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Sample records for amyris brenesii rutaceae

  1. Cuatro compuestos nuevos del extracto no polar de la planta Amyris brenesii (Rutaceae de Costa Rica

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    Max Chavarría

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available El estudio fitoquímico de las partes aéreas de Amyris brenesii (Rutaceae recolectadas en Río Cuarto, Grecia, Alajuela (Costa Rica mostró la presencia de cuatro nuevos compuestos: la 6-hidroxi-6-O-(3-hidroximetil-3-metilalilangelicina 1, el 6-(N-acetil-2-etanamin-2,2-dimetil-2Hcromeno 2, el lignano 2,5-deshidrohinokinina 3 y la N-acetil-O-(geranil-tiramina 4. Adicionalmente se aislaron los lignanos hinokinina 5, y justicidina E 6, las cumarinas escopoletina 7 y marmesina 8, el ácido 24-moretenoico 9 y el O-(3,3-dimetilalil-halfordinol 10. Las separaciones se llevaron a cabo mediante la aplicación de técnicas cromatográficas y la elucidación de las estructuras se realizó con la ayuda de técnicas espectroscópicas de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear (RMN de una y dos dimensiones.Four new compounds from the non-polar extract of the plant Amyris brenesii (Rutaceae from Costa Rica. Fractionation of a non polar extract of the aerial parts of Amyris brenesii collected in Río Cuarto, Grecia, Costa Rica has resulted in the isolation of four new compounds, 6-hidroxy-6-O-(3-hidroxymethyl-3methylalyl-angelicin 1, 6-(N-acetyl-2-etanamin-2,2-dimethyl-2H-cromen 2, the lignan 2,5-dehidrohinokinin 3 and N-acetyl-O-(geranyl-tiramine 4. In addition, we isolated six previously known compounds: the lignans hinokinin 5 and Justicidin E 6, the coumarins scopoletin 7 and marmesin 8, 24-moretenoic acid 9, and the nitrogen compound O-(3,3-dimethylalyl-halfordinol 10. All the separations were done with chromatographic techniques and the structures were elucidated by using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1043-1052. Epub 2008 September 30.

  2. Four new compounds from the non-polar extract of the plant Amyris brenesii (Rutaceae) from Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavarria, Max; Castro, Victor; Murillo, Renato; Poveda, Luis

    2008-01-01

    The aerial parts of Amyris brenesii (Rutaceae) collected in Rio Cuarto, Grecia, Alajuela (Costa Rica) showed the presence of four new compounds, according to the phytochemical study: the 6-hydroxy-6-O-(3-hydroxymethyl-3-methylallyl)-angelicin 1, 6 - (N-acetyl-2-etanamin) -2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromene 2, the lignans 2,5-dehidrohinokinin 3 and N-acetyl-O-(geranyl)-tyramine 4. Additionally hinokinin lignans were isolated 5 and justicidin E 6, coumarins scopoletin 7 and marmesin 8, the acid 24-moretenoic 9 and O-(3,3-dimethylallyl)-halfordinol 10. The separations were carried out by the application of chromatographic techniques and the elucidation of the structures was carried out with the aid of spectroscopic techniques of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of one and two dimensions. (author) [es

  3. [Four new compounds from the non-polar extract of the plant Amyris brenesii (Rutaceae) from Costa Rica].

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    Chavarría, Max; Castro, Victor; Poveda, Luis; Renato, Murillo

    2008-09-01

    Fractionation of a non polar extract of the aerial parts of Amyris brenesii collected in Rio Cuarto, Grecia, Costa Rica has resulted in the isolation of four new compounds, 6-hidroxy-6-O-(3-hidroxymethyl-3-methylalyl)-angelicin 1, 6-(N-acetyl-2-etanamin)-2,2-dimethyl-2H-cromen 2, the lignan 2,5-dehidrohinokinin 3 and N-acetyl-O-(geranyl)-tiramine 4. In addition, we isolated six previously known compounds: the lignans hinokinin 5 and Justicidin E 6, the coumarins scopoletin 7 and marmesin 8, 24-moretenoic acid 9, and the nitrogen compound O-(3,3-dimethylalyl)-halfordinol 10. All the separations were done with chromatographic techniques and the structures were elucidated by using 1D and 2D NMR techniques.

  4. Elemol and Amyris Oil Repel the Ticks Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) in Laboratory Bioassays

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    The essential oil from Amyris balsamifera (Rutaceae) and elemol, a principal constituent of the essential oil of Osage orange, Maclura pomifera (Moraceae) were evaluated in in vitro and in vivo laboratory bioassays for repellent activity against host-seeking nymphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes sc...

  5. Amyris, Inc. Integrated Biorefinery Project Summary Final Report - Public Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, David; Sato, Suzanne; Garcia, Fernando; Eppler, Ross; Cherry, Joel

    2014-03-12

    The Amyris pilot-scale Integrated Biorefinery (IBR) leveraged Amyris synthetic biology and process technology experience to upgrade Amyris’s existing Emeryville, California pilot plant and fermentation labs to enable development of US-based production capabilities for renewable diesel fuel and alternative chemical products. These products were derived semi-synthetically from high-impact biomass feedstocks via microbial fermentation to the 15-carbon intermediate farnesene, with subsequent chemical finishing to farnesane. The Amyris IBR team tested and provided methods for production of diesel and alternative chemical products from sweet sorghum, and other high-impact lignocellulosic feedstocks, at pilot scale. This enabled robust techno-economic analysis (TEA), regulatory approvals, and a basis for full-scale manufacturing processes and facility design.

  6. Cytotoxic Constituents from bark and leaves of Amyris pinnata Kunth.

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    Luis Enrique Cuca-Suarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available From leaves and bark of Amyris pinnata Kunth twelve compounds were isolated, corresponding to six lignans 1-6, three coumarins 7-9, a sesquiterpene 10, an oxazole alkaloid 11, and a prenylated flavonoid 12,. Metabolites were identified by spectroscopic techniques ( 1H and 13C NMR, EIMS and by comparison with published data in the literature. C ytotoxicity against leukemia, solid tumors, and normal cells was evaluated for all isolated compounds. Lignans were found to be the most cytotoxic compounds occurring in A. pinnata.

  7. Essential oil of trees of the genus Ocotea (Lauraceae in Costa Rica. I. Ocotea brenesii

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    Carlos Chaverri

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oils from leaves and wood of Ocotea brenesii Standl. growing wild in Costa Rica was determined by capillary GC/FID and GC/MS. From the leaves, 4 compounds were identified, corresponding to 85.9% of the oil, and from the wood 57 compounds were identified corresponding to 69.0% of the oil. The major constituents identified in the leaf oil were α -copaene (21.1%, δ -cadinene (9.2%, spathulenol (7.3%, globulol (5.6% and β -caryophyllene (5.2%. The major constituents of the wood oil were α -copaene (6.6%, caryophyllene oxide (6.3%, β -caryophyllene (6.1% and humulene epoxide (4.6%. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4: 431-436. Epub 2005 Oct 3.Se determinó la composición química de los aceites esenciales obtenidos de las hojas y de la madera del árbol Ocotea brenesii Standl., perteneciente a la familia Lauraceae, que crece en forma silvestre en Costa Rica. Para el estudio se utilizaron técnicas de cromatografía de gases capilar con detector de ionización de flama (GC/FID y cromatografía de gases capilar acoplada a un detector de espectrometría de masas (GC/MS. Del aceite volátil de las hojas fueron identificados 64 constituyentes, que correspondieron a un 85.9% del aceite. Del aceite de la madera se identificaron 57 compuestos que correspondieron a un 69.0% del aceite. Los constituyentes mayoritarios que se identificaron en el aceite de las hojas fueron α -copaeno (21.1%, δ -cadineno (9.2%, espatulenol (7.3%, globulol (5.6% y β -cariofileno (5.2%. Los constituyentes mayoritarios del aceite de la madera fueron α -copaeno (6.6%, σxido de cariofileno (6.3%, β -cariofileno (6.1% y el epσxido del humuleno (4.6%. La composiciσn de los aceites es de naturaleza terpιnica y no presentaron compuestos del tipo fenilpropanoide o bencenoide que son constituyentes característicos de la mayoría de los aceites de plantas del género Ocotea investigados anteriormente.

  8. Registros nuevos de Ponthieva brenesii (Orchidaceae y Piper xanthostachyum (Piperaceae para el estado de Veracruz, México New records of Ponthieva brenesii (Orchidaceae y Piper xanthostachyum (Piperaceae in the State of Veracruz, México

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    Gonzalo Castillo-Campos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Se registran por primera vez para el estado de Veracruz Ponthieva brenesii y Piper xanthostachyum. La primera especie es muy rara y tiene una distribución geográfica limitada; en México hasta ahora sólo se conocía de Cuernavaca, Morelos y Teziutlán, Puebla. La segunda especie se caracteriza por su forma de vida trepadora, hábito poco común en las especies del género Piper. En México esta especie sólo se conocía en Chiapas y Oaxaca. Ambas especies se encontraron en un bosque mesófilo de montaña del centro de Veracruz.Ponthieva brenesii (Orchidaceae and Piper xanthostachyum (Piperaceae are reported for the first time in the State of Veracruz, Mexico. The first species is very rare, and has a restricted distribution range previously limited within Mexico to Cuernavaca, Morelos and Teziutlán, Puebla. The second species is a climbing herb, uncommon growth habit in the genus Piper. Previously, this species had only been found in Chiapas and Oaxaca. Both species were found in a montane cloud forest of central Veracruz.

  9. Anticancer Activity of Limonia acidissima Linn (Rutaceae) Fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rutaceae) which has long been used traditionally for various infectious and malignant diseases. Methods: The fruit extract of Limonia acidissima Linn was obtained by macerating 3 times with methanol and then concentrating it at reduced pressure.

  10. Coumarin and alkaloids of Rauia resinosa (Rutaceae)

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    Albarici, Tatiane Regina; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Pirani, Jose Rubens

    2010-01-01

    The genus Rauia, that is poorly chemically studied, belongs to the Rutaceae family. This family has been known to contain a large variety of secondary metabolites. Our phytochemical investigation of the stem and leaves of Rauia resinosa has led to the identification of the structurally related coumarins: murralongin (1), murrangatin (2), munomicrolin (3), murrangatin diacetate (4), umbelliferone (5), rauianin (6) and one novel coumarin: 3-ethylrauianin (7); the alkaloids: N-methyl-4-methoxy-2-quinolone (8), mirtopsine (9), dictamine (10), g-fagarine (11), skimmianine (12), Z-dimethylrhoifolinate (13), zantodioline (14), zantobungeanine (15), veprissine (16), one novel alkaloid 7-hydroxy-8-methoxy-N-methylflindersine (17) and 8-hydroxy-N-methylflindersine (18) that is described as a natural product for the first time, and a mixture of steroids: as sitosterol and stigmasterol. (author)

  11. Coumarin and alkaloids of Rauia resinosa (Rutaceae); Cumarinas e alcaloides de Rauia resinosa (Rutaceae)

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    Albarici, Tatiane Regina; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da, E-mail: paulo@dq.ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Pirani, Jose Rubens [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Botanica

    2010-07-01

    The genus Rauia, that is poorly chemically studied, belongs to the Rutaceae family. This family has been known to contain a large variety of secondary metabolites. Our phytochemical investigation of the stem and leaves of Rauia resinosa has led to the identification of the structurally related coumarins: murralongin (1), murrangatin (2), munomicrolin (3), murrangatin diacetate (4), umbelliferone (5), rauianin (6) and one novel coumarin: 3-ethylrauianin (7); the alkaloids: N-methyl-4-methoxy-2-quinolone (8), mirtopsine (9), dictamine (10), g-fagarine (11), skimmianine (12), Z-dimethylrhoifolinate (13), zantodioline (14), zantobungeanine (15), veprissine (16), one novel alkaloid 7-hydroxy-8-methoxy-N-methylflindersine (17) and 8-hydroxy-N-methylflindersine (18) that is described as a natural product for the first time, and a mixture of steroids: as sitosterol and stigmasterol. (author)

  12. Phylogenetic and ecological signals in the wood of Spathelioideae (Rutaceae)

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    Appelhans, M.S.; Heuven, van B.J.; Lens, F.; Baas, P.

    2012-01-01

    Subfamily Spathelioideae of Rutaceae constitutes a well-supported early branching clade of eight small woody genera that were formerly assigned to five different Sapindalean/Rutalean families. This study brings together detailed wood anatomical information on all eight genera (for four the wood

  13. Furochinoline alkaloids in plants from Rutaceae family – a review

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    Adamska-Szewczyk Aldona

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past five years, phytochemical and pharmacological studies have been conducted on material extracted from members of the Rutaceae family. In such work, new furochinoline-structured alkaloids were isolated from Ruta sp. and Dictamnus sp. Beyond the aforementioned, other substances with promising activity were isolated from the less-known species of Zanthoxylum, Evodia, Lonchocarpus, Myrthopsis and Teclea. Currently used forms of extraction, as well as methods of isolation and detection, allow the obtaining of pure, biologically active compounds. Many of these have antifungal, anti-bacterial and anti-plasmodial properties. Others are still being researched as potential drugs, which, in future, may be used in treating those afflicted with HIV and cancer. This article is designed to give the readers a thorough review of the active natural products from the Rutaceae family.

  14. Essential Oils from the Malaysian Citrus (Rutaceae Medicinal Plants

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    Siti Nur Atiqah Md Othman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This review article appraises the extraction methods, compositions, and bioactivities of the essential oils from the Citrus species (family: Rutaceae endemic to Malaysia including C. aurantifolia, C. grandis, C. hystrix, and C. microcarpa. Generally, the fresh peels and leaves of the Citrus species were extracted using different methods such as steam and water distillation, Likens-Nikerson extraction, solvent extraction, and headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME. Most of the Citrus oils were found to be rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons with limonene (1 as the major component identified in the peels of C. aurantifolia (39.3%, C. grandis (81.6%–96.9%, and C. microcarpa (94.0%, while sabinene (19 was the major component in the peels of C. hystrix (36.4%–48.5%. In addition, citronellal (20 (61.7%–72.5%, linalool (18 (56.5%, and hedycaryol (23 (19.0% were identified as the major components in the oil of C. hystrix leaves, C. grandis blossom and C. microcarpa leaves, respectively. The C. hystrix essential oil has been experimentally shown to have antimicrobial and antifeedant activities, while no bioactivity study has been reported on the essential oils of other Malaysian Citrus species.

  15. Isoflavonoids in the Rutaceae family: 1. Fortunella obovata, Murraya paniculata and four Citrus species.

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    Lapcík, Oldrich; Klejdus, Borivoj; Davidová, Michaela; Kokoska, Ladislav; Kubán, Vlastimil; Moravcová, Jitka

    2004-01-01

    Several types of compounds with immunoreactivity similar to isoflavonoids were detected in water: ethanol extracts of leaves of Fortunella obovata Hort. ex Tanaka, Murraya paniculata Jack. and four Citrus species, namely C. aurantium L, C. grandis Osbeck, C. limonia Osbeck., and C. sinensis Osbeck (Rutaceae). The chromatographic mobilities of the immunoreactive substances were compared with those of authentic standards, revealing a spectrum of isoflavonoid metabolites in all plants studied. Aglycones as well as glycosides were recognized, namely daidzin, genistin, daidzein, genistein, formononetin, biochanin A, prunetin, and several incompletely characterized isoflavonoids. A subsequent HPLC-MS study verified the identities of the main immunoreactive isoflavonoids and established the identities of several others, viz. glycitein, glycitin, ononin and sissotrin, including the malonylated and acetylated isoflavonoid glucosides. The estimated content of the individual immunoreactive entities ranged from a few microg to about 2 mg/kg (dry weight). It is concluded that the isoflavonoid metabolic pathway is present throughout the Rutaceae family.

  16. Chemical constituents of the stems of Spathelia excelsa (rutaceae) and activity against Aedes aegypti; Constituintes quimicos do caule de Spathelia excelsa (rutaceae) e atividade contra Aedes aegypti

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    Freitas, Aline Carvalho de; Lima, Maria da Paz [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Produtos Naturais], e-mail: mdapaz@inpa.gov.br; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Pinto, Ana Cristina da Silva [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Lab. de Vetores de Malaria e Dengue

    2009-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation from the stems of Spathelia excelsa (Rutaceae) collected in Amazonas yielded deacetylspathelin (1), 7,8-dimethoxyflindersine (2), new glabretal-type triterpenoid 3{beta}-angeloyl-21,24-epoxy-7{alpha}, 21{alpha}, 23{alpha}, 25-tetrahydroxy-4{alpha}, 4{beta}, 8{beta}, 10{beta}-tetramethyl-25-dimethyl-14,18-cyclo-5{alpha}, 13{alpha}, 14{alpha}, 17{alpha}-cholestane (3), in addition to the known steroids s-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Their structures were established on the basis of spectral data. The compounds 1 and 3 were assayed on Aedes aegypti (larvicidal and adulticidal activities and compound 3 exhibited larvicidal properties with LC{sub 50} of 4,8 {mu}g/mL. (author)

  17. A New Cycloheptapeptide from Zanthoxylum mezoneurispinosum Aké Assi (Rutaceae

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    Philomène A. Yao-Kouassi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A new cycloheptapeptide named akeassimezorine 1 and twelve known compounds: methoxy-chelerythrine 2, chelerythrine 3, nitidine 4, methoxyfagaridine 5, jatrorrhizine 6, tembetarine 7, N-methylatanine 8, magnoflorine 9, skimmianine 10, sesamine 11, hesperidine 12, and lupeol 13 were isolated from the roots of Zanthoxylum mezoneurispinosum Aké Assi (Rutaceae. The structures of those compounds were elucidated on the basis of one- and two-dimensional NMR and HR-ESI-MS analyses. Antibacterial activity of compound 1 was evaluated against pathogenic agents. This study constituted the first phytochemical investigation of the roots of Zanthoxylum mezoneurispinosum.

  18. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of roots of Murraya koenigii (Linn. Spreng. (Rutaceae

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    Manisha Vats

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Murraya koenigii, family Rutaceae, commonly known as Curry leaf plant is a highly valued plant for its medicinal value and characteristic aroma. The plant is a rich source of carbazole alkaloids. The petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of roots of the plant were screened for phytochemical properties and antimicrobial activity for Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, steroids and flavonoids in the root extracts of the plant. The study shows that all the extracts possess remarkable antibacterial activity. Additionally, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts also had antifungal activity.

  19. Ecophysiological and anatomical characteristics of the subtropical shrub Zanthoxylum acanthopodium (Rutaceae) in conditions of a temperate continental climate (Serbia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakic, Tamara; Sinzar-Sekulic, Jasmina; Filipovic, Biljana

    2009-01-01

    The evergreen shrub Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC. (Rutaceae), originating from warm temperate and subtropical Asia, has existed successfully in the Jevremovac Botanical Garden in Belgrade for more than 80 years. The seasonal pattern of water management in leaves, electrolyte leakage, essential oil...

  20. Development and characterization of microsatellite primers for Zanthoxylum schinifolium (Rutaceae)1

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    Kim, Young Mi; Jo, Aruna; Jeong, Ji Hee; Kwon, Yong Rak; Kim, Ho Bang

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Polymorphic microsatellite markers of Zanthoxylum schinifolium (Rutaceae), a promising medicinal plant with effective antibacterial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory compounds, were developed and evaluated for further genetic studies based on genetic variation among individuals or populations. Methods and Results: Following the selective hybridization method, microsatellite-enrichment libraries were constructed. Using these libraries, we obtained 15 polymorphic and three monomorphic microsatellite markers for Z. schinifolium. The number of alleles observed in each of the 15 polymorphic loci ranged from two to eight, and the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.070 to 0.677 and from 0.093 to 0.688, respectively. Eleven of these developed markers were successfully amplified for Z. piperitum, a related species. Conclusions: These microsatellite markers can be valuable tools for further genetic studies of Z. schinifolium, such as genetic resource conservation for maintaining breeding material and individual identification for breeding program improvement and variety management. PMID:28791203

  1. Chemical constituents of the stems of Spathelia excelsa (rutaceae) and activity against Aedes aegypti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Aline Carvalho de; Lima, Maria da Paz; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Pinto, Ana Cristina da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation from the stems of Spathelia excelsa (Rutaceae) collected in Amazonas yielded deacetylspathelin (1), 7,8-dimethoxyflindersine (2), new glabretal-type triterpenoid 3β-angeloyl-21,24-epoxy-7α, 21α, 23α, 25-tetrahydroxy-4α, 4β, 8β, 10β-tetramethyl-25-dimethyl-14,18-cyclo-5α, 13α, 14α, 17α-cholestane (3), in addition to the known steroids s-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Their structures were established on the basis of spectral data. The compounds 1 and 3 were assayed on Aedes aegypti (larvicidal and adulticidal activities and compound 3 exhibited larvicidal properties with LC 50 of 4,8 μg/mL. (author)

  2. Insulin secretagogue bioactivity of finger citron fruit (Citrus medica L. var. Sarcodactylis Hort, Rutaceae).

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    Peng, Chiung-Huei; Ker, Yaw-Bee; Weng, Ching-Feng; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Huang, Chien-Ning; Lin, Li-Yun; Peng, Robert Y

    2009-10-14

    Finger citron [Citrus medica L. var. Sarcodactylis Hort, Rutaceae] (FC) fruits, widely cultivated in Japan, the southern provinces of China and Taiwan, are commonly used as functional vegetables and preserved as sweetmeats. Previously we identified the major compounds in essential oils (% in EO) of FC fruits to be d-limonene (51.24), gamma-terpenene (33.71), alpha-pinene (3.40), and beta-pinene (2.88). Documented evidence on its insulin secretion characteristics is still lacking. In parallel to compositional analysis, we performed in vivo the safety, hypoglycemic, and antidiabetic tests in Sprague-Dawley-SPF rats and Wistar DIO rats respectively. By kinetic analysis on the hypoglycemic patterns of the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance (IPGTT) and the insulin-glucose tolerance tests (IGTT), its insulin secretagogue effect was confirmed. In conclusion, FC fruits that concomitantly possess insulin secretagogue and slimming effects would be very beneficial to type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  3. A molecular phylogeny of the orange subfamily(Rutaceae: Aurantioideae) using nine cpDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Randall J; Mabberley, David J; Morton, Cynthia; Miller, Cathy H; Sharma, Ish K; Pfeil, Bernard E; Rich, Sarah; Hitchcock, Roberta; Sykes, Steve

    2009-03-01

    The breeding of new, high-quality citrus cultivars depends on dependable information about the relationships of taxa within the tribe Citreae; therefore, it is important to have a well-supported phylogeny of the relationships between species not only to advance breeding strategies, but also to advance conservation strategies for the wild taxa. The recent history of the systematics of Citrus (Rutaceae: Aurantioideae) and its allies, in the context of Rutaceae taxonomy as a whole, is reviewed. The most recent classification is tested using nine cpDNA sequence regions in representatives of all genera of the subfam. Aurantioideae (save Limnocitrus) and numerous species and hybrids referred to Citrus s.l. Aurantioideae are confirmed as monophyletic. Within Aurantioideae, tribe Clauseneae are not monophyletic unless Murraya s.s. and Merrillia are removed to Aurantieae. Within tribe Aurantieae, the three traditionally recognized subtribes are not monophyletic. Triphasiinae is not monophyletic unless Oxanthera is returned to Citrus (Citrinae). Balsamocitrinae is polyphyletic. Feroniella, traditionally considered allied closely to Limonia (=Feronia), is shown to be nested in Citrus. The proposed congenericity of Severinia and Atalantia is confirmed. The most recent circumscription of Citrus is strongly supported by this analysis, with hybrids appearing with their putative maternal parents. The genus was resolved into two clades, one comprising wild species from New Guinea, Australia, and New Caledonia (formerly Clymenia, Eremocitrus, Microcitrus, Oxanthera), but surprisingly also Citrus medica, traditionally believed to be native in India. The second clade is largely from the Asian mainland (including species formerly referred to Fortunella and Poncirus).

  4. Major clades of Australasian Rutoideae (Rutaceae) based on rbcL and atpB sequences.

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    Bayly, Michael J; Holmes, Gareth D; Forster, Paul I; Cantrill, David J; Ladiges, Pauline Y

    2013-01-01

    Rutaceae subfamily Rutoideae (46 genera, c. 660 species) is diverse in both rainforests and sclerophyll vegetation of Australasia. Australia and New Caledonia are centres of endemism with a number of genera and species distributed disjunctly between the two regions. Our aim was to generate a high-level molecular phylogeny for the Australasian Rutoideae and identify major clades as a framework for assessing morphological and biogeographic patterns and taxonomy. Phylogenetic analyses were based on chloroplast genes, rbcL and atpB, for 108 samples (78 new here), including 38 of 46 Australasian genera. Results were integrated with those from other molecular studies to produce a supertree for Rutaceae worldwide, including 115 of 154 genera. Australasian clades are poorly matched with existing tribal classifications, and genera Philotheca and Boronia are not monophyletic. Major sclerophyll lineages in Australia belong to two separate clades, each with an early divergence between rainforest and sclerophyll taxa. Dehiscent fruits with seeds ejected at maturity (often associated with myrmecochory) are inferred as ancestral; derived states include woody capsules with winged seeds, samaras, fleshy drupes, and retention and display of seeds in dehisced fruits (the last two states adaptations to bird dispersal, with multiple origins among rainforest genera). Patterns of relationship and levels of sequence divergence in some taxa, mostly species, with bird-dispersed (Acronychia, Sarcomelicope, Halfordia and Melicope) or winged (Flindersia) seeds are consistent with recent long-distance dispersal between Australia and New Caledonia. Other deeper Australian/New Caledonian divergences, some involving ant-dispersed taxa (e.g., Neoschmidia), suggest older vicariance. This comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the Australasian Rutoideae gives a broad overview of the group's evolutionary and biogeographic history. Deficiencies of infrafamilial classifications of Rutoideae have long been

  5. Identification of Endophytic Fungi of Medicinal Herbs of Lauraceae and Rutaceae with Antimicrobial Property

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    Min-Yuan Ho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine taxonomical features and antimicrobial activities of 156 isolates of endophytic fungi collected from twigs of medicinal plants of Lauraceae (67 isolates and Rutaceae (89 isolates in central and northern Taiwan. The 156 isolates of fungi were classified into 35 genera in 19 families based on morphological characteristics of mycelia and asexual/sexual spores, as well as molecular phylogenetic analysis of rDNA LSU D1/D2 and ITS regions. The most common endophytes were in the taxa of Colletotrichum, Guignardia, Hypoxylon, Nigrospora, Phomopsis and Xylaria, and the most common hosts were Citrus and Zanthoxylum of Rutaceae and Cinnamomum of Lauraceae. Molecular phylogenetic analysis showed that xylariaceous isolates could be separated into Xylaria and Hypoxylon groups based on rDNA of LSU D1/D2 and ITS regions. Four isolates of endophytic fungi including Lasmenia sp. isolate CB10, Ophioceras tenuisporum isolate CI02, Xylaria cubensis isolate LA04 and Cyanodermella sp. isolate TR09 were tested for antimicrobial activities using a dual culture method and Lasmenia sp. isolate CB10 and Cyanodermella sp. isolate TR09 showed better antimicrobial activity against 12 plant pathogens including 9 fungi and 3 bacteria. Spraying Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa plants with culture filtrates of the endophytic fungus Lasmenia sp. isolate CB10 significantly reduced severity of anthracnose of Chinese cabbage caused by Colletotrichum higginsianum under greenhouse conditions. This study suggests that the Lasmenia sp. isolate CB10 may be of potential for management of anthracnose of Chinese cabbage.

