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Sample records for amyris brenesii rutaceae

  1. Elemol and Amyris Oil Repel the Ticks Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) in Laboratory Bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential oil from Amyris balsamifera (Rutaceae) and elemol, a principal constituent of the essential oil of Osage orange, Maclura pomifera (Moraceae) were evaluated in in vitro and in vivo laboratory bioassays for repellent activity against host-seeking nymphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes sc...

  2. Amyris, Inc. Integrated Biorefinery Project Summary Final Report - Public Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, David; Sato, Suzanne; Garcia, Fernando; Eppler, Ross; Cherry, Joel

    2014-03-12

    The Amyris pilot-scale Integrated Biorefinery (IBR) leveraged Amyris synthetic biology and process technology experience to upgrade Amyris’s existing Emeryville, California pilot plant and fermentation labs to enable development of US-based production capabilities for renewable diesel fuel and alternative chemical products. These products were derived semi-synthetically from high-impact biomass feedstocks via microbial fermentation to the 15-carbon intermediate farnesene, with subsequent chemical finishing to farnesane. The Amyris IBR team tested and provided methods for production of diesel and alternative chemical products from sweet sorghum, and other high-impact lignocellulosic feedstocks, at pilot scale. This enabled robust techno-economic analysis (TEA), regulatory approvals, and a basis for full-scale manufacturing processes and facility design.

  3. Cumarinas e alcaloides de Rauia resinosa (rutaceae Coumarins and alkaloids from Rauia resinosa (rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Regina Albarici

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Rauia, that is poorly chemically studied, belongs to the Rutaceae family. This family has been known to contain a large variety of secondary metabolites. Our phytochemical investigation of the stem and leaves of Rauia resinosa has led to the identification of the structurally related coumarins: murralongin (1, murrangatin (2, munomicrolin (3, murrangatin diacetate (4, umbelliferone (5, rauianin (6 and one novel coumarin: 3-ethylrauianin (7; the alkaloids: N-methyl-4-methoxy-2-quinolone (8, mirtopsine (9, dictamine (10, γ-fagarine (11, skimmianine (12, Z-dimethylrhoifolinate (13, zantodioline (14, zantobungeanine (15, veprissine (16, one novel alkaloid 7-hydroxy-8-methoxy-N-methylflindersine (17 and 8-hydroxy-N-methylflindersine (18 that is described as a natural product for the first time, and a mixture of steroids: as sitosterol and stigmasterol.

  4. Coumarin and alkaloids of Rauia resinosa (Rutaceae); Cumarinas e alcaloides de Rauia resinosa (Rutaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albarici, Tatiane Regina; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da, E-mail: paulo@dq.ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Pirani, Jose Rubens [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Botanica

    2010-07-01

    The genus Rauia, that is poorly chemically studied, belongs to the Rutaceae family. This family has been known to contain a large variety of secondary metabolites. Our phytochemical investigation of the stem and leaves of Rauia resinosa has led to the identification of the structurally related coumarins: murralongin (1), murrangatin (2), munomicrolin (3), murrangatin diacetate (4), umbelliferone (5), rauianin (6) and one novel coumarin: 3-ethylrauianin (7); the alkaloids: N-methyl-4-methoxy-2-quinolone (8), mirtopsine (9), dictamine (10), g-fagarine (11), skimmianine (12), Z-dimethylrhoifolinate (13), zantodioline (14), zantobungeanine (15), veprissine (16), one novel alkaloid 7-hydroxy-8-methoxy-N-methylflindersine (17) and 8-hydroxy-N-methylflindersine (18) that is described as a natural product for the first time, and a mixture of steroids: as sitosterol and stigmasterol. (author)

  5. Essential Oils from the Malaysian Citrus (Rutaceae) Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Nur Atiqah Md Othman; Muhammad Aizam Hassan; Lutfun Nahar; Norazah Basar; Shajarahtunnur Jamil; Satyajit D. Sarker

    2016-01-01

    This review article appraises the extraction methods, compositions, and bioactivities of the essential oils from the Citrus species (family: Rutaceae) endemic to Malaysia including C. aurantifolia, C. grandis, C. hystrix, and C. microcarpa. Generally, the fresh peels and leaves of the Citrus species were extracted using different methods such as steam and water distillation, Likens-Nikerson extraction, solvent extraction, and headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME). Most of the Citru...

  6. Anatomía foliar de pilocarpus goudotianus tul. (rutaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    HERMOSO GALLARDO, LUIS; ESCALA JIMÉNEZ, MARCIA

    2012-01-01

    El género Pilocarpus (Rutaceae), distribuido en la región neotropical, constituye unrecurso de gran importancia en el campo de la medicina, como materia prima para laobtención del nitrato de pilocarpina, el cual se utiliza en el tratamiento del glaucoma,y se obtiene de las hojas de estas plantas. Este estudio permitió la caracterizaciónanatómica de la hoja de Pilocarpus goudotianus Tul., encontrándose rasgosxeromorfos, tales como cutícula gruesa, paredes epidérmicas externas cutinizadas,alta ...

  7. Rutaceae endémicas del Perú

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    Blanca León

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La familia Rutaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar 25 géneros y 76 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004, principalmente árboles y arbustos. En este trabajo reconocemos seis endemismos, representando igual número de géneros. Los taxones endémicos se encuentran en las regiones Bosques Húmedos Amazónicos, Bosques Muy Húmedos Premontanos y Mesoandina, entre los 130 y 2000 m de altitud. Tres taxones se encuentran representados dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado.

  8. New chromosome numbers in Pilocarpus Vahl (Rutaceae) Novos números cromossômicos em Pilocarpus Vahl (Rutaceae)

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    Ladislau A. Skorupa

    2000-01-01

    Chromosome counts for eight species of Pilocarpus Vahl (Rutaceae) a native of Brazil are reported for the first time. Chromosome numbers were determined from mitotic root tip cells of seedlings derived from field collections and grown in the greenhouse. Feulgen staining was used. Initial pre-treatment of root tips was done by using a saturated aqueous solution of alpha-bromonapthalene for two hours at room temperature (20-25ºC). Chromosome numbers of 2n=44 and 2n=88 were determined for the ex...

  9. New chromosome numbers in Pilocarpus Vahl (Rutaceae Novos números cromossômicos em Pilocarpus Vahl (Rutaceae

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    Ladislau A. Skorupa

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome counts for eight species of Pilocarpus Vahl (Rutaceae a native of Brazil are reported for the first time. Chromosome numbers were determined from mitotic root tip cells of seedlings derived from field collections and grown in the greenhouse. Feulgen staining was used. Initial pre-treatment of root tips was done by using a saturated aqueous solution of alpha-bromonapthalene for two hours at room temperature (20-25ºC. Chromosome numbers of 2n=44 and 2n=88 were determined for the examined taxa. The present results suggest the occurrence of tetraploidy in P. spicatus St.-Hil. and P. carajaensis Skorupa, and a possible basic number x=22 to the genus Pilocarpus.Contagens cromossômicas em oito espécies de Pilocarpus Vahl (Rutaceae do Brasil são relatadas pela primeira vez. Os números cromossômicos foram determinados a partir de células de ponta de raiz de mudas mantidas em casa-devegetação e obtidas em expedições de coleta. O método Feulgen foi empregado para a coloração dos cromossomos. O pré-tratamento das pontas de raiz foi feito em solução saturada de alfa-bromonaftaleno por duas horas à temperatura ambiente (20-25ºC. Foram identificados os números diplóides 2n=44 e 2n=88. Os resultados sugerem a ocorrência de tetraploidia em P. spicatus St.-Hil. e em P. carajaensis Skorupa, e um possível número básico x=22 para o gênero Pilocarpus.

  10. Essential Oils from the Malaysian Citrus (Rutaceae Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nur Atiqah Md Othman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This review article appraises the extraction methods, compositions, and bioactivities of the essential oils from the Citrus species (family: Rutaceae endemic to Malaysia including C. aurantifolia, C. grandis, C. hystrix, and C. microcarpa. Generally, the fresh peels and leaves of the Citrus species were extracted using different methods such as steam and water distillation, Likens-Nikerson extraction, solvent extraction, and headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME. Most of the Citrus oils were found to be rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons with limonene (1 as the major component identified in the peels of C. aurantifolia (39.3%, C. grandis (81.6%–96.9%, and C. microcarpa (94.0%, while sabinene (19 was the major component in the peels of C. hystrix (36.4%–48.5%. In addition, citronellal (20 (61.7%–72.5%, linalool (18 (56.5%, and hedycaryol (23 (19.0% were identified as the major components in the oil of C. hystrix leaves, C. grandis blossom and C. microcarpa leaves, respectively. The C. hystrix essential oil has been experimentally shown to have antimicrobial and antifeedant activities, while no bioactivity study has been reported on the essential oils of other Malaysian Citrus species.

  11. Assessment of candidate plant DNA barcodes using the Rutaceae family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    DNA barcoding is a rapidly developing frontier technology that is gaining worldwide attention.Here,seven regions (psbA-trnH,matK,ycf5,rpoC1,rbcL,ITS2,and ITS) with potential for use as DNA barcodes were tested for their ability to identify 300 samples of 192 species from 72 genera of the family Rutaceae.To evaluate each barcode’s utility for species authentication,PCR amplification efficiency,genetic divergence,and barcoding gaps were assessed.We found that the ITS2 region exhibited the highest inter-specific divergence,and that this was significantly higher than the intra-specific variation in the "DNA barcoding gap" assessment and Wilcoxon two-sample tests.The ITS2 locus had the highest identification efficiency among all tested regions.In a previous study,we found that ITS2 was able to discriminate a wide range of plant taxa,and here we confirmed that ITS2 was also able to discriminate a number of closely related species.Therefore,we propose that ITS2 is a promising candidate barcode for plant species identification.

  12. Immunomodulatory and antibacterial activities of extracts from Rutaceae species Atividade imunomoduladora e antibacteriana de extratos de espécies da família Rutaceae

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    José Fernando Oliveira Costa; Paulo Juiz; André São Pedro; Juceni P. de L. David; Jorge M. David; Ana Maria Giulietti; Flávio França; Ricardo Ribeiro dos Santos; MILENA B. P. SOARES

    2010-01-01

    Rutaceae is a taxon with species very well distributed in Brazilian semi-arid area, commonly used in folk medicine. Species from this genus have diverse biological activity described in literature. In this work, immunomodulatory and bactericidal activity are described for chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of three of them (Esenbeckia grandiflora Mart., Pilocarpus spicatus A.St.-Hil. and Galipea simplicifolia Schult.). Initially all the samples had their cytotoxicity evaluated, aiming to d...

  13. Contribution of molecular cladistics to the taxonomy of Rutaceae in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul Pui-Hay BUT; Alice Wing-Sem POON; Pang-Chui SHAW; Mark P. SIMMONS; Harald GREGER

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of Rutaceae in the Chinese flora chose to follow Engler in recognizing Rutoideae and Toddalioideae as two separate subfamilies. Morphological and chemical comparisons, however, suggested group-ing those two subfamilies in one subfamily, Rutoideae. This move has received support from molecular phyloge-netic analyses, which also showed that the Chinese taxa in Euodia should be placed in Tetradium and Melicope following Hartley. Investigations into the chemistry and molecular phylogeny of Murraya also indicated that the species in the section Bergera without yuehchukene should be removed from Murraya. These findings clearly show the value of molecular cladistics to the taxonomy of Rutaceae in China and also directions for further inves-tigations.

  14. Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects of mahanimbine (carbazole alkaloid) from murraya koenigii (rutaceae) leaves

    OpenAIRE

    B. Dineshkumar; Analava Mitra; Manjunatha Mahadevappa

    2011-01-01

    Murraya koenigii leaves (Rutaceae) are used traditionally in Indian Ayurvedic system to treat diabetes. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of mahanimbine (carbazole alkaloid from Murraya koenigii leaves) on blood glucose and serum lipid profiles on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in adult male Wistar rats by intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (45mg/kg). Mahanimbine (50 and 100mg/kg) were administrated as a single dose per week t...

  15. Immunomodulatory and antibacterial activities of extracts from Rutaceae species Atividade imunomoduladora e antibacteriana de extratos de espécies da família Rutaceae

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    José Fernando Oliveira Costa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Rutaceae is a taxon with species very well distributed in Brazilian semi-arid area, commonly used in folk medicine. Species from this genus have diverse biological activity described in literature. In this work, immunomodulatory and bactericidal activity are described for chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of three of them (Esenbeckia grandiflora Mart., Pilocarpus spicatus A.St.-Hil. and Galipea simplicifolia Schult.. Initially all the samples had their cytotoxicity evaluated, aiming to determine the LC50. The immunomodulatory potential was evaluated in cultures of murine splenocytes stimulated or not with concanavalin A and in a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR using splenocytes from BALB/c (H-2d mice immunized with splenocytes from C57Bl/6 (H-2b mice. Four samples had higher values of lymphoproliferation inhibition in concanavalin A-stimulated cultures and were evaluated in MLR. The antibacterial activity of extracts was also evaluated and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC for two active samples were 1.0 and 5.0 mg/ml for extracts from Esenbeckia grandiflora Mart. and Galipea simplicifolia Schult., respectively. Thus, our results reinforce data of literature relating biological activity for many species of the Rutaceae family and encourage studies with these species aiming to discover active compounds, candidates to new medicines.A família Rutaceae apresenta espécies vegetais muito bem distribuídas no Semi-Árido Brasileiro e comumente usadas em medicina popular. Espécies dessa família tem diversas atividades biológicas descritas na literatura. Neste trabalho, atividades imunomoduladora e bactericida são descritas para o extrato acetato de etila e clorofórmico de três espécies da família (Esenbeckia grandiflora Mart., Pilocarpus spicatus A.St.-Hil. e Galipea simplicifolia Schult.. Todas as amostras foram inicialmente avaliadas quanto à sua citotoxicidade, com objetivo de determinar a LC50. O potencial imunomodulador foi

  16. Chemical constituents of the stems of Spathelia excelsa (rutaceae) and activity against Aedes aegypti; Constituintes quimicos do caule de Spathelia excelsa (rutaceae) e atividade contra Aedes aegypti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Aline Carvalho de; Lima, Maria da Paz [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Produtos Naturais], e-mail: mdapaz@inpa.gov.br; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Pinto, Ana Cristina da Silva [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Lab. de Vetores de Malaria e Dengue

    2009-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation from the stems of Spathelia excelsa (Rutaceae) collected in Amazonas yielded deacetylspathelin (1), 7,8-dimethoxyflindersine (2), new glabretal-type triterpenoid 3{beta}-angeloyl-21,24-epoxy-7{alpha}, 21{alpha}, 23{alpha}, 25-tetrahydroxy-4{alpha}, 4{beta}, 8{beta}, 10{beta}-tetramethyl-25-dimethyl-14,18-cyclo-5{alpha}, 13{alpha}, 14{alpha}, 17{alpha}-cholestane (3), in addition to the known steroids s-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Their structures were established on the basis of spectral data. The compounds 1 and 3 were assayed on Aedes aegypti (larvicidal and adulticidal activities and compound 3 exhibited larvicidal properties with LC{sub 50} of 4,8 {mu}g/mL. (author)

  17. In vitro activity of Rutaceae species against the trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafezoli, J; Vieira, P C; Fernandes, J B; da Silva, M F; de Albuquerque, S

    2000-11-01

    The activity of crude plant extracts of nine species of Rutaceae against the trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated at 4 mg/ml. Thirty-two crude extracts were tested and eight of them showed significant activity (>80%). The most active extract was obtained from the stems of Pilocarpus spicatus (97.3%). Fractionation of the active crude extracts provided 25 fractions which were tested against the trypomastigote form of T. cruzi at 2 mg/ml. Of these six showed significant activity (>80%). The most active fractions (100%) were obtained from the leaves of Almeidea coerulea (butanol fraction) and Conchocarpus inopinatus (dichloromethane fraction). PMID:11025175

  18. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of roots of Murraya koenigii (Linn. Spreng. (Rutaceae

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    Manisha Vats

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Murraya koenigii, family Rutaceae, commonly known as Curry leaf plant is a highly valued plant for its medicinal value and characteristic aroma. The plant is a rich source of carbazole alkaloids. The petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of roots of the plant were screened for phytochemical properties and antimicrobial activity for Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, steroids and flavonoids in the root extracts of the plant. The study shows that all the extracts possess remarkable antibacterial activity. Additionally, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts also had antifungal activity.

  19. Antisickling properties of divanilloylquinic acids isolated from Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam. (Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, B; Jansen, O; Angenot, L; Guissou, I P; Frédérich, M; Fondu, P; Tits, M

    2009-03-01

    Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam. (syn. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides) (Rutaceae) is the most cited Fagara species for the treatment and the prevention of sickle cell disease crisis. Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a public health problem in many countries particularly in Africa. The present study was designed to evaluate the antisickling properties of three isomeric divanilloylquinic acids (3,4-O-divanilloylquinic acid or burkinabin A; 3,5-O-divanilloylquinic acid or burkinabin B and 4,5-O-divanilloylquinic acid or burkinabin C) identified previously by LC/MS/NMR analysis in the root bark of F. zanthoxyloides [Ouattara et al., 2004. LC/MS/NMR analysis of isomeric divanilloylquinic acids from the root bark of Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam. Phytochemistry 65, 1145-1151]. The three isomers showed interesting antisickling properties which increased from burkinabins A to C. PMID:19110407

  20. Acercamiento al género Murraya (Rutaceae y a la especie Murraya paniculata (L. Jack. Approach to Murraya (Rutaceae genus and Murraya paniculata (L. Jack. species

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    Celia Magaly Casado Martín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Murraya paniculata (L. Jack (Rutaceae es empleada tradicionalmente en algunas provincias de Cuba para el alivio del dolor y la inflamación asociados a enfermedades osteomioarticulares. No se reportan estudios en el país que profundicen en la composición química de esta especie o del género Murraya, ni tampoco relacionados con información etnomédica y actividades biológicas comprobadas. Objetivos: reunir y analizar información científica actualizada referente al género, y a esta especie en particular, como fuente natural de compuestos biológicamente activos que determinan sus potencialidades medicinales. Métodos: se incluyeron en el análisis artículos científicos y libros relacionados con los temas de composición química, usos tradicionales y evaluaciones farmacológicas, así como otros elementos de interés de plantas medicinales. Resultados: la información analizada puede servir de base para el desarrollo de nuevas investigaciones que avalen el empleo en la terapéutica de productos fitoterápicos de elevada eficacia, seguridad y calidad. La revisión de los resultados de otros grupos de investigación permite establecer estrategias racionales de investigación científica, que contribuyan al uso racional de los recursos que se encuentran en universidades y centros de investigación y salud. Conclusiones: los elementos encontrados en la bibliografía consultada permiten asegurar que la especie Murraya paniculata puede ser potencialmente empleada en fitoterapia, debido entre otras cosas, al importante número de metabolítos secundarios identificados con actividad farmacológica reconocida.Introduction: Murraya paniculata (L. Jacq (Rutaceae is traditionally used in some Cuban provinces for pain relief and inflammation associated to osteomyoarticulary diseases. There has been no reported studied at domestic level, which delves into neither the chemical composition of this species or of Murraya genus nor the

  1. Quality evaluation and pattern recognition analyses of marker compounds from five medicinal drugs of Rutaceae family by HPLC/PDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bing Tian; Kim, Eun Jung; Son, Kun Ho; Son, Jong Keun; Min, Byung Sun; Woo, Mi Hee

    2015-08-01

    To establish a standard of quality control and to identify different origins for the Rutaceae family [Citri Unshiu Peel (CU), Citri Unshiu Immature Peel (CI), Ponciri Immature Fructus (PI), Aurantii Immature Fructus (AI), and Aurantii Fructus (AU)], 13 standards including rutin (1), narirutin (2), naringin (3), hesperidin (4), neohesperidin (5), neoponcirin (6), poncirin (7), naringenin (8), isosinensetin (9), sinensetin (10), nobiletin (11), heptamethoxyflavone (12), and tangeretin (13) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/photo-diode array (PDA) analysis. A YMC ODS C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column was used and the ratio of mobile phases of water (A) and acetonitrile (B) delivered to the column for gradient elution was applied. This method was fully validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, stability, and robustness. The HPLC/PDA method was applied successfully to quantify 13 major compounds in the extracts of CU, CI, PI, AI, and AU. The pattern recognition analysis combined with LC chromatographic data was performed by repeated analysis of 27 reference samples in the above five Rutaceae oriental medicinal drugs. The established HPLC method was rapid and reliable for quantitative analysis and quality control of multiple components in five Rutaceae species with different origins. PMID:25732613

  2. Binding of an anticancer Rutaceae plant flavonoid glycoside with calf thymus DNA: Biophysical and electrochemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, we report the interaction of a bioactive Rutaceae plant flavonoid glycoside, diosmin (DIO) with calf thymus DNA employing ethidium bromide as a fluorescence probe. The mode of binding between DIO and DNA was investigated by UV absorption, fluorescence, 3D-fluorescence, fluorescence polarization, FT-IR, circular dichroism, melting temperature (Tm) measurements and differential pulse voltammogram studies. The results revealed the intercalative mode of binding between DIO and DNA. Further, the values of thermodynamic parameters, ∆H° (−388.32 kJ mol−1) and ∆S° (−1.22 kJ mol−1 K−1) indicated that the van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond played a major role in the binding of DIO to DNA. The observed negative ∆G° values revealed the spontaneity of interaction process. The binding of DIO to DNA–EB was found to be stronger in the presence of coexisting substances. -- Highlights: • Mechanism of interaction of diosmin with DNA was studied by spectroscopic methods. • Ethidium bromide was used as a fluorescence probe in the present study. • The van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond played a significant role in the interaction. • Intercalative mode of binding was proposed between DIO and DNA

  3. Binding of an anticancer Rutaceae plant flavonoid glycoside with calf thymus DNA: Biophysical and electrochemical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishnan, Sandhya; Jaldappagari, Seetharamappa, E-mail: jseetharam@yahoo.com

    2013-10-15

    In the present work, we report the interaction of a bioactive Rutaceae plant flavonoid glycoside, diosmin (DIO) with calf thymus DNA employing ethidium bromide as a fluorescence probe. The mode of binding between DIO and DNA was investigated by UV absorption, fluorescence, 3D-fluorescence, fluorescence polarization, FT-IR, circular dichroism, melting temperature (T{sub m}) measurements and differential pulse voltammogram studies. The results revealed the intercalative mode of binding between DIO and DNA. Further, the values of thermodynamic parameters, ∆H° (−388.32 kJ mol{sup −1}) and ∆S° (−1.22 kJ mol{sup −1} K{sup −1}) indicated that the van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond played a major role in the binding of DIO to DNA. The observed negative ∆G° values revealed the spontaneity of interaction process. The binding of DIO to DNA–EB was found to be stronger in the presence of coexisting substances. -- Highlights: • Mechanism of interaction of diosmin with DNA was studied by spectroscopic methods. • Ethidium bromide was used as a fluorescence probe in the present study. • The van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond played a significant role in the interaction. • Intercalative mode of binding was proposed between DIO and DNA.

  4. Acridone Alkaloids from Swinglea glutinosa (Rutaceae) and Their Effects on Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arato Ferreira, Pedro H; Dos Santos, Djalma A P; da Silva, Maria Fátima das G F; Vieira, Paulo C; King-Diaz, Beatriz; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas; Veiga, Thiago A M

    2016-01-01

    Continuing our search for herbicide models based on natural products, we investigated the action mechanisms of five alkaloids isolated from Swinglea glutinosa (Rutaceae): Citrusinine-I (1), glycocitrine-IV (2), 1,3,5-trihydroxy-10-methyl- 2,8-bis(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-9(10H)-acridinone (3), (2R)-2-tert-butyl-3,10-dihydro-4,9-dihydroxy-11-methoxy-10-methylfuro[3,2-b]acridin-5(2H)-one (4), and (3R)-2,3,4,7-tetrahydro-3,5,8-trihydroxy-6-methoxy-2,2,7-trimethyl-12H-pyrano[2,3-a]acridin-12-one (5) on several photosynthetic activities in an attempt to find new compounds that affect photosynthesis. Through polarographic techniques, the compounds inhibited the non-cyclic electron transport in the basal, phosphorylating, and uncoupled conditions from H2 O to methylviologen (=MV). Therefore, they act as Hill reaction inhibitors. This approach still suggested that the compounds 4 and 5 had their interaction site located at photosystem I. Studies on fluorescence of chlorophyll a suggested that acridones (1-3) have different modes of interaction and inhibition sites on the photosystem II electron transport chain. PMID:26765357

  5. Evaluation of the Anticonvulsant Activity of Zanthoxylum capense (Thunb. Harv. (Rutaceae in Mice

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    G.J. Amabeoku

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticonvulsant activity of Zanthoxylum capense (Thunb. Harv. (Rutaceae was investigated by studying the effects of the leaf methanol and aqueous extracts on seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole, bicuculline, picrotoxin, N-methyl-DL-aspartic acid and strychnine in mice. Both methanol and aqueous extracts of Z. capense significantly antagonized (pZ. capense significantly antagonized (p50 value obtained following oral administration of both the leaf aqueous and methanol extracts of Z. capense was above 3200 mg kg-1 and that obtained after intraperitoneal administration was 283.6 mg kg-1. The phytochemical analysis of the plant species revealed the presence of alkaloids, triterpene steroids, reducing sugars, saponins, tannins and quinones. The data obtained indicate that the leaf methanol and aqueous extracts of Z. capense have anticonvulsant activity which may probably involve both GABAergic, glutaminergic and glycinergic mechanisms. The relatively high LD50 value obtained following oral administration of the plant extract shows that it is non-toxic and /or safe in mice.

  6. Activities of extracts and compounds from Spiranthera odoratissima St. Hil. (Rutaceae) in leaf-cutting ants and their symbiotic fungus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the Spiranthera odoratissima St. Hil (Rutaceae) branches extracts led to the isolation of the furoquinoline (dictamine, γ-fagarine and skimmianine) and 2-arylquinoli-4-one (1-methyl-2-phenylquinoline-4-one) alkaloids and limonoids (limonexic acid and limonin). The compounds 1-methyl-2-phenylquinoline-4-one and limonexic acid were isolated for the first time from the Spiranthera. These furoquinoline and 2-arylquinoli-4-one alkaloids and limonoids showed insecticidal and/or fungicidal activity in the nest of the Atta sexdens rubropilosa. (author)

  7. Activities of extracts and compounds from Spiranthera odoratissima St. Hil. (Rutaceae) in leaf-cutting ants and their symbiotic fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terezan, Ana Paula; Fernandes, Joao B.; Silva, M. Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Vieira, Paulo C. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Rossi, Raquel Andrade; Almeida, Roberta N.A.; Freitas, Tais Garcia; Bueno, Odair C.; Pagnocca, Fernando C. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos de Insetos Sociais; Pirani, Jose R., E-mail: djbf@power.ufscar.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Botanica

    2010-07-01

    The study of the Spiranthera odoratissima St. Hil (Rutaceae) branches extracts led to the isolation of the furoquinoline (dictamine, gamma-fagarine and skimmianine) and 2-arylquinoli-4-one (1-methyl-2-phenylquinoline-4-one) alkaloids and limonoids (limonexic acid and limonin). The compounds 1-methyl-2-phenylquinoline-4-one and limonexic acid were isolated for the first time from the Spiranthera. These furoquinoline and 2-arylquinoli-4-one alkaloids and limonoids showed insecticidal and/or fungicidal activity in the nest of the Atta sexdens rubropilosa. (author)

  8. Caracterización agronómica una accesión de Swinglea glutinosa (Blanco) Merr, (Rutaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Jiménez Villasuso; Fressy Pérez Campo; Marta Rosa Hernández Zaldívar; Víctor Ramón Fuentes Fiallo; Josefa Bárbara Velazquez Palenzuela

    2015-01-01

    RESUMEN La familia Rutaceae abarca un gran número de géneros y especies. De ellos, Citrus, Poncirus y Fortunella son los géneros más explotados comercialmente a nivel mundial, sin embargo, hay otros menos abordados, como el género Swinglea que posee una sola especie: S. glutinosa (Blanco) Merr. Con el objetivo de caracterizar desde el punto de vista agronómico esta especie por su de importancia como recurso genético y posterior utilización como patrón en la producción citrícola. Se evalua...

  9. Caracterización agronómica de una accesión de Swinglea glutinosa (Blanco) Merr, (Rutaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael jiménez Villasuso; Fressy Pétrez Campo; Marta Rosa fernández Zaldívar; Víctor Ramón Fuentes Fiallo; Josefa Bárbara Velázquez Palenzuela

    2015-01-01

    La familia Rutaceae abarca un gran número de géneros y especies. De ellos, Citrus, Poncirus y Fortunella son los géneros más explotados comercialmente a nivel mundial, sin embargo, hay otros menos abordados, como el género Swinglea que posee una sola especie: S. glutinosa (Blanco) Merr. Con el objetivo de caracterizar desde el punto de vista agronómico esta especie por su de importancia como recurso genético y posterior utilización como patrón en la producción citrícola. Se evaluaron las cara...

  10. Investigation phytochimique d'une brosse à dents africaine Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Zepernick et Timler (Syn. Fagara zanthoxiloides L.) (Rutaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Chaaib Kouri F.

    2004-01-01

    Résumé: Dans le but de rechercher de nouveaux composés naturels à intérêt thérapeutique, les extraits dichlorométhanique et méthanolique de Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Zepernick et Timler (Syn. Fagara zanthoxyloides L.) (Rutaceae), une brosse à dents africaine ont été soumis à un criblage chimique et biologique. Un dépistage des activités: antifongiques contre le champignon phytopathogène Cladosporium cucumerinum et la levure commensale responsable de mycoses chez l'homme Candida albica...

  11. Leaf, stem bark and fruit anatomy of zanthoxylum armatum dc. (rutaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanthoxylum armatum DC. (Rutaceae) is an important medicinal plant. The present study deals with anatomical exploration of the leaf, stem bark and fruit of this plant. Leaf of Z. armatum is bifacial, compound and punctate with glabrous surfaces having a single layer of epidermis and palisade mesophyll. The leaf has a Palisade ratio ranged from 6.00 to 9.00 (8.2 +- 0.32). Vein islets and vein termination number were 14-21 (16.8 +- 0.64) and 17-21 (19.1 +- 0.43) per mm2 respectively. The vein-islets were quite distinct with squaresh, elongated, polygonal or irregular in shape bounding many forked and unforked vascular branches. Adaxial surface of Z. armatum leaf midrib was planoconvex while the abaxial surface was semicircular in appearance. The diagnostic feature of the leaf was the complete absence of any kind of trichomes or any other appendages. The leaf showed prominent oil cavities. Nine types of stomata with different frequencies and other dimensions were observed. Brachparatetracytic stomata was the most frequent stoma (80%) followed by actinostephanocytic (40%) and then straucytic and brachyparacytic (30%) each. Hemiparacytic and stomatal cluster were the rarely occurring stomata (10% each) present on the lower epidermis of the leaf. Stomatal cluster, which is considered to be a special leaf epidermal feature and reported only in few genera of vascular plants, was also recorded in this plant. Bark and fruit anatomy of Z. armatum showed different tissue arrangement. The seed was non endospermic and contains an elongated embryo. The present study will be helpful in the phylogeny and taxonomic description of this important medicinal plant. (author)

  12. Ecophysiological and anatomical characteristics of the subtropical shrub Zanthoxylum acanthopodium (Rutaceae) in conditions of a temperate continental climate (Serbia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakic, Tamara; Sinzar-Sekulic, Jasmina; Filipovic, Biljana;

    2009-01-01

    The evergreen shrub Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC. (Rutaceae), originating from warm temperate and subtropical Asia, has existed successfully in the Jevremovac Botanical Garden in Belgrade for more than 80 years. The seasonal pattern of water management in leaves, electrolyte leakage, essential oi...

  13. Anatomia do lenho de Raulinoa echinata R.S.Cowan (Rutaceae uma espécie endêmica. Wood anatomy of Raulinoa echinata R.S.Cowan (Rutaceae an endemic species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Antonio DAROSCI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A anatomia vegetal é útil para a caracterização das espécies e do ambiente em que estas vivem. Muitas espécies respondem a algumas características ambientais com alterações na anatomia do lenho, por exemplo, na quantidade de vasos e raios, o que contribui para a sobrevivência no ambiente. Outras respostas anatômicas do lenho, devido às condições fisiológicas-estruturais presentes em diferentes regiões do caule, também são comuns. O presente estudo analisou a anatomia do lenho de Raulinoa echinata, espécie endêmica da mata ciliar do Vale do Itajaí, a fim de buscar alterações do lenho em resposta a algumas características ambientais, além daquelas provocadas pelas diferentes regiões do caule. Para tanto, amostras do lenho foram coletadas em duas regiões: próxima do solo e à altura do peito (1,30 m. Possíveis respostas de R. echinata ao ambiente ripário foram observadas no comprimento e na frequência das fibras, na largura dos raios e no comprimento e na frequência total de vasos, com diferenças significativas, entre as duas regiões, apenas em características quantitativas. A espécie apresentou, ainda, vasos múltiplos tangenciais e em cacho, características até então não descritas para Rutaceae. Não foram vistos na espécie canais traumáticos, característica comum para Rutaceae. Plant anatomy is useful for the characterization of species and their associated environment. Many species, because of habitat features, can show anatomical alterations of wood that permit their survival in the environment, quantity of vessels and rays, for example. Other anatomical alterations caused by structural-physiological conditions present in different regions of the stem are also common. In this study, the anatomy of Raulinoa echinata wood, an endemic riparian forest species of Itajaí Valley, was analyzed in order to identify alterations in wood because of specific habitat features, as well as adaptations in different

  14. Efficacy ofLimonia acidissima L. (Rutaceae) leaf extract on larval immatures of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siddharthasankar Banerjee; Someshwar Singha; Subrata Laskar; Goutam Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the role of leaf extract ofLimonia acidissimaL. (Rutaceae) as a biocontrol agent against the larval form ofCulex quinquefasciatus, and characterization of bioactive component responsible for larvicidal activity.Methods:Larval mortality of mosquito species was observed after24, 48and72 hours of exposure to different concentrations of aqueous extract, solvent extract and subsequently bioactive compound. The bioactive compound was subjected toIR andGC-MS analysis.Results:Mortality rate at 3% concentration of crude extract were highest(90%) amongst all concentrations tested and subsequently highest(95%) mortality was achieved in chloroform: methanol extract at100 ppm concentrations. IRandGC-MS analysis of bioactive compound revealed the presence of steroid compound which may act as larvicide. Conclusions:The chloroform: methanol extract of mature leaves of Limonia acidissima was found to exhibit considerable mosquito larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus.

  15. Caracterización agronómica de una accesión de Swinglea glutinosa (Blanco Merr, (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael jiménez Villasuso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La familia Rutaceae abarca un gran número de géneros y especies. De ellos, Citrus, Poncirus y Fortunella son los géneros más explotados comercialmente a nivel mundial, sin embargo, hay otros menos abordados, como el género Swinglea que posee una sola especie: S. glutinosa (Blanco Merr. Con el objetivo de caracterizar desde el punto de vista agronómico esta especie por su de importancia como recurso genético y posterior utilización como patrón en la producción citrícola. Se evaluaron las características físico-químicas de los frutos. Para ello se analizaron las variables: masa, diámetro y altura del fruto, número y masa de las semillas, sólidos solubles totales, acidez, índice de madurez, contenido de vitamina C y algunos caracteres cualitativos de la morfología del árbol como: estructura del árbol, formas del fruto, de las hojas y la semilla. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que es un árbol rustico, adaptándose bien a nuestras condiciones, además presenta un alto número de semillas por fruto. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que es un árbol rustico, adaptándose bien a nuestras condiciones, además presenta un alto número de semillas por fruto, lo cual es de gran importancia a la hora de seleccionar un patrón para su introducción a la práctica productiva. Agronomic characterization of an accession of Swinglea glutinosa (Blanco Merr, (Rutaceae

  16. Almeidea A. St.-Hil. Belongs to Conchocarpus J.C. Mikan (Galipeinae, Rutaceae): Evidence from Morphological and Molecular Data, with a First Analysis of Subtribe Galipeinae

    OpenAIRE

    Poleselli Bruniera, Carla; Jacquelyn A Kallunki; Groppo, Milton

    2015-01-01

    Subtribe Galipeinae (tribe Galipeeae, subfamily Rutoideae) is the most diverse group of Neotropical Rutaceae, with 28 genera and approximately 130 species. One of its genera is Almeidea, whose species are morphologically similar to those of the genus Conchocarpus. Species of Almeidea occur in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Eastern Brazil, with one species (Almeidea rubra) also present in Bolivia. The objective of this study was to perform a phylogenetic analysis of Almeidea, using a broader samp...

  17. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de duas espécies de Rutaceae do Nordeste Brasileiro Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of two Rutaceae species from the Brazilian Northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinara V. da Silva

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o aumento da resistência bacteriana aos antibióticos disponíveis, tornou-se imprescindível a busca por novos fármacos ou protótipos. Os metabólitos secundários produzidos por alguns vegetais como cumarinas, alcaloides e terpenoides podem apresentar várias atividades biológicas, dentre elas, atividade antibiótiotica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana in vitro, pelo método de difusão em disco, das diferentes partes de duas espécies pertencentes à família Rutaceae coletadas na Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brasil: Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil. e Zanthoxylum stelligerum Turcz., bem como do alcaloide diidroqueleritrina, isolado do extrato metanólico de Z. stelligerum frente a cepas padrão de microrganismos e isolados clínicos. Os resultados apresentados indicam que o extrato da raiz da espécie Z. stelligerum e o alcaloide extraído desta apresentaram propriedades antimicrobianas contra as cepas Gram positivas e leveduras. A E. coli foi a única cepa Gram negativa que se mostrou sensível ao extrato e ao alcaloide.With the increase in bacterial resistance to available antibiotics, it became imperative to search for new drugs or prototypes. The secondary metabolites produced by some plants as coumarins, alkaloids and terpenoids have several biological activities, among them, antibiotic activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity in vitro by the disk diffusion method, from different parts of two species belonging to the family Rutaceae, collected in the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil: Spiranthera odoratissima A. St Hil. and Zanthoxylum stelligerum Turcz., and the alkaloid dihydrochelerythrine, isolated from the methanolic extract of Z. stelligerum front of standard strains of microorganisms and clinical isolates. The results indicate that the extract from the roots of Z. stelligerum and the alkaloid had antimicrobial properties against Gram positive and

  18. Caracterización agronómica una accesión de Swinglea glutinosa (Blanco Merr, (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Jiménez Villasuso

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La familia Rutaceae abarca un gran número de géneros y especies. De ellos, Citrus, Poncirus y Fortunella son los géneros más explotados comercialmente a nivel mundial, sin embargo, hay otros menos abordados, como el género Swinglea que posee una sola especie: S. glutinosa (Blanco Merr. Con el objetivo de caracterizar desde el punto de vista agronómico esta especie por su de importancia como recurso genético y posterior utilización como patrón en la producción citrícola. Se evaluaron las características físico-químicas de los frutos. Para ello se analizaron las variables: masa, diámetro y altura del fruto, número y masa de las semillas, sólidos solubles totales, acidez, índice de madurez, contenido de vitamina C y algunos caracteres cualitativos de la morfología del árbol como: estructura del árbol, formas del fruto, de las hojas y la semilla. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que es un árbol rustico, adaptándose bien a nuestras condiciones, además presenta un alto número de semillas por fruto. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que es un árbol rustico, adaptándose bien a nuestras condiciones, además presenta un alto número de semillas por fruto, lo cual es de gran importancia a la hora de seleccionar un patrón para su introducción a la práctica productiva. Agronomic characterization of an accession of Swinglea glutinosa (Blanco Merr, (Rutaceae ABSTRACT The Rutaceae family includes a large number of genera and species. Of these, Citrus, Poncirus and Fortunella are the genres most worldwide exploited commercially, but there are other less discussed, such as gender Swinglea having a single species: S. glutinosa (Blanco Merr. In order to characterize from an agricultural point of view this kind of importance as their genetic resource and subsequent use as a standard in citrus production. The physicochemical characteristics of the fruits were evaluated. mass, diameter and height of fruit number and seed mass

  19. Chemical composition and larvicidal activities of the essential oil of Zanthoxylum armatum DC (Rutaceae against three mosquito vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohini Tiwary, S.N. Naik, Dhananjay Kumar Tewary, P.K. Mittal , S. Yadav

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origininsecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidalpotential of the essential oil from the seeds of Zanthoxylum armatum DC [syn. Z. alatum Roxb](Rutaceae against three medically important species of mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti, Anophelesstephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus.Methods: Essential oil was hydro distilled in the laboratory from the seeds obtained from the marketand the chemical constituents of the oil were determined using GC/GC-MS. Bioefficacy of theessential oil was evaluated under laboratory conditions using III instar mosquito larvae.Results: Among the three mosquito species tested, Cx. quinquefasciatus was the most sensitive(LC50 = 49 ppm followed by Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 54 ppm and An. stephensi (LC50 = 58 ppm. GCMSanalysis of the oil revealed at least 28 compounds, consisting mainly of oxygenated monoterpenes(75% and monoterpenes (22%. Linalool though constituted a major part (57%, failed to produceany appreciable mortality when tested alone.Interpretation & conclusion: From the results it can be concluded that the larvae of the three mosquitospecies were susceptible to the essential oil composition. Such findings would be useful in promotingresearch aiming at the development of new agent for mosquito control based on bioactive chemicalcompounds from indigenous plant sources as an alternative to chemical larvicides.

  20. Extrativismo, cultivo e privatização do jaborandi (Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm.; Rutaceae no Maranhão, Brasil Extractivism, cultivation and privatization of jaborandi (Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm.; Rutaceae in Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Urbano B. Pinheiro

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Um dos processos associados com a expansão de fronteiras em países em desenvolvimento consiste na privatização de recursos naturais, anteriormente de uso comum por populações tradicionais. Em geral, a privatização não só conduz à degradação dos recursos como também ao empobrecimento de comunidades locais dependentes desses recursos. Um exemplo desta transformação está no Estado do Maranhão, especialmente em uma região conhecida como "Pré-Amazônia", onde o jaborandi (Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm.; Rutaceae, um recurso natural que beneficiava milhares de pessoas da zona rural, foi gradativamente privatizado. A expansão do mercado de pilocarpina (um alcalóide de extenso uso em oftalmologia nos últimos 30 anos, provocou crescimento descontrolado no extrativismo de folhas de jaborandi, conduzindo ao esgotamento e à ameaça de extinção das populações naturais deste recurso vegetal. Paralelamente, esta pressão sobre as populações naturais acelerou o processo de domesticação desta espécie e a sua privatização pela indústria farmacêutica. Este estudo teve como objetivo principal avaliar a exploração e cultivo do jaborandi no Maranhão, buscando o esclarecimento sobre os benefícios e malefícios econômicos, sociais e ambientais decorrentes da sua exploração. Os resultados obtidos mostram que, historicamente, não houve nenhum benefício significativo compartilhado entre a indústria farmacêutica e as populações envolvidas no extrativismo do jaborandi no Maranhão.A process associated with frontier expansion in developing countries is the privatization of natural resources formerly held in common by traditional populations. An example of this transformation comes from Maranhão State, in a region of mid-northern Brazil known as "Pre-Amazônia" (Pre-Amazon, where jaborandi (Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm.; Rutaceae, a plant resource that used to benefit thousands of rural poor, is being

  1. Actividad antioxidante in vitro y toxicidad de extractos hidroalcohólicos de hojas de Citrus spp. (Rutaceae Antioxidant activity in vitro and toxicity of hydroalcoholic extracts from Citrus spp. (Rutaceae leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Ojito Ramos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: los cítricos constituyen un género de plantas rico en contenido de fenoles y flavonoides, metabolitos secundarios que debido a su efecto antioxidante y baja toxicidad, han recibido en los últimos años mucha atención como potenciales fármacos. Objetivos: determinar la actividad antioxidante in vitro y la toxicidad frente a Artemia salina L. de extractos hidroalcohólicos de hojas de Citrus aurantium L. var. sinensis L.; Citrus aurantium L.; Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm. Swingle; Citrus latifolia (Tanaka ex Yu. Tanaka Tanaka; Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae. Métodos: los extractos etanólicos y metanólicos se obtuvieron mediante extracción por ultrasonido y se caracterizaron fitoquímicamente; se determinó la concentración total de fenoles y flavonoides. La actividad antioxidante se halló mediante la capacidad atrapadora de radicales libre y el poder reductor. La toxicidad se evaluó mediante el bioensayo de letalidad sobre Artemia salina. Resultados: en los extractos etanólicos se encontró mayor presencia de compuestos químicos que en los extractos metanólicos. La mayor concentración de fenoles totales se obtuvo en el extracto metanólico de Citrus reticulata y de flavonoides totales en el extracto etanólico de Citrus aurantifolia y Citrus reticulata, en ambos solventes. Todos los extractos mostraron actividad antioxidante mediante las 2 pruebas ensayadas. Los extractos presentaron toxicidad moderada frente Artemia salina, siendo el extracto metanólico de Citrus latifolia el de menor toxicidad (LC50 = 464,24 µg/mL. Conclusiones: se evidenció la presencia de fenoles y clases de flavonoides, la actividad antioxidante de los extractos hidroalcohólicos de Citrus spp. y su moderada toxicidad frente a Artemia salina.Introduction: citrus fruits constitute an important source of flavonoids and phenols. The latter are secondary metabolites extensively studied in the last few years on account of their antioxidant

  2. Efectos inducidos por Ruta graveolens L., Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh y Citrus aurantium L. sobre los niveles de glucosa, colesterol y triacilglicéridos en un modelo de rata diabética Efeitos induzidos por Ruta graveolens L., Rutaceae, Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh, Euphorbiaceae, e Citrus aurantium L., Rutaceae, nos níveis de glucose, colesterol e triacilglicerídeos num modelo do rato diabético Induced effects by Ruta graveolens L., Rutaceae, Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh, Euphorbiaceae, and Citrus aurantium L., Rutaceae, on glucose, cholesterol and triacylglycerides levels in a diabetic rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Figueroa-Valverde

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Varias plantas con propiedades hipoglucemicas se han utilizado en medicina popular y sistemas curativos tradicionales en todo el mundo. El propósito de este trabajo fue evaluar los efectos inducidos por Ruta graveolens L., Rutaceae, Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh, Euphorbiaceae, y Citrus aurantium L., Rutaceae, en un modelo de rata diabética, a la que se le cuantificaron los niveles de glucosa cada 24 horas por un mes después de la administración gástrica del extracto de las plantas. Además, el colesterol y los triglicéridos fueron evaluados usando técnicas enzimáticas. Los resultados mostraron que la administración de Cnidoscolus chayamansa a dosis de 0.5 a 1.5 g/kg induce un aumento hipoglucemico ( 200 mg/dL. Otros resultados, mostraron que Citrus aurantium ejerce cambios en la concentración de triacilglicéridos (158-172 mg/dL y colesterol (120-128 mg/dL. Finalmente, la administración de Ruta graveolens a dosis de 0.5 g/kg induce un efecto hipoglucemico (Diversas plantas com propriedades hipoglicêmicas foram usadas na medicina popular e em sistemas tradicionais de curas em torno do mundo. A finalidade deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos induzidos por Ruta graveolens L, Rutaceae, Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh, Euphorbiaceae, e Citrus aurantium L., Rutaceae, em modelo do rato diabético onde níveis da glucose foram determinados a cada 24 h em um mês antes da administração gástrica do extrato das plantas. Colesterol e triacilglicerídeos foram avaliados usando técnicas enzimáticas. Os resultados mostraram que a administração de Cnidoscolus chayamansa a dose de 0,5 a 1,5 g/kg induz um aumento hipoglicêmico ( 200 mg/dL. Outros resultados, mostraram que Citrus aurantium exerce mudanças na concentração de triacilglicerídeos (158-172 mg/dL e colesterol (120-128 mg/dL. Finalmente, a administração de Ruta graveolens na dose de 0.5 g/kg induziu um efeito hipoglicêmico (Several plants with hypoglycemic properties have

  3. Research progress on insecticidal and antifungal activity of Rutaceae plants%芸香科植物杀虫及抑菌活性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娇; 苗辉; 邝芷琪; 周利娟

    2015-01-01

    对芸香科(Rutaceae)黄皮属(Clausena)、花椒属(Zanthoxylum)、飞龙掌血属(Toddalia、芸香属(Ruta)、吴茱萸属(Evodia)、黄檗属(Phellodendron)、白藓属(Dictamnus)、山小橘属(Glycosmis、毛果芸香属(Pilocarpus)、石椒草属(Boenninghausenia)和九里香(Murraya)等11个属中具有杀虫或抑菌活性的植物进行了综述,为进一步研究开发芸香科农药活性植物提供理论参考.

  4. Composição química e atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial e anatomia foliar e caulinar de Citrus limettioides Tanaka (Rutaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Larissa Teodoro Alves Lopes; José Realino de Paula; Leonice Manrique Faustino Tresvenzol; Maria Teresa Freitas Bara; Stone de Sá; Pedro Henrique Ferri; Tatiana de Sousa Fiuza

    2013-01-01

    Citrus limettioides (Rutaceae) é utilizada popularmente para tratamento da sinusite, e também como antitérmica e hipotensora. Este trabalho teve como objetivos: identificar os constituintes dos óleos essenciais da folha e da casca dos frutos de C. limettioides; avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais da folha e da casca dos frutos e realizar o estudo anatômico da folha e caule jovem. Os óleos essenciais foram obtidos por hidrodestilação em aparelho de C...

