ranged from 87.64 to 117.73 μg/mL and from 101.44 to 125.76 μg/mL in the samples from non-saline habitats. The results confirmed that soil types represent a significant influence on the quantitative content of secondary metabolites. The greatest concentrations of phenols and flavonoids and the highest level of antioxidant activity were found in the samples from saline soil. This further corroborates the importance of saline soil as an ecological factor, as it is proven to give rise to increased biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and related antioxidant activity.

  5. Proximal Soil Sensing - A Contribution for Species Habitat Distribution Modelling of Earthworms in Agricultural Soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirrmann, Michael; Joschko, Monika; Gebbers, Robin; Kramer, Eckart; Zörner, Mirjam; Barkusky, Dietmar; Timmer, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Earthworms are important for maintaining soil ecosystem functioning and serve as indicators of soil fertility. However, detection of earthworms is time-consuming, which hinders the assessment of earthworm abundances with high sampling density over entire fields. Recent developments of mobile terrestrial sensor platforms for proximal soil sensing (PSS) provided new tools for collecting dense spatial information of soils using various sensing principles. Yet, the potential of PSS for assessing earthworm habitats is largely unexplored. This study investigates whether PSS data contribute to the spatial prediction of earthworm abundances in species distribution models of agricultural soils. Proximal soil sensing data, e.g., soil electrical conductivity (EC), pH, and near infrared absorbance (NIR), were collected in real-time in a field with two management strategies (reduced tillage / conventional tillage) and sandy to loam soils. PSS was related to observations from a long-term (11 years) earthworm observation study conducted at 42 plots. Earthworms were sampled from 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.2 m³ soil blocks and identified to species level. Sensor data were highly correlated with earthworm abundances observed in reduced tillage but less correlated with earthworm abundances observed in conventional tillage. This may indicate that management influences the sensor-earthworm relationship. Generalized additive models and state-space models showed that modelling based on data fusion from EC, pH, and NIR sensors produced better results than modelling without sensor data or data from just a single sensor. Regarding the individual earthworm species, particular sensor combinations were more appropriate than others due to the different habitat requirements of the earthworms. Earthworm species with soil-specific habitat preferences were spatially predicted with higher accuracy by PSS than more ubiquitous species. Our findings suggest that PSS contributes to the spatial modelling of

  6. Threatened and Endangered Species Habitat Management Plan for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathcock, Charles Dean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Keller, David Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Thompson, Brent E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-16

    Los Alamos National Laboratory’s (LANL) Threatened and Endangered Species Habitat Management Plan (HMP) fulfills a commitment made to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in the “Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility Mitigation Action Plan” (DOE 1996). The HMP received concurrence from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in 1999 (USFWS consultation numbers 2-22-98-I-336 and 2-22-95-I-108). This 2017 update retains the management guidelines from the 1999 HMP for listed species, and updates some descriptive information.

  7. Aquatic insects dealing with dehydration: do desiccation resistance traits differ in species with contrasting habitat preferences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Pallarés

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Desiccation resistance shapes the distribution of terrestrial insects at multiple spatial scales. However, responses to drying stress have been poorly studied in aquatic groups, despite their potential role in constraining their distribution and diversification, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. Methods We examined desiccation resistance in adults of four congeneric water beetle species (Enochrus, family Hydrophilidae with contrasting habitat specificity (lentic vs. lotic systems and different salinity optima from fresh- to hypersaline waters. We measured survival, recovery capacity and key traits related to desiccation resistance (fresh mass, % water content, % cuticle content and water loss rate under controlled exposure to desiccation, and explored their variability within and between species. Results Meso- and hypersaline species were more resistant to desiccation than freshwater and hyposaline ones, showing significantly lower water loss rates and higher water content. No clear patterns in desiccation resistance traits were observed between lotic and lentic species. Intraspecifically, water loss rate was positively related to specimens’ initial % water content, but not to fresh mass or % cuticle content, suggesting that the dynamic mechanism controlling water loss is mainly regulated by the amount of body water available. Discussion Our results support previous hypotheses suggesting that the evolution of desiccation resistance is associated with the colonization of saline habitats by aquatic beetles. The interespecific patterns observed in Enochrus also suggest that freshwater species may be more vulnerable than saline ones to drought intensification expected under climate change in semi-arid regions such as the Mediterranean Basin.

  8. Habitat segregation and cryptic adaptation of species of Periophthalmus (Gobioidei: Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgar, G; Zaccara, S; Babbucci, M; Fonzi, F; Antognazza, C M; Ishak, N; Sulaiman, Z; Crosa, G

    2017-05-01

    A study was conducted on the habitat distribution of four sympatric species of Periophthalmus (the silver-lined mudskipper Periophthalmus argentilineatus, the slender mudskipper Periophthalmus gracilis, the kalolo mudskipper Periophthalmus kalolo and the Malacca mudskipper Periophthalmus malaccensis) from northern Sulawesi. Molecular phylogenetic reconstructions based on one mtDNA marker (16S) were used to validate the morphological taxa, identifying five molecular clades. Periophthalmus argentilineatus includes two molecular species, which are named Periophthalmus argentilineatus clades F and K. Multivariate direct gradient analysis show that these species form three distinct ecological guilds, with the two molecular species occurring in different guilds. Periophthalmus clade F is ecologically eurytypic; Periophthalmus clade K and P. kalolo are prevalent in ecosystems isolated by strong oceanic currents and at shorter distances from the sea; P. gracilis plus P. malaccensis are prevalent in ecosystems connected by shallow coastal waters, in vegetated habitats at larger distances from the sea. This indicates for the first time that mudskipper species exhibit a range of adaptations to semiterrestrialism not only within genera, but even within morphospecies, delineating a much more complex adaptive scenario than previously assumed. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. Anthropogenic habitat disturbance and ecological divergence between incipient species of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdem, Colince; Tene Fossog, Billy; Simard, Frédéric; Etouna, Joachim; Ndo, Cyrille; Kengne, Pierre; Boussès, Philippe; Etoa, François-Xavier; Awono-Ambene, Parfait; Fontenille, Didier; Antonio-Nkondjio, Christophe; Besansky, Nora J; Costantini, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat disturbance is a prime cause in the current trend of the Earth's reduction in biodiversity. Here we show that the human footprint on the Central African rainforest, which is resulting in deforestation and growth of densely populated urban agglomerates, is associated to ecological divergence and cryptic speciation leading to adaptive radiation within the major malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. In southern Cameroon, the frequency of two molecular forms--M and S--among which reproductive isolation is strong but still incomplete, was correlated to an index of urbanisation extracted from remotely sensed data, expressed as the proportion of built-up surface in each sampling unit. The two forms markedly segregated along an urbanisation gradient forming a bimodal cline of ∼6-km width: the S form was exclusive to the rural habitat, whereas only the M form was present in the core of densely urbanised settings, co-occurring at times in the same polluted larval habitats of the southern house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus--a species association that was not historically recorded before. Our results indicate that when humans create novel habitats and ecological heterogeneities, they can provide evolutionary opportunities for rapid adaptive niche shifts associated with lineage divergence, whose consequences upon malaria transmission might be significant.

  10. Contrasts in short- and long-term responses of Mediterranean reptile species to fire and habitat structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Xavier; Badiane, Arnaud; Matos, Cátia

    2016-01-01

    Changes in habitat structure constitute a major factor explaining responses of reptiles to fire. However, few studies have examined habitat factors that covary with fire-history variables to explain reptile responses. We hypothesise that more complex habitats should support richer reptile communities, and that species-specific relative abundance should be related to particular habitat features. From spring 2012-2014, twenty-five transects were surveyed in the Albera Region (north-east Iberia). The vegetation structure was measured and the extent of habitat types in a 1000-m buffer around each transect calculated. Reptile-community metrics (species richness and reptile abundance) were related to fire history, vegetation structure, and habitat types, using generalized additive models. These metrics correlated with habitat-structure variables but not with fire history. The number of species increased with more complex habitats but decreased with pine-plantation abundance in the 1000-m buffer. We found contrasting responses among reptiles in terms of time since fire and those responses differed according to vegetation variables and habitat types. An unplanned fire in August 2012 provided the opportunity to compare reptile abundance values between pre-fire and the short term (1-2 years) after the fire. Most species exhibited a negative short-term response to the 2012 fire except Tarentola mauritanica, a gecko that inhabits large rocks, as opposed to other ground-dwelling species. In the reptiles studied, contrasting responses to time since fire are consistent with the habitat-accommodation model of succession. These differences are linked to specific microhabitat preferences and suggest that functional traits can be used to predict species-specific responses to fire.

  11. Impact of habitat degradation on species diversity and nest abundance of five African stingless bee species in a tropical rainforest of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiatoko, Nkoba; Raina, Suresh Kumar; Langevelde, Van Frank

    2017-01-01

    Natural habitat degradation often involves the reduction or disappearance of bee species. In Africa, stingless bees are hunted for honey, which is used as food, for medicinal purposes, and for traditional rituals. Severe habitat degradation due to human settlement is hypothesized to have a negative

  12. Alien Plant Species in the Agricultural Habitats of Ukraine: Diversity and Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burda Raisa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first critical review of the diversity of the Ukrainian adventive flora, which has spread in agricultural habitats in the 21st century. The author’s annotated checklist contains the data on 740 species, subspecies and hybrids from 362 genera and 79 families of non-native weeds. The floristic comparative method was used, and the information was generalised into some categories of five characteristic features: climamorphotype (life form, time and method of introduction, level of naturalisation, and distribution into 22 classes of three habitat types according to European Nature Information System (EUNIS. Two assessments of the ecological risk of alien plants were first conducted in Ukraine according to the European methods: the risk of overcoming natural migration barriers and the risk of their impact on the environment. The exposed impact of invasive alien plants on ecosystems has a convertible character; the obtained information confirms a high level of phytobiotic contamination of agricultural habitats in Ukraine. It is necessary to implement European and national documents regarding the legislative and regulative policy on invasive alien species as one of the threats to biotic diversity.

  13. Habitat-Based Density Models for Three Cetacean Species off Southern California Illustrate Pronounced Seasonal Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Becker

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Managing marine species effectively requires spatially and temporally explicit knowledge of their density and distribution. Habitat-based density models, a type of species distribution model (SDM that uses habitat covariates to estimate species density and distribution patterns, are increasingly used for marine management and conservation because they provide a tool for assessing potential impacts (e.g., from fishery bycatch, ship strikes, anthropogenic sound over a variety of spatial and temporal scales. The abundance and distribution of many pelagic species exhibit substantial seasonal variability, highlighting the importance of predicting density specific to the season of interest. This is particularly true in dynamic regions like the California Current, where significant seasonal shifts in cetacean distribution have been documented at coarse scales. Finer scale (10 km habitat-based density models were previously developed for many cetacean species occurring in this region, but most models were limited to summer/fall. The objectives of our study were two-fold: (1 develop spatially-explicit density estimates for winter/spring to support management applications, and (2 compare model-predicted density and distribution patterns to previously developed summer/fall model results in the context of species ecology. We used a well-established Generalized Additive Modeling framework to develop cetacean SDMs based on 20 California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI shipboard surveys conducted during winter and spring between 2005 and 2015. Models were fit for short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis delphis, Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli, and humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae. Model performance was evaluated based on a variety of established metrics, including the percentage of explained deviance, ratios of observed to predicted density, and visual inspection of predicted and observed distributions. Final models were

  14. Integrating climate change into habitat conservation plans under the U.S. endangered species act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernazzani, Paola; Bradley, Bethany A; Opperman, Jeffrey J

    2012-06-01

    Habitat Conservation Plans (HCPs) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) are an important mechanism for the acquisition of land and the management of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. HCPs have become a vital means of protecting endangered and threatened species and their habitats throughout the United States, particularly on private land. The scientific consensus that climate is changing and that these changes will impact the viability of species has not been incorporated into the conservation strategies of recent HCPs, rendering plans vulnerable biologically. In this paper we review the regulatory context for incorporating climate change into HCPs and analyze the extent to which climate change is linked to management actions in a subset of large HCPs. We conclude that most current plans do not incorporate climate change into conservation actions, and so we provide recommendations for integrating climate change into the process of HCP development and implementation. These recommendations are distilled from the published literature as well as the practice of conservation planning and are structured to the specific needs of HCP development and implementation. We offer nine recommendations for integrating climate change into the HCP process: (1) identify species at-risk from climate change, (2) explore new strategies for reserve design, (3) increase emphasis on corridors, linkages, and connectivity, (4) develop anticipatory adaptation measures, (5) manage for diversity, (6) consider assisted migration, (7) include climate change in scenarios of water management, (8) develop future-oriented management actions, and (9) increase linkages between the conservation strategy and adaptive management/monitoring programs.

  15. Spiny dogfish data - Movement and habitat use patterns of top predators and keystone species in the benthic food web

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We have been using and continue to use acoustic telemetry methods to monitor the movement behavior and define habitat use of groundfish species in and out of Puget...

  16. Rockfish data - Movement and habitat use patterns of top predators and keystone species in the benthic food web

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We have been using and continue to use acoustic telemetry methods to monitor the movement behavior and define habitat use of groundfish species in and out of Puget...

  17. Lingcod data - Movement and habitat use patterns of top predators and keystone species in the benthic food web

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We have been using and continue to use acoustic telemetry methods to monitor the movement behavior and define habitat use of groundfish species in and out of Puget...

  18. Sevengill shark data - Movement and habitat use patterns of top predators and keystone species in the benthic food web

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We have been using and continue to use acoustic telemetry methods to monitor the movement behavior and define habitat use of groundfish species in and out of Puget...

  19. Ratfish data - Movement and habitat use patterns of top predators and keystone species in the benthic food web

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We have been using and continue to use acoustic telemetry methods to monitor the movement behavior and define habitat use of groundfish species in and out of Puget...

  20. Sixgill Shark Data - Movement and habitat use patterns of top predators and keystone species in the benthic food web

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We have been using and continue to use acoustic telemetry methods to monitor the movement behavior and define habitat use of groundfish species in and out of Puget...

  1. Cirripede Cypris Antennules: How Much Structural Variation Exists Among Balanomorphan Species from Hard-Bottom Habitats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Benny K K; Sari, Alireza; Høeg, Jens T

    2017-10-01

    Barnacle cypris antennules are important for substratum attachment during settlement and on through metamorphosis from the larval stage to sessile adult. Studies on the morphology of cirripede cyprids are mostly qualitative, based on descriptions from images obtained using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). To our knowledge, our study is the first to use scanning electron microscopy to quantify overall structural diversity in cypris antennules by measuring 26 morphological parameters, including the structure of sensory organs. We analyzed cyprids from seven species of balanomorphan barnacles inhabiting rocky shore communities; for comparison, we also included a sponge-inhabiting balanomorphan and a verrucomorphan species. Multivariate analysis of the structural parameters resulted in two distinct clusters of species. From nonmetric multidimensional scaling plots, the sponge-inhabiting Balanus spongicola and Verruca stroemia formed one cluster, while the other balanomorphan species, all from hard bottoms, grouped together in the other cluster. The shape of the attachment disk on segment 3 is the key parameter responsible for the separation into two clusters. The present results show that species from a coastal hard-bottom habitat may share a nearly identical antennular structure that is distinct from barnacles from other habitats, and this finding supports the fact that such species also have rather similar reactions to substratum cues during settlement. Any differences that may be found in settlement biology among such species must therefore be due either to differences in the properties of their adhesive mechanisms or to the way that sensory stimuli are detected by virtually identical setae and processed into settlement behavior by the cyprid.

  2. Arbovirus circulation, temporal distribution, and abundance of mosquito species in two Carolina bay habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, D I; Wozniak, A; Tolson, M W; Turner, P E

    2005-01-01

    Carolina bays, a type of geomorphic feature, may be important in the ecology of mosquito vectors in South Carolina. Their hydrology varies from wetland habitats with marked flooding/drying regimes to permanently flooded spring-fed lakes. Moreover, they possess characteristics that contribute to the support of a particularly abundant and diverse invertebrate fauna. Although it has been estimated that 2,700+ bays exist in South Carolina, approximately 97% have been altered; Heritage Preserve (SBHP) and Woods Bay State Park (WBSP), from June 1997 to July 1998 to determine mosquito temporal distribution, species composition, and the occurrence of arbovirus activity. The largest mosquito collection was obtained at WBSP (n = 31,172) representing 25 species followed by SBHP (n = 3,940) with 24 species. Anopheles crucians complex were the most common species encountered in both bays. Two virus isolates were obtained from SBHP in 1997: Keystone (KEY) virus from Ochlerotatus atlanticus-tormentor and Cache Valley (CV) virus from Oc. canadensis canadensis. Twenty-nine (29) arbovirus-positive pools were obtained from WBSP: 28 in 1997 and one in 1998. KEY virus was isolated from three pools of Oc. atlanticus-tormentor and Tensaw (TEN) virus was isolated from two pools of An. crucians complex; 10 isolates could not be identified with the sera available. Additionally, 14 pools of An. crucians complex tested positive for Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus antigen. These represent the first record of KEY and CV viruses in South Carolina. Our data indicate the presence of high mosquito density and diversity in both Carolina bay habitats, which may be influenced, in part, by seasonal changes in their hydroperiods. The study of mosquito and arbovirus ecology in Carolina Bay habitats could provide more information on the transmission dynamics of arboviruses and its impact on human and animal arboviral disease occurrence in South Carolina.

  3. Rapid response of a marine mammal species to holocene climate and habitat change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark de Bruyn

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental change drives demographic and evolutionary processes that determine diversity within and among species. Tracking these processes during periods of change reveals mechanisms for the establishment of populations and provides predictive data on response to potential future impacts, including those caused by anthropogenic climate change. Here we show how a highly mobile marine species responded to the gain and loss of new breeding habitat. Southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, remains were found along the Victoria Land Coast (VLC in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, 2,500 km from the nearest extant breeding site on Macquarie Island (MQ. This habitat was released after retreat of the grounded ice sheet in the Ross Sea Embayment 7,500-8,000 cal YBP, and is within the range of modern foraging excursions from the MQ colony. Using ancient mtDNA and coalescent models, we tracked the population dynamics of the now extinct VLC colony and the connectivity between this and extant breeding sites. We found a clear expansion signal in the VLC population approximately 8,000 YBP, followed by directional migration away from VLC and the loss of diversity at approximately 1,000 YBP, when sea ice is thought to have expanded. Our data suggest that VLC seals came initially from MQ and that some returned there once the VLC habitat was lost, approximately 7,000 years later. We track the founder-extinction dynamics of a population from inception to extinction in the context of Holocene climate change and present evidence that an unexpectedly diverse, differentiated breeding population was founded from a distant source population soon after habitat became available.

  4. Rapid response of a marine mammal species to holocene climate and habitat change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruyn, Mark; Hall, Brenda L; Chauke, Lucas F; Baroni, Carlo; Koch, Paul L; Hoelzel, A Rus

    2009-07-01

    Environmental change drives demographic and evolutionary processes that determine diversity within and among species. Tracking these processes during periods of change reveals mechanisms for the establishment of populations and provides predictive data on response to potential future impacts, including those caused by anthropogenic climate change. Here we show how a highly mobile marine species responded to the gain and loss of new breeding habitat. Southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, remains were found along the Victoria Land Coast (VLC) in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, 2,500 km from the nearest extant breeding site on Macquarie Island (MQ). This habitat was released after retreat of the grounded ice sheet in the Ross Sea Embayment 7,500-8,000 cal YBP, and is within the range of modern foraging excursions from the MQ colony. Using ancient mtDNA and coalescent models, we tracked the population dynamics of the now extinct VLC colony and the connectivity between this and extant breeding sites. We found a clear expansion signal in the VLC population approximately 8,000 YBP, followed by directional migration away from VLC and the loss of diversity at approximately 1,000 YBP, when sea ice is thought to have expanded. Our data suggest that VLC seals came initially from MQ and that some returned there once the VLC habitat was lost, approximately 7,000 years later. We track the founder-extinction dynamics of a population from inception to extinction in the context of Holocene climate change and present evidence that an unexpectedly diverse, differentiated breeding population was founded from a distant source population soon after habitat became available.

  5. Species- and sex-specific connectivity effects of habitat fragmentation in a suite of woodland birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Nevil; Harrisson, Katherine A; Radford, James Q; White, Matt; Newell, Graeme; Mac Nally, Ralph; Sunnucks, Paul; Pavlova, Alexandra

    2014-06-01

    Loss of functional connectivity following habitat loss and fragmentation could drive species declines. A comprehensive understanding of fragmentation effects on functional connectivity of an ecological assemblage requires investigation of multiple species with different mobilities, at different spatial scales, for each sex, and in different landscapes. Based on published data on mobility and ecological responses to fragmentation of 10 woodland-dependent birds, and using simulation studies, we predicted that (1) fragmentation would impede dispersal and gene flow of eight "decliners" (species that disappear from suitable patches when landscape-level tree cover falls below species-specific thresholds), but not of two "tolerant" species (whose occurrence in suitable habitat patches is independent of landscape tree cover); and that fragmentation effects would be stronger (2) in the least mobile species, (3) in the more philopatric sex, and (4) in the more fragmented region. We tested these predictions by evaluating spatially explicit isolation-by-landscape-resistance models of gene flow in fragmented landscapes across a 50 x 170 km study area in central Victoria, Australia, using individual and population genetic distances. To account for sex-biased dispersal and potential scale- and configuration-specific effects, we fitted models specific to sex and geographic zones. As predicted, four of the least mobile decliners showed evidence of reduced genetic connectivity. The responses were strongly sex specific, but in opposite directions in the two most sedentary species. Both tolerant species and (unexpectedly) four of the more mobile decliners showed no reduction in gene flow. This is unlikely to be due to time lags because more mobile species develop genetic signatures of fragmentation faster than do less mobile ones. Weaker genetic effects were observed in the geographic zone with more aggregated vegetation, consistent with gene flow being unimpeded by landscape

  6. Assessing landscape constraints on species abundance: Does the neighborhood limit species response to local habitat conservation programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Christopher F.; Powell, Larkin A.; Lusk, Jeffrey J.; Bishop, Andrew A.; Fontaine, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Landscapes in agricultural systems continue to undergo significant change, and the loss of biodiversity is an ever-increasing threat. Although habitat restoration is beneficial, management actions do not always result in the desired outcome. Managers must understand why management actions fail; yet, past studies have focused on assessing habitat attributes at a single spatial scale, and often fail to consider the importance of ecological mechanisms that act across spatial scales. We located survey sites across southern Nebraska, USA and conducted point counts to estimate Ring-necked Pheasant abundance, an economically important species to the region, while simultaneously quantifying landscape effects using a geographic information system. To identify suitable areas for allocating limited management resources, we assessed land cover relationships to our counts using a Bayesian binomial-Poisson hierarchical model to construct predictive Species Distribution Models of relative abundance. Our results indicated that landscape scale land cover variables severely constrained or, alternatively, facilitated the positive effects of local land management for Ring-necked Pheasants.

  7. Sintopy of two Tropidurus lizard species (Squamata: Tropiduridae) in a rocky Cerrado habitat in central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, R G; Araujo, A F B

    2004-11-01

    We studied the ecology of Tropidurus itambere and T. oreadicus that occur syntopically in rocky habitats of Cerrado vegetation in central Brazil during the dry season (April to September 2000). The two species are ecologically similar, but somewhat differentiated in vertical microhabitat use. The two species preferred rocky surface microhabitat. Both species demonstrated a unimodal activity pattern, with a peak between 10 and 15 h. Their diets were similar in composition and prey size. The most frequent item used by both species was ants, whereas the most important preys volumetrically were termites and ants. Small morphological differences observed between the two Tropidurus species could explain minor microhabitat divergence: T. itambere is slightly smaller, heavier, and more robust, and uses lower perches. T. oreadicus is larger, lankier, with longer extremities (tail, fore- and hindlegs), and uses a larger vertical microhabitat range. These ecological differences are slight, when compared with those observed between sympatric species of Tropidurus in spatially more heterogeneous landscapes. Considering the slight ecomorphological divergence between the two Tropidurus species and their high abundance in outcrops, we suggest that interspecific territoriality is the mechanism of coexistence.

  8. The adaptive value of habitat preferences from a multi-scale spatial perspective: insights from marsh-nesting avian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Jedlikowski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Habitat selection and its adaptive outcomes are crucial features for animal life-history strategies. Nevertheless, congruence between habitat preferences and breeding success has been rarely demonstrated, which may result from the single-scale evaluation of animal choices. As habitat selection is a complex multi-scale process in many groups of animal species, investigating adaptiveness of habitat selection in a multi-scale framework is crucial. In this study, we explore whether habitat preferences acting at different spatial scales enhance the fitness of bird species, and check the appropriateness of single vs. multi-scale models. We expected that variables found to be more important for habitat selection at individual scale(s, would coherently play a major role in affecting nest survival at the same scale(s. Methods We considered habitat preferences of two Rallidae species, little crake (Zapornia parva and water rail (Rallus aquaticus, at three spatial scales (landscape, territory, and nest-site and related them to nest survival. Single-scale versus multi-scale models (GLS and glmmPQL were compared to check which model better described adaptiveness of habitat preferences. Consistency between the effect of variables on habitat selection and on nest survival was checked to investigate their adaptive value. Results In both species, multi-scale models for nest survival were more supported than single-scale ones. In little crake, the multi-scale model indicated vegetation density and water depth at the territory scale, as well as vegetation height at nest-site scale, as the most important variables. The first two variables were among the most important for nest survival and habitat selection, and the coherent effects suggested the adaptive value of habitat preferences. In water rail, the multi-scale model of nest survival showed vegetation density at territory scale and extent of emergent vegetation within landscape scale as the most

  9. Transferability of species distribution models: a functional habitat approach for two regionally threatened butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanreusel, Wouter; Maes, Dirk; Van Dyck, Hans

    2007-02-01

    Numerous models for predicting species distribution have been developed for conservation purposes. Most of them make use of environmental data (e.g., climate, topography, land use) at a coarse grid resolution (often kilometres). Such approaches are useful for conservation policy issues including reserve-network selection. The efficiency of predictive models for species distribution is usually tested on the area for which they were developed. Although highly interesting from the point of view of conservation efficiency, transferability of such models to independent areas is still under debate. We tested the transferability of habitat-based predictive distribution models for two regionally threatened butterflies, the green hairstreak (Callophrys rubi) and the grayling (Hipparchia semele), within and among three nature reserves in northeastern Belgium. We built predictive models based on spatially detailed maps of area-wide distribution and density of ecological resources. We used resources directly related to ecological functions (host plants, nectar sources, shelter, microclimate) rather than environmental surrogate variables. We obtained models that performed well with few resource variables. All models were transferable--although to different degrees--among the independent areas within the same broad geographical region. We argue that habitat models based on essential functional resources could transfer better in space than models that use indirect environmental variables. Because functional variables can easily be interpreted and even be directly affected by terrain managers, these models can be useful tools to guide species-adapted reserve management.

  10. Population assessment of Acropora palmata (Scleractinia: Acroporidae: relationship between habitat and reef associated species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Martínez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Three decades ago, Acropora palmata was one of the main reef-building coral species throughout the Caribbean, forming an essential component of the structural complexity of shallow coral reef habitats. These colonies still provide microhabitats for settlement, food and shelter to many vertebrates and invertebrates. The recent decline of A. palmata has been followed by a significant loss in spatial heterogeneity and possibly in species diversity. Studies addressing whether dead and living stands of Acropora hold different fish and benthic assemblages are scarce. The status of Acropora colonies and their associated species were assessed in October 2012, at two reef zones of Cayo Sombrero, Venezuela. Visual censuses of fish abundance and the number of macrofaunal individuals were recorded for both live and dead zones. Living Acropora colonies had the lowest abundance (˂31%. In both zoned the fish community was dominated by damselfishes (˂53% and wrasses (˂36%, the benthic macrofauna by peracarid crustaceans (˂40% and polychaetes (˂38%. Fish and benthic communities were not correlated with the condition (live or dead of the Acropora habitats; possibly branching structures provide the necessary shelter and protection no matter if they are dead or alive. More replication is necessary to test this unexpected result.

  11. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection patterns among Panamanian amphibian species, habitats and elevations during epizootic and enzootic stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Forrest M R; Lips, Karen R

    2008-09-24

    The pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has caused declines of many amphibian populations, yet the full course of the epizootic has rarely been observed in wild populations. We determined effects of elevation, habitat, and aquatic index (AI) on prevalence of infection among Panamanian amphibians sampled along 2 elevational transects. Amphibian populations on the Santa Fé transect (SFT) had declined in 2002, while those on the El Copé transect (ECT) were healthy until September 2004. In 2004 we sampled Bd along both transects, surveying the SFT 2 yr after decline, and surveying the ECT 4 mo prior to the arrival of Bd, during the epizootic, and 2 mo later. Overall prevalence of Bd along the ECT increased from 0.0 (95% CI 0.00-0.0003) to 0.51 (95% CI 0.48-0.55) over a 3 mo period, accompanied by significant decreases in amphibian abundance and species richness in all habitats. Prevalence of infection on the ECT was highest along riparian transects and at higher elevations, but not among levels of AI. Prevalence of infection on the SFT was highest in pool transects, and at higher elevations, but not among levels of AI. Riparian amphibian abundance and species richness also declined at SFT following detection of Bd in 2002. Variation among species, microenvironmental conditions, and the length of coexistence with Bd may contribute to observed differences in prevalence of Bd and in population response.

  12. Parallel habitat acclimatization is realized by the expression of different genes in two closely related salamander species (genus Salamandra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedbloed, D J; Czypionka, T; Altmüller, J; Rodriguez, A; Küpfer, E; Segev, O; Blaustein, L; Templeton, A R; Nolte, A W; Steinfartz, S

    2017-12-01

    The utilization of similar habitats by different species provides an ideal opportunity to identify genes underlying adaptation and acclimatization. Here, we analysed the gene expression of two closely related salamander species: Salamandra salamandra in Central Europe and Salamandra infraimmaculata in the Near East. These species inhabit similar habitat types: 'temporary ponds' and 'permanent streams' during larval development. We developed two species-specific gene expression microarrays, each targeting over 12 000 transcripts, including an overlapping subset of 8331 orthologues. Gene expression was examined for systematic differences between temporary ponds and permanent streams in larvae from both salamander species to establish gene sets and functions associated with these two habitat types. Only 20 orthologues were associated with a habitat in both species, but these orthologues did not show parallel expression patterns across species more than expected by chance. Functional annotation of a set of 106 genes with the highest effect size for a habitat suggested four putative gene function categories associated with a habitat in both species: cell proliferation, neural development, oxygen responses and muscle capacity. Among these high effect size genes was a single orthologue (14-3-3 protein zeta/YWHAZ) that was downregulated in temporary ponds in both species. The emergence of four gene function categories combined with a lack of parallel expression of orthologues (except 14-3-3 protein zeta) suggests that parallel habitat adaptation or acclimatization by larvae from S. salamandra and S. infraimmaculata to temporary ponds and permanent streams is mainly realized by different genes with a converging functionality.

  13. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume I, Oregon, Supplement C, White River Habitat Inventory, 1983 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, David

    1984-04-01

    More than 130 miles of stream fish habitat was inventoried and evaluated on the Mt. Hood National Forest during the first year of this multi-year project. First year tasks included field inventory and evaluation of habitat conditions on the White River and tributary streams thought to have the highest potential for supporting anadromous fish populations. All streams inventoried were located on the Mt. Hood National Forest. The surveyed area appears to contain most of the high quality anadromous fish habitat in the drainage. Habitat conditions appear suitable for steelhead, coho, and chinook salmon, and possibly sockeye. One hundred and twenty-four miles of potential anadromous fish habitat were identifed in the survey. Currently, 32 miles of this habitat would be readily accessible to anadromous fish. An additional 72 miles of habitat could be accessed with only minor passage improvement work. About 20 miles of habitat, however, will require major investment to provide fish passage. Three large lakes (Boulder, 14 acres; Badger, 45 acres; Clear, 550 acres) appear to be well-suited for rearing anadromous fish, although passage enhancement would be needed before self-sustaining runs could be established in any of the lakes.

  14. Plant species dispersed by Galapagos tortoises surf the wave of habitat suitability under anthropogenic climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis-Soto, Diego; Blake, Stephen; Soultan, Alaaeldin; Guézou, Anne; Cabrera, Fredy; Lötters, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Native biodiversity on the Galapagos Archipelago is severely threatened by invasive alien species. On Santa Cruz Island, the abundance of introduced plant species is low in the arid lowlands of the Galapagos National Park, but increases with elevation into unprotected humid highlands. Two common alien plant species, guava (Psidium guajava) and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) occur at higher elevations yet their seeds are dispersed into the lowlands by migrating Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.). Tortoises transport large quantities of seeds over long distances into environments in which they have little or no chance of germination and survival under current climate conditions. However, climate change is projected to modify environmental conditions on Galapagos with unknown consequences for the distribution of native and introduced biodiversity. We quantified seed dispersal of guava and passion fruit in tortoise dung piles and the distribution of adult plants along two elevation gradients on Santa Cruz to assess current levels of 'wasted' seed dispersal. We computed species distribution models for both taxa under current and predicted future climate conditions. Assuming that tortoise migratory behaviour continues, current levels of "wasted" seed dispersal in lowlands were projected to decline dramatically in the future for guava but not for passion fruit. Tortoises will facilitate rapid range expansion for guava into lowland areas within the Galapagos National Park where this species is currently absent. Coupled with putative reduction in arid habitat for native species caused by climate change, tortoise driven guava invasion will pose a serious threat to local plant communities.

  15. Plant species dispersed by Galapagos tortoises surf the wave of habitat suitability under anthropogenic climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Ellis-Soto

    Full Text Available Native biodiversity on the Galapagos Archipelago is severely threatened by invasive alien species. On Santa Cruz Island, the abundance of introduced plant species is low in the arid lowlands of the Galapagos National Park, but increases with elevation into unprotected humid highlands. Two common alien plant species, guava (Psidium guajava and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis occur at higher elevations yet their seeds are dispersed into the lowlands by migrating Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.. Tortoises transport large quantities of seeds over long distances into environments in which they have little or no chance of germination and survival under current climate conditions. However, climate change is projected to modify environmental conditions on Galapagos with unknown consequences for the distribution of native and introduced biodiversity. We quantified seed dispersal of guava and passion fruit in tortoise dung piles and the distribution of adult plants along two elevation gradients on Santa Cruz to assess current levels of 'wasted' seed dispersal. We computed species distribution models for both taxa under current and predicted future climate conditions. Assuming that tortoise migratory behaviour continues, current levels of "wasted" seed dispersal in lowlands were projected to decline dramatically in the future for guava but not for passion fruit. Tortoises will facilitate rapid range expansion for guava into lowland areas within the Galapagos National Park where this species is currently absent. Coupled with putative reduction in arid habitat for native species caused by climate change, tortoise driven guava invasion will pose a serious threat to local plant communities.

  16. Impacts of Bush Encroachment on Wildlife Species Diversity, Composition, and Habitat Preference in Ol Pejeta Conservancy, Laikipia, Kenya

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    Cyrus M. Kavwele

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Savannah ecosystems are currently facing a biome shift that changes grasslands to woody dominated landscapes, attributable to habitat degradation. In Ol Pejeta Conservancy (OPC, Euclea divinorum, an unpalatable and invasive woody species, is expanding to former savannah ecosystems with potential effects on herbivores key resources, wildlife species diversity, composition, and habitat use. We investigated wildlife species diversity, composition, and habitat preference or avoidance by wildlife in the conservancy. Infrared camera traps were deployed at the centroids of 2 km by 2 km, 50 cm above ground surface for 14 days and nights with 9 camera traps in each habitat type. Shannon wiener index revealed that wildlife species diversity was highest in E. divinorum dominated habitats and lowest in open grassland. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis revealed level of similarity in wildlife species composition between E. divinorum and mixed bushland. Jacobs index revealed that E. divinorum and mixed bushland were avoided by all guilds; however E. divinorum was significantly avoided while A. drepanolobium and open grassland were both preferred by all guilds. However, A. drepanolobium dominated habitats were significantly preferred compared to open grasslands. The findings are useful in management of sustainable ecosystems.

  17. Proximal Soil Sensing - A Contribution for Species Habitat Distribution Modelling of Earthworms in Agricultural Soils?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schirrmann

    Full Text Available Earthworms are important for maintaining soil ecosystem functioning and serve as indicators of soil fertility. However, detection of earthworms is time-consuming, which hinders the assessment of earthworm abundances with high sampling density over entire fields. Recent developments of mobile terrestrial sensor platforms for proximal soil sensing (PSS provided new tools for collecting dense spatial information of soils using various sensing principles. Yet, the potential of PSS for assessing earthworm habitats is largely unexplored. This study investigates whether PSS data contribute to the spatial prediction of earthworm abundances in species distribution models of agricultural soils.Proximal soil sensing data, e.g., soil electrical conductivity (EC, pH, and near infrared absorbance (NIR, were collected in real-time in a field with two management strategies (reduced tillage / conventional tillage and sandy to loam soils. PSS was related to observations from a long-term (11 years earthworm observation study conducted at 42 plots. Earthworms were sampled from 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.2 m³ soil blocks and identified to species level. Sensor data were highly correlated with earthworm abundances observed in reduced tillage but less correlated with earthworm abundances observed in conventional tillage. This may indicate that management influences the sensor-earthworm relationship. Generalized additive models and state-space models showed that modelling based on data fusion from EC, pH, and NIR sensors produced better results than modelling without sensor data or data from just a single sensor. Regarding the individual earthworm species, particular sensor combinations were more appropriate than others due to the different habitat requirements of the earthworms. Earthworm species with soil-specific habitat preferences were spatially predicted with higher accuracy by PSS than more ubiquitous species.Our findings suggest that PSS contributes to the spatial

  18. Evaluating effects of habitat loss and land-use continuity on ant species richness in seminatural grassland remnants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauber, Jens; Bengtsson, Jan; Lenoir, Lisette

    2006-08-01

    Seminatural grasslands in Europe are susceptible to habitat destruction and fragmentation that result in negative effects on biodiversity because of increased isolation and area effects on extinction rate. However even small habitatpatches of seminatural grasslands might be of value for conservation and restoration of species richness in a landscape with a long history of management, which has been argued to lead to high species richness. We tested whether ant communities have been negatively affected by habitat loss and increased isolation of seminatural grasslands during the twentieth century. We examined species richness and community composition in seminatural grasslands of different size in a mosaic landscape in Central Sweden. Grasslands managed continuously over centuries harbored species-rich and ecologically diverse ant communities. Grassland remnant size had no effect on ant species richness. Small grassland remnants did not harbor a nested subset of the ant species of larger habitats. Community composition of ants was mainly affected by habitat conditions. Our results suggest that the abandonment of traditional land use and the encroachment of trees, rather than the effects of fragmentation, are important for species composition in seminatural grasslands. Our results highlight the importance of considering land-use continuity and dispersal ability of thefocal organisms when examining the effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on biodiversity. Landscape history should be considered in conservation programs focusing on effects of land-use change.