  6. Inhibitory effects of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) against the infection and infectivity of macrophages by Leishmania amazonensis

    OpenAIRE

    MELO NETO, BERNARDO; LEITÃO, JOSEANA M.S.R.; OLIVEIRA, LUCIANO G.C.; SANTOS, SÉRGIO E.M.; CARNEIRO, SABRINA M.P.; RODRIGUES, KLINGER A.F.; CHAVES, MARIANA H.; ARCANJO, DANIEL D.R.; CARVALHO, FERNANDO A.A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) has been traditionally used in the treatment of microbial infections and parasitic diseases. In the present study, the antileishmanial effect induced by the ethanol extract of stem barks from Z. rhoifolium (ZR-EEtOH) and its n-hexane fraction (ZR-FHEX) on infection and infectivity of murine macrophages by promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were investigated. In different set of experiments, macrophages or promastigotes were pretreated ...

  7. Ecophysiological and anatomical characteristics of the subtropical shrub Zanthoxylum acanthopodium (Rutaceae in conditions of a temperate continental climate (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Tamara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The evergreen shrub Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC. (Rutaceae, originating from warm temperate and subtropical Asia, has existed successfully in the Jevremovac Botanical Garden in Belgrade for more than 80 years. The seasonal pattern of water management in leaves, electrolyte leakage, essential oil composition, and leaf anatomy were examined in order to understand the resistance and viability of this subtropical shrub in the temperate continental climate of Belgrade, Serbia.

  8. Binding of an anticancer Rutaceae plant flavonoid glycoside with calf thymus DNA: Biophysical and electrochemical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishnan, Sandhya; Jaldappagari, Seetharamappa, E-mail: jseetharam@yahoo.com

    2013-10-15

    In the present work, we report the interaction of a bioactive Rutaceae plant flavonoid glycoside, diosmin (DIO) with calf thymus DNA employing ethidium bromide as a fluorescence probe. The mode of binding between DIO and DNA was investigated by UV absorption, fluorescence, 3D-fluorescence, fluorescence polarization, FT-IR, circular dichroism, melting temperature (T{sub m}) measurements and differential pulse voltammogram studies. The results revealed the intercalative mode of binding between DIO and DNA. Further, the values of thermodynamic parameters, ∆H° (−388.32 kJ mol{sup −1}) and ∆S° (−1.22 kJ mol{sup −1} K{sup −1}) indicated that the van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond played a major role in the binding of DIO to DNA. The observed negative ∆G° values revealed the spontaneity of interaction process. The binding of DIO to DNA–EB was found to be stronger in the presence of coexisting substances. -- Highlights: • Mechanism of interaction of diosmin with DNA was studied by spectroscopic methods. • Ethidium bromide was used as a fluorescence probe in the present study. • The van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond played a significant role in the interaction. • Intercalative mode of binding was proposed between DIO and DNA.

  9. Subchronic toxicity of Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae) extract and p-synephrine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbo, Marcelo Dutra; Schmitt, Gabriela Cristina; Limberger, Mariana Fagundes; Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Moro, Angela Maria; Ribeiro, Gianine Lima; Dallegrave, Eliane; Garcia, Solange Cristina; Leal, Mirna Bainy; Limberger, Renata Pereira

    2009-07-01

    Extracts of Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae) unripe fruits have gained popularity for the treatment of obesity. Due to the wide use of C. aurantium/p-synephrine-containing products, this research was undertaken to evaluate its subchronic toxicity in mice and their actions in oxidative stress biomarkers. Groups of 9-10 mice received for 28 consecutive days a commercial C. aurantium dried extract (containing 7.5% p-synephrine) 400, 2000 or 4000 mg/kg and p-synephrine 30 or 300 mg/kg by oral gavage. There was a reduction in body weight gain of animals treated with both doses of p-synephrine. Organs relative weight, biochemical and hematological parameters were not altered in all treated mice. There was an increase in reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration in groups treated with C. aurantium 4000 mg/kg and p-synephrine 30 and 300 mg/kg. In glutathione peroxidase (GPx), there were an inhibition of the activity in C. aurantium 400 and 2000 mg/kg and p-synephrine 30 and 300 mg/kg treated animals, respectively, and was no alteration in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Thus, the results indicate a low subchronic toxicity of the tested materials in mice and a possible alteration in the oxidative metabolism. However, further tests are required to better elucidate the effects of these compounds in the antioxidant system.

  10. Estudo quimiossistemático de espécies de Hortia (Rutaceae) e busca de fungicidas à Guignardia citricarpa

    OpenAIRE

    Samya Danielle Lima de Freitas

    2010-01-01

    A classificação do gênero Hortia dentro da família Rutaceae é duvidosa. Hortia, que já foi posicionada em Cusparieae por De Candolle em 1824, na mais recente classificação morfológica de Engler em 1931 pertence a Toddalieae. Mais recentemente da Silva e colaboradores voltam a propor Hortia em Cusparieae. Contudo, o estudo fitoquímico das espécies do gênero Hortia ainda não permitem classificá-la corretamente dentro da família. Desta forma, o estudo fitoquímico de Hortia descrito neste trabalh...

  11. Caracterización agronómica una accesión de Swinglea glutinosa (Blanco) Merr, (Rutaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Jiménez Villasuso; Fressy Pérez Campo; Marta Rosa Hernández Zaldívar; Víctor Ramón Fuentes Fiallo; Josefa Bárbara Velazquez Palenzuela

    2015-01-01

    RESUMEN La familia Rutaceae abarca un gran número de géneros y especies. De ellos, Citrus, Poncirus y Fortunella son los géneros más explotados comercialmente a nivel mundial, sin embargo, hay otros menos abordados, como el género Swinglea que posee una sola especie: S. glutinosa (Blanco) Merr. Con el objetivo de caracterizar desde el punto de vista agronómico esta especie por su de importancia como recurso genético y posterior utilización como patrón en la producción citrícola. Se evalua...

  12. Activities of extracts and compounds from Spiranthera odoratissima St. Hil. (Rutaceae) in leaf-cutting ants and their symbiotic fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terezan, Ana Paula; Fernandes, Joao B.; Silva, M. Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Vieira, Paulo C. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Rossi, Raquel Andrade; Almeida, Roberta N.A.; Freitas, Tais Garcia; Bueno, Odair C.; Pagnocca, Fernando C. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos de Insetos Sociais; Pirani, Jose R., E-mail: djbf@power.ufscar.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Botanica

    2010-07-01

    The study of the Spiranthera odoratissima St. Hil (Rutaceae) branches extracts led to the isolation of the furoquinoline (dictamine, gamma-fagarine and skimmianine) and 2-arylquinoli-4-one (1-methyl-2-phenylquinoline-4-one) alkaloids and limonoids (limonexic acid and limonin). The compounds 1-methyl-2-phenylquinoline-4-one and limonexic acid were isolated for the first time from the Spiranthera. These furoquinoline and 2-arylquinoli-4-one alkaloids and limonoids showed insecticidal and/or fungicidal activity in the nest of the Atta sexdens rubropilosa. (author)

  13. A six nuclear gene phylogeny of Citrus (Rutaceae taking into account hybridization and lineage sorting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrika Ramadugu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genus Citrus (Rutaceae comprises many important cultivated species that generally hybridize easily. Phylogenetic study of a group showing extensive hybridization is challenging. Since the genus Citrus has diverged recently (4-12 Ma, incomplete lineage sorting of ancestral polymorphisms is also likely to cause discrepancies among genes in phylogenetic inferences. Incongruence of gene trees is observed and it is essential to unravel the processes that cause inconsistencies in order to understand the phylogenetic relationships among the species. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: (1 We generated phylogenetic trees using haplotype sequences of six low copy nuclear genes. (2 Published simple sequence repeat data were re-analyzed to study population structure and the results were compared with the phylogenetic trees constructed using sequence data and coalescence simulations. (3 To distinguish between hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting, we developed and utilized a coalescence simulation approach. In other studies, species trees have been inferred despite the possibility of hybridization having occurred and used to generate null distributions of the effect of lineage sorting alone (by coalescent simulation. Since this is problematic, we instead generate these distributions directly from observed gene trees. Of the six trees generated, we used the most resolved three to detect hybrids. We found that 11 of 33 samples appear to be affected by historical hybridization. Analysis of the remaining three genes supported the conclusions from the hybrid detection test. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified or confirmed probable hybrid origins for several Citrus cultivars using three different approaches-gene phylogenies, population structure analysis and coalescence simulation. Hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting were identified primarily based on differences among gene phylogenies with reference to null expectations via coalescence

  14. Ecophysiological and anatomical characteristics of the subtropical shrub Zanthoxylum acanthopodium (Rutaceae) in conditions of a temperate continental climate (Serbia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakic, Tamara; Sinzar-Sekulic, Jasmina; Filipovic, Biljana

    2009-01-01

    The evergreen shrub Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC. (Rutaceae), originating from warm temperate and subtropical Asia, has existed successfully in the Jevremovac Botanical Garden in Belgrade for more than 80 years. The seasonal pattern of water management in leaves, electrolyte leakage, essential oil...

  15. Anatomia do lenho de Raulinoa echinata R.S.Cowan (Rutaceae uma espécie endêmica. Wood anatomy of Raulinoa echinata R.S.Cowan (Rutaceae an endemic species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Antonio DAROSCI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A anatomia vegetal é útil para a caracterização das espécies e do ambiente em que estas vivem. Muitas espécies respondem a algumas características ambientais com alterações na anatomia do lenho, por exemplo, na quantidade de vasos e raios, o que contribui para a sobrevivência no ambiente. Outras respostas anatômicas do lenho, devido às condições fisiológicas-estruturais presentes em diferentes regiões do caule, também são comuns. O presente estudo analisou a anatomia do lenho de Raulinoa echinata, espécie endêmica da mata ciliar do Vale do Itajaí, a fim de buscar alterações do lenho em resposta a algumas características ambientais, além daquelas provocadas pelas diferentes regiões do caule. Para tanto, amostras do lenho foram coletadas em duas regiões: próxima do solo e à altura do peito (1,30 m. Possíveis respostas de R. echinata ao ambiente ripário foram observadas no comprimento e na frequência das fibras, na largura dos raios e no comprimento e na frequência total de vasos, com diferenças significativas, entre as duas regiões, apenas em características quantitativas. A espécie apresentou, ainda, vasos múltiplos tangenciais e em cacho, características até então não descritas para Rutaceae. Não foram vistos na espécie canais traumáticos, característica comum para Rutaceae. Plant anatomy is useful for the characterization of species and their associated environment. Many species, because of habitat features, can show anatomical alterations of wood that permit their survival in the environment, quantity of vessels and rays, for example. Other anatomical alterations caused by structural-physiological conditions present in different regions of the stem are also common. In this study, the anatomy of Raulinoa echinata wood, an endemic riparian forest species of Itajaí Valley, was analyzed in order to identify alterations in wood because of specific habitat features, as well as adaptations in different

  16. Caracterización agronómica de una accesión de Swinglea glutinosa (Blanco Merr, (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael jiménez Villasuso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La familia Rutaceae abarca un gran número de géneros y especies. De ellos, Citrus, Poncirus y Fortunella son los géneros más explotados comercialmente a nivel mundial, sin embargo, hay otros menos abordados, como el género Swinglea que posee una sola especie: S. glutinosa (Blanco Merr. Con el objetivo de caracterizar desde el punto de vista agronómico esta especie por su de importancia como recurso genético y posterior utilización como patrón en la producción citrícola. Se evaluaron las características físico-químicas de los frutos. Para ello se analizaron las variables: masa, diámetro y altura del fruto, número y masa de las semillas, sólidos solubles totales, acidez, índice de madurez, contenido de vitamina C y algunos caracteres cualitativos de la morfología del árbol como: estructura del árbol, formas del fruto, de las hojas y la semilla. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que es un árbol rustico, adaptándose bien a nuestras condiciones, además presenta un alto número de semillas por fruto. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que es un árbol rustico, adaptándose bien a nuestras condiciones, además presenta un alto número de semillas por fruto, lo cual es de gran importancia a la hora de seleccionar un patrón para su introducción a la práctica productiva. Agronomic characterization of an accession of Swinglea glutinosa (Blanco Merr, (Rutaceae

  17. Antinociceptive effect of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) in models of acute pain in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, S S; Lopes, L S; Marques, R B; Figueiredo, K A; Costa, D A; Chaves, M H; Almeida, F R C

    2010-05-27

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) is locally known as "mamica de cadela", and its bark is popularly used for toothache and earache. The objective of this study was to investigate the antinociceptive effect of the ethanolic extract from this species' stem bark (EtOH), its fractions of partition (hexane-HEX, ethyl acetate-AcOEt, aqueous-AQ) and lupeol (a triterpene obtained from HEX) in models of acute pain. Male and female Swiss mice (25-35 g, n=6-12 animals/group) were used to assess acute toxicity and nociception (Animal Ethics Committee/UFPI, No. 09/2008). Acute toxicity was studied up to 2 g/kg p.o. of EtOH. In the formalin test (2%, 20 microL/paw), the licking time of the stimulated paw was quantified during the first 5 min (first phase) and at 15-30 min (second phase), 1h after oral treatment with EtOH, HEX, AcOEt or saline, and 30 min after use of morphine-MOR (5 mg/kg i.p.). The same response evoked by capsaicin (2 microg/20 microL/paw) was quantified during 5 min, after administration of EtOH, HEX, AcOEt, AQ, saline and MOR. The licking time of the paw that was stimulated with glutamate (10 micromol/20 microL) was measured (15 min) after treatment with EtOH, HEX, AcOEt, AQ, lupeol, saline or MK801 (0.03 mg/kg, i.p.). Mice were submitted to the rota-rod task and open-field test in order to assess any non-specific muscle-relaxant or sedative effects of EtOH (250 mg/kg p.o.) and HEX (500 mg/kg p.o.). The animals did not exhibit any acute toxicity to EtOH (up to 2 g/kg p.o.), so it was not possible to calculate the LD50. EtOH, HEX and AcOEt (62.5-250 mg/kg) produced a significant antinociceptive effect in the formalin and capsaicin tests. However, AQ was ineffective. EtOH, HEX, AcOEt and lupeol reduced the glutamate-evoked nociceptive response, but AQ had no effect. EtOH and HEX did not alter the locomotion of animals in the open-field or rota-rod tests, which suggest a lack of a central depressant effect. The results confirm the popular use of Zanthoxylum

  18. Caracterización agronómica una accesión de Swinglea glutinosa (Blanco Merr, (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Jiménez Villasuso

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La familia Rutaceae abarca un gran número de géneros y especies. De ellos, Citrus, Poncirus y Fortunella son los géneros más explotados comercialmente a nivel mundial, sin embargo, hay otros menos abordados, como el género Swinglea que posee una sola especie: S. glutinosa (Blanco Merr. Con el objetivo de caracterizar desde el punto de vista agronómico esta especie por su de importancia como recurso genético y posterior utilización como patrón en la producción citrícola. Se evaluaron las características físico-químicas de los frutos. Para ello se analizaron las variables: masa, diámetro y altura del fruto, número y masa de las semillas, sólidos solubles totales, acidez, índice de madurez, contenido de vitamina C y algunos caracteres cualitativos de la morfología del árbol como: estructura del árbol, formas del fruto, de las hojas y la semilla. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que es un árbol rustico, adaptándose bien a nuestras condiciones, además presenta un alto número de semillas por fruto. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que es un árbol rustico, adaptándose bien a nuestras condiciones, además presenta un alto número de semillas por fruto, lo cual es de gran importancia a la hora de seleccionar un patrón para su introducción a la práctica productiva. Agronomic characterization of an accession of Swinglea glutinosa (Blanco Merr, (Rutaceae ABSTRACT The Rutaceae family includes a large number of genera and species. Of these, Citrus, Poncirus and Fortunella are the genres most worldwide exploited commercially, but there are other less discussed, such as gender Swinglea having a single species: S. glutinosa (Blanco Merr. In order to characterize from an agricultural point of view this kind of importance as their genetic resource and subsequent use as a standard in citrus production. The physicochemical characteristics of the fruits were evaluated. mass, diameter and height of fruit number and seed mass

  19. Inhibitory effects of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae against the infection and infectivity of macrophages by Leishmania amazonensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERNARDO MELO NETO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae has been traditionally used in the treatment of microbial infections and parasitic diseases. In the present study, the antileishmanial effect induced by the ethanol extract of stem barks from Z. rhoifolium (ZR-EEtOH and its n-hexane fraction (ZR-FHEX on infection and infectivity of murine macrophages by promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were investigated. In different set of experiments, macrophages or promastigotes were pretreated with ZR-EEtOH or ZR-FHEX at non-lethal concentrations for 24 hours, and then macrophages were submitted to infection by promastigotes. Moreover, their effects on activation of macrophages, as well as on the DNA content, size and number of promastigotes by flow cytometry were also evaluated. The infection rate and the number of internalized amastigote forms were markedly decreased after pretreatment of macrophages or promastigotes when compared with non-treated cells. The increase in phagocytic capability and nitrite content was also observed. Furthermore, the decrease of DNA content, size and number of promastigotes was also observed. In conclusion, ZR-EEtOH and ZR-FHEX promoted a markedly significant antileishmanial effect and reduction of infection of macrophages, probably underlying defense mechanisms activation in macrophages. These findings reinforce the potential application of Z. rhoifolium in the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  20. Inhibitory effects of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) against the infection and infectivity of macrophages by Leishmania amazonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Bernardo; Leitão, Joseana M S R; Oliveira, Luciano G C; Santos, Sérgio E M; Carneiro, Sabrina M P; Rodrigues, Klinger A F; Chaves, Mariana H; Arcanjo, Daniel D R; Carvalho, Fernando A A

    2016-01-01

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) has been traditionally used in the treatment of microbial infections and parasitic diseases. In the present study, the antileishmanial effect induced by the ethanol extract of stem barks from Z. rhoifolium (ZR-EEtOH) and its n-hexane fraction (ZR-FHEX) on infection and infectivity of murine macrophages by promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were investigated. In different set of experiments, macrophages or promastigotes were pretreated with ZR-EEtOH or ZR-FHEX at non-lethal concentrations for 24 hours, and then macrophages were submitted to infection by promastigotes. Moreover, their effects on activation of macrophages, as well as on the DNA content, size and number of promastigotes by flow cytometry were also evaluated. The infection rate and the number of internalized amastigote forms were markedly decreased after pretreatment of macrophages or promastigotes when compared with non-treated cells. The increase in phagocytic capability and nitrite content was also observed. Furthermore, the decrease of DNA content, size and number of promastigotes was also observed. In conclusion, ZR-EEtOH and ZR-FHEX promoted a markedly significant antileishmanial effect and reduction of infection of macrophages, probably underlying defense mechanisms activation in macrophages. These findings reinforce the potential application of Z. rhoifolium in the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  1. Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. (Rutaceae: A Systematic Review of Its Traditional Uses, Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics, and Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. (Rutaceae is a popular food additive and traditional Chinese herbal medicine commonly named HuaJiao in China. This plant is widely distributed in Asian countries. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review on the traditional usages, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology of this plant. Furthermore, the possible development and perspectives for future research on this plant are also discussed. To date, over 140 compounds have been isolated and identified from Z. bungeanum, including alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, and free fatty acids. The extracts and compounds have been shown to possess wide-ranging biological activity, such as anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, antioxidant and anti-tumor effects, antibacterial and antifungal effects, as well as regulatory effects on the gastrointestinal system and nervous system, and other effects. As a traditional herbal medicine, Z. bungeanum has been widely used to treat many diseases, especially digestive disorders, toothache, stomach ache, and diarrhea. Many traditional usages of this plant have been validated by present investigations. However, further research elucidating the structure-function relationship among chemical compounds, understanding the mechanism of unique sensation, as well as exploring new clinical effects and establishing criteria for quality control for Z. bungeanum should be further studied.

  2. Effect of irrigation and fertilization on crop yield and fruit quality of the Tahiti lime Citrus latifolia Tanaka (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Dorado Guerra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a seven years old citrus grove of Tahiti lime Citrus latifolia Tanaka (Rutaceae located in El Espinal, Tolima, Colombia, which has a predominantly negative water balance throughout the year, we evaluated the effect of irrigation and fertilization on yield and fruit quality in 2009 and 2011. Trees were subjected to three levels of water based on the evapotranspiration reference (ETo: L1=100 %, L2=70 % and L3=50 %. We applied three nitrogen treatments: N1=nitrogen required by the nutritional balance, N2=twice the level of nitrogen used in N1, and N3=fertilizer application used by the common farmer. We evaluated the performance, fruit weight, polar and equatorial diameter of fruit, shell thickness, weight and percentage of juice, acidity, soluble solids and vitamin C. The experiment was conducted under a randomized complete block design in a split plot arrangement; the variance and means of the data were statistically analyzed with SAS. And optimal response is between irrigation and fruit quality interaction was obtained with irrigation L1 and fertilization N2. We obtained the highest values in the response variables when the highest amount of water was applied L1, regardless of fertilizer applications, indicating that a lower water supply not only affects the performance of the plant, but also the quality of the fruit, minimizing market opportunities.

  3. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de duas espécies de Rutaceae do Nordeste Brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinara V. da Silva

    Full Text Available Com o aumento da resistência bacteriana aos antibióticos disponíveis, tornou-se imprescindível a busca por novos fármacos ou protótipos. Os metabólitos secundários produzidos por alguns vegetais como cumarinas, alcaloides e terpenoides podem apresentar várias atividades biológicas, dentre elas, atividade antibiótiotica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana in vitro, pelo método de difusão em disco, das diferentes partes de duas espécies pertencentes à família Rutaceae coletadas na Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brasil: Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil. e Zanthoxylum stelligerum Turcz., bem como do alcaloide diidroqueleritrina, isolado do extrato metanólico de Z. stelligerum frente a cepas padrão de microrganismos e isolados clínicos. Os resultados apresentados indicam que o extrato da raiz da espécie Z. stelligerum e o alcaloide extraído desta apresentaram propriedades antimicrobianas contra as cepas Gram positivas e leveduras. A E. coli foi a única cepa Gram negativa que se mostrou sensível ao extrato e ao alcaloide.

  4. Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. (Rutaceae): A Systematic Review of Its Traditional Uses, Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics, and Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengmeng; Wang, Jiaolong; Zhu, Lei; Li, Tao; Jiang, Weidong; Zhou, Juan; Peng, Wei; Wu, Chunjie

    2017-01-01

    Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. (Rutaceae) is a popular food additive and traditional Chinese herbal medicine commonly named HuaJiao in China. This plant is widely distributed in Asian countries. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review on the traditional usages, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology of this plant. Furthermore, the possible development and perspectives for future research on this plant are also discussed. To date, over 140 compounds have been isolated and identified from Z. bungeanum, including alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, and free fatty acids. The extracts and compounds have been shown to possess wide-ranging biological activity, such as anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, antioxidant and anti-tumor effects, antibacterial and antifungal effects, as well as regulatory effects on the gastrointestinal system and nervous system, and other effects. As a traditional herbal medicine, Z. bungeanum has been widely used to treat many diseases, especially digestive disorders, toothache, stomach ache, and diarrhea. Many traditional usages of this plant have been validated by present investigations. However, further research elucidating the structure-function relationship among chemical compounds, understanding the mechanism of unique sensation, as well as exploring new clinical effects and establishing criteria for quality control for Z. bungeanum should be further studied. PMID:29057808

  5. Pharmacognostic study and development of quality control parameters for fruit, bark and leaf of Zanthoxylum armatum (Rutaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Fiaz; Us Saqib, Qazi Najam

    2015-01-01

    Context: Zanthoxylum armatum (Rutaceae) fruit, bark and leaves are used for various conditions of ailments in traditional systems of medicine since ancient times. Aims: This study is designed to lay down the various pharmacognostic and phytochemical standards which will be helpful to ensure the purity, safety, and efficacy of this medicinal plant. Materials and Methods: Various methods including macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, and phytochemical methods were applied to determine the diagnostic features for the identification and standardization of intact and powdered drug of Z. armatum leaf, fruit, and bark. Results: The shape, size, color, odor, surface characteristics were determined for the intact drug and powdered materials of leaf, bark and fruit of Z. armatum. Light and electron microscope images of cross-section of leaf and powdered microscopy revealed useful diagnostic features. Histochemical, phytochemical, physicochemical including fluorescence analysis of powdered drug proved useful to differentiate the powdered drug material. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed the presence of important phytoconstituents such as gallic acid and rutin. Conclusion: The data generated from this study would be of help in the authentication of various parts of Z. armatum, an important constituent of various herbal drug formulations. The qualitative and quantitative microscopic features would prove useful for laying down pharmacopoeial standards. Morphology as well as various pharmacognostic aspects of different parts of the plant were studied and have been described here along with phytochemical, physicochemical studies, which will help in authentication and quality control. PMID:26120229

  6. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Enciso, N A; Coy-Barrera, E D; Patiño, O J; Cuca, L E; Delgado, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (≥2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  7. Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. (Rutaceae): A Systematic Review of Its Traditional Uses, Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics, and Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengmeng; Wang, Jiaolong; Zhu, Lei; Li, Tao; Jiang, Weidong; Zhou, Juan; Peng, Wei; Wu, Chunjie

    2017-10-18

    Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. (Rutaceae) is a popular food additive and traditional Chinese herbal medicine commonly named HuaJiao in China. This plant is widely distributed in Asian countries. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review on the traditional usages, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology of this plant. Furthermore, the possible development and perspectives for future research on this plant are also discussed. To date, over 140 compounds have been isolated and identified from Z. bungeanum , including alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, and free fatty acids. The extracts and compounds have been shown to possess wide-ranging biological activity, such as anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, antioxidant and anti-tumor effects, antibacterial and antifungal effects, as well as regulatory effects on the gastrointestinal system and nervous system, and other effects. As a traditional herbal medicine, Z. bungeanum has been widely used to treat many diseases, especially digestive disorders, toothache, stomach ache, and diarrhea. Many traditional usages of this plant have been validated by present investigations. However, further research elucidating the structure-function relationship among chemical compounds, understanding the mechanism of unique sensation, as well as exploring new clinical effects and establishing criteria for quality control for Z. bungeanum should be further studied.

  8. Extrativismo, cultivo e privatização do jaborandi (Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm.; Rutaceae no Maranhão, Brasil Extractivism, cultivation and privatization of jaborandi (Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm.; Rutaceae in Maranhão, Brazil

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    Claudio Urbano B. Pinheiro

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Um dos processos associados com a expansão de fronteiras em países em desenvolvimento consiste na privatização de recursos naturais, anteriormente de uso comum por populações tradicionais. Em geral, a privatização não só conduz à degradação dos recursos como também ao empobrecimento de comunidades locais dependentes desses recursos. Um exemplo desta transformação está no Estado do Maranhão, especialmente em uma região conhecida como "Pré-Amazônia", onde o jaborandi (Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm.; Rutaceae, um recurso natural que beneficiava milhares de pessoas da zona rural, foi gradativamente privatizado. A expansão do mercado de pilocarpina (um alcalóide de extenso uso em oftalmologia nos últimos 30 anos, provocou crescimento descontrolado no extrativismo de folhas de jaborandi, conduzindo ao esgotamento e à ameaça de extinção das populações naturais deste recurso vegetal. Paralelamente, esta pressão sobre as populações naturais acelerou o processo de domesticação desta espécie e a sua privatização pela indústria farmacêutica. Este estudo teve como objetivo principal avaliar a exploração e cultivo do jaborandi no Maranhão, buscando o esclarecimento sobre os benefícios e malefícios econômicos, sociais e ambientais decorrentes da sua exploração. Os resultados obtidos mostram que, historicamente, não houve nenhum benefício significativo compartilhado entre a indústria farmacêutica e as populações envolvidas no extrativismo do jaborandi no Maranhão.A process associated with frontier expansion in developing countries is the privatization of natural resources formerly held in common by traditional populations. An example of this transformation comes from Maranhão State, in a region of mid-northern Brazil known as "Pre-Amazônia" (Pre-Amazon, where jaborandi (Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm.; Rutaceae, a plant resource that used to benefit thousands of rural poor, is being

  9. Propiedades antibacterianas in vitro de metabolitos secundarios aislados de dos especies del género Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae Antibacterial properties in vitro of secondary metabolites isolated from two species of Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae genus

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    Oscar Javier Patiño Ladino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente las enfermedades infecciosas originadas por diferentes microorganismos, son una de las mayores causas de muerte a nivel mundial, razón por la que la búsqueda de nuevos agentes antimicrobianos se ha hecho indispensable, y los productos naturales han constituido una de las fuentes potenciales para encontrar compuestos antimicrobianos. Las especies del género Zanthoxylum se caracterizan por presentar diversos tipos de metabolitos secundarios, muchos de los cuales han mostrado interesantes propiedades biológicas contra diversos microorganismos patógenos humanos. El objetivo de esta investigación consistió en evaluar la actividad antibacteriana de 21 sustancias aisladas de 2 especies del género Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae. La actividad fue determinada por el método de difusión radial en agar contra cepas de bacterias estándar grampositivas: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 y Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 y gramnegativas: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 y Salmonella tiphymurium, cepas ATCC 14028s y MS7953. De las 21 sustancias naturales evaluadas, 11 causaron algún grado de inhibición del crecimiento bacteriano. El alcaloide benzofenantridínico queleritrina presentó la mayor actividad, e inhibió el crecimiento de las 5 cepas con halos de inhibición comparables o superiores a los mostrados por los antibióticos empleados como controles positivos. Los alcaloides isoquinolínicos en general, son las sustancias más promisorias para continuar con estudios más específicos de actividad antibacteriana, pues además de presentar una actividad interesante, algunas de estas sustancias inhiben tanto el crecimiento de bacterias grampositivas como el de bacterias gramnegativas, lo cual indica que son sustancias que presentan actividad antibacteriana de amplio espectro.Currently, infectious diseases caused by different microorganisms are one of major causes of death worldwide, so the search for new antimicrobial agents has become

  10. Phylogeny of Acronychia (Rutaceae and First Insights into Its Historical Biogeography and the Evolution of Fruit Characters.

