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Sample records for anabolic agents

  1. Anabolic agent use in adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Heather D; Barry, Peter J; Jones, Andrew M

    2015-10-01

    The use of non-prescribed anabolic agents amongst non-athletes is increasing with young, adult males with cystic fibrosis (CF) in the highest risk demographic. There is evidence that anabolic agents increase weight and muscle mass in adults with a variety of catabolic conditions but there is no evidence for their use in hormone sufficient adults with CF. We report a case of anabolic agent use in a male adult with CF and review the clinical features of anabolic agent use with a focus on adults with CF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pulmonary hemorrhage following anabolic agent abuse: Two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Hvid-Jensen, Helene S.; Rasmussen, Finn; Bendstrup, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Numerous adverse effects follow anabolic agent abuse. Pulmonary hemorrhage is not considered one of them. We present two cases of young male bodybuilders who developed diffuse alveolar bleeding as a result of anabolic steroid abuse. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage associated with anabolic agent abuse has not been described previously in the literature. Both patients developed acute dyspnea and hemoptysis with consistent radiological findings. In both cases symptoms promptly resolved with cessatio...

  3. Ecdysteroids: A novel class of anabolic agents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MK Parr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of dietary supplements with ecdysteroids are marketed as “natural anabolic agents”. Results of recent studies suggested that their anabolic effect is mediated by estrogen receptor (ER binding. Within this study the anabolic potency of ecdysterone was compared to well characterized anabolic substances. Effects on the fiber sizes of the soleus muscle in rats as well the diameter of C2C12 derived myotubes were used as biological readouts. Ecdysterone exhibited a strong hypertrophic effect on the fiber size of rat soleus muscle that was found even stronger compared to the test compounds metandienone (dianabol, estradienedione (trenbolox, and SARM S 1, all administered in the same dose (5 mg/kg body weight, for 21 days. In C2C12 myotubes ecdysterone (1 μM induced a significant increase of the diameter comparable to dihydrotestosterone (1 μM and IGF 1 (1.3 nM. Molecular docking experiments supported the ERβ mediated action of ecdysterone. To clarify its status in sports, ecdysterone should be considered to be included in the class “S1.2 Other Anabolic Agents” of the list of prohibited substances of the World Anti-Doping Agency.

  4. The influence of the anabolic agent flavichromin on osteotomy healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schargus, G.

    1982-01-01

    In this work it was attempted to attain a quicker consolidation of bone fragments in rabbits after they had undergone a lower jaw osteotomy and fragment fixation and had been treated with the usual osteosynthetic medications as well as doses of the anabolic agent flavichromin to stimulate bone healing. The healing progress of the first four post-operative weeks was clinically, radiologically, and also histologically assessed and it was also attempted to test the value of densitometrically studying the X-ray pictures as a quantitative measurement of the re-mineralisation of the fracture line. Although animal-specific studies do not allow themselves to be directly applied to humans, because the osteogenesis rates differ too greatly from humans and though further studies on dogs should be undertaken, in order to make a more conclusive statement, flavichromin because of its easy applicability should be considered for future use on humans, especially in cases with healing complications. In the healing of bone defects, flavichromin should be considered. (TRV) [de

  5. Influence of anabolic agents on protein synthesis and degradation in muscle cells grown in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, R.A.; Thorpe, S.D.; Byers, F.M.; Schelling, G.T.; Gunn, J.M.

    Muscle cell culture (L/sub 6/) studies were conducted to determine whether anabolic agents have a direct effect on the muscle cell. The effect of zeranol, testosterone propionate, estradiol benzoate, progesterone, dexamethasone and anabolic agent-dexamethasone combinations on protein synthesis and degradation were measured. Myoblast and myotube cultures were pretreated with 1 ..mu..M compounds for 12, 24 and 48 h before a 6-h synthesis or degradation measuring period. Protein synthesis was determined as cpm of (/sup 3/H) leucine incorporated per mg cell protein. Protein degradation was measured by a pulse-chase procedure using (/sup 3/H) leucine and expressed as the percentage labeled protein degraded in 6 h. Progesterone slightly increased protein synthesis in myoblast cultures. Testosterone propionate had no effect on synthesis. Protein synthesis was decreased by estradiol benzoate in myotube cultures. Protein degradation was not altered appreciably by anabolic agents. Protein synthesis was initially inhibited in myotubes by dexamethasone, but increased in myoblasts and myotubes in the extended incubation time. Dexamethasone also consistently increased protein degradation, but this required several hours to be expressed. Anabolic agents did not interfere with dexamethasone-induced increases in protein synthesis and degradation. The magnitude of response and sensitivity were similar for both the myoblast and the more fully differentiated myotube for all compounds tested. These results indicate that anabolic agents at the 1 ..mu..M level do not have a direct anabolic effect on muscle or alter glucocorticoid-induced catabolic response in muscle.

  6. Influence of anabolic agents on protein synthesis and degradation in muscle cells grown in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder, R.A.; Thorpe, S.D.; Byers, F.M.; Schelling, G.T.; Gunn, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Muscle cell culture (L 6 ) studies were conducted to determine whether anabolic agents have a direct effect on the muscle cell. The effect of zeranol, testosterone propionate, estradiol benzoate, progesterone, dexamethasone and anabolic agent-dexamethasone combinations on protein synthesis and degradation were measured. Myoblast and myotube cultures were pretreated with 1 μM compounds for 12, 24 and 48 h before a 6-h synthesis or degradation measuring period. Protein synthesis was determined as cpm of [ 3 H] leucine incorporated per mg cell protein. Protein degradation was measured by a pulse-chase procedure using [ 3 H] leucine and expressed as the percentage labeled protein degraded in 6 h. Progesterone slightly increased protein synthesis in myoblast cultures. Testosterone propionate had no effect on synthesis. Protein synthesis was decreased by estradiol benzoate in myotube cultures. Protein degradation was not altered appreciably by anabolic agents. Protein synthesis was initially inhibited in myotubes by dexamethasone, but increased in myoblasts and myotubes in the extended incubation time. Dexamethasone also consistently increased protein degradation, but this required several hours to be expressed. Anabolic agents did not interfere with dexamethasone-induced increases in protein synthesis and degradation. The magnitude of response and sensitivity were similar for both the myoblast and the more fully differentiated myotube for all compounds tested. These results indicate that anabolic agents at the 1 μM level do not have a direct anabolic effect on muscle or alter glucocorticoid-induced catabolic response in muscle

  7. Anabolic agents: recent strategies for their detection and protection from inadvertent doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2014-01-01

    According to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List, anabolic agents consist of exogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), endogenous AAS and other anabolic agents such as clenbuterol and selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). Currently employed strategies for their improved detection include the prolongation of the detection windows for exogenous AAS, non-targeted and indirect analytical approaches for the detection of modified steroids (designer steroids), the athlete’s biological passport and isotope ratio mass spectrometry for the detection of the misuse of endogenous AAS, as well as preventive doping research for the detection of SARMs. The recent use of these strategies led to 4–80-fold increases of adverse analytical findings for exogenous AAS, to the detection of the misuse of new designer steroids, to adverse analytical findings of different endogenous AAS and to the first adverse analytical findings of SARMs. The strategies of the antidoping research are not only focused on the development of methods to catch the cheating athlete but also to protect the clean athlete from inadvertent doping. Within the past few years several sources of inadvertent doping with anabolic agents have been identified. Among these are nutritional supplements adulterated with AAS, meat products contaminated with clenbuterol, mycotoxin (zearalenone) contamination leading to zeranol findings, and natural products containing endogenous AAS. The protection strategy consists of further investigations in case of reasonable suspicion of inadvertent doping, publication of the results, education of athletes and development of methods to differentiate between intentional and unintentional doping. PMID:24632537

  8. Synthetic anabolic agents: steroids and nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    The central role of testosterone in the development of male characteristics, as well as its beneficial effects on physical performance and muscle growth, has led to the search for synthetic alternatives with improved pharmacological profiles. Hundreds of steroidal analogs have been prepared with a superior oral bioavailability, which should also possess reduced undesirable effects. However, only a few entered the pharmaceutical market due to severe toxicological incidences that were mainly attributed to the lack of tissue selectivity. Prominent representatives of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are for instance methyltestosterone, metandienone and stanozolol, which are discussed as model compounds with regard to general pharmacological aspects of synthetic AAS. Recently, nonsteroidal alternatives to AAS have been developed that selectively activate the androgen receptor in either muscle tissue or bones. These so-called selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are currently undergoing late clinical trials (IIb) and will be prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency from January 2008. Their entirely synthetic structures are barely related to steroids, but particular functional groups allow for the tissue-selective activation or inhibition of androgen receptors and, thus, the stimulation of muscle growth without the risk of severe undesirable effects commonly observed in steroid replacement therapies. Hence, these compounds possess a high potential for misuse in sports and will be the subject of future doping control assays.

  9. Assessment of Bone Quality in Osteoporosis Treatment with Bone Anabolic Agents: Really Something New?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulivieri, Fabio M; Caudarella, Renata; Camisasca, Marzia; Cabrini, Daniela M; Merli, Ilaria; Messina, Carmelo; Piodi, Luca P

    2018-04-20

    Osteoporosis is a chronic pathologic condition, particularly of the elderly, in which a reduction of bone mineral density (BMD) weakens bone, leading to the so-called fragility fractures, most often of spine and femur. The gold standard exam for the quantitative measurement of BMD is the dual X-ray photon absorptiometry (DXA), a radiological method. However, a relevant number of fragility fractures occurs in the range of normal BMD values, meaning that also qualitative aspects of bone play a role, namely bone architecture and bone geometry. Bone structure is investigated by microCT and histomorphometry, which necessitate an invasive approach with a biopsy, usually taken at the iliac crest, not the typical site of fragility fractures. New tools, trabecular bone score (TBS) and hip structural analysis (HSA), obtained during DXA, can supply informations about bone structure of spine and femur, respectively, in a not invasive way. Therapy of osteoporosis is based on two types of drugs leading to an increase of BMD: antiresorptive and anabolic treatments. The antiresorptive drugs inhibit the osteoclasts, whereas teriparatide and, in part, strontium ranelate ameliorate bone structure. The present review deals with the relation between the anabolic drugs for osteoporosis and the cited new tools which investigate bone architecture and geometry, in order to clarify if they represent a real advantage in monitoring efficacy of osteoporosis' treatment. Data from the studies show that increases of TBS and HSA values after anabolic therapy are small and very close to their least significant change at the end of the usual period of treatment. Therefore, it is questionable if TBS and HSA are really helpful in monitoring bone quality and in defining reduction of individual fragility fracture risk during osteoporosis treatment with bone anabolic agents. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Uso de Anabolizantes na Adolescência: Questões biopsicossociais / Use of Anabolic Agents in Adolescence: Biopsychosocial Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Santos Barboza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo procurou abordar a questão do uso de anabolizantes por adolescentes e apontar suas consequências biológicas e psicossociais, bem como identificar as possíveis relações entre a adesão e a existência de modelos de beleza corporal. Entende-se que o corpo é conceituado e valorizado de acordo com o momento histórico e com os padrões determinantes de cada cultura. Diante de uma acentuada preocupação com a estética corporal, observa-se que vários meios são disponibilizados, com o objetivo de obter uma modelagem corporal, dentre eles os anabolizantes, representando uma alternativa de baixo custo e acesso facilitado. Contudo, as alterações fisiológicas e as patologias causadas pela ingestão dos anabolizantes assinalam risco de morte ao usuário, pois acarretam danos em órgãos vitais e alteram praticamente toda a homeostase corporal. As consequências psicológicas, por sua vez, têm impacto no social, já que as alterações de humor provocadas pelo uso de hormônios tendem a se manifestar em comportamentos agressivos, o que pode causar prejuízos relacionais. Conclui-se disto que alguns efeitos são opostos aos supostos objetivos de obtenção do corpo ideal e/ou de uma beleza padrão. This study aimed to address the issue of the use of anabolic agents by adolescents and their biological and psychosocial consequences, as well as identify the possible relation between accession and the existence of models of body beauty. It is understood that the body is respected and valued according to the historic moment and the standards that determine each culture. On a concern with the aesthetic body, it is noted that various means are available to obtain a corporal modeling among anabolic, representing low cost and easy access alternative. The physiological changes and diseases caused by ingestion of anabolic can cause an imminent risk of death to the user, because they may cause entail damage to vital organs, and change virtually

  11. Biological study on the effect of an anabolic steroidal agent administration pre-exposure to whole body gamma irradiated male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, S.M.; Eldawy, H.A.E.; Ragab, E.A.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was prepared to evaluate the potency of methoxy dimethylamino phenyl epiandrosterone (an anabolic agent animal in origin with an additive side chain) in a dose of 35 μ/g/kg b.wt in male albino mice as a radio-protective agent pre-exposure to gamma irradiation. This was accomplished through measuring follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and prostaglandin-E 2 (PGE 2 ) and endothelin in plasma of mice. Meanwhile, observations of the chromosomal aberrations and sperm head abnormalities were recorded. The administration of the anabolic agent pre-irradiation resulted in slightly non-significant amelioration in the pituitary hormone levels and in levels of PGE 2 and endothelin

  12. New anabolic therapies in osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Mishaela R; Bilezikian, John P

    2003-03-01

    Anabolic agents represent an important new advance in the therapy of osteoporosis. Their potential might be substantially greater than the anti-resorptives. Because the anti-resorptives and anabolic agents work by completely distinct mechanisms of action, it is possible that the combination of agents could be significantly more potent than either agent alone. Recent evidence suggests that a plateau in BMD might occur after prolonged exposure to PTH. Anti-resorptive therapy during or after anabolic therapy might prevent this skeletal adaptation. Protocols to consider anabolic agents as intermittent recycling therapy would be of interest. Of all the anabolics, PTH is the most promising. However, there are unanswered questions about PTH. More studies are needed to document an anabolic effect on cortical bone. More large-scale studies are needed to further determine the reduction in nonvertebral fractures with PTH, especially at the hip. In the future, PTH is likely to be modified for easier and more targeted delivery. Oral or transdermal delivery systems may become available. Recently, Gowen et al have described an oral calcilytic molecule that antagonizes the parathyroid cell calcium receptor, thus stimulating the endogenous release of PTH. This approach could represent a novel endogenous delivery system for intermittent PTH administration. Rising expectations that anabolic therapies for osteoporosis will soon play a major role in treating this disease are likely to fuel further studies and the development of even more novel approaches to therapy.

  13. Pharmacology of anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicman, A T

    2008-06-01

    Athletes and bodybuilders have recognized for several decades that the use of anabolic steroids can promote muscle growth and strength but it is only relatively recently that these agents are being revisited for clinical purposes. Anabolic steroids are being considered for the treatment of cachexia associated with chronic disease states, and to address loss of muscle mass in the elderly, but nevertheless their efficacy still needs to be demonstrated in terms of improved physical function and quality of life. In sport, these agents are performance enhancers, this being particularly apparent in women, although there is a high risk of virilization despite the favourable myotrophic-androgenic dissociation that many xenobiotic steroids confer. Modulation of androgen receptor expression appears to be key to partial dissociation, with consideration of both intracellular steroid metabolism and the topology of the bound androgen receptor interacting with co-activators. An anticatabolic effect, by interfering with glucocorticoid receptor expression, remains an attractive hypothesis. Behavioural changes by non-genomic and genomic pathways probably help motivate training. Anabolic steroids continue to be the most common adverse finding in sport and, although apparently rare, designer steroids have been synthesized in an attempt to circumvent the dope test. Doping with anabolic steroids can result in damage to health, as recorded meticulously in the former German Democratic Republic. Even so, it is important not to exaggerate the medical risks associated with their administration for sporting or bodybuilding purposes but to emphasize to users that an attitude of personal invulnerability to their adverse effects is certainly misguided.

  14. Liquid chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography as alternative techniques to gas chromatography for the rapid screening of anabolic agents in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desfontaine, Vincent; Nováková, Lucie; Ponzetto, Federico; Nicoli, Raul; Saugy, Martial; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Guillarme, Davy

    2016-06-17

    This work describes the development of two methods involving supported liquid extraction (SLE) sample treatment followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography or ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS and UHPSFC-MS/MS) for the screening of 43 anabolic agents in human urine. After evaluating different stationary phases, a polar-embedded C18 and a diol columns were selected for UHPLC-MS/MS and UHPSFC-MS/MS, respectively. Sample preparation, mobile phases and MS conditions were also finely tuned to achieve highest selectivity, chromatographic resolution and sensitivity. Then, the performance of these two methods was compared to the reference routine procedure for steroid analyses in anti-doping laboratories, which combines liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). For this purpose, urine samples spiked with the compounds of interest at five different concentrations were analyzed using the three analytical platforms. The retention and selectivity of the three techniques were very different, ensuring a good complementarity. However, the two new methods displayed numerous advantages. The overall procedure was much faster thanks to high throughput SLE sample treatment using 48-well plates and faster chromatographic analysis. Moreover, the highest sensitivity was attained using UHPLC-MS/MS with 98% of the doping agents detected at the lowest concentration level (0.1ng/mL), against 76% for UHPSFC-MS/MS and only 14% for GC-MS/MS. Finally, the weakest matrix effects were obtained with UHPSFC-MS/MS with 76% of the analytes displaying relative matrix effect between -20 and 20%, while the GC-MS/MS reference method displayed very strong matrix effects (over 100%) for all of the anabolic agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Short Anabolic Peptides for Bone Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amso, Zaid; Cornish, Jillian; Brimble, Margaret A

    2016-07-01

    Loss of bone occurs in the age-related skeletal disorder, osteoporosis, leading to bone fragility and increased incidence of fractures, which are associated with enormous costs and substantial morbidity and mortality. Recent data indicate that osteoporotic fractures are more common than other diseases, which usually attract public attention (e.g., heart attack and breast cancer). The prevention and treatment of this skeletal disorder are therefore of paramount importance. Majority of osteoporosis medications restore skeletal balance by reducing osteoclastic activity, thereby reducing bone resorption. These agents, however, do not regenerate damaged bone tissue, leaving limited options for patients once bone loss has occurred. Recently, attention has turned to bone-anabolic agents. Such agents have the ability to increase bone mass and strength, potentially reversing structural damage. To date, only one bone-anabolic drug is available in the market. The discovery of more novel, cost-effective bone anabolic agents is therefore a priority to treat those suffering from this disabling condition. Short peptides offer an important alternative for the development of novel bone-anabolic agents given their high target binding specificity, which translates into potent activity with limited side effects. This review summarizes attempts in the identification of bone-anabolic peptides, and their development for promoting bone growth. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Spatial control of bone formation using a porous polymer scaffold co-delivering anabolic rhBMP-2 and anti-resorptive agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NYC Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current clinical delivery of recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins (rhBMPs utilises freeze-dried collagen. Despite effective new bone generation, rhBMP via collagen can be limited by significant complications due to inflammation and uncontrolled bone formation. This study aimed to produce an alternative rhBMP local delivery system to permit more controllable and superior rhBMP-induced bone formation. Cylindrical porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA scaffolds were manufactured by thermally-induced phase separation. Scaffolds were encapsulated with anabolic rhBMP-2 (20 µg ± anti-resorptive agents: zoledronic acid (5 µg ZA, ZA pre-adsorbed onto hydroxyapatite microparticles, (5 µg ZA/2 % HA or IkappaB kinase (IKK inhibitor (10 µg PS-1145. Scaffolds were inserted in a 6-mm critical-sized femoral defect in Wistar rats, and compared against rhBMP-2 via collagen. The regenerate region was examined at 6 weeks by 3D microCT and descriptive histology. MicroCT and histology revealed rhBMP-induced bone was more restricted in the PLGA scaffolds than collagen scaffolds (-92.3 % TV, p < 0.01. The regenerate formed by PLGA + rhBMP-2/ZA/HA showed comparable bone volume to rhBMP-2 via collagen, and bone mineral density was +9.1 % higher (p < 0.01. Local adjunct ZA/HA or PS-1145 significantly enhanced PLGA + rhBMP-induced bone formation by +78.2 % and +52.0 %, respectively (p ≤ 0.01. Mechanistically, MG-63 human osteoblast-like cells showed cellular invasion and proliferation within PLGA scaffolds. In conclusion, PLGA scaffolds enabled superior spatial control of rhBMP-induced bone formation over clinically-used collagen. The PLGA scaffold has the potential to avoid uncontrollable bone formation-related safety issues and to customise bone shape by scaffold design. Moreover, local treatment with anti-resorptive agents incorporated within the scaffold further augmented rhBMP-induced bone formation.

  17. Drug Facts: Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  18. Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Download PDF 830.69 KB Anabolic steroids are artificial versions of a hormone that's in all of us—testosterone. Some people take anabolic steroid pills or injections to try to build muscle faster. The Brain's Response to Anabolic Steroids Hi, ...

  19. Radioimmunoassay of anabolic steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampl, R.; Stranska, I.; Starka, L.; Picha, J.; Chundela, B.

    1978-01-01

    Alternative antisera against 17 α-methyltestosterone and 19-nortestosterone were raised and used for radioimmunoassay of anabolic steroids. Tritiated compounds were used as radioligands. The RIA method suitable for doping control is proposed for 17 α-alkylated anabolic steroids in both plasma and urine, using qoat antiserum against methyltestosterone-3-carboxymethyloxime-BSA. Sensitivity of the method was expressed as least amount of nonradioactive methandienone which, when added to normal urine or plasma, caused statistically significant decrease of measured supernatant radioactivity at 99% level. The amounts from 50 to 500 pg were tested, each in eight parallel determinations. The amounts of 100 pg for plasma and 200 pg for urine met these criteria. The respective coefficients of variation did not depend on the amount of steroid added in this range. They averaged 4.60% for plasma and 4.95% for urine, respectively. (T.I.)

  20. Anabolic steroids and head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, James D; Bailes, Julian E; Turner, Ryan C; Dodson, Sean C; Sakai, Jun; Maroon, Joseph C

    2012-01-01

    The suggestion has been made that neurological changes seen in the syndrome of chronic traumatic encephalopathy may be due to exogenous anabolic steroid use rather than traumatic brain injury. To determine whether administration of anabolic steroids alters the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury. Sixty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats and a linear acceleration model of traumatic brain injury were used. Experimental groups were (1) preinjury anabolic steroids, (2) preinjury placebo carrier, (3) anabolic steroids without injury, (4) no steroids and no injury, (5) postinjury placebo carrier, and (6) postinjury anabolic steroids. Following a 30-day recovery, rats were euthanized, and brainstem white matter tracts underwent fluorescent immunohistochemical processing and labeling of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), a marker of axonal injury. Digital imaging and statistical analyses were used to determine whether anabolic steroid administration resulted in a significant change in the number of injured axons. There was no statistically significant difference in number of APP-positive axons by immunohistochemical analysis between respective anabolic steroid and placebo groups. Using a standard acceleration-deceleration model of mild traumatic brain injury, we have shown successful visualization of traumatically injured axons with antibody staining of APP. Our results indicate no statistically significant effect of anabolic steroids on the number of APP-positive axons. With the use of this model, and within its limitations, we see no adverse effect or causative role of anabolic steroid administration on the brain following mild traumatic brain injury using APP counts as a marker for anatomic injury.

  1. Acute bile nephropathy secondary to anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhunaizi, Ahmed M; ElTigani, Mohamed A; Rabah, Rola S; Nasr, Samih H

    2016-02-01

    Renal dysfunction in cholestatic liver disease is multifactorial. Acute kidney injury may develop secondary to renal vasoconstriction in the setting of peripheral vasodilation and relative hypovolemia, tubular obstruction by bile casts, and direct tubular toxicity from bile. Anabolic steroids are frequently used by athletes to boost endurance and increase muscle mass. These agents are a recently recognized cause of hepatotoxicity and jaundice and may lead to acute kidney injury. To increase awareness about this growing problem and to characterize the pathology of acute kidney injury in this setting, we report on a young male who developed acute kidney injury in the setting of severe cholestatic jaundice related to ingestion of anabolic steroids used for bodybuilding. Kidney biopsy showed bile casts within distal tubular lumina, filamentous bile inclusions within tubular cells, and signs of acute tubular injury. This report supports the recently re-emerged concept of bile nephropathy cholemic nephrosis.

  2. Anabolic Steroids...What's the Hype?...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Gregory L.; Wagner, Lauris L.

    This pamphlet uses a question-and-answer format to examine the use and abuse of anabolic steroids. It begins by explaining that all steroids are not anabolic steroids and that anabolic steroids are those used specifically to build muscles quickly. Medical uses of anabolic steroids are reviewed; how people get steroids, how they take them, and…

  3. Influence of a pre-treatment with lithium, anabolic agents and hypertransfusion on the regeneration of the hematopoiesis in mice after radiation damage. Einfluss einer Vorbehandlung mit Lithium, Anabolikum und Hypertransfusion auf die Regeneration der Haematopoese bei der Maus nach Strahlenschaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartenstein, P.

    1985-08-27

    In this work it was investigated, whether a week-long pre-treatment with Lithium carbonate, the anabolic agent Deca-Durabolin and syngeneic blood transfusions effected a stimulation, especially of the granulopoiesis, in mice and whether with these measures an increase in the number of pluripotent and myeloically determined stem cells CFUs and CFUc was attained. Further, the question was followed, to what extent these measures have a positive affect on the regeneration of hematopoiesis after radiation damage. Because these therapeutic interventions influence the hematopoiesis through various mechanisms, the detection of eventually present, additive effects should be done using a combination of these types of treatment.

  4. Phytosterols and anabolic agents versus designer drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brabander, H.F. de [Ghent University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Research group of Veterinary Public Health and Zoonoses, Laboratory of Chemical Analysis, Salisburylaan 133, B-9820 Merelbeke (Belgium)]. E-mail: Hubert.DeBrabander@UGent.be; Verheyden, K. [Ghent University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Research group of Veterinary Public Health and Zoonoses, Laboratory of Chemical Analysis, Salisburylaan 133, B-9820 Merelbeke (Belgium); Mortier, V. [Ghent University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Research group of Veterinary Public Health and Zoonoses, Laboratory of Chemical Analysis, Salisburylaan 133, B-9820 Merelbeke (Belgium); Le Bizec, B. [LABERCA, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes, BP 50707, F-44087 Nantes Cedex 03 (France); Verbeke, W. [Ghent University, Department of Agricultural Economics, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Courtheyn, D. [Federal Feed and Food Laboratory, Braemkasteelstraat 59, B-9050 Ghentbruges (Belgium); Noppe, H. [Ghent University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Research group of Veterinary Public Health and Zoonoses, Laboratory of Chemical Analysis, Salisburylaan 133, B-9820 Merelbeke (Belgium)

    2007-03-14

    Cholesterol is a well-known component in fats of animal origin and it also is the precursor of natural hormones. Phytosterols appear in plants and only differ slightly in structure from cholesterol. An important difference however is the low absorption in the gut of phytosterols and their saturated derivatives, the phytostanols. As a result, there is time for all kind of reactions in faecal material inside and outside of the gut. Determination of the abuse of natural hormones may be based on gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Abuse of natural hormones changes the {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratio of some metabolites during a relatively long time. The formation of (natural) hormones in the gut may interfere with this method. Designer drugs are mainly known from sports doping. In animal fattening, designer drugs may be used as well. Small changes in the structure of (natural) hormones may lead to a new group of substances asking for new strategies for their detection and the constatation of their abuse.

  5. Phytosterols and anabolic agents versus designer drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabander, H.F. de; Verheyden, K.; Mortier, V.; Le Bizec, B.; Verbeke, W.; Courtheyn, D.; Noppe, H.

    2007-01-01

    Cholesterol is a well-known component in fats of animal origin and it also is the precursor of natural hormones. Phytosterols appear in plants and only differ slightly in structure from cholesterol. An important difference however is the low absorption in the gut of phytosterols and their saturated derivatives, the phytostanols. As a result, there is time for all kind of reactions in faecal material inside and outside of the gut. Determination of the abuse of natural hormones may be based on gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Abuse of natural hormones changes the 13 C/ 12 C ratio of some metabolites during a relatively long time. The formation of (natural) hormones in the gut may interfere with this method. Designer drugs are mainly known from sports doping. In animal fattening, designer drugs may be used as well. Small changes in the structure of (natural) hormones may lead to a new group of substances asking for new strategies for their detection and the constatation of their abuse

  6. Modulation of Tryptophan and Serotonin Metabolism as a Biochemical Basis of the Behavioral Effects of Use and Withdrawal of Androgenic-Anabolic Steroids and Other Image- and Performance-Enhancing Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla A-B Badawy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of tryptophan (Trp metabolism may underpin the behavioral effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS and associated image and performance enhancers. Euphoria, arousal, and decreased anxiety observed with moderate use and exercise may involve enhanced cerebral serotonin synthesis and function by increased release of albumin-bound Trp and estrogen-mediated liver Trp 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO inhibition and enhancement of serotonin function. Aggression, anxiety, depression, personality disorders, and psychosis, observed on withdrawal of AAS or with use of large doses, can be caused by decreased serotonin synthesis due to TDO induction on withdrawal, excess Trp inhibiting the 2 enzymes of serotonin synthesis, and increased cerebral levels of neuroactive kynurenines. Exercise and excessive protein and branched-chain amino acid intakes may aggravate the effects of large AAS dosage. The hypothesis is testable in humans and experimental animals by measuring parameters of Trp metabolism and disposition and related metabolic processes.

  7. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section... SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds, mixtures, or preparations that contain an anabolic steroid that have been exempted by the Administrator...

  8. ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Yavari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

  9. Anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, Robert M; Rajanahally, Saneal; Kovac, Jason R; Smith, Ryan P; Pastuszak, Alexander W; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2013-12-01

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids has not been traditionally discussed in mainstream medicine. With the increased diagnosis of hypogonadism a heterogeneous population of men is now being evaluated. In this larger patient population the existence of anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism, whether transient or permanent, should now be considered. We performed an initial retrospective database analysis of all 6,033 patients who sought treatment for hypogonadism from 2005 to 2010. An anonymous survey was subsequently distributed in 2012 to established patients undergoing testosterone replacement therapy. Profound hypogonadism, defined as testosterone 50 ng/dl or less, was identified in 97 men (1.6%) in the large retrospective cohort initially reviewed. The most common etiology was prior anabolic androgenic steroid exposure, which was identified in 42 men (43%). Because of this surprising data, we performed an anonymous followup survey of our current hypogonadal population of 382 men with a mean±SD age of 49.2±13.0 years. This identified 80 patients (20.9%) with a mean age of 40.4±8.4 years who had prior anabolic androgenic steroid exposure. Hypogonadal men younger than 50 years were greater than 10 times more likely to have prior anabolic androgenic steroid exposure than men older than 50 years (OR 10.16, 95% CI 4.90-21.08). Prior anabolic androgenic steroid use significantly correlated negatively with education level (ρ=-0.160, p=0.002) and number of children (ρ=-0.281, panabolic androgenic steroid use is common in young men who seek treatment for symptomatic hypogonadism and anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism is the most common etiology of profound hypogonadism. These findings suggest that it is necessary to refocus the approach to evaluation and treatment paradigms in young hypogonadal men. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence and awareness of anabolic androgenic steroid use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on demographics, as well as the use of AAS, was included in ... the side effects of anabolic steroids among bodybuilders. Keywords: Anabolic ... These drugs are available by ..... and reproduction in any medium, provided the.

  11. Anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, Andrea; Iaquinto, Gaetano; Gluud, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The objectives were to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease.......The objectives were to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease....

  12. Preventing Anabolic Steroid Use: Guidelines and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, June; Rauhe, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Information about anabolic steroids should be included in the school health curriculum as early as possible. The paper presents suggestions for planning education programs and offers a variety of activities and strategies appropriate for many age groups, including case studies, story completion, posters, demonstrations, projects, creative writing,…

  13. Supported Liquid Membrane Extraction of Anabolic Androgenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    compounds are frequently abused in the sports industry because they have ... anabolic drugs in meat after conversion to trimethylsilyl esters .... and then stored at 4°C until needed. 2.5. Preparation of Milk and Urine Samples Spiked with An-.

  14. Review of Androgenic Anabolic Steroid Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Borges; G. Eisele; C. Byrd

    2001-07-31

    An area that has been overlooked within personnel security evaluations is employee use of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS). Current drug testing within the federal government does not include testing for anabolic steroids, and the difficulties to implement such testing protocols-not to mention the cost involved-make AAS testing highly improbable. The basis of this report is to bring to the forefront the damage that anabolic steroids can cause from both a physical and a psychological standpoint. Most individuals who use AASs do so to increase their muscle mass because they wish to gain some type of competitive edge during athletic competition or they wish to enhance their physical features for self-satisfaction and self-esteem (i.e., body building). Security officers are one group of men who often take high doses of anabolic steroids, according to the Second Report of the Senate Standing Committee (1990). The negative psychological characteristics for AAS use is extensive and includes prominent hostility, aggressiveness, irritability, euphoria, grandiose beliefs, hyperactivity, reckless behavior, increased sexual appetite, unpredictability, poor impulse control, mood fluctuations, and insomnia. The drug may invoke a sense of power and invincibility (Leckman and Scahill, 1990). Depressive symptoms, such as anhedonia, fatigue, impaired concentration, decreased libido, and even suicidality (Pope and Katz, 1992) have been noted with steroid withdrawal. It appears that long-term users of AAS experience similar characteristics as other substance abusers (i.e., craving, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms).

  15. Androgenic anabolic steroids also impair right ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasikcioglu, Erdem; Oflaz, Huseyin; Umman, Berrin; Bugra, Zehra

    2009-05-01

    Chronic anabolic steroid use suppresses left ventricular functions. However, there is no information regarding the chronic effects of anabolic steroids on right ventricular function which also plays a key role in global cardiac function. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of androgenic anabolic steroids usage among athletes on remodeling the right part of the heart. Androgenic-anabolic steroids-using bodybuilders had smaller diastolic velocities of both ventricles than drug-free bodybuilders and sedentary counterparts. This study shows that androgenic anabolic steroids-using bodybuilders exhibited depressed diastolic functions of both ventricles.

  16. Anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease....

  17. Anabolic steroids for treating pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Cho; Whittaker, Maxine A

    2017-06-20

    Pressure ulcers, also known as bed sores, pressure sores or decubitus ulcers develop as a result of a localised injury to the skin or underlying tissue, or both. The ulcers usually arise over a bony prominence, and are recognised as a common medical problem affecting people confined to a bed or wheelchair for long periods of time. Anabolic steroids are used as off-label drugs (drugs which are used without regulatory approval) and have been used as adjuvants to usual treatment with dressings, debridement, nutritional supplements, systemic antibiotics and antiseptics, which are considered to be supportive in healing of pressure ulcers. Anabolic steroids are considered because of their ability to stimulate protein synthesis and build muscle mass. Comprehensive evidence is required to facilitate decision making, regarding the benefits and harms of using anabolic steroids. To assess the effects of anabolic steroids for treating pressure ulcers. In March 2017 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Ovid MEDLINE (including In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid Embase and EBSCO CINAHL Plus. We also searched clinical trials registries for ongoing and unpublished studies, and scanned reference lists of relevant included studies as well as reviews, meta-analyses and health technology reports to identify additional studies. There were no restrictions with respect to language, date of publication or study setting. Published or unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of anabolic steroids with alternative treatments or different types of anabolic steroids in the treatment of pressure ulcers. Two review authors independently carried out study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment. The review contains only one trial with a total of 212 participants, all with spinal cord injury and open pressure ulcers classed as stage III and IV. The participants were

  18. 21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a) Products containing an anabolic steroid, that are expressly...

  19. Characteristics and Behaviors of Older Male Anabolic Steroid Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Eric J; Trinh, Karen; Tenerowicz, Michael J; Pal, Jai; Lindfelt, Tristan A; Perry, Paul J

    2015-10-01

    To compare and contrast the characteristics of 2 groups of men ≥40 years old: reported anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) users and nonusers. Cross-sectional survey. Thirty-eight online fitness, weight lifting, bodybuilding, and steroid Web sites. A total of 67 male AAS users and 76 male nonusers ≥40 years old. Demographics, utilization of AAS and other performance-enhancing agents (PEAs), exercise patterns, history of illicit drugs and alcohol use, and psychiatric traits/diagnoses. The majority of AAS users ≥40 years old were caucasian (92.5%), heterosexual (97.0%), and classified themselves as recreational exercisers (79.1%). AAS users took more PEAs (11.5 ± 5.6 vs 4.6 ± 2.7; P aggressive alcohol use, and a higher incidence of substance dependence and anxiety disorders compared to nonusers. This information may help clinicians and researchers identify and develop appropriate intervention strategies for AAS abuse among older men. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. [Research progresses of anabolic steroids analysis in doping control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yuanyuan; Wang, Dingzhong; Li, Ke'an; Liu, Feng

    2008-07-01

    Anabolic steroids, a kind of physiological active substance, are widely abused to improve athletic performance in human sports. They have been forbidden in sports by the International Olympic Committee since 1983. Since then, many researchers have been focusing their attentions on the establishment of reliable detection methods. In this paper, we review the research progresses of different analytical methods for anabolic steroids since 2002, such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, immunoassay, electrochemistry analysis and mass spectrometry. The developing prospect of anabolic steroids analysis is also discussed.

  1. ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS AND ADVERSE EVENTS OF THEIR APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Đukanović

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic steroids are synthetic compounds originating from testosterone. Their main effects are the control of development and expression of male secondary sexual characteristics, which are known as androgenic effects, and encourage muscle growth or anabolic effects. Anabolic androgenic steroids are most commonly used illegal substances. Besides these physiological effects, which are achieved using therapeutic doses of these preparations, higher doses than recommended, especially over the longer term, may be associated with the emergence of numerous adverse events. Adverse events may be registered in almost all organs and organ systems, but usually include changes in the reproductive system, skin, liver and cardiovascular system.

  2. Examination of illegal, non declared injection preparations on anabolic hormones and development of a radioimmunoassay for 19-nortestosterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, M.; Meyer, H.H.D.

    Procedures are described for the identification and quantification of anabolic hormones in preparations for injection. To perform radioreceptorassays for the most important groups of anabolics, estrogens and androgens, hydrolysis of esters is absolutely necessary in order to release the active substances from depot preparations. After moderate hydrolysis (30 min; 45/sup 0/C) it was possible to identify 19-nortestosterone-17..beta.. as active substance in three various illegal solutions for injection and one of them contained in addition estradiol-17..beta... After more drastic hydrolysis (2 h; 70/sup 0/C) there was a strong disintegration of 19-nortestosterone-17..beta.. and new more polar compounds were found, e.g. in small amounts 6-ketoestradiol, with estrogenic activity. Among the anabolic steroids only trenbolone-17..beta.. behaved in similar manner, and the disintegration during drastic hydrolytic conditions gave an indication for the existence of 19-norsteroids. Specific radioimmunoassays and GC/MS were used for final identification of the anabolic agents. Quantitation was carried out with HPLC/UV and radioimmunoassays after moderate hydrolysis. Since 19-nortestosterone-17..beta.. was identified a specific radioimmunoassay for this hormone was developed. Antibodies were raised against 19-nortestosterone-17..beta..-HS-BSA in order to be able to measure 19-nortestosterone-17..cap alpha.., 19-nortestosterone-17..beta.., and 19-norandrostenedione which were expected as the main bovine metabolites.

  3. Examination of illegal, non declared injection preparations on anabolic hormones and development of a radioimmunoassay for 19-nortestosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, M.; Meyer, H.H.D.

    1987-01-01

    Procedures are described for the identification and quantification of anabolic hormones in preparations for injection. To perform radioreceptorassays for the most important groups of anabolics, estrogens and androgens, hydrolysis of esters is absolutely necessary in order to release the active substances from depot preparations. After moderate hydrolysis (30 min; 45 0 C) it was possible to identify 19-nortestosterone-17β as active substance in three various illegal solutions for injection and one of them contained in addition estradiol-17β. After more drastic hydrolysis (2 h; 70 0 C) there was a strong disintegration of 19-nortestosterone-17β and new more polar compounds were found, e.g. in small amounts 6-ketoestradiol, with estrogenic activity. Among the anabolic steroids only trenbolone-17β behaved in similar manner, and the disintegration during drastic hydrolytic conditions gave an indication for the existence of 19-norsteroids. Specific radioimmunoassays and GC/MS were used for final identification of the anabolic agents. Quantitation was carried out with HPLC/UV and radioimmunoassays after moderate hydrolysis. Since 19-nortestosterone-17β was identified a specific radioimmunoassay for this hormone was developed. Antibodies were raised against 19-nortestosterone-17β-HS-BSA in order to be able to measure 19-nortestosterone-17α, 19-nortestosterone-17β, and 19-norandrostenedione which were expected as the main bovine metabolites. (orig.) [de

  4. Detection of hormonal anabolic compounds in calf urine and unverified growth-promoting preparations : application of the AR-LUX bioassay for screening and determination of androgenic activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankvoort, B.M.G.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Schilt, R.; Geerdink, P.; Spenkelink, B.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.

    2003-01-01

    Despite a ban by the European Union, the use of anabolic steroids and repartitioning agents in cattle is still occasionally observed. Due to continuing improvements in analytical techniques, very low detection limits for individual compounds have been achieved. In response to these developments,

  5. Detection of hormonal anabolic compounds in calf urine and unverified growth-promoting preparations: application of the AR-LUX bioassay for screening and determination of androgenic activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankvoort, B.M.G.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Schilt, R.; Geerdink, P.; Spenkelink, A.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.

    2003-01-01

    Despite a ban by the European Union, the use of anabolic steroids and repartitioning agents in cattle is still occasionally observed. Due to continuing improvements in analytical techniques, very low detection limits for individual compounds have been achieved. In response to these developments,

  6. Novel Uses for the Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Nandrolone and Oxandrolone in the Management of Male Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Christopher; Kovac, Jason R

    2016-10-01

    There has recently been renewed interest in novel clinical applications of the anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) testosterone and its synthetic derivatives, particularly given with the rising popularity of testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) for the treatment of male hypogonadism. In this manuscript, we provide a brief review of the history of AAS and discuss clinical applications of two of the more well-known AAS: nandrolone and oxandrolone. Both agents exhibit favorable myotrophic/androgenic ratios and have been investigated for effectiveness in numerous disease states. We also provide a brief synopsis of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) and postulate how these orally active, non-aromatizing, tissue-selective agents might be used in contemporary andrology. Currently, the applications of testosterone alternatives in hypogonadism are limited. However, it is tempting to speculate that these agents may one day become accepted as alternatives, or adjuncts, to the treatment of male hypogonadism.

  7. Effects of ovariectomy and anabolic steroid implantation on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of ovariectomy and anabolic steroid implantation on the somatotrophic axis in feedlot heifers. CR Bailey, GC Duff, SR Sanders, SP Cuneo, CP McMurphy, SW Limesand, JA Marchello, DW Schafer, ML Rhoads, DM Hallford ...

  8. Multiple arterial thromboses associated with anabolic androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Neil Arthur; Abbas, Jonathan Raihan; Simms, Malcolm Harold

    2014-03-01

    The use of supraphysiological doses of anabolic androgenic steroids can have serious side effects. This article reports the case of a young man who suffered potentially life-threatening arterial thromboses following the use of these drugs.

  9. Radioimmunoassay of 17α-alkalyted anabolic steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampl, R.; Picha, J.; Chundela, B.

    1978-01-01

    A method for the detection of anabolic 17α-alkylated androstane derivatives in both plasma and urine is described and evaluated. The goat and rabbit antisera against 17α-Methyltestosteron-3-carboxymethyloxim-Rinderserum albumin were raised and compared using [ 3 H]methandrostenolone as a tracer. 22 Steroids including 10 potent synthetic anabolics were tested for their cross-reaction with these antisera. (orig.) [de

  10. MEDICAL ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH ANABOLIC STEROID USE: ARE THEY EXAGGERATED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Hoffman

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past 50 years anabolic steroids have been at the forefront of the controversy surrounding performance enhancing drugs. For almost half of this time no attempt was made by sports governing bodies to control its use, and only recently have all of the major sports governing bodies in North America agreed to ban from competition and punish athletes who test positive for anabolic steroids. These punitive measures were developed with the primary concern for promotion of fair play and eliminating potential health risks associated with androgenic-anabolic steroids. Yet, controversy exists whether these testing programs deter anabolic steroid use. Although the scope of this paper does not focus on the effectiveness of testing, or the issue of fair play, it is of interest to understand why many athletes underestimate the health risks associated from these drugs. What creates further curiosity is the seemingly well-publicized health hazards that the medical community has depicted concerning anabolic steroidabuse. Is there something that the athletes know, or are they simply naïve regarding the dangers? The focus of this review is to provide a brief history of anabolic steroid use in North America, the prevalence of its use in both athletic and recreational populations and its efficacy. Primary discussion will focus on health issues associated with anabolic steroid use with an examination of the contrasting views held between the medical community and the athletes that are using these ergogenic drugs. Existing data suggest that in certain circumstances the medical risk associated with anabolic steroid use may have been somewhat exaggerated, possibly to dissuade use in athletes

  11. Anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Iaquinto, G; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World today. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World today. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease....

  12. Anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism treated with human chorionic gonadotropin.

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, G. V.

    1998-01-01

    A case is presented of a young competitive body-builder who abused anabolic steroid drugs and developed profound symptomatic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. With the help of prescribed testosterone (Sustanon) he stopped taking anabolic drugs, and later stopped Sustanon also. Hypogonadism returned, but was successfully treated with weekly injections of human chorionic gonadotropin for three months. Testicular function remained normal thereafter on no treatment. The use of human chorionic gonad...

  13. Influence of a low calcium and phosphorus diet on the anabolic effect of human parathyroid hormone (1-38) in female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, P.D.; Forrer, R.; Kneissel, Michaela

    2001-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) or synthetic N-terminal PTH fragments administered intermittently have been established as anabolic agents in animal and human bones. In the present study, the influence of a low calcium diet on the anabolic effect of human PTH(1-38) [hPTH(1-38)] was investigated. Forty......-eight 10-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to a diet with a low calcium content (LCa) or a diet with the recommended amount of calcium (RCa). After an adaptation period of 15 days, the rats were randomly assigned to hPTH(1-38) treatment (+LCa/+RCa) or vehicle only (-LCa....../-RCa) for an additional 14 days. Total bone mineral density (BMD) values of several bones were determined using quantitative computed tomography and from ratios of ash weight to volume. Biomechanical competence of the fourth lumbar vertebrae and of the right femora was assessed. An anabolic effect could be detected...

  14. Update on clinical trials of growth factors and anabolic steroids in cachexia and wasting1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullett, Norleena P; Hebbar, Gautam

    2010-01-01

    This article and others that focused on the clinical features, mechanisms, and epidemiology of skeletal muscle loss and wasting in chronic diseases, which include chronic kidney disease, cancer, and AIDS, were presented at a symposium entitled "Cachexia and Wasting: Recent Breakthroughs in Understanding and Opportunities for Intervention," held at Experimental Biology 2009. The clinical and anabolic efficacy of specific growth factors and anabolic steroids (eg, growth hormone, testosterone, megestrol acetate) in malnutrition and other catabolic states has been the subject of considerable research during the past several decades. Research on the effects of these agents in cachexia or wasting conditions, characterized by progressive loss of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, focused on patients with AIDS in the early 1990s, when the devastating effects of the loss of body weight, lean body mass, and adipose tissue were recognized as contributors to these patients' mortality. These same agents have also been studied as methods to attenuate the catabolic responses observed in cancer-induced cachexia and in wasting induced by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, renal failure, and other conditions. This article provides an updated review of recent clinical trials that specifically examined the potential therapeutic roles of growth hormone, testosterone, oxandrolone, and megestrol acetate and emerging data on the orexigenic peptide ghrelin, in human cachexia and wasting. PMID:20164318

  15. Illicit Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2009-01-01

    The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are a family of hormones that includes testosterone and its derivatives. These substances have been used by elite athletes since the 1950s, but they did not become widespread drugs of abuse in the general population until the 1980s. Thus, knowledge of the medical and behavioral effects of illicit AAS use is still evolving. Surveys suggest that many millions of boys and men, primarily in Western countries, have abused AAS to enhance athletic performance or personal appearance. AAS use among girls and women is much less common. Taken in supraphysiologic doses, AAS show various long-term adverse medical effects, especially cardiovascular toxicity. Behavioral effects of AAS include hypomanic or manic symptoms, sometimes accompanied by aggression or violence, which usually occur while taking AAS, and depressive symptoms occurring during AAS withdrawal. However, these symptoms are idiosyncratic and afflict only a minority of illicit users; the mechanism of these idiosyncratic responses remains unclear. AAS users may also ingest a range of other illicit drugs, including both “body-image” drugs to enhance physical appearance or performance, and classical drugs of abuse. In particular, AAS users appear particularly prone to opioid use. There may well be a biological basis for this association, since both human and animal data suggest that AAS and opioids may share similar brain mechanisms. Finally, AAS may cause a dependence syndrome in a substantial minority of users. AAS dependence may pose a growing public health problem in future years, but remains little studied. PMID:19769977

  16. Predictors of future anabolic androgenic steroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichstrøm, Lars

    2006-09-01

    To prospectively study the stability of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use and predictors of AAS use, and to investigate whether AAS use alters the risk of later emotional and behavioral problems. Survey of a national sample of Norwegian high school students (age 15-19) in 1994 followed up in 1999 (N = 2924). Measures of frequent alcohol intoxication (50+ times per 12 months), cannabis use (12 months), hard drug use (12 months), being offered cannabis, eating problems, conduct problems, sexual debut before age 15, BMI, involvement in power sports, perceived physical appearance, and satisfaction with body parts were obtained. Life-time prevalence of AAS use were 1.9 and 0.8% in the follow-up period. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that future AAS use was predicted by young age, male gender, previous AAS use, involvement in power sports, and frequent alcohol intoxication. AAS use did not predict future emotional or behavioral problems other than reducing the risk of future frequent alcohol intoxication. Frequent alcohol intoxication and involvement in power sports appear to predict future AAS use. At the population level there was little stability in individual AAS use from adolescence to early adulthood. No detrimental effects of AAS use could be detected in this study, but low statistical power limits this conclusion.

  17. Androgenic anabolic steroid use among male adolescents in Falkenberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, S

    1995-01-01

    Recent reports show that androgenic anabolic steroids are used by many teenagers, not as a deliberate attempt to give them strength, better athletic performance, etc., but to improve their looks. The so-called macho cult among young boys tempts them into using androgenic anabolic steroids to give them bigger muscles and a more powerful appearance. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of androgenic anabolic steroid use among teenagers in a small town and to create a platform for future work with the aim of decreasing the misuse of these drugs. In Falkenberg, a town in the county of Halland in the west of Sweden, the pupils at two high schools were investigated by means of an anonymous multiple-choice questionnaire. A total of 1383 students (688 males and 695 females) aged 14-19 years participated in the study, giving a participation rate of 96%. The number of answers completed was 99%. The use of androgenic anabolic steroids is a reality among male teenagers in Falkenberg, with 5.8% of them using the drugs. Among 15- to 16-year-old boys misuse of these drugs is as high as 10%, and of these 50% (5.0% of total) also inject ampoules of the drugs. This prevalence is alarming since the adverse effects of androgenic anabolic steroids are more serious in teenagers. Serious action must be taken to inform teenagers of the consequences of misusing drugs.

  18. Muscle Wasting and Resistance of Muscle Anabolism: The “Anabolic Threshold Concept” for Adapted Nutritional Strategies during Sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Dardevet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle loss is observed in several physiopathological situations. Strategies to prevent, slow down, or increase recovery of muscle have already been tested. Besides exercise, nutrition, and more particularly protein nutrition based on increased amino acid, leucine or the quality of protein intake has generated positive acute postprandial effect on muscle protein anabolism. However, on the long term, these nutritional strategies have often failed in improving muscle mass even if given for long periods of time in both humans and rodent models. Muscle mass loss situations have been often correlated to a resistance of muscle protein anabolism to food intake which may be explained by an increase of the anabolic threshold toward the stimulatory effect of amino acids. In this paper, we will emphasize how this anabolic resistance may affect the intensity and the duration of the muscle anabolic response at the postprandial state and how it may explain the negative results obtained on the long term in the prevention of muscle mass. Sarcopenia, the muscle mass loss observed during aging, has been chosen to illustrate this concept but it may be kept in mind that it could be extended to any other catabolic states or recovery situations.

  19. Muscle wasting and resistance of muscle anabolism: the "anabolic threshold concept" for adapted nutritional strategies during sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardevet, Dominique; Rémond, Didier; Peyron, Marie-Agnès; Papet, Isabelle; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Mosoni, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle loss is observed in several physiopathological situations. Strategies to prevent, slow down, or increase recovery of muscle have already been tested. Besides exercise, nutrition, and more particularly protein nutrition based on increased amino acid, leucine or the quality of protein intake has generated positive acute postprandial effect on muscle protein anabolism. However, on the long term, these nutritional strategies have often failed in improving muscle mass even if given for long periods of time in both humans and rodent models. Muscle mass loss situations have been often correlated to a resistance of muscle protein anabolism to food intake which may be explained by an increase of the anabolic threshold toward the stimulatory effect of amino acids. In this paper, we will emphasize how this anabolic resistance may affect the intensity and the duration of the muscle anabolic response at the postprandial state and how it may explain the negative results obtained on the long term in the prevention of muscle mass. Sarcopenia, the muscle mass loss observed during aging, has been chosen to illustrate this concept but it may be kept in mind that it could be extended to any other catabolic states or recovery situations.

  20. Anabolic steroid use among students at a British college of technology.

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, D J

    1993-01-01

    To determine the rate of current or previous use of anabolic steroids by students at a UK college of technology, a questionnaire survey of 687 day students was conducted. The questionnaire began with a general section for all of the students, which ended with the question 'Have you ever used anabolic steroids?'. A further section specifically for anabolic steroid users examined patterns of use, and how certain circumstances might affect the individual's decision to use anabolic steroids. The ...

  1. The Central Effects of Androgenic-anabolic Steroid Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mędraś, Marek; Brona, Anna; Jóźków, Paweł

    : Millions of men use androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) to stimulate muscle growth and improve physical appearance. Although 1 out of 3 people who uses androgenic-anabolic steroids develops a steroid use disorder, the effects of the drugs on the central nervous system and the psyche are still not well understood. Although most addictive substances improve mood immediately after administration, AAS exert less pronounced euphoric effects. Instead, they are primarily taken for the delayed gratification of increased muscle mass. Withdrawal from AAS may lead to a range of somatic and psychiatric symptoms, and, in many cases, comprehensive treatment supervised by an endocrinologist and a psychiatrist is required.

  2. Knowledge about Anabolic Steroids of Rhode Island Adolescents: Implications for Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, June

    Although anabolic steroids are associated with short term behavior and long term health problems, few schools address this issue. Adolescents were surveyed to determine their general knowledge of anabolic steroids, attitudes related to fair play, and interest in limiting anabolic steroid use. Data from 322 boys and 331 girls in grades 7-12 were…

  3. The Effect of Anabolic Steroid Education on Knowledge and Attitudes of At-Risk Preadolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenhaile, Jay; Choi, Hee-Sook; Proctor, Theron B.; Work, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effect of anabolic steroid education on preadolescents' knowledge of and attitudes toward anabolic steroids with 35 male athletes. Information on psychological and physiological aspects of anabolic steroid use, weight training techniques, nutrition, social decision making, and self-esteem training were provided. Participants…

  4. 21 CFR 1308.25 - Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant... OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.25 Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application. (a) Any person seeking...

  5. Anabolic steroids detected in bodybuilding dietary supplements - a significant risk to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, V; Kicman, A T; Evans-Brown, M; McVeigh, J; Cowan, D A; Wilson, C; Coles, S J; Walker, C J

    2015-07-01

    Twenty-four products suspected of containing anabolic steroids and sold in fitness equipment shops in the United Kingdom (UK) were analyzed for their qualitative and semi-quantitative content using full scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), accurate mass liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), high pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), UV-Vis, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, X-ray crystallography enabled the identification of one of the compounds, where reference standard was not available. Of the 24 products tested, 23 contained steroids including known anabolic agents; 16 of these contained steroids that were different to those indicated on the packaging and one product contained no steroid at all. Overall, 13 different steroids were identified; 12 of these are controlled in the UK under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. Several of the products contained steroids that may be considered to have considerable pharmacological activity, based on their chemical structures and the amounts present. This could unwittingly expose users to a significant risk to their health, which is of particular concern for naïve users. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Prevalence and awareness of anabolic androgenic steroid use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To examine the prevalence and awareness of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use among male bodybuilders visiting gyms in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 500 male bodybuilders visiting gyms in the Jazan region of Saudi Arabia. Information on ...

  7. Anabolic Steroid Use: Indications of Habituation among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesalis, Charles E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Identified characteristics of adolescent male anabolic steroid (AS) user and addictive potential. Found AS user population different from nonuser in self-perceptions of health and strength, interest in controlling AS use, and perception of peer AS use. Found subgroups with significantly different attitudes and/or behaviors. Suggests prevention…

  8. The Incidence of Anabolic Steroid Use among Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricker, Ray; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated incidence of anabolic steroid use among 380 competitive male and female bodybuilders in Kansas and Missouri. Results indicated more than half (54 percent) of the male bodybuilders were using steroids on a regular basis compared to 10 percent of the female competitors. Found main reason for use of steroids was desire to win. (Author/TE)

  9. Hypercholesterolemia in Male Power Lifters Using Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of serum cholesterol concentrations in male power lifters who used anabolic-androgenic steroids for eight weeks, three years, or eight years indicated that mean serum cholesterol levels increased with drug use, but decreased promptly to near pre-steroid levels after steroid use ended. (Author/CB)

  10. Psychological Predictors of Anabolic Steroid Use: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerin, Michael J.; Corcoran, Kevin J.; LaFleur, Bonnie J.; Fisher, Leslee; Patterson, David; Olrich, Tracy

    1997-01-01

    Examined social physique anxiety, upper body esteem, social anxiety, and body dissatisfaction as possible predictors of anabolic steroid (AS) use. Results based on 185 AS-using bodybuilders and various control groups indicated that the upper body strength subscale of two measures, along with age, were significant predictors of AS use. (RJM)

  11. Project Right Way: An Anabolic Steroid Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, June

    There is increasing concern by medical experts in this country about the use of anabolic steroids by teenagers. Over one million Americans are believed to be currently using or have used the synthetic hormones in the past. While drug testing and a reduction in the supply of the drugs appear to be reducing the number of adult users, use by…

  12. Adverse cardiovascular effects of anabolic steroids : pathophysiology imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golestani, Reza; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Tio, Rene A.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.

    Eur J Clin Invest 2012; 42 (7): 795803 Abstract Background Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are widely abused for enhancing muscle mass, strength, growth and improving athletic performance. Materials and methods In recent years, many observational and interventional studies have shown important

  13. Psychological and Behavioral Effects of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrke, Michael S.

    This review of the literature on the psychological and behavioral effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AS) first looks at aspects of the history and prevalence of AS use in competitive sports. Research suggests that one-quarter to one-half million adolescents in the United States have used, or are currently using AS. Some effects of androgens…

  14. Procoagulant State in Current and Former Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Simon; Rasmussen, Jon J; Frandsen, Mikkel N

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) abusers are considered at increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that current and former AAS abuse would induce a procoagulant shift in the haemostatic balance. METHODS:  Men 18 to 50 years of age were included...

  15. Anabolic steroid usage in athletics: facts, fiction, and public relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berning, Joseph M; Adams, Kent J; Stamford, Bryant A

    2004-11-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests the widespread usage of anabolic steroids among athletes (20-90%), particularly at the professional and elite amateur levels. In contrast, scientific studies indicate that usage is rare and no higher than 6%. Conclusions from scientific studies suggest that anabolic steroid usage declines progressively from high school to college and beyond; however, anecdotal evidence claims the opposite trend. In this clash between "hard" scientific data vs. "soft" anecdotal information, it is natural that professionals would gravitate toward scientifically based conclusions. However, in the case of anabolic steroids (a stigmatized and illegal substance), should word-of-mouth testimony from individuals closest to the issues--those who have participated in and coached sports, those who have served as drug-testing overseers, and journalists who relentlessly track leads and verify sources--be set aside as irrelevant? Not if a complete picture is to emerge. In this review, hard scientific evidence is placed on the table side-by-side with soft anecdotal evidence, without weighting or bias. The purpose is to allow the opportunity for each to illuminate the other and, in so doing, potentially bring us a step closer to determining the true extent of anabolic steroid usage in athletics.

  16. Structural characteristics of anabolic androgenic steroids contributing to binding to the androgen receptor and to their anabolic and androgenic activities. Applied modifications in the steroidal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkaki, A G; Angelis, Y S; Koupparis, M; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, A; Kokotos, G; Georgakopoulos, C

    2009-02-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone introduced for therapeutic purposes providing enhanced anabolic potency with reduced androgenic effects. Androgens mediate their action through their binding to the androgen receptor (AR) which is mainly expressed in androgen target tissues, such as the prostate, skeletal muscle, liver and central nervous system. This paper reviews some of the wide spectrum of testosterone and synthetic AAS structure modifications related to the intended enhancement in anabolic activity. The structural features of steroids necessary for effective binding to the AR and those which contribute to the stipulation of the androgenic and anabolic activities are also presented.

  17. High-Frequency Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Increases Anabolic Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Joni A; Magee, Dillon M; Doucet, Barbara M

    2018-03-16

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is commonly used in rehabilitation settings to increase muscle mass and strength. However, the effects of NMES on muscle growth are not clear and no human studies have compared anabolic signaling between low-frequency (LF-) and high-frequency (HF-) NMES. The purpose of this study was to determine the skeletal muscle anabolic signaling response to an acute bout of LF- and HF-NMES. Eleven young healthy volunteers (6 men; 5 women) received an acute bout of LF- (20 Hz) and HF- (60 Hz) NMES. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle prior to the first NMES treatment and 30-mins following each NMES treatment. Phosphorylation of the following key anabolic signaling proteins was measured by Western blot and proteins are expressed as a ratio of phosphorylated to total: mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p70-S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). Compared to Pre-NMES, phosphorylation of mTOR was upregulated 40.2% for LF-NMES (P = 0.018) and 68.4% for HF-NMES (P 0.05). There were no differences between treatment conditions for 4E-BP1 phosphorylation (P > 0.05). An acute bout of LF- and HF-NMES upregulated anabolic signaling with HF-NMES producing a greater anabolic response compared to LF-NMES, suggesting that HF-stimulation may provide a stronger stimulus for processes that initiate muscle hypertrophy. Additionally, the stimulation frequency parameter should be considered by clinicians in the design of optimal NMES treatment protocols.

  18. Metabolism of anabolic steroids and their relevance to drug detection in horseracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teale, Philip; Houghton, Edward

    2010-06-01

    The fight against doping in sport using analytical chemistry is a mature area with a history of approximately 100 years in horseracing. In common with human sport, anabolic/androgenic steroids (AASs) are an important group of potential doping agents. Particular issues with their detection are extensive metabolism including both phase I and phase II. A number of the common AASs are also endogenous to the equine. A further issue is the large number of synthetic steroids produced as pharmaceutical products or as 'designer' drugs intended to avoid detection or for the human supplement market. An understanding of the metabolism of AASs is vital to the development of effective detection methods for equine sport. The aim of this paper is to review current knowledge of the metabolism of appropriate steroids, the current approaches to their detection in equine sport and future trends that may affect equine dope testing.

  19. Effects of anabolic steroids on acute phase responses in intra-abdominal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mealy

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute phase response is an important adaptive response to sepsis and injury. As anabolic steroids increase protein synthesis we postulated that these agents might also increase hepatic acute phase protein synthesis. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with testosterone or danazol for 48 h prior to caecal ligation and puncture (CLP. Thirty-six h following surgery the animals were killed and blood taken for full blood count, total protein, albumin, α, β and γ globulin fractions on serum electrophoresis, complement C3 and transferrin levels. Danazol increased the α1, α2 and β1 globulin serum protein fractions in comparison with no surgery and CLP alone groups. These results indicate that danazol increases plasma acute phase proteins, as measured by electrophoresis, in this model of intra-abdominal sepsis.