  19. Flat and complex temperate reefs provide similar support for fish: Evidence for a unimodal species-habitat relationship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery B Paxton

    Full Text Available Structural complexity, a form of habitat heterogeneity, influences the structure and function of ecological communities, generally supporting increased species density, richness, and diversity. Recent research, however, suggests the most complex habitats may not harbor the highest density of individuals and number of species, especially in areas with elevated human influence. Understanding nuances in relationships between habitat heterogeneity and ecological communities is warranted to guide habitat-focused conservation and management efforts. We conducted fish and structural habitat surveys of thirty warm-temperate reefs on the southeastern US continental shelf to quantify how structural complexity influences fish communities. We found that intermediate complexity maximizes fish abundance on natural and artificial reefs, as well as species richness on natural reefs, challenging the current paradigm that abundance and other fish community metrics increase with increasing complexity. Naturally occurring rocky reefs of flat and complex morphologies supported equivalent abundance, biomass, species richness, and community composition of fishes. For flat and complex morphologies of rocky reefs to receive equal consideration as essential fish habitat (EFH, special attention should be given to detecting pavement type rocky reefs because their ephemeral nature makes them difficult to detect with typical seafloor mapping methods. Artificial reefs of intermediate complexity also maximized fish abundance, but human-made structures composed of low-lying concrete and metal ships differed in community types, with less complex, concrete structures supporting lower numbers of fishes classified largely as demersal species and metal ships protruding into the water column harboring higher numbers of fishes, including more pelagic species. Results of this study are essential to the process of evaluating habitat function provided by different types and shapes of

  20. Regional habitat needs of a nationally listed species, Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis, in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Ball

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding factors that affect the distribution and abundance of species is critical to developing effective management plans for conservation. Our goal was to quantify the distribution and abundance of Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis, a threatened old-forest associate in Alberta, Canada. The Canada Warbler has declined across its range, including in Alberta where habitat loss and alteration from urban expansion, forestry, and energy development are changing the forest landscape. We used 110,427 point count survey visits from 32,287 unique survey stations to model local-level (150-m radius circular buffers and stand-level (564-m radius circular buffers habitat associations of the Canada Warbler. We found that habitat supporting higher densities of Canada Warblers was locally concentrated yet broadly distributed across Alberta's boreal forest region. Canada Warblers were most commonly associated with older deciduous forest at the local scale, particularly near small, incised streams, and greater amounts of deciduous forest at the stand scale. Predicted density was lower in other forest types and younger age classes measured at the local scale. There was little evidence that local-scale fragmentation (i.e., edges created by linear features influenced Canada Warbler abundance. However, current forestry practices in the province likely will reduce the availability of Canada Warbler habitat over time by cutting old deciduous forest stands. Our results suggest that conservation efforts aimed at Canada Warbler focus on retaining large stands of old deciduous forest, specifically stands adjacent to streams, by increasing the width of deciduous retention buffers along streams during harvest and increasing the size and number of old forest residual patches in harvested stands.

  1. Habitat selection of black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) in Tibet: implications for species conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zuo-Fu; Huo, Sheng; Xiao, Wen

    2011-04-01

    As anthropogenic habitat changes are often considered a threat to natural ecosystems and wildlife, a sound understanding of the effects of habitat alteration on endangered species is crucial when designing management strategies or performing conservation activities. Black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) are categorized as endangered on the IUCN Red List and are endemic to the trans-Himalayas in China. At present, there are only 15 groups and 2,500 individuals remaining in the wild, and they are facing intense habitat degradation with selective logging for house building and firewood. Habitat deterioration through wood extraction is occurring at Xiaochangdu, Tibet, where one stable group of R. bieti lives in a marginal habitat in the northernmost part of the species' distribution. To understand the species' response to selective logging in an extremely marginal habitat, data on habitat preference and diet composition of a group of R. bieti were collected at Xiaochangdu from 2003 to 2005. The monkeys used different habitats nonrandomly during the year. The selection index for secondary conifer forest (SC), where selective logging has occurred, was the highest of all habitat types (>1), suggesting that the groups strongly preferred SC. The monkeys fed more on buds/leaves, more on flowers/fruit/seeds, and less on lichen in SC than in primary conifer forest (PC). Dietary diversity was significantly higher in SC than in PC. These results indicate that over the short term, low-intensity disturbances may result in increased foliage diversity that enable groups of R. bieti to survive in this marginal habitat. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Invasive species and habitat degradation in Iberian streams: an analysis of their role in freshwater fish diversity loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermoso, Virgilio; Clavero, Miguel; Blanco-Garrido, Francisco; Prenda, José

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean endemic freshwater fish are among the most threatened biota in the world. Distinguishing the role of different extinction drivers and their potential interactions is crucial for achieving conservation goals. While some authors argue that invasive species are a main driver of native species declines, others see their proliferation as a co-occurring process to biodiversity loss driven by habitat degradation. It is difficult to discern between the two potential causes given that few invaded ecosystems are free from habitat degradation, and that both factors may interact in different ways. Here we analyze the relative importance of habitat degradation and invasive species in the decline of native fish assemblages in the Guadiana River basin (southwestern Iberian Peninsula) using an information theoretic approach to evaluate interaction pathways between invasive species and habitat degradation (structural equation modeling, SEM). We also tested the possible changes in the functional relationships between invasive and native species, measured as the per capita effect of invasive species, using ANCOVA. We found that the abundance of invasive species was the best single predictor of natives' decline and had the highest Akaike weight among the set of predictor variables examined. Habitat degradation neither played an active role nor influenced the per capita effect of invasive species on natives. Our analyses indicated that downstream reaches and areas close to reservoirs had the most invaded fish assemblages, independently of their habitat degradation status. The proliferation of invasive species poses a strong threat to the persistence of native assemblages in highly fluctuating environments. Therefore, conservation efforts to reduce native freshwater fish diversity loss in Mediterranean rivers should focus on mitigating the effect of invasive species and preventing future invasions.

  3. Sea-level rise and refuge habitats for tidal marsh species: can artificial islands save the California Ridgway's rail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Cory T.; Takekawa, John Y.; Casazza, Michael L.; Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Holyoak, Marcel; Strong, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial species living in intertidal habitats experience refuge limitation during periods of tidal inundation, which may be exacerbated by seasonal variation in vegetation structure, tidal cycles, and land-use change. Sea-level rise projections indicate the severity of refuge limitation may increase. Artificial habitats that provide escape cover during tidal inundation have been proposed as a temporary solution to alleviate these limitations. We tested for evidence of refuge habitat limitation in a population of endangered California Ridgway's rail (Rallus obsoletus obsoletus; hereafter California rail) through use of artificial floating island habitats provided during two winters. Previous studies demonstrated that California rail mortality was especially high during the winter and periods of increased tidal inundation, suggesting that tidal refuge habitat is critical to survival. In our study, California rail regularly used artificial islands during higher tides and daylight hours. When tide levels inundated the marsh plain, use of artificial islands was at least 300 times more frequent than would be expected if California rails used artificial habitats proportional to their availability (0.016%). Probability of use varied among islands, and low levels of use were observed at night. These patterns may result from anti-predator behaviors and heterogeneity in either rail density or availability of natural refuges. Endemic saltmarsh species are increasingly at risk from habitat change resulting from sea-level rise and development of adjacent uplands. Escape cover during tidal inundation may need to be supplemented if species are to survive. Artificial habitats may provide effective short-term mitigation for habitat change and sea-level rise in tidal marsh environments, particularly for conservation-reliant species such as California rails.

  4. Modified forest rotation lengths: Long-term effects on landscape-scale habitat availability for specialized species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, Jean-Michel; Öhman, Karin; Lämås, Tomas; Felton, Adam; Ranius, Thomas; Lundmark, Tomas; Nordin, Annika

    2018-03-15

    We evaluated the long-term implications from modifying rotation lengths in production forests for four forest-reliant species with different habitat requirements. By combining simulations of forest development with habitat models, and accounting both for stand and landscape scale influences, we projected habitat availability over 150 years in a large Swedish landscape, using rotation lengths which are longer (+22% and +50%) and shorter (-22%) compared to current practices. In terms of mean habitat availability through time, species requiring older forest were affected positively by extended rotations, and negatively by shortened rotations. For example, the mean habitat area for the treecreeper Certhia familiaris (a bird preferring forest with larger trees) increased by 31% when rotations were increased by 22%, at a 5% cost to net present value (NPV) and a 7% decrease in harvested volume. Extending rotation lengths by 50% provided more habitat for this species compared to a 22% extension, but at a much higher marginal cost. In contrast, the beetle Hadreule elongatula, which is dependent on sun-exposed dead wood, benefited from shortened rather than prolonged rotations. Due to an uneven distribution of stand-ages within the landscape, the relative amounts of habitat provided by different rotation length scenarios for a given species were not always consistent through time during the simulation period. If implemented as a conservation measure, prolonging rotations will require long-term strategic planning to avoid future bottlenecks in habitat availability, and will need to be accompanied by complementary measures accounting for the diversity of habitats necessary for the conservation of forest biodiversity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Scenario-Led Habitat Modelling of Land Use Change Impacts on Key Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Geary

    Full Text Available Accurate predictions of the impacts of future land use change on species of conservation concern can help to inform policy-makers and improve conservation measures. If predictions are spatially explicit, predicted consequences of likely land use changes could be accessible to land managers at a scale relevant to their working landscape. We introduce a method, based on open source software, which integrates habitat suitability modelling with scenario-building, and illustrate its use by investigating the effects of alternative land use change scenarios on landscape suitability for black grouse Tetrao tetrix. Expert opinion was used to construct five near-future (twenty years scenarios for the 800 km2 study site in upland Scotland. For each scenario, the cover of different land use types was altered by 5-30% from 20 random starting locations and changes in habitat suitability assessed by projecting a MaxEnt suitability model onto each simulated landscape. A scenario converting grazed land to moorland and open forestry was the most beneficial for black grouse, and 'increased grazing' (the opposite conversion the most detrimental. Positioning of new landscape blocks was shown to be important in some situations. Increasing the area of open-canopy forestry caused a proportional decrease in suitability, but suitability gains for the 'reduced grazing' scenario were nonlinear. 'Scenario-led' landscape simulation models can be applied in assessments of the impacts of land use change both on individual species and also on diversity and community measures, or ecosystem services. A next step would be to include landscape configuration more explicitly in the simulation models, both to make them more realistic, and to examine the effects of habitat placement more thoroughly. In this example, the recommended policy would be incentives on grazing reduction to benefit black grouse.

  6. Posture, speed, and habitat structure: three-dimensional hindlimb kinematics of two species of padless geckos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Patrick O; Higham, Timothy E; Clark, Andrew J

    2011-04-01

    Differences in habitat use are often correlated with differences in morphology and behavior, while animals in similar habitats often exhibit similarities in form and function. However, this has not been tested extensively among lizards, especially geckos. Most studies of gecko locomotion have focused on the ability to adhere to surfaces. However, there are several species of geckos that have either secondarily lost adhesive capabilities or simply lack the capability. We quantified the three-dimensional locomotor kinematics for two desert-dwelling padless geckos, Teratoscincus scincus and Eublepharis macularius, on a level trackway over a range of speeds. Our results indicate that T. scincus landed with a high relative hip height of 48.7 ± 2.4% of total limb length at footfall, while E. macularius exhibited hip heights averaging only 36.0 ± 1.8% of total limb length for footfall. The three-dimensional knee angle of T. scincus averaged 120.6 ± 3.9° at footfall, while E. macularius averaged only 101.6 ± 1.8° at footfall. In addition, the femur of E. macularius was elevated to a much greater extent (i.e., was closer to being perpendicular to the long axis of the body) than that of T. scincus and every other lizard that has been studied, suggesting they move with a "hyper-sprawled" posture. Both of these gecko species live in deserts, but T. scincus is psammophilic while E. macularius inhabits a rocky, more densely vegetated environment. Benefits of the more upright posture of T. scincus on open sandy habitat may include a greater field of view and more efficient locomotion. The more sprawled posture of E. macularius may lower its center of gravity and aid in balance while climbing on rocks or shrubs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Threatened and Endangered Species Habitat Management Plan for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, David Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hathcock, Charles Dean [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-11-17

    Los Alamos National Laboratory’s (LANL) Threatened and Endangered Species Habitat Management Plan (HMP) fulfills a commitment made to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in the “Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility Mitigation Action Plan” (DOE 1996). The HMP received concurrence from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in 1999 (USFWS consultation numbers 2-22-98-I-336 and 2-22-95-I-108). This 2015 update retains the management guidelines from the 1999 HMP for listed species, updates some descriptive information, and adds the New Mexico Meadow Jumping Mouse (Zapus hudsonius luteus) and Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus) which were federally listed in 2014 (Keller 2015: USFWS consultation number 02ENNM00- 2015-I-0538).

  8. Breeding ecology and nesting habitat associations of five marsh bird species in western New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lor, S.; Malecki, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Nesting habitats and nest success of five species of marsh birds were studied during 1997 and 1998 at the Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) and the adjacent Oak Orchard and Tonawanda State Wildlife Management Areas (WMA) located in western New York. Nest searches located 18 American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus), 117 Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis), 189 Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps), 23 Sora (Porzana carolina), and 72 Virginia Rail (Rallus limicola) nests. Average nest densities in 1998, our best nest searching year, ranged from 0.01/ha for Soras (N = 8) to 0.28/ha for Pied-billed Grebes (N = 160). Mayfield nest success estimates for Least Bittern were 80% (N = 16) in 1997 and 46% (N = 37) in 1998. Nest success estimates were 72% (N = 55) for Pied-billed Grebe, 43% (N = 6) for Sora, and 38% (N = 20) for Virginia Rail. Nests of all five species were located in ???70% emergent vegetation with a mean water depth of 24-56 cm and an average vegetation height that ranged from 69-133 cm. Logistic regression models were developed for each species using habitat variables at nest and random site locations. Each model was ranked with Akaike's Information Criterion for small sample size (AICc). In general, our best models indicated that increased emergent vegetation and horizontal cover with shallow water depths improved the odds of encountering marsh bird nests in the wetlands of western New York. We suggest that managing wetlands as a complex, at different stages of succession, would best benefit marsh bird species.

  9. Evolutionary diversification of cryophilic Grylloblatta species (Grylloblattodea: Grylloblattidae in alpine habitats of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick George K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climate in alpine habitats has undergone extreme variation during Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs, resulting in repeated expansion and contraction of alpine glaciers. Many cold-adapted alpine species have responded to these climatic changes with long-distance range shifts. These species typically exhibit shallow genetic differentiation over a large geographical area. In contrast, poorly dispersing organisms often form species complexes within mountain ranges, such as the California endemic ice-crawlers (Grylloblattodea: Grylloblattidae: Grylloblatta. The diversification pattern of poorly dispersing species might provide more information on the localized effects of historical climate change, the importance of particular climatic events, as well as the history of dispersal. Here we use multi-locus genetic data to examine the phylogenetic relationships and geographic pattern of diversification in California Grylloblatta. Results Our analysis reveals a pattern of deep genetic subdivision among geographically isolated populations of Grylloblatta in California. Alpine populations diverged from low elevation populations and subsequently diversified. Using a Bayesian relaxed clock model and both uncalibrated and calibrated measurements of time to most recent common ancestor, we reconstruct the temporal diversification of alpine Grylloblatta populations. Based on calibrated relaxed clock estimates, evolutionary diversification of Grylloblatta occurred during the Pliocene-Pleistocene epochs, with an initial dispersal into California during the Pliocene and species diversification in alpine clades during the middle Pleistocene epoch. Conclusions Grylloblatta species exhibit a high degree of genetic subdivision in California with well defined geographic structure. Distinct glacial refugia can be inferred within the Sierra Nevada, corresponding to major, glaciated drainage basins. Low elevation populations are sister to alpine populations

  10. Species composition, diversity and relative abundance of amphibians in forests and non-forest habitats on Langkawi Island, Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Johana, J.; Muzzneena, A. M.; Grismer, L. L.; Norhayati, A.

    2016-11-01

    Anurans on Langkawi Island, Peninsular Malaysia exhibit variation in their habits and forms, ranging from small (SVL 150 mm), and occupy a range of habitats, such as riverine forests, agricultural fields, peat swamps, and lowland and upland dipterocarp forests. These variations provide a platform to explore species diversity, distribution, abundance, microhabitat, and other ecological parameters to understand the distribution patterns and to facilitate conservation and management of sensitive or important species and areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity and distribution of anuran species in different types of habitat on Langkawi Island. Specimens were collected based on active sampling using the Visual Encounter Survey (VES) method. We surveyed anuran species inhabiting seven types of habitat, namely agriculture (AG), coastal (CL), forest (FT), pond (PD), mangrove (MG), riparian forest (RF) and river (RV). A total of 775 individuals were sampled from all localities, representing 23 species from 12 genera and included all six families of frogs in Malaysia. FT and RF showed high values of Shannon Index, H', 2.60 and 2.38, respectively, followed by the other types of habitat, CL (1.82), RV (1.71), MG (1.56), PD (1.54), and AG (1.53). AG had the highest abundance (156 individuals) compared to other habitat types. Based on Cluster Analysis by using Jaccard coefficient (UPGMA), two groups can be clearly seen and assigned as forested species group (FT and RF) and species associating with human activity (AG, CL, PD, MG and RV). Forest species group is more diverse compared to non-forest group. Nevertheless, non-forest species are found in abundance, highlighting the relevance of these disturbed habitats in supporting the amphibians.

  11. Plant distribution patterns related to species characteristics and spatial and temporal habitat heterogeneity in a network of ditch banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertsema, W.; Sprangers, J.T.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this study we investigated the relationship between the distribution patterns of a number of herbaceous plant species and the isolation and age of habitat patches. The study was conducted for a network of ditch banks in an agricultural landscape in The Netherlands. Thirteen plant species were

  12. Using Risk Assessment and Habitat Suitability Models to Prioritise Invasive Species for Management in a Changing Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Shauna-Lee; Zhang, Jian; Nixon, Amy; Nielsen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Accounting for climate change in invasive species risk assessments improves our understanding of potential future impacts and enhances our preparedness for the arrival of new non-native species. We combined traditional risk assessment for invasive species with habitat suitability modeling to assess risk to biodiversity based on climate change. We demonstrate our method by assessing the risk for 15 potentially new invasive plant species to Alberta, Canada, an area where climate change is expected to facilitate the poleward expansion of invasive species ranges. Of the 15 species assessed, the three terrestrial invasive plant species that could pose the greatest threat to Alberta's biodiversity are giant knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis), tamarisk (Tamarix chinensis), and alkali swainsonpea (Sphaerophysa salsula). We characterise giant knotweed as 'extremely invasive', with 21 times the suitable habitat between baseline and future projected climate. Tamarisk is 'extremely invasive' with a 64% increase in suitable habitat, and alkali swainsonpea is 'highly invasive' with a 21% increase in suitable habitat. Our methodology can be used to predict and prioritise potentially new invasive species for their impact on biodiversity in the context of climate change.

  13. Using Risk Assessment and Habitat Suitability Models to Prioritise Invasive Species for Management in a Changing Climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shauna-Lee Chai

    Full Text Available Accounting for climate change in invasive species risk assessments improves our understanding of potential future impacts and enhances our preparedness for the arrival of new non-native species. We combined traditional risk assessment for invasive species with habitat suitability modeling to assess risk to biodiversity based on climate change. We demonstrate our method by assessing the risk for 15 potentially new invasive plant species to Alberta, Canada, an area where climate change is expected to facilitate the poleward expansion of invasive species ranges. Of the 15 species assessed, the three terrestrial invasive plant species that could pose the greatest threat to Alberta's biodiversity are giant knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis, tamarisk (Tamarix chinensis, and alkali swainsonpea (Sphaerophysa salsula. We characterise giant knotweed as 'extremely invasive', with 21 times the suitable habitat between baseline and future projected climate. Tamarisk is 'extremely invasive' with a 64% increase in suitable habitat, and alkali swainsonpea is 'highly invasive' with a 21% increase in suitable habitat. Our methodology can be used to predict and prioritise potentially new invasive species for their impact on biodiversity in the context of climate change.

  14. Predicting Potential Changes in Suitable Habitat and Distribution by 2100 for Tree Species of the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R Iverson; Anantha M. Prasad; Mark W. Schwartz; Mark W. Schwartz

    2005-01-01

    We predict current distribution and abundance for tree species present in eastern North America, and subsequently estimate potential suitable habitat for those species under a changed climate with 2 x CO2. We used a series of statistical models (i.e., Regression Tree Analysis (RTA), Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), Bagging Trees (...

  15. Energy crop cultivations of reed canary grass - An inferior breeding habitat for the skylark, a characteristic farmland bird species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vepsaelaeinen, Ville [Finnish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 17, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    Here, I present the first comparison of the abundance of farmland birds in energy grass fields and in cereal-dominated conventionally cultivated fields (CCFs). I demonstrate that in boreal farmland, skylark (Alauda arvensis) densities were significantly lower in reed canary grass (RCG) (Phalaris arundinacea) fields than in CCFs. I found that during the early breeding season RCG fields and CCFs are equally good habitats, but over the ensuing couple of weeks RCG rapidly grows too tall and dense for field-nesting species. Consequently, RCG is an inferior habitat for skylark for laying replacement clutches (after failure of first nesting) or for a second clutch after one successful nesting. The results imply that if RCG cultivation is to be expanded, the establishment of large monocultures should be avoided in farmland landscapes; otherwise the novel habitat may affect detrimentally the seriously depleted skylark population, and probably also other field-nesting bird species with similar breeding habitats. (author)

  16. A systematic relationship between phytochrome-controlled development and species habitat, for plants grown in simulated natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, D.C.; Smith, H.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of the responsiveness of plant species, typical of open and shade habitats, to simulated natural shade-light quality (i.e. white light plus supplementary far-red) has demonstrated a systematic relationship between habitat and certain developmental responses. Supplementary far-red light has a much greater effect on stem extension rate, petiole length, and leaf dry weight:stem dry weight ratio of the open habitat, shade-intolerant species. Far-red effects on leaf chlorophyll content show no such systematic grading. These results are discussed in relation to habitat adaptation. In most cases, the relationship between developmental response and the estimated phytochrome photoequilibrium, which is established by the radiation treatment, is linear. This is taken as an indication of phytochrome involvement in shade perception. (orig.) [de

  17. Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Permutation and Survival of Caralluma Species (Apocynaceae in Arid Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya S. Masrahi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Several species of the stem succulent Caralluma (Apocynaceae are abundant perennials in arid regions of the Arabian Peninsula. These arid regions have a short wet season with erratic rainfall and are characterized by harsh climatic conditions of high temperature, high evaporation and sand storms. Work presented in this paper aimed at investigating importance of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM for survival of three Caralluma species in their natural habitat. Investigations involved studying stomatal characteristics, stomatal diffusive conductance, chlorophyll fluorescence, and CAM in three species of Caralluma, namely C. acutangula (Decne. N.E.Br., C. edulis (Edgew. Benth. ex Hook.f., and C. subulata (Forssk. Decne. Microscopic examination revealed a pattern of stomatal characteristics typical of CAM plants in these three Caralluma species. Results showed that these three Caralluma species were obligate CAM plants exhibiting this mode of photosynthesis during both the wet and the dry seasons. Under protracted water stress during the long dry season very low values of stomatal diffusive conductance and dampening of CAM acidification-deacidification cycles denoted the tendency of these three Caralluma species to shift from the obligate CAM physiotype to CAM-idling mode. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements indicated that protracted water stress induced a reduction in Photosystem II (PSII antenna efficiency and quantum yield in the three studied Caralluma species. This reduction of PSII activity occurred in concomitance with a marked rise in non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence denoting operation of non-photochemical energy dissipating mechanisms known to be important for photoprotection of the photosynthetic apparatus.

  18. Lemur species-specific metapopulation responses to habitat loss and fragmentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis S Steffens

    Full Text Available Determining what factors affect species occurrence is vital to the study of primate biogeography. We investigated the metapopulation dynamics of a lemur community consisting of eight species (Avahi occidentalis, Propithecus coquereli, Microcebus murinus, Microcebus ravelobensis, Lepilemur edwardsi, Cheirogaleus medius, Eulemur mongoz, and Eulemur fulvus within fragmented tropical dry deciduous forest habitat in Ankarafantsika National Park, Madagascar. We measured fragment size and isolation of 42 fragments of forest ranging in size from 0.23 to 117.7 ha adjacent to continuous forest. Between June and November 2011, we conducted 1218 surveys and observed six of eight lemur species (M. murinus, M. ravelobensis, C. medius, E. fulvus, P. coquereli, and L. edwardsi in the 42 fragments. We applied among patch incidence function models (IFMs with various measures of dispersal and a mainland-island IFM to lemur species occurrence, with the aim of answering the following questions: 1 Do lemur species in dry deciduous forest fragments form metapopulations? 2 What are the separate effects of area (extinction risk and connectivity/isolation (colonization potential within a lemur metapopulation? 3 Within simulated metapopulations over time, how do area and connectivity/isolation affect occurrence? and 4 What are the conservation implications of our findings? We found that M. murinus formed either a mainland-island or an among patch metapopulation, M. ravelobensis formed a mainland-island metapopulation, C. medius and E. fulvus formed among patch metapopulations, and neither P. coquereli or L. edwardsi formed a metapopulation. Metapopulation dynamics and simulations suggest that area was a more consistent positive factor determining lemur species occurrence than fragment isolation and is crucial to the maintenance of lemur populations within this fragmented landscape. Using a metapopulation approach to lemur biogeography is critical for understanding how

  19. Where to Combat Shrub Encroachment in Alpine Timberline Ecosystems: Combining Remotely-Sensed Vegetation Information with Species Habitat Modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Braunisch

    Full Text Available In many cultural landscapes, the abandonment of traditional grazing leads to encroachment of pastures by woody plants, which reduces habitat heterogeneity and impacts biodiversity typical of semi-open habitats. We developed a framework of mutually interacting spatial models to locate areas where shrub encroachment in Alpine treeline ecosystems deteriorates vulnerable species' habitat, using black grouse Tetrao tetrix (L. in the Swiss Alps as a study model. Combining field observations and remote-sensing information we 1 identified and located the six predominant treeline vegetation types; 2 modelled current black grouse breeding habitat as a function thereof so as to derive optimal habitat profiles; 3 simulated from these profiles the theoretical spatial extension of breeding habitat when assuming optimal vegetation conditions throughout; and used the discrepancy between (2 and (3 to 4 locate major aggregations of homogeneous shrub vegetation in otherwise suitable breeding habitat as priority sites for habitat restoration. All six vegetation types (alpine pasture, coniferous forest, Alnus viridis (Chaix, Rhododendron-dominated, Juniperus-dominated and mixed heathland were predicted with high accuracy (AUC >0.9. Breeding black grouse preferred a heterogeneous mosaic of vegetation types, with none exceeding 50% cover. While 15% of the timberline belt currently offered suitable breeding habitat, twice that fraction (29% would potentially be suitable when assuming optimal shrub and ground vegetation conditions throughout the study area. Yet, only 10% of this difference was attributed to habitat deterioration by shrub-encroachment of dense heathland (all types 5.2% and Alnus viridis (4.8%. The presented method provides both a general, large-scale assessment of areas covered by dense shrub vegetation as well as specific target values and priority areas for habitat restoration related to a selected target organism. This facilitates optimizing the

  20. Where to Combat Shrub Encroachment in Alpine Timberline Ecosystems: Combining Remotely-Sensed Vegetation Information with Species Habitat Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunisch, Veronika; Patthey, Patrick; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    In many cultural landscapes, the abandonment of traditional grazing leads to encroachment of pastures by woody plants, which reduces habitat heterogeneity and impacts biodiversity typical of semi-open habitats. We developed a framework of mutually interacting spatial models to locate areas where shrub encroachment in Alpine treeline ecosystems deteriorates vulnerable species' habitat, using black grouse Tetrao tetrix (L.) in the Swiss Alps as a study model. Combining field observations and remote-sensing information we 1) identified and located the six predominant treeline vegetation types; 2) modelled current black grouse breeding habitat as a function thereof so as to derive optimal habitat profiles; 3) simulated from these profiles the theoretical spatial extension of breeding habitat when assuming optimal vegetation conditions throughout; and used the discrepancy between (2) and (3) to 4) locate major aggregations of homogeneous shrub vegetation in otherwise suitable breeding habitat as priority sites for habitat restoration. All six vegetation types (alpine pasture, coniferous forest, Alnus viridis (Chaix), Rhododendron-dominated, Juniperus-dominated and mixed heathland) were predicted with high accuracy (AUC >0.9). Breeding black grouse preferred a heterogeneous mosaic of vegetation types, with none exceeding 50% cover. While 15% of the timberline belt currently offered suitable breeding habitat, twice that fraction (29%) would potentially be suitable when assuming optimal shrub and ground vegetation conditions throughout the study area. Yet, only 10% of this difference was attributed to habitat deterioration by shrub-encroachment of dense heathland (all types 5.2%) and Alnus viridis (4.8%). The presented method provides both a general, large-scale assessment of areas covered by dense shrub vegetation as well as specific target values and priority areas for habitat restoration related to a selected target organism. This facilitates optimizing the spatial

  1. Habitat and species identity, not diversity, predict the extent of refuse consumption by urban arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngsteadt, Elsa; Henderson, Ryanna C; Savage, Amy M; Ernst, Andrew F; Dunn, Robert R; Frank, Steven D

    2015-03-01

    Urban green spaces provide ecosystem services to city residents, but their management is hindered by a poor understanding of their ecology. We examined a novel ecosystem service relevant to urban public health and esthetics: the consumption of littered food waste by arthropods. Theory and data from natural systems suggest that the magnitude and resilience of this service should increase with biological diversity. We measured food removal by presenting known quantities of cookies, potato chips, and hot dogs in street medians (24 sites) and parks (21 sites) in New York City, USA. At the same sites, we assessed ground-arthropod diversity and abiotic conditions, including history of flooding during Hurricane Sandy 7 months prior to the study. Arthropod diversity was greater in parks (on average 11 hexapod families and 4.7 ant species per site), than in medians (nine hexapod families and 2.7 ant species per site). However, counter to our diversity-based prediction, arthropods in medians removed 2-3 times more food per day than did those in parks. We detected no effect of flooding (at 19 sites) on this service. Instead, greater food removal was associated with the presence of the introduced pavement ant (Tetramorium sp. E) and with hotter, drier conditions that may have increased arthropod metabolism. When vertebrates also had access to food, more was removed, indicating that arthropods and vertebrates compete for littered food. We estimate that arthropods alone could remove 4-6.5 kg of food per year in a single street median, reducing its availability to less desirable fauna such as rats. Our results suggest that species identity and habitat may be more relevant than diversity for predicting urban ecosystem services. Even small green spaces such as street medians provide ecosystem services that may complement those of larger habitat patches across the urban landscape. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effects of habitat composition and landscape structure on worker foraging distances of five bumble bee species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redhead, John W; Dreier, Stephanie; Bourke, Andrew F G; Heard, Matthew S; Jordan, William C; Sumner, Seirian; Wang, Jinliang; Carvell, Claire

    2016-04-01

    Bumble bees (Bombus spp.) are important pollinators of both crops and wildflowers. Their contribution to this essential ecosystem service has been threatened over recent decades by changes in land use, which have led to declines in their populations. In order to design effective conservation measures, it is important to understand the effects of variation in landscape composition and structure on the foraging activities of worker bumble bees. This is because the viability of individual colonies is likely to be affected by the trade-off between the energetic costs of foraging over greater distances and the potential gains from access to additional resources. We used field surveys, molecular genetics, and fine resolution remote sensing to estimate the locations of wild bumble bee nests and to infer foraging distances across a 20-km² agricultural landscape in southern England, UK. We investigated five species, including the rare B. ruderatus and ecologically similar but widespread B. hortorum. We compared worker foraging distances between species and examined how variation in landscape composition and structure affected foraging distances at the colony level. Mean worker foraging distances differed significantly between species. Bombus terrestris, B. lapidarius, and B. ruderatus exhibited significantly greater mean foraging distances (551, 536, and 501 m, respectively) than B. hortorum and B. pascuorum (336 and 272 m, respectively). There was wide variation in worker foraging distances between colonies of the same species, which was in turn strongly influenced by the amount and spatial configuration of available foraging habitats. Shorter foraging distances were found for colonies where the local landscape had high coverage and low fragmentation of semi-natural vegetation, including managed agri-environmental field margins. The strength of relationships between different landscape variables and foraging distance varied between species, for example the strongest

  3. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume 1, Oregon, 1985 Annual and Final Reports.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Ken

    1986-10-01

    The Hot Springs Fork of the Collawash River is a major sub-drainage in the Clackamas River drainage. Emphasis species for natural production are spring chinook, coho salmon, and winter steelhead. Increased natural production appears limited by a lack of quality rearing habitat. Habitat complexity over approximately 70% of accessible area to anadromous fish has been reduced over the last 40 years by numerous factors. Natural passage barriers limit anadromous fish access to over 7 miles of high quality habitat. In the first year of a multi-year effort to improve fish habitat in the Hot Springs Fork drainage, passage enhancement on two tributaries and channel rehabilitation on one of those tributaries was completed. Three waterfalls on Nohorn Creek were evaluated and passage improved on the uppermost waterfall to provide steelhead full access to 2.4 miles of good quality habitat. The work was completed in October 1985 and involved blasting three jump pools and two holding pools into the waterfall. On Pansy Creek, four potential passage barriers were evaluated and passage improvement work conducted on two logjams and one waterfall. Minor modifications were made to a waterfall to increase flow into a side channel which allows passage around the waterfall. Channel rehabilitation efforts on Pansy Creek (RM 0.0 to 0.3) to increase low flow pool rearing habitat and spawning habitat including blasting five pools into areas of bedrock substrate and using a track-mounted backhoe to construct instream structures. On site materials were used to construct three log sills, three boulder berms, a boulder flow deflector, and five log and boulder structures. Also, an alcove was excavated to provide overwinter rearing habitat. Pre-project monitoring consisting of physical and biological data collection was completed in the project area.

  4. Commercially important species associated with horse mussel (Modiolus modiolus) biogenic reefs: A priority habitat for nature conservation and fisheries benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, Flora E.A.; Mair, James M.; Newton, Jason; Lindenbaum, Charles; Porter, Joanne S.; Sanderson, William G.

    2017-01-01

    Horse mussel reefs (Modiolus modiolus) are biodiversity hotspots afforded protection by Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in the NE Atlantic. In this study, horse mussel reefs, cobble habitats and sandy habitats were assessed using underwater visual census and drop-down video techniques in three UK regions. Megafauna were enumerated, differences in community composition and individual species abundances were analysed. Samples of conspicuous megafauna were also collected from horse mussel reefs in Orkney for stable isotope analysis. Communities of conspicuous megafauna were different between horse mussel habitats and other habitats throughout their range. Three commercially important species: whelks (Buccinum undatum), queen scallops (Aequipecten opercularis) and spider crabs (Maja brachydactyla) were significantly more abundant (by as much as 20 times) on horse mussel reefs than elsewhere. Isotopic analysis provided insights into their trophic relationship with the horse mussel reef. Protection of M. modiolus habitat can achieve biodiversity conservation objectives whilst benefiting fisheries also. - Highlights: • Communities of conspicuous megafauna were assessed on Modiolus modiolus reefs, sand and cobble habitats. • Tissue samples from reef fauna were subject to stable isotope analysis to investigate trophic structure. • Reef associated species included Aequipecten opercularis, Buccinum undatum and Maja brachydactyla. • Evidence of the commercial value of M. modiolus reefs in the UK.

  5. Faunal breaks and species composition of Indo-Pacific corals: the role of plate tectonics, environment and habitat distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, S. A.; Baird, A. H.; Hughes, T. P.; Madin, J. S.; Connolly, S. R.

    2013-01-01

    Species richness gradients are ubiquitous in nature, but the mechanisms that generate and maintain these patterns at macroecological scales remain unresolved. We use a new approach that focuses on overlapping geographical ranges of species to reveal that Indo-Pacific corals are assembled within 11 distinct faunal provinces. Province limits are characterized by co-occurrence of multiple species range boundaries. Unexpectedly, these faunal breaks are poorly predicted by contemporary environmental conditions and the present-day distribution of habitat. Instead, faunal breaks show striking concordance with geological features (tectonic plates and mantle plume tracks). The depth range over which a species occurs, its larval development rate and genus age are important determinants of the likelihood that species will straddle faunal breaks. Our findings indicate that historical processes, habitat heterogeneity and species colonization ability account for more of the present-day biogeographical patterns of corals than explanations based on the contemporary distribution of reefs or environmental conditions. PMID:23698011

  6. Effects of habitat and landscape characteristics on medium and large mammal species richness and composition in northern Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Andrade-Núñez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing world population and demand for food and other products has accelerated the conversion of natural habitats into agricultural lands, plantations and urban areas. Changes in habitat and landscape characteristics due to land-use change can have a significant effect on species presence, abundance, and distribution. Multi-scale approaches have been used to determine the proper spatial scales at which species and communities are responding to habitat transformation. In this context, we evaluated medium and large mammal species richness and composition in gallery forest (n = 10, grassland (n = 10, and exotic tree plantation (n = 10 in a region where grasslands have been converted into exotic tree plantations. We quantified mammal species richness and composition with camera traps and track surveys. The composition of the mammal community was related with local habitat variables, and landscape variables measured at seven spatial scales. We found 14 mammal species in forest, 11 species in plantation, and 7 mammal species in grassland. Two species are exotics, the wild boar Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 and the European hare Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778. The most common species are the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766, the nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 and the gray brocket deer Mazama gouazoubira G. Fischer, 1814 which are generalist species. Our results showed significant differences in mammal species richness and composition among the three habitat types. Plantations can have positive and negative effects on the presence of species restricted to grasslands. Positive effects are reflected in a wider local distribution of some forest species that rarely use grassland. The most important habitat and landscape variables that influenced mammal species richness and composition were vertical structure index, canopy cover, tree species diversity, percentage of grass, and the percentage of forest and grassland

  7. [Dietary composition and food competition of six main fish species in rocky reef habitat off Gouqi Island].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Shou-Yu; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Zhao, Jing; Xu, Min; Lin, Jun

    2012-02-01

    Based on the monthly investigation data of fish resources in the rocky reef habitat off Gouqi Island from March 2009 to February 2010, this paper studied the dietary composition of three native fish species (Sebasticus marmoratus, Hexagrammos otakii and Hexagrammos agrammus) and three non-native fish species (Lateolabrax japonica, Nibea albiflora and Larimichthys polyactis). The analysis of gut content indicated that the main prey items of these six dominant fish species were Caprellidae, Gammaridea, juvenile S. marmoratus, Engraulis japonicas and Acetes chinensis and the dietary composition of each of the 6 fish species had obvious seasonal variation. There was an intense food competition between native species H. otakii and H. agrammus in autumn, between non-native species N. albiflora and L. polyactis in summer, between non-native species N. albiflora and native species S. marmoratus in autumn, and between non-native species N. albiflora and native species H. otakii in winter. It was suggested the non-native species N. albiflora was the key species in the food competition among the six dominant fish species in this rocky reef habitat, and thus the feeding behaviors of these six fish species could have definite effects on the resource capacity of juvenile S. marmoratus.