  5. Gastroprotective activity of alkaloid extract and 2-phenylquinoline obtained from the bark of Galipea longiflora Krause (Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, Francielle; Gandolfi, Renan Becker; Lemos, Marivane; Ticona, Juan Carlos; Gimenez, Alberto; Clasen, Bruna Kurz; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2009-07-15

    As part of our continuing search for bioactive natural products from plants, the present study was carried out in order to evaluate the gastroprotective properties of alkaloid extract and 2-phenylquinoline obtained from the bark of Galipea longiflora (Rutaceae). Anti-ulcer assays were performed using the following protocols in mice: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)/bethanecol-induced ulcer, ethanol/HCl-induced ulcer, and stress-induced ulcer. The effects of the extract on gastric content volume, pH and total acidity were also evaluated, using the pylorus ligated model. Treatment using doses of 50, 125 and 250 mg/kg of G. longiflora alkaloid extract and positive controls (omeprazol or cimetidine) significantly diminished the lesion index, total lesion area, and percentage of lesion, in comparison with the negative control groups in all the models evaluated. Regarding the model of gastric secretion, a reduction in volume of gastric juice and total acidity was observed, as well as an increase in gastric pH. The main alkaloid of the plant, 2-phenylquinoline, was also evaluated in the ethanol-induced ulcer model. The results showed that at a dose of 50 mg/kg, it significantly inhibited ulcerative lesions. However, this effect was less than that of the alkaloid extract. All these results taken together show that G. longiflora displays gastroprotective activity, as evidenced by its significant inhibition of the formation of ulcers induced by different models. There are indications that mechanisms involved in anti-ulcer activity are related to a decrease in gastric secretion and an increase in gastric mucus content. Also, there is evidence of involvement of NO in the gastroprotector mechanisms. These effects may be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of some alkaloids, particularly 2-phenylquinoline. PMID:19497430

  6. Isolation and structural elucidation of secondary metabolites from plants of the Rutaceae family, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Salicaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A phytochemical study was conducted of the Zuelania guidonia plants (Salicaceae), croton ovalifolius (Euphorbiaceae) erythrochiton gymnanthus (Rutaceae) and Faramea occidentalis (Rubiaceae). Purification of the compounds was carried out using chromatographic techniques while structural elucidation was performed by experiments using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). Of Z. guidonia has been possible the purification and structural elucidation of 22 compounds (Z1-Z22), two labdane type diterpenes and 20 clerodane-type diterpenes. The clerodanes have presented 16 innovative structure, highlighting the presence of a group of 3,6-dihydro -1.2-dioxin and xylose group in some of them. In addition, 11 of the clerodanes were evaluated with cytotoxicity assays in three cancer cell lines CCRF-CEM (acute lymphoblastic leukemia), CEM-ADR5000 (acute lymphoblastic leukemia resistant to doxorubicin) MIA-Paca-2 (metastatic pancreas) and a line of healthy cells PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells). The Z4, Z6 and Z15 compounds stood out as the most cytotoxic, particularly against CCRF-CEM cells with IC50 values between 1.6 and 2.5 μM. Seven compounds identified as glutarimide alkaloids (C1-C7) were isolated and elucidated, five of which have presented a novel structure from C. ovalifolius. Three compounds (E1-E3) that are triterpenes derivatives of known structure sitosterol, were isolated and elucidated from E. gymnanthus plant. From F. occidentalis was obtained the structure of a pure compound (F1], which is a flavonoid of known structure. (author)

  7. Almeidea A. St.-Hil. belongs to Conchocarpus J.C. Mikan (Galipeinae, Rutaceae): evidence from morphological and molecular data, with a first analysis of subtribe Galipeinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruniera, Carla Poleselli; Kallunki, Jacquelyn A; Groppo, Milton

    2015-01-01

    Subtribe Galipeinae (tribe Galipeeae, subfamily Rutoideae) is the most diverse group of Neotropical Rutaceae, with 28 genera and approximately 130 species. One of its genera is Almeidea, whose species are morphologically similar to those of the genus Conchocarpus. Species of Almeidea occur in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Eastern Brazil, with one species (Almeidea rubra) also present in Bolivia. The objective of this study was to perform a phylogenetic analysis of Almeidea, using a broader sampling of Galipeinae and other Neotropical Rutaceae, the first such study focused on this subtribe. To achieve this objective, morphological data and molecular data from the nuclear markers ITS-1 and ITS-2 and the plastid markers trnL-trnF and rps16 were obtained. Representatives of eight genera of Galipeinae and three genera of Pilocarpinae (included also in Galipeeae) and Hortia (closely related to Galipeeae) were used. Five species of Almeidea and seven of Conchocarpus were included, given the morphological proximity between these two genera. Individual (for each molecular marker) and combined phylogenetic analyses were made, using parsimony and Bayesian inference as optimization criteria. Results showed Galipeinae as monophyletic, with the species of Almeidea also monophyletic (supported by the presence of pantocolporate pollen) and nested in a clade with a group of species of Conchocarpus, a non-monophyletic group. Additionally, C. concinnus appeared in a group with Andreadoxa, Erythrochiton, and Neoraputia, other members of Galipeinae. As a result, Conchocarpus would be monophyletic only with the exclusion of a group of species related to C. concinnus and with the inclusion of all species of Almeidea with the group of species of Conchocarpus that includes its type species, C. macrophyllus. Thus, species of Almeidea are transferred to Conchocarpus, and the new combinations are made here. PMID:25951371

  8. Almeidea A. St.-Hil. Belongs to Conchocarpus J.C. Mikan (Galipeinae, Rutaceae): Evidence from Morphological and Molecular Data, with a First Analysis of Subtribe Galipeinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleselli Bruniera, Carla; Kallunki, Jacquelyn A.; Groppo, Milton

    2015-01-01

    Subtribe Galipeinae (tribe Galipeeae, subfamily Rutoideae) is the most diverse group of Neotropical Rutaceae, with 28 genera and approximately 130 species. One of its genera is Almeidea, whose species are morphologically similar to those of the genus Conchocarpus. Species of Almeidea occur in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Eastern Brazil, with one species (Almeidea rubra) also present in Bolivia. The objective of this study was to perform a phylogenetic analysis of Almeidea, using a broader sampling of Galipeinae and other Neotropical Rutaceae, the first such study focused on this subtribe. To achieve this objective, morphological data and molecular data from the nuclear markers ITS-1 and ITS-2 and the plastid markers trnL-trnF and rps16 were obtained. Representatives of eight genera of Galipeinae and three genera of Pilocarpinae (included also in Galipeeae) and Hortia (closely related to Galipeeae) were used. Five species of Almeidea and seven of Conchocarpus were included, given the morphological proximity between these two genera. Individual (for each molecular marker) and combined phylogenetic analyses were made, using parsimony and Bayesian inference as optimization criteria. Results showed Galipeinae as monophyletic, with the species of Almeidea also monophyletic (supported by the presence of pantocolporate pollen) and nested in a clade with a group of species of Conchocarpus, a non-monophyletic group. Additionally, C. concinnus appeared in a group with Andreadoxa, Erythrochiton, and Neoraputia, other members of Galipeinae. As a result, Conchocarpus would be monophyletic only with the exclusion of a group of species related to C. concinnus and with the inclusion of all species of Almeidea with the group of species of Conchocarpus that includes its type species, C. macrophyllus. Thus, species of Almeidea are transferred to Conchocarpus, and the new combinations are made here. PMID:25951371

  9. Estudio fitoquímico de compsoneura capitellata (Myristicaceae), zanthoxylum rigidum (Rutaceae) y ocotea longifolia (Lauraceae) y evaluación de su posible aplicación como biocontroladores de Sitophilus sp

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto Rodríguez, Juliet Angélica

    2012-01-01

    La presente investigación combina estudios fitoquímicos y de actividad insecticida sobre plagas de almacén, con el fin de contribuir a la búsqueda de compuestos potencialmente útiles en el sector agrícola. El trabajo comprende aislamiento y caracterización de los metabolitos secundarios presentes en hojas y madera de C. capitellata (Myristicaceae), corteza de Z. rigidum (Rutaceae) y corteza de O. longifolia (Lauraceae), caracterización química de los aceites esenciales de 7 especies perteneci...

  10. The Effect of Seasonal Ambient Temperatures on Fire-Stimulated Germination of Species with Physiological Dormancy: A Case Study Using Boronia (Rutaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Tony D.; Keith, David A.; Hui, Francis K. C.; Ooi, Mark K. J.

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy and germination requirements determine the timing and magnitude of seedling emergence, with important consequences for seedling survival and growth. Physiological dormancy is the most widespread form of dormancy in flowering plants, yet the seed ecology of species with this dormancy type is poorly understood in fire-prone vegetation. The role of seasonal temperatures as germination cues in these habitats is often overlooked due to a focus on direct fire cues such as heat shock and smoke, and little is known about the combined effects of multiple fire-related cues and environmental cues as these are seldom assessed in combination. We aimed to improve understanding of the germination requirements of species with physiological dormancy in fire-prone floras by investigating germination responses across members of the Rutaceae from south eastern Australia. We used a fully factorial experimental design to quantify the individual and combined effects of heat shock, smoke and seasonal ambient temperatures on germination of freshly dispersed seeds of seven species of Boronia, a large and difficult-to-germinate genus. Germination syndromes were highly variable but correlated with broad patterns in seed morphology and phylogenetic relationships between species. Seasonal temperatures influenced the rate and/or magnitude of germination responses in six species, and interacted with fire cues in complex ways. The combined effects of heat shock and smoke ranged from neutral to additive, synergistic, unitive or negative and varied with species, seasonal temperatures and duration of incubation. These responses could not be reliably predicted from the effect of the application of single cues. Based on these findings, fire season and fire intensity are predicted to affect both the magnitude and timing of seedling emergence in wild populations of species with physiological dormancy, with important implications for current fire management practices and for population

  11. Composição química e atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial e anatomia foliar e caulinar de Citrus limettioides Tanaka (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Teodoro Alves Lopes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus limettioides (Rutaceae é utilizada popularmente para tratamento da sinusite, e também como antitérmica e hipotensora. Este trabalho teve como objetivos: identificar os constituintes dos óleos essenciais da folha e da casca dos frutos de C. limettioides; avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais da folha e da casca dos frutos e realizar o estudo anatômico da folha e caule jovem. Os óleos essenciais foram obtidos por hidrodestilação em aparelho de Clevenger modificado e analisados por CG-EM. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM foi determinada utilizando o método de microdiluição em caldo frente a bactérias Gram-positivas, Gram-negativas e fungos. Para o estudo anatômico foram realizados cortes histológicos a mão livre e as secções foram coradas com azul de Alcian/ safranina, reagente de Steinmetz, lugol e analisados em microscopia de luz. O linalol foi o componente majoritário no óleo essencial das folhas (36,88 a 45,15% e o limoneno no óleo da casca dos frutos (70,60 a 75,18%. O óleo essencial das folhas apresentou CIM de 2000 µg/mL frente às bactérias e nenhuma atividade frente aos fungos. O óleo essencial da casca dos frutos não apresentou atividade antimicrobiana. A folha é hipoestomática, predominando os estômatos anomocíticos; o mesofilo é dorsiventral com parênquima paliçádico bisseriado e parênquima lacunoso com 11 camadas de células. Cavidades secretoras foram observadas no mesofilo da folha, no pecíolo e no caule, enquanto cristais prismáticos foram identificados em todas as estruturas da folha e do caule. Os dados obtidos no estudo microscópico podem auxiliar na identificação taxonômica desta planta e na avaliação da autenticidade da droga vegetal.

  12. Extração com solvente e fluido supercrítico dos constituintes do caule subterrâneo de Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil. (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clécia Maria de Jesus Freitas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O arbusto Spiranthera odoratissima (Rutaceae foi coletado no município de Mucugê (BA. Seu caule subterrâneo foi submetido a extração com solvente orgânico e fluido supercrítico. A extração com CO2 supercrítico forneceu a 8-prenil-7-geraniloxicumarina. A partir do extrato CH2Cl2 isolou-se a cumarina aurapteno e identificou-se o alcalóide esquimianina. Estas substâncias foram identificadas com base na análise dos seus espectros de RMN 1H e 13C, IV e comparação com dados da literatura.

  13. Constituintes químicos e estudos toxicológicos do óleo essencial extraído das folhas de Citrus limon Burn (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M.L. Campelo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A caracterização química do óleo essencial de folhas de Citrus limon (Rutaceae resultou na identificação de mistura de monoterpenos (limoneno, linalol, cis-óxido de limoneno, trans-óxido de limoneno, citronelal, neral, geranial, nerol e acetato de geranil. As estruturas dos compostos do óleo essencial foram identificadas por GC/MS, por comparação com dados da literatura. Os efeitos da administração crônica oral do óleo essencial de folhas de Citrus limon foram investigados sobre parâmetros bioquímicos e hematológicos em camundongos Swiss machos. Os animais (n = 10/grupo foram tratados por via oral diariamente durante 30 dias com óleo essencial de folhas de Citrus limon, nas doses de 50, 100 ou 150 mg kg-1 de massa corporal e os parâmetros bioquímicos e hematológicos avaliados. O tratamento não causou nenhuma morte ou toxicidade nos animais. A administração do óleo essencial não alterou os parâmetros bioquímicos e hematológicos e a massa dos órgãos, exceto por diminuição de 21 e 11% em uréia e ácido úrico, respectivamente, e 9%, nos níveis plasmáticos de aspartato transaminase (AST. Para os parâmetros hematológicos, houve pequenas mudanças nas contagens de neutrófilos, linfócitos, eosinófilos e monócitos, mas estes não foram diferentes dos valores de referência. Além disso, houve diminuição significativa nos triglicerídeos detectado nos animais tratados com dose de 150 mg kg-1 de óleo essencial. Em conclusão, a administração crônica de óleo essencial não induziu nenhum efeito de risco na maioria dos parâmetros bioquímicos e hematológicos estudados em camundongos Swiss machos. No entanto, a diminuição dos níveis de uréia e ácido úrico em doses elevadas, sugere um possível efeito de insuficiência renal e aumento no teor de AST, sugerindo possível sobrecarga hepática que deve ser investigada com mais detalhe.

  14. Secondary metabolites from Esenbeckia almawillia Kaastra (Rutaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phytochemical investigation of the roots of E. almawillia is reported for the first time. Chromatographic fractionation of the methanol extract allowed the isolation of the alkaloids 3,3-diisopentenyl-N-methyl-2,4-quinoldione (1), maculine (2) and 3'-methoxygraveoline (3), (E)-N-isobutyl-3- methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxicinnamoyl amide (4), the flavones gardenine B (5) and nevadensin (6), and the sesquiterpene intermediol (7). Structure elucidation was based on the analysis of their spectrometric data (uni- and bidimensional 1H and 13C NMR, MS and IR) and comparison with literature data. Compounds 3-7 are being reported as constituents of Esenbeckia species for the first time. (author)

  15. Novel N-benzoyltyramines of Swinglea glutinosa (Rutaceae); Novas N-benzoiltiraminas de Swinglea glutinosa (Rutaceae).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerqueira, Cristovam do Nascimento; Santos, Djalma A.P. dos; Malaquias, Karla da Silva; Lima, Murilo Marinho de Castro; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar, E-mail: dmfs@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    Phytochemical studies of the leaves and fruits have led to the identification of the known amides (E)-N-methyl-cinnamamide, N-benzoyltyramine, N-benzoyl-O-geranyl tyramine, N-benzoyl-O-(4-acetoxyl)-geranyl tyramine, in addition to the new N-{l_brace}2-[4-(butoxyl-3-one)phenyl]ethyl{r_brace}benzamide, N-{l_brace}2-[4-(2,3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-butoxylanal)phenyl]ethyl{r_brace}benzamide, N-{l_brace}2-[4-(2,3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-butoxyloic) phenyl]ethyl{r_brace}benzamide, N-benzoyl-O-(4-acetoxyl-6,7-epoxy)-geranyltyramine, N-benzoyl-O-(4-acetoxyl-6,7-dihydroxy)-geranyltyramine and N-benzoyl-O-(6-acetoxyl-4,7-dihydroxy)-geranyltyramine. The isolated compounds clearly point to Swinglea phytochemical affinities with other Aurantioideae species. (author)

  16. Phytochemical and chemosystematic studies of Euxylophora paraensis (Rutaceae); Fitoquimica e quimiossistematica de Euxylophora paraensis (Rutaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isidoro, Marsele Machado; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Arruda, Alberto C.; Silva, Sebastiao da Cruz, E-mail: dmfs@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Fac. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    Phytochemical studies of the leaves and stem have led to the identification of the known coumarins isooxypeucedanin, oxypeucedanin hydrate, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin, 8-methoxymarmesin and marmesin, flavonoids quercetin-3-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, myricetin-3-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside and hesperidin, alkaloids skimmianine and N-methylflindersine and limonoid limonin. The compounds isolated and the chemical profile of Euxylophora obtained from the literature clearly indicate its phytochemical affinities with other Rutoideae species. (author)

  17. Secondary metabolites from Esenbeckia almawillia Kaastra (Rutaceae); Metabolitos secundarios de Esenbeckia almawillia Kaastra (Rutaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros-Filho, Bartholomeu A.; Nunes, Fatima M.; Oliveira, Maria da Conceicao F. de; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Mattos, Marcos C. de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: mcfo@ufc.br; Barbosa, Francisco G. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Itapipoca, CE (Brazil). Faculdade de Educacao; Mafezoli, Jair [Universidade de Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Curso de Farmacia; Pirani, Jose R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Botanica

    2007-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the roots of E. almawillia is reported for the first time. Chromatographic fractionation of the methanol extract allowed the isolation of the alkaloids 3,3-diisopentenyl-N-methyl-2,4-quinoldione (1), maculine (2) and 3'-methoxygraveoline (3), (E)-N-isobutyl-3- methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxicinnamoyl amide (4), the flavones gardenine B (5) and nevadensin (6), and the sesquiterpene intermediol (7). Structure elucidation was based on the analysis of their spectrometric data (uni- and bidimensional {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, MS and IR) and comparison with literature data. Compounds 3-7 are being reported as constituents of Esenbeckia species for the first time. (author)

  18. Taksonomic study on Micromelum Blume (Rutaceae in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHAN UJI

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic study on Micromelum Blume was conducted at Herbarium Bogoriense (BO and Kew Herbarium (K and using 84 collections number of herbarium specimen. This research used descriptive method based on morphological characters. Terminology by Stearn (1983 was used, whereas the revision method as described by Rifai (1976 and Vogel (1987 were used. Based on this study were produced two species only of Micromelum respectively which occurred in Indonesia. They were Micromelum diversifolium Miq. and M. minutum (Forst. f. Wight. & Arn. M. diversifolium had two varieties, i.e. M. diversifolium Miq. var. diversifolium and M. diversifolium Miq. var. cuneata Miq. Whereas M. minutum had three varieties, i.e. M. minutum (Forst. f. Wight. & Arn. var. minutum, M. minutum (Forst. f. Wight & Arn. var. tomentosum Tan. and M. minutum (Forst. f. Wight & Arn. var. villosum Tan. New record specimen collections of M. diversifolium from Biak Island (Papua was reported also.

  19. Novas N-benzoiltiraminas de Swinglea glutinosa (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristovam do Nascimento Cerqueira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical studies of the leaves and fruits have led to the identification of the known amides (E-N-methyl-cinnamamide, N-benzoyltyramine, N-benzoyl-O-geranyltyramine, N-benzoyl-O-(4-acetoxyl-geranyltyramine, in addition to the new N-{2-[4-(butoxyl-3-onephenyl]ethyl}benzamide, N-{2-[4-(2,3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-butoxylanalphenyl]ethyl}benzamide, N-{2-[4-(2,3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-butoxyloicphenyl]ethyl}benzamide, N-benzoyl-O-(4-acetoxyl-6,7-epoxy-geranyltyramine, N-benzoyl-O-(4-acetoxyl-6,7-dihydroxy-geranyltyramine and N-benzoyl-O-(6-acetoxyl-4,7-dihydroxy-geranyltyramine. The isolated compounds clearly point to Swinglea phytochemical affinities with other Aurantioideae species.

  20. Novas N-benzoiltiraminas de Swinglea glutinosa (Rutaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cristovam do Nascimento Cerqueira; Djalma A. P. dos Santos; Karla da Silva Malaquias; Murilo Marinho de Castro Lima; Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes da Silva; João Batista Fernandes; Paulo Cezar Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemical studies of the leaves and fruits have led to the identification of the known amides (E)-N-methyl-cinnamamide, N-benzoyltyramine, N-benzoyl-O-geranyltyramine, N-benzoyl-O-(4-acetoxyl)-geranyltyramine, in addition to the new N-{2-[4-(butoxyl-3-one)phenyl]ethyl}benzamide, N-{2-[4-(2,3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-butoxylanal)phenyl]ethyl}benzamide, N-{2-[4-(2,3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-butoxyloic)phenyl]ethyl}benzamide, N-benzoyl-O-(4-acetoxyl-6,7-epoxy)-geranyltyramine, N-benzoyl-O-(4-acetoxyl-6,...

  1. Novel N-benzoyltyramines of Swinglea glutinosa (Rutaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytochemical studies of the leaves and fruits have led to the identification of the known amides (E)-N-methyl-cinnamamide, N-benzoyltyramine, N-benzoyl-O-geranyl tyramine, N-benzoyl-O-(4-acetoxyl)-geranyl tyramine, in addition to the new N-{2-[4-(butoxyl-3-one)phenyl]ethyl}benzamide, N-{2-[4-(2,3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-butoxylanal)phenyl]ethyl}benzamide, N-{2-[4-(2,3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-butoxyloic) phenyl]ethyl}benzamide, N-benzoyl-O-(4-acetoxyl-6,7-epoxy)-geranyltyramine, N-benzoyl-O-(4-acetoxyl-6,7-dihydroxy)-geranyltyramine and N-benzoyl-O-(6-acetoxyl-4,7-dihydroxy)-geranyltyramine. The isolated compounds clearly point to Swinglea phytochemical affinities with other Aurantioideae species. (author)

  2. Chemical constituents of the wood from Zanthoxylum quinduense Tul. (Rutaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytochemical investigation of the wood from Zanthoxylum quinduense Tul. allowed the isolation and identification of norchelerythrine, decarine, 6-acetonyldihydrochelerythrine, syringaresinol, evofilin C, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillic acid, a mixture of b-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol and a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and their esters derivatives. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques and comparison with literature data and the mixture of sterols and fatty acids were identified by GC/MS. The antifungal activity of the ethanolic extract, fractions and pure compounds against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici was determined by bioautography. Evofilin C and nochelerytrine were the only substances that present antifungal activity. (author)

  3. Essential oils from Brazilian rutaceae. Part I. Genus Pilocardus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craveiro, A.A.; Andrade, C.H.S.; Matos, F.J.A.; Alencar, J.W.

    1979-11-01

    The leaves of jaborandi are commercially exploited in the Brazilian Northeast for industrial extraction of pilocarpine, an alkaloid with potent cholinergic activity. The leaves also contain an essential oil whose composition is registered in the literature in a confusing and incomplete way. Chemical re-examination of the essential oil from five distinct Pilocarpus species was conducted together with an analysis of the leaves used by local industry. It was found to contain terpenes, sesquiterpenes and ketones. Some of them are reported for the first time in the genus.

  4. NUEVA BENZOIL LACTONA Y OTROS COSTITUYENTES DE Pilocarpus alvaradoii (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Cuca

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Del extracto etanólico de hojas de Pilocarpus alvaradoii fue aislada e identificada la nueva lactona α-Benzoil-γ-valerolactona (1, junto con los triterpenos pentacíclicos conocidos lupeol (2, epibetulina (3; y las furanocumarinas bergapteno (4, psoraleno (5, y xantotoxina (6.  El aislamiento y la purificación fueron realizados por técnicas cromatográficas convencionales.   La elucidación estructural de estos compuestos se determinó mediante técnicas espectroscópicas (IR, RMN 1H, 13C, EM.

  5. NUEVA BENZOIL LACTONA Y OTROS COSTITUYENTES DE Pilocarpus alvaradoii (Rutaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Luis E Cuca; Avila, Mónica C.

    2008-01-01

    Del extracto etanólico de hojas de Pilocarpus alvaradoii fue aislada e identificada la nueva lactona α-Benzoil-γ-valerolactona (1), junto con los triterpenos pentacíclicos conocidos lupeol (2), epibetulina (3); y las furanocumarinas bergapteno (4), psoraleno (5), y xantotoxina (6).  El aislamiento y la purificación fueron realizados por técnicas cromatográficas convencionales.   La elucidación estructural de estos compuestos...

  6. Chemical constituents of the wood from Zanthoxylum quinduense Tul. (Rutaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patino Ladino, Oscar Javier; Cuca Suarez, Luis Enrique, E-mail: ojpatinol@unal.edu.c [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias. Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the wood from Zanthoxylum quinduense Tul. allowed the isolation and identification of norchelerythrine, decarine, 6-acetonyldihydrochelerythrine, syringaresinol, evofilin C, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillic acid, a mixture of b-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol and a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and their esters derivatives. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques and comparison with literature data and the mixture of sterols and fatty acids were identified by GC/MS. The antifungal activity of the ethanolic extract, fractions and pure compounds against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici was determined by bioautography. Evofilin C and nochelerytrine were the only substances that present antifungal activity. (author)

  7. Allelopathic potential of bark and leaves of Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. (Rutaceae Potencial alelopático de folhas e cascas de Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. (Rutaceae

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    Flaviana Maluf Souza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the inhibitory potential of aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. on lettuce germination and early seedling growth. We compared the effects of four concentrations (100, 75, 50 and 25% of each extract to water and polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000 solution controls for four replicates of 50 seeds for germination and four replicates of ten seedlings for seedling growth. The inhibitory effects of E. leiocarpa extracts on the percentage of germination and on the germination speed seemed to be more than simply an osmotic effect, except for the percentage of seeds germinated in bark extracts. When compared to water control, both bark and leaf extracts delayed germination, and leaf extracts also affected the percentage of germinated seeds. Leaf extracts of all concentrations strongly inhibited the development of seedlings and caused them some degree of abnormality; bark extracts also caused abnormalities and reduced seedling growth. Root development was more sensitive to the extracts than hypocotyl growth. The negative effects of leaf extracts on germination and seedling growth were more pronounced than those of bark extracts, and the overall effects of both extracts were positively correlated with extract concentrations.Neste trabalho, nós investigamos o potencial inibitório de extratos aquosos de folhas e cascas de Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. na germinação e no crescimento inicial de plântulas de alface. Nós comparamos os efeitos de quarto concentrações (100, 75, 50 e 25% de cada extrato a um controle em água e outro em uma solução de polietilenoglicol (PEG 6000, com quatro repetições de 50 sementes para o experimento de germinação e quatro repetições de 10 plântulas para o experimento de crescimento. Os efeitos inibitórios dos extratos de E. leiocarpa na porcentagem e na velocidade de germinação foram mais do que um efeito do potencial osmótico das soluções, exceto para a porcentagem de sementes germinadas nos extratos de casca. Ambos os extratos causaram atrasos na germinação, sendo que os extratos de folha afetaram também a porcentagem de sementes germinadas. Os extratos de folha, em todas as concentrações, inibiram fortemente o desenvolvimento das plântulas e causaram a todas elas algum grau de anormalidade; os extratos de casca também causaram anormalidades e reduziram o crescimento das plântulas. O desenvolvimento da radícula foi mais sensível à ação dos extratos do que o crescimento do hipocótilo. Os efeitos negativos dos extratos de folhas foram mais pronunciados do que os causados pelos extratos de casca e os efeitos de ambos os extratos foram sempre positivamente correlacionados com sua concentração.

  8. Phytochemical and chemosystematic studies of Conchocarpus marginatus and C. inopinatus (Rutaceae); Fitoquimica e quimiossistematica de Conchocarpus marginatus e C. inopinatus (Rutaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellete, Barbara Sayuri; Sa, Israel Civico Gil de; Mafezoli, Jair; Cerqueira, Cristovam do Nascimento; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Zukerman-Schpector, Julio [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Pirani, Jose Rubens, E-mail: dmfs@ufscar.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias

    2012-07-01

    Phytochemical studies of the leaves and stem have led to the identification of the known acridone alkaloids arborinine, methylarborinine, 1-hydroxy-3-methoxy-N-methyl acridone, xanthoxoline, 1,2,3,5-tetramethoxy-N-methylacridone, toddaliopsin C and the new seco acridone alkaloid inopinatin. The known quinoline alkaloids 2-phenyl-1-methyl-quinolin-4(1H)-one, 2-phenyl-1-methyl-7-methoxy-quinolin-4(1H)-one, dictamnine, and the coumarins scopoletin and marmesin were also isolated. The isolated compounds and the distribution of secondary metabolites, which are systematically important, obtained from literature, clearly confirmed that some species formerly described in the genera Angostura and Galipea in fact shall belong to the genus Conchocarpus. (author)

  9. Constituintes químicos das folhas de Murraya paniculata (Rutaceae

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    Sumaia G. Mesquita

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A separação cromatográfica do extrato hexânico e da fase em CH2Cl2 do extrato etanólico das folhas de Murraya paniculata resultou no isolamento de um triterpeno (24-metileno-cicloartan-3β-ol, um fenilpropanóide (cafeato de metila e sete cumarinas preniladas [isomeranzina, acetato de murranganona, murrayatina, murrangatina, hidrato de meranzina, febalosina e murranganona]. Dentre as substâncias isoladas, as cumarinas foram detectadas anteriormente em M. paniculata ao passo que 24-metileno-cicloartan-3β-ol e cafeato de metila estão sendo descritos pela primeira vez no gênero Murraya. Os extratos e frações além das substâncias puras foram submetidos à avaliação do potencial antimicrobiano frente à Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli indicando que somente a cumarina hidrato de meranzina mostrou fraca atividade.

  10. Actividad larvicida de la toronja, Citrus paradisi (Rutaceae sobre dos vectores del dengue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Morales-Saldaña

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available La actividad larvicida del aceite esencial de la toronja (Citrus paradisi fue evaluada contra los mosquitos Aedes aegypti y Aedes albopictus, los cuales representan vectores potenciales de la fiebre del dengue. La CL50 del aceite esencial de la toronja fue de 47,3 ppm y 85,1 ppm para Ae. aegypti y Ae. albopictus, respectivamente. El análisis del aceite por GC-MS, mostró químicos conocidos como insecticidas los cuales podría explicar la acción tóxica sobre las larvas de los mosquitos evaluados. Esta actividad tóxica sobre Ae. aegypti fue mayor en comparación con otros aceites cítricos, lo que sugiere mayores instigaciones en esta línea y de esta manera poder recomendarlo como regulador de mosquitos a las diferentes campañas contra el Ae. aeygpti. En la literatura revisada no encontramos ninguna investigación donde haya sido evaluado aceites esenciales de cítricos contra larvas del mosquito Ae. albopictus.

  11. Low antiplasmodial activity of alkaloids and amides from the stem bark of Zanthoxylum rubescens (Rutaceae

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    Penali L.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The stem bark of Zanthoxylum rubescens (syn. Fagara rubescens is used for treating fevers associated with malaria in the Ivory Coast. Three alkaloids: N-nornitidine, 7,9-dimethoxy-2,3- methylenedioxybenzophenanthridine, and bis[6-(5,6- dihydrochelerythrinyl] ether; and two amides: zanthomamide and lemairamide, were isolated from the stem bark of this plant. These compounds were screened in vitro against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain and the chloroquine-resistant FCM29 strain of P. falciparum. N-nornitidine was found to be inactive. 7,9- dimethoxy-2,3-methylenedioxybenzophenanthridine, lemairamide and zanthomamide showed weak activity with average IC50 values ranging from 45.6 μM to 149.9 μM. Bis[6-(5,6- dihydrochelerythrinyl] ether was the most active of the tested compounds with mean IC50s of 14.9 ± 1.4 μM in FCM29 strain and 15.3 ± 3.4 μM in 3D7 strain (~ 58 to ~ 1130 times less active than chloroquine respectively. The anti-Plasmodium activities of the tested alkaloids of Z. rubescens were low; and do not encourage the use of this plant as antimalarial.

  12. Low antiplasmodial activity of alkaloids and amides from the stem bark of Zanthoxylum rubescens (Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penali, L; Mulholland, D A; Tano, K D; Cheplogoi, P K; Randrianarivelojosia, M

    2007-06-01

    The stem bark of Zanthoxylum rubescens (syn. Fagara rubescens) is used for treating fevers associated with malaria in the Ivory Coast. Three alkaloids: N-nornitidine, 7,9-dimethoxy-2,3-methylenedioxybenzophenanthridine, and bis[6-5,6-dihydrochelerythrinyl)] ether; and two amides: zanthomamide and lemairamide, were isolated from the stem bark of this plant. These compounds were screened in vitro against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain and the chloroquine-resistant FCM29 strain of P. falciparum. N-nornitidine was found to be inactive. 7,9-dimethoxy-2,3-methylenedioxybenzophenanthridine, lemairamide and zanthomamide showed weak activity with average IC50 values ranging from 45.6 microM to 149.9 microM. Bis[6-15,6-dihydrochelerythrinyl)] ether was the most active of the tested compounds with mean IC50s of 14.9 +/- 1.4 microM in FCM29 strain and 15.3 +/- 3.4 microM in 3D7 strain (approximately 58 to approximately 1130 times less active than chloroquine respectively). The anti-Plasmodium activities of the tested alkaloids of Z. rubescens were low; and do not encourage the use of this plant as antimalarial. PMID:17645189

  13. Pollen morphology and its systematic significance in zanthoxylum (rutaceae) from china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollen grains of 32 species of Zanthoxylum were studied under light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The macro- and micro-morphological pollen characters, including shape, pollen size, aperture and exine ornamentation type were examined. The pollen grains are small to medium in size, mostly from subspheroidal to prolate shape in equatorial view and 3-lobed circular in polar view. Three types are recognized based on exine ornamentation, includes macroreticulate, parallel striation, and striate-rugulate. Pollen shape and size are found to have only minor value, but pollen exine ornamentation contains useful information on modify the Englerian classification of Zanthoxylum and can be used for identifying different species of Zanthoxylum s.l.. Based on the pollen morphological data, the two subgenus, Fagara and Zanthoxylum, should be combined. (author)

  14. Actividad larvicida de la toronja, Citrus paradisi (Rutaceae) sobre dos vectores del dengue

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Morales-Saldaña; Nélida Gómez; José Rovira; Manuel Abrahams

    2013-01-01

    La actividad larvicida del aceite esencial de la toronja (Citrus paradisi) fue evaluada contra los mosquitos Aedes aegypti y Aedes albopictus, los cuales representan vectores potenciales de la fiebre del dengue. La CL50 del aceite esencial de la toronja fue de 47,3 ppm y 85,1 ppm para Ae. aegypti y Ae. albopictus, respectivamente. El análisis del aceite por GC-MS, mostró químicos conocidos como insecticidas los cuales podría explicar la acción tóxica sobre las larvas de los mosquitos evaluado...

  15. [Spider diversity in cultures of Citrus sinensis (Rutaceae) in Corrientes province, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Gilberto; Bar, Maria Esther; Oscherov, Elena Beatriz; González, Alda

    2013-09-01

    Spiders are predators that reduce insect pest populations in agroecosystems. In spite that the presence of spider assemblages has been described in different crop plants, no reports have been done for Citrus species in Argentina. We studied the spider community associated with cultures of Citrus sinensis in the province of Corrientes, Argentina, in two plots (AM1 irrigated and AM2 unirrigated) of 0.82 hectares each. Spiders were collected monthly by using pitfall traps, hand capture, agitation of foliage and sieving of soil litter. A total of 7174 specimens were collected (33 families, 44 genera and 200 species/morphospecies). The AM1 recorded 3811 individuals (33 families, 179 species/morphospecies) and AM2 3363 individuals (31 families, 174 species/morphospecies). November, December and January showed the highest abundance in both plots. A total of 70% of collected spiders were juveniles. Eight families were the most abundant and represented 75% of spiders collected in both plots, the largest being Lycosidae. We identified eight guilds in both plots, for which the ground runners resulted the most abundant (AM1 n = 1341, s=39, n=999 AM2, s = 33), followed by orb weavers (AM1 n = 637, s = 36; AM2 n = 552, s = 33), the stalkers (AM1 n = 471, s = 43, AM2 n = 453, s = 47) and the space web-builders (AM1 n = 446, s = 23; AM2 n = 342, s = 25). The analysis of alpha diversity in both plots (AM1H' = 4.161, J' = 0.802; AM2 H' = 4.184, J' = 0.811) showed no significant differences (t = 1.083 p = 0.279). The linear dependences model was the one with the best fit results, where the species observed were more than estimated. Clench model estimated 90.9% of the spiders observed in the unit with irrigation and 90.6% in the unit without irrigation. PMID:24027921

  16. Citrus (Rutaceae): a review of recent advances in etymology, systematics and medical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Mabberley, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    The naming, introduction and classification of citrus crops and their allies is outlined. Traditional medicinal use and ‘Western’ applications in the treatment of scurvy and obesity, the prevention of AIDS, and in contraception is reviewed. Names for the commercially significant citrangequat (Citrus × georgiana) and the ‘sunrise lime’ or ‘faustrimedin’ (C. × oliveri) are provided.

  17. Zanthoxylum caribaeum (Rutaceae) essential oil: chemical investigation and biological effects on Rhodnius prolixus nymph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, J; Mourão, S C; Dolabela, I B; Santos, M G; Mello, C B; Kelecom, A; Mexas, R; Feder, D; Fernandes, C P; Gonzalez, M S; Rocha, L

    2014-11-01

    A chemical investigation and bioassays against fifth-instar nymphae of the hematophagous insect Rhodnius prolixus, vector of Chagas disease, were conducted with the essential oil from Zanthoxylum caribaeum. The main results may be summarized as follows: (i) 54 components were identified, corresponding to 90.4% of the relative composition; sesquiterpenes (47.3%) and monoterpenes (41.2%) are the major constituents; (ii) muurola-4,5-trans-diene and isodaucene are described for the first time as chemical constituents of the essential oil from leaves of this species; (iii) topical treatment with the crude essential oil induced high levels of paralysis (from 18.88 to 33.33%) and mortality (from 80 to 98.9%) depending on the dose applied (0.5 to 5.0 μl per insect); (iv) feeding treatment with the crude essential oil also induced high levels of mortality (from 48.8 to 100%) but low levels of paralysis (from 2.22 to 7.77%) depending on the dose applied (0.5 to 5.0 μl/ml of blood); (v) in the continuous treatment, only the dose of 5.0 μl/cm(2) was able to promote statistical significant levels of mortality (63.3%) but no paralysis were detected. However in this group, occasionally, only few insects displayed malformations of legs and wings after treatment; and (vi) any treatment was able to disrupt the metamorphosis process since the low adult stage emergence observed to all groups was due the high insect mortality. These observations suggest the interference of Z. caribaeum compounds on the triatomine neuroendocrine system. The significance of these results in relation to the relevant biological events in R. prolixus as well as the possible use of insect growth regulators present in Z. caribaeum oil in integrated vector control programs against hematophagous triatomine species is herein discussed. PMID:25224729

  18. Chemical constituents from stem barks and roots of Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four carbazole alkaloids, identified as mahanimbine (1), girinimbine (2), murrayanine (3) murrayafoline-A (4) and one triterpene were isolated from stem bark and roots of Murraya koenigii. The structures of these compounds were established by infra-red (IR), mass spectrometry (MS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR, 13C NMR, HMQC and HMBC) spectroscopy. (author)

  19. Isoenzymatic polymorphism in Citrus spp. and Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. (Rutaceae

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    Novelli Valdenice Moreira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoenzymatic polymorphism analysis was used to determine genetic variability among species and hybrids of Citrus spp. and one accession of Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. Ten enzymatic systems aspartate aminotransferase (AAT, acid phosphatase (ACP, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH, phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI, phosphoglucomutase (PGM, diaphorase (DIA, shikimate dehydrogenase (SKD and peroxidase (PRX were analyzed. Twenty loci and 48 alleles were identified. Sweet orange cultivars (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck showed the highest polymorphism with the largest number of heterozygous loci, although the alleles of those loci were the same in all cultivars, with the exception of Westin and Lima graúda. Mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco exhibited diverse patterns, whereas Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. showed high variability with all Citrus species and hybrids. Exclusive phenotypes were observed in some enzymatic systems, and similar patterns were found among interspecific hybrids and their putative parents.

  20. Phytochemical study from root barks of Zanthoxylum rigidum Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd (Rutaceae); Estudo fitoquimico das cascas das raizes de Zanthoxylum rigidum Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd (Rutaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moccelini, Sally Katiuce; Silva, Virginia Claudia da; Ndiaye, Eliane Augusto; Sousa Junior, Paulo Teixeira de [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT(brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Vieira, Paulo Cezar [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: teixeira@ufmt.br

    2009-07-01

    Chemical investigation from root barks of Z. rigidum, resulted in the isolation of lupeol, a mixture of steroids campesterol, sitosterol, stigmasterol, sacarose, hesperidin, N-methylatanine and 6-acetonyldihydrochelerythrine. Their structures were established by spectral data analysis. No previous work has been reported on Z. rigidum species. (author)

  1. Os gêneros Zanthoxylum L. e Esenbeckia Kunth (Rutaceae no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil The genera Zanthoxylum L. and Esenbeckia Kunth (Rutaceae in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Figueiredo Melo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste no levantamento das espécies dos gêneros Zanthoxylum e Esenbeckia ocorrentes em Pernambuco. Foi baseado nos caracteres morfológicos das espécies obtidas em campo e nos materiais de 16 herbários brasileiros. Foram registradas nove espécies de Zanthoxylum: Z. caribaeum Lam., Z. fagara (L. Sarg., Z. gardneri Engl., Z. hamadryadicum Pirani, Z. monogynum A. St.-Hil., Z. petiolare A. St.-Hil & Tul., Z. rhoifolium Lam., Z. stelligerum Turcz. e Z. syncarpum Tul. Para Esenbeckia foram verificadas cinco espécies: E. almawillia Kaastra, E. febrifuga (A. St.-Hil. Juss. ex Mart., E. garandiflora Mart., E. leiocarpa Engl. e E. pilocarpoides Kunth. Para reconhecimento das espécies são apresentadas chaves de identificação, descrições, ilustrações, distribuição geográfica, comentários e nomes vulgares.This work is a survey of the species of Zanthoxylum and Esenbeckia occuring in the State of Pernambuco. It was based on morphological characters of the species obtained during field trips and of specimens from 16 Brazilian herbaria. Nine species were recorded for Zanthoxylum: Z. caribaeum Lam., Z. fagara (L. Sarg., Z. gardneri Engl., Z. hamadryadicum Pirani, Z. monogynum A. St.-Hil., Z. petiolare A. St.-Hil & Tul., Z. rhoifolium Lam., Z. stelligerum Turcz., and Z. syncarpum Tul. Esenbeckia comprised five species: E. almawillia Kaastra, E. febrifuga (A. St.Hil. Juss. ex Mart., E. grandiflora Mart., E. leiocarpa Engl., and E. pilocarpoides Kunth. Identication keys, descriptions, ilustrations, geographic distribution, common names, and comments on the species are presented.

  2. Extrativismo, cultivo e privatização do jaborandi (Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm.; Rutaceae) no Maranhão, Brasil Extractivism, cultivation and privatization of jaborandi (Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm.; Rutaceae) in Maranhão, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Urbano B. Pinheiro

    2002-01-01

    Um dos processos associados com a expansão de fronteiras em países em desenvolvimento consiste na privatização de recursos naturais, anteriormente de uso comum por populações tradicionais. Em geral, a privatização não só conduz à degradação dos recursos como também ao empobrecimento de comunidades locais dependentes desses recursos. Um exemplo desta transformação está no Estado do Maranhão, especialmente em uma região conhecida como "Pré-Amazônia", onde o jaborandi (Pilocarpus microphyllus St...

  3. Effects of the essential oil obtained from Pilocarpus spicatus Saint-Hilaire (Rutaceae) on the development of Rhodnius prolixus nymphae Efeitos do óleo essencial de Pilocarpus spicatus Saint-Hilaire (Rutaceae) no desenvolvimento de ninfas de Rhodnius prolixus

    OpenAIRE

    Mello, Cícero B; Cléber D. Uzeda; Marana V. Bernardino; Duclécio Mendonça-Lopes; Alphonse Kelecom; PAULO C.A. FEVEREIRO; Marcelo S. Guerra; Adriana P de Oliveira; Leandro M. Rocha; Marcelo S. Gonzalez

    2007-01-01

    Bioassays against fifth-instar nymphae of Rhodnius prolixus were conducted with essential oil of Pilocarpus spicatus extracted by hydrodistillation. The main results may be summarized as follows: (i) high levels of toxicity and paralysis together with discrete moulting inhibition were caused by topical application of either 0.5 µL or 1.0 µL per insect of the crude essential oil; (ii) partial fagoinhibition, high moulting inhibition, prolonged intermoulting period and high number of paralyzed ...

  4. Effects of the essential oil obtained from Pilocarpus spicatus Saint-Hilaire (Rutaceae on the development of Rhodnius prolixus nymphae Efeitos do óleo essencial de Pilocarpus spicatus Saint-Hilaire (Rutaceae no desenvolvimento de ninfas de Rhodnius prolixus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero B. Mello

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioassays against fifth-instar nymphae of Rhodnius prolixus were conducted with essential oil of Pilocarpus spicatus extracted by hydrodistillation. The main results may be summarized as follows: (i high levels of toxicity and paralysis together with discrete moulting inhibition were caused by topical application of either 0.5 µL or 1.0 µL per insect of the crude essential oil; (ii partial fagoinhibition, high moulting inhibition, prolonged intermoulting period and high number of paralyzed insects, but no toxicity were observed after oral treatment using either 5 µL or 10 µL of Pilocarpus spilcatus essential oil per mL of ingested blood meal. The importance of these results in relation to the relevant biological events in R. prolixus is herein discussed.Bioensaios contra ninfas de 5º estádio de Rhodnius prolixus foram conduzidos utilizando-se óleo essencial de Pilocarpus spicatus extraído por hidrodestilação. Os principais resultados podem ser resumidos como se segue: (i altos níveis de toxicidade e paralisia associados à discreta inibição da muda foram induzidos pela aplicação tópica de 0,5 µL ou 1,0 µL do óleo essencial por inseto; (ii fagoinibição parcial, altos níveis de inibição da muda, período intermuda prolongado e alto número de insetos paralisados mas ausência de toxicidade foram observados após tratamento oral com 5,0 µL ou 10 µL de óleo essencial de P. spicatus por mL de sangue ingerido. A importância destes resultados em relação a eventos biológicos relevantes em R. prolixus é aqui discutida.

  5. Insecticidal and repellent activity of Clausena dentata (Rutaceae) plant extracts against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Karthi, Sengodan; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Natarajan, Devarajan; Shivakumar, Muthugounder Subramanian

    2015-03-01

    Mosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol agents. The present study is to evaluate adulticidal activity of Clausena dentata plant extract against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The highest mortality was found in acetone extracts against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 4.1783 mg/ml (3.8201-7.1026), 9.3884 mg/ml (7. 8258-13.1820) and 4.2451 mg/ml (3.8547-8.0254), 12.3214 mg/ml (10.9287-16.2220), respectively. Smoke toxicity was observed at 10-min interval for 40 min, and the mortality data were recorded. Result shows that Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus are 85 ± 2 and 89 ± 1.5, respectively. A mortality of 100 % was recorded in the commercial mosquito control. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of C. dentata have a potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. PMID:25573693

  6. Estudo farmacognóstico de folhas e raízes da Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil. (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Matos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil. (manacá é um arbusto cujas raízes são utilizadas popularmente contra dores musculares, de estômago e de cabeça, disfunções hepáticas, reumatismo, e como estimulante do apetite. As folhas são empregadas como depurativo do sangue, nas afecções renais e hepáticas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar o estudo morfo-anatômico de S. odoratissima, bem como a triagem fitoquímica, a determinação dos teores de água, cinzas totais e insolúveis em ácido. O material vegetal foi coletado em Leopoldo de Bulhões/ Goiás e os estudos morfo-anatômicos e a triagem fitoquímica foram realizados utilizando as técnicas convencionais. Verificou-se que a folha é hipoestomática, com estômatos anomocíticos e a epiderme apresenta papilas na face abaxial. O mesofilo é dorsiventral e a nervura principal possui drusas de oxalato de cálcio e cavidades secretoras. O pecíolo apresenta sistema vascular em forma circular. Na raiz, em crescimento primário, observou-se cilindro vascular com organização diarca. Na prospecção fitoquímica detectaram-se fenóis, taninos, cumarinas, flavonoides, triterpernos/esteróis, antraquinonas e antocianinas nas folhas e alcaloides, cumarinas, amido e saponinas nas raízes. Esses resultados são parâmetros importantes para o controle de qualidade dessa matéria-prima vegetal.

  7. Investigation phytochimique d'une brosse à dents africaine "Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides" (Lam.) Zepernick et Timler (Syn. "Fagara zanthoxiloides" L.) (Rutaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Chaaib Kouri, Fatima; Hostettmann, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    Depuis le séminaire H. Cartan de 1954-55, il est bien connu que l’on peut trouver des éléments de torsion arbitrairement grande dans l’homologie entière des espaces d’Eilenberg-MacLane K(G, n) où G est un groupe abélien non trivial et n > 2. L’objectif majeur de ce travail est d’étendre ce résultat à des Hespaces possédant plus d’un groupe d’homotopie non trivial. Dans le but de contrôler précisément le résultat de H. Cartan, on commence par étudier la dualité entre l’homologie et la cohomolo...

  8. Citrus (Rutaceae) SNP Markers Based on Competitive Allele-Specific PCR; Transferability Across the Aurantioideae Subfamily

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Garcia-Lor; Gema Ancillo; Luis Navarro; Patrick Ollitrault

    2013-01-01

    Premise of the study: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers based on Competitive Allele-Specific PCR (KASPar) were developed from sequences of three Citrus species. Their transferability was tested in 63 Citrus genotypes and 19 relative genera of the subfamily Aurantioideae to estimate the potential of SNP markers, selected from a limited intrageneric discovery panel, for ongoing broader diversity analysis at the intra- and intergeneric levels and systematic germplasm bank characteriza...