  20. Screening for anabolic steroids and related compounds in illegal cocktails by liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry with accurate mass measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Vissers, J.P.C.; Fuchs, R.E.M.; Velde, van J.W.; Lommen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Findings of illegal hormone preparations such as syringes, bottles, cocktails, and so on, are an important information source for the nature of the current abuse of anabolic steroids and related compounds as growth-promoting agents in cattle. A new screening method for steroids in cocktails is

  1. Anabolic steroids for rehabilitation after hip fracture in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, Vaqas; Berg, Maayken E L van den; Cameron, Ian D; Crotty, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Hip fracture occurs predominantly in older people, many of whom are frail and undernourished. After hip fracture surgery and rehabilitation, most patients experience a decline in mobility and function. Anabolic steroids, the synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone, have been used in combination with exercise to improve muscle mass and strength in athletes. They may have similar effects in older people who are recovering from hip fracture. To examine the effects (primarily in terms of functional outcome and adverse events) of anabolic steroids after surgical treatment of hip fracture in older people. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialized Register (10 September 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2013 Issue 8), MEDLINE (1946 to August Week 4 2013), EMBASE (1974 to 2013 Week 36), trial registers, conference proceedings, and reference lists of relevant articles. The search was run in September 2013.Selection criteria: Randomized controlled trials of anabolic steroids given after hip fracture surgery, in inpatient or outpatient settings, to improve physical functioning in older patients with hip fracture.Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently selected trials (based on predefined inclusion criteria), extracted data and assessed each study's risk of bias. A third review author moderated disagreements. Only very limited pooling of data was possible. The primary outcomes were function (for example, independence in mobility and activities of daily living) and adverse events, including mortality. We screened 1290 records and found only three trials involving 154 female participants, all of whom were aged above 65 years and had had hip fracture surgery. All studies had methodological shortcomings that placed them at high or unclear risk of bias. Because of this high risk of bias, imprecise results and likelihood of publication bias

  2. Anabolic steroids for rehabilitation after hip fracture in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaqas Farooqi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Hip fracture occurs predominantly in older people, many of whom are frail and undernourished. After hip fracture surgery and rehabilitation, most patients experience a decline in mobility and function. Anabolic steroids, the synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone, have been used in combination with exercise to improve muscle mass and strength in athletes. They may have similar effects in older people who are recovering from hip fracture. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects (primarily in terms of functional outcome and adverse events of anabolic steroids after surgical treatment of hip fracture in older people. METHODS: Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialized Register (10 September 2013, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library, 2013 Issue 8, MEDLINE (1946 to August Week 4 2013, EMBASE (1974 to 2013 Week 36, trial registers, conference proceedings, and reference lists of relevant articles. The search was run in September 2013. Selection criteria: Randomized controlled trials of anabolic steroids given after hip fracture surgery, in inpatient or outpatient settings, to improve physical functioning in older patients with hip fracture. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently selected trials (based on predefined inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed each study's risk of bias. A third review author moderated disagreements. Only very limited pooling of data was possible. The primary outcomes were function (for example, independence in mobility and activities of daily living and adverse events, including mortality. MAIN RESULTS: We screened 1290 records and found only three trials involving 154 female participants, all of whom were aged above 65 years and had had hip fracture surgery. All studies had methodological shortcomings that placed them at high or unclear risk of bias. Because of this high

  3. Anabolic steroid abuse causing recurrent hepatic adenomas and hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicole M; Dayyeh, Barham K Abu; Chung, Raymond T

    2008-01-01

    Anabolic steroid abuse is common among athletes and is associated with a number of medical complications. We describe a case of a 27-year-old male bodybuilder with multiple hepatic adenomas induced by anabolic steroids. He initially presented with tumor hemorrhage and was treated with left lateral hepatic segmentectomy. Regression of the remaining tumors was observed with cessation of steroid use. However, 3 years and a half after his initial hepatic segmentectomy, he presented with recurrent tumor enlargement and intraperitoneal hemorrhage in the setting of steroid abuse relapse. Given his limited hepatic reserve, he was conservatively managed with embolization of the right accessory hepatic artery. This is the first reported case of hepatic adenoma re-growth with recidivistic steroid abuse, complicated by life-threatening hemorrhage. While athletes and bodybuilders are often aware of the legal and social ramifications of steroid abuse, they should continue to be counseled about its serious medical risks. PMID:18680242

  4. Anabolic steroid abuse causing recurrent hepatic adenomas and hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicole M; Abu Dayyeh, Barham K; Chung, Raymond T

    2008-07-28

    Anabolic steroid abuse is common among athletes and is associated with a number of medical complications. We describe a case of a 27-year-old male bodybuilder with multiple hepatic adenomas induced by anabolic steroids. He initially presented with tumor hemorrhage and was treated with left lateral hepatic segmentectomy. Regression of the remaining tumors was observed with cessation of steroid use. However, 3 years and a half after his initial hepatic segmentectomy, he presented with recurrent tumor enlargement and intraperitoneal hemorrhage in the setting of steroid abuse relapse. Given his limited hepatic reserve, he was conservatively managed with embolization of the right accessory hepatic artery. This is the first reported case of hepatic adenoma re-growth with recidivistic steroid abuse, complicated by life-threatening hemorrhage. While athletes and bodybuilders are often aware of the legal and social ramifications of steroid abuse, they should continue to be counseled about its serious medical risks.

  5. Anabolic Therapy for the Treatment of Osteoporosis in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Leanne M; Rauch, Frank

    2018-06-01

    Numerous forms of osteoporosis in childhood are characterized by low bone turnover (for example, osteoporosis due to neuromuscular disorders and glucocorticoid exposure). Anti-resorptive therapy, traditionally used to treat osteoporosis in the young, is associated with further reductions in bone turnover, raising concerns about the long-term safety and efficacy of such therapy. These observations have led to increasing interest in the role of anabolic therapy to treat pediatric osteoporosis. While growth hormone and androgens appears to be relatively weak anabolic modulators of bone mass, emerging therapies targeting bone formation pathways (anti-transforming growth factor beta antibody and anti-sclerostin antibody) hold considerable promise. Teriparatide remains an attractive option that merits formal study for patients post-epiphyseal fusion, although it must be considered that adult studies have shown its effect is blunted when administered following bisphosphonate therapy. Mechanical stimulation of bone through whole body vibration therapy appears to be much less effective than bisphosphonate therapy for treating osteoporosis in children. New anabolic therapies which target important pathways in skeletal metabolism merit further study in children, including their effects on fracture risk reduction and after treatment discontinuation.

  6. Aspectos analíticos do controle da dopagem de agentes anabolizantes em urina de atletas: avaliação de critérios de positividade Positiviness criteria for analysis of anabolic steroids by GC/MS in the urine of athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Granuzzio Castilho

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available O abuso dos esteróides anabólicos androgênicos (EAA está em constante ascensão, tanto nos esportes profissionais como nos esportes praticados nas academias. Essas substâncias são banidas pelo Comitê Olímpico Internacional (COI, sendo que este comitê recomenda que a metodologia usada na detecção e quantificação desses compostos em amostras biológicas dos atletas seja a cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massa (GC/MS. Nesse trabalho foram avaliados, por técnica de extração líquido/líquido e posterior identificação em GC/MS-SIM, 15 EAA, dos quais três foram quantificados. Os critérios de correlação entre os íons mais característicos dos EAA analisados foram definidos como segue: os de intensidade relativa maior que 20% podem apresentar uma variação de até 30%; os de intensidade relativa entre 10 e 20% podem apresentar uma variação de até 50% e os de intensidade relativa menor que 10% podem apresentar uma variação de até 90%. Com a aplicação dos critérios anteriores, foi possível confirmar os resultados obtidos em oito amostras de urina de atletas, nos quais foi constatado o uso dos EAA, ficando evidenciada a importância da aplicação desses critérios de positividade na comprovação inequívoca da presença de tais substâncias em amostras biológicas.The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS in sports is in a constant increase among professionals athlets and amateurs. These substances were banned by the International Olimpic Committee and the doping control of this steroids are to be performed analysing biological samples taken from this athletes using gas cromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. This paper evaluates 15 AAS by means of liquid extration and subsequent GC/MS identification. Three of these AAS were also quantified. Correlation criteria among the AAS most characteristic ions were stablished for the evidence of positive samples: when comparing these ions

  7. Sudden cardiac arrest following ventricular fibrillation attributed to anabolic steroid use in an adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenfeld, Jana; Deal, Barbara J; Crawford, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids are synthetic derivatives of testosterone that promote the growth of skeletal muscles and have many recognised cardiovascular effects. We report the clinical presentation and pathological findings of an adolescent male whose sudden cardiac arrest following ventricular fibrillation was attributed to anabolic androgenic steroid use. The age of our patient reflects the usage of anabolic androgenic steroids among younger athletes and highlights the need for increased awareness among practitioners.

  8. [Successive ruptures of patellar and Achilles tendons. Anabolic steroids in competitive sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, J; Prokop, A; Skouras, E

    2008-01-01

    Derivatives of testosterone or of 19-nor-testosterone are used as anabolics for the purpose of improving performance although the effect of anabolics is known still to be under discussion. The use of anabolic steroids continues among competitive athletes despite increased controls and increasingly frequent dramatic incidents connected with them. Whereas metabolic dysfunction during anabolic use is well documented, ruptures of the large tendons are rarely reported. Within 18 months, a 29-year-old professional footballer needed surgery for rupture of the patellar tendon and of both Achilles tendons. Carefully directed questioning elicited confirmation that he had taken different anabolic steroids regularly for 3 years with the intention of improving his strength. After each operation anabolic steroids were taken again at a high dosage during early convalescence and training. Minimally invasive surgery and open suturing techniques led to complete union of the Achilles tendons in good time. Training and anabolic use (metenolon 300 mg per week) started early after suturing of the patellar tendon including bone tunnels culminated in histologically confirmed rerupture after 8 weeks. After a ligament reconstruction with a semitendinosus tendon graft with subsequent infection, the tendon and reserve traction apparatus were lost. Repeated warnings of impaired healing if anabolic use was continued had been given without success. In view of the high number of unrecorded cases in competitive and athletic sports, we can assume that the use of anabolic steroids is also of quantitative relevance in the operative treatment of tendon ruptures.

  9. A jaundiced bodybuilder Cholestatic hepatitis as side effect of injectable anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boks, Marije N; Tiebosch, Anton T; van der Waaij, Laurens A

    2017-11-01

    The use of anabolic steroids is prevalent in recreational athletes. This case report describes a young amateur bodybuilder who was referred to our outpatient clinic with jaundice and loss of appetite due to cholestatic hepatitis. Additional tests including a liver biopsy made it likely that the hepatitis was caused by the injectable anabolic steroid trenbolone enanthate. Cholestatic hepatitis may not be limited to the use of oral anabolic-androgenic steroids, as is widely assumed. Therefore, and because of other side effects, the recreational use of all forms of anabolic steroids should be discouraged.

  10. Recovery of spermatogenesis following testosterone replacement therapy or anabolic-androgenic steroid use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Abram McBride

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT for hypogonadism continues to rise, particularly in younger men who may wish to remain fertile. Concurrently, awareness of a more pervasive use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS within the general population has been appreciated. Both TRT and AAS can suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis resulting in diminution of spermatogenesis. Therefore, it is important that clinicians recognize previous TRT or AAS use in patients presenting for infertility treatment. Cessation of TRT or AAS use may result in spontaneous recovery of normal spermatogenesis in a reasonable number of patients if allowed sufficient time for recovery. However, some patients may not recover normal spermatogenesis or tolerate waiting for spontaneous recovery. In such cases, clinicians must be aware of the pathophysiologic derangements of the HPG axis related to TRT or AAS use and the pharmacologic agents available to reverse them. The available agents include injectable gonadotropins, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and aromatase inhibitors, but their off-label use is poorly described in the literature, potentially creating a knowledge gap for the clinician. Reviewing their use clinically for the treatment of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and other HPG axis abnormalities can familiarize the clinician with the manner in which they can be used to recover spermatogenesis after TRT or AAS use.

  11. Anabolic effects of IGF-1 signaling on the skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahimic, Candice G. T.; Wang, Yongmei; Bikle, Daniel D.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on the anabolic effects of IGF-1 signaling on the skeleton, emphasizing the requirement for IGF-1 signaling in normal bone formation and remodeling. We first discuss the genomic context, splicing variants, and species conservation of the IGF-1 locus. The modulation of IGF-1 action by growth hormone (GH) is then reviewed while also discussing the current model which takes into account the GH-independent actions of IGF-1. Next, the skeletal phenotypes of IGF-1-deficient animals are described in both embryonic and postnatal stages of development, which include severe dwarfism and an undermineralized skeleton. We then highlight two mechanisms by which IGF-1 exerts its anabolic action on the skeleton. Firstly, the role of IGF-1 signaling in the modulation of anabolic effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone will be discussed, presenting in vitro and in vivo studies that establish this concept and the proposed underlying molecular mechanisms involving Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and the ephrins. Secondly, the crosstalk of IGF-1 signaling with mechanosensing pathways will be discussed, beginning with the observation that animals subjected to skeletal unloading by hindlimb elevation are unable to mitigate cessation of bone growth despite infusion with IGF-1 and the failure of IGF-1 to activate its receptor in bone marrow stromal cell cultures from unloaded bone. Disrupted crosstalk between IGF-1 signaling and the integrin mechanotransduction pathways is discussed as one of the potential mechanisms for this IGF-1 resistance. Next, emerging paradigms on bone-muscle crosstalk are examined, focusing on the potential role of IGF-1 signaling in modulating such interactions. Finally, we present a future outlook on IGF research. PMID:23382729

  12. Sarcopenia in older mice is characterized by a decreased anabolic response to a protein meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Miriam; Nagel, Jolanda; Dijk, Francina J.; Salles, Jerôme; Verlaan, Sjors; Walrand, Stephane; Norren, van Klaske; Luiking, Yvette

    2017-01-01

    Ageing is associated with sarcopenia, a progressive decline of skeletal muscle mass, muscle quality and muscle function. Reduced sensitivity of older muscles to respond to anabolic stimuli, i.e. anabolic resistance, is part of the underlying mechanisms. Although, muscle parameters have been

  13. The Anabolic Effect of PTH on Bone is Attenuated by Simultaneous Glucocorticoid Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxlund, Hans; Ørtoft, Gitte; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus

    2006-01-01

    . The pronounced anabolic effect of PTH injections on the endocortical and trabecular bone surfaces and less pronounced anabolic effect on periosteal surfaces were partially inhibited, but not prevented, by simultaneous GC treatment in old rats. Both cortical and cancellous bone possessed full mechanical...

  14. Anabolic Steroids: A Threat to Body and Mind. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report, based on findings of recent studies on the use of anabolic steroids in the United States, was written to educate the public about these drugs and the dangers of misusing them. It notes that the nonmedical use of anabolic/androgenic steroids among adolescents and young adults is of growing concern, with possibly as many as half a…

  15. Urinary detection of conjugated and unconjugated anabolic steroids by dilute-and-shoot liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudela, Eva; Deventer, Koen; Geldof, Lore; Van Eenoo, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are an important class of doping agents. The metabolism of these substances is generally very extensive and includes phase-I and phase-II pathways. In this work, a comprehensive detection of these metabolites is described using a 2-fold dilution of urine and subsequent analysis by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The method was applied to study 32 different metabolites, excreted free or conjugated (glucuronide or sulfate), which permit the detection of misuse of at least 21 anabolic steroids. The method has been fully validated for 21 target compounds (8 glucuronide, 1 sulfate and 12 free steroids) and 18 out of 21 compounds had detection limits in the range of 1-10 ng mL(-1) in urine. For the conjugated compounds, for which no reference standards are available, metabolites were synthesized in vitro or excretion studies were investigated. The detection limits for these compounds ranged between 0.5 and 18 ng mL(-1) in urine. The simple and straightforward methodology complements the traditional methods based on hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction, derivatization and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Effects of anabolic-androgens on brain reward function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela eMhillaj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Androgens are mainly prescribed to treat several diseases caused by testosterone deficiency. However, athletes try to promote muscle growth by manipulating testosterone levels or assuming the so called androgen anabolic steroids (AAS. These substances were originally synthesized to obtain anabolic effects greater than testosterone. Although AAS are rarely prescribed compared to testosterone, the off-label utilization is very wide. Furthermore, combination of different steroids, and doses largely higher than those used in therapy are common. Symptoms of the chronic use of supra-therapeutic doses of AAS include anxiety, depression, aggression, paranoia, distractibility, confusion, amnesia. Interestingly, some studies have shown that AAS elicited electroencephalographic changes similar to those observed with amphetamine abuse. Among the AAS abusers, the frequency of side effects is higher, with psychiatric complications such as labile mood, lack of impulse control and high violence. On the other hand, AAS addiction studies are complex because the collection of data is very difficult due to reticent subjects and can be biased by many variables, including physical exercise, that alter the reward system. Moreover, it has been reported that AAS may imbalance neurotransmitter systems involved in reward process, leading to an increased sensitivity toward opioid narcotics and central stimulants. The aim of this review is to discuss what is present in literature in regard to steroid abuse and alteration of reward system in preclinical and clinical studies.

  17. A Review of Maximizing Muscle Building Capabilities with Anabolic Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Agbons

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Building muscle at a rate faster than the human body would under normal circumstances is of great importance in skills and activities that require intense muscular effort. Although physical training stands as the backbone of muscle building, physiological variations make it an unfair yardstick in measuring individual efforts. Other methods of muscle building such as specialised nutrition and the use of digestive enzymes in breaking down proteins for quick absorption are also commonly used together with physical training. The use of anabolic substances, however, has proved more successful than any of the aforementioned methods. Nevertheless, with it comes ethical, legal, and clinical issues especially in sports. In spite of this, athletes still find ways of circumventing test protocols which have been a major issue for the World Anti-Doping Agency. However, advancements in science have opened the doorway for anabolic enzymes which are the ultimate muscle growers to be more or less, directly manipulated. One method is gene doping which involves altering gene expressions. The future of muscle building lies in man’s ability to decisively alter the functioning of these enzymes directly.

  18. [Insulin as an anabolic: hypoglycemia in the bodybuilding world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, C; Schüpfer, G; Wietlisbach, M; Gerber, H

    1998-07-01

    Excessive body building may be dangerous. To promote athletic performance and to improve physical appearance many of the body builders abuse anabolic-androgenic steroids and other drugs. The abuse of insulin as an anabolic medication in this athletic community was followed by a case of severe hypoglycaemia in a body builder. A 30-year old male presented with cerebral symptoms of hypoglycaemia. Directly before an international competition he tried to stimulate muscle growth by using the hypoglycaemic stimulus to the growth hormone. To achieve this he injected 70 IE of a short-acting insulin subcutaneously, resulting in severe hypoglycaemia. After the initial administration of intravenous glucose by the paramedics, he lost consciousness and showed signs of convulsions. After orotracheal intubation by an emergency physician, despite of ongoing infusion of glucose the blood glucose concentration remained low as measured in the out-of-hospital setting. Finally administration of additional glucose and glucagon in the intensive care unit was able to stabilize the metabolic system. In any case of severe hypoglycaemia, repetitive measurements of blood glucose even in the prehospital setting should be performed to detect the hypoglycaemia especially if athletes are concerned.

  19. [Body cult and use of anabolic steroids by bodybuilders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein; Chaves, José Carlos; Orleans, Roberto Ghignone de

    2009-04-01

    This study focused on the reasons for practicing bodybuilding and the use of anabolic steroids, as well as the social representations and uses of the body among bodybuilding steroid users. This ethnographic study involved participant observation in middle and lower-class bodybuilding gyms in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, and 43 in-depth interviews with steroid users. Aesthetic reasons are the main motivation for bodybuilding and steroid use in both middle and lower-class users. Dissatisfaction with one's real body as compared to the ideal standard flaunted by the mass media, fear of being devalued or shunned by one's peer groups, the symbolic capital associated with a 'pumped-up' body, and the sense of immediacy in obtaining results all contributed to steroid use. Preventive campaigns are needed, targeting young people and combining a critical view and deconstruction of the values assigned to the body by consumer society, counteracted by high-quality information on the health risks associated with anabolic steroid use.

  20. Vasopressin differentially modulates aggression and anxiety in adolescent hamsters administered anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Thomas R; Ricci, Lesley A; Melloni, Richard H

    2016-11-01

    Adolescent Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) treated with anabolic/androgenic steroids display increased offensive aggression and decreased anxiety correlated with an increase in vasopressin afferent development, synthesis, and neural signaling within the anterior hypothalamus. Upon withdrawal from anabolic/androgenic steroids, this neurobehavioral relationship shifts as hamsters display decreased offensive aggression and increased anxiety correlated with a decrease in anterior hypothalamic vasopressin. This study investigated the hypothesis that alterations in anterior hypothalamic vasopressin neural signaling modulate behavioral shifting between adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid-induced offensive aggression and anxiety. To test this, adolescent male hamsters were administered anabolic/androgenic steroids and tested for offensive aggression or anxiety following direct pharmacological manipulation of vasopressin V1A receptor signaling within the anterior hypothalamus. Blockade of anterior hypothalamic vasopressin V1A receptor signaling suppressed offensive aggression and enhanced general and social anxiety in hamsters administered anabolic/androgenic steroids during adolescence, effectively reversing the pattern of behavioral response pattern normally observed during the adolescent exposure period. Conversely, activation of anterior hypothalamic vasopressin V1A receptor signaling enhanced offensive aggression in hamsters exposed to anabolic/androgenic steroids during adolescence. Together, these findings suggest that the state of vasopressin neural development and signaling in the anterior hypothalamus plays an important role in behavioral shifting between aggression and anxiety following adolescent exposure to anabolic/androgenic steroids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sodium bicarbonate absorption and anabolism by detatched root of young paddy rice, corn and wheat plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Takeo; Yamada, Yoshio

    1985-01-01

    This work is aimed at investigating species-to-species difference in the capability of absorption and anabolism through the root and examining the effects of sodium bicarbonate on the capability. Roots detatched from young plants of paddy rice, corn and wheat are used as the samples. The respiratory rate and anabolic rate of the detatched roots are measured by using the 14 C tracer. It is found that paddy rice whows the greatest initial anabolic rate, while the rates of corn and wheat are 14 - 30 % of that of paddy rice. The initial anabolic rate is almost independent of the concentration of sodium bicarbonate. The initial absorption rate is greatest in paddy rice, followed by corn (30 - 78 %) and wheat (16 - 21 %). It is also shown that paddy rice has the greatest capability both in anabolism and absorption. The anabolism and absorption capabilities of corn are 17 - 29 % and 31 - 80 % of those of paddy rice, respectively. The corresponding values of wheat are 16 - 38 % and 24 - 66 %. Sidium bicarbonate has little effect on the anabolism capability, while the absorption capability is affected above a high concentration of 50 mM. (Nogami, K.)

  2. Interactions between opioids and anabolic androgenic steroids: implications for the development of addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Fred; Hallberg, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decades, research on doping agents, such as anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), has revealed that these compounds are often used in combination with other drugs of abuse. It seems that misuse of AAS probably involves more than a desire to enhance appearance or sports performance and studies have revealed that steroids are commonly connected with alcohol, opioids, tobacco, and psychotropic drugs. We have observed that AAS may interact with the endogenous opioids, excitatory amino acids, and dopaminergic pathways involved in the brain reward system. Furthermore, our studies provide evidence that AAS may induce an imbalance in these signal systems leading to an increased sensitivity toward opioid narcotics and central stimulants. In fact, studies performed in various clinics have shown that individuals taking AAS are likely to get addicted to opioids like heroin. This chapter reviews current knowledge on interactions between AAS and endogenous as well as exogenous opioids based not only on research in our laboratory but also on research carried out by several other clinical and preclinical investigators. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of anabolic steroid on the recovery of white blood cell count after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Motohisa; Niki, Takamichi; Hiraoka, Atsunobu; Uchino, Haruto

    1979-01-01

    In order to observe the effects of nandrolone decanoate (NAN-D), an anabolic steroid, on granulocytes, its effect on the recovery of white blood cells (WBC) and granulocytes after radiation injuries was studied. Male mice were irradiated with 405 to 410 R of γ rays, and a 2.5 mg/dose of NAN-D was given subcutaneously 6 to 7 days after irradiation (group I) or immediately after irradiation (group II). The degree of decrease in WBC after irradiation was the same in both groups, but the recovery of WBC 18 days after irradiation was marked in group II, the control group, and group I, respectively. The recovery of granulocytes was the most marked in group II and was more marked in group I than in the control group. In an experiment in which NAN-D was given 2 to 3 days before irradiation (group III), WBC showed higher values in group III than in the control group 9 days after irradiation. The difference in WBC between group III and the control group was the greatest 17 days after irradiation. A gross count of granulocyte precursor cells in one femur clearly increased in the groups given this agent. (Tsunoda, M.)

  4. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, Robert D.; Elliot, Diane L.; Goldberg, Linn; Kanayama, Gen; Leone, James E.; Pavlovich, Mike; Pope, Harrison G.

    2012-01-01

    This NATA position statement was developed by the NATA Research & Education Foundation. Objective This manuscript summarizes the best available scholarly evidence related to anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) as a reference for health care professionals, including athletic trainers, educators, and interested others. Background Health care professionals associated with sports or exercise should understand and be prepared to educate others about AAS. These synthetic, testosterone-based derivatives are widely abused by athletes and nonathletes to gain athletic performance advantages, develop their physiques, and improve their body image. Although AAS can be ergogenic, their abuse may lead to numerous negative health effects. Recommendations Abusers of AAS often rely on questionable information sources. Sports medicine professionals can therefore serve an important role by providing accurate, reliable information. The recommendations provide health care professionals with a current and accurate synopsis of the AAS-related research. PMID:23068595

  5. When color fails: illicit blue tablets containing anabolic androgen steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favretto, Donata; Castagna, Franca; Maietti, Sergio; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2013-09-01

    The necessity of specific, confirmatory tests in the identification of seized illicit products was highlighted by the analysis of eighteen heart shaped, blue tablets confiscated by Police at a street control in the North East of Italy. The tablets responded as amphetamines to a preliminary color test (Marquis); a subsequent, confirmatory assay by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of two anabolic androgen steroids (AAS), methandienone and methyltestosterone, in concentration of 1.7 and 1.5mg respectively per tablet; no trace of amphetamine-like or nitrogen containing compounds was found. The observed orange coloration was due to the reaction of concentrated sulphuric acid, contained in the Marquis reagent, with the Δ(4) C-3 keto group of steroids. The two AAS, banned under the world antidoping code, are not considered as psychoactive drugs of abuse in most countries, although their trafficking may entangle severe public health concerns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The metabolism of anabolic-androgenic steroids in the greyhound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Andrew R; Cawley, Adam T; Young, E Bruce; Kerwick, Carmel M; Cunnington, Karen; Stewart, Rhiannon T; Ambrus, Joseph I; Willis, Anthony C; McLeod, Malcolm D

    2013-04-01

    Effective control of the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) in animal sports is essential in order to ensure both animal welfare and integrity. In order to better police their use in Australian and New Zealand greyhound racing, thorough metabolic studies have been carried out on a range of registered human and veterinary AASs available in the region. Canine metabolic data are presented for the AASs boldenone, danazol, ethylestrenol, mesterolone, methandriol, nandrolone and norethandrolone. The principal Phase I metabolic processes observed were the reduction of A-ring unsaturations and/or 3-ketones with either 3α,5β- or 3β,5α-stereochemistry, the oxidation of secondary 17β-hydroxyl groups and 16α-hydroxylation. The Phase II β-glucuronylation of sterol metabolites was extensive. The presented data have enabled the effective analysis of AASs and their metabolites in competition greyhound urine samples.

  7. Characteristics and outcome of patients with heart failure due to anabolic-androgenic steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Eva Bjerre; Thune, Jens Jakob; Gustafsson, Finn

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to analyse the outcome of patients with advanced heart failure due to abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids. DESIGN: A retrospective chart review of patients admitted or referred for advanced heart failure, due to anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse...... with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers. The remaining 3 patients required implantation of a LV assist device (LVAD) and were listed for heart transplantation. No recovery of LV function in the patients treated with assist device was seen. CONCLUSION: Anabolic-androgenic steroid...

  8. Myeloid regeneration after whole body irradiation, autologous bone marrow transplantation, and treatment with an anabolic steroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrus, C.M.; Ambrus, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    Stumptail monkeys (Macaca speciosa) received lethal whole-body radiation. Autologous bone marrow injection resulted in survival of the majority of the animals. Treatment with Deca-Durabolin, an anabolic steroid, caused more rapid recovery of colony-forming cell numbers in the bone marrow than in control animals. Both the Deca-Durabolin-treated and control groups were given autologous bone marrow transplantation. Anabolic steroid effect on transplanted bone marrow colony-forming cells may explain the increased rate of leukopoietic regeneration in anabolic steroid-treated animals as compared to controls

  9. Endothelial function in male body builders taking anabolic androgenic steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hashemi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adverse cardiovascular events have been reported in body builders taking anabolic steroids. Adverse effects of AAS on endothelial function can initiate atherosclerosis. This study evaluates endothelial function in body builders using AAS, compared with non-steroids using athletes as controls. Methods: We recruited 30 nonsmoking male body builders taking AAS, 14 in build up phase, 8 in work out phase, and 8 in post steroid phase, and 30 nonsmoking male athletes who denied ever using steroids. Serum lipids and fasting plasma glucose were measured to exclude dyslipidemia and diabetes. Brachial artery diameter was measured by ultrasound at rest, after cuff inflation, and after sublingual glyceriltrinitrate (GTN to determine flow mediated dilation (FMD, nitro mediated dilation (NMD and ratio of FMD to NMD (index of endothelial function. Result: Use of AAS was associated with higher body mass index (BMI and low density lipoprotein–cholesterol (LDL-C. Mean ratio of flow mediated dilatation after cuff deflation to post GTN dilatation of brachial artery (index of endothelial function in body builders taking AAS was significantly lower than control group (0.96(0.05 versus 1(0.08; p=0.03. After adjusting BMI, age and weight, no significant difference was seen in index of endothelial function between two groups (p=0 .21. Conclusion: Our study indicates that taking AAS in body builders doesn’t have direct effect on endothelial function. Future study with bigger sample size and measurement of AAS metabolites is recommended. Key words: endothelium, lipids, anabolic steroids, body builders

  10. The Use and Abuse of Anabolic Steroids: A Discussion for Health and Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John A.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This article reviews research on anabolic steroids, indicating that athletes are mistaken in believing that taking them will improve their physical performance. Dangerous side-effects are also discussed. (JA)

  11. Altered Serum Lipoprotein Profiles in Male and Female Power Lifters Ingesting Anabolic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Serum lipoprotein profiles were measured in nine male and three female weightlifters who were taking anabolic steroids. The profiles suggest that steriod users may face an increased risk of coronary artery disease. (Author/MT)

  12. Anabolic Steroids: Metabolism, Doping and Detection in Human and Equestrian Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicman, A. T.; Houghton, E.; Gower, D. B.

    This chapter highlights the important aspects of detection of doping with synthetic anabolic steroids and discusses some of the problems with, and solutions to, the detection of misuse of the naturally occurring ones.

  13. Mechanisms for the bone anabolic effect of parathyroid hormone treatment in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslan, Derya; Dahl Andersen, Mille; Gede, Lene Bjerring

    2012-01-01

    . However, development of the biochemical measurement of PTH in the 1980s led us to understand the regulation of PTH secretion and calcium metabolism which subsequently paved the way for the use of PTH as an anabolic treatment of osteoporosis as, when given intermittently, it has strong anabolic effects...... in bone. This could not have taken place without the basic understanding achieved by the biochemical measurements of PTH. The stimulatory effects of PTH on bone formation have been explained by the so-called ‘anabolic window’, which means that during PTH treatment, bone formation is in excess over bone...... resorption during the first 6–18 months. This is due to the following: (1) PTH up-regulates c-fos expression in bone cells, (2) IGF is essential for PTH's anabolic effect, (3) bone lining cells are driven to differentiate into osteoblasts, (4) mesenchymal stem cells adhesion to bone surface is enhanced, (5...

  14. Insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and plasma adipocytokines among abusers of anabolic androgenic steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Jarløv; Schou, Morten; Selmer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prevalent among young men, but information regarding effects on insulin sensitivity and fat distribution is limited. The objective was to investigate insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and adipocytokines among current...

  15. Cardiotoxic effects of cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroids in the athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welder, A A; Melchert, R B

    1993-04-01

    Cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse have become major drug problems in the United States. Cocaine has been designated as "the drug of greatest national health concern" while as many as 1 million Americans have used or are currently using anabolic-androgenic steroids to promote athletic performance and/or improve physical appearance. Unfavorable cardiovascular events have been linked to both cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse in healthy, physically active individuals. Deaths of several United States athletes in 1986 focused attention on the life-threatening cardiovascular consequences of cocaine abuse. Reports of myocardial injury with anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse are anecdotal. Nevertheless, case reports have illustrated the alarming cardiotoxic potential of these steroids in athletes. Anabolic-androgenic steroids were correlated to myocardial infarction in weight lifters and cardiomyopathy in a former professional football player. From the total emergency room episodes where cocaine was mentioned in 1990, approximately 66% of these episodes occurred in young individuals 18-29 years of age. Over 500,000 of the individuals currently taking anabolic-androgenic steroids for nonmedical purposes are high-school children. Because cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroids are used improperly, more focus needs to be paid to the toxic mechanisms of their adverse effects. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss mechanisms whereby exercise and/or exercise training may alter the cardiovascular responses to these drugs. Furthermore, we would like to illustrate that contrary to the popular belief, acute and chronic abuse of cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroids have a negative impact on exercise performance.

  16. Resting spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac autonomic control in anabolic androgenic steroid users

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Marcelo R. dos; Sayegh, Ana L.C.; Armani, Rafael; Costa-Hong, Valéria; Souza, Francis R. de; Toschi-Dias, Edgar; Bortolotto, Luiz A.; Yonamine, Mauricio; Negrão, Carlos E.; Alves, Maria-Janieire N.N.

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Misuse of anabolic androgenic steroids in athletes is a strategy used to enhance strength and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. However, its abuse leads to an imbalance in muscle sympathetic nerve activity, increased vascular resistance, and increased blood pressure. However, the mechanisms underlying these alterations are still unknown. Therefore, we tested whether anabolic androgenic steroids could impair resting baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac sympathovagal control. In addition, ...

  17. Anabolic androgenic steroids reverse the beneficial effect of exercise on tendon biomechanics: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsilonis, Serafim; Chatzistergos, Panayiotis E; Panayiotis, Chatzistergos E; Mitousoudis, Athanasios S; Athanasios, Mitousoudis S; Kourkoulis, Stavros K; Stavros, Kourkoulis K; Vlachos, Ioannis S; Ioannis, Vlachos S; Agrogiannis, George; George, Agrogiannis; Fasseas, Konstantinos; Konstantinos, Fasseas; Perrea, Despina N; Despina, Perrea N; Zoubos, Aristides B; Aristides, Zoubos B

    2014-06-01

    The effect of anabolic androgenic steroids on tendons has not yet been fully elucidated. Aim of the present study was the evaluation of the impact of anabolic androgenic steroids on the biomechanical and histological characteristics of Achilles tendons. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups with exercise and anabolic steroids (nandrolone decanoate) serving as variables. Protocol duration was 12 weeks. Following euthanasia, tendons' biomechanical properties were tested with the use of a modified clamping configuration. Histological examination with light and electron microscopy were also performed. In the group of anabolic steroids and exercise the lowest fracture stress values were observed, while in the exercise group the highest ones. Histological examination by light and electron microscopy revealed areas of collagen dysplasia and an increased epitendon in the groups receiving anabolic steroids and exercise. These findings suggest that anabolic androgenic steroids reverse the beneficial effect of exercise, thus resulting in inferior maximal stress values. Copyright © 2013 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of use of anabolic steroids by bodybuilders using three methods in a city of iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaee, Mohammad Reza; Pakravan, Faezeh; Nakhaee, Nouzar

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of substance use among bodybuilding athletes has been poorly studied in Iran. This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of drug use, especially anabolic steroids, among bodybuilding athletes. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the first half of 2013 among body building athletes referring to gyms located in Kerman, Iran. Five gyms were selected randomly and 380 athletes were invited to complete a self-administered anonymous questionnaire, consecutively. The questionnaire included two parts; baseline characteristics and substance related questions. The prevalence of anabolic steroids was estimated based on three methods; self-report, projective question, and crosswise model. We enrolled 298 male athletes in the final analysis. Mean ± SD age of subjects was 25.9 ± 8.4. The most frequent recent (past 30 days) drug use was waterpipe smoking (45%). The second most frequently used drug was alcohol (26.5%, recent use). Based on self-reports, the prevalence of lifetime anabolic steroid use was calculated to be 24.5%. The corresponding figure based on crosswise method was obtained to be 56.8%. Participants believed that a median of 40% of athletes had used anabolic steroids in their lifetime. The prevalence of anabolic steroid was higher in single and less educated individuals (P bodybuilding athletes. We could not rely on self-reports to examine anabolic steroid use.

  19. Sepsis attenuates the anabolic response to skeletal muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Jennifer L; Lang, Charles H

    2015-04-01

    Electrically stimulated muscle contraction is a potential clinical therapy to treat sepsis-induced myopathy; however, whether sepsis alters contraction-induced anabolic signaling is unknown. Polymicrobial peritonitis was produced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in male C57BL/6 mice and time-matched, pair-fed controls (CON). At ∼24 h post-CLP, the right hindlimb was electrically stimulated via the sciatic nerve to evoke maximal muscle contractions, and the gastrocnemius was collected 2 h later. Protein synthesis was increased by muscle contraction in CON mice. Sepsis suppressed the rate of synthesis in both the nonstimulated (31%) and stimulated (57%) muscle versus CON. Contraction of muscle in CON mice increased the phosphorylation of mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin [mTOR] complex 1) substrates S6K1 (70-kd ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1) Thr (8-fold), S6K1 ThrSer (7-fold) and 4E-BP1 Ser (11-fold). Sepsis blunted the contraction-induced phosphorylation of S6K1 Thr (67%), S6K1 ThrSer (46%), and 4E-BP1 Ser (85%). Conversely, sepsis did not appear to modulate protein elongation as eEF2 Thr phosphorylation was decreased similarly by muscle contraction in both groups. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling was discordant following contraction in septic muscle; phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase ThrTyr and p38 ThrTyr was increased similarly in both CON and CLP mice, while sepsis prevented the contraction-induced phosphorylation of JNK ThrTyr and c-JUN Ser. The expression of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) mRNA in muscle was increased by sepsis, and contraction increased TNF-α to a greater extent in muscle from septic than CON mice. Injection of the mTOR inhibitor Torin2 in separate mice confirmed that contraction-induced increases in S6K1 and 4E-BP1 were mTOR mediated. These findings demonstrate that resistance to contraction-induced anabolic signaling occurs during sepsis and is predominantly mTORC1-dependent.

  20. Biochemistry and physiology of anabolic androgenic steroids doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, G; Franchini, M; Banfi, G

    2011-05-01

    Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AASs) are chemical and pharmacological derivatives of the male hormone testosterone which are widely used for increasing burst and sprinting activities in sports. Although AASs are thought to be transversal to the plurality of sports disciplines, they are principally misused by bodybuilders, weightlifters, shot, hammer, discus or javelin throwers, rugby and American football players as well as by swimmers and runners. AAS exert a kaleidoscope of effects on human biology, principally through the 5-α-reductase-mediated conversion into dihydrotestosterone, the aromatase-mediated conversion into female sex hormones, a competitive antagonism to the glucocorticoid receptors, the potential stimulation of erythropoietin secretion as well as psychoactive effects on the brain. The influence of AASs on physical performance is still undefined, since the large number of studies published so far have described discordant and often contradictory outcomes. Nevertheless, animal and human investigations support the hypothesis that the administration of AASs might increase lean body mass, muscle mass, and maximal voluntary strength especially in men, so that they would represent an appealing form of doping for increasing power capacity, sustaining intensive training periods and, last but not least, as a cosmetic muscle makeover. The aim of this article is to review the biochemistry, physiology and the ergogenic effects of AASs.

  1. Sudden or unnatural deaths involving anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darke, Shane; Torok, Michelle; Duflou, Johan

    2014-07-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) are frequently misused. To determine causes of death, characteristics, toxicology, and pathology of AAS positive cases, all cases (n = 24) presenting to the New South Wales Department of Forensic Medicine (1995-2012) were retrieved. All were male, and the mean age was 31.7 years. Deaths were mainly due to accidental drug toxicity (62.5%), then suicide (16.7%) and homicide (12.5%). Abnormal testosterone/epitestosterone ratios were reported in 62.5%, followed by metabolites of nandrolone (58.3%), stanozolol (33.3%), and methandienone (20.8%). In 23 of 24 cases, substances other than steroids were detected, most commonly psychostimulants (66.7%). In nearly half, testicular atrophy was noted, as was testicular fibrosis and arrested spermatogenesis. Left ventricular hypertrophy was noted in 30.4%, and moderate to severe narrowing of the coronary arteries in 26.1%. To summarize, the typical case was a male polydrug user aged in their thirties, with death due to drug toxicity. Extensive cardiovascular disease was particularly notable. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Effects of anabolic androgenic steroids on chylomicron metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Aleksandra T; Maranhão, Raul C; Alves, Maria-Janieire N N; Negrão, Carlos E; da Silva, Jeferson L; Vinagre, Carmen G C

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) on chylomicron metabolism. An artificial lipid emulsion labeled with radioactive cholesteryl ester (CE) and triglycerides (TG) mimicking chylomicrons was intravenously injected into individuals who regularly weight trained and made regular use of AAS (WT+AAS group), normolipidemic sedentary individuals (SDT group) and individuals who also regularly weight trained but did not use AAS (WT group). Fractional clearance rates (FCR) were determined by compartmental analysis for emulsion plasma decay curves. FCR-CE for the WT+AAS group was reduced (0.0073 ± 0.0079 min(-1), 0.0155 ± 0.0100 min(-1), 0.0149 ± 0.0160 min(-1), respectively; p<0.05), FCR-TG was similar for both the WT and SDT groups. HDL-C plasma concentrations were lower in the WT+AAS group when compared to the WT and SDT groups (22 ± 13; 41 ± 7; 38 ± 13 mg/dL, respectively; p<0.001). Hepatic triglyceride lipase activity was greater in the WT+AAS group when compared to the WT and SDT groups (7243 ± 1822; 3898 ± 1232; 2058 ± 749, respectively; p<0.001). However, no difference was observed for lipoprotein lipase activity. Data strongly suggest that AAS may reduce the removal from the plasma of chylomicron remnants, which are known atherogenic factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Brain connectivity aberrations in anabolic-androgenic steroid users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars T. Westlye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustained anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS use has adverse behavioral consequences, including aggression, violence and impulsivity. Candidate mechanisms include disruptions of brain networks with high concentrations of androgen receptors and critically involved in emotional and cognitive regulation. Here, we tested the effects of AAS on resting-state functional brain connectivity in the largest sample of AAS-users to date. We collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data from 151 males engaged in heavy resistance strength training. 50 users tested positive for AAS based on the testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio and doping substances in urine. 16 previous users and 59 controls tested negative. We estimated brain network nodes and their time-series using ICA and dual regression and defined connectivity matrices as the between-node partial correlations. In line with the emotional and behavioral consequences of AAS, current users exhibited reduced functional connectivity between key nodes involved in emotional and cognitive regulation, in particular reduced connectivity between the amygdala and default-mode network (DMN and between the dorsal attention network (DAN and a frontal node encompassing the superior and inferior frontal gyri (SFG/IFG and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, with further reductions as a function of dependency, lifetime exposure, and cycle state (on/off.

  4. [Osteo-anabolic estrogen therapy in a transsexual man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierl, T; Börcsök, I; Ziegler, R; Kasperk, C

    1999-04-30

    A 31-year-old man presented at the endocrinology out-patient clinic for the initiation of sex-change treatment. His manifestly transsexual male-to-female appearance was confirmed by a psychiatric-sexological expert report. The patient had been living as a woman for one year. Physical examination showed normal male physique with typical secondary hair growth and normal male genitals. The serum testosterone level was at the upper limits of normal, that for oestrogen at the lower limit. Bone densitometry showed bone density at the upper limit of normal. Other laboratory tests were unremarkable. During 30 months on cyproterone, 100 mg daily, bone mass fell at the rate of 5% per year. Bone biopsy revealed high turnover osteoporosis. Bone mass rose by 4% per year after the additional oral intake of oestradiol valerate, 2 mg daily. Osteoblastic cells, isolated from part of the biopsy tissue, with the patient's consent, was found to be stimulated by oestradiol in vitro. The described bone mass changes indicate the important role played by sex hormones in the maintenance of bone mass acquired during adolescence. The findings confirm that in males not only testosterone but also oestrogens has an anabolic effect on bone.

  5. Anabolic-androgenic steroid use among young Finnish males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, V M; Rimpelä, A; Jormanainen, V; Sahi, T; Pihlajamäki, H

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the lifetime occurrence and associated factors of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) among young Finnish males. Of the 10 829 male conscripts (median age 19), 10 396 (96%) answered a questionnaire during the first days of their conscription in the years 2001-2007. The main outcome was lifetime AAS use. We also studied associations between 13 socioeconomic, health, and health behavioral background variables and AAS use by logistic regression. Eighty-nine (0.9%) respondents reported having used AAS. In addition, 26 (0.3%) respondents reported that they would use AAS if they could obtain them. In multivariate analysis, which included all significant variables and age, the strongest associated factors were weight training at fitness centers more than three times a week [odds ratio (OR) 11.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 7.1-19.6], low educational status (OR 3.7; 95% CI: 2.0-7.0), and weekly drunkenness as drinking style (OR 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4-4.5). Sports other than weight training were not associated with AAS in our sample. The use of AAS is relatively uncommon among Finnish males. It is strongly associated with weight training at fitness centers but also with lower educational status and a drunkenness-oriented lifestyle. Prevention should be targeted at those males participating in weight training.

  6. Neuroglobin Overexpression Inhibits AMPK Signaling and Promotes Cell Anabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bin; Li, Wenjun; Mao, XiaoOu; Winters, Ali; Ryou, Myoung-Gwi; Liu, Ran; Greenberg, David A; Wang, Ning; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Shao-Hua

    2016-03-01

    Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a recently discovered globin with preferential localization to neurons. Growing evidence indicates that Ngb has distinct physiological functions separate from the oxygen storage and transport roles of other globins, such as hemoglobin and myoglobin. We found increased ATP production and decreased glycolysis in Ngb-overexpressing immortalized murine hippocampal cell line (HT-22), in parallel with inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). In addition, lipid and glycogen content was increased in Ngb-overexpressing HT-22 cells. AMPK signaling was also inhibited in the brain and heart from Ngb-overexpressing transgenic mice. Although Ngb overexpression did not change glycogen content in whole brain, glycogen synthase was activated in cortical neurons of Ngb-overexpressing mouse brain and Ngb overexpression primary neurons. Moreover, lipid and glycogen content was increased in hearts derived from Ngb-overexpressing mice. These findings suggest that Ngb functions as a metabolic regulator and enhances cellular anabolism through the inhibition of AMPK signaling.

  7. Acute cocoa flavanol supplementation improves muscle macro- and microvascular but not anabolic responses to amino acids in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Bethan E; Atherton, Philip J; Varadhan, Krishna; Limb, Marie C; Williams, John P; Smith, Kenneth

    2016-05-01

    The anabolic effects of nutrition on skeletal muscle may depend on adequate skeletal muscle perfusion, which is impaired in older people. Cocoa flavanols have been shown to improve flow-mediated dilation, an established measure of endothelial function. However, their effect on muscle microvascular blood flow is currently unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore links between the consumption of cocoa flavanols, muscle microvascular blood flow, and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in response to nutrition in older men. To achieve this objective, leg blood flow (LBF), muscle microvascular blood volume (MBV), and MPS were measured under postabsorptive and postprandial (intravenous Glamin (Fresenius Kabi, Germany), dextrose to sustain glucose ∼7.5 mmol·L(-1)) conditions in 20 older men. Ten of these men were studied with no cocoa flavanol intervention and a further 10 were studied with the addition of 350 mg of cocoa flavanols at the same time that nutrition began. Leg (femoral artery) blood flow was measured by Doppler ultrasound, muscle MBV by contrast-enhanced ultrasound using Definity (Lantheus Medical Imaging, Mass., USA) perflutren contrast agent and MPS using [1, 2-(13)C2]leucine tracer techniques. Our results show that although older individuals do not show an increase in LBF or MBV in response to feeding, these absent responses are apparent when cocoa flavanols are given acutely with nutrition. However, this restoration in vascular responsiveness is not associated with improved MPS responses to nutrition. We conclude that acute cocoa flavanol supplementation improves muscle macro- and microvascular responses to nutrition, independently of modifying muscle protein anabolism.

  8. Insulin-like growth factor I is required for the anabolic actions of parathyroid hormone on mouse bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikle, Daniel D.; Sakata, Takeshi; Leary, Colin; Elalieh, Hashem; Ginzinger, David; Rosen, Clifford J.; Beamer, Wesley; Majumdar, Sharmila; Halloran, Bernard P.

    2002-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a potent anabolic agent for bone, but the mechanism(s) by which it works remains imperfectly understood. Previous studies have indicated that PTH stimulates insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I production, but it remains uncertain whether IGF-I mediates some or all of the skeletal actions of PTH. To address this question, we examined the skeletal response to PTH in IGF-I-deficient (knockout [k/o]) mice. These mice and their normal littermates (NLMs) were given daily injections of PTH (80 microg/kg) or vehicle for 2 weeks after which their tibias were examined for fat-free weight (FFW), bone mineral content, bone structure, and bone formation rate (BFR), and their femurs were assessed for mRNA levels of osteoblast differentiation markers. In wild-type mice, PTH increased FFW, periosteal BFR, and cortical thickness (C.Th) of the proximal tibia while reducing trabecular bone volume (BV); these responses were not seen in the k/o mice. The k/o mice had normal mRNA levels of the PTH receptor and increased mRNA levels of the IGF-I receptor but markedly reduced basal mRNA levels of the osteoblast markers. Surprisingly, these mRNAs in the k/o bones increased several-fold more in response to PTH than the mRNAs in the bones from their wild-type littermates. These results indicate that IGF-I is required for the anabolic actions of PTH on bone formation, but the defect lies distal to the initial response of the osteoblast to PTH.

  9. Cardiovascular manifestations of anabolic steroids in association with demographic variables in body building athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Gheshlaghi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common drug abuse among athletes is anabolic steroids which lead to the development of cardiovascular diseases and sudden death. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular outcomes of anabolic consumption in body building athletes. Materials and Methods: Totally, 267 male athletes at the range of 20-45 years old with the regular consumption of anabolic steroids for >2 months with at least once weekly. High-density lipoprotein (HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, triglyceride (TG, and hematocrit (Hct levels were measured after 10 h of fasting. Data analysis was performed using K2, t-test, ANOVA and correlation coefficient through SPSS 17. Results: There was a nonsignificant difference between groups regarding HDL, TG, and total cholesterol. There was a significant decrease in the total and categorized LDL and Hct levels in consumers of anabolic steroid versus nonusers (P = 0.01 and P = 0.041, respectively. Results showed a significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP in anabolic steroid users which associates with duration of abuse (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively. No significant electrocardiography changes were found within the follow-up period. Conclusion: Increase in SBP or DBP is a common complication of these drugs which can lead serious vascular disorders. The lower LDL cholesterol level might be due to the higher amounts of lipid consumption in these athletes.

  10. Direct determination of anabolic steroids in pig urine by a new SPME-GC-MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Duan, Hongbin; Zhang, Lan; Chen, Xi; Liu, Wei; Chen, Guonan

    2009-05-15

    A new solid phase microextraction (SPME) method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for rapid determination of four anabolic steroids such as 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-androstane-17-one (HA), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androstenedione (AD) and methyltestosterone (MT) in pig urine. SPME was used to extract the four anabolic compounds directly without derivatization. The optimum SPME sampling conditions were based on the home-made carbowax-divinylbenzene (CW-DVB) fiber coating during extraction at 40 degrees C for 50 min with 0.18 g/mL NaCl solution and 750 rpm stirring speed. The linear ranges of the proposed method were in the range of 8-640 pg/mL for HA and DHT and 16-510 pg/mL for AD and MT, respectively. The detection limits (S/N=3) were from 2 to 8 pg/mL for the four anabolic steroids. This SPME method provided very high enrichment factors for the four anabolic steroids, which were 1063-fold and 965-fold for HA and DHT at the concentration of 8 pg/mL and 207-fold and 451-fold for AD and MT at the concentration of 16 pg/mL, respectively. The recoveries ranged from 71.3 to 121%, and the RSDs were lower than 12.9%. The method was sensitive and reliable for determination of trace anabolic steroids in biological samples.

  11. Cardiovascular manifestations of anabolic steroids in association with demographic variables in body building athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheshlaghi, Farzad; Piri-Ardakani, Mohammad-Reza; Masoumi, Gholam Reza; Behjati, Mohaddaseh; Paydar, Parva

    2015-02-01

    The most common drug abuse among athletes is anabolic steroids which lead to the development of cardiovascular diseases and sudden death. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular outcomes of anabolic consumption in body building athletes. Totally, 267 male athletes at the range of 20-45 years old with the regular consumption of anabolic steroids for >2 months with at least once weekly. High-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride (TG), and hematocrit (Hct) levels were measured after 10 h of fasting. Data analysis was performed using K2, t-test, ANOVA and correlation coefficient through SPSS 17. There was a nonsignificant difference between groups regarding HDL, TG, and total cholesterol. There was a significant decrease in the total and categorized LDL and Hct levels in consumers of anabolic steroid versus nonusers (P = 0.01 and P = 0.041, respectively). Results showed a significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) in anabolic steroid users which associates with duration of abuse (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively). No significant electrocardiography changes were found within the follow-up period. Increase in SBP or DBP is a common complication of these drugs which can lead serious vascular disorders. The lower LDL cholesterol level might be due to the higher amounts of lipid consumption in these athletes.

  12. Modulation of follistatin and myostatin propeptide by anabolic steroids and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosler, S; Geisler, S; Hengevoss, J; Schiffer, T; Piechotta, M; Adler, M; Diel, P

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the impact of training, anabolic steroids and endogenous hormones on myostatin-interacting proteins in order to identify manipulations of myostatin signalling. To identify whether analysis of the myostatin interacting proteins follistatin and myostatin propeptide is suitable to detect the abuse of anabolic steroids, their serum concentrations were monitored in untrained males, bodybuilders using anabolic steroids and natural bodybuilders. In addition, we analysed follistatin and myostatin propeptide serum proteins in females during menstrual cycle. Our results showed increased follistatin concentrations in response to anabolic steroids. Furthermore, variations of sex steroid levels during the menstrual cycle had no impact on the expression of follistatin and myostatin propetide. In addition, we identified gender differences in the basal expression of the investigated proteins. In general, follistatin and myostatin propeptide concentrations were relatively stable within the same individual both in males and females. In conclusion, the current findings provide an insight into gender differences in myostatin-interacting proteins and their regulation in response to anabolic steroids and endogenous hormones. Therefore our data provide new aspects for the development of doping prevention strategies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Identification of serum biomarkers for aging and anabolic response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Randall J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective With the progressive aging of the human population, there is an inexorable decline in muscle mass, strength and function. Anabolic supplementation with testosterone has been shown to effectively restore muscle mass in both young and elderly men. In this study, we were interested in identifying serum factors that change with age in two distinct age groups of healthy men, and whether these factors were affected by testosterone supplementation. Methods We measured the protein levels of a number of serum biomarkers using a combination of banked serum samples from older men (60 to 75 years and younger men (ages 18 to 35, as well as new serum specimens obtained through collaboration. We compared baseline levels of all biomarkers between young and older men. In addition, we evaluated potential changes in these biomarker levels in association with testosterone dose (low dose defined as 125 mg per week or below compared to high dose defined as 300 mg per week or above in our banked specimens. Results We identified nine serum biomarkers that differed between the young and older subjects. These age-associated biomarkers included: insulin-like growth factor (IGF1, N-terminal propeptide of type III collagen (PIIINP, monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG, epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78 (ENA78, interleukin 7 (IL-7, p40 subunit of interleukin 12 (IL-12p40, macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (MIP-1β, platelet derived growth factor β (PDGFβ and interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10. We further observed testosterone dose-associated changes in some but not all age related markers: IGF1, PIIINP, leptin, MIG and ENA78. Gains in lean mass were confirmed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Conclusions Results from this study suggest that there are potential phenotypic biomarkers in serum that can be associated with healthy aging and that some but not all of these biomarkers reflect gains in muscle mass upon

  14. Anabolic Steroid Use: Federal Efforts to Prevent and Reduce Anabolic Steroid Abuse among Teenagers. Report to the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-08-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Government Accountability Office, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The abuse of anabolic steroids by teenagers--that is, their use without a prescription--is a health concern. Anabolic steroids are synthetic forms of the hormone testosterone that can be taken orally, injected, or rubbed on the skin. Although a 2006 survey funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) found that less than 3 percent of 12th…

  15. Doping control analysis of anabolic steroids in equine urine by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, April S Y; Leung, Gary N W; Leung, David K K; Wan, Terence S M

    2017-09-01

    Anabolic steroids are banned substances in equine sports. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been the traditional technique for doping control analysis of anabolic steroids in biological samples. Although liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has become an important technique in doping control, the detection of saturated hydroxysteroids by LC-MS remains a problem due to their low ionization efficiency under electrospray. The recent development in fast-scanning gas-chromatography-triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) has provided a better alternative with a significant reduction in chemical noise by means of selective reaction monitoring. Herein, we present a sensitive and selective method for the screening of over 50 anabolic steroids in equine urine using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. ANALYSIS OF THE ANABOLIC WINDOW BEHAVIOUR IN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE INDIVIDUALS: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josu Huarte Prieto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review was first to determine whether there is enough evidence in scientific literature to insure the existence of the anabolic window subsequent to training sessions to improve muscle adaptations of hypertrophy and strength by ingesting certain nutrients during a period of time. The review was also aimed at establishing if there is a limited time of action for such an anabolic window and finally at analyzing which are the appropriate nutritional recommendations for the training sessions given in the various scientific papers. Information was searched using the PubMed search engine (in English and Google scholar and Dialnet (in Spanish. The search was narrowed to only articles directly related to training and articles with healthy subjects with no pathologies. Given that the studies analyzed present mixed and contradictory results, it is difficult to determine the existence or non-existence of the anabolic window and its time of action.

  17. Anabolic Steroid Misuse Among US Adolescent Boys: Disparities by Sexual Orientation and Race/Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blashill, Aaron J; Calzo, Jerel P; Griffiths, Scott; Murray, Stuart B

    2017-02-01

    To examine the prevalence of anabolic steroid misuse among US adolescent boys as a function of sexual orientation and race/ethnicity. We analyzed boys from the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 6248; mean age = 16), a representative sample of US high school students. Lifetime prevalence of anabolic steroid misuse was dichotomized as never versus 1 or more times. Sexual minority boys reported elevated misuse compared with heterosexual boys, within each level of race/ethnicity. Black, Hispanic, and White sexual minority boys reported misuse at approximately 25%, 20%, and 9%, respectively. Sexual orientation health disparities in anabolic steroid misuse disproportionally affect Black and Hispanic sexual minority adolescent boys, but more research is needed to understand the mechanisms driving these disparities.

  18. Anabolic steroid-induced cardiomyopathy underlying acute liver failure in a young bodybuilder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Miguel; Valente, Ana; Maldonado, Rosário; Palma, Rui; Glória, Helena; Nóbrega, João; Alexandrino, Paula

    2009-06-21

    Heart failure may lead to subclinical circulatory disturbances and remain an unrecognized cause of ischemic liver injury. We present the case of a previously healthy 40-year-old bodybuilder, referred to our Intensive-Care Unit of Hepatology for treatment of severe acute liver failure, with the suspicion of toxic hepatitis associated with anabolic steroid abuse. Despite the absence of symptoms and signs of congestive heart failure at admission, an anabolic steroid-induced dilated cardiomyopathy with a large thrombus in both ventricles was found to be the underlying cause of the liver injury. Treatment for the initially unrecognized heart failure rapidly restored liver function to normal. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of severe acute liver failure due to an unrecognized anabolic steroid-induced cardiomyopathy. Awareness of this unique presentation will allow for prompt treatment of this potentially fatal cause of liver failure.

  19. The anabolic steroid nandrolone alters cannabinoid self-administration and brain CB1 receptor density and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struik, Dicky; Fadda, Paola; Zara, Tamara; Zamberletti, Erica; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela; Fratta, Walter; Fattore, Liana

    Clinical and pre-clinical observations indicate that anabolic-androgenic steroids can induce neurobiological changes that alter the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In this study, we investigated the effect of the anabolic steroid nandrolone on the rewarding properties of the cannabinoid CBI

  20. Detection of anabolic androgenic steroid use by elite athletes and by members of the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawalt, Bradley D

    2018-03-15

    Because national and international sports competitions are sources of community pride and financial revenue, there have been great efforts to prevent and detect the use of performance-enhancing drugs such as anabolic androgenic steroids by elite athletes. The World Anti-Doping Agency and its national affiliate anti-doping agencies have created sophisticated monitoring systems and advanced testing techniques to detect the use of banned substances including anabolic androgenic steroids by participants in international and national athletic competitions. The creation of a longitudinal monitoring program known as the biological passport is a recent, important development in the efforts to prevent and detect the use of banned performance-enhancing drugs and methods. The biological passport program consists of the measurement of urinary and blood markers of anabolic androgenic steroid use (and other banned drugs or methods) at baseline and at random times. A panel of experts reviews the longitudinal data and interprets the likelihood of the use of banned drugs and methods. These advances in anti-doping appear to be highly effective, but some athletes persist in their efforts to cheat the detection process. In addition, some members of the general public use anabolic androgenic steroids for a variety of reasons including to improve physical appearance or to enhance performance in athletics. Clinicians must depend on clinical acumen and the measurement of serum testosterone and gonadotropins to guide them in making a tentative diagnosis of anabolic androgenic steroid use. Definitive diagnosis requires that the patient disclose the use of the drugs. Because anabolic androgenic steroids are effective for improving certain aspects of physical performance, some elite athletes (and members of the general public) will continue to use these drugs. Effective efforts to curtail the use of these drugs will require decreasing the ease of access to them, continued advancements in

  1. Sarcopenia in older mice is characterized by a decreased anabolic response to a protein meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Miriam; Nagel, Jolanda; Dijk, Francina J; Salles, Jerôme; Verlaan, Sjors; Walrand, Stephane; van Norren, Klaske; Luiking, Yvette

    Ageing is associated with sarcopenia, a progressive decline of skeletal muscle mass, muscle quality and muscle function. Reduced sensitivity of older muscles to respond to anabolic stimuli, i.e. anabolic resistance, is part of the underlying mechanisms. Although, muscle parameters have been studied in mice of various ages/strains; the aim was to study if mice display similar deteriorating processes as human ageing. Therefore, 10,16,21 and 25 months-old C57BL6/6J male mice were studied to measure parameters of sarcopenia and factors contributing to its pathophysiology, with the aim of characterizing sarcopenia in old mice. Muscle mass of the hind limb was lower in 25 as compared to 10 month-old mice. A significant decrease in physical daily activity, muscle grip strength and ex vivo muscle maximal force production was observed in 25 compared to 10 month-old mice. The muscle anabolic response to a single protein meal showed increased muscle protein synthesis in young, but not in old mice, indicative to anabolic resistance. However, by increasing the protein content in meals, anabolic resistance could be overcome, similar as in human elderly. Additionally, aged mice showed higher fasted insulin and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (=marker oxidative stress). This study shows clear characteristics of sarcopenia that coincide with anabolic resistance, insulin resistance and oxidative stress in 25 month-old C57/BL6 male mice, similar to human ageing. Furthermore, similar decline in muscle mass, strength and function was observed in this aged-mice-model. These observations offer potential for the future to explore in old mice the effects of interventions targeting sarcopenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The relationship between anabolic androgenic steroids and muscle dysmorphia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohman, Lebur

    2009-01-01

    This review explores the condition of muscle dysmorphia (MD) and its relationship with anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). Particular emphasis is placed upon whether anabolic steroids are a predisposing, precipitating or perpetuating factor of MD. Furthermore, psychiatric complications of AAS abuse are examined. The current evidence from the literature suggests that AAS (ab)use is possibly a perpetuating factor in the evolution of MD. Psychiatric complications of AAS include mood and behavior changes, perceptual abnormalities, and withdrawal symptoms. In addition, there appears to be a credible dependence theory to AAS in fruition.