  8. Combining genetic and demographic data for the conservation of a Mediterranean marine habitat-forming species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Arizmendi-Mejía

    Full Text Available The integration of ecological and evolutionary data is highly valuable for conservation planning. However, it has been rarely used in the marine realm, where the adequate design of marine protected areas (MPAs is urgently needed. Here, we examined the interacting processes underlying the patterns of genetic structure and demographic strucuture of a highly vulnerable Mediterranean habitat-forming species (i.e. Paramuricea clavata (Risso, 1826, with particular emphasis on the processes of contemporary dispersal, genetic drift, and colonization of a new population. Isolation by distance and genetic discontinuities were found, and three genetic clusters were detected; each submitted to variations in the relative impact of drift and gene flow. No founder effect was found in the new population. The interplay of ecology and evolution revealed that drift is strongly impacting the smallest, most isolated populations, where partial mortality of individuals was highest. Moreover, the eco-evolutionary analyses entailed important conservation implications for P. clavata. Our study supports the inclusion of habitat-forming organisms in the design of MPAs and highlights the need to account for genetic drift in the development of MPAs. Moreover, it reinforces the importance of integrating genetic and demographic data in marine conservation.

  9. Impact of the keystone species, the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber), on habitat structure and its significance to mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Samas, Arūnas

    2016-01-01

    Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber), the representative of the family Castoridae, which includes two living species of the genus Castor. Beavers are the keystone species, also deservedly known as the ecosystem engineer for the ability to create new habitats and to change the existing landscape. Biology of the Eurasian beaver is well studied, but still, there is a lack of knowledge about the ecology of the species - the relationship with the surrounding environment and biota. These studies were car...

  10. Habitat selection by two species of burrowing mayfly nymphs in the Les Cheneaux Islands region of northern Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Marc A.; Hudson, Patrick; Chriscinske, Margret

    2004-01-01

    This study focused primarily on the habitat preferences of Hexagenia limbata andEphemera simulans, two species prevalent in northern Lake Huron, to gain a better understanding of the key components that determined their distribution and abundance. Both species preferred habitats based upon depth and sediment type. In addition, the burrowing activity of H. limbata was examined using in-situ, underwater sampling techniques specifically designed for the study. SCUBA divers made resin casts and took clear sediment cores in order to study how the burrow densities of H. limbata related to the sediment: water volume ratios. H. limbata contributed to the bioturbation and sediment porosity in specific, fine-sediment habitats. Younger age classes of this species utilized the burrows of their larger cohorts, an adaptation that could allow for energy savings and optimized growth.

  11. Habitat use of the European mudminnow Umbra krameri and association with other fish species in a disconnected Danube side arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehr, M; Keckeis, H

    2017-10-01

    Fish assemblages along the longitudinal course of an old, disconnected and modified side arm of the Danube floodplain downstream of Vienna, Austria, as well as habitat structure, hydro-morphological and hydro-chemical factors, were investigated in order to analyse the key environmental determinants of the European mudminnow Umbra krameri. Generally, U. krameri was the most abundant species in the system. It occurred in disconnected ditches, ponds and pools with dense reed belts and comparatively low nutrient content, indicating its natural association with marsh habitats. At infrequently disturbed sites it was associated with a small group of stagnophilious and highly specialized species with adaptations to strong oxygen fluctuations. At frequently flooded sites, the species was absent or occurred in low abundances, indicating its adaptation to water bodies in older successional stages and its low competitive power in permanently connected floodplain habitats. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. Spatial Scaling of Environmental Variables Improves Species-Habitat Models of Fishes in a Small, Sand-Bed Lowland River.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Radinger

    Full Text Available Habitat suitability and the distinct mobility of species depict fundamental keys for explaining and understanding the distribution of river fishes. In recent years, comprehensive data on river hydromorphology has been mapped at spatial scales down to 100 m, potentially serving high resolution species-habitat models, e.g., for fish. However, the relative importance of specific hydromorphological and in-stream habitat variables and their spatial scales of influence is poorly understood. Applying boosted regression trees, we developed species-habitat models for 13 fish species in a sand-bed lowland river based on river morphological and in-stream habitat data. First, we calculated mean values for the predictor variables in five distance classes (from the sampling site up to 4000 m up- and downstream to identify the spatial scale that best predicts the presence of fish species. Second, we compared the suitability of measured variables and assessment scores related to natural reference conditions. Third, we identified variables which best explained the presence of fish species. The mean model quality (AUC = 0.78, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve significantly increased when information on the habitat conditions up- and downstream of a sampling site (maximum AUC at 2500 m distance class, +0.049 and topological variables (e.g., stream order were included (AUC = +0.014. Both measured and assessed variables were similarly well suited to predict species' presence. Stream order variables and measured cross section features (e.g., width, depth, velocity were best-suited predictors. In addition, measured channel-bed characteristics (e.g., substrate types and assessed longitudinal channel features (e.g., naturalness of river planform were also good predictors. These findings demonstrate (i the applicability of high resolution river morphological and instream-habitat data (measured and assessed variables to predict fish presence, (ii the

  13. Expert knowledge as a foundation for the management of secretive species and their habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, C. Ashton; Collazo, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we share lessons learned during the elicitation and application of expert knowledge in the form of a belief network model for the habitat of a waterbird, the King Rail (Rallus elegans). A belief network is a statistical framework used to graphically represent and evaluate hypothesized cause and effect relationships among variables. Our model was a pilot project to explore the value of such a model as a tool to help the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) conserve species that lack sufficient empirical data to guide management decisions. Many factors limit the availability of empirical data that can support landscape-scale conservation planning. Globally, most species simply have not yet been subject to empirical study (Wilson 2000). Even for well-studied species, data are often restricted to specific geographic extents, to particular seasons, or to specific segments of a species’ life history. The USFWS mandates that the agency’s conservation actions (1) be coordinated across regional landscapes, (2) be founded on the best available science (with testable assumptions), and (3) support adaptive management through monitoring and assessment of action outcomes. Given limits on the available data, the concept of “best available science” in the context of conservation planning generally includes a mix of empirical data and expert knowledge (Sullivan et al. 2006).

  14. Weeds as viable habitat for arthropod species in croplands of central Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruby, T.; Rana, S.A.; Rana, N.; Inayat, T.P.

    2011-01-01

    Weeds are considered a limiting factor of crop production. Simultaneously, these non-crop plants are a portion of the agricultural ecosystem and play an essential role as viable habitat for many organisms, including bio-control agents. Utilizing the quadrate method, sugarcane, fodder, wheat and mustard croplands were sampled for one year to determine the weed flora and arthropods living among it. Twenty weed species and eight major arthropod orders were found to be present. The majority of the weed plants were broad-leaved, while some were grass-like. A review of literature on Central Punjab weeds uncovered depicted a considerable change in the weed flora over few decades. This could be related to the intensive and extensive farming in the area, which has this increased over the few decades along with the construction of an extensive irrigation canal system. These alterations may have caused drastic changes in the soil structure and climate of the region. Most of the phytophagous arthropod species used weed plants as food. In turn, these were fed upon by a few zoophagous arthropod species that also utilized the weeds for shelter and oviposition. Thus, weeds have a specific role within the agro-ecosystem by supporting local biodiversity. (author)

  15. High genetic diversity in a potentially vulnerable tropical tree species despite extreme habitat loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika M E Noreen

    Full Text Available Over the last 150 years, Singapore's primary forest has been reduced to less than 0.2% of its previous area, resulting in extinctions of native flora and fauna. Remaining species may be threatened by genetic erosion and inbreeding. We surveyed >95% of the remaining primary forest in Singapore and used eight highly polymorphic microsatellite loci to assess genetic diversity indices of 179 adults (>30 cm stem diameter, 193 saplings (>1 yr, and 1,822 seedlings (<1 yr of the canopy tree Koompassia malaccensis (Fabaceae. We tested hypotheses relevant to the genetic consequences of habitat loss: (1 that the K. malaccensis population in Singapore experienced a genetic bottleneck and a reduction in effective population size, and (2 K. malaccensis recruits would exhibit genetic erosion and inbreeding compared to adults. Contrary to expectations, we detected neither a population bottleneck nor a reduction in effective population size, and high genetic diversity in all age classes. Genetic diversity indices among age classes were not significantly different: we detected overall high expected heterozygosity (He = 0.843-0.854, high allelic richness (R = 16.7-19.5, low inbreeding co-efficients (FIS = 0.013-0.076, and a large proportion (30.1% of rare alleles (i.e. frequency <1%. However, spatial genetic structure (SGS analyses showed significant differences between the adults and the recruits. We detected significantly greater SGS intensity, as well as higher relatedness in the 0-10 m distance class, for seedlings and saplings compared to the adults. Demographic factors for this population (i.e. <200 adult trees are a cause for concern, as rare alleles could be lost due to stochastic factors. The high outcrossing rate (tm = 0.961, calculated from seedlings, may be instrumental in maintaining genetic diversity and suggests that pollination by highly mobile bee species in the genus Apis may provide resilience to acute habitat loss.

  16. Habitat-specific effects of climate change on a low-mobility Arctic spider species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowden, Joseph James; Hansen, Rikke Reisner; Olsen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Terrestrial ecosystems are heterogeneous habitat mosaics of varying vegetation types that are differentially affected by climate change. Arctic plant communities, for example, are changing faster in moist habitats than in dry habitats and abiotic changes like snowmelt vary locally among...... was significantly related to the timing of snowmelt and differed significantly between the sexes and habitats with the spiders in the mesic habitat showing a stronger temporal response to later snowmelt. Juvenile/ female ratios also differed significantly between habitats; as did the overall abundance...

  17. Predicting Species Distributions Using Record Centre Data: Multi-Scale Modelling of Habitat Suitability for Bat Roosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Chloe; Altringham, John

    2015-01-01

    Conservation increasingly operates at the landscape scale. For this to be effective, we need landscape scale information on species distributions and the environmental factors that underpin them. Species records are becoming increasingly available via data centres and online portals, but they are often patchy and biased. We demonstrate how such data can yield useful habitat suitability models, using bat roost records as an example. We analysed the effects of environmental variables at eight spatial scales (500 m - 6 km) on roost selection by eight bat species (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. pygmaeus, Nyctalus noctula, Myotis mystacinus, M. brandtii, M. nattereri, M. daubentonii, and Plecotus auritus) using the presence-only modelling software MaxEnt. Modelling was carried out on a selection of 418 data centre roost records from the Lake District National Park, UK. Target group pseudoabsences were selected to reduce the impact of sampling bias. Multi-scale models, combining variables measured at their best performing spatial scales, were used to predict roosting habitat suitability, yielding models with useful predictive abilities. Small areas of deciduous woodland consistently increased roosting habitat suitability, but other habitat associations varied between species and scales. Pipistrellus were positively related to built environments at small scales, and depended on large-scale woodland availability. The other, more specialist, species were highly sensitive to human-altered landscapes, avoiding even small rural towns. The strength of many relationships at large scales suggests that bats are sensitive to habitat modifications far from the roost itself. The fine resolution, large extent maps will aid targeted decision-making by conservationists and planners. We have made available an ArcGIS toolbox that automates the production of multi-scale variables, to facilitate the application of our methods to other taxa and locations. Habitat suitability modelling has the

  18. Shaken but not stirred: Multiscale habitat suitability modeling of sympatric marten species (Martes martes and Martes foina) in the northern Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Vergara; Samuel A. Cushman; Fermin Urra; Aritz Ruiz-Gonzalez

    2016-01-01

    Multispecies and multiscale habitat suitability models (HSM) are important to identify the environmental variables and scales influencing habitat selection and facilitate the comparison of closely related species with different ecological requirements. Objectives This study explores the multiscale relationships of habitat suitability for the pine (Martes...

  19. Adaptation to ephemeral habitat may overcome natural barriers and severe habitat fragmentation in a fire-dependent species, the Bachman's Sparrow (Peucaea aestivalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerame, Blain; Cox, James A; Brumfield, Robb T; Tucker, James W; Taylor, Sabrina S

    2014-01-01

    Bachman's Sparrow (Peucaea aestivalis) is a fire-dependent species that has undergone range-wide population declines in recent decades. We examined genetic diversity in Bachman's Sparrows to determine whether natural barriers have led to distinct population units and to assess the effect of anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation. Genetic diversity was examined across the geographic range by genotyping 226 individuals at 18 microsatellite loci and sequencing 48 individuals at mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Multiple analyses consistently demonstrated little genetic structure and high levels of genetic variation, suggesting that populations are panmictic. Based on these genetic data, separate management units/subspecies designations or translocations to promote gene flow among fragmented populations do not appear to be necessary. Panmixia in Bachman's Sparrow may be a consequence of an historical range expansion and retraction. Alternatively, high vagility in Bachman's Sparrow may be an adaptation to the ephemeral, fire-mediated habitat that this species prefers. In recent times, high vagility also appears to have offset inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity in highly fragmented habitat.

  20. Assessing three fish species ecological status in Colorado River, Grand Canyon based on physical habitat and population models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Weiwei; Chen, Yuansheng

    2018-04-01

    Colorado River is a unique ecosystem and provides important ecological services such as habitat for fish species as well as water power energy supplies. River management for this ecosystem requires assessment and decision support tools for fish which involves protecting, restoring as well as forecasting of future conditions. In this paper, a habitat and population model was developed and used to determine the levels of fish habitat suitability and population density in Colorado River between Lees Ferry and Lake Mead. The short term target fish populations are also predicted based on native fish recovery strategy. This model has been developed by combining hydrodynamics, heat transfer and sediment transport models with a habitat suitability index model and then coupling with habitat model into life stage population model. The fish were divided into four life stages according to the fish length. Three most abundant and typical native and non-native fish were selected as target species, which are rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), brown trout (Salmo trutta) and flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus latipinnis). Flow velocity, water depth, water temperature and substrates were used as the suitability indicators in habitat model and overall suitability index (OSI) as well as weight usable area (WUA) was used as an indicator in population model. A comparison was made between simulated fish population alteration and surveyed fish number fluctuation during 2000 to 2009. The application of this habitat and population model indicates that this model can be accurate present habitat situation and targets fish population dynamics of in the study areas. The analysis also indicates the flannelmouth sucker population will steadily increase while the rainbow trout will decrease based on the native fish recovery scheme. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Ecological Flow Assessment to Improve the Spawning Habitat for the Four Major Species of Carp of the Yangtze River: A Study on Habitat Suitability Based on Ultrasonic Telemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiong Yu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Four major species of Chinese carp, namely black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, are important economic freshwater fish varieties in China. They primarily inhabit and breed in the Yangtze River. Unfortunately, the construction and operation of the Gezhouba Dam and the Three Gorges Dam have dramatically changed the hydrodynamic conditions in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, leading to a sharp decline in the reproduction rates of these carp. The egg abundance of the four species of carp downstream from the Three Gorges Dam reached 8.35 billion in 1965, but abundance during 2005–2012 was only 0.25 billion. One of the main reasons was that the hydrodynamic conditions of the spawning ground could not meet the four species’ breeding requirements. However, due to the limitations of traditional detection tools, the spawning characteristics of these four species of carp were still unclear. In this study, the ultrasonic telemetry and a three–dimensional hydrodynamic model were utilized to build the habitat suitability index (HSI curves for the four species of carp. The habitat suitability model was then built based on HSI curves to assess spawning habitat quantity under different flow conditions. Finally, the habitat suitability model in the Yidu spawning ground was validated using 32 groups of sampling data in 2015 and 2017. The statistical results showed that the most suitable velocity ranged from 0.78 m/s to 0.93 m/s. The most suitable water depth ranged from 14.56 m to 16.35 m, and the most suitable Froude number ranged from 0.049 to 0.129. The habitat suitability model simulation results indicated that when the discharge was between 15,000 m3/s and 21,300 m3/s, the weighted usable area (WUA values in both the Yidu and Zhicheng spawning grounds would remain at a high level. The validation results showed that most

  2. Comparative analysis of total mercury concentrations in anadromous and non-anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) from eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velden, S. van der; Evans, M.S.; Dempson, J.B.; Muir, D.C.G.; Power, M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented that total mercury concentrations ([THg]) are lower in anadromous Arctic charr than in non-anadromous conspecifics, but the two life-history forms have rarely been studied together. Here, data from nine pairs of closely-located anadromous and non-anadromous Arctic charr populations were used to explore the impact of biological and life-history factors on individual [THg] across a range of latitudes (49–81° N) in eastern Canada. Unadjusted mean [THg] ranged from 20 to 114 ng/g wet weight (ww) in anadromous populations, and was significantly higher in non-anadromous populations, ranging from 111 to 227 ng/g ww. Within-population variations in [THg] were best explained by fish age, and were often positively related to fork-length and δ 15 N-inferred trophic level. Differences in [THg] were not related to differences in length-at-age (i.e., average somatic growth rate) among populations of either life-history type. Mercury concentrations were not related to site latitude in either the anadromous or non-anadromous fish. We conclude that the difference in Arctic charr [THg] with life-history type could not be explained by differences in fish age, fork-length, trophic position, or length-at-age, and discuss possible factors contributing to low mercury concentrations in anadromous, relative to freshwater, fish. - Highlights: ► Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) were measured in 9 co-located anadromous and non-anadromous Arctic charr populations. ► Mean [THg] in non-anadromous populations exceeded mean [THg] in spatially paired anadromous populations. ► Among-individual variation in [THg] was best explained by fish age. ► The lower [THg] in anadromous fish could not be explained by differences in age, fork-length, trophic level, or growth rate. ► Variations in Arctic charr [THg] were independent of latitude (49–81° N) in eastern Canada

  3. Biochemical characterization of sunscreening mycosporine-like amino acids from two Nostoc species inhabiting diverse habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richa; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2015-01-01

    We have screened two Nostoc species inhabiting diverse habitats for the presence of sunscreening mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA) compounds. The identification and characterization of one MAA (RT 3.1-3.8 min, λmax -334 nm) from both Nostoc species were performed using absorption spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Shinorine and porphyra-334 were commonly present in both Nostoc sp. strain HKAR-2 and Nostoc sp. strain HKAR-6. Nostoc sp. strain HKAR-2 also showed the presence of an unknown MAAs with retention time of 6.9 min and a corresponding λmax of 334 nm. Present investigation clearly demonstrated the presence of diverse profile of MAAs in the hot spring cyanobacterium in comparison to the rice field isolate. Thus, Nostoc sp. strain HKAR-2 would be a better source for the production of MAAs that can be used as a potent natural sunscreen against UV-B irradiation.

  4. Enhanced drought-tolerance in the homoploid hybrid species Pinus densata: implication for its habitat divergence from two progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Zhao, Changming; Milne, Richard; Ji, Mingfei; Chen, Litong; Liu, Jianquan

    2010-01-01

    The homoploid hybrid species Pinus densata is restricted to alpine habitats that exceed the altitude range of its two parental species, Pinus tabulaeformis and Pinus yunnanensis. Alpine habitats usually generate cold-induced water stress in plants. To understand the ecological differentiation between these three species, we examined their physiological responses to drought stress. Potted seedlings of three species were subjected to low, mild, moderate and severe water stress in an automatic-controlled glasshouse. Fifteen indicators of fitness were measured for each species in each treatment, and most of these decreased as drought increased. Pinus densata exhibited higher fitness than both parental species in terms of total dry mass production (TDM) and long-term water use efficiency (WUE(L)) across all treatments; several other ecophysiological traits were also extreme but not across every treatment, and not always in the highest stress treatment. These results indicate that extreme characters that have become well fixed in P. densata, confer a faster seedling growth rate and more efficient water use, which in turn should confer increased drought tolerance. These traits of P. densata likely promoted its ecological separation from its parental species and facilitated its successful colonization and establishment in high-altitude habitats.

  5. Small habitat size and isolation can promote species richness: second-order effects on biodiversity in shallow lakes and ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, M.; Van Geest, G.J.; Zimmer, K.; Jeppesen, E.; Søndergaard, M.; Butler, M.G.; Hanson, M.A.; Declerck, S.A.J.; De Meester, L.

    2006-01-01

    Contemporary ecological landscape planning is often based on the assumption that small isolated habitat patches sustain relatively few species. Here, we suggest that for shallow lakes and ponds, the opposite can be true for some groups of organisms. Fish communities tend to be poor or even absent in

  6. Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Vance R.; Powell, Russ M.

    1999-05-01

    The primary goal of ''The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Improvement Project'' is to access, create, improve, protect, and restore reparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing opportunities for natural fish production within the basin.

  7. Recruitment of flatfish species to an estuarine nursery habitat (Lima estuary, NW Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Sandra; Ré, Pedro; Bordalo, Adriano A.

    2010-11-01

    One of the present concerns of fish biologists involves defining and identifying nursery habitats in the context of conservation and resource management strategies. Fish nursery studies usually report upon nursery occupation during the latter juvenile stages, despite the fact that recruitment to nurseries can start early in life, during the larval phase. Here we investigated the use of a temperate estuarine nursery area, the Lima estuary (NW Portugal), by initial development stages of flatfish species before and after metamorphosis, integrating the larval and juvenile phases. The Lima estuarine flatfish community comprised twelve taxa, seven of which were present as pelagic larvae, six as juveniles and three as adults. There was a general trend of increasing spring-summer abundance of both larvae and juveniles, followed by a sharp winter decrease, mainly of larval flatfishes. The Lima estuary was used by Solea senegalensis, Platichthys flesus and Solea solea as a nursery area, with direct settlement for the two first species. In contrast, indirect settlement was suggested for S. solea, with metamorphosis occurring outside the estuarine area. Estuarine recruitment of S. senegalensis varied between years, with young larvae occurring in the estuary throughout a prolonged period that lasted 6-9 months, corroborating the protracted spawning season. P. flesus, the second most abundant species, exhibited a typical spring estuarine recruitment, without inter-annual variations. Developed larvae arrived in the estuary during spring, whereas the 0-group juveniles emerged in the following summer period. The present study contributes new insight to our understanding of the economically important S. senegalensis, and highlights the importance of integrating the planktonic larval phase into traditional flatfish nursery studies.

  8. Cover Image Identification of Plant Species for Crop Pollinator Habitat Enhancement in the Northern Prairies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bizecki Robson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wild pollinators have a positive impact on the productivity of insect-pollinated crops. Consequently, landowners are being encouraged to maintain and grow wildflower patches to provide habitat for important pollinators. Research on plant-pollinator interaction matrices indicates that a small number of “core” plants provide a disproportionately high amount of pollen and nectar to insects. This matrix data can be used to help design wildflower plantings that provide optimal resources for desirable pollinators. Existing interaction matrices from three tall grass prairie preserves in the northern prairies were used to identify core plant species that are visited by wild pollinators of a common insect-pollinated crop, namely canola (Brassica napus L.. The wildflower preferences of each insect taxon were determined using quantitative insect visitation and floral abundance data. Phenology data were used to calculate the degree of floral synchrony between the wildflowers and canola. Using this information I ranked the 41 wildflowers that share insect visitors with canola according to how useful they are for providing pollinators with forage before and after canola flowers. The top five species were smooth blue aster (Symphyotrichum laeve (L. A. & D. Löve, stiff goldenrod (Solidago rigida L., wild bergamot (Monarda fistulosa L., purple prairie-clover (Dalea purpurea Vent. and Lindley’s aster (Symphyotrichum ciliolatum (Lindl. A. & D. Löve. By identifying the most important wild insects for crop pollination, and determining when there will be “pollen and nectar gaps”, appropriate plant species can be selected for companion plantings to increase pollinator populations and crop production.

  9. An empirical assessment and comparison of species-based and habitat-based surrogates: a case study of forest vertebrates and large old trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, David B; Barton, Philip S; Lane, Peter W; Westgate, Martin J; McBurney, Lachlan; Blair, David; Gibbons, Philip; Likens, Gene E

    2014-01-01

    A holy grail of conservation is to find simple but reliable measures of environmental change to guide management. For example, particular species or particular habitat attributes are often used as proxies for the abundance or diversity of a subset of other taxa. However, the efficacy of such kinds of species-based surrogates and habitat-based surrogates is rarely assessed, nor are different kinds of surrogates compared in terms of their relative effectiveness. We use 30-year datasets on arboreal marsupials and vegetation structure to quantify the effectiveness of: (1) the abundance of a particular species of arboreal marsupial as a species-based surrogate for other arboreal marsupial taxa, (2) hollow-bearing tree abundance as a habitat-based surrogate for arboreal marsupial abundance, and (3) a combination of species- and habitat-based surrogates. We also quantify the robustness of species-based and habitat-based surrogates over time. We then use the same approach to model overall species richness of arboreal marsupials. We show that a species-based surrogate can appear to be a valid surrogate until a habitat-based surrogate is co-examined, after which the effectiveness of the former is lost. The addition of a species-based surrogate to a habitat-based surrogate made little difference in explaining arboreal marsupial abundance, but altered the co-occurrence relationship between species. Hence, there was limited value in simultaneously using a combination of kinds of surrogates. The habitat-based surrogate also generally performed significantly better and was easier and less costly to gather than the species-based surrogate. We found that over 30 years of study, the relationships which underpinned the habitat-based surrogate generally remained positive but variable over time. Our work highlights why it is important to compare the effectiveness of different broad classes of surrogates and identify situations when either species- or habitat-based surrogates are likely

  10. Environmental factors and habitat use influence body condition of individuals in a species at risk, the grizzly bear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbonnais, Mathieu L; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Cattet, Marc R L; Darimont, Chris T; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Janz, David M

    2014-01-01

    Metrics used to quantify the condition or physiological states of individuals provide proactive mechanisms for understanding population dynamics in the context of environmental factors. Our study examined how anthropogenic disturbance, habitat characteristics and hair cortisol concentrations interpreted as a sex-specific indicator of potential habitat net-energy demand affect the body condition of grizzly bears (n = 163) in a threatened population in Alberta, Canada. We quantified environmental variables by modelling spatial patterns of individual habitat use based on global positioning system telemetry data. After controlling for gender, age and capture effects, we assessed the influence of biological and environmental variables on body condition using linear mixed-effects models in an information theoretical approach. Our strongest model suggested that body condition was improved when patterns of habitat use included greater vegetation productivity, increased influence of forest harvest blocks and oil and gas well sites, and a higher percentage of regenerating and coniferous forest. However, body condition was negatively affected by habitat use in close proximity to roads and in areas where potential energetic demands were high. Poor body condition was also associated with increased selection of parks and protected areas and greater seasonal vegetation productivity. Adult females, females with cubs-of-year, juvenile females and juvenile males were in poorer body condition compared with adult males, suggesting that intra-specific competition and differences in habitat use based on gender and age may influence body condition dynamics. Habitat net-energy demand also tended to be higher in areas used by females which, combined with observed trends in body condition, could affect reproductive success in this threatened population. Our results highlight the importance of considering spatiotemporal variability in environmental factors and habitat use when assessing

  11. Projections of climate-driven changes in tuna vertical habitat based on species-specific differences in blood oxygen affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislan, K A S; Deutsch, Curtis A; Brill, Richard W; Dunne, John P; Sarmiento, Jorge L

    2017-10-01

    Oxygen concentrations are hypothesized to decrease in many areas of the ocean as a result of anthropogenically driven climate change, resulting in habitat compression for pelagic animals. The oxygen partial pressure, pO 2 , at which blood is 50% saturated (P 50 ) is a measure of blood oxygen affinity and a gauge of the tolerance of animals for low ambient oxygen. Tuna species display a wide range of blood oxygen affinities (i.e., P 50 values) and therefore may be differentially impacted by habitat compression as they make extensive vertical movements to forage on subdaily time scales. To project the effects of end-of-the-century climate change on tuna habitat, we calculate tuna P 50 depths (i.e., the vertical position in the water column at which ambient pO 2 is equal to species-specific blood P 50 values) from 21st century Earth System Model (ESM) projections included in the fifth phase of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Overall, we project P 50 depths to shoal, indicating likely habitat compression for tuna species due to climate change. Tunas that will be most impacted by shoaling are Pacific and southern bluefin tunas-habitat compression is projected for the entire geographic range of Pacific bluefin tuna and for the spawning region of southern bluefin tuna. Vertical shifts in P 50 depths will potentially influence resource partitioning among Pacific bluefin, bigeye, yellowfin, and skipjack tunas in the northern subtropical and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, the Arabian Sea, and the Bay of Bengal. By establishing linkages between tuna physiology and environmental conditions, we provide a mechanistic basis to project the effects of anthropogenic climate change on tuna habitats. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Diversity Partitioning of Wild Bee Assemblages (Hymenoptera: Apoidea, Apiformes and Species Preferences for Three Types of Refuge Habitats in an Agricultural Landscape in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaszak Józef

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patterns in bee assemblages consisting of 52 core (most abundant species in farmland in the Wielkopolska region of W Poland were analysed. The entomological material was assessed during earlier research in 1978-1993 from 18 plots in three habitat types: shelterbelts, roadsides and forest patches. At the scale of the refuge habitat size analysed here, an increase in area only slightly enhanced bee species richness. The bee assemblage structures of roadsides and forest patches differ significantly, but their indicator species do not form any well-defined ecological groups. In non-linear forest patches, the bee community structure was more homogeneous than on roadsides. These two habitat types differed significantly in their species composition. Nine significant indicator species were found, but they did not share any ecological characteristics. Three factors were found to affect significantly the responses of individual bee species in the agricultural landscape: the degree of isolation of the refuge habitat, the edge ratio, and roadsides as a refuge habitat type. A large part of the regional diversity is due to the heterogeneity of habitats within the landscape. Habitat area has little influence on the diversity of wild bees, at least within the size range analysed here. We concluded from this study that, regardless of the habitat type, the density of bees from the summer phenological period is affected by the number of food plant species. Point forest patches are habitats where summer species from the genus Andrena and the cleptoparasitic genera Nomada and Sphecodes achieve their highest abundances. Roadsides negatively affected abundances of wild bees and there were no characteristic species for this type of habitat. We hypothesised that this might be related to the specific ecological part played by this type of habitat.

  13. Characterizing the spatial structure of endangered species habitat using geostatistical analysis of IKONOS imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, C.S.A.; Marsh, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    Our study used geostatistics to extract measures that characterize the spatial structure of vegetated landscapes from satellite imagery for mapping endangered Sonoran pronghorn habitat. Fine spatial resolution IKONOS data provided information at the scale of individual trees or shrubs that permitted analysis of vegetation structure and pattern. We derived images of landscape structure by calculating local estimates of the nugget, sill, and range variogram parameters within 25 ?? 25-m image windows. These variogram parameters, which describe the spatial autocorrelation of the 1-m image pixels, are shown in previous studies to discriminate between different species-specific vegetation associations. We constructed two independent models of pronghorn landscape preference by coupling the derived measures with Sonoran pronghorn sighting data: a distribution-based model and a cluster-based model. The distribution-based model used the descriptive statistics for variogram measures at pronghorn sightings, whereas the cluster-based model used the distribution of pronghorn sightings within clusters of an unsupervised classification of derived images. Both models define similar landscapes, and validation results confirm they effectively predict the locations of an independent set of pronghorn sightings. Such information, although not a substitute for field-based knowledge of the landscape and associated ecological processes, can provide valuable reconnaissance information to guide natural resource management efforts. ?? 2005 Taylor & Francis Group Ltd.

  14. Doryphoribius chetumalensis sp. nov. (Eutardigrada: Isohypsibiidae) a new tardigrade species discovered in an unusual habitat of urban areas of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pech, Wilbert Andrés; Anguas-Escalante, Abril; Cutz-Pool, Leopoldo Querubin; Guidetti, Roberto

    2017-11-07

    A new species, Doryphoribius chetumalensis, is described from specimens collected in the city of Chetumal (Quintana Roo state, Mexico). The species was found in a new and unusual habitat for urban tardigrades, i.e. the soil sediment accumulated on the border of streets. This discovery shows that tardigrades can live in this habitat, demonstrating once again the wide capacity of this taxon to tolerate adverse habitats, and to survive in environments with high anthropogenic impact. Doryphoribius chetumalensis sp. nov. differs from all the other species of the genus in having enlarged and wide bulbous base of the claws. Within Doryphoribius, it belongs to the zappalai group, and differs from the species in this group, not only in the claw shape, but also by the orange body colour, the smooth cuticle, the absence of a tooth in the wall of the buccal ring, and the absence of lunules under the claws. This is the first record of tardigrades, identified to species level, in Quintana Roo state. A taxonomic key of the Doryphoribius genus is also presented.

  15. Trace elements in Antarctic fish species and the influence of foraging habitats and dietary habits on mercury levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goutte, Aurélie, E-mail: aurelie.goutte@ephe.sorbonne.fr [École Pratique des Hautes Études (EPHE), SPL, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7619 METIS, F-75005, 4 place Jussieu, Paris (France); Cherel, Yves [Centre d' Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, UMR 7372, CNRS-Université de La Rochelle, 79360 Villiers-en-Bois (France); Churlaud, Carine [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMR 7266, CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Ponthus, Jean-Pierre [École Pratique des Hautes Études (EPHE), SPL, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7619 METIS, F-75005, 4 place Jussieu, Paris (France); Massé, Guillaume [Unité Mixte Internationale Takuvik, Pavillon Alexandre-Vachon, Université Laval, QC, Québec (Canada); Bustamante, Paco [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMR 7266, CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France)

    2015-12-15

    This study aims at describing and interpreting concentration profiles of trace elements in seven Antarctic fish species (N = 132 specimens) off Adélie Land. Ichthyofauna plays a key role in the Antarctic ecosystem, as they occupy various ecological niches, including cryopelagic (ice-associated), pelagic, and benthic habitats. Firstly, trace element levels in the studied specimens were similar to those previously observed in fish from the Southern Ocean. Apart from manganese and zinc, concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, mercury (Hg), nickel, selenium and silver differed among fish species. Muscle δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values were determined to investigate whether the fish foraging habitats and dietary habits could explain Hg levels. Species and foraging habitat (δ{sup 13}C) were strong predictors for variations of Hg concentrations in muscle tissues. The highest Hg contamination was found in shallow benthic fish compared to cryopelagic and pelagic fish. This pattern was likely due to the methylation of Hg in the coastal sediment and the photodemethylation by ultraviolet radiation in surface waters. - Highlights: • Trace elements and stable isotopes were analyzed in seven Antarctic fish species. • Levels of trace elements in liver and in muscle differed among species. • Hg load was higher in benthic fish than in cryopelagic and pelagic fish. • These findings could be due to the high methylation rate of Hg in the sediment.

  16. Trace elements in Antarctic fish species and the influence of foraging habitats and dietary habits on mercury levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutte, Aurélie; Cherel, Yves; Churlaud, Carine; Ponthus, Jean-Pierre; Massé, Guillaume; Bustamante, Paco

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at describing and interpreting concentration profiles of trace elements in seven Antarctic fish species (N = 132 specimens) off Adélie Land. Ichthyofauna plays a key role in the Antarctic ecosystem, as they occupy various ecological niches, including cryopelagic (ice-associated), pelagic, and benthic habitats. Firstly, trace element levels in the studied specimens were similar to those previously observed in fish from the Southern Ocean. Apart from manganese and zinc, concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, mercury (Hg), nickel, selenium and silver differed among fish species. Muscle δ"1"3C and δ"1"5N values were determined to investigate whether the fish foraging habitats and dietary habits could explain Hg levels. Species and foraging habitat (δ"1"3C) were strong predictors for variations of Hg concentrations in muscle tissues. The highest Hg contamination was found in shallow benthic fish compared to cryopelagic and pelagic fish. This pattern was likely due to the methylation of Hg in the coastal sediment and the photodemethylation by ultraviolet radiation in surface waters. - Highlights: • Trace elements and stable isotopes were analyzed in seven Antarctic fish species. • Levels of trace elements in liver and in muscle differed among species. • Hg load was higher in benthic fish than in cryopelagic and pelagic fish. • These findings could be due to the high methylation rate of Hg in the sediment.

  17. Testing projected wild bee distributions in agricultural habitats: predictive power depends on species traits and habitat type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marshall, L.; Carvalheiro, L.G.; Aguirre-Gutierrez, J.; Bos, M.; Groot, de G.A.; Kleijn, D.; Potts, S.G.; Reemer, M.; Roberts, S.P.M.; Scheper, J.A.; Biesmeijer, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDM) are increasingly used to understand the factors that regulate variation in biodiversity patterns and to help plan conservation strategies. However, these models are rarely validated with independently collected data and it is unclear whether SDM performance is

  18. beta-diversity and species accumulation in antarctic coastal benthos: influence of habitat, distance and productivity on ecological connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon F Thrush

    Full Text Available High Antarctic coastal marine environments are comparatively pristine with strong environmental gradients, which make them important places to investigate biodiversity relationships. Defining how different environmental features contribute to shifts in beta-diversity is especially important as these shifts reflect both spatio-temporal variations in species richness and the degree of ecological separation between local and regional species pools. We used complementary techniques (species accumulation models, multivariate variance partitioning and generalized linear models to assess how the roles of productivity, bio-physical habitat heterogeneity and connectivity change with spatial scales from metres to 100's of km. Our results demonstrated that the relative importance of specific processes influencing species accumulation and beta-diversity changed with increasing spatial scale, and that patterns were never driven by only one factor. Bio-physical habitat heterogeneity had a strong influence on beta-diversity at scales 40 km. Our analysis supports the emphasis on the analysis of diversity relationships across multiple spatial scales and highlights the unequal connectivity of individual sites to the regional species pool. This has important implications for resilience to habitat loss and community homogenisation, especially for Antarctic benthic communities where rates of recovery from disturbance are slow, there is a high ratio of poor-dispersing and brooding species, and high biogenic habitat heterogeneity and spatio-temporal variability in primary production make the system vulnerable to disturbance. Consequently, large areas need to be included within marine protected areas for effective management and conservation of these special ecosystems in the face of increasing anthropogenic disturbance.