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    Laura Holzmeyer

    Full Text Available The genus Acronychia (Citrus family, Rutaceae contains 49 species of trees and shrubs that are found mainly in rain forest. The genus has a large distributional range from mainland southern Asia to Australia and New Caledonia, but most species are endemic to either New Guinea or Australia. This study aimed to provide the first detailed molecular phylogeny of Acronychia and use it to test the taxonomic value of fruit morphological characters, and infer the historical biogeography of the genus.Phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian Inference, Maximum Likelihood were undertaken on nucleotide sequence data from two plastid (psbA-trnH, trnL-trnF and three nuclear markers (ETS, ITS, NIAi3 from 29 Acronychia species (59% of the genus and representatives of related genera.The results indicate that the South-East Asian genus Maclurodendron is nested phylogenetically within Acronychia and must be synonymized to render Acronychia monophyletic. Fruit morphological characters have been used previously to infer relationships within Acronychia and our analyses show that these characters are informative for some subclades but are homoplasious for the group as a whole. Apocarpous fruits are the ancestral state in Acronychia and subapocarpous and fully syncarpous fruits are derived. The unisexual flowers of Maclurodendron are derived from bisexual flowers, which are found in all species of Acronychia as well as its relatives. Acronychia probably first evolved on Australia with range expansion to New Guinea via stepping-stone dispersal or direct land connections within the Sahul Shelf, followed by two independent dispersals to areas west of New Guinea. Most species of Acronychia occur in either Australia or New Guinea, but no species occurs in both regions. This is surprising given the close proximity of the landmasses, but might be explained by ecological factors.

  11. Isolation and structural elucidation of secondary metabolites from plants of the Rutaceae family, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Salicaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon Castro, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    A phytochemical study was conducted of the Zuelania guidonia plants (Salicaceae), croton ovalifolius (Euphorbiaceae) erythrochiton gymnanthus (Rutaceae) and Faramea occidentalis (Rubiaceae). Purification of the compounds was carried out using chromatographic techniques while structural elucidation was performed by experiments using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). Of Z. guidonia has been possible the purification and structural elucidation of 22 compounds (Z1-Z22), two labdane type diterpenes and 20 clerodane-type diterpenes. The clerodanes have presented 16 innovative structure, highlighting the presence of a group of 3,6-dihydro -1.2-dioxin and xylose group in some of them. In addition, 11 of the clerodanes were evaluated with cytotoxicity assays in three cancer cell lines CCRF-CEM (acute lymphoblastic leukemia), CEM-ADR5000 (acute lymphoblastic leukemia resistant to doxorubicin) MIA-Paca-2 (metastatic pancreas) and a line of healthy cells PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells). The Z4, Z6 and Z15 compounds stood out as the most cytotoxic, particularly against CCRF-CEM cells with IC 50 values between 1.6 and 2.5 μM. Seven compounds identified as glutarimide alkaloids (C1-C7) were isolated and elucidated, five of which have presented a novel structure from C. ovalifolius. Three compounds (E1-E3) that are triterpenes derivatives of known structure sitosterol, were isolated and elucidated from E. gymnanthus plant. From F. occidentalis was obtained the structure of a pure compound (F1], which is a flavonoid of known structure. (author) [es

  12. Propiedades antibacterianas in vitro de metabolitos secundarios aislados de dos especies del género Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae

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    Oscar Javier Patiño Ladino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente las enfermedades infecciosas originadas por diferentes microorganismos, son una de las mayores causas de muerte a nivel mundial, razón por la que la búsqueda de nuevos agentes antimicrobianos se ha hecho indispensable, y los productos naturales han constituido una de las fuentes potenciales para encontrar compuestos antimicrobianos. Las especies del género Zanthoxylum se caracterizan por presentar diversos tipos de metabolitos secundarios, muchos de los cuales han mostrado interesantes propiedades biológicas contra diversos microorganismos patógenos humanos. El objetivo de esta investigación consistió en evaluar la actividad antibacteriana de 21 sustancias aisladas de 2 especies del género Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae. La actividad fue determinada por el método de difusión radial en agar contra cepas de bacterias estándar grampositivas: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 y Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 y gramnegativas: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 y Salmonella tiphymurium, cepas ATCC 14028s y MS7953. De las 21 sustancias naturales evaluadas, 11 causaron algún grado de inhibición del crecimiento bacteriano. El alcaloide benzofenantridínico queleritrina presentó la mayor actividad, e inhibió el crecimiento de las 5 cepas con halos de inhibición comparables o superiores a los mostrados por los antibióticos empleados como controles positivos. Los alcaloides isoquinolínicos en general, son las sustancias más promisorias para continuar con estudios más específicos de actividad antibacteriana, pues además de presentar una actividad interesante, algunas de estas sustancias inhiben tanto el crecimiento de bacterias grampositivas como el de bacterias gramnegativas, lo cual indica que son sustancias que presentan actividad antibacteriana de amplio espectro.

  13. Chemogeography and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Geijera parviflora and Geijera salicifolia (Rutaceae): two traditional Australian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadgrove, Nicholas J; Gonçalves-Martins, Maximilien; Jones, Graham L

    2014-08-01

    Essential oils were hydrodistilled from 27 specimens of Geijera parviflora Lindl., (Rutaceae) and nine specimens of Geijera salicifolia Schott, collected over a wide geographic range in New South Wales, Queensland and South Australia. Essential oils were produced by traditional hydrodistillation and characterised using GC-MS. From one specimen a serendipitous discovery was made of bioactive coumarins dissolved in the hydrosol, which were the coumarins isopsoralen, xanthyletine and osthole. These coumarins were not present in the essential oil from that specimen. Using essential oil composition from all specimens, principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrated nine clusters for G. parviflora and three for G. salicifolia. Some clusters are representative of previously described chemotypes and some are reflective of possible chemotypes requiring more comprehensive sampling for confirmation. Thus, another three or four possible chemotypes of G. parviflora and one of G. salicifolia have been tentatively identified. Using micro-titre plate broth dilution assays, antibacterial and antifungal activity of all chemotypes was investigated. In this regard, the 'green oil' chemotype, restricted to G. parviflora, with major components linalool, geijerene/pregeijerene, 1,8-cineol and bicyclogermacrene, demonstrated the highest antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activity. Thus, in the light of traditional use reports of local analgaesia and bioactivity demonstrated in the current study, oils from select chemotypes of G. parviflora may be useful in suitably compounded lotions and creams designed for topical antimicrobial applications and local pain relief. In addition, because major components are known for insecticidal activities, such lotions may also be useful as topically applied insect repellents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. High-performance thin-layer chromatography/desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging of the crude extract from the peels of Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagatela, Bianca S; Lopes, Andrey P; Cabral, Elaine C; Perazzo, Fábio F; Ifa, Demian R

    2015-08-30

    Citrus aurantium L. is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, whose extracts are extensively used in weight management products and as thermogenic agents. Here we present two methodologies to analyse the extracts obtained from the peels of Citrus aurantium L. that usually require multiple sample preparation and detection steps. Polar compounds of the crude extract from the peels of Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae) were investigated by direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) coupled to desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS). ESI-MS was performed in both positive and negative ion modes. Molecular imaging of the HPTLC plates was used for the direct analysis of the phytocompounds present in the crude extract from the peels of Citrus aurantium L. by DESI-MS imaging. Characteristic mass spectra with many diagnostic ions were obtained from the extract analysis, allowing a fast and reliable identification of these species. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was employed to confirm the identity of specific metabolites. HPTLC/DESI-MS imaging is a relatively fast, versatile, and efficient technique for natural product analysis, since many more ions are observed than with the direct infusion ESI-MS. The MS/MS technique provided information about the component structures, revealing the presence of important bioactive components. The application of DESI-MS imaging may contribute to the improvement identification and characterization of pharmacologically active compounds in phytochemistry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Actividad antifúngica de extractos orgánicos del árbol Fagara monophylla (Rutaceae en Venezuela

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    Yrma Gómez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Fagara monophylla está distribuida en América Tropical. El género Fagara tiene diversidad de compuestos alcaloides con propiedades antibacterianas; sin embargo existe escasa información acerca de su actividad antifúngica. Evaluamos extractos de F. monophylla in vitro con los hongos Aspergillus terreus, A. flavus, Penicillium digitatum, P. citrinum, P. funiculosum, Paecilomyces y Candida albicans determinando la Concentración Mínima Inhibitoria (CMI. Hicimos pruebas de susceptibilidad con las fracciones Hex., CH2Cl2 y la MeOH. La mayor inhibición la presentó la fracción MeOH frente a A. flavus (55 mm, P. digitatum (60 mm, P. funiculosum (56 mm y C. albicans (26 mm. Las actividades mostradas por las fracciones 1 y 2 de MeOH/EtOAc sugieren la acción de un efecto combinado frente a A flavus, P, digitatum y P. funiculosum. La CMI de la subfracción 1 MeOH/EtOAc frente a Candida albicans fue baja (32 µg/ml, y para P. digitatum la CMI fue moderada (128 µg/ml. Este extracto orgánico posee gran potencial de actividad antifúngica. Las pruebas fitoquímicas y los ensayos realizados por TLC al extracto orgánico y a la subfracción 1 MeOH/EtOAc, respectivamente, mostraron la presencia de alcaloides.Anti-fungi activity of organic extracts from the tree Fagara monophylla (Rutaceae in Venezuela. The tree Fagara monophylla ranges throughout Tropical America. The genus Fagara has a diversity of alkaloid compounds with antibiotic properties; nevertheless, there are few reports antifungal activity of its organic compounds. Organic extracts from Venezuelan F. monophylla were tested for antimicrobial activity against Aspergillus terreus, A. flavus, Penicillium digitatum, P. funiculosum, P. citrinum, Paecilomyces and Candida albicans. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC was determined. The susceptibility trials of organic fractions (Hex., CH2Cl2 and MeOH showed that the highest inhibition was presented by MeOH against A. flavus (55 mm, P. digitatum

  16. Evaluation of the use of Ocimum suave Willd. (Lamiaceae), Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae) and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. (Rutaceae) as antimalarial remedies in Kenyan folk medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraithe, Micheni N; Nguta, Joseph M; Mbaria, James M; Kiama, Stephen G

    2016-02-03

    Crude extracts from the leaves of Ocimum suave Willd (Lamiaceae) and the root barks of Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae) and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. (Rutaceae) were studied to ascertain the ethnopharmacological standing of their antimalarial usage in Kenyan folk medicine. Aqueous and Chloroform: Methanol (1:1) extracts of the plants were used in this study. Toxicity of the extracts was investigated by using brine shrimp lethality test and acute oral toxicity in mice. The antimalarial activity at a dose of 100 mg/kg was screened in Swiss albino mice against chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei (D6) using Peters 4-day suppressive test. Chloroquine, at a dosage rate of 20 mg/kg was used as a reference drug. The extracts showed some signs of acute toxicity in the brine shrimp lethality test. However, no signs of toxicity were observed in the mice at a dose of 2000 mg/kg of the crude extracts. The results revealed that all the tested crude extracts were safe. Z. chalybeum aqueous extract and P. barbatus organic extract showed chemosuppressive activities of 81.45% and 78.69%, respectively. This antimalarial activity was not significantly different from that of chloroquine (P<0.05). The findings suggest that the Kenyan folkloric medicinal application of these plants has a pharmacological basis. Bioactivity guided fractionation and isolation of bioactive molecules from the two species could lead to new hits against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Zanthoxylum monogynum St. Hill (Rutaceae

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    Fernanda B. da Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Zanthoxylum monogynum species belongs to the family Rutaceae and is found in Southeast, Midwest, and Northeast Brazil. For this genus several biological activities have been described. Methods: The essential oil (EO was obtained from the leaves of Zanthoxylum monogynum by hydro-distillation and was analyzed by gas chromatograph and gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC and GC/MS. Also the EO of Z. monogynum was evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic activity against six tumor cell lines and for antimicrobial activity, performing disk diffusion and MIC assays with yeast and bacterial strains. Results: The chemical analysis afforded the identification of 18 components (99.0% of the EO. The major components were found to be citronellol (43.0% and farnesol (32.0%. The in vitro cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines, resulted in IC50 values ranging from 11–65 µg/mL against all tested cell lines. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was also tested and oil was effective, especially against Cryptococcus sp. yeast. All the tested yeast strains showed at least 90% growth inhibition. Conclusions: the essential oil from leaves of Z. monogynum has a different qualitative and quantitative composition when compared to the composition previously described. Also this EO has significant cytotoxic activity and moderate activity against Cryptococcus sp. and Saccharomyces cereviseae yeasts.

  18. Larvicidal activity of essential oils of Citrus sinensis and Citrus aurantium (Rutaceae cultivated in Morocco against the malaria vector Anopheles labranchiae (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Fouad El-Akhal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the larvicidal activity of essential oils of two aromatic and medicinal plants, Citrus aurantium (C. aurantium and Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis (Rutaceae cultivated in North Eastern Morocco, against the larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles labranchiae (An. labranchiae (Diptera: Culicidae. Methods: Biological tests were realized according to a methodology inspired from standard World Health Organization protocol. The mortality counts were made after 24 h and LC50 and LC 90 values were calculated. Results: Bioassays revealed that these oils had remarkable larvicidal properties. The minimum levels necessary to achieve 100% mortality of An. labranchiae larvae were evaluated at 160 mg/L for C. aurantium and 640 mg/L for C. sinensis. Essential oil of C. aurantium remained the most efficient (LC50 = 22.64 mg/L, LC90 = 83.77 mg/L, while those of C. sinensis was the least (LC50 = 77.55 mg/L, LC90 = 351.36 mg/L. Conclusions: These results suggest that the essential oils isolated from Citrus plants have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control An. labranchiae.

  19. The Effect of Seasonal Ambient Temperatures on Fire-Stimulated Germination of Species with Physiological Dormancy: A Case Study Using Boronia (Rutaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Tony D.; Keith, David A.; Hui, Francis K. C.; Ooi, Mark K. J.

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy and germination requirements determine the timing and magnitude of seedling emergence, with important consequences for seedling survival and growth. Physiological dormancy is the most widespread form of dormancy in flowering plants, yet the seed ecology of species with this dormancy type is poorly understood in fire-prone vegetation. The role of seasonal temperatures as germination cues in these habitats is often overlooked due to a focus on direct fire cues such as heat shock and smoke, and little is known about the combined effects of multiple fire-related cues and environmental cues as these are seldom assessed in combination. We aimed to improve understanding of the germination requirements of species with physiological dormancy in fire-prone floras by investigating germination responses across members of the Rutaceae from south eastern Australia. We used a fully factorial experimental design to quantify the individual and combined effects of heat shock, smoke and seasonal ambient temperatures on germination of freshly dispersed seeds of seven species of Boronia, a large and difficult-to-germinate genus. Germination syndromes were highly variable but correlated with broad patterns in seed morphology and phylogenetic relationships between species. Seasonal temperatures influenced the rate and/or magnitude of germination responses in six species, and interacted with fire cues in complex ways. The combined effects of heat shock and smoke ranged from neutral to additive, synergistic, unitive or negative and varied with species, seasonal temperatures and duration of incubation. These responses could not be reliably predicted from the effect of the application of single cues. Based on these findings, fire season and fire intensity are predicted to affect both the magnitude and timing of seedling emergence in wild populations of species with physiological dormancy, with important implications for current fire management practices and for population

  20. Phytotoxicity of triterpenes and limonoids from the Rutaceae and Meliaceae. 5α,6β,8α,12α-Tetrahydro-28-norisotoonafolin--a potent phytotoxin from Toona ciliata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebo, Liliane; Varela, Rosa M; Molinillo, José M G; Severino, Vanessa G P; Sarria, André L F; Cazal, Cristiane M; Fernandes, Maria Fátima das Graças; Fernandes, João B; Macías, Francisco A

    2015-01-01

    Limonoids and triterpenes are the largest groups of secondary metabolites and have notable biological activities. Meliaceae and Rutaceae are known for their high diversity of metabolites, including limonoids, and are distinguished from other families due to the frequent occurrence of such compounds. The increased interest in crop protection associated with the diverse bioactivity of these compounds has made these families attractive in the search for new allelopathic compounds. In the study reported here we evaluated the bioactivity profiles of four triterpenes (1-4) and six limonoids (5-10) from Meliaceae and Rutaceae. The compounds were assessed in a wheat coleoptile bioassay and those that had the highest activities were tested on the standard target species Lepidinum sativum (cress), Lactuca sativa (lettuce), Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) and Allium cepa (onion). Limonoids showed phytotoxic activity and 5α,6β,8α, 12α- tetrahydro-28-norisotoonafolin (10) and gedunin (5) were the most active, with bioactivity levels similar to, and in some cases better than, those of the commercial herbicide Logran. The results indicate that these products could also be allelochemicals involved in the ecological interactions of these plant species.

  1. Composição química e atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial e anatomia foliar e caulinar de Citrus limettioides Tanaka (Rutaceae

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    Larissa Teodoro Alves Lopes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus limettioides (Rutaceae é utilizada popularmente para tratamento da sinusite, e também como antitérmica e hipotensora. Este trabalho teve como objetivos: identificar os constituintes dos óleos essenciais da folha e da casca dos frutos de C. limettioides; avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais da folha e da casca dos frutos e realizar o estudo anatômico da folha e caule jovem. Os óleos essenciais foram obtidos por hidrodestilação em aparelho de Clevenger modificado e analisados por CG-EM. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM foi determinada utilizando o método de microdiluição em caldo frente a bactérias Gram-positivas, Gram-negativas e fungos. Para o estudo anatômico foram realizados cortes histológicos a mão livre e as secções foram coradas com azul de Alcian/ safranina, reagente de Steinmetz, lugol e analisados em microscopia de luz. O linalol foi o componente majoritário no óleo essencial das folhas (36,88 a 45,15% e o limoneno no óleo da casca dos frutos (70,60 a 75,18%. O óleo essencial das folhas apresentou CIM de 2000 µg/mL frente às bactérias e nenhuma atividade frente aos fungos. O óleo essencial da casca dos frutos não apresentou atividade antimicrobiana. A folha é hipoestomática, predominando os estômatos anomocíticos; o mesofilo é dorsiventral com parênquima paliçádico bisseriado e parênquima lacunoso com 11 camadas de células. Cavidades secretoras foram observadas no mesofilo da folha, no pecíolo e no caule, enquanto cristais prismáticos foram identificados em todas as estruturas da folha e do caule. Os dados obtidos no estudo microscópico podem auxiliar na identificação taxonômica desta planta e na avaliação da autenticidade da droga vegetal.

  2. Estudo fitoquímico e avaliação do potencial antimicrobiano de espécies de Hortia (Rutaceae) : H. oreadica, H. brasiliana e H. superba

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Gisele Pasqualotto Severino

    2008-01-01

    O estudo fitoquímico de Hortia descrito neste trabalho visa contribuir com a quimiossistemática da família Rutaceae e também com a melhor classificação do gênero dentro da mesma. O estudo das espécies H. oreadica, H. brasiliana e H. superba levou ao isolamento de 15 substâncias, sendo, derivados do ácido diidrocinâmico ácido 3-fenil-[2,6-dimetoxi-(3,4-O:5,6)-2,2- dimetilpirano]propiônico (01), 3-fenil-[2-metoxi-(3,4-O:5,6)-2,2- dimetilpirano]propionato de metila (02), 3-fenil-[2,6-dimetoxi-(3...

  3. Fagodisuasión de un extracto de ruda (Ruta chalepensis, Rutaceae y sus particiones sobre larvas de Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Barboza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La larva de Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller es quizás la principal plaga forestal en América Latina y el Caribe, por perforar el brote principal de árboles de maderas reciosas, como caobas (Swietenia spp. y cedros (Cedrela spp.. En la búsqueda de un método preventivo para su manejo, se estudió la actividad fagodisuasiva del extracto crudo y de cuatro particiones fitoquímicas (agua, hexano, diclorometano y acetato de etilo del follaje de ruda (Ruta chalepensis L.. Se realizaron bioensayos de laboratorio con concentraciones crecientes del extracto crudo (0.1; 0.32; 1.0; 3.20 y 10.0%m/v y con cada una de las particiones (según el rendimiento del proceso de particionamiento, así como con el glicósido flavónico rutina. Para ello se empleó un diseño de bloques completamente al azar, con cuatro repeticiones y se expusieron larvas de instar III de H. grandella a discos de cedro (Cedrela odorata impregnados con el respectivo tratamiento, por 24h. Se midió el porcentaje de consumo de cada disco. Hubo un fuerte efecto fagodisuasivo en el extracto crudo y en la partición hexano, a concentraciones tan bajas como 0.32% y 0.074% m/v, respectivamente; las particiones de acetato de etilo (0.24%m/v y la acuosa (en todas sus concentraciones, así como la rutina (a partir del 0.064%m/v también causaron fagodisuasión. Además, se realizó un tamizaje fitoquímico del extracto crudo, utilizando varias pruebas cualitativas para detectar la presencia de los principales grupos de metabolitos secundarios, entre los cuales los más importantes fueron alcaloides, triterpenos, cumarinas y la rutina. Asimismo, se realizó una marcha fitoquímica a la partición hexano, por ser la más activa.Phagodeterrence by a crude extract of common rue (Ruta chalepensis, Rutaceae and its partitions on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae. Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller larva is maybe the main forest pest in Latin America and the Caribbean, as it bores into the

  4. Screening for in vivo (anti)estrogenic activity of ephedrine and p-synephrine and their natural sources Ephedra sinica Stapf. (Ephedraceae) and Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbo, Marcelo Dutra; Franco, Márcia Toniolo; Larentis, Elisa Rupp; Garcia, Solange Cristina; Sebben, Viviane Cristina; Leal, Mirna Bainy; Dallegrave, Eliane; Limberger, Renata Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Formulations containing Ephedra sinica Stapf. (Ephedraceae) and Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae) are consumed worldwide for body weight control. Considering the related adverse effects and the risk potential, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the thermogenic compounds ephedrine, p-sinephrine, E. sinica and C. aurantium in the female reproductive system through the uterotrophic assay in immature female rats. The animals (n = 6-7) received E. sinica 85.5 and 855.0 mg/kg/day, C. aurantium 25.0 and 50.0 mg/kg/day, ephedrine 5.0 mg/kg/day and p-synephrine 50.0 mg/kg/day for three consecutive days by oral gavage. For detection of antiestrogenicity, tamoxifen 20.0 mg/kg/day, E. sinica 855.0 mg/kg/day, C. aurantium 50.0 mg/kg/day, ephedrine 5.0 mg/kg/day and p-synephrine 50.0 mg/kg/day were administered to estrogen-treated females. Macroscopical alterations were evaluated in liver, kidneys, adrenals and uterus. All analyzed substances showed an antiestrogenic potential, but only ephedrine at 0.5 mg/kg/day presented a significative antiestrogenic effect (P < 0.01). Adrenals relative mass were reduced (P < 0.01) in all tested compounds when compared to the control, which seems to be related to the alfa-1-adrenoceptor agonist activity, which promote a vasoconstriction and reduction of the liquid in the organ. The endocrine system is highly complex and there are a number of ways in which a chemical may interfere with it, other in vivo and in vitro assays are being necessary to support this mechanism of action.

  5. [A new taxonomic system of the genus Murraya (Rutaceae) based on integration of morphology-based taxonomy and chemotaxonomy; and a philological survey on M. exotica in view of the relationship between Okinawa and China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    This review concerns the taxonomic status of the genus Murraya in tribe Clausenae, subfamily Aurantioideae, family Rutaceae, and presents a new system integrating both morphology-based taxonomy and chemotaxonomy. This genus has been morphologically divided into the sects Murraya and Bergera. This dichotomy is justified by the noticeable difference of secondary metabolites with 3-prenylindoles in Murraya and carbazoles in Bergera. As for other metabolites of genus Murraya, coumarins are found in both sects, but differ clearly in types; 8-prenylcoumarins occur throughout the sect Murraya whereas geranylated furocoumarins are known from some species of the sect Bergera. As far as chemical properties are concerned, sect Bergera is much closer to genus Clausena than sect Murraya, suggesting the dichotomy of genus Murraya to be generic rather than sectional. 8-Prenylcoumarins characterizing sect Murraya play a decisive role in the distinction of M. exotica from M. paniculata that occurs most widely in subtropical and tropical Asia and is well known for morphologic as well as chemical diversity. Though the morphological difference between the two species is slight only in leaves and leaflets, the distinction is well substantiated by the following chemical feature: 7-OMe-8-prenylcoumarins occur in M. exotica whereas 5,7-di-OMe-8-prenylcoumarins in M. paniculata. Sect Murraya has a very close relation to genus Merrillia that is chemically characterized by similar types of 8-prenylcoumarins, and is also related to a certain extent to genus Micromelum. M. exotica is philologically surveyed in view of the delicate relationships between Okinawa, the only habitat of this plant in Japan, and China in order to clarify its historical background.

  6. Avaliação da atividade antioxidante e alelopática do extrato etanólico e frações das cascas do caule de Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam., Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle de Melo Turnes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo das atividades antioxidante e alelopática das cascas do caule de Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam., Rutaceae, de modo a conduzir à descoberta de substâncias biologicamente ativas. O material vegetal foi submetido à extração etanólica e este extrato foi fracionado obtendo as frações (hexano, clorofórmio, acetato de etila e hidroalcoólica. Para a avaliação da atividade antioxidante, empregaramse os métodos de redução do complexo fosfomolibdênio, de redução do radical DPPH e das substâncias reativas ao acido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS. Quanto à alelopatia, as amostras foram testadas em quatro concentrações sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento de radícula e hipocótilo das sementes de Lactuca sativa. As amostras evidenciaram atividade antioxidante significativa frente ao método de redução do complexo fosfomolibdênio quando comparada à rutina, e do TBARS quando comparado ao BHT, assim como a atividade alelopática, uma vez que estimularam tanto a germinação como o crescimento das sementes. A fração clorofórmica e acetato de etila demonstraram melhor potencial antioxidante com 204,17% e 127,11% em relação à rutina no método de formação do complexo fosfomolibdênio, e o extrato bruto e a fração hexano com 64,2% e 60,9%, em relação ao BHT, no método TBARS. No ensaio alelopático, destaca-se a fração clorofórmica, pois foi a única amostra que estimulou o crescimento do hipocótilo e radícula na maioria das concentrações, variando de 41 a 144%, e a fração acetato de etila que apresentou a maior porcentagem de estímulo nesse bioensaio, demonstrando estímulo de 274% do crescimento do hipocótilo. Este é o primeiro trabalho que demonstra a atividade antioxidante e alelopática de Z. rhoifolium.