  9. Quinoline alkaloids and friedelane-type triterpenes isolated from leaves and wood of Esenbeckia alata Kunt (Rutaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the phytochemical exploration of the ethanol extract from leaves and wood of Esenbeckia alata, leading to the isolation and identification of quinoline alkaloids 4-methoxy-3-(3'-methyl-but-2'-enyl)-N-methyl-quinolin-2(1 H)-one, N-methylflindersine, dictamine, kokusaginine, G-fagarine, flindersiamine, as well as the fridelane-type triterpenes, frideline, fridelanol and its acetate derivative. Identification of these compounds was based on full analyses of spectroscopic data (1H, 13C, 1D, 2D, IR, MS) and comparison with data reported in literature. Compound 4-methoxy-3-(3'-methyl-but-2'-enyl)-N-methyl-quinolin-2(1 H)-one is reported for the first time for the genus Esenbeckia. (author)

  10. Effects of atmosphere CO[sub 2] enrichment on regrowth of sour orange trees (Citrus aurantium; rutaceae) after coppicing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idso, S.B.; Kimball, B.A. (Water Conservation Lab., Phoenix, AZ (United States))

    1994-07-01

    Sixteen sour orange tree (Citrus aurantium L.) seedlings were grown out-of-doors at Phoenix, Arizona, in eight clear-plastic-wall open-top enclosures maintained at four different atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentrations for a period of 2 years. Over the last year of this period, the trees were coppiced five times. The amount of dry matter harvested at each of these cuttings was a linear function of the atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentration to which the trees were exposed. For a 75% increase in atmospheric CO[sub 2] from 400 to 700 microliter per liter ([mu]L liter[sup [minus]1]), total aboveground biomass rose, in the mean, by a factor of 3.19; while for a 400 to 800 [mu]L liter[sup [minus]1] doubling of the air's CO[sub 2] content, it rose by a factor of 3.92. The relative summer (mean air temperature of 32.8 C) response to CO[sub 2] was about 20% greater than the relative winter (mean air temperature of 16.4 C) response. 27 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Estudo farmacognóstico de folhas e raízes da Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil. (Rutaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    L.G. Matos; T.S. Fiuza; L.M.F Tresvenzol; M.H. Rezende; M.T.F Bara; E.N. Silveira; E.A. Costa; J.R. Paula

    2014-01-01

    A Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil. (manacá) é um arbusto cujas raízes são utilizadas popularmente contra dores musculares, de estômago e de cabeça, disfunções hepáticas, reumatismo, e como estimulante do apetite. As folhas são empregadas como depurativo do sangue, nas afecções renais e hepáticas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar o estudo morfo-anatômico de S. odoratissima, bem como a triagem fitoquímica, a determinação dos teores de água, cinzas totais e insolúveis em ácido. O mater...

  12. Quinoline alkaloids and friedelane-type triterpenes isolated from leaves and wood of Esenbeckia alata Kunt (Rutaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuca-Suarez, Luis Enrique; Barrera, Ericsson David Coy [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia). Dept. de Quimica; Alvarez Caballero, Juan Manuel [Universidad del Magdalena, Santa Marta DTCH (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias Basicas

    2011-07-01

    This work describes the phytochemical exploration of the ethanol extract from leaves and wood of Esenbeckia alata, leading to the isolation and identification of quinoline alkaloids 4-methoxy-3-(3'-methyl-but-2'-enyl)-N-methyl-quinolin-2(1 H)-one, N-methylflindersine, dictamine, kokusaginine, G-fagarine, flindersiamine, as well as the fridelane-type triterpenes, frideline, fridelanol and its acetate derivative. Identification of these compounds was based on full analyses of spectroscopic data ({sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 1}D, {sup 2}D, IR, MS) and comparison with data reported in literature. Compound 4-methoxy-3-(3'-methyl-but-2'-enyl)-N-methyl-quinolin-2(1 H)-one is reported for the first time for the genus Esenbeckia. (author)

  13. Thermal analysis and cryopreservation of seeds of Australian wild Citrus species (rutaceae): Citrus australasica, C. inodora and C. garrawayi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, K N; Ashmore, S E; Pritchard, H W

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between the thermal transitions in seeds, cryopreservation and geographical origin for the rare and threatened northern Australian Citrus species, Citrus inodora and C. garrawayi, and southeastern Australian species C. australasica, which is cultivated as a 'bushfood'. Thermal analysis of phase transitions in cotyledon tissue revealed differences between species in the melt onset temperatures of in vivo seed oils, suggestive of differences in the proportion of saturated fatty acids. These differences appeared to be associated with geographic gradient, i.e. an increased mean onset temperature of lipid melt coincided with latitude (N NSW / SE QLD Australia to N QLD) and climatic zone (warm subtropical to hot tropical) of the natural distribution range. In addition, the thermal transitions of seed oils corresponded to the temperature limit for germination. Tolerance to cryopreservation was demonstrated in all three species after drying, with a mean germination of 75 +/- 2, 71 +/- 7 and 42 +/- 12 percent for C. australasica, C. inodora and C. garrawayi, respectively, when dried below the unfrozen water content (WCu) determined for each species. All three species have edible fruits and seed cryopreservation now offers an alternative strategy for the long-term ex situ conservation of this valuable germplasm. PMID:19789824

  14. Effect of Clausena excavata Burm. f. (Rutaceae leaf extract on wound healing and antioxidant activity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albaayit SFA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Shaymaa Fadhel Abbas Albaayit,1,2 Yusuf Abba,3 Rasedee Abdullah,3 Noorlidah Abdullah1 1Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq; 3Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: Clausena excavata is a well-known plant used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of different ailments. This study aimed to determine the in vitro cytoxicity of its leaf solvent extracts as well as the in vivo wound healing and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extracts of C. excavata (MECE. HaCaT (keratocyte and Vero cell lines were used for evaluation of the in vitro cytotoxic effects, while the in vivo wound healing and antioxidant activities were determined in skin wounds inflicted on rats. Twenty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups of four animals each. Approximately 3.14 cm2 excisional wound was inflicted on the nape of each rat following anesthesia. The treatment groups received topical application of MECE at 50 mg/mL (MECE-LD [low dose], 100 mg/mL (MECE-MD [medium dose], and 200 mg/mL (MECE-HD [high dose], while the negative control group was treated with gum acacia in normal saline and the positive control group with intrasite gel. Wound contraction was evaluated on days 5, 10, and 15 after wound infliction, and tissue from wound area was collected at day 15 post-wound infliction for antioxidant enzyme evaluation and histopathological analyses. Generally, Vero cells were more resistant to the cytotoxic effects of the solvent extracts as compared with HaCaT cells. Chloroform (CH and ethyl acetate (EA extracts of C. excavata were toxic to HaCaT cells at 200 and 400 µg/mL, but the same concentrations showed higher (P<0.05 viability in Vero cells. There was significantly (P<0.01 greater wound contraction at days 10 and 15 post-wound infliction in all the treatment groups than in the control groups. Histopathologically, the MECE-HD-treated wound showed significantly (P<0.05 lesser inflammatory cell proliferation, degeneration, and distribution of granulation tissue than other groups. Similarly, the degree of collagen maturation, angiogenesis, and collagen distribution were significantly (P<0.05 lower in MECE-HD than in other groups. The MECE-HD, MECE-MD, and intrasite treatment groups showed a significantly (P<0.05 higher number of VEGF-positive and TGF-β1-positive cells in the skin wound than the control groups. The activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly (P<0.01 higher in the MECE-HD and intrasite treatment groups than in the other groups. Lipid peroxidase activity of the treated groups was significantly (P<0.01 lower than that in the control group. The study showed that MECE is a potent wound healing agent through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects that enhanced the rate of wound contraction, re-epithelialization, and collagen deposition. The effect of MECE is suggested to be due to its high polyphenolic compound content. Keywords: Clausena excavata, cytotoxicity, wound healing, antioxidant, histopathology, VEGF, TGF-β1

  15. Gastric Ulcers in Middle-Aged Rats: The Healing Effect of Essential Oil from Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, L. R. M.; M.O. Marques; C. H. Pellizzon; Moraes, T. M.; Polo, C. M.; Hiruma-Lima, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    The elderly population has experienced increased life expectancy as well as the increased incidence of gastric ulcers. The peels of fruits from Citrus aurantium L., popularly known in Brazil as orange bitter, are commonly used asatea form for the treatment of gastrointestinal tract disorders, such as ulcer and gastritis. We evaluated the healing effects of essential oil from the peels of Citrus aurantium fruits (OEC) on gastric ulcers in middle-aged rats. We examined the effects of a 14-day c...

  16. Gastric Ulcers in Middle-Aged Rats: The Healing Effect of Essential Oil from Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Polo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The elderly population has experienced increased life expectancy as well as the increased incidence of gastric ulcers. The peels of fruits from Citrus aurantium L., popularly known in Brazil as orange bitter, are commonly used asatea form for the treatment of gastrointestinal tract disorders, such as ulcer and gastritis. We evaluated the healing effects of essential oil from the peels of Citrus aurantium fruits (OEC on gastric ulcers in middle-aged rats. We examined the effects of a 14-day chronic OEC treatment on gastric mucosa in middle-aged male Wistar rats that were given acetic-acid-induced gastric lesions by morphometric and immunohistological analyses. Oral OEC treatment significantly reduced the lesion area (76% within the gastric mucosa and significantly increased (P<.05 the height of regenerated mucosa (59% when compared to the negative control group. Immunohistochemical analysis of the molecular markers such as COX-2, HSP-70, VEGF, and PCNA in the gastric mucosa confirmed that OEC treatment induced healing effects by increasing the number of new blood vessels and by augmenting gastric mucus in the mucosa glands. These results suggest that the oil from Citrus aurantium effectively heals gastric ulcers in middle-aged animals; however, safe use of OEC demands special care and precautions.

  17. Effects of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi MACF) (Rutaceae) peel oil against developmental stages of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivoke, Njoku; Ogbonna, Priscilla C; Ekeh, Felicia N; Ezenwaji, Ngozi E; Atama, Chinedu I; Ejere, Vincent C; Onoja, Uwakwe S; Eyo, Joseph E

    2013-11-01

    Laboratory bioassay of the essential oil extracted from the grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peel by steam distillation was carried out against the developmental stages of the yellow fever vector Aedes aegypti to evaluate its toxicity, and ovicidal and larvicidal potency. Volatile oil components isolated and characterized by coupled gas chromatography/mass spectrometry included varying levels of monoterpene aldehydes, alcohols, and esters. Test results of the essential oil showed that egg hatching was completely inhibited at 400 ppm, while further development of 1st to 2nd larval stage was inhibited at 100 ppm. Regression analysis results also indicated that the peel essential oil significantly (poil concentration and exposure time. The results indicated that the peel oil could be a potent persistent larvicide. PMID:24450234

  18. Evaluation of the diuretic effects of crude stem bark extraction ofZanthoxylum heitzii (Rutaceae) in Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fidle Ntchapda; Maguirgue Kakesse; Michel Archange Tagne Fokam; Olivier Mbouemboue Pancha; DjedoubouMAbakar; Thophile Dimo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Zanthoxylum heitzi is a medicinal plant widely used in central Africa for the treatment of many diseases, especialy cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. The diuretic effects of crude stem bark extraction were determined and its safety in rats was evaluated. METHODS:The diuretic effects of crude stem bark extraction ofZ. heitzi were investigated in Wistar rats (250 g ± 10 g) of both sexes. The crude stem bark extraction ofZ. heitzi at the doses of 225, 300 and 375 mg/kg was administered to rats at 5 mL/kg body weight. Urine volume was determined 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 24 h after administration of the extract. Kinetics of electrolyte elimination in response to a single oral administration dose of acute treatment was measured. The experiments were performed under the same conditions with two synthetic pharmacological diuretics considered as reference (furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide). Urinary and plasma concentrations of sodium and potassium ions were determined using lfame photometry. Concentrations of creatinine, urea, glucose, albumin and electrolytes in the plasma and urine samples were evaluated using a two-way digital bidirectional spectrophotometer. The osmolarity of plasma and urine samples was measured by cytometry using an osmometer. Aldosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS:The plant extract accelerated the elimination of overloaded lfuid and increased urine volume and the excretion of Na+, K+ and Cl- 24 h after administration (P 0.05) changes were observed in the body temperature of the animals. CONCLUSION:The signiifcant increase in urine volume 24 h after treatment folowed a dose-response pattern. The excretion of Na+, K+ and Cl- caused a decrease in urine osmolarity. The stability of aldosterone, the absence of correlation with the plasma levels of sodium, and increased clearance of free water in animals treated with aqueous extract suggest that increased diuresis and moderate natriuresis elevation were of tubular origin.

  19. Evaluation of antifungal activity of extracts of two Cameroonian rutaceae: Zanthoxylum leprieurii Guill. et Perr. and Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides Waterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngane, A N; Biyiti, L; Zollo, P H; Bouchet, P

    2000-06-01

    Aqueous-ethanol 90% extracts of leaves, roots and stem barks of Zanthoxylum leprieurii and Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides were examined for their antifungal properties against nine fungi by dilution methods on a solid medium and in a liquid medium. Our results indicate that these extracts, to varying extents, inhibit the in vitro growth of Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and seven filamentous fungi tested. Only the extracts obtained from the roots and stem barks of Z. xanthoxyloides showed antifungal activity on the germs studied, with minimal inhibitory concentration varying, respectively, from 0.5 to 1 mg/ml for the roots and from 0.125 to 1 mg/ml for the stem barks. PMID:10837996

  20. Effect of Clausena excavata Burm. f. (Rutaceae) leaf extract on wound healing and antioxidant activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaayit, Shaymaa Fadhel Abbas; Abba, Yusuf; Rasedee, Abdullah; Abdullah, Noorlidah

    2015-01-01

    Clausena excavata is a well-known plant used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of different ailments. This study aimed to determine the in vitro cytoxicity of its leaf solvent extracts as well as the in vivo wound healing and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extracts of C. excavata (MECE). HaCaT (keratocyte) and Vero cell lines were used for evaluation of the in vitro cytotoxic effects, while the in vivo wound healing and antioxidant activities were determined in skin wounds inflicted on rats. Twenty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups of four animals each. Approximately 3.14 cm(2) excisional wound was inflicted on the nape of each rat following anesthesia. The treatment groups received topical application of MECE at 50 mg/mL (MECE-LD [low dose]), 100 mg/mL (MECE-MD [medium dose]), and 200 mg/mL (MECE-HD [high dose]), while the negative control group was treated with gum acacia in normal saline and the positive control group with intrasite gel. Wound contraction was evaluated on days 5, 10, and 15 after wound infliction, and tissue from wound area was collected at day 15 post-wound infliction for antioxidant enzyme evaluation and histopathological analyses. Generally, Vero cells were more resistant to the cytotoxic effects of the solvent extracts as compared with HaCaT cells. Chloroform (CH) and ethyl acetate (EA) extracts of C. excavata were toxic to HaCaT cells at 200 and 400 µg/mL, but the same concentrations showed higher (P<0.05) viability in Vero cells. There was significantly (P<0.01) greater wound contraction at days 10 and 15 post-wound infliction in all the treatment groups than in the control groups. Histopathologically, the MECE-HD-treated wound showed significantly (P<0.05) lesser inflammatory cell proliferation, degeneration, and distribution of granulation tissue than other groups. Similarly, the degree of collagen maturation, angiogenesis, and collagen distribution were significantly (P<0.05) lower in MECE-HD than in other groups. The MECE-HD, MECE-MD, and intrasite treatment groups showed a significantly (P<0.05) higher number of VEGF-positive and TGF-β1-positive cells in the skin wound than the control groups. The activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly (P<0.01) higher in the MECE-HD and intrasite treatment groups than in the other groups. Lipid peroxidase activity of the treated groups was significantly (P<0.01) lower than that in the control group. The study showed that MECE is a potent wound healing agent through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects that enhanced the rate of wound contraction, re-epithelialization, and collagen deposition. The effect of MECE is suggested to be due to its high polyphenolic compound content. PMID:26203223

  1. SNP mining in C. clementina BAC end sequences; transferability in the Citrus genus (Rutaceae), phylogenetic inferences and perspectives for genetic mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Ollitrault Patrick; Terol Javier; Garcia-Lor Andres; Bérard Aurélie; Chauveau Aurélie; Froelicher Yann; Belzile Caroline; Morillon Raphaël; Navarro Luis; Brunel Dominique; Talon Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background With the increasing availability of EST databases and whole genome sequences, SNPs have become the most abundant and powerful polymorphic markers. However, SNP chip data generally suffers from ascertainment biases caused by the SNP discovery and selection process in which a small number of individuals are used as discovery panels. The ongoing International Citrus Genome Consortium sequencing project of the highly heterozygous Clementine and sweet orange genomes will soon r...

  2. Variação intraespecífica dos nutrientes em folhas de Methodorea pubescens (Rutaceae em dois tipos de mata do Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Trindade Nascimento

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Metrodorea pubescens é uma árvore comum nas matas do Distrito Federal, ocorrendo em matas mesofíticas (solos calcáreos e matas de galeria (solos ácidos. Em cada tipo de mata foram coletadas todas as folhas de 15 indivíduos jovens, sendo cinco por classe de altura (5-50, 50-100, e 100-150 cm. As folhas foram separadas em três categorias: novas, maduras e senescentes e depois foram secas e analisados para os seguintes elementos: P, K, Ca, Mg e Al. A concentração dos nutrientes nas folhas não diferiu em relação ao tamanho dos indivíduos. Apenas o alumínio apresentou menores teores nos indivíduos de 5-50 cm. As folhas novas apresentaram maiores teores de P e K. Já o Ca, Mg, e Al foram maiores nas folhas maduras. Há um decréscimo de P da folha madura para folha senescente. As plantas do solo calcáreo apresentaram maiores teores de Ca, menores de K, e valores semelhantes de P, Mg, e Al, quando comparadas com plantas do solo ácido. As diferenças entre as populações talvez possam ser explicadas pelo solo, porém outros fatores como o comportamento fisiológico das plantas devem ser considerados. As plantas do solo ácido podem ter um comportamento calcífugo e as plantas do solo calcáreo um comportamento calcícolo.Metrodorea pubescens is an abundant tree in the forests of the Distrito Federal, occurring in mesophytic forests (on calcareous soils and in gallery forests (acidic soils. In both forest types all leaves from 15 small individuals from five individuals in each of three height classes (5-50, 50-100, 100-150 cm were collected. The leaves were separated in three categories; new, mature and senescent, and then dried and analyzed for the following elements: P, K, Ca, Mg and Al. The concetration of nutrientes in the leaves was similar in all height classes, except for al which showed lower concentration in the smallest individuals (5-50 cm. New leaves showed higher concentration of P and K. On the other hand Ca, Mg and Al were higher in the mature leaves. The concentration of P decreased from mature leaves to senescent leaves. The plants from calcareous soil showed higher concentration of Ca and lower concentration of K than plants of acidic soil. The values of P, Mg and Al were similar in both forests. The differences between populations could possibly be explained by soil type, but other factors such as the physiological behavior of plants should also be considered. Plants from the acidic soil can be calcifuge and plants from the calcareous soil can be calcicole.

  3. "Repellent Effect of Extracts and Essential Oils of Citrus limon (Rutaceae and Melissa officinalis (Labiatae Against Main Malaria Vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "MA Oshaghi

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Repellet effect of extracts and essential oils of Citrus limon (L. Burm.F., (lemon and Melissa officinalis, (balm were evaluated against Anopheles stephensi in laboratory on animal and human and compared with synthetic repellent, N,Ndiethyl- 3-methylbenzamide (Deet as a standard. Results of statistical analysis revealed significant differences between oils and extracts (P< 0.05 against the tested species, thus oils were more effective than extracts. There was no significant difference between Deet and lemon oil, whereas the difference between lemon and melissa oils was significant. Relative efficacy of lemon oil to Deet was 0.88 whereas it was 0.71 for melissa oil. The results were found marginally superior in repellency for animals than human. Due to advantages of botanic compounds to synthetic compounds we recommend lemon essential oil as an effective alternative to Deet with potential as a means of personal protection against mosquito vectors of disease.

  4. Effects of atmospheric CO{sub 2} enrichment and foliar methanol application on net photosynthesis of sour orange tree (Citrus Aurantium; Rutaceae) leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idso, S.B.; Garcia, R.L.; Kimball, B.A. [Water Conservation Lab., Phoenix, AR (United States); Idso, K.E.; Hoober, J.K. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AR (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Foliar spray applications of 40% aqueous methanol were made to sunlit leaves of sour orange trees that had been grown continuously in clear-plastic-wall open-top enclosures maintained out-of-doors at Phoenix, Arizona, for over 5.5 years in ambient air of approximately 400 {mu}mol mol{sup -1} CO{sub 2} and in air enriched with CO{sub 2} to a concentration of approximately 700 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}. No unambiguous effects of the methanol applications were detected in photosynthesis measurements made on foliage in either of the two CO{sub 2} treatments. THe 75% increase in CO{sub 2}, however, raised the upper-limiting leaf temperature for positive net photosynthesis by approximately 7 C, which resulted in a 75% enhancement in net photosynthesis at a leaf temperature of 31 C, a 100% enhancement at a leaf temperature of 35 C, and a 200% enhancement at 42 C. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil from Clausena anisata (Willd.)Hook. f. exBenth (Rutaceae) against three mosquito species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil and their chemical constituents fromClausena anisata(C. anisata) (Willd.) Hook. f. ex Benth. against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti andAnopheles Stephensi.Methods:Essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation and the chemical composition of the leaf essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mosquitoes were reared in the vector control laboratory and twenty late III instar larvae of three mosquito species were exposed to based on the wide range and narrow range tests, essential oil was tested at50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 ppm and each compound was tested at various concentration (5-75 ppm) and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol ofWHO 2005; the 24 hLC50 values of theC. anisata leaf essential oil and their major compounds were determined following Probit analysis.Results:The oil contained were mainly β-pinene (32.8%), sabinene(28.3%), germacrene-D (12.7%), estragole (6.4%) and linalool(5.9%). The essential oil from the leaves ofC. anisataexhibited significant larvicidal activity, with24 hLC50 values of140.96, 130.19 and119.59ppm, respectively. The five pure constituents extracted from theC. anisata leaf essential oil were also tested individually against three mosquito larvae. The LC50values of β-pinene, sabinene, germacrene-D, estragole and linalool appeared to be most effective againstAnopheles stephensi(LC50-23.17, 19.67, 16.95, 11.01, 35.17ppm) followed byAedes aegypti (LC50-27.69, 21.20,18.76, 12.70, 38.64 ppm) and Culex quinquefasciatus(LC50-32.23, 25.01, 21.28, 14.01, 42.28).Conclusions:The essential oil of C. anisata contains five major compounds and has remarkable larvicidal properties, which may be considered as a potent source for the production of natural larvicides.

  6. Estudo fitoquímico e avaliação in vitro da atividade anti-Trypanosoma cruzi cepa Y de Pilocarpus spicatus St. Hil. (Rutaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, C.V.; F.C.C. Bomfim; M.A.V. dos Santos; E.S Velozo

    2014-01-01

    A investigação química da espécie Pilocarpus spicatus, popularmente conhecida como jaborandi e usada na medicina tradicional para doenças como estomatite, febre, bronquite e psoríase, teve por objetivo o isolamento e/ou identificação de substâncias ativas e a avaliação da atividade antiparasitária dos extratos frente às formas epimastigotas de Trypanosoma cruzi. O estudo resultou na identificação de nove substâncias, tais como: tridecanona, 2-heptadecanona, espatulenol, aromadendreno, β-cario...

  7. Estudo fitoquímico e avaliação in vitro da atividade anti-Trypanosoma cruzi cepa Y de Pilocarpus spicatus St. Hil. (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.V Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A investigação química da espécie Pilocarpus spicatus, popularmente conhecida como jaborandi e usada na medicina tradicional para doenças como estomatite, febre, bronquite e psoríase, teve por objetivo o isolamento e/ou identificação de substâncias ativas e a avaliação da atividade antiparasitária dos extratos frente às formas epimastigotas de Trypanosoma cruzi. O estudo resultou na identificação de nove substâncias, tais como: tridecanona, 2-heptadecanona, espatulenol, aromadendreno, β-cariofileno, ácido 3α-hidroxitirucala-7,24-dien-21-óico, (+-isoangenomalina, episesamina e sesamina. As estr uturas dos compostos foram elucidadas por análises espectroscópicas e comparação com dados da literatura. Os extratos hexânico e metanólico de folhas e raízes foram testados in vitro contra o Trypanosoma cruzi cepa Y e apresentaram atividade tripanomicida.

  8. "Repellent Effect of Extracts and Essential Oils of Citrus limon (Rutaceae) and Melissa officinalis (Labiatae) Against Main Malaria Vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)"

    OpenAIRE

    MA Oshaghi; R Ghalandari; Vatandoost, H; M Shayeghi; M Kamali-nejad; H Tourabi-Khaledi; Abolhassani, M.; M Hashemzadeh"

    2003-01-01

    Repellet effect of extracts and essential oils of Citrus limon (L.) Burm.F., (lemon) and Melissa officinalis, (balm) were evaluated against Anopheles stephensi in laboratory on animal and human and compared with synthetic repellent, N,Ndiethyl- 3-methylbenzamide (Deet) as a standard. Results of statistical analysis revealed significant differences between oils and extracts (P< 0.05) against the tested species, thus oils were more effective than extracts. There was no significant difference...

  9. Low-cost and eco-friendly green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Feronia elephantum (Rutaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan

    2014-05-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of synthesized natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, the larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Feronia elephantum plant leaf extract against late third-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was determined. The range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 μg mL(-1)) and aqueous leaf extract (25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 μg mL(-1)) were tested against the larvae of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous crude extract and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of F. elephantum for all three important vector mosquitoes. The synthesized AgNPs from F. elephantum were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract to three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus had the following LC50 and LC90 values: A. stephensi had LC50 and LC90 values of 11.56 and 20.56 μg mL(-1); A. aegypti had LC50 and LC90 values of 13.13 and 23.12 μg mL(-1); and C. quinquefasciatus had LC50 and LC90 values of 14.19 and 24.30 μg mL(-1). No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using F. elephantum has the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the plant extracts and synthesized nanoparticles. PMID:24647984

  10. SNP mining in C. clementina BAC end sequences; transferability in the Citrus genus (Rutaceae, phylogenetic inferences and perspectives for genetic mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollitrault Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasing availability of EST databases and whole genome sequences, SNPs have become the most abundant and powerful polymorphic markers. However, SNP chip data generally suffers from ascertainment biases caused by the SNP discovery and selection process in which a small number of individuals are used as discovery panels. The ongoing International Citrus Genome Consortium sequencing project of the highly heterozygous Clementine and sweet orange genomes will soon result in the release of several hundred thousand SNPs. The primary goals of this study were: (i to estimate the transferability within the genus Citrus of SNPs discovered from Clementine BACend sequencing (BES, (ii to estimate bias associated with the very narrow discovery panel, and (iii to evaluate the usefulness of the Clementine-derived SNP markers for diversity analysis and comparative mapping studies between the different cultivated Citrus species. Results Fifty-four accessions covering the main Citrus species and 52 interspecific hybrids between pummelo and Clementine were genotyped on a GoldenGate array platform using 1,457 SNPs mined from Clementine BES and 37 SNPs identified between and within C. maxima, C. medica, C. reticulata and C. micrantha. Consistent results were obtained from 622 SNP loci. Of these markers, 116 displayed incomplete transferability primarily in C. medica, C. maxima and wild Citrus species. The two primary biases associated with the SNP mining in Clementine were an overestimation of the C. reticulata diversity and an underestimation of the interspecific differentiation. However, the genetic stratification of the gene pool was high, with very frequent significant linkage disequilibrium. Furthermore, the shared intraspecific polymorphism and accession heterozygosity were generally enough to perform interspecific comparative genetic mapping. Conclusions A set of 622 SNP markers providing consistent results was selected. Of the markers mined from Clementine, 80.5% were successfully transferred to the whole Citrus gene pool. Despite the ascertainment biases in relation to the Clementine origin, the SNP data confirm the important stratification of the gene pools around C. maxima, C. medica and C. reticulata as well as previous hypothesis on the origin of secondary species. The implemented SNP marker set will be very useful for comparative genetic mapping in Citrus and genetic association in C. reticulata.

  11. Environ: E00744 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00744 Zanthoxylum ailanthoides bark Crude drug Zanthoxylum ailanthoides [TAX:15907...1] Rutaceae (rue family) Zanthoxylum ailanthoides bark Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Rutaceae (rue family) E00744 Zanthoxylum ailanthoides bark ...

  12. Environ: E00607 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ily) Orixa japonica root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Rutaceae (rue family) E00607 Orixa japonica root ... ...E00607 Orixa japonica root Crude drug Orixa japonica [TAX:354507] Rutaceae (rue fam

  13. Environ: E00622 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s medica flower (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Rutaceae (rue family) E00622 Citrus medica flower ... ...E00622 Citrus medica flower Crude drug Citrus medica [TAX:171251] Rutaceae (rue family) Citru

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15846-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available clone KBrB086B23,... 38 0.42 10 ( AF538053 ) Monosiga brevicollis mitochondrion, complet...mal pr... 48 1.2 1 ( AY630685 ) Symplocos brenesii isolate Rsbrenesii424 ribosoma... 48 1.2 1 ( AY630684 ) Symplocos... breedlovei isolate RSbreedlovei431 ribo... 48 1.2 1 ( AY630683 ) Symplocos...lichotricha10... 48 1.2 1 ( AY630705 ) Symplocos austrosinensis isolate RSaustrosinensis...2 1 ( AY336391 ) Symplocos domingensis isolate RSdomingensisA5202 ... 48 1.2 1 ( AY336390 ) Symplocos

  15. Nepetalactones from essential oil of Nepeta cataria represent a stable fly feeding and oviposition repellent

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have discovered that catnip oil reduced the feeding of stable flies by more than 96% in the laboratory bioassays, when compared with other sesquiterpene-rich amyris and sandalwood oils. Catnip oil further demonstrated with a strong repellency against stable flies, relative to other newly identifi...

  16. Drug: D06897 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06897 Crude, Drug Citrus peel (non-JP); Kippi Essential oil Citrus tachibana [TAX:...ata [TAX:85571] Same as: E00194 Rutaceae (rue family) Citrus tachibana, Citrus leiocarpa, Cirus grandis frui...opoeial crude drugs Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Rutaceae (rue family) D06897 Tachibana orange fruit peel PubChem: 51091239 ...

  17. Environ: E00839 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00839 Grapefruit juice Citrus x paradisi [TAX:37656] Rutaceae (rue family) grapefruit... juice CYP3A4 inhibitor [HSA:1576] (Grapefruit contains polyphenolic compounds inhibit CYP3A.) ...

  18. Environ: E00194 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00194 Citrus peel (non-JP) Kippi Crude drug Essential oil Citrus tachibana [TAX:20...a [TAX:85571] Same as: D06897 Rutaceae (rue family) Citrus tachibana, Citrus leiocarpa, Cirus grandis fruit

  19. Development and Evaluation of Herbal Formulations for Hair Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Lipi Purwal; Surya Prakash B. N. Gupta; S. Milind Pande

    2008-01-01

    Hair formulation of Emblica officinalis (Euphorbiaceae), Bacopa, monnieri (Scrophulariaceae), Trigonella foenumgraecum (Leguminosae), Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae) in various concentrations in the form of herbal oil were studied for their hair growth activity. Each drug was tested for their hair growth activity in a concentration range for 1-10% separately. Based on these results mixture of crude drugs Murraya koeniigi, leaf (Rutaceae), Bacopa monnieri, leaf (Scrophulariaceae), Trigonella foenu...

  20. Activities of Ten Essential Oils towards Propionibacterium acnes and PC-3, A-549 and MCF-7 Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yuangang Zu; Huimin Yu; Lu Liang; Yujie Fu; Thomas Efferth; Xia Liu; Nan Wu

    2010-01-01

    Ten essential oils, namely, mint (Mentha spicata L.,Lamiaceae), ginger (Zingiber officinaleRosc.,Zingiberaceae), lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f.,Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae), jasmine (Jasminum grandiflora L.,Oleaceae), lavender (Mill.,Lamiaceae), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L., Compositae), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae), rose (Rosa damascena Mill.,Rosaceae) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicumN. Lauraceae) were tested for their antibacterial activities towar...

  1. Environ: E00768 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00768 Orange flowers Medicinal herb Linalyl acetate [CPD:C09863], Linalool [CPD:C11389 C11388], Nerol [CPD:C09871], N-Methylanthranilate [CPD:C03005], Limonene [CPD:C06078], Geraniol [CPD:C01500], Neohesperidin [CPD:C09806], Naringin [CPD:C09789] Citrus aurantium [TAX:43166] Rutaceae Orange flowers flower Major component: Essential oil Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: rosids Rutaceae (rue family) E00768 Orange flowers ...

  2. Historia local de naranja amarga (Citrus × Aurantium L., Rutaceae) del viejo mundo asilvestrada en el corredor de las antiguas misiones jesuíticas de la provincia de Misiones (Argentina) : Caracterización desde una perspectiva interdisciplinaria

    OpenAIRE

    Stampella, Pablo César

    2015-01-01

    Los cítricos son frutales exóticos en América, introducidos a lo largo de cinco siglos a partir del contacto entre ambos hemisferios, que han sido apropiados y resignificados por comunidades locales y pueblos originarios. Los mismos se han constituido en cultivos de gran importancia, reconociéndose asimismo poblaciones espontáneas en varios enclaves de Argentina, generalmente asociados a ambientes boscosos o selváticos. El objetivo general de esta tesis es diseñar los procesos locales de sele...

  3. Triagem fitoquímica e avaliação das atividades trombolítica e citotóxica de Cecropia hololeuca Miq. (Urticaceae, Lippia alba (Mill. N.E.Br. ex P. Wilson (Verbenaceae e Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Victor Dutra GOMES1 ; Rafael Destefani FAITANIN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cecropia hololeuca, Lippia alba, e Zanthoxylum rhoifolium são espécies vegetais de ocorrência natural no Brasil, características de regiões de Mata Atlântica e, dentro de suas finalidades medicinais, estão incluídas ação anti-hipertensiva, digestiva e no tratamento de malária. Neste estudo, foram avaliados o perfil fitoquímico e as atividades citotóxica e trombolítica do extrato etanólico das folhas destas espécies vegetais. O perfil químico dos extratos foi obtido por meio de ensaios fitoquímicos clássicos, a fim de identificar as classes químicas presentes. A toxicidade preliminar foi avaliada frente Artemia salina e a atividade trombolítica foi determinada in vitro a partir da lise de coágulo de sangue humano. Os testes fitoquímicos indicaram a presença de alcaloides e flavonoides nos três extratos investigados. Saponinas, triterpenos e naftoquinonas foram detectados apenas em C. hololeuca. Essa não demonstrou toxicidade frente Artemia salina (DL50 >1000 ppm, enquanto Z. rhoifolium apresentou DL50 igual a 719,44 ppm e L. alba <250 ppm, o que indica atenção quanto à segurança no uso desta planta medicinal. A atividade trombolítica de L. alba e C. hololeuca foi de 6,43 ±2,08 e 9,64 ±1,83 %, respectivamente, mostrando baixa atividade. Por sua vez, Z. rhoifolium alcançou lise de 24,71 ±10,52 %, indicando promissora atividade (p <0,001. A atividade trombolítica de Z. rhoifolium justifica novos estudos, a fim de investigar os componentes responsáveis pela atividade. Perante a literatura, este é o primeiro relato da avaliação da atividade trombolítica destas espécies vegetais. Os resultados encontrados neste trabalho contribuem para o conhecimento químico-biológico das respectivas espécies.

  4. Antihypertensive potential of the aqueous extract which combine leaf of Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae), stems and leaf of Cymbopogon citratus (D.C) Stapf. (Poaceae), fruits of Citrus medical L. (Rutaceae) as well as honey in ethanol and sucrose experimental model

    OpenAIRE

    Dzeufiet, Paul Désiré Djomeni; Mogueo, Amélie; Bilanda, Danielle Claude; Aboubakar, Bibi-Farouck Oumarou; Tédong, Léonard; Dimo, Théophile; Kamtchouing, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of the aqueous extract obtained from the mixture of fresh leaf of Persea americana, stems and fresh leaf of Cymbopogon citratus, fruits of Citrus medica and honey on ethanol and sucrose induced hypertension in rats. Methods Rats were divided into eight groups of 6 rats each and daily treated for 5 weeks. The control group received distilled water (1 mL/kg) while rats of groups 2, 3 and 4 received ethanol 40 degrees (3 g/kg/day)...

  5. Drug: D00173 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Rutecarpine [CPD:C09238], Evocarpine [CPD:C16956], N,N-Dimethyl-5-methoxytryptamine [CPD:C17511], N-Methylanthranylamid...vodia fruit; Limonin; Evodia fruit Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Rutaceae (rue family) D00173 Evodia fruit PubChem: 7847241 ... ...D00173 Crude, Drug Evodia fruit (JP16); Evodia fruit (TN) Evodiamine [CPD:C09187], ...CPD:C09873], Goshyuic acid, Rutaevin [CPD:C08779], Evodol, Hydroxyevodiamine Evod...eutic category: 5100 Rutaceae (rue family) Evodia fruit Major component: Evodiamine [CPD:C09187] Therapeutic

  6. Methylenedioxy- and methoxyflavones from Melicope coodeana syn. Euodia simplex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Henrik Toft; Larsen, Michael D; Nielsen, Merete W;

    2002-01-01

    Three new natural products, 3,8-dimethoxy-5,7-dihydroxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavone, 3,6,8-trimethoxy-5,7-dihydroxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavone and 3,6,8,3',4'-pentamethoxy-5,7-dihydroxyflavone were isolated from Melicope coodeana syn. Euodia simplex (Rutaceae) along with 3,6,3'-trimethoxy-5...

  7. 75 FR 17289 - Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus Greening and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD07 Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus... of nursery stock to prohibit the importation of propagative seed of several Rutaceae (citrus family... are also requiring propagative seed of these genera imported from all other countries to...

  8. Phytophotodermatitis: a visit to Margaritaville.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, C L; Sterling, G

    1993-01-01

    Phytophotodermatitis is a phototoxic eruption following contact with photosensitizing compounds and long-wave ultraviolet light. The most common phototoxic compounds are the furocoumarins contained in a wide variety of plants, especially of the Umbelliferae, Rutaceae, and Moracea families. Commonly occurring photosensitizing plants include citrus fruits such as limes and oranges and many vegetables, notably celery, parsnip, parsley, carrots, and dill. PMID:8419109

  9. Environ: E00560 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00560 Grapefruit oil Essential oil Limonene [CPD:C06078], Myrcene [CPD:C06074], al...8] Essential oils [BR:br08321] Dicot plants: rosids Rutaceae (rue family) E00560 Grapefruit Oil CAS: 8016-20-4 ...

  10. Simultaneous determination of aegeline and six coumarins from different parts of the plant Aegle marmelos using UHPLC-PDA-MS and chiral separation of aegeline using HPLC-ToF-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fast UHPLC-PDA method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of one alkaloid, aegeline, and six coumarins namely: umbelliferone; scopoletin; marmesinin; 8-hydroxypsoralen angelicin and marmelosin from leaf, fruit, root and bark of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa (Rutaceae). The method was validate...

  11. Drug: D06501 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06501 Crude, Drug Orange peel syrup (JP16); Dried bitter orange peel (TN) d-Limone...rantium peel Major component: Limonene [CPD:C06078] Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Rutaceae (rue family) D06501 Orange peel syrup PubChem: 47208157 ...

  12. Two New O-terpenoidal Coumarins, Excavacoumarin A and B from Clausena excavata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Two new O-terpenoidal coumarins named excavacoumarin A (2), B (3), and a known one 1 were isolated from the leaves of Clausena excavata Burm. f. (Rutaceae) collected in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan. Structure elucidation and unambiguous NMR assignments for the title compounds were carried out on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR experiments.

  13. New floristic records in the Balkans: 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Sfikas, George; Vold, Gert

    2008-01-01

    -72), Liliaceae s.l. (34, 89), Onagraceae (15), Ophioglossaceae (18), Orchidaceae (78-81, 90), Papaveraceae (29), Plantaginaceae (37-41, 73), Poaceae (1, 35, 36), Polygalaceae (74), Polygonaceae (30), Primulaceae (31), Ranunculaceae (51, 75, 86), Rubiaceae (16), Rutaceae (52), Santalaceae (32), Scrophulariaceae...

  14. Environ: E00402 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00402 Jaborandi leaf Crude drug Pilocarpine [CPD:C07474], Pilocarpidine [CPD:C17964] Pilocarpus jab...Pilocarpus small leaf Major component: Pilocarpine [CPD:C07474] Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Rutaceae (rue family) E00402 Jaborandi leaf ...

  15. Repellent Activity of Some Essential Oils Against Simulium Species in India

    OpenAIRE

    Hazarika, S.; Dhiman, Sunil; Rabha, Bipul; Bhola, RK; Singh, Lokendera

    2012-01-01

    Use of repellents seems to be most reliable method of personal protection against annoyance and infections associated with haematophagous insects. We have investigated the biting activity of Simulium and tested the repellency of five essential oils extracted from Homalomena aromatica Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), Pogostemon heyneanus Bentham (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Vitex negundo L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and Ageratum conzoides L. (Asterales:...

  16. Environ: E00031 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00031 Bitter orange peel (JP16) Orange peel, bitter Crude drug; Medicinal herb d-L...m peel Major component: Limonene [CPD:C06078] Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: rosids Rutaceae (rue family) E00031 Bitter orange peel ...

  17. Antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis (L), Quercus infectoria (Oliver) and Canthium parviflorum (Lam)

    OpenAIRE

    Priya, P. Sathiya; Sasikumar, J. M.; Gowsigan, G.

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis, L., (Rutaceae), Quercus infectoria Oliver., (Fagaceae) and Canthium parviflorum Lam., (Rubiaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytocoa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The experiment was carried out using disc diffusion method. The results revealed that the methanol extract of aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis (L) pr...

  18. Antimycobacterial activity of chemically defined natural substances from the Caribbean flora in Guadeloupe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, N; Abaul, J; Goh, K S; Devallois, A; Philogène, E; Bourgeois, P

    1998-04-01

    Eight chemically defined, naturally occurring compounds were extracted from the tropical flora of the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe: pilocarpine, an alkaloid from Pilocarpus racemosus; heraclenol and isomeranzin, coumarins from Triphasia trifolia; lochnerin, an indole alkaloid from Rauwolfia biauriculata; ibogaine and voacangine, indole alkaloids from Tabernaemontana citrifolia; texalin, an oxazole from Amyris elemifera; and canellal, a sesquiterpene dialdehyde from Canella winterana. An essential oil fraction from Canella winterana was also tested. The antimycobacterial activity of these substances was tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. avium and M. kansasii using the Middlebrook 7H11 agar medium, the Bactec 460-TB radiometric methodology, and determination of bacterial viable counts. Three compounds, namely ibogaine, voacangine and texalin, showed antimycobacterial activity. Investigations on the structure-modification and structure-activity relationships of these compounds may help determine new targets for future drug development. PMID:9626931

  19. Morfologia, comportamento, parasitismo e mecanismos de defesa dos imaturos de Heraclides anchisiades capys (Hübner(Lepidoptera, Papilionidae Morphology, behaviour, parasitism and mechanisms of defense of the immatures of Heraclides anchisiades capys (Hübner (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Anderson Ribeiro Leite

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Heraclides anchisiades capys é uma espécie comum de Papilionidae, cujas larvas se alimentam de várias espécies de Citrus spp. (Rutaceae. Neste estudo são descritas a morfologia e dados sobre a história natural dos imaturos através de ilustrações, incluindo fotografias em microscopia eletrônica de varredura.Heraclides anchisiades capys is a common species among the Papilionidae, whose larvae feed on various species of Citrus spp. (Rutaceae. In this study the morphology and data on natural history of the immature stages of this species are described with illustrations, including photos in scanning electronic microscope.

  20. Antiplasmodial activities of furoquinoline alkaloids from Teclea afzelii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansi, Jean Duplex; Hussain, Hidayat; Tcho, Alain Tadjong; Kouam, Simeon F; Specht, Sabine; Sarite, Salem Ramadan; Hoerauf, Achim; Krohn, Karsten

    2010-05-01

    The study of the chemical constituents of the stem bark of Teclea afzelii (Rutaceae) has resulted in the isolation and characterization of four furoquinoline alkaloids, namely kokusaginine (1), tecleaverdoornine (2), maculine (3) and montrifoline (4) together with lupeol (5) and beta-sitosterol glucopyranoside (6). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic studies. The antimalarial activity of compounds 1-4 against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro shows partial suppression of parasitic growth. PMID:19496062

  1. Evaluation of Antidepressant-like Effect of Citrus Maxima Leaves in Animal Models of Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Potdar, Vikram H; Kibile, Swati J

    2011-01-01

    Objective(s) This study planned to assess antidepressant like activity of aqueous extract from leaves of Citrus maxima Merr. (Rutaceae). Materials and Methods Boiling was used for aqueous extraction. Acute toxicity study was performed in mice. Antidepressant activity was studied using locomotor activity test, modified forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Three doses 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of aqueous extract of leaves were selected for testing. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, i.p.)...

  2. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application

    OpenAIRE

    Michele eNavarra; Carmen eMannucci; Marisa eDelbò; Gioacchino eCalapai

    2015-01-01

    Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as Bergamot, is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy). Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO), employed in perfume, cosmetics, food and confections.The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on Citrus bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysi...

  3. Phytochemical and antibacterial activity of the extracts of Fagara zanthoxyloides on selected cariogenic and enteric bacterial isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Martins Ajibade Adefisoye; Kwashie AjibadeAko-Nai; Mary Adejumoke Bisi-Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fagara zanthoxyloides belongs to the family Rutaceae. The stem and the root of the plant are both used as chewing stick in Nigeria particularly among the Yoruba ethnic group in the South-Western part of the country. This study determined the antimicrobial activity of the extracts from F. zanthoxyloides on selected cariogenic and enteric bacterial isolates. Methods: Crude extracts were obtained by cold extraction method of the powdered stem in methanol-water mixture (MW) in rati...

  4. Antifungal and antioxidant compounds from the root bark of Fagara zanthoxyloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaib, Fatima; Queiroz, Emerson F; Ndjoko, Karine; Diallo, Drissa; Hostettmann, Kurt

    2003-04-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the CH 2 Cl 2 extract of Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam. (Rutaceae) led to the isolation of eleven compounds. One phenylethanoid derivative is a new natural product. The isolation of the antifungal and the antioxidant compounds was monitored by direct TLC bioautographic assays. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by classical spectroscopic methods including UV, NMR, MS and HR-MS. PMID:12709897

  5. Targeting excessive free radicals with peels and juices of citrus fruits: grapefruit, lemon, lime and orange

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; João C. M. Barreira; Sousa, Maria João; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study between the antioxidant properties of peel (flavedo and albedo) and juice of some commercially grown citrus fruit (Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrus aurantiifolia) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) was performed. Different in vitro assays were applied to the volatile and polar fractions of peels and to crude and polar fraction of juices: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, reducing power...

  6. ANTIDIABETIC AND HYPERLIPAEMIC EFFECTS OF CITRUS MAXIMA LINN FRUITS ON ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Parixit Bhandurge; N Rajarajeshwari; K R Alagawadi; Saurabh Agrawal

    2010-01-01

    Citrus maxima Linn commonly known as pummelo belongs to the Rutaceae family. Traditionally its juice is used in the treatment of Diabetes. In the present study, Pet-ether, chloroform, Ethyl acetate, Ethanol extracts and dried juice of the fruits of Citrus Maxima was comparatively evaluated for their blood glucose lowering and hyperlipaemic activity. The ethyl acetate, ethanolic extract, and dried Juice showed significant activity in acute study as compare to diabetic control, but none of the ...

  7. The Cytotoxic Effect of Essential Oil of Syrian Citrus limon Peel on Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line (Lim1863)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Eyad Chatty; Ahmad Samir Alnori; Abdulkader Rahmo; Samer Jomaa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Essential oils are the volatile fraction of aromatic and medicinal plants created after extraction by steam or water distillation. Species of the genus Citrus(Rutaceae) have been widely used in traditional medicine as volatile oils and are currently the subject of numerous research. Citrus essential oil consists of different terpens that have antitumor activities. This study determines the cytotoxic effect of the essential oils of Citrus limon L. peels on a colorectal cancer cell ...

  8. AEGLE MARMELOS (LINN.): A THERAPEUTIC BOON FOR HUMAN HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Patel Axay R; Garach Dipak; Chakraborty Manodeep; Kamath Jagdish V

    2012-01-01

    Traditional system of medicine consist large number medicinal plants, which conveyed their potential therapeutic utilities. Aegle marmelos (Linn.) is commonly known as Bael belongs to Rutaceae Family, widely grown in India, Tropical and subtropical Countries. In India, Aegle marmelos (Linn.) possess great mythological significance and medicinal significant in ancient system of medicine as well. Number of studies on photochemistry of the plat suggest no of bioactive chemical entity like, γ-sit...

  9. Polyphenolic rich traditional plants and teas improve lipid stability in food test systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsaha, Srishti; Aumjaud, B. Esha; Vidushi S. Neergheen-Bhujun; Bahorun, Theeshan

    2013-01-01

    The deleterious effects of lipid autoxidation are of major concern to the food industry and can be prevented by food antioxidants. In this vein, the phenolic contents and antioxidant potential of traditional plants of Mauritius such as P. betle L. (Piperaceae), M. koenigii L. Sprengel. (Rutaceae), O. gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae), O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae), and commercially available Mauritian green and black teas were evaluated. Their ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were compared t...

  10. The Protective Role of Aegle Marmelos on Aspirin–Induced Gastro-Duodenal Ulceration in Albino Rat Model: A Possible Involvement of Antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Shyamal K.; Chandan Roy

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim: Gastro duodenal ulcer is a common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Several Indian medicinal plants have been traditionally and extensively used to prevent different diseases. In the present research studies, Bael fruit (Aegle marmelos (AM), family: Rutaceae) which are also called as Bilva in ancient Sanskrit was used as a herbal drug and its antioxidative role in aspirin- induced gastroduodenal ulceration in albino rat was evaluated using essential biochemical parameter...

  11. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activity, liver profile test, and mutagenic activity of five plants used in traditional Mexican medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Cornejo-Garrido; Martha Salinas-Sandoval; Arely Díaz-López; Patricia Jácquez-Ríos; Myriam Arriaga-Alba; Cynthia Ordaz-Pichardo

    2015-01-01

    Berberis hartwegii Benth., Berberidaceae, Hamelia patens Jacq., Rubiaceae, Dendropanax arboreus (L.) Decne & Planch., Araliaceae, Erythrina herbacea L., Fabaceae, and Zanthoxylum caribaeum Lam., Rutaceae, acetone extracts were selected on the basis of their use in traditional Mexican medicine to treat scabies or skin diseases. Anti-dermatophyte activity in vitro was evaluated using the agar dilution assay, and the therapeutic efficacy of B. hartwegii and Z. caribaeum were tested against exper...

  12. Drug: D06706 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Major component: Naringin [CPD:C09789] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D...gs for pus discharge D06706 *Immature orange; Kijitsu Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Rutaceae (rue family) D06706 Immature orange PubChem: 47208357 ...