  19. beta-diversity and species accumulation in antarctic coastal benthos: influence of habitat, distance and productivity on ecological connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrush, Simon F; Hewitt, Judi E; Cummings, Vonda J; Norkko, Alf; Chiantore, Mariachiara

    2010-07-30

    High Antarctic coastal marine environments are comparatively pristine with strong environmental gradients, which make them important places to investigate biodiversity relationships. Defining how different environmental features contribute to shifts in beta-diversity is especially important as these shifts reflect both spatio-temporal variations in species richness and the degree of ecological separation between local and regional species pools. We used complementary techniques (species accumulation models, multivariate variance partitioning and generalized linear models) to assess how the roles of productivity, bio-physical habitat heterogeneity and connectivity change with spatial scales from metres to 100's of km. Our results demonstrated that the relative importance of specific processes influencing species accumulation and beta-diversity changed with increasing spatial scale, and that patterns were never driven by only one factor. Bio-physical habitat heterogeneity had a strong influence on beta-diversity at scales 40 km. Our analysis supports the emphasis on the analysis of diversity relationships across multiple spatial scales and highlights the unequal connectivity of individual sites to the regional species pool. This has important implications for resilience to habitat loss and community homogenisation, especially for Antarctic benthic communities where rates of recovery from disturbance are slow, there is a high ratio of poor-dispersing and brooding species, and high biogenic habitat heterogeneity and spatio-temporal variability in primary production make the system vulnerable to disturbance. Consequently, large areas need to be included within marine protected areas for effective management and conservation of these special ecosystems in the face of increasing anthropogenic disturbance.

  20. Historical habitat connectivity affects current genetic structure in a grassland species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Münzbergová, Zuzana; Cousins, S.A.O.; Herben, Tomáš; Plačková, Ivana; Mildén, M.; Ehrlén, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2013), s. 195-202 ISSN 1435-8603 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Beals index * habitat isolation * habitat suitability Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.405, year: 2013

  1. 78 FR 43005 - Endangered and Threatened Species: Designation of Critical Habitat for the Northwest Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ...-growing animals that use multiple habitats across entire ocean basins throughout their life history. This complex life history encompasses terrestrial, inshore/estuarine, nearshore, and open ocean habitats. The..., ambient light from the open sky creates a relatively bright horizon compared to the dark silhouette of the...

  2. Ecological value of coastal habitats for commercially and ecologically important species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seitz, R.D.; Wennhage, H.; Bergstrom, U.; Lipcius, R.M.; Ysebaert, T.

    2014-01-01

    Many exploited fish and macroinvertebrates that utilize the coastal zone have declined, and the causes of these declines, apart from overfishing, remain largely unresolved. Degradation of essential habitats has resulted in habitats that are no longer adequate to fulfil nursery, feeding, or

  3. Patterns and processes of habitat-specific demographic variability in exploited marine species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasconcelos, R.P.; Eggleston, D.B.; Pape, le O.; Tulp, I.Y.M.

    2014-01-01

    Population dynamics are governed by four demographic rates: births, deaths, immigration, and emigration. Variation in these rates and processes underlying such variation can be used to prioritize habitat conservation and restoration as well as to parameterize models that predict habitat-specific

  4. Habitat suitability—density relationship in an endangered woodland species: the case of the Blue Chaffinch (Fringilla polatzeki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Carrascal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Understanding constraints to the distribution of threatened species may help to ascertain whether there are other suitable sectors for reducing the risks associated with species that are recorded in only one protected locality, and to inform about the suitability of other areas for reintroduction or translocation programs. Methods We studied the Gran Canaria blue chaffinch (Fringilla polatzeki, a habitat specialist endemic of the Canary Islands restricted to the pine forest of Inagua, the only area where the species has been naturally present as a regular breeder in the last 25 years. A suitability distribution model using occurrences with demographic relevance (i.e., nest locations of successful breeding attempts analysed using boosted classification trees was built considering orographic, climatic and habitat structure predictors. By means of a standardized survey program we monitored the yearly abundance of the species in 100 sectors since the declaration of Inagua as a Strict Nature Reserve in 1994. Results The variables with the highest relative importance in blue chaffinch habitat preferences were pine height, tree cover, altitude, and rainfall during the driest trimester (July–September. The observed local abundance of the blue chaffinch in Inagua (survey data was significantly correlated with habitat suitability derived from modelling the location of successful nesting attempts (using linear and quantile regressions. The outcomes of the habitat suitability model were used to quantify the suitability of other natural, historic, pine forests of Gran Canaria. Tamadaba is the forest with most suitable woodland patches for the species. We estimated a population size of 195–430 blue chaffinches in Inagua since 2011 (95% CI, the smallest population size of a woodland passerine in the Western Palearctic. Discussion Habitat suitability obtained from modelling the location of successful breeding attempts is a good surrogate of the

  5. Urban Power Line Corridors as Novel Habitats for Grassland and Alien Plant Species in South-Western Finland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Lampinen

    Full Text Available Regularly managed electric power line corridors may provide habitats for both early-successional grassland plant species and disturbance-dependent alien plant species. These habitats are especially important in urban areas, where they can help conserve native grassland species and communities in urban greenspace. However, they can also provide further footholds for potentially invasive alien species that already characterize urban areas. In order to implement power line corridors into urban conservation, it is important to understand which environmental conditions in the corridors favor grassland species and which alien species. Likewise it is important to know whether similar environmental factors in the corridors control the species composition of the two groups. We conducted a vegetation study in a 43 kilometer long urban power line corridor network in south-western Finland, and used generalized linear models and distance-based redundancy analysis to determine which environmental factors best predict the occurrence and composition of grassland and alien plant species in the corridors. The results imply that old corridors on dry soils and steep slopes characterized by a history as open areas and pastures are especially suitable for grassland species. Corridors suitable for alien species, in turn, are characterized by productive soils and abundant light and are surrounded by a dense urban fabric. Factors controlling species composition in the two groups are somewhat correlated, with the most important factors including light abundance, soil moisture, soil calcium concentration and soil productivity. The results have implications for grassland conservation and invasive alien species control in urban areas.

  6. Correlation between the habitats productivity and species richness (amphibians and reptiles) in Portugal through remote sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, A. C.; Sillero, N.; Alves, S.; Duarte, L.

    2013-10-01

    Several biogeographic theories propose that the species richness depends on the structure and ecosystems diversity. The habitat productivity, a surrogate for these variables, can be evaluated through satellite imagery, namely using vegetation indexes (e.g. NDVI). We analyzed the correlation between species richness (from the Portuguese Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles) and NDVI (from Landsat, MODIS, and Vegetation images). The species richness database contains more than 80000 records, collected from bibliographic sources (at 1 or 10 km of spatial resolution) and fieldwork sampling stations (recorded with GPS devices). Several study areas were chosen for Landsat images (three subsets), and all Portugal for MODIS and Vegetation images. The Landsat subareas had different climatic and habitat characteristics, located in the north, center and south of Portugal. Different species richness datasets were used depending on the image spatial resolution: data with metric resolution were used for Landsat, and with 1 km resolution, for MODIS and Vegetation images. The NDVI indexes and all the images were calculated/processed in an open source software (Quantum GIS). Several plug-ins were applied in order to automatize several procedures. We did not find any correlation between the species richness of amphibians and reptiles (not even after separating both groups by species of Atlantic and Mediterranean affinity) and the NDVI calculated with Landsat, MODIS and Vegetation images. Our results may fail to find a relationship because as the species richness is not correlated with only one variable (NDVI), and thus other environmental variables must be considered.

  7. Landscape composition influences abundance patterns and habitat use of three ungulate species in fragmented secondary deciduous tropical forests, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. García-Marmolejo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary forests are extensive in the tropics. Currently, these plant communities are the available habitats for wildlife and in the future they will possibly be some of the most wide-spread ecosystems world-wide. To understand the potential role of secondary forests for wildlife conservation, three ungulate species were studied: Mazama temama, Odocoileus virginianus and Pecari tajacu. We analyzed their relative abundance and habitat use at two spatial scales: (1 Local, where three different successional stages of tropical deciduous forest were compared, and (2 Landscape, where available habitats were compared in terms of landscape composition (proportion of forests, pastures and croplands within 113 ha. To determine the most important habitat-related environmental factors influencing the Sign Encounter Rate (SER of the three ungulate species, 11 physical, anthropogenic and vegetation variables were simultaneously analyzed through model selection using Akaike’s Information Criterion. We found, that P. tajacu and O. virginianus mainly used early successional stages, while M. temama used all successional stages in similar proportions. The latter species, however, used early vegetation stages only when they were located in landscapes mainly covered by forest (97%. P. tajacu and O. virginianus also selected landscapes covered essentially by forests, although they required smaller percentages of forest (86%. All ungulate species avoided landscape fragments covered by pastures. For all three species, landscape composition and human activities were the variables that best explained SER. We concluded that landscape is the fundamental scale for ungulate management, and that secondary forests are potentially important landscape elements for ungulate conservation.

  8. Differences in Diet between Two Rodent Species, Mastomys natalensis and Gerbilliscus vicinus, in Fallow Land Habitats in Central Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulungu, Loth S.; Massawe, Apia W.; Kennis, Jan

    2011-01-01

    simply reflect availability of food, and when food is limited, different animal species compete. In this study, the diet of two rodent pest species, Mastomys natalensis and Gerbilliscus vicinus, coexisting in fallow land in central Tanzania were studied to assess the degree of diet differentiation among......Differences in the ecological niche requirements among rodent species competing in the same habitat may result from differences in the use of one to three resources: space, time and food or some combination of these. Alternatively, differences in resource use utilization among animal species may...... them. Dietary niche breadth of G. vicinus was greater than that of M. natalensis in all stages of the maize cropping seasons. The rodent species studied overlapped considerably in the food items consumed ranging from niche overlap (Ojk) of 0.77–0.89. Grains/seeds featured high in the diet of M...

  9. Seasonal variation in soil seed bank size and species composition of selected habitat types in Maputaland, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. S. Kellerman

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation in seed bank size and species composition of five selected habitat types within the Tembe Elephant Park. South Africa, was investigated. At three-month intervals, soil samples were randomly collected from five different habitat types: a, Licuati forest; b, Licuati thicket; c, a bare or sparsely vegetated zone surrounding the forest edge, referred to as the forest/grassland ecotone; d, grassland; and e, open woodland. Most species in the seed bank flora were either grasses, sedges, or forbs, with hardly any evidence of woody species. The Licuati forest and thicket soils produced the lowest seed densities in all seasons.  Licuati forest and grassland seed banks showed a two-fold seasonal variation in size, those of the Licuati thicket and woodland a three-fold variation in size, whereas the forest/grassland ecotone maintained a relatively large seed bank all year round. The woodland seed bank had the highest species richness, whereas the Licuati forest and thicket soils were poor in species. Generally, it was found that the greatest correspondence in species composition was between the Licuati forest and thicket, as well as the forest/grassland ecotone and grassland seed bank floras.

  10. Directional growth of a clonal bromeliad species in response to spatial habitat heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampaio, M.C.; Araujo, T.F.; Scarano, F.R.; Stuefer, J.F.

    2004-01-01

    Habitat selection by directional growth of plants has previously been investigated but field evidence for this phenomenon is extremely scarce. In this study we demonstrate directional clonal growth in Aechmea nudicaulis, a monocarpic, perennial bromeliad native to spatially heterogeneous sandy

  11. The Habitat Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Consists of activities which address the causes of habitat destruction and the effects of habitat loss on animals and plants. Identifies habitat loss as the major reason for the endangerment and extinction of plant and animal species. (ML)

  12. Quantifying the evidence for co-benefits between species conservation and climate change mitigation in giant panda habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Renqiang; Xu, Ming; Powers, Ryan; Zhao, Fen; Jetz, Walter; Wen, Hui; Sheng, Qingkai

    2017-10-05

    Conservationists strive for practical, cost-effective management solutions to forest-based species conservation and climate change mitigation. However, this is compromised by insufficient information about the effectiveness of protected areas in increasing carbon storage, and the co-benefits of species and carbon conservation remain poorly understood. Here, we present the first rigorous quantitative assessment of the roles of giant panda nature reserves (NRs) in carbon sequestration, and explore the co-benefits of habitat conservation and climate change mitigation. Results show that more than 90% of the studied panda NRs are effective in increasing carbon storage, with the mean biomass carbon density of the whole NRs exhibiting a 4.2% higher growth rate compared with lands not declared as NRs over the period 1988-2012, while this effectiveness in carbon storage masks important patterns of spatial heterogeneity across the giant panda habitats. Moreover, the significant associations have been identified between biomass carbon density and panda's habitat suitability in ~85% NRs and at the NR level. These findings suggest that the planning for carbon and species conservation co-benefits would enhance the greatest return on limited conservation investments, which is a critical need for the giant panda after its conservation status has been downgraded from "endangered" to "vulnerable".

  13. Where to nest? Ecological determinants of chimpanzee nest abundance and distribution at the habitat and tree species scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana S; Meyer, Christoph F J; Vicente, Luis; Marques, Tiago A

    2015-02-01

    Conversion of forests to anthropogenic land-uses increasingly subjects chimpanzee populations to habitat changes and concomitant alterations in the plant resources available to them for nesting and feeding. Based on nest count surveys conducted during the dry season, we investigated nest tree species selection and the effect of vegetation attributes on nest abundance of the western chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes verus, at Lagoas de Cufada Natural Park (LCNP), Guinea-Bissau, a forest-savannah mosaic widely disturbed by humans. Further, we assessed patterns of nest height distribution to determine support for the anti-predator hypothesis. A zero-altered generalized linear mixed model showed that nest abundance was negatively related to floristic diversity (exponential form of the Shannon index) and positively with the availability of smaller-sized trees, reflecting characteristics of dense-canopy forest. A positive correlation between nest abundance and floristic richness (number of plant species) and composition indicated that species-rich open habitats are also important in nest site selection. Restricting this analysis to feeding trees, nest abundance was again positively associated with the availability of smaller-sized trees, further supporting the preference for nesting in food tree species from dense forest. Nest tree species selection was non-random, and oil palms were used at a much lower proportion (10%) than previously reported from other study sites in forest-savannah mosaics. While this study suggests that human disturbance may underlie the exclusive arboreal nesting at LCNP, better quantitative data are needed to determine to what extent the construction of elevated nests is in fact a response to predators able to climb trees. Given the importance of LCNP as refuge for Pan t. verus our findings can improve conservation decisions for the management of this important umbrella species as well as its remaining suitable habitats. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The relationship between habitat complexity and nursery provision for an estuarine-dependent fish species in a permanently open South African Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Timothy; James, Nicola C.; Potts, Warren M.; Rajkaran, Anusha

    2017-11-01

    Estuarine-dependent marine fish species rely on shallow, sheltered and food rich habitats for protection from predators, growth and ultimately recruitment to adult populations. Hence, habitats within estuaries function as critical nursery areas for an abundance of fish species. However, these habitats vary in the degree of nursery function they provide and few studies have quantitatively assessed the relative nursery value of different habitat types within estuaries, particularly in the context of habitat complexity. This study aimed to assess the nursery value of the dominant vegetated habitats, namely the submergent Zostera capensis (Setch.) (seagrass) beds and emergent Spartina maritima (Curtis) Fernald (salt marsh) beds in the Bushmans Estuary, South Africa. Biomass and stem density were sampled seasonally in order to gain insight into the vegetation dynamics of seagrass and salt marsh beds. Aerial cover, canopy height and underwater camera imagery were used to develop multiple complexity indices for prioritizing habitat complexity. The relatively consistent results of the dimensionless indices (interstitial space indices and fractal geometry) suggest that Z. capensis exhibits an overall greater degree of complexity than S. maritima, and hence it can be expected that fish abundance is likely to be higher in Z. capensis beds than in S. maritima habitats. Underwater video cameras were deployed in seagrass, salt marsh and sand flat habitats to assess the relative abundance and behaviour of the estuarine-dependent sparid Rhabosargus holubi (Steindachner 1881) in different habitats. The relative abundance of R. holubi was significantly higher in Z. capensis seagrass than S. maritima salt marsh and sand flats, whilst the behaviour of R. holubi indicated a high degree of habitat use in structured habitats (both Z. capensis and S. martima) and a low degree of habitat use in unstructured sand flat habitats.

  15. Bromeliaceae species from coastal restinga habitats, Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, and Bahia

    OpenAIRE

    Cogliatti-Carvalho, Luciana; Rocha-Pessôa, Thereza; Nunes-Freitas, André; Rocha, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Bromeliaceae is one of the most representative plant families in restinga habitats. We analyzed the species richness and composition of Bromeliaceae in 13 restinga habitats along the Brazilian coast. We found a total of 41 species distributed along the restinga habitats studied. The restinga of Praia do Sul, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, had the highest number of species (15), whereas the restinga of Abaeté, in the state of Bahia, had the lowest (4). Our data are suggestive that the Doce Ri...

  16. Effects of habitat-forming species richness, evenness, identity, and abundance on benthic intertidal community establishment and productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Lemieux

    Full Text Available In a context of reduced global biodiversity, the potential impacts from the loss of habitat-forming species (HFS on ecosystem structure and functioning must be established. These species are often the main community primary producers and have a major role in the establishment of organisms through facilitation processes. This study focuses on macroalgae and mussels as HFS within an intertidal zone along the St. Lawrence estuary (Quebec, Canada. Over a 16-week period, we manipulated the in situ diversity profile (richness, evenness, identity, and abundance of the dominant HFS (Fucus distichus edentatus, F. vesiculosus, and Mytilus spp. in order to define their role in both the establishment of associated species and community primary production. Contrary to expectation, no general change in HFS richness, evenness, abundance, or identity on associated species community establishment was observed. However, over the study period, the HFS diversity profile modified the structure within the trophic guilds, which may potentially affect further community functions. Also, our results showed that the low abundance of HFS had a negative impact on the primary productivity of the community. Our results suggest that HFS diversity profiles have a limited short-term role in our study habitat and may indicate that biological forcing in these intertidal communities is less important than environmental conditions. As such, there was an opportunistic establishment of species that ensured rapid colonization regardless of the absence, or the diversity profile, of facilitators such as HFS.

  17. Species Richness Responses to Structural or Compositional Habitat Diversity between and within Grassland Patches: A Multi-Taxon Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, Szabolcs; Déri, Eszter; Magura, Tibor

    2016-01-01

    Habitat diversity (spatial heterogeneity within and between habitat patches in a landscape, HD) is often invoked as a driver of species diversity at small spatial scales. However, the effect of HD on species richness (SR) of multiple taxa is not well understood. We quantified HD and SR in a wet-dry gradient of open grassland habitats in Hortobágy National Park (E-Hungary) and tested the effect of compositional and structural factors of HD on SR of flowering plants, orthopterans, true bugs, spiders, ground beetles and birds. Our dataset on 434 grassland species (170 plants, 264 animals) showed that the wet-dry gradient (compositional HD at the between-patch scale) was primarily related to SR in orthopterans, ground-dwelling arthropods, and all animals combined. The patchiness, or plant association richness, of the vegetation (compositional HD at the within-patch scale) was related to SR of vegetation-dwelling arthropods, whereas vegetation height (structural HD at the within-patch scale) was related to SR of ground-dwelling arthropods and birds. Patch area was related to SR only in birds, whereas management (grazing, mowing, none) was related to SR of plants and true bugs. All relationships between HD and SR were positive, indicating increasing SR with increasing HD. However, total SR was not related to HD because different taxa showed similar positive responses to different HD variables. Our findings, therefore, show that even though HD positively influences SR in a wide range of grassland taxa, each taxon responds to different compositional or structural measures of HD, resulting in the lack of a consistent relationship between HD and SR when taxon responses are pooled. The idiosyncratic responses shown here exemplify the difficulties in detecting general HD-SR relationships over multiple taxa. Our results also suggest that management and restoration aimed specifically to sustain or increase the diversity of habitats are required to conserve biodiversity in

  18. The shark assemblage at French Frigate Shoals atoll, Hawai'i: species composition, abundance and habitat use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Jonathan J; Stankus, Austin M; Burns, Michael S; Meyer, Carl G

    2011-02-10

    Empirical data on the abundance and habitat preferences of coral reef top predators are needed to evaluate their ecological impacts and guide management decisions. We used longline surveys to quantify the shark assemblage at French Frigate Shoals (FFS) atoll from May to August 2009. Fishing effort consisted of 189 longline sets totaling 6,862 hook hours of soak time. A total of 221 sharks from 7 species were captured, among which Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis, 36.2%), gray reef (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, 25.8%) and tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier, 20.4%) sharks were numerically dominant. A lack of blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) distinguished the FFS shark assemblage from those at many other atolls in the Indo-Pacific. Compared to prior underwater visual survey estimates, longline methods more accurately represented species abundance and composition for the majority of shark species. Sharks were significantly less abundant in the shallow lagoon than adjacent habitats. Recaptures of Galapagos sharks provided the first empirical estimate of population size for any Galapagos shark population. The overall recapture rate was 5.4%. Multiple closed population models were evaluated, with Chao M(h) ranking best in model performance and yielding a population estimate of 668 sharks with 95% confidence intervals ranging from 289-1720. Low shark abundance in the shallow lagoon habitats suggests removal of a small number of sharks from the immediate vicinity of lagoonal islets may reduce short-term predation on endangered monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) pups, but considerable fishing effort would be required to catch even a small number of sharks. Additional data on long-term movements and habitat use of sharks at FFS are required to better assess the likely ecological impacts of shark culling.

  19. Species Richness Responses to Structural or Compositional Habitat Diversity between and within Grassland Patches: A Multi-Taxon Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Lengyel

    Full Text Available Habitat diversity (spatial heterogeneity within and between habitat patches in a landscape, HD is often invoked as a driver of species diversity at small spatial scales. However, the effect of HD on species richness (SR of multiple taxa is not well understood. We quantified HD and SR in a wet-dry gradient of open grassland habitats in Hortobágy National Park (E-Hungary and tested the effect of compositional and structural factors of HD on SR of flowering plants, orthopterans, true bugs, spiders, ground beetles and birds. Our dataset on 434 grassland species (170 plants, 264 animals showed that the wet-dry gradient (compositional HD at the between-patch scale was primarily related to SR in orthopterans, ground-dwelling arthropods, and all animals combined. The patchiness, or plant association richness, of the vegetation (compositional HD at the within-patch scale was related to SR of vegetation-dwelling arthropods, whereas vegetation height (structural HD at the within-patch scale was related to SR of ground-dwelling arthropods and birds. Patch area was related to SR only in birds, whereas management (grazing, mowing, none was related to SR of plants and true bugs. All relationships between HD and SR were positive, indicating increasing SR with increasing HD. However, total SR was not related to HD because different taxa showed similar positive responses to different HD variables. Our findings, therefore, show that even though HD positively influences SR in a wide range of grassland taxa, each taxon responds to different compositional or structural measures of HD, resulting in the lack of a consistent relationship between HD and SR when taxon responses are pooled. The idiosyncratic responses shown here exemplify the difficulties in detecting general HD-SR relationships over multiple taxa. Our results also suggest that management and restoration aimed specifically to sustain or increase the diversity of habitats are required to conserve

  20. Three-dimensional foraging habitat use and niche partitioning in two sympatric seabird species, Phalacrocorax auritus and P. penicillatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck-Richardson, Adam G.; Lyons, Donald E.; Roby, Daniel D.; Cushing, Daniel A.; Lerczak, James A.

    2018-01-01

    Ecological theory predicts that co-existing, morphologically similar species will partition prey resources when faced with resource limitations. We investigated local movements, foraging dive behavior, and foraging habitat selection by breeding adults of 2 closely related cormorant species, double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus and Brandt’s cormorants P. penicillatus. These species nest sympatrically at East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary at the border of Oregon and Washington states, USA. Breeding individuals of each species were tracked using GPS tags with integrated temperature and depth data-loggers. The overall foraging areas and core foraging areas (defined as the 95% and 50% kernel density estimates of dive locations, respectively) of double-crested cormorants were much larger and covered a broader range of riverine, mixed-estuarine, and nearshore marine habitats. Brandt’s cormorant foraging areas were less expansive, were exclusively marine, and mostly overlapped with double-crested cormorant foraging areas. Within these areas of overlap, Brandt’s cormorants tended to dive deeper (median depth = 6.48 m) than double-crested cormorants (median depth = 2.67 m), and selected dive locations where the water was deeper. Brandt’s cormorants also utilized a deeper, more benthic portion of the water column than did double-crested cormorants. Nevertheless, the substantial overlap in foraging habitat between the 2 cormorant species in the Columbia River estuary, particularly for Brandt’s cormorants, suggests that superabundant prey resources allow these 2 large and productive cormorant colonies to coexist on a single island near the mouth of the Columbia River.

  1. Birds and butterflies respond to soil-induced habitat heterogeneity in experimental plantings of tallgrass prairie species managed as agroenergy feedstocks in Iowa, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The positive association between habitat heterogeneity and species diversity has been well-documented for many taxa at various spatial and temporal scales, and the maintenance of habitat heterogeneity in agricultural landscapes has been promoted as a key strategy in efforts to conserve biodiversity....

  2. Flowers visited by hummingbirds in the open habitats of the southeastern Brazilian mountaintops: species composition and seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, L C; Rodrigues, M

    2014-08-01

    The hummingbird-visited plant community located on the open-habitat mountaintop of the Espinhaço Range was studied for two years (from August 2007 to July 2009) in Serra do Cipó National Park, Southeastern Brazil (19° 15' S and 43° 31' W). The floral characteristics and flowering period of the hummingbird-visited plants was monthly recorded along trails located in three vegetation types: (1) typical campos rupestres (TCR), (2) open fields (OPF), and (3) capões de mata (CAM). Hummingbird visitation was observed in 51 plant species, 22 ornithophilous and 29 non-ornithophilous species. The TCR showed the greatest number of species visited (N = 38), followed by the OPF (N = 18) and CAM (N = 17). Six species of hummingbirds were recorded visiting flowers: Augastes scutatus, Campylopterus largipennis, Colibri serrirostris, Chlorostilbon lucidus, Eupetomena macroura and Phaethornis pretrei. This study demonstrates that the species richness and the number of ornithophilous species visited by the hummingbirds at the study site are more similar to hummingbird-plant communities of the Atlantic Forest than to those of the Cerrado communities and other Brazilian highland open-habitat communities. The plant families most visited by hummingbirds were Bromeliaceae and Asteraceae. Although the Asteraceae family is rarely used as a food resource for hummingbirds in other high and lowland communities, in the study site this family is used mainly by the endemic hummingbird Augastes scutatus. We found a large overlap of flowering throughout the year among the species visited by the hummingbirds. Thus, the nectar availability supports these resident hummingbirds. The present study also showed that the studied hummingbird-plant community is composed of many species endemic to the campos rupestres of the Espinhaço Range, some of which are considered to be in danger of extinction, thus constituting a unique and threatened community. Thus, understanding hummingbird-plant pollination

  3. Flowers visited by hummingbirds in the open habitats of the southeastern brazilian mountaintops: species composition and seasonality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC Rodrigues

    Full Text Available The hummingbird-visited plant community located on the open-habitat mountaintop of the Espinhaço Range was studied for two years (from August 2007 to July 2009 in Serra do Cipó National Park, Southeastern Brazil (19° 15′ S and 43° 31′ W. The floral characteristics and flowering period of the hummingbird-visited plants was monthly recorded along trails located in three vegetation types: (1 typical campos rupestres (TCR, (2 open fields (OPF, and (3 capões de mata(CAM. Hummingbird visitation was observed in 51 plant species, 22 ornithophilous and 29 non-ornithophilous species. The TCR showed the greatest number of species visited (N = 38, followed by the OPF (N = 18 and CAM (N = 17. Six species of hummingbirds were recorded visiting flowers: Augastes scutatus, Campylopterus largipennis, Colibri serrirostris, Chlorostilbon lucidus, Eupetomena macroura and Phaethornis pretrei. This study demonstrates that the species richness and the number of ornithophilous species visited by the hummingbirds at the study site are more similar to hummingbird-plant communities of the Atlantic Forest than to those of the Cerrado communities and other Brazilian highland open-habitat communities. The plant families most visited by hummingbirds were Bromeliaceae and Asteraceae. Although the Asteraceae family is rarely used as a food resource for hummingbirds in other high and lowland communities, in the study site this family is used mainly by the endemic hummingbird Augastes scutatus. We found a large overlap of flowering throughout the year among the species visited by the hummingbirds. Thus, the nectar availability supports these resident hummingbirds. The present study also showed that the studied hummingbird-plant community is composed of many species endemic to the campos rupestres of the Espinhaço Range, some of which are considered to be in danger of extinction, thus constituting a unique and threatened community. Thus, understanding hummingbird

  4. Wildlife Species, Potential habitat layer for Forest Interior Dwelling Species in the State of Maryland. These data are only the results of a model depicting where FIDS habitat might occur based on certain criteria. These polygons have NOT been field tested or field verifi, Published in 2006, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Wildlife Species dataset current as of 2006. Potential habitat layer for Forest Interior Dwelling Species in the State of Maryland. These data are only the results...

  5. Used-habitat calibration plots: A new procedure for validating species distribution, resource selection, and step-selection models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieberg, John R.; Forester, James D.; Street, Garrett M.; Johnson, Douglas H.; ArchMiller, Althea A.; Matthiopoulos, Jason

    2018-01-01

    Species distribution modeling” was recently ranked as one of the top five “research fronts” in ecology and the environmental sciences by ISI's Essential Science Indicators (Renner and Warton 2013), reflecting the importance of predicting how species distributions will respond to anthropogenic change. Unfortunately, species distribution models (SDMs) often perform poorly when applied to novel environments. Compounding on this problem is the shortage of methods for evaluating SDMs (hence, we may be getting our predictions wrong and not even know it). Traditional methods for validating SDMs quantify a model's ability to classify locations as used or unused. Instead, we propose to focus on how well SDMs can predict the characteristics of used locations. This subtle shift in viewpoint leads to a more natural and informative evaluation and validation of models across the entire spectrum of SDMs. Through a series of examples, we show how simple graphical methods can help with three fundamental challenges of habitat modeling: identifying missing covariates, non-linearity, and multicollinearity. Identifying habitat characteristics that are not well-predicted by the model can provide insights into variables affecting the distribution of species, suggest appropriate model modifications, and ultimately improve the reliability and generality of conservation and management recommendations.

  6. Ecomorphology, differentiated habitat use, and nocturnal activities of Rhinolophus and Hipposideros species in East Asian tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ya-Fu; Kuo, Yen-Min; Chu, Wen-Chen; Lin, Yu-Hsiu; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chen, Wei-Ming

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the wing morphology and foraging distributions of sympatric Rhinolophus and Hipposideros species by acoustic sampling, measuring wing parameters, and observing bats in different settings of tropical East Asian forests, to evaluate their flexibility in habitat use and edge sensitivity. R. formosae and H. terasensis were more abundant at edges/in open habitats and shared the highest overlap, with R. formosae displaying the greatest breadth in habitat use, whereas R. monoceros had a higher abundance and feeding efficiency in forest interiors with a continuous canopy. H. terasensis was significantly larger and had higher wing loading and aspect ratio than R. formosae and R. monoceros, while R. formosae had higher wing loading but a lower aspect ratio than the smaller-sized R. monoceros. Shrubs and herbs were higher at sites where bats were captured than at those without bat captures, and R. monoceros and R. formosae were associated with greater canopy and ground coverage, respectively. R. monoceros always foraged while flying at lower heights close to the herb/shrub layers, while H. terasensis and R. formosae used perching to different extents, with R. formosae preferably using fly-catching techniques and appearing farther from the path in open forests rather than in forest interiors. Our results indicate that differences in wing parameters account for the different degrees of flexibility in habitat use, yet the deviations of call frequency from the expected values in R. formosae and H. terasensis suggest additional adaptations accounting for their flexibility in exploring habitats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Habitat fragmentation and species extirpation in freshwater ecosystems; causes of range decline of the Indus river dolphin (Platanista gangetica minor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braulik, Gill T; Arshad, Masood; Noureen, Uzma; Northridge, Simon P

    2014-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation of freshwater ecosystems is increasing rapidly, however the understanding of extinction debt and species decline in riverine habitat fragments lags behind that in other ecosystems. The mighty rivers that drain the Himalaya - the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Indus, Mekong and Yangtze - are amongst the world's most biodiverse freshwater ecosystems. Many hundreds of dams have been constructed, are under construction, or are planned on these rivers and large hydrological changes and losses of biodiversity have occurred and are expected to continue. This study examines the causes of range decline of the Indus dolphin, which inhabits one of the world's most modified rivers, to demonstrate how we may expect other vertebrate populations to respond as planned dams and water developments come into operation. The historical range of the Indus dolphin has been fragmented into 17 river sections by diversion dams; dolphin sighting and interview surveys show that river dolphins have been extirpated from ten river sections, they persist in 6, and are of unknown status in one section. Seven potential factors influencing the temporal and spatial pattern of decline were considered in three regression model sets. Low dry-season river discharge, due to water abstraction at irrigation barrages, was the principal factor that explained the dolphin's range decline, influencing 1) the spatial pattern of persistence, 2) the temporal pattern of subpopulation extirpation, and 3) the speed of extirpation after habitat fragmentation. Dolphins were more likely to persist in the core of the former range because water diversions are concentrated near the range periphery. Habitat fragmentation and degradation of the habitat were inextricably intertwined and in combination caused the catastrophic decline of the Indus dolphin.

  8. Habitat fragmentation and species extirpation in freshwater ecosystems; causes of range decline of the Indus river dolphin (Platanista gangetica minor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill T Braulik

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation of freshwater ecosystems is increasing rapidly, however the understanding of extinction debt and species decline in riverine habitat fragments lags behind that in other ecosystems. The mighty rivers that drain the Himalaya - the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Indus, Mekong and Yangtze - are amongst the world's most biodiverse freshwater ecosystems. Many hundreds of dams have been constructed, are under construction, or are planned on these rivers and large hydrological changes and losses of biodiversity have occurred and are expected to continue. This study examines the causes of range decline of the Indus dolphin, which inhabits one of the world's most modified rivers, to demonstrate how we may expect other vertebrate populations to respond as planned dams and water developments come into operation. The historical range of the Indus dolphin has been fragmented into 17 river sections by diversion dams; dolphin sighting and interview surveys show that river dolphins have been extirpated from ten river sections, they persist in 6, and are of unknown status in one section. Seven potential factors influencing the temporal and spatial pattern of decline were considered in three regression model sets. Low dry-season river discharge, due to water abstraction at irrigation barrages, was the principal factor that explained the dolphin's range decline, influencing 1 the spatial pattern of persistence, 2 the temporal pattern of subpopulation extirpation, and 3 the speed of extirpation after habitat fragmentation. Dolphins were more likely to persist in the core of the former range because water diversions are concentrated near the range periphery. Habitat fragmentation and degradation of the habitat were inextricably intertwined and in combination caused the catastrophic decline of the Indus dolphin.

  9. Changes in habitat availability for outmigrating juvenile salmon (Oncorhychus spp.) following estuary restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellings, Christopher S.; Davis, Melanie; Grossman, Eric E.; Hodgson, Sayre; Turner, Kelley L.; Woo PR, Isa; Nakai, Glynnis; Takekawa, Jean E.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2016-01-01

    The restoration of the Nisqually River Delta (Washington, U.S.A.) represents one of the largest efforts toward reestablishing the ecosystem function and resilience of modified habitat in the Puget Sound, particularly for anadromous salmonid species. The opportunity for outmigrating salmon to access and benefit from the expansion of available tidal habitat can be quantified by several physical attributes, which are related to the ecological and physiological responses of juvenile salmon. We monitored a variety of physical parameters to measure changes in opportunity potential from historic, pre-restoration, and post-restoration habitat conditions at several sites across the delta. These parameters included channel morphology, water quality, tidal elevation, and landscape connectivity. We conducted fish catch surveys across the delta to determine if salmon was utilizing restored estuary habitat. Overall major channel area increased 42% and major channel length increased 131% from pre- to post-restoration conditions. Furthermore, the results of our tidal inundation model indicated that major channels were accessible up to 75% of the time, as opposed to 30% pre-restoration. Outmigrating salmon utilized this newly accessible habitat as quickly as 1 year post-restoration. The presence of salmon in restored tidal channels confirmed rapid post-restoration increases in opportunity potential on the delta despite habitat quality differences between restored and reference sites.

  10. A simple model that identifies potential effects of sea-level rise on estuarine and estuary-ecotone habitat locations for salmonids in Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flitcroft, Rebecca; Burnett, Kelly; Christiansen, Kelly

    2013-07-01

    Diadromous aquatic species that cross a diverse range of habitats (including marine, estuarine, and freshwater) face different effects of climate change in each environment. One such group of species is the anadromous Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). Studies of the potential effects of climate change on salmonids have focused on both marine and freshwater environments. Access to a variety of estuarine habitat has been shown to enhance juvenile life-history diversity, thereby contributing to the resilience of many salmonid species. Our study is focused on the effect of sea-level rise on the availability, complexity, and distribution of estuarine, and low-freshwater habitat for Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), steelhead (anadromous O. mykiss), and coho salmon (O. kisutch) along the Oregon Coast under future climate change scenarios. Using LiDAR, we modeled the geomorphologies of five Oregon estuaries and estimated a contour associated with the current mean high tide. Contour intervals at 1- and 2-m increments above the current mean high tide were generated, and changes in the estuary morphology were assessed. Because our analysis relied on digital data, we compared three types of digital data in one estuary to assess the utility of different data sets in predicting the changes in estuary shape. For each salmonid species, changes in the amount and complexity of estuarine edge habitats varied by estuary. The simple modeling approach we applied can also be used to identify areas that may be most amenable to pre-emptive restoration actions to mitigate or enhance salmonid habitat under future climatic conditions.