  7. Secondary metabolites from Esenbeckia almawillia Kaastra (Rutaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros-Filho, Bartholomeu A.; Nunes, Fatima M.; Oliveira, Maria da Conceicao F. de; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Mattos, Marcos C. de; Barbosa, Francisco G.; Mafezoli, Jair; Pirani, Jose R.

    2007-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the roots of E. almawillia is reported for the first time. Chromatographic fractionation of the methanol extract allowed the isolation of the alkaloids 3,3-diisopentenyl-N-methyl-2,4-quinoldione (1), maculine (2) and 3'-methoxygraveoline (3), (E)-N-isobutyl-3- methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxicinnamoyl amide (4), the flavones gardenine B (5) and nevadensin (6), and the sesquiterpene intermediol (7). Structure elucidation was based on the analysis of their spectrometric data (uni- and bidimensional 1 H and 13 C NMR, MS and IR) and comparison with literature data. Compounds 3-7 are being reported as constituents of Esenbeckia species for the first time. (author)

  8. Indolopyridoquinazoline alkaloids from Esenbeckia grandiflora mart. (Rutaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Januario, Ana Helena; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Silva, Jorge Jose de Brito; Conserva, Lucia Maria

    2009-01-01

    The chemical composition of two specimens of Esenbeckia grandiflora, collected in the south and northeast regions of Brazil, was investigated. In this study, three b-indolopyridoquinazoline alkaloids from the leaves (rutaecarpine, 1-hydroxyrutaecarpine) and roots (euxylophoricine D) were isolated for the first time in this genus. In addition, the triterpenes α-amyrin, β-amyrin, α-amyrenonol, β-amyrenonol, 3α-hydroxy-ursan-12-one, and 3α-hydroxy-12,13-epoxy-oleanane, the coumarins auraptene, umbelliferone, pimpinelin, and xanthotoxin, the furoquinoline alkaloids delbine and kokusaginine, and the phytosteroids sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol and 3β-O-β-D-glucopyranosylsitosterol were also isolated from the leaves, twigs, roots and stems of this species. Structures of these compounds were established by spectral analysis. (author)

  9. ZANTHOXYLUM ARMATUM (RUTACEAE, SU PRESENCIA EN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo D. Arana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez a Zanthoxylum armatum var. armatum como especie asilvestrada para la flora argentina, en la provincia de Córdoba. Se presenta una descripción sobre la base de los ejemplares examinados, ilustraciones, mapa de distribución y observaciones ecológicas, como así también las diferencias con taxones similares.

  10. Antimicrobial compounds from Coleonema album (Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterhuizen, Lindy L; Meyer, Riaan; Dubery, Ian A

    2006-01-01

    Coleonema album, a member of the South African fynbos biome, was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity associated with its secondary metabolites. Ethanol- and acetone-based extracts obtained from plants from two different geographical areas were analyzed. A bioassay-guided fractionation methodology was followed for rapid and effective screening for the presence of bioactive compounds. The TLC-bioautographic method, used to screen the plant extracts for antimicrobial activity and localization of the active compounds, indicated the presence of a number of inhibitory compounds with activity against the microorganisms (E. coli, B. subtilis, E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, M. smegmatis, M. tuberculosis, C. albicans, C. cucumerinum) tested. Evaluation of the inhibitory strength of each extract by the serial microdilution assay indicated that the C. album extracts inhibited effectively all the microorganisms, with the minimum inhibitory concentrations in the low mg ml(-1) range. Identification and structural information of the bioactive components were obtained by a combination of preparative TLC and LC-MS. It revealed the presence of coumarin aglycones which were responsible for the observed antimicrobial activities. The results of this study indicate that C. album possesses strong antimicrobial activity against a wide range of microorganisms that warrants further investigation into the use of the extracts or their active constituents as a potential source for novel drugs.

  11. Phytochemistry of the genus Skimmia (Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore; Granica, Sebastian; Vitalini, Sara; Zidorn, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The genus Skimmia is a rich source of interesting secondary metabolites, including 20 alkaloids derived from anthranilic acid, 45 coumarins, 21 limonoids, four cholestane derivatives, six pentacyclic triterpenes, six flavonoids, and two unusual fatty acid derivatives. Skimmia is employed in folk medicine e.g. against fever, inflammations, and rheumatism. Skimmia extracts, Skimmia essential oils and pure compounds isolated from Skimmia extracts have been experimentally shown to have various bioactivities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and insecticidal. In this review we discuss the exact structures of compounds isolated from members of the genus Skimmia, bioactivities of Skimmia extracts and pure compounds derived from them, and systematic implications of the patterns of occurrence of these compounds. Moreover, research gaps and interesting avenues for future research are discussed briefly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Actividad fagodisuasiva y sistémica de una formulación derivada de un extracto de ruda (Ruta chalepensis, Rutaceae sobre larvas de Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Barboza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Para el manejo de Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller, cuya larva barrena el brote principal de caobas (Swietenia spp. y cedros (Cedrela spp., sería deseable contar con un producto fagodisuasivo y con buena actividad sistémica, para que proteja rápidamente los tejidos jóvenes. Por tanto, conociendo que un extracto crudo del follaje de ruda (Ruta chalepensis L. posee actividad fagodisuasiva contra dicho insecto, se formuló un producto combinando dicho extracto con varios coadyuvantes, y se evaluó en árboles de cedro amargo (Cedrela odorata L. de 75- 100cm de altura, en un invernadero. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar, con 10 árboles por cada tratamiento, los que correspondieron al producto formulado, a un testigo absoluto (agua destilada, un testigo relativo (carbofurán al 1%m/v en agua y el testigo relativo a la formulación sin el extracto crudo. Las variables medidas fueron los ataques al brote principal, el número de hojas caídas, el número de montículos y la longitud de los túneles. Para dichas variables, el producto formulado aportó excelente protección a los árboles tratados, con apenas 0.1 ataques al brote principal, en promedio, al final del período de evaluación. Asimismo, al evaluar la actividad sistémica del extracto, las sustancias presentes en él pudieron desplazarse y ser asimiladas por los árboles, causando fagodisuasión en las larvas. Finalmente, el análisis espectrofotométrico (a una longitud de onda de 355nm permitió determinar la concentración (403±1mg/l y el porcentaje (0.40% del flavonoide rutina en el extracto crudo, lo cual eventualmente podría utilizarse como un compuesto marcador analítico, si llegara a desarrollarse una formulación industrial.Phagodeterrent and systemic activity of a fomulation derived from an extract of common rue (Ruta chalepensis, Rutaceae on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae. A key neotropical pest of mahoganies (Swietenia spp. and cedars (Cedrela

  13. Efeito das doses de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio na nutrição e na produção do porta-enxerto de limoeiro cravo = Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium dose effect in the graft box of lemon tree (of the family Rutaceae nutrition and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Eduardo Rozane

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve por objetivo avaliar componentes do crescimento e do estado nutricional de porta-enxertos de limoeiro cravo, em função de doses de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio via fertirrigação. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, emesquema fatorial 33 + 1, sendo 3 fatores (nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio - NPK, em 3 doses e uma testemunha (sem adubação, com 3 repetições. A unidade experimental foi constituída pela média de dois porta-enxerto (Hipobioto de limoeiro cravo (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck, cada qual situado em um tubete de 2,8 cm de diâmetro e 12,3 cm de altura, perfurados na base e preenchido substrato composto de casca de Pinus e vermiculita. As doses utilizadas foram constituídas por níveis de N (460; 920 e 1840 mg dm-3, P (50; 100 e 200 mg dm-3 ede K (395; 790 e 1580 mg dm-3. As adubações com N e K foram realizadas através de fertirrigações e o P adicionado ao substrato de casca de Pinus e vermiculita antes da semeadura. Quando as plantas estavam com 133 dias após a germinação, foram subdivididasem sistema radicular e parte aérea para determinação da massa seca, altura, área foliar, diâmetro do caule e conteúdo de nutrientes. As doses de N, K e P de 920 mg dm-3, 790 mg dm-3 e 100 mg dm-3, respectivamente, foram suficientes para o desenvolvimento adequadode porta-enxertos de limoeiro cravo em tubetes.The aim of the study was to evaluate the graft box of lemon tree (of the family Rutaceae nutritional state and its components of growth in function of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium dose byfertilization. The experimental outlining was entirely made casually in factorial scheme 33 + 1, being 3 factors (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium – NPK, 3 doses and an evidence (without fertilization, with 3 repetitions. The experimental unit was constituted by twotubes of 2,8 cm of diameter and 12,3 cm high with a graft box (Hipobioto of lemon tree (of the family Rutaceae in each tube. The

  14. Evidências científicas para a indicação popular de algumas espécies da família Rutaceae no tratamento de doenças respiratórias na região Sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Correia Campello PRUDENTE, Regina Braga de MOURA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de plantas medicinais como forma de tratamento vem sendo bastante empregada pela população brasileira, sendo a maioria através do uso empírico. Diversas patologias têm sido tratadas através da utilização popular de plantas medicinais, sendo uma das principais as doenças do trato respiratório. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar se existem evidências científicas para o uso popular das espécies de Rutaceae: Citrusaurantiifolia (Christm. Swingle, Citrus aurantiumL., Citrus limonum Risso, Citrus medica L., Citrussinensis Osbeck e Ruta graveolens L. na regiãoSudeste, para problemas respiratórios. Foram considerados artigos sobre estudos farmacológicos envolvendo doenças respiratórias, assim como sobre a ação anti-inflamatória e anti-bacteriana das espécies. A revisão mostrou que a presença de flavonóides, hidrocarbonetos terpênicos e monoterpênicos nos extratos e nos óleos essenciais dessas plantas causam um efeito anti-inflamatório, através da inibição de mediadores pró-inflamatórios iNOS e COX-2; e atividade anti-bacteriana, analisada por meio do método de difusão em disco. O trabalho mostrou que apesar do intenso uso da população da região Sudeste do Brasil de espécies medicinais da família Rutaceae para tratamento de doenças do trato respiratório, ainda existem poucos estudos que evidenciem cientificamente as ações farmacológicas, justificando assim a grande necessidade de estudos clínicos para tratamentos feitos com a utilização das espécies estudadas.

  15. Novel N-benzoyltyramines of Swinglea glutinosa (Rutaceae); Novas N-benzoiltiraminas de Swinglea glutinosa (Rutaceae).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerqueira, Cristovam do Nascimento; Santos, Djalma A.P. dos; Malaquias, Karla da Silva; Lima, Murilo Marinho de Castro; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar, E-mail: dmfs@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    Phytochemical studies of the leaves and fruits have led to the identification of the known amides (E)-N-methyl-cinnamamide, N-benzoyltyramine, N-benzoyl-O-geranyl tyramine, N-benzoyl-O-(4-acetoxyl)-geranyl tyramine, in addition to the new N-{l_brace}2-[4-(butoxyl-3-one)phenyl]ethyl{r_brace}benzamide, N-{l_brace}2-[4-(2,3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-butoxylanal)phenyl]ethyl{r_brace}benzamide, N-{l_brace}2-[4-(2,3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-butoxyloic) phenyl]ethyl{r_brace}benzamide, N-benzoyl-O-(4-acetoxyl-6,7-epoxy)-geranyltyramine, N-benzoyl-O-(4-acetoxyl-6,7-dihydroxy)-geranyltyramine and N-benzoyl-O-(6-acetoxyl-4,7-dihydroxy)-geranyltyramine. The isolated compounds clearly point to Swinglea phytochemical affinities with other Aurantioideae species. (author)

  16. Phytochemical and chemosystematic studies of Euxylophora paraensis (Rutaceae); Fitoquimica e quimiossistematica de Euxylophora paraensis (Rutaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isidoro, Marsele Machado; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Arruda, Alberto C.; Silva, Sebastiao da Cruz, E-mail: dmfs@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Fac. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    Phytochemical studies of the leaves and stem have led to the identification of the known coumarins isooxypeucedanin, oxypeucedanin hydrate, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin, 8-methoxymarmesin and marmesin, flavonoids quercetin-3-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, myricetin-3-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside and hesperidin, alkaloids skimmianine and N-methylflindersine and limonoid limonin. The compounds isolated and the chemical profile of Euxylophora obtained from the literature clearly indicate its phytochemical affinities with other Rutoideae species. (author)

  17. Secondary metabolites from Esenbeckia almawillia Kaastra (Rutaceae); Metabolitos secundarios de Esenbeckia almawillia Kaastra (Rutaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros-Filho, Bartholomeu A.; Nunes, Fatima M.; Oliveira, Maria da Conceicao F. de; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Mattos, Marcos C. de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: mcfo@ufc.br; Barbosa, Francisco G. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Itapipoca, CE (Brazil). Faculdade de Educacao; Mafezoli, Jair [Universidade de Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Curso de Farmacia; Pirani, Jose R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Botanica

    2007-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the roots of E. almawillia is reported for the first time. Chromatographic fractionation of the methanol extract allowed the isolation of the alkaloids 3,3-diisopentenyl-N-methyl-2,4-quinoldione (1), maculine (2) and 3'-methoxygraveoline (3), (E)-N-isobutyl-3- methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxicinnamoyl amide (4), the flavones gardenine B (5) and nevadensin (6), and the sesquiterpene intermediol (7). Structure elucidation was based on the analysis of their spectrometric data (uni- and bidimensional {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, MS and IR) and comparison with literature data. Compounds 3-7 are being reported as constituents of Esenbeckia species for the first time. (author)

  18. Phytochemical and chemosystematic studies of Euxylophora paraensis (Rutaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isidoro, Marsele Machado; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Arruda, Alberto C.; Silva, Sebastiao da Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemical studies of the leaves and stem have led to the identification of the known coumarins isooxypeucedanin, oxypeucedanin hydrate, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin, 8-methoxymarmesin and marmesin, flavonoids quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside and hesperidin, alkaloids skimmianine and N-methylflindersine and limonoid limonin. The compounds isolated and the chemical profile of Euxylophora obtained from the literature clearly indicate its phytochemical affinities with other Rutoideae species. (author)

  19. Chemical constituents of the wood from Zanthoxylum quinduense Tul. (Rutaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patino Ladino, Oscar Javier; Cuca Suarez, Luis Enrique, E-mail: ojpatinol@unal.edu.c [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias. Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the wood from Zanthoxylum quinduense Tul. allowed the isolation and identification of norchelerythrine, decarine, 6-acetonyldihydrochelerythrine, syringaresinol, evofilin C, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillic acid, a mixture of b-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol and a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and their esters derivatives. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques and comparison with literature data and the mixture of sterols and fatty acids were identified by GC/MS. The antifungal activity of the ethanolic extract, fractions and pure compounds against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici was determined by bioautography. Evofilin C and nochelerytrine were the only substances that present antifungal activity. (author)

  20. Medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Dictamnus (Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Mengying; Xu, Ping; Tian, Yuan; Liang, Jingyu; Gao, Yiqiao; Xu, Fengguo; Zhang, Zunjian; Sun, Jianbo

    2015-08-02

    Seven species from the genus Dictamnus are distributed throughout Europe and North Asia and only two species grow in China. One is Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz., which could be found in many areas of China and has been recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The other is Dictamnus angustifolius G. Don ex Sweet, which is only present in Xinjiang province and has been used as an alternative for Dictamnus dasycarpus in the local for the treatment of rheumatism, bleeding, itching, jaundice, chronic hepatitis and skin diseases. The present paper reviewed the traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of the genus Dictamnus. Information on the Dictamnus species was collected from classic books about Chinese herbal medicine and globally accepted scientific databases including PubMed, Elsevier, ASC, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, CNKI and others. About 170 chemical compounds, which include quinoline alkaloids, limonoids, sesquiterpenes, coumarins, flavonoids and steroids, have been isolated from the genus Dictamnus. The characteristic and active constituents of Dictamnus species are considered to be quinoline alkaloids and limonoids, which exhibited a broad spectrum of biological activities such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammation, anti-microbe, anti-platelet-aggregation, vascular-relaxation, anti-insect, anti-HIV, anti-allergy and neuroprotection. Moreover, quinoline alkaloids and limonoids could be used as quality control markers to distinguish different species from the genus Dictamnus. However, there were also some reports on the toxic hepatitis and phototoxic effect of Dictamnus species, and the related research needs to be further studied. In this review, we summarized the chemical constituents, pharmacology, quality control and toxicology of the species from genus Dictamnus. Phytochemical investigations indicated that quinoline alkaloids and limonoids were the major bioactive components with potential cytotoxic, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-platelet-aggregation and vascular relaxing activities. These two kinds of compounds have attracted great interests in the past few years and may have great potential to be new drug lead compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antinociceptive and antioxidant activity of Zanthoxylum budrunga wall (Rutaceae) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Khirul; Biswas, Nripendra Nath; Saha, Sanjib; Hossain, Hemayet; Jahan, Ismet Ara; Khan, Tanzir Ahmed; Awang, Khalijah; Shilpi, Jamil A

    2014-01-01

    Different parts of the medicinal plant Zanthoxylum budrunga Wall enjoy a variety of uses in ethnobotanical practice in Bangladesh. In the present study, a number of phytochemical and pharmacological investigations were done on the ethanol extract of Z. budrunga seeds (ZBSE) to evaluate its antinociceptive and antioxidant potential. ZBSE was also subjected to HPLC analysis to detect the presence of some common antioxidants. In acetic acid induced writhing test in mice, ZBSE showed 65.28 and 74.30% inhibition of writhing at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg and the results were statistically significant (P Zanthoxylum budrunga seed in traditional medicine for pain management. Constituents including caffeic acid and other phenolics might have some role in the observed activity.

  2. Morphology and anatomy of Esenbeckia grandiflora Mart. seeds (Rutaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Linda Lacerda da; Paoli, Adelita Aparecida Sartori [UNESP

    2006-01-01

    Foram descritos e ilustrados aspectos morfo-anatômicos das sementes de Esenbeckia grandiflora Mart., visando o conhecimento dos tegumentos, endosperma e embrião. As sementes são de elipsóides a piramidais, marrom-escuras, anátropas, mesotestais, sem tégmem, exariladas e exalbuminosas. O embrião é axial, reto, total, branco, com cotilédones carnosos de reserva lipo-protéica, eixo hipocótilo-radícula curto e plúmula reduzida. The morphology and anatomy of the seeds of Esenbeckia grandiflora ...

  3. Taksonomic study on Micromelum Blume (Rutaceae in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHAN UJI

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic study on Micromelum Blume was conducted at Herbarium Bogoriense (BO and Kew Herbarium (K and using 84 collections number of herbarium specimen. This research used descriptive method based on morphological characters. Terminology by Stearn (1983 was used, whereas the revision method as described by Rifai (1976 and Vogel (1987 were used. Based on this study were produced two species only of Micromelum respectively which occurred in Indonesia. They were Micromelum diversifolium Miq. and M. minutum (Forst. f. Wight. & Arn. M. diversifolium had two varieties, i.e. M. diversifolium Miq. var. diversifolium and M. diversifolium Miq. var. cuneata Miq. Whereas M. minutum had three varieties, i.e. M. minutum (Forst. f. Wight. & Arn. var. minutum, M. minutum (Forst. f. Wight & Arn. var. tomentosum Tan. and M. minutum (Forst. f. Wight & Arn. var. villosum Tan. New record specimen collections of M. diversifolium from Biak Island (Papua was reported also.

  4. Chemical constituents of the wood from Zanthoxylum quinduense Tul. (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Javier Patiño Ladino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the wood from Zanthoxylum quinduense Tul. allowed the isolation and identification of norchelerythrine, decarine, 6-acetonyldihydrochelerythrine, syringaresinol, evofilin C, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillic acid, a mixture of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol and a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and their esters derivatives. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques and comparison with literature data and the mixture of sterols and fatty acids were identified by GC/MS. The antifungal activity of the ethanolic extract, fractions and pure compounds against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici was determined by bioautography. Evofilin C and nochelerytrine were the only substances that present antifungal activity.

  5. Apoptotic properties of Citrus sudachi Hort, ex Shirai (Rutaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and annexin V/propidium iodidle assay were used to test the antiproliferative activity and apoptosis of methanol extract of Citrus sudachi, respectively. Griess reaction and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were carried ...

  6. NUEVA BENZOIL LACTONA Y OTROS COSTITUYENTES DE Pilocarpus alvaradoii (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Cuca

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Del extracto etanólico de hojas de Pilocarpus alvaradoii fue aislada e identificada la nueva lactona α-Benzoil-γ-valerolactona (1, junto con los triterpenos pentacíclicos conocidos lupeol (2, epibetulina (3; y las furanocumarinas bergapteno (4, psoraleno (5, y xantotoxina (6.  El aislamiento y la purificación fueron realizados por técnicas cromatográficas convencionales.   La elucidación estructural de estos compuestos se determinó mediante técnicas espectroscópicas (IR, RMN 1H, 13C, EM.

  7. Chemical constituents of the wood from Zanthoxylum quinduense Tul. (Rutaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patino Ladino, Oscar Javier; Cuca Suarez, Luis Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the wood from Zanthoxylum quinduense Tul. allowed the isolation and identification of norchelerythrine, decarine, 6-acetonyldihydrochelerythrine, syringaresinol, evofilin C, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillic acid, a mixture of b-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol and a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and their esters derivatives. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques and comparison with literature data and the mixture of sterols and fatty acids were identified by GC/MS. The antifungal activity of the ethanolic extract, fractions and pure compounds against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici was determined by bioautography. Evofilin C and nochelerytrine were the only substances that present antifungal activity. (author)

  8. Estudo FitoquÃmico de Pilocarpus sulcatus Skorupa (Rutaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    AntÃnio HonÃrio de Sousa

    2009-01-01

    O presente trabalho descreve o estudo fitoquÃmico de Pilocarpus sulcatus Skorupa e o levantamento acerca dos metabÃlitos secundÃrios jà isolados do tÃxon Pilocarpus. O trabalho envolveu a extraÃÃo e identificaÃÃo dos constituintes volÃteis das folhas, casca do caule, lenho do caule, cascas das raÃzes e lenho das raÃzes alÃm do isolamento e determinaÃÃo estrutural dos constituintes fixos das folhas e lenho do caule de P. sulcatus. Trata-se de uma espÃcie com descriÃÃo botÃnica recente, ainda s...

  9. Apoptotic properties of Citrus sudachi Hort, ex Shirai (Rutaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic). © Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, ... beverages in Japanese cuisine but also used in other Asian food. Citrus sudachi is harvested before the fruit is ... acceptance of the fruit by consumers is gradually reduced. When fully ripe, the fruit turns yellowish, but it is ...

  10. Atividade anti-helmíntica do extrato aquoso das folhas de Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) Anthelmintic activity of aqueous extract of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. leaves (Rutaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Peneluc Taíse; Domingues Luciana Ferreira; Gisele Nunes de Almeida; Maria Consuelo Caribé Ayres; Eduardo Luiz Trindade Moreira; Ana Carla Ferreira da Cruz; Thereza Cristina Bório dos Santos Calmon de Bittencourt; Maria Angela Ornelas de Almeida; Maria José Moreira Batatinha

    2009-01-01

    O estudo avaliou a atividade anti-helmíntica do extrato aquoso das folhas de Zanthoxylum rhoifolium em dois experimentos. O teste in vitro utilizou cultivos de fezes de caprinos tratados com diferentes concentrações do extrato: (134,5 a 335,0 mg.mL-1). No teste in vivo, utilizaram-se 20 ovelhas: G1 tratado durante quatro dias (0,63 g.kg-1 PV); G2, mesma dose, por oito dias; G3, ivermectina (200 μg.kg-1); e G4, sem tratamento. In vitro, observou-se redução de larvas de Haemonchus, Trichos...

  11. Phytochemical and chemosystematic studies of Conchocarpus marginatus and C. inopinatus (Rutaceae); Fitoquimica e quimiossistematica de Conchocarpus marginatus e C. inopinatus (Rutaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellete, Barbara Sayuri; Sa, Israel Civico Gil de; Mafezoli, Jair; Cerqueira, Cristovam do Nascimento; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Zukerman-Schpector, Julio [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Pirani, Jose Rubens, E-mail: dmfs@ufscar.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias

    2012-07-01

    Phytochemical studies of the leaves and stem have led to the identification of the known acridone alkaloids arborinine, methylarborinine, 1-hydroxy-3-methoxy-N-methyl acridone, xanthoxoline, 1,2,3,5-tetramethoxy-N-methylacridone, toddaliopsin C and the new seco acridone alkaloid inopinatin. The known quinoline alkaloids 2-phenyl-1-methyl-quinolin-4(1H)-one, 2-phenyl-1-methyl-7-methoxy-quinolin-4(1H)-one, dictamnine, and the coumarins scopoletin and marmesin were also isolated. The isolated compounds and the distribution of secondary metabolites, which are systematically important, obtained from literature, clearly confirmed that some species formerly described in the genera Angostura and Galipea in fact shall belong to the genus Conchocarpus. (author)

  12. Atividade anti-helmíntica do extrato aquoso das folhas de Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae Anthelmintic activity of aqueous extract of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. leaves (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peneluc Taíse

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo avaliou a atividade anti-helmíntica do extrato aquoso das folhas de Zanthoxylum rhoifolium em dois experimentos. O teste in vitro utilizou cultivos de fezes de caprinos tratados com diferentes concentrações do extrato: (134,5 a 335,0 mg.mL-1. No teste in vivo, utilizaram-se 20 ovelhas: G1 tratado durante quatro dias (0,63 g.kg-1 PV; G2, mesma dose, por oito dias; G3, ivermectina (200 μg.kg-1; e G4, sem tratamento. In vitro, observou-se redução de larvas de Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus e Oesophagostomum superior a 95% nas concentrações de 193,7 a 335,0 mg.mL-1. In vivo, a redução de ovos por grama de fezes foi de 51, 56 e 90%, respectivamente, para G1, G2 e G3, no oitavo dia de tratamento, enquanto para os estágios imaturos e adultos variou de 0 a 91% no G1 e 26 a 94% no G2. A eficácia da ivermectina alcançou 99% para L4 e L5 de H. contortus e 100% para as demais espécies de nematoides. Parâmetros clínicos e bioquímicos permaneceram na faixa de normalidade, e as análises histopatológicas não revelaram alterações sugestivas de toxicidade. Embora altamente efetivo in vitro, o extrato aquoso de folhas de Z. rhoifolium foi pouco eficaz in vivo na redução de nematoides gastrintestinais.The study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of aqueous extract of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium leaves in two experiments. In vitro test, cultures of goat fecal samples were treated with different concentrations of extract (134.5 to 335.0 mg.mL-1. In vivo test was composed of 20 sheep: G1: treated with 0.63 g.kg-1, during four days; G2: same dose, for eight days; G3: ivermectin (200 μg.kg-1 and G4 untreated group. In vitro results showed a reduction of Haemonchus spp, Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum spp. larvae greater than 95% in the concentrations between 335.0 and 193.7 mg.mL-1. Faecal egg counting reduction was 51, 56 and 90% in G1, G2 and G3, respectively, while immature stages and adults ranged from 0 to 91% in G1 and from 26 to 94% in G2. Ivermectin effectiveness was 99% for L4 and L5 of H. contortus and 100% for other nematodes species. Clinical and biochemical parameters have remained in the normality and histophatologic analyses did not show alteration suggesting absence of toxicity. Although the great effectiveness of Z. rhoifolium leaves extract in vitro test, it displayed poor efficiency in vivo regarding gastrointestinal nematodes reduction.