  3. Increased blood pressure and aortic stiffness among abusers of anabolic androgenic steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon J; Schou, Morten; Madsen, Per L

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prevalent among recreational athletes and adverse effects on blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness could be substantial. Testosterone decreases natriuretic peptides which are key components in BP-regulation and may impair BP-homeosta......BACKGROUND: Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prevalent among recreational athletes and adverse effects on blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness could be substantial. Testosterone decreases natriuretic peptides which are key components in BP-regulation and may impair BP...

  4. Short QT interval is unreliable marker of anabolic androgenic steroid abuse in competitive athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Vitomir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Previous animal and human studies provided the evidence that testosterone may affect ventricular repolarization by shortening of the QT interval. Synthetic derivatives of testosterone, modified to enhance its anabolic properties, are occasionally abused by some competitive athletes. Objective. We assessed whether the QT interval duration could discriminate androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS-using strength athletes (SA from drug-free endurance athletes (EA, by comparing 25 formulas for QT interval correction. Methods. We recruited 22 elite male athletes involved in long-term strength or endurance training and 20 sedentary controls. All elite

  5. Effects of aging and insulin resistant states on protein anabolic responses in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Jose A; Jacob, Kathryn Wright; Chevalier, Stéphanie

    2018-07-15

    Insulin is the principal postprandial anabolic hormone and resistance to its action could contribute to sarcopenia. We developed different types of hyperinsulinemic clamp protocols to measure simultaneously glucose and protein metabolism in insulin resistant states (older adults, obesity, diabetes, etc.). To define effects of healthy aging in response to insulin, we employed the hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic and isoaminoacidemic (HYPER-1) clamp. The net whole-body anabolic (protein balance) response to hyperinsulinemia was lower in the elderly vs young (p = 0.007) and was highly correlated with the clamp glucose rate of disposal (r = 0.671, p anabolism compared with young ones. As most of the anabolism occurs during feeding, we studied the fed-state metabolic responses with aging using the hyperinsulinemic, hyperglycemic and hyperaminoacidemic clamp, including muscle biopsies. Older women showed comparable whole-body protein anabolic responses and stimulation of mixed-muscle protein synthesis by feeding to the young. The responses of skeletal muscle insulin signaling through the Akt-mTORC1 pathway were also unaltered, and therefore consistent with muscle protein synthesis results. Given that type 2 diabetes infers insulin resistance of protein metabolism with aging, we studied 10 healthy, 8 obese, and 8 obese type 2 diabetic elderly women using the HYPER-1 clamp. When compared to the group of young lean women to define the effects of obesity and diabetes with aging, whole-body change in net protein balance with hyperinsulinemia was similarly blunted in obese and diabetic older women. However, only elderly obese women with diabetes had lower net balance than lean older women. We conclude that with usual aging, the blunted whole-body anabolic response in elderly subjects is mediated by the failure of insulin to stimulate protein synthesis to the same extent as in the young, especially in men. This blunted response can be overcome at the whole-body and muscle

  6. Anabolic steroids affect human periodontal health and microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusca, María Isabel; Verdugo, Fernando; Amighini, Celeste; Albaina, Olatz; Moragues, María D

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate periodontal microbiological differences between systemically healthy nonsmoker males taking anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) and non-AAS users and to find associations between disease severity and AAS use. Ninety-two men practicing bodybuilding were included in the study. They were divided into AAS users and a matched control nonuser group and subgrouped based on their most severe periodontal condition. Pooled subgingival samples from each individual were cultured to evaluate specific periodontopathogen infection. AAS users had significantly higher prevalence of severe periodontitis. AAS users had greater gingival inflammation and clinical attachment loss of ≥ 3 mm than nonusers (odds ratio (OR) = 2.4; p = 0.09; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.8-6.4). AAS users were 4.9 times more likely to be infected with Prevotella intermedia than AAS nonusers (OR = 4.9; p = 0.003; 95 % CI 1.6-14.7). The OR of presenting subgingival Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans was 8.2 times higher in AAS users (OR = 8.2; p = 0.03; 95 % CI 0.9-70.8). AAS users were 5.6 times more likely to present subgingival Candida spp. than nonusers (OR = 5.6; p = 0.02; 95 % CI 1.1-27.1). AAS users were 14.8 times more likely to present subgingival Candida parapsilosis than nonusers (OR = 14.8; p < 0.0001; 95 % CI 3.1-69.2). The likelihood of AAS users presenting subgingival Candida tropicalis was 4.3 times higher than nonusers (OR = 4.3; p = 0.03; 95 % CI 1.1-16.9). A. actinomycetemcomitans was mostly isolated in individuals with severe periodontitis and was associated with subgingival Porphyromonas gingivalis, P. intermedia, and Candida spp. AAS use may increase the risk for severe periodontitis and may cause a subgingival selection of certain Candida species. Specific periodontopathogens, such as Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans, seem to be negatively affected by AAS use. The higher risk for disease progression in AAS users may be explained by the

  7. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Biological Agents Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... 202) 693-2300 if additional assistance is required. Biological Agents Menu Overview In Focus: Ebola Frederick A. ...

  8. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use Among 1,010 College Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Harrison G., Jr.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Two percent of 1,010 male college students responding to a questionnaire about anabolic-androgenic steroid use reported using steroids; most of the users were competitive athletes, although some used steroids to improve their physical appearance. Users were not distinguished from non-users in terms of academic achievement or use of other illicit…

  9. Commentary: Synthetic Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids: A Plea for Controlled Substance Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, William N.

    1987-01-01

    The widespread abuse of synthetic anabolic-androgenic steriods, their habit-forming properties, and their other adverse effects are good reasons for reclassification of steriods as controlled substances under federal law, a step which may combat their abuse. (Author/CB)

  10. Therapeutic effects of anabolic androgenic steroids on chronic diseases associated with muscle wasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdeman, J.T.; de Ronde, W.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A variety of clinical conditions are complicated by loss of weight and skeletal muscle which may contribute to morbidity and mortality. Anabolic androgenic steroids have been demonstrated to increase fat-free mass, muscle mass and strength in healthy men and women without major adverse

  11. Determinants of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Risk Perceptions in Youth Populations: A Multivariate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Bryan E.

    2009-01-01

    Grounded conceptually in social cognitive theory, this research examines how personal, behavioral, and environmental factors are associated with risk perceptions of anabolic-androgenic steroids. Ordinal logistic regression and logit log-linear models applied to data gathered from high-school seniors (N = 2,160) in the 2005 Monitoring the Future…

  12. Multi-organ damage induced by anabolic steroid supplements: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaha Ali A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The use of anabolic supplements and other related drugs for body building and to enhance athletic performance is nowadays widespread and acutely pervasive all around the world. This alarming increase in the use of anabolic and amino acid supplements has been linked to a diverse array of pathologies. As previously reported, the abuse of androgenic steroids is not without severe physiological, psychiatric and physical costs. The case we report here describes multi-organ damage resulting from the abuse and uncontrolled use of anabolic steroid supplements, mainly testosterone. Case presentation A 24-year-old white man presented with abdominal pain concomitant with nausea and vomiting. Laboratory analysis revealed hypercalcemia, elevated liver enzymes and high levels of amylase, lipase and creatine protein kinase. Conclusion Amino acid as well as anabolic supplements may lead to abnormal functioning of many organs, which could be fatal in some instances. This mandates worldwide and concerted efforts to educate the public, especially the youth, about the dangers of these increasingly abused drugs.

  13. Anabolic Steroid Abuse. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    The use of anabolic steroids is on the increase among athletes as well as other segments of the population. Data from the "Monitoring the Future" study showed a significant increase from 1998 to 1999 in steroid abuse among middle school students. During the same year, there was a decline in the percentage of 12th graders who believed…

  14. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids: Prevalence, Knowledge, and Attitudes in Junior and Senior High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetkemeier, Maurie J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports a survey of junior and senior high school students that investigated the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid use and examined gender, sports participation, and illicit drug use. Results indicated the prevalence of steroid use was 3.3%. Steroid use was greater for males, users of other drugs, and strength trainers. (SM)

  15. Psychomotor and Motor Speed in Power Athletes Self-Administering Testosterone and Anabolic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Era, Pertti; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Self-administered testosterone and anabolic steroids resulted in insignificant improvement in psychomotor and motor speed tests of power athletes. This study is part of a larger study on the effects of such drugs on endocrinology, metabolism and neuromuscular functions. Methodolgy and results are discussed. (Author/JL)

  16. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids: Use and Perceived Use in Nonathlete College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berning, Joseph M.; Adams, Kent J.; Debeliso, Mark; Stamford, Bryant A.; Newman, Ian M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated the use and perceived use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) among nonathlete college students. Participants: The authors surveyed a sample of 485 nonathlete college students at a major metropolitan university. Methods: They administered a survey on use and perceived use of AAS to the students. Results:…

  17. The development of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis secondary to anabolic steroid abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Patrick; Ali, Galil; Chan, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The authors present the case of a patient who presented to the nephrology department of a district general hospital with end-stage renal failure. He presented with malignant hypertension and symptoms and signs of uraemia. He also gave a history of prior abuse of anabolic steroids over a number of years. Renal biopsy was performed and the findings were in keeping with a diagnosis of advanced focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). The patient went on to require renal replacement therapy within weeks of presentation. The authors suggest that anabolic steroid abuse is a direct cause of FSGS. People with raised body mass index are known to be at increased risk of developing this condition, due to increased haemodynamic stress on the glomeruli, with subsequent development of sclerosis. However, the authors believe that anabolic steroid abuse may be an independent risk factor, and that anabolic steroids have a direct nephrotoxic effect that leads to a more advanced initial presentation with rapid decline in renal function. PMID:22669525

  18. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids: Knowledge about, Attitude toward, and Extent of Use by High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonker, R. J.; And Others

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AS) are pharmacologic derivatives of the hormone testosterone. They have therapeutic merit when used under a physician's prescription to treat certain hormonal imbalances and some forms of anemia; however, when taken in high doses they have a number of virilizing, feminizing, toxic, and psychological effects. This…

  19. Effects of Anabolic Steroids on Lipoprotein Profiles of Female Weight Lifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Robert J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study examined the effects of resistance exercise and anabolic steroids on lipoprotein profiles of female weightlifters. The study found that women who participate in resistance training have better lipoprotein profiles than their sedentary counterparts, but these changes do not offset the deleterious effects of steroid use. (SM)

  20. Examining Athletes' Attitudes toward Using Anabolic Steroids and Their Knowledge of the Possible Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshel, Mark H.; Russell, Kenneth G.

    1997-01-01

    Examined the relationships between athletes' (N=291) knowledge about the long-term effects of anabolic steroids and their attitudes toward this type of drug. Results show low correlation between greater knowledge and attitudes about the use of steroids in sports, suggesting that drug education programs regarding steroids may have limited value.…

  1. Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Use in Teens: Prevalence, Demographics, and Perception of Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorang, Melissa; Callahan, Bryan; Cummins, Kevin M.; Achar, Suraj; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple risks are associated with early use of anabolic androgenic steroids, yet public understanding is limited and teen use not uncommon. The present study surveyed 4,231 high school students to understand prevalence of use, association with athletics and other substance use and expectations of drug effects. While overall rates of steroid use…

  2. Phytosterol consumption and the anabolic steroid boldenone in humans: a hypothesis piloted.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, M.M.; Sterk, S.S.; Verhagen, H.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Jong, N. de

    2007-01-01

    The presence of the anabolic steroid boldenone in animals has become a research topic as its occurrence is proposed to be a marker for illegal hormone administration. However, boldenone can also be formed from beta-sitosterol, a phytosterol present in animal feed, as well as from endogenous sources.

  3. Androgenic anabolic steroid use and severe hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction : a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Breda, E.; Keizer, H.A.; Kuipers, H.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.

    The data of the present case demonstrate that the abuse of androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) may lead to serious health effects. Although most clinical attention is usually directed towards peripheral side effects, the most serious central side effect, hypothalamic-pituitary-dysfunction, is often

  4. Self-Treatment of Gynecomastia in Bodybuilders Who Use Anabolic Steroids. Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Karl E.; Yesalis, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    Presents four case reports of bodybuilders whose self-administered anabolic steroid programs resulted in gynecomastia, and discusses treatment strategies advocated by some bodybuilders. The actual recommended treatment is complete cessation of drugs. By dispelling unfounded treatment methods, physicians might help discourage such drug use. (SM)

  5. Expression of muscle anabolic and metabolic factors in mechanically loaded MLO-Y4 osteocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juffer, P.; Jaspers, R.T.; Lips, P.; Bakker, A.D.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2012-01-01

    Lack of physical activity results in muscle atrophy and bone loss, which can be counteracted by mechanical loading. Similar molecular signaling pathways are involved in the adaptation of muscle and bone mass to mechanical loading. Whether anabolic and metabolic factors regulating muscle mass, i.e.,

  6. MRI and image quantitation for drug assessment - growth effects of anabolic steroids and precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haiying; Wu, Ed; Vasselli, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    MRI and image quantitation play an expanding role in modern drug research, because MRI offers high resolution and non-invasive ability, and provides excellent soft tissue contrast. Moreover, with development of effective image segmentation and analysis methods, in-vivo and serial tissue growth measurements could be assessed. In the study, MR image acquisition and analysis protocol were established and validated for investigating the effects of anabolic steroids and precursors on muscle growth and body composition in a guinea pig model. Semi-automatic and interactive segmentation methods were developed to accurately label the tissue of interest for tissue volume estimation. In addition, a longitudinal tissue area outlining procedure was proposed for study of tissue geometric features in relation to tissue growth. Finally, a fully automatic data retrieval and analysis scheme was implemented to facilitate the overall huge amount of image quantitation, statistical analysis, as well as study group comparisons. As a result, highly significant differences in muscle and organ growth were detected between intact and castrated guinea pigs using the selected anabolic steroids, indicating the viability of employing such protocol to assess other anabolic steroids. Furthermore, the anabolic potential of selected steroid precursors and their effects on muscle growth, in comparison with that in respective positive control groups of castrated guinea pigs, were evaluated with the proposed protocol.

  7. Effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartgens, Fred; Kuipers, Harm

    2004-01-01

    Androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone. They can exert strong effects on the human body that may be beneficial for athletic performance. A review of the literature revealed that most laboratory studies did not investigate the actual doses of AAS currently abused in the field. Therefore, those studies may not reflect the actual (adverse) effects of steroids. The available scientific literature describes that short-term administration of these drugs by athletes can increase strength and bodyweight. Strength gains of about 5-20% of the initial strength and increments of 2-5 kg bodyweight, that may be attributed to an increase of the lean body mass, have been observed. A reduction of fat mass does not seem to occur. Although AAS administration may affect erythropoiesis and blood haemoglobin concentrations, no effect on endurance performance was observed. Little data about the effects of AAS on metabolic responses during exercise training and recovery are available and, therefore, do not allow firm conclusions. The main untoward effects of short- and long-term AAS abuse that male athletes most often self-report are an increase in sexual drive, the occurrence of acne vulgaris, increased body hair and increment of aggressive behaviour. AAS administration will disturb the regular endogenous production of testosterone and gonadotrophins that may persist for months after drug withdrawal. Cardiovascular risk factors may undergo deleterious alterations, including elevation of blood pressure and depression of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-, HDL2- and HDL3-cholesterol levels. In echocardiographic studies in male athletes, AAS did not seem to affect cardiac structure and function, although in animal studies these drugs have been observed to exert hazardous effects on heart structure and function. In studies of athletes, AAS were not found to damage the liver. Psyche and behaviour seem to be strongly affected by AAS

  8. Study the Prevalence of Anabolic Steroids Consumption among Bodybuilding Athletes in Yasuj, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Amin Rezaei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, in Iran sport has gained a special place among people and meantime, bodybuilding centers were able to attract many people, while a large number of athletes have the desire to consume anabolic steroids to enhance their athletic performance, gain championship and fitness, and increase their muscle mass and energy. This study was performed to survey prevalence of anabolic steroids consumption in athletes in Yasuj, Iran. Methods: During 2012, totally, 214 male and female athletes in Yasuj, Iran were randomly enrolled. The necessary information was obtained using a questionnaire containing demographic questions, the amount and type of substance used, their purpose of consumption, duration of exercise, the manner of preparation and consumption, the place of preparation and awareness about the side effects of these compounds. Results: The least were athletes less than 20 years old (9.8% and the most were 20-25 years (55.1%, while 43% of athletes used anabolic steroids. Creatine (77.2% and anabolic steroids (72.8% were the most commonly used drugs among consumers. About 69.6% of consumers reported an increase in muscle mass as the reason, 28.6% provided the substances from free market, 11% reported consultation with their doctor or nutritionist to use the proper substance, 45.8% had low awareness, and only 14.5% were completely aware of side effects. Conclusion: Regarding the frequency of consumption od anabolic steroids and low awareness of athletes about the complications, educational programs seem to be necessary to control their use and increase the awareness of users.

  9. The Skeletal Muscle Anabolic Response to Plant- versus Animal-Based Protein Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Stephan; Burd, Nicholas A; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-09-01

    Clinical and consumer market interest is increasingly directed toward the use of plant-based proteins as dietary components aimed at preserving or increasing skeletal muscle mass. However, recent evidence suggests that the ingestion of the plant-based proteins in soy and wheat results in a lower muscle protein synthetic response when compared with several animal-based proteins. The possible lower anabolic properties of plant-based protein sources may be attributed to the lower digestibility of plant-based sources, in addition to greater splanchnic extraction and subsequent urea synthesis of plant protein-derived amino acids compared with animal-based proteins. The latter may be related to the relative lack of specific essential amino acids in plant- as opposed to animal-based proteins. Furthermore, most plant proteins have a relatively low leucine content, which may further reduce their anabolic properties when compared with animal proteins. However, few studies have actually assessed the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to the ingestion of plant proteins, with soy and wheat protein being the primary sources studied. Despite the proposed lower anabolic properties of plant vs. animal proteins, various strategies may be applied to augment the anabolic properties of plant proteins. These may include the following: 1) fortification of plant-based protein sources with the amino acids methionine, lysine, and/or leucine; 2) selective breeding of plant sources to improve amino acid profiles; 3) consumption of greater amounts of plant-based protein sources; or 4) ingesting multiple protein sources to provide a more balanced amino acid profile. However, the efficacy of such dietary strategies on postprandial muscle protein synthesis remains to be studied. Future research comparing the anabolic properties of a variety of plant-based proteins should define the preferred protein sources to be used in nutritional interventions to support skeletal muscle mass gain

  10. Anabolic hormone profiles in elite military men: Robust associations with age, stress, and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Marcus K; Padilla, Genieleah A; Hernández, Lisa M

    2017-08-01

    We recently established stable daily profiles of the anabolic hormones dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone in 57 elite military men. In this follow-on study, we explored associations of salivary anabolic hormone profiles with demographic (i.e., age, body mass index [BMI]) and biobehavioral health indices (i.e., blood pressure, sleep, perceived stress, fatigue) via correlational models. Next, nuanced patterns were constructed using quartile splits followed by one-way analysis of variance and post hoc subgroup comparisons. Both DHEA (r range: -0.33 to -0.49) and testosterone (r range: -0.19 to -0.41) were inversely associated with age. Quartile comparisons revealed that age-related declines in DHEA were linear, curvilinear, or sigmoidal, depending on the summary parameter of interest. Anabolic hormone profiles did not associate with BMI, blood pressure, or sleep efficiency. Robust linear associations were observed between testosterone and perceived stress (r range: -0.29 to -0.36); concentration-dependent patterns were less discernible. Lower DHEA (r range: -0.22 to -0.30) and testosterone (r range: -0.22 to -0.36) concentrations associated with higher fatigue. Subsequent quartile comparisons suggested a concentration-dependent threshold with respect to evening testosterone. Specifically, those individuals within the lowest quartile (≤68.4pg/mL) endorsed the highest fatigue of the four groups (p=0.01), while the remaining three groups did not differ from each other. This study not only showed that anabolic hormone profiles have distinctive age trajectories, but are also valuable predictors of stress and fatigue in elite military men. This highlights the importance of routine monitoring of anabolic hormone profiles to sustain and optimize health and readiness in chronically stressed populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Analysis of anabolic androgenic steroids as sulfate conjugates using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeppa, S; Heinrich, G; Hemmersbach, P

    2015-01-01

    Improvements in doping analysis can be effected by speeding up analysis time and extending the detection time. Therefore, direct detection of phase II conjugates of doping agents, especially anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), is proposed. Besides direct detection of conjugates with glucuronic acid, the analysis of sulfate conjugates, which are usually not part of the routine doping control analysis, can be of high interest. Sulfate conjugates of methandienone and methyltestosterone metabolites have already been identified as long-term metabolites. This study presents the synthesis of sulfate conjugates of six commonly used AAS and their metabolites: trenbolone, nandrolone, boldenone, methenolone, mesterolone, and drostanolone. In the following these sulfate conjugates were used for development of a fast and easy analysis method based on sample preparation using solid phase extraction with a mixed-mode sorbent and detection by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Validation demonstrated the suitability of the method with regard to the criteria given by the technical documents of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). In addition, suitability has been proven by successful detection of the synthesized sulfate conjugates in excretion urines and routine doping control samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroids: Aggression and anxiety during exposure predict behavioral responding during withdrawal in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Lesley A; Morrison, Thomas R; Melloni, Richard H

    2013-11-01

    In the U.S. and worldwide anabolic/androgenic steroid use remains high in the adolescent population. This is concerning given that anabolic/androgenic steroid use is associated with a higher incidence of aggressive behavior during exposure and anxiety during withdrawal. This study uses pubertal Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) to investigate the hypothesis that an inverse behavioral relationship exists between anabolic/androgenic steroid-induced aggression and anxiety across adolescent exposure and withdrawal. In the first experiment, we examined aggression and anxiety during adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure and withdrawal. Adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid administration produced significant increases in aggression and decreases in anxiety during the exposure period followed by significant decreases in aggression and increases in anxiety during anabolic/androgenic steroid withdrawal. In a second experiment, anabolic/androgenic steroid exposed animals were separated into groups based on their aggressive response during the exposure period and then tested for anxiety during exposure and then for both aggression and anxiety during withdrawal. Data were analyzed using a within-subjects repeated measures predictive analysis. Linear regression analysis revealed that the difference in aggressive responding between the anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure and withdrawal periods was a significant predictor of differences in anxiety for both days of testing. Moreover, the combined data suggest that the decrease in aggressive behavior from exposure to withdrawal predicts an increase in anxiety-like responding within these same animals during this time span. Together these findings indicate that early anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure has potent aggression- and anxiety-eliciting effects and that these behavioral changes occur alongside a predictive relationship that exists between these two behaviors over time. © 2013.

  13. Effects of anabolic steroids on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Pan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anabolic steroids are known to improve body composition and muscle strength in healthy people. However, whether anabolic steroids improve the physical condition and function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD remains undetermined. A meta-analysis was conducted to review the current evidence regarding the effects of anabolic steroids on COPD patients. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of PubMed and EMBASE was performed to identify randomised controlled trials that examine the effects of anabolic steroids on COPD patients. Weighted mean differences (WMDs with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine differences between anabolic steroid administration and control conditions. RESULTS: Eight eligible studies involving 273 COPD patients were identified in this meta-analysis. Significant improvements were found in body weight (0.956 kg, fat-free mass (1.606 kg, St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score (-6.336 and symptom score (-12.148. The apparent improvements in maximal inspiratory pressure (2.740 cmH2O and maximal expiratory pressure (12.679 cmH2O were not significant. The effects on handgrip strength, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, predicted FEV1 percent, PaO2, PaCO2 and six-min walk distance were negative, with WMDs of -0.245 kg, -0.096 L/sec, -1.996% of predicted, -1.648 cmHg, -0.039 cmHg and -16.102 meters, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Limited evidence available from the published literature suggests that the benefit of anabolic steroids on COPD patients cannot be denied. However, further studies are needed to identify the specific benefits and adverse effects of anabolic steroids on COPD patients and to determine the optimal populations and regimes of anabolic steroids in COPD patients.

  14. Effects of anabolic steroids on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lei; Wang, Manyuan; Xie, Xiaomei; Du, Changjun; Guo, Yongzhong

    2014-01-01

    Anabolic steroids are known to improve body composition and muscle strength in healthy people. However, whether anabolic steroids improve the physical condition and function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains undetermined. A meta-analysis was conducted to review the current evidence regarding the effects of anabolic steroids on COPD patients. A comprehensive literature search of PubMed and EMBASE was performed to identify randomised controlled trials that examine the effects of anabolic steroids on COPD patients. Weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine differences between anabolic steroid administration and control conditions. Eight eligible studies involving 273 COPD patients were identified in this meta-analysis. Significant improvements were found in body weight (0.956 kg), fat-free mass (1.606 kg), St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score (-6.336) and symptom score (-12.148). The apparent improvements in maximal inspiratory pressure (2.740 cmH2O) and maximal expiratory pressure (12.679 cmH2O) were not significant. The effects on handgrip strength, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), predicted FEV1 percent, PaO2, PaCO2 and six-min walk distance were negative, with WMDs of -0.245 kg, -0.096 L/sec, -1.996% of predicted, -1.648 cmHg, -0.039 cmHg and -16.102 meters, respectively. Limited evidence available from the published literature suggests that the benefit of anabolic steroids on COPD patients cannot be denied. However, further studies are needed to identify the specific benefits and adverse effects of anabolic steroids on COPD patients and to determine the optimal populations and regimes of anabolic steroids in COPD patients.

  15. Hidden Danger of Irrational Abusing Illegal Androgenic-anabolic Steroids in Recreational Athletes Age Under 35 in Bosnia & Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Solakovic, Sid; Totic, Dragan; Vukas, Haris; Djedovic, Muhamed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Androgenic-anabolic steroids are rarely used by sportsmen who want to improve physical performance in competition sport. Despite that they are well aware of the side effects of anabolic steroids, many young athletes in Bosnia and Herzegovina without competition motivation come in temptation, trying to achieve better muscle proportion and physical performance unknowing consequence of side effects and what is hiding behind. Risk factors such as increasing of lipid levels and arter...

  16. Side effects of anabolic androgenic steroids: pathological findings and structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Andreas; Thieme, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    Side effects of anabolic steroids with relevance in forensic medicine are mainly due to life-threatening health risks with potential fatal outcome and cases of uncertain limitations of criminal liability after steroid administration. Both problems are typically associated with long-term abuse and excessive overdose of anabolic steroids. Side effects may be due to direct genomic or nongenomic activities (myotrophic, hepatotoxic), can result from down-regulation of endogenous biosynthesis (antiandrogenic) or be indirect consequence of steroid biotransformation (estrogenic).Logically, there are no systematic clinical studies available and the number of causally determined fatalities is fairly limited. The following compilation reviews typical abundant observations in cases where nonnatural deaths (mostly liver failure and sudden cardiac death) were concurrent with steroid abuse. Moreover, frequent associations between structural characteristics and typical side effects are summarized.

  17. The Buzz About Anabolic Androgenic Steroids: Electrophysiological Effects in Excitable Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlander, Joseph G.; Penatti, Carlos A. A.; Porter, Donna M.; Henderson, Leslie P.

    2012-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) comprise a large and growing class of synthetic androgens used clinically to promote tissue-building in individuals suffering from genetic disorders, injuries and diseases. Despite these beneficial therapeutic applications, the predominant use of AAS is illicit: these steroids are self-administered to promote athletic performance and body image. Hand in hand with the desired anabolic actions of the AAS are untoward effects on the brain and behavior. While the signaling routes by which the AAS impose both beneficial and harmful actions may be quite diverse, key endpoints are likely to include ligand-gated and voltage-dependent ion channels that govern the activity of electrically excitable tissues. Here we review the known effects of AAS on molecular targets that play critical roles in controlling electrical activity, with a specific focus on the effects of AAS on neurotransmission mediated by GABAA receptors in the central nervous system (CNS). PMID:22576754

  18. Therapeutic effects of anabolic androgenic steroids on chronic diseases associated with muscle wasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerdeman, Jorn; de Ronde, Willem

    2011-01-01

    A variety of clinical conditions are complicated by loss of weight and skeletal muscle which may contribute to morbidity and mortality. Anabolic androgenic steroids have been demonstrated to increase fat-free mass, muscle mass and strength in healthy men and women without major adverse events and therefore could be beneficial in these conditions. This review provides an overview of clinical trials with anabolic androgenic steroids in the treatment of chronic diseases including HIV-wasting, chronic renal failure, chronic obstructive lung disease, muscular disease, alcoholic liver disease, burn injuries and post operative recovery. Relevant studies were identified in PubMed (years 1950 - 2010), bibliographies of the identified studies and the Cochrane database. Although the beneficial effects of AAS in chronic disorders are promising, clinically relevant endpoints such as quality of life, improved physical functioning and survival were mainly missing or not significant, except for burn injuries. Therefore, more studies are needed to confirm their long term safety and efficacy.

  19. The Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2004: a study in the political economy of drug policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Bryan E

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the processes by which the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2004, an act that added steroid precursors such as androstenedione to the list of Schedule III Controlled Substances in the United States, came to pass in both the House of Representatives and the Senate. Grounded theoretically in political economy, the article addresses, in the abstract, how the interplay of political pressures and economic influences stands to affect the actions of public officials, and how "tougher" drug policies-those touted to be more substantive and efficacious than existing regulations-often fail to effect change. The article concludes with implications for those involved in the regulation of anabolic steroids and steroid precursors.

  20. Mycobacterium fortuitum skin infection as a complication of anabolic steroids: a rare case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parampalli, U; Hettiarachchi, G; Ahmed, I

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium fortuitum is a rare cause of recurrent skin abscesses in an immunocompetent person. We report the case of a 37-year-old man presenting with multiple recurrent non-healing skin abscesses. Culture of the abscess wall yielded growth of M fortuitum. In our case, we highlight the association of anabolic steroids with non-tuberculous mycobacterial skin abscesses that fail to resolve despite repeated drainage. PMID:23317715

  1. Gynecomastia in two young men with histories of prolonged use of anabolic androgenic steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Orlandi, M.A.; Venegoni, E.; Pagani, C.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this report is to highlight the risk of anabolic androgenic steroid-induced gynecomastia in young men involved in nonagonistic sports and the role of ultrasonography in its diagnosis. The authors describe two cases of gynecomastia in nonprofessional weight lifters with histories of AAS use. In both cases, the diagnosis was based on patient history and clinical findings, but the sonographic examination confirmed the clinical suspicion and excluded the presence of other types of dise...

  2. Autism as early neurodevelopmental disorder: evidence for an sAPPα-mediated anabolic pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debomoy K Lahiri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder marked by social skills and communication deficits and interfering repetitive behavior. Intellectual disability often accompanies autism. In addition to behavioral deficits, autism is characterized by neuropathology and brain overgrowth. Increased intracranial volume often accompanies this brain growth. We have found that the Alzheimer’s disease (AD associated amyloid-β precursor protein (APP, especially its neuroprotective processing product, secreted APP α (sAPPα, is elevated in persons with autism. This has led to the anabolic hypothesis of autism etiology, in which neuronal overgrowth in the brain results in interneuronal misconnections that may underlie multiple autism symptoms. We review the contribution of research in brain volume and of APP to the anabolic hypothesis, and relate APP to other proteins and pathways that have already been directly associated with autism, such as fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP, Ras small GTPase/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase (Ras/ERK, and phosphoinositide 3 kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR. We also present additional evidence of MRI intracranial measurements in favor of the anabolic hypothesis. Finally, since it appears that APP’s involvement in autism is part of a multi-partner network, we extend this concept into the inherently interactive realm of epigenetics. We speculate that the underlying molecular abnormalities that influence APP’s contribution to autism are epigenetic markers overlaid onto potentially vulnerable gene sequences due to environmental influence.

  3. Autism as early neurodevelopmental disorder: evidence for an sAPPα-mediated anabolic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Debomoy K; Sokol, Deborah K; Erickson, Craig; Ray, Balmiki; Ho, Chang Y; Maloney, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder marked by social skills and communication deficits and interfering repetitive behavior. Intellectual disability often accompanies autism. In addition to behavioral deficits, autism is characterized by neuropathology and brain overgrowth. Increased intracranial volume often accompanies this brain growth. We have found that the Alzheimer's disease (AD) associated amyloid-β precursor protein (APP), especially its neuroprotective processing product, secreted APP α, is elevated in persons with autism. This has led to the "anabolic hypothesis" of autism etiology, in which neuronal overgrowth in the brain results in interneuronal misconnections that may underlie multiple autism symptoms. We review the contribution of research in brain volume and of APP to the anabolic hypothesis, and relate APP to other proteins and pathways that have already been directly associated with autism, such as fragile X mental retardation protein, Ras small GTPase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and phosphoinositide 3 kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin. We also present additional evidence of magnetic resonance imaging intracranial measurements in favor of the anabolic hypothesis. Finally, since it appears that APP's involvement in autism is part of a multi-partner network, we extend this concept into the inherently interactive realm of epigenetics. We speculate that the underlying molecular abnormalities that influence APP's contribution to autism are epigenetic markers overlaid onto potentially vulnerable gene sequences due to environmental influence.

  4. Imitation of phase I oxidative metabolism of anabolic steroids by titanium dioxide photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruokolainen, Miina; Valkonen, Minna; Sikanen, Tiina; Kotiaho, Tapio; Kostiainen, Risto

    2014-12-18

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysis for oxidation of anabolic steroids and for imitation of their phase I metabolism. The photocatalytic reaction products of five anabolic steroids were compared to their phase I in vitro metabolites produced by human liver microsomes (HLM). The same main reaction types - hydroxylation, dehydrogenation and combination of these two - were observed both in TiO2 photocatalysis and in microsomal incubations. Several isomers of each product type were formed in both systems. Based on the same mass, retention time and similarity of the product ion spectra, many of the products observed in HLM reactions were also formed in TiO2 photocatalytic reactions. However, products characteristic to only either one of the systems were also formed. In conclusion, TiO2 photocatalysis is a rapid, simple and inexpensive method for imitation of phase I metabolism of anabolic steroids and production of metabolite standards. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of anabolic steroids in hair: time courses in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Min; Xiang, Ping; Yan, Hui; Shen, Baohua; Wang, Mengye

    2009-09-01

    Sensitive, specific, and reproducible methods for the quantitative determination of eight anabolic steroids in guinea pig hair have been developed using LC/MS/MS and GC/MS/MS. Methyltestosterone, stanozolol, methandienone, nandrolone, trenbolone, boldenone, methenolone and DHEA were administered intraperitoneally in guinea pigs. After the first injection, black hair segments were collected on shaved areas of skin. The analysis of these segments revealed the distribution of anabolic steroids in the guinea pig hair. The major components in hair are the parent anabolic steroids. The time courses of the concentrations of the steroids in hair (except methenolone, which does not deposit in hair) demonstrated that the peak concentrations were reached on days 2-4, except stanozolol, which peaked on day 10 after administration. The concentrations in hair appeared to be related to the physicochemical properties of the drug compound and to the dosage. These studies on the distribution of drugs in the hair shaft and on the time course of their concentration changes provide information relevant to the optimal time and method of collecting hair samples. Such studies also provide basic data that will be useful in the application of hair analysis in the control of doping and in the interpretation of results.

  6. Bilateral simultaneous traumatic upper arm compartment syndromes associated with anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturan, Gurhan; Davies, Nev; Williams, Huw; Deo, Sunny

    2013-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome, a surgical emergency, is defined as increased pressure in an osseofascial space. The resulting reduction of capillary perfusion to that compartment requires prompt fasciotomy. Treatment delay has a poor prognosis, and is associated with muscle and nerve ischemia, resultant infarction, and late-onset contractures. We report a case of traumatic bilateral upper limb acute compartment syndrome associated with anabolic steroids, requiring bilateral emergency fasciotomies. A 25-year-old male bodybuilder taking anabolic steroids, with no past medical history, presented to the Emergency Department 25 min after a road traffic accident. Secondary survey confirmed injuries to both upper limbs with no distal neurovascular deficit. Plain radiographs demonstrated bilateral metaphyseal fractures of the distal humeri. Within 2 h of the accident, the patient developed clinical features that were consistent with bilateral upper arm compartment syndrome. Bilateral fasciotomies of both anterior and posterior compartments were performed, confirming clinical suspicion. We suggest consideration of a history of anabolic steroid use when evaluating patients with extremity trauma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Integration of ligand and structure-based virtual screening for identification of leading anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ginarte, Yoanna María; Montero-Cabrera, Luis Alberto; García-de la Vega, José Manuel; Bencomo-Martínez, Alberto; Pupo, Amaury; Agramonte-Delgado, Alina; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Ruiz-García, José Alberto; Mikosch, Hans

    2013-11-01

    Parallel ligand- and structure-based virtual screenings of 269 steroids with anabolic activity evaluated in vivo were performed. The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model expressed by selected descriptors as the octanol-water partition coefficient, the molar volume and the quantum mechanical calculated charge values on atoms C1, C2, C5, C9, C10, C14 and C17 of the steroid skeleton, expresses structural features of anabolic steroids (AS) contributing to the transport and steroid-receptor interaction. On the other hand, computational simulations of a candidate ligand binding to a receptor study (a "docking" procedure) predict the association of these AS with the human androgen receptor (AR). Fourteen compounds were identified as lead; the most potent was the 7α-methylestr-4-en-3, 17-dione. It was concluded that a good anabolic activity requires hydrogen bonding interactions between both Arg752 and Gln711 residues in the cycles A with O3 atom of the steroid and either Asn705 and Thr877 residues in the cycles D of steroid with O17 atom. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In vivo MRI evaluation of anabolic steroid precursor growth effects in a guinea pig model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haiying; Vasselli, Joseph R.; Tong, Christopher; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Wu, Ed X.

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic steroids are widely used to increase skeletal muscle (SM) mass and improve physical performance. Some dietary supplements also include potent steroid precursors or active steroid analogs such as nandrolone. Our previous study reported the anabolic steroid effects on SM in a castrated guinea pig model with SM measured using a highly quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol. The aim of the current study was to apply this animal model and in vivo MRI protocol to evaluate the growth effects of four widely used over-the-counter testosterone and nandrolone precursors: 4-androstene-3 17-dione (androstenedione), 4-androstene-3β 17β-diol (4-androsdiol), 19-nor-4-androstene-3β-17β-diol (bolandiol) and 19-nor-4-androstene-3 17-dione (19-norandrostenedione). The results showed that providing precursor to castrated male guinea pigs led to plasma steroid levels sufficient to maintain normal SM growth. The anabolic growth effects of these specific precursors on individual and total muscle volumes, sexual organs, and total adipose tissue over a 10-week treatment period, in comparison with those in the respective positive control testosterone and nandrolone groups, were documented quantitatively by MRI. PMID:19463691

  9. Metabolism and catabolism in hip fracture patients: nutritional and anabolic intervention--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedström, Margareta; Ljungqvist, Olle; Cederholm, Tommy

    2006-10-01

    Patients suffering from hip fracture are known to be at risk of catabolism and protein-energy malnutrition. In this review we discuss the pathogenesis of hip fracture-related catabolism per- and postoperatively. We also describe the consequences of malnutrition after a hip fracture and summarize studies that have evaluated the effect of nutritional or anabolic treatment of these patients. There has been relatively little published on the effects of nutritional and anabolic pharmacological interventions for improvement of nutritional status and on the role of nutritional status in clinical outcomes. Even so, there have been 19 randomized studies in this field. 12 studies evaluated nutritional supplementation or protein supplementation. 6 found improved clinical outcome with fewer complications, faster recovery and shorter length of hospital stay, whereas the others reported no difference in clinical outcome. For pharmacological interventions, the outcomes have been even less clear. Supplementation studies in general appear to be underpowered or suffer logistic problems. Studies of higher scientific quality are needed, and enteral feeding, anabolic treatment and multimodal approaches need to be evaluated in greater depth.

  10. Dkk1 haploinsufficiency requires expression of Bmp2 for bone anabolic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intini, Giuseppe; Nyman, Jeffry S.

    2015-01-01

    Bone fractures remain a serious health burden and prevention and enhanced healing of fractures has been obtained by augmenting either BMP or Wnt signaling. However, whether BMP and Wnt signaling are both required or are self-sufficient for anabolic and fracture healing activities has never been fully elucidated. Mice haploinsufficient for Dkk1 (Dkk1+/−) exhibit a high bone mass phenotype due to an up-regulation of canonical Wnt signaling while mice lacking Bmp2 expression in the limbs (Bmp2c/c;Prx1::cre) succumb to spontaneous fracture and are unable to initiate fracture healing; combined, these mice offer an opportunity to examine the requirement for activated BMP signaling on the anabolic and fracture healing activity of Wnts. When Dkk1+/− mice were crossed with Bmp2c/c;Prx1::cre mice, the offspring bearing both genetic alterations were unable to increase bone mass and heal fractures, indicating that increased canonical Wnt signaling is unable to exploit its activity in absence of Bmp2. Thus, our data suggest that BMP signaling is required for Wnt-mediated anabolic activity and that therapies aimed at preventing fractures and fostering fracture repair may need to target both pathways for maximal efficacy. PMID:25603465

  11. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids - doi:10.5020/18061230.2007.p267

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urival Magno Gomes Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are evidences of the increase in the consumption of anabolic steroids and the damages to health caused by their indiscriminate use, mainly among children and youngsters. The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS consist in testosterone and its derivatives. They are produced endogenously in the testicles and adrenal cortex and are responsible for the secondary sexual characteristics associated to masculinity. Although the results of the exogenous use of AAS are still controversial, they have been used for the increase of physical strength and muscle mass. These substances are directly related to different clinical conditions such as: bladder cancer, coronary disease, gynecomastia, hepatic disorders and cancer, and sterility. This study aimed at approaching relevant topics related to the drugs action mechanisms, ways of use and metabolism, and side effects, besides the importance of the prevention in the use of those drugs in most diverse age groups. The abusive use of anabolic-androgenic steroids consists in a problem that has gradually occurred, which has given rise to laws, rules and support groups turned to the prevention, education and restriction of their use.

  12. Hypoxia Potentiates Anabolic Effects of Exogenous Hyaluronic Acid in Rat Articular Cartilage

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    Shohei Ichimaru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronic acid (HA is used clinically to treat osteoarthritis (OA, but its pharmacological effects under hypoxic conditions remain unclear. Articular chondrocytes in patients with OA are exposed to a hypoxic environment. This study investigated whether hypoxia could potentiate the anabolic effects of exogenous HA in rat articular cartilage and whether these mechanisms involved HA receptors. HA under hypoxic conditions significantly enhanced the expression of extracellular matrix genes and proteins in explant culture, as shown by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, Western blotting, and dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB assays. Staining with Safranin-O and immunohistochemical staining with antibody to type II collagen were also enhanced in pellet culture. The expression of CD44 was increased by hypoxia and significantly suppressed by transfection with siRNAs targeting hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (siHIF-1α. These findings indicate that hypoxia potentiates the anabolic effects of exogenous HA by a mechanism in which HIF-1α positively regulates the expression of CD44, enhancing the binding affinity for exogenous HA. The anabolic effects of exogenous HA may increase as OA progresses.

  13. Hypoxia Potentiates Anabolic Effects of Exogenous Hyaluronic Acid in Rat Articular Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimaru, Shohei; Nakagawa, Shuji; Arai, Yuji; Kishida, Tsunao; Shin-Ya, Masaharu; Honjo, Kuniaki; Tsuchida, Shinji; Inoue, Hiroaki; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Shimomura, Seiji; Mazda, Osam; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-06-25

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is used clinically to treat osteoarthritis (OA), but its pharmacological effects under hypoxic conditions remain unclear. Articular chondrocytes in patients with OA are exposed to a hypoxic environment. This study investigated whether hypoxia could potentiate the anabolic effects of exogenous HA in rat articular cartilage and whether these mechanisms involved HA receptors. HA under hypoxic conditions significantly enhanced the expression of extracellular matrix genes and proteins in explant culture, as shown by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assays. Staining with Safranin-O and immunohistochemical staining with antibody to type II collagen were also enhanced in pellet culture. The expression of CD44 was increased by hypoxia and significantly suppressed by transfection with siRNAs targeting hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (siHIF-1α). These findings indicate that hypoxia potentiates the anabolic effects of exogenous HA by a mechanism in which HIF-1α positively regulates the expression of CD44, enhancing the binding affinity for exogenous HA. The anabolic effects of exogenous HA may increase as OA progresses.

  14. Prolonged Hypogonadism in Males Following Withdrawal from Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids: an Underrecognized Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I.; DeLuca, James; Isaacs, Stephanie; Baggish, Aaron; Weiner, Rory; Bhasin, Shalender; Pope, Harrison G.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To assess the frequency and severity of hypogonadal symptoms in male long-term anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) misusers who have discontinued AAS use. Design Cross-sectional, naturalistic. Setting Outpatient facility. Participants Twenty-four male former long-term AAS users and 36 non-AAS-using weightlifters, recruited by advertisement in Massachusetts, USA. Five of the former users were currently receiving treatment with physiologic testosterone replacement, leaving 19 untreated users for the numerical comparisons below. Measurements The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, questions regarding history of AAS use, physical examination, serum hormone determinations, and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Findings Compared with the 36 non-AAS-using weightlifters, the 19 untreated former AAS users displayed significantly smaller testicular volumes (estimated difference [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 2.3 [0.1, 4.5] ml; p = 0.042) and lower serum testosterone levels (estimated difference: 131 [25, 227] dL; p = 0.009), with five users showing testosterone levels below 200 ng/dL despite abstinence from AAS for 3–26 months. Untreated former users also displayed significantly lower scores on the IIEF Sexual Desire subscale (estimated difference: 2.4 [1.3, 3.5] points on a 10-point scale; p treatment. Conclusions Among long-term anabolic-androgenic steroid misusers, anabolic-androgenic steroid-withdrawal hypogonadism appears to be common, frequently prolonged, and associated with substantial morbidity. PMID:25598171

  15. Anabolic steroids, acute myocardial infarction and polycythemia: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Stergiopoulos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Kathleen Stergiopoulos1, Joseph J Brennan2, Robin Mathews1, John F Setaro2, Smadar Kort11Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY, USA; 2Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USAAbstract: The association between testosterone-replacement therapy and cardiovascular risk remains unclear with most reports suggesting a neutral or possibly beneficial effect of the hormone in men and women. However, several cardiovascular complications including hypertension, cardiomyopathy, stroke, pulmonary embolism, fatal and nonfatal arrhythmias, and myocardial infarction have been reported with supraphysiologic doses of anabolic steroids. We report a case of an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in a patient with traditional cardiac risk factors using supraphysiologic doses of supplemental, intramuscular testosterone. In addition, this patient also had polycythemia, likely secondary to high-dose testosterone. The patient underwent successful percutaneous intervention of the right coronary artery. Phlebotomy was used to treat the polycythemia acutely. We suggest that the chronic and recent “stacked” use of intramuscular testosterone as well as the resultant polycythemia and likely increased plasma viscosity may have been contributing factors to this cardiovascular event, in addition to traditional coronary risk factors. Physicians and patients should be aware of the clinical consequences of anabolic steroid abuse.Keywords: acute myocardial infarction, anabolic steroid use, polycythemia

  16. [Ingestion of anabolic steroids and ischaemic stroke. A clinical case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Esperón, Carlos; Hervás-García, José Vicente; Jiménez-González, Marta; Pérez de la Ossa-Herrero, Natalia; Gomis-Cortina, Meritxell; Dorado-Bouix, Laura; López-Cancio Martinez, Elena; Castaño-Duque, Carlos H; Millán-Torné, Mónica; Dávalos, Antonio

    2013-03-16

    INTRODUCTION. Anabolic-androgenic steroids are synthetic substances derived from testosterone that are employed for their trophic effect on muscle tissue, among other uses. Their consumption can give trigger a series of adverse side effects on the body, including the suppression of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis as well as liver, psychiatric and cardiovascular disorders. The most common effects are altered fat profiles and blood pressure values, cardiac remodelling, arrhythmias or myocardial infarcts. CASE REPORT. We report the case of a young male, with a background of anabolic-androgenic steroids abuse, who visited because of an acute neurological focus in the right hemisphere related with an ischaemic stroke. The aetiological study, including cardiac monitoring, echocardiograph and imaging studies (magnetic resonance and arteriography) and lab findings (thrombophilia, serology, autoimmunity, tumour markers) showed no alterations. CONCLUSIONS. The association between consumption of anabolic-androgenic steroids and cardiovascular pathologies is known, but its relation with cerebrovascular disease has not received so much attention from researchers.

  17. Lactate dehydrogenase regulation in aged skeletal muscle: Regulation by anabolic steroids and functional overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Tyrone A; Healey, Julie M; Thompson, Raymond W; Lowe, Larry L; Carson, James A

    2014-09-01

    Aging alters the skeletal muscle response to overload-induced growth. The onset of functional overload is characterized by increased myoblast proliferation and an altered muscle metabolic profile. The onset of functional overload is associated with increased energy demands that are met through the interconversion of lactate and pyruvate via the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Testosterone targets many of the processes activated at the onset of functional overload. However, the effect of aging on this metabolic plasticity at the onset of functional overload and how anabolic steroid administration modulates this response is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine if aging would alter overload-induced LDH activity and expression at the onset of functional overload and whether anabolic steroid administration would modulate this response. Five-month and 25-month male Fischer 344xF1 BRN were given nandrolone decanoate (ND) or sham injections for 14days and then the plantaris was functionally overloaded (OV) for 3days by synergist ablation. Aging reduced muscle LDH-A & LDH-B activity 70% (pyoung muscle. Our study provides evidence that aging alters aspects of skeletal muscle metabolic plasticity normally induced by overload and anabolic steroid administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute unilateral sensorineural hearing loss associated with anabolic steroids and polycythaemia: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikka, T; Mistry, N; Janjua, A

    2016-03-01

    Unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss due to an infarct in the vertebrobasilar system has been widely reported. Most patients have a background of traditional coronary risk factors related to these cerebrovascular episodes. A 32-year-old male, a regular user of anabolic steroids, presented to the emergency department with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss and symptoms suggestive of an infarct of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery but in the absence of risk factors for ischaemic stroke. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of infarction in the region supplied by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery. Polycythaemia was found on haematological analysis, which we believe was secondary to the use of anabolic steroids. The patient was commenced on aspirin as per the stroke management protocol. There was resolution of neurological symptomatology six weeks after the episode, but no improvement in hearing. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of unilateral sensorineural hearing loss secondary to the use of anabolic steroids causing polycythaemia. This cause should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with sensorineural hearing loss, especially in young males, when no other risk factors can be identified.

  19. Effect of anabolics on bovine granulosa-luteal cell primary cultures.

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    Bartolomeo Biolatti

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Granulosa cell tumours are observed with increased frequency among calves slaughtered in Northern Italy. The use of illegal anabolics in breeding was taken into account as a cause of this pathology. An in vitro approach was used to detect the possible alterations of cell proliferation induced by anabolics on primary cultures of bovine granulosa-luteal cells. Cultures were treated with different concentrations of substances illegally used in cattle (17beta-estradiol, clenbuterol and boldione. Cytotoxicity was determined by means of MTT test, to exclude toxic effects induced by anabolics and to determine the highest concentration to be tested. Morphological changes were evaluated by means of routine cytology, while PCNA expression was quantified in order to estimate cell proliferation. Cytotoxic effects were revealed at the highest concentrations. The only stimulating effect on cell proliferation was detected in boldione treated cultures: after 48 h treated cells, compared to controls, showed a doubled expression of PCNA. In clenbuterol and 17beta-estradiol treated cells PCNA expression was similar to controls or even decreased. As the data suggest an alteration in cell proliferation, boldione could have a role in the early stage of pathogenesis of granulosa cell tumour in cattle.

  20. PYOMYOSITIS IN ATHLETES AFTER THE USE OF ANABOLIC STEROIDS - CASE REPORTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Nivaldo Souza Cardozo; Gaspar, Eric Figueirido; Siqueira, Karina Levy; Monteiro, Gustavo Cará; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Ejnisman, Benno; Cohen, Moisés

    2011-01-01

    To report on the management of five cases of pyomyositis in athletes after the use of anabolic steroids. Over the past 10 years, five cases of athletes who developed pyomyositis after using anabolic steroids were attended at the Sports Trauma Center (CETE), EPM-UNIFESP. All the patients were diagnosed clinically and through laboratory and imaging tests. Surgical treatment was carried out (with collection of material for culturing) and antibiotic therapy was administered. In four cases, the injection sites were in the upper limbs and in one case, in the gluteus muscles bilaterally as well as in the upper limbs. In all five cases, occurrences of leukocytosis and neutrophilia were observed in the hemogram. After debridement, the germs of normal skin (S. aureus and S. viridans) were found in cultures on the secretions. Demarcation of the abscess and examination of the muscle plane in which the abscess was located were performed using ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. All the patients responded to broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. Two cases required more than one surgical procedure because of the appearance of more than one abscess site with different evolution times. The use of anabolic steroids by some athletes may have grave consequences. Rapid, energetic and multidisciplinary intervention is necessary in such cases in order to avoid undesirable results. The right treatment healed the athletes completely, and they returned to their sports at the same level.

  1. Effects of Zinc Magnesium Aspartate (ZMA Supplementation on Training Adaptations and Markers of Anabolism and Catabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almada Anthony

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examined whether supplementing the diet with a commercial supplement containing zinc magnesium aspartate (ZMA during training affects zinc and magnesium status, anabolic and catabolic hormone profiles, and/or training adaptations. Forty-two resistance trained males (27 ± 9 yrs; 178 ± 8 cm, 85 ± 15 kg, 18.6 ± 6% body fat were matched according to fat free mass and randomly assigned to ingest in a double blind manner either a dextrose placebo (P or ZMA 30–60 minutes prior to going to sleep during 8-weeks of standardized resistance-training. Subjects completed testing sessions at 0, 4, and 8 weeks that included body composition assessment as determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, 1-RM and muscular endurance tests on the bench and leg press, a Wingate anaerobic power test, and blood analysis to assess anabolic/catabolic status as well as markers of health. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results indicated that ZMA supplementation non-significantly increased serum zinc levels by 11 – 17% (p = 0.12. However, no significant differences were observed between groups in anabolic or catabolic hormone status, body composition, 1-RM bench press and leg press, upper or lower body muscular endurance, or cycling anaerobic capacity. Results indicate that ZMA supplementation during training does not appear to enhance training adaptations in resistance trained populations.

  2. In vivo MRI evaluation of anabolic steroid precursor growth effects in a guinea pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haiying; Vasselli, Joseph R; Tong, Christopher; Heymsfield, Steven B; Wu, Ed X

    2009-08-01

    Anabolic steroids are widely used to increase skeletal muscle (SM) mass and improve physical performance. Some dietary supplements also include potent steroid precursors or active steroid analogs such as nandrolone. Our previous study reported the anabolic steroid effects on SM in a castrated guinea pig model with SM measured using a highly quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol. The aim of the current study was to apply this animal model and in vivo MRI protocol to evaluate the growth effects of four widely used over-the-counter testosterone and nandrolone precursors: 4-androstene-3 17-dione (androstenedione), 4-androstene-3beta 17beta-diol (4-androsdiol), 19-nor-4-androstene-3beta-17beta-diol (bolandiol) and 19-nor-4-androstene-3 17-dione (19-norandrostenedione). The results showed that providing precursor to castrated male guinea pigs led to plasma steroid levels sufficient to maintain normal SM growth. The anabolic growth effects of these specific precursors on individual and total muscle volumes, sexual organs, and total adipose tissue over a 10-week treatment period, in comparison with those in the respective positive control testosterone and nandrolone groups, were documented quantitatively by MRI.

  3. Black bear parathyroid hormone has greater anabolic effects on trabecular bone in dystrophin-deficient mice than in wild type mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sarah K; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Sanders, Jennifer L; Condon, Keith W; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Donahue, Seth W

    2012-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked neuromuscular disease that has deleterious consequences in muscle and bone, leading to decreased mobility, progressive osteoporosis, and premature death. Patients with DMD experience a higher-than-average fracture rate, particularly in the proximal and distal femur and proximal tibia. The dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse is a model of DMD that demonstrates muscle degeneration and fibrosis and osteoporosis. Parathyroid hormone, an effective anabolic agent for post-menopausal and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, has not been explored for DMD. Black bear parathyroid hormone (bbPTH) has been implicated in the maintenance of bone properties during extended periods of disuse (hibernation). We cloned bbPTH and found 9 amino acid residue differences from human PTH. Apoptosis was mitigated and cAMP was activated by bbPTH in osteoblast cultures. We administered 28nmol/kg of bbPTH 1-84 to 4-week old male mdx and wild type mice via daily (5×/week) subcutaneous injection for 6 weeks. Vehicle-treated mdx mice had 44% lower trabecular bone volume fraction than wild type mice. No changes were found in femoral cortical bone geometry or mechanical properties with bbPTH treatment in wild type mice, and only medio-lateral moment of inertia changed with bbPTH treatment in mdx femurs. However, μCT analyses of the trabecular regions of the distal femur and proximal tibia showed marked increases in bone volume fraction with bbPTH treatment, with a greater anabolic response (7-fold increase) in mdx mice than wild type mice (2-fold increase). Trabecular number increased in mdx long bone, but not wild type bone. Additionally, greater osteoblast area and decreased osteoclast area were observed with bbPTH treatment in mdx mice. The heightened response to PTH in mdx bone compared to wild type suggests a link between dystrophin deficiency, altered calcium signaling, and bone. These findings support further investigation of PTH as an anabolic

  4. Hidden Danger of Irrational Abusing Illegal Androgenic-anabolic Steroids in Recreational Athletes Age Under 35 in Bosnia & Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solakovic, Sid; Totic, Dragan; Vukas, Haris; Djedovic, Muhamed

    2015-06-01

    Androgenic-anabolic steroids are rarely used by sportsmen who want to improve physical performance in competition sport. Despite that they are well aware of the side effects of anabolic steroids, many young athletes in Bosnia and Herzegovina without competition motivation come in temptation, trying to achieve better muscle proportion and physical performance unknowing consequence of side effects and what is hiding behind. Risk factors such as increasing of lipid levels and arterial hypertension are major factors which have important role in the Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and are responsible for occurrence of cardiovascular disease even causing a sudden death in young athletes. The aim of the study was to estimate the frequency of misusing of androgenic anabolic steroid drugs in young recreational sportsmen without competition motivation. This study will try to estimate vascular and lipid status, analyzing the side effects of steroids in young recreational athletes under the age of 35, in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The study included 70 individuals in period of 2010 till 2015 on recreational exercising program; 35 individuals misusing androgenic anabolic steroids during the period of 5 years were compared with 35 individuals which do not use androgenic anabolic steroids. Non-invasive methods were used in all individual (clinical examination and vascular ultrasound examination of vein system). The routine of training units in both groups was approximately two hours 4-6 times per week. Final analysis has reveal that in androgenic anabolic steroids group in 18 individuals or 55.7% arterial hypertension with hyperlipidemia was more represented, compared with the group without using anabolic steroids, represented by 2 individuals or 5.7% and it was statistically considered significant by using p value less than 0.05. (panabolic steroids drugs are males (100%) or 35 individuals; we did not find females using anabolic steroids and that is why our research was limited to

  5. Environments, risk and health harms: a qualitative investigation into the illicit use of anabolic steroids among people using harm reduction services in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Kimergård, Andreas; McVeigh, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The illicit use of anabolic steroids among the gym population continues to rise, along with the number of steroid using clients attending harm reduction services in the UK. This presents serious challenges to public health. Study objectives were to account for the experiences of anabolic steroid users and investigate how ‘risk environments’ produce harm. Methods Qualitative face-to-face interviews with 24 users of anabolic steroids engaged with harm reduction services in the UK. Re...

  6. Z-505 hydrochloride, an orally active ghrelin agonist, attenuates the progression of cancer cachexia via anabolic hormones in Colon 26 tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Makoto; Shiomi, Yoshihiro; Ohira, Yuta; Takei, Mineo; Tanaka, Takao

    2017-09-15

    Cancer cachexia is a progressive wasting syndrome characterized by anorexia and weight loss, specifically muscle wasting and fat depletion. There is no therapeutic agent for treatment of this syndrome. We investigated the anti-cachexia effects of Z-505 hydrochloride (Z-505), a new oral growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a) agonist, using a mouse model of cancer cachexia. We performed a calcium flux assay in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells stably expressing human GHSR1a to quantify the agonistic activity of Z-505. In Colon 26 tumor-bearing mice, Z-505 (300mg/kg, p.o., twice daily) was administered for 7 days to assess its anti-cachexia effects. Body weight and food intake were monitored during the period, and the skeletal muscle and epididymal fat weights were measured. Serum levels of insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and corticosterone were measured to confirm the mechanism of the anti-cachexia action of Z-505. Z-505 showed strong agonistic activity similar to that of human ghrelin, with a half maximal effective concentration (EC 50 ) value of 0.45nM. Z-505 treatment significantly increased food intake and inhibited the progression of weight loss. Z-505 also significantly attenuated muscle wasting and fat loss, and increased circulating levels of anabolic factors such as insulin and IGF-1, but not catabolic factors such as IL-6 and corticosterone. These findings suggest that Z-505 might be effective in the treatment of cachexia via the increased anabolic hormone levels stimulated by the activation of the ghrelin receptor, GHSR1a. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Alkylating agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourquier, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    With the approval of mechlorethamine by the FDA in 1949 for the treatment of hematologic malignancies, alkylating agents are the oldest class of anticancer agents. Even though their clinical use is far beyond the use of new targeted therapies, they still occupy a major place in specific indications and sometimes represent the unique option for the treatment of refractory diseases. Here, we are reviewing the major classes of alkylating agents and their mechanism of action, with a particular emphasis for the new generations of alkylating agents. As for most of the chemotherapeutic agents used in the clinic, these compounds are derived from natural sources. With a complex but original mechanism of action, they represent new interesting alternatives for the clinicians, especially for tumors that are resistant to conventional DNA damaging agents. We also briefly describe the different strategies that have been or are currently developed to potentiate the use of classical alkylating agents, especially the inhibition of pathways that are involved in the repair of DNA lesions induced by these agents. In this line, the development of PARP inhibitors is a striking example of the recent regain of interest towards the "old" alkylating agents.