  11. Distinct genetic differentiation and species diversification within two marine nematodes with different habitat preference in Antarctic sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauquier, Freija; Leliaert, Frederik; Rigaux, Annelien; Derycke, Sofie; Vanreusel, Ann

    2017-05-30

    Dispersal ability, population genetic structure and species divergence in marine nematodes are still poorly understood, especially in remote areas such as the Southern Ocean. We investigated genetic differentiation of species and populations of the free-living endobenthic nematode genera Sabatieria and Desmodora using nuclear 18S rDNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene sequences. Specimens were collected at continental shelf depths (200-500 m) near the Antarctic Peninsula, Scotia Arc and eastern side of the Weddell Sea. The two nematode genera co-occurred at all sampled locations, but with different vertical distribution in the sediment. A combination of phylogenetic (GMYC, Bayesian Inference, Maximum Likelihood) and population genetic (AMOVA) analyses were used for species delimitation and assessment of gene flow between sampling locations. Sequence analyses resulted in the delimitation of four divergent species lineages in Sabatieria, two of which could not be discriminated morphologically and most likely constitute cryptic species. Two species were recognised in Desmodora, one of which showed large intraspecific morphological variation. Both genera comprised species that were restricted to one side of the Weddell Sea and species that were widely spread across it. Population genetic structuring was highly significant and more pronounced in the deeper sediment-dwelling Sabatieria species, which are generally less prone to resuspension and passive dispersal in the water column than surface Desmodora species. Our results indicate that gene flow is restricted at large geographic distance in the Southern Ocean, which casts doubt on the efficiency of the Weddell gyre and Antarctic Circumpolar Current in facilitating circum-Antarctic nematode species distributions. We also show that genetic structuring and cryptic speciation can be very different in nematode species isolated from the same geographic area, but with

  12. A multistage decision support framework to guide tree species management under climate change via habitat suitability and colonization models, and a knowledge-based scoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantha M. Prasad; Louis R. Iverson; Stephen N. Matthews; Matthew P. Peters

    2016-01-01

    Context. No single model can capture the complex species range dynamics under changing climates--hence the need for a combination approach that addresses management concerns. Objective. A multistage approach is illustrated to manage forested landscapes under climate change. We combine a tree species habitat model--DISTRIB II, a species colonization model--SHIFT, and...

  13. A Candidate Vegetation Index of Biological Integrity Based on Species Dominance and Habitat Fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Brian D; Stapanian, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    Indices of biological integrity of wetlands based on vascular plants (VIBIs) have been developed in many areas of the USA and are used in some states to make critical management decisions. An underlying concept of all VIBIs is that they respond negatively to disturbance. The Ohio VIBI (OVIBI) is calculated from 10 metrics, which are different for each wetland vegetation class. We present a candidate vegetation index of biotic integrity based on floristic quality (VIBI-FQ) that requires only two metrics to calculate an overall score regardless of vegetation class. These metrics focus equally on the critical ecosystem elements of diversity and dominance as related to a species’ degree of fidelity to habitat requirements. The indices were highly correlated but varied among vegetation classes. Both indices responded negatively with a published index of wetland disturbance in 261 Ohio wetlands. Unlike VIBI-FQ, however, errors in classifying wetland vegetation may lead to errors in calculating OVIBI scores. This is especially critical when assessing the ecological condition of rapidly developing ecosystems typically associated with wetland restoration and creation projects. Compared to OVIBI, the VIBI-FQ requires less field work, is much simpler to calculate and interpret, and can potentially be applied to all habitat types. This candidate index, which has been “standardized” across habitats, would make it easier to prioritize funding because it would score the “best” and “worst” of all habitats appropriately and allow for objective comparison across different vegetation classes.

  14. Habitat or prey specialization in predatory ladybird beetles: a case study of two closely related species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ferrer, A.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.; Hemptinne, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 140, č. 3 (2016), s. 199-208 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : aphids * habitat * ladybirds * prey * reproductive investment * specialization Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.641, year: 2016

  15. Effects of climate-induced habitat changes on a key zooplankton species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Klas O.; Schmidt, Jörn O.; St. John, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems have become increasingly apparent during the past decades. In consequence, it is necessary to study how these alterations can affect the habitat and population dynamics of key organisms. Here we used a video plankton recorder (VPR) to investigate the...

  16. Friendly Habitat, Endangered Species: Ecological Theory and the Demise of a High School Mandarin Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouse, Roger C.; Sun, Jinai

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a case study examining the demise of a high school Mandarin language program in a school district that appeared to offer an exceptionally friendly habitat for its survival. Though members of the school board majority who voted against funding the program offered rational explanations for their decision (e.g., insufficient…

  17. Anadromous char as an alternate food choice to marine animals: A synthesis of Hg concentrations, population features and other influencing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Marlene S., E-mail: marlene.evans@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 11 Innovation Blvd., Saskatoon SK S7N 3H5 (Canada); Muir, Derek C.G. [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Keating, Jonathan [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 11 Innovation Blvd., Saskatoon SK S7N 3H5 (Canada); Wang, Xiaowa [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    and marine vertebrates in traditional diets. The known information on anadromous char is reviewed including population features, habitat, and harvests. Future Hg trend monitoring should focus on specific locations and harvest areas within these areas to better assess trends and influencing factors. - Highlights: • Mercury concentrations were very low (0.05 ± 0.02 µg/g) in anadromous char across northern Canada. • Hg concentrations increased with fish size, decreasing condition factor and cooler springs. • Hg concentrations seemed to increase on the long-term but decrease in recent times. • Char are a good food choice for those who want to maintain traditional diets while reducing Hg intake. • Anadromous char often are habitat-limited and most abundant in large lakes with ready sea access.

  18. Anadromous char as an alternate food choice to marine animals: A synthesis of Hg concentrations, population features and other influencing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Marlene S.; Muir, Derek C.G.; Keating, Jonathan; Wang, Xiaowa

    2015-01-01

    marine vertebrates in traditional diets. The known information on anadromous char is reviewed including population features, habitat, and harvests. Future Hg trend monitoring should focus on specific locations and harvest areas within these areas to better assess trends and influencing factors. - Highlights: • Mercury concentrations were very low (0.05 ± 0.02 µg/g) in anadromous char across northern Canada. • Hg concentrations increased with fish size, decreasing condition factor and cooler springs. • Hg concentrations seemed to increase on the long-term but decrease in recent times. • Char are a good food choice for those who want to maintain traditional diets while reducing Hg intake. • Anadromous char often are habitat-limited and most abundant in large lakes with ready sea access

  19. Coastal Critical Habitat Designations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Endangered Species Act (ESA) requires the Federal government to designate critical habitat, areas of habitat essential to the species' conservation, for ESA...

  20. Flowering phenology and pollination of ornithophilous species in two habitats of Serra da Bodoquena, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Rogério R; Araújo, Andréa C

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to describe interactions between hummingbirds and ornithophilous species at Serra da Bodoquena in midwest Brazil, with focus on flowering phenology and pollination of these plant species. In two habitats, gallery forest and semi-deciduous forest, data on flowering phenology of ornithophilous species were collected monthly over 14 months. In addition, data on morphology and floral biology, as well as visitor frequency and hummingbird behavior, were recorded. The studied community contained eight ornithophilous plant species and six hummingbird species. The ornithophilous species flowered throughout the year, and the greatest abundance of flowers was at the end of the rainy season and the beginning of the dry one. The herit huingbird Phaethornis pretrei and feales of Thalurania furcata, were the most similar in floral resource use. Acanthaceae is the most representative family of ornithophilous plant species in Serra da Bodoquena and, thus, represents the main food source for hummingbirds. Ruellia angustiflora is especially important because it flowers continuously throughout the year and is a significant food resource for P. pretrei, which is the main visitor for this plant guild.

  1. Redox-Stratified Bacterial Communities in Sediments Associated with Multiple Lucinid Bivalve Species: Implications for Symbiosis in Changing Coastal Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, A. T.; Fortier, C. M.; Long, B.; Kokesh, B. S.; Lim, S. J.; Campbell, B. J.; Anderson, L. C.; Engel, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Lucinids, chemosymbiotic marine bivalves, occupy strong redox gradient habitats, including the rhizosphere of coastal seagrass beds and mangrove forests in subtropical to tropical ecosystems. Lucinids and their sulfide-oxidizing gammaproteobacterial endosymbionts, which are acquired from the environment, provide a critical ecosystem service by removing toxic reduced sulfur compounds from the surrounding environment, and lucinids may be an important food source to economically valuable fisheries. The habitats of Phacoides pectinatus, Stewartia floridana, Codakia orbicularis, Ctena orbiculata, and Lucina pensylvanica lucinids in Florida and San Salvador in The Bahamas were evaluated in comprehensive malacological, microbiological, and geochemical surveys. Vegetation cover included different seagrass species or calcareous green macroalgae. All sites were variably affected by anthropogenic activities, as evidenced by visible prop scars in seagrass beds, grain size distributions atypical of low energy environments (i.e., artificial fill or dredge material from nearby channels), and high levels of pyrogenic hydrocarbon compounds in sediment indicative of urbanization impact. Where present, lucinid population densities frequently exceeded 2000 individuals per cubic meter, and were typically more abundant underlying seagrass compared to unvegetated, bare sand. Dissolved oxygen and sulfide levels varied from where lucinids were recovered. The sediment bacterial communities from classified 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the diversity of putative anaerobic groups increased with sediment depth, but putative aerobes, including of Gammaproteobacteria related to the lucinid endosymbionts, decreased with depth. Where multiple seagrass species co-occurred, retrieved bacterial community compositions correlated to overlying seagrass species, but diversity differed from bare sand patches, including among putative free-living endosymbiont groups. As such, continued sea

  2. Altitudinal patterns in breeding bird species richness and density in relation to climate, habitat heterogeneity, and migration influence in a temperate montane forest (South Korea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Yong; Lee, Sanghun; Shin, Man-Seok; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Seo, Changwan; Eo, Soo Hyung

    2018-01-01

    Altitudinal patterns in the population ecology of mountain bird species are useful for predicting species occurrence and behavior. Numerous hypotheses about the complex interactions among environmental factors have been proposed; however, these still remain controversial. This study aimed to identify the altitudinal patterns in breeding bird species richness or density and to test the hypotheses that climate, habitat heterogeneity (horizontal and vertical), and heterospecific attraction in a temperate forest, South Korea. We conducted a field survey of 142 plots at altitudes between 200 and 1,400 m a.s.l in the breeding season. A total of 2,771 individuals from 53 breeding bird species were recorded. Altitudinal patterns of species richness and density showed a hump-shaped pattern, indicating that the highest richness and density could be observed at moderate altitudes. Models constructed with 13 combinations of six variables demonstrated that species richness was positively correlated with vertical and horizontal habitat heterogeneity. Density was positively correlated with vertical, but not horizontal habitat heterogeneity, and negatively correlated with migratory bird ratio. No significant relationships were found between spring temperature and species richness or density. Therefore, the observed patterns in species richness support the hypothesis that habitat heterogeneity, rather than climate, is the main driver of species richness. Also, neither habitat heterogeneity nor climate hypotheses fully explains the observed patterns in density. However, vertical habitat heterogeneity does likely help explain observed patterns in density. The heterospecific attraction hypothesis did not apply to the distribution of birds along the altitudinal gradient. Appropriate management of vertical habitat heterogeneity, such as vegetation cover, should be maintained for the conservation of bird diversity in this area.

  3. Mine spoil prairies expand critical habitat for endangered and threatened amphibian and reptile species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannoo, Michael J.; Kinney, Vanessa C.; Heemeyer, Jennifer L.; Engbrecht, Nathan J.; Gallant, Alisa L.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Coal extraction has been occurring in the Midwestern United States for over a century. Despite the pre-mining history of the landscape as woodlands, spent surface coalfields are often reclaimed to grasslands. We assessed amphibian and reptile species on a large tract of coal spoil prairie and found 13 species of amphibians (nine frog and four salamander species) and 19 species of reptiles (one lizard, five turtle, and 13 snake species). Two state-endangered and three state species of special concern were documented. The amphibian diversity at our study site was comparable to the diversity found at a large restored prairie situated 175 km north, within the historic prairie peninsula.

  4. Conflation and aggregation of spatial data improve predictive models for species with limited habitats: a case of the threatened yellow-billed cuckoo in Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Miguel L.; van Riper, Charles; Petrakis, Roy E.

    2013-01-01

    Riparian vegetation provides important wildlife habitat in the Southwestern United States, but limited distributions and spatial complexity often leads to inaccurate representation in maps used to guide conservation. We test the use of data conflation and aggregation on multiple vegetation/land-cover maps to improve the accuracy of habitat models for the threatened western yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus occidentalis). We used species observations (n = 479) from a state-wide survey to develop habitat models from 1) three vegetation/land-cover maps produced at different geographic scales ranging from state to national, and 2) new aggregate maps defined by the spatial agreement of cover types, which were defined as high (agreement = all data sets), moderate (agreement ≥ 2), and low (no agreement required). Model accuracies, predicted habitat locations, and total area of predicted habitat varied considerably, illustrating the effects of input data quality on habitat predictions and resulting potential impacts on conservation planning. Habitat models based on aggregated and conflated data were more accurate and had higher model sensitivity than original vegetation/land-cover, but this accuracy came at the cost of reduced geographic extent of predicted habitat. Using the highest performing models, we assessed cuckoo habitat preference and distribution in Arizona and found that major watersheds containing high-probably habitat are fragmented by a wide swath of low-probability habitat. Focus on riparian restoration in these areas could provide more breeding habitat for the threatened cuckoo, offset potential future habitat losses in adjacent watershed, and increase regional connectivity for other threatened vertebrates that also use riparian corridors.

  5. The distribution and habitat preferences of the declining species Orobanche arenaria Borkh at the northern limit of its geographical range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Piwowarczyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new sites of Orobanche arenaria were discovered during floristic investigations in the Wyżyna Małopolska upland in central Poland. The new localities are concentrated in the Ponidzie area (Garb Pińczowski ridge and Niecka Połaniecka basin and form the northern limit of the geographical range of O. arenaria. The paper presents information on the distribution of Orobanche arenaria in Poland, the abundance at the sites and habitats occupied by the species.

  6. Revision of Nymphaea candida range - new data on the distribution and habitat preferences of the species in southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Nowak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of geobotanical and taxonomic studies on the distribution and habitat requirements of Nymphaea candida in southern Poland. The researches were conducted in southern Poland in 2003-2009, in the provinces of Lower Silesia, Lublin, Małopolska, Opole, Silesian province as well as, in southern parts of Mazowieckie and Lubuskie. Flowers, leaves and fruits of Nymphaea species were collected from 27 locations. Altogether pollens from 73 populations of N. candida and 18 of N. alba from all the researched area were measured. The trophic level of an ecosystem was evaluated according to the results of the total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chlorophyll a, transparency and biological parameters. As the result of the studies of more than 200 water bodies, 57 localities of N. candida were documented within the investigation area. The populations of N. candida occupy mid-forest water bodies and river ox-bow lakes. A significant number of populations was also found in artificial reservoirs - fish ponds. The most suitable habitat conditions for N. candida occur in shallow waters in the shore zone with the amplitude of the water column vary from 0.5 to 2 m. Regarding the trophy level, N. candida occupies different habitats, mainly mesotrophic and also eutrophic with high content of organic matters. Considering the 15 checked morphological parameters, especially the stigma diameter, the number of carpellary teeth, flower and pollen diameters, the found and collected specimens of N. candida significantly differ from N. alba. The study confirms that N. candida ocurrs in whole lowland Poland without any regional distribution gaps. According to the IUCN guidelines to species assessment the data gathered during the presented study do not allow to classify N. candida as a vulnerable species in Poland. Still existing populations for more than 150 years, numerous stable locations, abundant populations, a habitat accessibility, a biotope extent, an

  7. Impacts of Oreochromis mossambicus (Perciformes: Cichlidae upon habitat segregation among cyprinodontids (Cyprinodontiformes of a species flock in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Fuselier

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Five species of Cyprinodon in Laguna Chichancanab, Yucatan, Mexico comprise a young species flock whose ecology and evolution has not been thoroughly studied, but whose existence is threatened with extinction. Species flocks evolve in isolated areas where predators and competitors are absent. Since the description of the Chichancanab flock, Oreochromis mossambicus, a species introduced into the lake for which I examined habitat in the 1980’s, has become common throughout the basin. I assessed relative abundance of flock species in the lake. examined habitat use and segregation among the three most common flock species and examined the affects of O. mossambicus upon flock species habitat use. Cyprinodon beltrani was the most abundant flock species in 1997, followed by C. maya and C. labiosus; C. verecundus and C. simus were rare. Cyprinodon beltrani was found in shallow water, nearshore, over thick beds of submerged Chara, and little emergent vegetation Cyprinodon beltrani exhibited diurnal variation in nearshore habitat use. In the field, the habitat use of C. beltrani and O. mossambicus broadly overlapped. In aquarium experiments, three flock species exhibited habitat use segregation and C. beltrani and C. labiosus showed agonistic behaviors that strengthened segregation. Cyprinodon maya differed from C. beltrani and C. labiosus by its greater dispersion of individuals and use of areas higher in the water column. The presence of O. mossambicus caused a shift in habitat use by C. maya and C. labiosus that put these species into habitat occupied by C. beltrani. The presence of introduced species has caused a significant perturbation of the conditions that fomented speciation of the Chichancanab flock 8000 years ago.Cinco especies de Cyprinodon en la Laguna Chichancanab, Yucatán, México comprenden un cardumen jóven de especies cuya ecología y evolución no ha sido estudiada a fondo, pero cuya existencia está siendo amenazada con la extinci

  8. Snake River sockeye salmon habitat and limnological research, annual report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Bert

    2000-01-01

    In March of 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991 the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 91-71, Intergovernmental Contract Number DE-BI79-91bp22548). This project is part of an inter-agency effort to save the Redfish Lake stock of O. nerka from extinction. This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the calendar year of 1998. Project objectives included; (1) monitor over-winter survival and emigration of juvenile anadromous O. nerka released from the captive rearing program into Pettit and Alturas lakes; (2) fertilize Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (3) conduct kokanee (non-anadromous O. nerka) population surveys; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment on Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) control the number of spawning kokanee in Fishhook Creek; (6) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile O. nerka and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (7) monitor limnological parameters of Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity. Results by objective are summarized

  9. High dispersal in a frog species suggests that it is vulnerable to habitat fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Funk, W. Chris; Greene, Allison E; Corn, Paul Stephen; Allendorf, Fred W

    2005-01-01

    Global losses of amphibian populations are a major conservation concern and their causes have generated substantial debate. Habitat fragmentation is considered one important cause of amphibian decline. However, if fragmentation is to be invoked as a mechanism of amphibian decline, it must first be established that dispersal is prevalent among contiguous amphibian populations using formal movement estimators. In contrast, if dispersal is naturally low in amphibians, fragmentation can be disreg...

  10. Characterization of Sensitive Species and Habitats Affected by the Operation of USACE Water Resource Development Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kasul, Richard

    2000-01-01

    ...) work unit titled "Reservoir Operations - Impacts on Target Species." Current knowledge regarding the occurrence of sensitive species that have been identified as a management concern in the operation of Corps projects is reviewed...

  11. Temperature regulates positively photoblastic seed germination in four ficus (moraceae) tree species from contrasting habitats in a seasonal tropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Cao, Min; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C

    2013-08-01

    Differences in seed germination responses of trees in tropical forests to temperature and light quality may contribute to their coexistence. We investigated the effects of temperature and red:far-red light (R:FR ratio) on seed germination of two gap-demanding species (Ficus hispida and F. racemosa) and two shade-tolerant species (F. altissima and F. auriculata) in a tropical seasonal rainforest in southwest China. A R:FR ratio gradient was created by filtering fluorescent light through polyester filters. Four temperature treatments were used to test the effect of temperature on seed germination of the four Ficus tree species across the R:FR gradient. Seeds of the four Ficus species were positively photoblastic. Seed germination of F. hispida and F. racemosa was not affected across the R:FR ratio gradient (0.25-1.19) at 25/35°C, but it was inhibited under low R:FR at 22/23°C. By contrast, germination percentages of F. altissima and F. auriculata were not inhibited along the entire light gradient in all temperature treatments. Differences in germination responses of Ficus species might contribute to differences in their habitat preferences. The inhibitory effect of understory temperatures in the forest might be a new mechanism that prevents positively photoblastic seeds of the gap-demanding species such as F. hispida and F. racemosa from germinating in the understory and in small canopy gaps.

  12. Outplanting Anadromous Salmonids, A Lilterature Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Eugene M.

    1985-10-01

    This paper presents a list of more than 200 references on topics associated with offstation releases of hatchery stocks of anadromous fish used to supplement or reestablish wild rearing. The narrative briefly reviews influences of genetics, rearing density of fish in the natural environment, survival rates observed from outplanted stocks, and estimation procedures for stocking rates and rearing densities. We have attempted to summarize guidelines and recommendations for fishery managers to consider. Based on tagging studies, a typical smolt release from a Willamette River hatchery would return 0.29% of the smolts to the stream of release as adults. Catch to escapement ratios for adult Willamette chinook vary widely between broods, but on average two fish are caught for each fish that escapes. The catch is about evenly divided between offshore and freshwater harvest. British Columbia is the primary location of offshore harvest, and the lower Willamette River is the primary location of freshwater harvest. Review of departmental policy indicates that only Willamette stock spring chinook are currently acceptable for use in a proposed outplant study within the Willamette basin. Further, most Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife district management biologists would prefer not to transfer any stocks of spring chinook between drainage subbasins. State fishery managers identified 16 Willamette basin streams as being suitable for supplementation with spring chinook from hatcheries. We reviewed the potential for rearing salmon in reservoirs throughout the basin. Use of the Carmen-Smith spawning channel, which was constructed on the upper McKenzie River in 1960, has generally declined with the decline in populations of chinook salmon in this river. The Carmen-Smith channel still provides a spawning place for those relatively few adult chinook that still return each year, but more fishery benefits may result from other uses of this facility. 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Population trends, bend use relative to available habitat and within-river-bend habitat use of eight indicator species of Missouri and Lower Kansas River benthic fishes: 15 years after baseline assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildhaber, Mark L.; Yang, Wen-Hsi; Arab, Ali

    2016-01-01

    A baseline assessment of the Missouri River fish community and species-specific habitat use patterns conducted from 1996 to 1998 provided the first comprehensive analysis of Missouri River benthic fish population trends and habitat use in the Missouri and Lower Yellowstone rivers, exclusive of reservoirs, and provided the foundation for the present Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program (PSPAP). Data used in such studies are frequently zero inflated. To address this issue, the zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) model was applied. This follow-up study is based on PSPAP data collected up to 15 years later along with new understanding of how habitat characteristics among and within bends affect habitat use of fish species targeted by PSPAP, including pallid sturgeon. This work demonstrated that a large-scale, large-river, PSPAP-type monitoring program can be an effective tool for assessing population trends and habitat usage of large-river fish species. Using multiple gears, PSPAP was effective in monitoring shovelnose and pallid sturgeons, sicklefin, shoal and sturgeon chubs, sand shiner, blue sucker and sauger. For all species, the relationship between environmental variables and relative abundance differed, somewhat, among river segments suggesting the importance of the overall conditions of Upper and Middle Missouri River and Lower Missouri and Kansas rivers on the habitat usage patterns exhibited. Shoal and sicklefin chubs exhibited many similar habitat usage patterns; blue sucker and shovelnose sturgeon also shared similar responses. For pallid sturgeon, the primary focus of PSPAP, relative abundance tended to increase in Upper and Middle Missouri River paralleling stocking efforts, whereas no evidence of an increasing relative abundance was found in the Lower Missouri River despite stocking.

  14. Reconnaissance of contaminants in larval Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) tissues and habitats in the Columbia River Basin, Oregon and Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Elena B.; Hapke, Whitney B.; McIlraith, Brian; Markovchick, Dennis J.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific lampreys (Entosphenus tridentatus) have resided in the Columbia River Basin for millennia and have great ecological and cultural importance. The role of habitat contamination in the recent decline of the species has rarely been studied and was the main objective of this effort. A wide range of contaminants (115 analytes) was measured in sediments and tissues at 27 sites across a large geographic area of diverse land use. This is the largest dataset of contaminants in habitats and tissues of Pacific lamprey in North America and the first study to compare contaminant bioburden during the larval life stage and the anadromous, adult portion of the life cycle. Bioaccumulation of pesticides, flame retardants, and mercury was observed at many sites. Based on available data, contaminants are accumulating in larval Pacific lamprey at levels that are likely detrimental to organism health and may be contributing to the decline of the species.

  15. Stratification of habitats for identifying habitat selection by Merriam's turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Stanley H. Anderson

    1992-01-01

    Habitat selection patterns of Merriam’s Turkeys were compared in hierarchical analyses of three levels of habitat stratification. Habitat descriptions in first-level analyses were based on dominant species of vegetation. Habitat descriptions in second-level analyses were based on dominant species of vegetation and overstory canopy cover. Habitat descriptions in third-...

  16. A synthesis of tagging studies examining the behaviour and survival of anadromous salmonids in marine environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Matthew Drenner

    Full Text Available This paper synthesizes tagging studies to highlight the current state of knowledge concerning the behaviour and survival of anadromous salmonids in the marine environment. Scientific literature was reviewed to quantify the number and type of studies that have investigated behaviour and survival of anadromous forms of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp., Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, brown trout (Salmo trutta, steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss, and cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii. We examined three categories of tags including electronic (e.g. acoustic, radio, archival, passive (e.g. external marks, Carlin, coded wire, passive integrated transponder [PIT], and biological (e.g. otolith, genetic, scale, parasites. Based on 207 papers, survival rates and behaviour in marine environments were found to be extremely variable spatially and temporally, with some of the most influential factors being temperature, population, physiological state, and fish size. Salmonids at all life stages were consistently found to swim at an average speed of approximately one body length per second, which likely corresponds with the speed at which transport costs are minimal. We found that there is relatively little research conducted on open-ocean migrating salmonids, and some species (e.g. masu [O. masou] and amago [O. rhodurus] are underrepresented in the literature. The most common forms of tagging used across life stages were various forms of external tags, coded wire tags, and acoustic tags, however, the majority of studies did not measure tagging/handling effects on the fish, tag loss/failure, or tag detection probabilities when estimating survival. Through the interdisciplinary application of existing and novel technologies, future research examining the behaviour and survival of anadromous salmonids could incorporate important drivers such as oceanography, tagging/handling effects, predation, and physiology.

  17. Habitat change and restoration: responses of a forest-floor mammal species to manipulations of fallen timber in floodplain forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mac Nally, R

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available In forests and woodlands, fallen timber (logs and large branches is an important habitat element for many species of animals. Fallen timber has been systematically stripped in many forests, eliminating an important structural element. This study describes results of a ‘meso-scale’ experiment in which fallen timber was manipulated in a floodplain forest of the Murray River in south-eastern Australia. A thousand tons of wood were redistributed after one-year’s pre-manipulation monitoring, while a further two-year’s post-manipulation monitoring was conducted. The response of the main forest-floor small-mammal species, the Yellow-footed Antechinus Antechinus flavipes, to alterations of fallen-wood loads is documented. Results of the experiment will help to frame guidelines for fallen-timber management in these extensive floodplain forests.

  18. Reproductive effort of some annual and perennial plant species: impact of successional sequence, habitat conditions and plant size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaukat, S.; Khan, M.A.; Zaidi, S.; Siddiqui, M.F.; Khan, N.; Zafar, H.

    2013-01-01

    The reproductive effort of some annual and perennial plant species was investigated with respect to successional sequence, habitat conditions and plant size. in the psammosere succession (dune succession), the reproductive effort (RE) of Cressa cretica and A triplex griffithii was significantly greater in the early stage compared to that in late succession. Likewise, in relation to lithosere succession, Sporobolus arabicus. Pluchea lanceolata and Vernonia cenerescens all showed high reproductive effort in early part of succession compared to that of late succession. The annuals (S. arabicus and P lance/ala) exhibited greater reproductive effort compared to the perennial species Vernonia cinerescens. Examination of the Impact of site differences on reproductive effort showed that four grasses including Selaria intermedia, Chioris harbata, Cenchrus hiflorus, and Eragroslis pilosa were found to have significantly (P<0.05) greater reproductive effort in site 1 (near cultivated field), compared to site 2 (a vacant lot), which had low nutrient level compared to site 1. The reproductive effort of Sonclius asper (a composite) did not exhibit significant difference between sites. The investigation of relationships between plant size (volume) and reproductive effort of Solanuin forskalii, Senna holosericea and Heliolropium ophioglossum showed positive correlations between plant size and reproductive effort. Solanum forskalii and Senna holosericca, in particular, exhibited a close association in this respect. It is concluded that: 1) RE is greater in early compared to late succession, 2) RE changes with the habitat and 3) there seems to be a direct relationship between RE and plant size. (author)

  19. Tree hole mosquito species composition and relative abundances differ between urban and adjacent forest habitats in northwestern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangudo, C; Aparicio, J P; Rossi, G C; Gleiser, R M

    2018-04-01

    Water-holding tree holes are main larval habitats for many pathogen vectors, especially mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Along 3 years, the diversity and composition of mosquito species in tree holes of two neighbouring but completely different environments, a city and its adjacent forest, were compared using generalized linear mixed models, PERMANOVA, SIMPER and species association indexes. The city area (Northwest Argentina) is highly relevant epidemiologically due to the presence of Aedes aegypti L. (main dengue vector) and occurrence of dengue outbreaks; the Yungas rainforests are highly biologically diverse. In total seven mosquito species were recorded, in descending order of abundance: Ae. aegypti, Haemagogus spegazzinii Brèthes, Sabethes purpureus (Theobald), Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis Dyar and Knab, Aedes terrens Walker, Haemagogus leucocelaenus Dyar & Shannon and Sabethes petrocchiae (Shannon and Del Ponte). The seven mosquito species were recorded in both city sites and forested areas; however, their mosquito communities significantly diverged because of marked differences in the frequency and relative abundance of some species: Tx. guadeloupensis and Ae. aegypti were significantly more abundant in forest and urban areas, respectively. Positive significant associations were detected between Ae. aegypti, Hg. spegazzinii and Hg. leucocelaenus. The combined presence of Ae. aegypti, Haemagogus and Sabethes in the area also highlight a potential risk of yellow fever epidemics. Overall results show an impoverished tree hole mosquito fauna in urban environments, reflecting negative effects of urbanization on mosquito diversity.

  20. Comparative morphological studies of the neurocranium and the gills of two species of blennies living in different habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrito, Venera; Mauceri, Angela; Minniti, Franco; Isaja, Manuela; Maisano, Maria; Tigano, Concetta

    2007-01-01

    Two species of Blennies--Salaria fluviatilis, which lives in freshwaters, and Salaria pavo, which lives in the sea--are considered to be phylogenetically related. Due to the interesting feature of one species having a freshwater and one having a marine habitat, and because of the paucity of studies on the intraspecific and interspecific variability of skeletal characters, in the study reported here, several populations of S. fluviatilis and S. pavo were compared. The intraspecific and interspecific morphology of the cranial characteristics, as well as the branchial epithelium, was studied in relationship to the adaptation of the two species to different environments. Osteological results confirmed the intraspecific variability already found in S. fluviatilis and showed a notable interspecific differentiation between S. pavo and S. fluviatilis. Histological studies indicate that the two species have morphological differences, which are the result of the diversity of the environments in which they live. The results from the two approaches, taken together, are in agreement with the hypothesis of the origin of these two species being from a common marine ancestor.

  1. Richness of Ancient Forest Plant Species Indicates Suitable Habitats for Macrofungi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofmeister, J.; Hošek, J.; Brabec, Marek; Dvořák, D.; Beran, M.; Deckerová, H.; Burel, J.; Kříž, M.; Borovička, Jan; Běťák, J.; Vašutová, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 8 (2014), s. 2015-2031 ISSN 0960-3115 Grant - others:GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/146/08 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 ; RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : diversity * forest continuity * forest management * Herb-layer plant species * red-listed species * species richness * surrogacy Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research; EH - Ecology, Behaviour (GLU-S); EH - Ecology, Behaviour (UEK-B) Impact factor: 2.365, year: 2014

  2. Anadromous char as an alternate food choice to marine animals: a synthesis of Hg concentrations, population features and other influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Marlene S; Muir, Derek C G; Keating, Jonathan; Wang, Xiaowa

    2015-03-15

    This study was conducted to confirm sporadic measurements made over the late 1970s to the early 1990 s which determined that mercury (Hg) concentrations were low in anadromous char across Arctic and subarctic Canada including northern Québec and Labrador. Over 2004-2013, anadromous char populations across northern Canada were investigated at 20 sites for Hg concentrations and life history characteristics. Hg concentrations were extremely low in anadromous char muscle, typically Hg concentrations over the study area; longitude and latitude also were significant influencing variables. Char length, weight, age, condition factor and lipid content explained additional variance. A tendency towards higher Hg concentrations with increasing latitude may be partially related to decreasing growth of char towards the north. However, Hg concentrations in char were positively correlated with growth rates suggesting that Hg concentrations in char also were higher in the more productive study areas, including to the west where mainland riverine inputs of terrestrial carbon, nutrients, and Hg were greater. The data base for assessing time trends in char was limited by the small number of years investigated at most locations, variable fish size across years, small sample size, etc. Where temporal trends were detected, they were of increase on the long term (1970s, 1980s or early 1990 s to the present) but of decrease on the short term (early 2000s to present) with Nain (Labrador) showing the converse pattern. Higher Hg concentrations were also related to lower condition factor and cooler springs. Hg concentrations in anadromous char are compared with other terrestrial, aquatic and marine vertebrates in traditional diets. The known information on anadromous char is reviewed including population features, habitat, and harvests. Future Hg trend monitoring should focus on specific locations and harvest areas within these areas to better assess trends and influencing factors. Crown

  3. Two fern species new to New Hampshire, with comments on the generation of calcareous-like habitat by base-poor rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott W. Bailey

    2013-01-01

    Incidental to other field investigations, I happened upon small populations of two fern species not previously reported from New Hampshire: Pellaea atropurpurea (L.) Link and Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott. Both species are typically associated with calcareous habitats, although limestone and marble are nearly absent from New...

  4. 78 FR 2725 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Designation of Critical Habitat for Lower Columbia River Coho...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... behavioral changes required for the transition to salt water result in a distinct ``smolt'' stage in most... species at a scale that corresponds well to salmonid population structure and ecological processes. As in... or are representative of the historical geographical and ecological distribution of a species. The...

  5. Determining habitat potential and surveying for nine rare plant species in south-central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah J. Clark; Christine M. Groebner

    2001-01-01

    In south-central Utah, lands within and adjacent to Capitol Reef National Park contain populations of nine rare plant species. In an effort to enhance the combined knowledge about these species, the Bureau of Land Management, the USDA Forest Service, and the National Park Service signed an Interagency Agreement and hired an interagency biologist and field crew to...

  6. Climate change, animal species, and habitats: Adaptation and issues (Chapter 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; D. Max Smith; Olivia LeDee; Jean-Luc E. Cartron; Mark A. Rumble

    2012-01-01

    Because the rate of anthropogenic climate change exceeds the adaptive capacity of many animal and plant species, the scientific community anticipates negative consequences for ecosystems. Changes in climate have expanded, contracted, or shifted the climate niches of many species, often resulting in shifting geographic ranges. In the Great Basin, for example, projected...

  7. Potential role of frugivorous birds (Passeriformes) on seed dispersal of six plant species in a restinga habitat, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Verônica Souza da Mota; Correia, Maria Célia Rodrigues; de Lima, Heloisa Alves; Alves, Maria Alice S

    2008-03-01

    Restingas are considered stressful habitats associated with the Brazilian Atlantic forest, and their ecological interactions are poorly known. The goal of the present study was to determine the potential role of frugivorous birds as seed dispersers in a restinga habitat. Data were collected in Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, southeastern Brazil, where the main physiognomy (Open Clusia Formation) is characterized by the presence of patches of vegetation covering 20 to 48 % of the sandy soil and reaching a height of 5 m. Birds were captured with mist nets (12 x 2.5 m; 36 mm mesh; 1,680 net-hrs) and had their fecal and regurgitate samples inspected for seeds. Six plant species found in these bird samples were studied. The germination of seeds obtained from plants was compared to those from the birds. Both groups of seeds were set on Petri dishes at room temperature and washed when infected with fungi. In general, there was no effect on germination rate, and the effect on germination speed was negative. Germination of seeds from Pilosocereus arrabidae treated by the birds seemed to be influenced by storage of defecated seeds, while few Miconia cinnamomifolia seeds both from plants and from birds germinated. Ocotea notata presented a great variation in time to the onset of germination, perhaps an advantage against dissecation. Aechmea nudicaulis, Clusia hilariana and Erythroxylum subsessile probably take advantage of the arrival to favorable microhabitats, not by the gut effect on the seeds. All plant species studied are numerically important for the community and some of them are main actors in the succession of vegetation patches. Among the birds, Mimus gilvus is an important resident species, endemic to restingas in Brazil, while Turdus amaurochalinus is a visitor and may be important for plants that fructify during its passage by the study site. Although the effect of pulp removal was only tested for one species (Achmea nudicaulis) in the present study

  8. Rates of pulmonary infection by pentastomids in lizards species from a restinga habitat in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, W O; Santana, G G; Vieira, W L S; Wanderley, I C; Ribeiro, S C

    2009-02-01

    Pulmonary parasitism by pentastomids was examined in two lizard species inhabiting an area of restinga vegetation (coastal sand dunes) situated in the municipality of Mataraca (6 degrees 29' S and 34 degrees 56' W), on the extreme northern coast of Paraíba State, Brazil. A total of 123 lizards were collected, being 75 specimens of Micrablepharus maximiliani (Gymnophtalmidae) and 48 specimens of Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae). Only a single species of Pentastomida (Raillietiella mottae) was found parasitizing three females M. maximiliani, with a prevalence of 4% and an average infection intensity of 2.3 +/- 1.3 (range 1-5). The infection rate by pentastomids encountered in the present study was similar to that seen with other species of restinga lizards. Raillietiella mottae is a generalist parasite species that is probably transmitted by common and widely distributed insects making up part of the diet of many insectivorous lizard species from northeastern Brazil.

  9. Unidirectional hybridization at a species' range boundary: implications for habitat tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beatty, Gemma, E.; Philipp, Marianne; Provan, Jim

    2010-01-01

    hybridization may lead to the extinction of peripheral populations of P. minor where the two species grow sympatrically. Extinction could occur as a result of genetic assimilation where F1s are fertile, or via the removal of unidirectionally pollinated sterile F1s, or by a combination of these processes......Aim Introgressive hybridization between a locally rare species and a more abundant congener can drive population extinction via genetic assimilation, or the replacement of the rare species gene pool with that of the common species. To date, however, few studies have assessed the effects...... of such processes at the limits of species' distribution ranges. In this study, we have examined the potential for hybridization between range-edge populations of the wintergreen Pyrola minor and sympatric populations of Pyrola grandiflora. Location Qeqertarsuaq, Greenland and Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. Methods...