  13. Allelopathic potential of bark and leaves of Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. (Rutaceae Potencial alelopático de folhas e cascas de Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Maluf Souza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the inhibitory potential of aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. on lettuce germination and early seedling growth. We compared the effects of four concentrations (100, 75, 50 and 25% of each extract to water and polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000 solution controls for four replicates of 50 seeds for germination and four replicates of ten seedlings for seedling growth. The inhibitory effects of E. leiocarpa extracts on the percentage of germination and on the germination speed seemed to be more than simply an osmotic effect, except for the percentage of seeds germinated in bark extracts. When compared to water control, both bark and leaf extracts delayed germination, and leaf extracts also affected the percentage of germinated seeds. Leaf extracts of all concentrations strongly inhibited the development of seedlings and caused them some degree of abnormality; bark extracts also caused abnormalities and reduced seedling growth. Root development was more sensitive to the extracts than hypocotyl growth. The negative effects of leaf extracts on germination and seedling growth were more pronounced than those of bark extracts, and the overall effects of both extracts were positively correlated with extract concentrations.Neste trabalho, nós investigamos o potencial inibitório de extratos aquosos de folhas e cascas de Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. na germinação e no crescimento inicial de plântulas de alface. Nós comparamos os efeitos de quarto concentrações (100, 75, 50 e 25% de cada extrato a um controle em água e outro em uma solução de polietilenoglicol (PEG 6000, com quatro repetições de 50 sementes para o experimento de germinação e quatro repetições de 10 plântulas para o experimento de crescimento. Os efeitos inibitórios dos extratos de E. leiocarpa na porcentagem e na velocidade de germinação foram mais do que um efeito do potencial osmótico das soluções, exceto para a porcentagem de sementes germinadas nos extratos de casca. Ambos os extratos causaram atrasos na germinação, sendo que os extratos de folha afetaram também a porcentagem de sementes germinadas. Os extratos de folha, em todas as concentrações, inibiram fortemente o desenvolvimento das plântulas e causaram a todas elas algum grau de anormalidade; os extratos de casca também causaram anormalidades e reduziram o crescimento das plântulas. O desenvolvimento da radícula foi mais sensível à ação dos extratos do que o crescimento do hipocótilo. Os efeitos negativos dos extratos de folhas foram mais pronunciados do que os causados pelos extratos de casca e os efeitos de ambos os extratos foram sempre positivamente correlacionados com sua concentração.

  14. Fire effects on the population structure of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam (Rutaceae) in a Brazilian savanna

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,IA.; Valenti,MW.; Silva-Matos,DM.

    2009-01-01

    Since cerrado fires may impede the growth of seedlings into trees, they may shape the population of woody species. In this study, we assessed the effects of a severe fire on the population structure and spatial distribution of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium, a widespread cerrado tree. We were interested to know the importance of the resprouting and sexual reproduction in regenerating the population. The study area had been for about six years protected from fire, before a severe fire at the end of th...

  15. [Anthelmintic activity of aqueous extract of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. leaves (Rutaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peneluc, Taíse; Domingues, Luciana Ferreira; de Almeida, Gisele Nunes; Ayres, Maria Consuelo Caribé; Moreira, Eduardo Luiz Trindade; da Cruz, Ana Carla Ferreira; dos Santos Calmon de Bittencourt, Thereza Cristina Bório; de Almeida, Maria Angela Ornelas; Batatinha, Maria José Moreira

    2009-12-01

    The study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of aqueous extract of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium leaves in two experiments. In vitro test, cultures of goat fecal samples were treated with different concentrations of extract (134.5 to 335.0 mg.mL(-1)). In vivo test was composed of 20 sheep: G1: treated with 0.63 g.kg(-1), during four days; G2: same dose, for eight days; G3: ivermectin (200 microg.kg(-1)) and G4 untreated group. In vitro results showed a reduction of Haemonchus spp, Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum spp. larvae greater than 95% in the concentrations between 335.0 and 193.7 mg.mL(-1). Faecal egg counting reduction was 51, 56 and 90% in G1, G2 and G3, respectively, while immature stages and adults ranged from 0 to 91% in G1 and from 26 to 94% in G2. Ivermectin effectiveness was 99% for L4 and L5 of H. contortus and 100% for other nematodes species. Clinical and biochemical parameters have remained in the normality and histophatologic analyses did not show alteration suggesting absence of toxicity. Although the great effectiveness of Z. rhoifolium leaves extract in vitro test, it displayed poor efficiency in vivo regarding gastrointestinal nematodes reduction.

  16. Diversidad de Araneae en cultivos de Citrus sinensis (Rutaceae de la Provincia de Corrientes, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Avalos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Las arañas son ideales como indicadores de cambios ecológicos por su diversidad y abundancia. En la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina, se estudiaron arañas de Citrus sinensis en parcelas de 0.82 hectáreas, con riego (AM1 y sin riego (AM2. Mediante pitfall, agitación de follaje, captura manual y tamizado de hojarasca se recolectaron 7 174 ejemplares (33 familias, 44 géneros y 200 especies/morfoespecies, el 70% fueron juveniles. AM1 registró 3 811 individuos (33 familias, 179 especies/morfoespecies y AM2 3 363 (31 familias, 174 especies/morfoespecies. Durante el verano se observó la mayor abundancia. En ambas parcelas, ocho familias representaron el 75% del total, Lycosidae fue la más numerosa y se identificaron ocho gremios; las vagabundas de suelo fueron las más abundantes (AM1 n=1341, s=39; AM2 n=999, s=33 seguida por las constructoras de telas orbiculares (AM1 n=637, s=36; AM2 n=552, s=33, las cazadoras al acecho (AM1 n=471, s=43; AM2 n=453, s=47 y las de telas espaciales (AM1 n=446, s=23; AM2 n=342, s=25. La diversidad alfa en ambas parcelas (AM1 H’=4.161, J’=0.802; AM2 H’=4.184, J’=0.811 no mostró diferencias significativas (t=1.083, p=0.279. El modelo de dependencia lineal fue el que mejor ajustó los resultados. El modelo de Clench estimó el 90.9% de las observadas en AM1 y el 90.6% en la AM2.

  17. Characterization of Microsatellites for the Endangered Ruta oreojasme (Rutaceae and Cross-Amplification in Related Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Meloni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Ruta oreojasme is an endangered species endemic to Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain, where it occurs in small populations with disjunct distribution. Nothing is known about the genetic structure of these populations. Methods and Results: Using a microsatellite-enriched library method, 10 microsatellite markers have been developed from R. oreojasme, all of which showed polymorphism. The transferability of the 10 markers was tested in two other Canarian endemic species, R. microcarpa and R. pinnata, as well as in the widespread species R. montana. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the value of these newly developed microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic structure in R. oreojasme and show their potential applicability for population genetic studies in other Ruta species.

  18. Phytochemical and chemosystematic studies of Conchocarpus marginatus and C. inopinatus (Rutaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellete, Barbara Sayuri; Sa, Israel Civico Gil de; Mafezoli, Jair; Cerqueira, Cristovam do Nascimento; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Zukerman-Schpector, Julio; Pirani, Jose Rubens

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemical studies of the leaves and stem have led to the identification of the known acridone alkaloids arborinine, methylarborinine, 1-hydroxy-3-methoxy-N-methyl acridone, xanthoxoline, 1,2,3,5-tetramethoxy-N-methylacridone, toddaliopsin C and the new seco acridone alkaloid inopinatin. The known quinoline alkaloids 2-phenyl-1-methyl-quinolin-4(1H)-one, 2-phenyl-1-methyl-7-methoxy-quinolin-4(1H)-one, dictamnine, and the coumarins scopoletin and marmesin were also isolated. The isolated compounds and the distribution of secondary metabolites, which are systematically important, obtained from literature, clearly confirmed that some species formerly described in the genera Angostura and Galipea in fact shall belong to the genus Conchocarpus. (author)

  19. Phytochemical study from root barks of Zanthoxylum rigidum Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd (Rutaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moccelini, Sally Katiuce; Silva, Virginia Claudia da; Ndiaye, Eliane Augusto; Sousa Junior, Paulo Teixeira de; Vieira, Paulo Cezar

    2009-01-01

    Chemical investigation from root barks of Z. rigidum, resulted in the isolation of lupeol, a mixture of steroids campesterol, sitosterol, stigmasterol, sacarose, hesperidin, N-methylatanine and 6-acetonyldihydrochelerythrine. Their structures were established by spectral data analysis. No previous work has been reported on Z. rigidum species. (author)

  20. Etude des levures endogènes de Evodia bilahe (Rutaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D'après la logique biotechnologique, elle pourrait donc renfermer de la levure fermentaire du genre Saccharomyces. Cette étude aurait pour objectif d'isoler, de purifier et d'identifier les levures sauvages contenues dans l'écorce d'Evodia belahe. Des méthodes classiques d'isolement microbien ont été entreprises, telles ...

  1. Citrus (Rutaceae): a review of recent advances in etymology, systematics and medical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mabberley, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    The naming, introduction and classification of citrus crops and their allies is outlined. Traditional medicinal use and ‘Western’ applications in the treatment of scurvy and obesity, the prevention of AIDS, and in contraception is reviewed. Names for the commercially significant citrangequat (Citrus

  2. Fire effects on the population structure of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam (Rutaceae in a Brazilian savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IA. Silva

    Full Text Available Since cerrado fires may impede the growth of seedlings into trees, they may shape the population of woody species. In this study, we assessed the effects of a severe fire on the population structure and spatial distribution of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium, a widespread cerrado tree. We were interested to know the importance of the resprouting and sexual reproduction in regenerating the population. The study area had been for about six years protected from fire, before a severe fire at the end of the dry season in 2006. We sampled and measured all individuals of Z. rhoifolium found in 80 plots of 25 m². We found 149 individuals before the fire and 112 after the fire, of which 77 were resprouts from burned seedlings and saplings. We did not find significant differences between the population structure before and after the fire. The spatial distribution of the population remained clumped after the fire. Thus, the Z. rhoifolium population was very resilient to a severe fire. We did not find any new seedlings. As a consequence, resprouting seems to be more important than sexual reproduction in promptly regenerating the Z. rhoifolium populations.

  3. Fire effects on the population structure of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam (Rutaceae) in a Brazilian savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, I A; Valenti, M W; Silva-Matos, D M

    2009-08-01

    Since cerrado fires may impede the growth of seedlings into trees, they may shape the population of woody species. In this study, we assessed the effects of a severe fire on the population structure and spatial distribution of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium, a widespread cerrado tree. We were interested to know the importance of the resprouting and sexual reproduction in regenerating the population. The study area had been for about six years protected from fire, before a severe fire at the end of the dry season in 2006. We sampled and measured all individuals of Z. rhoifolium found in 80 plots of 25 m(2). We found 149 individuals before the fire and 112 after the fire, of which 77 were resprouts from burned seedlings and saplings. We did not find significant differences between the population structure before and after the fire. The spatial distribution of the population remained clumped after the fire. Thus, the Z. rhoifolium population was very resilient to a severe fire. We did not find any new seedlings. As a consequence, resprouting seems to be more important than sexual reproduction in promptly regenerating the Z. rhoifolium populations.

  4. Atividades farmacológicas dos extratos de Zanthoxylum chiloperone (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milcíades A. Villalba

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram avaliadas as atividades antinociceptiva e antiinflamatória dos extratos das folhas de Zanthoxylum chiloperone. Os ensaios foram realizados pelos testes de contorções abdominais induzidas por ácido acético, tempo da lambida da pata induzida por formalina, edema de pata e pleurisia induzidas por carragenina, usando os extratos hexânico, em acetato de etila e etanólico administrados nas doses de 100 e 200 mg/kg. As doses testadas reduziram, significativamente, as contorções abdominais, o tempo de lambida da pata, o edema de pata, o volume do exsudato e a migração leucocitária. Estes resultados sugerem que os extratos de Z. chiloperone possuem constituintes com atividades antinociceptiva e antiinflamatória.

  5. Actividad larvicida de la toronja, Citrus paradisi (Rutaceae sobre dos vectores del dengue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Morales-Saldaña

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available La actividad larvicida del aceite esencial de la toronja (Citrus paradisi fue evaluada contra los mosquitos Aedes aegypti y Aedes albopictus, los cuales representan vectores potenciales de la fiebre del dengue. La CL50 del aceite esencial de la toronja fue de 47,3 ppm y 85,1 ppm para Ae. aegypti y Ae. albopictus, respectivamente. El análisis del aceite por GC-MS, mostró químicos conocidos como insecticidas los cuales podría explicar la acción tóxica sobre las larvas de los mosquitos evaluados. Esta actividad tóxica sobre Ae. aegypti fue mayor en comparación con otros aceites cítricos, lo que sugiere mayores instigaciones en esta línea y de esta manera poder recomendarlo como regulador de mosquitos a las diferentes campañas contra el Ae. aeygpti. En la literatura revisada no encontramos ninguna investigación donde haya sido evaluado aceites esenciales de cítricos contra larvas del mosquito Ae. albopictus.

  6. Constituintes químicos das folhas de Murraya paniculata (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaia G. Mesquita

    Full Text Available A separação cromatográfica do extrato hexânico e da fase em CH2Cl2 do extrato etanólico das folhas de Murraya paniculata resultou no isolamento de um triterpeno (24-metileno-cicloartan-3β-ol, um fenilpropanóide (cafeato de metila e sete cumarinas preniladas [isomeranzina, acetato de murranganona, murrayatina, murrangatina, hidrato de meranzina, febalosina e murranganona]. Dentre as substâncias isoladas, as cumarinas foram detectadas anteriormente em M. paniculata ao passo que 24-metileno-cicloartan-3β-ol e cafeato de metila estão sendo descritos pela primeira vez no gênero Murraya. Os extratos e frações além das substâncias puras foram submetidos à avaliação do potencial antimicrobiano frente à Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli indicando que somente a cumarina hidrato de meranzina mostrou fraca atividade.

  7. Evaluation of the tickcide, genotoxic, and mutagenic effects of the Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Vargas de Carvalho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Current analysis investigated the tickcide effects of the aqueous extract and chloroform fractions of Ruta graveolens L. (rue on engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus, as well as their genotoxic and mutagenic effects on human leukocytes. The best tickcide activity (non-dependent dose and genotoxic / mutagenic effects (dependent-dose were observed on exposure to chloroform fractions. Results suggest that extract fractions of R. graveolens L are efficient against R. microplus, although the fraction and the tested concentrations show genotoxic and mutagenic potential for human leukocytes.

  8. alpha-Glucosidase inhibitory pentacyclic triterpenes from the stem bark of Fagara tessmannii (Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaze, Luc Meva'a; Poumale, Herve Martial P; Wansi, Jean Duplex; Lado, Jean Alexandre; Khan, Shamsun Nahar; Iqbal, Muhammad Choudhary; Ngadjui, Bonaventure Tchaleu; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2007-03-01

    In addition to fatty acids, a mixture of sterols (beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol and stigmastanol), lupeol, arctigenin methylether, sesamin, vanillic acid (1), 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (2), betulinic acid and two pentacyclic triterpene acetates were isolated from Fagara tessmannii Engl. They were identified as 3beta-acetoxy-16beta-hydroxybetulinic acid (3a) and 3beta,16beta-diacetoxybetulinic acid (3b), and their structures were established using 1 and 2D NMR spectra and by comparison with published data. Two derivatives of the compounds were prepared. Some isolated compounds were evaluated for their antifungal and antibacterial activities. Compounds 1 and 3a showed significant inhibition of alpha-glucosidase.

  9. Low antiplasmodial activity of alkaloids and amides from the stem bark of Zanthoxylum rubescens (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penali L.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The stem bark of Zanthoxylum rubescens (syn. Fagara rubescens is used for treating fevers associated with malaria in the Ivory Coast. Three alkaloids: N-nornitidine, 7,9-dimethoxy-2,3- methylenedioxybenzophenanthridine, and bis[6-(5,6- dihydrochelerythrinyl] ether; and two amides: zanthomamide and lemairamide, were isolated from the stem bark of this plant. These compounds were screened in vitro against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain and the chloroquine-resistant FCM29 strain of P. falciparum. N-nornitidine was found to be inactive. 7,9- dimethoxy-2,3-methylenedioxybenzophenanthridine, lemairamide and zanthomamide showed weak activity with average IC50 values ranging from 45.6 μM to 149.9 μM. Bis[6-(5,6- dihydrochelerythrinyl] ether was the most active of the tested compounds with mean IC50s of 14.9 ± 1.4 μM in FCM29 strain and 15.3 ± 3.4 μM in 3D7 strain (~ 58 to ~ 1130 times less active than chloroquine respectively. The anti-Plasmodium activities of the tested alkaloids of Z. rubescens were low; and do not encourage the use of this plant as antimalarial.

  10. Environ: E00561 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00561 Amyris oil Essential oil Valerianol, beta-Eudesmol [CPD:C09664], 10-epi-gam...s family) Amyris balsamifera wood Obtained by steam distillation Major component: Valerianol, beta-Eudesmol [CPD:C09664] CAS: 8015-65-4

  11. Phytochemical study from root barks of Zanthoxylum rigidum Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd (Rutaceae); Estudo fitoquimico das cascas das raizes de Zanthoxylum rigidum Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd (Rutaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moccelini, Sally Katiuce; Silva, Virginia Claudia da; Ndiaye, Eliane Augusto; Sousa Junior, Paulo Teixeira de [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT(brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Vieira, Paulo Cezar [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: teixeira@ufmt.br

    2009-07-01

    Chemical investigation from root barks of Z. rigidum, resulted in the isolation of lupeol, a mixture of steroids campesterol, sitosterol, stigmasterol, sacarose, hesperidin, N-methylatanine and 6-acetonyldihydrochelerythrine. Their structures were established by spectral data analysis. No previous work has been reported on Z. rigidum species. (author)

  12. Insetos predadores em copas de Citrus deliciosa (Rutaceae sob manejo orgânico no sul do Brasil Predatory insects in canopies of Citrus deliciosa (Rutaceae under organic management in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana M. de Morais

    Full Text Available A fauna de insetos predadores em copas de Citrus deliciosa Tenore var. Montenegrina, em Montenegro, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, foi avaliada quanto à sua composição, abundância e diversidade, entre março de 2004 e março de 2005. Foram coletados, no total, 658 insetos predadores, representados por 51 espécies de dez famílias e cinco ordens, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Neuroptera, Thysanoptera e Hemiptera. As espécies mais abundantes foram Camponotus sp. 1 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae (16,87% e Coccidophilus sp. (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae (11,85%. A maior abundância, riqueza e eqüitabilidade de insetos predadores foi registrada na primavera, embora não tenha sido constatada diferença significativa entre as estações.The composition, abundance and diversity of predatory insects occurring on canopies of Citrus sinensis Tenore var. Montenegrina, in Montenegro, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were studied from March 2004 to March 2005. A total of 658 predaceous insects were collected, representing 51 species from ten families and five orders, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Neuroptera, Thysanoptera and Hemiptera. The most abundant species were Camponotus sp. 1 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae (16.87% and Coccidophilus sp. (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae (11.85%. The highest abundance, richness and evenness of predatory insects were recorded in spring, although no significant difference among seasons has been found.

  13. Os gêneros Zanthoxylum L. e Esenbeckia Kunth (Rutaceae no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil The genera Zanthoxylum L. and Esenbeckia Kunth (Rutaceae in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Figueiredo Melo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste no levantamento das espécies dos gêneros Zanthoxylum e Esenbeckia ocorrentes em Pernambuco. Foi baseado nos caracteres morfológicos das espécies obtidas em campo e nos materiais de 16 herbários brasileiros. Foram registradas nove espécies de Zanthoxylum: Z. caribaeum Lam., Z. fagara (L. Sarg., Z. gardneri Engl., Z. hamadryadicum Pirani, Z. monogynum A. St.-Hil., Z. petiolare A. St.-Hil & Tul., Z. rhoifolium Lam., Z. stelligerum Turcz. e Z. syncarpum Tul. Para Esenbeckia foram verificadas cinco espécies: E. almawillia Kaastra, E. febrifuga (A. St.-Hil. Juss. ex Mart., E. garandiflora Mart., E. leiocarpa Engl. e E. pilocarpoides Kunth. Para reconhecimento das espécies são apresentadas chaves de identificação, descrições, ilustrações, distribuição geográfica, comentários e nomes vulgares.This work is a survey of the species of Zanthoxylum and Esenbeckia occuring in the State of Pernambuco. It was based on morphological characters of the species obtained during field trips and of specimens from 16 Brazilian herbaria. Nine species were recorded for Zanthoxylum: Z. caribaeum Lam., Z. fagara (L. Sarg., Z. gardneri Engl., Z. hamadryadicum Pirani, Z. monogynum A. St.-Hil., Z. petiolare A. St.-Hil & Tul., Z. rhoifolium Lam., Z. stelligerum Turcz., and Z. syncarpum Tul. Esenbeckia comprised five species: E. almawillia Kaastra, E. febrifuga (A. St.Hil. Juss. ex Mart., E. grandiflora Mart., E. leiocarpa Engl., and E. pilocarpoides Kunth. Identication keys, descriptions, ilustrations, geographic distribution, common names, and comments on the species are presented.

  14. Quinoline alkaloids and friedelane-type triterpenes isolated from leaves and wood of Esenbeckia alata Kunt (Rutaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuca-Suarez, Luis Enrique; Barrera, Ericsson David Coy; Alvarez Caballero, Juan Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the phytochemical exploration of the ethanol extract from leaves and wood of Esenbeckia alata, leading to the isolation and identification of quinoline alkaloids 4-methoxy-3-(3'-methyl-but-2'-enyl)-N-methyl-quinolin-2(1 H)-one, N-methylflindersine, dictamine, kokusaginine, G-fagarine, flindersiamine, as well as the fridelane-type triterpenes, frideline, fridelanol and its acetate derivative. Identification of these compounds was based on full analyses of spectroscopic data ( 1 H, 13 C, 1 D, 2 D, IR, MS) and comparison with data reported in literature. Compound 4-methoxy-3-(3'-methyl-but-2'-enyl)-N-methyl-quinolin-2(1 H)-one is reported for the first time for the genus Esenbeckia. (author)

  15. Quinoline alkaloids and friedelane-type triterpenes isolated from leaves and wood of Esenbeckia alata Kunt (Rutaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuca-Suarez, Luis Enrique; Barrera, Ericsson David Coy [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia). Dept. de Quimica; Alvarez Caballero, Juan Manuel [Universidad del Magdalena, Santa Marta DTCH (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias Basicas

    2011-07-01

    This work describes the phytochemical exploration of the ethanol extract from leaves and wood of Esenbeckia alata, leading to the isolation and identification of quinoline alkaloids 4-methoxy-3-(3'-methyl-but-2'-enyl)-N-methyl-quinolin-2(1 H)-one, N-methylflindersine, dictamine, kokusaginine, G-fagarine, flindersiamine, as well as the fridelane-type triterpenes, frideline, fridelanol and its acetate derivative. Identification of these compounds was based on full analyses of spectroscopic data ({sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 1}D, {sup 2}D, IR, MS) and comparison with data reported in literature. Compound 4-methoxy-3-(3'-methyl-but-2'-enyl)-N-methyl-quinolin-2(1 H)-one is reported for the first time for the genus Esenbeckia. (author)

  16. Pharmacognostic study and development of quality control parameters for fruit, bark and leaf of Zanthoxylum armatum (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiaz Alam

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The data generated from this study would be of help in the authentication of various parts of Z. armatum, an important constituent of various herbal drug formulations. The qualitative and quantitative microscopic features would prove useful for laying down pharmacopoeial standards. Morphology as well as various pharmacognostic aspects of different parts of the plant were studied and have been described here along with phytochemical, physicochemical studies, which will help in authentication and quality control.

  17. Gastric Ulcers in Middle-Aged Rats: The Healing Effect of Essential Oil from Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Polo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The elderly population has experienced increased life expectancy as well as the increased incidence of gastric ulcers. The peels of fruits from Citrus aurantium L., popularly known in Brazil as orange bitter, are commonly used asatea form for the treatment of gastrointestinal tract disorders, such as ulcer and gastritis. We evaluated the healing effects of essential oil from the peels of Citrus aurantium fruits (OEC on gastric ulcers in middle-aged rats. We examined the effects of a 14-day chronic OEC treatment on gastric mucosa in middle-aged male Wistar rats that were given acetic-acid-induced gastric lesions by morphometric and immunohistological analyses. Oral OEC treatment significantly reduced the lesion area (76% within the gastric mucosa and significantly increased (P<.05 the height of regenerated mucosa (59% when compared to the negative control group. Immunohistochemical analysis of the molecular markers such as COX-2, HSP-70, VEGF, and PCNA in the gastric mucosa confirmed that OEC treatment induced healing effects by increasing the number of new blood vessels and by augmenting gastric mucus in the mucosa glands. These results suggest that the oil from Citrus aurantium effectively heals gastric ulcers in middle-aged animals; however, safe use of OEC demands special care and precautions.