  8. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an anabolic steroid like dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the most potent natural androgen, and tetrahydrogestrinone (THG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrie, Fernand; Luu-The, Van; Martel, Céline; Chernomoretz, Ariel; Calvo, Ezequiel; Morissette, Jean; Labrie, Claude

    2006-07-01

    We have recently taken advantage of the unique power of DNA microarrays to compare the genomic expression profile of tetrahydrogestrinone (THG) with that of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the most potent natural androgen, thus clearly demonstrating that THG is an anabolic steroid. In 2004, the U.S. Controlled Substances Act has been modified to include androstenedione (4-dione) as an anabolic steroid. However, despite the common knowledge that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is the precursor of testosterone, DHEA has been excluded from the list of anabolic steroids. We thus used the same DNA microarray technology to analyze the expression profile of practically all the 30,000 genes of the mouse genome modulated by DHEA and DHT in classical androgen-sensitive tissues. Daily subcutaneous injections of DHT (0.1mg) or DHEA (3mg) for 1 month in gonadectomized C57BL6/129 SV mice increased ventral prostate, dorsal prostate, seminal vesicle and preputial gland weight (p or =30%), in the prostate (ventral+dorsal), seminal vesicles and preputial glands, respectively, compared to tissues from gonadectomized control animals. After 7 days of daily treatment with DHEA and DHT, 629, 919 and 562 probe sets were commonly modulated in the same tissues while after 27 days of treatment, 1195, 5127 and 2883 probe sets were modulated, respectively. In analogy with the data obtained with THG, the present microarray data provide an extremely precise and unquestionable genomic signature and proof of the androgenic/anabolic activity of DHEA. Such data add to the literature showing that DHEA is transformed into androgens in the human peripheral tissues as well as in laboratory animal species, including the monkey, thus exerting potent androgenic/anabolic activity. The present microarray approach to identify anabolic compounds is applicable to all potential androgenic/anabolic compounds.

  9. Seleno methionine-75 as a scanning agent for neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covington, E.E.; D'Angio, G.J.; Helson, L.; Romano, R.W.

    1974-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a functioning tumor and patients with this tumor are known to excrete vanilmandelic acid and other degradation products of norepinephrine. It also accumulates and produces excess cystathionine for which methionine is a precursor in the normal anabolic pathway. This was the rationale for testing 75 Se-methionine as a possible scanning agent in patients with neuroblastoma. D'Angio et al reported the results of a preliminary investigation in which 3 of 4 patients with neuroblastoma, all with known metastases of the skull, had positive scans correctly localizing the disease. These preliminary data seemed encouraging, and further investigation was undertaken. The results are reported

  10. Direct analysis of anabolic steroids in urine using Leidenfrost phenomenon assisted thermal desorption-dielectric barrier discharge ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Subhrakanti; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Nonami, Hiroshi; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2014-08-11

    Rapid detection of trace level anabolic steroids in urine is highly desirable to monitor the consumption of performance enhancing anabolic steroids by athletes. The present article describes a novel strategy for identifying the trace anabolic steroids in urine using Leidenfrost phenomenon assisted thermal desorption (LPTD) coupled to dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) ionization mass spectrometry. Using this method the steroid molecules are enriched within a liquid droplet during the thermal desorption process and desorbed all-together at the last moment of droplet evaporation in a short time domain. The desorbed molecules were ionized using a dielectric barrier discharge ion-source in front of the mass spectrometer inlet at open atmosphere. This process facilitates the sensitivity enhancement with several orders of magnitude compared to the thermal desorption at a lower temperature. The limits of detection (LODs) of various steroid molecules were found to be in the range of 0.05-0.1 ng mL(-1) for standard solutions and around two orders of magnitude higher for synthetic urine samples. The detection limits of urinary anabolic steroids could be lowered by using a simple and rapid dichloromethane extraction technique. The analytical figures of merit of this technique were evaluated at open atmosphere using suitable internal standards. The technique is simple and rapid for high sensitivity and high throughput screening of anabolic steroids in urine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Targeting Anabolic Impairment in Response to Resistance Exercise in Older Adults with Mobility Impairments: Potential Mechanisms and Rehabilitation Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah J. Drummond

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle atrophy is associated with healthy aging (i.e., sarcopenia and may be compounded by comorbidities, injury, surgery, illness, and physical inactivity. While a bout of resistance exercise increases protein synthesis rates in healthy young skeletal muscle, the effectiveness of resistance exercise to mount a protein synthetic response is less pronounced in older adults. Improving anabolic sensitivity to resistance exercise, thereby enhancing physical function, is most critical in needy older adults with clinical conditions that render them “low responders”. In this paper, we discuss potential mechanisms contributing to anabolic impairment to resistance exercise and highlight the need to improve anabolic responsiveness in low responders. This is followed with evidence suggesting that the recovery period of resistance exercise provides an opportunity to amplify the exercise-induced anabolic response using protein/essential amino acid ingestion. This anabolic strategy, if repeated chronically, may improve lean muscle gains, decrease time to recovery of function during periods of rehabilitation, and overall, maintain/improve physical independence and reduce mortality rates in older adults.

  12. Insulin-like growth factor-I, physical activity, and control of cellular anabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindl, Bradley C

    2010-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms responsible for mediating the beneficial outcomes of exercise undoubtedly are many, but the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) system is emerging as an important and central hormonal axis that plays a significant role concerning cellular anabolism. This introductory article summarizes the intent and the content for papers presented as part of a 2008 American College of Sports Medicine national symposium entitled "Insulin-like Growth Factor-I, Physical Activity, and Control of Cellular Anabolism." The individual authors and their papers are as follows: Jan Frystyk authoring "The relationship between exercise and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I axis," Greg Adams authoring "IGF-I signaling in skeletal muscle and the potential for cytokine interactions," and Brad Nindl authoring "Insulin-like growth factor-I as a biomarker of health, fitness, and training status." These papers focus on 1) different assay methodologies for IGF-I within the paradigm of exercise studies, 2) research demonstrating that intracellular signaling components associated with several proinflammatory cytokines have the potential to interact with anabolic signaling processes in skeletal muscle, and 3) an overview of IGF-I as a biomarker related to exercise training, muscle and bone remodeling, body composition, cognition, and cancer. When summed in total, the contribution that these papers will make will undoubtedly involve bringing attention to the vast regulatory complexity of the IGF-I system and will hopefully convince the reader that the IGF-I system warrants further detailed scientific inquiry to resolve many unanswered questions and paradoxical experimental findings. The IGF-I system remains one of the most intriguing and captivating marvels of human physiology that seems central in mediating numerous adaptations from physical activity.

  13. Anabolic effect of Hibiscus rosasinensis Linn. leaf extracts in immature albino male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olagbende-Dada, S O; Ezeobika, E N; Duru, F I

    2007-01-01

    Many plants remedies have been employed in solving man's health needs especially the nutritive value which enhances health living. Aphrodisiac plants are plants with anabolic properties i.e. they help in protein synthesis and enhances sexual abilities in males. They are also known as androgenic plants because their properties are similar to that of androgen a male hormone. Cold aqueous extract of Hibiscus rosasinensis leaves is reported by local traditional practioners in Western Nigeria to be aphrodisiac. To investigate the anabolic properties of Hibiscus rosasinensis. Three groups (8/group) of immature male rats of known weights were administered equal doses of aqueous (cold and hot) and alcoholic extracts of Hibiscus rosasinensis leaves for 8 weeks. The gain in body and isolated sexual organs (testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate) weights were determined after treatment and compared to the value obtained from a fourth untreated group which served as the control. Section through the testes of both the treated and untreated rats were also examined microscopically and displayed as a photomicrograph for comparism. All data were statistically analysed and displaced in graphic form. Over the 8 weeks of treatment, the control, the cold aqueous extract dosed, hot aqueous extract dosed and alcoholic extract dosed rats gained 8%, 15%, 18% and 22% in body weights respectively. The increase in the weight of testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate of the alcoholic extract dosed rats was 19%, 30%, 31% and 40% respectively. The anabolic effect of the leaf extracts of H. rosasinensis is hereby established. More work needs to be done on these leaf extracts to know their effect on the gonadotrophin hormones which regulate the activity of the androgens in relation to spermatogenesis.

  14. Nutrient timing revisited: is there a post-exercise anabolic window?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragon Alan Albert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nutrient timing is a popular nutritional strategy that involves the consumption of combinations of nutrients--primarily protein and carbohydrate--in and around an exercise session. Some have claimed that this approach can produce dramatic improvements in body composition. It has even been postulated that the timing of nutritional consumption may be more important than the absolute daily intake of nutrients. The post-exercise period is widely considered the most critical part of nutrient timing. Theoretically, consuming the proper ratio of nutrients during this time not only initiates the rebuilding of damaged muscle tissue and restoration of energy reserves, but it does so in a supercompensated fashion that enhances both body composition and exercise performance. Several researchers have made reference to an anabolic “window of opportunity” whereby a limited time exists after training to optimize training-related muscular adaptations. However, the importance - and even the existence - of a post-exercise ‘window’ can vary according to a number of factors. Not only is nutrient timing research open to question in terms of applicability, but recent evidence has directly challenged the classical view of the relevance of post-exercise nutritional intake with respect to anabolism. Therefore, the purpose of this paper will be twofold: 1 to review the existing literature on the effects of nutrient timing with respect to post-exercise muscular adaptations, and; 2 to draw relevant conclusions that allow practical, evidence-based nutritional recommendations to be made for maximizing the anabolic response to exercise.

  15. Normal epidermal growth factor receptor signaling is dispensable for bone anabolic effects of parathyroid hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Marlon R; Dahlhoff, Maik; Andrukhova, Olena; Grill, Jessica; Glösmann, Martin; Schüler, Christiane; Weber, Karin; Wolf, Eckhard; Erben, Reinhold G

    2012-01-01

    Although the bone anabolic properties of intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) have long been employed in the treatment of osteoporosis, the molecular mechanisms behind this action remain largely unknown. Previous studies showed that PTH increases the expression and the activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in osteoblasts, and activation of ERK1/2 by PTH in osteoblasts was demonstrated to induce the proteolytical release of EGFR ligands and EGFR transactivation. However, conclusive evidence for an important role of the EGFR system in mediating the anabolic actions of intermittent PTH on bone in vivo is lacking. Here, we evaluated the effects of intermittent PTH on bone in Waved-5 (Wa5) mice which carry an antimorphic Egfr allele whose product acts as a dominant negative receptor. Heterozygous Wa5 females and control littermates received a subcutaneous injection of PTH (80 μg/kg) or buffer on 5 days per week for 4 weeks. Wa5 mice had slightly lower total bone mineral density (BMD), but normal cancellous bone volume and turnover in the distal femoral metaphysis. The presence of the antimorphic Egfr allele neither influenced the PTH-induced increase in serum osteocalcin nor the increases in distal femoral BMD, cortical thickness, cancellous bone volume, and cancellous bone formation rate. Similarly, the PTH-induced rise in lumbar vertebral BMD was unchanged in Wa5 relative to wild-type mice. Wa5-derived osteoblasts showed considerably lower basal extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation as compared to control osteoblasts. Whereas activation of ERK1/2 by the EGFR ligand amphiregulin was largely blocked in Wa5 osteoblasts, treatment with PTH induced ERK1/2 activation comparable to that observed in control osteoblasts, relative to baseline levels. Our data indicate that impairment of EGFR signaling does not affect the anabolic action of intermittent PTH on cancellous and cortical bone. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Chemical Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CR) see Riot Control Agents Digitalis Distilled mustard (HD) see Sulfur mustard E Ethylene glycol F Fentanyls and other opioids H Hydrazine Hydrofluoric acid (hydrogen fluoride) Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen cyanide (AC) Hydrogen ...

  17. Multidetection Of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Using Immunoarrays and Pattern Recognition Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, D.; Salvador, J. P.; Tort, N.; Centi, F.; Marco, M. P.; Marco, S.

    2009-05-01

    A first step towards the multidetection of anabolic androgenic steroids by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) has been performed in this study. This proposal combines an array of classical ELISA assays with different selectivities and multivariate data analysis techniques. Data has been analyzed by principal component analysis in conjunction with a k-nearest line classifier has been used. This proposal allows to detect simultaneously four different compounds in the range of concentration from 10-1.5 to 103 mM with a total rate of 90.6% of correct detection.

  18. Anabolic Androgenic Steroid (AAS) related deaths: autoptic, histopathological and toxicological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, Paola; Busardò, Francesco P; Cipolloni, Luigi; Dominicis, Enrico De; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) represent a large group of synthetic derivatives of testosterone, produced to maximize anabolic effects and minimize the androgenic ones. AAS can be administered orally, parenterally by intramuscular injection and transdermally. Androgens act by binding to the nuclear androgen receptor (AR) in the cytoplasm and then translocate into the nucleus. This binding results in sequential conformational changes of the receptor affecting the interaction between receptor and protein, and receptor and DNA. Skeletal muscle can be considered as the main target tissue for the anabolic effects of AAS, which are mediated by ARs which after exposure to AASs are up-regulated and their number increases with body building. Therefore, AASs determine an increase in muscle size as a consequence of a dose-dependent hypertrophy resulting in an increase of the cross-sectional areas of both type I and type II muscle fibers and myonuclear domains. Moreover, it has been reported that AASs can increase tolerance to exercise by making the muscles more capable to overload therefore shielding them from muscle fiber damage and improving the level of protein synthesis during recovery. Despite some therapeutic use of AASs, there is also wide abuse among athletes especially bodybuilders in order to improve their performances and to increase muscle growth and lean body mass, taking into account the significant anabolic effects of these drugs. The prolonged misuse and abuse of AASs can determine several adverse effects, some of which may be even fatal especially on the cardiovascular system because they may increase the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD), myocardial infarction, altered serum lipoproteins, and cardiac hypertrophy. The aim of this review is to focus on deaths related to AAS abuse, trying to evaluate the autoptic, histopathological and toxicological findings in order to investigate the pathophysiological mechanism that underlines this type of death, which

  19. Anabolic Androgen-induced Intrahepatic Cholestasis Presented With Normal AND#947;-Glutamyl-Transpeptidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savvoula Savvidou

    2014-04-01

    A case report of a young male with remarkable jaundice due to acute anabolic androgen-induced cholestasis is presented. Interestingly, and #947;-glutamyl transpeptidase remained normal throughout the patient's diagnostic workup. Histopathology was indicative of pure, and ldquo;bland and rdquo; intrahepatic cholestasis with minimal inflammation but significant fibrosis. The patient was successfully treated with ursodeoxycholic acid and glucocorticosteroids. The significance of normal and #947;-glutamyl transpeptidase along with the histopathological findings and the possible pathophysiological mechanisms are finally discussed. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(2.000: 98-103

  20. Prohibited anabolic substances, dangerous to human consumers, in accordance of E.U. regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia A. Hanganu,

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Substances with anabolic effects are used to enhance feed conversion, growth rate or muscle tissue deposition in stock farming for several decades. The majority of these compounds have biochemical effects similar to sex steroids (androgens, estrogens, gestagens. However, in the E.U., the use of hormones for growth – promotion or fattening is prohibited. Monitoring of residues of hormonal growth-promotion in meat or milk, is essential for implementing such bans and to protect public health against the harmful effects of these substances, which incidentally is found in products of animal origin.

  1. Amylin(1-8) is devoid of anabolic activity in bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Maria; Thorkildsen, Christian; Vibe-Petersen, Solveig

    2010-01-01

    Amylin(1-8), a cyclic peptide consisting of the eight N-terminal amino acids of the 37-amino acid peptide amylin, has been shown to induce proliferation of primary osteoblasts and to induce bone formation in healthy male mice, whereas no data on efficacy in bone disease-related models have been r......, our results indicate that amylin(1-8) does not show agonist activity on amylin receptors, does not affect osteoblast proliferation, and is devoid of anabolic activity in bone....

  2. Gluteal mass in a bodybuilder: radiological depiction of a complication of anabolic steroid use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ismail, Khalid; Torreggiani, William C; Munk, Peter L; Nicolaou, Savvas [Department of Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital and the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2002-06-01

    The use of anabolic steroids by bodybuilders is relatively common and associated with many side effects. Local side effects include tissue necrosis and soft tissue infection at the injection site. Systemic effects may be early epiphyseal closure in the immature skeleton, testicular atrophy, sterility, acne, gynaecomastia and liver disorders such as hepatitis. We report an unusual case of a bodybuilder who developed a large painful inflammatory soft tissue mass in his gluteal area. Multi-modality imaging showed direct evidence revealing the underlying cause of the mass being depot steroid injections. (orig.)

  3. ["No" for stacked young bodybuilders, "yes" for manthers: the biomedical discourse on anabolic steroids and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Danielle Ribeiro de; Castiel, Luis David; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Pereira da Gama Alves

    2015-06-01

    The article addresses the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), synthetic drugs whose abuse has been characterized as a public health problem, operated in the opposition between "medical" and "non-medical" uses. A qualitative approach was used to analyze the text in 76 biomedical articles published from 2002 to 2012. The discourse shows a persistent ban on non-medically regulated use of AAS by young people, while the limits on clinically qualified use appear to expand among older people, even given the contradictions straining the argument on the prevention of health risks. Moralizing biopolitical stances appear, based on gender distinctions or under the aegis of criminalizing drug use.

  4. A qualitative exploration of the motivations underlying anabolic-androgenic steroid use from adolescence into adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ashley Harris

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background This study explored the direct experience of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS use by young men, with an emphasis on how motivations progressed from adolescent initiation to more entrenched usage. Participants and procedure Nine semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals ranging in experience of AAS use, from novice to experienced users. Results The results indicated that the young adult men progressed through a clear transition whereby their motives for using these substances changed from a mere desire to compete with other men to more internalised body image problems. Conclusions The findings presented suggest a more complex relationship between AAS use and body image pathology than previously suggested.

  5. Gluteal mass in a bodybuilder: radiological depiction of a complication of anabolic steroid use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ismail, Khalid; Torreggiani, William C.; Munk, Peter L.; Nicolaou, Savvas

    2002-01-01

    The use of anabolic steroids by bodybuilders is relatively common and associated with many side effects. Local side effects include tissue necrosis and soft tissue infection at the injection site. Systemic effects may be early epiphyseal closure in the immature skeleton, testicular atrophy, sterility, acne, gynaecomastia and liver disorders such as hepatitis. We report an unusual case of a bodybuilder who developed a large painful inflammatory soft tissue mass in his gluteal area. Multi-modality imaging showed direct evidence revealing the underlying cause of the mass being depot steroid injections. (orig.)

  6. Collapsing glomerulopathy following anabolic steroid use in a 16-year-old boy with IgA nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Matthai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Collapsing glomerulopathy (CG is a proliferative podocytopathy, increasingly recognized in a variety of disease conditions. We report a case of CG in a 16-year-old boy with IgA nephropathy (IgAN who presented with acute kidney injury, marked proteinuria and hypertension following a short period of anabolic steroid use. Although CG has been associated with long-term anabolic steroid use among body builders, there is no data on the effect of anabolic steroid use in persons with underlying renal disease like IgAN. We postulate that development of CG in our patient could be temporally linked to intake of body-building steroids along with a predisposing background renal disease of IgAN.

  7. General and selective isolation procedure for high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of anabolic steroids in tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganà, A; Marino, A

    1991-12-27

    A multi-residue method has been developed for the determination of anabolic steroids in animal tissue. The analytes are extracted from tissue with methanol and the extract is subjected to two solid-phase extractions, one using a non-specific adsorbing material, such as graphitized carbon black (Carbopack B), and the other Amberlite CG-400 I in the OH form. This procedure allowed the neutral anabolics (testosterone, trenbolone and progesterone) to be isolated and separated from the acidic type (phenolic group), such as diethylstilbestrol, oestradiol, zeranol/zearalenone and their respective metabolites. The determination was effected using high-performance liquid chromatography with different detectors (ultraviolet, fluorimetric and electrochemical). Several analytical parameters were studied: chromatographic conditions, recoveries, evaporation step, solvent flow-rate, cartridges reusability, interference of plastic cartridges. For all the anabolics investigated the recoveries were greater than 83.6%.

  8. The Prevalence of Anabolic Steroid Misuse and the Awareness about Its Negative Effects among Bodybuilders in Karaj City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Arazi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Regarding the increase in the misuse of anabolic steroids among young athletes particularly bodybuilding and power lifting athletes, this study aims to specify the degree of misuse prevalence anabolic steroid and the awareness of the side effects of such drugs among Karaj bodybuilders. Materials and Methods: This study is descriptive. All the bodybuilders of Karaj city was the participants of this research. The measurement instrument of this research was a questionnaire that contained 25 questions (7 questions were for background information, 9 questions were for awareness, 4 questions for attitudes about use of such drugs and the left 5 ones were for misuse prevalence that distributed among 320 bodybuilding athletes of different parts of Karaj. The response rate was 63.75% (240 persons from total 320 persons. At last, the current research output analyzed by the SPSS software and descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The analysis showed that 62.7% of athletes that participated in the research used such drugs. Also, the data analysis showed that there was a meaningful relationship between the sport histories of the involved participants with misuse prevalence (p0.05. In addition to this, data analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between misuse prevalence and wrong attitudes about anabolic steroid (p< 0.05. The comparison of the current study results about the misuse of anabolic steroid with a similar research at 1382 showed 140% increase in the misuse of these drugs. Conclusion: This study indicates the high use of anabolic steroids among bodybuilders. According to this, we understand that the bodybuilders in Karaj don’t consult with specialist in this field get wrong information from unprofessional people. This leads the high misuse of such drugs. So, it is recommended to hold the prevention programs and athletes training about the side effects of anabolic steroids.

  9. Screening for Anabolic Steroids in Urine of Forensic Cases Using Fully Automated Solid Phase Extraction and LC–MS-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, David Wederkinck; Linnet, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    and solid phase extraction followed by analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) using electrospray ionization with adduct formation for two compounds. Urine samples from 580 forensic cases were analyzed to determine the T/E ratio and occurrence of exogenous anabolic steroids....... Extraction recoveries ranged from 77 to 95%, matrix effects from 48 to 78%, overall process efficiencies from 40 to 54% and the lower limit of identification ranged from 2 to 40 ng/mL. In the 580 urine samples analyzed from routine forensic cases, 17 (2.9%) were found positive for one or more anabolic...

  10. Preserved skeletal muscle protein anabolic response to acute exercise and protein intake in well-treated rheumatoid arthritis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Dideriksen, Kasper; Andersen, Mads Bisgaard

    2015-01-01

    and anabolic signaling response in patients with RA compared to healthy controls. METHODS: Thirteen RA patients (age range 34-84 years; diagnosed for 1-32 years, median 8 years) were individually matched with 13 healthy controls for gender, age, BMI and activity level (CON). Plasma levels of C-reactive protein...... and in combination with physical exercise in patients with well-treated RA to a similar extent as in healthy individuals. This indicates that moderately inflamed RA patients have maintained their muscle anabolic responsiveness to physical activity and protein intake....

  11. Computational Assessment of Pharmacokinetics and Biological Effects of Some Anabolic and Androgen Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Marin; Roman, Diana Larisa; Ostafe, Vasile; Ciorsac, Alecu; Isvoran, Adriana

    2018-02-05

    The aim of this study is to use computational approaches to predict the ADME-Tox profiles, pharmacokinetics, molecular targets, biological activity spectra and side/toxic effects of 31 anabolic and androgen steroids in humans. The following computational tools are used: (i) FAFDrugs4, SwissADME and admetSARfor obtaining the ADME-Tox profiles and for predicting pharmacokinetics;(ii) SwissTargetPrediction and PASS online for predicting the molecular targets and biological activities; (iii) PASS online, Toxtree, admetSAR and Endocrine Disruptomefor envisaging the specific toxicities; (iv) SwissDock to assess the interactions of investigated steroids with cytochromes involved in drugs metabolism. Investigated steroids usually reveal a high gastrointestinal absorption and a good oral bioavailability, may inhibit someof the human cytochromes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics (CYP2C9 being the most affected) and reflect a good capacity for skin penetration. There are predicted numerous side effects of investigated steroids in humans: genotoxic carcinogenicity, hepatotoxicity, cardiovascular, hematotoxic and genitourinary effects, dermal irritations, endocrine disruption and reproductive dysfunction. These results are important to be known as an occupational exposure to anabolic and androgenic steroids at workplaces may occur and because there also is a deliberate human exposure to steroids for their performance enhancement and anti-aging properties.

  12. Effects of anabolic hormones on structural, metabolic and functional aspects of skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de Oliveira Pires

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n3p350   This study reviewed information regarding the effects of anabolic hormones on strength gain and muscle hypertrophy, emphasizing the physiological mechanisms that may increase muscle strength. Structural, metabolic and functional aspects were analyzed and special attention was paid to the dose-response relationship. The Pubmed database was searched and studies were selected according to relevance and date of publication (last 15 years. The administration of high testosterone doses (~600 mg/week potentiates the effects of strength training, increasing lean body mass, muscle fiber type IIA and IIB cross-sectional area, and the number of myonuclei. There is no evidence of conversion between MHC isoforms. The interaction between testosterone administration and strength training seems to modify some metabolic pathways, increasing protein synthesis, glycogen and ATP-CP muscle stores and improving fat mobilization. Changes in 17-estradiol concentration or in the ACTH-cortisol and insulin-glucagon ratios seem to be associated with these metabolic alterations. Regarding performance, testosterone administration may improve muscle strength by 5-20% depending on the dose used. On the other hand, the effects of growth hormone on the structural and functional aspects of skeletal muscle are not evident, with this hormone more affecting metabolic aspects. However, strictly controlled human studies are necessary to establish the extent of the effects of anabolic hormones on structural, metabolic and functional aspects.

  13. Effects of anabolic hormones on structural, metabolic and functional aspects of skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de Oliveira Pires

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reviewed information regarding the effects of anabolic hormones on strength gain and muscle hypertrophy, emphasizing the physiological mechanisms that may increase muscle strength. Structural, metabolic and functional aspects were analyzed and special attention was paid to the dose-response relationship. The Pubmed database was searched and studies were selected according to relevance and date of publication (last 15 years. The administration of high testosterone doses (~600 mg/week potentiates the effects of strength training, increasing lean body mass, muscle fiber type IIA and IIB cross-sectional area, and the number of myonuclei. There is no evidence of conversion between MHC isoforms. The interaction between testosterone administration and strength training seems to modify some metabolic pathways, increasing protein synthesis, glycogen and ATP-CP muscle stores and improving fat mobilization. Changes in 17-estradiol concentration or in the ACTH-cortisol and insulin-glucagon ratios seem to be associated with these metabolic alterations. Regarding performance, testosterone administration may improve muscle strength by 5-20% depending on the dose used. On the other hand, the effects of growth hormone on the structural and functional aspects of skeletal muscle are not evident, with this hormone more affecting metabolic aspects. However, strictly controlled human studies are necessary to establish the extent of the effects of anabolic hormones on structural, metabolic and functional aspects.

  14. The anabolic effects of insulin on type II collagen synthesis of Swarm rat chondrosarcoma chondrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bembenek, M.E.; Liberti, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The anabolic effects of insulin on collagen production of freshly isolated Swarm rat chondrosarcoma chondrocytes were investigated. The specific radioactivity of newly synthesized collagen was not increased by insulin, indicating that the hormone has no effect on the specific radioactivity of the aminoacyl tRNA pool. Results of further studies obtained from collagen degradation experiments demonstrated that insulin did not alter the rate of [3H]collagen degradation. Together, these results clearly indicate that insulin stimulates collagen biosynthesis. Polyacrylamide gel analysis of the newly synthesized collagen of both control and insulin-stimulated cells revealed a large-molecular-weight component which migrated with authentic alpha 1(II) collagen and was collagenase-sensitive. Additional studies showed that, although insulin increased the processing and secretion of collagen, the hormone did not cause a shift in the distribution of the extracellular and intracellular collagen pools. Finally, results of studies conducted with the transcriptional inhibitor, actinomycin D, indicated that the anabolic effects of insulin on collagen and non-collagen proteins were mediated at a post-transcriptional site

  15. Body water, extracellular water, body potassium, and exchangeable sodium in body builders using anabolic steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Colt, E.D.W.; Pierson, R.N. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Nine competitive male body builders aged 21 to 34 who were determined to take anabolic steroids were studied before and 6 to 10 weeks after a training cycle which included steroid administration. A control group of nine subjects matched in age and duration of competitive career, but using only natural training methods were studied on a single occasion while in training. Total body potassium (TBK) by 40 K, total body water (TBW) by 3 H 2 O dilution, extracellular water (ECW) by 35 SO 4 dilution and zero time extrapolation, and exchangeable sodium by 24 Na dilution were measured before and after training. Intracellular water (ICW) was calculated from TBW - ECW. Initially steroid users had a greater skeletal muscle mass than control subjects, and obtained a further weight gain on steroids, all in skeletal muscle, based on parallel increases in TBK and ICW. Other body composition measurements did not change significantly. A single steroid user became ill taking steroids, decreased potassium by 5%, and increased extracellular water, changes which may represent the effects of hepatic dysfunction which occurred while on anabolic steroids

  16. HIF-1α-induced HSP70 regulates anabolic responses in articular chondrocytes under hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Shinji; Arai, Yuji; Takahashi, Kenji A; Kishida, Tsunao; Terauchi, Ryu; Honjo, Kuniaki; Nakagawa, Shuji; Inoue, Hiroaki; Ikoma, Kazuya; Ueshima, Keiichiro; Matsuki, Tomohiro; Mazda, Osam; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2014-08-01

    We assessed whether heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is involved in hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α)-dependent anabolic pathways in articular chondrocytes under hypoxic conditions. Primary rabbit chondrocytes were cultured under normoxia (20% oxygen condition) or hypoxia (1% oxygen condition). Alternatively, cells cultured under normoxia were treated with CoCl2 , which induces HIF-1α, to simulate hypoxia, or transfected with siRNAs targeting HIF-1α (si-HIF-1α) and HSP70 (si-HSP70) under hypoxia. HSP70 expression was enhanced by the increased expression of HIF-1α under hypoxia or simulated hypoxia, but not in the presence of si-HIF-1α. Hypoxia-induced overexpression of ECM genes was significantly suppressed by si-HIF-1α or si-HSP70. Cell viability positively correlated with hypoxia, but transfection with si-HIF-1α or si-HSP70 abrogated the chondroprotective effects of hypoxia. Although LDH release from sodium nitroprusside-treated cells and the proportion of TUNEL positive cells were decreased under hypoxia, transfection with si-HIF-1α or si-HSP70 almost completely blocked these effects. These findings indicated that HIF-1α-induced HSP70 overexpression increased the expression levels of ECM genes and cell viability, and protected chondrocytes from apoptosis. HIF-1α may regulate the anabolic effects of chondrocytes under hypoxic conditions by regulating HSP70 expression. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effectiveness of Anabolic Steroid Preventative Intervention among Gym Users: Applying Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Moghimbeigi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS has been associated with adversephysical and psychiatric effects and it is known as rising problem among youth people. Thisstudy was conducted to evaluate anabolic steroids preventative intervention efficiency amonggym users in Iran and theory of planned behaviour was applied as theoretical framework.Methods: Overall, 120 male gym users participated in this study as intervention and controlgroup. This was a longitudinal randomized pretest - posttest series control group design panelstudy to implement a behaviour modification based intervention to prevent AAS use. Cross -tabulation and t-test by using SPSS statistical package, version 13 was used for the statisticalanalysis.Results: It was found significant improvements in average response for knowledge about sideeffects of AAS (P<0.001, attitude toward, and intention not to use AAS. Additionally afterintervention, the rate of AAS and supplements use was decreased among intervention group.Conclusion: Comprehensive implementation against AAS abuse among gym users and adolescenceswould be effective to improve adolescents’ healthy behaviors and intend them notto use AAS.

  18. Turnover of pigment granules: cyclic catabolism and anabolism of ommochromes within epidermal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insausti, T C; Casas, J

    2009-12-01

    Ommochromes are end products of the tryptophan metabolism in arthropods. While the anabolism of ommochromes has been well studied, the catabolism is totally unknown. In order to study it, we used the crab-spider Misumena vatia, which is able to change color reversibly in a few days, from yellow to white and back. Ommochromes is the only pigment class responsible for the body coloration in this animal. The aim of this study was to analyze the fine structure of the epidermal cells in bleaching spiders, in an attempt to correlate morphological changes with the fate of the pigment granules. Central to the process of bleaching is the lysis of the ommochrome granules. In the same cell, intact granules and granules in different degradation stages are found. The degradation begins with granule autolysis. Some components are extruded in the extracellular space and others are recycled via autophagy. Abundant glycogen appears associated to granulolysis. In a later stage of bleaching, ommochrome progranules, typical of white spiders, appear in the distal zone of the same epidermal cell. Catabolism and anabolism of pigment granules thus take place simultaneously in spider epidermal cells. A cyclic pathway of pigment granules formation and degradation, throughout a complete cycle of color change is proposed, together with an explanation for this turnover, involving photoprotection against UV by ommochromes metabolites. The presence of this turnover for melanins is discussed.

  19. History and epidemiology of anabolic androgens in athletes and non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; Pope, Harrison G

    2018-03-15

    The use of androgens, frequently referred to as anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), has grown into a worldwide substance abuse problem over the last several decades. Testosterone was isolated in the 1930s, and numerous synthetic androgens were quickly developed thereafter. Athletes soon discovered the dramatic anabolic effects of these hormones, and AAS spread rapidly through elite athletics and bodybuilding from the 1950s through the 1970s. However it was not until the 1980s that widespread AAS use emerged from the elite athletic world and into the general population. Today, the great majority of AAS users are not competitive athletes, but instead are typically young to middle-aged men who use these drugs primarily for personal appearance. AAS abuse has now become particularly prevalent in regions such as Scandinavia, the United States, Brazil, and British Commonwealth countries, but remains rare in countries such as China, Korea, and Japan - a pattern that reflects cultural differences in attitudes towards male muscularity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Oxidative stress and myocardial dysfunction in young rabbits after short term anabolic steroids administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanakis, Ioannis; Tsarouhas, Konstantinos; Fragkiadaki, Persefoni; Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Goutzourelas, Nikolaos; Champsas, Maria Christakis; Stagos, Demetrios; Rentoukas, Elias; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2013-11-01

    The present study focuses on the short term effects of repeated low level administration of turinabol and methanabol on cardiac function in young rabbits (4 months-old). The experimental scheme consisted of two oral administration periods, lasting 1 month each, interrupted by 1-month wash-out period. Serial echocardiographic evaluation at the end of all three experimental periods was performed in all animals. Oxidative stress markers have also been monitored at the end of each administration period. Treated animals originally showed significantly increased myocardial mass and systolic cardiac output, which normalized at the end of the wash out period. Re-administration led to increased cardiac output, at the cost though of a progressive myocardial mass reduction. A dose-dependent trend towards impaired longitudinal systolic, diastolic and global myocardial function was also observed. The adverse effects were more pronounced in the methanabol group. For both anabolic steroids studied, the low dose had no significant effects on oxidative stress markers monitored, while the high dose created a hostile oxidative environment. In conclusion, anabolic administration has been found to create a possible deleterious long term effect on the growth of the immature heart and should be strongly discouraged especially in young human subjects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chronic anabolic androgenic steroid usage associated with acute coronary syndrome in bodybuilder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertan Sonmez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been argued in current studies that anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS are misused by a great number of bodybuilders and athletes. However, there is diverse and often conflicting scientific data on the cardiac and metabolic complications caused by the misuse of AAS. There may be various reasons for myocardial infarction (MI with normal coronary arteries. However, for the majority of patients, the exact cause is still unknown. Case report: A 32 year-old male who was complaining about severe chest pain was admitted to our emergency department. He had been taking methenolone acetate 200 mg weekly for a period of three years for body building. His cardiac markers were significantly elevated and electrocardiogram (ECG showed peaked T waves in all derivations, which did not show ST elevation or depression. Both right and left coronary artery systems were found to be completely normal as a result of the angiogram. Conclusion: The purpose of this study is to show that AAS induced MI can be encountered with normal coronary arteries during acute coronary syndrome. Keywords: Bodybuilder, Anabolic steroids, Methenolone acetate, Acute coronary syndrome

  2. Variability and dilemmas in harm reduction for anabolic steroid users in the UK: a multi-area interview study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The UK continues to experience a rise in the number of anabolic steroid-using clients attending harm reduction services such as needle and syringe programmes. Methods The present study uses interviews conducted with harm reduction service providers as well as illicit users of anabolic steroids from different areas of England and Wales to explore harm reduction for this group of drug users, focussing on needle distribution policies and harm reduction interventions developed specifically for this population of drug users. Results The article addresses the complexity of harm reduction service delivery, highlighting different models of needle distribution, such as peer-led distribution networks, as well as interventions available in steroid clinics, including liver function testing of anabolic steroid users. Aside from providing insights into the function of interventions available to steroid users, along with principles adopted by service providers, the study found significant tensions and dilemmas in policy implementation due to differing perspectives between service providers and service users relating to practices, risks and effective interventions. Conclusion The overarching finding of the study was the tremendous variability across harm reduction delivery sites in terms of available measures and mode of operation. Further research into the effectiveness of different policies directed towards people who use anabolic steroids is critical to the development of harm reduction. PMID:24986546

  3. Anabolic Steroid Misuse among Minors. Report to the Governor and the General Assembly of Virginia. House Document No. 58.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia State Health Professions Dept., Richmond.

    This document comprises the final report of the Virginia Department of Health Professions' Task Force on anabolic steroid misuse among minors. As such, it summarizes the activities of the department and of the boards within the department, the Offices of the Secretary of Health and Education, and other organizations including the Virginia High…

  4. Screening for anabolic steroids in urine of forensic cases using fully automated solid phase extraction and LC-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, David W; Linnet, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    A screening method for 18 frequently measured exogenous anabolic steroids and the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio in forensic cases has been developed and validated. The method involves a fully automated sample preparation including enzyme treatment, addition of internal standards and solid phase extraction followed by analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) using electrospray ionization with adduct formation for two compounds. Urine samples from 580 forensic cases were analyzed to determine the T/E ratio and occurrence of exogenous anabolic steroids. Extraction recoveries ranged from 77 to 95%, matrix effects from 48 to 78%, overall process efficiencies from 40 to 54% and the lower limit of identification ranged from 2 to 40 ng/mL. In the 580 urine samples analyzed from routine forensic cases, 17 (2.9%) were found positive for one or more anabolic steroids. Only seven different steroids including testosterone were found in the material, suggesting that only a small number of common steroids are likely to occur in a forensic context. The steroids were often in high concentrations (>100 ng/mL), and a combination of steroids and/or other drugs of abuse were seen in the majority of cases. The method presented serves as a fast and automated screening procedure, proving the suitability of LC-MS-MS for analyzing anabolic steroids. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Outline of a typology of men’s use of anabolic androgenic steroids in fitness and strength training environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest; Vinther, Anders Schmidt; Liokaftos, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    Recent research into the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in fitness and strength training environments have revealed great variance in users’ approach to AAS use and more specifically their approach to health risks and desired objectives. However, there have only been few attempts to de...

  6. Deleterious effects of anabolic steroids on serum lipoproteins, blood pressure, and liver function in amateur body builders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenders, J. W.; Demacker, P. N.; Vos, J. A.; Jansen, P. L.; Hoitsma, A. J.; van 't Laar, A.; Thien, T.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of self-administered anabolic steroids (AS) on lipoproteins, liver function, and blood pressure were studied in male amateur body builders. Twenty body builders were studied at the end of a course of AS (group 1) and 42 body builders were studied after discontinuation of the AS for a

  7. Bi-directionally selective bone targeting delivery for anabolic and antiresorptive drugs: a novel combined therapy for osteoporosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, J.; Zhang, H.; Dong, Y.; Jin, Y.; Hu, X.; Cai, K.; Ma, J.; Wu, G.

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a progressive systemic skeletal disease, in which the equilibrium of bone resorption and bone formation is disturbed. The drugs for osteoporosis can be divided into two categories according to their predominant effects: antiresorptive drugs and anabolic drugs. Antiresorptive drugs

  8. Long-term maintenance of the anabolic effects of GH on the skeleton in successfully treated patients with acromegaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biermasz, Nienke R.; Hamdy, Neveen A. T.; Pereira, Alberto M.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Roelfsema, Ferdinand

    2005-01-01

    The anabolic actions of growth hormone (GH) are well documented. In acromegaly, the skeletal effects of chronic GH excess have been mainly addressed by evaluating bone mineral density (BMD). Most data were obtained in patients with active acromegaly, and apparently high or normal BMD was observed in

  9. GC-MS quantitative analysis of black market pharmaceutical products containing anabolic androgenic steroids seized by the Brazilian Federal Police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Diana Brito da Justa; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2017-06-01

    The use of counterfeit or substandard medicines can have an important health impact, resulting in therapeutic failure, be toxic or even cause death. Anabolic steroids are a frequent target for counterfeiters worldwide, being the second most frequent counterfeited class in Brazil. The aims of this work were to optimize and validate a GC-MS method for the quantitative determination of anabolic steroids in tablet, aqueous suspension and oil solution forms, and to analyze pharmaceutical products sent to Brazilian Federal Police (BFP) for forensic analysis. Sample preparation included extraction with methanol in ultrasonic bath followed by centrifugation. The method was successfully validated and 345 samples of pharmaceutical products were analyzed (328 medicines and 17 dietary supplements). About 42% of the medicines were counterfeits, 28.7% of tablets, 12.0% of suspensions and 65.2% of oil solutions; 11% were considered substandards. Five dietary supplements contained undeclared anabolic steroids, including two containing methandrostenolone at 5.4 and 5.8mg/capsule, equivalent to levels found in medicines. The proposed method is suitable for implementation in routine analysis for identification of counterfeits and substandard products. The analytical results show the need to raise awareness of consumers over the risks from the consumption of anabolic steroids from the clandestine market and for more incisive actions from government agencies aiming at decreasing the availability of these products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Adolescent Self-Perceptions and Attitudes toward School as Determinants of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Risk Estimates and Normative Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Bryan E.

    2011-01-01

    Grounded in symbolic interactionism and drawing on data gathered in the 2007 Monitoring the Future Study (n = 2,201), this research examines how self-esteem and perceived intelligence, as well as attitudes and behaviors related to school environments, associate with perceptions of anabolic-androgenic steroids. With perceived risk and…

  11. Long-Term Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Use Is Associated with Increased Atrial Electromechanical Delay in Male Bodybuilders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akçakoyun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of long-term supraphysiologic doses of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS on atrial electromechanical delay (AEMD in male bodybuilders. We clearly demonstrated that long-term consumption of supraphysiologic doses of AAS is associated with higher values of inter- and intra-AEMD in healthy young bodybuilders.

  12. Rotator cuff muscles lose responsiveness to anabolic steroids after tendon tear and musculotendinous retraction: an experimental study in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Christian; Meyer, Dominik C; Von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Hoppeler, Hans; Frigg, Robert; Farshad, Mazda

    2012-11-01

    Long-standing rotator cuff tendon tearing is associated with retraction, loss of work capacity, irreversible fatty infiltration, and atrophy of the rotator cuff muscles. Although continuous musculotendinous relengthening can experimentally restore muscular architecture, restoration of atrophy and fatty infiltration is hitherto impossible. Continuous relengthening with pharmacological stimulation of muscle growth using an anabolic steroid or insulin-like growth factor (IGF) can reverse atrophy and fatty infiltration as well as improve the work capacity of chronically retracted rotator cuff muscles in sheep. Controlled laboratory study. Sixteen weeks after tenotomy of the infraspinatus (ISP) tendon, atrophy and fatty infiltration had developed in the retracted ISP muscle. The musculotendinous unit was continuously relengthened in 14 sheep during 6 weeks: Four sheep were treated without pharmacological stimulation, 4 with intramuscular administration of an anabolic steroid, and 6 with IGF before final repair and rehabilitation (12 weeks). Changes were documented by intraoperative measurements of muscle work capacity, histology, and computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging. Musculotendinous relengthening by continuous traction resulted in gains of length ranging from 0.7 cm in the IGF group to 1.3 cm in the control group. Fatty infiltration progressed in all groups, and the muscle's cross-sectional area ranged from 71% to 74% of the contralateral side at sacrifice and did not show any differences between groups in weight, volume, histological composition, or work capability of the muscle. The contralateral muscles in the anabolic steroid group, however, showed significantly higher (mean ± standard deviation) muscle work capacity of 10 ± 0.9 N·m than the contralateral muscles of the control group (6.8 ± 2.4 N·m) (P muscle fiber area as well as by an unusual gain in the animals' weight after injection of the anabolic steroid. Subcutaneous continuous

  13. Anabolic Steroids Reduce Muscle Degeneration Associated With Rotator Cuff Tendon Release in Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Christian; Meyer, Dominik C; Flück, Martin; Benn, Mario C; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Wieser, Karl

    2015-10-01

    Chronic rotator cuff tendon tearing is associated with irreversible atrophy, fatty infiltration, and interstitial fibrosis of the corresponding muscle. Anabolic steroids can prevent musculotendinous degeneration during retraction and/or can reverse these changes after operative repair of the retracted musculotendinous unit in sheep. Controlled laboratory study. The infraspinatus tendon was released in 18 alpine sheep. All sheep underwent repair of the retracted musculotendinous unit after 16 weeks and were sacrificed after 22 weeks; 6 sheep served as controls, 6 sheep were treated with weekly intramuscular injection of 150 mg of nandrolone decanoate after infraspinatus (ISP) repair (group N6W), and 6 sheep were treated with 150 mg of nandrolone decanoate immediately after tendon release (group N22W). Muscle biopsy specimens were taken before tendon release and after 16 and 22 weeks. Muscle volume and fatty infiltration (on MRI), myotendinous retraction, and muscle density (on computed tomography) were measured immediately after ISP release, after 6 weeks, and before ISP repair and sacrifice. Muscle volume on MRI decreased to a mean (±SD) of 80% ± 8% of the original volume after 6 weeks, remained stable at 78% ± 11% after 16 weeks, and decreased further to 69% ± 9% after 22 weeks in the control group. These findings were no different from those in group N22W (72% ± 9% at 6 weeks, 73% ± 6% at 16 weeks, and 67% ± 5% at 22 weeks). Conversely, the N6W group did not show a decrease in ISP volume after repair; this finding differed significantly from the response in the control and N22W groups. Fatty infiltration (on MRI) continuously increased in the control group (12% ± 4% at tendon release, 17% ± 4% after 6 weeks, 50% ± 9% after 16 weeks, and 60% ± 8% after 22 weeks) and the N6W group. However, application of anabolic steroids at the time of tendon release (N22W group) significantly reduced fatty infiltration after 16 (16% ± 5%; P anabolic steroids starting

  14. Lactoferricin enhances BMP7-stimulated anabolic pathways in intervertebral disc cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellman, Michael B; Kim, Jaesung; An, Howard S; Chen, Di; Kc, Ranjan; Li, Xin; Xiao, Guozhi; Yan, Dongyao; Suh, Joon; van Wjnen, Andre J; Wang, James H-C; Kim, Su-Gwan; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2013-07-25

    Bone-morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7) is a well-known anabolic and anti-catabolic growth factor on intervertebral disc (IVD) matrix and cell homeostasis. Similarly, Lactoferricin B (LfcinB) has recently been shown to have pro-anabolic, anti-catabolic, anti-oxidative and/or anti-inflammatory effects in bovine disc cells in vitro. In this study, we investigated the potential benefits of using combined peptide therapy with LfcinB and BMP7 for intervertebral disc matrix repair and to understand cellular and signaling mechanisms controlled by these factors. We studied the effects of BMP7 and LfcinB as individual treatments and combined therapy on bovine nucleus pulposus (NP) cells by assessing proteoglycan (PG) accumulation and synthesis, and the gene expression of matrix protein aggrecan and transcription factor SOX-9. We also analyzed the role of Noggin, a BMP antagonist, in IVD tissue and examined its effect after stimulation with LfcinB. To understand the molecular mechanisms by which LfcinB synergizes with BMP7, we investigated the ERK-SP1 axis as a downstream intracellular signaling regulator involved in BMP7 and LfcinB-mediated activities. Treatment of bovine NP cells cultured in alginate with LfcinB plus BMP7 synergistically stimulates PG synthesis and accumulation in part by upregulation of aggrecan gene expression. The synergism results from LfcinB-mediated activation of Sp1 and SMAD signaling pathways by (i) phosphorylation of SMAD 1/5/8; (ii) downregulation of SMAD inhibitory factors [i.e., noggin and SMAD6 (inhibitory SMAD)]; and (iii) upregulation of SMAD4 (universal co-SMAD). These data indicate that LfcinB-suppression of Noggin may eliminate the negative feedback of BMP7, thereby maximizing biological activity of BMP7 and ultimately shifting homeostasis to a pro-anabolic state in disc cells. We propose that combination growth factor therapy using BMP7 and LfcinB may be beneficial for treatment of disc degeneration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All

  15. Rhabdomyosarcoma cells show an energy producing anabolic metabolic phenotype compared with primary myocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higashi Richard M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The functional status of a cell is expressed in its metabolic activity. We have applied stable isotope tracing methods to determine the differences in metabolic pathways in proliferating Rhabdomysarcoma cells (Rh30 and human primary myocytes in culture. Uniformly 13C-labeled glucose was used as a source molecule to follow the incorporation of 13C into more than 40 marker metabolites using NMR and GC-MS. These include metabolites that report on the activity of glycolysis, Krebs' cycle, pentose phosphate pathway and pyrimidine biosynthesis. Results The Rh30 cells proliferated faster than the myocytes. Major differences in flux through glycolysis were evident from incorporation of label into secreted lactate, which accounts for a substantial fraction of the glucose carbon utilized by the cells. Krebs' cycle activity as determined by 13C isotopomer distributions in glutamate, aspartate, malate and pyrimidine rings was considerably higher in the cancer cells than in the primary myocytes. Large differences were also evident in de novo biosynthesis of riboses in the free nucleotide pools, as well as entry of glucose carbon into the pyrimidine rings in the free nucleotide pool. Specific labeling patterns in these metabolites show the increased importance of anaplerotic reactions in the cancer cells to maintain the high demand for anabolic and energy metabolism compared with the slower growing primary myocytes. Serum-stimulated Rh30 cells showed higher degrees of labeling than serum starved cells, but they retained their characteristic anabolic metabolism profile. The myocytes showed evidence of de novo synthesis of glycogen, which was absent in the Rh30 cells. Conclusion The specific 13C isotopomer patterns showed that the major difference between the transformed and the primary cells is the shift from energy and maintenance metabolism in the myocytes toward increased energy and anabolic metabolism for proliferation in the Rh30 cells

  16. Exposure to media predicts use of dietary supplements and anabolic-androgenic steroids among Flemish adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frison, Eline; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2013-10-01

    This study examined whether different types of media affect the use of dietary proteins and amino acid supplements, and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. A random sample of 618 boys aged 11-18 years from eight schools in the Flemish part of Belgium completed standardized questionnaires as part of the Media and Adolescent Health Study. The survey measured exposure to sports media, appearance-focused media, fitness media, use of dietary supplements, and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. Data were analyzed using logistic regressions and are presented as adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI); 8.6 % indicated to have used dietary proteins, 3.9 % indicated to have used amino acid supplements, and 11.8 % would consider using anabolic-androgenic steroids. After adjusting for fitness activity, exposure to fitness media was associated with the use of dietary proteins (OR = 7.24, CI = 2.25-23.28) and amino acid supplements (5.16, 1.21-21.92; 44.30, 8.25-238). Intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids was associated with exposure to fitness media (2.38, 1.08-5.26; 8.07, 2.55-25.53) and appearance-focused media (6.02, 1.40-25.82; 8.94, 1.78-44.98). Sports media did not correlate with the use of dietary supplements and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. Specific types of media are strong predictors of the use of supplements in adolescent boys. This provides an opportunity for intervention and prevention through the selection of fitness media as a communication channel. Health practitioners should also be aware that the contemporary body culture exerts pressure not only on girls but also on boys.

  17. Frequency of Anabolic Steroids Abuse in Bodybuilder Athletes in Kerman City†This article has been published in the Journal of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences in Persian language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Gholamreza; Mousavi Fard, Majid; Sepehri, Ehsan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Athletes, especially bodybuilders, abuse anabolic steroid drugs to improve their strength and enhance their muscle growth and appearance. This study was conducted to determine the type and frequency of anabolic steroids abuse in bodybuilder athletes in Kerman City. Methods: A confidential questionnaire which included demographic data (age, education), name of abused anabolic drug and duration of drug abuse was completed by 202 bodybuilder athletes, and the collected data were analyzed using Chi Square test. A value of p bodybuilding activity was significantly higher in those used the anabolic drugs (38.8 months), comparing to those did not use any drugs (14.3 months). Oxymetholone was the most common drug used by athletes (42% merely used Oxymetholone). The frequency of anabolic steroids abuse was not related to education and age of the bodybuilder athletes. Conclusion: Bodybuilder athletes in Kerman city abuse anabolic steroids, and the health care system should plan to inform them about anabolic steroid adverse effects. PMID:24494079

  18. [Biological agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Koichi

    2009-03-01

    There are two types of biological agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. Among the latter, etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of soluble TNF receptor and IgG was approved in 2005 in Japan. The post-marketing surveillance of 13,894 RA patients revealed the efficacy and safety profiles of etanercept in the Japanese population, as well as overseas studies. Abatacept, a recombinant fusion protein of CTLA4 and IgG, is another biological agent for RA. Two clinical trials disclosed the efficacy of abatacept for difficult-to-treat patients: the AIM for MTX-resistant cases and the ATTAIN for patients who are resistant to anti-TNF. The ATTEST trial suggested abatacept might have more acceptable safety profile than infliximab. These biologics are also promising for the treatment of RA for not only relieving clinical symptoms and signs but retarding structural damage.

  19. The Sturm und Drang of anabolic steroid use: angst, anxiety, and aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlander, Joseph G.; Henderson, Leslie P.

    2014-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are illicitly administered to enhance athletic performance and body image. Although conferring positive actions on performance, steroid abuse is associated with changes in anxiety and aggression. AAS users are often keenly invested in understanding the biological actions of these drugs. Thus, mechanistic information on AAS actions is important not only for the biomedical community, but also for steroid users. Here we review findings from animal studies on the impact of AAS exposure on neural systems that are crucial for the production of anxiety and aggression, and compare the effects of the different classes of AAS and their potential signaling mechanisms, as well as context-, age- and sex-dependent aspects of their actions. PMID:22516619

  20. Micronucleus as biomarkers of cancer risk in anabolic androgenic steroids users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, L da Cunha Menezes; da Cruz, L A; Cerqueira, E de Moraes Marcílio; Meireles, Jrc

    2017-03-01

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has grown among practitioners of recreational bodybuilding, with significant contributions of designer steroids, aiming muscle hypertrophy in healthy subjects. The abusive use of AAS in general is associated with adverse effects; one of the most worrisome is cancer development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) test in human lymphocytes in identifying risk groups for cancer development in users of AAS. Blood was collected from 15 AAS users bodybuilders (G1), 20 non-users bodybuilders (G2) and 20 non-users sedentary (G3). MN analysis was performed on a minimum of 1000 binucleated lymphocytes. The occurrence of MN was significantly higher ( p < 0.05) in individuals of G1 compared to G2 and G3. The results indicate the sensitivity of CBMN in human lymphocytes in the identification of chromosomal damage in consequence of AAS.

  1. Screening hybridomas for anabolic androgenic steroids by steroid analog antigen microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongwu; Chen, Guangyu; Bian, Yongzhong; Xing, Cenzan; Ding, Xue; Zhu, Mengliang; Xun, Yiping; Chen, Peng; Zhou, Yabin; Li, Shaoxu

    2015-01-01

    Currently, dozens of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are forbidden in the World Anti-Doping Agency Prohibited List, however, despite extensive investigation, there are still lots of AAS without corresponding monoclonal antibodies. A steroid analog antigen microarray made up of ten AAS was fabricated to screen the hybridoma and it was found an original unsuccessful clone turned out to be a candidate anti-boldenone antibody, without any cross-reactions with endogenous AAS or 44 different AAS standard reference materials tested. Our findings suggested that steroid analog antigen microarray could be a promising tool to screen and characterize new applications of antibodies for structure analogs, and this also exhibits the potential to fast identify effective epitopes of hybridomas in a single assay.

  2. Liver Toxicity of Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Use in an Adolescent with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awai, Hannah I; Yu, Elizabeth L; Ellis, Linda S; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and related morbidities such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is high among adolescents. Current treatment recommendations for NAFLD focus on lifestyle optimization via nutrition and exercise. After encouraging exercise, many adolescents choose to participate in organized sports, which may lead to use of illicit substances such as anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) to boost athletic performance. Approximately 3,000,000 individuals use non-therapeutic AAS at supra-physiologic doses in the United States.1 In 2012, 5.9% of adolescent boys reported steroid use in the previous year.2 We anticipate adolescents with pre-existing liver disease are at increased risk for AAS induced hepatotoxicity. We present such a case with IRB approval and written individual patient consent. PMID:23568051

  3. Effects of anabolic steroid treatment associated with physical training in adipose tissue of male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela de Paiva Foletto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic-steroids (AAS include a broad class of synthetic derivatives of testosterone, being nandrolone decanoate the most widely used in sports environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic effects of nandrolone decanoate in sedentary and trained adult male rats. We established four experimental groups: sedentary control, sedentary treated, trained control and trained treated. The training had consisted of running on a treadmill for nine weeks. Treated animals received intramuscular injections of nandrolone decanoate (0.5 mg kg-1 during the last four weeks of physical training. The training time as the drug used were not sufficient to significantly reduce body weight gain, but caused a significative decrease on diameter of adipocytes and in the amount of adipose tissue stored, as well as decreased the plasma levels of glucose and total cholesterol.

  4. Hepatotoxicity associated with illicit use of anabolic androgenic steroids in doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimini, R; Rotolo, M C; Mastrobattista, L; Mortali, C; Minutillo, A; Pichini, S; Pacifici, R; Palmi, I

    2017-03-01

    Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) abuse and misuse is nowadays a harmful habit involving both professional or recreational athletes, as well as general population. AAS are also frequently present in over-the-counter dietary supplements without being declared in the list of ingredients, leaving consumers unaware of the risks of adverse effects. Indeed, health risks of AAS consumption in pharmaceutical preparations or dietary complements seem still underestimated and under-reported. The variety of complications due to AAS misuse involves cardiovascular, central nervous, musculoskeletal and genitourinary systems of both males and females; psychiatric and behavioral effects, damages to metabolic system, skin and mainly liver. For instance, relevant concern has been raised by the AAS hepatotoxicity including adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, cholestasis, and peliosis hepatis. The present review reports the information available on the hepatotoxic effects of AAS use in professional and amateur athletes.

  5. The Use of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids and Polypharmacy: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Tonya; Hoagland, Margaux F.

    2011-01-01

    Background A review of the literature was conducted to examine the relationship between the use of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use and the use of other drugs. Methods Studies published between the years of 1995–2010 were included in the review. Results The use of AAS is positively associated with use of alcohol, illicit drugs and legal performance enhancing substances. In contrast, the relationship between AAS and the use of tobacco and cannabis are mixed. Conclusion Results of the review indicate that the relationship between AAS use and other substance use depends on the type of substance studied. Implications for treatment and prevention are discussed. Suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:21232881

  6. The action of trenbolone acetate, a synthetic anabolic steroid, on ovarian function in the Guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.; Galbraith, H.

    1992-01-01

    The action of trenbolone acetate, a synthetic anabolic steroid, on ovarian function was investigated in the Guinea pig. Certain comparisons were made with testosterone, the naturally occurring androgen, administered as the phenylpropionate ester. Progesterone was analysed using radioimmunoassay. two milligrams trenbolone acetate per Kg given subcutaneously on alternate days for 20 days blocked oestrous cyclicity and ovulation in 9 of 10 animals. A similar effect was shown by 2.2 mg of testosterone phenylpropionate. Treatment of trenbolone acetate-treated animals with exogenous gonadotropins suggested that the production of follicle stimulating hormone had been suppressed. Signs of abnormality were seen in the livers of animals receiving 2 mg trenbolone acetate and 2.2 mg testosterone phenylpropionate. (author). 17 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Effect of anabolic steroids on skeletal muscle mass during hindlimb suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsika, R. W.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of treatment with an anabolic steroid (nandrolone decanoate) on the muscle mass of plantaris and soleus of a rats in hindlimb suspension, and on the isomyosin expression in these muscles, was investigated in young female rats divided into four groups: normal control (NC), normal steroid (NS), normal suspension (N-sus), and suspension steroid (sus-S). Steroid treatment of suspended animals (sus-S vs N-sus) was found to partially spare body weight and muscle weight, as well as myofibril content of plantaris (but not soleus), but did not modify the isomyosin pattern induced by suspension. In normal rats (NS vs NC), steroid treatment did enhance body weight and plantaris muscle weight; the treatment did not alter isomyosin expression in either muscle type.

  8. Cerebral infarction in a young man using high-dose anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Yoshiaki; Yoritaka, Asako; Tanaka, Yasutaka; Miyamoto, Nobukazu; Ueno, Yuji; Hattori, Nobutaka; Takao, Urabe

    2012-11-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse has increased among athletes in recent years. However, AAS abuse can increase hypercoagulopathy and cause cerebrovascular disease. We report a case of a 27-year-old man who had right hemiparalysis, hemianopia, dysarthria, and double vision in the middle of muscle training. He suspected acute disseminated encephalomyelitis at first, because of a preceding respiratory infection. However, extensive work-up was performed, including brain magnetic resonance imaging, transcranial Doppler and transesophageal echocardiography, confirming the final diagnosis of cardioembolic stroke. Physicians should be aware that cerebrovascular disease may be a side effect of AAS, even in younger populations. Copyright © 2012 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Anabolic steroids abuse-induced cardiomyopathy and ischaemic stroke in a young male patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloul, Reham Mohammed; Aborayah, Ahmed Fathy; Hashad, Assem; Abd-Allah, Foad

    2014-02-26

    We report a case of a 37-year-old man presented with acute stroke and hepatorenal impairment which were associated with anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse over 2 years. Despite the absence of apparent symptoms and signs of congestive heart failure at presentation, an AAS-induced dilated cardiomyopathy with multiple thrombi in the left ventricle was attributed to be the underlying cause of his condition. Awareness of the complications of AAS led to the prompt treatment of the initially unrecognised dilated cardiomyopathy, and improved the liver and kidney functions. However, the patient was exposed to a second severe ischaemic event, which led to his death. This unique and complex presentation of AAS complications opens for better recognition and treatment of their potentially fatal effects.

  10. Abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids and bodybuilding acne: an underestimated health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo; Jansen, Thomas; Grabbe, Stephan

    2007-02-01

    Abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) by members of fitness centers and others in Germany has reached alarming dimensions. The health care system provides the illegal AAS to 48.1 % of abusers. Physicians are involved in illegal prescription of AAS and monitoring of 32.1 % of AAS abusers. Besides health-threatening cardiovascular, hepatotoxic and psychiatric long-term side effects of AAS, acne occurs in about 50 % of AAS abusers and is an important clinical indicator of AAS abuse, especially in young men 18-26 years of age. Both acne conglobata and acne fulminans can be induced by AAS abuse. The dermatologist should recognize bodybuilding acne, address the AAS abuse, and warn the patient about other potential hazards.

  11. Anabolic-androgenic steroid use and involvement in violent behavior in a nationally representative sample of young adult males in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Kevin M; Vaughn, Michael G; Delisi, Matt; Wright, John Paul

    2008-12-01

    We examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid use on serious violent behavior. Multivariate models based on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6823) were used to examine the association between lifetime and past-year self-reported anabolic-androgenic steroid use and involvement in violent acts. Compared with individuals who did not use steroids, young adult males who used anabolic-androgenic steroids reported greater involvement in violent behaviors after we controlled for the effects of key demographic variables, previous violent behavior, and polydrug use.