  10. Male choice in the stream-anadromous stickleback complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S McKinnon

    Full Text Available Studies of mating preferences and pre-mating reproductive isolation have often focused on females, but the potential importance of male preferences is increasingly appreciated. We investigated male behavior in the context of reproductive isolation between divergent anadromous and stream-resident populations of threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, using size-manipulated females of both ecotypes. Specifically, we asked if male courtship preferences are present, and if they are based on relative body size, non-size aspects of ecotype, or other traits. Because male behaviors were correlated with each other, we conducted a principal components analysis on the correlations and ran subsequent analyses on the principal components. The two male ecotypes differed in overall behavioral frequencies, with stream-resident males exhibiting consistently more vigorous and positive courtship than anadromous males, and an otherwise aggressive behavior playing a more positive role in anadromous than stream-resident courtship. We observed more vigorous courtship toward smaller females by (relatively small stream-resident males and the reverse pattern for (relatively large anadromous males. Thus size-assortative male courtship preferences may contribute to reproductive isolation in this system, although preferences are far from absolute. We found little indication of males responding preferentially to females of their own ecotype independent of body size.

  11. Sea growth of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.J.; Hofstede, ter R.; Winter, H.V.

    2007-01-01

    Sea growth rates were studied in anadromous brown trout caught in Lake IJsselmeer, The Netherlands. Growth in the first year at sea was estimated at 26 cm from length-frequency distributions, and at 21 cm from back-calculated growth rates from scale readings. These estimates are considerably higher

  12. Present and future potential habitat distribution of Carcharhinus falciformis and Canthidermis maculata by-catch species in the tropical tuna purse-seine fishery under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea eLezama Ochoa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available By-catch species from tropical tuna purse seine fishery have been affected by fishery pressures since the last century; however, the habitat distribution and the climate change impacts on these species are poorly known. With the objective of predicting the potential suitable habitat for a shark (Carcharhinus falciformis and a teleost (Canthidermis maculata in the Indian, Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Oceans, a MaxEnt species distribution model (SDM was developed using data collected by observers in tuna purse seiners. The relative percentage of contribution of some environmental variables (depth, sea surface temperature, salinity and primary production and the potential impact of climate change on species habitat by the end of the century under the A2 scenario (scenario with average concentrations of carbon dioxide of 856 ppm by 2100 were also evaluated. Results showed that by-catch species can be correctly modelled using observed occurrence records and few environmental variables with SDM. Results from projected maps showed that the equatorial band and some coastal upwelling regions were the most suitable areas for both by-catch species in the three oceans in concordance with the main fishing grounds. Sea surface temperature was the most important environmental variable which contributed to explain the habitat distribution of the two species in the three oceans in general. Under climate change scenarios, the largest change in present habitat suitability is observed in the Atlantic Ocean (around 16% of the present habitat suitability area of Carcharhinus falciformis and Canthidermis maculata, respectively whereas the change is less in the Pacific (around 10% and 8% and Indian Oceans (around 3% and 2 %. In some regions such as Somalia, the Atlantic equatorial band or Peru’s coastal upwelling areas, these species could lose potential habitat whereas in the south of the equator in the Indian Ocean, the Benguela System and in the Pacific coast of

  13. Restoring stream habitat connectivity: a proposed method for prioritizing the removal of resident fish passage barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanley, Jesse R; Wright, Jed; Diebel, Matthew; Fedora, Mark A; Soucy, Charles L

    2013-08-15

    Systematic methods for prioritizing the repair and removal of fish passage barriers, while growing of late, have hitherto focused almost exclusively on meeting the needs of migratory fish species (e.g., anadromous salmonids). An important but as of yet unaddressed issue is the development of new modeling approaches which are applicable to resident fish species habitat restoration programs. In this paper, we develop a budget constrained optimization model for deciding which barriers to repair or remove in order to maximize habitat availability for stream resident fish. Habitat availability at the local stream reach is determined based on the recently proposed C metric, which accounts for the amount, quality, distance and level of connectivity to different stream habitat types. We assess the computational performance of our model using geospatial barrier and stream data collected from the Pine-Popple Watershed, located in northeast Wisconsin (USA). The optimization model is found to be an efficient and practical decision support tool. Optimal solutions, which are useful in informing basin-wide restoration planning efforts, can be generated on average in only a few minutes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The WTP for property rights for the Giant Panda: can a charismatic species be an instrument for conservation of natural habitat?

    OpenAIRE

    Kontoleon, A.; Swanson, T.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the results from a stated preference study to address issues concerning the potential for using flag-ship species, such as the Giant Panda, to purchase the property rights for the conservation of natural habitat. The study finds, first, that there is clear WTP for acquiring the property rights for panda habitat. The nature of this demand is found both convincing and logically coherent in that it is an increasing function of land (at a diminishing rate). Secondly, the stu...

  15. Activity, habitat use, feeding behavior, and diet of four sympatric species of Serranidae (Actinopterygii: Perciformes in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Zaniolo Gibran

    Full Text Available Diplectrum formosum (the sand perch, Diplectrum radiale (the aquavina, Epinephelus marginatus (the dusky grouper and Mycteroperca acutirostris (the comb grouper are four sympatric serranid of remarkable ecological and commercial importance. This study investigated the feeding of these four species in the São Sebastião Channel, São Paulo State (southeastern Brazil, comparing their diet, habitat utilization and morphological features related to foraging. These four serranids are opportunistic visual predators that use a total of nine different tactics to capture their preys, feed mostly on crustaceans during the day and twilight, and keep stationary and quiescent at night. The ecomorphological study was conducted to test its predictive value to infer lifestyles. It was verified that such analysis should be used carefully and must be complemented by field observations. Although morphologically and behaviorally very similar, D. formosum and D. radiale showed different preferences to the substratum type used by large individuals, which are exclusively sit-and-wait predators. On the other hand, E. marginatus displayed more sedentary habits than M. acutirostris, the most versatile predator from the studied species. The studied species of Diplectrum and E. marginatus can be regarded as benthic serranids, while M. acutirostris could be viewed as a nektobenthic species.

  16. Habitat suitability of Anopheles vector species and association with human malaria in the Atlantic Forest in south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, Gabriel Zorello; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2011-08-01

    Every year, autochthonous cases of Plasmodium vivax malaria occur in low-endemicity areas of Vale do Ribeira in the south-eastern part of the Atlantic Forest, state of São Paulo, where Anopheles cruzii and Anopheles bellator are considered the primary vectors. However, other species in the subgenus Nyssorhynchus of Anopheles (e.g., Anopheles marajoara) are abundant and may participate in the dynamics of malarial transmission in that region. The objectives of the present study were to assess the spatial distribution of An. cruzii, An. bellator and An. marajoara and to associate the presence of these species with malaria cases in the municipalities of the Vale do Ribeira. Potential habitat suitability modelling was applied to determine both the spatial distribution of An. cruzii, An. bellator and An. marajoara and to establish the density of each species. Poisson regression was utilized to associate malaria cases with estimated vector densities. As a result, An. cruzii was correlated with the forested slopes of the Serra do Mar, An. bellator with the coastal plain and An. marajoara with the deforested areas. Moreover, both An. marajoara and An. cruzii were positively associated with malaria cases. Considering that An. marajoara was demonstrated to be a primary vector of human Plasmodium in the rural areas of the state of Amapá, more attention should be given to the species in the deforested areas of the Atlantic Forest, where it might be a secondary vector.

  17. The Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS): An iRODS-Based, Cloud-Enabled Decision Support System for Invasive Species Habitat Suitability Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Roger; Schnase, John L.

    2012-01-01

    The Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS) is an online decision support system that allows users to load point occurrence field sample data for a plant species of interest and quickly generate habitat suitability maps for geographic regions of interest, such as a national park, monument, forest, or refuge. Target customers for ISFS are natural resource managers and decision makers who have a need for scientifically valid, model- based predictions of the habitat suitability of plant species of management concern. In a joint project involving NASA and the Maryland Department of Natural Resources, ISFS has been used to model the potential distribution of Wavyleaf Basketgrass in Maryland's Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Maximum entropy techniques are used to generate predictive maps using predictor datasets derived from remotely sensed data and climate simulation outputs. The workflow to run a model is implemented in an iRODS microservice using a custom ISFS file driver that clips and re-projects data to geographic regions of interest, then shells out to perform MaxEnt processing on the input data. When the model completes, all output files and maps from the model run are registered in iRODS and made accessible to the user. The ISFS user interface is a web browser that uses the iRODS PHP client to interact with the ISFS/iRODS- server. ISFS is designed to reside in a VMware virtual machine running SLES 11 and iRODS 3.0. The ISFS virtual machine is hosted in a VMware vSphere private cloud infrastructure to deliver the online service.

  18. Rates of pulmonary infection by pentastomids in lizards species from a restinga habitat in northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, WO.; Santana, GG.; Vieira, WLS.; Wanderley, IC.; Ribeiro, SC.

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary parasitism by pentastomids was examined in two lizard species inhabiting an area of restinga vegetation (coastal sand dunes) situated in the municipality of Mataraca (6° 29' S and 34° 56' W), on the extreme northern coast of Paraíba State, Brazil. A total of 123 lizards were collected, being 75 specimens of Micrablepharus maximiliani (Gymnophtalmidae) and 48 specimens of Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae). Only a single species of Pentastomida (Raillietiella mottae) was found parasit...

  19. Poor transferability of species distribution models for a pelagic predator, the grey petrel, indicates contrasting habitat preferences across ocean basins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh G Torres

    Full Text Available Species distribution models (SDMs are increasingly applied in conservation management to predict suitable habitat for poorly known populations. High predictive performance of SDMs is evident in validations performed within the model calibration area (interpolation, but few studies have assessed SDM transferability to novel areas (extrapolation, particularly across large spatial scales or pelagic ecosystems. We performed rigorous SDM validation tests on distribution data from three populations of a long-ranging marine predator, the grey petrel Procellaria cinerea, to assess model transferability across the Southern Hemisphere (25-65°S. Oceanographic data were combined with tracks of grey petrels from two remote sub-Antarctic islands (Antipodes and Kerguelen using boosted regression trees to generate three SDMs: one for each island population, and a combined model. The predictive performance of these models was assessed using withheld tracking data from within the model calibration areas (interpolation, and from a third population, Marion Island (extrapolation. Predictive performance was assessed using k-fold cross validation and point biserial correlation. The two population-specific SDMs included the same predictor variables and suggested birds responded to the same broad-scale oceanographic influences. However, all model validation tests, including of the combined model, determined strong interpolation but weak extrapolation capabilities. These results indicate that habitat use reflects both its availability and bird preferences, such that the realized distribution patterns differ for each population. The spatial predictions by the three SDMs were compared with tracking data and fishing effort to demonstrate the conservation pitfalls of extrapolating SDMs outside calibration regions. This exercise revealed that SDM predictions would have led to an underestimate of overlap with fishing effort and potentially misinformed bycatch mitigation

  20. Diversity of Babesia and Rickettsia species in questing Ixodes ricinus: a longitudinal study in urban, pasture, and natural habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overzier, Evelyn; Pfister, Kurt; Thiel, Claudia; Herb, Ingrid; Mahling, Monia; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2013-08-01

    In a previous study, our group investigated the Babesia spp. prevalence in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from nine city parks in South Germany in the years 2009 and 2010. We showed predominant prevalence of B. venatorum (in previous literature also known as Babesia sp. EU1), especially in those parks in a more natural condition and with occurrence of large wild animals, such as roe deer. To obtain longitudinal data and to broaden the knowledge about this pathogen, further investigations were carried out in 2011 and 2012 in four of those city parks. Two additional habitat types were chosen for comparison of prevalence data and species analysis focusing on occurrence of potential reservoir hosts. A total of 10,303 questing I. ricinus were collected in four city parks, a pasture, and a natural area in Bavaria, and a representative number of samples were investigated for prevalence of DNA of Babesia spp. (n=4381) and Rickettsia spp. (n=2186) by PCR. In the natural and pasture area, a significantly higher Babesia spp. prevalence compared to the urban area was detected. The natural area revealed sequences of B. microti, B. venatorum, and B. capreoli. In the pasture and urban habitat, predominantly B. venatorum was found, whereas B. capreoli was less frequent and only one B. microti-infected tick was found. All B. microti sequences were 100% identical to the zoonotic Jena/Germany strain. For Rickettsia spp., the significantly highest prevalence was also detected in the natural and pasture areas, whereas lower prevalence was found in the urban area. Sequence analysis revealed R. helvetica (98%) and R. monacensis (2%). Prevalence rates and occurrence of Babesia spp. and Rickettsia spp. differed in urban, pasture and natural sites, most likely depending on the habitat structure (natural or cultivated) and therefore on the appearance and availability of reservoir hosts like roe deer or small mammals.

  1. Immigration rates in fragmented landscapes--empirical evidence for the importance of habitat amount for species persistence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Püttker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The total amount of native vegetation is an important property of fragmented landscapes and is known to exert a strong influence on population and metapopulation dynamics. As the relationship between habitat loss and local patch and gap characteristics is strongly non-linear, theoretical models predict that immigration rates should decrease dramatically at low levels of remaining native vegetation cover, leading to patch-area effects and the existence of species extinction thresholds across fragmented landscapes with different proportions of remaining native vegetation. Although empirical patterns of species distribution and richness give support to these models, direct measurements of immigration rates across fragmented landscapes are still lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the Brazilian Atlantic forest marsupial Gray Slender Mouse Opossum (Marmosops incanus as a model species and estimating demographic parameters of populations in patches situated in three landscapes differing in the total amount of remaining forest, we tested the hypotheses that patch-area effects on population density are apparent only at intermediate levels of forest cover, and that immigration rates into forest patches are defined primarily by landscape context surrounding patches. As expected, we observed a positive patch-area effect on M. incanus density only within the landscape with intermediate forest cover. Density was independent of patch size in the most forested landscape and the species was absent from the most deforested landscape. Specifically, the mean estimated numbers of immigrants into small patches were lower in the landscape with intermediate forest cover compared to the most forested landscape. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results reveal the crucial importance of the total amount of remaining native vegetation for species persistence in fragmented landscapes, and specifically as to the role of variable immigration rates in

  2. Forests Regenerating after Clear-Cutting Function as Habitat for Bryophyte and Lichen Species of Conservation Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolphi, Jörgen; Gustafsson, Lena

    2011-01-01

    The majority of managed forests in Fennoscandia are younger than 70 years old but yet little is known about their potential to host rare and threatened species. In this study, we examined red-listed bryophytes and lichens in 19 young stands originating from clear-cutting (30–70 years old) in the boreal region, finding 19 red-listed species (six bryophytes and 13 lichens). We used adjoining old stands, which most likely never had been clear-cut, as reference. The old stands contained significantly more species, but when taking the amount of biological legacies (i.e., remaining deciduous trees and dead wood) from the previous forest generation into account, bryophyte species number did not differ between old and young stands, and lichen number was even higher in young stands. No dispersal effect could be detected from the old to the young stands. The amount of wetlands in the surroundings was important for bryophytes, as was the area of old forest for both lichens and bryophytes. A cardinal position of young stands to the north of old stands was beneficial to red-listed bryophytes as well as lichens. We conclude that young forest plantations may function as habitat for red-listed species, but that this depends on presence of structures from the previous forest generation, and also on qualities in the surrounding landscape. Nevertheless, at repeated clear-cuttings, a successive decrease in species populations in young production stands is likely, due to increased fragmentation and reduced substrate amounts. Retention of dead wood and deciduous trees might be efficient conservation measures. Although priority needs to be given to preservation of remnant old-growth forests, we argue that young forests rich in biological legacies and located in landscapes with high amounts of old forests may have a conservation value. PMID:21490926

  3. Urban and rural habitats differ in number and type of bird feeders and in bird species consuming supplementary food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryjanowski, Piotr; Skórka, Piotr; Sparks, Tim H; Biaduń, Waldemar; Brauze, Tomasz; Hetmański, Tomasz; Martyka, Rafał; Indykiewicz, Piotr; Myczko, Łukasz; Kunysz, Przemysław; Kawa, Piotr; Czyż, Stanisław; Czechowski, Paweł; Polakowski, Michał; Zduniak, Piotr; Jerzak, Leszek; Janiszewski, Tomasz; Goławski, Artur; Duduś, Leszek; Nowakowski, Jacek J; Wuczyński, Andrzej; Wysocki, Dariusz

    2015-10-01

    Bird feeding is one of the most widespread direct interactions between man and nature, and this has important social and environmental consequences. However, this activity can differ between rural and urban habitats, due to inter alia habitat structure, human behaviour and the composition of wintering bird communities. We counted birds in 156 squares (0.25 km(2) each) in December 2012 and again in January 2013 in locations in and around 26 towns and cities across Poland (in each urban area, we surveyed 3 squares and also 3 squares in nearby rural areas). At each count, we noted the number of bird feeders, the number of bird feeders with food, the type of feeders, additional food supplies potentially available for birds (bread offered by people, bins) and finally the birds themselves. In winter, urban and rural areas differ in the availability of food offered intentionally and unintentionally to birds by humans. Both types of food availability are higher in urban areas. Our findings suggest that different types of bird feeder support only those species specialized for that particular food type and this relationship is similar in urban and rural areas.

  4. Multi-objective Operation Chart Optimization for Aquatic Species Habitat Conservation of Cascaded Hydropower System on Yuan River, Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, X.; Lei, X.; Fang, G.; Huang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Extensive cascading hydropower exploitation in southwestern China has been the subject of debate and conflict in recent years. Introducing limited ecological curves, a novel approach for derivation of hydropower-ecological joint operation chart of cascaded hydropower system was proposed, aiming to optimize the general hydropower and ecological benefits, and to alleviate the ecological deterioration in specific flood/dry conditions. The physical habitat simulation model is proposed initially to simulate the relationship between streamflow and physical habitat of target fish species and to determine the optimal ecological flow range of representative reach. The ecological—hydropower joint optimization model is established to produce the multi-objective operation chart of cascaded hydropower system. Finally, the limited ecological guiding curves were generated and added into the operation chart. The JS-MDS cascaded hydropower system on the Yuan River in southwestern China is employed as the research area. As the result, the proposed guiding curves could increase the hydropower production amount by 1.72% and 5.99% and optimize ecological conservation degree by 0.27% and 1.13% for JS and MDS Reservoir, respectively. Meanwhile, the ecological deterioration rate also sees a decrease from 6.11% to 1.11% for JS Reservoir and 26.67% to 3.89% for MDS Reservoir.

  5. Spatial patterns of primary productivity derived from the Dynamic Habitat Indices predict patterns of species richness and distributions in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttidate, Naparat

    Humans are changing the Earth's ecosystems, which has profound consequences for biodiversity. To understand how species respond to these changes, biodiversity science requires accurate assessments of biodiversity. However, biodiversity assessments are still limited in tropical regions. The Dynamic Habitat Indices (DHIs), derived from satellite data, summarize dynamic patterns of annual primary productivity: (a) cumulative annual productivity, (b) minimum annual productivity, and (c) seasonal variation in productivity. The DHIs have been successfully used in temperate regions, but not yet in the tropics. My goal was to evaluate the importance of primary productivity measured via the DHIs for assessing patterns of species richness and distributions in Thailand. First, I assessed the relationships between the DHIs and tropical bird species richness. I also evaluated the complementarity of the DHIs and topography, climate, latitudinal gradients, habitat heterogeneity, and habitat area in explaining bird species richness. I found that among three DHIs, cumulative annual productivity was the most important factor in explaining bird species richness and that the DHIs outperformed other environmental variables. Second, I developed texture measures derive from DHI cumulative annual productivity, and compared them to habitat composition and fragmentation as predictors of tropical forest bird distributions. I found that adding texture measures to habitat composition and fragmentation models improved the prediction of tropical bird distributions, especially area- and edge-sensitive tropical forest bird species. Third, I predicted the effects of trophic interactions between primary productivity, prey, and predators in relation to habitat connectivity for Indochinese tigers (Panthera tigris). I found that including trophic interactions improved habitat suitability models for tigers. However, tiger habitat is highly fragmented with few dispersal corridors. I also identified

  6. NASA and USGS invest in invasive species modeling to evaluate habitat for Africanized Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Invasive non-native species, such as plants, animals, and pathogens, have long been an interest to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and NASA. Invasive species cause harm to our economy (around $120 B/year), the environment (e.g., replacing native biodiversity, forest pathogens negatively affecting carbon storage), and human health (e.g., plague, West Nile virus). Five years ago, the USGS and NASA formed a partnership to improve ecological forecasting capabilities for the early detection and containment of the highest priority invasive species. Scientists from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Fort Collins Science Center developed a longterm strategy to integrate remote sensing capabilities, high-performance computing capabilities and new spatial modeling techniques to advance the science of ecological invasions [Schnase et al., 2002].

  7. New and interesting species of lichens from xerothermic habitats in NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anetta Wieczorek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data on the occurrence of lichens in xerothermic grasslands, representing a great mycological peculiarity of the NW part of Pomerania, Poland. The 12 examined specimens of six species originated from fieldwork carried out in 2011–2014 in the nature reserves Brodogóry, Stary Przylep, Bielinek, Wrzosowiska Cedyńskie, Prof. Adam Wodziczko Nature Reserve in the Wolin National Park, and an old chalk excavation site on Wolin Island. Within the study sites, four lichen species were recorded as a new to Western Pomerania: Agonimia gelatinosa, Collema cristatum, Dermatocarpon luridum, and Leptogium subtile. The other two species, Collema auriforme and C. flaccidum, are rarely observed in the studied region.

  8. Contaminants and habitat choice in the Baltic Sea: Behavioural experiments with the native species, Monoporeia affinis, and the invasive genus, Marenzelleria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin; Vilhelmsson, Sandra; Wiklund, Stig Johan; Eklund, Britta

    2009-01-01

    The invasive polychaete genus, Marenzelleria and the native amphipod, Monoporeia affinis are food and habitat competitors in the Baltic Sea. Previous studies have shown that moderate densities of Marenzelleria can affect the behaviour of M. affinis. To examine the short-term interactive effects of interspecific habitat choice and environmental contaminants a series of habitat colonisation experiments were performed. The contaminants examined included harbor sediments and sediment spiked with the antifouling substances, Cu, Zn and Irgarol. Polychaetes and amphipods were exposed to contaminants in single-species and two-species experiments. In spiked-sediment experiments, M. affinis showed clear dose-dependent response. These experiments verified that behavioural response of M. affinis to different habitats is a sensitive method for testing toxicity under controlled conditions. In experiments with three different harbor sediments and reference sediment both species showed the lowest preference for the reference sediment. This sediment also had the lowest content of quality food, indicating that factors such as food quality and quantity may override the disturbing effects of contaminants in natural sediments. The presence of Marenzelleria spp. did not affect amphipod habitat choice, indicating no short-term effects, which implies that both species can co-exist provided sufficient food is available.

  9. Glacial refugia and the prediction of future habitat coverage of the South American lichen species Ochrolechia austroamericana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukwa, Martin; Kolanowska, Marta

    2016-12-08

    The biogeographic history of lichenized fungi remains unrevealed because those organisms rarely fossilize due to their delicate, often tiny and quickly rotting thalli. Also the ecology and factors limiting occurrence of numerous taxa, especially those restricted in their distribution to tropical areas are poorly recognized. The aim of this study was to determine localization of glacial refugia of South American Ochrolechia austroamericana and to estimate the future changes in the coverage of its habitats using ecological niche modeling tools. The general glacial potential range of the studied species was wider than it is nowadays and its niches coverage decreased by almost 25% since last glacial maximum. The refugial areas were covered by cool and dry grasslands and scrubs and suitable niches in South America were located near the glacier limit. According to our analyses the further climate changes will not significantly influence the distribution of the suitable niches of O. austroamericana.

  10. High-resolution assessment of land use impacts on biodiversity in life cycle assessment using species habitat suitability models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baan, Laura; Curran, Michael; Rondinini, Carlo; Visconti, Piero; Hellweg, Stefanie; Koellner, Thomas

    2015-02-17

    Agricultural land use is a main driver of global biodiversity loss. The assessment of land use impacts in decision-support tools such as life cycle assessment (LCA) requires spatially explicit models, but existing approaches are either not spatially differentiated or modeled at very coarse scales (e.g., biomes or ecoregions). In this paper, we develop a high-resolution (900 m) assessment method for land use impacts on biodiversity based on habitat suitability models (HSM) of mammal species. This method considers potential land use effects on individual species, and impacts are weighted by the species' conservation status and global rarity. We illustrate the method using a case study of crop production in East Africa, but the underlying HSMs developed by the Global Mammals Assessment are available globally. We calculate impacts of three major export crops and compare the results to two previously developed methods (focusing on local and regional impacts, respectively) to assess the relevance of the methodological innovations proposed in this paper. The results highlight hotspots of product-related biodiversity impacts that help characterize the links among agricultural production, consumption, and biodiversity loss.

  11. Pseudophilautus dilmah, a new species of shrub frog (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae from a threatened habitat Loolkandura in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Mendis Wickramasinghe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new species of shrub frog Pseudophilautus dilmah is described from the Central Hills of Sri Lanka.  This unique species is distinguished from all the other congeners from a combination of characters; snout rounded in lateral aspect, bluntly pointed in dorsal and ventral aspect, canthus rostralis rounded, vomerine teeth, lingual papilla and nuptial pads absent, dermal fringe distinct on inside of fingers III and IV, small blunt tubercles on metacarpal and ulnar folds, toes basally webbed, interorbital area smooth, upper eyelid prominent tubercles present, anterior and posterior dorsum without horny spinules but tubercles present, upper part of flank weakly granular, supratympanic fold distinct, prominent small calcar present at the distal end of the tibia, throat granular, chest and belly coarsely granular.  Based on comparison of 16s rRNA gene we also show that the species is genetically distinct from other members of Pseudophilautus for which gene sequences are available.  The high rate of deforestation and anthropogenic activities threaten this population in its natural habitat

  12. The effect of two ant species Lasius niger and Lasius flavus on soil properties in two contrasting habitats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holec, M.; Frouz, J. [Academy of Science Czech Republic, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic). Inst. of Soil Biology

    2006-11-15

    Ants significantly change the soil environment within the nest. The aim of this study is to contribute to ecology and thus the importance of two ant species Lasius niger and Lasius flavus in a post-mining landscape near the town of Sokolov in northwest Bohemia where both species are common. Chemical (total C, N, and available P) and microbiological parameters (respiration, cellulose decomposition and direct counts of bacteria) were investigated in both ant species in two different habitats: a tertiary clay heap after brown coal mining with a weakly developed organic layer and semi natural meadows with well developed organic horizons. Total C and N in the L. flavus mound was lower than in the surrounding soil in both stands, the same was true for total N in L. niger on the heaps. L. niger nests in both sites were significantly enriched by available P. A litter bag test with cellulose indicated lower decomposition in the ant nest in comparison with the surrounding soil. Respiration seems to be limited by lower soil moisture in the nest. However, microbial respiration, even in suitable moisture conditions, did not differ between the nest and soil (on heaps) or nest respiration was significantly lower (in L. flavus nests in the meadow). In meadow soil both species had a lower bacteria count than the surrounding soil, but the L. niger nest on the heap had higher bacterial numbers. Both species significantly alter soil conditions, although the effect on selected parameters is variable. Moreover, the result with lower nest moisture and lower decomposition rate in ant mounds indicates that soil moisture should be the next important factor limiting soil processes inside ant mounds.

  13. species live in a characteristic limited range of habitats and, within

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Patch dynamics and stability of some California kelp com- munities. Ecol. .... Evol. 5: 52–57. MENGE, B. A. and J. P. SUTHERLAND 1976 — Species diversity ... PALUMBI, S. R. 1984 — Measurement of intertidal wave forces. J. expl mar. Biol.

  14. Carbon tradeoffs of restoration and provision of endangered species habitat in a fire-maintained forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine L. Martin; Matthew D. Hurteau; Bruce A. Hungate; George W. Koch; Malcolm P. North

    2015-01-01

    Forests are a significant part of the global carbon cycle and are increasingly viewed as tools for mitigating climate change. Natural disturbances, such as fire, can reduce carbon storage. However, many forests and dependent species evolved with frequent fire as an integral ecosystem process. We used a landscape forest simulation model to evaluate the effects of...

  15. Biomechanical warfare in ecology; negative interactions between species by habitat modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wesenbeeck, B. K.; van de Koppel, J.; Herman, P. M. J.; Bakker, J. P.; Bouma, T. J.

    Since the introduction of the term ecosystem engineering by Jones et al. many studies have focused on positive, facilitative interactions caused by ecosystem engineering. Much less emphasis has been placed on the role of ecosystem engineering in causing negative interactions between species. Here,

  16. The influence of habitat structure on bird species composition in lowland malaysian rain forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Mohammad Saiful; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd

    2012-05-01

    Bird surveys were conducted in the Bukit Kepala Gajah limestone area in Lenggong, Perak from July 2010 to January 2011. The study area was divided into three zones: forest edge, forest intermediate and forest interior. A point-count distance sampling method was used in the bird surveys. The study recorded 7789 detections, representing 100 bird species belonging to 28 families. Pycnonotidae, Timaliidae and Nectariniidae were the dominant families overall and showed the highest number of observations recorded in the study area whereas Motacillidae showed the fewest observations. The bird species were grouped into three feeding guilds: insectivores, frugivores and others (omnivores, carnivores, nectarivores and granivores). The species richness of insectivorous birds differed significantly among the forest zones sampled (Kruskal-Wallis: α=0.05, H=10.979, d.f.=2, p=0.004), with more insectivorous birds occurring in the forest interior. No significant differences were found among the zones in the species richness of either the frugivore guild or the composite others guild.

  17. Biomechanical warfare in ecology; negative interactions between species by habitat modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wesenbeeck, B.K.; Van de Koppel, J.; Herman, P.M.J.; Bakker, J.P.; Bouma, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    Since the introduction of the term ecosystem engineering by Jones et al. many studies have focused on positive, facilitative interactions caused by ecosystem engineering. Much less emphasis has been placed on the role of ecosystem engineering in causing negative interactions between species. Here,

  18. Anthropogenic impacts on habitat structure and species richness in the west Siberian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olga Khitun; Olga Rebristaya

    2002-01-01

    Intensive technogenous invasion in the West Siberian Arctic during the last two decades in connection with gas and oil exploration, along with the constant growth of domestic reindeer herds, has caused dramatic changes in arctic ecosystems. Loss of biodiversity on the species level has not yet been documented in the region on a whole, but changes in ecosystems in...

  19. Habitat area and climate stability determine geographical variation in plant species range sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morueta-Holme, Naia; Enquist, Brian J.; McGill, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being a fundamental aspect of biodiversity, little is known about what controls species range sizes. This is especially the case for hyperdiverse organisms such as plants. We use the largest botanical data set assembled to date to quantify geographical variation in range size for ~85,000 ...

  20. Kalanchoe hypseloleuce (Crassulaceae), a new species from eastern Ethiopia, with notes on its habitat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Gilbert, Michael G.; van Breugel, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    A new species of Kalanchoe, K. hypseloleuce Friis & M. G. Gilbert, was found during field work in Ethiopia in 2015, and is established here. It is characterised by its tall stature (2 – 3 m), entire, sessile, lanceolate leaves and pure white flowers with abaxially minutely papillose corolla lobes...

  1. 76 FR 515 - Endangered and Threatened Species, Designation of Critical Habitat for Southern Distinct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... populations spawning west of Cook Inlet, Alaska). In the portion of the species' range that lies south of the... Life History and Maturation Eulachon eggs can vary considerably in size but typically are approximately...). Eggs are enclosed in a double membrane; after fertilization in the water, the outer membrane breaks and...

  2. 76 FR 41288 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan; Receipt of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    .... Further, the project-by-project approach does not provide the tools necessary to take a holistic... planning, adaptive management, and sound scientific principles; and to support species conservation actions... of the MSHCP provides adaptive management to assess the validity of assumptions and implement...

  3. Vegetative reproduction by species with different adaptations to shallow-flooded habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenssen, J.P.M.; Menting, F.B.J.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Blom, C.W.P.M.

    2000-01-01

    In shallow flooded parts of rich fens Mentha aquatica might thrive in deeper water than Epilobium hirsutum but previous experiments have provided no clear indication that the flooding tolerance of these species differs. In this study we investigated, by measuring growth, biomass allocation and

  4. A habitat suitability model for Chinese sturgeon determined using the generalized additive method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yujun; Sun, Jie; Zhang, Shanghong

    2016-03-01

    The Chinese sturgeon is a type of large anadromous fish that migrates between the ocean and rivers. Because of the construction of dams, this sturgeon's migration path has been cut off, and this species currently is on the verge of extinction. Simulating suitable environmental conditions for spawning followed by repairing or rebuilding its spawning grounds are effective ways to protect this species. Various habitat suitability models based on expert knowledge have been used to evaluate the suitability of spawning habitat. In this study, a two-dimensional hydraulic simulation is used to inform a habitat suitability model based on the generalized additive method (GAM). The GAM is based on real data. The values of water depth and velocity are calculated first via the hydrodynamic model and later applied in the GAM. The final habitat suitability model is validated using the catch per unit effort (CPUEd) data of 1999 and 2003. The model results show that a velocity of 1.06-1.56 m/s and a depth of 13.33-20.33 m are highly suitable ranges for the Chinese sturgeon to spawn. The hydraulic habitat suitability indexes (HHSI) for seven discharges (4000; 9000; 12,000; 16,000; 20,000; 30,000; and 40,000 m3/s) are calculated to evaluate integrated habitat suitability. The results show that the integrated habitat suitability reaches its highest value at a discharge of 16,000 m3/s. This study is the first to apply a GAM to evaluate the suitability of spawning grounds for the Chinese sturgeon. The study provides a reference for the identification of potential spawning grounds in the entire basin.

  5. Habitat Heterogeneity Affects Plant and Arthropod Species Diversity and Turnover in Traditional Cornfields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Eliana; Rös, Matthias; Bonilla, María Argenis; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of the agricultural frontier by the clearing of remnant forests has led to human-dominated landscape mosaics. Previous studies have evaluated the effect of these landscape mosaics on arthropod diversity at local spatial scales in temperate and tropical regions, but little is known about fragmentation effects in crop systems, such as the complex tropical traditional crop systems that maintain a high diversity of weeds and arthropods in low-Andean regions. To understand the factors that influence patterns of diversity in human-dominated landscapes, we investigate the effect of land use types on plant and arthropod diversity in traditionally managed cornfields, via surveys of plants and arthropods in twelve traditional cornfields in the Colombian Andes. We estimated alpha and beta diversity to analyze changes in diversity related to land uses within a radius of 100 m to 1 km around each cornfield. We observed that forests influenced alpha diversity of plants, but not of arthropods. Agricultural lands had a positive relationship with plants and herbivores, but a negative relationship with predators. Pastures positively influenced the diversity of plants and arthropods. In addition, forest cover seemed to influence changes in plant species composition and species turnover of herbivore communities among cornfields. The dominant plant species varied among fields, resulting in high differentiation of plant communities. Predator communities also exhibited high turnover among cornfields, but differences in composition arose mainly among rare species. The crop system evaluated in this study represents a widespread situation in the tropics, therefore, our results can be of broad significance. Our findings suggest that traditional agriculture may not homogenize biological communities, but instead could maintain the regional pool of species through high beta diversity.

  6. Habitat Heterogeneity Affects Plant and Arthropod Species Diversity and Turnover in Traditional Cornfields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Martínez

    Full Text Available The expansion of the agricultural frontier by the clearing of remnant forests has led to human-dominated landscape mosaics. Previous studies have evaluated the effect of these landscape mosaics on arthropod diversity at local spatial scales in temperate and tropical regions, but little is known about fragmentation effects in crop systems, such as the complex tropical traditional crop systems that maintain a high diversity of weeds and arthropods in low-Andean regions. To understand the factors that influence patterns of diversity in human-dominated landscapes, we investigate the effect of land use types on plant and arthropod diversity in traditionally managed cornfields, via surveys of plants and arthropods in twelve traditional cornfields in the Colombian Andes. We estimated alpha and beta diversity to analyze changes in diversity related to land uses within a radius of 100 m to 1 km around each cornfield. We observed that forests influenced alpha diversity of plants, but not of arthropods. Agricultural lands had a positive relationship with plants and herbivores, but a negative relationship with predators. Pastures positively influenced the diversity of plants and arthropods. In addition, forest cover seemed to influence changes in plant species composition and species turnover of herbivore communities among cornfields. The dominant plant species varied among fields, resulting in high differentiation of plant communities. Predator communities also exhibited high turnover among cornfields, but differences in composition arose mainly among rare species. The crop system evaluated in this study represents a widespread situation in the tropics, therefore, our results can be of broad significance. Our findings suggest that traditional agriculture may not homogenize biological communities, but instead could maintain the regional pool of species through high beta diversity.

  7. California Condor Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These Data identify (in general) the areas where critical habitat for the California Condor occur. Critical habitat for the species consists of the following 10...