  18. Effects of atmosphere CO[sub 2] enrichment on regrowth of sour orange trees (Citrus aurantium; rutaceae) after coppicing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idso, S.B.; Kimball, B.A. (Water Conservation Lab., Phoenix, AZ (United States))

    1994-07-01

    Sixteen sour orange tree (Citrus aurantium L.) seedlings were grown out-of-doors at Phoenix, Arizona, in eight clear-plastic-wall open-top enclosures maintained at four different atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentrations for a period of 2 years. Over the last year of this period, the trees were coppiced five times. The amount of dry matter harvested at each of these cuttings was a linear function of the atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentration to which the trees were exposed. For a 75% increase in atmospheric CO[sub 2] from 400 to 700 microliter per liter ([mu]L liter[sup [minus]1]), total aboveground biomass rose, in the mean, by a factor of 3.19; while for a 400 to 800 [mu]L liter[sup [minus]1] doubling of the air's CO[sub 2] content, it rose by a factor of 3.92. The relative summer (mean air temperature of 32.8 C) response to CO[sub 2] was about 20% greater than the relative winter (mean air temperature of 16.4 C) response. 27 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Effect of Clausena excavata Burm. f. (Rutaceae) leaf extract on wound healing and antioxidant activity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaayit, Shaymaa Fadhel Abbas; Abba, Yusuf; Rasedee, Abdullah; Abdullah, Noorlidah

    2015-01-01

    Clausena excavata is a well-known plant used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of different ailments. This study aimed to determine the in vitro cytoxicity of its leaf solvent extracts as well as the in vivo wound healing and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extracts of C. excavata (MECE). HaCaT (keratocyte) and Vero cell lines were used for evaluation of the in vitro cytotoxic effects, while the in vivo wound healing and antioxidant activities were determined in skin wounds inflicted on rats. Twenty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups of four animals each. Approximately 3.14 cm2 excisional wound was inflicted on the nape of each rat following anesthesia. The treatment groups received topical application of MECE at 50 mg/mL (MECE-LD [low dose]), 100 mg/mL (MECE-MD [medium dose]), and 200 mg/mL (MECE-HD [high dose]), while the negative control group was treated with gum acacia in normal saline and the positive control group with intrasite gel. Wound contraction was evaluated on days 5, 10, and 15 after wound infliction, and tissue from wound area was collected at day 15 post-wound infliction for antioxidant enzyme evaluation and histopathological analyses. Generally, Vero cells were more resistant to the cytotoxic effects of the solvent extracts as compared with HaCaT cells. Chloroform (CH) and ethyl acetate (EA) extracts of C. excavata were toxic to HaCaT cells at 200 and 400 µg/mL, but the same concentrations showed higher (P<0.05) viability in Vero cells. There was significantly (P<0.01) greater wound contraction at days 10 and 15 post-wound infliction in all the treatment groups than in the control groups. Histopathologically, the MECE-HD-treated wound showed significantly (P<0.05) lesser inflammatory cell proliferation, degeneration, and distribution of granulation tissue than other groups. Similarly, the degree of collagen maturation, angiogenesis, and collagen distribution were significantly (P<0.05) lower in MECE-HD than in other groups. The MECE-HD, MECE-MD, and intrasite treatment groups showed a significantly (P<0.05) higher number of VEGF-positive and TGF-β1-positive cells in the skin wound than the control groups. The activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly (P<0.01) higher in the MECE-HD and intrasite treatment groups than in the other groups. Lipid peroxidase activity of the treated groups was significantly (P<0.01) lower than that in the control group. The study showed that MECE is a potent wound healing agent through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects that enhanced the rate of wound contraction, re-epithelialization, and collagen deposition. The effect of MECE is suggested to be due to its high polyphenolic compound content. PMID:26203223

  20. Effect of Clausena excavata Burm. f. (Rutaceae leaf extract on wound healing and antioxidant activity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albaayit SFA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Shaymaa Fadhel Abbas Albaayit,1,2 Yusuf Abba,3 Rasedee Abdullah,3 Noorlidah Abdullah1 1Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq; 3Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: Clausena excavata is a well-known plant used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of different ailments. This study aimed to determine the in vitro cytoxicity of its leaf solvent extracts as well as the in vivo wound healing and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extracts of C. excavata (MECE. HaCaT (keratocyte and Vero cell lines were used for evaluation of the in vitro cytotoxic effects, while the in vivo wound healing and antioxidant activities were determined in skin wounds inflicted on rats. Twenty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups of four animals each. Approximately 3.14 cm2 excisional wound was inflicted on the nape of each rat following anesthesia. The treatment groups received topical application of MECE at 50 mg/mL (MECE-LD [low dose], 100 mg/mL (MECE-MD [medium dose], and 200 mg/mL (MECE-HD [high dose], while the negative control group was treated with gum acacia in normal saline and the positive control group with intrasite gel. Wound contraction was evaluated on days 5, 10, and 15 after wound infliction, and tissue from wound area was collected at day 15 post-wound infliction for antioxidant enzyme evaluation and histopathological analyses. Generally, Vero cells were more resistant to the cytotoxic effects of the solvent extracts as compared with HaCaT cells. Chloroform (CH and ethyl acetate (EA extracts of C. excavata were toxic to HaCaT cells at 200 and 400 µg/mL, but the same concentrations showed higher (P<0.05 viability in Vero cells. There was significantly (P<0.01 greater wound contraction at days 10 and 15 post-wound infliction in all the treatment groups than in the control groups. Histopathologically, the MECE-HD-treated wound showed significantly (P<0.05 lesser inflammatory cell proliferation, degeneration, and distribution of granulation tissue than other groups. Similarly, the degree of collagen maturation, angiogenesis, and collagen distribution were significantly (P<0.05 lower in MECE-HD than in other groups. The MECE-HD, MECE-MD, and intrasite treatment groups showed a significantly (P<0.05 higher number of VEGF-positive and TGF-β1-positive cells in the skin wound than the control groups. The activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly (P<0.01 higher in the MECE-HD and intrasite treatment groups than in the other groups. Lipid peroxidase activity of the treated groups was significantly (P<0.01 lower than that in the control group. The study showed that MECE is a potent wound healing agent through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects that enhanced the rate of wound contraction, re-epithelialization, and collagen deposition. The effect of MECE is suggested to be due to its high polyphenolic compound content. Keywords: Clausena excavata, cytotoxicity, wound healing, antioxidant, histopathology, VEGF, TGF-β1

  1. Insetos predadores em copas de Citrus deliciosa (Rutaceae) sob manejo orgânico no sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Rosana Matos de; Barcellos, Aline; Redaelli, Luiza Rodrigues

    2006-01-01

    A fauna de insetos predadores em copas de Citrus deliciosa Tenore var. Montenegrina, em Montenegro, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, foi avaliada quanto à sua composição, abundância e diversidade, entre março de 2004 e março de 2005. Foram coletados, no total, 658 insetos predadores, representados por 51 espécies de dez famílias e cinco ordens, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Neuroptera, Thysanoptera e Hemiptera. As espécies mais abundantes foram Camponotus sp. 1 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) (16,87%) e Cocci...

  2. Evaluation of the diuretic effects of crude stem bark extraction of Zanthoxylum heitzii (Rutaceae) in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntchapda, Fidèle; Kakesse, Maguirgue; Fokam, Michel Archange Tagne; Pancha, Olivier Mbouemboue; Abakar, Djedouboum; Dimo, Théophile

    2015-09-01

    Zanthoxylum heitzii is a medicinal plant widely used in central Africa for the treatment of many diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. The diuretic effects of crude stem bark extraction were determined and its safety in rats was evaluated. The diuretic effects of crude stem bark extraction of Z. heitzii 250 g ± 10 g) of both sexes. The crude stem bark extraction of Z. heitzii at the doses of 225, 300 and 375 mg/kg was administered to rats at 5 mL/kg body weight. Urine volume was determined 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 24 h after administration of the extract. Kinetics of electrolyte elimination in response to a single oral administration dose of acute treatment was measured. The experiments were performed under the same conditions with two synthetic pharmacological diuretics considered as reference (furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide). Urinary and plasma concentrations of sodium and potassium ions were determined using flame photometry. Concentrations of creatinine, urea, glucose, albumin and electrolytes in the plasma and urine samples were evaluated using a two-way digital bidirectional spectrophotometer. The osmolarity of plasma and urine samples was measured by cytometry using an osmometer. Aldosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay. The plant extract accelerated the elimination of overloaded fluid and increased urine volume and the excretion of Na+, K+ and Cl- 24 h after administration (P0.05) changes were observed in the body temperature of the animals. The significant increase in urine volume 24 h after treatment followed a dose-response pattern. The excretion of Na+, K+ and Cl- caused a decrease in urine osmolarity. The stability of aldosterone, the absence of correlation with the plasma levels of sodium, and increased clearance of free water in animals treated with aqueous extract suggest that increased diuresis and moderate natriuresis elevation were of tubular origin.

  3. Essential oils from leaves of two Paraguayan Rutaceae : Zanthoxylum hyemale A. St. Hil. and Z. naranjillo Griseb.

    OpenAIRE

    Guy, I.; Charles, B.; Guinaudeau, H.; Fournet, Alain; Ferreira, M.E.; Rojas de Arias, A.

    2001-01-01

    Aerial parts of the species #Zanthoxylum hyemale$ and #Zanthoxylum naranjillo$ which present the same botanical apparence were subjected to hydrodistillation. Twenty-nine compounds have been identified by GC/MS analysis of the essential oils. Sesquiterpenes such as spathulenol and bicyclogermacrene are the main components. (Résumé d'auteur)

  4. Effects of the essential oil obtained from Pilocarpus spicatus Saint-Hilaire (Rutaceae on the development of Rhodnius prolixus nymphae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero B. Mello

    Full Text Available Bioassays against fifth-instar nymphae of Rhodnius prolixus were conducted with essential oil of Pilocarpus spicatus extracted by hydrodistillation. The main results may be summarized as follows: (i high levels of toxicity and paralysis together with discrete moulting inhibition were caused by topical application of either 0.5 µL or 1.0 µL per insect of the crude essential oil; (ii partial fagoinhibition, high moulting inhibition, prolonged intermoulting period and high number of paralyzed insects, but no toxicity were observed after oral treatment using either 5 µL or 10 µL of Pilocarpus spilcatus essential oil per mL of ingested blood meal. The importance of these results in relation to the relevant biological events in R. prolixus is herein discussed.

  5. Biological activity of Ruta chalepensis (Rutaceae and Sechium pittieri (Cucurbitaceae extracts on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mancebo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological activity of a plant extract (common rue, Ruta chalepensis and a semi purifíed fraction (from "tacaco cimarrón", Sechium pittieri on mahogany shootborer larvas (Hypsipyla grandella was studied. A randomized complete block design, with four replications, was used. H. grandella third instar larvas were exposed for 24 h to Cedrela odorata leaf discs dipped in several treatment dissolutions of each extract (0.1, 0.32, 1.0, 3.20, and 10%; afterwards, each larva was transferred to a flask containing an artificial diet and was allowed to complete its development. Variables measured included food consumption (foliar area eaten in 24 h, mortality, and developmental effects (developmental time for each larval instar and the pupa, and pupal weight. The common rue extract showed a clear antifeedant activity at a concentration as low as 0.32%, whereas the "tacaco cimarrón" fraction caused toxicity, especially at the two highest concentrations (3.20 and 10%.Se estudió la actividad biológica de un extracto de follaje de ruda (Ruta chalepensis y de una fracción semipurificada de "tacaco cimarrón" (Sechium pittieri sobre las larvas del gusano barrenador de las meliáceas (Hypsipyla grandella. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. Durante 24 h se expusieron larvas de tercer estadio de H. grandella a discos de follaje de Cedrela odorata impregnados con cada tratamiento. Estos consistieron en disoluciones de cada extracto (0.1, 0.32, 1.0, 3.20 y 10%; posteriormente cada larva se transfirió a un frasco que contenía dieta artificial, donde se le permitió completar su desarrollo. Las variables de respuesta fueron el consumo de alimento (área foliar comida en 24 h, la mortalidad y efectos sobre el desarrollo (tiempo de desarrollo de cada estadio larval y de la pupa, y el peso de la pupa. El extracto de ruda causó fagodisuasión a una concentración de apenas 0.32%, mientras que la fracción de "tacaco cimarrón" provocó toxicidad especialmente a las dos mayores concentraciones (3.20 y 10%.

  6. Determination of the antibacterial activity of crude extracts and compounds isolated from Hortia oreadica (Rutaceae) against oral pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Severino, Vanessa Gisele Pasqualotto; da Silva, Maria F?tima das Gra?as Fernandes; Lucarini, Rodrigo; Montanari, Lilian Bueno; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Vinholis, Adriana Helena Chicharo; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

    2009-01-01

    Extracts from Hortia oreadica afforded four dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives, isolated from the n-hexane extract, as well as limonoid guyanin and the furoquinoline alkaloid dictamnine, both isolated from the dichloromethane extract. The extracts and the isolated compounds were tested against some oral pathogens, so as to investigate their antibacterial activity. The results showed that the n-hexane extract and the compound dictamnine are the most active against the selected microorganisms.

  7. Determination of the antibacterial activity of crude extracts and compounds isolated from Hortia oreadica (Rutaceae) against oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severino, Vanessa Gisele Pasqualotto; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Lucarini, Rodrigo; Montanari, Lilian Bueno; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Vinholis, Adriana Helena Chicharo; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

    2009-07-01

    Extracts from Hortia oreadica afforded four dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives, isolated from the n-hexane extract, as well as limonoid guyanin and the furoquinoline alkaloid dictamnine, both isolated from the dichloromethane extract. The extracts and the isolated compounds were tested against some oral pathogens, so as to investigate their antibacterial activity. The results showed that the n-hexane extract and the compound dictamnine are the most active against the selected microorganisms.

  8. Isolation of secondary metabolites from Hortia oreadica (Rutaceae) leaves through high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severino, Vanessa Gisele Pasqualotto; Cazal, Cristiane de Melo; Forim, Moacir Rossi; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Fernandes, João Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar

    2009-05-08

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with a two-phase solvent system (hexane-ethanol-acetonitrile-water 10:8:1:1, v/v) was applied to examine the leaves of Hortia oreadica, which afforded the known limonoid guyanin (1), the alkaloids rutaecarpin (2) and dictamnine (6), the dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives methyl 5,7-dimethoxy-2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-6-propanoate (3), 5,8-dimethoxy-2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-6-propanoic acid (4), together with the new E-3,4-dimethoxy-alpha(3-hydroxy-4-carbomethoxyphenyl)cinnamic acid (5). The recovery of compounds 1-6 was determined by comparison with LC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization MS/MS data: 66.2%, 93.1%, 102.5%, 101.2%, 99.0% and 84.9%, respectively. Compound 3 showed IC(50) of 23.6microM against Plasmodium falciparum and 15.6microM against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesienses and was not toxic to KB cells (IC(50)>100microM).

  9. Biting Deterrence, Repellency, and Larvicidal Activity of Ruta chalepensis (Sapindales: Rutaceae) Essential Oil and Its Major Individual Constituents Against Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Biting...voucher specimens were deposited at the Faculty of Pharmacy Herbarium , Anadolu University, Eskisehir, Turkey (ESSE: 14574). Standards of both 2-undecanone...hydro- distillation for 3-h using a Clevenger- type apparatus (European Pharmacopoeia 2005). The essential oil was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate

  10. Behavioral responses of male Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) to mating communication signals from vibration traps in citrus (Sapindales: Rutaceae) trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vectors the bacterium causing citrus greening disease, which has devastated citrus production worldwide wherever it has been introduced. To help monitor and target D citri populations in commercial groves, thereby facilitating more effective manag...

  11. Quinoline alkaloids and friedelane-type triterpenes isolated from leaves and wood of Esenbeckia alata kunt (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Cuca-Suarez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phytochemical exploration of the ethanol extract from leaves and wood of Esenbeckia alata, leading to the isolation and identification of quinoline alkaloids 4-methoxy-3-(3'-methyl-but-2'-enyl-N-methyl-quinolin-2(1 H-one, N-methylflindersine, dictamine, kokusaginine, Γ-fagarine, flindersiamine, as well as the fridelane-type triterpenes, frideline, fridelanol and its acetate derivative. Identification of these compounds was based on full analyses of spectroscopic data (¹H, 13C, 1D, 2D, IR, MS and comparison with data reported in literature. Compound 4-methoxy-3-(3'-methyl-but-2'-enyl-N-methyl-quinolin-2(1 H-one is reported for the first time for the genus Esenbeckia.

  12. Gastric Ulcers in Middle-Aged Rats: The Healing Effect of Essential Oil from Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, C. M.; Moraes, T. M.; Pellizzon, C. H.; Marques, M. O.; Rocha, L. R. M.; Hiruma-Lima, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    The elderly population has experienced increased life expectancy as well as the increased incidence of gastric ulcers. The peels of fruits from Citrus aurantium L., popularly known in Brazil as orange bitter, are commonly used asatea form for the treatment of gastrointestinal tract disorders, such as ulcer and gastritis. We evaluated the healing effects of essential oil from the peels of Citrus aurantium fruits (OEC) on gastric ulcers in middle-aged rats. We examined the effects of a 14-day chronic OEC treatment on gastric mucosa in middle-aged male Wistar rats that were given acetic-acid-induced gastric lesions by morphometric and immunohistological analyses. Oral OEC treatment significantly reduced the lesion area (76%) within the gastric mucosa and significantly increased (P Citrus aurantium effectively heals gastric ulcers in middle-aged animals; however, safe use of OEC demands special care and precautions. PMID:23243451

  13. Zanthoxylum gilletii (Rutaceae) - a mainly Guineo-Congolian forest tree with a newly discovered disjunction to western Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Vollesen, Kaj

    2010-01-01

    Regnskovstræet Zanthoxylum gilletii, der hovedsageligt kendes fra lavlansregnskov i Congo-bækkenet og Vestafrika, er fundet i riverin skov i det vestlige Etiopien. Den disjunkte udbredelse bekræfter den forbindelse, der tidligere er konstateret mellen det vestlige Etiopien og regnskovs- og savann...... savanneområder i det vestlige Afrika. Fundet er et supplemen til en monografi over skovtræerne på Afrikas Horn, der er udgivet af Ib Friis i 1992....

  14. Estudo farmacognóstico de folhas e raízes da Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil. (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Matos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil. (manacá é um arbusto cujas raízes são utilizadas popularmente contra dores musculares, de estômago e de cabeça, disfunções hepáticas, reumatismo, e como estimulante do apetite. As folhas são empregadas como depurativo do sangue, nas afecções renais e hepáticas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar o estudo morfo-anatômico de S. odoratissima, bem como a triagem fitoquímica, a determinação dos teores de água, cinzas totais e insolúveis em ácido. O material vegetal foi coletado em Leopoldo de Bulhões/ Goiás e os estudos morfo-anatômicos e a triagem fitoquímica foram realizados utilizando as técnicas convencionais. Verificou-se que a folha é hipoestomática, com estômatos anomocíticos e a epiderme apresenta papilas na face abaxial. O mesofilo é dorsiventral e a nervura principal possui drusas de oxalato de cálcio e cavidades secretoras. O pecíolo apresenta sistema vascular em forma circular. Na raiz, em crescimento primário, observou-se cilindro vascular com organização diarca. Na prospecção fitoquímica detectaram-se fenóis, taninos, cumarinas, flavonoides, triterpernos/esteróis, antraquinonas e antocianinas nas folhas e alcaloides, cumarinas, amido e saponinas nas raízes. Esses resultados são parâmetros importantes para o controle de qualidade dessa matéria-prima vegetal.

  15. Post-fire phenological behavior and breeding biology of the Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil. (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirley Luciene dos Santos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The phenological behavior of species in response to cerrado stricken by fire is little known. A phenological and reproductive biological study of Spiranthera odoratissima was carried out in an anthropized area of cerrado sensu stricto affected by fire in Goiânia County, Goiás, Brazil. Phenolocial observations indicated that the individuals bloomed in synchrony three months after the fire. The phenological rhythms were associated with the seasonal pluviometric effects, a characteristic pattern of shrublet species of the cerrado. Theflowers are white with a sweet odor and are grouped in panicle inflorescences. The blossoming occurs during dusk and begins at around 16h. It offers pollen and nectar to its visitors. The species produces 32.8μl (± 3.4 of nectar with an average concentration of 16.4% (± 0.43 in equivalents of sucrose. The pollination system (phalenophily was proposed based on an analysis of the fl ower’s characteristics. Observed visitors were bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus, flies, wasps, ants and beetles, but due to the inflorescence behavior, they were considered to be merely resource thieves. It was observed that Trigona spinipes Fabr. can act as a secondary pollinator during the pilling of pollen. The results of manual pollination and the incompatibility index (ISI indicate that the species is xenogamous and self-compatible.

  16. Low genetic diversity and intrapopulation spatial genetic structure of the Atlantic Forest tree, Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Forti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on population genetics are the key to designing effective in situ management plans for tree species, in particular, those subjected to pressure from anthropogenic processes, such as forest fragmentation and logging. To investigate genetic diversity, inbreeding and intrapopulation spatial genetic structure (SGS in a fragmented population of the insect-pollinated tropical tree, Esenbeckia leiocarpa, we developed specific microsatellite markers for this species and mapped and sampled 100 individuals in a forest plot. Two issues were addressed in particular: (i the level of genetic diversity, inbreeding and effective population size, (ii whether intrapopulation spatial genetic structure exists. Among the 14 loci developed, we only used the three that presented polymorphism to estimate the genetic parameters. Genetic diversity was low, whereby the average number of alleles per locus (A was 3.3 and observed (H0 and expected heterozygosities (He were 0.336 and 0.298, respectively. The average fixation index was significantly higher than zero (F = 0.112, suggesting inbreeding. Significant SGS was found up to 7 m and between 31 to 38 m, indicating that trees growing within these distances may be related. Estimates of the effective population size indicated that the 100 sampled trees correspond to 14 individuals that are neither related nor inbred. Our results suggest that the microsatellite markers developed in this study are suitable for studies on geneticdiversity and structure, mating systems, gene flow and SGS in this species.

  17. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2014 Small Business Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2014 award winner, Amyris, engineered yeast to make a chemical called farnesene, which is a building block hydrocarbon that can be converted into a renewable, drop-in replacement for petroleum diesel.

  18. Concentrations of p-synephrine in fruits and leaves of Citrus species (Rutaceae) and the acute toxicity testing of Citrus aurantium extract and p-synephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbo, M D; Larentis, E R; Linck, V M; Aboy, A L; Pimentel, A L; Henriques, A T; Dallegrave, E; Garcia, S C; Leal, M B; Limberger, R P

    2008-08-01

    Dietary supplements containing bitter orange unripe fruit extract/p-synephrine are consumed worldwide for lose weight. This study were conducted to determine the concentration of p-synephrine in unripe fruits and leaves from Citrus aurantium Lin, C. sinensis Osbeck, C. deliciosa Ten, C. limon Burm and C. limonia Osbeck, collected in Southern Brazil, and to evaluate the acute toxicity of C. aurantium extract and p-synephrine. A high performance liquid chromatographic method with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was optimized and validated for determination of p-synephrine. The results indicate that all of analyzed samples present p-synephrine in amounts that range from 0.012% to 0.099% in the unripe fruits and 0.029 to 0.438% in the leaves. Acute oral administration of C. aurantium extracts (2.5% p-synephrine, 300-5,000 mg/kg) in mice produced reduction of locomotor activity, p-synephrine (150-2,000 mg/kg) produced piloerection, gasping, salivation, exophtalmia and reduction in locomotor activity, which was confirmed in spontaneous locomotor activity test. All the effects were reversible and persisted for 3-4h. The toxic effects observed seem to be related with adrenergic stimulation and should alert for possible side effects of p-synephrine and C. aurantium.

  19. Effects of atmospheric CO{sub 2} enrichment and foliar methanol application on net photosynthesis of sour orange tree (Citrus Aurantium; Rutaceae) leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idso, S.B.; Garcia, R.L.; Kimball, B.A. [Water Conservation Lab., Phoenix, AR (United States); Idso, K.E.; Hoober, J.K. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AR (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Foliar spray applications of 40% aqueous methanol were made to sunlit leaves of sour orange trees that had been grown continuously in clear-plastic-wall open-top enclosures maintained out-of-doors at Phoenix, Arizona, for over 5.5 years in ambient air of approximately 400 {mu}mol mol{sup -1} CO{sub 2} and in air enriched with CO{sub 2} to a concentration of approximately 700 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}. No unambiguous effects of the methanol applications were detected in photosynthesis measurements made on foliage in either of the two CO{sub 2} treatments. THe 75% increase in CO{sub 2}, however, raised the upper-limiting leaf temperature for positive net photosynthesis by approximately 7 C, which resulted in a 75% enhancement in net photosynthesis at a leaf temperature of 31 C, a 100% enhancement at a leaf temperature of 35 C, and a 200% enhancement at 42 C. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Estudo fitoquímico e avaliação in vitro da atividade anti-Trypanosoma cruzi cepa Y de Pilocarpus spicatus St. Hil. (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.V Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A investigação química da espécie Pilocarpus spicatus, popularmente conhecida como jaborandi e usada na medicina tradicional para doenças como estomatite, febre, bronquite e psoríase, teve por objetivo o isolamento e/ou identificação de substâncias ativas e a avaliação da atividade antiparasitária dos extratos frente às formas epimastigotas de Trypanosoma cruzi. O estudo resultou na identificação de nove substâncias, tais como: tridecanona, 2-heptadecanona, espatulenol, aromadendreno, β-cariofileno, ácido 3α-hidroxitirucala-7,24-dien-21-óico, (+-isoangenomalina, episesamina e sesamina. As estr uturas dos compostos foram elucidadas por análises espectroscópicas e comparação com dados da literatura. Os extratos hexânico e metanólico de folhas e raízes foram testados in vitro contra o Trypanosoma cruzi cepa Y e apresentaram atividade tripanomicida.

  1. CHEMICAL STUDY OF Hortia superba (Rutaceae AND INVESTIGATION OF THE ANTIMYCOBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CRUDE EXTRACTS AND CONSTITUENTS ISOLATED FROM Hortia SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Gisele Pasqualotto Severino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the chemical study of Hortia superba and antimycobacterial potential of Hortia species were investigated. Crude extracts and limonoids, alkaloids, dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives and coumarins isolated from Hortia superba, Hortia oreadica and Hortia brasiliana were evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium avium. The results obtained demonstrated an inhibitory effect of the dichloromethane extract of leaves of H. oreadica (MIC 31.25 µg mL-1, indolequinazoline (15.62 µg mL-1 and furoquinoline (31.25 µg mL-1 alkaloids, and dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives (62.50 µg mL-1, on the growth of M. tuberculosis. These results are promising in relation to the search for biologically active natural products and could be useful in the development of effective new drugs against mycobacteria.

  2. CHEMICAL STUDY OF Hortia superba (Rutaceae) AND INVESTIGATION OF THE ANTIMYCOBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CRUDE EXTRACTS AND CONSTITUENTS ISOLATED FROM Hortia SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    Severino, Vanessa Gisele Pasqualotto; Felix, Monteiro Afif; Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes da; Lucarini, Rodrigo; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the chemical study of Hortia superba and antimycobacterial potential of Hortia species were investigated. Crude extracts and limonoids, alkaloids, dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives and coumarins isolated from Hortia superba, Hortia oreadica and Hortia brasiliana were evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium avium. The results obtained demonstrated an inhibitory effect of the dichloromethane extract of leaves of H. oreadica (MIC...

  3. Storage behavior and changes in concentrations of abscisic acid and gibberellins during dormancy break and germination in seeds of Phellodendron amurense var. wilsonii (Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shun-Ying; Chien, Ching-Te; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C

    2010-02-01

    The medicinal Asian plant genus Phellodendron is known to contain several very important compounds that have biological action. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether seeds of Phellodendron amurense var. wilsonii can be stored and to characterize their dormancy. Seeds of this taxon stored at -20 and -80 degrees C and in liquid nitrogen retained their high germinability, indicating that they have orthodox storage behavior. Intact seeds from freshly collected fruits were dormant and required 12 weeks of cold stratification at 4 degrees C for complete germination. Scarifying the seed coat was partially effective in breaking seed dormancy. Exogenous gibberellins (GA(3), GA(4) and GA(4+7)) promoted germination of scarified seeds, GA(4) and GA(4+7) being more effective than GA(3). Fluridone, an abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis inhibitor, was efficient in breaking dormancy, but it was less effective than GA(4) or GA(4+7) alone. Paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, inhibited seed germination, and the inhibitory effect was reversed completely by GA(4) and by GA(4+7). ABA content of seeds subjected to cold stratification or to incubation at 35/10 degrees C, which enhanced seed germination, was reduced about four- to sixfold compared to that of fresh seeds. Higher concentrations of GA(3), GA(4) and GA(7) were detected in nondormant seeds and in seeds with an emerged radicle than in fresh seeds. Present results seem to indicate that dormancy in P. amurense var. wilsonii seeds is imposed partially by the seed coat and partially by high ABA content. ABA content decreased and GA(3), GA(4) and GA(7) content increased during germination.

  4. Synergistic effect of the hydroalcoholic extract from Lepidium meyenii (Brassicaceae) and Fagara tessmannii (Rutaceae) on male sexual organs and hormone level in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembè, Dieudonné Massoma; Gasco, Manuel; Gonzales, G F

    2014-01-01

    Lepidium meyenii is a plant, which has been used in folk medicine to treat infertility and to increase sexual desire. However, few reports have investigated the administration of this plant with other plants having the same properties. The present investigation was designed to evaluate whether the combination of Lepidium meyenii and Fagara tessmannii can improve spermatogenesis and testosterone level in rats. Twenty male rats were treated daily for 2 weeks with the hydroalcoholic extract of Fagara tessmannii and Lepidium meyenii (Fag + MN) as follow: (vehicle), (0.01 g + 0.5 mg), (0.1 g + 5 mg) and (1 g+ 50 mg)/kg BW. At doses Fag 0.01 g/MN 0.5 mg and Fag 0.1 g/MN 5 mg, the weight of seminal vesicle, prostate, and testis significantly decreased (P Lepidium meyenii (Black Maca) with Fagara tessmannii can improve male reproductive organs activities.