  13. Karakterisasi Simplisia Dan Isolasi Minyak Atsiri Dari Kulit Buah Jeruk Jingga (Citrus x Jambhiri Lush) Segar Dan Kering Serta Analisis Komponennya Secara GC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Hutabarat, Shanty

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils are volatile oil with different composition in accordance with the source and are a mixture of chemical compounds of different physicochemical properties. Citrus x jambhiri Lush of the family Rutaceae is one of plants that contains essential oil and is widely used as a flavour. This research consisted of simplex characterization, isolation of essential oils by water distillation and analysis of essential oil components by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) of the f...

  14. Evaluation of the Effect of Lime Fruit Juice on the Anticoagulant Effect of Warfarin

    OpenAIRE

    Adepoju, GKA; Adeyemi, T

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Citrus aurantifolia (Family Rutaceae) is commonly known as a familiar food and medicine, and s therapeutic effectiveness in a variety of diseases has been suggested in traditional medicine. Various complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) have been shown to interact with orthodox medicines. Hence, the aim of this study is to investigate such a phenomenon particularly the interaction of lime fruit juice with warfarin. Materials and Method: Wistar strain albino rats of both sexes weig...

  15. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS of Imidazole Alkaloids in Pilocarpus microphyllus

    OpenAIRE

    Sawaya, Alexandra; Abreu, Ilka Nacif; Andreazza, Nathalia Luiza; Marcos N Eberlin; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2008-01-01

    Pilocarpine, an important imidazole alkaloid, is extracted from the leaves of Pilocarpus microphyllus (Rutaceae), known in Brazil as jaborandi and used mainly for the treatment of glaucoma. Jaborandi leaves also contain other imidazole alkaloids, whose pharmacological and physiological properties are unknown, and whose biosynthetic pathways are under investigation. In the present study, a HPLC method coupled with ESI-MSn was developed for their qualitative and quantitative analysis. This meth...

  16. Chemical composition analysis, antioxidant and antibacterial activity evaluation of essential oil of Atalantia monophylla Correa

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaraj Thirugnanasampandan; Ramya Gunasekar; Madhusudhanan Gogulramnath

    2015-01-01

    Background: Atalantia monophylla Correa. a small tree belongs to the family Rutaceae. It is distributed throughout India and in Tamil Nadu the species is commonly seen in foothills of dry vegetation. Objective: The aim was to hydrodistillate and analyze the chemical composition of essential oil from the fresh leaves of A. monophylla Correa. collected in two different seasons (December, 2013 and May, 2014) and to evaluate antioxidant and antibacterial activities of isolated essential oil. Mate...

  17. The inheritance of leaf oil composition in Clausena anisum-olens (Blanco) Merr.

    OpenAIRE

    Molino, Jean-François

    2000-01-01

    The essential oil from leaves of #Clausena anisum-olens$ (Blanco) Merr. var. #anisum-olens$ (Rutaceae) is studied individually on 91 cultivated and wild plants. Main compounds in the oil were (E)-anethole and/or methyl chavicol, and their respective percentages were stable through time and cultivation for each plant. Variations in oil contents between individuals showed a distribution pattern of apparent genetic origin, with three chemovariants : "pure anethole" oil, "pure methyl chavicol" oi...

  18. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka Essential Oil and Limonene in Experimental Mouse Models

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Kummer; Fernanda Carolina Fachini-Queiroz; Camila Fernanda Estevão-Silva; Renata Grespan; Expedito Leite Silva; Ciomar Aparecida Bersani-Amado; Roberto Kenji Nakamura Cuman

    2013-01-01

    The genus Citrus (Rutaceae) includes several species of plants that produce some of the most cultivated fruits in the world, providing an appreciable content of essential oil. In folk medicine, they are used as a cholagogue, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, sedative, and antitoxic effects. Lemon essential oil has been used since ancient times for its antiseptic, carminative, diuretic, and eupeptic effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka...

  19. In vitro antimicrobial status of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. fruit peel

    OpenAIRE

    Anju Dhiman; Arun Nanda; Sayeed Ahmad; Balasubramanian Narasimhan

    2012-01-01

    Aim : The present investigation evaluated the antimicrobial potential of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. (Rutaceae) fruit peel. There is a basis for the traditional use of this plant for local health remedies. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of C. sinensis fruit peel was tested against three bacterial and two fungal strains. Turbidimetric or tube dilution method and paper disc diffusion method were followed. Results are expressed as mean ± s...

  20. Antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis (L), Quercus infectoria (Oliver) and Canthium parviflorum (Lam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, P Sathiya; Sasikumar, J M; Gowsigan, G

    2009-10-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis, L., (Rutaceae), Quercus infectoria Oliver., (Fagaceae) and Canthium parviflorum Lam., (Rubiaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytocoa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The experiment was carried out using disc diffusion method. The results revealed that the methanol extract of aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis (L) presented the highest zone of inhibition against tested pathogens. Other plants showed significant zone of inhibition. PMID:22557348

  1. Karakterisasi Simplisia Dan Isolasi Serta Analisis Komponen Minyak Atsiri Secara Gc-Ms Dari Kulit Buah Jeruk Bali (Citri maximae pericarpium)

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Nanda

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Volatile oil represents the essential oil with the different composition with chemical physics different. Pomelo (Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr) of the family Rutaceae is one part of species that contain volatile oil and a lot of exploited as smelling. The purpose of this research include simplex characteritation, isolation of volatile oil was accomplished by water distillation and analyzed volatile oil components by Gas Cromatography-Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS) from peel of fr...

  2. Fumigant, Contact, and Repellent Activities of Essential Oils Against the Darkling Beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xuegui; Li, Qian; Shen, Litao; Yang, Jizhi; Cheng, Huabao; Jiang, Surong; Jiang, Chunxian; Wang, Haijian

    2014-01-01

    The fumigant, contact, and repellent activities of four essential oils extracted from Citrus limonum (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Litsea cubeba (Laurales: Lauraceae), Cinnamomum cassia, and Allium sativum L. (Asparagales: Alliaceae) against 6th instars and adults of the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), one of the main pests of materials and products of Juncus effuses L. (Poales: Juncaceae) during the storage period, were assayed, and chemical ingredient...

  3. Ulcer protective potential of standardized hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid isolated from Citrus sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Papiya Bigoniya; Kailash Singh

    2014-01-01

    Free radicals play an important role in stomach ulcer formation. The present investigation validates the anti ulcer activity of hesperidin, isolated from Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, Rutaceae, through the assessment of its antioxidant potential over stomach mucosal tissue by histological examination. Hesperidin was isolated from the dried peel of C. sinensis, and authenticated by TLC, IR and HPLC. The anti-ulcerogenic potential of this fruit was assessed using indomethacin and hypothermic res...

  4. Comparative and combined studies on anti-ulcer effect of two plant extracts in experimental models of gastric ulcer in SD rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gangireddy Ramana; Siva Reddy Challa; Ch V Rao

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to carry out comparative and combined effect anti-ulcer studies of Ficus racemosa Linn. (Family: Moraceae) (Gular) fruit extract and Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Corr. (family: Rutaceae) root extract in various experimental models of ulcer. Materials and Methods: Gastro-protective studies were carried out with individual treatments of Ficus racemosa fruit extract (FRFE) and Aegle marmelos root extract (AMRE) and combination of both in four standard experime...

  5. New Limonoids from Hortia oreadica and Unexpected Coumarin from H. superba Using Chromatography over Cleaning Sephadex with Sodium Hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa G.P. Severino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous investigations of H. oreadica reported the presence of a wide spectrum of complex limonoids and dihydrocinnamic acids. Our interest in the Rutaceae motivated a reinvestigation of H. oreadica, H. brasiliana and H. superba searching for other secondary metabolites present in substantial amounts for taxonomic analysis. In a continuation of the investigation of the H. oreadica, three new limonoids have now been isolated 9α-hydroxyhortiolide A, 11β-hydroxyhortiolide C and 1(S*-acetoxy-7(R*-hydroxy-7-deoxoinchangin. All the isolated compounds from the Hortia species reinforce its position in the Rutaceae. With regard to limonoids the genus produces highly specialized compounds, whose structural variations do not occur in any other member of the Rutaceae, thus, it is evident from limonoid data that Hortia takes an isolated position within the family. In addition, H. superba afforded the unexpected coumarin 5-chloro-8-methoxy-psoralen, which may not be a genuine natural product. Solid-state cross-polarisation/magic-angle-spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, X-Ray fluorescence and Field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy experiments show that the Sephadex LH-20 was modified after treatment with NaOCl, suggesting that when xanthotoxin (8-methoxy-psoralen was extracted from cleaning of the gel column, chlorination of the aromatic system occurred.

  6. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application

    OpenAIRE

    Navarra, Michele; Mannucci, Carmen; Delbò, Marisa; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2015-01-01

    Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as “Bergamot,” is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy). Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO), employed in perfume, cosmetics, food, and confections. The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on C. bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysi...

  7. Toxicity of a furanocoumarin to armyworms: a case of biosynthetic escape from insect herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, M

    1978-08-11

    When the linear furanocoumarin xanthotoxin, found in many plants of the families Rutaceae and Umbelliferae, was administered to larvae of Spodoptera eridania, a generalist insect herbivore, it displayed toxic properties lacking in its biosynthetic precursor umbelliferone. Reduced toxicity observed in the absence of ultraviolet light is consistent with the known mechanism of photoinactivation of DNA by furanocoumarins through ultraviolet-catalyzed cross-linkage of strands. Thus, the ability of a plant to convert umbelliferone to linear furanocoumarins appears to confer broader protection against insect herbivores. PMID:17790440

  8. Phylogenetic Study of Mangifera laurina and its Related Species Using cpDNA trnL-F Spacer Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FITMAWATI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic study of cpDNA intergenic spacer trnL-F of Mangifera laurina and their related species within the genus Mangifera in Indonesia was conducted using Rutaceae as the outgroup. This study was to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and to understand infraspecific relationships within Mangifera based on cpDNA trnL-F intergenic spacer sequences. The results showed that Mangifera sp. Hiku (mangga hiku as the basic cultivar in the clade, and it supported the monophyletic group in Mangifera. And phylogenetic construction indicated that Mangifera sp. Hiku was the progenitor of M. laurina and their related species.

  9. ALCALOIDES ACRIDÔNICOS INIBEM CATEPSINA L E V

    OpenAIRE

    Emerson F. Marques; Vieira, Paulo C.; Richele P. Severino

    2016-01-01

    Cathepsins represent a class of enzymes that has the primary function of randomly degrading proteins in the lysosomes, although are also involved in different pathologies. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the capacity of acridone alkaloids isolated from Swinglea glutinosa (Rutaceae) to inhibit cathepsin L in vitro . The IC50 values found were in the 0.8-57 µM range and the most promising compounds were alkaloids 1 and 2, with IC50 of 0.9 and 0.8 µM, respectively. Enzyme kinetics revealed...

  10. Diversidad de diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae) en dos zonas de colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Moncayo Donoso, Miguel A; Caicedo Vallejo, Ana Milena; Carabalí Muñoz, Arturo; Montoya Lerma, James; Amanza Pinzón, Marta Isabel; Muñoz Florez, Jaime Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    El psílido asiático de los cítricos (Diaphorina citri) se encuentra ampliamente distribuido en regiones tropicales y subtropicales de Asia. Se desarrolla exclusivamente en plantas de la familia Rutaceae, de los géneros Citrus y Murraya y las especies Swinglea glutinosa Murray, Limonia acidissima L. y Citropsis schweinfurthii Swingle y Kellerm. Es importante por transmitir la bacteria que causa la enfermedad del enverdecimiento o greening (en inglés), además ocasiona daño en los brotes nuevos ...

  11. Chemical and antibacterial constituents of Skimmia anquetelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajni Kant; Negi, Devendra Singh; Gibbons, Simon; Otsuka, Hideaki

    2008-02-01

    Investigation of the leaves of Skimmia anquetelia (Rutaceae) led to the isolation of a new coumarin glucoside 7,8-dihdroxy-6-[3'-beta- D-glucopyranosyloxy-2'(xi)-hydroxy-3'-methylbutyl]-coumarin ( 1) together with five known coumarins: 6-(2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-7-methoxycoumarin ( 2), skimmin ( 3), osthol ( 4), esculetin ( 5) and scopuletin ( 6). The antibacterial activity of compounds 1 and 3 was also investigated against the plant bacterial pathogens Agrobacterium tumifaciens, Pseudomonas syringae and Pactobacterium carotovorum. Structures were determined on the basis of analyses of spectral evidence including 1D, 2 D NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY) and mass spectroscopy. PMID:18240101

  12. Environ: E00002 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 238], Evocarpine [CPD:C16956], N,N-Dimethyl-5-methoxytryptamine [CPD:C17511], N-Methylanthranylamide [CPD:C1...E00002 Evodia fruit (JP16) Crude drug Evodiamine [CPD:C09187], Rutecarpine [CPD:C09..., Rutaevin [CPD:C08779], Evodol, Hydroxyevodiamine Evodia rutaecarpa [TAX:3...54523], Evodia officinalis, Evodia bodinieri, Evodia [TAX:354493] Same as: D00173 Rutaceae (rue family) Evodia fruit Major component: Evodiamine [CPD:C09187] ... ...7512], Synephrine [CPD:C04548], Cyclic GMP [CPD:C00942], Limonin [CPD:C03514], Ocimene [CPD:C09873], Goshyuic acid

  13. Micropropagação do jaborandi

    OpenAIRE

    Sabá Renata Tuma; Lameira Osmar Alves; Luz José Magno Queiroz; Gomes Ana Paula do Rosário; Innecco Renato

    2002-01-01

    O jaborandi (Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf) é uma árvore da família Rutaceae destacando-se por intensivo uso na indústria farmacêutica através de um dos seus princípios ativos, pilocarpina, utilizado no controle do glaucoma. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi desenvolver um protocolo de micropropagação de jaborandi. Os ápices e segmentos caulinares utilizados na micropropagação foram retiradas das plântulas germinadas in vitro cultivadas em meio MS com diferentes concentrações e combinações ...

  14. Micropropagação do jaborandi Micropropagation of the jaborandi

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Tuma Sabá; Osmar Alves Lameira; José Magno Queiroz Luz; Ana Paula do Rosário Gomes; Renato Innecco

    2002-01-01

    O jaborandi (Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf) é uma árvore da família Rutaceae destacando-se por intensivo uso na indústria farmacêutica através de um dos seus princípios ativos, pilocarpina, utilizado no controle do glaucoma. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi desenvolver um protocolo de micropropagação de jaborandi. Os ápices e segmentos caulinares utilizados na micropropagação foram retiradas das plântulas germinadas in vitro cultivadas em meio MS com diferentes concentrações e combinações ...

  15. Evaluation of central nervous system effects of Citrus limon essential oil in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lidianne Mayra Lopes Campêlo; Sidney Gonçalo Lima; Chistiane Mendes Feitosa; Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas

    2011-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) depressant and anticonvulsant activities of Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck, Rutaceae, essential oil (EO) were investigated in animal models. The EO (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg) injected by oral route (p.o.) in mice caused a significant decrease in the motor activity of animals when compared with the control group, up to thirty days after the administration and the dose of 150 mg/kg significantly reduced the remaining time of the animals on the Rota-rod apparatus. Additio...

  16. Behavioral effects of essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. inhalation in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana P. Leite; Jaime Fassin Jr.; Eliane M. F. Baziloni; Reinaldo N. Almeida; Rita Mattei; José R. Leite

    2008-01-01

    The orange essential oil (OEO) and its components obtained from Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae) has been attracting interest due to its sedative and relaxing actions. In the present study, rats previously exposed to OEO at the concentrations of 1.0%; 2.5% and 5.0%, w/w, by inhalation during 7 minutes in acrylic boxes were evaluated in two anxiety models: elevated plus maze (EPM) and open-field. The OEO at the concentration of 2.5% increased both the time of the animals in the open arms of the ...

  17. N-Methyl-N-styrylcinnamamide (lansamide from Clausena lansium in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Luger

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C18H17NO, was isolated from the seeds of Clausena lansium (wampee (Rutaceae. The X-ray crystal structure analysis confirmed its chemical identity and revealed that it is solvent-free, in contrast to the previously reported monohydrate [Huang, Ou & Tang (2006. Acta Cryst. E62, o1987–o1988]. The molecular structures are practically identical but the molecules pack differently. In contrast to the monohydrate in which the water molecule generates two hydrogen bonds, no such intermolecular contacts are present in the title compound. The dihedral angle between the cinnamamide and the styryl group is 53.1 (1°.

  18. Moscas frugívoras associadas a mirtáceas e laranjeira "Céu" na região do Vale do Rio Caí, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Frugivorous flies in myrtaceans and orange trees 'Céu' in the region of Vale do Rio Caí, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Tacimara Gattelli; Fernando Felisberto da Silva; Rafael Narciso Meirelles; Luiza Rodrigues Redaelli; Fábio Kessler Dal Soglio

    2008-01-01

    Este estudo teve o objetivo de reconhecer as espécies de moscas frugívoras em mirtáceas: Eugenia uniflora L., Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg., Psidium cattleianum Sabine, Psidium guajava L. e Acca sellowiana (Berg.) Burret., bem como em Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), na região do Vale do Caí, RS. Os frutos foram coletados no período de maturação de cada espécie frutífera, entre outubro de 2004 e julho de 2005, levados ao laboratório e acondicionados em potes com areia mantidos a 25 &p...

  19. Antileishmanial and antifungal acridone derivatives from the roots of Thamnosma rhodesica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahua, Kouassi Maximin; Ioset, Jean-Robert; Ransijn, Adriana; Mauël, Jacques; Mavi, Steven; Hostettmann, Kurt

    2004-04-01

    Eight furanocoumarins, one coumarin and four acridone derivatives have been identified in the roots of Thamnosma rhodesica (Rutaceae). Rhodesiacridone, one of these acridone derivatives, is reported here for the first time. Its structure was elucidated by spectrometric methods including ESI-HR, EI, DCI mass spectrometry, 1H, 13C and 2D NMR experiments. This novel compound showed activities against the intracellular form of a human pathogen, the protozoan parasite Leishmania major. Two known acridone related compounds, gravacridonediol and 1-hydroxy-10-methylacridone, exhibited activities against the intracellular form of the same parasite and the fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum, respectively. PMID:15081302

  20. Antifungal alkaloids and limonoid derivatives from Dictamnus dasycarpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W; Wolfender, J L; Hostettmann, K; Xu, R; Qin, G

    1998-01-01

    From the root bark of Dictamnus dasycarpus (Rutaceae), four limonoid derivatives, two furoquinoline alkaloids, five limonoids, two sesquiterpenes and three steroids were isolated and their structures elucidated on the basis of various spectroscopic methods. Among the identified compounds, one was determined to be a new natural product, 6 beta-hydroxyfraxinellone, while six compounds were found to be active against the plant pathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum. The relationship between the structures of limonoid derivatives and their inhibitory activity against fungal growth was investigated. PMID:9429316

  1. Isolation and Structural Elucidation of an Unknown compound from Murraya alternans (Kurz)Swingle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new taxon of a species, Murraya alternans (Kurz) Swingle (Myanmar name, Naganaing) the series of Murraya belonging to the family Rutaceae had been recognized by Peter G. Waterman in 1986. However, this species has not been undertaken in botanical, medical, and chemical aspects. In this paper, scientific study on this taxon was chemically carried out for the first time. One of the unknown compounds was isolated from this species by column and high performance liquid chromatographic methods. It's partial structure could also be elucidated by spectral analysis such as IR, MS, H NMR(400MHz), C NMR (100MHz) spectrometry respectively. (author)

  2. R-(-)-β-O-methylsynephrine, a natural product, inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → R-(-)-β-O-methylsynephrine (OMe-Syn) is a natural compound isolated from a plant of the Rutaceae family. → OMe-Syn possesses lead-like physicochemical properties, conferring good solubility. → OMe-Syn effectively inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. → OMe-Syn could be a novel basis for a small molecule targeting angiogenesis. -- Abstract: R-(-)-β-O-methylsynephrine (OMe-Syn) is an active compound isolated from a plant of the Rutaceae family. We conducted cell proliferation assays on various cell lines and found that OMe-Syn more strongly inhibited the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) than that of other normal and cancer cell lines tested. In angiogenesis assays, it inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced invasion and tube formation of HUVECs with no toxicity. The anti-angiogenic activity of OMe-Syn was also validated in vivo using the chorioallantonic membrane (CAM) assay in growing chick embryos. Expression of the growth factors VEGF, hepatocyte growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor was suppressed by OMe-Syn in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, our results indicate that this compound could be a novel basis for a small molecule targeting angiogenesis.

  3. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts. PMID:11695884

  4. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF LEAVES, FRUITS AND PEEL EXTRACTS OF CITRUS

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    Muthiah PL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Aim: The present study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activities of the leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon belonging to the family Rutaceae. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities of the hydroethanolic extracts have been evaluated by using different in vitro assays and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, ascorbic acid, curcumin, quercetin, etc. In addition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in these extracts were determined as pyrocatechol and quercetin equivalents respectively. Among the extracts assayed, 4 extracts (leaf and peel extracts of C.aurantium , peel and fruit extracts of C.limetta had effective H donor ability, reducing power ability, metal chelating activity, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant activity depends upon concentration and increased with increasing amount of the extracts. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities may be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds present in the extracts. Result: The results obtained in the present study indicate that the leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon serve as the potential source of natural antioxidants. Keywords: Antioxidant; Citrus aurantium; Citrus limetta; Citrus limon; free radical; Rutaceae.

  5. A new species of Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae from Brazil Uma nova espécie de Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae do Brasil

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    Pedro C. Strikis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., is described and illustrated. This new species was found in the south of Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, in the southeast (State of São Paulo and center west (State of Mato Grosso do Sul. It has been reared from fruits of guava (Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae, "araçá" (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae, "guabiroba" (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae, Surinam cherry (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae, cherry (Prunus avium, Rosaceae, orange (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae, "ingá" (Inga laurina, Fabaceae, "esporão-de-galo" (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae.Uma nova espécie de Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., é descrita e ilustrada. Esta nova espécie foi encontrada no sul do Brasil (Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina, no sudeste (Estado de São Paulo e na região centro-oeste (Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. Foi obtida de frutos de goiaba (Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae, araçá (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae, guabiroba (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae, acerola (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae, cereja (Prunus avium, Rosaceae, laranja (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae, ingá (Inga laurina, Fabaceae, esporão-de-galo (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae e maracujá (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae.

  6. Usos en medicina folclórica, actividad biológica y fitoquímica de metabolitos secundarios de algunas especies del género Zanthoxylum

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    Víctor Enríque Macias Villamizar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSegún el Herbario Nacional de Colombia de la familia Rutaceae en Colombia se encuentran 150 géneros y 900 especies (1, de las cuales muchas han sido utilizada no sólo en la medicina folklórica (2, 3, 4, 5 en tratamientos digestivos, tónico estomático, diuréticos, sedativos entre otros; sino también determinada su actividad biológica como antiplasmódico y citotóxico (5. En la familia Rutaceae se encuentra el género Zanthoxylum (6, del cual también se utiliza en medicina folklórica que incluyen tratamientos contra la tos, enteritis, diarrea, resfriado, reumatismo y ulceraciones (7, 8, 9, 10, 11; también se ha ensayado su actividad biológica donde se encontró ser efectiva, entre otras, a nivel: antimicrobial (7, 8, 9; citotóxica (12,13; Antiagregación plaquetaria (14, 15, y antitumoral (16. La amplia gama de usos etnobotánicos y farmacológicos convierte a los extractos (o compuestos aislados del género Zanthoxylum en materia prima a utilizar en el desarrollo de ensayos para evaluar la actividad biológica, la cual está asociada a la riqueza de metabolitos secundarios tales como alcaloides, lignanos, terpenos, flavonoides, cumarinas, entre otros; convirtiendo al género Zanthoxylum en objeto de estudió fitoquímico promisorio.En este artículo se realiza un aporte al estudió del género Zanthoxylum, en aspectos relacionados con su fitoquímica, sus usos en medicina folclórica y su actividad biológica; y en consecuencia un aporte pertinente al conocimiento en la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, debido a la actual tendencia de recurrir a medicina natural para el desarrollo de medicamentos de relativo bajo costo y con mayor probabilidad de adquisición del mismo. (Duazary 2007; 2: 140 - 159AbstractAccording to the Herbarium National of Colombia the Rutaceae family in Colombia are 150 genus and 900 species (1, of which many have been used not only in the folkloric medicine (2, 3, 4, 5 in digestive treatments, stomatic

  7. Effects of Alternative Fuels and Aromatics on Gas-Turbine Particle Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, K. L., II; Moore, R.; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.; Klettlinger, J. L.; Ross, R. C.; Surgenor, A.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation describes experiments conducted with a Honeywell GTCP36-150 Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) to evaluate the effects of varying fuel composition on particle emissions. The APU uses a single-stage compressor stage, gas turbine engine with a can-type combustor to generate bypass flow and electrical power for supporting small aircraft and helicopters. It is installed in a "hush-house" at NASA Glenn Research Center and is configured as a stand-alone unit that can be fueled from an onboard tank or external supply. It operates at constant RPM, but its fuel flow can be varied by changing the electrical load or volume of bypass flow. For these tests, an external bank of resistors were attached to the APU's DC and AC electrical outlets and emissions measurements were made at low, medium and maximum electrical current loads. Exhaust samples were drawn from several points downstream in the exhaust duct and fed to an extensive suite of gas and aerosol sensors installed within a mobile laboratory parked nearby. Aromatic- and sulfur-free synthetic kerosenes from Rentech, Gevo, UOP, Amyris and Sasol were tested and their potential to reduce PM emissions evaluated against a single Jet A1 base fuel. The role of aromatic compounds in regulating soot emissions was also evaluated by adding metered amounts of aromatic blends (Aro-100, AF-Blend, SAK) and pure compounds (tetracontane and 1-methylnaphthalene) to a base alternative fuel (Sasol). Results show that, relative to Jet A1, alternative fuels reduce nonvolatile particle number emissions by 50-80% and--by virtue of producing much smaller particles—mass emissions by 65-90%; fuels with the highest hydrogen content produced the greatest reductions. Nonvolatile particle emissions varied in proportion to fuel aromatic content, with additives containing the most complex ring structures producing the greatest emission enhancements.

  8. Analysis of Insect toxicity and repellent activity of Phytochemicals from "Skimmia laureola, Nair" against "Black garden ant, Lasius niger" of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Ferhat; Khan, Zaheer-ud-Din; Manzoor, Farkhanda; Jamil, Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the toxicity and repellency of essential oils from root, stem and leaves of Nazar panra, Skimmia laureola (DC.) Zucc. Ex Walp. of family (Sapindales: Rutaceae) ver. Nair of Pakistan. The oils were tested at three concentrations i.e. 1, 5 and 10%. Black garden ant, Lasius niger L. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Pakistan were selected and exposed to essential oils at room temperature. All essential oils showed Insecticidal activity with LC(50)=10.15, while dose dependant effect was significant with R(2)=0.98. It can be concluded that the three Essential oils in this study have both Insecticidal as well as repellent effect. PMID:27166549

  9. Screening of Trypanosoma cruzi glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Leite

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory activity of crude extracts of Meliaceae and Rutaceae plants on glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH enzyme from Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated at 100 μg/mL. Forty-six extracts were tested and fifteen of them showed significant inhibitory activity (IA % > 50. The majority of the assayed extracts of Meliaceae plants (Cedrela fissilis, Cipadessa fruticosa and Trichilia ramalhoi showed high ability to inhibit the enzymatic activity. The fractionation of the hexane extract from branches of C. fruticosa led to the isolation of three flavonoids: flavone, 7-methoxyflavone and 3',4',5',5,7-pentamethoxyflavone. The two last compounds showed high ability to inhibit the gGAPDH activity. Therefore, the assayed Meliaceae species could be considered as a promising source of lead compounds against Chagas' disease.

  10. EFFICACY OF EXTRACTS OF SIX MEDICINAL PLANTS OF INDIA AGAINST SOME PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

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    Indranil Bhattacharjee

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of the pathogenic multi-drug resistant bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus niacini, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Paenibacillus koreensis, Paenibacillus larvae larvae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas flourescens, Pseudomonas putida and Staphylocccus aureus was tested against aqueous, acetone and ethanol extracts of mature leaves of Mimosa pudica Linn. (Mimosaceae and Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae, stems of Michelia champaca Linn. (Magnoliaceae and Musa paradisiaca Linn.(Musaceae, roots of Momordica charantia Linn. (Cucurbitaceae and Murraya koenigii Linn. (Rutaceae by agar well diffusion method. Gatifloxacin was the most effective antibiotic against all the reference bacteria. Though all the extracts were found effective, the ethanol extract showed maximum inhibition against the test microorganisms followed by acetone and aqueous extract. Bacillus niacini is the most resistant bacteria and Klebsiella pneumoniae is the most sensitive bacteria against all the extracts used. MIC values of each bacterium were also determined

  11. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work. PMID:26871743

  12. Tendências evolutivas de famílias produtoras de cumarinas em angiospermae Evolutionary tendency of coumarin-bearing families in angiospermae

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    Claudia Valeria Campos Ribeiro

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Coumarins are special metabolites well distributed in the Angiospermae, either in Monocotyledoneae or Dicotyledoneae. Simple coumarins, the most widespread type, is found in all coumarin-producing families, such as: Apiaceae, Rutaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Oleaceae, Moraceae e Thymelaeaceae. The other types, linear- and angular furanocoumarins, linear- and angular pyranocoumarins, lignocoumarins, bis- and triscoumarins, are of more restricted circumscription. Among the families with occurrence numbers (NO > 100, the more advanced ones are specialized in the production of only one or two coumarin types, while the primitive families are very well diversified in types. Calculations of percentual numbers of occurrence (%NO show relevant meaning of coumarin-types in the taxonomic positioning of the producing taxa.

  13. New pyranoflavones and trypanocidal activity of compounds isolated from Conchocarpus heterophyllus; Piranoflavonas ineditas e atividades tripanocidas das substancias isoladas de Conchocarpus heterophyllus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrozin, Alessandra Regina Pepe; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: paulo@dq.ufscar.br; Albuquerque, Sergio de [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas

    2008-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of trypanocidal extracts from leaves and stems of Conchocarpus heterophyllus (A. St.-Hil.) Kallunki and Pirani (Rutaceae) afforded new pyranoflavones along with the known compounds flavone, 7-methoxyflavone, 5-hydroxyflavone, haplotusine, 1-methyl-2-phenyl-4-quinolone alkaloid, {beta}sitosterol, stigmasterol, and {beta}-sitosteryl benzoate. Their structures were established based on their spectral data. NMR data for the alkaloid haplotusine and the new pyranoflavones are described for the first time herein. These compounds were assayed on the tripomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Among them, haplotusine and 1-methyl-2-phenyl-4-quinolone showed moderate values of IC{sub 50} 136.9 and 144.9 {mu}M, respectively. (author)

  14. ANTIDIABETIC AND HYPERLIPAEMIC EFFECTS OF CITRUS MAXIMA LINN FRUITS ON ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    Parixit Bhandurge

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Citrus maxima Linn commonly known as pummelo belongs to the Rutaceae family. Traditionally its juice is used in the treatment of Diabetes. In the present study, Pet-ether, chloroform, Ethyl acetate, Ethanol extracts and dried juice of the fruits of Citrus Maxima was comparatively evaluated for their blood glucose lowering and hyperlipaemic activity. The ethyl acetate, ethanolic extract, and dried Juice showed significant activity in acute study as compare to diabetic control, but none of the extract showed significant results in prolonged study. The experiment also conformed ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts significantly reduced the elevated total cholesterol, triglyceride level, SGOT, SGPT, ALD and Urea level. Our data suggest a significant antidiabetic and hyperlipaemic effects of Citrus maxima fruit extracts in alloxan diabetic rats.

  15. Efeitos da temperatura e do alimento no desenvolvimento de Dysdercus maurus Distant (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae Effects of temperature and food on the development of Dysdercus maurus Distant (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae

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    Fábio Souto Almeida

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Dysdercus maurus Distant, 1901 (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae é uma importante praga de Gossypium spp. (algodoeiro, Citrus Sinensis Osbeck (Rutaceae (laranjeira e Citrus reticulata (Rutaceae (tangerineira, além de sementes de Chorisia speciosa St. Hil. (paineira. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da temperatura e do alimento no desenvolvimento de D. maurus. Foram realizados oito tratamentos, seis em que os percevejos foram alimentados com sementes de paineira e mantidos a 15, 18, 20, 25 e 30 ± 1ºC, UR 80 ± 3% e fotofase de 12 h ou em condições ambientais de laboratório (23,5 ± 2,6ºC, UR 73,3 ± 9,9 %, e dois em que foram alimentados com sementes de algodão variedade IAC-22 e mantidos a 25 e 30ºC. Em todos os tratamentos foram observados cinco estágios imaturos. O aumento da temperatura proporcionou diminuição do tempo de desenvolvimento. A temperatura de 15ºC foi letal para ovos e ninfas de D. maurus. A menor mortalidade de ninfas ocorreu quando os percevejos foram alimentados com sementes de algodão a 25ºC (24,07%. A menor temperatura base (Tb foi obtida para o 1º ínstar (11,54ºC e a maior para o 2º ínstar (15,33ºC. As fêmeas de D. maurus necessitam de maior quantidade de graus-dias (329,93 graus-dias que os machos (300,49 graus-dias para atingir o estádio adulto.Dysdercus maurus Distant, 1901 (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae is an important pest on Gossypium spp. (cotton tree, Citrus sinensis Osbeck (Rutaceae and Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae crops. This insect also feeds on seeds of Chorisia speciosa St. Hil. (Bombacaceae. This work aimed to evaluate the effects of temperature and food on the development of D. maurus. Eight treatments were carried out, in six of them bugs were fed with seeds of C. speciosa and kept at 15, 18, 20, 25 and 30 ± 1ºC, 80 ± 3% RH and 12h photophase or in laboratory conditions (23.5 ± 2.6ºC, 73.3 ± 9.9 % RH, and in the other two treatments bugs were fed with seeds of cotton variety

  16. AEGLE MARMELOS (LINN.: A THERAPEUTIC BOON FOR HUMAN HEALTH

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    Patel Axay R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional system of medicine consist large number medicinal plants, which conveyed their potential therapeutic utilities. Aegle marmelos (Linn. is commonly known as Bael belongs to Rutaceae Family, widely grown in India, Tropical and subtropical Countries. In India, Aegle marmelos (Linn. possess great mythological significance and medicinal significant in ancient system of medicine as well. Number of studies on photochemistry of the plat suggest no of bioactive chemical entity like, γ-sitosterol, aegelin, lupeol, rutin, marmesinin, β-sitosterol, flavone, glycoside, O-isopentenyl halfordiol, marmeline and phenylethyl cinnamamides. A priceless tank of bioactive molecule of the plant exploit its medicinal properties such as antidiabetic, antiulcer, antioxidant, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, radioprotective, antihyperlipidaemic, antifungal, antibacterial and antiviral activities. Present review highlights the present Ethno-pharmacological uses, and chemical properties of Aegle marmelos (Linn.

  17. Leaf-cutting ants toxicity of limonexic acid and degraded limonoids from Raulinoa echinata: X-ray structure of epoxy-fraxinellone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytochemical survey of roots extracts of the South Brazilian endemic plant Raulinoa echinata Cowan, Rutaceae led to the isolation of known degraded limonoids: fraxinellone, fraxinellonone and epoxy-fraxinellone. The latter was previously isolated also from the stems, but the relative configuration could not be solved by NMR experiments. This paper deals with the X-ray diffraction analysis of epoxy-fraxinellone and its toxicity to leaf-cutting ants, describes the isolation of fraxinellonone and fraxinellone for the first time in Raulinoa. Epoxy-fraxinellone showed no toxicity to the leaf-cutting ants (Atta sexdens rubropilosa). The limonoid limonexic acid, isolated from stems, presented high toxicity to the leaf-cutting ants, diminishing considerably their longevity. (author)

  18. ALCALOIDES ACRIDÔNICOS INIBEM CATEPSINA L E V

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    Emerson F. Marques

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cathepsins represent a class of enzymes that has the primary function of randomly degrading proteins in the lysosomes, although are also involved in different pathologies. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the capacity of acridone alkaloids isolated from Swinglea glutinosa (Rutaceae to inhibit cathepsin L in vitro . The IC50 values found were in the 0.8-57 µM range and the most promising compounds were alkaloids 1 and 2, with IC50 of 0.9 and 0.8 µM, respectively. Enzyme kinetics revealed that they are reversible competitive inhibitors with respect to the substrate Z-FR-MCA. This small series of acridone alkaloids showed low selectivity for both cathepsins, but represent promising lead candidates for the further development of competitive cathepsin L and V inhibitors.

  19. Ethnoveterinary practices of aborigine tribes in Odisha, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bikram K Mallik; Tribhuban Panda; Rabindra N Padhy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To record ethnoveterinary information of numerous aboriginal tribes of Kalahandi district of Odisha state, India. Methods: A survey of about 20 hamlets in the district was done with a questioner and personal interviews using the snowball technique in survey and sampling.Results:Seventy-three plants belonging to 41 families (Acanthaceae, Alangiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Anacadiaceae, Annonaceae, Araceae, Arecaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Asteraceae, Bombaceae, Brassicaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Combretaceae, Convolvulaceae, Ebenaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Lecythidaceae, Loganiaceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Menispermaceae, Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Moringaceae, Musaceae, Myrtaceae, Piperaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, Solanaceae, Umbelliferae, Verbenaceae, Vitaceae and Zingiberaceae) are used by aborigine tribes of Kalahandi district, Odisha, India, for treating ailments of domestic animals. Conclusion: Aborigine tribes of Kalahandi district use about 73 plants for treating ailments of animals.

  20. Chemical Evidence for Potent Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Citrus aurantium L. Dried Immature Fruits

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    Kun Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Xanthine oxidase is a key enzyme which can catalyze hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid causing hyperuricemia in humans. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of 24 organic extracts of four species belonging to Citrus genus of the family Rutaceae were assayed in vitro. Since the ethyl acetate extract of C. aurantium dried immature fruits showed the highest xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity, chemical evidence for the potent inhibitory activity was clarified on the basis of structure identification of the active constituents. Five flavanones and two polymethoxyflavones were isolated and evaluated for inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase in vitro. Of the compounds, hesperetin showed more potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 16.48 μM. For the first time, this study provides a rational basis for the use of C. aurantium dried immature fruits against hyperuricemia.

  1. Chemical Evidence for Potent Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Citrus aurantium L. Dried Immature Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun; Wang, Wei; Guo, Bing-Hua; Gao, Hua; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Yao, Hui-Li; Cheng, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Xanthine oxidase is a key enzyme which can catalyze hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid causing hyperuricemia in humans. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of 24 organic extracts of four species belonging to Citrus genus of the family Rutaceae were assayed in vitro. Since the ethyl acetate extract of C. aurantium dried immature fruits showed the highest xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity, chemical evidence for the potent inhibitory activity was clarified on the basis of structure identification of the active constituents. Five flavanones and two polymethoxyflavones were isolated and evaluated for inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase in vitro. Of the compounds, hesperetin showed more potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 16.48 μM. For the first time, this study provides a rational basis for the use of C. aurantium dried immature fruits against hyperuricemia. PMID:26950105

  2. Schistosomicidal evaluation of Zanthoxylum naranjillo and its isolated compounds against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braguine, Caio G; Costa, Eveline S; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; da Silva Filho, Ademar A; Bastos, Jairo K; Silva, Márcio L A; Cunha, Wilson R; Januário, Ana H; Pauletti, Patrícia M

    2009-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the EtOAc fraction (EF) obtained from the ethanolic extract of Zanthoxylum naranjillo (Rutaceae) leaves (EE) by preparative HPLC resulted in the isolation of protocatechuic acid (1), gallic acid (2), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (3), and 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid (4). This is the first time that the presence of compounds 1-4 in Z. naranjillo has been reported. Compounds 1-4, the EE, and EF were tested in vitro against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms. The results showed that the S. mansoni daily egg production decreased by 29.8%, 13.5%, 28.4%, 17.7%, 16.3%, and 6.4%, respectively. Compounds 1 and 3 were also able to separate adult worm pairs into male and female. This activity may be correlated with the reduction in egg production, since 1 and 3 showed better inhibitory properties compared with 2 and 4. PMID:20158148

  3. Leaf essential oil composition of five Zanthoxylum species from Monteverde, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setzer, William N; Noletto, Joseph A; Lawton, Robert O; Haber, William A

    2005-01-01

    The leaf essential oils from five species of Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) from Monteverde, Costa Rica, have been obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The species examined include Z. fagara, Z. acuminatum, Z. melanostictum, Z. monophyllum, and an undescribed species. The most abundant classes of compounds found in Zanthoxylum leaf oils are acyclic and menthane monoterpenoids as well as simple alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones. In terms of molecular diversity, menthane and acyclic monoterpenoids, cadinane and mesocyclic sesquiterpenoids, and simple alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones dominate the essential oils of Zanthoxylum species. Monoterpenoids make up the majority of the mass of the leaf oils of Z. monophyllum, Z. acuminatum, Z. fagara, and Zanthoxylum sp. nov. Linalool, 4-terpineol, alpha-terpineol, and trans-2-hexenol, are found in all of the Zanthoxylum species examined in this study. PMID:15789546

  4. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit

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    Swapnil Y Chaudhari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Citrus jambhiri Lush., commonly known as Jambīra Nimbū in Sanskrit is medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon and belonging to the family Rutaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used in many pharmaceutical procedures of purification (Śodhana, calcination (Māraṇa etc., Though it is an important plant, till date, no pharmacognostical reports have been available on its fruit. Materials and Methods: Study of fruit and its powder, histochemical tests and preliminary physicochemical investigations were done. Results and Conclusion: Results showed prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, aerenchyma cells, oil globules, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels, juicy sac, etc., Preliminary physicochemical analysis revealed loss on drying (1.1%, ash value (1.4%, alcohol soluble extract (28.6%, and water soluble extract (53.3%. These observations can be of use in future studies.

  5. In vitro pollen germination of five citrus species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of present study is In vitro germination of the pollen grains of five Citrus species belonging to the family Rutaceae viz., Citrus aurantium L. var., aurantium Hook.f., C. limon (L.) Brum. f., C. paradisii Macfad, C. reticulata Blanco and C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck. using hanging drop technique. The germination was checked up to 48 weeks, for the pollen stored at different temperatures like 4 degree C, -20 degree C, -30 degree C and -60 degree C. The study indicates that low temperature and low relative humidity is better than high temperature and humidity with respect to pollen germination capacity and viability. Freeze dryer (-60 degree C) seems to be the best method to maintain pollen viability of stored pollen grains for a long period of time. Among five species Citrus aurantium, C. limon and C. sinensis showed high percentage of germination as compared to C. reticulata and C. paradisii. (author)

  6. Leaf-cutting ants toxicity of limonexic acid and degraded limonoids from Raulinoa echinata: X-ray structure of epoxy-fraxinellone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biavatti, Maique W.; Westerlon, Rosangela [Universidade do Vale do Itajai, SC (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: maique@univali.br; Vieira, Paulo C.; Silva, M. Fatima G.F. da; Fernandes, Joao B. [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Penaflor, M. Fernanda G.V.; Bueno, Odair C. [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos de Insetos Sociais; Ellena, Javier [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2005-11-15

    Phytochemical survey of roots extracts of the South Brazilian endemic plant Raulinoa echinata Cowan, Rutaceae led to the isolation of known degraded limonoids: fraxinellone, fraxinellonone and epoxy-fraxinellone. The latter was previously isolated also from the stems, but the relative configuration could not be solved by NMR experiments. This paper deals with the X-ray diffraction analysis of epoxy-fraxinellone and its toxicity to leaf-cutting ants, describes the isolation of fraxinellonone and fraxinellone for the first time in Raulinoa. Epoxy-fraxinellone showed no toxicity to the leaf-cutting ants (Atta sexdens rubropilosa). The limonoid limonexic acid, isolated from stems, presented high toxicity to the leaf-cutting ants, diminishing considerably their longevity. (author)

  7. Ethnopharmacological study of medicinal plants used in Rosário da Limeira, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Helaine B. de Oliveira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the popular knowledge on the use of medicinal plants and the contribution in the preservation of medicinal flora, the present work aims to rescue and organize such knowledge on medicinal species and its relation with therapeutic uses, in the city of Rosario de Limeira, MG. Data were collected January to March, 2007. Fifteen informants, all resident in urban and agricultural communities, were asked about their knowledge on medicinal plants. The current survey revealed the use of 66 species belonging to 33 families (Asteraceae with the major number of species, followed by Lamiaceae, Rutaceae, and Bignoniaceae used in the treatment of various diseases. 44,3% of them grow spontaneously and 55,7% are cultivated. The main vegetal part used in the preparation of the phytotherapy was the leaf, and the most common preparation was the infusion. The most used species were: Baccharis trimera, Mentha sp., Plantago major, Chenopodium ambrosioides and Symphytum officinale.

  8. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application

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    Michele eNavarra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as Bergamot, is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy. Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO, employed in perfume, cosmetics, food and confections.The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on Citrus bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysis, focus on safety and the beneficial effects on human health. Clinical studies on the therapeutic applications of BEO exclusively focus on the field of aromatherapy, suggesting that its use can be useful for reducing anxiety and stress.

  9. ORANGE: RANGE OF BENEFITS

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    Parle Milind

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal properties of orange include anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti- diabetic, cardio- protective, anti-cancer, anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-Tubercular, anti-asthmatic and anti-hypertensive. Phytochemically, whole plant contains limonene, citral, neohesperidin, naringin, rutin, rhamnose, eriocitrin, and vitamin-C. In the present review article, a humble attempt is made to compile all the strange facts available about this tasty fruit.

  10. New Umami Amides: Structure-Taste Relationship Studies of Cinnamic Acid Derived Amides and the Natural Occurrence of an Intense Umami Amide in Zanthoxylum piperitum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerot, Eric; Neirynck, Nathalie; Cayeux, Isabelle; Yuan, Yoyo Hui-Juan; Yuan, Yong-Ming

    2015-08-19

    A series of aromatic amides were synthesized from various acids and amines selected from naturally occurring structural frameworks. These synthetic amides were evaluated for umami taste in comparison with monosodium glutamate. The effect of the substitution pattern of both the acid and the amine parts on umami taste was investigated. The only intensely umami-tasting amides were those made from 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid. The amine part was more tolerant to structural changes. Amides bearing an alkyl- or alkoxy-substituted phenylethylamine residue displayed a clean umami taste as 20 ppm solutions in water. Ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with a high quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer (UPLC/MS) was subsequently used to show the natural occurrence of these amides. (E)-3-(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methoxyphenethyl)acrylamide was shown to occur in the roots and stems of Zanthoxylum piperitum, a plant of the family Rutaceae growing in Korea, Japan, and China. PMID:26230212

  11. Evaluation of the Effect of Lime Fruit Juice on the Anticoagulant Effect of Warfarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adepoju, GKA; Adeyemi, T

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Citrus aurantifolia (Family Rutaceae) is commonly known as a familiar food and medicine, and s therapeutic effectiveness in a variety of diseases has been suggested in traditional medicine. Various complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) have been shown to interact with orthodox medicines. Hence, the aim of this study is to investigate such a phenomenon particularly the interaction of lime fruit juice with warfarin. Materials and Method: Wistar strain albino rats of both sexes weighing between 190 and 230g were administered with oral doses of the respective drugs used depending on the groups of animals. Effects on the anticoagulant activity of warfarin were determined by standard laboratory methods. Result: Lime fruit juice caused a reduction in the anticoagulant activity of warfarin. Conclusion: This finding has shown that CAM can interact with orthodox medicines hence, warfarin prescribers need to be aware of the usage of CAM and monitor the international normalized ratio (INR) of their patients more frequently. PMID:21042484

  12. Zoosporicidal metabolites from an endophytic fungus Cryptosporiopsis sp. of Zanthoxylum leprieurii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talontsi, Ferdinand Mouafo; Facey, Petrea; Tatong, Michel D Kongue; Tofazzal Islam, M; Frauendorf, Holm; Draeger, Siegfried; Tiedemann, Andreas von; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2012-11-01

    Two polyketides, cryptosporiopsin A (1) and hydroxypropan-2',3'-diol orsellinate (3), and a natural cyclic pentapeptide (4), together with two known compounds were isolated from the culture of Cryptosporiopsis sp., an endophytic fungus from leaves and branches of Zanthoxylum leprieurii (Rutaceae). The structures of these metabolites were elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic and spectrometric data. Cryptosporiopsin A and the other metabolites exhibited motility inhibitory and lytic activities against zoospores of the grapevine downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara viticola at 10-25μg/mL. In addition, the isolated compounds displayed potent inhibitory activity against mycelial growth of two other peronosporomycete phytopathogens, Pythium ultimum, Aphanomyces cochlioides and a basidiomycetous fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Weak cytotoxic activity on brine shrimp larvae was observed. PMID:22883958

  13. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarra, Michele; Mannucci, Carmen; Delbò, Marisa; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2015-01-01

    Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as "Bergamot," is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy). Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO), employed in perfume, cosmetics, food, and confections. The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on C. bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysis, focus on safety and the beneficial effects on human health. Clinical studies on the therapeutic applications of BEO exclusively focus on the field of aromatherapy, suggesting that its use can be useful for reducing anxiety and stress. PMID:25784877

  14. Chemical investigation of metabolites produced by an endophytic Aspergillus sp. isolated from Limonia acidissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, A M D A; Kumar, N Savitri; Jayasinghe, Lalith; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are considered as a good source to produce important secondary metabolites with interesting bioactivities. In a continuation of our studies towards the search for environmentally friendly bioactive compounds from Sri Lankan flora, we investigated the secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungi Aspergillus sp. isolated from the seeds of the popular edible fruit Limonia acidissima L. of the family Rutaceae. The pure culture of the Aspergillus sp. was grown on potato dextrose broth media. After 4 weeks fermentation, fungal media were extracted with organic solvents. Chromatographic separation of the fungal extracts over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and RP-HPLC furnished flavasperone (1), rubrofusarin B (2), aurasperone A (3), fonsecinone D (4) and aurasperone B (5). Compounds 1-4 showed moderate activities in brine shrimp toxicity assay. This is the first report of the (13)C NMR data of compounds 4 and 5. PMID:25809933

  15. Larvicidal activity and structure activity relationship of cinnamoyl amides from Zanthoxylum armatum and their synthetic analogues against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vishal; Reddy, S. G. Eswara; Bhardwaj, Anuja; Dolma, Shudh Kirti; Kumar, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamoyl amides isolated from Zanthoxylum armatum (Rutaceae) and their synthetic analogues were tested for their insecticidal activity against the second instar larvae of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) to determine the promising structures with insecticidal activity. Most of the test compounds showed promising activity against larvae of P. xylostella. However, the activities of different compounds varied depending on the presence of different substituents at various positions of both the aromatic rings A and B. Among the tested compounds, 8, N-(3-bromo-4-methoxyphenethyl)cinnamamide showed best larvicidal activity with an LC50 = 62.13 mg/L followed by 6, N-(3׳-bromophenethyl)cinnamamide (LC50=128.49 mg/L) and 2 N-(4׳-methoxyphenylethyl)cinnamamide (LC50 = 225.65 mg/L).