  12. A novel approach to the quantitative detection of anabolic steroids in bovine muscle tissue by means of a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussche, Julie Vanden; Decloedt, Anneleen; Van Meulebroek, Lieven; De Clercq, Nathalie; Lock, Stephen; Stahl-Zeng, Jianru; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2014-09-19

    In recent years, the analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents has shifted from target-oriented procedures, mainly based on liquid chromatography coupled to triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ-MS), towards accurate mass full scan MS (such as Time-of-Flight (ToF) and Fourier Transform (FT)-MS). In this study, the performance of a hybrid analysis instrument (i.e. UHPLC-QuadrupoleTime-of-Flight-MS (QqToF-MS)), able to exploit both full scan HR and MS/MS capabilities within a single analytical platform, was evaluated for confirmatory analysis of anabolic steroids (gestagens, estrogens including stilbenes and androgens) in meat. The validation data was compared to previously obtained results (CD 2002/657/EC) for QqQ-MS and single stage Orbitrap-MS. Additionally, a fractional factorial design was used to shorten and optimize the sample extraction. Validation according to CD 2002/657/EC demonstrated that steroid analysis using QqToF has a higher competing value towards QqQ-MS in terms of selectivity/specificity, compared to single stage Orbitrap-MS. While providing excellent linearity, based on lack-of-fit calculations (F-test, α=0.05 for all steroids except 17β-ethinylestradiol: α=0.01), the sensitivity of QqToF-MS proved for 61.8% and 85.3% of the compounds more sensitive compared to QqQ-MS and Orbitrap-MS, respectively. Indeed, the CCα values, obtained upon ToF-MS/MS detection, ranged from 0.02 to 1.74μgkg(-1) for the 34 anabolic steroids, while for QqQ-MS and Orbitrap-MS values ranged from 0.04 to 0.88μgkg(-1) and from 0.07 to 2.50μgkg(-1), respectively. Using QqToF-MS and QqQ-MS, adequate precision was obtained as relative standard deviations for repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility, were below 20%. In case of Orbitrap-MS, some compounds (i.e. some estrogens) displayed poor precision, which was possibly caused by some lack of sensitivity at lower concentrations and the absence of MRM-like experiments. Overall, it can be

  13. Treatment of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Dependence: Emerging Evidence and Its Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; Brower, Kirk J.; Wood, Ruth I.; Hudson, James I.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2010-01-01

    Currently, few users of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) seek substance-abuse treatment. But this picture may soon change substantially, because illicit AAS use did not become widespread until the 1980s, and consequently the older members of this AAS-using population—those who initiated AAS as youths in the 1980s—are only now reaching middle age. Members of this group, especially those who have developed AAS dependence, may therefore be entering the age of risk for cardiac and psychoneuroendocrine complications sufficient to motivate them for substance-abuse treatment. We suggest that this treatment should address at least three etiologic mechanisms by which AAS dependence might develop. First, individuals with body-image disorders such as “muscle dysmorphia” may become dependent on AAS for their anabolic effects; these body-image disorders may respond to psychological therapies or pharmacologic treatments. Second, AAS suppress the male hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis via their androgenic effects, potentially causing hypogonadism during AAS withdrawal. Men experiencing prolonged dysphoric effects or frank major depression from hypogonadism may desire to resume AAS, thus contributing to AAS dependence. AAS-induced hypogonadism may require treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin or clomiphene to reactivate neuroendocrine function, and may necessitate antidepressant treatments in cases of depression inadequately responsive to endocrine therapies alone. Third, human and animal evidence indicates that AAS also possess hedonic effects, which likely promote dependence via mechanisms shared with classical addictive drugs, especially opioids. Indeed, the opioid antagonist naltrexone blocks AAS dependence in animals. By inference, pharmacological and psychosocial treatments for human opioid dependence might also benefit AAS-dependent individuals. PMID:20188494

  14. Androgenic-anabolic steroids inhibited post-exercise hypotension: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junior, Jefferson F C R; Silva, Alexandre S; Cardoso, Glêbia A; Silvino, Valmir O; Martins, Maria C C; Santos, Marcos A P

    There is evidence of hypertensive effects caused by anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). A single exercise session promotes the acute reduction of blood pressure, but the effects of AAS on this phenomenon are unknown. To investigate the post-exercise blood pressure response in androgenic-anabolic steroid users. Thirteen AAS users (23.9±4.3 years old) and sixteen controls (22.1±4.5 years old) performed a session of aerobic exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure were assessed before exercise and during a 60min post-exercise resting period. Repeated ANOVA measures were used to determine differences between the groups. While the control group had a significant reduction in post-exercise systolic blood pressure of up to 13.9±11.6mmHg at 40min, this phenomenon was limited among AAS users who reached a maximum of 6.2±11.5mmHg at 60min. The between groups comparison revealed significant higher post-exercise hypotension (PEH) for the control group at 30min (-12.9±14.1mmHg versus -2.9±7.6mmHg), 40min (-13.9±11.6mmHg versus -2.5±8.3mmHg), 50min (-13.9±13.9mmHg versus -5.0±7.9mmHg) and 60min (-12.5±12.8mmHg versus -6.2±11.5mmHg). There was no significant diastolic PEH in any of the groups. This study demonstrated impaired systolic post-exercise hypotension as a new adverse effect of AAS usage. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. The prostate after administration of anabolic androgenic steroids: a morphometrical study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Rafael Arêas; Oliveira, Leonardo Pires; Frankenfeld, Stephan; Souza, Diogo Benchimol de; Costa, Waldemar Silva; Favorito, Luciano Alves; Sampaio, Francisco José Barcellos

    2013-01-01

    Many adverse effects have been associated with abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), including disorders of the urogenital tract. The objective of this study is to analyze the morphological modifications in the prostate ventral lobe of pubertal and adult rats chronically treated with AAS, using morphometric methods. We studied 39 male Wistar rats weighing between 400 g and 550 g. The rats were divided into four groups: (a) control rats, with 105 days of age (C105) (n = 7); (b) control rats with 65 days of age (C65) (n = 9), injected only with the vehicle (peanut oil); (c) treated rats, with 105 days of age (T105) (n = 10) and (d) treated rats with 65 days of age (T65) (n = 13). The treated rats were injected with nandrolone decanoate at a dose of 10 mg.Kg-1 body weight. The steroid hormone and the vehicle were administered by intramuscular injection once a week for eight weeks. The rats were killed at 161 days of age (C105 and T105) and 121 days of age (C65 and T65) and the ventral prostate lobe was dissected and processed for histology. The height of the acinar epithelium, the surface densities of the lumen, epithelium and stroma were observed with X400 magnification using an Olympus light microscope coupled to a Sony CCD video camera, and the images transferred to a Sony monitor KX14-CP1. The selected histological areas were then quantified using the M42 test-grid system on the digitized fields. The data were analyzed with the Graphpad software. To compare the quantitative data in both groups (controls and treated) and the outcomes, Student's t-test was used (p anabolic androgenic steroids in rats promotes structural changes in the prostate. We observed structural changes in the weight, volume and epithelium height of the prostate ventral lobe and a predominance of collagen fibers.

  16. Development of anabolic-androgenic steroids purity certified reference materials for anti-doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Can; Su, Fuhai; Wang, Haifeng; Li, Hongmei

    2011-12-20

    The need for certified reference materials (CRM) of anabolic-androgenic steroids reference materials was emphasized by the Beijing 2008 Olympic game as a tool to improve comparability, ensuring accuracy and traceability of analytical results for competing athletes. The China National Institute of Metrology (NIM) responded to the state request by providing seven anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) reference materials for Beijing Olympic anti-doping, GBW (E) 100086-GBW (E) 100092. This work describes the production of the series of AAS CRMs, according to ISO Guides 34 and 35 [1,2], which comprises the material processing, homogeneity and stability assessment, CRMs' characterization including moisture content, trace metal content. The AASs' purity values were assigned with collaborative study involved eight laboratories applying high resolution liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Homogeneity of the AAS CRMs were determined by an in-house validated liquid chromatographic methodology. Potential degradation during storage was also investigated and a shelf-life based on this value was established. The certified values of CRMs were 99.76±0.079%, 99.76±0.25%, 99.63±0.09%, 99.67±0.11%, 98.82±0.56%, 96.30±0.39% and 99.71±0.49% (purity±expanded uncertainty with confidence level of 95%) for methyltestosterone, testosterone propionate, nandrolone, nandrolone 17-propionate, boldenone, trenbolone acetate and testosterone respectively. The certified values for all the studied AAS reference materials are traceable to the international system of units (SI). The CRMs developed were applied by 32 laboratory including sports organizations and analytical laboratories during the 2008 Olympic game for anti-doping control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lactoferricin mediates anabolic and anti-catabolic effects in the intervertebral disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Sung; Ellman, Michael B; An, Howard S; Yan, Dongyao; van Wijnen, Andre J; Murphy, Gillian; Hoskin, David W; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2012-04-01

    Lactoferricin (LfcinB) antagonizes biological effects mediated by angiogenic and catabolic growth factors, in addition to pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human endothelial cells and tumor cells. However, the effect of LfcinB on intervertebral disc (IVD) cell metabolism has not yet been investigated. Using bovine nucleus pulposus (NP) cells, we analyzed the effect of LfcinB on proteoglycan (PG) accumulation, PG synthesis, and anabolic gene expression. We assessed expression of genes for matrix-degrading enzymes such as matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS family), as well as their endogenous inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases (TIMPs). In order to understand the specific molecular mechanisms by which LfcinB exerts its biological effects, we investigated intracellular signaling pathways in NP cells. LfcinB increased PG accumulation mainly via PG synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Simultaneously, LfcinB dose-dependently downregulated catabolic enzymes. LfcinB's anti-catabolic effects were further demonstrated by a dose-dependent increase in multiple TIMP family members. Our results demonstrate that ERK and/or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways are the key signaling cascades that exert the biological effects of LfcinB in NP cells, regulating transcription of aggrecan, SOX-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, TIMP-3, and iNOS. Our results suggest that LfcinB has anabolic and potent anti-catabolic biological effects on bovine IVD cells that may have considerable promise in the treatment of disc degeneration in the future. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Mixed lactate and caffeine compound increases satellite cell activity and anabolic signals for muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Yoshimi; Tsukamoto, Hayato; Yokokawa, Takumi; Hirotsu, Keisuke; Shimazu, Mariko; Uchida, Kenji; Tomi, Hironori; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Iwanaka, Nobumasa; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2015-03-15

    We examined whether a mixed lactate and caffeine compound (LC) could effectively elicit proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells or activate anabolic signals in skeletal muscles. We cultured C2C12 cells with either lactate or LC for 6 h. We found that lactate significantly increased myogenin and follistatin protein levels and phosphorylation of P70S6K while decreasing the levels of myostatin relative to the control. LC significantly increased protein levels of Pax7, MyoD, and Ki67 in addition to myogenin, relative to control. LC also significantly increased follistatin expression relative to control and stimulated phosphorylation of mTOR and P70S6K. In an in vivo study, male F344/DuCrlCrlj rats were assigned to control (Sed, n = 10), exercise (Ex, n = 12), and LC supplementation (LCEx, n = 13) groups. LC was orally administered daily. The LCEx and Ex groups were exercised on a treadmill, running for 30 min at low intensity every other day for 4 wk. The LCEx group experienced a significant increase in the mass of the gastrocnemius (GA) and tibialis anterior (TA) relative to both the Sed and Ex groups. Furthermore, the LCEx group showed a significant increase in the total DNA content of TA compared with the Sed group. The LCEx group experienced a significant increase in myogenin and follistatin expression of GA relative to the Ex group. These results suggest that administration of LC can effectively increase muscle mass concomitant with elevated numbers of myonuclei, even with low-intensity exercise training, via activated satellite cells and anabolic signals. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. THE PROFILE OF TAMOXIFEN USER DUE TO GYNECOMASTIA INDUCED BY ANABOLIC STEROIDS FOR BODYBUILDERS OR BODYBUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Santos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to valorization of body appearance, the seek for a good physic body gets a central importance in externalization of subjectivity and in the construction the identities of the people. Because of this, them invest time to look for devices to streamline results to get a perfect body, between mechanisms used there is the use of anabolic steroids (AS. With the rapid response this kind of treatment, there are aware concerns their side effects such as gynecomastia which is characterized by breast enlargement of man. In an attempt to prevent this effect aesthetically uncomfortable, the users seek take medicines such as tamoxifen to reverse or prevent this situation without proper prescription or monitoring of a pharmacist professional, as well as almost all treatments with EA which are made clandestinely. This work aimed to describe profile among consumers seeking the tamoxifen therapy to prevent or treat gynecomastia induced using EA. The target audience was composed of bodybuilders men that were making anabolic cycles, aiming fast muscular hypertrophy. Two questionnaires were applied, one to the drugstores that sell these drugs and one for bodybuilders who buy these drugs. Tamoxifen user profile found in this study shows that they are young people aged 18 to 35 years old, seeking muscle hypertrophy strength. As the natural results are slow, influenced by training friends, start using EA, even declaring know about the risks to health. Use along with these steroids, tamoxifen, in an attempt to prevent or treat gynecomastia, get the medication in drugstores without a prescription and without the pharmacist questioning, demonstrating that pharmaceutical care is still not fully deployed and functioning

  20. Ketosteroid Standardized Cissus quadrangularis L. Extract and its Anabolic Activity: Time to Look Beyond Ketosteroid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Atul N; Rafiq, Mohammed; Devanathan, Rajendran; Azeemuddin, Mohammed; Anturlikar, Suryakanth D; Ahmed, Akhil; Sundaram, Ramchandran; Babu, U V; Paramesh, Rangesh

    2016-05-01

    Cissus quadrangularis (CQ) L. reported to contain 3-ketosteroids and have bone health benefits. This study aimed at establishing the relationship between the ketosteroid content and anabolic as well as bone health-promoting activities of various Cissus extracts in well-established orchidectomized (ORX) rat model. Supercritical carbon dioxide, ethyl acetate, and aqueous extracts (AE) of CQ L. were prepared and standardized for ketosteroid content by two methods used in commerce. Moreover, ketosteroid standardized extracts of this plant were evaluated for anabolic activity in rats in well-established ORX rat model. The increase in the absolute weight was appreciable in the CQ-AE treated group. Similarly, with respect to bone parameters, a similar trend was seen. The mean bone density, strength, and calcium content were found to be highest in the group treated with CQ-AE compared to groups treated with other extracts. This study reveals for the first time that 3-ketosteroids are not linked to the beneficial activities on bone and highlights the need for extensive characterization of biological active principles from CQ L. In light of the above estimation studies, we believe that current standardization of Cissus extraction "3-ketosteroids" is incorrect. We also did not find any report suggesting the presence of androgenic steroids in this plant and hence the characterization based on "3-ketosteroids" is scientifically incorrect. This study highlights the insufficient understanding of biological active principles from CQ L. and underlines the need for extensive bioactivity guided studies. Cissus quadrangularis (CQ) L. reported to contain 3.ketosteroids and have bone health benefitsWe did not find correlation between ketosteroid content obtained by conventional methods and its biological effectStudies indicate that claims of ketosteroid content need not necessarily correlate to biological effects and hence warrants extensive phytochemical characterization of biological

  1. Treatment of anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence: Emerging evidence and its implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; Brower, Kirk J; Wood, Ruth I; Hudson, James I; Pope, Harrison G

    2010-06-01

    Currently, few users of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) seek substance abuse treatment. But this picture may soon change substantially, because illicit AAS use did not become widespread until the 1980s, and consequently the older members of this AAS-using population - those who initiated AAS as youths in the 1980s - are only now reaching middle age. Members of this group, especially those who have developed AAS dependence, may therefore be entering the age of risk for cardiac and psychoneuroendocrine complications sufficient to motivate them for substance abuse treatment. We suggest that this treatment should address at least three etiologic mechanisms by which AAS dependence might develop. First, individuals with body image disorders such as "muscle dysmorphia" may become dependent on AAS for their anabolic effects; these body image disorders may respond to psychological therapies or pharmacological treatments. Second, AAS suppress the male hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis via their androgenic effects, potentially causing hypogonadism during AAS withdrawal. Men experiencing prolonged dysphoric effects or frank major depression from hypogonadism may desire to resume AAS, thus contributing to AAS dependence. AAS-induced hypogonadism may require treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin or clomiphene to reactivate neuroendocrine function, and may necessitate antidepressant treatments in cases of depression inadequately responsive to endocrine therapies alone. Third, human and animal evidence indicates that AAS also possess hedonic effects, which likely promote dependence via mechanisms shared with classical addictive drugs, especially opioids. Indeed, the opioid antagonist naltrexone blocks AAS dependence in animals. By inference, pharmacological and psychosocial treatments for human opioid dependence might also benefit AAS-dependent individuals. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Skeletal muscle protein metabolism in the elderly: Interventions to counteract the 'anabolic resistance' of ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Stuart M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Age-related muscle wasting (sarcopenia is accompanied by a loss of strength which can compromise the functional abilities of the elderly. Muscle proteins are in a dynamic equilibrium between their respective rates of synthesis and breakdown. It has been suggested that age-related sarcopenia is due to: i elevated basal-fasted rates of muscle protein breakdown, ii a reduction in basal muscle protein synthesis (MPS, or iii a combination of the two factors. However, basal rates of muscle protein synthesis and breakdown are unchanged with advancing healthy age. Instead, it appears that the muscles of the elderly are resistant to normally robust anabolic stimuli such as amino acids and resistance exercise. Ageing muscle is less sensitive to lower doses of amino acids than the young and may require higher quantities of protein to acutely stimulate equivalent muscle protein synthesis above rest and accrue muscle proteins. With regard to dietary protein recommendations, emerging evidence suggests that the elderly may need to distribute protein intake evenly throughout the day, so as to promote an optimal per meal stimulation of MPS. The branched-chain amino acid leucine is thought to play a central role in mediating mRNA translation for MPS, and the elderly should ensure sufficient leucine is provided with dietary protein intake. With regards to physical activity, lower, than previously realized, intensity high-volume resistance exercise can stimulate a robust muscle protein synthetic response similar to traditional high-intensity low volume training, which may be beneficial for older adults. Resistance exercise combined with amino acid ingestion elicits the greatest anabolic response and may assist elderly in producing a 'youthful' muscle protein synthetic response provided sufficient protein is ingested following exercise.

  3. Investigations into the feasibility of routine ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of equine hair samples for detecting the misuse of anabolic steroids, anabolic steroid esters and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Bobby P; Viljanto, Marjaana; Bright, Jane; Pearce, Clive; Maynard, Steve

    2013-07-17

    The detection of the abuse of anabolic steroids in equine sport is complicated by the endogenous nature of some of the abused steroids, such as testosterone and nandrolone. These steroids are commonly administered as intramuscular injections of esterified forms of the steroid, which prolongs their effects and improves bioavailability over oral dosing. The successful detection of an intact anabolic steroid ester therefore provides unequivocal proof of an illegal administration, as esterified forms are not found endogenously. Detection of intact anabolic steroid esters is possible in plasma samples but not, to date, in the traditional doping control matrix of urine. The analysis of equine mane hair for the detection of anabolic steroid esters has the potential to greatly extend the time period over which detection of abuse can be monitored. Equine mane hair samples were incubated in 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 9.5) before anabolic steroids (testosterone, nandrolone, boldenone, trenbolone and stanozolol), anabolic steroid esters (esters of testosterone, nandrolone, boldenone and trenbolone) and associated compounds (fluticasone propionate and esters of hydroxyprogesterone) were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with a mix of hexane and ethyl acetate (7:3, v:v). Further sample clean up by solid phase extraction was followed by derivatisation with methoxylamine HCL and analysis by UHPLC-MS/MS. Initial method development was performed on a representative suite of four testosterone esters (propionate, phenylpropionate, isocaproate and decanoate) and the method was later extended to include a further 18 compounds. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the analysis of mane hair samples collected following the intramuscular administration of 500 mg of Durateston(®) (mixed testosterone esters) to a Thoroughbred mare (560 kg). The method was subsequently used to successfully detect boldenone undecylenate and stanozolol in hair samples collected following

  4. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  5. Radioprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kelle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  6. Current status and bioanalytical challenges in the detection of unknown anabolic androgenic steroids in doping control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Oscar J; De Brabanter, Nik; Fabregat, Andreu; Segura, Jordi; Ventura, Rosa; Van Eenoo, Peter; Deventer, Koen

    2013-11-01

    Androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) are prohibited in sports due to their anabolic effects. Doping control laboratories usually face the screening of AAS misuse by target methods based on MS detection. Although these methods allow for the sensitive and specific detection of targeted compounds and metabolites, the rest remain undetectable. This fact opens a door for cheaters, since different AAS can be synthesized in order to evade doping control tests. This situation was evidenced in 2003 with the discovery of the designer steroid tetrahydrogestrinone. One decade after this discovery, the detection of unknown AAS still remains one of the main analytical challenges in the doping control field. In this manuscript, the current situation in the detection of unknown AAS is reviewed. Although important steps have been made in order to minimize this analytical problem and different analytical strategies have been proposed, there are still some drawbacks related to each approach.

  7. Practical aspects of screening of anabolic steroids in doping control with particular accent to nortestosterone radioimmunoassay using mixed antisera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampl, R.; Starka, L.

    1979-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay of two main classes of anabolic steroids, suitable for screening of these drugs in doping control is described and evaluated. Antisera against 17α-methyltestosterone-3-carboxymethyl-oxime-BSA were raised in both rabbits and goats. To enhance the specificity of nortestosterone assay, two goat antisera against nortestosterone-17β-hemisuccinate-BSA (Ab. 1) and nortestosterone-3-carboxymethyloxime-BSA (Ab. 2) were raised which recognized selectively 19-nor-3-oxosteroids and 19-nor-17β-hydroxysteroids, respectively. Using their mixture, the cross-reaction of naturally occuring steroids except for testosterone could be minimized. Tritiated steroids were used as tracers. Iodinated methyltestosterone and nortestosterone, prepared by simple melting of these steroids with Na 125 I, could be used as alternative radioligands. Some questions concerning the expression of results and practical limitations of doping control of anabolics are discussed. (author)

  8. Practical aspects of screening of anabolic steroids in doping control with particular accent to nortestosterone radioimmunoassay using mixed antisera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampl, R; Starka, L [Research Institute Endocrinology Prague, Czechoslavakia

    1979-07-01

    A radioimmunoassay of two main classes of anabolic steroids, suitable for screening of these drugs in doping control is described and evaluated. Antisera against 17..cap alpha..-methyltestosterone-3-carboxymethyl-oxime-BSA were raised in both rabbits and goats. To enhance the specificity of nortestosterone assay, two goat antisera against nortestosterone-17..beta..-hemisuccinate-BSA (Ab. 1) and nortestosterone-3-carboxymethyloxime-BSA (Ab. 2) were raised which recognized selectively 19-nor-3-oxosteroids and 19-nor-17..beta..-hydroxysteroids, respectively. Using their mixture, the cross-reaction of naturally occuring steroids except for testosterone could be minimized. Tritiated steroids were used as tracers. Iodinated methyltestosterone and nortestosterone, prepared by simple melting of these steroids with Na/sup 125/I, could be used as alternative radioligands. Some questions concerning the expression of results and practical limitations of doping control of anabolics are discussed.

  9. The Contribution of Social Media to Body Dissatisfaction, Eating Disorder Symptoms, and Anabolic Steroid Use Among Sexual Minority Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Scott; Murray, Stuart B; Krug, Isabel; McLean, Siân A

    2018-03-01

    Social media has been associated with body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms among young women and adolescent girls. However, despite notable evidence of susceptibility to body image pressures, it remains unknown whether these associations generalize to sexual minority men. A nationwide sample of 2,733 sexual minority men completed an online survey advertised to Australian and New Zealand users of a popular dating app. Participants answered questions about how frequently they used 11 different social media platforms in addition to questions about their dating app use, body image, eating disorder symptoms, and anabolic steroids. Facebook, Youtube, Instagram, and Snapchat were the most frequently used social media platforms. A pattern of small-sized and positive associations emerged between social media use and body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms, and thoughts about using anabolic steroids. Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat evidenced the strongest associations. The associations of social media use with both muscularity dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms were stronger for image-centric social media platforms (e.g., Instagram) than nonimage-centric platforms (e.g., Wordpress); no differences were observed for body fat dissatisfaction, height dissatisfaction, or thoughts about using anabolic steroids. Previously documented associations of social media use with body dissatisfaction and related variables among women and girls appear to generalize to sexual minority men. Social media platforms that more centrally involve imagery may be of greater concern than nonimage-centric platforms. Additional research with sexual minority men is needed to elucidate the distinctions between adaptive and maladaptive social media use in the context of body dissatisfaction, eating disorders, and anabolic steroid use.

  10. Classification of two steroids, prostanozol and methasterone, as Schedule III anabolic steroids under the Controlled Substance Act. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    With the issuance of this Final Rule, the Administrator of the DEA classifies the following two steroids as "anabolic steroids'' under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA): prostanozol (17[beta]-hydroxy-5[alpha]-androstano[3,2-c]pyrazole) and methasterone (2[alpha],17[alpha]-dimethyl-5[alpha]-androstan-17[beta]-ol-3-one). These steroids and their salts, esters, and ethers are Schedule III controlled substances subject to the regulatory control provisions of the CSA.

  11. In Vivo MRI Quantification of Individual Muscle and Organ Volumes for Assessment of Anabolic Steroid Growth Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ed X.; Tang, Haiying; Tong, Christopher; Heymsfield, Steve B.; Vasselli, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a quantitative and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to investigate the muscle growth effects of anabolic steroids. A protocol of MRI acquisition on a standard clinical 1.5 Tesla scanner and quantitative image analysis was established and employed to measure the individual muscle and organ volumes in the intact and castrated guinea pigs undergoing a 16-week treatment protocol by two well-documented anabolic steroids, testosterone and nandrolone, via implanted silastic capsules. High correlations between the in vivo MRI and postmortem dissection measurements were observed for shoulder muscle complex (R = 0.86), masseter (R=0.79), temporalis (R=0.95), neck muscle complex (R=0.58), prostate gland and seminal vesicles (R=0.98), and testis (R=0.96). Furthermore, the longitudinal MRI measurements yielded adequate sensitivity to detect the restoration of growth to or towards normal in castrated guinea pigs by replacing circulating steroid levels to physiological or slightly higher levels, as expected. These results demonstrated that quantitative MRI using a standard clinical scanner provides accurate and sensitive measurement of individual muscles and organs, and this in vivo MRI protocol in conjunction with the castrated guinea pig model constitutes an effective platform to investigate the longitudinal and cross-sectional growth effects of other potential anabolic steroids. The quantitative MRI protocol developed can also be readily adapted for human studies on most clinical MRI scanner to investigate the anabolic steroid growth effects, or monitor the changes in individual muscle and organ volume and geometry following injury, strength training, neuromuscular disorders, and pharmacological or surgical interventions. PMID:18241900

  12. Adult Brtl/+ mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta demonstrates anabolic response to sclerostin antibody treatment with increased bone mass and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinder, B P; White, L E; Salemi, J D; Ominsky, M S; Caird, M S; Marini, J C; Kozloff, K M

    2014-08-01

    Treatments to reduce fracture rates in adults with osteogenesis imperfecta are limited. Sclerostin antibody, developed for treating osteoporosis, has not been explored in adults with OI. This study demonstrates that treatment of adult OI mice respond favorably to sclerostin antibody therapy despite retention of the OI-causing defect. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable collagen-related bone dysplasia, characterized by brittle bones with increased fracture risk. Although OI fracture risk is greatest before puberty, adults with OI remain at risk of fracture. Antiresorptive bisphosphonates are commonly used to treat adult OI, but have shown mixed efficacy. New treatments which consistently improve bone mass throughout the skeleton may improve patient outcomes. Neutralizing antibodies to sclerostin (Scl-Ab) are a novel anabolic therapy that have shown efficacy in preclinical studies by stimulating bone formation via the canonical wnt signaling pathway. The purpose of this study was to evaluate Scl-Ab in an adult 6 month old Brtl/+ model of OI that harbors a typical heterozygous OI-causing Gly > Cys substitution on Col1a1. Six-month-old WT and Brtl/+ mice were treated with Scl-Ab (25 mg/kg, 2×/week) or Veh for 5 weeks. OCN and TRACP5b serum assays, dynamic histomorphometry, microCT and mechanical testing were performed. Adult Brtl/+ mice demonstrated a strong anabolic response to Scl-Ab with increased serum osteocalcin and bone formation rate. This anabolic response led to improved trabecular and cortical bone mass in the femur. Mechanical testing revealed Scl-Ab increased Brtl/+ femoral stiffness and strength. Scl-Ab was successfully anabolic in an adult Brtl/+ model of OI.

  13. Relationship of long-term macronutrients intake on anabolic-catabolic hormones in female elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielgo Ayuso, Juan; Zourdos, Michael C; Urdampilleta, Aritz; Calleja González, Julio; Seco, Jesús; Córdova, Alfredo

    2017-10-24

    Specific macronutrient distribution and training can alter acute and chronic hormone behavior and, subsequently, sport performance. The main aim was to examine relationships between dietary intake and anabolic/catabolic hormone response in elite female volleyball players during a 29-week season. Twenty-two elite female volleyballers (26.4 ± 5.6 years; 178 ± 9 cm; 67.1 ± 7.5 kg) had dietary intake (seven-day dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire), blood concentration of anabolic/catabolic hormones concentration, physical performance, and body composition assessed at four time points: a) T1: baseline/pre-testing; b) T2: eleven weeks after T1; c) T3: ten weeks after T2; and d) T4: eight weeks after T3. Hormones evaluated were: total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT) adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and cortisol (C), along with hormone ratios. Positive correlations were observed between carbohydrate/protein ratio with ΔFT (r = 0.955; p 0.05) in body mass or body mass index at any time point, and the sum of six skinfolds improved (p < 0.05) from T1 (86.5 ± 6.9 mm) to T4 (75.2 ± 5.6 mm) as did muscle mass (T1: 28.9 ± 0.7 kg vsT4: 30.1 ± 0.8 kg). Vertical jump, spike-jump and speed improved (p < 0.05) from T1 to T4. A high carbohydrate/protein ratio was associated with positive changes in anabolism, while high protein and low carbohydrates (CHO) were associated with an attenuated anabolic response.

  14. Targeting Anabolic Impairment in Response to Resistance Exercise in Older Adults with Mobility Impairments: Potential Mechanisms and Rehabilitation Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Drummond, Micah J.; Marcus, Robin L.; LaStayo, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Muscle atrophy is associated with healthy aging (i.e., sarcopenia) and may be compounded by comorbidities, injury, surgery, illness, and physical inactivity. While a bout of resistance exercise increases protein synthesis rates in healthy young skeletal muscle, the effectiveness of resistance exercise to mount a protein synthetic response is less pronounced in older adults. Improving anabolic sensitivity to resistance exercise, thereby enhancing physical function, is most critical in needy ol...

  15. The Contribution of Social Media to Body Dissatisfaction, Eating Disorder Symptoms, and Anabolic Steroid Use Among Sexual Minority Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Stuart B.; Krug, Isabel; McLean, Siân A.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Social media has been associated with body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms among young women and adolescent girls. However, despite notable evidence of susceptibility to body image pressures, it remains unknown whether these associations generalize to sexual minority men. A nationwide sample of 2,733 sexual minority men completed an online survey advertised to Australian and New Zealand users of a popular dating app. Participants answered questions about how frequently they used 11 different social media platforms in addition to questions about their dating app use, body image, eating disorder symptoms, and anabolic steroids. Facebook, Youtube, Instagram, and Snapchat were the most frequently used social media platforms. A pattern of small-sized and positive associations emerged between social media use and body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms, and thoughts about using anabolic steroids. Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat evidenced the strongest associations. The associations of social media use with both muscularity dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms were stronger for image-centric social media platforms (e.g., Instagram) than nonimage-centric platforms (e.g., Wordpress); no differences were observed for body fat dissatisfaction, height dissatisfaction, or thoughts about using anabolic steroids. Previously documented associations of social media use with body dissatisfaction and related variables among women and girls appear to generalize to sexual minority men. Social media platforms that more centrally involve imagery may be of greater concern than nonimage-centric platforms. Additional research with sexual minority men is needed to elucidate the distinctions between adaptive and maladaptive social media use in the context of body dissatisfaction, eating disorders, and anabolic steroid use. PMID:29363993

  16. In vivo MRI quantification of individual muscle and organ volumes for assessment of anabolic steroid growth effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ed X; Tang, Haiying; Tong, Christopher; Heymsfield, Steve B; Vasselli, Joseph R

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed to develop a quantitative and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to investigate the muscle growth effects of anabolic steroids. A protocol of MRI acquisition on a standard clinical 1.5 T scanner and quantitative image analysis was established and employed to measure the individual muscle and organ volumes in the intact and castrated guinea pigs undergoing a 16-week treatment protocol by two well-documented anabolic steroids, testosterone and nandrolone, via implanted silastic capsules. High correlations between the in vivo MRI and postmortem dissection measurements were observed for shoulder muscle complex (R=0.86), masseter (R=0.79), temporalis (R=0.95), neck muscle complex (R=0.58), prostate gland and seminal vesicles (R=0.98), and testis (R=0.96). Furthermore, the longitudinal MRI measurements yielded adequate sensitivity to detect the restoration of growth to or towards normal in castrated guinea pigs by replacing circulating steroid levels to physiological or slightly higher levels, as expected. These results demonstrated that quantitative MRI using a standard clinical scanner provides accurate and sensitive measurement of individual muscles and organs, and this in vivo MRI protocol in conjunction with the castrated guinea pig model constitutes an effective platform to investigate the longitudinal and cross-sectional growth effects of other potential anabolic steroids. The quantitative MRI protocol developed can also be readily adapted for human studies on most clinical MRI scanner to investigate the anabolic steroid growth effects, or monitor the changes in individual muscle and organ volume and geometry following injury, strength training, neuromuscular disorders, and pharmacological or surgical interventions.

  17. Role of paraoxonase-1 in bone anabolic effects of parathyroid hormone in hyperlipidemic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jinxiu [Department of Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Cheng, Henry [Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Atti, Elisa [Division of Diagnostic and Surgical Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Shih, Diana M. [Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Demer, Linda L. [Department of Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Tintut, Yin, E-mail: ytintut@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► Anabolic effects of PTH were tested in hyperlipidemic mice overexpressing PON1. ► Expression of antioxidant regulatory genes was induced in PON1 overexpression. ► Bone resorptive activity was reduced in PON1 overexpressing hyperlipidemic mice. ► PON1 restored responsiveness to intermittent PTH in bones of hyperlipidemic mice. -- Abstract: Hyperlipidemia blunts anabolic effects of intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) on cortical bone, and the responsiveness to PTH are restored in part by oral administration of the antioxidant ApoA-I mimetic peptide, D-4F. To evaluate the mechanism of this rescue, hyperlipidemic mice overexpressing the high-density lipoprotein-associated antioxidant enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (Ldlr{sup −/−}PON1{sup tg}) were generated, and daily PTH injections were administered to Ldlr{sup −/−}PON1{sup tg} and to littermate Ldlr{sup −/−} mice. Expression of bone regulatory genes was determined by realtime RT-qPCR, and cortical bone parameters of the femoral bones by micro-computed tomographic analyses. PTH-treated Ldlr{sup −/−}PON1{sup tg} mice had significantly greater expression of PTH receptor (PTH1R), activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in femoral cortical bone, as well as significantly greater cortical bone mineral content, thickness, and area in femoral diaphyses compared with untreated Ldlr{sup −/−}PON1{sup tg} mice. In contrast, in control mice (Ldlr{sup −/−}) without PON1 overexpression, PTH treatment did not induce these markers. Calvarial bone of PTH-treated Ldlr{sup −/−}PON1{sup tg} mice also had significantly greater expression of osteoblastic differentiation marker genes as well as BMP-2-target and Wnt-target genes. Untreated Ldlr{sup −/−}PON1{sup tg} mice had significantly greater expression of PTHR1 than untreated Ldlr{sup −/−} mice, whereas sclerostin expression was reduced. In femoral cortical bones, expression levels of transcription factors, Fox

  18. The Effect of Anabolic Steroid Administration on Passive Stretching-Induced Expression of Mechano-Growth Factor in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ikeda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Stretching of skeletal muscle induces expression of the genes which encode myogenic transcription factors or muscle contractile proteins and results in muscle growth. Anabolic steroids are reported to strengthen muscles. We have previously studied the effects of muscle stretching on gene expression. Here, we studied the effect of a combination of passive stretching and the administration of an anabolic steroid on mRNA expression of a muscle growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-I autocrine variant, or mechano-growth factor (MGF. Methods. Twelve 8-week-old male Wistar rats were used. Metenolone was administered and passive repetitive dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of the ankle joint performed under deep anesthesia. After 24 h, the gastrocnemius muscles were removed and the mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor-I autocrine variant was measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results. Repetitive stretching in combination with metenolone, but not stretching alone, significantly increased MGF mRNA expression. Conclusion. Anabolic steroids enhance the effect of passive stretching on MGF expression in skeletal muscle.

  19. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids and Condom Use: Potential Mechanisms in Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blashill, Aaron J.; Gordon, Janna R.; Safren, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has revealed a significant bivariate relationship between anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use and reduced condom use among adolescent boys. However, to date, no known studies have explored the psychological mechanisms that may explain this relationship. Thus, the current study sought to examine two possible mediators in the association between AAS and condom use—depressive symptoms and substance use. Data were extracted from a nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents. Participants were 3,780 U.S. high school boys who responded to self-report items assessing a number of health behaviors, including symptoms of depression, substance use, AAS use, and use of condoms during their most recent act of intercourse. Both depression and substance use were significant mediators in the relationship between AAS and condom use. However, when these effects were contrasted, the indirect effect of substance use was significantly stronger in magnitude than the effect of depression. Although AAS use is associated with sexual risk behaviors among adolescent boys, significant variance in this relationship is accounted for by elevated levels of depression and substance use, with substance use demonstrating a particularly salient pathway. PMID:23718635

  20. Androgenic anabolic steroid exposure during adolescence: Ramifications for brain development and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Rebecca L.; Lumia, Augustus R.; McGinnis, Marilyn Y.

    2013-01-01

    Puberty is a critical period for brain maturation that is highly dependent on gonadal sex hormones. Modifications in the gonadal steroid environment, via the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), have been shown to affect brain development and behavior. Studies in both humans and animal models indicate that AAS exposure during adolescence alters normal brain remodeling, including structural changes and neurotransmitter function. The most commonly reported behavioral effect is an increase in aggression. Evidence has been presented to identify factors that influence the effect of AAS on the expression of aggression. The chemical composition of the AAS plays a major role in determining whether aggression is displayed, with testosterone being the most effective. The hormonal context, the environmental context, physical provocation and the perceived threat during the social encounter have all been found to influence the expression of aggression and sexual behavior. All of these factors point toward an altered behavioral state that includes an increased readiness to respond to a social encounter with heightened vigilance, and enhanced motivation. This AAS-induced state may be defined as emboldenment. The evidence suggests that the use of AAS during this critical period of development may increase the risk for maladaptive behaviors along with neurological disorders. PMID:23274699

  1. Anabolic steroids and cardiovascular risk: A national population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiblin, Ingemar; Garmo, Hans; Garle, Mats; Holmberg, Lars; Byberg, Liisa; Michaëlsson, Karl; Gedeborg, Rolf

    2015-07-01

    Non-therapeutic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been associated with various adverse effects; one of the most serious being direct cardiovascular effects with unknown long-term consequences. Therefore, large studies of the association between AAS and cardiovascular outcomes are warranted. We investigated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in individuals who tested positive for AAS. Between 2002 and 2009, a total of 2013 men were enrolled in a cohort on the date of their first AAS test. Mortality and morbidity after cohort entry was retrieved from national registries. Of the 2013 individuals, 409 (20%) tested positive for AAS. These men had twice the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rate as those with negative tests (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-3.3). Compared to the Swedish population, all tested men had an increased risk of premature death from all causes (standardized mortality ratio for AAS-positive: 19.3, 95% CI 12.4-30.0; for AAS-negative: 8.3, 95% CI 6.1-11.0). Non-therapeutic exposure to AAS appears to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and premature death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids and Intracellular Calcium Signaling: A Mini Review on Mechanisms and Physiological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicencio, J.M.; Estrada, M.; Galvis, D.; Bravo, R.; Contreras, A.E.; Rotter, D.; Szabadkai, G.; Hill, J.A.; Rothermel, B.A.; Jaimovich, E.; Lavandero, S.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that nongenomic effects of testosterone and anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) operate concertedly with genomic effects. Classically, these responses have been viewed as separate and independent processes, primarily because nongenomic responses are faster and appear to be mediated by membrane androgen receptors, whereas long-term genomic effects are mediated through cytosolic androgen receptors regulating transcriptional activity. Numerous studies have demonstrated increases in intracellular Ca2+ in response to AAS. These Ca2+ mediated responses have been seen in a diversity of cell types, including osteoblasts, platelets, skeletal muscle cells, cardiac myocytes and neurons. The versatility of Ca2+ as a second messenger provides these responses with a vast number of pathophysiological implications. In cardiac cells, testosterone elicits voltage-dependent Ca2+ oscillations and IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release from internal stores, leading to activation of MAPK and mTOR signaling that promotes cardiac hypertrophy. In neurons, depending upon concentration, testosterone can provoke either physiological Ca2+ oscillations, essential for synaptic plasticity, or sustained, pathological Ca2+ transients that lead to neuronal apoptosis. We propose therefore, that Ca2+ acts as an important point of crosstalk between nongenomic and genomic AAS signaling, representing a central regulator that bridges these previously thought to be divergent responses. PMID:21443511

  3. Anabolic-androgenic Steroid use and Psychopathology in Athletes. A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentino, Daria; Kotzalidis, Georgios D.; del Casale, Antonio; Aromatario, Maria Rosaria; Pomara, Cristoforo; Girardi, Paolo; Sani, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) by professional and recreational athletes is increasing worldwide. The underlying motivations are mainly performance enhancement and body image improvement. AAS abuse and dependence, which are specifically classified and coded by the DSM-5, are not uncommon. AAS-using athletes are frequently present with psychiatric symptoms and disorders, mainly somatoform and eating, but also mood, and schizophrenia-related disorders. Some psychiatric disorders are typical of athletes, like muscle dysmorphia. This raises the issue of whether AAS use causes these disorders in athletes, by determining neuroadaptive changes in the reward neural circuit or by exacerbating stress vulnerability, or rather these are athletes with premorbid abnormal personalities or a history of psychiatric disorders who are attracted to AAS use, prompted by the desire to improve their appearance and control their weights. This may predispose to eating disorders, but AASs also show mood destabilizing effects, with longterm use inducing depression and short-term hypomania; withdrawal/discontinuation may be accompanied by depression. The effects of AASs on anxiety behavior are unclear and studies are inconsistent. AASs are also linked to psychotic behavior. The psychological characteristics that could prompt athletes to use AASs have not been elucidated. PMID:26074746

  4. Metabolic signature of sun exposed skin suggests catabolic pathway overweighs anabolic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet Randhawa

    Full Text Available Skin chronically exposed to sun results in phenotypic changes referred as photoaging. This aspect of aging has been studied extensively through genomic and proteomic tools. Metabolites, the end product are generated as a result of biochemical reactions are often studied as a culmination of complex interplay of gene and protein expression. In this study, we focused exclusively on the metabolome to study effects from sun-exposed and sun-protected skin sites from 25 human subjects. We generated a highly accurate metabolomic signature for the skin that is exposed to sun. Biochemical pathway analysis from this data set showed that sun-exposed skin resides under high oxidative stress and the chains of reactions to produce these metabolites are inclined toward catabolism rather than anabolism. These catabolic activities persuade the skin cells to generate metabolites through the salvage pathway instead of de novo synthesis pathways. Metabolomic profile suggests catabolic pathways and reactive oxygen species operate in a feed forward fashion to alter the biology of sun exposed skin.

  5. The effect of caffeine on skeletal muscle anabolic signaling and hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Timothy M; Mortensen, Xavier M; Ashby, Conrad K; Harris, Alexander M; Kump, Karson J; Laird, David W; Adams, Aaron J; Bray, Jeremy K; Chen, Ting; Thomson, David M

    2017-06-01

    Caffeine is a widely consumed stimulant with the potential to enhance physical performance through multiple mechanisms. However, recent in vitro findings have suggested that caffeine may block skeletal muscle anabolic signaling through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mediated inhibition of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. This could negatively affect protein synthesis and the capacity for muscle growth. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the effect of caffeine on in vivo AMPK and mTOR pathway signaling, protein synthesis, and muscle growth. In cultured C2C12 muscle cells, physiological levels of caffeine failed to impact mTOR activation or myoblast proliferation or differentiation. We found that caffeine administration to mice did not significantly enhance the phosphorylation of AMPK or inhibit signaling proteins downstream of mTOR (p70S6k, S6, or 4EBP1) or protein synthesis after a bout of electrically stimulated contractions. Skeletal muscle-specific knockout of LKB1, the primary AMPK activator in skeletal muscle, on the other hand, eliminated AMPK activation by contractions and enhanced S6k, S6, and 4EBP1 activation before and after contractions. In rats, the addition of caffeine did not affect plantaris hypertrophy induced by the tenotomy of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. In conclusion, caffeine administration does not impair skeletal muscle load-induced mTOR signaling, protein synthesis, or muscle hypertrophy.

  6. Effect of anabolic steroids on overloaded and overloaded suspended skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsika, R. W.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of treatment with an anabolic steroid (nandrolone decanoate) on the muscle mass, the subcellular protein content, and the myosin patterns of normal overloaded and suspended overloaded plantaris muscle in female rat was investigated, dividing rats into six groups: normal control (NC), overload (OV), OV steroid (OV-S), normal suspended (N-sus), OV suspended (OV-sus), and OV suspended steroid (OV-sus-S). Relative to control values, overload produced a sparing effect on the muscle weight of the OV-sus group as well as increases of muscle weight of the OV group; increased protein content; and an increased expression of slow myosin in both OV and OV-sus groups. Steroid treatment of OV animals did not after the response of any parameter analyzed for the OV group, but in the OV-sus group steroid treatment induced increases in muscle weight and in protein content of the OV-sus-S group. The treatment did not alter the pattern of isomyosin expression observed in the OV or the OV-sus groups. These result suggest that the steroid acts synergistically with functional overload only under conditions in which the effect of overload is minimized by suspension.

  7. The neurobiology and addiction potential of anabolic androgenic steroids and the effects of growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönbladh, Alfhild; Nylander, Erik; Hallberg, Mathias

    2016-09-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are substances that mimic the hormone testosterone, and primarily act via the androgen receptor. In addition to their physiological effect on muscle tissue and growth, research from the last decade has shown that AAS have a pronounced impact on the central nervous system. A large number of studies have demonstrated that AAS affect the mesolimbic reward system in the brain. However, whether the direct effects of AAS on endorphins, dopamine, serotonin and GABA etc. and on the corresponding and related systems lead to dependence needs to be further elucidated. According to recent studies, the prevalence of AAS dependence among AAS users has been estimated to be approximately 30%, and polysubstance use, of both pharmaceutical drugs and narcotics, within this group is common. The present review primarily discusses AAS in the context of addiction and dependence, and further addresses the issue of using multiple substances, i.e. stimulants and opiates in combination with AAS. In addition, aspects of the treatment of AAS dependence, the connection between AAS abuse and cognition, and AAS-induced neurotoxicity are presented. Currently, performance enhancing drugs are frequently used in combination with AAS. Therefore, a large section on growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor is also included. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Multisubstance use as a feature of addiction to anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarberg, Kurt; Nyberg, Fred; Engstrom, Ingemar

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore and describe total drug use among anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) users and the reasons given for the use of these drugs. The study was based on semi-structured interviews and questionnaires involving 32 patients who were attending an addiction centre in Orebro, Sweden, for AAS use. The results indicated that a history of polysubstance use among the patients was frequent. Over half were using drugs of abuse and also taking various other pharmaceuticals. Almost half of the patients took human growth hormones, and almost half of the interviewed persons were drinking alcohol to a hazardous or harmful extent. The most common reason given for taking AAS and other hormones was to increase muscle mass and strength, but some participants also used insulin as a means of losing fat. Cannabis was used to improve sleep, heroin to decrease pain and amphetamine to increase endurance and burn fat. Our data suggest that most of the current AAS users who have been admitted to a treatment programme are multiple drug users with polysubstance dependence. The study stresses the importance of carefully examining total drug use as part of the assessment regimen for this group. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Protein anabolic effects of two chemically distinct relaxins in mouse uteri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bylander, J.E.; Adams, W.C.; Frieden, E.H.

    1986-01-01

    In addition to B-28 relaxin (relaxin B) and B-32 relaxin, acid-acetone extracts of porcine ovaries contain relaxin C, which differs both chemically and biologically from the others. Relaxin C contains one proline residue and a single tryptophane residue; it is about half as active as relaxin B in the guinea pig assay, is active in the motility inhibition assay, but is essentially completely inactive in the mouse pubic ligament assay. Relaxin B has been shown to exhibit protein anabolic properties in rat uteri. To compare the effects of relaxins B and C on uterine protein synthesis, ovariectomized, estrogen-primed mice were given relaxin B or C (10-100 μgm/100 gm b.w. in 1% benzopurpurine 4B) and the uptake of 3 H-proline into uterine protein measured in vitro and in vivo 3-12 hours later. Both relaxins induced significant (40-100%) increases in proline incorporation rates. Maximal stimulation of soluble protein synthesis occurred 3 hr after administration of either relaxin; in contrast, peak uptake of proline into uterine collagen occurred after 6 hr. Stimulation of collagen synthesis was more pronounced as well as more prolonged than the synthesis of soluble protein. Larger doses of relaxin C (as compared to B) were required for continued enhancement of collagen synthesis

  10. Media exposure, mediated social comparison to idealized images of muscularity, and anabolic steroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melki, Jad P; Hitti, Eveline A; Oghia, Michael J; Mufarrij, Afif A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use and dominant sociocultural factors, specifically media exposure to idealized images of male muscularity, and mediated social comparison trends among a sample of young Arab adults. The study found evidence that participants more exposed to content that promotes muscularity and those who idealize images of muscularity and perceive them as motivators for achieving muscularity are more likely to be AAS users. It also found that a significant percentage of participants used at least one kind of dietary supplement and that the level of AAS use among health club participants indicates it is a significant public health problem in Lebanon. The study suggests that dealing with this problem requires a unique approach, beyond the typical awareness of risks strategy, since some users were well aware of the risks yet continue to use AAS, and their motivations pertain more to body image and sexuality. A stronger approach that utilizes critical media literacy teaching that ingrains these issues into school and university curricula will have a more lasting impact.

  11. A high prevalence of abnormal personality traits in chronic users of anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C J; Noakes, T D; Dunne, T; Lambert, M I; Rochford, K

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: (1) To assess the personality profiles of the anabolic androgenic steroid users (AAS) and (2) to determine whether valid premorbid personality traits could be obtained from cross sectional assessment using multisource data. METHODS: The first author became a participant-observer in a group of body builders. An experimental group of body builders who had been using AAS for no more than 18 months (n = 12) was identified. A group of control subjects, each of whom claimed that he did not, and never had, used AAS (n = 12) was also recruited during this period. Key informants played a crucial role in recruiting subjects representative of the AAS and body building communities. An interview schedule based on the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM3-R) personality disorder criteria was conducted with each subject. Additional data were obtained from an AAS using informant and significant others including family and friends. RESULTS: The user group was significantly heavier than the control group and showed abnormal personality traits, in contrast to the control group. Personality traits of AAS users before the onset of AAS use, assessed retrospectively, were not different from personality traits of control subjects. There were significant differences between the before and after personality traits in AAS user group. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest (1) that AAS use is associated with significant disturbances in personality profile, and (2) that these personality disturbances are possibly the direct result of AAS use. PMID:8889121

  12. A high prevalence of abnormal personality traits in chronic users of anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C J; Noakes, T D; Dunne, T; Lambert, M I; Rochford, K

    1996-09-01

    (1) To assess the personality profiles of the anabolic androgenic steroid users (AAS) and (2) to determine whether valid premorbid personality traits could be obtained from cross sectional assessment using multisource data. The first author became a participant-observer in a group of body builders. An experimental group of body builders who had been using AAS for no more than 18 months (n = 12) was identified. A group of control subjects, each of whom claimed that he did not, and never had, used AAS (n = 12) was also recruited during this period. Key informants played a crucial role in recruiting subjects representative of the AAS and body building communities. An interview schedule based on the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM3-R) personality disorder criteria was conducted with each subject. Additional data were obtained from an AAS using informant and significant others including family and friends. The user group was significantly heavier than the control group and showed abnormal personality traits, in contrast to the control group. Personality traits of AAS users before the onset of AAS use, assessed retrospectively, were not different from personality traits of control subjects. There were significant differences between the before and after personality traits in AAS user group. The results suggest (1) that AAS use is associated with significant disturbances in personality profile, and (2) that these personality disturbances are possibly the direct result of AAS use.

  13. Neurovascular Response during Exercise and Mental Stress in Anabolic Steroid Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porello, Rafael Armani; Dos Santos, Marcelo Rodrigues; DE Souza, Francis Ribeiro; DA Fonseca, Guilherme Wesley Peixoto; Sayegh, Ana Luiza Carrari; DE Oliveira, Tiago Franco; Akiho, César Abreu; Yonamine, Maurício; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; Negrão, Carlos Eduardo; Alves, Maria-Janieire DE Nazaré Nunes

    2018-03-01

    Increased resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and lower forearm blood flow (FBF) were observed in young men who use anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). However, the response of MSNA and FBF in AAS users triggered by muscle mechanoreflex and central command has never been tested. In addition, we evaluated the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) responses during these maneuvers. Nineteen AAS users (AASU) 31 ± 6 yr of age and 18 AAS nonusers (AASNU) 29 ± 4 yr of age were recruited. All participants were involved in strength training. AAS use was determined using a urine test (liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry). MSNA was measured using the microneurography technique. FBF was measured by using venous occlusion plethysmography. BP was measured using an automatic oscillometric device. HR was recorded continuously through ECG. Isometric handgrip exercise was performed at 30% of the maximal voluntary contraction for 3 min, and mental stress was elicited by the Stroop color-word test for 4 min. The MSNA and FBF responses during exercise were similar between AASU and AASNU, with a trend toward higher MSNA (bursts per minute; P = 0.084) and lower forearm vascular conductance (FVC; units; P = 0.084) in AASU than in AASNU. During mental stress, AASU showed a significantly higher MSNA (P stress) stimulation, AASU have exacerbated MSNA and blunted vasodilation. Therefore, mental stress seems to exacerbate neurovascular control throughout stress reaction situations in AASU.

  14. Catalase anabolism in yeast: loss of regulation by oxygen of catalase apoprotein synthesis after mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berte, C; Sels, A

    1979-04-17

    A mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae which displays catalase activity when grown under strictly anaerobic conditions has been selected on solid media. Although some preformed holoenzyme has accumulated in anaerobic cells, a sharp increase of activity is still measured during adaptation to oxygen in glucose-buffer; however, a striking difference with the wild-type strain is that in the mutant, catalase formation is observed in the presence of cycloheximide that totally inhibits cytoplasmic translation. It is concluded that kat 80 mutant has lost the regulatory control by oxygen of apocatalase synthesis; the later precursor, characterized as apocatalase synthesis; the latter precursor, characterized as apocatalase T, is thought to be activated in vivo, under aerobic conditions, by inclusion of prosthetic group. Regulation of enzyme synthesis by catabolite repression (glucose erfect) persists, unmodified by reference to the wild-type parental strain. Mutation kat 80 specifically hits catalase anabolism, as no significant variations were observed for the edification of the respiratory system and (apo)cytochrome c peroxidase production. Genetic analysis shows that kat 80 phenotype, recessive in heterozygotes, results from a single nuclear mutation.

  15. The importance of anabolism in microbial control over soil carbon storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Chao; Schimel, Joshua P.; Jastrow, Julie D.

    2017-07-25

    Studies of the decomposition, transformation and stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM) have dramatically increased in recent years owing to growing interest in studying the global carbon (C) cycle as it pertains to climate change. While it is readily accepted that the magnitude of the organic C reservoir in soils depends upon microbial involvement, as soil C dynamics are ultimately the consequence of microbial growth and activity, it remains largely unknown how these microorganism-mediated processes lead to soil C stabilization. Here, we define two pathways—ex vivo modification and in vivo turnover—which jointly explain soil C dynamics driven by microbial catabolism and/or anabolism. Accordingly, we use the conceptual framework of the soil ‘microbial carbon pump’ (MCP) to demonstrate how microorganisms are an active player in soil C storage. The MCP couples microbial production of a set of organic compounds to their further stabilization, which we define as the entombing effect. This integration captures the cumulative long-term legacy of microbial assimilation on SOM formation, with mechanisms (whether via physical protection or a lack of activation energy due to chemical composition) that ultimately enable the entombment of microbial-derived C in soils. We propose a need for increased efforts and seek to inspire new studies that utilize the soil MCP as a conceptual guideline for improving mechanistic understandings of the contributions of soil C dynamics to the responses of the terrestrial C cycle under global change.

  16. Skeletal unloading induces selective resistance to the anabolic actions of growth hormone on bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Harris, J.; Autry, C. P.; Currier, P. A.; Tanner, S.; Patterson-Buckendahl, P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1995-01-01

    Loss of skeletal weight bearing or physical unloading of bone in the growing animal inhibits bone formation and induces a bone mineral deficit. To determine whether the inhibition of bone formation induced by skeletal unloading in the growing animal is a consequence of diminished sensitivity to growth hormone (GH) we studied the effects of skeletal unloading in young hypophysectomized rats treated with GH (0, 50, 500 micrograms/100 g body weight/day). Skeletal unloading reduced serum osteocalcin, impaired uptake of 3H-proline into bone, decreased proximal tibial mass, and diminished periosteal bone formation at the tibiofibular junction. When compared with animals receiving excipient alone, GH administration increased bone mass in all animals. The responses in serum osteocalcin, uptake of 3H-proline and 45Ca into the proximal tibia, and proximal tibial mass in non-weight bearing animals were equal to those in weight bearing animals. The responses in trabecular bone volume in the proximal tibia and bone formation at the tibiofibular junction to GH, however, were reduced significantly by skeletal unloading. Bone unloading prevented completely the increase in metaphyseal trabecular bone normally induced by GH and severely dampened the stimulatory effect (158% vs. 313%, p < 0.002) of GH on periosteal bone formation. These results suggest that while GH can stimulate the overall accumulation of bone mineral in both weight bearing and non-weight bearing animals, skeletal unloading selectively impairs the response of trabecular bone and periosteal bone formation to the anabolic actions of GH.

  17. Skeletal unloading induces selective resistance to the anabolic actions of growth hormone on bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Harris, J.; Autry, C. P.; Currier, P. A.; Tanner, S.; Patterson-Buckendahl, P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1995-01-01

    Loss of skeletal weight bearing or physical unloading of bone in the growing animal inhibits bone formation and induces a bone mineral deficit. To determine whether the inhibition of bone formation induced by skeletal unloading in the growing animal is a consequence of diminished sensitivity to growth hormone (GH) we studied the effects of skeletal unloading in young hypophysectomized rats treated with GH (0, 50, 500 micrograms/100 g body weight/day). Skeletal unloading reduced serum osteocalcin, impaired uptake of 3H-proline into bone, decreased proximal tibial mass, and diminished periosteal bone formation at the tibiofibular junction. When compared with animals receiving excipient alone, GH administration increased bone mass in all animals. The responses in serum osteocalcin, uptake of 3H-proline and 45Ca into the proximal tibia, and proximal tibial mass in non-weight bearing animals were equal to those in weight bearing animals. The responses in trabecular bone volume in the proximal tibia and bone formation at the tibiofibular junction to GH, however, were reduced significantly by skeletal unloading. Bone unloading prevented completely the increase in metaphyseal trabecular bone normally induced by GH and severely dampened the stimulatory effect (158% vs. 313%, p anabolic actions of GH.

  18. Acute aortic dissection in a young healthy athlete with androgenic anabolic steroid use: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barman M, Djamel B, Mathews J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute aortic dissection can occur at the time of intense physical exertion in strength-trained athletes like weight lifters, bodybuilders, throwers, and wrestlers. Rapid rise in blood pressure and history of hypertension are the most common causes of aortic dissection in athletes. It is a very tragic event because of its high mortality rate of about 32% in young patients. We report a case of aortic dissection in a young weightlifter with a history of anabolic steroid usage with an extensive intimal tear of the aorta at Sino tubular junction and arch. All athletes must be assessed for predisposing factors for aortic dissection, and all patients should be encouraged to undergo appropriate diagnostic studies, like echocardiography and blood pressure monitoring while weightlifting to recognize possible predisposing factors for aortic dissection. Athletes who do have a problem should be encouraged to avoid or limit their exercise or activity by their cardiologist. It is vital that this disastrous event be prevented in young people. In conclusion, although a rare occurrence, AD should be considered in symptomatic patients with any family history of early cardiac deaths, a history suggestive of a connective tissue disorder (that is, multiple joint surgeries or who practice weightlifting.

  19. Anabolic therapy in b-thalassaemia major induced osteoporosis: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Cantatore

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Transfusion program and chelating therapy treatment has extended the life expectancy of thalassaemic patient; osteoporosis is considered an important cause of morbidity in adult patients who display increased fracture risk. This is a case report is about a thalassaemic young female with multiple spine fractures (D11, D12 e L2 and lumbar spine DEXA - Tscore = -3,1 and femoral = -3,4. This was in spite of therapy with alendronate 70 mg/week from January 2006 to September 2007. The patient was subsequentently treated for 18 months with 1-34 recombinant human parathyroid hormone and colecalciferol (100.000 U/monthly. After 4 months of therapy, the patient showed a decrease in spinal pain (Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire and an improvement of quality of life (Qualeffo with normalization of osteocalcin and 25-OHcolecalciferol haematic levels after 6 months. Lumbar spine and femoral DEXA - Tscore, at 18 months, rose respectively to -2,5 and -2,4. Thalassaemia-induced osteoporosis is multifactorial and its management is very difficult. Bone marrow expansion, endocrine dysfunction, iron overload and genetic factors all seem to play important roles in the development of low bone mass in these patients. Bisphosfonates have been used in the management of thalassemia induced osteoporosis but there is no data about fracture risk. Anabolic therapy for thalassemic patients requests additional study on a large scale.