  5. [Phagodeterrent and systemic activity of a fomulation derived from an extract of common rue (Ruta chalepensis, Rutaceae) on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Javier; Hilje, Luko; Durón, Julio; Cartín, Víctor; Calvo, Marco A

    2010-03-01

    A key neotropical pest of mahoganies (Swietenia spp.) and cedars (Cedrela spp.), the larva of Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) commonly bores into the main shoot of these valuable timber species, causing forking of the stems. Therefore, it would be desirable to count upon a phagodeterrent and systemic product which could readily protect young tissues. Since crude extracts of common rue foliage (Ruta chalepensis L.) have phagodeterrent activity on H. grandella larva, a product was formulated by combining such an extract with a number of coadjuvants, and was assessed on 75-100 cm tall Spanish cedar (Cedrela odorata L.) trees, inside a greenhouse. A completely randomized design was used, with 10 trees per each one of the following treatments: the formulated product, an absolute control (distilled water), a relative control (carbofuran, 1%m/v in water), and the relative control without the crude extract. Number of attacks to the main shoot, fallen leaves and frass piles were recorded, as well as tunnel length. Regarding these variables, the formulated product provided excellent protection to treated trees, with only 0.1 attacks to the main shoot, on the average, at the end of the evaluation period. Likewise, when the systemic activity of the crude extract was assessed, substances present in it were able to translocate and get assimilated by the trees, thereafter causing phagodeterrence to larvae. Finally, an espectrophotometry analysis (performed at a wavelength of 355 nm) allowed us to determine the concentration (403+/-1 mg/l) and percentage (0.40%) of the flavonoid rutin in the crude extract, which eventually may be used as an analytical marker compound, should an industrial formulation be developed.

  6. "Repellent Effect of Extracts and Essential Oils of Citrus limon (Rutaceae) and Melissa officinalis (Labiatae) Against Main Malaria Vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)"

    OpenAIRE

    "MA Oshaghi; R Ghalandari; H Vatandoost; M Shayeghi; M Kamali-nejad; H Tourabi-Khaledi; M Abolhassani; M Hashemzadeh"

    2003-01-01

    Repellet effect of extracts and essential oils of Citrus limon (L.) Burm.F., (lemon) and Melissa officinalis, (balm) were evaluated against Anopheles stephensi in laboratory on animal and human and compared with synthetic repellent, N,Ndiethyl- 3-methylbenzamide (Deet) as a standard. Results of statistical analysis revealed significant differences between oils and extracts (P< 0.05) against the tested species, thus oils were more effective than extracts. There was no significant difference...

  7. Variação intraespecífica dos nutrientes em folhas de Methodorea pubescens (Rutaceae em dois tipos de mata do Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Trindade Nascimento

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Metrodorea pubescens é uma árvore comum nas matas do Distrito Federal, ocorrendo em matas mesofíticas (solos calcáreos e matas de galeria (solos ácidos. Em cada tipo de mata foram coletadas todas as folhas de 15 indivíduos jovens, sendo cinco por classe de altura (5-50, 50-100, e 100-150 cm. As folhas foram separadas em três categorias: novas, maduras e senescentes e depois foram secas e analisados para os seguintes elementos: P, K, Ca, Mg e Al. A concentração dos nutrientes nas folhas não diferiu em relação ao tamanho dos indivíduos. Apenas o alumínio apresentou menores teores nos indivíduos de 5-50 cm. As folhas novas apresentaram maiores teores de P e K. Já o Ca, Mg, e Al foram maiores nas folhas maduras. Há um decréscimo de P da folha madura para folha senescente. As plantas do solo calcáreo apresentaram maiores teores de Ca, menores de K, e valores semelhantes de P, Mg, e Al, quando comparadas com plantas do solo ácido. As diferenças entre as populações talvez possam ser explicadas pelo solo, porém outros fatores como o comportamento fisiológico das plantas devem ser considerados. As plantas do solo ácido podem ter um comportamento calcífugo e as plantas do solo calcáreo um comportamento calcícolo.Metrodorea pubescens is an abundant tree in the forests of the Distrito Federal, occurring in mesophytic forests (on calcareous soils and in gallery forests (acidic soils. In both forest types all leaves from 15 small individuals from five individuals in each of three height classes (5-50, 50-100, 100-150 cm were collected. The leaves were separated in three categories; new, mature and senescent, and then dried and analyzed for the following elements: P, K, Ca, Mg and Al. The concetration of nutrientes in the leaves was similar in all height classes, except for al which showed lower concentration in the smallest individuals (5-50 cm. New leaves showed higher concentration of P and K. On the other hand Ca, Mg and Al were higher in the mature leaves. The concentration of P decreased from mature leaves to senescent leaves. The plants from calcareous soil showed higher concentration of Ca and lower concentration of K than plants of acidic soil. The values of P, Mg and Al were similar in both forests. The differences between populations could possibly be explained by soil type, but other factors such as the physiological behavior of plants should also be considered. Plants from the acidic soil can be calcifuge and plants from the calcareous soil can be calcicole.

  8. In Vitro Evaluation of Essential Oils Derived from Piper nigrum (Piperaceae) and Citrus limonum (Rutaceae) against the Tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Jeane; Rocha, Leandro; Castro, Helena C.

    2017-01-01

    The present research aimed to study the chemical composition and acaricidal activity of Citrus limonum and Piper nigrum essential oils against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. GC-MS analysis of C. limonum essential oil showed limonene (50.3%), β-pinene (14.4%), and γ-terpinene (11.7%) as the major components; P. nigrum oil was mainly composed of β-caryophyllene (26.2%), σ-ocymene (5.8%), and α-pinene (5.5%). Acaricide activity was evaluated at concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0% (v/v) of each plant oil, as well as 1 : 1 combination of both oils (5% : 5%, 2.5% : 2.5%, and 1.25% : 1.25% each), by immersing engorged R. microplus females for one minute. The LC90 of oils from C. limonum, P. nigrum, and the combination were 4.9%, 14.8%, and 5.1%, respectively. C. limonum essential oil caused 100% mortality of engorged females at the highest concentration (10%). P. nigrum essential oil inhibited egg-laying by up to 96% in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting it reduces tick fecundity. When combined, the oils presented toxicity as to C. limonum oil alone, but with stronger inhibition of oviposition (5% : 5%), indicating a possible additive effect against R. microplus. The present data provide support for further investigation of novel natural products to control bovine tick infestations. PMID:29123924

  9. Low-cost and eco-friendly green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Feronia elephantum (Rutaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan

    2014-05-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of synthesized natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, the larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Feronia elephantum plant leaf extract against late third-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was determined. The range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 μg mL(-1)) and aqueous leaf extract (25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 μg mL(-1)) were tested against the larvae of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous crude extract and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of F. elephantum for all three important vector mosquitoes. The synthesized AgNPs from F. elephantum were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract to three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus had the following LC50 and LC90 values: A. stephensi had LC50 and LC90 values of 11.56 and 20.56 μg mL(-1); A. aegypti had LC50 and LC90 values of 13.13 and 23.12 μg mL(-1); and C. quinquefasciatus had LC50 and LC90 values of 14.19 and 24.30 μg mL(-1). No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using F. elephantum has the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the plant extracts and synthesized nanoparticles.

  10. Determination of the antibacterial activity of crude extracts and compounds isolated from Hortia oreadica (Rutaceae against oral pathogens Determinação da atividade antibacteriana de extratos brutos e substâncias isoladas de Hortia oreadica (Rutaceae frente à patógenos bucais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Gisele Pasqualotto Severino

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from Hortia oreadica afforded four dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives, isolated from the n-hexane extract, as well as limonoid guyanin and the furoquinoline alkaloid dictamnine, both isolated from the dichloromethane extract. The extracts and the isolated compounds were tested against some oral pathogens, so as to investigate their antibacterial activity. The results showed that the n-hexane extract and the compound dictamnine are the most active against the selected microorganisms.Extratos brutos de Hortia oreadica, forneceram quatro derivados do ácido diidrocinâmico, que foram isolados do extrato n-hexânico, bem como as substâncias guianina e dictamina, isoladas do extrato em diclorometano. Os extratos brutos e as substâncias isoladas foram avaliados frente a alguns patógenos bucais com o objetivo de investigar a atividade antibacteriana. Os resultados demonstraram que o extrato bruto n-hexânico e a substância dictamina foram os mais ativos frente ao conjunto de microrganismos avaliados.

  11. Determination of the antibacterial activity of crude extracts and compounds isolated from Hortia oreadica (Rutaceae) against oral pathogens Determinação da atividade antibacteriana de extratos brutos e substâncias isoladas de Hortia oreadica (Rutaceae) frente à patógenos bucais

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Gisele Pasqualotto Severino; Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes da Silva; Rodrigo Lucarini; Lilian Bueno Montanari; Wilson Roberto Cunha; Adriana Helena Chicharo Vinholis; Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins

    2009-01-01

    Extracts from Hortia oreadica afforded four dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives, isolated from the n-hexane extract, as well as limonoid guyanin and the furoquinoline alkaloid dictamnine, both isolated from the dichloromethane extract. The extracts and the isolated compounds were tested against some oral pathogens, so as to investigate their antibacterial activity. The results showed that the n-hexane extract and the compound dictamnine are the most active against the selected microorganisms.Ext...

  12. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... appropriate forms (plant parts, fluid and solid extracts, concentrates, absolutes, oils, gums, balsams, resins... sanctioned for such use, or regulated in any section of this part. Common name Scientific name Limitations... Mill. and A. spicata Baker Althea root and flowers Althea officinalis L Amyris (West Indian sandalwood...

  13. A nuclear phylogenetic analysis: SNPs, indels and SSRs deliver new insights into the relationships in the ‘true citrus fruit trees’ group (Citrinae, Rutaceae) and the origin of cultivated species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Lor, Andres; Curk, Franck; Snoussi-Trifa, Hager; Morillon, Raphael; Ancillo, Gema; Luro, François; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite differences in morphology, the genera representing ‘true citrus fruit trees’ are sexually compatible, and their phylogenetic relationships remain unclear. Most of the important commercial ‘species’ of Citrus are believed to be of interspecific origin. By studying polymorphisms of 27 nuclear genes, the average molecular differentiation between species was estimated and some phylogenetic relationships between ‘true citrus fruit trees’ were clarified. Methods Sanger sequencing of PCR-amplified fragments from 18 genes involved in metabolite biosynthesis pathways and nine putative genes for salt tolerance was performed for 45 genotypes of Citrus and relatives of Citrus to mine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and indel polymorphisms. Fifty nuclear simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were also analysed. Key Results A total of 16 238 kb of DNA was sequenced for each genotype, and 1097 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 50 indels were identified. These polymorphisms were more valuable than SSRs for inter-taxon differentiation. Nuclear phylogenetic analysis revealed that Citrus reticulata and Fortunella form a cluster that is differentiated from the clade that includes three other basic taxa of cultivated citrus (C. maxima, C. medica and C. micrantha). These results confirm the taxonomic subdivision between the subgenera Metacitrus and Archicitrus. A few genes displayed positive selection patterns within or between species, but most of them displayed neutral patterns. The phylogenetic inheritance patterns of the analysed genes were inferred for commercial Citrus spp. Conclusions Numerous molecular polymorphisms (SNPs and indels), which are potentially useful for the analysis of interspecific genetic structures, have been identified. The nuclear phylogenetic network for Citrus and its sexually compatible relatives was consistent with the geographical origins of these genera. The positive selection observed for a few genes will help further works to analyse the molecular basis of the variability of the associated traits. This study presents new insights into the origin of C. sinensis. PMID:23104641

  14. In vitro Antifungal, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of a Partially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract and protein fraction of Atlantia monophylla Linn (Rutaceae) leaf. Methods: Ammonium sulphate (0 – 80 %) precipitation method was used to extract protein from the leaves of A. monophylla Linn (Rutaceae). In vitro antifungal ...

  15. Drug: D10235 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 571] ... Same as: E00338 ... Rutaceae (rue family) Citrus unshiu, Citrus reticulata immature fruit and fruit peel; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs ... PubChem: 163312266 ...

  16. Chemical Constituents and Biological Activities of Zanthoxylum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rutaceae): A Review. Roongtawan Supabphol1 and Janpen Tangjitjareonkun2*. 1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok 10110, 2Department of Basic Science and Physical Education, Faculty of ...

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rutaceae) in southern Benin in 2008–2009. Abstract PDF · Vol 7, No 2 (2013) - Articles Ovipositional behaviour of two mango fruit fly species (Diptera Tephritidae) in relation to Oecophylla cues (Hymenoptera Formicidae) as compared to natural ...

  18. Activities of Ten Essential Oils towards Propionibacterium acnes and PC-3, A-549 and MCF-7 Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zu; Yu; Liang; Fu; Efferth; Liu; Wu

    2010-01-01

    Ten essential oils, namely, mint (Mentha spicata L.,Lamiaceae), ginger (Zingiber officinaleRosc.,Zingiberaceae), lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f.,Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae), jasmine (Jasminum grandiflora L.,Oleaceae), lavender (Mill.,Lamiaceae), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L., Compositae), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae), rose (Rosa damascena Mill.,Rosaceae) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicumN. Lauraceae) were tested for their antibacterial activities towar...

  19. Triagem fitoquímica e avaliação das atividades trombolítica e citotóxica de Cecropia hololeuca Miq. (Urticaceae, Lippia alba (Mill. N.E.Br. ex P. Wilson (Verbenaceae e Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Victor Dutra GOMES1 ; Rafael Destefani FAITANIN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cecropia hololeuca, Lippia alba, e Zanthoxylum rhoifolium são espécies vegetais de ocorrência natural no Brasil, características de regiões de Mata Atlântica e, dentro de suas finalidades medicinais, estão incluídas ação anti-hipertensiva, digestiva e no tratamento de malária. Neste estudo, foram avaliados o perfil fitoquímico e as atividades citotóxica e trombolítica do extrato etanólico das folhas destas espécies vegetais. O perfil químico dos extratos foi obtido por meio de ensaios fitoquímicos clássicos, a fim de identificar as classes químicas presentes. A toxicidade preliminar foi avaliada frente Artemia salina e a atividade trombolítica foi determinada in vitro a partir da lise de coágulo de sangue humano. Os testes fitoquímicos indicaram a presença de alcaloides e flavonoides nos três extratos investigados. Saponinas, triterpenos e naftoquinonas foram detectados apenas em C. hololeuca. Essa não demonstrou toxicidade frente Artemia salina (DL50 >1000 ppm, enquanto Z. rhoifolium apresentou DL50 igual a 719,44 ppm e L. alba <250 ppm, o que indica atenção quanto à segurança no uso desta planta medicinal. A atividade trombolítica de L. alba e C. hololeuca foi de 6,43 ±2,08 e 9,64 ±1,83 %, respectivamente, mostrando baixa atividade. Por sua vez, Z. rhoifolium alcançou lise de 24,71 ±10,52 %, indicando promissora atividade (p <0,001. A atividade trombolítica de Z. rhoifolium justifica novos estudos, a fim de investigar os componentes responsáveis pela atividade. Perante a literatura, este é o primeiro relato da avaliação da atividade trombolítica destas espécies vegetais. Os resultados encontrados neste trabalho contribuem para o conhecimento químico-biológico das respectivas espécies.

  20. Antihypertensive potential of the aqueous extract which combine leaf of Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae), stems and leaf of Cymbopogon citratus (D.C) Stapf. (Poaceae), fruits of Citrus medical L. (Rutaceae) as well as honey in ethanol and sucrose experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzeufiet, Paul Désiré Djomeni; Mogueo, Amélie; Bilanda, Danielle Claude; Aboubakar, Bibi-Farouck Oumarou; Tédong, Léonard; Dimo, Théophile; Kamtchouing, Pierre

    2014-12-17

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of the aqueous extract obtained from the mixture of fresh leaf of Persea americana, stems and fresh leaf of Cymbopogon citratus, fruits of Citrus medica and honey on ethanol and sucrose induced hypertension in rats. Rats were divided into eight groups of 6 rats each and daily treated for 5 weeks. The control group received distilled water (1 mL/kg) while rats of groups 2, 3 and 4 received ethanol 40 degrees (3 g/kg/day), 10% sucrose as drinking water and the two substances respectively. The remaining groups received in addition to sucrose and ethanol, the aqueous extract (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg) or nifedipine (10 mg/kg) respectively. Many parameters including hemodynamic, biochemical and histopathological were assessed at the end of the study. The concomitant consumption of ethanol and sucrose significantly (p cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, atherogenic index, glucose, proteins, AST, ALT, creatinin, potassium, sodium and albumin increased while the HDL-cholesterol decreased under ethanol and sucrose feeding. Chronic ethanol and sucrose intake significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as the contents of reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitrites whereas elevated the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Histological analysis revealed among other vascular congestion, inflammation, tubular clarification and thickening of the vessel wall in rats treated with alcohol and sucrose. Administration of the aqueous extract or nifedipine prevented the hemodynamic, biochemical, oxidative and histological impairments induced chronic ethanol and sucrose consumption. Current results suggest that the aqueous extract used in this study possess antihypertensive activity against ethanol and sucrose induced hypertension in rats by the improvement of biochemical and oxidative status, and by protecting liver, kidney and vascular endothelium against damages induced by chronic consumption of ethanol and sucrose.

  1. Neutralización del efecto hemorrágico inducido por veneno de Bothrops asper (Serpentes: Viperidae por extractos de plantas tropicales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Castro

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la capacidad de extractos orgánicos de 48 especies de plantas costarricenses para neutralizar la actividad hemorrágica del veneno de la serpiente Bothrops asper (terciopelo. Los extractos se evaluaron mediante un bioensayo basado en inyecciones intradérmicas de veneno en ratones, o de mezclas veneno-extracto, seguidas de la cuantificación macroscópica de la hemorragia. Se observó una inhibición total de la hemorragia con los extractos etanólico, de acetato de etilo y acuoso de Bursera simaruba, Clusia torresii, C. palmana, Croton draco, Persea americana, Phoebe brenesii, Pimenta dioica, Sapindus saponaria, Smilax cuculmeca y Virola koschnyi. El análisis químico de estos extractos permitió identificar catequinas, flavonas, antocianinas y taninos condensados, los cuales podrían jugar un papel en la inhibición del efecto hemorrágico debido a la capacidad de quelar el ion zinc requerido por las metaloproteinasas hemorrágicas para su acción.Organic extracts representing 48 species included in 30 families of Costa Rican tropical plants were evaluated for their ability to neutralize hemorrhagic activity induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper. A bioassay in mice was used, based on intradermal injection of either venom or venom-extract mixtures followed by the measurement of hemorrhagic areas. Total inhibition of hemorrhage was observed with the ethanolic, ethyl acetate and aquous extracts of Bursera simaruba, Clusia torresii, C. palmana, Croton draco, Persea americana, Phoebe brenesii, Pimenta dioica, Sapindus saponaria, Smilax cuculmeca and Virola koschnyi. Chemical analysis of these extracts identified catequines, flavones, anthocyanines and condensated tannins, which may be responsible for the inhibitory effect observed, probably owing to the chelation of the zinc required for the catalytic activity of venom’s hemorrhagic metalloproteinases.

  2. First Record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Ecuador Infesting Urban Citrus and Orange Jasmine Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, J.F.; Chica, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Adults and nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), were collected in the Guayaquil, Samborondón, and Durán cantons in coastal Ecuador. Psyllids were found in high numbers in citrus ( Citrus spp., Sapindales: Rutaceae) and orange jasmine ( Murraya exotica [L.] Jack, Sapindales: Rutaceae) trees within the Guayaquil-Samborondon-Duran conurbation; however, none was found during scoutings in the main citrus producing areas in coastal Ecuador. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of D. citri in Ecuador and the Pacific coastal plain of South America. PMID:25527601

  3. antibacterial activities of the volatile oil and aqueous extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The volatile oil of Murraya keonigii was active against Staphylococcus epidemidis, S. aureus, and Streptococcus specie while the aqueous extract was not active. Key Words: Murraya koenigii, Rutaceae, antibacterial activity. Nig. J. Nat. Prod. And Med. Vol.2 1998: 44-45 ...

  4. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook.f. ex Benth. (Syn. C.dentata (Willd.) Roemer) – Black Currant. Grape Lime of the family Rutaceae is a small aromatic evergreen tree. Leaves are odd-pinnate with elliptic-ovate and oblique leaflets. Inflorescence is a raceme and flowers are greenish-white, and. 4-merous. Fruit is an ovoid small ...

  5. Chemical composition, cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The species of the genus Citrus (Rutaceae) have been widely used in traditional medicine. In this study, the essential oil was extracted from the leaves of Citrus aurantium and its cytotoxicity effect on six tumor cell lines and a normal cell line was studied. Furthermore, antioxidant potential of the oil was tested by 2, ...

  6. Chemical Composition of Zanthoxylum avicennae Essential Oil and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil derived from Zanthoxylum avicennae (Lam.) DC. (Rutaceae) leaves and stems against the larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse. Methods: Essential oil of Z. avicennae leaves and stems were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography ...

  7. Chemical Constituents and Biological Activities of Zanthoxylum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zanthoxylum limonella belongs to the family of aromatic deciduous trees and shrubs, Rutaceae. In traditional medicine practice, various parts of Z. limonella are used for the treatment of dental caries, febrifugal, sudorific, rheumatism, diuretic, stomach ache and diarrhea. Secondary metabolites have been isolated the stems, ...

  8. DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF WHITEFLIES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    diverse in the rainforest zone than any other zone in the region. The cosmopolitan Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby. (Aleyrodinae) infested plants in the family Rutaceae more than any other species of whiteflies in the region. Citrus species was observed to host larger population of whiteflies than any other crop in the study ...

  9. Analysis of essential oils by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masada, Y.

    1976-01-01

    The book is in two parts: first part Essential Oil includes compositae; labiatae; verbenaceae; oleaceae; umbelliferae; myrtaceae; euphorbiaceae; rutaceae; geraniaceae; rosaceae; lauraceae; myristicaceae; anonaceae; santalaceae; moraceae; piperaceae; zingiberaceae; araceae; gramineae; and cupressaceae written in English and Japanese. Part two includes essential oil; gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry written in Japanese. (DP)

  10. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Feronia limonia (L.) S~villg/e (B. Koet Bel) (English: Elephant- or Wood-apple; Hindi: Kaithbel, Kaitha,. Kavitha) of Rutaceae is a medium-sized deciduous tree with thorny branches and compound leaves. Flowers are small and white. Fruits are large, globose, of the size of tennis balls with a hard and woody shell enclosing ...

  11. Res June 2013 Cover Tp.cdr

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook.f. ex Benth. (Syn. C.dentata (Willd.) Roemer) — Black Currant. Grape Lime of the family Rutaceae is a small aromatic evergreen tree. Leaves are odd-pinnate with elliptic-ovate and oblique leaflets. Inflorescence is a raceme and flowers are greenish-white, and. 4-merous. Fruit is an ovoid ...

  12. Environ: E00768 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00768 Orange flowers Medicinal herb Linalyl acetate [CPD:C09863], Linalool [CPD:C...01500], Neohesperidin [CPD:C09806], Naringin [CPD:C09789] Citrus aurantium [TAX:43166] ... Rutaceae Orange flowers flower Major component: Essential oil ...

  13. In vivo anti-malarial potentials of some plants extracts on ICR-mice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five medicinal plants, Acacia nilotica (Fabaceae), Citrus aurantifolia (Rutaceae), Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae) Carica papaya (Caricaceae), and Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) used for the treatment of malaria/ fever by the Hausa people of Kano-Nigeria were selected based on their traditional claims. These were ...

  14. 10 - 18_Aworinde

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    From the data, Euphorbiaceae,. Solanaceae, Rutaceae, Malvaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Poaceae and Apocynaceae (in order of decreasing number of species) were the most frequent Families. Taxa such as Musa species,. Vernonia amygdalina, Citrus species, Psidium guajava and Terminalia catappa were found to be the.

  15. Larvicidal effects of lemon peels on mosquito larvae | ANYANWU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol extract of the dry peels of the common edible plant, Citrus limon (family, Rutaceae), was obtained using a Soxhlet extractor and its larviciding effect evaluated against the larvae of two household mosquitoes: Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Each batch of larvae (20-30) were treated with 3.90, 15.63, ...

  16. The internal transcribed spacer rDNA specific markers for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... schinifolium. These primers are useful to study the structure of Rutaceae family. Such identifications will be helpful for phylogenetic analysis in intraspecies population of the genus Zanthoxylum. Key words: Zanthoxylum piperitum, rDNA Int-sp markers, phylogenetic relationship, ribosomal DNA, internal transcribed spacer.

  17. Bull.Chem.Soc.Ethiop..3(2)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and of natural (6-13) or commercial origin. Many of. the alkaloids (Table 1-3) have been isolated from the following families: Loganiaceae, Rutaceae,. Rubiaceae, Papaveraceae, Leguminasae. Apocynaceae and Solanaceae. Bayluscide. (the ethanolamine salt of niclosamide supplied by Bayer of 1West Germany} was.

  18. Environ: E00002 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00002 Evodia fruit (JP17) Crude drug Evodiamine [CPD:C09187], Rutecarpine [CPD:C0...ic acid, Rutaevin [CPD:C08779], Evodol, Hydroxyevodiamine Evodia rutaecarpa [TAX:354523], Evodia... officinalis, Evodia bodinieri, Evodia [TAX:354493] Same as: D00173 Rutaceae (rue family) Evodia fruit Major component: Evodiamine [CPD:C09187] ...

  19. Herbal gardens of India: A statistical analysis report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-29

    Jun 29, 2011 ... Rubiaceae. 12. 0. 37. 13. 62. Rutaceae. 1. 6. 28. 74. 109. Salvadoraceae. 0. 0. 2. 0. 2. Santalaceae. 0. 0. 0. 27. 27. Sapindaceae. 8. 0. 0. 16. 24. Sapotaceae. 0. 0. 0. 44. 44. Saxifragaceae. 0. 1. 0. 0. 1. Scitaminaceae. 0. 3. 0. 0. 3. Scrophulariaceae. 0. 28. 0. 0. 28. Simarubaceae. 0. 0. 0. 15. 15. Smilacaceae.

  20. New floristic records in the Balkans: 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Burkhard; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    -72), Liliaceae s.l. (34, 89), Onagraceae (15), Ophioglossaceae (18), Orchidaceae (78-81, 90), Papaveraceae (29), Plantaginaceae (37-41, 73), Poaceae (1, 35, 36), Polygalaceae (74), Polygonaceae (30), Primulaceae (31), Ranunculaceae (51, 75, 86), Rubiaceae (16), Rutaceae (52), Santalaceae (32), Scrophulariaceae...

  1. (Benzophenanthridine alkaloid) from the barks of Fagara chalybea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Fagara chalybea is an important medicinal plant belonging to the family Rutaceae. The plant is well known for its anti-malarial, anti-microbial and anti-cancerous activity, which has been attributed to the presence of benzophenanthridine alkaloid nitidine in the plants. The present work aims to develop a method of ...

  2. Authentication of Zanthoxylum Species Based on Integrated Analysis of Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences and Metabolite Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeon Ju; Koo, Hyun Jo; Lee, Jonghoon; Lee, Sang-Choon; Lee, Dong Young; Giang, Vo Ngoc Linh; Kim, Minjung; Shim, Hyeonah; Park, Jee Young; Yoo, Ki-Oug; Sung, Sang Hyun; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2017-11-29

    We performed chloroplast genome sequencing and comparative analysis of two Rutaceae species, Zanthoxylum schinifolium (Korean pepper tree) and Z. piperitum (Japanese pepper tree), which are medicinal and culinary crops in Asia. We identified more than 837 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 103 insertions/deletions (InDels) based on a comparison of the two chloroplast genomes and developed seven DNA markers derived from five tandem repeats and two InDel variations that discriminated between Korean Zanthoxylum species. Metabolite profile analysis pointed to three metabolic groups, one with Korean Z. piperitum samples, one with Korean Z. schinifolium samples, and the last containing all the tested Chinese Zanthoxylum species samples, which are considered to be Z. bungeanum based on our results. Two markers were capable of distinguishing among these three groups. The chloroplast genome sequences identified in this study represent a valuable genomics resource for exploring diversity in Rutaceae, and the molecular markers will be useful for authenticating dried Zanthoxylum berries in the marketplace.