  16. Essential oil composition of fruits and leaves of Zanthoxylum nitidum grown in upper Assam region of India

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    Sanjib Bhattacharya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils isolated by hydro-distillation from the fruits and leaves of Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb. DC (Rutaceae, growing in upper Assam region of North-East India were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The fruit volatile oil contained 17 components amongst which 75% were monoterpenes, 12.5% were sesquiterpenes and 12.5% were straight chain hydrocarbons; whereas the leaf volatile oil contained 16 components out of which 60% were monoterpenes, 13.3% were sesquiterpenes, and 26.7% were straight chain hydrocarbons. Linalool (23.3%, limonene (12.9%, o-terpineol (8.3%, o-pinene (7.9% were the predominant monoterpenes of the fruit oil and the main monoterpenes in the leaf oil were limonene (33.1%, geraniol (10.6% and carvone (9.6%. Key words: Zanthoxylum nitidum, essential oil, monoterpenes, linalool, limo nene.

  17. Importance of Terpenoids and Essential Oils in Chemotaxonomic Approach

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    Vidita V. Bhargava

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemotaxonomy of plants involves the study of chemical variation in different types of plants and use of this information in classification of plants. Chemotaxonomy consists of the investigation of the distribution of chemical compounds or groups of biosynthetically related compounds in series of related or supposedly related plants. Since ancient times, the essential oil and terpenoids of many aromatic plants have been used as bioactive ingredients in drug, food, perfumery and cosmetic formulations all over the world and so it is worthwhile to study their role in chemotaxonomy. They are distributed in families like Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Rutaceae, Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Umbelliferae, Verbenaceae and Piperaceae. To detect even traces of chemical compounds during chemical analysis sophisticated techniques have also been introduced in chemotaxonomy of medicinal plants.

  18. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Zanthoxylum piperitum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghoon; Lee, Hyeon Ju; Kim, Kyunghee; Lee, Sang-Choon; Sung, Sang Hyun; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2016-09-01

    The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Zanthoxylum piperitum, a plant species with useful aromatic oils in family Rutaceae, was generated in this study by de novo assembly with whole-genome sequence data. The chloroplast genome was 158 154 bp in length with a typical quadripartite structure containing a pair of inverted repeats of 27 644 bp, separated by large single copy and small single copy of 85 340 bp and 17 526 bp, respectively. The chloroplast genome harbored 112 genes consisting of 78 protein-coding genes 30 tRNA genes and 4 rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete chloroplast genome sequences with those of known relatives revealed that Z. piperitum is most closely related to the Citrus species. PMID:26260183

  19. Pharmacognostic standardisation and antiproliferative activity of aegle marmelos (L. Correa leaves in various human cancer cell lines

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    Rajbir Bhatti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic management of cancer is a great clinical challenge and alternative medicines are being extensively explored to have integrated approach to cure cancer. Aegle marmelos (L. Correa (Rutaceae is known for its hypoglycaemic, radioprotective, antidiarrhoeal and many other pharmacological activities. The present study is designed to carryout pharmacognostic standardisation and evaluation of antiproliferative activity of the leaf extracts Aegle marmelos (L. Correa (Rutaceae and the chromatographic fractions of the most active extract. Hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol extracts of the shade dried leaves were prepared by soxhelation and antiproliferative activity was assessed using human cancer cell lines of lung (A-549, colon (CoLo-05, ovary (IGR-OV-1, prostrate (PC3, leukaemia (THP-1 and breast (MCF-7 cancer. Bioactivity-derived fractionation was carried out for most active extract by column chromatography. The phytochemical studies indicated alkaloids, anthraquinones, terpenoids in the alcohol, chloroform extracts and tannins, terpenoids, reducing sugars in the petroleum ether and hexane extracts. Ethanol extract showed maximum inhibition in colon and breast carcinoma cell lines at a dose of 100 μg/ml. Column chromatography of the ethanol extract yielded five fractions. Out of this, fractions 2, 4 and 5 showed significant inhibition in leukaemia cell line with IC 50 of 12.5, 86.2 and >100 μg/ml for fractions 2, 4 and 5, respectively. High-performance thin layer chromatography of the fraction 2 revealed imperatorin as one of the major phytoconstituents. Among the different extracts investigated, ethanol extract exhibited significant antiproliferative activity and its fraction 2 containing furanocoumarin imperatorin showed antiproliferative activity against leukaemia cell line with IC 50 of 12.5 μg/ml.

  20. Activities of Ten Essential Oils towards Propionibacterium acnes and PC-3, A-549 and MCF-7 Cancer Cells

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    Yuangang Zu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ten essential oils, namely, mint (Mentha spicata L.,Lamiaceae, ginger (Zingiber officinaleRosc.,Zingiberaceae, lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f.,Rutaceae, grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae, jasmine (Jasminum grandiflora L.,Oleaceae, lavender (Mill.,Lamiaceae, chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L., Compositae, thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae, rose (Rosa damascena Mill.,Rosaceae and cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicumN. Lauraceae were tested for their antibacterial activities towards Propionibacterium acnes and in vitro toxicology against three human cancer cell lines. Thyme, cinnamon and rose essential oils exhibited the best antibacterial activities towards P. acnes, with inhibition diameters of 40 ± 1.2 mm, 33.5 ± 1.5 mm and 16.5 ± 0.7 mm, and minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.016% (v/v, 0.016% (v/v and 0.031% (v/v, respectively. Time-kill dynamic procedures showed that thyme, cinnamon, rose, and lavender essential oils exhibited the strongest bactericidal activities at a concentration of 0.25% (v/v, and P. acnes was completely killed after 5 min. The thyme essential oil exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity towards three human cancer cells. Its inhibition concentration 50% (IC50 values on PC-3, A549 and MCF-7 tumor cell lines were 0.010% (v/v, 0.011% (v/v and 0.030% (v/v, respectively. The cytotoxicity of 10 essential oils on human prostate carcinoma cell (PC-3 was significantly stronger than on human lung carcinoma (A549 and human breast cancer (MCF-7 cell lines.

  1. Activities of ten essential oils towards Propionibacterium acnes and PC-3, A-549 and MCF-7 cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Yuangang; Yu, Huimin; Liang, Lu; Fu, Yujie; Efferth, Thomas; Liu, Xia; Wu, Nan

    2010-05-01

    Ten essential oils, namely, mint (Mentha spicata L., Lamiaceae), ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f., Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae), jasmine (Jasminum grandiflora L., Oleaceae), lavender (Mill., Lamiaceae), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L., Compositae), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae), rose (Rosa damascena Mill., Rosaceae) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum N. Lauraceae) were tested for their antibacterial activities towards Propionibacterium acnes and in vitro toxicology against three human cancer cell lines. Thyme, cinnamon and rose essential oils exhibited the best antibacterial activities towards P. acnes, with inhibition diameters of 40 +/- 1.2 mm, 33.5 +/- 1.5 mm and 16.5 +/- 0.7 mm, and minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.016% (v/v), 0.016% (v/v) and 0.031% (v/v), respectively. Time-kill dynamic procedures showed that thyme, cinnamon, rose, and lavender essential oils exhibited the strongest bactericidal activities at a concentration of 0.25% (v/v), and P. acnes was completely killed after 5 min. The thyme essential oil exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity towards three human cancer cells. Its inhibition concentration 50% (IC(50)) values on PC-3, A549 and MCF-7 tumor cell lines were 0.010% (v/v), 0.011% (v/v) and 0.030% (v/v), respectively. The cytotoxicity of 10 essential oils on human prostate carcinoma cell (PC-3) was significantly stronger than on human lung carcinoma (A549) and human breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines. PMID:20657472

  2. Native and introduced host plants of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northwestern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovruski, Sergio; Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

    2003-08-01

    Wild or commercially grown, native and exotic fruit were collected in 30 localities in the Tucumán province (NW Argentina) from January 1990 to December 1995 to determine their status as hosts of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and/or Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the only two fruit fly species of economic and quarantine importance in Argentina. A total of 84,094 fruit (3,466.1 kg) representing 33 species (7 native and 26 exotic) in 15 plant families were sampled. We determined the following 17 host plant associations: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), Citrus paradisi Macfadyn (Rutaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Eugenia uniflora L., Psidium guajava L., Myrcianthes pungens (Berg) Legrand (Myrtaceae), Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), Juglans australis Grisebach (Juglandaceae), Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., Prunus armeniaca L., P. domestica L., and P. persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae) were infested by both A. fraterculus and C. capitata. Citrus aurantium L., Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), and Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) were only infested by Ceratitis capitata. Out of a total of 99,627 adults that emerged from pupae, 69,180 (approximately 69.5%) were Anastrepha fraterculus, 30,138 (approximately 30.2%) were C. capitata, and 309 (approximately 0.3%) were an unidentified Anastrepha species. Anastrepha fraterculus predominated in native plant species while C. capitata did so in introduced species. Infestation rates (number of larvae/kg of fruit) varied sharply from year to year and between host plant species (overall there was a significant negative correlation between fruit size and infestation level). We provide information on fruiting phenology of all the reported hosts and discuss our findings in light of their practical (e.g., management of A. fraterculus and C. capitata in citrus groves) implications. PMID:14503581

  3. Fitoseídeos (Acari: Phytoseiidae associados a cafezais e fragmentos florestais vizinhos Phytoseiids (Acari: Phytoseiidae associated to coffee plantations and adjacent forest fragments

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    Ester Azevedo Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Existem poucas informações sobre a fauna de ácaros predadores (Phytoseiidae em ambientes naturais brasileiros adjacentes a agroecossistemas cafeeiros (Coffea spp. ou sobre a influência que essa vegetação exerce como reservatório de ácaros predadores. Neste estudo, objetivou-se avaliar a diversidade destes organismos em cafeeiros e fragmentos florestais adjacentes. Coletaram-se amostras das espécies Calyptranthes clusiifolia (Miq. O. Berg (Myrtaceae, Esenbeckia febrifuga (A. St.-Hil. A. Juss. ex Mart. (Rutaceae, Metrodorea stipularis Mart. (Rutaceae e Allophylus semidentatus (Miq. Radlk. (Sapindaceae, em oito fragmentos florestais, de 5 a 51 ha, e cafezais adjacentes, nos meses de junho (final período chuvoso e outubro (final período seco nos anos 2004 e 2005, na região Sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Ácaros foram extraídos das folhas, utilizando o método de lavagem e, em seguida, montados em lâminas de microscopia em meio de Hoyer, para identificação específica. No total foram identificados 2.348 fitoseídeos, sendo 2.090 nos fragmentos florestais e 258 espécimes nos cafezais adjacentes, pertencentes a 38 espécies. Servindo-se de análise faunística, a espécie Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, 1972 apresentou os melhores índices no agroecossistema cafeeiro, sendo muito frequente e constante nas épocas estudadas. Nos fragmentos florestais Amblyseius herbicolus Chant, 1959, Iphiseiodes affs. neonobilis Denmark & Muma, 1978, Leonseius regularis DeLeon, 1965 e Euseius alatus DeLeon, 1966 foram dominantes, muito abundantes, muito frequentes e constantes nas épocas estudadas. Podemos concluir que a vegetação nativa abriga ácaros predadores, inimigos naturais de ácaros-praga, que ocorrem na cultura cafeeira, possibilitando o desenvolvimento de programas de manejo ecológico com áreas de vegetação natural e agroecossistemas cafeeiros adjacentes.There is little information about the fauna of predatory mites

  4. Estudo fitossociológico de um trecho da floresta estacional semidecidual em Diamante do Norte, Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Phytosociology in semi-deciduous seasonal forest fragment in Diamate do Norte, State of Paraná, Brazil

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    Erci Marcos Del Quiqui

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado em uma Floresta Estacional Semidecidual de 1.426 ha, localizada na Estação Ecológica do Caiuá (54° 49’W e 22° 34’S em Diamante do Norte, Estado do Paraná, Para o levantamento fitossociológico, foram locadas 29 parcelasgeoreferenciadas de 50 m x 30 m, totalizando 4,35 ha. Em cada parcela, foram amostrados todos os indivíduos com diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP > 5,0 cm, e, em subparcelas, os indivíduos com DAP £ 5 cm, totalizando 3.812 indivíduos arbóreos pertencentes a 38 famílias, 85 gêneros e 102 espécies. As famílias Myrtaceae, Rutaceae e do grupo das Leguminosaea destacaram-se pelo elevado número de espécies. Xylosma venosa, Metrodorea nigra, Chrysophyllum gonocarpum, Plinia rivularis, Eugenia uniflora, Aspidosperma polyneuron, Actinostenon concolor, Zygia cauliflora, Caesaria gossypiosperma, Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Astronium graveolens, Campomanesia xanthocarpa e Balfourodendron riedelianum destacaram-se como as espécies de maior valor de importância. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H’ obtido foi de 3,56 e índice de similaridade de Sorensen (ISS neste trabalho foi de 75,5% entre os estratos avaliados.The aim of this work was to study a Semideciduous Seasonal Forest fragment. It was carried out at the Ecological Station Caiuá (54° 49’W and 22° 34'S, in Diamante do Norte, Paraná State, Brazil. The study covered an area of 1.426 ha. The plots were located by GPS in that fragment. The area was divided in 29 parcels with 50 x 30 m, totalizing 4.35 ha. The individuals belonging to regeneration and the ones with DBH higher than or equal to 5.0 cm were then measured, totalizing 3,812 adult individuals, gathered into 38 families, 85 genera and 102 species. The families with the highest number of species were Myrtaceae, Rutaceae and Leguminosaea groups. Xylosmavenosa, Metrodorea nigra, Chrysophyllum gonocarpum, Plinia rivularis, Eugenia uniflora, Aspidosperma polyneuron

  5. Insecticide effects of Ruta graveolens, Copaifera langsdorffii and Chenopodium ambrosioides against pests and natural enemies in commercial tomato plantation = Ação inseticida de Ruta graveolens, Copaifera langsdorffii e Chenopodium ambrosioides sobre pragas de tomate

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    Flávia Silva Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the insecticide effect of watery leaf extracts of Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae, alcoholic leaf extracts of Copaifera langsdorffii (Caesalpinaceae and Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae in the concentration of 5% under field conditions. The experiment design was randomized blocks with six replications. The parcels treated with plant extracts showed reduction in the population of pests when compared with the controlparcels. The extract elaborated with C. langsdorffii presented greater insecticidal effect under Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae and sum of pests. It was verified that after 24 hours ofspraying, the parcels treated with the extract of C. ambrosioides presented minor numbers of adults of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, followed by the parcels treated with extract of R.graveolens. There were smaller numbers of parasitoid eggs of epidopterans Trichogramma sp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae and sum of natural enemies (predators + parasitoids in the parcels that had received spraying with extracts from the plants of C. langsdorffii and C. ambrosioides, followed by R. graveolens, compared to the control. There were a smaller number of parasitoids from the family Eulophidae (Hymenoptera attacking caterpillars of T. absoluta in plants treated with R. graveolens, followed by C. langsdorffii and C. ambrosioides than in the control.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito inseticida dos extratos aquosos de folhas de Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae e alcoólicos de folhas de Copaifera langsdorffii (Caesalpinaceae e de folhas de Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae a 5%. O experimento foi em blocos casualizados com seis repetições. As parcelas tratadas tiveram redução na população de pragas, quando comparadas às parcelas sem nenhum tratamento. O extrato elaborado com C. langsdorffii apresentou maior efeito inseticida em Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae e soma das pragas

  6. Moscas frugívoras associadas a mirtáceas e laranjeira "Céu" na região do Vale do Rio Caí, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Frugivorous flies in myrtaceans and orange trees 'Céu' in the region of Vale do Rio Caí, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Tacimara Gattelli

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve o objetivo de reconhecer as espécies de moscas frugívoras em mirtáceas: Eugenia uniflora L., Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg., Psidium cattleianum Sabine, Psidium guajava L. e Acca sellowiana (Berg. Burret., bem como em Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck (Rutaceae, na região do Vale do Caí, RS. Os frutos foram coletados no período de maturação de cada espécie frutífera, entre outubro de 2004 e julho de 2005, levados ao laboratório e acondicionados em potes com areia mantidos a 25 ± 1°C; 80 ± 10% UR e fotofase de 12 horas. Os pupários obtidos foram individualizados e suas características foram registradas. De Tephritidae foi registrada apenas Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann e de Lonchaeidae Neosilba n. sp. 3, Neosilba zadolicha McAlpine & Steyskal e Neosilba certa (Walker. As duas últimas são novos registros para o Rio Grande do Sul. Apenas em P. cattleianum foram registradas todas as espécies de moscas encontradas neste trabalho. Os resultados evidenciam que A. fraterculus é a espécie de mosca-das-frutas de maior ocorrência para a região do Vale do Caí, RS, nas frutíferas estudadas.This study aimed at recognizing frugivorous flies species in Myrtaceae: Eugenia uniflora L., Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg. Psidium cattleianum Sabine, Psidium guajava L. and Acca sellowiana (Berg. Burret., as well as in Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck (Rutaceae, at Vale do Cai region, Rio Grande do Sul. Fruits were collected at the maturation stage of each fruit species between October 2004 and July 2005, and at the laboratory they were placed in pots with sand and were kept at 12h photoperiod, 80 ± 10% RH and 25 ± 1°C. Pupae were individualized and their characteristics were recorded. In Tephritidae only Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. was recorded and in Lonchaeidae, Neosilba n. sp. 3, Neosilba zadolicha McAlpine & Steyskal and Neosilba certa (Walker. These last two species were recorded for the first time in Rio Grande do Sul. Only on

  7. In vitro antimicrobial status of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. fruit peel

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    Anju Dhiman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The present investigation evaluated the antimicrobial potential of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. (Rutaceae fruit peel. There is a basis for the traditional use of this plant for local health remedies. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of C. sinensis fruit peel was tested against three bacterial and two fungal strains. Turbidimetric or tube dilution method and paper disc diffusion method were followed. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Results: The C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.78 μg/ ml and minimum bactericidal concentration of 6.25 μg/ml, and appreciable antifungal activity with minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5 μg/ml. The phytochemistry of C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract revealed the presence of carbohydrates (reducing sugars, hexose sugars, non-reducing polysaccharides, gums, and mucilages, flavonoid glycosides, coumarin glycosides, volatile oils, organic acids, fats and fixed oils. Conclusion: Most of the organic chemical constituents reported are aromatic phenolic compounds, which are known for their wide spectra of antimicrobial activity. Therefore, the bacteriostatic and fungistatic action of the tested extract may be attributed to the presence of polyphenolic compounds. In short, C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract is a potential source of natural antimicrobials.

  8. Evaluation of Effects of Zingiber officinale on Salivation in Rats

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    Goli Chamani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There are some herbal plants in Iranian traditional system of medicine which are believed to be excellent remedies to alleviate the symptoms of xerostomia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of systemic administration of seven different herbal extracts on the rate of salivation in rats. The extracts of 7 herbs; Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae, Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck (Rutaceae, Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae, Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae, Pimpinella anisum L.(Apiaceae, Portulaca oleracea L.(Portulacaceae, Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae were prepared. Nine groups of animals (including negative and positive control groups were used and seven rats were tested in each group. After the injection of extracts, saliva volume was measured gravimetrically in four continuous seven-minute intervals. The results showed that after injection of ginger extracts salivation was significantly higher as compared to the negative control group and other herbal extracts in all of the four intervals (P<0.01. The peak action of the ginger was during the first 7-minute interval and following this, salivation decreased to some extent. The present study suggests that the extract of Zingiber offiicianle can increase the rate of salivation significantly in animal model. Further investigations on different constituents of ginger seem to be essential to identify the responsible constituent for stimulation of saliva secretion.

  9. Evaluation of central nervous system effects of Citrus limon essential oil in mice

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    Lidianne Mayra Lopes Campêlo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system (CNS depressant and anticonvulsant activities of Citrus limon (L. Osbeck, Rutaceae, essential oil (EO were investigated in animal models. The EO (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg injected by oral route (p.o. in mice caused a significant decrease in the motor activity of animals when compared with the control group, up to thirty days after the administration and the dose of 150 mg/kg significantly reduced the remaining time of the animals on the Rota-rod apparatus. Additionally, C. limon essential oil was also capable to promote an increase of latency for development of convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ. The administration of FLU (10 mg/kg, i.p., GABA A-benzodiazepine (GABA-BZD receptor antagonist, antagonized the effect of C. limon essential oil at higher dose. This C. limon essential oil was also capable to promote an increase of latency for development of convulsions induced by picrotoxin (PIC at higher dose. In the same way, the anticonvulsant effect of the EO was affected by pretreatment with flumazenil, a selective antagonist of benzodiazepine site of GABA A receptor. These results suggest a possible CNS depressant and anticonvulsant activities in mice that needs further investigation.

  10. 小檗碱衍生物合成及生理活性研究进展%Progress in Synthesis and Physiological Activity of Berberine Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁阳平; 叶小利; 周洁; 罗赛; 练梦菲; 李学刚

    2012-01-01

    小檗碱是一种季铵型异喹啉生物碱,主要存在于毛茛科、芸香科和小檗科等植物中,具有多种药理功能.近年来,大量小檗碱衍生物的合成,极大提高了小檗碱的生理活性及拓展了小檗碱的应用范围.文章重点综述了小檗碱及其衍生物的生物及化学合成,简述了其生理活性,并对新型小檗碱衍生物合成的设计方向作了展望.%Berberine, with a variety of pharmacological effects, is a quaternary ammonium salt from the group of isoquinoline alkaloids, which mainly exist in ranunculaceae, rutaceae and berberidaceae. Now some literatures report that berberine derivatives have more accordingly physiological activity than berberine and enlarge the application fields of berberine. In this paper, the biological and chemical synthesis and the biological activity of berberine and its derivatives are reviewed, as well as the prospects of a new synthetic strategy of berberine derivatives.

  11. A comparative study on analytical method of total alkaloids from cortex Phellodendri amurens by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC and pressurized capillary electrochromatography (pCEC

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    Bo Yang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A pressurized capillary electrochromatography (pCEC method with post-column detection cell has been developed for the analysis of total alkaloids of cortex Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Rutaceae. The separation of total alkaloids (berberine, palmatine, oatrorrhizine, magnoflorine, phellodendrine, candicine, menisperine was optimized by compositions of the mobile phase, ionic strength of buffers, pH value, and applied voltage. Separation of total alkaloids was achieved within 11 min by using a mobile phase of Na2HPO4-citric acid solution-acetonitrile (pH 4.00; 3 mM (60:40, v/v and applying a voltage of -10 kV. This method showed satisfactory retention times and peak shapes. Meanwhile, a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC has also been established for the separation of total alkaloids extracted from cortex Phellodendri amurens. Baseline separation of total alkaloids was achieved within 25 min by using a mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid with 0.1 g sodium dodecanesulphonate per 100 mL (35:65, v/v. Compared to conventional RP-HPLC, pCEC led to higher column efficiency, less consumption of reagent, and shorter analysis time.

  12. Contribution to the taxonomy of Garcinia (Clusiaceae in Africa, including two new species from Gabon and a key to the Lower Guinean species

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    Marc Sosef

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia has some 260 species and is often regarded as a genus with a difficult taxonomy. No recent treatment is available for the botanically rich Lower Guinea phytogeographical region. This study aims at partly filling this gap. First, several taxonomic problems are solved. G. chromocarpa is reduced to a variety of G. quadrifaria. G. gnetoides and G. granulata are both synonyms of G. quadrifaria. G. zenkeri is a synonym of G. densivenia and lectotypes are being designated for both names. G. brevipedicellata is a synonym of G. afzelii, as is G. antidysenterica for which a lectotype is designated. Second, two new species endemic to Gabon are described: Garcinia gabonensis Sosef & Dauby and Garcinia obliqua Sosef & Dauby. Finally, an identification key to all species present in the Lower Guinea region is provided. A few remaining West African species names could not be placed with certainty, because the type material was lost or not traced yet. One is a Rutaceae while the remaining three are provisionally to be regarded as synonyms of G. smeathmannii.

  13. Solid Tumor Inhibitory and other Constituents of Casimiroa tetrameria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ya-Ming; Maria del C.Ramirez-Allumada; Frederick A.Valeriote; A.A.Leslie Gunatilaka

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To isolate and characterize solid tumor inhibitory and other constituents from a bioactive extract of Casimiroa tetrameria((Rutaceae).METHODS:A crude extract of C.tetrameria obtained from the US National Cancer Institute Natural Product Repository and found to exhibit selective toxicity to solid tumor cells was subjected bioactivity-guided fractionation involving solvent-solvent partitioning,gel filtration,and chromatography.The structures of all isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis(NMR and MS)and/or by comparison with the reported data.Compounds 1 and 4-9 were evaluated for their solid tumor selective cytotoxicity.RESULTS:Nine metabolites,including a new furenocoumarin,5-methoxy-8-(4'-acetoxy-3'-methylbut-2-enyloxy)-psoralen(1),and the previously known compounds 2-9 were encountered.Of these the flavonoid zapotin(6),and N-benzoyltyramide derivatives 7 and 8 were found to be the active constituents.CONCLUSION:Zapotin(6)is the most potent constituent of C.tetrameria with solid tumor selectivity.

  14. Chemical composition analysis, antioxidant and antibacterial activity evaluation of essential oil of Atalantia monophylla Correa

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    Ramaraj Thirugnanasampandan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atalantia monophylla Correa. a small tree belongs to the family Rutaceae. It is distributed throughout India and in Tamil Nadu the species is commonly seen in foothills of dry vegetation. Objective: The aim was to hydrodistillate and analyze the chemical composition of essential oil from the fresh leaves of A. monophylla Correa. collected in two different seasons (December, 2013 and May, 2014 and to evaluate antioxidant and antibacterial activities of isolated essential oil. Materials and Methods: Chemical composition of isolated essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Antioxidant activity of oil was assessed using five different antioxidant test systems. Antibacterial activity of oil was tested against six pathogenic bacteria by broth dilution method. Results: Essential oil obtained from the leaves collected during May, 2014 had shown more compounds. Antioxidant activity of oil was moderate when compared with positive control. Minimum inhibitory concentration value of oil was ranges between 139.32 ± 0.001 and 541.11 ± 0.003 µg/mL against all the tested bacteria. Conclusion: Result clearly indicates essential oil collected during May, 2014 showed more bioactive compounds.

  15. Advances in Studies on Natural Preservativesfor Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haisheng; Shi, Pengbao; Zhao, Yuhua

    The author introduced g eneral research and application situations of natural preservatives for fruits and vegetables all over the world these years, and summarized application of vegetation of Murraya in Rutaceae, Cinnamomum in Lauraceae, Artemisia in Compositae and other families and genera on fruits and vegetables preservation and fresh-keeping. Decoction or extraction of Chinese traditional medicine, such as Alpinia Officinarum, Amarphalus Konjac K., stemona etc, could be used in fresh-keeping for orange, apple, strawberry, edible fungi and so on. Garlic could be used in fresh-keeping for orange. Phytic acid and fresh-keeping agents compounded with Phytic acid could extend storage periods of easily rotting fruits and vegetables, such as strawberry, banana, cantaloup, edible fungi and so on, and better keep original fresh condition. Extraction of Snow Fresh, Semper Fresh, Arthropod shell extraction, and halite also had better effect on preservation and fresh-keeping for fruits and vegetables. Main problems exsited in the application of natural preservatives for fruits and vegetables were showed in this article and the applying prospect were discussed too.

  16. The benzophenanthridine alkaloid fagaronine induces erythroleukemic cell differentiation by gene activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Claude; Couillerot, Eric; Gillet, Reynald; Caron, Catherine; Zeches-Hanrot, Monique; Riou, Jean-François; Trentesaux, Chantal

    2005-06-01

    Fagaronine, a benzophenanthridine alkaloid from Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam. (Rutaceae), has been tested on the erythroleukemic cell line K562 in order to explain some previous results on cell differentiation. In this study we showed that fagaronine induces a significant hemoglobinization of the human erythroleukemic cell line K562. This hemoglobin synthesis was accompanied by a strong increase of erythroid mRNA expression such as gamma- and alpha-globin, and PBGD, an enzyme of heme synthesis. In addition, the Epo-R transcripts were also stimulated indicating that cells are engaged in a maturation process. Both transcription factors GATA-1 and NF-E2, which play an important role in the regulation of genes involved in the erythroid differentiation, were also transcriptionally up-regulated. To elucidate the possible role of GATA-1 in the FAG-induced differentiation of K562 cells, we transfected reporter constructs containing regulatory regions of erythroid genes encompassing GATA-1 binding sites. After 48 hours of treatment, FAG stimulated the EPO-R and gamma-globin promoters by 2- to 3-fold and the promoter/enhancer region of GATA-1 gene by 3.2-fold. A mutation within the GATA-1 binding sites strongly decreased the promoter activation induced by FAG. Taken together, our results represent a demonstration that FAG exerts its differentiating activity by a specific activation of the regulating GATA-1 regions of genes involved in the erythroid phenotype expression. PMID:15971117

  17. Chemical Profile and Antioxidant Properties of Extracts and Essential Oils from Citrus × limon (L.) Burm. cv. Femminello Comune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Tundis, Rosa; Bonesi, Marco; Sanzo, Giuseppe Di; Verardi, Alessandra; Lopresto, Catia Giovanna; Pugliese, Alessandro; Menichini, Francesco; Balducchi, Roberto; Calabrò, Vincenza

    2016-05-01

    Citrus × limon cv. Femminello Comune (Rutaceae) from Rocca Imperiale (Italy), one of the six Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) Italian lemon crops, has been recently received renewed interest. In this work, fresh and dried peels and leaves were extracted by hydrodistillation, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and Soxhlet apparatus. Chemical profile was assessed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Except for leaves extracts obtained by Soxhlet apparatus, the monoterpene hydrocarbons fraction dominated. Limonene, γ-terpinene, and β-pinene were the main identified compounds. The antioxidant activity was investigated using different in vitro assays namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ABTS, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP), and β-carotene bleaching test. In DPPH test, the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of fresh peel exhibited the highest activity (IC50 of 1.17 mg/ml). Leaves extracted by SFE showed a good activity in both DPPH and β-carotene bleaching test with IC50 values of 2.20 and 6.66 mg/ml, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons fraction exhibited a positive Pearson's correlation coefficient with all antioxidant assays. Leaves, often considered waste material, should be considered from a different point because they represent a matrix of indisputable interest. PMID:27112122

  18. Satkara (Citrus macroptera) Fruit Protects against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatorenal Toxicity in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sudip; Islam, Md. Aminul; Tanvir, E. M.; Ahmed, Romana; Das, Sagarika; Rumpa, Nur-E-Noushin; Hossen, Md. Sakib; Parvez, Mashud; Gan, Siew Hua; Khalil, Md. Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Although Citrus macroptera (Rutaceae), an indigenous fruit in Bangladesh, has long been used in folk medicine, however, there is a lack of information concerning its protective effects against oxidative damage. The protective effects of an ethanol extract of Citrus macroptera (EECM) against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity were investigated in rats. Rats (treatment groups) were pretreated with EECM at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, respectively, orally for 30 days followed by acetaminophen administration. Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was administered as a standard drug over a similar treatment period. Our findings indicated that oral administration of acetaminophen induced severe hepatic and renal injuries associated with oxidative stress, as observed by 2-fold higher lipid peroxidation (TBARS) compared to control. Pretreatment with EECM prior to acetaminophen administration significantly improved all investigated biochemical parameters, that is, transaminase activities, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transferase activities and total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglyceride and creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium and chloride ions, and TBARS levels. These findings were confirmed by histopathological examinations. The improvement was prominent in the group that received 1000 mg/kg EECM. These findings suggested that C. macroptera fruit could protect against acetaminophen-induced hepatonephrotoxicity, which might be via the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. PMID:27034701

  19. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus citrus based on the nuclear ribosomal dna its region sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genus Citrus (Aurantioideae, Rutaceae) is the sole source of the citrus fruits of commerce showing high economic values. In this study, the taxonomy and phylogeny of Citrus species is evaluated using sequence analysis of the ITS region of nrDNA. This study is based on 26 plants materials belonging to 22 Citrus species having wild, domesticated, and cultivated species. Through DNA alignment of the ITS sequence, ITS1 and ITS2 regions showed relatively high variations of sequence length and nucleotide among these Citrus species. According to previous six-tribe discrimination theory by Swingle and Reece, the grouping in our ITS phylogenetic tree reconstructed by ITS sequences was not related to tribe discrimination but species discrimination. However, the molecular analysis could provide more information on citrus taxonomy. Combined with ITS sequences of other subgenera in then true citrus fruit tree group, the ITS phylogenetic tree indicated subgenera Citrus was monophyletic and nearer to Fortunella, Poncirus, and Clymenia compared to Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Abundant sequence variations of the ITS region shown in this study would help species identification and tribe differentiation of the genus Citrus. (author)

  20. Ex-vivo cytotoxic, antibacterial and DPPH free radical scavenging assay with ethanolic leaf extract of Glycosmis pentaphylla to justify its traditional use

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    Prawej Ansari1,2

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Glycosmis pentaphylla belongs to the family Rutaceae. It is a shrub and locally common in the treatment of hepatic impairment. We have designed this study to provide a scientific basis with the traditional use of leaf of G. pentaphylla in the treatment of hepatitis.Methods: The well-established DPPH free radical scavenging activity was tested for antioxidant property evaluation. On the other hand, disk diffusion and brine shrimp method was respecti-velyused to determine antibacterial and cytotoxic activity. Results and Discussion: In the evaluation of antioxidant property IC50 found 204.91+/- 2.223 and micro;g/ml, in cytotoxicity testing, it is found that the plant part shows 30.49 +/- 1.976 and micro;g/ml of LC50. The ethanolic extract of G. pentaphylla leaves also have efficiency in bacterial growth inhibition; this extract is effective against for both gram, negative and positive. The zone of inhibition at 500 and micro;g/ml dose in E. coli and C. albican culture was 18 mm and 15 mm, respectively. In thin layer chromatography analysis, we found presence of couple of non-polar and polar component, presence of three non-chromatophoric component are also evident.Conclusion: Appropriate isolation and identification of mechanism is suggested in further study. [Biomed Res Ther 2015; 2(7.000: 324-332

  1. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses. PMID:17628343

  2. Volatiles emission patterns of different plant organs and pollen of Citrus limon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Guido; Tebano, Marianna; Cioni, Pier Luigi

    2007-04-18

    The volatiles emitted in vivo by different plant parts of Citrus limon (Rutaceae) have been identified by mean of head space-solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. In particular, the profiles of flower buds, mature flowers, petals, stamens, gynaecium, pericarp of unripe and ripe fruits, young and adult leaves and pollen have been examined. Furthermore, the essential oil obtained from expression of ripe pericarp was studied. Volatiles were produced in distinctive amounts by the different plant organs, creating an interesting contrast, particularly within the flower parts: the highest amount of limonene (62.5%) was emitted by gynaecium, followed by stamens (22.9%) and petals (3.1%). Pollen did not produce limonene at all. The same compound is contained in higher amounts in the young leaves than in old ones (65.3% versus 30.1%). A possible defensive role of limonene and other volatiles, mainly terpene aldehydes, produced by young leaves has been hypothesized. PMID:17397661

  3. JENIS - JENIS TUMBUHAN YANG DIGUNAKAN SEBAGAI BAHAN PERAWATAN KECANTIKAN DI PURI DAMAI DESA SINGAKERTA, KECAMATAN UBUD, KABUPATEN GIANYAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anak Agung Istri Ratih Gayatri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has many variaties of plant which give a benefit for house, clath, meals,medicine even for beauty treatment. A beauty treatment made from chemical agent causing anegative effect, so searching for an alternative agent for beauty treatment without giving anegative side effect was needed. The goal of has research is to know find species of plants,methods of process also how to process the plants become a herbal beauty treatment agent atPuri Damai which located in Singakerta village, district of ubud, Gianyar region. They takedirect observation, description and identification methods. According to the result of theresearch were found 25 species, 19 suku of plants 3 euphorbiaceae, 2 asteraceae, 2araliaceae, 2 zingiberaceae, pandanaceae, asphodelaceae, poaceae, fabaceae, anonaceae,magnoliaceae, arecaceae, laminaceae, malvaceae, cactaceae, oleaceae, apocynaceae,agavaceae, melastomataceae, rutaceae. Hair vertilizer oil mostly was made from the leaf ofthe plant takes around 56% and for massage oil take the flowers around 53 %. The methodswas taken to produce hair vertilizer oil and ingredients was fried in 1 liter frying oil between6 – 8 hours long in little fire. Direction of use for hair vertilizer oil is rubbing the oil on thecalp and hair before is after washing the hair. The use of massage oil the oli to the body andgive a massage.Keywords : Etnobotany, Beauty treatment, Observation.

  4. Evaluation of effects of Zingiber officinale on salivation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamani, Goli; Zarei, Mohammad Reza; Mehrabani, Mitra; Taghiabadi, Yousef

    2011-01-01

    There are some herbal plants in Iranian traditional system of medicine which are believed to be excellent remedies to alleviate the symptoms of xerostomia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of systemic administration of seven different herbal extracts on the rate of salivation in rats. The extracts of 7 herbs; Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae), Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae), Pimpinella anisum L.(Apiaceae), Portulaca oleracea L.(Portulacaceae), Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) were prepared. Nine groups of animals (including negative and positive control groups) were used and seven rats were tested in each group. After the injection of extracts, saliva volume was measured gravimetrically in four continuous seven-minute intervals. The results showed that after injection of ginger extracts salivation was significantly higher as compared to the negative control group and other herbal extracts in all of the four intervals (P<0.01). The peak action of the ginger was during the first 7-minute interval and following this, salivation decreased to some extent. The present study suggests that the extract of Zingiber offiicianle can increase the rate of salivation significantly in animal model. Further investigations on different constituents of ginger seem to be essential to identify the responsible constituent for stimulation of saliva secretion. PMID:21874635

  5. Correlation between steroid sex hormones, egg laying capacity and cercarial shedding in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails after treatment with Haplophyllum tuberculatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Maha Z; Metwally, Nadia S; Hamed, Manal A; Mohamed, Azza M

    2012-10-01

    Schistosomiasis is considered the second most pre-valiant worldwide parasitic disease ranked next to malaria. It has significant economic and public health consequences in many developing countries. Several ways have been practiced in order to bring the disease under an adequate control through the breakage of the life cycle of the parasite. Snail control could be regarded as a rapid and efficient of reducing or eliminating transmission and remains among the methods of choice for schistosomiasis control. The aim of this work is to evaluate the role of Haplophyllum tuberculatum (family Rutaceae) as a plant molluscicide. The mortality rate of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails were monitored after treatment with three extracts of the plant aerial parts; petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol. Chloroform extract that recorded the most potent effect was further evaluated through measuring the toxicity pattern against B. alexandrina snails, egg laying capacity, cercarial shedding, phenol oxidase enzyme and the levels of steroid sex hormones. Histopathological examination of hepatopancreas and ovotestis of treated snails were also done for result confirmation. Treatment of snails by chloroform extract recorded reduction in egg laying capacity, decrease in cercarial shedding, diminution in phenol oxidase enzyme, disturbance in steroid sex hormones and sever alternation of the histopathological picture of snails tissue. In conclusion, H. tuberculatum recorded molluscicidal potency against B. alexandrina snails. Further studies are needed for its environmental applications. PMID:22771439

  6. Satkara (Citrus macroptera) Fruit Protects against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatorenal Toxicity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sudip; Islam, Md Aminul; Tanvir, E M; Ahmed, Romana; Das, Sagarika; Rumpa, Nur-E-Noushin; Hossen, Md Sakib; Parvez, Mashud; Gan, Siew Hua; Khalil, Md Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Although Citrus macroptera (Rutaceae), an indigenous fruit in Bangladesh, has long been used in folk medicine, however, there is a lack of information concerning its protective effects against oxidative damage. The protective effects of an ethanol extract of Citrus macroptera (EECM) against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity were investigated in rats. Rats (treatment groups) were pretreated with EECM at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, respectively, orally for 30 days followed by acetaminophen administration. Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was administered as a standard drug over a similar treatment period. Our findings indicated that oral administration of acetaminophen induced severe hepatic and renal injuries associated with oxidative stress, as observed by 2-fold higher lipid peroxidation (TBARS) compared to control. Pretreatment with EECM prior to acetaminophen administration significantly improved all investigated biochemical parameters, that is, transaminase activities, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transferase activities and total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglyceride and creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium and chloride ions, and TBARS levels. These findings were confirmed by histopathological examinations. The improvement was prominent in the group that received 1000 mg/kg EECM. These findings suggested that C. macroptera fruit could protect against acetaminophen-induced hepatonephrotoxicity, which might be via the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. PMID:27034701

  7. Evodiamine inhibits the proliferation of leukemia cell line K562 by regulating peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chengming; Zhang, Guili; Luan, Shuping; Luan, Caifu; Shao, Huiyuan; Dong, Fei; Liu, Xuena

    2016-08-01

    Evodiamine, a quinolone alkaloid, is one of the major bioactive compounds of Evodia rutaecarpa Bentham (Rutaceae). It exhibits excellent biological activities, especially the anticancer activity. This study aims to investigate the effect of evodiamine on the proliferation of leukemia cell line K562 and to explore the underlying mechanism. The effect of evodiamine on K562 cells proliferation was analyzed by trypan blue dye exclusion assay and MTT assay. The expression levels of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), cyclin D1, and p21 were detected by western blot assay. The results demonstrated that evodiamine inhibited the proliferation and decreased the viability of K562 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. 2-Chloro-5-nitro-N-phenylbenzamide (GW9662) and/or PPARγ-siRNA pretreatment alleviated the cell growth suppression triggered by evodiamine. Meanwhile, evodiamine intervention elevated the expression of PPARγ in K562 cells, while pretreatment with GW9662 attenuated the enhanced upregulation of PPARγ expression induced by evodiamine. In addition, GW9662 and PPARγ-siRNA pretreatment also significantly attenuated the downregulation of the cell cycle control protein cyclin D1 and the upregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 induced by evodiamine. In conclusion, PPARγ signaling pathway may involve in the proliferation inhibition of evodiamine on K562 cells via inhibiting cylcin D1 and stimulating of p21. PMID:26671528

  8. The Cytotoxic Effect of Essential Oil of Syrian Citrus limon Peel on Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line (Lim1863

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Eyad Chatty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Essential oils are the volatile fraction of aromatic and medicinal plants created after extraction by steam or water distillation. Species of the genus Citrus(Rutaceae have been widely used in traditional medicine as volatile oils and are currently the subject of numerous research. Citrus essential oil consists of different terpens that have antitumor activities. This study determines the cytotoxic effect of the essential oils of Citrus limon L. peels on a colorectal cancer cell line (LIM1863.Methods: We harvested four samples from four locations in Syria. Essential oils were prepared by hydrodistillation and analyzed by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS.Various concentrations ofessential oils (0.5-48 μg/ml were added to cultured cells and incubated for 72 h. Cell viability was evaluated byMTT-basedcytotoxicity assay.Results: We noted 18 components that represented 98.81% of the total oil content. The major components were: limonene (61.8%-73.8%, γ-terpinene (9.4%-10.4%, β-pinene (3.7%-6.9%, O-cymene(1%-2.4%,and citral (0.8%-5.4%.The obtained IC50 value range of Citrus limon essential oils was 5.75-7.92 μg/ml against LIM1863.Conclusion: This study revealed that Syrian Citrus limon essential oil has a cytotoxic effect on the human colorectalcarcinoma cell line LIM1863 when studied in vitro.

  9. Diversity and utilization of tree species in Meitei homegardens of Barak Valley, Assam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, N Linthoingambi; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2013-03-01

    An inventory of tree diversity in traditional homegardens of Meitei community was conducted in a Bontarapur village in Cachar district of Barak Valley, Assam. Meitei homegarden locally called Ingkhol exhibits a wide diversity in size, shape, location and composition. Seventy one tree species were enumerated from 50 homegardens belonging to 60 genus and 35 families. Among the families encountered, Rutaceae was the dominant family (4 genus and 7 species) followed by Meliaceae (5 genus and 5 species), Arecaceae (4 genus and 4 species) and Moraceae (3 genus and 5 species). Total 7946 tree individuals were recorded, with the density of 831 No ha(-1) of and total basal area of 9.54 m2 ha(-1). Areco catechu was the dominant species with the maximum number of individuals. Other dominant trees include Mangifera indica, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Citrus grandis, Parkia timoriana, Syzygium cumini and Psidium guajava. Being a cash crop, the intensification of betel nut has been preferred in many homegardens. Homegardens form an important component of land use of Meitei community which fulfills the socio-cultural and economic needs of the family and helps in conserving plant diversity through utilization. PMID:24620581

  10. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by ethnic people in West and South district of Tripura, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saikat Sen; Raja Chakraborty; Biplab De; N Devanna

    2011-01-01

    An ethno-medicinal investigation was conducted to highlights the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants being used by the tribe in West and South district of Tripura. This paper provides information about the different uses of plants used in their primary health care system. Tripura is a small north-eastern state of India and also a part of both Himalayan and Indo-Burma biodiversity region. It is a goldmine of me- dicinal plants and use of different plants in tribal traditional heath care systems has long history. Nineteen different tribes in Tripura, depend on natural resources at a great extent. This paper documented 113 medicinal plant species from 56 families along with their botanical name, local name, family name, habit, medicinal parts used, and traditional usage of application. The dominant families are Euphorbiaceae (7 species), Apo- cynaceae (6 species), Fabaceae and Rubiaceae (5 species each), Caes- alpiniaceae, Asteraceae, Liliaceae and Verbenaceae (4 species each), Combretaceae, Labiatae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (3 species each). Tribes of Tripura have rich traditional knowledge on plant based medicine. Different parts of the plants in crude form/plant ex- tracts/decoctions/infusion or pastes are employed in diverse veterinary and human diseases by the tribe's of Tripura in daily life.

  11. Methodology for the insecticide potential evaluation of forest species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flora diversity of Colombia has an enormous potential in the rational use of its forest resources. Trees with biocides effects to pest control and diseases need to be investigated. The objective of this research was to develop a methodology with low costs, easy application and quick results. The methodology employed was as follows: selection of tree species based on bibliography, ancestral reports and personal observations. The process was as follows: field collection of plants, preparation of plants extracts, and test with Artemia Salina, leach to detect biological activity of the extracts using LC50. Bioassays with those extract more promising (LC50 less than 1000 ppm). The methodology was employed with 5 forest tree species: Guarea guidonia (L.) Sleumer and Trichia hirta L. (Meliaceae), machaerium moritzianum Benth. (Fabaceae), Swinglea glutinosa Merrill. (Rutaceae) and Mammea americana L. (Clusiaceae). Using Artemia salina Leach as indicator of biocidal potential, two species were selected as the most promising, those were: Swinglea glutinosa Merril and Machaerium moritzianum Benth. In addition bioassays were made to evaluate fagoinhibition on Atta cephalotes (L.) and control of Alconeura. This methodology is recommended for this kind of research

  12. Acridone alkaloids as potent inhibitors of cathepsin V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severino, Richele P; Guido, Rafael V C; Marques, Emerson F; Brömme, Dieter; da Silva, M Fátima das G F; Fernandes, João B; Andricopulo, Adriano D; Vieira, Paulo C

    2011-02-15

    Cathepsin V is a lysosomal cysteine peptidase highly expressed in thymus, testis and corneal epithelium. Eleven acridone alkaloids were isolated from Swinglea glutinosa (Bl.) Merr. (Rutaceae), with eight of them being identified as potent and reversible inhibitors of cathepsin V (IC(50) values ranging from 1.2 to 3.9 μM). Detailed mechanistic characterization of the effects of these compounds on the cathepsin V-catalyzed reaction showed clear competitive inhibition with respect to substrate, with dissociation constants (K(i)) in the low micromolar range (2, K(i)=1.2 μM; 6, K(i)=1.0 μM; 7, K(i)=0.2 μM; and 11, K(i)=1.7 μM). Molecular modeling studies provided important insight into the structural basis for binding affinity and enzyme inhibition. Experimental and computational approaches, including biological evaluation, mode of action assessment and modeling studies were successfully employed in the discovery of a small series of acridone alkaloid derivatives as competitive inhibitors of catV. The most potent inhibitor (7) has a K(i) value of 200 nM. PMID:21277783

  13. In vitro cytotoxicity activity on several cancer cell lines of acridone alkaloids and N-phenylethyl-benzamide derivatives from Swinglea glutinosa (Bl.) Merr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, P A C; Dos Santos, D A P; Da Silva, M F D G F; Vieira, P C; Fernandes, J B; Houghton, P J; Fang, R

    2007-01-01

    The methanol extract from the stems and fruits of Swinglea glutinosa (Rutaceae) afforded 11 known acridone alkaloids and three N-phenylethyl-benzamide derivatives, glycocitrine-IV, 1,3,5-trihydroxy-4-methoxy-10-methyl-2,8-bis(3-methylbut-2-enyl)acridin-9(10H)-one, 1,3,5- trihydroxy-2,8-bis(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-10-methyl-9-acridone, citbrasine, citrusinine-II, citrusinine-I, 5-dihydroxyacronycine, pyranofoline, 3,4-dihydro-3,5,8-trihydroxy-6-methoxy-2,2,7-trimethyl-2H-pyrano[2,3-a]acridin-12(7H)-one, 2,3-dihydro-4,9-dihydroxy-2-(2-hydroxy-propan-2-yl)-11-methoxy-10-methylfuro[3,2-b]acridin-5(10H)-one, bis-5-hydroxyacronycine, N-(2-{4-[(3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dien-1-yl)oxy]phenyl}ethyl)benzamide, N-(2-{4-[(3,7-dimethyl-4-acethyl-octa-2,6-dien-1-yl)oxy]phenyl}ethyl)benzamide, and severine acetate. All compounds isolated were examined for their activity against three cancer cell lines: human lung carcinoma (COR-L23), human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7), human melanoma (C32), and normal human fetal lung cell line, MRC-5. The acridones tested exhibited weak cytotoxicity but the amides showed moderate nonselective cytotoxic activity. PMID:17365689

  14. Methodology to evaluate the insecticide potential of forest tree species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flora diversity of Colombia has an enormous potential in the rational use of its forest resources. Trees with biocidal effects to control pests and diseases need to be investigated. The objective of this research was to develop a methodology with low costs, easy application and quick results. The methodology employed was as follows: selection of tree species based on bibliography, ancestral reports and personal observations. The process was as follows: field collection of plants, preparation of plants extracts and test with Artemia salina Leach to detect biological activity of the extracts using LC50. Bioassays with those extract more promising (LC50 less than 1000 ppm) Determination of active compounds. The methodology was employed with 5 forest tree species: guarea guidonia (L) Sleumer and trichia hirta L. (Meliaceae), Machaerium Moritzianum Benth. (Fabaceae), Swinglea glutinosa Merrill (rutaceae) and Mammea americana L. (Clusiaceae). Using Artemia salina Leach as indicator of biocidal potential, two species were selected as the most promising, those were: Swinglea glutinosa Merril and Machaerium moritzianum Benth. In addition bioassays were made to evaluate fagoinhibition on Atta cephalotes (L.) (Hym: Formicidae) and control of Alconeura. This methodology is recommended for this kind of research

  15. Analysis of E. rutaecarpa Alkaloids Constituents In Vitro and In Vivo by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS Combined with Diagnostic Fragment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shenshen; Tian, Meng; Yuan, Lei; Deng, Haoyue; Wang, Lei; Li, Aizhu; Hou, Zhiguo; Li, Yubo

    2016-01-01

    Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. (Rutaceae) dried ripe fruit is used for dispelling colds, soothing liver, and analgesia. Pharmacological research has proved that alkaloids are the main active ingredients of E. rutaecarpa. This study aimed to rapidly classify and identify the alkaloids constituents of E. rutaecarpa by using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS coupled with diagnostic fragments. Furthermore, the effects of the material base of E. rutaecarpa bioactive ingredients in vivo were examined such that the transitional components in the blood of rats intragastrically given E. rutaecarpa were analyzed and identified. In this study, the type of alcohol extraction of E. rutaecarpa and the corresponding blood sample were used for the analysis by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS in positive ion mode. After reviewing much of the literature and collected information on the fragments, we obtained some diagnostic fragments of the alkaloids. Combining the diagnostic fragments with the technology of UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, we identified the compounds of E. rutaecarpa and blood samples and compared the ion fragment information with that of the alkaloids in E. rutaecarpa. A total of 17 alkaloids components and 6 blood components were identified. The proposed method was rapid, accurate, and sensitive. Therefore, this technique can reliably and practically analyze the chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). PMID:27446630

  16. The protective role of Aegle marmelos on aspirin-induced gastro-duodenal ulceration in albino rat model: A possible involvement of antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamal K Das

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Gastro duodenal ulcer is a common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Several Indian medicinal plants have been traditionally and extensively used to prevent different diseases. In the present research studies, Bael fruit (Aegle marmelos (AM, family: Rutaceae which are also called as Bilva in ancient Sanskrit was used as a herbal drug and its antioxidative role in aspirin- induced gastroduodenal ulceration in albino rat was evaluated using essential biochemical parameters. Patients and Methods: Mucosal thickness (MT, ulcer index (UI, different biochemical parameters, such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, reduced glutathione (GSH, and lipid peroxidation (LPO were measured in all the groups, to study the possible involvement of antioxidants with gastroduodenal protection. Results: A significant decrease in MT, SOD and CAT activities and GSH level and a significant increase in UI, AST, ALT, and ALP activities and LPO level were observed in aspirin treated stomach and duodenum of albino rats. Conclusions: Pretreatment with AM fruit pulp extract for 14 consecutive days showed the reverse effects of aspirin suggesting gastro-duodenal protective and anti- ulcerogenic properties of AM through its antioxidant mechanism.