  20. Insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and plasma adipocytokines among abusers of anabolic androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jon Jarløv; Schou, Morten; Selmer, Christian; Johansen, Marie Louise; Gustafsson, Finn; Frystyk, Jan; Dela, Flemming; Faber, Jens; Kistorp, Caroline

    2017-09-01

    Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prevalent among young men, but information regarding effects on insulin sensitivity and fat distribution is limited. The objective was to investigate insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and adipocytokines among current and former AAS abusers compared with controls. Cross-sectional study among men involved in recreational strength training. Current and former AAS abusers (n=37 and n=33) and controls (n=30) volunteered from the community. We assessed insulin sensitivity by Matsuda index (oral glucose tolerance test). Using overnight fasting blood samples, adiponectin and leptin were measured. Body composition and fat distribution, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT), were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Current and former AAS abusers displayed lower Matsuda index than controls (%-difference (95%CI) from controls, -26% (-45; -1) and -39% (-55; -18)). Testosterone was markedly higher among current AAS abusers and subnormal among former AAS abusers compared with controls. Current AAS abusers displayed higher mean VAT than controls (388 (17) vs 293 (12) cm 3 , P<.001) whereas body fat %, adiponectin and leptin concentrations were lower. In contrast, former AAS abusers showed highest leptin concentrations and body fat %. Multivariate linear regressions identified VAT as independent predictor of lower Matsuda index among current AAS abusers compared with controls; while body fat % independently predicted lower Matsuda index among former AAS abusers. Both current and former AAS abusers displayed lower insulin sensitivity which could be mediated by higher VAT and total body fat %, respectively. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Identifying a typology of men who use anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnow, Renee; McVeigh, Jim; Bates, Geoff; Hope, Vivian; Kean, Joseph; Campbell, John; Smith, Josie

    2018-05-01

    Despite recognition that the Anabolic Androgenic Steroid (AAS) using population is diverse, empirical studies to develop theories to conceptualise this variance in use have been limited. In this study, using cluster analysis and multinomial logistic regression, we identify typologies of people who use AAS and examine variations in motivations for AAS use across types in a sample of 611 men who use AAS. The cluster analysis identified four groups in the data with different risk profiles. These groups largely reflect the ideal types of people who use AAS proposed by Christiansen et al. (2016): Cluster 1 (You Only Live Once (YOLO) type, n = 68, 11.1%) were younger and motivated by fat loss; Cluster 2 (Well-being type, n = 236, 38.6%) were concerned with getting fit; Cluster 3 (Athlete type, n = 155, 25.4%) were motivated by muscle and strength gains; Cluster 4 (Expert type, n = 152, 24.9%) were focused on specific goals (i.e. not 'getting fit'). The results of this study demonstrate the need to make information about AAS accessible to the general population and to inform health service providers about variations in motivations and associated risk behaviours. Attention should also be given to ensuring existing harm minimisation services are equipped to disseminate information about safe intra-muscular injecting and ensuring needle disposal sites are accessible to the different types. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Adverse effects of doping with anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in competitive athletics, recreational sports and bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorona, Elena; Nieschlag, Eberhard

    2018-02-19

    Despite the fact that sports organizations and legislators have introduced various mechanisms to discourage athletes from using performance and appearance enhancing substances a high percentage of athletes admits to their unabated application. In competitive athletics, bodybuilding and in recreational sports anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) continue to be the substances most abused. This review summarizes the side effects of AAS abuse on organs and system functions in both sexes. High doses of AAS cause a significant increase of erythrocytes und haemoglobin concentration, which may lead to thromboembolism, intracardiac thrombosis and stroke. Long-term AAS abusers have a higher incidence of arrhythmias, atherosclerosis, concentric left-ventricular myocardial hypertrophy with impaired diastolic function and also sudden cardiac death. Changes of liver function and structure, up to hepatocellular carcinoma, have been described, mainly in cases of chronic misuse of 17α-alkylated AAS. Sleeplessness, increased irritability, depressive mood status are often observed in AAS abuse. In former AAS abusers depression, anxiety and melancholy may persist for many years. Due to negative feedback in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis AAS can cause reversible suppression of spermatogenesis up to azoospermia. In women the changes most often caused by AAS abuse are hirsutism, irreversible deepening of voice, dysmenorrhoea, secondary amenorrhoea with anovulation and infertility. AAS abuse notwithstanding, under clinical conditions testosterone remains the most important hormone for substitution therapy of male hypogonadism.

  3. The Keap1-Nrf2 system in cancers: Stress response and anabolic metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro eMitsuishi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Keap1-Nrf2 pathway plays a central role in the protection of cells against oxidative and xenobiotic stresses. Nrf2 is a potent transcription activator that recognizes a unique DNA sequence known as the antioxidant response element (ARE. Under normal conditions, Nrf2 binds to Keap1 in the cytoplasm, resulting in proteasomal degradation. Following exposure to electrophiles or reactive oxygen species, Nrf2 becomes stabilized, translocates into the nucleus and activates the transcription of various cytoprotective genes. Increasing attention has been paid to the role of Nrf2 in cancer cells because the constitutive stabilization of Nrf2 has been observed in many human cancers with poor prognosis. Recent studies have shown that the antioxidant and detoxification activities of Nrf2 confer chemo- and radio-resistance to cancer cells. In this review, we provide an overview of the Keap1-Nrf2 system and discuss its role under physiological and pathological conditions, including cancers. We also introduce the results of our recent study describing Nrf2 function in the metabolism of cancer cells. Nrf2 likely confers a growth advantage to cancer cells through enhancing cytoprotection and anabolism. Finally, we discuss the possible impact of Nrf2 inhibitors on cancer therapy.

  4. Skeletal unloading induces selective resistance to the anabolic actions of growth hormone on bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Harris, J.; Autry, C. P.; Currier, P. A.; Tanner, S.; Patterson-Buckendahl, P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1995-01-01

    Loss of skeletal weight bearing or physical unloading of bone in the growing animal inhibits bone formation and induces a bone mineral deficit. To determine whether the inhibition of bone formation induced by skeletal unloading in the growing animal is a consequence of diminished sensitivity to growth hormone (GH) we studied the effects of skeletal unloading in young hypophysectomized rats treated with GH (0, 50, 500 micrograms/100 g body weight/day). Skeletal unloading reduced serum osteocalcin, impaired uptake of 3H-proline into bone, decreased proximal tibial mass, and diminished periosteal bone formation at the tibiofibular junction. When compared with animals receiving excipient alone, GH administration increased bone mass in all animals. The responses in serum osteocalcin, uptake of 3H-proline and 45Ca into the proximal tibia, and proximal tibial mass in non-weight bearing animals were equal to those in weight bearing animals. The responses in trabecular bone volume in the proximal tibia and bone formation at the tibiofibular junction to GH, however, were reduced significantly by skeletal unloading. Bone unloading prevented completely the increase in metaphyseal trabecular bone normally induced by GH and severely dampened the stimulatory effect (158% vs. 313%, p bone formation. These results suggest that while GH can stimulate the overall accumulation of bone mineral in both weight bearing and non-weight bearing animals, skeletal unloading selectively impairs the response of trabecular bone and periosteal bone formation to the anabolic actions of GH.

  5. Calcitonin impairs the anabolic effect of PTH in young rats and stimulates expression of sclerostin by osteocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooi, J H; Pompolo, S; Karsdal, M A; Kulkarni, N H; Kalajzic, I; McAhren, S H M; Han, B; Onyia, J E; Ho, P W M; Gillespie, M T; Walsh, N C; Chia, L Y; Quinn, J M W; Martin, T J; Sims, N A

    2010-06-01

    The therapeutic goal of increasing bone mass by co-treatment of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and an osteoclast inhibitor has been complicated by the undefined contribution of osteoclasts to the anabolic activity of PTH. To determine whether active osteoclasts are required at the time of PTH administration, we administered a low dose of the transient osteoclast inhibitor salmon calcitonin (sCT) to young rats receiving an anabolic PTH regimen. Co-administration of sCT significantly blunted the anabolic effect of PTH as measured by peripheral quantitative computer tomography (pQCT) and histomorphometry in the femur and tibia, respectively. To determine gene targets of sCT, we carried out quantitative real time PCR and microarray analysis of metaphyseal samples 1.5, 4 and 6.5h after administration of a single injection of PTH, sCT or PTH+sCT. Known targets of PTH action, IL-6, ephrinB2 and RANKL, were not modified by co-administration with sCT. Surprisingly, at all time points, we noted a significant upregulation of sclerostin mRNA by sCT treatment, as well as down-regulation of two other osteocyte gene products, MEPE and DMP1. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that sCT administration increased the percentage of osteocytes expressing sclerostin, suggesting a mechanism by which sCT reduced the anabolic effect of PTH. Neither mRNA for CT receptor (Calcr) nor labeled CT binding could be detected in sclerostin-enriched cells differentiated from primary calvarial osteoblasts. In contrast, osteocytes freshly isolated from calvariae expressed a high level of Calcr mRNA. Furthermore immunohistochemistry revealed co-localization of CT receptor (CTR) and sclerostin in some osteocytes in calvarial sections. Taken together these data indicate that co-treatment with sCT can blunt the anabolic effect of PTH and this may involve direct stimulation of sclerostin production by osteocytes. These data directly implicate calcitonin as a negative regulator of bone formation through a previously

  6. Combined Treatment with Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Analog and Anabolic Steroid Hormone Increased Pubertal Height Gain and Adult Height in Boys with Early Puberty for Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Naiki, Yasuhiro; Horikawa, Reiko

    2012-04-01

    Twenty-one boys with a height of 135 cm or less at onset of puberty were treated with a combination of GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone, and their pubertal height gain and adult height were compared with those of untreated 29 boys who enter puberty below 135 cm. The mean age at the start of treatment with a GnRH analog, leuprorelin acetate depot (Leuplin(®)) was 12.3 yr, a mean of 1.3 yr after the onset of puberty, and GnRH analog was administered every 3 to 5 wk thereafter for a mean duration of 4.1 yr. The anabolic steroid hormone was started approximately 1 yr after initiation of treatment with the GnRH analog. The mean pubertal height gain from onset of puberty till adult height was significantly greater in the combination treatment group (33.9 cm) than in the untreated group (26.4 cm) (ppenis and pubic hair is promoted by the anabolic steroid hormone, no psychosocial problems arose because of delayed puberty. No clinically significant adverse events appeared. Combined treatment with GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone significantly increased height gain during puberty and adult height in boys who entered puberty with a short stature, since the period until epiphyseal closure was extended due to deceleration of the bone age maturation by administration of the GnRH analog and the growth rate at this time was maintained by the anabolic steroid hormone.

  7. Effects of Long Term Supplementation of Anabolic Androgen Steroids on Human Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ji-Guo; Bonnerud, Patrik; Eriksson, Anders; Stål, Per S.; Tegner, Yelverton; Malm, Christer

    2014-01-01

    The effects of long-term (over several years) anabolic androgen steroids (AAS) administration on human skeletal muscle are still unclear. In this study, seventeen strength training athletes were recruited and individually interviewed regarding self-administration of banned substances. Ten subjects admitted having taken AAS or AAS derivatives for the past 5 to 15 years (Doped) and the dosage and type of banned substances were recorded. The remaining seven subjects testified to having never used any banned substances (Clean). For all subjects, maximal muscle strength and body composition were tested, and biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained. Using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry (IHC), muscle biopsies were evaluated for morphology including fiber type composition, fiber size, capillary variables and myonuclei. Compared with the Clean athletes, the Doped athletes had significantly higher lean leg mass, capillary per fibre and myonuclei per fiber. In contrast, the Doped athletes had significantly lower absolute value in maximal squat force and relative values in maximal squat force (relative to lean body mass, to lean leg mass and to muscle fiber area). Using multivariate statistics, an orthogonal projection of latent structure discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model was established, in which the maximal squat force relative to muscle mass and the maximal squat force relative to fiber area, together with capillary density and nuclei density were the most important variables for separating Doped from the Clean athletes (regression  =  0.93 and prediction  =  0.92, p<0.0001). In Doped athletes, AAS dose-dependent increases were observed in lean body mass, muscle fiber area, capillary density and myonuclei density. In conclusion, long term AAS supplementation led to increases in lean leg mass, muscle fiber size and a parallel improvement in muscle strength, and all were dose-dependent. Administration of AAS may induce sustained

  8. ANABOLIC STEROIDS HAVE LONG-LASTING EFFECTS ON MALE SOCIAL BEHAVIORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Ramirez, Kaliris Y.; Montalto, Pamela R.; Sisk, Cheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) use by adolescents is steadily increasing. Adolescence involves remodeling of steroid-sensitive neural circuits that mediate social behaviors, and previous studies using animal models document effects of AAS on male social behaviors. The present experiments tested whether AAS have persistent and more pronounced behavioral consequences when drug exposure occurs during adolescence as compared to exposure in adulthood. Male Syrian hamsters were injected daily for 14 days with either vehicle or an AAS cocktail containing testosterone cypionate (2 mg/kg), nandrolone decanoate (2 mg/kg), and boldenone undecylenate (1 mg/kg), either during adolescence (27-41 days of age) or adulthood (63-77 days of age). As adults, subjects were tested two or four weeks after the last injection for either sexual behavior with a receptive female or male-male agonistic behavior in a resident-intruder test. Compared with vehicle-treated males, AAS-treated males, regardless of age of treatment, displayed fewer long intromissions and a significant increase in latency to the first long intromission, indicative of reduced potential to reach sexual satiety. Increased aggression was observed in males exposed to AAS compared with males treated with vehicle, independently of age of AAS treatment. However, unlike hamsters exposed to AAS in adulthood, hamsters exposed to AAS during adolescence did not display any submissive or risk-assessment behaviors up to 4 weeks after discontinuation of AAS treatment. Thus, AAS have long-lasting effects on male sexual and agonistic behaviors, with AAS exposure during adolescence resulting in a more pronounced reduction in submissive behavior compared to AAS exposure in adulthood. PMID:20036695

  9. Anabolic steroids alter the physiological activity of aggression circuits in the lateral anterior hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, T R; Sikes, R W; Melloni, R H

    2016-02-19

    Syrian hamsters exposed to anabolic/androgenic steroids (AAS) during adolescence consistently show increased aggressive behavior across studies. Although the behavioral and anatomical profiles of AAS-induced alterations have been well characterized, there is a lack of data describing physiological changes that accompany these alterations. For instance, behavioral pharmacology and neuroanatomical studies show that AAS-induced changes in the vasopressin (AVP) neural system within the latero-anterior hypothalamus (LAH) interact with the serotonin (5HT) and dopamine (DA) systems to modulate aggression. To characterize the electrophysiological profile of the AAS aggression circuit, we recorded LAH neurons in adolescent male hamsters in vivo and microiontophoretically applied agonists and antagonists of aggressive behavior. The interspike interval (ISI) of neurons from AAS-treated animals correlated positively with aggressive behaviors, and adolescent AAS exposure altered parameters of activity in regular firing neurons while also changing the proportion of neuron types (i.e., bursting, regular, irregular). AAS-treated animals had more responsive neurons that were excited by AVP application, while cells from control animals showed the opposite effect and were predominantly inhibited by AVP. Both DA D2 antagonists and 5HT increased the firing frequency of AVP-responsive cells from AAS animals and dual application of AVP and D2 antagonists doubled the excitatory effect of AVP or D2 antagonist administration alone. These data suggest that multiple DA circuits in the LAH modulate AAS-induced aggressive responding. More broadly, these data show that multiple neurochemical interactions at the neurophysiological level are altered by adolescent AAS exposure. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mouldy feed: A possible explanation for the excretion of anabolic-androgenic steroids in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decloedt, A I; Bailly-Chouriberry, L; Vanden Bussche, J; Garcia, P; Popot, M-A; Bonnaire, Y; Vanhaecke, L

    2016-05-01

    To ensure fair competition and to protect the horse's welfare, horses have to compete on their own merits, without any unfair advantage that might follow the use of drugs. Therefore, regulatory authorities list all substances that are not allowed in competition, including most anabolic-androgenic steroids. As zero-tolerance is retained, the question arose whether the consumption of mouldy feed could lead to the excretion of steroids, due to the biotransformation of plant phytosterols to steroids. A rapid ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analytical method, previously validated according to AORC (Association of Official Racing Chemists) and EC (European Commission) guidelines, was used to measure steroids in different sample types. Multiple mouldy feed samples were tested for the presence of steroids. The effect of digestion was tested by in vitro simulation of the horse's hindgut in batch incubations. In most feed samples no steroids were detected, even when the products were mouldy. Mouldy corn however showed to contain up to 3.0 ± 0.4 µg/kg AED (4-androstenedione), the main testosterone precursor. This concentration increased when mouldy corn (with added phytosterols) was digested in vitro. An herbal phytosupplement also showed to contain α-testosterone. These results demonstrate that it is important to caution against the consumption of any feed or (herbal) supplement of which the detailed ingredients and quantitative analysis are unknown. The consumption of mouldy corn should especially be avoided, not only from a horse health and welfare point of view, but also to avoid possible inadvertent positive doping results. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Structural Brain Imaging of Long-Term Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Users and Nonusing Weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnebekk, Astrid; Walhovd, Kristine B; Jørstad, Marie L; Due-Tønnessen, Paulina; Hullstein, Ingunn R; Fjell, Anders M

    2017-08-15

    Prolonged high-dose anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use has been associated with psychiatric symptoms and cognitive deficits, yet we have almost no knowledge of the long-term consequences of AAS use on the brain. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between long-term AAS exposure and brain morphometry, including subcortical neuroanatomical volumes and regional cortical thickness. Male AAS users and weightlifters with no experience with AASs or any other equivalent doping substances underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brain. The current paper is based upon high-resolution structural T1-weighted images from 82 current or past AAS users exceeding 1 year of cumulative AAS use and 68 non-AAS-using weightlifters. Images were processed with the FreeSurfer software to compare neuroanatomical volumes and cerebral cortical thickness between the groups. Compared to non-AAS-using weightlifters, the AAS group had thinner cortex in widespread regions and significantly smaller neuroanatomical volumes, including total gray matter, cerebral cortex, and putamen. Both volumetric and thickness effects remained relatively stable across different AAS subsamples comprising various degrees of exposure to AASs and also when excluding participants with previous and current non-AAS drug abuse. The effects could not be explained by differences in verbal IQ, intracranial volume, anxiety/depression, or attention or behavioral problems. This large-scale systematic investigation of AAS use on brain structure shows negative correlations between AAS use and brain volume and cortical thickness. Although the findings are correlational, they may serve to raise concern about the long-term consequences of AAS use on structural features of the brain. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Anabolic action of parathyroid hormone (PTH) does not compromise bone matrix mineral composition or maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrahnas, Christina; Pearson, Thomas A; Brunt, Athena R; Forwood, Mark R; Bambery, Keith R; Tobin, Mark J; Martin, T John; Sims, Natalie A

    2016-12-01

    Intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) is used to stimulate bone formation in patients with osteoporosis. A reduction in the degree of matrix mineralisation has been reported during treatment, which may reflect either production of undermineralised matrix or a greater proportion of new matrix within the bone samples assessed. To explore these alternatives, high resolution synchrotron-based Fourier Transform Infrared Microspectroscopy (sFTIRM) coupled with calcein labelling was used in a region of non-remodelling cortical bone to determine bone composition during anabolic PTH treatment compared with region-matched samples from controls. 8week old male C57BL/6 mice were treated with vehicle or 50μg/kg PTH, 5 times/week for 4weeks (n=7-9/group). Histomorphometry confirmed greater trabecular and periosteal bone formation and 3-point bending tests confirmed greater femoral strength in PTH-treated mice. Dual calcein labels were used to match bone regions by time-since-mineralisation (bone age) and composition was measured by sFTIRM in six 15μm 2 regions at increasing depth perpendicular to the most immature bone on the medial periosteal edge; this allowed in situ measurement of progressive changes in bone matrix during its maturation. The sFTIRM method was validated in vehicle-treated bones where the expected progressive increases in mineral:matrix ratio and collagen crosslink type ratio were detected with increasing bone maturity. We also observed a gradual increase in carbonate content that strongly correlated with an increase in longitudinal stretch of the collagen triple helix (amide I:amide II ratio). PTH treatment did not alter the progressive changes in any of these parameters from the periosteal edge through to the more mature bone. These data provide new information about how the bone matrix matures in situ and confirm that bone deposited during PTH treatment undergoes normal collagen maturation and normal mineral accrual. Copyright © 2016

  13. Ruptured Tendons in Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Users: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; DeLuca, James; Meehan, William P; Hudson, James I; Isaacs, Stephanie; Baggish, Aaron; Weiner, Rory; Micheli, Lyle; Pope, Harrison G

    2015-11-01

    Accumulating case reports have described tendon rupture in men who use anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). However, no controlled study has assessed the history of tendon rupture in a large cohort of AAS users and comparison nonusers. Men reporting long-term AAS abuse would report an elevated lifetime incidence of tendon rupture compared with non-AAS-using bodybuilders. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Medical histories were obtained from 142 experienced male bodybuilders aged 35 to 55 years recruited in the course of 2 studies. Of these men, 88 reported at least 2 years of cumulative lifetime AAS use, and 54 reported no history of AAS use. In men reporting a history of tendon rupture, the circumstances of the injury, prodromal symptoms, concomitant drug or alcohol use, and details of current and lifetime AAS use (if applicable) were recorded. Surgical records were obtained for most participants. Nineteen (22%) of the AAS users, but only 3 (6%) of the nonusers, reported at least 1 lifetime tendon rupture. The hazard ratio for a first ruptured tendon in AAS users versus nonusers was 9.0 (95% CI, 2.5-32.3; P weightlifting, with the majority occurring during other sports activities. Eight (26%) ruptures followed prodromal symptoms of nonspecific pain in the region. Virtually all ruptures were treated surgically, with complete or near-complete ultimate restoration of function. AAS abusers, compared with otherwise similar bodybuilders, showed a markedly increased risk of tendon ruptures, particularly upper-body tendon rupture. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Detection of anabolic androgenic steroid abuse in doping control using mammalian reporter gene bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, Corine J; Sterk, Saskia S; van de Heijning, Monique P M; Brouwer, Abraham; Stephany, Rainer W; van der Burg, Bart; Sonneveld, Edwin

    2009-04-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are a class of steroid hormones related to the male hormone testosterone. They are frequently detected as drugs in sport doping control. Being similar to or derived from natural male hormones, AAS share the activation of the androgen receptor (AR) as common mechanism of action. The mammalian androgen responsive reporter gene assay (AR CALUX bioassay), measuring compounds interacting with the AR can be used for the analysis of AAS without the necessity of knowing their chemical structure beforehand, whereas current chemical-analytical approaches may have difficulty in detecting compounds with unknown structures, such as designer steroids. This study demonstrated that AAS prohibited in sports and potential designer AAS can be detected with this AR reporter gene assay, but that also additional steroid activities of AAS could be found using additional mammalian bioassays for other types of steroid hormones. Mixtures of AAS were found to behave additively in the AR reporter gene assay showing that it is possible to use this method for complex mixtures as are found in doping control samples, including mixtures that are a result of multi drug use. To test if mammalian reporter gene assays could be used for the detection of AAS in urine samples, background steroidal activities were measured. AAS-spiked urine samples, mimicking doping positive samples, showed significantly higher androgenic activities than unspiked samples. GC-MS analysis of endogenous androgens and AR reporter gene assay analysis of urine samples showed how a combined chemical-analytical and bioassay approach can be used to identify samples containing AAS. The results indicate that the AR reporter gene assay, in addition to chemical-analytical methods, can be a valuable tool for the analysis of AAS for doping control purposes.

  15. Psychosocial correlates of gap time to anabolic-androgenic steroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Patrycja; Hildebrandt, Tom

    2018-03-15

    Theoretically, legal supplement use precedes and increases the risk for illicit appearance and performance enhancing drug (APED) use-also referred to as the gateway hypothesis. Little is known about associations between the speed of progression, or gap time, from legal to illicit APED use, and psychological risk factors, such as sociocultural influence, eating disorders, body image disturbance, and impulsivity. The sample taken from two studies included 172 active steroid users (n = 143) and intense-exercising healthy controls (n = 29) between the ages of 18 and 60 (M = 34.16, SD = 10.43), the majority of whom were male (91.9%). Participants, retrospectively, reported APED use and completed measures assessing psychological and behavioral factors, including eating concern, muscle dysmorphia, and impulsivity. Participants had a gap time from initial APED use to anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use that ranged from 0 to 38 years. Continuous survival analysis indicated that interactions between self- versus other sociocultural influence on APED onset and both higher eating concern and impulsivity are associated with a shorter gap time from initial legal to illicit APED use. The results indicate the potential value in developing different strategies for individuals with other sociocultural versus self-influence on illicit APED use, and among more impulsive and eating-concerned APED users. Future research is needed to assess different trajectories of APED use, such that eating-concerned and impulsive individuals who perceive less other sociocultural influence may be at greatest risk for a speedier progression to AAS use. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Genetic and environmental modulation of neurotrophic and anabolic stress response: Counterbalancing forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Marcus K; Carpenter, Jennifer; Stone, Michael; Hernandez, Lisa M; Rauh, Mitchell J; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-11-01

    The serotonin transporter genetic variant 5HTTLPR influences activation and feedback control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and has been shown to influence the effect of stressful life events on behavioral health. We recently reported that 5HTTLPR modulates cortisol response in healthy military men exposed to intense stress. Less is known of its combined effects with environmental factors in this context, or of its effect on neuroprotective stress responses. In this follow-up study, we examined the unique and combined effects of 5HTTLPR and prior trauma exposure on neuroprotective (salivary nerve growth factor [sNGF]), anabolic (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHEAS] and testosterone), and catabolic (cortisol) stress responses. Ninety-three healthy, active-duty military men were studied before, during, and 24h after a stressful 12-day survival course. Distinct and interactive effects of 5HTTLPR long allele carriage [L] versus homozygous short allele carriage [SS]) and prior trauma exposure (low versus high) were evaluated, after which a priori group comparisons were performed between hypothesized high resilience (L/low) and low resilience (SS/high) groups. For sNGF, L/low produced the greatest sNGF throughout stress exposure while SS/high demonstrated the smallest; L/high and SS/low bisected these two extremes and were nearly identical to each other (i.e., SS/high counterbalancing (additive) forces. Similar patterns were found for DHEAS. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report counterbalancing genetic and environmental effects on novel biomarkers related to resilience in humans exposed to real-world stress. These findings have profound implications for health, performance and training in high-stress occupational settings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The development of multiple drug use among anabolic-androgenic steroid users: six subjective case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyberg Fred

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inappropriate use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS was originally a problem among athletes but AAS are now often used in nonsport situations and by patients attending regular addiction clinics. The aim of this study was to improve understanding of the development of multiple drug use in patients seeking treatment at an addiction clinic for AAS-related problems. Methods We interviewed six patients (four men and two women with experience of AAS use who were attending an addiction clinic for what they believed were AAS-related problems. The patients were interviewed in-depth about their life stories, with special emphasis on social background, substance use, the development of total drug use and subjective experienced psychological and physical side effects. Results There was significant variation in the development of drug use in relation to social background, onset of drug use, relationship to AAS use and experience of AAS effects. All patients had initially experienced positive effects from AAS but, over time, the negative experiences had outweighed the positive effects. All patients were dedicated to excess training and took AAS in combination with gym training, indicating that the use of these drugs is closely related to this form of training. Use of multiple drugs was common either in parallel with AAS use or serially. Conclusion The study shows the importance of understanding how AAS use can develop either with or without the concomitant use of other drugs of abuse. The use of AAS can, however, progress to the use of other drugs. The study also indicates the importance of obtaining accurate, comprehensive information about the development of AAS use in designing treatment programmes and prevention strategies in this area.

  18. Recreational Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use Associated With Liver Injuries Among Brazilian Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingel, Paulo Adriano; Cotrim, Helma Pinchemel; Santos, Crimério Ribeiro dos; Santos, Adriano Oliveira dos; Andrade, Antônio Ricardo Cardia Ferraz de; Carruego, Marcos Vinicius Vilas Boas; Zoppi, Cláudio Cesar

    2015-01-01

    The recreational use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) has reached alarming levels among healthy people. However, several complications have been related to consumption of these drugs, including liver disorders. To evaluate the prevalence of liver injuries in young Brazilian recreational AAS users. Between February/2007 and May/2012 asymptomatic bodybuilders who were ≥18 years old and reported AAS use for ≥6 months were enrolled. All had clinical evaluations, abdominal ultrasound (AUS), and blood tests. 182 individuals were included in the study. The median age (interquartile range) was 26.0 years (22.0-30.0) and all were male. Elevated liver enzyme levels were observed in 38.5% (n = 70) of AAS users, and creatine phosphokinase was normal in 27.1% (n = 19) of them. Hepatic steatosis was observed by AUS in 12.1% of the sample. One individual had focal nodular hyperplasia and another had hepatocellular adenoma. One case each of hepatitis B and C virus infection was found. A diagnosis of toxic liver injury was suggested in 23 (12.6%) AAS users without a history of alcohol or other medications/drugs consumption, or evidence of other liver diseases. Young Brazilian recreational AAS users presented a wide spectrum of liver injuries that included hepatotoxicity, fatty liver, and liver neoplasm. They also presented risk factors for liver diseases such as alcohol consumption and hepatitis B and C virus infection. The results suggest that the risk of AAS use for the liver may be greater than the esthetic benefits, and demonstrate the importance of screening AAS users for liver injuries.

  19. Anabolic/androgenic steroid administration during adolescence and adulthood differentially modulates aggression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Thomas R; Ricci, Lesley A; Melloni, Richard H

    2015-03-01

    Anabolic/androgenic steroid (AAS) use remains high in both teens and adults in the U.S. and worldwide despite studies showing that AAS use is associated with a higher incidence of aggression and anxiety. Recently we showed that chronic exposure to AAS through adolescence increases aggression and decreases anxious behaviors, while during AAS-withdrawal aggression is lowered to species-normative levels and anxiety increases. AAS exposure is known to differentially alter behaviors and their underlying neural substrates between adults and adolescents and thus the current study investigated whether exposure to AAS during adulthood affects the relationship between aggression and anxiety in a manner similar to that previously observed in adolescents. Male hamsters were administered a moderate dose of AAS (5.0mg/kg/day×30days) during adolescence (P27-56) or young adulthood (P65-P94) and then tested for aggression and anxiety during AAS exposure (i.e., on P57 or P95) and during AAS withdrawal (i.e., 30days later on P77 or P115). Adolescent exposure to AAS increased aggressive responding during the AAS exposure period and anxiety-like responding during AAS withdrawal. Neither behavior was similarly influenced by adult exposure to AAS. Adult AAS exposure produced no difference in aggressive responding during AAS exposure (P95) or AAS withdrawal (P115); however, while AAS exposure during adulthood produced no difference in anxiety-like responding during AAS exposure, adult hamsters administered AAS were less anxious than vehicle control animals following AAS withdrawal. Together these data suggest that the aggression and anxiety provoking influence of AAS are likely a developmental phenomenon and that adult exposure to AAS may be anxiolytic over the long term. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Esteróides anabólicos androgênicos e sua relação com a prática desportiva Anabolic androgenic steroids and the relation to the sportive practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Sousa Cunha

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Os esteróides anabólicos androgênicos (EAA são um grupo de compostos naturais e sintéticos formados a partir da testosterona ou um de seus derivados, cuja indicação terapêutica clássica está associada a situações de hipogonadismo e quadros de deficiência do metabolismo protéico. Atuando sobre os receptores androgênicos, modulam de forma indissociável tanto os efeitos androgênicos como os anabólicos. Tais substâncias variam na relação entre a atividade anabólica: androgênica, mas nenhum fármaco atualmente disponível é capaz de desencadear somente efeitos anabólicos. O primeiro relato da utilização dos EAA com o objetivo de melhorar o desempenho atlético ocorreu em 1954, na Áustria, e, desde então, esta prática tornou-se amplamente difundida. Obviamente, o uso de EAA está fora dos limites competitivos e foi declarado ilegal pelos setores governamentais desportivos nacionais e internacionais. Entretanto, segundo estatísticas do Comitê Olímpico Internacional, realizadas em 2000, os EAA são o grupo de substâncias ergogênicas mais comumente utilizadas no processo de doping. Estudos mostram que altas doses de EAA podem acarretar vários efeitos adversos como atrofia do tecido testicular, tumores hepáticos e de próstata, alterações hepatocelulares, no metabolismo lipídico, de humor e de comportamento. O objetivo do presente trabalho será compilar os dados a respeito dos EAA, envolvendo as perspectivas históricas acerca do tema, a fisiologia e os tipos de EAA atualmente existentes, suas indicações terapêuticas e efeitos adversos resultantes do uso indiscriminado bem como a relação entre o uso de EAA e melhora da performance atlética.Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS are a group of natural and synthetic agents formed from testosterone or one of its derivatives, whose classical therapeutic indications are associated to hipogonadism and deficiency of proteic metabolism. Acting on androgenic receptors

  1. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response

  2. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Facts About Riot Control Agents Interim document Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What riot control agents are Riot control agents (sometimes referred to ...

  3. Screening for exogenous androgen anabolic steroids in human hair by liquid chromatography/orbitrap-high resolution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strano-Rossi, Sabina; Castrignanò, Erika; Anzillotti, Luca; Odoardi, Sara; De-Giorgio, Fabio; Bermejo, Ana; Pascali, Vincenzo L.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •LC–HRMS screening method for the detection of a variety of anabolics in hair. •Detection of unmetabolized anabolic steroids and their esters in hair matrix by simple keratin pretreatment. •Identification of target compounds by retention time, accurate mass and isotopic cluster. •Quantitative determination of detected compounds. •Possibility to a retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte is to be screened. -- Abstract: A method for the screening of various anabolic steroids and their esters in human hair, based on liquid-chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry using an Exactive benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer, has been set up and validated. This method involved methanolic incubation of 30 mg of hair and analysis of the relevant extract in HPLC using a C18 column. The mass detector, with nominal resolving power of 100,000, operated in full scan mode in APCI under positive ionization mode. Analytes were identified by exact mass, correspondence of isotopic cluster and retention times. The limits of detection obtained varied from 10 to 50 pg mg −1 , and limits of quantitation were 0.5 ng mg −1 for all compounds. The method was linear for all analytes in the ranges from the LOQ to 6 ng mg −1 , giving correlation coefficients >0.99 for all analytes. Also accuracy (intended as %E) and repeatability (%CV) were always lower than 15%. Specificity was assessed by analysing ten blank samples and fifteen samples from polidrug abusers. This method was applied to a real-life case, resulting in the identification of testosterone undecanoate in the hair of a suspect. The analyte identity was confirmed by the analysis of its in-source fragmentation and comparison to a certified standard. Thanks to the scan acquisition, this method also enables retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte needs to be screened

  4. Gas chromatography/chemical ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis of anabolic steroids: ionization and collision-induced dissociation behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polet, Michael; Van Gansbeke, Wim; Van Eenoo, Peter; Deventer, Koen

    2016-02-28

    The detection of new anabolic steroid metabolites and new designer steroids is a challenging task in doping analysis. Switching from electron ionization gas chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS/MS) to chemical ionization (CI) has proven to be an efficient way to increase the sensitivity of GC/MS/MS analyses and facilitate the detection of anabolic steroids. CI also extends the possibilities of GC/MS/MS analyses as the molecular ion is retained in its protonated form due to the softer ionization. In EI it can be difficult to find previously unknown but expected metabolites due to the low abundance or absence of the molecular ion and the extensive (and to a large extent unpredictable) fragmentation. The main aim of this work was to study the CI and collision-induced dissociation (CID) behavior of a large number of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) as their trimethylsilyl derivatives in order to determine correlations between structures and CID fragmentation. Clarification of these correlations is needed for the elucidation of structures of unknown steroids and new metabolites. The ionization and CID behavior of 65 AAS have been studied using GC/CI-MS/MS with ammonia as the reagent gas. Glucuronidated AAS reference standards were first hydrolyzed to obtain their free forms. Afterwards, all the standards were derivatized to their trimethylsilyl forms. Full scan and product ion scan analyses were used to examine the ionization and CID behavior. Full scan and product ion scan analyses revealed clear correlations between AAS structure and the obtained mass spectra. These correlations were confirmed by analysis of multiple hydroxylated, methylated, chlorinated and deuterated analogs. AAS have been divided into three groups according to their ionization behavior and into seven groups according to their CID behavior. Correlations between fragmentation and structure were revealed and fragmentation pathways were postulated. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley

  5. Screening for exogenous androgen anabolic steroids in human hair by liquid chromatography/orbitrap-high resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strano-Rossi, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.stranorossi@rm.unicatt.it [Institute of Legal Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, L.go F. Vito, 1, 00168 Rome (Italy); Castrignanò, Erika; Anzillotti, Luca; Odoardi, Sara; De-Giorgio, Fabio [Institute of Legal Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, L.go F. Vito, 1, 00168 Rome (Italy); Bermejo, Ana [Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, Av S. Francisco s/n, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pascali, Vincenzo L. [Institute of Legal Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, L.go F. Vito, 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)

    2013-09-02

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •LC–HRMS screening method for the detection of a variety of anabolics in hair. •Detection of unmetabolized anabolic steroids and their esters in hair matrix by simple keratin pretreatment. •Identification of target compounds by retention time, accurate mass and isotopic cluster. •Quantitative determination of detected compounds. •Possibility to a retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte is to be screened. -- Abstract: A method for the screening of various anabolic steroids and their esters in human hair, based on liquid-chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry using an Exactive benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer, has been set up and validated. This method involved methanolic incubation of 30 mg of hair and analysis of the relevant extract in HPLC using a C18 column. The mass detector, with nominal resolving power of 100,000, operated in full scan mode in APCI under positive ionization mode. Analytes were identified by exact mass, correspondence of isotopic cluster and retention times. The limits of detection obtained varied from 10 to 50 pg mg{sup −1}, and limits of quantitation were 0.5 ng mg{sup −1} for all compounds. The method was linear for all analytes in the ranges from the LOQ to 6 ng mg{sup −1}, giving correlation coefficients >0.99 for all analytes. Also accuracy (intended as %E) and repeatability (%CV) were always lower than 15%. Specificity was assessed by analysing ten blank samples and fifteen samples from polidrug abusers. This method was applied to a real-life case, resulting in the identification of testosterone undecanoate in the hair of a suspect. The analyte identity was confirmed by the analysis of its in-source fragmentation and comparison to a certified standard. Thanks to the scan acquisition, this method also enables retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte needs to be screened.

  6. Deficient Mechanical Activation of Anabolic Transcripts and Post-Traumatic Cartilage Degeneration in Matrilin-1 Knockout Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupeng Chen

    Full Text Available Matrilin-1 (Matn1, a cartilage-specific peri-cellular and extracellular matrix (ECM protein, has been hypothesized to regulate ECM interactions and transmit mechanical signals in cartilage. Since Matn1 knock-out (Matn1-/- mice exhibit a normal skeleton, its function in vivo is unclear. In this study, we found that the anabolic Acan and Col2a transcript levels were significantly higher in wildtype (Matn1+/+ mouse cartilage than that of MATN1-/- mice in vivo. However, such difference was not observed between Matn1+/+ and MATN1-/- chondrocytes cultured under stationary conditions in vitro. Cyclic loading significantly stimulated Acan and Col2a transcript levels in Matn1+/+ but not in MATN1-/- chondrocytes. This suggests that, while Matn1+/+ chondrocytes increase their anabolic gene expression in response to mechanical loading, the MATN1-/- chondrocytes fail to do so because of the deficiency in mechanotransduction. We also found that altered elastic modulus of cartilage matrix in Matn1-/- mice, suggesting the mechanotransduction has changed due to the deficiency of Matn1. To understand the impact of such deficiency on joint disease, mechanical loading was altered in vivo by destabilization of medial meniscus. While Matn1+/+ mice exhibited superficial fissures and clefts consistent with mechanical damage to the articular joint, Matn1-/- mice presented more severe cartilage lesions characterized by proteoglycan loss and disorganization of cells and ECM. This suggests that Matn1 deficiency affects pathogenesis of post-traumatic osteoarthritis by failing to up-regulate anabolic gene expression. This is the first demonstration of Matn1 function in vivo, which suggests its protective role in cartilage degeneration under altered mechanical environment.

  7. Role of PARP activity in lung cancer-induced cachexia: Effects on muscle oxidative stress, proteolysis, anabolic markers, and phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon-Cabrera, Alba; Mateu-Jimenez, Mercè; Langohr, Klaus; Fermoselle, Clara; García-Arumí, Elena; Andreu, Antoni L; Yelamos, Jose; Barreiro, Esther

    2017-12-01

    Strategies to treat cachexia are still at its infancy. Enhanced muscle protein breakdown and ubiquitin-proteasome system are common features of cachexia associated with chronic conditions including lung cancer (LC). Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP), which play a major role in chromatin structure regulation, also underlie maintenance of muscle metabolism and body composition. We hypothesized that protein catabolism, proteolytic markers, muscle fiber phenotype, and muscle anabolism may improve in respiratory and limb muscles of LC-cachectic Parp-1-deficient (Parp-1 -/- ) and Parp-2 -/- mice. In diaphragm and gastrocnemius of LC (LP07 adenocarcinoma) bearing mice (wild type, Parp-1 -/- , and Parp-2 -/- ), PARP activity (ADP-ribose polymers, pADPr), redox balance, muscle fiber phenotype, apoptotic nuclei, tyrosine release, protein ubiquitination, muscle-specific E3 ligases, NF-κB signaling pathway, markers of muscle anabolism (Akt, mTOR, p70S6K, and mitochondrial DNA) were evaluated along with body and muscle weights, and limb muscle force. Compared to wild type cachectic animals, in both respiratory and limb muscles of Parp-1 -/- and Parp-2 -/- cachectic mice: cancer induced-muscle wasting characterized by increased PARP activity, protein oxidation, tyrosine release, and ubiquitin-proteasome system (total protein ubiquitination, atrogin-1, and 20S proteasome C8 subunit) were blunted, the reduction in contractile myosin and atrophy of the fibers was attenuated, while no effects were seen in other structural features (inflammatory cells, internal or apoptotic nuclei), and markers of muscle anabolism partly improved. Activation of either PARP-1 or -2 is likely to play a role in muscle protein catabolism via oxidative stress, NF-κB signaling, and enhanced proteasomal degradation in cancer-induced cachexia. Therapeutic potential of PARP activity inhibition deserves attention. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The anabolic steroid nandrolone alters cannabinoid self-administration and brain CB1 receptor density and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struik, Dicky; Fadda, Paola; Zara, Tamara; Zamberletti, Erica; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela; Fratta, Walter; Fattore, Liana

    2017-01-01

    Clinical and pre-clinical observations indicate that anabolic-androgenic steroids can induce neurobiological changes that alter the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In this study, we investigated the effect of the anabolic steroid nandrolone on the rewarding properties of the cannabinoid CB 1 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN) in rats. Lister Hooded male rats were treated intramuscularly with nandrolone (15mg/kg) or vehicle for 14 consecutive days, and then allowed to self-administer WIN (12.5μg/kg/infusion) intravenously. After reaching stable drug intake, self-administration behavior was extinguished to examine drug- and cue-induced reinstatement of cannabinoid-seeking behavior. Other behavioral parameters presumed to influence drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors were examined to gain more insight into the behavioral specificity of nandrolone treatment. Finally, animals were sacrificed for analysis of CB 1 receptor density and function in selected brain areas. We found that nandrolone-treated rats self-administered up to 2 times more cannabinoid than vehicle-treated rats, but behaved similarly to control rats when tested for drug- and cue-induced reinstatement of cannabinoid-seeking behavior. Enhanced cannabinoid intake by nandrolone-treated rats was not accompanied by changes in locomotor activity, sensorimotor gating, or memory function. However, our molecular data show that after chronic WIN self-administration nandrolone-treated rats display altered CB 1 receptor density and function in selected brain areas. We hypothesize that increased cannabinoid self-administration in nandrolone-treated rats results from a nandrolone-induced decrease in reward function, which rats seem to compensate by voluntarily increasing their cannabinoid intake. Altogether, our findings corroborate the hypothesis that chronic exposure to anabolic-androgenic steroids induces dysfunction of the reward pathway in rats and might represent a potential risk factor for abuse of

  9. Aerobic exercise training prevents heart failure-induced skeletal muscle atrophy by anti-catabolic, but not anabolic actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo W A Souza

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is associated with cachexia and consequent exercise intolerance. Given the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise training (ET in HF, the aim of this study was to determine if the ET performed during the transition from cardiac dysfunction to HF would alter the expression of anabolic and catabolic factors, thus preventing skeletal muscle wasting.We employed ascending aortic stenosis (AS inducing HF in Wistar male rats. Controls were sham-operated animals. At 18 weeks after surgery, rats with cardiac dysfunction were randomized to 10 weeks of aerobic ET (AS-ET or to an untrained group (AS-UN. At 28 weeks, the AS-UN group presented HF signs in conjunction with high TNF-α serum levels; soleus and plantaris muscle atrophy; and an increase in the expression of TNF-α, NFκB (p65, MAFbx, MuRF1, FoxO1, and myostatin catabolic factors. However, in the AS-ET group, the deterioration of cardiac function was prevented, as well as muscle wasting, and the atrophy promoters were decreased. Interestingly, changes in anabolic factor expression (IGF-I, AKT, and mTOR were not observed. Nevertheless, in the plantaris muscle, ET maintained high PGC1α levels.Thus, the ET capability to attenuate cardiac function during the transition from cardiac dysfunction to HF was accompanied by a prevention of skeletal muscle atrophy that did not occur via an increase in anabolic factors, but through anti-catabolic activity, presumably caused by PGC1α action. These findings indicate the therapeutic potential of aerobic ET to block HF-induced muscle atrophy by counteracting the increased catabolic state.

  10. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A modulates the anabolic effects of parathyroid hormone in mouse bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Kari B; Conover, Cheryl A

    2015-12-01

    Intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a potent anabolic therapy for bone, and several studies have implicated local insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling in mediating this effect. The IGF system is complex and includes ligands and receptors, as well as IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) and IGFBP proteases. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is a metalloprotease expressed by osteoblasts in vitro that has been shown to enhance local IGF action through cleavage of inhibitory IGFBP-4. This study was set up to test two specific hypotheses: 1) Intermittent PTH treatment increases the expression of IGF-I, IGFBP-4 and PAPP-A in bone in vivo, thereby increasing local IGF activity. 2) In the absence of PAPP-A, local IGF activity and the anabolic effects of PTH on bone are reduced. Wild-type (WT) and PAPP-A knock-out (KO) mice were treated with 80 μg/kg human PTH 1-34 or vehicle by subcutaneous injection five days per week for six weeks. IGF-I, IGFBP-4 and PAPP-A mRNA expression in bone were significantly increased in response to PTH treatment. PTH treatment of WT mice, but not PAPP-A KO mice, significantly increased expression of an IGF-responsive gene. Bone mineral density (BMD), as measured by DEXA, was significantly decreased in femurs of PAPP-A KO compared to WT mice with PTH treatment. Volumetric BMD, as measured by pQCT, was significantly decreased in femoral midshaft (primarily cortical bone), but not metaphysis (primarily trabecular bone), of PAPP-A KO compared to WT mice with PTH treatment. These data suggest that stimulation of PAPP-A expression by intermittent PTH treatment contributes to PTH bone anabolism in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. FoxC2 Enhances BMP7-Mediated Anabolism in Nucleus Pulposus Cells of the Intervertebral Disc

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zheng; Fu, Changfeng; Chen, Yong; Xu, Feng; Wang, Zhenyu; Qu, Zhigang; Liu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Bone-morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) is a growth factor that plays a major role in mediating anabolism and anti-catabolism of the intervertebral disc matrix and cell homeostasis. In osteoblasts, Forkhead box protein C2 (FoxC2) is a downstream target of BMPs and promotes cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the role FoxC2 may play in degenerative human intervertebral disc tissue and the relationship between FoxC2 and BMP-7 in nucleus pulposus (NP) cells remain to be elucidated. Thi...

  12. Uxoricide and dismemberment in a case of illicit anabolic steroid use: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Seppänen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite abounding evidence for the harmful effects of synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroids, they are commonly misused for competitive and body-image reasons. Steroids are often used in the context of poly-drug misuse, which may mask their specific effects on behaviour, such as increasing aggression. We present our case report as a concrete example of current steroid-related substance-misuse trends. A 25-year old Finnish male with various psychiatric and drug-related symptomology, but almost no previous history of aggressive behaviour, battered his wife to death and mutilated her body after a five-week steroid regimen.

  13. Environments, risk and health harms: a qualitative investigation into the illicit use of anabolic steroids among people using harm reduction services in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimergård, Andreas; McVeigh, Jim

    2014-06-04

    The illicit use of anabolic steroids among the gym population continues to rise, along with the number of steroid using clients attending harm reduction services in the UK. This presents serious challenges to public health. Study objectives were to account for the experiences of anabolic steroid users and investigate how 'risk environments' produce harm. Qualitative face-to-face interviews with 24 users of anabolic steroids engaged with harm reduction services in the UK. Body satisfaction was an important factor when deciding to start the use of anabolic steroids. Many users were unaware of the potential dangers of using drugs from the illicit market, whereas some had adopted a range of strategies to negotiate the hazards relating to the use of adulterated products, including self-experimentation to gauge the perceived efficacy and unwanted effects of these drugs. Viewpoints, first-hand anecdotes, norms and practices among groups of steroid users created boundaries of 'sensible' drug use, but also promoted practices that may increase the chance of harms occurring. Established users encouraged young users to go to harm reduction services but, at the same time, promoted risky injecting practices in the belief that this would enhance the efficacy of anabolic steroids. Current steroid-related viewpoints and practices contribute to the risk environment surrounding the use of these drugs and may undermine the goal of current public health strategies including harm reduction interventions. The level of harms among anabolic steroid users are determined by multiple and intertwining factors, in addition to the harms caused by the pharmacological action or injury and illness associated with incorrect injecting techniques. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Reasoning about emotional agents

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, J.-J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this framework how emotions are related to the action monitoring capabilities of an agent.

  15. Effects of anabolic steroids and high-intensity aerobic exercise on skeletal muscle of transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Fontana

    Full Text Available In an attempt to shorten recovery time and improve performance, strength and endurance athletes occasionally turn to the illicit use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS. This study evaluated the effects of AAS treatment on the muscle mass and phenotypic characteristics of transgenic mice subjected to a high-intensity, aerobic training program (5d/wk for 6 weeks. The transgenic mice (CETP(+/-LDLr(-/+ were engineered to exhibit a lipid profile closer to humans. Animals were divided into groups of sedentary (Sed and/or training (Ex mice (each treated orally with AAS or gum arabic/vehicle: Sed-C, Sed-M, ex-C, ex-M. The effects of AAS (mesterolone: M on specific phenotypic adaptations (muscle wet weight, cross-sectional area, and fiber type composition in three hindlimb muscles (soleus:SOL, tibialis anterior:TA and gastrocnemius:GAS were assessed. In order to detect subtle changes in fiber type profile, the entire range of fiber types (I, IC, IIAC, IIA, IIAD, IID, IIDB, IIB was delineated using mATPase histochemistry. Body weight gain occurred throughout the study for all groups. However, the body weight gain was significantly minimized with exercise. This effect was blunted with mesterolone treatment. Both AAS treatment (Sed-M and high-intensity, aerobic training (ex-C increased the wet weights of all three muscles and induced differential hypertrophy of pure and hybrid fibers. Combination of AAS and training (ex-M resulted in enhanced hypertrophy. In the SOL, mesterolone treatment (Sed-M and ex-M caused dramatic increases in the percentages of fiber types IC, IIAC, IIAD, IID, with concomitant decrease in IIA, but had minimal impact on fiber type percentages in the predominantly fast muscles. Overall, the AAS-induced differential adaptive changes amounted to significant fiber type transformations in the fast-to-slow direction in SOL. AAS treatment had a significant effect on muscle weights and fiber type composition in SOL, TA and GAS which was

  16. Esteróides anabolizantes no esporte Anabolic steroids in sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rodrigo Pedroso da Silva

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Os hormônios esteróides anabólicos androgênicos (EAA compreendem a testosterona e seus derivados. Eles são produzidos nos testículos e no córtex adrenal, e promovem as características sexuais secundárias associadas à masculinidade. Na medicina, os EAA são utilizados geralmente no tratamento de sarcopenias, do hipogonadismo, do câncer de mama e da osteoporose. Nos esportes, são utilizados para o aumento da força física e da massa muscular; entretanto, os efeitos sobre o desempenho atlético permanecem, ainda, controversos. Os EAA podem causar diversos efeitos colaterais, como psicopatologias, câncer de próstata, doença coronariana e esterilidade. Estudos epidemiológicos apontam a problemática acerca do uso de EAA, nos esportes; todavia, no Brasil não existem publicações substanciais sobre esse tema. Esta revisão analisa esse assunto, procurando despertar a curiosidade e o interesse dos leitores para a produção científica de novos trabalhos relacionados ao tema.Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS are hormones that include or are derivatives of testosterone. They are produced in the testicles and in the adrenal cortex. AAS promote development of sexual characteristics associated with the male sex. They are applied as a general rule in the treatment of sarcopenia, hypogonadism, breast cancer, and osteoporosis. In relation to sports, they are used to increase strength and muscle mass. Their effects on athletics performance are still controversial. AAS can cause several side-effects, such as mental disease, prostate cancer, coronary disease, and sterility. There are no epidemiologic studies regarding the use of AAS in Brazil . This review intends to deal with this matter widely and aims at stimulating curiosity and interest in order to provide new publications about this issue.

  17. Statistical analysis of fragmentation patterns of electron ionization mass spectra of enolized-trimethylsilylated anabolic androgenic steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkaki, A. G.; Angelis, Y. S.; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, A.; Koupparis, M.; Georgakopoulos, C.

    2009-08-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are included in the List of prohibited substances of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) as substances abused to enhance athletic performance. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) plays an important role in doping control analyses identifying AAS as their enolized-trimethylsilyl (TMS)-derivatives using the electron ionization (EI) mode. This paper explores the suitability of complementary GC-MS mass spectra and statistical analysis (principal component analysis, PCA and partial least squares-discriminant analysis, PLS-DA) to differentiate AAS as a function of their structural and conformational features expressed by their fragment ions. The results obtained showed that the application of PCA yielded a classification among the AAS molecules which became more apparent after applying PLS-DA to the dataset. The application of PLS-DA yielded a clear separation among the AAS molecules which were, thus, classified as: 1-ene-3-keto, 3-hydroxyl with saturated A-ring, 1-ene-3-hydroxyl, 4-ene-3-keto, 1,4-diene-3-keto and 3-keto with saturated A-ring anabolic steroids. The study of this paper also presents structurally diagnostic fragment ions and dissociation routes providing evidence for the presence of unknown AAS or chemically modified molecules known as designer steroids.

  18. Feasibility of gas chromatography-microchip atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry in analysis of anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintikka, Laura; Haapala, Markus; Franssila, Sami; Kuuranne, Tiia; Leinonen, Antti; Kostiainen, Risto

    2010-12-24

    Mass spectrometers equipped with atmospheric pressure ion sources (API-MS) have been designed to be interfaced with liquid chromatographs (LC) and have rarely been connected to gas chromatographs (GC). Recently, we introduced a heated nebulizer microchip and showed its potential to interface liquid microseparation techniques and GC with API-MS. This study demonstrates the feasibility of GC-microchip atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-μAPPI-MS/MS) in the analysis of underivatized anabolic steroids in urine. The APPI microchip provides high ionization efficiency and produces abundant protonated molecules or molecular ions with minimal fragmentation. The feasibility of GC-μAPPI-MS/MS in the analysis of six selected anabolic steroids in urine samples was studied with respect to intra-batch repeatability, linearity, linear range, and limit of detection (LOD). The method showed good sensitivity (LODs 0.2-1 ng/mL), repeatability (relative standard deviationanabolic steroids. Quantitative performance of the method was tested with two authentic urine samples, and the results were in good agreement with those obtained with conventional GC-electron ionization-MS after derivatization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. LC-ESI/MS/MS method for rapid screening and confirmation of 44 exogenous anabolic steroids in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Byoung Wook; Yoo, Hye Hyun; Jeong, Eun Sook; Kim, Ho Jun; Jin, Changbae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Jaeick

    2011-09-01

    A sensitive and rapid method based on liquid chromatography-triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) has been developed and validated for the screening and confirmation of 44 exogenous anabolic steroids (29 parent steroids and 15 metabolites) in human urine. The method involves an enzymatic hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction, and detection by LC-MS/MS. A triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer was operated in positive ESI mode with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode for the screening and product ion scan mode for the confirmation. The protonated molecular ions were used as precursor ions for the SRM analysis and product ion scan. The intraday and interday precisions of the target analytes at concentrations of the minimum required performance levels for the screening were 2-14% and 2-15%, respectively. The limits of detection for the screening and confirmation method were 0.1-10 ng/mL and 0.2-10 ng/mL, respectively, for 44 steroids. This method was successfully applied to analysis of urine samples from suspected anabolic steroid abusers.

  20. Preservation of bone mass and structure in hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus) through elevated expression of anabolic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Vadim B; Goropashnaya, Anna V; Tøien, Øivind; Stewart, Nathan C; Chang, Celia; Wang, Haifang; Yan, Jun; Showe, Louise C; Showe, Michael K; Donahue, Seth W; Barnes, Brian M

    2012-06-01

    Physical inactivity reduces mechanical load on the skeleton, which leads to losses of bone mass and strength in non-hibernating mammalian species. Although bears are largely inactive during hibernation, they show no loss in bone mass and strength. To obtain insight into molecular mechanisms preventing disuse bone loss, we conducted a large-scale screen of transcriptional changes in trabecular bone comparing winter hibernating and summer non-hibernating black bears using a custom 12,800 probe cDNA microarray. A total of 241 genes were differentially expressed (P 1.4) in the ilium bone of bears between winter and summer. The Gene Ontology and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis showed an elevated proportion in hibernating bears of overexpressed genes in six functional sets of genes involved in anabolic processes of tissue morphogenesis and development including skeletal development, cartilage development, and bone biosynthesis. Apoptosis genes demonstrated a tendency for downregulation during hibernation. No coordinated directional changes were detected for genes involved in bone resorption, although some genes responsible for osteoclast formation and differentiation (Ostf1, Rab9a, and c-Fos) were significantly underexpressed in bone of hibernating bears. Elevated expression of multiple anabolic genes without induction of bone resorption genes, and the down regulation of apoptosis-related genes, likely contribute to the adaptive mechanism that preserves bone mass and structure through prolonged periods of immobility during hibernation.

  1. Examining a negative halo effect to anabolic steroids users through perceived achievement goals, sportspersonship orientations, and aggressive tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantal, Yves; Bernache-Assollant, Iouri; Schiano-Lomoriello, Sandrine

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the social image of anabolic steroids (AS) users grounding our analysis on the achievement goal theory of Nicholls. Our main goal was to explore how an athlete's acceptance of AS use would impact on the way that athlete will be perceived by others. Non-AS-using participants reacted to one of two scenarios portraying a male athlete either accepting or refusing to engage in drug use behavior. The results suggested that the acceptance of anabolic steroids yielded an unfavorable social image--perceivers inferred a predominant ego orientation to characterize the AS-user's motivation as well as weaker sportspersonship and a stronger proclivity for reactive aggression than instrumental aggression. Moreover, the analyses did not yield significant gender or interaction effects. Finally, those findings are commented in view of methodological shortcomings and of the perspectives that they may offer for future research concerning the motivational aspects of the social perceptions of drug use in sport. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  2. Prevalence of anabolic steroid use and associated factors among body-builders in Hamadan, West province of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Zahra; Moeini, Babak; Shafiei, Yones; Bazmamoun, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) are abused by a growing number of bodybuilders. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to determine prevalence and patterns of AAS use by bodybuilders in Hamadan, western Iran. In this cross-sectional study, participants were recruited from five gym clubs in two area of Hamadan (a total of 10 clubs). Twenty-five bodybuilders from each club were administered. Questions investigating demographic information, sport history, education level, general knowledge about AAS, and their side effects were asked. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 16. The frequency of AAS use was 28.8% (72/250). Fifty-four percent of users were 25 years or younger. AAS abuse showed a significant association with duration of exercise. The drugs were suggested mostly from peers (43.1%) and coaches (36.1%). The most commonly consumed anabolic steroid was testosterone (66.7%). The most commonly reported AAS side effect was acne (18.1%). There was not significant association between general knowledge about side effects of ASS and their use. The results of current survey indicate that frequency of ASS use is high in adolescents and young adult bodybuilders. Well educated bodybuilders have a higher prevalence of abuse. Awareness about the side effects of drugs is not deterrent factor for their abuse. Iranian Ministry of Sport and the Youth, and the National Council for Youth, should be urged to conduct more effective prevention strategies.

  3. Chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuca, Kamil; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents are compounds of different chemical structures. Simple molecules such as chlorine as well as complex structures such as ricin belong to this group. Nerve agents, vesicants, incapacitating agents, blood agents, lung-damaging agents, riot-control agents and several toxins are among chemical warfare agents. Although the use of these compounds is strictly prohibited, the possible misuse by terrorist groups is a reality nowadays. Owing to this fact, knowledge of the basic properties of these substances is of a high importance. This chapter briefly introduces the separate groups of chemical warfare agents together with their members and the potential therapy that should be applied in case someone is intoxicated by these agents.

  4. Use of the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate associated to strength training in Wistar rats - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i2.15513

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Marta Franzói de Moraes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic steroids have been constantly used among athletes and physically active individuals. Adverse effects of such use are reported in the literature. However, little is known about the effects of anabolic steroid use associated with strength training. Thus, this research aimed to identify possible morphophysiological alterations in Wistar rats treated with the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate and submitted to strength training. Twenty Wistar rats were divided in four groups: sedentary control (SC, sedentary hormone (SH, trained control (TC and trained hormone (TH. After the experimental protocol period, animals were killed and body weight, adiposity, renal and hepatic injury markers, plasmatic lipid profile, glycemia, and insulinemia were determined. The experimental conditions strength training and nandrolone decanoate (isolated or associated were positively correlated to a reduction on visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The association of strength training with nandrolone decanoate was the most effective condition to increase muscle mass. Heart and kidneys weights, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and high density lipoprotein (HDL concentration were also negatively modified. The data demonstrated effects of anabolic steroids in body composition, with better results when associated with strength training, but collateral effects were observed.

  5. Solid phase extraction for multiresidue analysis of anabolic steroids and related substances from calf urine using C18 and alumina columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, A; Franke, JP; de Zeeuw, RA

    1999-01-01

    A solid phase extraction method for anabolic steroids and related substances in calf urine is reported, that is suitable as a screening method for illegal growth promoters. Two types of sorbent were used: a reversed phase C18 material and a polar alumina material. After overnight enzymatic

  6. Pharmacological enhancement of leg and muscle microvascular blood flow does not augment anabolic responses in skeletal muscle of young men under fed conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Bethan E; Atherton, Philip J; Varadhan, Krishna; Wilkinson, Daniel J; Limb, Marie; Selby, Anna L; Rennie, Michael J; Smith, Kenneth; Williams, John P

    2014-01-15

    Skeletal muscle anabolism associated with postprandial plasma aminoacidemia and insulinemia is contingent upon amino acids (AA) and insulin crossing the microcirculation-myocyte interface. In this study, we hypothesized that increasing muscle microvascular blood volume (flow) would enhance fed-state anabolic responses in muscle protein turnover. We studied 10 young men (23.2 ± 2.1 yr) under postabsorptive and fed [iv Glamin (∼10 g AA), glucose ∼7.5 mmol/l] conditions. Methacholine was infused into the femoral artery of one leg to determine, via bilateral comparison, the effects of feeding alone vs. feeding plus pharmacological vasodilation. We measured leg blood flow (LBF; femoral artery) by Doppler ultrasound, muscle microvascular blood volume (MBV) by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and breakdown (MPB; a-v balance modeling), and net protein balance (NPB) using [1,2-(13)C2]leucine and [(2)H5]phenylalanine tracers via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Indexes of anabolic signaling/endothelial activation (e.g., Akt/mTORC1/NOS) were assessed using immunoblotting techniques. Under fed conditions, LBF (+12 ± 5%, P anabolism.

  7. Liver pathology associated with the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Katrine; Søe, Martin Jensen; Gluud, C

    1992-01-01

    that AAS can cause development of hepatocellular carcinomas when used in the usual therapeutic doses. Tumours reported as hepatocellular carcinomas caused by AAS seems to be hyperplastic lesions of a benign nature able to regress with withdrawal of the putative agent. The effects of untraditional...