  8. Mapping Habitat Connectivity for Multiple Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Species on and Around Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    population sizes, reduced flow of individuals and genes between populations, and greater risk of extinction of native species (Fisher and Lindenmayer 2007...allow recolonization of both original and restored breeding sites where the local population has gone extinct , or simply to increase the chance that...movement for pollen dispersal by honey bees . Ecology 74:493-500. Müller, J., J. Stadler, R. Brandl., 2009. Composition versus physiognomy of vegetation

  9. Habitat requirements of endangered species in a former coppice of high conservation value

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roleček, Jan; Vild, Ondřej; Sladký, J.; Řepka, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2017), s. 59-69 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : abandoned coppice * environmental requirements * red-list species Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016

  10. Phylogenetic structure of plant species pools reflects habitat age on the geological time scale

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lososová, Z.; Šmarda, P.; Chytrý, M.; Purschke, O.; Pyšek, Petr; Sádlo, Jiří; Tichý, L.; Winter, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 6 (2015), s. 1080-1089 ISSN 1100-9233 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plant communities * phylogenetic diversity * species pool Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.151, year: 2015

  11. Habitat availability and heterogeneity and the indo-pacific warm pool as predictors of marine species richness in the tropical Indo-Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanciangco, Jonnell C; Carpenter, Kent E; Etnoyer, Peter J; Moretzsohn, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Range overlap patterns were observed in a dataset of 10,446 expert-derived marine species distribution maps, including 8,295 coastal fishes, 1,212 invertebrates (crustaceans and molluscs), 820 reef-building corals, 50 seagrasses, and 69 mangroves. Distributions of tropical Indo-Pacific shore fishes revealed a concentration of species richness in the northern apex and central region of the Coral Triangle epicenter of marine biodiversity. This pattern was supported by distributions of invertebrates and habitat-forming primary producers. Habitat availability, heterogeneity, and sea surface temperatures were highly correlated with species richness across spatial grains ranging from 23,000 to 5,100,000 km(2) with and without correction for autocorrelation. The consistent retention of habitat variables in our predictive models supports the area of refuge hypothesis which posits reduced extinction rates in the Coral Triangle. This does not preclude support for a center of origin hypothesis that suggests increased speciation in the region may contribute to species richness. In addition, consistent retention of sea surface temperatures in models suggests that available kinetic energy may also be an important factor in shaping patterns of marine species richness. Kinetic energy may hasten rates of both extinction and speciation. The position of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool to the east of the Coral Triangle in central Oceania and a pattern of increasing species richness from this region into the central and northern parts of the Coral Triangle suggests peripheral speciation with enhanced survival in the cooler parts of the Coral Triangle that also have highly concentrated available habitat. These results indicate that conservation of habitat availability and heterogeneity is important to reduce extinction of marine species and that changes in sea surface temperatures may influence the evolutionary potential of the region.

  12. Habitat availability and heterogeneity and the indo-pacific warm pool as predictors of marine species richness in the tropical Indo-Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonnell C Sanciangco

    Full Text Available Range overlap patterns were observed in a dataset of 10,446 expert-derived marine species distribution maps, including 8,295 coastal fishes, 1,212 invertebrates (crustaceans and molluscs, 820 reef-building corals, 50 seagrasses, and 69 mangroves. Distributions of tropical Indo-Pacific shore fishes revealed a concentration of species richness in the northern apex and central region of the Coral Triangle epicenter of marine biodiversity. This pattern was supported by distributions of invertebrates and habitat-forming primary producers. Habitat availability, heterogeneity, and sea surface temperatures were highly correlated with species richness across spatial grains ranging from 23,000 to 5,100,000 km(2 with and without correction for autocorrelation. The consistent retention of habitat variables in our predictive models supports the area of refuge hypothesis which posits reduced extinction rates in the Coral Triangle. This does not preclude support for a center of origin hypothesis that suggests increased speciation in the region may contribute to species richness. In addition, consistent retention of sea surface temperatures in models suggests that available kinetic energy may also be an important factor in shaping patterns of marine species richness. Kinetic energy may hasten rates of both extinction and speciation. The position of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool to the east of the Coral Triangle in central Oceania and a pattern of increasing species richness from this region into the central and northern parts of the Coral Triangle suggests peripheral speciation with enhanced survival in the cooler parts of the Coral Triangle that also have highly concentrated available habitat. These results indicate that conservation of habitat availability and heterogeneity is important to reduce extinction of marine species and that changes in sea surface temperatures may influence the evolutionary potential of the region.

  13. The value of small habitat islands for the conservation of genetic variability in a steppe grass species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wódkiewicz, Maciej; Dembicz, Iwona; Moysiyenko, Ivan I.

    2016-10-01

    The habitat loss and fragmentation due to agricultural land-conversion affected the steppe throughout its range. In Ukraine, 95% of steppe was destroyed in the last two centuries. Remaining populations are confined to few refuges, like nature reserves, loess ravines, and kurgans (small burial mounds), the latter being often subject to destruction by archeological excavations. Stipa capillata L. is a typical grass species of Eurasian steppes and extrazonal dry grasslands, that was previously used as a model species in studies on steppe ecology. The aim of our research was to assess genetic diversity of S. capillata populations within different types of steppe refuges (loess ravines, biosphere reserve, kurgan) and to evaluate the value of the latter group for the preservation of genetic diversity in the study species. We assessed genetic diversity of 266 individuals from 15 populations (nine from kurgans, three from loess ravines and three from Askania-Nova Biosphere Reserve) with eight Universal Rice Primers (URPs). Studied populations showed high intra-population variability (I: 0.262-0.419, PPB: 52.08-82.64%). Populations from kurgans showed higher genetic differentiation (ΦST = 0.247) than those from loess ravines (ΦST = 0.120) and the biosphere reserve (ΦST = 0.142). Although the diversity metrics were to a small extent lower for populations from kurgans than from larger refugia we conclude that all studied populations of the species still preserve high genetic variability and are valuable for protection. To what extent this pattern holds true under continuous fragmentation in the future must be carefully monitored.

  14. Ecological transfer of radionuclides and metals to free-living earthworm species in natural habitats rich in NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena, E-mail: jelena.mrdakovic.popic@umb.no; Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis

    2012-01-01

    radionuclides and metals and to assessment of risk for non-human species in the ecosystem with multiple contaminants. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transfer of radionuclides ({sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U) and metals (As, Cr, Cd and Pb) from soil to earthworms was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Individual organisms' variability and species specific accumulation were demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results suggested that earthworms could survive in habitats with multiple contaminants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estimated radiological risk was not significant despite high soil concentrations of radionuclides.

  15. Responses of Cryptofaunal Species Richness and Trophic Potential to Coral Reef Habitat Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek P. Manzello

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are declining worldwide as a result of many anthropogenic disturbances. This trend is alarming because coral reefs are hotspots of marine biodiversity and considered the ‘rainforests of the sea. As in the rainforest, much of the diversity on a coral reef is cryptic, remaining hidden among the cracks and crevices of structural taxa. Although the cryptofauna make up the majority of a reef’s metazoan biodiversity, we know little about their basic ecology or how these communities respond to reef degradation. Emerging research shows that the species richness of the motile cryptofauna is higher among dead (framework vs. live coral substrates and, surprisingly, increases within successively more eroded reef framework structures, ultimately reaching a maximum in dead coral rubble. Consequently, the paradigm that abundant live coral is the apex of reef diversity needs to be clarified. This provides guarded optimism amidst alarming reports of declines in live coral cover and the impending doom of coral reefs, as motile cryptic biodiversity should persist independent of live coral cover. Granted, the maintenance of this high species richness is contingent on the presence of reef rubble, which will eventually be lost due to physical, chemical, and biological erosion if not replenished by live coral calcification and mortality. The trophic potential of a reef, as inferred from the abundance of cryptic organisms, is highest on live coral. Among dead framework substrates, however, the density of cryptofauna reaches a peak at intermediate levels of degradation. In summary, the response of the motile cryptofauna, and thus a large fraction of the reef’s biodiversity, to reef degradation is more complex and nuanced than currently thought; such that species richness may be less sensitive than overall trophic function.

  16. Naturalization of central European plants in North America: species traits, habitats, propagule pressure, residence time

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pyšek, Petr; Manceur, A. M.; Alba, Christina; McGregor, Kirsty; Pergl, Jan; Štajerová, Kateřina; Chytrý, M.; Danihelka, Jiří; Kartesz, J.; Klimešová, Jitka; Lučanová, Magdalena; Moravcová, Lenka; Nishino, M.; Sádlo, Jiří; Suda, Jan; Tichý, L.; Kühn, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 3 (2015), s. 762-774 ISSN 0012-9658 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-15414S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028; GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1112 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : invasions * naturalization * species traits Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.733, year: 2015

  17. Flowering phenology and pollination of ornithophilous species in two habitats of Serra da Bodoquena, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério R. Faria

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to describe interactions between hummingbirds and ornithophilous species at Serra da Bodoquena in midwest Brazil, with focus on flowering phenology and pollination of these plant species. In two habitats, gallery forest and semi-deciduous forest, data on flowering phenology of ornithophilous species were collected monthly over 14 months. In addition, data on morphology and floral biology, as well as visitor frequency and hummingbird behavior, were recorded. The studied community contained eight ornithophilous plant species and six hummingbird species. The ornithophilous species flowered throughout the year, and the greatest abundance of flowers was at the end of the rainy season and the beginning of the dry one. The herit huingbird Phaethornis pretrei and feales of Thalurania furcata, were the most similar in floral resource use. Acanthaceae is the most representative family of ornithophilous plant species in Serra da Bodoquena and, thus, represents the main food source for hummingbirds. Ruellia angustiflora is especially important because it flowers continuously throughout the year and is a significant food resource for P. pretrei, which is the main visitor for this plant guild.O objetivo deste estudo é descrever as interações entre beijaflores e espécies ornitófilas na Serra da Bodoquena na região Centro-Oeste do Brasil, com foco na fenologia de floração e polinização destas espécies vegetais. Em dois habitats, mata ciliar e floresta semi-decídua, dados de fenologia de floração de espécies ornitófilas foram coletados mensalmente ao longo de 14 meses. Além disso, dados de morfologia e biologia floral bem como a frequência dos visitantes e o comportamento dos beija-flores foram registrados. A comunidade estudada contém oito espécies de plantas ornitófilas e seis espécies de beija-flores. As espécies ornitófilas floresceram todo o ano, e a maior abundância de flores foi no final da esta

  18. Potential role of frugivorous birds (Passeriformes on seed dispersal of six plant species in a restinga habitat, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Souza da Mota Gomes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Restingas are considered stressful habitats associated with the Brazilian Atlantic forest, and their ecological interactions are poorly known. The goal of the present study was to determine the potential role of frugivorous birds as seed dispersers in a restinga habitat. Data were collected in Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, southeastern Brazil, where the main physiognomy (Open Clusia Formation is characterized by the presence of patches of vegetation covering 20 to 48 % of the sandy soil and reaching a height of 5 m. Birds were captured with mist nets (12 x 2.5 m; 36 mm mesh; 1 680 net-hrs and had their fecal and regurgitate samples inspected for seeds. Six plant species found in these bird samples were studied. The germination of seeds obtained from plants was compared to those from the birds. Both groups of seeds were set on Petri dishes at room temperature and washed when infected with fungi. In general, there was no effect on germination rate, and the effect on germination speed was negative. Germination of seeds from Pilosocereus arrabidae treated by the birds seemed to be influenced by storage of defecated seeds, while few Miconia cinnamomifolia seeds both from plants and from birds germinated. Ocotea notata presented a great variation in time to the onset of germination, perhaps an advantage against dissecation. Aechmea nudicaulis, Clusia hilariana and Erythroxylum subsessile probably take advantage of the arrival to favorable microhabitats, not by the gut effect on the seeds. All plant species studied are numerically important for the community and some of them are main actors in the succession of vegetation patches. Among the birds, Mimus gilvus is an important resident species, endemic to restingas in Brazil, while Turdus amaurochalinus is a visitor and may be important for plants that fructify during its passage by the study site. Although the effect of pulp removal was only tested for one species (Achmea nudicaulis in the

  19. Leaf reflectance variation along a vertical crown gradient of two deciduous tree species in a Belgian industrial habitat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khavaninzadeh, Ali Reza; Veroustraete, Frank; Van Wittenberghe, Shari; Verrelst, Jochem; Samson, Roeland

    2015-01-01

    The reflectometry of leaf asymmetry is a novel approach in the bio-monitoring of tree health in urban or industrial habitats. Leaf asymmetry responds to the degree of environmental pollution and reflects structural changes in a leaf due to environmental pollution. This paper describes the boundary conditions to scale up from leaf to canopy level reflectance, by describing the variability of adaxial and abaxial leaf reflectance, hence leaf asymmetry, along the crown height gradients of two tree species. Our findings open a research pathway towards bio-monitoring based on the airborne remote sensing of tree canopies and their leaf asymmetric properties. - Highlights: • Reflectometry of leaf asymmetry is a novel approach in tree health bio-monitoring. • Leaf asymmetry reflects degrees of structural changes by environmental pollution. • Conditions to scale up from leaf to canopy level reflectance are described. • A research pathway is opened towards airborne pollution bio-assessment. - Tree leaf asymmetry responds to the degree of environmental pollution and reflects leaf structural changes differentially according to species and height in the crown

  20. Latent Toxicity of Endothall to Anadromous Salmonids During Seawater Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courter, Lauren A; Garrison, Thomas M; Courter, Ian I

    2016-05-01

    Limited evidence exists on the latent effects of toxicant exposure on the seawater adaptability of anadromous salmon and steelhead. It is unclear whether such an effect exists for the widely used and relatively non-toxic herbicide endothall. Coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch (coho), Chinook salmon, O. tshawytscha (Chinook), and anadromous rainbow trout, O. mykiss (steelhead) were subjected to a 10-day seawater challenge following freshwater treatments [0-12 mg acid equivalent (a.e)./L at 96 h]. Mean survival resulted in 82 % (n = 225), 84 % (n = 133), 90 % (n = 73) and 59 % (n = 147) survival for 0, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12 mg a.e./L, respectively. Our results indicate a lower toxicity threshold compared with previously reported acute toxicity results, but higher compared with previous seawater challenge studies. We demonstrate the utility of the seawater challenge assay to accurately define toxic effects of pesticides on salmonids with complex life-histories.

  1. Sibling vole species (Microtus in the fragmented landscape of south-eastern part of Thrace, Balkan Peninsula: species presence, habitat selection and craniometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGI MARKOV

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of sibling vole species (Microtus in the most common forests and open landscapes in south-eastern part of Thrace (Balkan Peninsula of contemporary territories of Bulgaria and Turkey was studied. Only the southern vole (Microtus levis was found in the investigated region. In his northern part, the Southern vole is associated with semi dry, upland habitats such as deserted and overgrown with wild vegetation vines near sparse forests and large agricultural fields under autumn crops with adjacent non-arable lands with shrub vegetation. In the southern part, it is presented in open landscape related to water areas (meadows near rivers and wetlands. On the basis of trapping the Southern vole is a common species in the north part of Strandzha region. The established craniological characteristics of the Southern vole from investigated region, which can be considered as a zoogeographical crossroads, with a late Pleistocene connection between the Balkan Peninsula and the mammalian fauna of Anatolian peninsula, enriched the knowledge about its craniological variation in Europe.

  2. Factors influencing the spawning migration of female anadromous brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Koed, Anders; Aarestrup, Kim

    2004-01-01

    Radio telemetry was employed to study movements of adult female anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta (sea trout) during upstream spawning migration and following spawning in a stream with tributaries. Sea trout were monitored by manual tracking and by automatic listening stations. The latter...... suggested that initiation of upstream migration was positively correlated with stream discharge. Individual sea trout performed repeated upstream migration 'initiations' (visits) to areas where they were detected by the automatic listening stations. The first and subsequent upstream migration 'initiations...

  3. Development of computational fluid dynamics--habitat suitability (CFD-HSI) models to identify potential passage--Challenge zones for migratory fishes in the Penobscot River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alexander J.; Dudley, Robert W.; Chelminski, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics-habitat suitability (CFD–HSI) model was developed to identify potential zones of shallow depth and high water velocity that may present passage challenges for five anadromous fish species in the Penobscot River, Maine, upstream from two existing dams and as a result of the proposed future removal of the dams. Potential depth-challenge zones were predicted for larger species at the lowest flow modeled in the dam-removal scenario. Increasing flows under both scenarios increased the number and size of potential velocity-challenge zones, especially for smaller species. This application of the two-dimensional CFD–HSI model demonstrated its capabilities to estimate the potential effects of flow and hydraulic alteration on the passage of migratory fish.

  4. Pleistocene sea level fluctuation and host plant habitat requirement influenced the historical phylogeography of the invasive species Amphiareus obscuriceps (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in its native range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Danli; Ye, Zhen; Yamada, Kazutaka; Zhen, Yahui; Zheng, Chenguang; Bu, Wenjun

    2016-08-31

    On account of repeated exposure and submergence of the East China Sea (ECS) land bridge, sea level fluctuation played an important role in shaping the population structure of many temperate species across the ECS during the glacial period. The flower bug Amphiareus obscuriceps (Poppius, 1909) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is an invasive species native to the Sino-Japanese Region (SJR) of East Asia. We tested the hypothesis of the ECS land bridge acting as a dispersal corridor or filter for A. obscuriceps during the glacial period. Specifically, we tested whether and the extent to which dispersal ability and host plant habitat requirement influenced the genetic structure of A. obscuriceps during the exposure of the ECS land bridge. Phylogenetic and network analyses indicated that A. obscuriceps is composed of two major lineages, i.e., China and Japan. Divergence time on both sides of the ECS was estimated to be approximately 1.07 (0.79-1.32) Ma, which was about the same period that the sea level increased. No significant Isolation by Distance (IBD) relationship was found between Фst and Euclidean distances in the Mantel tests, which is consistent with the hypothesis that this species has a good dispersal ability. Our Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) niche modeling of plants that constitute preferred habitats for A. obscuriceps exhibited a similar habitat gap on the exposed ECS continental shelf between China and Japan, but showed a continuous distribution across the Taiwan Strait. Our results suggest that ecological properties (habitat requirement and dispersal ability), together with sea level fluctuation during the Pleistocene across the ECS, have shaped the genetic structure and demographic history of A. obscuriceps in its native area. The host plant habitat requirement could also be a key to the colonization of the A. obscuriceps species during the exposure of the ECS land bridge. Our findings will shed light on the potential role of habitat requirement in the process of

  5. Evolutionary Genetic Analysis Uncovers Multiple Species with Distinct Habitat Preferences and Antibiotic Resistance Phenotypes in the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz E. Ochoa-Sánchez

    2017-08-01

    were significantly more susceptible to antibiotics than S. maltophilia. We demonstrate that the sympatric lineages recovered display significantly differentiated habitat preferences, antibiotic resistance profiles and β-lactamase expression phenotypes, as shown by diverse multivariate analyses and robust univariate statistical tests. We discuss our data in light of current models of bacterial speciation, which fit these data well, stressing the implications of species delimitation in ecological, evolutionary and clinical research.

  6. Linking functional traits and species preferences to species’ abundance and occupancy trends through time to identify habitat changes in coastal ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakeman, Robin J.; Hewison, Richard; Lewis, Robert John

    2017-01-01

    . In general, there has been a shift towards taller species with more exploitative growth forms and an increase in indicators of unfavourable habitat condition according to criteria for assessing sites designated for nature protection as part of the EU Natura 2000 network, particularly tall grasses...

  7. Changes in potential habitat of 147 North American breeding bird species in response to redistribution of trees and climate following predicted climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen N. Matthews; Louis R. Iverson; Anantha M. Prasad; Matthew P. Peters

    2011-01-01

    Mounting evidence shows that organisms have already begun to respond to global climate change. Advances in our knowledge of how climate shapes species distributional patterns has helped us better understand the response of birds to climate change. However, the distribution of birds across the landscape is also driven by biotic and abiotic components, including habitat...

  8. Modeling the dispersion of atelines (primates, atelinae) through scenarios of climate change and habitat fragmentation in Colombia. Conservation implications for the persistence of species into the future

    OpenAIRE

    Burbano- Girón, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Prioritizing landscape connectivity is a primary objective in the conservation planning of biodiversity, since it is assumed that there will be scenarios where the dispersal of species would be necessary due to habitat fragmentation and climate change. Atelines (Primates, Atelinae) include species of Spider Monkeys (Ateles spp.) and Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix spp.); primates with great importance for the tropical forest ecosystems where they inhabit because of their role as seed disp...

  9. The mangrove as a temporary habitat for fish: the Eucinostomus Species at Guaratuba Bay, Brazil (25º 52'S;48º 39'W)

    OpenAIRE

    Chaves,Paulo de Tarso C.; Otto,Gislaine

    1999-01-01

    Several coastal fish use the estuarine habitat during a part of their life cycle. These sites are considered good for the reproductive activity, as well as for the growth of larvae and juveniles. Concerning the Gerreidae, however, many studies reveal that most species leave the estuaries to reproduce at sea. At Guaratuba Bay, southern Brazil, this family is represented by three genera and five species, which make an important fraction of the local assemblage. The present study investigated th...

  10. Integrating Remote Sensing with Species Distribution Models; Mapping Tamarisk Invasions Using the Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling (SAHM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Amanda M; Evangelista, Paul H; Jarnevich, Catherine S; Young, Nicholas E; Stohlgren, Thomas J; Talbert, Colin; Talbert, Marian; Morisette, Jeffrey; Anderson, Ryan

    2016-10-11

    Early detection of invasive plant species is vital for the management of natural resources and protection of ecosystem processes. The use of satellite remote sensing for mapping the distribution of invasive plants is becoming more common, however conventional imaging software and classification methods have been shown to be unreliable. In this study, we test and evaluate the use of five species distribution model techniques fit with satellite remote sensing data to map invasive tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) along the Arkansas River in Southeastern Colorado. The models tested included boosted regression trees (BRT), Random Forest (RF), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), generalized linear model (GLM), and Maxent. These analyses were conducted using a newly developed software package called the Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling (SAHM). All models were trained with 499 presence points, 10,000 pseudo-absence points, and predictor variables acquired from the Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor over an eight-month period to distinguish tamarisk from native riparian vegetation using detection of phenological differences. From the Landsat scenes, we used individual bands and calculated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), and tasseled capped transformations. All five models identified current tamarisk distribution on the landscape successfully based on threshold independent and threshold dependent evaluation metrics with independent location data. To account for model specific differences, we produced an ensemble of all five models with map output highlighting areas of agreement and areas of uncertainty. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of species distribution models in analyzing remotely sensed data and the utility of ensemble mapping, and showcase the capability of SAHM in pre-processing and executing multiple complex models.

  11. Integrating remote sensing with species distribution models; Mapping tamarisk invasions using the Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling (SAHM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Amanda M.; Evangelista, Paul H.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Young, Nicholas E.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Talbert, Colin; Talbert, Marian; Morisette, Jeffrey; Anderson, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of invasive plant species is vital for the management of natural resources and protection of ecosystem processes. The use of satellite remote sensing for mapping the distribution of invasive plants is becoming more common, however conventional imaging software and classification methods have been shown to be unreliable. In this study, we test and evaluate the use of five species distribution model techniques fit with satellite remote sensing data to map invasive tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) along the Arkansas River in Southeastern Colorado. The models tested included boosted regression trees (BRT), Random Forest (RF), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), generalized linear model (GLM), and Maxent. These analyses were conducted using a newly developed software package called the Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling (SAHM). All models were trained with 499 presence points, 10,000 pseudo-absence points, and predictor variables acquired from the Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor over an eight-month period to distinguish tamarisk from native riparian vegetation using detection of phenological differences. From the Landsat scenes, we used individual bands and calculated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), and tasseled capped transformations. All five models identified current tamarisk distribution on the landscape successfully based on threshold independent and threshold dependent evaluation metrics with independent location data. To account for model specific differences, we produced an ensemble of all five models with map output highlighting areas of agreement and areas of uncertainty. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of species distribution models in analyzing remotely sensed data and the utility of ensemble mapping, and showcase the capability of SAHM in pre-processing and executing multiple complex models.

  12. Future warmer seas: increased stress and susceptibility to grazing in seedlings of a marine habitat-forming species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernán, Gema; Ortega, María J; Gándara, Alberto M; Castejón, Inés; Terrados, Jorge; Tomas, Fiona

    2017-11-01

    Increases in seawater temperature are expected to have negative consequences for marine organisms. Beyond individual effects, species-specific differences in thermal tolerance are predicted to modify species interactions and increase the strength of top-down effects, particularly in plant-herbivore interactions. Shifts in trophic interactions will be especially important when affecting habitat-forming species such as seagrasses, as the consequences on their abundance will cascade throughout the food web. Seagrasses are a major component of coastal ecosystems offering important ecosystem services, but are threatened by multiple anthropogenic stressors, including warming. The mechanistic understanding of seagrass responses to warming at multiple scales of organization remains largely unexplored, especially in early-life stages such as seedlings. Yet, these early-life stages are critical for seagrass expansion processes and adaptation to climate change. In this study, we determined the effects of a 3 month experimental exposure to present and predicted mean summer SST of the Mediterranean Sea (25°C, 27°C, and 29°C) on the photophysiology, size, and ecology (i.e., plant-herbivore interactions) of seedlings of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica. Warming resulted in increased mortality, leaf necrosis, and respiration as well as lower carbohydrate reserves in the seed, the main storage organ in seedlings. Aboveground biomass and root growth were also limited with warming, which could hamper seedling establishment success. Furthermore, warming increased the susceptibility to consumption by grazers, likely due to lower leaf fiber content and thickness. Our results indicate that warming will negatively affect seagrass seedlings through multiple direct and indirect pathways: increased stress, reduced establishment potential, lower storage of carbohydrate reserves, and increased susceptibly to consumption. This work provides a significant step forward in understanding the

  13. The effects of habitat management on the species, phylogenetic and functional diversity of bees are modified by the environmental context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydenham, Markus A K; Moe, Stein R; Stanescu-Yadav, Diana N; Totland, Ørjan; Eldegard, Katrine

    2016-02-01

    Anthropogenic landscape elements, such as roadsides, hedgerows, field edges, and power line clearings, can be managed to provide important habitats for wild bees. However, the effects of habitat improvement schemes in power line clearings on components of diversity are poorly studied. We conducted a large-scale experiment to test the effects of different management practices on the species, phylogenetic, and functional diversity of wild bees in power line clearings (n = 19 sites across southeastern Norway) and explored whether any treatment effects were modified by the environmental context. At each site, we conducted the following treatments: (1) Cut: all trees cut and left to decay in the clearing; (2) Cut + Remove: all trees cut and removed from the plot; and (3) Uncut: uncleared. The site-specific environmental context (i.e., elevation and floral diversity) influenced the species, phylogenetic, and functional diversity within bee species assemblages. The largest number of species was found in the Cut + Remove treatment in plots with a high forb species richness, indicating that the outcome of management practices depends on the environmental context. Clearing of treatment plots with many forb species also appeared to alter the phylogenetic composition of bee species assemblages, that is, more closely related species were found in the Cut and the Cut + Remove plots than in the Uncut plots. Synthesis and applications: Our experimental simulation of management practices in power line clearings influenced the species, phylogenetic, and functional diversity of bee species assemblages. Frequent clearing and removal of the woody debris at low elevations with a high forb species richness can increase the value of power line clearings for solitary bees. It is therefore important for managers to consider the environmental context when designing habitat improvement schemes for solitary bees.

  14. Phylogeny, habitat together with biological and ecological factors can influence germination of 36 subalpine Rhododendron species from the eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongji; Lai, Liming; Du, Hui; Jiang, Lianhe; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Chao; Zhuang, Ping; Zheng, Yuanrun

    2018-04-01

    The reproductive stages of the life cycle are crucial in explaining the distribution patterns of plant species because of their extreme vulnerability to environmental conditions. Despite reported evidence that seed germination is related to habitat macroclimatic characteristics, such as mean annual temperature, the effect of this trait in controlling plant species distribution has not yet been systematically and quantitatively evaluated. To learn whether seed germination can predict species distribution along altitude gradients, we examined germination data of 36 Rhododendron species in southeastern Tibet originating from contrasting altitudes, habitats, plant heights, seed masses, and phylogenies. Germination varied significantly with altitude, habitat, plant height, and phylogeny and was higher in the light than in the dark. Germination percentage was highest at 10:20°C in the light and 15:25°C in the dark. As altitude increased, germination percentages first rose and then decreased, being highest at 3,500-4,000 m. Germination percentage and rate were highest on rocky slopes, increasing as seed mass and plant height rose. Variations in germination percentage and rate were not significant at subgenera, section, and subsection levels, but they were significant at species level. The results suggested that the relationship between germination and altitude may provide insights into species distribution patterns. Further, germination patterns are a result of long-term evolution as well as taxonomic constraints.

  15. Linking species habitat and past palaeoclimatic events to evolution of the teleost innate immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbakken, Monica Hongrø; Voje, Kjetil Lysne; Jakobsen, Kjetill Sigurd; Jentoft, Sissel

    2017-04-26

    Host-intrinsic factors as well as environmental changes are known to be strong evolutionary drivers defining the genetic foundation of immunity. Using a novel set of teleost genomes and a time-calibrated phylogeny, we here investigate the family of Toll-like receptor ( TLR ) genes and address the underlying evolutionary processes shaping the diversity of the first-line defence. Our findings reveal remarkable flexibility within the evolutionary design of teleost innate immunity characterized by prominent TLR gene losses and expansions. In the order of Gadiformes, expansions correlate with the loss of major histocompatibility complex class II ( MHCII ) and diversifying selection analyses support that this has fostered new immunological innovations in TLR s within this lineage. In teleosts overall, TLRs expansions correlate with species latitudinal distributions and maximum depth. By contrast, lineage-specific gene losses overlap with well-described changes in palaeoclimate (global ocean anoxia) and past Atlantic Ocean geography. In conclusion, we suggest that the evolvability of the teleost immune system has most likely played a prominent role in the survival and successful radiation of this lineage. © 2017 The Authors.

  16. Evolutionary relationships among sympatric life history forms of Dolly Varden inhabiting the landlocked Kronotsky Lake, Kamchatka, and a neighboring anadromous population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, C.O.; Pavlov, S.D.; Hauser, L.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the evolutionary relationships among five sympatric morphs of Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma (white, Schmidti, longhead, river, and dwarf) inhabiting landlocked Kronotsky Lake on the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, and an anadromous population below the barrier waterfall on the outflowing Kronotsky River. Morphological analyses indicated phenotypic differentiation corresponding to preferred habitat, the longhead (a limnetic piscivorous morph) having a fusiform body, long jaw, and short fins and the Schmidti (a benthic morph) having a robust body, small jaw, and long fins. Analysis of molecular variance among the Kronotsky Lake morphs indicated that contemporary gene flow is restricted both among morphs within locations and among locations within morphs. Gene flow from Kronotsky Lake into the anadromous population also appears to be restricted. Our findings indicate that there are two divergent evolutionary lineages, one consisting of the white, Schmidti, river, and dwarf morphs and the other of the longhead morph and the anadromous population, which suggests that Kronotsky Lake was subject to separate waves of immigration. The Kronotsky Lake Dolly Varden morphs may represent an example of ecological speciation in progress, and we present a working hypothesis for the diversification of morphs within Kronotsky Lake.

  17. Genomic population structure of freshwater-resident and anadromous ide (Leuciscus idus) in north-western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovrind, Mikkel; Olsen, Morten Tange; Garrett Vieira, Filipe Jorge

    2016-01-01

    to become increasingly affected by changes in salinity is the ide (Leuciscus idus). The ide is a stenohaline freshwater fish that primarily inhabits rivers, with frequent anadromous behavior when sea salinity does not exceed 15%. Unlike most other anadromous Baltic Sea fish species, the ide has yet......Climate change experts largely agree that future climate change and associated rises in oceanic water levels over the upcoming decades, will affect marine salinity levels. The subsequent effects on fish communities in estuarine ecosystems however, are less clear. One species that is likely...... to be subjected to large-scale stocking programs, and thus provides an excellent opportunity for studying the natural population structure across the current salinity gradient in the Danish Belts. To explore this, we used Genotyping-by-Sequencing to determine genomic population structure of both freshwater...

  18. Habitat heterogeneity as the key determinant of the abundance and habitat preference of prey species of tiger in the Chitwan National Park, Nepal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Kindlmann, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2012), s. 89-97 ISSN 0001-7051 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Ungulates * Prey * Heterogeneity * Habitat selection * Abundance * Preference * Resource selection Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.949, year: 2012

  19. Relative importance of current and past landscape structure and local habitat conditions for plant species richness in dry grassland-like forest openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husáková, Iveta; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    In fragmented landscapes, plant species richness may depend not only on local habitat conditions but also on landscape structure. In addition, both present and past landscape structure may be important for species richness. There are, however, only a few studies that have investigated the relative importance of all of these factors. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of current and past landscape structures and habitat conditions on species richness at dry grassland-like forest openings in a forested landscape and to assess their relative importance for species richness. We analyzed information on past and present landscape structures using aerial photographs from 1938, 1973, 1988, 2000 and 2007. We calculated the area of each locality and its isolation in the present and in the past and the continuity of localities in GIS. At each locality, we recorded all vascular plant species (296 species in 110 forest openings) and information on abiotic conditions of the localities. We found that the current species richness of the forest openings was significantly determined by local habitat conditions as well as by landscape structure in the present and in the past. The highest species richness was observed on larger and more heterogeneous localities with rocks and shallow soils, which were already large and well connected to other localities in 1938. The changes in the landscape structure in the past can thus have strong effects on current species richness. Future studies attempting to understand determinants of species diversity in fragmented landscapes should also include data on past landscape structure, as it may in fact be more important than the present structure.

  20. Species- and habitat-specific bioaccumulation of total mercury and methylmercury in the food web of a deep oligotrophic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcagni, Marina; Juncos, Romina; Rizzo, Andrea; Pavlin, Majda; Fajon, Vesna; Arribére, María A; Horvat, Milena; Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio

    2018-01-15

    Niche segregation between introduced and native fish in Lake Nahuel Huapi, a deep oligotrophic lake in Northwest Patagonia (Argentina), occurs through the consumption of different prey. Therefore, in this work we analyzed total mercury [THg] and methylmercury [MeHg] concentrations in top predator fish and in their main prey to test whether their feeding habits influence [Hg]. Results indicate that [THg] and [MeHg] varied by foraging habitat and they increased with greater percentage of benthic diet and decreased with pelagic diet in Lake Nahuel Huapi. This is consistent with the fact that the native creole perch, a mostly benthivorous feeder, which shares the highest trophic level of the food web with introduced salmonids, had higher [THg] and [MeHg] than the more pelagic feeder rainbow trout and bentho-pelagic feeder brown trout. This differential THg and MeHg bioaccumulation observed in native and introduced fish provides evidence to the hypothesis that there are two main Hg transfer pathways from the base of the food web to top predators: a pelagic pathway where Hg is transferred from water, through plankton (with Hg in inorganic species mostly), forage fish to salmonids, and a benthic pathway, as Hg is transferred from the sediments (where Hg methylation occurs mostly), through crayfish (with higher [MeHg] than plankton), to native fish, leading to one fold higher [Hg]. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Differentiation of epipactis palustris (l.) crantz (orchidaceae) in habitats altered by man based on species populations within poznan city (poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieloch, M.K.; Raszewska, M.W.; Drapikowska, M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare two populations of Epipactis palustris (Orchidaceae) growing in the valley of Junikowski Stream, in the south-western part of the Poznan city (square of ATPOL BD08) and to compare current results to data on the species described in the literature. Group characteristics of both populations, such as population size, average density and congestion factor, as well as the average coefficient of dispersion, were defined. Specimen variability was determined by measuring 250 generative ramets in each population. The following plant traits were included: stem length, inflorescence length, number of flowers per inflorescence, number of leaves per stem and length and width of the largest leaf. Obtained data were subjected to statistical analyses. Descriptive statistics were calculated (arithmetic average, standard deviation, minimum and maximum). The variation coefficient (V) was established to determine the variation degree of each trait. In order to determine statistical significance of average values of traits of the samples in question, the factor variance ANOVA F-statistics was used. The significance degree was examined with Scheffe's test. Principal component analysis (PCA) enabled the examination of mutual relations between the samples in the system of two first principal components. This work confirmed previous information about low variability of marsh helleborine. Individual traits in both populations were very similar. The differences concerned the group characteristics. The plants were in good condition irrespective of occupied habitat. (author)

  2. Eco-physiological adaptation of dominant tree species at two contrasting karst habitats in southwestern China [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2d9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouren Zhang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the eco-physiological adaptation of indigenous woody species to their habitats in karst areas of southwestern China. Two contrasting forest habitats were studied: a degraded habitat in Daxiagu and a well-developed habitat in Tianlongshan, and the eco-physiological characteristics of the trees were measured for three growth seasons. Photosynthetic rate (Pn, stomatal conductance (gs, and transpiration rate (Tr of the tree species in Daxiagu were 2-3 times higher than those in Tianlongshan under ambient conditions. However, this habitat effect was not significant when measurements were taken under controlled conditions. Under controlled conditions, Pn, gs, and Tr of the deciduous species were markedly higher than those for the evergreen species. Habitat had no significant effect on water use efficiency (WUE or photochemical characteristics of PSII. The stomatal sensitivity of woody species in the degraded habitat was much higher than that in the well-developed habitat. Similarly, the leaf total nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P contents expressed on the basis of either dry mass or leaf area were also much higher in Daxiagu than they were in Tianlongshan. The mass-based leaf total N content of deciduous species was much higher than that of evergreen species, while leaf area-based total N and P contents of evergreens were significantly higher than those of deciduous species. The photosynthetic nitrogen- and phosphorus-use efficiencies (PNUE and PPUE of deciduous species were much higher than those of evergreens. Further, the PPUE of the woody species in Tianlongshan was much higher than that  of the woody species in Daxiagu. The results from three growth seasons imply that the tree species were able to adapt well to their growth habitats. Furthermore, it seems that so-called “temporary drought stress” may not occur, or may not be severe for most woody plants in karst areas of southwestern China.

  3. Eco-physiological adaptation of dominant tree species at two contrasting karst habitats in southwestern China [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/xt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouren Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the eco-physiological adaptation of indigenous woody species to their habitats in karst areas of southwestern China. Two contrasting forest habitats were studied: a degraded habitat in Daxiagu and a well-developed habitat in Tianlongshan, and the eco-physiological characteristics of the trees were measured for three growth seasons. Photosynthetic rate (Pn, stomatal conductance (gs, and transpiration rate (Tr of the tree species in Daxiagu were 2-3 times higher than those in Tianlongshan under ambient conditions. However, this habitat effect was not significant when measurements were taken under controlled conditions. Under controlled conditions, Pn, gs, and Tr of the deciduous species were markedly higher than those for the evergreen species. Habitat had no significant effect on water use efficiency (WUE or photochemical characteristics of PSII. The stomatal sensitivity of woody species in the degraded habitat was much higher than that in the well-developed habitat. Similarly, the leaf total nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P contents expressed on the basis of either dry mass or leaf area were also much higher in Daxiagu than they were in Tianlongshan. The mass-based leaf total N content of deciduous species was much higher than that of evergreen species, while leaf area-based total N and P contents of evergreens were significantly higher than those of deciduous species. The photosynthetic nitrogen- and phosphorus-use efficiencies (PNUE and PPUE of deciduous species were much higher than those of evergreens. Further, the PPUE of the woody species in Tianlongshan was much higher than that  of the woody species in Daxiagu. The results from three growth seasons imply that the tree species were able to adapt well to their growth habitats. Furthermore, it seems that so-called “temporary drought stress” may not occur, or may not be severe for most woody plants in karst areas of southwestern China.