  17. Phytosociological study of caatinga vegetation in the Estação Ecológica of Aiuaba (ESEC, Ceará state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Rodrigues Lemos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to characterize the physiognomy and structure of the woody component of an area of caatinga vegetation in the Estação Ecológica (ESEC of Aiuaba, Ceará state, thereby contributing to the knowledge of the vegetation of semiarid northeastern Brazil. Fifty sampling plots (10x10m were randomly established in a 1.5 hectare area, where stem diameter at soil level was ≥ 3 cm and height was ≥ 1 m. The survey results included 3,007 individuals from 47 species and 20 families. Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Acanthaceae, Bignoniaceae and Rutaceae represented 66% of the species, and the first three families represented 63% of the total importance value. Croton argyrophylloides Müll. Arg., Pityrocarpa moniliformis Benth., Erythroxylum caatingae Plowman and Bauhinia cheilantha (Bong. Steud. were the most important species. Average plant height was 4.51 m, with a maximum of 13 m; average stem diameter was 7.28 cm, with a maximum of 44.88 cm. The total basal area was 18.3 m2 ha-1. The plant community can be classified as a type of caatinga with shrubs and trees, presenting similar floristic composition to other caatinga vegetation in areas of sandy sediments, and to non-thorn deciduous vegetation (“carrasco” situated in the Ibiapaba-Araripe Complex.

  18. Fungistatic activity of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. bark extracts against fungal plant pathogens and investigation on mechanism of action in Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenuto, Gennaro; Carrieri, Raffaele; Tarantino, Paola; Alfieri, Mariaevelina; Leone, Antonella; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Lahoz, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived compounds are emerging as an alternative choice to synthetic fungicides. Chloroform-methanol extract, obtained from the bark of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium, a member of Rutaceae, showed a fungistatic effect on Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Clonostachys rosea, when added to the growth medium at different concentrations. A fraction obtained by gel separation and containing the alkaloid O-Methylcapaurine showed significant fungistatic effect against B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum, two of the most destructive phytopathogenic fungi. The underlying mechanism of such an inhibition was further investigated in B. cinerea, a fungus highly prone to develop fungicide resistance, by analysing the expression levels of a set of genes (BcatrB, P450, CYP51 and TOR). O-Methylcapaurine inhibited the expression of all the analysed genes. In particular, the expression of BcatrB gene, encoding a membrane drug transporter involved in the resistance to a wide range of xenobiotic compounds, was strongly inhibited (91%). PMID:25589008

  19. Medicinal plants used for the treatment of tuberculosis by Bapedi traditional healers in three districts of the Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenya, Sebua Silas; Maroyi, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed at documenting medicinal plants used for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) by the Bapedi traditional healers in three districts of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Fifty two traditional healers from 17 municipalities covering Capricorn, Sekhukhune and Waterberg districts were interviewed between January and July 2011. Twenty one medicinal plant species belonging to 20 genera and 18 families were documented. The majority (61.9%) are indigenous and the rest are exotics, found near homes as weeds or cultivated in home gardens as ornamentals or food plants. Hyacinthaceae, Moraceae and Rutaceae families were the most represented families in terms of species numbers (9.5% each). Herbs and trees (38% each) constituted the largest proportion of the growth forms of the medicinal plants used. Tuberculosis remedies were mostly prepared from leaves (34%) followed by roots (21%). The therapeutic claims made on medicinal plants used to treat TB by the Bapedi traditional healers are well supported by literature, with 71.4% of the species having antimicrobial properties or have similar ethno medicinal uses in other countries. This study therefore, illustrates the importance of medicinal plants in the treatment and management of TB in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. PMID:24146456

  20. Infestation of Olive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera oleae, in California and Taxonomy of its Host Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Athar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the trapping survey were analyzed to determine the taxonomy of various tree species infested by the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae in California. Since its first appearance in California in 1998, the olive fruit fly has spread from Los Angeles to 37 counties, including all of the state’s commercial olive growing areas. Olive fruit flies were trapped from 19 tree species belonging to nine genera distributed in seven families of angiosperms. Olives (Family Oleaceae were the preferred host of the olive fruit fly. Family Rosaceae had nine host tree species followed by Rutaceae (five host tree species. Other host tree species were distributed in Anacardiaceae, Fabaceae (Leguminosae, Lythraceae and Malpigiaceae families. These hosts were mostly fruit trees with the exceptions of Brazilian pepper tree, carob, crape myrtle and ornamental plum. The host list reflects typical hosts and is not comprehensive. It is unknown if different olive cultivars are more attractive to the fly or more susceptible to fly damage. The pest directly attacks olive fruits and can devastate entire harvests. Adults feed on nectar, honeydew and other opportunistic sources of liquid or semi-liquid food. University of California scientists are now developing specific information about the olive fruit fly in California and have synthesized useful findings from Europe, where the pest has long been established.

  1. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activity, liver profile test, and mutagenic activity of five plants used in traditional Mexican medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cornejo-Garrido

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Berberis hartwegii Benth., Berberidaceae, Hamelia patens Jacq., Rubiaceae, Dendropanax arboreus (L. Decne & Planch., Araliaceae, Erythrina herbacea L., Fabaceae, and Zanthoxylum caribaeum Lam., Rutaceae, acetone extracts were selected on the basis of their use in traditional Mexican medicine to treat scabies or skin diseases. Anti-dermatophyte activity in vitro was evaluated using the agar dilution assay, and the therapeutic efficacy of B. hartwegii and Z. caribaeum were tested against experimental tinea pedis. The infected animals were treated intragastrically daily for seven days with 2.5 and 5 mg/kg of acetone extracts. The acetone extract of H. patens exhibited 100% growth inhibition against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum at 100.0 and 50.0 µg/ml, respectively, and B. hartwegii inhibited growth of M. canis and T. mentagrophytes at 100.0 µg/ml. Effective treatments with 2.5 mg/kg of Z. caribaeum and B. hartwegii extract were comparable with 1 mg/kg of clotrimazole in mice. Liver profile tests and histological analyses did not exhibit any signs of toxicity and the Ames test indicated that both extracts were safe when evaluated in strains TA98, TA100 and TA102. Our results suggest the potential for the future development of new antifungal drugs from B. hartwegii or Z. caribaeum.

  2. Extraction, Modelling and Purification of Flavonoids from Citrus Medica Peel

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    M. Parvathi Nandan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Soxhlet extraction technique is widely employed for the extraction and separation of chemical constituents in the medicinal plants. Citrus medica L commonly called as Citron belongs to family Rutaceae, is a slow-growing shrub. It is mainly cultivated for the production of edible fruits which are sour in taste like lime and lemon and the main content of a citron fruit is the thick rind, which is very adherent to the segments. From the phytochemical analysis the peel extract is rich source of phenols, flavonoids and alkaloids. The objective of present work is to develop a modelling equation for quercetin, rutin and kaempferol and the crude extract obtained by soxhlet extraction was further purified by solvent-solvent extraction and Column chromatography. Extraction was carried out by 80% methanol as a solvent Soxhlet extractor. Soxhlet extraction with methanol was carried out with varying time intervals, to evaluate modelling equation. The proposed modelling equation was Es = 0.0849(t + 7.0286 for Quercetin and Es = 0.0912(t + 25.971 for rutin, and Es = 0.0267(t + 7.3714 for Kaempferol. High yield was obtained for 180min of Soxhlet extraction with 80% methanol. Yield of quercetin, rutin and kaempferol after solvent-solvent extraction and column chromatography was 22.6µg/ml, 43.7µg/ml and 10.8µg/ml respectively. The proposed model showed good agreement with the experimental data.

  3. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka Essential Oil and Limonene in Experimental Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Kummer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Citrus (Rutaceae includes several species of plants that produce some of the most cultivated fruits in the world, providing an appreciable content of essential oil. In folk medicine, they are used as a cholagogue, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, sedative, and antitoxic effects. Lemon essential oil has been used since ancient times for its antiseptic, carminative, diuretic, and eupeptic effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka essential oil (CLEO and its main constituent LIM. In the cell viability assay, CLEO and LIM (3, 10, 30, and 90 μg/mL had low cytotoxicity. In zymosan-induced peritonitis, LIM (500 mg/kg decreased the infiltration of peritoneal exudate leukocytes and decreased the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In vitro chemotaxis revealed that CLEO and LIM (1, 3, and 10 µg/mL promoted a significant reduction of neutrophil migration toward fMLP and LTB4. LIM (500 mg/kg also reduced TNF-α levels but did not alter IL-10 levels in the peritoneal exudate. In conclusion, this study showed that LIM isolated from CLEO had potential anti-inflammatory effects, likely by inhibiting proinflammatory mediators present in inflammatory exudate and leukocyte chemotaxis.

  4. Five Newly Recorded Plant Species in Guizhou%贵州5个植物新纪录种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石磊; 胡小亮; 杨传东; 陈靖; 张泓; 杨妮

    2015-01-01

    首次报道贵州4个新纪录种和1个新纪录变种,蝶形花科(Papilionaceae)山豆根属(Euchres-ta)山豆根(Euchresta japonica Hook.f.ex Regel)、毛茛科(Ranunculaceae)毛果扬子铁线莲(Clematis ganpiniana var.tenuisepala (Maxim)C.T.Ting)和厚叶铁线莲(Clematis crassifolia Benth.)、芸香科(Rutaceae)茵芋属(Skimmia)的黑果茵芋(Skimmia melanocarpa Rehd.et Wils.)、爵床科(Acanthaceae)马蓝属(Pteracanthus Bremek)弯花马蓝(Pteracanthus cyphanthus (Diels)C.Y.Wu et C.C.Hu)。其中,三豆根为国家二级重点保护植物,首次发现在贵州有分布。%Four newly recorded species and one newly recorded varietas were first reported in Guizhou, including Euchresta japonica (Papilionaceae, Euchresta ), Clematis ganpiniana var. tenuisepala (Ranunculaceae),Clematis crassifolia (Ranunculaceae),Skimmia melanocarpa (Rutaceae,Skimmia), Pteracanthus cyphanthus (Acanthaceae,Pteracanthus).E.japonica is first reported in Guizhou,which is the national second-level key protected plants.

  5. FERONIA LIMONIA – A PATH LESS TRAVELLED

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    Qureshi Absar A.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available From ancient days to recent civilization, human beings depend on nature for running their life smoothly from day to day. Plants remain a vital source of drugs and now a day’s much emphasis have been given to nutraceuticals. Feronia limonia belonging to family Rutaceae is well known in Indian traditional systems for its traditional uses. Various parts of the plant have astringent, constipating, tonic for liver and lung, diuretic, carminative, and cardiotonic traditional uses. Various important phytoconstituents like alkaloids, phenolic compounds, triterpenoids, coumarins, tannins, steroids etc. have been isolated from Kavith. But only few pharmacological activities like antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumour, antifungal and CNS depressant activity have been scientifically reported. From enormous traditional uses documented in various traditional system of medicine and presence of vital phytoconstituents make Kavith (Feronia limonia an important plant to be studied scientifically to prove various traditional uses. In present review we explore Kaitha’s description, traditional medicinal uses, phytoconstituents and investigated pharmacological activities in various parts of the plant to show potential ethnopharmacological importance of the plant. So that this review can serve as ready to use material for further research on the plant.

  6. Tasty on the outside, but toxic in the middle: grasshopper regurgitation and host plant-mediated toxicity to a vertebrate predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sword, G A

    2001-08-01

    Regurgitation by arthropods is often considered to be a rudimentary form of defense against predators. In phytophagous insects, regurgitate composition will vary with diet, and plant secondary compounds from host plants can contribute to the effectiveness of regurgitate deterrence. Regurgitation in response to predator attack is particularly common in grasshoppers. However, there is little empirical evidence in favor of grasshopper regurgitation as an effective antipredator mechanism in natural predator-prey systems. In particular, studies of the effect of grasshopper diet on regurgitate deterrence to vertebrate predators are lacking. This study investigated the relationship between diet and predator defense in the grasshopper, Schistocerca emarginata (=lineata) (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Using the insectivorous lizard, Anolis carolinensis (Iguanidae), as a predator, I demonstrate that consumption of Ptelea trifoliata (Rutaceae) by S. emarginata can confer distastefulness as well as toxicity. Regurgitate deterrence is mediated strictly by host plant material in the gut and does not require an enteric contribution from the grasshopper. Regurgitation by Ptelea-fed S. emarginata can result in rejection prior to ingestion by A. carolinensis and can enable grasshoppers to survive predator attacks. PMID:24549911

  7. Production and characterization of polyclonal antibodies in rabbits to 4S-limonene synthase from spearmint (Mentha spicata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, W R; Crock, J E; Croteau, R

    1993-02-15

    Limonene synthase, a monoterpene cyclase from the oil glands of spearmint (Mentha spicata) leaves that catalyzes the conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate to (-)-4S-limonene, was purified, and polyclonal antibodies were generated in rabbits against the sodium dodecyl sulfate-denatured protein. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that the antibodies were very specific for denatured limonene synthase from all Mentha species tested. However, no immunological cross-reactivity was observed with denatured limonene synthases from Valencia oranges (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae) or wormseed (Chenopodium ambrosioides, Chenopodiaceae). Furthermore, the antibody preparation did not detectably cross-react with other monoterpene cyclases from related angiosperm species of the Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, and Umbellifereae, or from conifer species, and no cross-reactivity was demonstrated toward several sesquiterpene cyclases of higher plant and fungal origin. Although the antibody preparation was highly selective for denatured limonene cyclase from Mentha, the antibodies did not recognize the native protein in several different types of experiments. Nevertheless, specificity for the target enzyme was unambiguously demonstrated when the antibody preparation was shown to cross-react with the cyclase protein expressed in Escherichia coli that harbored the corresponding limonene synthase cDNA gene from M. spicata. PMID:8442666

  8. A Nuclear Ribosomal DNA Phylogeny of Acer Inferred with Maximum Likelihood, Splits Graphs, and Motif Analysis of 606 Sequences

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    Guido W. Grimm

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The multi-copy internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA is widely used to infer phylogenetic relationships among closely related taxa. Here we use maximum likelihood (ML and splits graph analyses to extract phylogenetic information from ~ 600 mostly cloned ITS sequences, representing 81 species and subspecies of Acer, and both species of its sister Dipteronia. Additional analyses compared sequence motifs in Acer and several hundred Anacardiaceae, Burseraceae, Meliaceae, Rutaceae, and Sapindaceae ITS sequences in GenBank. We also assessed the effects of using smaller data sets of consensus sequences with ambiguity coding (accounting for within-species variation instead of the full (partly redundant original sequences. Neighbor-nets and bipartition networks were used to visualize conflict among character state patterns. Species clusters observed in the trees and networks largely agree with morphology-based classifications; of de Jong’s (1994 16 sections, nine are supported in neighbor-net and bipartition networks, and ten by sequence motifs and the ML tree; of his 19 series, 14 are supported in networks, motifs, and the ML tree. Most nodes had higher bootstrap support with matrices of 105 or 40 consensus sequences than with the original matrix. Within-taxon ITS divergence did not differ between diploid and polyploid Acer, and there was little evidence of differentiated parental ITS haplotypes, suggesting that concerted evolution in Acer acts rapidly.

  9. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS of Imidazole Alkaloids in Pilocarpus microphyllus

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    Paulo Mazzafera

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Pilocarpine, an important imidazole alkaloid, is extracted from the leaves of Pilocarpus microphyllus (Rutaceae, known in Brazil as jaborandi and used mainly for the treatment of glaucoma. Jaborandi leaves also contain other imidazole alkaloids, whose pharmacological and physiological properties are unknown, and whose biosynthetic pathways are under investigation. In the present study, a HPLC method coupled with ESI-MSn was developed for their qualitative and quantitative analysis. This method permits the chromatographic separation of the imidazole alkaloids found in extracts of jaborandi, as well as the MS/MS analysis of the individual compounds. Thus two samples: leaves of P. microphyllus and a paste that is left over after the industrial extraction of pilocarpine; were compared. The paste was found to contain significant amounts of pilocarpine and other imidazole alkaloids, but had a slightly different alkaloid profile than the leaf extract. The method is suitable for the routine analysis of samples containing these alkaloids, as well as for the separation and identification of known and novel alkaloids from this family, and may be applied to further studies of the biosynthetic pathway of pilocarpine in P. microphyllus.

  10. Avaliação toxicológica aguda e screening hipocrático da epiisopilosina, alcalóide secundário de Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf.

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    E. M. R. de A. Lucio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf. recebe a designação geral de jaborandi, fonte industrial de pilocarpina, utilizada no tratamento do glaucoma. O jaborandi contém vários alcalóides secundários. A epiisopilosina foi submetida a testes farmacológicos para determinação da DL50’ screening hipocrático e determinação do peso corporal dos animais sobreviventes da DL50. A análise dos resultados revelou que a epiisopilosina apresentou DL50 duas vezes maior que a pilocarpina. Os animais que sobreviveram à determinação da DL50 ganharam peso no período de 14 dias de observação. A eplisopilosina demonstrou ser um estimulante periférico do sistema nervoso parassimpático, semelhante à pilocarpina, somente em altas doses.Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf. (Rutaceae is a source for industrial isolation of pilocarpine, alkaloid used in the treatment of glaucoma. It contains several secondary alkaloids; one of them being eplisopilosine. Pharmacological evaluation showed DL50 value of epiisopilosine two times higher than of pilocarpine. Epiisopilosine also showed to be a pilocarpine-like peripheric stimulant of parasympatic nervous system, although in higher dosis.

  11. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS of imidazole alkaloids in Pilocarpus microphyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaya, Alexandra C H F; Abreu, Ilka Nacif; Andreazza, Nathalia Luiza; Eberlin, Marcos N; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2008-01-01

    Pilocarpine, an important imidazole alkaloid, is extracted from the leaves of Pilocarpus microphyllus (Rutaceae), known in Brazil as jaborandi and used mainly for the treatment of glaucoma. Jaborandi leaves also contain other imidazole alkaloids, whose pharmacological and physiological properties are unknown, and whose biosynthetic pathways are under investigation. In the present study, a HPLC method coupled with ESI-MS(n) was developed for their qualitative and quantitative analysis. This method permits the chromatographic separation of the imidazole alkaloids found in extracts of jaborandi, as well as the MS/MS analysis of the individual compounds. Thus two samples: leaves of P. microphyllus and a paste that is left over after the industrial extraction of pilocarpine; were compared. The paste was found to contain significant amounts of pilocarpine and other imidazole alkaloids, but had a slightly different alkaloid profile than the leaf extract. The method is suitable for the routine analysis of samples containing these alkaloids, as well as for the separation and identification of known and novel alkaloids from this family, and may be applied to further studies of the biosynthetic pathway of pilocarpine in P. microphyllus. PMID:18719522

  12. Micropropagação do jaborandi

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    Sabá Renata Tuma

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O jaborandi (Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf é uma árvore da família Rutaceae destacando-se por intensivo uso na indústria farmacêutica através de um dos seus princípios ativos, pilocarpina, utilizado no controle do glaucoma. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi desenvolver um protocolo de micropropagação de jaborandi. Os ápices e segmentos caulinares utilizados na micropropagação foram retiradas das plântulas germinadas in vitro cultivadas em meio MS com diferentes concentrações e combinações de reguladores de crescimento. O tratamento com 3% de NaOCl (hipoclorito de sódio e na ausência de AG3 (ácido giberélico promoveu maior percentagem de germinação e menor índice de contaminação. O segmento apical foi o mais eficiente na emissão e comprimento médio de brotos de jaborandi sob diferentes concentrações de BAP (6-benzilaminopurina e diferentes combinações de zeatina e cinetina.

  13. Activity of epiisopiloturine against Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, L M; Guimaraes, M A; Campelo, Y D; Vieira, M M; Nascimento, C; Lima, D F; Vasconcelos, L; Nakano, E; Kuckelhaus, S S; Batista, M C; Leite, J R; Moraes, J

    2012-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma, still imposes a considerable public health burden on large parts of the world. The control of this disease depends almost exclusively on the drug praziquantel, and there are no alternative drugs in sight. Natural compounds have recently attracted significant attention due to their relevance to parasitic infection and potential development into new therapeutic agents. Epiisopiloturine is an imidazole alkaloid isolated from the leaves of Pilocarpus microphyllus (Rutaceae), a native plant from Brazil. Here, we report the in vitro effect of this drug on the survival time of Schistosoma mansoni of different ages, such as 3 h old and 1, 3, 5, and 7 days old schistosomula, 49-day-old adults, and on egg output by adult worms. Epiisopiloturine at a concentration of 300 μg/mL caused the death of all schistosomula within 120 h. Extensive tegumental alterations and death were observed when adult schistosomes had been exposed to 150 μg/mL of the epiisopiloturine. At the highest sub-lethal dose of alkaloid (100 μg/mL), a 100% reduction in egg laying of paired adult worms was observed. Additionally, epiisopiloturine showed selective antischistosomal activity and exhibited no cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. This report provides the first evidence that epiisopiloturine is able to kill S. mansoni of different ages and inhibit worm egg laying. PMID:22420337

  14. Behavioral effects of essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. inhalation in rats

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    Mariana P. Leite

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The orange essential oil (OEO and its components obtained from Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae has been attracting interest due to its sedative and relaxing actions. In the present study, rats previously exposed to OEO at the concentrations of 1.0%; 2.5% and 5.0%, w/w, by inhalation during 7 minutes in acrylic boxes were evaluated in two anxiety models: elevated plus maze (EPM and open-field. The OEO at the concentration of 2.5% increased both the time of the animals in the open arms of the EPM and the time of active social interaction in the open-field being longer than that of the diazepam group (1.5 mg/kg i.p. In conclusion, the decrease in the level of emotionality of the animals observed in the two experimental models suggests a possible central action, which is in agreement with the phytochemical profile of the oil under study, since it showed the presence of limonene (96.24% and mircene (2.24%, components with a well-known depressant activity on the central nervous system.

  15. In vitro antifungal activity of the essential oil and the methanolic extract of Ruta chalepensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouadhi, Ch; Ghazghazi, H; Hamrouni, S; Hasnaoui, B; Maaroufi, A

    2013-01-01

    Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae), is an ancient aromatic medicinal plant still used in the traditional medicine of many countries as a laxative, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, abortifacient, antiepileptic, emmenagogue and for dermatopathy treatment. Regarding increasing prevalence of mycotoxins and inefficiency of methods used to decrease them, it is possible to use plants metabolites to decrease mycotoxins. This study was carried out to evaluate chemical composition, antifungal and anticandidal activities of R. chalepensis extracts. The chemical composition of its essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GCMS). The major components of R. chalepensis essential oil were menthol (49.92%), linalool (31.1%) and 2-hexanal (5.2%). The antifungal and anticandidal effects of the essential oil and methanolic extract of R. chalepensis leaves were studied by disc diffusion assay and broth dilution method. The obtained results showed that R. chalepensis extracts had a significant fungicidal effect against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans. The inhibition zones diameters and the minimum inhibitory concentration values for tested microorganisms were in the range of 11-17 mm and 3.25-6.25% (v/v), respectively. The methanolic extract showed much better antimicrobial activity than the essential oil against three tested micro-organisms PMID:26012209

  16. 陈皮存放时间与内在质量关系论证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹青娟

    2001-01-01

    @@陈皮为芸香科(Rutaceae)植物橘(Citrus reticulata Blanco)及其栽培变种成熟果实的干燥果皮,功效为理气健脾、燥湿化痰,是常用中药.古人认为橘皮以色红日久者佳,故名陈皮.为论证陈皮的贮存时间与内在质量间的关系,笔者曾以陈皮的主要成分橙皮甙作为内定指标,将3个不同年限的陈皮进行了含量测定. 1 实验材料 同产地存放1年、3年及5年的陈皮,分别为1、2、3号,由邵阳市药材公司提供.

  17. Influence of volatile constituents of fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco on clinically isolated pathogenic microorganisms under In-vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Husain Shahnaz Sultana; Mohammed Ali; Bibhu Prasad Panda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of volatile constituents of fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco on clinically isolated pathogenic microorganisms. Methods: Extraction of volatile oil was carried out by Clevenger’s apparatus. Volatile chemical components were measured by GC-MS. Antimicrobial activity was carried by Agar well diffusion assay with reference to standard fluconazole and tetracycline. Results: The chemical composition of volatile oil of the fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae) of Delhi Region was composed mainly monoterpenes (99.1 %) constituting l-limonene (92.4 %), γ-terpene (2.6 %) andβ-phellandrene (1.8 %). The volatile oil showed antibacterial and antifungal activities against the clinically isolated pathogenic microbial strains Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans under in vitro condition. Conclusions: The potential antimicrobial activity of volatile oil present in fruit peels of C. reticulata can be useful for treatment of skin disorder and/or in aroma. Therapy, it can be incorporated into cosmetic formulations.

  18. Modification of radiation induced intestinal lesions by Aegle marmelos fruit extract, an Indian medicinal plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, some plant extracts have been screened out against radiation and found to be quite promising. Aegle marmelos (Bael), belonging to family Rutaceae, fruits are very good source of proteins which form 5.12% of the edible portion. It is claimed to be useful in treating pain, fever, inflammation, respiratory disorders, cardiac disorders, dysentery and diarrhea. The ripe fruit is used for the treatment of digestive and stomachic complications. Aegle marmelos is a useful medicine for herbalist and it holds a reputed position in Ayurvedic system of medicine. Protection of intestinal constituents by Aegle marmelos extract (AME) was studied after exposure to 6 Gy gamma radiations in mice. For this purpose, Swiss albino mice were divided in various groups. Group I was administered with double distilled water (DDW), volume equal to AME (100 mg/kg body wt./animal), by oral gavage to serve as normal. Group II was administered orally AME extract once daily at a dose of 100 mg/kg b.wt./animal for 5 consecutive days. Group III was exposed to 6 Gy gamma radiations to serve as irradiated control. Group IV was treated with AME, orally for 5 consecutive days (as in Group-II), and were exposed to gamma radiation half an hour after the last administration of AME on day 5. Animals from all these group autopsied on 12 hrs, days 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 post-treatment intervals

  19. Structure and floristic composition of tree stand in tropical forest in the Eastern Ghats of northern Andhra Pradesh, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. Sudhakar Reddy; Shilpa Babar; Giriraj Amamath; Chiranjibi Pattanaik

    2011-01-01

    The changes in species composition,abundance and forest stand structure were analyzed across altitudinal regimes in tropical forests of Eastern Ghats of northern Andhra Pradesh,India.Three 1-ha plots were established with one each in low,medium and high altitudes.A total of 153 species,2129 stems (709 stems ·ha-l) of>10 cm girth were enumerated.Species richness and diversity pattern varied along altitudinal gradient and increased with the altitude.Species richness varied from 52 to 110 species·ha-1 and stand density from 639 to 836 stems·ha-1 with average basal area of 34.39 m2·ha-1.Shannon-Wiener index (H) ranged from 4.55 to 5.17.Low altitude (i.e.,Site 1) is dominated by Xylia xylocarpa (59.22) and Lagerstroemia parviflora (23.90),medium altitude (i.e.,Site 2) by Xylia xylocarpa (45.50) Bursera serrata (17.29),and high altitude (i.e.,Site 3) has Schleichera oleosa (28.25) Pterocarpus marsupium (26.55) as predominant species.Taxonomically,Rubiaceae (12 species),Fabaceae (12),Euphorbiaceae (11),Rutaceae (7) and Lauraceae (7) were dominant families.Density-wise,Fabaceae,Combretaceae,Euphorbiaceae,Anacardiaceae and Myrtaceae were abundant.Thus,conservation assessment based on altitudinal regimes and the information on species structure and function can provide baseline information for monitoring and sustaining the biodiversity.

  20. INVESTIGATION OF EFFECT OF MURRAYA KOENIGII ON BIOPHYSICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF WOUND IN DIABETIC HYPERLIPIDEMIC WISTAR RATS

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    Vikram Kumar*, Angshu Bandyopadhyay and Vikram Sharma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been used in traditional medicine for several thousand years. India is perhaps the largest producer of medicinal herbs and is rightly called the “Botanical garden of the World”. Murraya koenigii Linn. commonly known as Meethi neem, belongs to the family Rutaceae. The curry tree is native to India and it is found almost everywhere in the Indian subcontinent excluding the higher levels of Himalayas. The effect of Murraya koenigii leaves aqueous extract on biophysical and biochemical parameters of wound were studied by dead space wound model in diabetic hyperlipidemic rats. In dead space wound model, animals treated with Murraya koenigii (oral administration of variable dosage level 200mg/kg, 300mg/kg and 400mg/kg leaves aqueous extract showed significant increase in Wet & Dry granulations tissue weight (biophysical parameter and hydroxyprolin content (biochemical parameter when compared to the diabetic hyperlipidemic control group rats. In this study, very significant (p<0.001 result was found with 300mg/kg dose level because the effect was dose dependent up to 300mg equivalent of extract. The results suggested that aqueous extract of Murraya koenigii possess significant wound healing potential in diabetic hyperlipidemic rats. Further studies may reveal the exact mechanisms of action responsible for the wound healing activity of Murraya koenigii leaves aqueous extract in diabetic hyperlipidemic condition.

  1. Mechanism involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of Spiranthera odoratissima (Manacá

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    Daniela B. M. Barbosa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid-induced writhing, hot-plate, carrageenan-induced pleurisy, formalin-induced pain, croton oil-induced ear edema, vascular permeability tests and phospholipase A2 activity assay were used to study the analgesic and/or anti-inflammatory activity of the hydromethanolic fraction of ethanolic extract from Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil., Rutaceae, leaves (HMF and its subfraction (sub-Fr10-28. HMF and sub-Fr10-28 reduced the leukocyte migration on the carrageenan-induced pleurisy test; sub-Fr10-28 reduced the pain reaction time in the second phase of formalin-induced pain, as well as the ear edema and vascular permeability. Both HMF and sub-Fr10-28 inhibited the phospholipase A2 activity. These results suggest that the analgesic effect of this plant could be, in part, due to an anti-inflammatory action produced by the inhibition of phospholipase A2 activity.

  2. Bioefficacy of botanical insecticides against the dengue and chikungunya vector Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel Tennyson; K John Ravindran; S Arivoli

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the bioefficacy of plant extracts viz., whole plants of Sphaeranthus indicus (Asteraceae) and Citrullus colocynthis (Cucurbitaceae), leaves of Abutilon indicum (Malvaceae), Cleistanthus collinus (Euphorbiaceae), Leucas aspera (Lamiaceae) and Murrayakoenigii (Rutaceae), and aerial parts of Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae) against the dengue and chikungunya vector Aedes aegypti. Methods: The larvicidal activity was determined against the early third instar larvae at concentrations of 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm. Larval mortality was assessed after 24 h. Results: The ethyl acetate extract of Sphaeranthus indicus (201.11ppm) and hexane extract of Abutilon indicum (261.31ppm) was found to be effective. Conclusions: Further in-depth investigations on the crude extract/phytotoxic compounds of Sphaeranthus indicus are needed to elucidate the larvicidal activity against a wide range of all stages of mosquito species and also the active ingredients of the extract responsible for larvicidal activity in Aedesaegypti should be identified, and small scale field trials are needed for usage of this plant as a mosquitocidal agent.

  3. Diversity and use of ethnomedicinal plants in coastal Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. JAYAKARA BHANDARY

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bhandary MJ, Chandrashekar KR. 2014. Diversity and use of ethnomedicinal plants in coastal Karnataka, India. Biodiversitas 15: 89-93. A study was undertaken in Coastal Karnataka, a culturally and floristically diverse region between the Western Ghats and the Arabian sea in India, to document the diversity and uses of ethnomedicinal plants of the area. This study resulted in the documentation of ethnomedicinal uses of 342 species of plants belonging to 34 families. The dominant families of ethnomedicinal plants were: Fabaceae (38 species, Euphorbiaceae (22 species, Rubiaceae (11 species, Acanthaceae, Asteraceae, Apocynaceae and Rutaceae (10 species each. Among the plants used, 30% are herbs, 27% trees, 25% climbers and 18% shrubs. Majority of the plants are used against several diseases, either alone or in combination with other plants. The most popular medicinal plants, in terms of the number of diseases against which they are used, are Cyclea peltata, Aristolochia indica, Cuminum cyminum, Curcuma longa, Tamarindus indica, Asparagus racemosus, Ficus racemosa, Hemidesmus indicus, Ficus religiosa, Calotropis gigantea, Vitex negundo, Aegle marmelos and Leucas aspera. A list of 50 important ethnomedicinal plants of the region which are used in the treatment of 5 or more disorders is provided.

  4. Ulcer protective potential of standardized hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid isolated from Citrus sinensis

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    Papiya Bigoniya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals play an important role in stomach ulcer formation. The present investigation validates the anti ulcer activity of hesperidin, isolated from Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, Rutaceae, through the assessment of its antioxidant potential over stomach mucosal tissue by histological examination. Hesperidin was isolated from the dried peel of C. sinensis, and authenticated by TLC, IR and HPLC. The anti-ulcerogenic potential of this fruit was assessed using indomethacin and hypothermic restrain stress-induced ulceration models on rats at 150, 300 and 450 mg/kg dose orally. The parameters measured were gastric pH, volume, free and total acidity, ulcer index, and mucin, glutathione, super oxide dismutase, catalase and protein content. Hesperidin at 300 and 450 mg/kg dose showed significant (p < 0.01-0.001 increase in pH, decrease in acidity and ulcer index against indomethacin and hypothermic restrain stress, along with histological evidence of cytoprotection. Glutathione, super oxide dismutase, catalase and mucin levels increased significantly at 450 mg/kg (p <0.05-0.001 after indomethacin ulceration, whereas hypothermic restrain stress only increased glutathione and mucin levels. Hesperidin prevents oxidative cell injury by significant rise of super oxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase levels in gastric mucosa. Hesperidin allowed the regeneration of ulcerated tissue, and prevented hemorrhagic injury of gastric mucosa. The potential anti-ulcer effect of hesperidin may be due to antioxidant, mucoprotective and cytoprotective activities.

  5. ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF CITRUS PARADISI (GRAPEFRUIT SEED EXTRACTS

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    Faleye, F J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The seeds and the seeds extract of Citrus paradisi (Rutaceae have been widely used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of conditions such as ulcers, cataracts, urinary and alimentary tract infections. The juice is taken mainly for its medicinal properties in large area of sub-Saharan Africa. However, very little is known about the cellular actions by which this plant mediates its therapeutic effects. This study investigated the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the extracts and isolated compounds from the seeds extract. The structures of the isolated compounds were established using spectroscopy studies and identified as obacunone (1, nomilin (2, limonin (3, nomilinic acid (4 and obacunone-17-O-β-D-glucopyranose (5. Their antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl spectrophotometric assay. None of the isolated compounds showed antimicrobial activities but nomilinic acid showed a weak antioxidant property. It scavenged 13.09 % of the DPPH free radical at the highest concentration of 200 µM tested.Oil of the seeds of C. paradisi investigated using gas chromatographic analysis was found to contain both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The major saturated fatty acids present were lauric and stearic acids with percentage composition of 2.61 and 0.07 respectively while the major unsaturated fatty acids present in the seed were linoleic and linolenic acids with percentage compositions of 5.02 and 3.84 respectively.

  6. Satkara (Citrus macroptera Fruit Protects against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatorenal Toxicity in Rats

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    Sudip Paul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Citrus macroptera (Rutaceae, an indigenous fruit in Bangladesh, has long been used in folk medicine, however, there is a lack of information concerning its protective effects against oxidative damage. The protective effects of an ethanol extract of Citrus macroptera (EECM against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity were investigated in rats. Rats (treatment groups were pretreated with EECM at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, respectively, orally for 30 days followed by acetaminophen administration. Silymarin (100 mg/kg was administered as a standard drug over a similar treatment period. Our findings indicated that oral administration of acetaminophen induced severe hepatic and renal injuries associated with oxidative stress, as observed by 2-fold higher lipid peroxidation (TBARS compared to control. Pretreatment with EECM prior to acetaminophen administration significantly improved all investigated biochemical parameters, that is, transaminase activities, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transferase activities and total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglyceride and creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium and chloride ions, and TBARS levels. These findings were confirmed by histopathological examinations. The improvement was prominent in the group that received 1000 mg/kg EECM. These findings suggested that C. macroptera fruit could protect against acetaminophen-induced hepatonephrotoxicity, which might be via the inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  7. Identifying the genome-wide genetic variation between precocious trifoliate orange and its wild type and developing new markers for genetics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Zhi; Liu, Sheng-Rui; Hu, Chun-Gen

    2016-08-01

    To increase our understanding of the genes involved in flowering in citrus, we performed genome resequencing of an early flowering trifoliate orange mutant (Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) and its wild type. At the genome level, 3,932,628 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 1,293,383 insertion/deletion polymorphisms (InDels), and 52,135 structural variations were identified between the mutant and its wild type based on the citrus reference genome. Based on integrative analysis of resequencing and transcriptome analysis, 233,998 SNPs and 75,836 InDels were also identified between the mutant and its wild type at the transcriptional level. Also, 272 citrus homologous flowering-time transcripts containing genetic variation were also identified. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes annotation revealed that the transcripts containing the mutant- and the wild-type-specific InDel were involved in diverse biological processes and molecular function. Among these transcripts, there were 131 transcripts that were expressed differently in the two genotypes. When 268 selected InDels were tested on 32 genotypes of the three genera of Rutaceae for the genetic diversity assessment, these InDel-based markers showed high transferability. This work provides important information that will allow a better understanding of the citrus genome and that will be helpful for dissecting the genetic basis of important traits in citrus. PMID:27106267

  8. Screening of some Tanzanian medicinal plants for their trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibret, Endalkachew; Ashour, Mohamed L; Rubanza, Chrispinus D; Wink, Michael

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate in vitro antitrypanosomal and cytotoxic activities of crude extracts of 20 traditionally used medicinal plants of Tanzania. A total of 40 extracts (dichloromethane and methanol) were screened for antiproliferative activity of bloodstream form of T. b. brucei and human leukaemia HL-60 cell. Inhibition of cell proliferation was assessed using resazurin as vital stain. Of the 40 extracts tested, the dichloromethane extract from bark of Warburgia salutaris (Canellaceae) exhibited the most potent antitrypanosomal activity with an IC(50) value of 10.68 microg/ml. A dichloromethane extract from Lannea stuhlmannii (Anacardiaceae) was found to be the most cytotoxic extract against HL-60 (IC(50) = 27.15 microg/ml). Out of the 20 plants tested, 5 plants exhibited trypanocidal activity with IC(50) values below 20 microg/ml. These 5 plants: Entandrophragma bussei (Meliaceae), Securidaca longepedunculata (Polygalaceae), Warburgia salutaris (Canellaceae), Zanha africana (Sapindaceae) and Zanthoxylum chalybeum (Rutaceae) could therefore serve as sources of lead compounds for treatment of trypanosomiasis. PMID:19957246

  9. Protective Effect of Zanthoxylum nitidum Bark in Chemical and Stress Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Male Albino Rats

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    K. Zaman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb. DC (Rutaceae, called Tez-mui or Tejamool in Assamese, is a large prickly shrub occurring in North-Eastern India and its roots are used traditionally for several medicinal purposes. In the present study, the aqueous extract from the stem bark of Zanthoxylum nitidum (ZNA was evaluated for its protective effects on gastric mucosal lesions in male Wistar albino rats against acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, ethanol and water immersion restraint stress induced gastric mucosal damage. In each model, ZNA was administered orally to rats at the doses of 100 and 200 mg kg-1 body weight, prior to chemical or stress challenge, followed by determination of ulcer index. Ranitidine hydrochloride at the dose of 35 mg kg-1, p.o. served as the reference drug. The test extract exhibited dose dependent and significant amelioration of gastric mucosal lesions in chemical (ASA and ethanol as well as in stress-induced ulcers in male Wistar albino rats, thus confirming its antiulcer potential.

  10. Uso tradicional de plantas medicinales en la vereda San Isidro, municipio de San José de Pare-Boyacá, Colombia: un estudio preliminar usando técnicas cuantitativas

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    Toscano González Jarvis Yamith

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó cuantitativamente el uso de plantas medicinales con el propósito de documentar la importancia relativa de dicha especie y estimar el conocimiento tradicional en las comunidades locales de la vereda San Isidro, municipio de San José de Pare, Boyacá, Colombia. La información fue registrada mediante el método de encuestas estructuradas, en donde se averiguó sobre el uso y manejo de las plantas, la forma de administración, las partes utilizadas y las precauciones que
    se deben tener al ser administradas. Los datos fueron analizados mediante el Índice de Valor de Uso (IVUs y el Nivel de Uso Significativo de TRAMIL. Se registraron 35 especies de plantas de uso medicinal, distribuidas en 20 familias, representadas en su mayoría por Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Solanaceae y Rutaceae. Se reportaron 11 especies con un mayor valor de importancia en medicina tradicional. La documentación de los usos de las plantas medicinales en el área de influencia, revela que el conocimiento tradicional continúa profundamente arraigado entre la comunidad y se mantiene el saber popular a manos de curanderos y madres cabeza de familia.

  11. Medicinal Plants with Antiplatelet Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haouari, Mohammed; Rosado, Juan A

    2016-07-01

    Blood platelets play an essential role in the hemostasis and wound-healing processes. However, platelet hyperactivity is associated to the development and the complications of several cardiovascular diseases. In this sense, the search for potent and safer antiplatelet agents is of great interest. This article provides an overview of experimental studies performed on medicinal plants with antiplatelet activity available through literature with particular emphasis on the bioactive constituents, the parts used, and the various platelet signaling pathways modulated by medicinal plants. From this review, it was suggested that medicinal plants with antiplatelet activity mainly belong to the family of Asteraceae, Rutaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Zygophyllaceae, Rhamnaceae, Liliaceae, and Zingiberaceae. The antiplatelet effect is attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, flavonoids, coumarins, terpenoids, and other substances which correct platelet abnormalities by interfering with different platelet signalization pathways including inhibition of the ADP pathway, suppression of TXA2 formation, reduction of intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, and phosphoinositide breakdown, among others. The identification and/or structure modification of the plant constituents and the understanding of their action mechanisms will be helpful in the development of new antiplatelet agents based on medicinal plants which could contribute to the prevention of thromboembolic-related disorders by inhibiting platelet aggregation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27062716

  12. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants marketed in the municipality of Uruará, Pará, Brazil

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    Reinaldo Lucas Cajaiba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to perform an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants marketed by the population of the municipality of Uruará, Pará, and its main districts. The respondents mentioned 63 species distributed in 36 botanical families. The most representative families were Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Rutaceae. The species with the highest Use Value were capim cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus, UV = 0.90, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides, UV = 0.83 and hortelã (Mentha sp., UV = 0.79, while capim cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus and picão (Bidens pilosa had a higher indicator value, and were indicated as a tranquilizer/painkiller and for treating kidney disease, respectively. Among the main disorders treated with medicinal plants, diseases of the digestive system, infections/inflammations, colds and respiratory system diseases were the most cited. There was no significant difference between the number of species mentioned and the number of individuals per family or the distance of households to the urban zone. There was also no difference between the number of species mentioned and education level. Most medicinal plants marketed in the municipality are herbs, leaves are the most used parts and the most common form of preparation is tea.