  8. Novel, non-steroidal, selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) with anabolic activity in bone and muscle and improved safety profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, J; Negro-Vilar, A

    2002-03-01

    A novel approach to the treatment of osteoporosis in men, and possibly women, is the development of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) that can stimulate formation of new bone with substantially diminished proliferative activity in the prostate, as well as reduced virilizing activity in women. Over the last several years, we have developed a program to discover and develop novel, non-steroidal, orally-active selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) that provide improved therapeutic benefits and reduce risk and side effects. In recent studies, we have used a skeletally mature orchiectomized (ORX) male rat as an animal model of male hypogonadism for assessing the efficacy of LGD2226, a nonsteroidal, non-aromatizable, and non-5alpha-reducible SARM. We assessed the activity of LGD2226 on bone turnover, bone mass and bone strength, and also evaluated the effects exerted on classic androgen-dependent targets, such as prostate, seminal vesicles and muscle. A substantial loss of bone density was observed in ORX animals, and this loss was prevented by SARMs, as well as standard androgens. Biochemical markers of bone turnover revealed an early increase of bone resorption in androgen-deficient rats that was repressed in ORX animals treated with the oral SARM, LGD2226, during a 4-month treatment period. Differences in architectural properties and bone strength were detected by histomorphometric and mechanical analyses, demonstrating beneficial effects of LGD2226 on bone quality in androgen-deficient rats. Histomorphometric analysis of cortical bone revealed distinct anabolic activity of LGD2226 in periosteal bone. LGD2226 was able to prevent bone loss and maintain bone quality in ORX rats by stimulating bone formation, while also inhibiting bone turnover. LGD2226 also exerted anabolic activity on the levator ani muscle. Taken together, these results suggest that orally-active, non-steroidal SARMs may be useful therapeutics for both muscle and bone in elderly

  9. Radiopharmaceutical scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This invention is directed to dispersions useful in preparing radiopharmaceutical scanning agents, to technetium labelled dispersions, to methods for preparing such dispersions and to their use as scanning agents

  10. Taskable Reactive Agent Communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myers, Karen

    2002-01-01

    The focus of Taskable Reactive Agent Communities (TRAC) project was to develop mixed-initiative technology to enable humans to supervise and manage teams of agents as they perform tasks in dynamic environments...

  11. Pornography use in sexual minority males: Associations with body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms, thoughts about using anabolic steroids and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Scott; Mitchison, Deborah; Murray, Stuart B; Mond, Jonathan M

    2018-04-01

    We examined two hypotheses regarding the potential association of pornography use with body image-related and eating disorder-related psychopathology among sexual minority males (i.e. non-heterosexual males). Our primary hypothesis was that pornography use would be associated with males' body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms, thoughts about using anabolic steroids and quality of life impairment; our secondary hypothesis was that the type of pornography, namely, professional versus amateur pornography, which contains idealised and non-idealised (i.e. regular) bodies, respectively, would moderate these associations. A sample of 2733 sexual minority males living in Australia and New Zealand completed an online survey that contained measures of pornography use, body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms, thoughts about using anabolic steroids and quality of life. Almost all (98.2%) participants reported pornography use with a median use of 5.33 hours per month. Multivariate analyses revealed that increased pornography use was associated with greater dissatisfaction with muscularity, body fat and height; greater eating disorder symptoms; more frequent thoughts about using anabolic steroids; and lower quality of life. Effect sizes for these associations were uniformly small. Neither relationship status nor genital dissatisfaction was associated with pornography use. The association between pornography use and thoughts about using anabolic steroids was stronger for viewers of professional pornography than viewers of amateur pornography. The findings suggest that the use of pornography is weakly associated with body dissatisfaction and related variables and that the type of pornography (amateur vs professional) viewed may be a moderating factor in some cases. Within the limits of a cross-sectional study design, these findings may have implications for clinicians who treat individuals with eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, anabolic-androgenic steroid

  12. Users, Bystanders and Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper...

  13. Asymptotically Optimal Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Lattimore, Tor; Hutter, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Artificial general intelligence aims to create agents capable of learning to solve arbitrary interesting problems. We define two versions of asymptotic optimality and prove that no agent can satisfy the strong version while in some cases, depending on discounting, there does exist a non-computable weak asymptotically optimal agent.

  14. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in

  15. Effects of Solvent and Ion Source Pressure on the Analysis of Anabolic Steroids by Low Pressure Photoionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyuan; Zhu, Yanan; Yang, Jiuzhong; Zhao, Wan; Lu, Deen; Pan, Yang

    2017-04-01

    Solvent and ion source pressure were two important factors relating to the photon induced ion-molecule reactions in low pressure photoionization (LPPI). In this work, four anabolic steroids were analyzed by LPPI mass spectrometry. Both the ion species present and their relative abundances could be controlled by switching the solvent and adjusting the ion source pressure. Whereas M•+, MH+, [M - H2O]+, and solvent adducts were observed in positive LPPI, [M - H]- and various oxidation products were abundant in negative LPPI. Changing the solvent greatly affected formation of the ion species in both positive and negative ion modes. The ion intensities of the solvent adduct and oxygen adduct were selectively enhanced when the ion source pressure was elevated from 68 to 800 Pa. The limit of detection could be decreased by increasing the ion source pressure.

  16. Effects of Solvent and Ion Source Pressure on the Analysis of Anabolic Steroids by Low Pressure Photoionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyuan; Zhu, Yanan; Yang, Jiuzhong; Zhao, Wan; Lu, Deen; Pan, Yang

    2017-04-01

    Solvent and ion source pressure were two important factors relating to the photon induced ion-molecule reactions in low pressure photoionization (LPPI). In this work, four anabolic steroids were analyzed by LPPI mass spectrometry. Both the ion species present and their relative abundances could be controlled by switching the solvent and adjusting the ion source pressure. Whereas M •+ , MH + , [M - H 2 O] + , and solvent adducts were observed in positive LPPI, [M - H] - and various oxidation products were abundant in negative LPPI. Changing the solvent greatly affected formation of the ion species in both positive and negative ion modes. The ion intensities of the solvent adduct and oxygen adduct were selectively enhanced when the ion source pressure was elevated from 68 to 800 Pa. The limit of detection could be decreased by increasing the ion source pressure. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  17. Anabolic steroid use and body image psychopathology in men: Delineating between appearance- versus performance-driven motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Stuart B; Griffiths, Scott; Mond, Jonathan M; Kean, Joseph; Blashill, Aaron J

    2016-08-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use has been robustly associated with negative body image, and eating- and muscularity-oriented psychopathology. However, with AAS being increasingly utilized for both appearance and athletic performance-related purposes, we investigated whether comorbid body image psychopathology varies as a function of motivation for usage. Self-reported motivation for current and initial AAS use was recorded amongst 122 AAS using males, alongside measures of current disordered eating and muscle dysmorphia psychopathology. Those reporting AAS for appearance purposes reported greater overall eating disorder psychopathology, F(2, 118)=7.45, p=0.001, ηp(2)=0.11, and muscle dysmorphia psychopathology, F(2, 118)=7.22, ppsychopathology amongst users. Men whose AAS use is driven primarily by appearance-related concerns may be a particularly dysfunctional subgroup. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Associated with Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Abuse in a Young Bodybuilder: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Hardt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Many different etiological factors are involved in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. We report the case of HCC in a 37-year-old male professional bodybuilder with extensive anabolic androgenic (AAS steroid abuse. Case Presentation. Because of increasing epigastric and abdominal pain, abdominal ultrasound was performed in a 37-year-old male professional bodybuilder. A hyperechoic lesion in the liver was detected in segment VI. The magnetic resonance imaging showed hepatomegaly and confirmed the lesion, which showed features of a hepatocellular adenoma (HCA. Laboratory values were inconspicuous. After laparoscopic segmentectomy the histological examination revealed HCC. Conclusion. While the development of HCA in the liver by chronic intake of AAS is well known, little is known about the association with HCC. The presented case may indicate aetiological association of chronic intake of AAS and the development of HCC.

  19. Acute myocardial infarction in a young bodybuilder taking anabolic androgenic steroids: A case report and critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Georgios A; Christou, Konstantinos A; Nikas, Dimitrios N; Goudevenos, John A

    2016-11-01

    We describe a case report of a 30-year-old bodybuilder suffering acute myocardial infarction (AMI). He had been taking stanozolol and testosterone for two months. The coronary angiogram showed high thrombotic burden in the left anterior descending artery without underlying atherosclerosis. Few case reports of AMI in athletes taking anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) have been reported so far. AAS-related AMI is possibly underreported in the medical literature due to the desire of the affected individuals to hide AAS use. Physicians should always consider the possibility of AAS abuse in the context of a young athlete suffering AMI. AASs can predispose to AMI through the acceleration of coronary atherosclerosis. Additionally, thrombosis without underlying atherosclerosis or vasospasm is highly possible to cause AMI in AAS users. Complications after AMI may be more frequent in AAS users. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.

  20. The potential use of complex derivatization procedures in comprehensive HPLC-MS/MS detection of anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, Pavel A; Appolonova, Svetlana A; Rodchenkov, Grigory M

    2010-10-01

    The use of two separate derivatization procedures with the formation of oxime (hydroxyl ammonium pretreatment) and picolinoyl (mixed anhydride method) derivates of anabolic steroids following HPLC-MS/MS analysis was proposed. The main product ions of obtained derivatives for 21 anabolic steroids were evaluated and fragmentation pathways were compared.The analysis of MS/MS spectra for underivatized steroids versus oxime or picolinoyl derivatives showed that in case of analytes containing conjugated double bonds in sterane core all of the observed MS/MS spectra contained abundant product ions of diagnostic value. The implementation of derivatization procedures to such compounds is useful for upgrading sensitivity or selectivity of the evaluated method. On the other hand, MS/MS spectra of underivatized and oxime analytes without conjugated double bonds in sterane core produce spectra with large amounts of low abundant product ions. Picolinoyl derivatives formation leads to highly specific spectra with product ions of diagnostic value coupled with sensitive and selective analysis at the same time. The intra- and inter-group comparison analysis revealed that fragmentation pathways for underivatized steroids and correspondent oxime derivatives are similar.The obtained oxime and picolinoyl derivatives provided 10-15 times higher ESI response in the HPLC-ESI-MS-selected reaction monitoring (SRM) when compared to those of underivatized molecules in positive HPLC-ESI-MS mode.Due to the laborious sample preparation we suggest to use the performed strategy for confirmation analysis purposes, metabolic studies or while the identification of new steroids or steroid-like substances. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Advantages and Limitations of Androgen Receptor-Based Methods for Detecting Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Abuse as Performance Enhancing Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kathy; Yazdi, Tahmineh; Masharani, Umesh; Tyrrell, Blake; Butch, Anthony; Schaufele, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone (T) and related androgens are performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) abused by some athletes to gain competitive advantage. To monitor unauthorized androgen abuse, doping control programs use mass spectrometry (MS) to detect androgens, synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) and their metabolites in an athlete’s urine. AASs of unknown composition will not be detected by these procedures. Since AASs achieve their anabolic effects by activating the Androgen Receptor (AR), cell-based bioassays that measure the effect of a urine sample on AR activity are under investigation as complementary, pan-androgen detection methods. We evaluated an AR BioAssay as a monitor for androgen activity in urine pre-treated with glucuronidase, which releases T from the inactive T-glucuronide that predominates in urine. AR BioAssay activity levels were expressed as ‘T-equivalent’ concentrations by comparison to a T dose response curve. The T-equivalent concentrations of androgens in the urine of hypogonadal participants supplemented with T (in whom all androgenic activity should arise from T) were quantitatively identical to the T measurements conducted by MS at the UCLA Olympic Analytical Laboratory (0.96 ± 0.22). All 17 AASs studied were active in the AR BioAssay; other steroids were inactive. 12 metabolites of 10 commonly abused AASs, which are used for MS monitoring of AAS doping because of their prolonged presence in urine, had reduced or no AR BioAssay activity. Thus, the AR BioAssay can accurately and inexpensively monitor T, but its ability to monitor urinary AASs will be limited to a period immediately following doping in which the active AASs remain intact. PMID:26998755

  2. Anabolic androgenic steroids and violent offending: confounding by polysubstance abuse among 10,365 general population men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Lena; Frisell, Thomas; Lichtenstein, Paul; Långström, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use is associated with aggressive and violent behaviour, but it remains uncertain if this relationship is causal in humans. We examined the link between AAS use and violent crime while controlling for polysubstance abuse and additional suggested risk factors for violence. Cross-sectional study of a population-based sample. In 2005, all Swedish-born male twins aged 20-47 years were invited to participate in the Swedish Twin Adults: Genes and Environment (STAGE) survey of the Swedish Twin Register (response rate = 60%). A total of 10,365 male survey participants with information on AAS use. Data on self-reported use of AAS, alcohol and other substances, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and personality disorder symptoms were linked to nation-wide, longitudinal register information on criminal convictions, IQ, psychological functioning and childhood socio-economic status (SES) covariates. Any life-time use of AAS was associated strongly with conviction for a violent crime [2.7 versus 0.6% in convicted and non-convicted men, respectively; odds ratio (OR) = 5.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.7-9.3]. However, this link was substantially reduced and no longer significant when controlling for other substance abuse (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 0.8-3.3). Controlling for IQ, psychological functioning, ADHD, personality disorder symptoms and childhood SES did not reduce the risk further. In the general population, co-occurring polysubstance abuse, but not IQ, other neuropsychological risks or socio-economic status, explains most of the relatively strong association between any anabolic androgenic steroid use and conviction for a violent crime. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Advantages and Limitations of Androgen Receptor-Based Methods for Detecting Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Abuse as Performance Enhancing Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kathy; Yazdi, Tahmineh; Masharani, Umesh; Tyrrell, Blake; Butch, Anthony; Schaufele, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone (T) and related androgens are performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) abused by some athletes to gain competitive advantage. To monitor unauthorized androgen abuse, doping control programs use mass spectrometry (MS) to detect androgens, synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) and their metabolites in an athlete's urine. AASs of unknown composition will not be detected by these procedures. Since AASs achieve their anabolic effects by activating the Androgen Receptor (AR), cell-based bioassays that measure the effect of a urine sample on AR activity are under investigation as complementary, pan-androgen detection methods. We evaluated an AR BioAssay as a monitor for androgen activity in urine pre-treated with glucuronidase, which releases T from the inactive T-glucuronide that predominates in urine. AR BioAssay activity levels were expressed as 'T-equivalent' concentrations by comparison to a T dose response curve. The T-equivalent concentrations of androgens in the urine of hypogonadal participants supplemented with T (in whom all androgenic activity should arise from T) were quantitatively identical to the T measurements conducted by MS at the UCLA Olympic Analytical Laboratory (0.96 ± 0.22). All 17 AASs studied were active in the AR BioAssay; other steroids were inactive. 12 metabolites of 10 commonly abused AASs, which are used for MS monitoring of AAS doping because of their prolonged presence in urine, had reduced or no AR BioAssay activity. Thus, the AR BioAssay can accurately and inexpensively monitor T, but its ability to monitor urinary AASs will be limited to a period immediately following doping in which the active AASs remain intact.

  4. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to radiodiagnostic agents and more particularly to a composition and method for preparing a highly effective technetium-99m-based bone scanning agent. One deficiency of x-ray examination is the inability of that technique to detect skeletal metastases in their incipient stages. It has been discovered that the methanehydroxydiphosphonate bone mineral-seeking agent is unique in that it provides the dual benefits of sharp radiographic imaging and excellent lesion detection when used with technetium-99m. This agent can also be used with technetium-99m for detecting soft tissue calcification in the manner of the inorganic phosphate radiodiagnostic agents

  5. Agente adaptable y aprendizaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Angel Lara Rivero

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se contrasta el concepto de agente programado con el de agente complejo adaptable, se presenta una nueva visión ligada al aprendizaje y la estructura del agente. La imagen del agente se analiza considerando los modelos internos, la práctica, el concepto de rutina y la influencia en su comportamiento, y la importancia del aprendizaje ex ante y ex post. Por último se muestra que la resolución de problemas está sujeta a restricciones del agente y se describen las formas de explorar el espacio de soluciones mediante tres tipos de exploración: exhaustiva, aleatoria y selectiva.

  6. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  7. Trafficking of drug candidates relevant for sports drug testing: detection of non-approved therapeutics categorized as anabolic and gene doping agents in products distributed via the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Geyer, Hans; Thomas, Andreas; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2011-05-01

    Identifying the use of non-approved drugs by cheating athletes has been a great challenge for doping control laboratories. This is due to the additional complexities associated with identifying relatively unknown and uncharacterized compounds and their metabolites as opposed to known and well-studied therapeutics. In 2010, the prohibited drug candidates and gene doping substances AICAR and GW1516, together with the selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) MK-2866 were obtained by the Cologne Doping Control Laboratory from Internet suppliers and their structure, quantity, and formulation elucidated. All three compounds proved authentic as determined by liquid chromatography-high resolution/high accuracy (tandem) mass spectrometry and comparison to reference material. While AICAR was provided as a colourless powder in 100 mg aliquots, GW1516 was obtained as an orange/yellow suspension in water/glycerol (150 mg/ml), and MK-2866 (25 mg/ml) was shipped dissolved in polyethylene glycol (PEG) 300. In all cases, the quantified amounts were considerably lower than indicated on the label. The substances were delivered via courier, with packaging identifying them as containing 'amino acids' and 'green tea extract', arguably to circumvent customs control. Although all of the substances were declared 'for research only', their potential misuse in illicit performance-enhancement cannot be excluded; moreover sports drug testing authorities should be aware of the facile availability of black market copies of these drug candidates. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  9. Stabilized radiographic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzi, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    Stable compositions useful as technetium 99m-based scintigraphic agents comprise gentisic acid or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material that carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent

  10. Contrast agents for MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnemain, B.

    1994-01-01

    Contrast agents MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) have been developed to improve the diagnostic information obtained by this technic. They mainly interact on T1 and T2 parameters and increase consequently normal to abnormal tissues contrast. The paramagnetic agents which mainly act on longitudinal relaxation rate (T1) are gadolinium complexes for which stability is the main parameter to avoid any release of free gadolinium. The superparamagnetic agents that decrease signal intensity by an effect on transversal relaxation rate (T2) are developed for liver, digestive and lymph node imaging. Many area of research are now opened for optimal use of present and future contrast agents in MRI. (author). 28 refs., 4 tabs

  11. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions. This dataset is associated with the following...

  12. Preparation and application of solid-phase microextraction fiber based on molecularly imprinted polymer for determination of anabolic steroids in complicated samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lijun; Liu, Wei; Huang, Min; Zhang, Lan

    2010-11-26

    A relatively selective, chemically and physically robust SPME fiber was developed in a simple way with testosterone-imprinted polymer, and then directly coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for selective extraction and analysis of anabolic steroids. The factors influencing polymerization (i.e., cross-linker, polymerization solvent, polymerization time) were optimized in detail and the polymer was characterized by scanning electron microscope, infrared spectrometer and thermogravimetric analyzer. Furthermore, the extraction performance of the MIP-coated SPME fibers such as extraction ability and selectivity was evaluated. Moreover, the interaction mode between target analytes and fiber coating was deducted. Finally, the method for extraction and determination of androsterone, stanolone, androstenedione and methyltestosterone by the homemade MIP-coated SPME fibers with GC-MS was obtained. It was applied to the simultaneous analysis of four anabolic steroids in the spiked human urine with the satisfactory recoveries. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-targeted acquisition strategy for screening doping compounds based on GC-EI-hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry: A focus on exogenous anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque Cavalcanti, Gustavo; Rodrigues, Lucas Martins; Dos Santos, Leonardo; Zheng, Xin; Gujar, Amit; Cole, Jason; Padilha, Monica Costa; de Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler

    2018-03-01

    This is a first look at a non-targeted screening method based on Orbitrap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technology for a large number of banned compounds in sports found in urine, including exogenous anabolic steroids, β-agonists, narcotics, stimulants, hormone modulators, and diuretics. A simple sample preparation was processed in four steps: an enzymatic hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction, evaporation, and trimethylsilylation. All compounds were able to meet the World Anti-Doping Agency's sensitivity criteria with mass accuracies less than 1 ppm and with sufficient points across the peak by running the Orbitrap GC-MS in full-scan mode. In addition, we discuss our initial findings of using a full-scan selected ion monitoring-tandem mass spectrometry (SIM-MS/MS) approach as a way to obtain lower detection limits and reach desirable selectivity for some exogenous anabolic steroids. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Intravascular ultrasound and angiographic demonstration of left main stem thrombus-high-risk presentation in a young adult with anabolic steroid abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Pankaj; Davis, Gershan; Wilson, John Ian; Sivananthan, Mohan

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of acute myocardial infarction in a young adult with a history of anabolic steroid abuse. On diagnostic coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound, he was found to have a distal left main stem thrombus extending into the proximal left anterior descending artery and a large intermediate vessel. As he was hemodynamically stable and pain-free, he was managed conservatively with triple antiplatelet therapy (aspirin, clopidogrel, and abciximab). This was also to avoid the risk of 'wiring the vessel,' especially if there was underlying dissection. Repeat angiography a few weeks later showed complete thrombus resolution. This is the first reported case of extensive left main stem thrombus in a young patient with anabolic steroid abuse. Management of such cases is not straightforward and our case highlights one approach to both diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is increased in osteoarthritis and regulates chondrocyte catabolic and anabolic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, D.L.; Ulici, V.; Chubinskaya, S.; Loeser, R.F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We determined if the epidermal growth factor receptor ligand HB-EGF is produced in cartilage and if it regulates chondrocyte anabolic or catabolic activity. Methods HB-EGF expression was measured by quantitative PCR using RNA isolated from mouse knee joint tissues and from normal and OA human chondrocytes. Immunohistochemistry was performed on normal and OA human cartilage and meniscus sections. Cultured chondrocytes were treated with fibronectin fragments (FN-f) as a catabolic stimulus and osteogenic protein 1 (OP-1) as an anabolic stimulus. Effects of HB-EGF on cell signaling were analyzed by immunoblotting of selected signaling proteins. MMP-13 was measured in conditioned media, proteoglycan synthesis was measured by sulfate incorporation, and matrix gene expression by quantitative PCR. Results HB-EGF expression was increased in 12-month old mice at 8 weeks after surgery to induce OA and increased amounts of HB-EGF were noted in human articular cartilage from OA knees. FN-f stimulated chondrocyte HB-EGF expression and HB-EGF stimulated chondrocyte MMP-13 production. However, HB-EGF was not required for FN-f stimulation of MMP-13 production. HB-EGF activated the ERK and p38 MAP kinases and stimulated phosphorylation of Smad1 at an inhibitory serine site which was associated with inhibition of OP-1 mediated proteoglycan synthesis and reduced aggrecan (ACAN) but not COL2A1 expression. Conclusion HB-EGF is a new factor identified in OA cartilage that promotes chondrocyte catabolic activity while inhibiting anabolic activity suggesting it could contribute to the catabolic-anabolic imbalance seen in OA cartilage. PMID:25937027

  16. Dose-dependent effects of Asparagus adscendens root (AARR) extract on the anabolic, reproductive, and sexual behavioral activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansode, Falgun Wanganuji; Arya, Kamal Ram; Singh, Rama Kant; Narender, T

    2015-02-01

    Asparagus adscendens Roxb (Liliaceae) has a promising role in modulation of various disorders such as leucorrhea, diarrhea, dysentery, diabetes, senile pruritus, asthma, fatigue antifilarial, antifungal, spermatorrhea, and sexual debility/seminal weakness. To investigate dose-dependent effects of Asparagus adscendens root (AARR) extract on anabolic, reproductive, and sexual behavioral activities with a view to emphasize the pharmacological basis. Rats were divided into five groups: Group I (control), Groups II-IV (AARR treated, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight, respectively, orally for 30 d) and Group V (standard control treated with sildenafil citrate, 5 mg/kg body weight). On day 31, copulatory and potency tests were carried out and an autopsy was done to study the reproductive function, namely, organ weights, spermatogenesis, daily sperm production rate (DSP), and epididymal sperm counts (ESC). AARR extract (200 and 300 mg/kg doses) caused a significant increase in body (p < 0.02 and p < 0.001) and testes (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, control versus treated) weights. Reproductive activity showed significant a increase in testicular tubular diameter (p < 0.005-0.001), the number of round/elongated spermatids (p < 0.02-0.001), DSP, and ESC (p < 0.05-0.001). The sexual behavioral parameters including mounting/intromission frequency (13.0 ± 0.32/11.8 ± 0.37 and 18.2 ± 2.12/14.8 ± 1.15 versus 11.2 ± 0.66/8.2 ± 1.16), ejaculation latency (187.4 ± 1.91 and 191.4 ± 1.72 versus 180.0 ± 3.47), and penile erections (13.5 ± 0.3 and 14.5 ± 0.5 versus 8.5 ± 0.2) showed a significant increase at 200 and 300 mg/kg doses (ED50 300 mg/kg), but less than a standard control. In contrast, 100 mg/kg dose caused an increase (p < 0.005) in mounting latency only. These results indicate increased anabolic, reproductive, and sexual activities by AARR treatment. Thus, the data provide

  17. Use of anabolic androgenic steroids produces greater oxidative stress responses to resistance exercise in strength-trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS use on oxidative stress responses to a single session of resistance exercise in strength-trained men. Twenty-three strength trained men, with 11 self-reporting regular AAS use and 12 self-reporting never taking AAS (NAAS volunteered to participate in this study. Blood draws were obtained pre and post resistance exercise in order to evaluate changes in oxidative stress biomarkers levels (i.e., 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG], malondialdehyde [MDA], and nitric oxide [NO], antioxidant defense systems (i.e., glutathione peroxidase [GPx] and catalase [CAT], and glucose (GLU levels. The AAS users had higher level of 8-OHdG (77.3 ± 17 vs. 57.7 ± 18.2 ng/mg, MDA (85.6 ± 17.8 vs. 52.3 ± 15.1 ng/mL, and GPx (9.1 ± 2.3 vs. 7.1 ± 1.3 mu/mL compared to NAAS at pre exercise (p < 0.05. Both the experimental groups showed increases in 8-OHdG (p = 0.001, MDA (p = 0.001, GPx (p = 0.001, NO (p = 0.04, CAT (p = 0.02 and GLU (p = 0.001 concentrations after resistance exercise, and the AAS group indicated significant differences in 8-OHdG (p = 0.02 and MDA (p = 0.05 concentrations compared with NAAS users at post exercise. In conclusion, use of AAS is associated with alterations in immune function resulting in oxidative stress, and cell damage; however, high-intensity resistance exercise could increase greater oxidative stress biomarkers in strength-trained men. Keywords: ROS, Strength exercise, Anabolic

  18. Change Agent Survival Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  19. Teaching Tourism Change Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stilling Blichfeldt, Bodil; Kvistgaard, Hans-Peter; Hird, John

    2017-01-01

    course that is part of a Tourism Master’s program, where a major challenge is not only to teach students about change and change agents, but to teach them how change feels and ho w to become change agents. The c hange management course contains an experiment inspired by experiential teaching literature...... change in tourism in the future....

  20. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  1. Radiographic scintiscanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A new technetium-based scintiscanning agent has been prepared comprising a water soluble sup(99m)Tc-methanehydroxydiphosphonate in combination with a reducing agent selected from stannous, ferrous, chromous and titanous salts. As an additional stabilizer salts and esters of gentisic or ascorbic acids have been used. (E.G.)

  2. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A stable radiographic scanning agent on a sup(99m)Tc basis has been developed. The substance contains a pertechnetate reduction agent, tin(II)-chloride, chromium(II)-chloride, or iron(II)-sulphate, as well as an organospecific carrier and ascorbic acid or a pharmacologically admissible salt or ester of ascorbic acid. (VJ) [de

  3. Stable radiographic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Stable compositions which are useful in the preparation of Technetium-99m-based scintigraphic agents are discussed. They are comprised of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in oxidized pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcO 4 - ) solution

  4. Severe energy deficit at high altitude inhibits skeletal muscle mTORC1-mediated anabolic signaling without increased ubiquitin proteasome activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Lee M; Carbone, John W; Berryman, Claire E; Carrigan, Christopher T; Murphy, Nancy E; Ferrando, Arny A; Young, Andrew J; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2018-06-07

    Muscle loss at high altitude (HA) is attributable to energy deficit and a potential dysregulation of anabolic signaling. Exercise and protein ingestion can attenuate the effects of energy deficit on muscle at sea level (SL). Whether these effects are observed when energy deficit occurs at HA is unknown. To address this, muscle obtained from lowlanders ( n = 8 males) at SL, acute HA (3 h, 4300 m), and chronic HA (21 d, -1766 kcal/d energy balance) before [baseline (Base)] and after 80 min of aerobic exercise followed by a 2-mile time trial [postexercise (Post)] and 3 h into recovery (Rec) after ingesting whey protein (25 g) were analyzed using standard molecular techniques. At SL, Post, and REC, p-mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) Ser2448 , p-p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) Ser424/421 , and p-ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) Ser235/236 were similar and higher ( P anabolic resistance that is exacerbated by energy deficit during acclimatization, with no change in proteolysis.-Margolis, L. M., Carbone, J. W., Berryman, C. E., Carrigan, C. T., Murphy, N. E., Ferrando, A. A., Young, A. J., Pasiakos, S. M. Severe energy deficit at high altitude inhibits skeletal muscle mTORC1-mediated anabolic signaling without increased ubiquitin proteasome activity.

  5. Hyperthermia and chemotherapy agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roizin-Towle, L.; Hall, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer dates back to the late 19th century, but the modern era of chemotherapy drugs was ushered in during the 1940's with the development of the polyfunctional alkylating agent. Since then, numerous classes of drugs have evolved and the combined use of antineoplastic agents with other treatment modalities such as radiation or heat, remains a large relatively unexplored area. This approach, combining local hyperthermia with chemotherapy agents affords a measure of targeting and selective toxicity not previously available for drugs. In this paper, the effects of adriamycin, bleomycin and cis-platinum are examined. The adjuvant use of heat may also reverse the resistance of hypoxic cells noted for some chemotherapy agents

  6. Agent Programming Languages and Logics in Agent-Based Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John

    2018-01-01

    and social behavior, and work on verification. Agent-based simulation is an approach for simulation that also uses the notion of agents. Although agent programming languages and logics are much less used in agent-based simulation, there are successful examples with agents designed according to the BDI...

  7. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  8. Biological warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  9. Screening for exogenous androgen anabolic steroids in human hair by liquid chromatography/orbitrap-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano-Rossi, Sabina; Castrignanò, Erika; Anzillotti, Luca; Odoardi, Sara; De-Giorgio, Fabio; Bermejo, Ana; Pascali, Vincenzo L

    2013-09-02

    A method for the screening of various anabolic steroids and their esters in human hair, based on liquid-chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry using an Exactive benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer, has been set up and validated. This method involved methanolic incubation of 30 mg of hair and analysis of the relevant extract in HPLC using a C18 column. The mass detector, with nominal resolving power of 100,000, operated in full scan mode in APCI under positive ionization mode. Analytes were identified by exact mass, correspondence of isotopic cluster and retention times. The limits of detection obtained varied from 10 to 50 pg mg(-1), and limits of quantitation were 0.5 ng mg(-1) for all compounds. The method was linear for all analytes in the ranges from the LOQ to 6 ng mg(-1), giving correlation coefficients >0.99 for all analytes. Also accuracy (intended as %E) and repeatability (%CV) were always lower than 15%. Specificity was assessed by analysing ten blank samples and fifteen samples from polidrug abusers. This method was applied to a real-life case, resulting in the identification of testosterone undecanoate in the hair of a suspect. The analyte identity was confirmed by the analysis of its in-source fragmentation and comparison to a certified standard. Thanks to the scan acquisition, this method also enables retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte needs to be screened. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Defective bone formation and anabolic response to exogenous estrogen in mice with targeted disruption of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, K E; Armour, K J; Gallagher, M E; Gödecke, A; Helfrich, M H; Reid, D M; Ralston, S H

    2001-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a pleiotropic signaling molecule that is produced by bone cells constitutively and in response to diverse stimuli such as proinflammatory cytokines, mechanical strain, and sex hormones. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is the predominant NOS isoform expressed in bone, but its physiological role in regulating bone metabolism remains unclear. Here we studied various aspects of bone metabolism in female mice with targeted disruption of the eNOS gene. Mice with eNOS deficiency (eNOS KO) had reduced bone mineral density, and cortical thinning when compared with WT controls and histomorphometric analysis of bone revealed profound abnormalities of bone formation, with reduced osteoblast numbers, surfaces and mineral apposition rate. Studies in vitro showed that osteoblasts derived from eNOS KO mice had reduced rates of growth when compared with WT and were less well differentiated as reflected by lower levels of alkaline phosphatase activity. Mice with eNOS deficiency lost bone normally following ovariectomy but exhibited a significantly blunted anabolic response to high dose exogenous estrogen. We conclude that the eNOS pathway plays an essential role in regulating bone mass and bone turnover by modulating osteoblast function.

  11. Impact of Health Authority Control Measures Aimed at Reducing the Illicit Use of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Mourelle, Raquel; Carracedo-Martinez, Eduardo; Figueiras, Adolfo

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate two interventions on anabolic-androgenic-steroids (AAS) dispensation in retail pharmacies. The study was conducted in a north-western region of Spain. Data were the AAS supplied by wholesale drug distributors to retail pharmacies over a period of 102 months. It is designed as an ecological time-series study; the dependent variables were daily defined doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day of each drug. The two interventions evaluated were: (1) an inspection program intended for those retail pharmacies where there was an irregular dispensation and (2) a regulation put forth forcing these pharmacies to carry out additional registers. The medications studied were stanozolol, nandrolone, methenolone, testosterone and mesterolone. The pre-intervention use of AAS displayed a rising trend. There was an immediate reduction of 30.56% after the first intervention, and a further reduction of 35.25% after the second. There was a seasonal pattern of use in the pre-intervention period, pointing to an increased demand at the end of spring and beginning of summer. The most abused drugs were stanozolol and nandrolone. The health actions were very effective, in that they brought about a sharp reduction in the illicit use of AAS. These interventions could be applied to other drugs in which abuse were detected. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Exercise reinforcement, stress, and β-endorphins: an initial examination of exercise in anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Shope, Sydney; Varangis, Eleanna; Klein, Diane; Pfaff, Donald W; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-06-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) are abused primarily in the context of intense exercise and for the purposes of increasing muscle mass as opposed to drug-induced euphoria. AASs also modulate the HPA axis and may increase the reinforcing value of exercise through changes to stress hormone and endorphin release. To test this hypothesis, 26 adult males drawn from a larger study on AAS use completed a progressive ratio task designed to examine the reinforcing value of exercise relative to financial reinforcer. Sixteen experienced and current users (8 on-cycle, 8 off-cycle) and 10 controls matched on quantity×frequency of exercise, age, and education abstained from exercise for 24 h prior to testing and provided 24-h cortisol, plasma cortisol, ACTH, β-endorphin samples, and measures of mood, compulsive exercise, and body image. Between group differences indicated that on-cycle AAS users had the highest β-endorphin levels, lowest cortisol levels, higher ACTH levels than controls. Conversely, off-cycle AAS users had the highest cortisol and ACTH levels, but the lowest β-endorphin levels. Exercise value was positively correlated with β-endorphin and symptoms of AAS dependence. The HPA response to AASs may explain why AASs are reinforcing in humans and exercise may play a key role in the development of AAS dependence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bodybuilders who consume anabolic steroids and its relationship with their physical self description and their physical social anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Arbinaga Ibarzábal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of physical and social anxiety and the physical self description in 55 male bodybuilders who use anabolic steroids and 95 non users are determined, the consumption is being valued through the Fat Free Body Mass (Kouri, Pope and Katz, 1995. On the SPAS scale (Hart, Leary and Rejeski, 1989 the consumers give higher values to the non consumers in the total score (t=2,721 p=0,008 and in the “expectation towards a negative assessment” (t=2,710 p=0,008 and very slight differences in the “comfort with their physical presence” (t=1,939 p=0,054. In self description, valued through the PSDQ (Marsh and Sutherland, 1994, it is shown that non users get a higher score in self description (t=2,431 p=0,016. Nevertheless, there are no differences given in the global scores in self description of the physical form (t=1,542 p=0,125. Inverse and significant correlations are observed between the two scales; with the dimension “physical self description” (r=-0,583 p=0,000 and with “self description of the physical form” (r=-0,337 p=0,000.

  14. Wrinkled1 accelerates flowering and regulates lipid homeostasis between oil accumulation and membrane lipid anabolism in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing eLi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wrinkled1 (WRI1 belongs to the APETALA2 transcription factor family; it is unique to plants and is a central regulator of oil synthesis in Arabidopsis. The effects of WRI1 on comprehensive lipid metabolism and plant development were unknown, especially in crop plants. This study found that BnWRI1 in Brassica napus accelerated flowering and enhanced oil accumulation in both seeds and leaves without leading to a visible growth inhibition. BnWRI1 decreased storage carbohydrates and increased soluble sugars to facilitate the carbon flux to lipid anabolism. BnWRI1 is localized to the nucleus and directly binds to the AW-box at proximal upstream regions of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and lipid assembly. The overexpression (OE of BnWRI1 resulted in the up-regulation of genes involved in glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis, lipid assembly, and flowering. Lipid profiling revealed increased galactolipid monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG, digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG, and phosphatidylcholine (PC in the leaves of OE plants, whereas it exhibited a reduced level of the galactolipids DGDG and MGDG and increased levels of PC, phosphatidylethanolamide (PE, and oil (triacylglycerol, TAG in the siliques of OE plants during the early seed development stage. These results suggest that BnWRI1 is important for homeostasis among TAG, membrane lipids and sugars, and thus facilitates flowering and oil accumulation in B. napus.

  15. Culturally Aware Agent Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Nakano, Yukiko; Koda, Tomoko

    2012-01-01

    Agent based interaction in the form of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) has matured over the last decade and agents have become more and more sophisticated in terms of their verbal and nonverbal behavior like facial expressions or gestures. Having such “natural” communication channels...... available for expressing not only task-relevant but also socially and psychologically relevant information makes it necessary to take influences into account that are not readily implemented like emotions or cultural heuristics. These influences have a huge impact on the success of an interaction...

  16. Agent-Based Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  17. Mobile Agent Data Integrity Using Multi-Agent Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDonald, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    .... Security issues for mobile agents continue to produce research interest, particularly in developing mechanisms that guarantee protection of agent data and agent computations in the presence of malicious hosts...

  18. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  19. Agents Within our Midst

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    agents; and the development of bio -monitoring protocols for civilian and service personnel during a chemical attack. These efforts have resulted in greater...produced by staphylococcal bacteria that is and is classified as a CDC select agent which has the potential to be used as a biological weapon .1...NMR chemical shift perturbation titrations with Fab (fragment, antigen binding regions) domains of 20B1, 14G8, and 6D3 using deuterated (2H) SEB

  20. Adrenal imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.A.; Hanson, R.N.; Holman, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    The goals of this proposal are the development of selenium-containing analogs of the aromatic amino acids as imaging agents for the pancreas and of the adrenal cortex enzyme inhibitors as imaging agents for adrenal pathology. The objects for this year include (a) the synthesis of methylseleno derivatives of phenylalanine and tryptophan, and (b) the preparation and evaluation of radiolabeled iodobenzoyl derivatives of the selenazole and thiazole analogs of metyrapone and SU-9055

  1. Monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The methods that have been used for monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents depend on some physical property such as Density, Refractometry, Mass, Solubility, Raman scattering, or Infra-red absorption. Today, refractometry and infra-red techniques are the most common. Refractometry is used for the calibration of vaporizers. All anaesthetic agents increase the refractive index of the carrier gas. Provided the mixture is known then the refractive change measures the concentration of the volatile anaesthetic agent. Raman Scattering is when energy hits a molecule a very small fraction of the energy is absorbed and re-emitted at one or more lower frequencies. The shift in frequency is a function of the chemical bonds and is a fingerprint of the substance irradiated. Electromagnetic (Infra-red) has been the commonest method of detection of volatile agents. Most systems use a subtractive system, i.e. the agent in the sampling cell absorbed some of the infrared energy and the photo-detector therefore received less energy. A different approach is where the absorbed energy is converted into a pressure change and detected as sound (Acoustic monitor). This gives a more stable zero reference. More recently, the detector systems have used multiple narrow-band wavelengths in the infrared bands and by shape matching or matrix computing specific agent identification is achieved and the concentration calculated. In the early Datex AS3 monitors, a spectral sweep across the 3 micron infrared band was used to create spectral fingerprints. The recently released AS3 monitors use a different system with five very narrow band filters in the 8-10 micron region. The transmission through each of these filters is a value in a matrix which is solved by a micro computer to identify the agent and its concentration. These monitors can assist in improving the safety and efficiency of our anaesthetics but do not ensure that the patient is completely anaesthetized. Copyright (2000

  2. Monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W J [Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia). Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care

    2000-12-01

    Full text: The methods that have been used for monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents depend on some physical property such as Density, Refractometry, Mass, Solubility, Raman scattering, or Infra-red absorption. Today, refractometry and infra-red techniques are the most common. Refractometry is used for the calibration of vaporizers. All anaesthetic agents increase the refractive index of the carrier gas. Provided the mixture is known then the refractive change measures the concentration of the volatile anaesthetic agent. Raman Scattering is when energy hits a molecule a very small fraction of the energy is absorbed and re-emitted at one or more lower frequencies. The shift in frequency is a function of the chemical bonds and is a fingerprint of the substance irradiated. Electromagnetic (Infra-red) has been the commonest method of detection of volatile agents. Most systems use a subtractive system, i.e. the agent in the sampling cell absorbed some of the infrared energy and the photo-detector therefore received less energy. A different approach is where the absorbed energy is converted into a pressure change and detected as sound (Acoustic monitor). This gives a more stable zero reference. More recently, the detector systems have used multiple narrow-band wavelengths in the infrared bands and by shape matching or matrix computing specific agent identification is achieved and the concentration calculated. In the early Datex AS3 monitors, a spectral sweep across the 3 micron infrared band was used to create spectral fingerprints. The recently released AS3 monitors use a different system with five very narrow band filters in the 8-10 micron region. The transmission through each of these filters is a value in a matrix which is solved by a micro computer to identify the agent and its concentration. These monitors can assist in improving the safety and efficiency of our anaesthetics but do not ensure that the patient is completely anaesthetized. Copyright (2000

  3. Effect of androgenic-anabolic steroids and heavy strength training on patellar tendon morphological and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seynnes, Olivier R; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Kairaitis, Ramutis; Helland, Christian; Campbell, Emma-Louise; Brazaitis, Marius; Skurvydas, Albertas; Narici, Marco V

    2013-07-01

    Combined androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) and overloading affects tendon collagen metabolism and ultrastructure and is often associated with a higher risk of injury. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate whether such effects would be reflected in the patellar tendon properties of individuals with a history of long-term resistance training and AAS abuse (RTS group), compared with trained (RT) and untrained (CTRL) nonsteroids users. Tendon cross-sectional area (CSA), stiffness, Young's modulus, and toe limit strain were measured in vivo, from synchronized ultrasonography and dynamometry data. The patellar tendon of RT and RTS subjects was much stiffer and larger than in the CTRL group. However, stiffness and modulus were higher in the RTS group (26%, P < 0.05 and 30%, P < 0.01, respectively) than in the RT group. Conversely, tendon CSA was 15% (P < 0.05) larger in the RT group than in RTS, although differences disappeared when this variable was normalized to quadriceps maximal isometric torque. Yet maximal tendon stress was higher in RTS than in RT (15%, P < 0.05), without any statistical difference in maximal strain and toe limit strain between groups. The present lack of difference in toe limit strain does not substantiate the hypothesis of changes in collagen crimp pattern associated with AAS abuse. However, these findings indicate that tendon adaptations from years of heavy resistance training are different in AAS users, suggesting differences in collagen remodeling. Some of these adaptations (e.g., higher stress) could be linked to a higher risk of tendon injury.

  4. Chronic Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Exposure Alters Corticotropin Releasing Factor Expression and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Female Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costine, Beth A; Oberlander, Joseph G; Davis, Matthew C; Penatti, Carlos A A; Porter, Donna M; Leaton, Robert N; Henderson, Leslie P

    2010-01-01

    Summary In the past several decades, the therapeutic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been overshadowed by illicit use of these drugs by elite athletes and a growing number of adolescents to enhance performance and body image. As with adults, AAS use by adolescents is associated with a range of behavioral effects, including increased anxiety and altered responses to stress. It has been suggested that adolescents, especially adolescent females, may be particularly susceptible to the effects of these steroids, but few experiments in animal models have been performed to test this assertion. Here we show that chronic exposure of adolescent female mice to a mixture of three commonly abused AAS (testosterone cypionate, nandrolone decanoate and methandrostenolone; 7.5 mg/kg/day for 5 days) significantly enhanced anxiety-like behavior as assessed by the acoustic startle response (ASR), but did not augment the fear-potentiated startle response (FPS) or alter sensorimotor gating as assessed by prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI). AAS treatment also significantly increased the levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) mRNA and somal-associated CRF immunoreactivity in the central amygdala (CeA), as well as neuropil-associated immunoreactivity in the dorsal aspect of the anterolateral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBnST). AAS treatment did not alter CRF receptor 1 or 2 mRNA in either the CeA or the dBnST; CRF immunoreactivity in the ventral BNST, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or the median eminence (ME); or peripheral levels of corticosterone. These results suggest that chronic AAS treatment of adolescent female mice may enhance generalized anxiety, but not sensorimotor gating or learned fear, via a mechanism that involves increased CRF-mediated signaling from CeA neurons projecting to the dBnST. PMID:20537804

  5. Supraphysiological Doses of Performance Enhancing Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids Exert Direct Toxic Effects on Neuron-like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Robert Basile

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS are lipophilic hormones often taken in excessive quantities by athletes and bodybuilders to enhance performance and increase muscle mass. AAS exert well known toxic effects on specific cell and tissue types and organ systems. The attention that androgen abuse has received lately should be used as an opportunity to educate both athletes and the general population regarding their adverse effects. Among numerous commercially available steroid hormones, very few have been specifically tested for direct neurotoxicity. We evaluated the effects of supraphysiological doses of methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone on sympathetic-like neuron cells. Vitality and apoptotic effects were analyzed, and immunofluorescence staining and western blot performed. In this study, we demonstrate that exposure of supraphysiological doses of methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone are toxic to the neuron-like differentiated pheochromocytoma cell line PC12, as confirmed by toxicity on neurite networks responding to nerve growth factor and the modulation of the survival and apoptosis-related proteins ERK, caspase-3, poly (ADP-ribose polymerase and heat-shock protein 90. We observe, in contrast to some previous reports but in accordance with others, expression of the androgen receptor (AR in neuron-like cells, which when inhibited mitigated the toxic effects of AAS tested, suggesting that the AR could be binding these steroid hormones to induce genomic effects. We also note elevated transcription of neuritin in treated cells, a neurotropic factor likely expressed in an attempt to resist neurotoxicity. Taken together, these results demonstrate that supraphysiological exposure to the AAS methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone exert neurotoxic effects by an increase in the activity of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and alterations in neurite networks.

  6. Differential protein expression profile in the hypothalamic GT1-7 cell line after exposure to anabolic androgenic steroids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddyson J Martínez-Rivera

    Full Text Available The abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS has been considered a major public health problem during decades. Supraphysiological doses of AAS may lead to a variety of neuroendocrine problems. Precisely, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis is one of the body systems that is mainly influenced by steroidal hormones. Fluctuations of the hormonal milieu result in alterations of reproductive function, which are made through changes in hypothalamic neurons expressing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH. In fact, previous studies have shown that AAS modulate the activity of these neurons through steroid-sensitive afferents. To increase knowledge about the cellular mechanisms induced by AAS in GnRH neurons, we performed proteomic analyses of the murine hypothalamic GT1-7 cell line after exposure to 17α-methyltestosterone (17α-meT; 1 μM. These cells represent a good model for studying regulatory processes because they exhibit the typical characteristics of GnRH neurons, and respond to compounds that modulate GnRH in vivo. Two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry analyses identified a total of 17 different proteins that were significantly affected by supraphysiological levels of AAS. Furthermore, pathway analyses showed that modulated proteins were mainly associated to glucose metabolism, drug detoxification, stress response and cell cycle. Validation of many of these proteins, such as GSTM1, ERH, GAPDH, PEBP1 and PDIA6, were confirmed by western blotting. We further demonstrated that AAS exposure decreased expression of estrogen receptors and GnRH, while two important signaling pathway proteins p-ERK, and p-p38, were modulated. Our results suggest that steroids have the capacity to directly affect the neuroendocrine system by modulating key cellular processes for the control of reproductive function.

  7. The risk environment of anabolic-androgenic steroid users in the UK: Examining motivations, practices and accounts of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley Santos, Gisella; Coomber, Ross

    2017-02-01

    The numbers using illicit anabolic-androgenic steroids are a cause of concern for those seeking to reduce health harms. Using the 'risk environment' as a conceptual framework to better comprehend how steroid users' practices and perspectives impact on health risks, this paper examines steroid user motivations, patterns of use, and the ways in which these practices are accounted for. As part of a wider mixed-method study into performance and image enhancing drug (PIED) use and supply in one mid-sized city in South West England, qualitative interviews were undertaken with 22 steroid users. Participants were recruited from a local safer injecting service, rather than bodybuilding gyms, in order to access a wider cross-section of steroid users. A limitation of this approach is potential sample bias towards those showing more health optimising behaviours. The research findings highlight that patterns of steroid use varied according to motivation for use, experience and knowledge gained. Most reported having had little or no knowledge on steroids prior to use, with first use being based on information gained from fellow users or suppliers-sometimes inaccurate or incomplete. In accounting for their practices, many users differentiated themselves from other groups of steroid users-for example, older users expressed concern over patterns of use of younger and (what they saw as) inexperienced steroid users. Implicit in these accounts were intimations that the 'other' group engaged in riskier behaviour than they did. Examining social contexts of use and user beliefs and motivations is vital to understanding how 'risk' behaviours are experienced so that this, in turn, informs harm reduction strategies. This paper examines the ways in which use of steroids is socially situated and the implications of this for policy and practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Bone anabolic effects of S-40503, a novel nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM), in rat models of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Keigo; Furuya, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Noriko; Nejishima, Hiroaki; Ichikawa, Kiyonoshin; Nakamura, Tsutomu; Miyakawa, Motonori; Amano, Seiji; Sumita, Yuji; Oguro, Nao

    2003-11-01

    A novel nonsteroidal androgen receptor (AR) binder, S-40503, was successfully generated in order to develop selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). We evaluated the binding specificity for nuclear receptors (NRs) and osteoanabolic activities of S-40503 in comparison with a natural nonaromatizable steroid, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The compound preferentially bound to AR with nanomolar affinity among NRs. When S-40503 was administrated into orchiectomized (ORX) rats for 4 weeks, bone mineral density (BMD) of femur and muscle weight of levator ani were increased as markedly as DHT, but prostate weight was not elevated over the normal at any doses tested. In contrast, DHT administration caused about 1.5-fold increase in prostate weight. The reduced virilizing activity was clearly evident from the result that 4-week treatment of normal rats with S-40503 showed no enlargement of prostate. To confirm the bone anabolic effect, S-40503 was given to ovariectomized (OVX) rats for 2 months. The compound significantly increased the BMD and biomechanical strength of femoral cortical bone, whereas estrogen, anti-bone resorptive hormone, did not. The increase in periosteal mineral apposition rate (MAR) of the femur revealed direct bone formation activity of S-40503. It was unlikely that the osteoanabolic effect of the compound was attribute to the enhancement of muscle mass, because immobilized ORX rats treated with S-40503 showed a marked increase in BMD of tibial cortical bone without any actions on the surrounding muscle tissue. Collectively, our novel compound served as a prototype for SARMs, which had unique tissue selectivity with high potency for bone formation and lower impact upon sex accessory tissues.

  9. Expression of receptors for putative anabolic growth factors in human intervertebral disc: implications for repair and regeneration of the disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maitre, Christine L; Richardson, Stephen M A; Baird, Pauline; Freemont, Anthony J; Hoyland, Judith A

    2005-12-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common, debilitating and economically important disorder. Current evidence implicates loss of intervertebral disc (IVD) matrix consequent upon 'degeneration' as a major cause of LBP. Degeneration of the IVD involves increases in degradative enzymes and decreases in the extracellular matrix (ECM) component in a process that is controlled by a range of cytokines and growth factors. Studies have suggested using anabolic growth factors to regenerate the normal matrix of the IVD, hence restoring disc height and reversing degenerative disc disease. However, for such therapies to be successful it is vital that the target cells (i.e. the disc cells) express the appropriate receptors. This immunohistochemical study has for the first time investigated the expression and localization of four potentially beneficial growth factor receptors (i.e. TGFbetaRII, BMPRII, FGFR3 and IGFRI) in non-degenerate and degenerate human IVDs. Receptor expression was quantified across regions of the normal and degenerate disc and showed that cells of the nucleus pulposus (NP) and inner annulus fibrosus (IAF) expressed significantly higher levels of the four growth factor receptors investigated. There were no significant differences between the four growth factor expression in non-degenerate and degenerate biopsies. However, expression of TGFbetaRII, FGFR3 and IGFRI, but not BMP RII, were observed in the ingrowing blood vessels that characterize part of the disease aetiology. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated the expression of the four growth factor receptors at similar levels in the chondrocyte-like cells of the NP and IAF in both non-degenerate and degenerate discs, implicating a role in normal disc homeostasis and suggesting that the application of these growth factors to the degenerate human IVD would stimulate matrix production. However, the expression of some of the growth factor receptors on ingrowing blood vessels might be problematic in a therapeutic

  10. Physical appearance concerns are uniquely associated with the severity of steroid dependence and depression in anabolic-androgenic steroid users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Scott; Jacka, Brendan; Degenhardt, Louisa; Murray, Stuart B; Larance, Briony

    2018-02-27

    Emerging research suggests that the sub-population of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) users who experience physical appearance concerns may suffer greater psychological dysfunction than other sub-populations, including users with athletic or occupational concerns. Thus, among current AAS users, we sought to determine whether, and to what extent, social physique anxiety-an established measure of appearance concern-was associated with psychological dysfunction. Interviews were conducted with a sample of 74 male AAS users living in Australia. Users completed self-report instruments of the severity of AAS dependence, depression, hazardous and risky drinking, use of non-AAS illicit drugs, psychological side-effects due to AAS use and abnormal test results due to AAS use. Multivariate analyses revealed that greater social physique anxiety was uniquely associated with more severe symptoms of both AAS dependence and depression. Moreover, the effect size of these relationships was large. Social physique anxiety was not associated with hazardous or risky drinking, non-AAS illicit drug use, psychological side-effects or abnormal test results. Limitations notwithstanding, the study is consistent with the notion that AAS users who experience appearance concerns are at heightened risk of co-morbid psychological dysfunction. Given trends indicating an increase in the prevalence of AAS use in Australia and elsewhere, the findings suggest that health-care systems may need to consider prioritising the sub-population of AAS users who experience appearance concerns. Further investigation of the clinical syndrome of AAS dependence is required, including its relation to body image and eating disorders. © 2018 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  11. Chronic Exposure to Androgenic-Anabolic Steroids Exacerbates Axonal Injury and Microgliosis in the CHIMERA Mouse Model of Repetitive Concussion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay R Namjoshi

    Full Text Available Concussion is a serious health concern. Concussion in athletes is of particular interest with respect to the relationship of concussion exposure to risk of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE, a neurodegenerative condition associated with altered cognitive and psychiatric functions and profound tauopathy. However, much remains to be learned about factors other than cumulative exposure that could influence concussion pathogenesis. Approximately 20% of CTE cases report a history of substance use including androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS. How acute, chronic, or historical AAS use may affect the vulnerability of the brain to concussion is unknown. We therefore tested whether antecedent AAS exposure in young, male C57Bl/6 mice affects acute behavioral and neuropathological responses to mild traumatic brain injury (TBI induced with the CHIMERA (Closed Head Impact Model of Engineered Rotational Acceleration platform. Male C57Bl/6 mice received either vehicle or a cocktail of three AAS (testosterone, nandrolone and 17α-methyltestosterone from 8-16 weeks of age. At the end of the 7th week of treatment, mice underwent two closed-head TBI or sham procedures spaced 24 h apart using CHIMERA. Post-repetitive TBI (rTBI behavior was assessed for 7 d followed by tissue collection. AAS treatment induced the expected physiological changes including increased body weight, testicular atrophy, aggression and downregulation of brain 5-HT1B receptor expression. rTBI induced behavioral deficits, widespread axonal injury and white matter microgliosis. While AAS treatment did not worsen post-rTBI behavioral changes, AAS-treated mice exhibited significantly exacerbated axonal injury and microgliosis, indicating that AAS exposure can alter neuronal and innate immune responses to concussive TBI.

  12. Chronic Exposure to Androgenic-Anabolic Steroids Exacerbates Axonal Injury and Microgliosis in the CHIMERA Mouse Model of Repetitive Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namjoshi, Dhananjay R; Cheng, Wai Hang; Carr, Michael; Martens, Kris M; Zareyan, Shahab; Wilkinson, Anna; McInnes, Kurt A; Cripton, Peter A; Wellington, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    Concussion is a serious health concern. Concussion in athletes is of particular interest with respect to the relationship of concussion exposure to risk of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a neurodegenerative condition associated with altered cognitive and psychiatric functions and profound tauopathy. However, much remains to be learned about factors other than cumulative exposure that could influence concussion pathogenesis. Approximately 20% of CTE cases report a history of substance use including androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS). How acute, chronic, or historical AAS use may affect the vulnerability of the brain to concussion is unknown. We therefore tested whether antecedent AAS exposure in young, male C57Bl/6 mice affects acute behavioral and neuropathological responses to mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) induced with the CHIMERA (Closed Head Impact Model of Engineered Rotational Acceleration) platform. Male C57Bl/6 mice received either vehicle or a cocktail of three AAS (testosterone, nandrolone and 17α-methyltestosterone) from 8-16 weeks of age. At the end of the 7th week of treatment, mice underwent two closed-head TBI or sham procedures spaced 24 h apart using CHIMERA. Post-repetitive TBI (rTBI) behavior was assessed for 7 d followed by tissue collection. AAS treatment induced the expected physiological changes including increased body weight, testicular atrophy, aggression and downregulation of brain 5-HT1B receptor expression. rTBI induced behavioral deficits, widespread axonal injury and white matter microgliosis. While AAS treatment did not worsen post-rTBI behavioral changes, AAS-treated mice exhibited significantly exacerbated axonal injury and microgliosis, indicating that AAS exposure can alter neuronal and innate immune responses to concussive TBI.

  13. Agent independent task planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

  14. [Supramolecular Agents for Theranostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyev, S M; Lebedenko, E N

    2015-01-01

    This mini-review summarizes recent data obtained in the process of creation of a versatile module platform suitable for construction of supramolecular theranostic agents. As an example, we consider multifunctional hybrid agents for imaging and elimination of cancer cells. The use of an adapter protein system barnase:barstar for producing targeted multifunctional hybrid structures on the basis of highly specific peptides and mini-antibodies as addressing modules and recombinant proteins and/or nanoparticles of different nature (quantum dots, nanogold, magnetic nanoparticles, nanodiamonds, upconverting nanophosphores, polymer nanoparticles) as agents visualizing and damaging cancer cells is described. New perspectives for creation of selective and highly effective compounds for theranostics and personified medicine are contemplated.

  15. Teaching tourism change agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Kvistgaard, Hans-Peter; Hird, John

    2017-01-01

    This article discuss es know ledge, competencies and skills Master’s students should obtain during their academic studies and particularly, the differences between teaching about a topic and teaching to do. This is ex emplified by experiential learning theory and the case of a change management...... course that is part of a Tourism Master’s program, where a major challenge is not only to teach students about change and change agents, but to teach them how change feels and ho w to become change agents. The c hange management course contains an experiment inspired by experiential teaching literature...... and methods. The experiment seeks to make students not only hear/learn about change agency and management, but to make them feel cha nge, hereby enabling them to develop the skills and competencies necessary for them to take on the role as change agent s and thus enable them to play key role s in implementing...

  16. Agents unleashed a public domain look at agent technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wayner, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Agents Unleashed: A Public Domain Look at Agent Technology covers details of building a secure agent realm. The book discusses the technology for creating seamlessly integrated networks that allow programs to move from machine to machine without leaving a trail of havoc; as well as the technical details of how an agent will move through the network, prove its identity, and execute its code without endangering the host. The text also describes the organization of the host's work processing an agent; error messages, bad agent expulsion, and errors in XLISP-agents; and the simulators of errors, f

  17. Detection and quantification of 12 anabolic steroids and analogs in human whole blood and 20 in hair using LC-HRMS/MS: application to real cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabresse, Nicolas; Grassin-Delyle, Stanislas; Etting, Isabelle; Alvarez, Jean-Claude

    2017-07-01

    We developed and validated a method to detect and quantify 12 anabolic steroids in blood (androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, boldenone, epitestosterone, mesterolone, methandienone, nandrolone, stanozolol, norandrostenedione, tamoxifene, testosterone, trenbolone) and eight more in hair samples (nandrolone phenylpropionate, nandrolone decanoate, testosterone propionate, testosterone benzoate, testosterone cypionate, testosterone decanoate, testosterone phenylpropionate, testosterone undecanoate) using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. This method used a benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer operating with an APCI probe under positive ionization mode. Analysis was realized in full scan experiment with a nominal resolving power of 140,000. After addition of the internal standard (testosterone-D3) and incubation in phosphate buffer pH = 5 for hair, 200 μL of blood and 30 mg of hair samples were extracted with heptane. LOQ and LOD were determined at 5 and 1 ng mL -1 in whole blood and 10 to 100 pg mg -1 and 2 to 20 pg mg -1 in hair according to the compounds, respectively. The method was linear in the 5-1000 ng mL -1 range in whole blood and between 10 or 100 pg mg -1 and 1000 pg mg -1 in hair with correlation coefficients >0.99, and intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision were <14.8% for all compounds except for some esters in hairs (<19.9%) probably due to an important matrix effect for these compounds. This sensitive and specific method to detect anabolic steroids has been successfully applied to two real cases, for which various anabolic steroids in whole blood, urine, and hair were identified and quantified.

  18. Study of body composition, lung function, and quality of life following use of anabolic steroids in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daga, Mradul Kumar; Khan, Naushad Ahmad; Malhotra, Varun; Kumar, Suman; Mawari, Govind; Hira, Harmanjit Singh

    2014-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by irreversible airflow limitation and is associated with weight loss and decreased muscle strength and exercise capacity. A double-blinded randomized controlled trial of 32 male COPD patients (age, 54.94 ± 11.27 years) was carried out to assess effects of anabolic steroid in terms of a daily high-protein, high-calorie diet alone or one combined with anabolic steroids on body composition, lung function, and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Outcomes were assessed by anthropometric and spirometric measurements, peak expiratory flow rate, partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood, 6-minute walk test (6MWT), hand grip test, and HRQL index scores. Measurements were made at baseline and end of treatment (6 weeks). All patients showed significant difference (P < .001) in pulmonary function parameters and anthropometric measurements after 6 weeks of intervention (within-group changes); however, no significant improvement occurred in the pulmonary function parameters between the groups. The difference in exercise capacity (6MWT) and HRQL scores in the treatment group were statistically significant (P < .001) compared with control group after 6 weeks of intervention. In the treatment group, the average 6MWT distance increased from 213.5 m to 268.5 m at 6-week follow-up, and HRQL scores increased from 101.25 to 118.45. Also, HRQL and 6MWT parameters were positively correlated in response to steroid supplementation at the end of the study. Weekly administration of anabolic steroids during 6 weeks increased exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with COPD.