  4. Distribution, biology and habitat of the rare European osmiine bee species Osmia (Melanosmia pilicornis (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae, Osmiini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Prosi

    2016-10-01

    flowers of Pulmonaria in a rapid flight regularly interrupted by short resting periods on the ground. Females are grasped for copulation both during flower visits and in flight between the flowers. The wide spectrum of semi-open mesophilous woodland types colonized by O. pilicornis suggests that dead fallen branches and a rich spring flora in combination with a rather warm but not xeric microclimate are the only requisites needed by the species. As the great majority of woodland habitats currently occupied by O. pilicornis in Central Europe owe their origin to human forest use, the recent decline of O. pilicornis in many regions of Europe may have been caused by changes in woodland management practices leading to closed and dark forests not suitable as habitats for this specialized bee species.

  5. Shesher and Welala Floodplain Wetlands (Lake Tana, Ethiopia: Are They Important Breeding Habitats for Clarias gariepinus and the Migratory Labeobarbus Fish Species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassie Anteneh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the spawning migration of the endemic Labeobarbus species and C. gariepinus from Lake Tana, through Ribb River, to Welala and Shesher wetlands. The study was conducted during peak spawning months (July to October, 2010. Fish were collected through overnight gillnet settings. A total of 1725 specimens of the genus Labeobarbus (13 species and 506 specimens of C. gariepinus were collected. Six species of Labeobarbus formed prespawning aggregation at Ribb River mouth. However, no Labeobarbus species was found to spawn in the two wetlands. More than 90% of the catch in Welala and Shesher wetlands was contributed by C. gariepinus. This implies that these wetlands are ideal spawning and nursery habitats for C. gariepinus but not for the endemic Labeobarbus species. Except L. intermedius, all the six Labeobarbus species (aggregated at Ribb River mouth and C. gariepinus (spawning at Shesher and Welala wetlands were temporally segregated.

  6. Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Vance R.; Morton, Winston H.

    2008-12-30

    coordinated by the Grande Ronde Model Watershed Program (Project. No.199202601). Work undertaken during 2007 included: (1) Starting 1 new fencing project in the NFJD subbasin that will protect an additional 1.82 miles of stream and 216.2 acres of habitat; (2) Constructing 0.47 miles of new channel on the Wallowa River to enhance habitat, restore natural channel dimensions, pattern and profile and reconnect approximately 18 acres of floodplain and wetland habitat; (3) Planting 22,100 plants along 3 streams totaling 3.6 stream miles; (4) Establishing 34 new photopoints on 5 projects and retaking 295 existing photopoint pictures; (5) Monitoring stream temperatures at 10 locations on 5 streams and conducting other monitoring activities; (6) Completing riparian fence, water gap and other maintenance on 116.8 miles of project fences; (7) Initiated writing of a comprehensive project summary report that will present a summary of conclusions of the benefits to focal species and management recommendations for the future. Since initiation of this program 56 individual projects have been implemented, monitored and maintained along 84.8 miles of anadromous fish bearing streams that protect and enhance 3,501 acres of riparian and instream habitat.

  7. Harvesting interacts with climate change to affect future habitat quality of a focal species in eastern Canada's boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Junior A; Boulanger, Yan; Cyr, Dominic; Taylor, Anthony R; Price, David T; St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues

    2018-01-01

    Many studies project future bird ranges by relying on correlative species distribution models. Such models do not usually represent important processes explicitly related to climate change and harvesting, which limits their potential for predicting and understanding the future of boreal bird assemblages at the landscape scale. In this study, we attempted to assess the cumulative and specific impacts of both harvesting and climate-induced changes on wildfires and stand-level processes (e.g., reproduction, growth) in the boreal forest of eastern Canada. The projected changes in these landscape- and stand-scale processes (referred to as "drivers of change") were then assessed for their impacts on future habitats and potential productivity of black-backed woodpecker (BBWO; Picoides arcticus), a focal species representative of deadwood and old-growth biodiversity in eastern Canada. Forest attributes were simulated using a forest landscape model, LANDIS-II, and were used to infer future landscape suitability to BBWO under three anthropogenic climate forcing scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5), compared to the historical baseline. We found climate change is likely to be detrimental for BBWO, with up to 92% decline in potential productivity under the worst-case climate forcing scenario (RCP 8.5). However, large declines were also projected under baseline climate, underlining the importance of harvest in determining future BBWO productivity. Present-day harvesting practices were the single most important cause of declining areas of old-growth coniferous forest, and hence appeared as the single most important driver of future BBWO productivity, regardless of the climate scenario. Climate-induced increases in fire activity would further promote young, deciduous stands at the expense of old-growth coniferous stands. This suggests that the biodiversity associated with deadwood and old-growth boreal forests may be greatly altered by the cumulative impacts of natural and

  8. Harvesting interacts with climate change to affect future habitat quality of a focal species in eastern Canada's boreal forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior A Tremblay

    Full Text Available Many studies project future bird ranges by relying on correlative species distribution models. Such models do not usually represent important processes explicitly related to climate change and harvesting, which limits their potential for predicting and understanding the future of boreal bird assemblages at the landscape scale. In this study, we attempted to assess the cumulative and specific impacts of both harvesting and climate-induced changes on wildfires and stand-level processes (e.g., reproduction, growth in the boreal forest of eastern Canada. The projected changes in these landscape- and stand-scale processes (referred to as "drivers of change" were then assessed for their impacts on future habitats and potential productivity of black-backed woodpecker (BBWO; Picoides arcticus, a focal species representative of deadwood and old-growth biodiversity in eastern Canada. Forest attributes were simulated using a forest landscape model, LANDIS-II, and were used to infer future landscape suitability to BBWO under three anthropogenic climate forcing scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, compared to the historical baseline. We found climate change is likely to be detrimental for BBWO, with up to 92% decline in potential productivity under the worst-case climate forcing scenario (RCP 8.5. However, large declines were also projected under baseline climate, underlining the importance of harvest in determining future BBWO productivity. Present-day harvesting practices were the single most important cause of declining areas of old-growth coniferous forest, and hence appeared as the single most important driver of future BBWO productivity, regardless of the climate scenario. Climate-induced increases in fire activity would further promote young, deciduous stands at the expense of old-growth coniferous stands. This suggests that the biodiversity associated with deadwood and old-growth boreal forests may be greatly altered by the cumulative impacts of

  9. How hedge woody species diversity and habitat change is a function of land use history and recent management in a European agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Thomas; Cooper, Alan; Rogers, David; McKenzie, Paul; McErlean, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    European hedged agricultural landscapes provide a range of ecosystem services and are an important component of cultural and biodiversity heritage. This paper investigates the extent of hedges, their woody species diversity (including the influence of historical versus recent hedge origin) and dynamics of change. The rationale is to contribute to an ecological basis for hedge habitat management. Sample sites were allocated based on a multivariate classification of landscape attributes. All field boundaries present in each site were mapped and surveyed in 1998 and 2007. To assess diversity, a list of all woody species was recorded in one standard 30 m linear plot within each hedge. There was a net decrease in hedge habitat extent, mainly as a result of removal, and changes between hedges and other field boundary types due to the development and loss of shrub growth-form. Agricultural intensification, increased rural building, and variation in hedge management practices were the main drivers of change. Hedges surveyed at baseline, which were lost at resurvey, were more species rich than new hedges gained. Hedges coinciding with historical land unit boundaries of likely Early Medieval origin were found to be more species rich. The most frequent woody species in hedges were native, including a high proportion with Fraxinus excelsior, a species under threat from current and emerging plant pests and pathogens. Introduced species were present in circa 30% of hedges. We conclude that since hedge habitat distribution and woody species diversity is a function of ecology and anthropogenic factors, the management of hedges in enclosed agricultural landscapes requires an integrated approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Landscape-scale Habitat Templates and Life Histories of Endangered and Invasive Fish Species in Large Rivers of the Mid-Continent USA (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, R. B.; Braaten, P. J.; Chapman, D.; DeLonay, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Many fish species migrate through river systems to complete their life cycles, occupying specific habitats during specific life stages. Regional geomorphology sets a template for their habitat-use patterns and ontogenetic development. In large rivers of the Mid-continent USA, understanding of relations of fish life histories to landscape-scale habitat templates informs recovery of endangered species and prevention of spread of invasive species. The endangered pallid sturgeon has evolved in the Missouri-Mississippi river system over 150 Ma. Its present-day distribution probably results from extensive drainage re-arrangements during the Pleistocene, followed by contemporary fragmentation. The reproductive and early life-stage needs of pallid sturgeon encompass hundreds of km, as adults migrate upstream to spawn and free embryos and larvae disperse downstream. Spawning requires coarse, hard substrate for incubation of adhesive eggs but adult pallid sturgeon are found predominately over sand, indicating that coarse substrate is a critical but transient habitat need. Once hatched, free-embryos initiate 9-17 days of downstream dispersal that distributes them over several hundreds of km. Lotic conditions at the dispersal terminus are required for survival. Persistent recruitment failure has been attributed to dams and channelization, which have fragmented migration and dispersal corridors, altered flow regimes, and diminished rearing habitats. Key elements of the natural history of this species remain poorly understood because adults are rare and difficult to observe, while the earliest life stages are nearly undetectable. Recent understanding has been accelerated using telemetry and hydroacoustics, but such assessments occur in altered systems and may not be indicative of natural behaviors. Restoration activities attempt - within considerable uncertainty -- to restore elements of the habitat template where they are needed. In comparison, invasive Asian carps have been

  11. Mangrove habitat partitioning by Ucides cordatus (Ucididae): effects of the degree of tidal flooding and tree-species composition during its life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, A. C.; Pinheiro, M. A. A.

    2013-06-01

    Environmental factors strongly affect mangrove crabs, and some factors modulate population structure and habitat partitioning during the crabs' life cycle. However, the effect of these environmental factors on habitat selection by mangrove crabs is still unknown. We evaluated habitat selection by the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus in mangrove forests with different degrees of predominance of Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa or Avicennia schaueriana, two tidal flooding levels (less- and more-flooded), and two biological periods (breeding and non-breeding seasons). Sampling was conducted in four mangrove forests with different influences of these biotic and abiotic parameters. We used the data for sex ratio to explain environmental partitioning by this species. Females predominated in R. mangle mangroves, independently of the biological period (breeding or non-breeding seasons), and males predominated only in the less-flooded L. racemosa mangroves. The flooding level affected the sex ratio of U. cordatus, with a predominance of males in less-flooded mangroves, independently of the biological period; and a gender balance in the more-flooded mangroves only during the breeding season. Outside the breeding season, the largest specimens were recorded in the R. mangle mangroves, but in the breeding season, the largest crabs were recorded in the L. racemosa mangroves with a higher level of flooding. These results suggest that tree-species composition and tidal flooding level can have a significant effect on the habitat partitioning of sexes and sizes of the mangrove crab U. cordatus both during and outside the breeding season.

  12. Preliminary results of studies on the distribution of invasive alien vascular plant species occurring in semi-natural and natural habitats in NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popiela Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Western Pomerania, as in other areas of Europe, alien species play an increasingly important role. In particular, invasive plants tend to spread rapidly and in large numbers which may reduce diversity of native species, leading to the phenomenon of “trivialisation of flora”, and transform ecosystems. The list of invasive species (32 taxa includes alien species occurring throughout Western Pomerania, and penetrating natural or semi-natural habitats. The second group consists of potentially invasive species (23 taxa, i.e. those distributed across the area under study and tending to increase the number of their localities in semi-natural and natural habitats, taxa invasive only locally, as well as species with missing data, which does not currently allow including them into the first group. Invasive weeds, as well as some epecophytes and archaeophytes occurring only on anthropogenic sites and tending to spread, were not taken into account. Among hemiagriophytes, the most common and troublesome ones are: Conyza canadensis, Erigeron annuus, Lolium multiflorum, Lupinus polyphyllus, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea. Among holoagriophytes, i.e. the taxa which received the highest naturalisation status, very expansive species, successful in land colonisation, like Acer negundo, Bidens frondosa, B. connata, Clematis vitalba, Elodea canadensis, Epilobium ciliatum, Heracleum sosnowskyi, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Padus serotina, Quercus rubra and Robinia pseudoacacia, should be given particular attention. Among the invasive and potentially invasive species, most taxa penetrate plant communities of the Artemisietea and Molinio-Arrhenatheretea class, followed by Querco-Fagetea, Vaccinio-Piceetea, Stellarietea mediae, Salicetea purpurae and Koelerio-Corynophoretea. The number of invasive species is twice as high when compared to the situation of these species in Poland; on the contrary, the number of species inhabiting anthropogenic, semi

  13. Grasshoppers, crickets (Orthoptera and earwigs (Dermaptera of Tovačov gravel pit (central Moravia, Czech Republic: New locality for several thermophilous species in anthropogenic secondary habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trnka Filip

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Study of Orthoptera and earwigs was conducted in Tovačov gravel pit in 2014. We have recorded 18 species of Orthoptera and 3 species of earwigs. The most significant recorded species are Cepero’s ground-hopper (Tetrix ceperoi, pygmy mole cricket (Xya variegata, Italian tree cricket (Oecanthus pellucens and riparian earwig (Labidura riparia. Tovačov gravel pit poses the northernmost locality of T. ceperoi and X. variegata in the Czech Republic and the northernmost known locality in Moravia for O. pellucens. For the L. riparia, we present a founding from Tovačov together with another finding from Olomouc vicinity, which is currently the northernmost locality within Moravia. Our findings display recent spatial expansion of some thermophilous species. Moreover, we emphasize importance of (post-industrial areas as secondary habitats for specialised endangered species.

  14. Quantifying the Relative Importance of Climate and Habitat on Structuring the Species and Taxonomic Diversity of Aquatic Plants in a Biodiversity Hotspot of Tropical Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.

    2015-01-01

    It has not been well known how climate and habitat variables will influence the distribution of plant species to some extents at mesoscale. In this report, by using the distribution of aquatic plants in Western Ghats, a biodiversity hotspot in tropical Asian region, I quantify the relative importance of climate and habitat variables on structuring spatially species richness and taxonomic diversity patterns using structural equation modeling. All the sampling qudrats in the region used for the study has a spatial resolution of 0.5 latitude x 0.5 longitude. The results showed that species richness is high in both northern and southern part of the region, while low in the middle part. In contrast, taxonomic distinctiveness is relatively homogeneous over all the sampling quadrats in the region. Structural equation modeling suggested that taxonomic distinctiveness patterns of aquatic plants in the region follow temperature (partial regression coefficient=0.31, p<0.05) and elevational (partial regression coefficient=0.31, p<0.05) gradients, while richness patterns cannot be explained by any of the currently used variables. In conclusion, environmental variables that are related to taxonomic distinctiveness would not be related to richness, given the fact that these two quantities are orthogonal more or less. Both climate and habitat are equally influential on taxonomic distinctiveness patterns for aquatic plants in Western Ghats of India. (author)

  15. New habitats, new menaces: Centaurea x kleinii (C. moncktonii x C. solstitialis, a new hybrid species between two alien weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna, A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropic alteration of habitat opens the door to the cohabitation of imported species that in their native range would never coexist. Centaurea solstitialis and Centaurea moncktonii are two invasive species whose natural distributions in Eurasia do not overlap. After introduction in North America, invasive spread led to overlapping distributions. Although the environmental requirements differ between the two species, the close proximity of diverse habitats (within pollinator range has resulted in several cases of natural hybridization between the two. The result of the cross between these two distantly related species is a sterile perennial. Many of its characteristics are intermediate between its parents, but morphologically it is closer to Centaurea moncktonii (probably the maternal parent, and itself of hybrid origin. The plant could possibly become an invasive weed through clonal reproduction. The apparent maternal parent, which the hybrid may more closely resemble physiologically as well as morphologically, is a wellknown creeping weed in alpine pastures throughout Europe.La alteración antrópica del hábitat da paso a la cohabitación de especies importadas que nunca coexistirían en su ámbito natural. Centaurea solstitialis y Centaurea moncktonii son dos especies invasoras cuyas distribuciones en Eurasia apenas se solapan. Después de su introducción en Norteamérica, la expansión invasiva condujo a distribuciones superpuestas. Aunque los requerimientos ambientales de las dos especies son distintos, la proximidad de hábitats diversos (dentro del alcance de los polinizadores ha dado lugar a varios casos de hibridación natural entre ambas. El cruce resultante entre dos especies lejanamente emparentadas es una planta perenne estéril. Muchos de los caracteres del híbrido son intermedios entre sus especies parentales, pero morfológicamente es más parecida a Centaurea moncktonii (probablemente la especie materna y a su vez ya de

  16. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Andre E.; Taki, Doug (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Robert G. (Biolines, Stanley, ID)

    2004-08-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 91-71, Intergovernmental Contract Number DE-BI79-91bp22548). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of O. nerka. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program (Council). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2001 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor over-winter survival and emigration of juvenile anadromous O. nerka stocked from the captive rearing program; (2) fertilize Redfish Lake, fertilization of Pettit and Alturas lakes was suspended for this year; (3) conduct kokanee (non-anadromous O. nerka) population surveys; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment on Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) evaluate potential competition and predation interactions between stocked juvenile O. nerka and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (6) monitor limnological parameters of Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity.

  17. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Andre E.; Taki, Doug (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Robert G. (Biolines, Stanley, ID)

    2004-08-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 91-71, Intergovernmental Contract Number DE-BI79-91bp22548). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of O. nerka. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPCFWP). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2002 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor over-winter survival and emigration of juvenile anadromous O. nerka stocked from the captive rearing program; (2) fertilize Redfish Lake (3) conduct kokanee salmon (non-anadromous O. nerka) population surveys; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment on Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile O. nerka and a

  18. New England wildlife: management forested habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. DeGraaf; Mariko Yamasaki; William B. Leak; John W. Lanier

    1992-01-01

    Presents silvicultural treatments for six major cover-type groups in New England to produce stand conditions that provide habitat opportunities for a wide range of wildlife species. Includes matrices for species occurrence and utilization by forested and nonforested habitats, habitat breadth and size class, and structural habitat features for the 338 wildlife species...

  19. Nitrate reductase activity (NRA in the invasive alien Fallopia japonica: seasonal variation, differences among habitats types, and comparison with native species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Chmura

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate reductase activity (NRA was studied in the invasive alien plant F. japonica (Japanese knotweed during the vegetation season and among natural, semi-natural, and human-made habitats and compared with NRA in selected native species. NRA was measured directly in the field from the beginning of May until the beginning of October. NRA was much higher than in the plant’s native range, i.e., East Asia, and showed a high degree of variation over time with the highest values being reached at the stage of fast vegetative growth and at the beginning of fruiting. NRA was highest on dumping sites probably due to the high nitrogen input into soils and near traffic and the emission of NOx by vehicles. A comparison of the enzyme activity in four selected native plant species indicated that NRA in F. japonica was the highest with the exception of Urtica dioica, which exhibited a similar activity of the enzyme. A detailed comparison with this species showed that differences between these species on particular dates were influenced by differences in the phenology of both plants. The initial results that were obtained suggest that nitrogen pollution in an environment can contribute to habitat invasibility and a high level of NRA, which in addition to the many plant traits that are commonly accepted as characteristic of invasiveness features, may be an important factor that enhances invasion success.

  20. Effects of seed density and proximity to refuge habitat on seed predation rates for a rare and a common Lupinus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Eleanor A; Patten, Melissa V; Knight, Tiffany M

    2017-03-01

    Biotic interactions such as seed predation can play a role in explaining patterns of abundance among plant species. The effect of seed predation will depend on how the strength of predation differs across species and environments, and on the degree to which seed loss at one life-cycle phase increases fitness at another phase. Few studies have simultaneously quantified predispersal and postdispersal predation in co-occurring rare and common congeners, despite the value of estimating both for understanding causes of rarity. We quantified predispersal seed predation on the rare, herbaceous species Lupinus tidestromii (Fabaceae) and its common, shrubby congener L. chamissonis across multiple years in the same community. We experimentally measured postdispersal seed predation at two seed densities and locations near or far from an exotic grass housing high densities of deer mice ( Peromyscus maniculatus ), their primary, native seed predator. The common L. chamissonis had the lowest predispersal seed predation of the two lupine species, potentially because of its height: its high racemes received less predation than those low to the ground. By contrast, the same species experienced higher postdispersal seed predation, and at predators traveled long distances away from refuge habitat to consume their seeds. Across both plant species, mice preferentially predated high-density seed sources. Our results show differences in the magnitude and direction of seed predation between the species across different life-cycle phases. We demonstrated possible roles of proximity to refuge habitat, seed density, and seed size in these patterns. Congeneric comparisons would benefit from a comprehensive framework that considers seed predation across different life-cycle phases and the environmental context of predation. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  1. Multi-scale habitat selection in highly territorial bird species: Exploring the contribution of nest, territory and landscape levels to site choice in breeding rallids (Aves: Rallidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlikowski, Jan; Chibowski, Piotr; Karasek, Tomasz; Brambilla, Mattia

    2016-05-01

    Habitat selection often involves choices made at different spatial scales, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood, and studies that investigate the relative importance of individual scales are rare. We investigated the effect of three spatial scales (landscape, territory, nest-site) on the occurrence pattern of little crake Zapornia parva and water rail Rallus aquaticus at 74 ponds in the Masurian Lakeland, Poland. Habitat structure, food abundance and water chemical parameters were measured at nests and random points within landscape plots (from 300-m to 50-m radius), territory (14-m) and nest-site plots (3-m). Regression analyses suggested that the most relevant scale was territory level, followed by landscape, and finally by nest-site for both species. Variation partitioning confirmed this pattern for water rail, but also highlighted the importance of nest-site (the level explaining the highest share of unique variation) for little crake. The most important variables determining the occurrence of both species were water body fragmentation (landscape), vegetation density (territory) and water depth (at territory level for little crake, and at nest-site level for water rail). Finally, for both species multi-scale models including factors from different levels were more parsimonious than single-scale ones, i.e. habitat selection was likely a multi-scale process. The importance of particular spatial scales seemed more related to life-history traits than to the extent of the scales considered. In the case of our study species, the territory level was highly important likely because both rallids have to obtain all the resources they need (nest site, food and mates) in relatively small areas, the multi-purpose territories they defend.

  2. Lower Klickitat Riparian and In-channel Habitat Restoration Project, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conley, Will

    2003-10-01

    This project focuses on the lower Klickitat River and its tributaries that provide or affect salmonid habitat. The overall goal is to restore watershed health to aid recovery of salmonid stocks in the Klickitat subbasin. An emphasis is placed on restoration and protection of watersheds supporting anadromous fish production, particularly steelhead (Oncorhyncus mykiss) which are listed as 'Threatened' within the Mid-Columbia ESU. Restoration activities are aimed at restoring stream processes by removing or mitigating watershed perturbances and improving habitat conditions and water quality. In addition to steelhead, habitat improvements benefit Chinook (O. tshawytscha) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon, resident rainbow trout, and enhance habitat for many terrestrial and amphibian wildlife species. Protection activities compliment restoration efforts within the subbasin by securing refugia and preventing degradation. Since 90% of the project area is in private ownership, maximum effectiveness will be accomplished via cooperation with state, federal, tribal, and private entities. The project addresses goals and objectives presented in the Klickitat Subbasin Summary and the 1994 NWPPC Fish and Wildlife Program. Feedback from the 2000 Provincial Review process indicated a need for better information management to aid development of geographic priorities. Thus, an emphasis has been placed on database development and a review of existing information prior to pursuing more extensive implementation. Planning and design was initiated on several restoration projects. These priorities will be refined in future reports as the additional data is collected and analyzed. Tasks listed are for the April 1, 2001 to August 31, 2002 contract cycle, for which work was delayed during the summer of 2001 because the contract was not finalized until mid-August 2001. Accomplishments are provided for the September 1, 2001 to August 31, 2002 reporting period. During this reporting period

  3. 75 FR 1582 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Cook Inlet Beluga Whale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Cook Inlet Beluga Whale AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... designate critical habitat for the endangered Cook Inlet beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas, under the... the Cook Inlet beluga whale can be found on our Web site at: http://www.fakr.noaa.gov/ FOR FURTHER...

  4. A new species of Niditinea (Tineidae: Tineinae) with a preference for bird nests and the known larval habitats of the species in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe and illustrate Niditinea sabroskyi new species, a species mostly associated with bird nests. We provide diagnostic information to distinguish the new species from the other two species occurring in the United States, Niditinea fuscella (Linnaeus, 1758) and Niditinea orleansella (Chambers...

  5. Impact of beaver dams on abundance and distribution of anadromous salmonids in two lowland streams in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virbickas, Tomas; Stakėnas, Saulius; Steponėnas, Andrius

    2015-01-01

    European beaver dams impeded movements of anadromous salmonids as it was established by fishing survey, fish tagging and redd counts in two lowland streams in Lithuania. Significant differences in abundancies of other litophilic fish species and evenness of representation by species in the community were detected upstream and downstream of the beaver dams. Sea trout parr marked with RFID tags passed through several successive beaver dams in upstream direction, but no tagged fish were detected above the uppermost dam. Increase in abundances of salmonid parr in the stream between the beaver dams and decrease below the dams were recorded in November, at the time of spawning of Atlantic salmon and sea trout, but no significant changes were detected in the sections upstream of the dams. After construction of several additional beaver dams in the downstream sections of the studied streams, abundance of Atlantic salmon parr downstream of the dams decreased considerably in comparison with that estimated before construction.

  6. Impact of beaver dams on abundance and distribution of anadromous salmonids in two lowland streams in Lithuania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Virbickas

    Full Text Available European beaver dams impeded movements of anadromous salmonids as it was established by fishing survey, fish tagging and redd counts in two lowland streams in Lithuania. Significant differences in abundancies of other litophilic fish species and evenness of representation by species in the community were detected upstream and downstream of the beaver dams. Sea trout parr marked with RFID tags passed through several successive beaver dams in upstream direction, but no tagged fish were detected above the uppermost dam. Increase in abundances of salmonid parr in the stream between the beaver dams and decrease below the dams were recorded in November, at the time of spawning of Atlantic salmon and sea trout, but no significant changes were detected in the sections upstream of the dams. After construction of several additional beaver dams in the downstream sections of the studied streams, abundance of Atlantic salmon parr downstream of the dams decreased considerably in comparison with that estimated before construction.

  7. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, Sheryl

    2004-01-01

    The construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams completely and irrevocably blocked anadromous fish migrations to the Upper Columbia River. Historically this area hosted vast numbers of salmon returning to their natal waters to reproduce and die. For the native peoples of the region, salmon and steelhead were a principle food source, providing physical nourishment and spiritual sustenance, and contributing to the religious practices and the cultural basis of tribal communities. The decaying remains of spawned-out salmon carcasses contributed untold amounts of nutrients into the aquatic, aerial, and terrestrial ecosystems of tributary habitats in the upper basin. Near the present site of Kettle Falls, Washington, the second largest Indian fishery in the state existed for thousands of years. Returning salmon were caught in nets and baskets or speared on their migration to the headwater of the Columbia River in British Columbia. Catch estimates at Kettle Falls range from 600,000 in 1940 to two (2) million around the turn of the century (UCUT, Report No.2). The loss of anadromous fish limited the opportunities for fisheries management and enhancement exclusively to those actions addressed to resident fish. The Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project is a mitigation project intended to enhance resident fish populations and to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses caused by hydropower system impacts. This substitution of resident fish for anadromous fish losses is considered in-place and out-of-kind mitigation. Upstream migration and passage barriers limit the amount of spawning and rearing habitat that might otherwise be utilized by rainbow trout. The results of even limited stream surveys and habitat inventories indicated that a potential for increased natural production exists. However, the lack of any comprehensive enhancement measures prompted the Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center (UCUT), Colville Confederated

  8. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, Sheryl

    2003-01-01

    The construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams completely and irrevocably blocked anadromous fish migrations to the Upper Columbia River. Historically this area hosted vast numbers of salmon returning to their natal waters to reproduce and die. For the native peoples of the region, salmon and steelhead were a principle food source, providing physical nourishment and spiritual sustenance, and contributing to the religious practices and the cultural basis of tribal communities. The decaying remains of spawned-out salmon carcasses contributed untold amounts of nutrients into the aquatic, aerial, and terrestrial ecosystems of tributary habitats in the upper basin. Near the present site of Kettle Falls, Washington, the second largest Indian fishery in the state existed for thousands of years. Returning salmon were caught in nets and baskets or speared on their migration to the headwater of the Columbia River in British Columbia. Catch estimates at Kettle Falls range from 600,000 in 1940 to two (2) million around the turn of the century (UCUT, Report No.2). The loss of anadromous fish limited the opportunities for fisheries management and enhancement exclusively to those actions addressed to resident fish. The Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project is a mitigation project intended to enhance resident fish populations and to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses caused by hydropower system impacts. This substitution of resident fish for anadromous fish losses is considered in-place and out-of-kind mitigation. Upstream migration and passage barriers limit the amount of spawning and rearing habitat that might otherwise be utilized by rainbow trout. The results of even limited stream surveys and habitat inventories indicated that a potential for increased natural production exists. However, the lack of any comprehensive enhancement measures prompted the Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center (UCUT), Colville Confederated

  9. Effects of trophic ecology and habitat use on maternal transfer of contaminants in four species of young of the year lamniform sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kady; Carlisle, Aaron; Preti, Antonella; Mull, Christopher; Blasius, Mary; O'Sullivan, John; Winkler, Chuck; Lowe, Christopher G

    2013-09-01

    Organic contaminant and total mercury concentrations were compared in four species of lamniform sharks over several age classes to examine bioaccumulation patterns and gain insights into trophic ecology. Contaminants found in young of the year (YOY) sharks were assumed to be derived from maternal sources and used as a proxy to investigate factors that influence maternal offloading processes. YOY white (Carcharodon carcharias) and mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) sharks had comparable and significantly higher concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, pesticides, and mercury than YOY thresher (Alopias vulpinus) or salmon (Lamna ditropis) sharks. A significant positive relationship was found between YOY contaminant loads and maternal trophic position, suggesting that trophic ecology is one factor that plays an important role in maternal offloading. Differences in organic contaminant signatures and contaminant concentration magnitudes among species corroborated what is known about species habitat use and may be used to provide insights into the feeding ecology of these animals. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Current distribution, habitat, and status of Category 2 candidate plant species on and near the U.S. Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomquist, Kevin W. [EG& G Energy Measurements, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Lindemann, Tim A. [EG& G Energy Measurements, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Lyon, Glen E. [EG& G Energy Measurements, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Steen, Dan C. [EG& G Energy Measurements, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Wills, Cathy A. [EG& G Energy Measurements, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Flick, Sarah A. [EG& G Energy Measurements, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Ostler, W. Kent [EG& G Energy Measurements, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Results of surveys conducted between 1991 and 1995 were used to document the distribution and habitat of 11 Category 2 candidate plant species known to occur on or near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Approximately 200 areas encompassing about 13,000 ha were surveyed. Distributions of all species except Frasera-pahutensis and Phaceliaparishii were increased, and the ranges of Camissonia megalantha, Galium hilendiae ssp. kingstonense, Penstemon albomarginatus, and Penstemon pahutensis were expanded. The status of each species was assessed based on current distribution population trends, and potential threats. Recommendations were made to reclassi& the following five species to Category 3C: Arctomecon merriamii, F. pahutensis, P. pahutensis, Phacelia beatleyae, and Phaceliaparishii. Two species, C. megalantha and Cymopterus ripIeyi var. saniculoides, were recommended for reclassification to Category 3B status. No recommendation was made to reclassify Astragalus funereus, G. hilendiae ssp. kingstonense, P. albomarginatus, or Penstemon fruticiformis var. amargosae from their current Category 2 status. Populations of these four species are not threatened on NTS, but the NTS populations represent only a.small portion of each species’ range and the potential threats of mining or grazing activities off NTS on these species was notassessed. Conservation measures recommended included the development of an NTS ecosystem conservation plan, continued conduct of preactivity and plant surveys on NTS, and protection of plant type localities on NTS.

  11. The abundance of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs in the root zone of plant species in invaded coastal sage scrub habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Irina C; Brigham, Christy A; Suding, Katharine N; Martiny, Jennifer B H

    2012-01-01

    Pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria (PPFMs) are associated with the roots, leaves and seeds of most terrestrial plants and utilize volatile C(1) compounds such as methanol generated by growing plants during cell division. PPFMs have been well studied in agricultural systems due to their importance in crop seed germination, yield, pathogen resistance and drought stress tolerance. In contrast, little is known about the PPFM abundance and diversity in natural ecosystems, let alone their interactions with non-crop species. Here we surveyed PPFM abundance in the root zone soil of 5 native and 5 invasive plant species along ten invasion gradients in Southern California coastal sage scrub habitat. PPFMs were present in every soil sample and ranged in abundance from 10(2) to 10(5) CFU/g dry soil. This abundance varied significantly among plant species. PPFM abundance was 50% higher in the root zones of annual or biennial species (many invasives) than perennial species (all natives). Further, PPFM abundance appears to be influenced by the plant community beyond the root zone; pure stands of either native or invasive species had 50% more PPFMs than mixed species stands. In sum, PPFM abundance in the root zone of coastal sage scrub plants is influenced by both the immediate and surrounding plant communities. The results also suggest that PPFMs are a good target for future work on plant-microorganism feedbacks in natural ecosystems.

  12. The abundance of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs in the root zone of plant species in invaded coastal sage scrub habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina C Irvine

    Full Text Available Pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria (PPFMs are associated with the roots, leaves and seeds of most terrestrial plants and utilize volatile C(1 compounds such as methanol generated by growing plants during cell division. PPFMs have been well studied in agricultural systems due to their importance in crop seed germination, yield, pathogen resistance and drought stress tolerance. In contrast, little is known about the PPFM abundance and diversity in natural ecosystems, let alone their interactions with non-crop species. Here we surveyed PPFM abundance in the root zone soil of 5 native and 5 invasive plant species along ten invasion gradients in Southern California coastal sage scrub habitat. PPFMs were present in every soil sample and ranged in abundance from 10(2 to 10(5 CFU/g dry soil. This abundance varied significantly among plant species. PPFM abundance was 50% higher in the root zones of annual or biennial species (many invasives than perennial species (all natives. Further, PPFM abundance appears to be influenced by the plant community beyond the root zone; pure stands of either native or invasive species had 50% more PPFMs than mixed species stands. In sum, PPFM abundance in the root zone of coastal sage scrub plants is influenced by both the immediate and surrounding plant communities. The results also suggest that PPFMs are a good target for future work on plant-microorganism feedbacks in natural ecosystems.

  13. Habitat partitioning, habits and convergence among coastal nektonic fish species from the São Sebastião Channel, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Zaniolo Gibran

    Full Text Available Based on a fish survey and preliminary underwater observations, 17 "morphotypes" were identified that characterize the morphological diversity found within 27 nektonic fish species sampled at São Sebastião Channel. Such "morphotypes" were studied using an ecomorphological approach, with the intention to investigate similarities and differences in shape and habits. Underwater field observations were also performed, to verify if the lifestyle of these species, such as vertical occupation of the water column and the habitat use, are in accordance with their distribution in the morphospace. The results, complemented with data from scientific literature on the taxonomy and phylogenies of these species, allowed discussing some of the typical cases of convergent and divergent evolution. Some of the ecomorphological clusters had no phylogenetic support although this is probably due to the environmental conditions in which theirs members have evolved. The body shape and fins positions of a fish clearly influence its ecological performance and habitat use, corroborating the ecomorphological hypothesis on the intimate link between phenotype and ecology.

  14. Artificial marine habitats favour a single fish species on a long-term scale: the dominance of Boops boops around off-shore fish cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Riera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Off-shore fish cages are new artificial habitats that can affect pelagic fish assemblages and constitute an important food source for wild fish assemblages. This aggregation has noticeable ecological consequences in cage areas in impoverished ecosystems such as those in the Canary archipelago (NE Atlantic Ocean. However, this new habitat could be dominated by a single species, reducing its positive ecological effects. Wild fish assemblages associated with an off-shore fish lease on the northeastern coast of Tenerife (Canary Islands were sampled for six years. Fish assemblage structure beneath fish cages and at controls ( > 500 m from cages differed significantly between locations, with 13 times greater abundance at cage locations. These differences were mainly explained by the dominance of bogue (Boops boops around fish cages. This trend was consistent in the long-term throughout the study period (2004-2009, affecting local fisheries. The presence of fish cages significantly altered wild fish assemblages in the study area, enhancing mainly biomass and abundance of one species, bogue, and causing shifts in species composition.

  15. Comparative leaf and root anatomy of two Dendrobium species (Orchidaceae) from different habitat in relation to their potential adaptation to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metusala, D.; Supriatna, J.; Nisyawati, Sopandie, D.

    2017-07-01

    Dendrobium capra and Dendrobium arcuatum are closely related in phylogeny, but they have very contrasting vegetative morphology and habitats. D. capra is known as a species that is well-adapted to dry lowland teak forest habitat in East Java, where most trees drop their leaves in summer, while D. arcuatum has adapted to mid or high land moist forest at elevation up to 800 m dpl. In order to investigate their potential adaptation to drought stress in the climate change era, we have compared and analyzed the leaf and root anatomical characteristics of both species. Transversal sections were made using hand mini microtome, dehydrated in graded alcohol series and stained with safranin 1 % and fastgreen 1 %. Leaf scraping technique has been used to prepare paradermal sections, and then dehydrated in graded alcohol series and stained with safranin 1 %. Quantitative anatomical characteristics between D. capra and D. arcuatum have been compared using a t-test. The result showed that there were significant differences on anatomical characters between both species. Compared to D. arcuatum, D. capra shows more developed anatomical features for adapting to drought and dry condition. These anatomical features were a thicker cuticle, thicker epidermis, presence of hypodermis, thicker mesophyll, broader primary vascular bundle, well developed xylem's sclerenchyma, lower stomatal density, thicker and high proportion of velamen.

  16. Climate change, marine environments, and the US Endangered species act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seney, Erin E; Rowland, Melanie J; Lowery, Ruth Ann; Griffis, Roger B; McClure, Michelle M

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to be a top driver of global biodiversity loss in the 21st century. It poses new challenges to conserving and managing imperiled species, particularly in marine and estuarine ecosystems. The use of climate-related science in statutorily driven species management, such as under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), is in its early stages. This article provides an overview of ESA processes, with emphasis on the mandate to the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to manage listed marine, estuarine, and anadromous species. Although the ESA is specific to the United States, its requirements are broadly relevant to conservation planning. Under the ESA, species, subspecies, and "distinct population segments" may be listed as either endangered or threatened, and taking of most listed species (harassing, harmin