  13. Formación Anta (Mioceno Temprano/Medio, Subgrupo Metán (Grupo Orán, en el río Piedras, Pcia. de Salta: Datos palinológicos Anta Formation (Miocene, Metán Subgroup (Orán Group, in río Piedras, Salta Province: Palynological data

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    M. Quattrocchio

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Aproximadamente en el Eoceno medio -Fase Incaica- culminó la acumulación del Grupo Salta (Cretácico-Paleógeno. A continuación y coincidente con el inicio de un ambiente tectónico compresivo en los Andes Centrales comenzó el depósito del Subgrupo Metán (Grupo Orán, constituído por las formaciones Río Seco, Anta y Jesús María. La Formación Anta en río Piedras de 300 m de espesor, consta de arcilitas, calizas oolíticas y tobas acumuladas en un ambiente de lago salino. Se presenta en este trabajo, un análisis palinológico comparativo entre la Formación Anta (Subgrupo Metán y el Subgrupo Santa Bárbara del Grupo Salta (Paleoceno-Eoceno. Regionalmente el espectro polínico reflejaría la presencia de la foresta sub-tropical húmeda (Verrustephanoporites simplex, en muy bajo porcentaje con respecto al Subgrupo Santa Bárbara. La relativa mayor representación de Rhoipites sp. A (Rutaceae, cf. Ruta asociado a Podocarpaceae y Anacardiaceae sugiere una paleocomunidad de mayor altitud (ambiente montano. Basado en estudios palinológicos y sedimentológicos el perfil analizado corresponde a un lago salino. Se registra la primera expansión de la estepa en el NO argentino asociado a condiciones relativamente áridas. Estas evidencias fueron corroboradas mediante el registro de hongos.Deposition of the Salta Group (Cretaceous-Paleogene terminated in the mid Eocene - Inca Diastrophic Phase. Following a compressive tectonic event in the Central Andes, this was succeeded by deposition of Metán Subgroup, divisible into Río Seco, Anta and Jesús María formations. The Anta Formation (300m thick in Río Piedras is characterised by claystone, oolitic limestone and tuff deposited in shallow lakes or on a muddy plain. A comparative palynological analysis between Santa Bárbara Subgroup and Anta Formation (Metán Subgroup shows that the transitional forest flora of the Anta Formation was more impoverished than that of the Santa Bárbara Subgroup

  14. Determinação de parâmetros físico-químicos e da origem botânica de méis indicados monoflorais do sudeste do Brasil Physico-chemical parameters and botanical origin of indicated monofloral honeys from the southeast of Brazil

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    Monika O. Barth

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho analisou a composição físico-química e origem botânica de 31 amostras de mel indicadas como sendo de origem monofloral, comercializadas e produzidas na região Sudeste do Brasil, a fim de verificar parâmetros de qualidade. As análises físico-químicas compreenderam o teste de Fiehe, a reação de lugol, a determinação do teor de umidade, do pH, de açúcares redutores, de cinzas e do índice de diastase. Todas as amostras apresentaram-se dentro do limite previsto pela legislação brasileira para o teor de umidade. Dez amostras apresentaram teor de açúcares redutores inferior ao previsto na legislação, três tinham número de diastase (unidades Schade/Gothe inferior a 8, uma apresentou pH abaixo do padrão e outra apresentou teor de cinzas superior ao previsto. A análise polínica mostrou que cerca de 57% das amostras poderiam ser classificadas como monoflorais, correspondendo nove amostras a mel de eucalipto (Eucalyptus, Myrtaceae, duas a mel de aroeira (Schinus, Anacardiaceae, duas a mel de assa-peixe (Vernonia, Asteraceae, duas a mel de laranjeira (Citrus, Rutaceae, uma a mel de cambará (Gochnatia, uma a mel de capixingui (Croton, Euphorbiaceae. As demais amostras eram bi- ou heteroflorais. A influência de uma determinada espécie botânica nas variáveis físico-químicas analisadas não foi significativa (p>0,05 segundo a análise de regressão.The physico-chemical properties and the botanical origin of 31 commercial honey samples from Southeast Brazil, indicated as monofloral honeys, were analyzed in order to verify quality parameters. The physico-chemical analyses comprised the test of Fiehe, the lugol reaction, the determination of humidity, pH, reduced sugars, ashes and diastase. In accordance with Brazilian legislation all samples showed adequate water content. The level of reducing sugars from 10 samples was below the Brazilian quality parameters for honey, three presented a Schade/Gothe number of

  15. Fitossociologia de um trecho da mata ciliar do rio da Prata, Jardim, MS, Brasil Phythossociologic along a riparian forest at rio da Prata, Jardim, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

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    Joanice Lube Battilani

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivos descrever a riqueza e a diversidade em espécies e analisar os aspectos fitossociológicos de um trecho da mata ciliar do rio da Prata, localizado na Fazenda Nossa Senhora Aparecida no município de Jardim, MS. Seis transectos de 150 m cada foram distribuídos aleatoriamente perpendiculares à margem do rio e subdivididos em 90 parcelas de 10 m×10 m. Em cada parcela foram amostrados todos os indivíduos com diâmetro à 1,30 m de altura do solo (DAP > 3,18 cm, totalizando 661 indivíduos pertencentes a 33 famílias, 57 gêneros e 66 espécies. As famílias Meliaceae, Mimosaceae, Sapindaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae e Rutaceae destacaramse pelo elevado número de espécies. Myrcianthes pungens (O. Berg D. Legrand, Adelia membranifolia (Müll. Arg. Chodat & Hassl., Dalbergia sp., Holocalyx balansae Micheli, Unonopsis lindmanii R.E. Fr., Guarea kunthiana A. Juss., Trichilia claussenii C. DC., Guarea guidonea (L. Sleumer, Averrhoidium paraguaiense Radlk.e Astronium graveolens Jacq. foram as espécies de maior valor de importância. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' obtido foi 3,413 nats/indivíduo e a eqüabilidade (J' foi 0,815. A densidade e a área basal estimada foi 734,44 indivíduos/ha e 21,32 m²/ha respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho reforçam a necessidade de preservação da mata ciliar do rio da Prata e são de extrema importância para subsidiar projetos de manejo e recomposição nestas formações.The present study describes species richness and diversity, and analyses phythossociologic aspects of a riparian forest at Rio da Prata, Jardim district, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The phytosociological study was carried out on six 150 m transects perpendicular to the river subdivided in 90 quadrats (10 m×10 m. All trees and shrubs with a minimum of 3,18 cm diameter at breast height were recorded, totalizing 661 individuals of 33 families, 57 genera and 66

  16. Composição florística e síndromes de polinização e de dispersão da mata do Sítio São Francisco, Campinas, SP, Brasil Floristic composition and pollination and dispersion syndromes in the Sítio São Francisco forest, Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Luiza Sumiko Kinoshita

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o levantamento florístico da floresta estacional semidecídua localizada no Sítio São Francisco, bem como a caracterização das síndromes de polinização e de dispersão das espécies. Foram encontrados um total de 46 famílias, 116 gêneros e 148 espécies (50 árvores, 35 lianas, 26 arbustos e 37 ervas. As famílias com maior riqueza de espécies arbóreas foram Euphorbiaceae (8, Fabaceae (7, Meliaceae (6 e Rutaceae (5. Entre as lianas, as famílias mais ricas foram Bignoniaceae (13, Sapindaceae (5 e Malpighiaceae (3; entre as herbáceas, Poaceae (8 e Asteraceae (5; e entre as arbustivas, Piperaceae (7 e Rubiaceae (5. As síndromes de polinização e de dispersão mais freqüentes foram melitofilia (73% e zoocoria (63%, ambas predominantes no sub-bosque, sendo que algumas espécies apresentaram mais de uma síndrome de polinização. A análise de similaridade com outros sete fragmentos do município mostrou a mata do Sítio São Francisco em posição intermediária entre as formações higrófilas e as estacionais semidecíduas, e a ocorrência de algumas espécies exclusivas de árvores e de lianas.A floristic survey of the seasonal semi-deciduous forest located in the Sítio São Francisco was undertaken, together with studies of pollination and dispersion syndromes of the species. A total of 46 families, 116 genera and 148 species (50 trees, 35 lianas, 26 shrubs and 37 herbs was found. The richest families in number of arboreal species were Euphorbiaceae (8, Fabaceae (7, Meliaceae (6 and Rutaceae (5. The lianas were distributed mainly in the following families: Bignoniaceae (13, Sapindaceae (5 and Malpighiaceae (3, while in the herbaceous plants, the richest families were Poaceae (8 and Asteraceae (5, and among the shrubs were Piperaceae (7 and Rubiaceae (5. The most frequent pollination and dispersion syndromes were respectively, melittophily (73% and zoochory (63%, both predominating in the sub-arboreal stratum. More

  17. USO TRADICIONAL DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES EN LA VERED SAN ISIDRO, MUNICIPIO DE SAN JOSÉ DE PARE-BOYACÁ: UN ESTUDIO PRELIMINAR USANDO TÉCNICAS CUANTITATIVAS Traditional Use of Medicinal Plants in the Sidewalk San Isidro, Municipality of San Jose de PareBoyacá: A Preliminary Study Using Quantitative Technical

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    JARVIS YAMITH TOSCANO GONZÁLEZ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó cuantitativamente el uso de plantas medicinales con el propósito de documentar la importancia relativa de dichas especies y estimar el estado actual del conocimiento tradicional de las comunidades campesinas de la vereda San Isidro, municipio de San José de Pare, Boyacá. Esta zona en particular, se considera un sector agrícola de alta confluencia y denota una apropiación del conocimiento de sus pobladores en el uso y manejo de las especies vegetales de la región. Se aplicaron aleatoriamente 180 encuestas a personas entre los 20 y 80 años, en donde se investigó respecto al uso y manejo de las plantas. Se aplicaron entrevistas programadas a aquellas personas que manejan en gran parte la demanda de plantas medicinales en la región. Los datos obtenidos a partir del consenso de informantes, fueron analizados mediante el índice de valor de uso (IVU y el nivel de uso significativo de TRAMIL. Se registraron 84 especies con 78 géneros, agrupadas en 42 familias botánicas entre medicinales, aromáticas y mágicoreligiosas; las familias mejor representadas fueron Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae, Solanaceae y Rutaceae. Se reportaron 10 especies con un mayor nivel de uso significativo y 25 especies con un mayor IVU. La documentación de los usos de las plantas medicinales en el área de influencia, revela que el conocimiento tradicional continúa profundamente arraigado entre la comunidad y se mantiene el saber popular a manos de curanderos y madres cabeza de familia.The use of medicinal plants was evaluated quantitatively to document the relative importance of these species and to estimate the current state of the traditional knowledge of the rural communities of the Sidewalk San Isidro, Municipality of San Jose de Pare, Boyacá. This area in particular, is considered an agricultural sector of high fork and it denotes an appropriation of the knowledge of its residents in the use and handling of the vegetable species of the region. 180

  18. Neutralization of the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of Bothrops asper venom by extracts of plants used by healers in Colombia

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    Núñez V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the neutralizing activity of 12 ethanolic extracts of plants against the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of Bothrops asper venom in Swiss Webster mice. The material used consisted of the leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae, Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae, Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae; the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae; the whole plant of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae and Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae; rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae, Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae and Dracontium croatii (Araceae, and the ripe fruit of Citrus limon (Rutaceae. After preincubation of varying amounts of each extract with either 1.0 µg venom for the edema-forming effect or 2.0 µg venom for the defibrinating effect, the mixture was injected subcutaneously (sc into the right foot pad or intravenously into the tail, respectively, to groups of four mice (18-20 g. All extracts (6.2-200 µg/mouse partially neutralized the edema-forming activity of venom in a dose-dependent manner (58-76% inhibition, with B. orellana, S. orbicularis, G. panamensis, B. rosademonte, and D. croatii showing the highest effect. Ten extracts (3.9-2000 µg/mouse also showed 100% neutralizing ability against the defibrinating effect of venom, and nine prolonged the coagulation time induced by the venom. When the extracts were administered either before or after venom injection, the neutralization of the edema-forming effect was lower than 40% for all extracts, and none of them neutralized the defibrinating effect of venom. When they were administered in situ (sc at the same site 5 min after venom injection, the neutralization of edema increased for six extracts, reaching levels up to 64% for C. limon.

  19. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Eutetranychus orientalis Klein in the EU territory, with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

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    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Eutetranychus orientalis in the European Union (EU and evaluated the effectiveness of phytosanitary measures in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Entry through the plants for planting pathway is assessed as very likely, while entry through other pathways is estimated as moderately likely to unlikely owing to the different probability of transfer to a suitable host. Establishment is rated as very likely in Mediterranean areas and from moderately likely to unlikely in non-Mediterranean areas, because of unfavourable environmental conditions. Spread is rated as very likely because of the many ways the pest can spread, its polyphagy and the wide distribution of hosts. Impact is rated as minor, with an expected increase in the damage when populations of natural enemies are severely affected by control measures and/or when environmental conditions are stressful for the host. However, the lack of information resulted in an overall medium level of uncertainty. The Panel evaluated the effectiveness of current EU phytosanitary measures and concluded that the removal of E. orientalis from Annex IIAII would not affect its probability of entry, because the importation from Third countries of some host plants regulated for this pest(Citrus, Fortunella, Poncirus species and their hybrids is prohibited in Annex III. However, spread could be affected since there would no longer be a requirement to inspect for this pest before issuing a plant passport (Annex V. However, since the regulated Rutaceae species constitute an extremely small proportion of the potential host plants of E. orientalis, the current phytosanitary measures are mostly ineffective in preventing further introduction and spread of E. orientalis in the EU. The Panel identified surveillance at the production site and treatment of the consignment as the most effective and technically feasible risk reduction options, particularly when

  20. Efficacy and safety of Citrus sudachi peel in obese adults: A randomized, double-blind, pilot study

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    Masashi Akaike

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was undertaken to explore the efficacy and safety of Citrus sudachi peel for metabolic risk factors in obese male and female adults. Background: Citrus sudachi Hort. ex Shirai (Rutaceae, called “sudachi”, is a small, round, green citrus fruit that is mainly cultivated in Tokushima Prefecture in Japan. Our group reported that Citrus sudachi peel powder improved glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia in Zucher-fatty rats and reduced hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia in GK diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 40 participants with abdominal obesity and metabolic risk factors including hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and elevated triglyceride levels. Participants were randomized to receive either tablets that contained 1.3 g dried Citrus sudachi peel powder or placebo tablets for 12 weeks. The sudachi peel group included 14 males and 5 females with a mean age of 54.5 years, and the placebo group included 18 males and 2 females with a mean age of 51.9 years. Results: Physical status including body weight, waist circumference and blood pressure and laboratory markers including metabolic parameters were not different at any observation point between the two groups. However, among participants with serum triglyceride levels of more than 120 mg/dl, body weight, waist circumference and serum triglyceride levels were significantly decreased at several observation points after the start of treatment in the sudachi peel group but not in the placebo group. No serious adverse events were observed in the sudachi peel group. Conclusions: Citrus sudachi peel has the potential effect to safely improve abdominal obesity and lower serum levels of TG in obese individuals with hypertriglyceridemia. A large-scale randomized, double-blind clinical study targeting subjects with both abdominal obesity and high TG levels is needed to confirm the metabolic effects of

  1. The Influence of Learning on Host Plant Preference in a Significant Phytopathogen Vector, Diaphorina citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Dara G; Martini, Xavier; Patt, Joseph M; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2016-01-01

    Although specialist herbivorous insects are guided by innate responses to host plant cues, host plant preference may be influenced by experience and is not dictated by instinct alone. The effect of learning on host plant preference was examined in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri; vector of the causal agent of citrus greening disease or huanglongbing. We investigated: a) whether development on specific host plant species influenced host plant preference in mature D. citri; and b) the extent of associative learning in D. citri in the form of simple and compound conditioning. Learning was measured by cue selection in a 2-choice behavioral assay and compared to naïve controls. Our results showed that learned responses in D. citri are complex and diverse. The developmental host plant species influenced adult host plant preference, with female psyllids preferring the species on which they were reared. However, such preferences were subject to change with the introduction of an alternative host plant within 24-48 hrs, indicating a large degree of experience-dependent response plasticity. Additionally, learning occurred for multiple sensory modalities where novel olfactory and visual environmental cues were associated with the host plant. However, males and females displayed differing discriminatory abilities. In compound conditioning tasks, males exhibited recognition of a compound stimulus alone while females were capable of learning the individual components. These findings suggest D. citri are dynamic animals that demonstrate host plant preference based on developmental and adult experience and can learn to recognize olfactory and visual host plant stimuli in ways that may be sex specific. These experience-based associations are likely used by adults to locate and select suitable host plants for feeding and reproduction and may suggest the need for more tailored lures and traps, which reflect region-specific cultivars or predominate Rutaceae in the area

  2. Mapping and Assessment of Ethno-Medicinal Trees in Built Up Areas - University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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    Olatunde Sunday Eludoyin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Several urban tree species are important in ethno-medicine, especially in the developing tropical regions. Their assessment in urban landscapes is becoming an important issue. The study assessed and mapped the ethno-medicinal trees in the built up area land use type of the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, with a view to examining their spatial variation in terms of composition and diversity between the residential and non-residential areas of the University Park. Materials and Methods: The study employed the use of geographic information system (ArcGIS 9.3 for the mapping. Built up area land use was subdivided into residential and non-residential where the ethno-medicinal trees were recorded, identified and enumerated. Global positioning system was used to determine the coordinates of each tree. The species composition and diversity were calculated and a comparison was made between the residential and non- residential land use types. The pattern of spread of the ethno-medicinal trees was determined by the nearest neighbour analysis. Results: A total of 37 ethno-medicinal trees species were found in the study area, while the species composition was 499 in the residential area and 438 in the non-residential area. Azadirachta indica was the highest (233 in composition. Ethno-medicinal tree species in the study area consist of 19 families of which Anacardiaceae, Rutaceae, Moraceae and Combretaceae were the highest. Species diversity was higher in the non-residential land use (2.698 than in the residential land use (2.222. Conclusion: The nearest neighbour analysis reveals that the z-score value was higher in the non-residential area (-23.06 than in the residential area (-0.30, but the pattern of distribution in both areas were clustered. The study recommended periodic monitoring and the assessment of ethno-medicinal trees in the study area for conservation purposes.

  3. Insecticidal Constituents of Essential Oil Derived from Zanthoxylum armatum against Two Stored-Product Insects.

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    Wang, Cheng-Fang; Zhang, Wen-Juan; You, Chun-Xue; Guo, Shan-Shan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Fan, Li; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2015-01-01

    In the course of our search for natural bioactive chemicals and investigations on their insecticidal activities from some medicinal plants growing in China, the essential oil derived from the twigs of Zanthoxylum armatum (Rutaceae) was found to possess strong insecticidal activities against two stored-product insects, Lasioderma serricorne and Tribolium castaneum. A total of 32 constituents of the essential oil were identified by GC and GC-MS analysis, and it revealed (E)-anethole (20.5%), 1,8-cineole (14.0%), 2-tridecanone (12.5%), limonene (9.0%) and piperitone (8.0%) as major components, followed by β-phellandrene (6.3%), β-pinene (5.1%) and 4-terpineol (4.4%). From the essential oil, five compounds were isolated and identified as (E)-anethole, 1,8-cineole, 2-tridecanone, limonene and piperitone. The results of insecticidal bioassays showed that the essential oil of Z. armatum exhibited strong fumigant toxicity towards L. serricorne and T. castaneum with LC50 values of 13.83 and 4.28 mg/L air, respectively, and also possessed contact toxicity against two insect species with LD50 values of 18.74 and 32.16 μg/adult, respectively. Among the active compounds, piperitone performed the strongest fumigant toxicity against L. serricorne (LC50 = 1.21 mg/L air) and contact toxicity against T. castaneum (LD50 = 3.16 μg/adult). 1,8-Cineole, limonene and piperitone showed similar fumigant toxicity against T. castaneum with LC50 values of 5.47, 6.21 and 7.12 mg/L air, respectively. Meanwhile, L. serricorne was the most sensitive to 2-tridecanone (LD50 = 5.74 μg/adult) in the progress of contact toxicity assay. PMID:26179006

  4. Toxicity of Zanthoxylum piperitum and Zanthoxylum armatum oil constituents and related compounds to Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae).

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    Hieu, Tran Trung; Kim, Soon-Il; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-09-01

    Zanthoxylum plants (Rutaceae) have drawn attention because they contain insecticidal principles against insects. An assessment was made of the insecticidal and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities of Zanthoxylum piperitum steam distillate and Zanthoxylum armatum seed oil, their 28 constituents, and eight structurally related compounds against female stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Results were compared with those of two organophosphorus insecticides chlorpyrifos and dichlorvos. Potent fumigant toxicity was observed with cuminaldehyde, thymol, (1S)-(-)-verbenone, (-)-myrtenal, carvacrol, (S)-(Z)-verbenol, Zanthoxylum piperitum steam distillate, cuminyl alcohol, Zanthoxylum armatum seed oil, piperitone, (-)-(Z)-myrtanol, and citronellal (LC50, 0.075-0.456 microg/cm3). However, they were five orders of magnitude less toxic than either chlorpyrifos or dichlorvos. An in vitro bioassay using female fly heads indicates that strong AChE inhibition was produced by citronellyl acetate, alpha-pinene, thymol, carvacrol, and alpha-terpineol (1.20-2.73 mM), but no direct correlation between fly toxicity and AChE inhibition by the test compounds was observed. Structure-activity relationships indicate that structural characteristics, such as carbon skeleton, degrees of saturation and types of functional groups, and vapor pressure parameter, appear to play a role in determining toxicities of the test monoterpenoids to stable flies. Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on Z. piperitum and Z. armatum oil-derived materials as potential insecticides for the control of stable fly populations. PMID:23025190

  5. Polyphenolic rich traditional plants and teas improve lipid stability in food test systems.

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    Ramsaha, Srishti; Aumjaud, B Esha; Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S; Bahorun, Theeshan

    2015-02-01

    The deleterious effects of lipid autoxidation are of major concern to the food industry and can be prevented by food antioxidants. In this vein, the phenolic contents and antioxidant potential of traditional plants of Mauritius such as P. betle L. (Piperaceae), M. koenigii L. Sprengel. (Rutaceae), O. gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae), O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae), and commercially available Mauritian green and black teas were evaluated. Their ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were compared to that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) with the following order of potency: BHT > "Natural" commercial green tea > "Black Label" commercial black tea > O. gratissimum > P. betle > O. tenuiflorum > M. koenigii. The trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay reflected a similar antioxidative order for BHT and "Natural" commercial green tea, with however P. betle, O. tenuiflorum and O. gratissimum exhibiting higher activities than "Black Label" commercial black tea and M. koenigii. Based on their potent antioxidant capacity, P. betle (0.2 % m/m) and O. tenuiflorum (0.2 % m/m) extracts, and green tea (0.1 % m/m) infusate were compared with BHT (0.02 % m/m) on their ability to retard lipid oxidation in unstripped sunflower oil and mayonnaise during storage at 40 °C. P. betle and green tea were more effective than BHT in both food systems. Moreover, odour evaluation by a sensory panel showed that the plant extracts and green tea infusate effectively delayed the development of rancid odours in unstripped sunflower oil and mayonnaise (p < 0.05). PMID:25694685

  6. Melanogenesis and Antityrosinase Activity of Selected South African Plants

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    Manyatja Brenda Mapunya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanin is the pigment that is responsible for the colour of eyes, hair, and skin in humans. Tyrosinase is known to be the key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. Overactivity of this enzyme leads to dermatological disorders such as age spots, melanoma and sites of actinic damage. Ten plants belonging to four families (Asphodelaceae, Anacardiaceae, Oleaceae, and Rutaceae were investigated for their effect on tyrosinase using both L-tyrosine and L-DOPA as substrates. Ethanol leaf extracts (500 μg/mL of Aloe ferox, Aloe aculeata, Aloe pretoriensis, and Aloe sessiliflora showed 60%, 31%, 17%, and 13% inhibition of tyrosinase activity respectively, when L-tyrosine was used as a substrate. Harpephyllum caffrum (leaves at a concentration of 500 μg/mL had an inhibitory effect of 70% on tyrosinase when L-DOPA was used as a substrate. The IC50 of Harpephyllum caffrum (leaves and bark were found to be 51±0.002 and 40±0.035 μg/mL, respectively. Following the results obtained from the tyrosinase assay, extracts from Harpephyllum caffrum were selected for further testing on their effect on melanin production and their cytotoxicity on melanocytes in vitro. The IC50 of both extracts was found to be 6.25 μg/mL for melanocyte cells. Bark extract of Harpephyllum caffrum showed 26% reduction in melanin content of melanocyte cells at a concentration of 6.25 μg/mL. The leaf extract of this plant showed some toxicity on melanocyte cells. Therefore, the bark extract of Harpephyllum caffrum could be considered as an antityrosinase agent for dermatological disorders such as age spots and melasoma.

  7. Useful ethnophytomedicinal recipes of angiosperms used against diabetes in South East Asian Countries (India, Pakistan & Sri Lanka).

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    Marwat, Sarfaraz Khan; Rehman, Fazalur; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khakwani, Abdul Aziz; Ullah, Imdad; Khan, Kaleem Ullah; Khan, Inam Ullah

    2014-09-01

    This paper is based on data recorded from various literatures pertaining to ethnophytomedicinal recipes used against diabetes in South East Asia (India, Pakistan and Srilanka). Traditional plant treatments have been used throughout the world for the therapy of diabetes mellitus. In total 419 useful phytorecipes of 270 plant species belonging to 74 Angiospermic families were collected. From the review it was revealed that plants showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belong to the families, Cucurbitaceae (16 spp.), Euphorbiaceae (15 spp.), Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae (13 spp. each), Moraceae (11 spp.), Acanthaceae (10 spp.), Mimosaceae (09 spp.), Asteraceae, Malvaceae and Poaceae (08 spp. each), Hippocrateaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (07 spp. each), Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Verbenaceae (06 spp. each), Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae (05 spp.each). The most active plants are Syzigium cumini (14 recipes), Phyllanthus emblica (09 recipes), Centella asiatica and Momordica charantia (08 recipes each), Azadirachta indica (07 recipes), Aegle marmelos, Catharanthus roseus, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus racemosa, Gymnema sylvestre (06 recipes each), Allium cepa, A. sativum, Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa (05 recipes each), Citrullus colocynthis, Justicia adhatoda, Nelumbo nucifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Ziziphus mauritiana and Wattakaka volubilis (4 recipes each). These traditional recipes include extracts, leaves, powders, flour, seeds, vegetables, fruits and herbal mixtures. Data inventory consists of botanical name, recipe, vernacular name, English name. Some of the plants of the above data with experimentally confirmed antidiabetic properties have also been recorded. More investigations must be carried out to evaluate the mechanism of action of diabetic medicinal plants. Toxicity of these plants should also be explained. Scientific validation of these recipes may help in discovering new drugs from

  8. Tritrophic effects of xanthotoxin on the polyembryonic parasitoid Copidosoma sosares (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae).

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    Lampert, Evan C; Zangerl, Arthur R; Berenbaum, May R; Ode, Paul J

    2008-06-01

    Plant chemistry can have deleterious effects on insect parasitoids, which include the reduction in body size, increased development time, and increased mortality. We examined the effects of xanthotoxin, a linear furanocoumarin, on the polyembryonic encyrtid wasp Copidosoma sosares, a specialist parasitoid that attacks the parsnip webworm, Depressaria pastinacella, itself a specialist on furanocoumarin-producing plants. Furanocoumarins, allelochemicals abundant in the Apiaceae and Rutaceae, are toxic to a wide range of herbivores. In this study, we reared parasitized webworms on artificial diets containing no xanthotoxin (control) or low or high concentrations of xanthotoxin. Clutch sizes of both male and female C. sosares broods were more than 20% smaller when they developed in hosts fed the diet containing high concentrations of xanthotoxin. Xanthotoxin concentration in the artificial diet had no effect on the development time of C. sosares, nor did it have an effect on the body size (length of hind tibia) of individual adult male and female C. sosares in single-sex broods. Webworms fed artificial diets containing low or high concentrations of xanthotoxin were not significantly smaller, and their development time was similar to that of webworms fed a xanthotoxin-free diet. Mortality of webworms was not affected by xanthotoxin in their artificial diet. Therefore, dietary xanthotoxin did not appear to affect C. sosares via impairment of host health. However, unmetabolized xanthotoxin was found in D. pastinacella hemolymph where C. sosares embryos develop. Hemolymph concentrations were fourfold greater in webworms fed the high-xanthotoxin-containing diet than in webworms fed the low-xanthotoxin-containing diet. We failed to detect any xanthotoxin metabolism by either C. sosares embryos or precocious larvae. Therefore, the observed tritrophic effects of xanthotoxin are likely to be due to the effects of xanthotoxin after direct contact in the hemolymph rather than to

  9. Effects of storage conditions on furocoumarin levels in intact, chopped, or homogenized parsnips.

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    Ostertag, Edwin; Becker, Tina; Ammon, Jürgen; Bauer-Aymanns, Hildegard; Schrenk, Dieter

    2002-04-24

    Furocoumarins represent a family of natural food constituents with phototoxic and photomutagenic properties. They are found mainly in plants belonging to the Rutaceae and Umbilliferae such as celery, carrots, and parsnips. Parsnips (Pastinaca sativa L.) have become more and more popular as a vegetable, e.g., as a constituent of or ingredient in baby food. Previous work has shown that microbial infection of parsnip roots can result in a dramatic increase in furocoumarin levels. In this study, freshly harvested parsnips were stored as whole roots, pieces (cubes), or homogenate at +4 degrees C or -18 degrees C over various time periods under standard conditions. It was found that furocoumarin concentrations (sum of five furocoumarins: angelicin, isopimpinellin, 5-methoxypsoralen, 8-methoxypsoralen, and psoralen) in freshly harvested parsnips, analyzed by HPLC after extraction with diethyl ether and sequential solid phase (reversed-phase and silica) extraction, was generally lower than 2.5 mg/kg, and storage of parsnips in any form investigated at -18 degrees C over up to 50 days did not lead to a marked increase in furocoumarin levels. In contrast, storage of whole parsnips, but not of cubes or homogenate, at +4 degrees C resulted in a marked biphasic increase of furocoumarin concentrations after 7 and 38 days of storage up to levels of about 40 mg/kg. A dramatic increase in furocoumarin concentrations up to 566 mg/kg was observed when whole parsnips obtained from the market were kept at room temperature over 53 days, resulting in a visible microbial (mold) infection. Baby food products from the German market containing parsnips as an ingredient or constituent showed furocoumarin levels parsnips be kept at -18 degrees C or under other conditions that prevent microbial infections. PMID:11958623

  10. Lemon Pepper Fruit Extract (Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC. Suppresses the Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Macrophages In Vitro

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    Yanti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Lemon pepper fruits (Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC.; Rutaceae have been used as a traditional source against stomach ache by Batak people in North Sumatera province, Indonesia. However, its scientific evidence for treatment of inflammatory disorders particularly gastritis has not been reported. Approach: Here, we investigated the inhibitory effects of Lemon Pepper Fruit Extract (LPFE against inflammatory biomarkers by conducting cell culture experiments in vitro. The fruits of lemon pepper were dried and extracted twice in 70% ethanol, followed by evaporation and freeze-drying. The concentrated extract was further tested for its potential inhibition on the protein and gene expression of several inflammatory biomarkers, i.e., Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α, Interleukin (IL-6, inducible Nitric Oxyde Synthase (iNOS, Cyclooxygenase (COX-2 and Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP-9, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced macrophages by performing Western blot, gelatin zymography and Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR. Results: LPFE (1-10 μg mL-1 and LPS (2 μg mL-1 had no cytotoxicity effects on macrophages. LPFE dose dependently decreased the expression of TNF-α and COX-2 proteins and MMP-9 activity in macrophages treated with LPS. At the gene level, LPFE were effectively found to block the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-6, iNOS, COX-2 and MMP-9. Conclusion: Our results suggest that LPFE significantly inhibits selected inflammatory biomarkers at the protein and gene levels in LPS-induced macrophages. Further in vivo study using animal models is needed to determine the exact anti-inflammatory potential of LPFE.

  11. Insecticidal Efficiency of Essential Oils of 5 Aromatic Plants Tested Both Alone and in Combination Towards Sitophilus oryzae (L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

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    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To prevent attacks of stored grains by insects pest, rural farmers in the past times, regularly introduce aromatic plants in their granaries. These plants were used alone or associated in groups of 2 or 3 plants. Active compounds of these aromatic plants, mostly present in their essential oils have insecticidal properties. In the present work, crude essential oils of some Lamiaceae, as Hyptis spicigera (Lam. Ocimum canum (Sims and Plectranthus glandulosus (Hook; of Rutaceae Vepris heterophylla (Letouzey and finally of Astareceae Echinops giganteus (Adams were applied both alone and in balanced combinations on the adults of stored grain pest Sitophilus oryzae (L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae to evaluate their toxicity. These experiments show that all tested essential oils are insecticide except that of E. giganteus. Applied alone, their LD50 vary from 42.91 ppm for the oil of O. canum to 349.8 ppm for oil of V. heterophylla. Applied in balanced combination O. canum and H. spicigera expresses no difference (p<0.05 between observed (75.83 ppm and expected (77.46 ppm LD50. E. giganteus which was without any insecticidal efficiency synergise the essential oil already active. Moreover, of 20% O. canum in 80% of E.giganteus leads to 100% of mortality. While combined in this same proportion O. canum and P. glandulosus oils also express synergy. V. heterophylla, relatively rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenes increases values of the observed LD50 higher and significantly different (p<0.05 from the expected values.

  12. Cape plants: corrections and additions to the flora. 1

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    P. Goldblatt

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Comprising an area of ± 90 000 km:, less than 5% of the land surface of the southern African subcontinent, the Cape Floristic Region (CFR is one of the world’s richest areas for plant species diversity. A recent synoptic flora for the Region has established a new base line for an accurate assessment of the flora. Here we document corrections and additions to the flora at family, genus and species ranks. As treated in Cape plants, which was completed in 1999. the flora comprised 173 families (five endemic, 988 genera (160 endemic: 16.2%, and 9 004 species (6 192 endemic: 68.8%. Just four years later, a revised count resulting from changes in the circumscriptions of families and genera, and the discovery of new species or range extensions of species, yields an estimate of 172 families (four endemic, 992 genera (162 endemic: 16.3% and 9 086 species (6 226: 68.5% endemic. Of these, 948 genera and 8 971 species are seed plants. The number of species packed into so small an area is remarkable for the temperate zone and compares favourably with species richness for areas of compa­rable size in the wet tropics. The degree of endemism is also remarkable for a continental area. An unusual family compo­sition includes, in descending order of size, based on species number. Asteraceae. Fabaceae. Iridaceae. Ericaceae. Aizoaceae, Scrophulariaceae. Proteaceae. Restionaceae, Rutaceae. and Orchidaceae. Disproportionate radiation has resulted in 59.1% of the species falling in the 10 largest families and 74.6% in the largest 20 families. Thirteen genera have more than 100 species and the 20 largest genera contribute some 31.5% of the total species number.

  13. The Effect of Chronic Administration of Aegle Marmelos Seed Extract on Learning and Memory in Diabetic Rats

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    Amir Farshchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sDiabetes mellitus is associated with disturbances of learning and memory and cognitive functioning. Aegle marmelos Corr. from Rutaceae family is widely used in Iranian folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Considering the beneficial antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of A. marmelos, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of oral administration of A. marmelos on learning and spatial memory in diabetic rats using Morris water maze test.Materials and MethodsConsidering the beneficial antidiabetic potential of A. marmelos, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of chronic oral administration of A. marmelos as cognitive enhancer, on learning and spatial memory in diabetic rats using Morris water maze test. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal-control, diabetic-control, and A. marmelos-treated diabetic groups (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.. Animals were treated for 4 weeks by A. marmelos or normal saline. Diabetes was induced by a single dose i.p. injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg. In each group of animals, spatial learning and memory parameters were analyzed. ResultsClear impairment of spatial learning and memory was observed in diabetic group versus normal-control group. A. marmelos showed dose dependent improvement in spatial learning and memory parameters that swimming time (Escape Latency in normal-control and A. marmelos-treated diabetic animals rats was significantly (P< 0.01 lower than diabetic-control, while swimming speed was significantly (P< 0.05 higher.ConclusionThe study demonstrated that A. marmelos has significant protective affect against diabetes-induced spatial learning and memory deficits. This effect could be attributed to hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity of A. marmelos.

  14. Formación Anta (Mioceno Temprano/Medio, Subgrupo Metán (Grupo Orán, en el río Piedras, Pcia. de Salta: Datos palinológicos

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    M. Quattrocchio

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Aproximadamente en el Eoceno medio -Fase Incaica- culminó la acumulación del Grupo Salta (Cretácico-Paleógeno. A continuación y coincidente con el inicio de un ambiente tectónico compresivo en los Andes Centrales comenzó el depósito del Subgrupo Metán (Grupo Orán, constituído por las formaciones Río Seco, Anta y Jesús María. La Formación Anta en río Piedras de 300 m de espesor, consta de arcilitas, calizas oolíticas y tobas acumuladas en un ambiente de lago salino. Se presenta en este trabajo, un análisis palinológico comparativo entre la Formación Anta (Subgrupo Metán y el Subgrupo Santa Bárbara del Grupo Salta (Paleoceno-Eoceno. Regionalmente el espectro polínico reflejaría la presencia de la foresta sub-tropical húmeda (Verrustephanoporites simplex, en muy bajo porcentaje con respecto al Subgrupo Santa Bárbara. La relativa mayor representación de Rhoipites sp. A (Rutaceae, cf. Ruta asociado a Podocarpaceae y Anacardiaceae sugiere una paleocomunidad de mayor altitud (ambiente montano. Basado en estudios palinológicos y sedimentológicos el perfil analizado corresponde a un lago salino. Se registra la primera expansión de la estepa en el NO argentino asociado a condiciones relativamente áridas. Estas evidencias fueron corroboradas mediante el registro de hongos.

  15. Plantas útiles en la medicina tradicional de Malpasito-Huimanguillo, Tabasco, México

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    Edelia Claudina Villarreal-Ibarra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En México las plantas medicinales son el recurso terapéutico por excelencia en la medicina tradicional, es rescatable en gran medida por constituir un importante elemento al combinar el conocimiento popular con el científi co para el tratamiento de diversas enfermedades en la atención primaria de la salud. El presente estudio documenta el conocimiento tradicional de las plantas medicinales en la comunidad de Malpasito, dentro de la Reserva Ecológica de Agua Selva en Huimanguillo, Tabasco, México. Se incluye un inventario de plantas medicinales de la región, información sobre el uso terapéutico, la forma de preparación y parte vegetal utilizada. La información se recabó mediante entrevistas estructuradas TRAMIL. Se registraron 128 especies de plantas medicinales empleadas en la comunidad distribuidas en 63 familias botánicas cuyas especies dominantes pertenence a: Asteraceae (10, Leguminosae y Lamiaceae (siete, Verbeneaceae (cinco, Rutaceae y Solanaceae (cuatro. Se reportan 13 especies medicinales con nivel de uso signifi cativo superior al 20%. Los usos medicinales se agruparon y clasifi caron en 17 categorías, en orden de prioridad: desórdenes del sistema digestivo, genitourinario y endócrino, seguidos de las infecciones y desórdenes del sistema respiratorio. Los resultados sugieren la necesidad de futuros estudios de valoración científica para las especies locales empleadas para el tratamiento de alguna enfermedad.

  16. The Influence of Learning on Host Plant Preference in a Significant Phytopathogen Vector, Diaphorina citri.

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    Dara G Stockton

    Rutaceae in the area being monitored.

  17. Modulation of P-glycoprotein function and multidrug resistance in cancer cells by Thai plant extracts.

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    Takano, M; Kakizoe, S; Kawami, M; Nagai, J; Patanasethnont, D; Sripanidkulchai, B; Yumoto, R

    2014-11-01

    The effects of ethanol extracts from Thai plants belonging to the families of Annonaceae, Rutaceae, and Zingiberaceae on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function and multidrug resistance were examined in paclitaxel-resistant HepG2 (PR-HepG2) cells. All the extracts tested, significantly increased the accumulation of [3H]paclitaxel, a P-gp substrate, in the cells. Among nine extracts, Z01 and Z02, extracts from Curcuma comosa and Kaempferia marginata (Zingiberaceae family), respectively, potently increased the accumulation. In addition, Z01 and Z02 increased the accumulation of other P-gp substrates, rhodamine 123 and doxorubicin, in PR-HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Increased accumulation of rhodamine 123 and doxorubicin by Z01 and Z02 was also confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The effect of Z01 and Z02 pretreatment on the expression of MDR1 mRNA was also examined. The expression of MDR1 mRNA was not affected by the treatment of PR-HepG2 cells with these extracts for 48 hours. Cytotoxicity of paclitaxel was examined by XTT and protein assays in the absence and presence of Z02. Z02 potentiated the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel in PR-HepG2 cells. These results suggest that Curcuma comosa and Kaempferia marginata belonging to Zingiberaceae are useful sources to search for new P-gp modulator(s) that can be used to overcome multidrug resistance of cancer cells. PMID:25985578

  18. Oxidative stress-related lung dysfunction by chromium(VI): alleviation by Citrus aurantium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudani, Nejla; Rafrafi, Moez; Ben Amara, Ibtissem; Hakim, Ahmed; Troudi, Afef; Zeghal, Khaled Mounir; Ben Salah, Hichem; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2013-06-01

    Chromium(VI), a very strong oxidant, causes high cytotoxicity through oxidative stress in tissue systems. Our study investigated the potential ability of ethanolic Citrus aurantium L., family Rutaceae extract, used as a nutritional supplement, to alleviate lung oxidative damage induced by Cr(VI). A high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer method was developed to separate and identify flavonoids in C. aurantium L. Six flavonoids were identified, as (1) poncirin, (2) naringin, (3) naringenin, (4) quercetin, (5) isosinensetin, and (6) tetramethyl-o-isoscutellarein. Adult Wistar rats, used in this study, were divided into six groups of six animals each: group I served as controls which received standard diet, group II received via drinking water K2Cr2O7 alone (700 ppm), groups III and IV were pretreated for 10 days with ethanol extract of C. aurantium L. at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively, and then K2Cr2O7 was administrated during 3 weeks, and groups V and VI received during 10 days only C. aurantium L. ethanol extract at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg/day, respectively. Ethanol extract of C. aurantium L. was administered orally. Rats exposed to Cr(VI) showed in lung an increase in malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels and a decrease in sulflydryl content, glutathione, nonprotein thiol, and vitamins C and E levels. Decreases in enzyme activities such as in Na(+)K(+) ATPase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase were noted. Pretreatment with C. aurantium L. of chromium-treated rats ameliorated all biochemical parameters. Lung histological studies confirmed the biochemical parameters and the beneficial role of C. aurantium L. PMID:22972417

  19. Phytochemical diversity of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. from Western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Padalia, Rajendra C; Jat, Sanjeev K; Thul, Sanjog; Sundaresan, Velusamy

    2013-04-01

    Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. (Rutaceae), commonly known as 'curry leaf tree', is a popular spice and condiment of India. To explore the diversity of the essential-oil yield and aroma profile of curry leaf, growing wild in foot and mid hills of north India, 58 populations were collected during spring season. M. koenigii populations were found to grow up to an altitude of 1487 m in north India. Comparative results showed considerable variations in the essential-oil yield and composition. The essential-oil yield varied from 0.14 to 0.80% in shade-dried leaves of different populations of M. koenigii. Analysis of the essential oils by GC and GC/MS, and the subsequent classification by statistical analysis resulted in four clusters with significant variations in their terpenoid composition. Major components of the essential oils of investigated populations were α-pinene (2; 4.5-71.5%), sabinene (3; <0.05-66.1%), (E)-caryophyllene (11; 1.6-18.0%), β-pinene (4; <0.05-13.6%), terpinen-4-ol (9; 0.0-8.4%), γ-terpinene (8; 0.2-7.4%), limonene (7; 1.1-5.5%), α-terpinene (6; 0.0-4.5%), (E)-nerolidol (14; 0.0-4.1%), α-humulene (12; 0.6-3.5%), α-thujene (1; 0.0-2.5%), β-elemene (10; 0.2-2.4%), β-selinene (13; 0.2-2.3%), and myrcene (5; 0.5-2.1%). Comparison of the present results with those in earlier reports revealed new chemotypes of M. koenigii in investigated populations from Western Himalaya. The present study documents M. koenigii populations having higher amounts of sabinene (3; up to 66.1%) for the first time. PMID:23576349

  20. Emergence of Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & Lasalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from pupae of Heraclides anchisiades capys (Hübner, [1809]) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Wagner de Souza; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Poderoso, Júlio César Melo; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2013-01-01

    Heraclides anchisiades capys (Hübner, [1809]) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) is an abundant insect pest on crops of Citrus spp. (Rutaceae) in Brazil and pupae of this defoliator could be used for the mass rearing of parasitoids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the parasitism of Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) on H. anchisiades capys pupae in the laboratory. Twenty 1-day-old H. anchisiades capys pupae were individualized in test tubes (14 cm length x 2.2 cm diameter) with a drop of honey as food and with ten mated P. elaeisis females for ten days. The duration of the life cycle (egg to adult), emergence rate, total individuals emerged per pupa, sex ratio, size of the body and longevity of P. elaeisis males and females emerged from H. anchisiades capys pupae were evaluated. The duration of the life cycle of P. elaeisis was 21.15 +/- 0.15 days. Forty percent of H. anchisiades capys pupae showed emergence of parasitoids, with an average of 323 +/- 38 individuals from each one and a sex ratio of 0.95 +/- 0.02. The total number of parasitoids emerged was 2,584 individuals. The size of the body and the head capsule (mm) of female and male P. elaeisis progeny were 1.92 +/- 0.04; 0.52 +/- 0.02 and 1.28 +/- 0.04; 0.40 +/- 0.02, respectively. The average longevity was 23.72 +/- 1.15 days for females and 30.1 +/- 2.42 days for males of P. elaeisis. Heraclides anchisiades capys, abundant on crops of Citrus spp. in Brazil, has potential to be used as a host for mass rearing of P. elaeisis in the laboratory for biological control programs. PMID:24279174

  1. Cytotoxicity of obacunone and obacunone glucoside in human prostate cancer cells involves Akt-mediated programmed cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Possible mechanism of inhibiting LNCaP cells proliferation by obacunone and obacunone glucoside is demonstrated for the first time. • Inhibition of LNCaP cells by limonoids though induction of programmed cell death, inhibition of cell signaling and inflammatory pathways. • Limonoids exhibited multi-mode inhibition of androgen expression in LNCaP cells. - Abstract: Obacunone and obacunone glucoside (OG) are naturally occurring triterpenoids commonly found in citrus and other plants of the Rutaceae family. The current study reports the mechanism of cytotoxicity of citrus-derived obacunone and OG on human androgen-dependent prostate cancer LNCaP cells. Both limonoids exhibited time- and dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation, with more than 60% inhibition of cell viability at 100 μM, after 24 and 48 h. Analysis of fragmentation of DNA, activity of caspase-3, and cytosolic cytochrome-c in the cells treated with limonoids provided evidence for activation of programmed cell death by limonoids. Treatment of LNCaP cells with obacunone and OG resulted in dose-dependent changes in expression of proteins responsible for the induction of programmed cell death through the intrinsic pathway and down-regulation of Akt, a key molecule in cell signaling pathways. In addition, obacunone and OG also negatively regulated an inflammation-associated transcription factor, androgen receptor, and prostate-specific antigen, and activated proteins related to the cell cycle, confirming the ability of limonoids to induce cytotoxicity through multiple pathways. The results of this study provided, for the first time, an evidence of the cytotoxicity of obacunone and OG in androgen-dependent human prostate cancer cells

  2. Vasodilation and radical-scavenging activity of imperatorin and selected coumarinic and flavonoid compounds from genus Casimiroa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, R; Chen, Z; Martínez-Vázquez, M; García-Argaéz, A; Froldi, G

    2014-04-15

    Hypertension is a very widespread condition which is not strictly considered as an illness but if not countered, progressively causes damage to all tissues and loss in their functionality. For this reason the find of new antihypertensive agents is prominent and medicinal plants and their derivatives are valuable for the purpose. The genus Casimiroa (Rutaceae) includes plants from Central America and Mexico; among these, Casimiroa edulis Llave et Lex. and Casimiroa pubescens Ramirez are the most relevant species, even for their medicinal uses. The decoction of leaves and seeds is traditionally taken as a tea mainly to lower blood pressure. The object of this research was the study of vascular activity of coumarinic and flavonoid compounds isolated from seeds of Casimiroa spp. in comparison with Casimiroa edulis and Casimiroa pubescens extracts. The phenolic compounds isolated from Casimiroa were herniarin (Her), imperatorin (Imp), 8-geranyloxypsoralen (GOP) and 5,6,2',3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone (PMF). All these compounds induced vasorelaxation on rat arterial tissues although with different effectiveness. To study the cellular mechanisms of the vasorelaxation exhibited by imperatorin, we used selective inhibitors of different receptors and enzymes, such as atropine, pyrilamine, nifedipine, L-NAME and DETC. In a further step of this research, we evaluated the radical-scavenging activity of Casimiroa extracts and isolated compounds by means of DPPH assay. In general, we observed that the scavenging activities increased in a concentration-dependent manner for all substances. The phenolic compounds highlight a synergism of vasodilation and antioxidant activity which may be very useful in the management of cardiovascular diseases. Among the evaluated compounds, imperatorin shows a significant vasorelaxant activity even higher than acetylcholine and similar to nitrite, and also useful antiradical capabilities. All these properties suggest its possible role against

  3. Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia. Part III: neutralization of the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, R; Núñez, V; Barona, J; Fonnegra, R; Jiménez, S L; Osorio, R G; Saldarriaga, M; Díaz, A

    2000-11-01

    Thirty-one of 75 extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites, had moderate or high neutralizing ability against the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom from Antioquia and Chocó, north-western Colombia. After preincubation of several doses of every extract (7.8-4000 microg/mouse) with six minimum haemorrhagic doses (10 microg) of venom, 12 of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity when the mixture was i.d. injected into mice (18-20 g). These were the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); the whole plants of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae), Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae) and Senna dariensis (Caesalpiniaceae); rhizomes of Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae); leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae), Philodendron tripartitum (Araceae), Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae) and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae); the ripe fruits of Citrus limon (Rutaceae); leaves, branches and stem of Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae). Extracts of another 19 species showed moderate neutralization (21-72%) at doses up to 4 mg/mouse, e.g. the whole plants of Aristolochia grandiflora (Aristolochiaceae), Columnea kalbreyeriana (Gesneriaceae), Sida acuta (Malvaceae), Selaginella articulata (Selaginellaceae) and Pseudoelephantopus spicatus (Asteraceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae); the stem of Strychnos xinguensis (Loganiaceae); leaves, branches and stems of Hyptis capitata (Lamiaceae), Ipomoea cairica (Convolvulaceae), Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae), Ocimum micranthum (Lamiaceae), Piper pulchrum (Piperaceae), Siparuna thecaphora (Monimiaceae), Castilla elastica (Moraceae) and Allamanda cathartica (Apocynaceae); the macerated ripe fruits of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae); the unripe fruits of Crescentia cujete (Bignoniaceae); leaves and branches of Piper arboreum (Piperaceae) and Passiflora quadrangularis (Passifloraceae). When the extracts were independently administered

  4. Diurnal and seasonal carbon balance of four tropical tree species differing in successional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, G M; Ribeiro, R V; Sato, A M; Oliveira, M S

    2008-11-01

    This study addressed some questions about how a suitable leaf carbon balance can be attained for different functional groups of tropical tree species under contrasting forest light environments. The study was carried out in a fragment of semi-deciduous seasonal forest in Narandiba county, São Paulo Estate, Brazil. 10-month-old seedlings of four tropical tree species, Bauhinia forficata Link (Caesalpinioideae) and Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae) as light-demanding pioneer species, and Hymenaea courbaril L. (Caesalpinioideae) and Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. (Rutaceae) as late successional species, were grown under gap and understorey conditions. Diurnal courses of net photosynthesis (Pn) and transpiration were recorded with an open system portable infrared gas analyzer in two different seasons. Dark respiration and photorespiration were also evaluated in the same leaves used for Pn measurements after dark adaptation. Our results showed that diurnal-integrated dark respiration (Rdi) of late successional species were similar to pioneer species. On the other hand, photorespiration rates were often higher in pioneer than in late successional species in the gap. However, the relative contribution of these parameters to leaf carbon balance was similar in all species in both environmental conditions. Considering diurnal-integrated values, gross photosynthesis (Pgi) was dramatically higher in gap than in understorey, regardless of species. In both evaluated months, there were no differences among species of different functional groups under shade conditions. The same was observed in May (dry season) under gap conditions. In such light environment, pioneers were distinguished from late successional species in November (wet season), showing that ecophysiological performance can have a straightforward relation to seasonality. PMID:19197495

  5. Neutralization of the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of Bothrops asper venom by extracts of plants used by healers in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, V; Otero, R; Barona, J; Saldarriaga, M; Osorio, R G; Fonnegra, R; Jiménez, S L; Díaz, A; Quintana, J C

    2004-07-01

    We determined the neutralizing activity of 12 ethanolic extracts of plants against the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of Bothrops asper venom in Swiss Webster mice. The material used consisted of the leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae), Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae), Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae) and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae); the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); the whole plant of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae) and Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae), Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae) and Dracontium croatii (Araceae), and the ripe fruit of Citrus limon (Rutaceae). After preincubation of varying amounts of each extract with either 1.0 microg venom for the edema-forming effect or 2.0 microg venom for the defibrinating effect, the mixture was injected subcutaneously (sc) into the right foot pad or intravenously into the tail, respectively, to groups of four mice (18-20 g). All extracts (6.2-200 microg/mouse) partially neutralized the edema-forming activity of venom in a dose-dependent manner (58-76% inhibition), with B. orellana, S. orbicularis, G. panamensis, B. rosademonte, and D. croatii showing the highest effect. Ten extracts (3.9-2000 microg/mouse) also showed 100% neutralizing ability against the defibrinating effect of venom, and nine prolonged the coagulation time induced by the venom. When the extracts were administered either before or after venom injection, the neutralization of the edema-forming effect was lower than 40% for all extracts, and none of them neutralized the defibrinating effect of venom. When they were administered in situ (sc at the same site 5 min after venom injection), the neutralization of edema increased for six extracts, reaching levels up to 64% for C. limon. PMID:15264003

  6. Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia: Part II: neutralization of lethal and enzymatic effects of Bothrops atrox venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, R; Núñez, V; Jiménez, S L; Fonnegra, R; Osorio, R G; García, M E; Díaz, A

    2000-08-01

    Twelve of 74 ethanolic extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites in the northwest region of Colombia, were active against lethal effect of Bothrops atrox venom when they were i.p. injected into mice (18-20 g). After preincubation of sublethal doses of every extract (0.5-4.0 mg/mouse) with 1.5 i.p. lethal dose 50% (LD50) (99.3 microg) of venom, seven of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity within 48 h. These were the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae) and Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae); the whole plants of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae) and Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae); and the ripe fruits of Citrus limon (Rutaceae). The other five extracts showing partial neutralization (45-80%; 10-30% survival rate in the control group receiving the venom alone; P<0.05) were: leaves, branches and stem of Costus lasius (Costaceae); the whole plant of Sida acuta (Malvaceae); rhizomes of Dracontium croatii (Araceae); leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae) and Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae). When the extracts were independently administered per oral or i.p. route 60 min before an i.m. venom injection (204 microg=1.5 i.m. LD50), C. limon, T. elegans, B. orellana and T. rosea extracts had partial and significant neutralizing capacity against B. atrox venom lethal effect. C. limon extract was also partially effective when it was administered either i.v. 15 min before or i.p. 5 min after an i.m. venom injection. Three of the 12 extracts with anti-lethal effect (C. limon, D. croatii and S. acuta) were devoid of antiphospholipase A2 activity, when they were tested against one minimum indirect hemolytic dose of B. atrox venom (2 microg) in agarose-erythrocyte-egg yolk gels. PMID:10940590

  7. COMPOSIÇÃO FLORÍSTICA E ESTRUTURA DA COMUNIDADE ARBÓREA DE UM FRAGMENTO FLORESTAL NO MUNICÍPIO DE SANTA MARIA-BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro W. Charão

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetiva descrever a composição florística e a estrutura de uma comunidade arbórea em um fragmento florestal e discutir algumas características dendrométricas das espécies componentes do mesmo. Esta comunidade enquadra-se na região da Floresta Estacional Decidual, estando localizada no Município de Santa Maria, na região da Depressão Central do Estado do RS. Foram locadas, de maneira sistemática, 18 parcelas de 200 m² no interior do fragmento. Na área amostrada foram mensuradas 56 espécies vegetais com CAP ³ 15 cm, distribuídas em 46 gêneros e 28 famílias botânicas. As famílias Rutaceae, Rubiaceae, Flacourtiaceae e Myrsinaceae apresentaram as maiores riquezas em relação ao número de espécies e indivíduos. Helietta apiculata, Casearia sylvestris, Faramea marginata, Myrsine umbellata, Chomelia obtusa e Cabralea canjerana foram as espécies mais importantes da comunidade vegetal estudada. As alturas variaram de 3,5 m, para árvores do estrato inferior até 22 m, para árvores emergentes. A maior parte das árvores vegetam em baixa competição, pois apresentam relação h/d igual ou inferior a 1. Pela distribuição das freqüências das circunferências, verifica-se que 42,25% dos indivíduos tem CAP entre 15 e 25 centímetros e que somente 4,25% tem CAP superior a 65 cm.