  19. Skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain isoform content in relation to gonadal hormones and anabolic-catabolic balance in trained and untrained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandys, Marcin; Majerczak, Joanna; Karasinski, Janusz; Kulpa, Jan; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2012-12-01

    Gonadal hormones and anabolic-catabolic hormone balance have potent influence on skeletal muscle tissue, but little is known about their action with regard to myosin heavy chain (MHC) transformation in humans. We investigated the relationship between skeletal muscle MHC isoform content in the vastus lateralis muscle and basal testosterone (T) concentration in 3 groups of subjects: endurance trained (E), sprint/strength trained (S), and untrained (U) young men. We have also determined basal sex hormone-binding globulin and cortisol (C) concentrations in untrained subjects to examine the relationship between MHC composition and the anabolic-catabolic hormone balance. Moreover, basal free testosterone (fT) and bioavailable testosterone (bio-T) concentrations were calculated for this subgroup. Despite significant differences in MHC isoform content (69.4 ± 2.39%, 61.4 ± 8.04%, and 37.5 ± 13.80% of MHC-2 for groups S, U, and E, respectively, Kruskal-Wallis: H = 18.58, p 0.5). We have also found that in the U group, type 2 MHC in the vastus lateralis muscle is positively correlated with basal fT:C ratio (r = 0.63, p = 0.01). It is concluded that the differences in the training history and training specificity can be distinguished with regard to the MHC composition but not with regard to the basal T concentration. Simultaneously, it has been shown that MHC isoform content in human vastus lateralis muscle may be related to basal anabolic-catabolic hormone balance, and this hypothesis needs further investigation.

  20. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids augment the muscle protein anabolic response to hyperinsulinaemia-hyperaminoacidaemia in healthy young and middle-aged men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gordon I; Atherton, Philip; Reeds, Dominic N; Mohammed, B Selma; Rankin, Debbie; Rennie, Michael J; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2011-09-01

    Increased dietary LCn-3PUFA (long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid) intake stimulates muscle protein anabolism in individuals who experience muscle loss due to aging or cancer cachexia. However, it is not known whether LCn-3PUFAs elicit similar anabolic effects in healthy individuals. To answer this question, we evaluated the effect of 8 weeks of LCn-3PUFA supplementation (4 g of Lovaza®/day) in nine 25-45-year-old healthy subjects on the rate of muscle protein synthesis (by using stable isotope-labelled tracer techniques) and the activation (phosphorylation) of elements of the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)/p70S6K (p70 S6 kinase) signalling pathway during basal post-absorptive conditions and during a hyperinsulinaemic-hyperaminoacidaemic clamp. We also measured the concentrations of protein, RNA and DNA in muscle to obtain indices of the protein synthetic capacity, translational efficiency and cell size. Neither the basal muscle protein fractional synthesis rate nor basal signalling element phosphorylation changed in response to LCn-3PUFA supplementation, but the anabolic response to insulin and amino acid infusion was greater after LCn-3PUFA [i.e. the muscle protein fractional synthesis rate during insulin and amino acid infusion increased from 0.062±0.004 to 0.083±0.007%/h and the phospho-mTOR (Ser2448) and phospho-p70S6K (Thr389) levels increased by ∼50%; all Panabolic properties in healthy young and middle-aged adults.

  1. Determination of anabolic steroids in human urine by automated in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Keita; Yagi, Katsuharu; Ishizaki, Atsushi; Kataoka, Hiroyuki

    2010-09-05

    A simple, rapid and sensitive method was developed for determining the presence of seven anabolic steroids (boldenone, nandrolone, testosterone, methyltestosterone, epiandrosterone, androsterone, and atnozolol) in human urine. Glucuronide-conjugates of these compounds were hydrolyzed with beta-glucuronidase. The anabolic steroids were analyzed by on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The steroids were separated within 14 min by high performance liquid chromatography using a Chromolith RP-18e column and 5 mM ammonium formate/methanol (35/65, v/v) as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Electrospray ionization conditions in the positive ion mode were optimized for the MS detection of these compounds. The optimum in-tube SPME conditions were 20 draw/eject cycles with a sample size of 40 microL using a Supel-Q PLOT capillary column for the extraction. The extracted compounds could be desorbed readily from the capillary column by flow of the mobile phase, and no carryover was observed. Using the in-tube SPME LC-MS with SIM mode detection, good linearity of the calibration curve (r>0.995) was obtained in the concentration range of 0.5-20 ng/mL, except for stanozolol. The detection limits (S/N=3) of anabolic steroids were in the range 9-182 pg/mL and the proposed method showed 20-33-fold higher sensitivity than the direct injection method. The within-day and between-day precisions were below 4.0% and 7.3% (n=5), respectively. This method was applied successfully to the analysis of urine samples without the interference peaks. The recovery rates of anabolic steroids spiked into urine samples were above 85%. This method is useful to analyze the urinary levels of these compounds in anti-doping tests. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Potentially harmful advantage to athletes: a putative connection between UGT2B17 gene deletion polymorphism and renal disorders with prolonged use of anabolic androgenic steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barker James

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective With prolonged use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS, occasional incidents of renal disorders have been observed. Independently, it has also been established that there are considerable inter-individual and inter-ethnic differences, in particular with reference to the uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 2B17 (UGT2B17 gene, in metabolising these compounds. This report postulates the association of deletion polymorphism in the UGT2B17 gene with the occurrence of renal disorders on chronic exposure to AAS. Presentation of the hypothesis The major deactivation and elimination pathway of AASs is through glucuronide conjugation, chiefly catalyzed by the UGT2B17 enzyme, followed by excretion in urine. Excretion of steroids is affected in individuals with a deletion mutation in the UGT2B17 gene. We hypothesize that UGT2B17 deficient individuals are more vulnerable to developing renal disorders with prolonged use of AAS owing to increases in body mass index and possible direct toxic effects of steroids on the kidneys. Elevated serum levels of biologically active steroids due to inadequate elimination can lead to prolonged muscle build up. An increase in body mass index may cause renal injuries due to sustained elevated glomerular pressure and flow rate. Testing the hypothesis In the absence of controlled clinical trials in humans, observational studies can be carried out. Real time PCR with allelic discrimination should be employed to examine the prevalence of different UGT2B17 genotypes in patients with impaired renal function and AAS abuse. In individuals with the UGT2B17 deletion polymorphism, blood tests, biofluid analyses, urinalysis, and hair analyses following the administration of an anabolic steroid can be used to determine the fate of the substance once in the body. Implications of the hypothesis If the hypothesis is upheld, anabolic steroid users with a deletion mutation in the UGT2B17 gene may be

  3. Combined Treatment with Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Analog and Anabolic Steroid Hormone Increased Pubertal Height Gain and Adult Height in Boys with Early Puberty for Height

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Naiki, Yasuhiro; Horikawa, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-one boys with a height of 135 cm or less at onset of puberty were treated with a combination of GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone, and their pubertal height gain and adult height were compared with those of untreated 29 boys who enter puberty below 135 cm. The mean age at the start of treatment with a GnRH analog, leuprorelin acetate depot (Leuplin?) was 12.3 yr, a mean of 1.3 yr after the onset of puberty, and GnRH analog was administered every 3 to 5 wk thereafter for a mean d...

  4. Frequency of use, awareness, and attitudes toward side effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids consumption among male medical students in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyazi Bordbar, Mohammad Reza; Abdollahian, Ebrahim; Samadi, Roya; Dolatabadi, Hamid

    2014-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the frequency of anabolic-androgenic steroids consumption in male students studying at the university and their awareness, attitude, and role of sports activities; the present descriptive study was conducted on 271 volunteers in 2008. The data collected by self-report questionnaires was analyzed by descriptive inferential statistics. The prevalence of consumption was 3.3%, and it was significantly higher in those with a history of bodybuilding or athletic performance. The overall awareness rate was low, and the attitude was too optimistic. It seems that unawareness, incorrect attitude, and history of athletic performance increases the risk of consumption.

  5. Agent Persuasion Mechanism of Acquaintance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghua, Wu; Wenguang, Lu; Hailiang, Meng

    Agent persuasion can improve negotiation efficiency in dynamic environment based on its initiative and autonomy, and etc., which is being affected much more by acquaintance. Classification of acquaintance on agent persuasion is illustrated, and the agent persuasion model of acquaintance is also illustrated. Then the concept of agent persuasion degree of acquaintance is given. Finally, relative interactive mechanism is elaborated.

  6. SECOND BUYING AGENT

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL - SERVICES ACHATS

    2000-01-01

    Last year the buying agent LOGITRADE started operations on the CERN site, processing purchasing requests for well-defined families of products up to a certain value. It was planned from the outset that a second buying agent would be brought in to handle the remaining product families. So, according to that plan, the company CHARLES KENDALL will be commencing operations at CERN on 8 May 2000 in Building 73, 1st floor, offices 31 and 35 (phone and fax numbers to be announced).Each buying agent will have its own specific list of product families and will handle purchasing requests up to 10'000 CHF.Whenever possible they will provide the requested supplies at a price (including the cost of their own services) which must be equivalent to or lower than the price mentioned on the purchasing request, changing the supplier if necessary. If a lower price cannot be obtained, agents will provide the necessary administrative support free of charge.To ensure that all orders are processed in the best possible conditions, us...

  7. Socially Intelligent Tutor Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Vissers, M.; Aylett, R.; Ballin, D.; Rist, T.

    2003-01-01

    Emotions and personality have received quite a lot of attention the last few years in research on embodied conversational agents. Attention is also increasingly being paid to matters of social psychology and interpersonal aspects, for work of our group). Given the nature of an embodied

  8. Alternative inerting agents

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Final Project Report ALTERNATIVE INERTING AGENTS Author/s: J J L DU PLESSIS Research Agency: OSIR MINING TECHNOLOGY Project No: Date: 3 2 7 2 COL 443 APRIL 1999 N’ ) ( G~6~ I Title: 9 / The results show...

  9. Multimodal training between agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    In the system Locator1, agents are treated as individual and autonomous subjects that are able to adapt to heterogenous user groups. Applying multimodal information from their surroundings (visual and linguistic), they acquire the necessary concepts for a successful interaction. This approach has...

  10. Stabilized radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzi, M.B.

    1979-01-01

    A stable composition useful in preparation of technetium-99m-based radiographic scanning agents has been developed. The composition contains a stabilizing amount of gentisate stabilizer selected from gentisic acid and its soluble pharmaceutically-acceptable salts and esthers. (E.G.)

  11. A waterproofing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shchipanov, A.I.; Bass, U.M.; Belousov, E.D.; Chernova, S.P.; Gioev, K.A.; Perlin, L.M.; Shapiro, B.O.; Silantev, U.R.

    1979-12-25

    A waterproofing agent is proposed with improved physiomechanical properties. The agent contains (by parts): bitumens: 100; emulsifier: .6-5; polyvinylpyrrolidone: .4-8; synthetic latex: 5.24; a corrosion inhibitor: .2-10; SPL methyl methacrylate with chloroprene: 2.24; hydrochlorinated amine of adduct diethylene triamine with diglycidyl diamine: 2-10, water: 118-220. The agent is prepared using either periodic or continuous action in emulsifying dispersion machines. The bitumen is dispersed in the machine in an aqueous emulsifying solution in which polyvinylpyrrolidone and the corrosion inihibitor are first introduced. Then a synthetic latex solution is introduced into the bitumen emulsion while being mixed in rotor-type turbulent mixers; a solution and a hydrochlorinated amine of adduct diethylene triamine with diglycidyl diamine solution until a homogeneous mixture is obtained. Example: a waterproofing agent is obtained in parts: bitumen 100, emulsifyer (oxidized petrolatum): .6; polyvinylpyrrolidone: .4; synthetic latex (nitrile): 5; corrosion inhibitor (guanidine chromate): .2, SPL:2; and water 118. The properties of the proposed composition are better than the properties of the composition currently used.

  12. Product and Agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montecino, Alex; Valero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we will explore how the “mathematics teacher” becomes a subject and, at the same time, is subjected as part of diverse dispositive of power. We argue that the mathematics teacher becomes both a product and a social agent, which has been set, within current societies, from the ideas...

  13. E-Learning Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Dawn G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the advantages of using intelligent agents to facilitate the location and customization of appropriate e-learning resources and to foster collaboration in e-learning environments. Design/methodology/approach: This paper proposes an e-learning environment that can be used to provide customized…

  14. At same leucine intake, a whey/plant protein blend is not as effective as whey to initiate a transient post prandial muscle anabolic response during a catabolic state in mini pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélia Revel

    Full Text Available Muscle atrophy has been explained by an anabolic resistance following food intake and an increase of dietary protein intake is recommended. To be optimal, a dietary protein has to be effective not only to initiate but also to prolong a muscle anabolic response in a catabolic state. To our knowledge, whether or not a dairy or a dairy/plant protein blend fulfills these criterions is unknown in a muscle wasting situation.Our aim was, in a control and a catabolic state, to measure continuously muscle anabolism in term of intensity and duration in response to a meal containing casein (CAS, whey (WHEY or a whey/ plant protein blend (BLEND and to evaluate the best protein source to elicit the best post prandial anabolism according to the physio-pathological state.Adult male Yucatan mini pigs were infused with U-13C-Phenylalanine and fed either CAS, WHEY or BLEND. A catabolic state was induced by a glucocorticoid treatment for 8 days (DEX. Muscle protein synthesis, proteolysis and balance were measured with the hind limb arterio-venous differences technique. Repeated time variance analysis were used to assess significant differences.In a catabolic situation, whey proteins were able to initiate muscle anabolism which remained transient in contrast to the stimulated muscle protein accretion with WHEY, CAS or BLEND in healthy conditions. Despite the same leucine intake compared to WHEY, BLEND did not restore a positive protein balance in DEX animals.Even with WHEY, the duration of the anabolic response was not optimal and has to be improved in a catabolic state. The use of BLEND remained of lower efficiency even at same leucine intake than whey.

  15. Targeting tumor-initiating cells: Eliminating anabolic cancer stem cells with inhibitors of protein synthesis or by mimicking caloric restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Rebecca; Harrison, Hannah; Smith, Duncan L.; Townsend, Paul A.; Jackson, Thomas; Ozsvari, Bela; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Pestell, Richard G.; Howell, Anthony; Lisanti, Michael P.; Sotgia, Federica

    2015-01-01

    the inhibition of protein synthesis, using multiple independent approaches. Our findings have important clinical implications, since they may also explain the positive therapeutic effects of PI3-kinase inhibitors and AKT inhibitors, as they ultimately converge on mTOR signaling and would block protein synthesis. We conclude that inhibition of mRNA translation by pharmacological or protein/methionine restriction may be effective strategies for eliminating TICs. Our data also indicate a novel mechanism by which caloric/protein restriction may reduce tumor growth, by targeting protein synthesis in anabolic tumor-initiating cancer cells. PMID:25671304

  16. Effect of antiresorptive and anabolic bone therapy on development of osteoarthritis in a posttraumatic rat model of OA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagi, Cedo M; Berryman, Edwin; Zakur, David E; Wilkie, Dean; Andresen, Catharine J

    2015-11-06

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of disability, but despite the high unmet clinical need and extensive research seeking dependable therapeutic interventions, no proven disease-modifying treatment for OA is currently available. Due to the close interaction and interplay between the articular cartilage and the subchondral bone plate, it has been hypothesized that antiresorptive drugs can also reduce cartilage degradation, inhibit excessive turnover of the subchondral bone plate, prevent osteophyte formation, and/or that bone anabolic drugs might also stimulate cartilage synthesis by chondrocytes and preserve cartilage integrity. The benefit of intensive zoledronate (Zol) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) therapy for bone and cartilage metabolism was evaluated in a rat model of OA. Medial meniscectomy (MM) was used to induce OA in male Lewis rats. Therapy with Zol and human PTH was initiated immediately after surgery. A dynamic weight-bearing (DWB) system was deployed to evaluate the weight-bearing capacity of the front and hind legs. At the end of the 10-week study, the rats were euthanized and the cartilage pathology was evaluated by contrast (Hexabrix)-enhanced μCT imaging and traditional histology. Bone tissue was evaluated at the tibial metaphysis and epiphysis, including the subchondral bone. Histological techniques and dynamic histomorphometry were used to evaluate cartilage morphology and bone mineralization. The results of this study highlight the complex changes in bone metabolism in different bone compartments influenced by local factors, including inflammation, pain and mechanical loads. Surgery caused severe and extensive deterioration of the articular cartilage at the medial tibial plateau, as evidenced by contrast-enhanced μCT and histology. The study results showed the negative impact of MM surgery on the weight-bearing capacity of the operated limb, which was not corrected by treatment. Although both Zol and PTH improved subchondral bone mass and

  17. Sequential alterations in catabolic and anabolic gene expression parallel pathological changes during progression of monoiodoacetate-induced arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Nam

    , upregulation of asporin, and downregulation of TGF-β complex, SOX-9, IGF and CTGF may be central to suppress matrix synthesis and chondrocytic anabolic activities, collectively contributing to the progression of cartilage destruction in MIA.

  18. Resistance training associated with the administration of anabolic-androgenic steroids improves insulin sensitivity in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urtado CB

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Christiano Bertoldo Urtado1,2, Guilherme Borges Pereira3, Marilia Bertoldo Urtado4, Érica Blascovi de Carvalho2, Gerson dos Santos Leite1, Felipe Fedrizzi Donatto1, Claudio de Oliveira Assumpção1, Richard Diego Leite3, Carlos Alberto da Silva1, Marcelo Magalhães de Sales5, Ramires Alsamir Tibana5, Silvia Cristina Crepaldi Alves1, Jonato Prestes51Health Sciences, Methodist University of Piracicaba, Piracicaba, SP, 2Center for Investigation in Pediatrics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, 3Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, 4Laboratory of Orofacial Pain, Division of Oral Physiology, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, 5Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, BrazilAbstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids and resistance training (RT on insulin sensitivity in ovariectomized rats. Adult female Wistar rats were divided into ten experimental groups (n = 5 animals per group: (1 sedentary (Sed-Intact; (2 sedentary ovariectomized (Sed-Ovx; (3 sedentary nandrolone (Sed-Intact-ND; (4 sedentary ovariectomized plus nandrolone (Sed-Ovx-ND; (5 trained (TR-Intact; (6 trained nandrolone (TR-Intact-ND; (7 trained ovariectomized (TR-Ovx; (8 trained ovariectomized plus nandrolone; (9 trained sham; and (10 trained ovariectomized plus sham. Four sessions of RT were used, during which the animals climbed a 1.1 m vertical ladder with weights attached to their tails. The sessions were performed once every 3 days, with between four and nine climbs and with eight to twelve dynamic movements per climb. To test the sensitivity of insulin in the pancreas, glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. For insulin sensitivity, there was a statistically significant interaction for the TR-Ovx group, which presented higher sensitivity

  19. Sport, and use of anabolic androgenic steroids among Icelandic high school students: a critical test of three perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Halldorsson, Vidar

    2010-12-20

    This study investigates the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) among a national representative sample of high school students in Iceland. We test several hypotheses drawn from three perspectives. The first perspective focuses on the use of AAS as an individual phenomenon motivated by the desire to succeed in sport. The second perspective views the use of AAS as shaped by norms and values embedded in social relationships of formally organized sport. The third perspective suggests that factors outside sport, which have been shown to correlate with the use of other substances, predict the use of AAS. We use logistic regression and predicted probabilities to analyze data from a national representative survey of 11,031 Icelandic high school students. Our results indicated that the use of AAS is not significantly related to participation in formally organized sports. However, it positively relates to fitness and physical training in informal contexts. We found a relatively strong relationship between the use of AAS and the use of illicit substances and a moderate relationship between AAS use and alcohol and tobacco consumption. We also found a significant negative relationship between AAS use and school integration and school achievement, and a significant positive relationship between AAS use and school anomie. The relation between AAS use and family-related variables was weaker. Finally, we found that the relationship between sport participation, physical exercise, and AAS use varies across levels of anomie and integration. Our findings suggest that the use of AAS and especially illegal substances should be considered more as a social and a health problem rather than a sport specific issue. We found that high school students participating in fitness and informal training outside of formally organized sport clubs are the main risk group and should be the target of prevention efforts. However, this should not be done at the expense of general risk factors that

  20. Synthesis of some potent immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory metabolites by fungal transformation of anabolic steroid oxymetholone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Naik Tameen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biotransformation of organic compounds by using microbial whole cells provides an efficient approach to obtain novel analogues which are often difficult to synthesize chemically. In this manuscript, we report for the first time the microbial transformation of a synthetic anabolic steroidal drug, oxymetholone, by fungal cell cultures. Results Incubation of oxymetholone (1 with Macrophomina phaseolina, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Fusarium lini produced 17β-hydroxy-2-(hydroxy-methyl-17α-methyl-5α-androstan-1-en-3-one (2, 2α,17α-di(hydroxyl-methyl-5α-androstan-3β,17β-diol (3, 17α-methyl-5α-androstan-2α,3β,17β-triol (4, 17β-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl-17α-methyl-androst-1,4-dien-3-one (5, 17β-hydroxy-2α-(hydroxy-methyl-17α-methyl-5α-androstan-3-one (6, and 2α-(hydroxymethyl-17α-methyl-5α-androstan-3β-17β-diol (7. Their structures were deduced by spectral analyses, as well as single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Compounds 2–5 were identified as the new metabolites of 1. The immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities and cytotoxicity of compounds 1–7 were evaluated by observing their effects on T-cell proliferation, reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and normal cell growth in MTT assays, respectively. These compounds showed immunosuppressant effect in the T-cell proliferation assay with IC50 values between 31.2 to 2.7 μg/mL, while the IC50 values for ROS inhibition, representing anti-inflammatory effect, were in the range of 25.6 to 2.0 μg/mL. All the compounds were found to be non-toxic in a cell-based cytotoxicity assay. Conclusion Microbial transformation of oxymetholone (1 provides an efficient method for structural transformation of 1. The transformed products were obtained as a result of de novo stereoselective reduction of the enone system, isomerization of double bond, insertion of double bond and hydroxylation. The transformed products, which showed significant

  1. A validated UHPLC-MS/MS method to quantify low levels of anabolic-androgenic steroids naturally present in urine of untreated horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decloedt, Anneleen; Bailly-Chouriberry, Ludovic; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Garcia, Patrice; Popot, Marie-Agnes; Bonnaire, Yves; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    Doping control is a main priority for regulatory bodies of both the horse racing industry and the equestrian sports. Urine and blood samples are screened for the presence of hundreds of forbidden substances including anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs). Based on the suspected endogenous origin of some AASs, with β-boldenone as the most illicit candidate, this study aimed to improve the knowledge of the naturally present AAS in horse urine. To this extent, a novel ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated according to the Association of Official Racing Chemists (AORC) and European Commission (EC) guidelines, proving the power of this new method. Low limits of detection (0.2 ng/mL), good reproducibility (percentage of standard deviation (%RSD)  0.99 and lack-of-fit analysis) were obtained for all included AASs. With this method, urine samples of 105 guaranteed untreated horses (47 geldings, 53 mares, and 5 stallions serving as a control) were screened for β-boldenone and five related natural steroids: androstadienedione (ADD), androstenedione (AED), alpha-testosterone (αT), beta-testosterone (βT), and progesterone (P). Progesterone, β-testosterone, and α-testosterone were detected in more than half of the horses at low concentrations (anabolic-androgenic steroids naturally present in urine of untreated horses (mares and geldings).

  2. Simultaneous ionization and analysis of 84 anabolic androgenic steroids in human urine using liquid chromatography-silver ion coordination ionspray/triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Hee; Cha, Eun-Ju; Lee, Kang Mi; Kim, Ho Jun; Kwon, Oh-Seung; Lee, Jaeick

    2014-01-01

    Metal ion coordination ionspray (M(+) CIS) ionization is a powerful technique to enhance ionization efficiency and sensitivity. In this study, we developed and validated an analytical method for simultaneous ionization and analysis of 84 anabolic androgenic steroids (65 exogenous and 19 endogenous) using liquid chromatography-silver ion coordination ionspray/triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS). The concentrations of silver ions and organic solvents have been optimized to increase the amount of silver ion coordinated complexes. A combination of 25 μM of silver ions and methanol showed the best sensitivity. The validation results showed the intra- (0.8-9.2%) and inter-day (2.5-14.9%) precisions, limits of detection (0.0005-5.0 ng/mL), and matrix effect (71.8-100.3%) for the screening analysis. No significant ion suppression was observed. In addition, this method was successfully applied to analysis of positive samples from suspected abusers and useful for the detection of the trace levels of anabolic steroids in human urine samples. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Histopathological and Morphometric Evaluation in the Testis and Epididymis of Adult Rats Submitted To A Recovery Period after Treatment with Anabolic Steroid, Alcohol and/or Nicotine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Ribeiro de Souza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Frequently, reproductive toxic substances such as androgenic anabolic steroids, alcohol and nicotine are used in association by adolescents and adults, in an indiscriminate manner. This study investigated the testicular and epididymal tissue of adult rats submitted to a recovery period after treatment with anabolic steroid, alcohol and /or nicotine. Materials and Methods: The animals (n=42 were divided into three control groups simulating the drugs administration routes (CI: distilled water, oral; CII: saline solution, subcutaneous; CIII: water and saline solution and groups treated with a testosterone esters mixture (T: 7.5 mg/kg body weight - b.w., subcutaneous, alcohol (AL: 3.5 g/kg b.w. of ethanol 25%, oral, nicotine (N: 2.0 mg/kg b.w., subcutaneous, and co-administration of these three substances (T/AL/N. After 15 consecutive days of treatment (once a day, the animals were kept for 30 days in recovery. At the end of this period, the testes and epididymides were collected, weighed and processed for histological and morphometric analysis by light microscope. Results: All groups treated with toxic substances presented histopathological changes in testes and epididymis after the recovery period. There was a significant decrease (p [J Interdiscip Histopathol 2017; 5(3.000: 92-98

  4. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in high-throughput confirmation and quantification of 34 anabolic steroids in bovine muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhaecke, Lynn; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Wille, Klaas; Bekaert, Karen; De Brabander, Hubert F

    2011-08-26

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry multi-residue method for the determination of 34 anabolic steroids (10 estrogens including stilbenes, 14 androgens and 10 gestagens) in meat of bovine origin is reported. The extraction and clean-up procedure involved homogenization with methanol, defatting with hexane, liquid/liquid extraction with diethylether and finally SPE clean-up with coupled Si and NH(2) cartridges. The analytes were separated on a 1.9 μm Hypersil Gold column (100×2.1 mm) and quantified on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TSQ Vantage) operating simultaneously in both positive and negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) modes. This analytical procedure was subsequently validated according to EU criteria (CD 2002/657/EC), resulting in decision limits and detection capabilities ranging between 0.04 and 0.88 μg kg(-1) and 0.12 and 1.9 μg kg(-1), respectively. The method obtained for all, natural and synthetic steroids, adequate precisions and intra-laboratory reproducibilities (relative standard deviation below 20%), and the linearity ranged between 0.991 and 0.999. The performance characteristics fulfill the recommended concentrations fixed by the Community Reference Laboratories. The developed analysis is sensitive, and robust and therefore useful for confirmation and quantification of anabolic steroids for research purposes and residue control programs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Online turbulent flow extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for high throughput screening of anabolic steroids in horse urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun Du; Suh, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Junghyun; Cho, Hyun-Deok; Lee, Su Duk; Han, Kwan Seok; Wang, Yu; Han, Sang Beom

    2017-10-25

    A high throughput method for simultaneous screening of anabolic steroids and their metabolites (4-esterendione, trenbolone, boldenone, oxandrolone, nandrolone, methandrostenolone, testosterone, 1-androstendione, ethisterone, normethandrolone, methyltestosterone, 16β-Hydroxystanozolol, epitestosterone, bolasterone, norethandrolone, danazol, stanozolol and androstadienone) in equine urine by online turbulent flow extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed. The use of turbulent flow chromatography could simplify pretreatment of horse urine, which has complex matrices as well as high viscosity. The urine was extracted by mixed-mode cation exchange solid phase extraction, and hydrolyzed using β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase. Then, the sample was automatically loaded on the TurboFlow Cyclone extraction column for removal of further matrix, followed by separation on a fused core C18 column before MS/MS detection. Optimization and validation of the method were discussed in detail. All analytes were rapidly detected within 10min with high sensitivity (picogram to nanogram per milliliter level), and no interference was observed. The linearity range was from 0.1-10ng/mL for nine steroids and 1.0-50ng/mL for the others, with correlation of coefficient values over 0.995. Precision and accuracy ranged from 0.1 to 14.5% and 1.7 to 12.4%, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of anabolic steroids in horse urine after administration of a model drug. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of anabolic steroids in urine by gas chromatography-microchip atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry with chlorobenzene as dopant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintikka, Laura; Haapala, Markus; Kuuranne, Tiia; Leinonen, Antti; Kostiainen, Risto

    2013-10-18

    A gas chromatography-microchip atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-μAPPI-MS/MS) method was developed for the analysis of anabolic androgenic steroids in urine as their trimethylsilyl derivatives. The method utilizes a heated nebulizer microchip in atmospheric pressure photoionization mode (μAPPI) with chlorobenzene as dopant, which provides high ionization efficiency by producing abundant radical cations with minimal fragmentation. The performance of GC-μAPPI-MS/MS was evaluated with respect to repeatability, linearity, linear range, and limit of detection (LOD). The results confirmed the potential of the method for doping control analysis of anabolic steroids. Repeatability (RSD<10%), linearity (R(2)≥0.996) and sensitivity (LODs 0.05-0.1ng/mL) were acceptable. Quantitative performance of the method was tested and compared with that of conventional GC-electron ionization-MS, and the results were in good agreement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Tandem mass spectrometry approach for the investigation of the steroidal metabolism: structure-fragmentation relationship (SFR) in anabolic steroids and their metabolites by ESI-MS/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Ali, Arslan; Khan, Naik Tameem; Yousuf, Maria; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Atta-ur-Rahman

    2013-02-01

    Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) was used to investigate the effect of different substitutions introduced during metabolism on fragmentation patterns of four anabolic steroids including methyltestosterone, methandrostenolone, cis-androsterone and adrenosterone, along with their metabolites. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) analysis was performed to correlate the major product ions of 19 steroids with structural features. The analysis is done to portray metabolic alteration, such as incorporation or reduction of double bonds, hydroxylations, and/or oxidation of hydroxyl moieties to keto functional group on steroidal skeleton which leads to drastically changed product ion spectra from the respective classes of steroids, therefore, making them difficult to identify. The comparative ESI-MS/MS study also revealed some characteristic peaks to differentiate different steroidal metabolites and can be useful for the unambiguous identification of anabolic steroids in biological fluid. Moreover, LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of fermented extract of methyltestosterone, obtained by Macrophomina phaseolina was also investigated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of multiple linear regression, partial least squares and artificial neural networks for prediction of gas chromatographic relative retention times of trimethylsilylated anabolic androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkaki, A G; Farmaki, E; Thomaidis, N; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, A; Angelis, Y S; Koupparis, M; Georgakopoulos, C

    2012-09-21

    The comparison among different modelling techniques, such as multiple linear regression, partial least squares and artificial neural networks, has been performed in order to construct and evaluate models for prediction of gas chromatographic relative retention times of trimethylsilylated anabolic androgenic steroids. The performance of the quantitative structure-retention relationship study, using the multiple linear regression and partial least squares techniques, has been previously conducted. In the present study, artificial neural networks models were constructed and used for the prediction of relative retention times of anabolic androgenic steroids, while their efficiency is compared with that of the models derived from the multiple linear regression and partial least squares techniques. For overall ranking of the models, a novel procedure [Trends Anal. Chem. 29 (2010) 101-109] based on sum of ranking differences was applied, which permits the best model to be selected. The suggested models are considered useful for the estimation of relative retention times of designer steroids for which no analytical data are available. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The anabolic activity of bone tissue, suppressed by disuse, is normalized by brief exposure to extremely low-magnitude mechanical stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, C.; Xu, G.; Judex, S.

    2001-01-01

    It is generally believed that mechanical signals must be large in order to be anabolic to bone tissue. Recent evidence indicates, however, that extremely low-magnitude (bone formation if induced at a high frequency. We examined the ability of extremely low-magnitude, high-frequency mechanical signals to restore anabolic bone cell activity inhibited by disuse. Adult female rats were randomly assigned to six groups: baseline control, age-matched control, mechanically stimulated for 10 min/day, disuse (hind limb suspension), disuse interrupted by 10 min/day of weight bearing, and disuse interrupted by 10 min/day of mechanical stimulation. After a 28 day protocol, bone formation rates (BFR) in the proximal tibia of mechanically stimulated rats increased compared with age-matched control (+97%). Disuse alone reduced BFR (-92%), a suppression only slightly curbed when disuse was interrupted by 10 min of weight bearing (-61%). In contrast, disuse interrupted by 10 min per day of low-level mechanical intervention normalized BFR to values seen in age-matched controls. This work indicates that this noninvasive, extremely low-level stimulus may provide an effective biomechanical intervention for the bone loss that plagues long-term space flight, bed rest, or immobilization caused by paralysis.

  10. Resistance exercise-induced increases in putative anabolic hormones do not enhance muscle protein synthesis or intracellular signalling in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel W D; Kujbida, Gregory W; Moore, Daniel R; Atherton, Philip; Burd, Nicholas A; Padzik, Jan P; De Lisio, Michael; Tang, Jason E; Parise, Gianni; Rennie, Michael J; Baker, Steven K; Phillips, Stuart M

    2009-11-01

    We aimed to determine whether exercise-induced elevations in systemic concentration of testosterone, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) enhanced post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) and phosphorylation of signalling proteins important in regulating mRNA translation. Eight young men (20 +/- 1.1 years, BMI = 26 +/- 3.5 kg m(-2)) completed two exercise protocols designed to maintain basal hormone concentrations (low hormone, LH) or elicit increases in endogenous hormones (high hormone, HH). In the LH protocol, participants performed a bout of unilateral resistance exercise with the elbow flexors. The HH protocol consisted of the same elbow flexor exercise with the contralateral arm followed immediately by high-volume leg resistance exercise. Participants consumed 25 g of protein after arm exercise to maximize MPS. Muscle biopsies and blood samples were taken as appropriate. There were no changes in serum testosterone, GH or IGF-1 after the LH protocol, whereas there were marked elevations after HH (testosterone, P anabolic hormones do not enhance fed-state anabolic signalling or MPS following resistance exercise. Local mechanisms are likely to be of predominant importance for the post-exercise increase in MPS.

  11. Topical antifungal agents: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, K B

    1996-10-01

    So many topical antifungal agents have been introduced that it has become very difficult to select the proper agent for a given infection. Nonspecific agents have been available for many years, and they are still effective in many situations. These agents include Whitfield's ointment, Castellani paint, gentian violet, potassium permanganate, undecylenic acid and selenium sulfide. Specific antifungal agents include, among others, the polyenes (nystatin, amphotericin B), the imidazoles (metronidazole, clotrimazole) and the allylamines (terbinafine, naftifine). Although the choice of an antifungal agent should be based on an accurate diagnosis, many clinicians believe that topical miconazole is a relatively effective agent for the treatment of most mycotic infections. Terbinafine and other newer drugs have primary fungicidal effects. Compared with older antifungal agents, these newer drugs can be used in lower concentrations and shorter therapeutic courses. Studies are needed to evaluate the clinical efficacies and cost advantages of both newer and traditional agents.

  12. Halon firefighting agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, P.R.; Dalzell, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the current state of the International agreements on the use of halons and the subsequent National and industry approaches to the subject. It examines the definition of Essential Use and gives particular examples to clarify its interpretation. Alternative methods of loss control are reviewed. It does not address alternative active firefighting agents but examines the need for protection in particular areas. It addresses reduction of the hazards and consequences so that the need for protection can be minimized. Practical measures to minimize the installed quantities of halon are described. This covers specifications for new, essential, systems and the short term reduction of inventories in existing systems. The causes of leakage and accidental releases are studied and preventive measures are proposed. The paper concludes with an overview of the current research into replacement agents and the future outlook

  13. Blasting agent package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, R.

    1971-03-17

    A protected preassembled package for blasting agents susceptible to desensitization by water consists of, in combination: (1) an inner rigid and self-supporting tube, the upper end of which is suited to be connected, or attached, to the discharge end of a loading hose for a blasting agent and the lower end of which is open; and (2) a flexible tubular liner made of water-resistant film, having a diameter greater than that of the inner tube and a length at least equal to the desired depth of its insertion into the borehole, the liner being sleeved over the length of the inner tube, the upper end of the liner being attached to the inner tube and the lower end of the liner being closed so as to prevent substantial discharge of the explosive mixture therefrom when the latter is pumped into it. (24 claims)

  14. Rapid screening of anabolic steroids in horse urine with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry after chemical derivatisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Colton H F; Leung, David K K; Tang, Francis P W; Wong, Jenny K Y; Yu, Nola H; Wan, Terence S M

    2012-04-06

    Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has been successfully applied to the detection of anabolic steroids in biological samples. However, the sensitive detection of saturated hydroxysteroids, such as androstanediols, by electrospray ionisation (ESI) is difficult because of their poor ability to ionise. In view of this, chemical derivatisation has been used to enhance the detection sensitivity of hydroxysteroids by LC/MS. This paper describes the development of a sensitive ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS) method for the screening of anabolic steroids in horse urine by incorporating a chemical derivatisation step, using picolinic acid as the derivatisation reagent. The method involved solid-phase extraction (SPE) of both free and conjugated anabolic steroids in horse urine using a polymer-based SPE cartridge (Abs Elut Nexus). The conjugated steroids in the eluate were hydrolysed by methanolysis and the resulting extract was further cleaned up by liquid-liquid extraction. The resulting free steroids in the extract were derivatised with picolinic acid to form the corresponding picolinoyl esters and analysed by UHPLC/MS/MS in the positive ESI mode with selected-reaction-monitoring. Separation of the targeted steroids was performed on a C18 UHPLC column. The instrument turnaround time was 10.5 min inclusive of post-run equilibration. A total of thirty-three anabolic steroids (including 17β-estradiol, 5(10)-estrene-3β,17α-diol, 5α-estrane-3β,17α-diol, 17α-ethyl-5α-estran-3α,17β-diol, 17α-methyl-5α-androstan-3,17β-diols, androstanediols, nandrolone and testosterone) spiked in negative horse urine at the QC levels (ranging from 0.75 to 30 ng/mL) could be consistently detected. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (% RSD) for the peak area ratios were around 7-51% and around 1-72%, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (% RSD) for the relative retention times were both less than 1% for

  15. Constructing Secure Mobile Agent Systems Using the Agent Operating System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van t Noordende, G.J.; Overeinder, B.J.; Timmer, R.J.; Brazier, F.M.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Designing a secure and reliable mobile agent system is a difficult task. The agent operating system (AOS) is a building block that simplifies this task. AOS provides common primitives required by most mobile agent middleware systems, such as primitives for secure communication, secure and

  16. Logics for Intelligent Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, John-Jules Charles

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents the history of the application of logic in a quite popular paradigm in contemporary computer science and artificial intelligence, viz. the area of intelligent agents and multi-agent systems. In particular we discuss the logics that have been used to specify single agents, the

  17. Organizations as Socially Constructed Agents in the Agent Oriented Paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Boella (Guido); L.W.N. van der Torre (Leon)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we propose a new role for the agent metaphor in the definition of the organizational structure of multiagent systems. The agent metaphor is extended to consider as agents also social entities like organizations, groups and normative systems, so that mental attitudes can

  18. Anabolic Steroids (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the percentage of teens who misuse steroids. Swipe left or right to scroll. Monitoring the Future Study: Trends in ... Drugs of Abuse Discover what happens to the brain on drugs. ... vs. drug use. Read More » 92 Comments Dopers Downfall ...

  19. Three-agent Peer Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Vicki Knoblauch

    2008-01-01

    I show that every rule for dividing a dollar among three agents impartially (so that each agent's share depends only on her evaluation by her associates) underpays some agent by at least one-third of a dollar for some consistent profile of evaluations. I then produce an impartial division rule that never underpays or overpays any agent by more than one-third of a dollar, and for most consistent evaluation profiles does much better.

  20. Agent control of cooperating satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Lincoln, N.K.; Veres, S.M.; Dennis, Louise; Fisher, Michael; Lisitsa, Alexei

    2011-01-01

    A novel, hybrid, agent architecture for (small)swarms of satellites has been developed. The software architecture for each satellite comprises ahigh-level rational agent linked to a low-level control system. The rational agent forms dynamicgoals, decides how to tackle them and passes theactual implementation of these plans to the control layer. The rational agent also has access to aMatLabmodel of the satellite dynamics, thus allowing it to carry out selective hypothetical reasoningabout pote...

  1. Believable Social and Emotional Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    While building tools to support the creation of believable emotional agents, I had to make a number of important design decisions . Before describing...processing systems, it is difficult to give an artist direct control over the emotion - al aspects of the character. By making these decisions explicit, I hope...Woody on “Cheers”). Believable Agents BELIEVABLE SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL AGENTS 11 Lesson: We don’t want agent architectures that enforce rationality and

  2. Identification of black market products and potential doping agents in Germany 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Oliver; Thomas, Andreas; Walpurgis, Katja; Piper, Thomas; Sigmund, Gerd; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Laussmann, Tim; Thevis, Mario

    2014-11-01

    The desire to increase the athletic performance, to 'optimize' an individual's appearance, and to complement but also to arguably substitute exercise by means of drugs and drug candidates has generated a considerable (illicit) market for compounds such as anabolic-androgenic steroids, stimulants, growth promoting peptide hormones, and so on. Genuinely developed for therapeutic use, their abuse/misuse generates enormous health risks, which has necessitated comprehensive controls of compound trafficking by customs and anti-doping authorities. From 2012 to 2013, the Bureau of Customs Investigation confiscated products containing anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS; 259 kg), stimulants (13 kg), selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs; 24 kg), and human growth hormone (hGH; 3500 ampules). In cooperation with the Bureau and under the umbrella of the European Monitoring Center for Emerging Doping Agents (EuMoCEDA), the Cologne Anti-Doping Laboratory analyzed an additional 337 (black market) products between 2010 and 2013, allowing to monitor developments in drug use and, hence, the anticipation of new challenges in sports drug testing. Main tools utilized in characterizing confiscated materials were liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS), gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS), and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) with subsequent bottom-up identification of peptidic compounds using nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS). Among the 337 substances analyzed in the doping control laboratory in Cologne, 67 active ingredients were found, 49 of which being categorized as doping agents by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). A total of 83.7 % accounted for steroidal substances (predominantly testosterone, trenbolone, and nandrolone and corresponding esters), 12.8 % accounted for peptide hormones and growth factors (predominantly hGH and growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRPs)), 3.2 % of

  3. Chemical warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided.

  4. Chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  5. Assessment of two complementary liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry metabolomics strategies for the screening of anabolic steroid treatment in calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Weigel, Stefan; Lommen, Arjen; Chereau, Sylvain; Rambaud, Lauriane; Essers, Martien; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Nielen, Michel W.F.; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Anabolic steroids are banned in food producing livestock in Europe. Efficient methods based on mass spectrometry detection have been developed to ensure the control of such veterinary drug residues. Nevertheless, the use of 'cocktails' composed of mixtures of low amounts of several substances as well as the synthesis of new compounds of unknown structure prevent efficient prevention. New analytical tools able to detect such abuse are today mandatory. In this context, metabolomics may represent new emerging strategies for investigating the global physiological effects associated to a family of substances and therefore, to suspect the administration of steroids. The purpose of the present study was to set up, assess and compare two complementary mass spectrometry-based metabolomic strategies as new tools to screen for steroid abuse in cattle and demonstrate the feasibility of such approaches. The protocols were developed in two European laboratories in charge of residues analysis in the field of food safety. Apart from sample preparation, the global process was different in both laboratories from LC-HRMS fingerprinting to multivariate data analysis through data processing and involved both LC-Orbitrap-XCMS and UPLC-ToF-MS-MetAlign strategies. The reproducibility of both sample preparation and MS measurements were assessed in order to guarantee that any differences in the acquired fingerprints were not caused by analytical variability but reflect metabolome modifications upon steroids administration. The protocols were then applied to urine samples collected on a large group of animals consisting of 12 control calves and 12 calves administrated with a mixture of 17β-estradiol 3-benzoate and 17β-nandrolone laureate esters according to a protocol reflecting likely illegal practices. The modifications in urine profiles as indicators of steroid administration have been evaluated in this context and proved the suitability of the approach for discriminating anabolic

  6. Assessment of two complementary liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry metabolomics strategies for the screening of anabolic steroid treatment in calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud, E-mail: laberca@oniris-nantes.fr [ONIRIS, Ecole nationale veterinaire, agroalimentaire et de l' alimentation Nantes-Atlantique, Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Atlanpole - La Chantrerie, BP 40706, Nantes F-44307 (France); Weigel, Stefan; Lommen, Arjen [RIKILT - Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Chereau, Sylvain; Rambaud, Lauriane [ONIRIS, Ecole nationale veterinaire, agroalimentaire et de l' alimentation Nantes-Atlantique, Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Atlanpole - La Chantrerie, BP 40706, Nantes F-44307 (France); Essers, Martien [RIKILT - Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Antignac, Jean-Philippe [ONIRIS, Ecole nationale veterinaire, agroalimentaire et de l' alimentation Nantes-Atlantique, Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Atlanpole - La Chantrerie, BP 40706, Nantes F-44307 (France); Nielen, Michel W.F. [RIKILT - Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Wageningen (Netherlands); Le Bizec, Bruno [ONIRIS, Ecole nationale veterinaire, agroalimentaire et de l' alimentation Nantes-Atlantique, Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Atlanpole - La Chantrerie, BP 40706, Nantes F-44307 (France)

    2011-08-26

    Anabolic steroids are banned in food producing livestock in Europe. Efficient methods based on mass spectrometry detection have been developed to ensure the control of such veterinary drug residues. Nevertheless, the use of 'cocktails' composed of mixtures of low amounts of several substances as well as the synthesis of new compounds of unknown structure prevent efficient prevention. New analytical tools able to detect such abuse are today mandatory. In this context, metabolomics may represent new emerging strategies for investigating the global physiological effects associated to a family of substances and therefore, to suspect the administration of steroids. The purpose of the present study was to set up, assess and compare two complementary mass spectrometry-based metabolomic strategies as new tools to screen for steroid abuse in cattle and demonstrate the feasibility of such approaches. The protocols were developed in two European laboratories in charge of residues analysis in the field of food safety. Apart from sample preparation, the global process was different in both laboratories from LC-HRMS fingerprinting to multivariate data analysis through data processing and involved both LC-Orbitrap-XCMS and UPLC-ToF-MS-MetAlign strategies. The reproducibility of both sample preparation and MS measurements were assessed in order to guarantee that any differences in the acquired fingerprints were not caused by analytical variability but reflect metabolome modifications upon steroids administration. The protocols were then applied to urine samples collected on a large group of animals consisting of 12 control calves and 12 calves administrated with a mixture of 17{beta}-estradiol 3-benzoate and 17{beta}-nandrolone laureate esters according to a protocol reflecting likely illegal practices. The modifications in urine profiles as indicators of steroid administration have been evaluated in this context and proved the suitability of the approach for

  7. Effects of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids on the Reproductive System of Athletes and Recreational Users: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Maria A; Christou, Panagiota A; Markozannes, Georgios; Tsatsoulis, Agathocles; Mastorakos, George; Tigas, Stelios

    2017-09-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are testosterone derivatives used by athletes and recreational users to improve athletic performance and/or enhance appearance. Anabolic androgenic steroids use may have serious and potentially irreversible adverse effects on different organs and systems, including the reproductive system. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to critically assess the impact of AAS use on the reproductive system of athletes and recreational users. An electronic literature search was conducted using the databases MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and Google Scholar. Studies were included when the following criteria were fulfilled: participants were athletes or recreational users of any age, sex, level or type of sport; AAS use of any type, dose, form or duration; AAS effects on the reproductive system were assessed as stated by medical history, clinical examination, hormone and/or semen analysis. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed to assess the weighted mean difference (WMD) of serum gonadotropin (luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone) and testosterone levels compared with baseline, during the period of AAS use, as well as following AAS discontinuation. Thirty-three studies (three randomized clinical trials, 11 cohort, 18 cross-sectional, and one non-randomized parallel clinical trial) were included in the systematic review (3879 participants; 1766 AAS users and 2113 non-AAS users). The majority of the participants were men; only six studies provided data for female athletes. A meta-analysis (11 studies) was conducted of studies evaluating serum gonadotropin and testosterone levels in male subjects: (1) prior to, and during AAS use (six studies, n = 65 AAS users; seven studies, n = 59, evaluating gonadotropin and testosterone levels respectively); (2) during AAS use and following AAS discontinuation (four studies, n = 35; six studies, n = 39, respectively); as well as (3) prior to AAS use and following AAS discontinuation

  8. Minimal dose of milk protein concentrate to enhance the anabolic signalling response to a single bout of resistance exercise; a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cameron J; Zeng, Nina; D'Souza, Randall F; Mitchell, Sarah M; Aasen, Kirsten; Fanning, Aaron C; Poppitt, Sally D; Cameron-Smith, David

    2017-01-01

    Resistance training is a potent stimulus to induce muscle hypertrophy. Supplemental protein intake is known to enhance gains in muscle mass through activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, which initiates protein translation. While the optimal dose of high quality protein to promote post exercise anabolism in young or older men has been investigated, little is known about the minimum doses of protein required to potentiate the resistance exercise activation of anabolic signalling in middle aged men. Twenty healthy men (46.3 ± 5.7 years, BMI: 23.9 ± 6.6 kg/m 2 ) completed a single bout of unilateral resistance exercise consisting of 4 sets of leg extension and press at 80% of 1 repetition maximum. Participants were randomised to consume either formulated milk product containing 9 g milk protein (FMP) or an isoenergetic carbohydrate placebo (CHO) immediately post exercise, in a double blind fashion. A single muscle biopsy was collected at pre-exercise baseline and then bilateral biopsies were collected 90 and 240 min after beverage consumption. P70S6K Thr389 phosphorylation was increased with exercise irrespective of group, P70S6K Thr421/Ser424 was increased with exercise only in the FMP group at 240 min. Likewise, rpS6 Ser235/236 phosphorylation was increased with exercise irrespective of group, rpS6 Ser240/244 increased to a greater extent following exercise in the FMP group. mRNA expression of the amino acid transporter, LAT1/ SLC7A5 increased with both exercise and beverage consumption irrespective of group. PAT1/ SLC36A1 , CAT1/ SLC7A1 and SNAT2/ SLC38A2 mRNA increased only after exercise regardless of group. Nine grams of milk protein is sufficient to augment some measures of downstream mTORC1 signalling after resistance exercise but does not potentiate exercise induced increases in amino acid transporter expression. Formulated products containing nine grams of milk protein would be expected stimulate muscle

  9. Holograms as Teaching Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robin A.

    2013-02-01

    Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching agents, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as agents (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.

  10. Amphoteric surface active agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eissa, A.M. F.

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available 2-[trimethyl ammonium, triethyl ammonium, pyridinium and 2-amino pyridinium] alkanoates, four series of surface active agents containing carbon chain C12, C14, C16 and C18carbon atoms, were prepared. Their structures were characterized by microanalysis, infrared (IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Surface and interfacial tension, Krafft point, wetting time, emulsification power, foaming height and critical micelle concentration (cmc were determined and a comparative study was made between their chemical structure and surface active properties. Antimicrobial activity of these surfactants was also determined.

    Se prepararon cuatro series de agentes tensioactivos del tipo 2-[trimetil amonio, trietil amonio, piridinio y 2-amino piridinio] alcanoatos, que contienen cadenas carbonadas con C12, C14, C16 y C18 átomos de carbono.
    Se determinaron la tensión superficial e interfacial, el punto de Krafft, el tiempo humectante, el poder de emulsionamiento, la altura espumante y la concentración critica de miscela (cmc y se hizo un estudio comparativo entre la estructura química y sus propiedades tensioactivas. Se determinó también la actividad antimicrobiana de estos tensioactivos. Estas estructuras se caracterizaron por microanálisis, infrarrojo (IR y resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN.

  11. [New agents for hypercholesterolemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintó, Xavier; García Gómez, María Carmen

    2016-02-19

    An elevated proportion of high cardiovascular risk patients do not achieve the therapeutic c-LDL goals. This owes to physicians' inappropriate or insufficient use of cholesterol lowering medications or to patients' bad tolerance or therapeutic compliance. Another cause is an insufficient efficacy of current cholesterol lowering drugs including statins and ezetimibe. In addition, proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 inhibitors are a new cholesterol lowering medications showing safety and high efficacy to reduce c-LDL in numerous already performed or underway clinical trials, potentially allowing an optimal control of hypercholesterolemia in most patients. Agents inhibiting apolipoprotein B synthesis and microsomal transfer protein are also providing a new potential to decrease cholesterol in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia and in particular in homozygote familial hypercholesterolemia. Last, cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors have shown powerful effects on c-HDL and c-LDL, although their efficacy in cardiovascular prevention and safety has not been demonstrated yet. We provide in this article an overview of the main characteristics of therapeutic agents for hypercholesterolemia, which have been recently approved or in an advanced research stage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. The glycolytic shift in fumarate-hydratase-deficient kidney cancer lowers AMPK levels, increases anabolic propensities and lowers cellular iron levels

    KAUST Repository

    Tong, Winghang; Sourbier, Carole; Kovtunovych, Gennadiy; Jeong, Suhyoung; Vira, Manish A.; Ghosh, Manik Chandra; Romero, Vladimir Valera; Sougrat, Rachid; Vaulont, Sophie; Viollet, Benoî t; Kim, Yeongsang; Lee, Sunmin; Trepel, Jane B.; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Yang, Youfeng; Linehan, William Marston; Rouault, Tracey A.

    2011-01-01

    Inactivation of the TCA cycle enzyme, fumarate hydratase (FH), drives a metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis in FH-deficient kidney tumors and cell lines from patients with hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell cancer (HLRCC), resulting in decreased levels of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and p53 tumor suppressor, and activation of the anabolic factors, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and ribosomal protein S6. Reduced AMPK levels lead to diminished expression of the DMT1 iron transporter, and the resulting cytosolic iron deficiency activates the iron regulatory proteins, IRP1 and IRP2, and increases expression of the hypoxia inducible factor HIF-1α, but not HIF-2α. Silencing of HIF-1α or activation of AMPK diminishes invasive activities, indicating that alterations of HIF-1α and AMPK contribute to the oncogenic growth of FH-deficient cells. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  13. Determination of selected endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids and ratios in urine by ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and isotope pattern deconvolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarch-Motellón, J; Sancho, J V; Ibáñez, M; Pozo, O; Roig-Navarro, A F

    2017-09-15

    An isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) method for the determination of selected endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (EAAS) in urine by UHPLC-MS/MS has been developed using the isotope pattern deconvolution (IPD) mathematical tool. The method has been successfully validated for testosterone, epitestosterone, androsterone and etiocholanolone, employing their respective deuterated analogs using two certified reference materials (CRM). Accuracy was evaluated as recovery of the certified values and ranged from 75% to 108%. Precision was assessed in intraday (n=5) and interday (n=4) experiments, with RSDs below 5% and 10% respectively. The method was also found suitable for real urine samples, with limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) below the normal urinary levels. The developed method meets the requirements established by the World Anti-Doping Agency for the selected steroids for Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) measurements, except in the case of androsterone, which is currently under study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. The evidence for efficacy of osteoporosis treatment in men with primary osteoporosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of antiresorptive and anabolic treatment in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Peter; Jorgensen, Niklas Rye; Mosekilde, Leif

    2011-01-01

    of antiresorptive treatment were included. All studies showed an increase in BMD, but there was only a nonsignificant trend in the reduction of clinical fractures. Three BMD studies of anabolic treatment with teriparatide were also included. These showed a significant mean increase in spine BMD and for vertebral...... treatment in men. Methods. This study was a systematic review of the published literature on the clinical efficacy of medical osteoporosis therapy in the reduction of fracture risk in men (age > 50 years). Studies included were randomised, placebo-controlled trials of men. Results. Five BMD studies...... fractures a non-significant trend towards a reduction was seen. Conclusion. The evidence of medical osteoporosis treatment in men is scant and inconclusive due to the lack of prospective RCT studies with fracture prevention as primary end point. So far, all evidence is based on BMD increases in small RCT...

  15. The glycolytic shift in fumarate-hydratase-deficient kidney cancer lowers AMPK levels, increases anabolic propensities and lowers cellular iron levels

    KAUST Repository

    Tong, Winghang

    2011-09-01

    Inactivation of the TCA cycle enzyme, fumarate hydratase (FH), drives a metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis in FH-deficient kidney tumors and cell lines from patients with hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell cancer (HLRCC), resulting in decreased levels of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and p53 tumor suppressor, and activation of the anabolic factors, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and ribosomal protein S6. Reduced AMPK levels lead to diminished expression of the DMT1 iron transporter, and the resulting cytosolic iron deficiency activates the iron regulatory proteins, IRP1 and IRP2, and increases expression of the hypoxia inducible factor HIF-1α, but not HIF-2α. Silencing of HIF-1α or activation of AMPK diminishes invasive activities, indicating that alterations of HIF-1α and AMPK contribute to the oncogenic growth of FH-deficient cells. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  16. Microencapsulation of chemotherapeutic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Hong Sik

    1993-01-01

    Mixing various amounts of chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatinum, 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin-C, and adriamycin with polymers such as poly-d, 1-lactide, ethylhydroxyethylcellulose, and polycaprolactone, several kinds of microcapsules were made. Among them, microcapsule made from ethylhydroxyethylcellulose showed best yield. Under light microscopy, the capsules were observed as particles with refractive properties. For the basic toxicity test, intraarterial administration of cisplatinum was done in 6 adult mongrel dogs. Follow-up angiography was accomplished in 2 wk intervals for 6 wks. Despite no significant difference in the histopathological examination between the embolized and normal kidneys, follow-up angiogram showed atrophy of renal cortex and diminished numbers of arterial branches in the embolized kidneys. In order to identify the structural properties of microcapsules, and to determine the drug content and the rate of release, further experiment is thought to be necessary. (Author)

  17. New MR contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, C.D.; Subramanian, G.; Schneider, R.; Szeverenyi, N.E.; Rosenbaum, A.M.; Gagne, G.; Tillapaugh-Fay, G.; Berlin, R.; Ritter-Hrncirik, C.; Yu, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates an MR contrast agent-meglumine tris-(2,6-dicarboxypyridine) gadolinium (III) or gadolinium dipicolinate (Gd-DPC)-produced in-house. Rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital. For renal imaging, bowel motion artifact was minimized with glucagon (0.014 mg/kg, intravenous (IV)). Enhanced images were generated on a 2-T chemical shift imaging system with a 31-cm horizontal bore magnet after IV injection of Gd-DPC (100 μM/kg). Coronal sections of the kidneys and sagittal sections of the brain, 2 mm thick, were made. Six to eight excitations and 128 or 356 phase-encoding steps were used for each image. Control animals were injected with equivalent doses of gadopentetate dimeglumine

  18. An improved hollow fiber solvent-stir bar microextraction for the preconcentration of anabolic steroids in biological matrix with determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Lan; Fan, Liangbiao; Lin, Zian; Cai, Yimin; Wei, Zhenyi; Chen, Guonan

    2012-04-13

    In this paper, a convenient and self-assembled hollow fiber solvent-stir bar microextraction (HF-SSBME) device was developed, which could stir by itself. In the extraction process, the proposed device made the solvent "bar" not floating at the sample solution and exposing to air while organic solvents outside hollow fiber always wrapped with donor phase solvent, which reduced the vaporization of organic solvents. This design could improve the precisions and recoveries of experiments. For evaluating the device, seven anabolic steroids (prasterone, 5α-androstane-3α, 17β-diol, methandriol, 19-norandrostenediol, androstenediol, methyltestosterone and methandienone) were used as model analytes and extraction conditions such as type and volume of organic solvents, agitation speed, extraction time, extraction temperature and salt addition were studied in detail. Under the optimum conditions (15 μL toluene, 40 °C, stirring at 750 rpm for 30 min with 1.5 g sodium chloride addition in 20.0 mL donor phase), the linear ranges of anabolic steroids were 0.25-200 ng mL(-1) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The limits of detection were lower than 0.10 ng mL(-1). The recoveries and precisions in spiked urine and hair samples were between 73.97-93.56% and 2.18-4.47% (n=5). HF-SSBME method combined the intrinsical merits of hollow fiber with the superiority of the proposed self-stirring device which can be developed to two-phase, three-phase and in situ derivatization modes with wide prospect of application. Besides, the pedestal of this proposed device can be converted to fix stir bar in stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Blocking the expression of both bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN) impairs the anabolic action of PTH in mouse calvaria bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouleftour, Wafa; Bouet, Guenaelle; Granito, Renata Neves; Thomas, Mireille; Linossier, Marie-Thérèse; Vanden-Bossche, Arnaud; Aubin, Jane E; Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène; Vico, Laurence; Malaval, Luc

    2015-03-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) and bone sialoprotein (BSP) are coexpressed in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and display overlapping properties. We used daily injection of parathyroid hormone 1-84 (iPTH) over the calvaria of BSP knockout (-/-) mice to investigate further their functional specificity and redundancy. iPTH stimulated bone formation in both +/+ and -/- mice, increasing to the same degree periosteum, osteoid and total bone thickness. Expression of OPN, osterix, osteocalcin (OCN) and DMP1 was also increased by iPTH in both genotypes. In contrast to +/+, calvaria cell cultures from -/- mice revealed few osteoblast colonies, no mineralization and little expression of OCN, MEPE or DMP1. In contrast, OPN levels were 5× higher in -/- versus +/+ cultures. iPTH increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in cell cultures of both genotypes, with higher OCN and the induction of mineralization in -/- cultures. siRNA blocking of OPN expression did not alter the anabolic action of the hormone in BSP +/+ calvaria, while it blunted iPTH effects in -/- mice, reduced to a modest increase in periosteum thickness. In -/- (not +/+) cell cultures, siOPN blocked the stimulation by iPTH of ALP activity and OCN expression, as well as the induction of mineralization. Thus, full expression of either OPN or BSP is necessary for the anabolic effect of PTH at least in the ectopic calvaria injection model. This suggests that OPN may compensate for the lack of BSP in the response to this hormonal challenge, and provides evidence of functional overlap between these cognate proteins. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  20. Anabolic sensitivity of postprandial muscle protein synthesis to the ingestion of a protein-dense food is reduced in overweight and obese young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Joseph W; Sukiennik, Richard A; Nallabelli, Julian; Emmons, Russell S; van Vliet, Stephan; Young, Justin R; Ulanov, Alexander V; Li, Zhong; Paluska, Scott A; De Lisio, Michael; Burd, Nicholas A

    2016-10-01

    Excess body fat diminishes muscle protein synthesis rates in response to hyperinsulinemic-hyperaminoacidemic clamps. However, muscle protein synthetic responses after the ingestion of a protein-dense food source across a range of body mass indexes (BMIs) have not been compared. We compared the myofibrillar protein synthetic response and underlying nutrient-sensing mechanisms after the ingestion of lean pork between obese, overweight, and healthy-weight adults. Ten healthy-weight [HW; BMI (in kg/m 2 ): 22.7 ± 0.4], 10 overweight (OW; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.5), and 10 obese (OB; BMI: 35.9 ± 1.3) adults received primed continuous l-[ring- 13 C 6 ]phenylalanine infusions. Blood and muscle biopsy samples were collected before and after the ingestion of 170 g pork (36 g protein and 3 g fat) to assess skeletal muscle anabolic signaling, amino acid transporters [large neutral and small neutral amino acid transporters (LAT1, SNAT2) and CD98], and myofibrillar protein synthesis. At baseline, OW and OB groups showed greater relative amounts of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) protein than the HW group. Pork ingestion increased mTORC1 phosphorylation only in the HW group (P = 0.001). LAT1 and SNAT2 protein content increased during the postprandial period in all groups (time effect, P anabolic signals, that reduces muscle sensitivity to food ingestion. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02613767. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.