  8. Flora arbustivo-arbórea do fragmento de floresta estacional semidecidual do Ribeirão Cachoeira, município de Campinas, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Karin dos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado inventário florístico das árvores e arbustos da mata Ribeirão Cachoeira (233,7ha, altitude 650m, coordenadas 46°55'58''W, 22°50'13''S, o segundo maior e mais bem conservado fragmento de floresta estacional semidecidual do município de Campinas, SP. O solo característico é o Podzólico Vermelho Amarelo e o clima é Cwag' de Köppen. As coletas foram feitas durante o período de agosto/1996 a setembro/1997. Foram incluídos apenas indivíduos férteis com perímetro a altura do peito igual ou superior a 9cm. Foram encontradas 175 espécies de 119 gêneros e 49 famílias. As famílias mais ricas foram Myrtaceae (14 espécies, Rutaceae e Fabaceae (13, Caesalpiniaceae (11, Solanaceae (9 e Rubiaceae (8. Algumas espécies foram encontradas pela primeira vez na região: Tachigali multijuga Benth. e Schoepfia brasiliensis A.DC. A floração foi maior entre agosto e outubro. A frutificação foi maior nos meses de agosto a novembro. A maioria das espécies encontradas é zoocórica (58%, as anemocóricas foram 23% e as autocóricas 19%. Compararam-se as relações florísticas desta mata com outros 20 levantamentos do Estado. Os resultados obtidos indicaram a formação de dois grupos distintos. O mais homogêneo deles inclui as florestas do município de Campinas, mostrando que, possivelmente, são remanescentes de uma vegetação originalmente contínua.

  9. Adverse and beneficial effects of plant extracts on skin and skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantle, D; Gok, M A; Lennard, T W

    2001-06-01

    Plants are of relevance to dermatology for both their adverse and beneficial effects on skin and skin disorders respectively. Virtually all cultures worldwide have relied historically, or continue to rely on medicinal plants for primary health care. Approximately one-third of all traditional medicines are for treatment of wounds or skin disorders, compared to only 1-3% of modern drugs. The use of such medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of skin disorders arguably has been based largely on historical/anecdotal evidence, since there has been relatively little data available in the scientific literature, particularly with regard to the efficacy of plant extracts in controlled clinical trials. In this article therefore, adverse and beneficial aspects of medicinal plants relating to skin and skin disorders have been reviewed, based on recently available information from the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Beneficial aspects of medicinal plants on skin include: healing of wounds and burn injuries (especially Aloe vera); antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial and acaricidal activity against skin infections such as acne, herpes and scabies (especially tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil); activity against inflammatory/immune disorders affecting skin (e.g. psoriasis); and anti-tumour promoting activity against skin cancer (identified using chemically-induced two-stage carcinogenesis in mice). Adverse effects of plants on skin reviewed include: irritant contact dermatitis caused mechanically (spines, irritant hairs) or by irritant chemicals in plant sap (especially members of the Ranunculaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Compositae plant families); phytophotodermatitis resulting from skin contamination by plants containing furocoumarins, and subsequent exposure to UV light (notably members of the Umbelliferae and Rutaceae plant families); and immediate (type I) or delayed hypersensitivity contact reactions mediated by the immune system in individuals sensitized to plants

  10. Characterization of the variation in the imidazole alkaloid profile of Pilocarpus microphyllus in different seasons and parts of the plant by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry fingerprinting and identification of novel alkaloids by tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Iika N; Mazzafera, Paulo; Eberlin, Marcos N; Zullo, Marco António T; Sawaya, Alexandra C H F

    2007-01-01

    Pilocarpus microphyllus (Rutaceae), popularly known as jaborandi, is the only commercial source of an imidazole alkaloid named pilocarpine. In the present study, the variation in the profile of imidazole alkaloids in different seasons and in different parts of the P. microphyllus plant during the summer was analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in the positive ion mode [ESI(+)-MS]. The fingerprints of these extracts repeatedly presented similar ions which were mass-selected and studied by tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS and ESI-MS/MS/MS) and high-resolution mass spectrometry, resulting in the characterization of eight imidazole alkaloids. The data from the ESI(+)-MS fingerprints were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA), showing that pilocarpine was present mainly in the summer, whereas in the autumn mainly pilosine and winter anhydropilosine were found. Three alkaloids, reported for the first time in extracts of P. microphyllus, were found. Analysis of the distribution of alkaloids in different parts of the plant during the summer showed that, although pilocarpine was present throughout the plant, 13-nor-8(11)-dihydropilocarpine was found mainly in the stem, pilosine and anhydropilosine were present mainly in the intermediary leaves, and the three new alkaloids were mainly found in the leaflets and petioles. Based on the dissociation patterns of these alkaloids, we observed that there were three structurally related groups of alkaloids differing in their distribution in the plant tissues and responding differently to seasonal variations. These results also indicate that these three groups of alkaloids could belong to intermediate, parallel or competitive pathways for pilocarpine formation biosynthesis. PMID:17330216

  11. Therapeutic and cosmetic applications of Evodiamine and its derivatives--A patent review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaraskar, Kirti; Dhulap, Sivakami; Hirwani, R R

    2015-10-01

    Evodiamine, ((+)-(S)-8,13,13b,14-tetrahydro-14-methylindolo[2',3':3,4]pyrido[2,1-b]quinazolin-5(7H)-one) indoloquinazoline alkaloid, is the major component isolated from the fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa, family Rutaceae. Broad spectrum of pharmacological activities of Evodiamine suggests its imperative role in treating a variety of diseases influencing the function of diverse targets. A comprehensive search was carried out to collect patent information regarding Evodiamine and its derivatives using different patent databases covering priority years to till date. The patents claiming therapeutic as well as cosmetic applications of Evodiamine and its derivatives were analyzed in detail and were classified technically based on the its application such as treatment of metabolic disorders, cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular disorders, etc. The analysis revealed that the use and the mode of actions of Evodiamine and its derivatives in weight management treatments are currently well established. For example the fat reducing property of this alkaloid is primarily due to its mode of actions such as prevention of muscle protein catabolism, enhancement of thermogenesis and lipid oxidation. Apart from its use for treating obesity, Evodiamine and its derivatives are also experimentally explored for their anti-cancer, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. The possible mechanisms related to its anti-cancer activity as illustrated by different experimental studies include its potential action as modulator of specific receptors such as topoisomerase I, NF-kappa B and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2). The analysis hence highlights that, clinical studies pertaining to the anti-cancer, anti-diabetes as well as anti-inflammatory activities of the Evodiamine and its derivatives would possess important market potential for the development of Evodiamine based therapeutics. PMID:26255828

  12. Investigating alternatives to traditional insecticides: effectiveness of entomopathogenic fungi and Bacillus thuringiensis against citrus thrips and avocado thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Deane K; Morse, Joseph G

    2013-02-01

    Citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a plant-feeding pest most widely recognized for causing damage to citrus (Citrus spp. L. [Rutaceae]) and mango (Mangifera indica L. [Anacardiaceae]) fruits. This insect has recently broadened its known host range to become a significant pest of California grown blueberries. Avocado thrips, Scirtothrips. perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a recent, invasive pest of California avocados, Persea americana Mill. (Laurales: Lauraceae). Effective alternatives to traditional pesticides are desirable for both pests to reduce impacts on natural enemies and broaden control options in an effort to minimize pesticide resistance via rotation of control materials. We evaluated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. israelensis proteins (Cyt 1A and Cry 11A, activated and inactivated) and multiple strains (GHA, 1741ss, SFBb1, S44ss, NI1ss, and 3769ss) of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin against both species. Avocado thrips and citrus thrips were not susceptible to either Bt protein tested, regardless of activation status. All strains of B. bassiana were able to infect both avocado thrips and citrus thrips. However, the commercially available GHA strain was the most effective strain against both species and had a faster rate of infection then the other strains tested. Citrus thrips were more susceptible than avocado thrips to all B. bassiana strains (LC50 and LC95 of 8.6 x 10(4) and 4.8 x 10(6) conidia per ml for citrus thrips, respectively). Investigation of citrus thrips field control using the GHA strain of B. bassiana is therefore justified. PMID:23448016

  13. Insecticidal activity of plant essential oils against the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Alphantonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos; Papatsakona, Panagiota; Tsora, Eleanna

    2013-01-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3(rd) instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used. PMID:24766523

  14. Authentication of ruta graveolens and its adulterant using internal transcribed spacer (its) sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) is commonly known as 'Sudab' which is well known for hippocratic medicine and is commonly used in indigenous health-care system in India. Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. (Euphorbiaceae) in raw drug trading has almost similar morphology to R. graveolens in dried state, is being sold locally or used clinically as an adulterant of R. graveolens (genuine) at a relatively low price under the same name 'Sudab' which has ultimately reduced the efficacy and quality of this herb. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence of nuclear ribosomal DNA gene of genuine and adulterant were sequenced and analyzed to assess species admixture in raw drug trading of genuine herbal drug. The BLAST search results of ITS sequence of genuine sample of 'Sudab' i.e., R. graveolens showed 99% similarity to the sequence of R. graveolens, however, E. dracunculoides showed 100% similarity to the species of Euphorbia and did not show any similarity with R. graveolens. The sequence alignment of both species was entirely different to each other. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS sequence of adulterant sample i.e., E. dracunculoides together with sequences of Euphorbia species available in the GenBank has also clearly showed its nesting within the Euphorbia tree. The generated ITS sequences of both samples in the present study may be referred hereafter as species-specific DNA barcode signature, which can be used in authenticating and validating the exact species identities to discriminate the genuine sample of 'Sudab' from its adulterants if any available to guarantee the quality and purity of this drug in the herbal drug market. (author)

  15. Efficacy of natural products against Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Homan; Kafle, Lekhnath; Gc, Yubak Dhoj; Shih, Cheng Jen

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of local natural products against the beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis L. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), in stored chickpea Cicer arietinum L. (Fabaceae) in Chitwan, Nepal. Five natural products and one synthetic pesticide (Malathion) and two storage regimes (aluminum sheet bin vs. jute bags with plastic lining) were tested for their effect on stored pulse with respect to damage by C. chinensis. The five natural products included Xanthoylum armatum DC (Rutaceae) fruit powder, Acorus calamus L. (Araceae) rhizome powder, Cinnamom camphora L. (Lauraceae) balls, oil of Sesamum indicum L. (Pedaliaceae), and leaf powder of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae). Treatments of stored pulses with natural products or with Malathion all caused significantly higher mortality of C. chinensis at 15 d after treatment (DAT) than stored pulses receiving no treatments. The balls of C. camphora, rhizome powder of A. calamus and sesame oil outperformed all other treatments, including the Malathion at 45 and 75 DAT and resulted in significantly reduced damage or deterioration of stored pulses compared with other treatments. Storage regimes performed similarly, although the jute bags did protect seed integrity for some treatments. Our results indicate that incorporating these natural products into stored pulses can protect the seeds from C. chinensis for up to two generations, something that Malathion cannot do. These products are readily available to most farmers in the region and their use will lead to 1) reduction of losses to significant stored product pests, and 2) a reduction of contamination of foodstuffs and the environment by synthetic pesticides like Malathion. PMID:22812152

  16. Anti-inflammatory activity of Choisya ternata Kunth essential oil, ternanthranin, and its two synthetic analogs (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Martins Gomes Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Choisya ternata Kunth (Rutaceae is native to North America where it is popularly known as "Mexican orange". In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil (EO obtained from the leaves of C. ternata, one of its minor components (ternanthranin-ISOAN and its two synthetic analogues (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilate--MAN and PAN were evaluated. Mice pretreated with the EO (EO obtained from C. ternata leaves (3-100 mg/kg, p.o., ISOAN, MAN or PAN (1-30 mg/kg, p.o. and the reference drugs, morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o. and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 100 mg/kg, p.o., were evaluated in inflammation models such as formalin and subcutaneous air pouch models, with measurement of cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravasation, nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The EO from C. ternata significantly inhibited the time that the animals spent licking the formalin-injected paw in the second phase of the model at their higher doses (30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively. An inhibition of the inflammatory reaction induced after subcutaneous carrageenan injection into air pouch was also observed. In this model, the EO significantly reduced cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravased, and the increase in levels of inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β. ISOAN, MAN and PAN behaved in the same fashion at much smaller doses. Also, these molecules were able to show significant effects in the reduction of paw edema (at all tested doses when the phlogistic agent was carrageenan, bradykinin, 5-HT, PGE2, C48/80 or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-acetate (TPA. None of the tested doses had any effect in reducing histamine-induced edema. Our results indicate that the EO from C. ternata and anthranilate derivatives demonstrates an anti-inflammatory effect.

  17. 柚子全果综合利用及生物活性研究进展%Research Progress of Comprehensive Utilization and Biological Activity of Grapefruit Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宁

    2015-01-01

    柚子是芸香料柑橘属水果,柚子肉不仅含有丰富的甙类物质、维生素、矿物质,类胰岛素等成分,而且还具有重要的生物学功能。柚皮占整个柚子的43%~48%,含有黄酮类化合物、天然色素、膳食纤维、柠檬苦素、香精油等活性成分。这些成分赋予柚皮提取物具有抗氧化、抗癌、抑菌和降血糖等生理活性。本文对柚子全果综合利用及生物活性研究详细阐述,可以为我国柚子全果资源的综合利用开发提供指导。%Grapefruit is rutaceae citrus fruit, and grapefruit pulp not only contains rich glycosides substances, vitamins, minerals, and insulin composition, but also has important biological functions. Grapefruit peel accounts for 43% ~48% of the whole grapefruit, which contains flavonoids, natural pigment, dietary fiber, limonin, essential oil and else active ingredients. The medical research shows that the grapefruit peel extract has many physiological activities for strong antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial and blood sugar fall and so on. The comprehensive utilization of grapefruit fruit and biological activity research were clarified in detail which can provide guidance for the comprehensive utilization and development of whole grapefruit fruit resources.

  18. A draft of the genome and four transcriptomes of a medicinal and pesticidal angiosperm Azadirachta indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Neeraja M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Azadirachta indica (neem tree is a source of a wide number of natural products, including the potent biopesticide azadirachtin. In spite of its widespread applications in agriculture and medicine, the molecular aspects of the biosynthesis of neem terpenoids remain largely unexplored. The current report describes the draft genome and four transcriptomes of A. indica and attempts to contextualise the sequence information in terms of its molecular phylogeny, transcript expression and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. A. indica is the first member of the family Meliaceae to be sequenced using next generation sequencing approach. Results The genome and transcriptomes of A. indica were sequenced using multiple sequencing platforms and libraries. The A. indica genome is AT-rich, bears few repetitive DNA elements and comprises about 20,000 genes. The molecular phylogenetic analyses grouped A. indica together with Citrus sinensis from the Rutaceae family validating its conventional taxonomic classification. Comparative transcript expression analysis showed either exclusive or enhanced expression of known genes involved in neem terpenoid biosynthesis pathways compared to other sequenced angiosperms. Genome and transcriptome analyses in A. indica led to the identification of repeat elements, nucleotide composition and expression profiles of genes in various organs. Conclusions This study on A. indica genome and transcriptomes will provide a model for characterization of metabolic pathways involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds, comparative evolutionary studies among various Meliaceae family members and help annotate their genomes. A better understanding of molecular pathways involved in the azadirachtin synthesis in A. indica will pave ways for bulk production of environment friendly biopesticides.

  19. Development and characterization of genomic and expressed SSRs in citrus by genome-wide analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Rui Liu

    Full Text Available Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs are one of the most popular sources of genetic markers and play a significant role in plant genetics and breeding. In this study, we identified citrus SSRs in the genome of Clementine mandarin and analyzed their frequency and distribution in different genomic regions. A total of 80,708 SSRs were detected in the genome with an overall density of 268 SSRs/Mb. While di-nucleotide repeats were the most frequent microsatellites in genomic DNA sequence, tetra-nucleotides, which had more repeat units than any other SSR types, had the highest cumulative sequence length. We identified 6,834 transcripts as containing 8,989 SSRs in 33,929 Clementine mandarin transcripts, among which, tri-nucleotide motifs (36.0% were the most common, followed by di-nucleotide (26.9% and hexa-nucleotide motifs (15.1%. The motif AG (16.7% was most abundant among these SSRs, while motifs AAG (6.6%, AAT (5.0%, and TAG (2.2% were most common among tri-nucleotides. Functional categorization of transcripts containing SSRs revealed that 5,879 (86.0% of such transcripts had homology with known proteins, GO and KEGG annotation revealed that transcripts containing SSRs were those implicated in diverse biological processes in plants, including binding, development, transcription, and protein degradation. When 27 genomic and 78 randomly selected SSRs were tested on Clementine mandarin, 95 SSRs revealed polymorphism. These 95 SSRs were further deployed on 18 genotypes of the three generas of Rutaceae for the genetic diversity assessment, genomic SSRs generally show low transferability in comparison to SSRs developed from expressed sequences. These transcript-markers identified in our study may provide a valuable genetic and genomic tool for further genetic research and varietal development in citrus, such as diversity study, QTL mapping, molecular breeding, comparative mapping and other genetic analyses.

  20. Effects of fluoride air pollution on citrus orchards in the Kanbara district, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Y.

    1967-01-01

    Since the construction of the largest Japanese aluminum plant in 1942 in Kanbara, the effects of fluorides have been evident in the surrounding agricultural and silk industries. Kanbara is a principal citrus growing area, and for several years, the orange crop has been severely affected. During the rainy spring and summer, air pollution from fluoride increases, causing leaf and fruit drop as well as poor tree growth. Trees yield poorly, and the quality of the fruit which is produced is inferior. Spraying with OED or lime-sulfur solutions had no effect on these damages; the use of wind-breaking hedges to shut out the fluoride-laden air was slightly beneficial. The resistance of 251 wild and cultivated plants around the factory was investigated. Plants of the Equisetaeae, Orchidaceae, Iridaceae, Liliaceae, Araceae, Rosaceae, and Rutaceae families are sensitive to the effects of fluorides. Plants belonging to the Composita, Apiaceae, Lamiaceae and Teaceae families are not. Of the citrus plants, sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbec) is sensitive to fluorides, as are Matsudaidai, Iyo and Satsuma orange trees. According to a leaf analysis performed in September 1966, affected and non-affected leaves of Satsuma orange trees from 30 orchards up to 20 km distant from the factory, contained 135-378 p.p.m. fluoride in the affected area, while leaves from non-affected areas contained 9-82 p.p.m. Recommended indicator plants for fluoride air pollution are Equisetum arvense L., Sasa species, Reymoutria japonica Hout, Colocasia antiquorum Schott, Prunus mume Sieb, Irida species, and Gladiolus gandavensis Hout.

  1. 植物精油及化合物对埃及伊蚊幼虫的生物活性%Essential Oils and Their Compounds as Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera:Culicidae) Larvicides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁建忠; 李庆凤; 黄健波

    2014-01-01

    植物精油及化合物对登革热的主要媒介埃及伊蚊幼虫具有杀幼虫活性。从269种植物中提取的361个植物精油中,超过60%具有较高的生物活性(LC50<100 mg/L),这些植物主要为桃金娘科、唇形科和芸香科。精油中富含苯丙烷类、倍半萜烯类和单萜烯类物质具有最高的活性。着重介绍了植物精油对埃及伊蚊幼虫的活性、影响精油的活性因素、分子结构与活性相关性及精油及化合物的作用机理。%Essential oils and their compounds exhibit bioactivity against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, which is the primary vector of dengue. More than 60%of 361 essential oils from 269 plant species were considered active(LC50﹤100 mg/L), and the majority of these active oils were derived from plant species belonging to Myrtaceae, Lamiaceae and Rutaceae. Essential oils rich in phenylpropanoids, oxygenated sesquiterpenes and monoterpene hydrocarbons were found to be the most active. This article mainly reviews activities of essential oils against A. aegypti larvae, the factors affecting activities of essential oils, structure-activity relationships of essential oil compounds and their mode of action.

  2. Advances in studies on the biological activities of hesperidin and hesperetin%橙皮苷和橙皮素生物活性的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学仁; 张莹; 林志群

    2011-01-01

    橙皮苷(hesperidin)和橙皮素(hesperetin)是芸香科柑橘属植物果实的主要药效成分.本文对近年来橙皮苷和橙皮素的生物活性研究进行了总结,包括抗氧化和消除自由基、调节心血管系统的功能、对神经系统的保护、抗过敏及皮炎、抗细菌及微生物、抗癌及基因毒性、及提高其他药物生物利用度等方面.同时,对橙皮苷和橙皮素养两者的活性差异也进行了比较.以生物活性研究为基础,橙皮苷和橙皮素的药物新制剂和保健品及保健饮料的开发,在抗衰老、美容保健、心血管系统保健、神经系统功能的维护、防癌抗癌等方面得到了足够的重视和关注.橙皮苷和橙皮素作为资源来源丰富、提取工艺简便、生物活性确切稳定的天然原料化合物,具有广阔的开发前景.%Hesperidin and hesperetin are the major medicinal compounds in citrus fruits (family of Rutaceae). In this paper, we summarized the recent developments in research of the pharmacological activities of hesperidin and hesperetin, such as anti-oxidative and free radicals-scavenging effects, regulatory effect on cardiovascular system, neuroprotectant effect, anti-allergic and dermatitis-inhibiting effects, antibacterial and antimicrobial activities, improving effect on bioavailability of other drugs, etc. Additionally, the differences of pharmacological activities between hesperidin and hesperetin were compared. Based on their pharmacological activities, the exploitation of the new pharmaceutical preparations and health care products has received wide attention, such as those for antiaging, cosmetology, cardiovascular health, maintenance of nervous function, etc. As the natural material compounds with rich resource, easy extraction, and exact and stable biological activities, hesperidin and hesperetin may have broad development prospects.

  3. Biocide plants as a sustainable tool for the control of pests and pathogens in vegetable cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifone D'Addabbo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic pesticides have played a major role in crop protection related to the intensification of agricultural systems. In the recent years, environmental side effects and health concerns raised by an indiscriminate use have led the EU to the ban of many synthetic pesticides. As a result of this drastic revision, currently there is a strong need for new and alternative pest control methods. An interesting source of biorational pesticides may be represented by the biocidal compounds naturally occurring in plants as products of the secondary metabolism. Groups of plant secondary metabolites most promising for the development of pesticidal formulations are glucosinolates, saponins, and more generally terpenoid phytoconstituents, such as essential oil and their constituents. Glucosinolates are thioglucosidic secondary metabolites occurring mainly in the Brassicaceae and, at a less extent, in Capparidaceae families. The incorporation of glucosinolate- containing plant material into the soil results in degradation products highly toxic to soilborne pest, pathogens and weeds. This practice, known as biofumigation, may be considered as an ecological alternative to soil toxic fumigants. Plant-derived saponins are triterpene glycosides present in top and root tissues of plant species of the families Leguminosae, Alliaceae, Asteraceae, Polygalaceae and Agavaceae. Saponins and saponin-rich plant materials have been also reported for a biocidal activity on phytoparasites and soilborne plant pathogens. Essential oils are volatile, natural, heterogeneous mixtures of single substances, mainly terpenes and phenolics, formed as secondary metabolites by aromatic plants belonging to several botanical families. Among terpenes, limonoid triterpenes have been demonstrated to possess interesting insecticidal, nematicidal and antifungal properties. Occurrence of these compounds is mainly limited to Meliaceae and Rutaceae. Alkaloids, phenolics, cyanogenic glucosides

  4. Floristic Composition of Home-garden Systems in Dumbara (Knuckles Conservation Area with an emphasis on Endemic Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. A. J. Dissanayake

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Home gardens are multistoried ecosystems and are important not only for in-situ biodiversityconservation, but also as valuable food sources, fodder, medicine and spices. The main objective ofthis study was to make decisions about the variations of home garden composition and to identify theendemic species. Fifty five home gardens were studied in northern flank from January to April 2012.Two large (10x10m2 and four small (1x1m2 quadrates were studied in each home garden. Individuals≥ 1.5 m height and ≥ 1 cm DBH were measured to calculate IVI. Species identification was done onsite and further at the National Herbarium, Peradeniya. Total of 1335 individual woody-perennials and4603 herbs were found in 11,000 m2 of study area. One hundred and fifty two woody-perennial species(19 endemic, 44 naturalized exotics, 37 cultivated and 52 timber under 54 families and 56 herbspecies (46 medicinal belonging to 33 families were recorded. Euphorbiaceae was the dominantfamily with 15 species, followed by Fabaceae (11 species, Anacardiaceae (10 species, Rutaceae (10species, Myrtaceae (7 species, Rubiaceae (6 species, Arecaceae (6 species, Moraceae (5 species,Sapindaceae (4 species and Zingiberaceae (4 species. Highest number of plant families (43 wasrecorded in Pitawala, while the lowest number of plant families was recorded in Polommana (24.Based on the Importance Value Index (IVI, the species to pay highest priority for conservation wereselected. According to Shannon diversity values for different villages, Rathninda is the most stable andless disturbed, whereas Polommana is the most unstable and highly disturbed village. There were fiveendemic Anacardiaceae species (Campnosperma zeylanicum, Mangifera zeylanica, Semecarpuscoriaceae, Semecarpus nigro-viridis, Semecarpus walkeri. Twelve percent of the studied populationwere interested in timber trees such as Tectona grandis, Melia azedarach, Swietenia macrophylla andChloroxylon swietenia. Twelve percent of

  5. Metodología para la evaluación del potencial insecticida de especies forestales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Soto León

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available La diversidad florística de Colombia plantea enormes retos de investigación, con miras a una utilización racional e integral de sus recursos forestales. Las plantas con efectos biocidas utilizables en el control de plagas o enfermedades revisten una singular importancia. El objetivo de este trabajo es plantear una metodología de fácil aplicación, bajo costo y rápidos resultados, que permita acopiar la información necesaria sobre el mayor número de especies con potencial en este sentido. La metodología plantea la siguiente secuencia: selección de las especies vegetales de interés, apoyada en los reportes bibliográficos, conocimiento ancestral y observaciones personales; recolección del material en el campo; preparación del extracto total a partir del material seco; pruebas iniciales con Artemia salina Lech. para detectar actividad biológica, a través de la determinación de la LC50 (las especies con LC50 menores de 1000 ppm se consideran promisorias y ameritan procesos posteriores de fraccionamiento químico, bioensayos con las sustancias más promisorias sobre algún organismo de interés particular y determinación final de los compuestos activos en la planta. La metodología descrita fue empleada en la evaluación del potencial de acción biocida de 5 especies arbóreas o arbustivas, Guarea guidonia (L. Sleumer y Trichia hirta L. (Meliaceae, Machaerium moritzianum Benth. (Fabaceae, Swinglea glutinosa Merrill. (Rutaceae y Mammea americana L. (Clusiaceae. Se utilizó para los bioensayos iniciales el microcrustáceo Artemia salina Leach como indicador del potencial biocida con el fin de seleccionar las dos especies más promisorias a partir de las LC50 obtenidas. Con las dos se realizaron los bioensayos para evaluar la acción fagoinhibidora en la hormiga arriera Atta cephalotes (L., y el posible control de Alconeura sp. (Homoptera: Cicadellidae, insecto chupador que afecta la ceiba verde Pseudobombax septenatum (Jacq. Dugand

  6. 亚洲柑橘木虱的刺吸电位图谱研究%Study on the Electrical Penetration Graph of Diaphorina citri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨成良; 岑伊静; 梁广文; 陈华燕

    2011-01-01

    The stylet penetration activities of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama on seedlings of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae) were investigated by using the electrical penetration graph (EPG-DC system) technique,and the relationship between the feeding behavior and the waveforms was analysed. Eight EPG waveforms were described for adult female D. citrifeeding on C. reticulata leaves during 8 hours: Non-penetration waveform (waveform np), pathway waveforms (waveform A, B and C ), first contact with phloem (waveform D), saliva secretion on phloem (waveform E 1 ), phloem sap ingestion (waveform E2 ), and xylem sap ingestion (waveform G). Among these, waveform D, which always occurred between waveform C and waveform El ,was firstly found in insect with piercing mouthparts. Waveform G only occurred on 3 of the 20 tested psyllids, implying the psyllids seldom feed in the xylem. Waveform E2 lasted longest, indicating the psyllids spent the most of time in phloem sap ingestion during the feeding activity.%利用刺吸电位图谱(EPG)技术对亚洲柑橘木虱Diaphorina citri Kuwayama在寄主植物酸橙Citrus reticulata Blanco上的刺探取食行为进行了测定,获得柑橘木虱取食出现的波形,初步确定了取食波形与其行为之间的关系.结果表明,亚洲柑橘木虱在酸橙上产生8种主要的取食波形,依次为非刺探波(np波)、路径波(A波、B波、C波)、D波、韧皮部分泌唾液波(E1波)、韧皮部被动吸食波(E2波)以及木质部主动吸食波(G波).其中,D波是首次发现在刺吸式口器昆虫的取食波,推测为柑橘木虱口针刺探筛管相关的波形.G波仅在所测定20头木虱中的3头上出现,说明木虱很少在木质部吸食.E2波持续时间最长,表明刺探过程中木虱口针在韧皮部吸食的时间最长.

  7. Estudo da concordância das citações de uso e importância das espécies e famílias utilizadas como medicinais pela comunidade do bairro Ponta Grossa, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Secretti Vendruscolo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ferramentas para quantificar dados etnobotânicos estão sendo usadas como complementares aos levantamentos sobre a utilização de plantas por populações. Neste trabalho são utilizadas técnicas para avaliar a concordância das citações de uso e a importância das espécies e famílias para as 51 pessoas entrevistadas no bairro Ponta Grossa, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. Para tal, foram utilizados os cálculos de Valor de Uso (UV e a porcentagem corrigida de Concordância quanto aos Usos Principais (CUPc para as 142 espécies mencionadas no levantamento. As espécies Aloe arborescens Mill., Citrus × aurantium L., Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC., Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Eugenia uniflora L., Cunila microcephala Benth., Citrus limon (L. Osveck, Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf, Psidium guajava L., Artemisia absinthium L., Ocimum basilicum L., Plantago tomentosa Lam., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Persea americana Mill., Aloysia citrodora Palau, Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl., Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq. J.F. Macbr., Petroselinum crispum (Mill. Nyman ex A.W. Hill, Ocimum selloi Benth. e Tanacetum vulgare L., nesta ordem de Valor de Uso, foram consideradas como as mais importantes para a população estudada. As famílias mais importantes foram Asphodelaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Rutaceae e Lythraceae. Para o cálculo da porcentagem a corrigida de Concordância quanto aos Usos Principais (CUPc foram consideradas como espécies principais as que apresentaram valores acima de 24%: Eugenia uniflora, Achyrocline satureioides, Psidium guajava, Cunila microcephala, Plectranthus barbatus, Citrus × aurantium, Citrus limon, Cymbopogon citratus, Punica granatum L., Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw., Sphagneticola trilobata (L. Pruski, Aloysia citrodora, Foeniculum vulgare, Plectranthus neochilus Schltr., Artemisia absinthium, Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Br., Mikania laevigata Sch. Bip ex Baker, Aloe arborescens e Petroselinum

  8. A Cell-based β2-adrenergic Receptor Agonist Functional Screening Assay for Chinese Traditional Medicines%基于细胞的β2肾上腺素能受体激动剂功能性筛选体系在中草药中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洋; 王超; 潘鹏炜; 白钢

    2009-01-01

    为了建立基于细胞的β2肾上腺素能受体激动剂筛选体系,将大鼠β2受体基因克隆人pcDNA3.1载体.转染具有cAMP应答元件调控的绿色荧光蛋白报告基因的中国仓鼠卵巢细胞(CHO),从得到的阳性单克隆细胞中筛选得到一个稳定表达β2受体,并且在受到激动剂刺激后发出剂量依赖绿色荧光强度的细胞株.将此筛选体系用于从中药中筛选具有β2受体激动剂活性的化合物.从几种芸香科药材中得到了辛弗林(synephine),从细辛和附子中得到了去甲乌药碱(higenamine),首次从受体水平证明了它们的β2激动剂活性.此筛选体系适合从大量天然化合物中快速筛选具有β2激动剂活性的成分.%To construct a cell-based agonists screening system for β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) from chi- nese traditional medicines, β2-AR gene was amplified by PCR from rat genomic DNA. The PCR products were cloned into pcDNA3.1 and transfected into chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell, which contained a cyclic AMP response element-linked enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter gene. One stable cell line was generated from the single-cell-derived colonies. It expressed β2-AR and provided green fluorescence when stimulated by ligands. Expression of β2-AR was monitored by RT-PCR and western blotting anti-β2-AR. The function of re- porter gene system was studied by flow cytometry. This cell-based screening system was applied to the extracts of chinese traditional medicines (TCMs). Synephine which was obtained from Rutaceae generic plant, and hige- namine which was obtained from Herba Asari or Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata were verified to have β2-AR agonist activity at receptor level. This assay could be applied in the pharmaceutical industry for screening thou- sands or indeed millions of natural compounds of TCMs for β2-AR agonists very rapidly.

  9. Antidiabetic Evaluation of Leaf Extracts of Naringi crenulata (Roxb. Nicolson

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    Suman Kumar Mekap

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Naringi crenulata (Roxb. Nicolson belongs to family Rutaceae is a widespread species of the genus-Naringi. It is commonly known as ‘Bilvaparni’ in Sanskrit and ‘Benta’ in Odia. The root extract is used in vomiting, dysentery and colic disorders. Fruit decoction is used as an antidote to insect poison. The bark juice is applied externally for getting speedy relief in sprain. The methanol extract is reported to have significant anthelmintic activity and ethanol extracts of leaf and bark showed anticancer, hepatoprotective, aphrodisiac, anti-inflammatory activities. N. crenulata leaves were collected from Talabira forest region in Sambalpur district, Odisha, in the month of February-March and extracted successively with petroleum ether (60-800 C and methanol. Preliminary phytochemical screening of extracts indicated the presence of steroids, triterpenoids in petroleum ether extract and alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, triterpenoids, steroids and glycosides in methanol extract. The methanol extract of N. crenulata was fractionated by column chromatography using a glass column packed with silica gel (100-200 mesh and developed by gradient elution with n-hexane and combination of n-hexane : ethyl acetate in the increasing order of polarity (10%, 20% ethyl acetate in n-hexane which resulted in the fractions NCMF-1, NCMF-2 and NCMF-3, respectively. The antihyperglycaemic activity was evaluated in normal, glucose-loaded and Streptozotocin-induced hyperglycaemic rats (single and multi dose treatment. In normoglycaemic rats, the test extracts showed progressive fall of blood glucose level till the end of 8 h. In glucose-loaded animals (OGTT, reduction in blood glucose level was observed after 60 minutes of administration of the test substances. The maximum reduction was observed at 4 h with methanol extract exhibiting maximum improvement in glucose tolerance. The extracts produced significant decrease in the blood glucose level in

  10. 城乡环境梯度下植物群落的区系成分分析%Floristic Analysis of the Evergreen Broadleaved Forest Community along an Urban-Rural Gradient in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱纯; 熊咏梅; 柳泽鑫; 孙东; 苏志尧

    2012-01-01

      分别以白云山、帽峰山、莲塘风水林作为广州市区、城郊和郊区常绿阔叶林群落代表,分析其植物区系组成和多样性特征。结果显示,广州帽峰山常绿阔叶林群落种类最丰富,维管束植物有87科155属212种,优势科为茜草科、大戟科、樟科、禾亚科、芸香科、紫金牛科、壳斗科;白云山维管束植物有72科121属168种,优势科为茜草科、樟科、桑科、禾亚科、大戟科、冬青科;而莲塘风水林森林群落有55科88属102种,优势科为茜草科、樟科、大戟科。从属的地理分布区类型来看,三个群落皆以泛热带分布属的比例最高,其次为旧世界热带分布属和热带亚洲分布属,群落缺乏典型的热带成分,但具有南亚热带植物区系的基本特征。其中白云山的东亚分布类型有3属;帽峰山的东亚分布类型有4属,中国特有分布类型有1属;而莲塘风水林则没有东亚分布和中国特有分布类型。%  Floristic composition of the evergreen broadleaved forest in Maofeng Mountain, Baiyun Mountain, and Liantang, as an urban-to-rural gradient of Guangzhou, was analyzed based on community data. The results indicated that the community in Maofeng Mountain was the richest in species diversity, with 87 families of vascular plants including 155 genera and 212 species, dominant families of the flora were Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lauraceae, Agrostidoideae, Rutaceae, Myrsinaceae, and Fagaceae. Vascular plants in Baiyun Mountain plot consisted of 168 species, belonging to 72 families, and 121 genera. Dominant families of the flora were Rubiaceae, Lauraceae, Moraceae, Agrostidoideae, Euphorbiaceae, and Aquifoliaceae. However, Liantang community included only 55 families, 88 genera and 102 species. Dominant families of the flora were Rubiaceae, Lauraceae, and Euphorbiaceae. As for generic distribution, the pantropic areal-type represented the majority of genera

  11. A REVIEW ON CITRON-PHARMACOGNOSY, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND MEDICINAL USES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena A K

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The citron is a fragrant fruit with the botanical name Citrus medica, which applies to both the Swingle and Tanaka systems. It is a prominent member in the genus Citrus, belonging to the Rutaceae or Rue family, sub-family Aurantioideae. The citron is unlike the more common citrus species like the lemon or orange. While the most popular fruits are peeled to consume their pulpy and juicy segments, the citron's pulp is very dry, containing only little insipid juice. Moreover, the main content of a citron is the thick white rind, which is very adherent to the segments, and cannot be separated from them easily. Thus, from ancient through medieval times, the citron was used mainly for medical purposes: to combat sea sickness, pulmonary troubles, intestinal ailments, and other disorders. The essential oil of the flavedo (the outermost, pigmented layer of rind was also regarded as an antibiotic. Citron juice with honey was considered an effective antidote to poison. In India, the peel is a remedy for dysentery and is eaten to overcome halitosis. The distilled juice is given as a sedative. The candied peel is sold in China as a stomachic, stimulant, expectorant and tonic. In West Tropical Africa, the citron is used only as a medicine, particularly against rheumatism. The flowers are used medicinally by the Chinese. In Malaya, a decoction of the fruit is taken to drive off evil spirits. A decoction of the shoots of wild plants is administered to improve appetite, relieve stomachache and expel intestinal worms. The leaf juice, combined with that of Polygonum and Indigofera is taken after childbirth. A leaf infusion is given as an antispasmodic. In Southeast Asia, citron seeds are given as a vennifuge. In Panama, they are ground up and combined with other ingredients and given as an antidote for poison. The essential oil of the peel is regarded as an antibiotic.The citron fruit is usually ovate or oblong, narrowing towards the stylar end. However, the

  12. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck var 'Ridge Pineapple': organization and phylogenetic relationships to other angiosperms

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    Jansen Robert K

    2006-09-01

    Nymphaeales, relationship of the magnoliid genus Calycanthus, and the monophyly of the eurosid I clade. Both MP and ML trees provide strong support for the monophyly of eurosids II and for the placement of Citrus (Sapindales sister to a clade including the Malvales/Brassicales. Conclusion This is the first complete chloroplast genome sequence for a member of the Rutaceae and Sapindales. Expansion of the inverted repeat region to include rps19 and part of rpl22 and presence of two truncated copies of rpl22 is unusual among sequenced chloroplast genomes. Availability of a complete Citrus chloroplast genome sequence provides valuable information on intergenic spacer regions and endogenous regulatory sequences for chloroplast genetic engineering. Phylogenetic analyses resolve relationships among several major clades of angiosperms and provide strong support for the monophyly of the eurosid II clade and the position of the Sapindales sister to the Brassicales/Malvales.

  13. 福建九阜山野生芳香植物资源及其开发利用%Wild Aromatic Plant Resources and Their Exploitation and Utilization in Jiufu Mountain, Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏开炬; 陈锡桓; 詹祖仁; 陈登云

    2012-01-01

      The wild aromatic plants resources were investigated in Jiufu Mountain Nature Reserve in Youxi, Fujian province. The results show that there are 132 species of wild aromatic plants, belonging to 91 genera in 47 families in this area, which accounted for 52.8%, 29.7% and 17.4% in families, genera, and species of the wild aromatic plants in Fujian province respectively. Among these aromatic plants, Lauraceae is the biggest population, including 22 species. Other advantage families, both Rosaceae and Orchidaceae include 10 species. Lamiaceae includes 9 species and Asteraceae includes 7 species. Magnoliaceae and Oleaceae include 5 species, 4 species respectively. The smaller population were Rutaceae, Primulaceae, Moraceae, Hamamelidaceae, including 3 species. The dominant genera are Lindera (6), Cinnamomum(4), Machilus(4), Rosa(4), Artemisia(4), Litsea(4), Photinia(3), Lysimachia(3). The wild aromatic plants with greater value of development and utilization are Pinus massoniana, Sarcandra gladra, Houttuyia Cordata, Litsea cubeba, Cinnamomum camphora, Machilus grijsii, Machilus pauhoi, Litsea aggregata, Litsea elongat, Elaeagnus pungens, Mosla punctulata, Liquidamber formosana, Rosa laevigata, Gardenia jasminoides, Lonicera nitida, Artemisia argyi and so on. The species composition, aromatic position, live form, distribution and the suggestions are put forward on their development and utilization.%  对福建省尤溪县九阜山省级自然保护区野生芳香植物资源进行调查,结果表明,该区共有野生芳香植物47科91属132种,占福建省芳香植物89科306属758种的52.8%、29.7%和17.4%.优势科有樟科(22种)、蔷薇科(10种)、兰科(10种)、唇形科(9种)、菊科(7种)、木兰科(5种)、木犀科(4种)、芸香科(3种)、报春花科(3种)、桑科(3种)、金镂梅科(3种);优势属有山胡椒属(6种)、樟属(4种)、润楠属(4种)、蔷薇属(4种)、蒿属(4种)、木姜子属(3种)、石楠属(3

  14. Medicinal Plants of the markets of Izúcar de Matamoros and Acatlán de Osorio, Puebla

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    David Martínez Moreno

    2016-03-01

    applied surveys showed that in the mentioned markets 31 plants are sold to cure 31 diseases, 25 at the Izúcar de Matamoros market, and 27 at the Acatlán de Osorio market. The most used part of the plants to cure the ailments are the leaves, stems and flowers, and the application is oral and local. The use of medicinal plants is to cure diseases of the respiratory, digestive, circulatory, excretory, nervous systems, as well as for the cultural syndrome. The way of selling them is as a bunch or as a compound. It is concluded that both markets are traditional and the most important sold families of plants are Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Fabaceae and Rutaceae; the market that presented a major recorded medicinal plants was the Acatlán de Osorio with 144 species. The majority of medicinal plants in both markets are to cure diseases of the digestive, excretory, nervous, respiratory and circulatory systems as well as cultural syndrome; most of the species are wild and the most used parts of the plants are the stem, leaves, flowers and fruits.

  15. Antimalarial activity of selected Sudanese medicinal plants with emphasis to Maytenus senegalensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study is to identify and characterize the antimalrial agents from traitional Sudanese medicinal plants. 49 plants parts representing 26 species from 15 families were extracted and screened for their in vitro antimalrial activity using P. falciparum strain 3D7 which is chloroquine sensitive and Dd2 strain which is chloroquine resistant and pyrimethamine sensitive.The plant species investigated exhibited diverse botanical families. They includes Annonaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Asteraceae, Balantiaceae, Caesalpiniceae, Celasteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Graminae, Meliaceae, Myrtaceae, Polygonaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, and simaroubaceae. The evaluation of these plants for their antimalarial activity and their effect on lymphocyte proliferation was carried out. 57 extracts were tested on the chloroquine sensitive strain (3D7). Where 34 extracts (59%) exhibited significant activity against 3D7 with IC50 values ≤ 50 μ g/ml. While 21 extracts (57%) showed antimalrial activities with IC50 values ≤ 50 μ g/ml on Dd2. 13 extracts (22%) and ten extracts (18%) only showed an activity with IC50 values ≤ 5 μ g/ml on 3 D7 and Dd2, respectively. The activities of some plant extracts, which affected 3D7 strain, were measured using the radiolabelled (3H) hypoxanthine method and microscopical count. 15 plant extracts (48%) from 32 showed IC50 values ≤ 50 μ g/ml against 3D7 strain using the radiolabelled hypoxanthine methods and only 5 extracts (16%) showed IC50 values ≤ 5 μ g/ml against 3D7. Most of the extracts screened had a low effect on lymphocyte proliferation (IC50 values >100 μ g/ml), where as Sonochous cornatus, Balanites aegyptiaca, Tamarindus indica, Acacia nilotica, Annona squamosa, Eucalyptus globulus and Cassia tora enhanced lymphocyte proliferation. liquid-liquid partition of methanolic preparation of Acacia nilotica seeds and husk showed that the ethylacetate phase possessed the highest activity against both 3D7 and Dd2 strains

  16. Preliminary evaluation of mosquito larvicidal efficacy of plant extracts

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    N.G. Das, D. Goswami & B. Rabha

    2007-06-01

    on the control of Culex quinquefasciatusSay. Neem Newsletter 1998; 15(2: 9–11.10. Venketachalam MR, Jebasan A. Repellent activity ofFerronia elephantum Corr. (Rutaceae leaf extract againstAedes aegypti. Biores Technol 2001; 76(3: 287–8.11. Venketachalam MR, Jebasan A. Larvicidal activity ofHydrocotyl javanica Thunb (Apiaceae extract against Cx.quinquefasciatus. J Exptl Zool India 2001; 4(1: 99–101.12. Finney DJ. Probit analysis, III edn. Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press 1971.13. Sosan MB, Adewoyin FB, Adewunmi CO. Larvicidalproperties of three indigenous plant oils on the mosquitoAedes aegypti. Nigerian J Natl Prod Med 2001; 5: 30–3.14. Thomas TG, Rao S, Lal S. Mosquito larvicidal propertiesof an indigenous plant, Ipomoea cairica Linn. JapaneseJ Infect Dis 2004; 57: 176–7.15. Dwivedi SC, Karwasara K. Larvicidal activity of fiveplants extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus. Indian JEntomol 2003; 65(3: 335–8.16. Latha C, Vijhayakumar PD, Velayudhan S, Joseph A.Biological activity of indigenous plant extracts as mosquitolarvicides. Indian J Exptl Biol 1999; 37: 206–8.17. Cavalcanti ESB, Morais SM, Lima MAA, Santana EWP.Larvicidal activity of essential oils from Brazilian plantsagainst Aedes aegypti L. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2004;99(5: 541–4.Corresponding author: Dr. N.G. Das, Medical Entomology Division, Defence Research