  3. Morfologia, comportamento, parasitismo e mecanismos de defesa dos imaturos de Heraclides anchisiades capys (Hübner(Lepidoptera, Papilionidae Morphology, behaviour, parasitism and mechanisms of defense of the immatures of Heraclides anchisiades capys (Hübner (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Anderson Ribeiro Leite

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Heraclides anchisiades capys é uma espécie comum de Papilionidae, cujas larvas se alimentam de várias espécies de Citrus spp. (Rutaceae. Neste estudo são descritas a morfologia e dados sobre a história natural dos imaturos através de ilustrações, incluindo fotografias em microscopia eletrônica de varredura.Heraclides anchisiades capys is a common species among the Papilionidae, whose larvae feed on various species of Citrus spp. (Rutaceae. In this study the morphology and data on natural history of the immature stages of this species are described with illustrations, including photos in scanning electronic microscope.

  4. Validation of use of a traditional antimalarial remedy from French Guiana, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam

    OpenAIRE

    Jullian, Valérie; Bourdy, Geneviève; Georges, S.; Maurel, Séverine; Sauvain, Michel

    2006-01-01

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium bark (Rutaceae) is a medicinal plant, traditionally used in French Guiana to treat and prevent malaria. Bioassay-guided extractions of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium bark have shown that antiplasmodial activity is concentrated in the alkaloid fraction. Further fractionation of this extract has yielded seven benzophenanthridine alkaloids, dihydroavicine 1, dihydronitidine 2, oxyavicine 3, oxynitidine 4, fagaridine 5, avicine 6 and nitidine 7. Antimalarial activity of the last fi...

  5. METABOLITOS SECUNDARIOS EN PLANTAS MEDICINALES USADAS PARA PROBLEMAS GASTROINTESTINALES. UNA REVISIÓN SOBRE MEDICINA ANCESTRAL ECUATORIANA

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Reyes, Enrique; Moreira Castro, Juan Manuel

    2017-01-01

    En este artículo se realiza una revisión de los principales metabolitos secundarios que se encuentran en las familias de plantas medicinales Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Plantaginaceae, Rutaceae, Zingiberaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae. En ellas se encuentran una variedad de flavonoides que contribuyen a la actividad antioxidante, la cual juega un papel importante en el tratamiento de las enfermedades gastrointestinales. Además, se hace una breve revisión de los estudios etnobotánicos de plantas medicinal...

  6. Bioactive kaurane diterpenes and coumarins from Fortunella margarita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Shafae, A M; Ibrahim, M A

    2003-02-01

    Two bioactive pyranocoumarins 1 (sesselin) and 3 (xanthyletin) and one prenylated coumarin 2 (suberosin), beside three rare kaurene diterpenes 5-7 were isolated from the roots of Fortunella margarita. Their structures were determined from their spectroscopic data, including 1H/13C 2D NMR experiments. The kaurene diterpenes 5-7 are reported in Rutaceae for the first time. Diterpene 5 was found to be a potent stimulator of uterine contraction; it also caused stimulation of brain activity.

  7. 1100-IJBCS-Article-Abiodoum Olounlade

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    (Bignoniaceae) et de Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloïdes (Rutaceae), leur effet inhibiteur a été évalué in vitro sur la migration larvaire de ... Les extraits de Newbouldia laevis et de Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloïdes inhibent in vitro la migration larvaire de. Haemonchus contortus. ... médicaments, à la malfaçon et la contrefaçon de.

  8. Methylenedioxy- and methoxyflavones from Melicope coodeana syn. Euodia simplex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Henrik Toft; Larsen, Michael D; Nielsen, Merete W

    2002-01-01

    Three new natural products, 3,8-dimethoxy-5,7-dihydroxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavone, 3,6,8-trimethoxy-5,7-dihydroxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavone and 3,6,8,3',4'-pentamethoxy-5,7-dihydroxyflavone were isolated from Melicope coodeana syn. Euodia simplex (Rutaceae) along with 3,6,3'-trimethoxy-5,7,4'...... of the genus Melicope, and the present findings support the recent transfer of Euodia simplex to Melicope....

  9. A new lignan glycoside from the stems of Zanthoxylum armatum DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tao; Tang, Xiao-Feng; Chang, Jun; Wang, Ya

    2017-01-01

    A new lignan glycoside, (7S,8R)-guaiacylglycerol-ferulic acid ether-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), along with five known phenylpropanoids (2-6) and seven phenylpropanoid glycosides (7-13), were isolated from the stems of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 2-8 and 11-13 were first isolated from Rutaceae and the others were isolated for the first time from Z. armatum.

  10. Environ: E00063 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00063 Phellodendron bark (JP17) Crude drug Berberine [CPD:C00757], Palmatine [CPD...:C05315], Magnoflorine [CPD:C09581], Phellodendrine [CPD:C17046], Jateorrhizine [CPD:C09553], Obakunone [CPD...75], Menisperine, 7-Dehydrostigmasterol Phellodendron amurense [TAX:68554], Phellodendron chinense [TAX:3545...08] Same as: D06689 Rutaceae (rue family) Phellodendron bark Major component: Berberine [CPD:C00757] ...

  11. Identity and pharmacognosy of Ruta graveolens Linn

    OpenAIRE

    Kannan, R.; Babu, U. V.

    2012-01-01

    Ruta graveolens L., is a odoriferous herb belonging to the family Rutaceae. It is the source of Rue or Rue oil, called as Sadab or Satab in Hindi. It is distributed throughout the world and cultivated as a medicinal and ornamental herb. The ancient Greeks and Romans, held the plant in high esteem. It is used in Ayurveda, Homoeopathy and Unani. Phytochemical constituents and pharmacological properties were studied in depth. In 14 species of genus Ruta, R. graveolens and R. chalepensis are avai...

  12. New Limonoids from Hortia oreadica and Unexpected Coumarin from H. superba Using Chromatography over Cleaning Sephadex with Sodium Hypochlorite

    OpenAIRE

    Severino, Vanessa; Freitas, Sâmya de; Braga, Patrícia; Forim, Moacir; Silva, M. da; Fernandes, João; Vieira, Paulo; Venâncio, Tiago

    2014-01-01

    Previous investigations of H. oreadica reported the presence of a wide spectrum of complex limonoids and dihydrocinnamic acids. Our interest in the Rutaceae motivated a reinvestigation of H. oreadica, H. brasiliana and H. superba searching for other secondary metabolites present in substantial amounts for taxonomic analysis. In a continuation of the investigation of the H. oreadica, three new limonoids have now been isolated 9α-hydroxyhortiolide A, 11β-hydroxyhortiolide C and 1(S*)-acetoxy-7...

  13. Chemical composition of essential oils of leaves, flowers and fruits of Hortia oreadica

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Danillo L.; Ferreira, Heleno D.; Borges, Leonardo L.; Paula, José R.; Tresvenzol, Leonice M.F.; Santos, Pierre A.; Ferri, Pedro H.; Sá, Stone de; Fiuza, Tatiana S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hortia oreadica Groppo, Kallunki & Pirani, Rutaceae, known as “para-tudo”, “quina”, and “quina-do-campo”, is used in traditional medicine locally to treat stomach pain and fevers. The aims of this study were: analyze the chemical composition of essential oils from leaves, flowers and fruits of H. oreadica and verify the seasonal variation of the chemical components of essential oils from leaves. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger type apparatus an...

  14. In situ detection and identification of hesperidin crystals in satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) peel cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Yoshinaga, Arata; Takabe, Keiji; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ogawa, Kazunori; Sakamoto, Masahiro; Azuma, Jun-ichi; Honda, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    [Introduction]Hesperidin, a flavonoid known to have important pharmacological effects, accumulates particularly in the peels of satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). Although histochemical studies have suggested that hesperidin forms crystals in some tissues of the Rutaceae and Umbelliferae, there has been no rigorous in situ detection or identification of hesperidin crystals in C. unshiu. [Objective]To characterise the chemical component of the crystals found in C. unshiu peels using Raman micro...

  15. Constituyentes no polares de la corteza de esenbeckia ahita y actividad antimicrobiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpo García Beltrán

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available De la corteza de Esenbeckia alata (Rutaceae se aislaron cuatro compuestos identificados como: 5-hidroxi-2-metilcromanona aislado por primera vez en vegetales (en este trabajo se completan sus datos espectroscópicos, (--episesamina, la amida pellitonina y sitosterol. La elucidación estructural de estos compuestos se realizó mediante técnicas espectroscópicas (IR. UV. RMN 1H y 13C y EM.

  16. Drug: D00173 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00173 Crude ... Drug Evodia fruit (JP17); Evodia fruit (TN) Evodiamine [CPD:C0918...ne [CPD:C09873], Goshyuic acid, Rutaevin [CPD:C08779], Evodol, Hydroxyevodiamine ... Evodia... rutaecarpa [TAX:354523], Evodia officinalis, Evodia bodinieri, Evodia [TAX:354493] ... Same as: E000...02 Therapeutic category: 5100 ... Rutaceae (rue family) Evodia fruit Major component: Evodiamine [CPD:C09187] ... PubChem: 7847241 ChEBI: 16226 ...

  17. Benzophénanthridines isolées de Zanthoxylum psammophilum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    utilisation de la spectroscopie de RMN 1D (1H et 13C) et 2D (COSY, NOESY, HSQC, HMBC). Le composé 1 a montré une activité antimicrobienne sur S. Aureus. Mots clés: Rutaceae, alcaloïdes, 8-méthoxy-7,8-dihydrofagaridine, 8- acétonyl-7,8- ...

  18. Coumarins and alkaloids in shoot culture of Ruta graveolens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Ekiert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A shoot culture of Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae was maintained in the stationary liquid phase. From the cultured shoots seven compounds were isolated and identified as psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin (linear furanocoumarins, rutamarin (linear dihydrofuranocoumarin, kokusaginine and skimmianine (furanoquinoline alkaloids by spectral methods. The compounds are known as secondary metabolites of the intact plant, as well as its cell and tissue cultures.

  19. 377 Konan et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2011) 8(4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    aurantifolia (Rutaceae) sur le muscle lisse, Taenia coli de cobaye. Rev. Med. Pharm. Afr. 16: 103-112. 35. Souza, A., Aka, K.J., Abo, K.J.C., Datté, Y.J., Traoré, F. and M'Batchi, B. (2007). Myostimulating effect of the aqueous extract of Khaya senegalensis (Desr) A. Juss (Meliaceae) in isolated Taenia caeci contractile activity.

  20. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Th. ME+SA-SI+S-Z. 26.7. Resedaceae. Ochradenus baccatus Delile. Per. Nph. SA-SI. 33.3. Reseda decursiva Forssk. Ann. Th. SA-SI. 6.7. Rutaceae. Haplophyllum tuberculatum (Forssk.) Juss. Per. H. SA-SI. 3.3. Scrophulariaceae. Kickxia aegyptiaca (L.) NÜbelek. Per. Ch. ME+SA-SI. 3.3. Scophularia deserti Delile. Per. Ch.

  1. Morfologia, comportamento, parasitismo e mecanismos de defesa dos imaturos de Heraclides anchisiades capys (Hübner)(Lepidoptera, Papilionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Leite,Luis Anderson Ribeiro; Casagrande,Mirna Martins; Mielke,Olaf Hermann Hendrik

    2010-01-01

    Heraclides anchisiades capys é uma espécie comum de Papilionidae, cujas larvas se alimentam de várias espécies de Citrus spp. (Rutaceae). Neste estudo são descritas a morfologia e dados sobre a história natural dos imaturos através de ilustrações, incluindo fotografias em microscopia eletrônica de varredura.

  2. The effects of host, geographic origin, and gender on the thermal requirements of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Dori E; Gomez-Torres, Mariuxi L; Rodrigues, Marjorie D; Bento, José M S; Haddad, Marinéia L; Parra, José R P

    2010-04-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is the vector of the bacteria that causes citrus greening and is considered one of the world's most important citrus diseases. We examined how host, geographic region, and gender affect the thermal requirements of D. citri. The insects were reared in climatic chambers at constant temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, and 32 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 10% RH, and a 14 h photophase. Host plants for D. citri included orange (Citrus sinensis [Rutaceae]) varieties Pêra and Natal, the rootstock, Rungpur lime (C. limonia [Rutaceae]) and the natural host, Orange jessamine (Murraya paniculata [Rutaceae]). To study the influence of geographic origin on thermal requirements, we studied D. citri populations from Piracicaba, SP (warmer region) and Itapetininga, SP (cooler region). The duration and survival of the development stages and the duration of the total development (egg-adult) did not differ significantly on the different hosts, but it did vary with temperature. Nymphs of D. citri created on the different hosts have the same thermal requirements. The thermal requirements for this species collected from the two climate regions were identical; males and females also had the same thermal requirements.

  3. New limonoids from Hortia oreadica and unexpected coumarin from H. superba using chromatography over cleaning Sephadex with sodium hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severino, Vanessa G P; de Freitas, Sâmya D L; Braga, Patrícia A C; Forim, Moacir Rossi; das G F da Silva, M Fátima; Fernandes, João B; Vieira, Paulo C; Venâncio, Tiago

    2014-08-12

    Previous investigations of H. oreadica reported the presence of a wide spectrum of complex limonoids and dihydrocinnamic acids. Our interest in the Rutaceae motivated a reinvestigation of H. oreadica, H. brasiliana and H. superba searching for other secondary metabolites present in substantial amounts for taxonomic analysis. In a continuation of the investigation of the H. oreadica, three new limonoids have now been isolated 9α-hydroxyhortiolide A, 11β-hydroxyhortiolide C and 1(S*)-acetoxy-7(R*)-hydroxy-7-deoxoinchangin. All the isolated compounds from the Hortia species reinforce its position in the Rutaceae. With regard to limonoids the genus produces highly specialized compounds, whose structural variations do not occur in any other member of the Rutaceae, thus, it is evident from limonoid data that Hortia takes an isolated position within the family. In addition, H. superba afforded the unexpected coumarin 5-chloro-8-methoxy-psoralen, which may not be a genuine natural product. Solid-state cross-polarisation/magic-angle-spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, X-Ray fluorescence and Field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy experiments show that the Sephadex LH-20 was modified after treatment with NaOCl, suggesting that when xanthotoxin (8-methoxy-psoralen) was extracted from cleaning of the gel column, chlorination of the aromatic system occurred.

  4. Development and Evaluation of Herbal Formulations for Hair Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipi Purwal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair formulation of Emblica officinalis (Euphorbiaceae, Bacopa, monnieri (Scrophulariaceae, Trigonella foenumgraecum (Leguminosae, Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae in various concentrations in the form of herbal oil were studied for their hair growth activity. Each drug was tested for their hair growth activity in a concentration range for 1-10% separately. Based on these results mixture of crude drugs Murraya koeniigi, leaf (Rutaceae, Bacopa monnieri, leaf (Scrophulariaceae, Trigonella foenumgraecum (Leguminosae, Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae were prepared in varying concentration in the form of herbal hair oil by three different oils preparation techniques and were tested for hair growth activity. The result revealed that the hair growth activity of each drug was found proportional to the concentration range tested. Similarly higher concentrations of drug in the formulation were found to have higher hair growth activities. But looking towards the formulation viscosity the maximum concentration of combined drug was found to be 30% at their maximum level. The formulation containing 7.5% of each drug used for the study and showed excellent hair growth activity with standard (2% minoxidil ethanolic solution by an enlargement of follicular size and prolongation of the anagen phase. It holds the promise of potent herbal alternative for minoxidil. Excellent results of hair growth were seen in formulation prepared by cloth pouch decoction method of oils preparation technique.

  5. New Limonoids from Hortia oreadica and Unexpected Coumarin from H. superba Using Chromatography over Cleaning Sephadex with Sodium Hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa G.P. Severino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous investigations of H. oreadica reported the presence of a wide spectrum of complex limonoids and dihydrocinnamic acids. Our interest in the Rutaceae motivated a reinvestigation of H. oreadica, H. brasiliana and H. superba searching for other secondary metabolites present in substantial amounts for taxonomic analysis. In a continuation of the investigation of the H. oreadica, three new limonoids have now been isolated 9α-hydroxyhortiolide A, 11β-hydroxyhortiolide C and 1(S*-acetoxy-7(R*-hydroxy-7-deoxoinchangin. All the isolated compounds from the Hortia species reinforce its position in the Rutaceae. With regard to limonoids the genus produces highly specialized compounds, whose structural variations do not occur in any other member of the Rutaceae, thus, it is evident from limonoid data that Hortia takes an isolated position within the family. In addition, H. superba afforded the unexpected coumarin 5-chloro-8-methoxy-psoralen, which may not be a genuine natural product. Solid-state cross-polarisation/magic-angle-spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, X-Ray fluorescence and Field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy experiments show that the Sephadex LH-20 was modified after treatment with NaOCl, suggesting that when xanthotoxin (8-methoxy-psoralen was extracted from cleaning of the gel column, chlorination of the aromatic system occurred.

  6. Synthetic biology and the technicity of biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Adrian

    2013-06-01

    The principal existing real-world application of synthetic biology is biofuels. Several 'next generation biofuel' companies-Synthetic Genomics, Amyris and Joule Unlimited Technologies-claim to be using synthetic biology to make biofuels. The irony of this is that highly advanced science and engineering serves the very mundane and familiar realm of transport. Despite their rather prosaic nature, biofuels could offer an interesting way to highlight the novelty of synthetic biology from several angles at once. Drawing on the French philosopher of technology and biology Gilbert Simondon, we can understand biofuels as technical objects whose genesis involves processes of concretisation that negotiate between heterogeneous geographical, biological, technical, scientific and commercial realities. Simondon's notion of technicity, the degree of concretisation of a technical object, usefully conceptualises this relationality. Viewed in terms of technicity, we might understand better how technical entities, elements, and ensembles are coming into being in the name of synthetic biology. The broader argument here is that when we seek to identify the newness of disciplines, their newness might be less epistemic and more logistic. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nepetalactones from essential oil of Nepeta cataria represent a stable fly feeding and oviposition repellent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J J; Berkebile, D R; Dunlap, C A; Zhang, A; Boxler, D; Tangtrakulwanich, K; Behle, R W; Baxendale, F; Brewer, G

    2012-06-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most serious pests to livestock. It feeds mainly on cattle and causes significant economic losses in the cattle industry. Standard stable fly control involving insecticides and sanitation is usually costly and often has limited effectiveness. As we continue to evaluate and develop safer fly control strategies, the present study reports on the effectiveness of catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) oil and its constituent compounds, nepetalactones, as stable fly repellents. The essential oil of catnip reduced the feeding of stable flies by >96% in an in vitro bioassay system, compared with other sesquiterpene-rich plant oils (e.g. amyris and sandalwood). Catnip oil demonstrated strong repellency against stable flies relative to other chemicals for repelling biting insects, including isolongifolenone, 2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexen-1-carboxamide and (1S,2'S)-2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexen-1-carboxamide. The repellency against stable flies of the most commonly used mosquito repellent, DEET, was relatively low. In field trials, two formulations of catnip oil provided >95% protection and were effective for up to 6 h when tested on cattle. Catnip oil also acted as a strong oviposition repellent and reduced gravid stable fly oviposition by 98%. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Structure-Activity Relationships of New Natural Product-Based Diaryloxazoles with Selective Activity against Androgen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Andrew J; McCowen, Shelby; Cai, Shengxin; Glassman, Michaels; Ruiz, Francisco; Cichewicz, Robert H; McHardy, Stanton F; Mooberry, Susan L

    2017-11-22

    Targeted therapies for ER+/PR+ and HER2-amplified breast cancers have improved patient survival, but there are no therapies for triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) that lack expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER/PR), or amplification or overexpression of HER2. Gene expression profiling of TNBC has identified molecular subtypes and representative cell lines. An extract of the Texas native plant Amyris texana was found to have selective activity against MDA-MB-453 cells, a model of the luminal androgen receptor (LAR) subtype of TNBC. Bioassay-guided fractionation identified two oxazole natural products with selective activity against this cell line. Conducted analog synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies provided analogs with more potent and selective activity against two LAR subtype cell line models, culminating in the discovery of compound 30 (CIDD-0067106). Lead compounds discovered have potent and selective antiproliferative activities, and mechanisms of action studies show they inhibit the activity of the mTORC1 pathway.

  9. Rue the herb: Ruta graveolens--associated phytophototoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhorst, Kimberly; DeLeo, Vincent; Csaposs, Joan

    2007-03-01

    We describe an unusual case of phytophototoxicity induced by an herbal plant, Ruta graveolens, from the Rutaceae family. This common herb, also called rue, can be found throughout rural settings in the United States. When psoralens from rue come in contact with human skin that is subsequently exposed to ultraviolet A light, an impressive photoirritant reaction can occur. This report both clarifies the distinguishing features of photoirritant reactions versus photoallergic reactions and reviews the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of phytophotodermatitis. R. graveolens can be associated with an impressive photoirritant reaction and should not be used as an insect repellent.

  10. Antiplatelet Aggregation Coumarins from the Leaves of Murraya omphalocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Chang Wu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a bioactivity-guided fractionation method, two coumarins: minumicrolineacetonide (1 and epimurpaniculol senecioate (2, were isolated from the leaves ofMurraya omphalocarpa Hayata (Rutaceae. Compound 1 had been previously synthesizedand was now isolated from natural sources for the first time, and compound 2, possessing anegative optical rotation value, is new. The structures and their stereochemistry were fullyelucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic techniques. Bothcompounds 1 and 2 are active in the antiplatelet aggregation assay. Interestingly, thepossible acetonide artifact 1 displayed significant antiplatelet aggregation induced not onlyby AA and collagen but also by platelet activating factor (PAF.

  11. Obtención de pilocarpina a partir de Pilocarpus racemosus Vahl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Payo Hill

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Se inicia el trabajo fitoquímico en Pilocarpus racemosus Vahl. (Rutaceae con la finalidad de conocer el contenido de pilocarpina en esta especie. Se extrajeron 1,4 kg de tallos y 1 kg de hojas por los métodos convencionales, y se cromatografiaron los crudos alcaloidales en columnas, de las cuales se obtuvo 2,3036 y 0,6871 g de pilocarpina pura respectivamente. La identificación del alcaloide se realizó por espectroscopia infrarroja contra patrón y cromatografía de capa fina.

  12. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  13. Isolation and Structural Elucidation of an Unknown compound from Murraya alternans (Kurz)Swingle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mya Aye; Hla Myoe Min; Sein Htun

    2002-02-01

    A new taxon of a species, Murraya alternans (Kurz) Swingle (Myanmar name, Naganaing) the series of Murraya belonging to the family Rutaceae had been recognized by Peter G. Waterman in 1986. However, this species has not been undertaken in botanical, medical, and chemical aspects. In this paper, scientific study on this taxon was chemically carried out for the first time. One of the unknown compounds was isolated from this species by column and high performance liquid chromatographic methods. It's partial structure could also be elucidated by spectral analysis such as IR, MS, H NMR(400MHz), C NMR (100MHz) spectrometry respectively. (author)

  14. Extraction with supercritical fluid and comparison of chemical composition from adults and young leaves of Zanthoxylum tingoassuiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourenço L.B. Santana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants differ in metabolism during their life cycle. In species used as phytotherapics, these changes determine the quality and effectiveness of the product. The aim of this study to evaluate the differences of chemical extracts obtained with supercritical CO2 from young and adult leaves of Zanthoxylum tingoassuiba St.-Hil., Rutaceae, a species used in the folk medicine in Brazil. The chemical composition of the extracts was elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. The results showed difference in the composition of the leaves from Z. tingoassuiba and allowed the determination of parameters for the extraction of α-bisabolol and furanocoumarins in this vegetal matrix.

  15. [Research progress on alkaloids constituents from Zanthoxylum and their pharmacological activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hai-mei; Qiu, Lu; Xie, Zhen-jian; Zou, Liang; Zheng, Jin; Fu, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    There are 250 species of Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) in the world. This genus distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Alkaloids are the major and representative ingredients in these plants including quinolines, isoquinolines, and amide alkaloids, with such biological activities as anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-virus, anti-platelet aggregation, anti-bacteria and anti- oxidant. These species have been used for a long time to treat toothache, urinary and venereal diseases, lumbago and rheumatism. This review summarizes the chemical constituents and pharmacological activities from the Z. sppplants, in an effort to the systematic research and application of the alkaloids of this genus.

  16. Extraction with supercritical fluid and comparison of chemical composition from adults and young leaves of Zanthoxylum tingoassuiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourenço L.B. Santana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants differ in metabolism during their life cycle. In species used as phytotherapics, these changes determine the quality and effectiveness of the product. The aim of this study to evaluate the differences of chemical extracts obtained with supercritical CO2 from young and adult leaves of Zanthoxylum tingoassuiba St.-Hil., Rutaceae, a species used in the folk medicine in Brazil. The chemical composition of the extracts was elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. The results showed difference in the composition of the leaves from Z. tingoassuiba and allowed the determination of parameters for the extraction of α-bisabolol and furanocoumarins in this vegetal matrix.

  17. Harvesting canthinones: identification of the optimal seasonal point of harvest of Zanthoxylum chiloperone leaves as a source of 5-methoxycanthin-6-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrián-Torrejón, Gerardo; Kablan, Landry; Ferreira, Maria Elena; Rodríguez de la Cruz, David; Doménech-Carbó, Antonio; Vera de Bilbao, Ninfa; Rojas de Arias, Antonieta; Figadère, Bruno; Poupon, Erwan; Fournet, Alain

    2015-01-01

    This article is focused on the seasonal variation in the contents of 5-methoxycanthin-6-one from the leaves of Zanthoxylum chiloperone (Rutaceae). Based on the pharmacological interest presented by 5-methoxycanthin-6-one, its seasonal variation in Z. chiloperone leaves was analysed in order to determine the best time for harvesting, optimising the 5-methoxycanthin-6-one content. The seasonal dynamics of canthinone alkaloids can be the key to improve the isolation from natural sustainable sources, such as leaves. Complementarily, this study describes the phytochemistry of leaf from this Ruraceae species.

  18. Drug: D06689 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06689 Crude ... Drug Phellodendron bark (JP17); Powdered phellodendron bark (JP17); Phello...dendron bark (TN) Berberine [CPD:C00757], Palmatine [CPD:C05315], Magnoflorine [CPD:C09581], Phello...esterol [CPD:C01789], Guanidine [CPD:C17349], Candicine [CPD:C10575], Menisperine, 7-Dehydrostigmasterol ... Phello...dendron amurense [TAX:68554], Phellodendron chinense [TAX:354508] ... Same as: E00063 Therapeutic catego...ry: 5100 ... Rutaceae (rue family) Phellodendron bark Major component: Berberine [CPD:C00757] ... PubChem: 47208340 ...

  19. Estudo químico de plantas do gênero Hortia, do fungo Guignardia citricarpa e avaliação de seus potenciais efeitos biológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Gisele Pasqualotto Severino

    2011-01-01

    O estudo químico de plantas do gênero Hortia descrito neste trabalho visou contribuir com a quimiossistemática da família Rutaceae e também com o posicionamento correto do gênero dentro da mesma. O estudo das espécies H. oreadica Groppo, Kallunki e Pirani, H. brasiliana Vand. ex DC. e H. superba Ducke levou ao isolamento de 21 substâncias: dez limonoides, três derivados do ácido diidrocinâmico, cinco alcaloides (dois furoquinolínicos, um 2-quinolona e dois indoloquinazolínicos) e três cumarin...

  20. CONSTITUYENTES QUIMICOS DE Zanthoxylum monophyllum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Cuca S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available De los extractos etanólicos de hojas, corteza y madera de Zanthoxylum monophyllum (Rutaceae se aislaron e identificaron cinco lignanos: sesamina, eudesmina, asarinina, hinokinina y cubebina (mezcla de epímeros; dos alcaloides: y-fagarina y skimmianina; dos terpenos: sltosterol y lupeol; un ácido graso y un éster: ácido oleico y linoleato de etilo; dos acetofenonas: xanthoxylina y 2,4-dihidroxi-6-metoxiacetofenona; tres coumarinas: osthenol, arnottinina y columbianetina. Sus estructuras fueron determinadas por análisis espectroscópico, comparación con muestras auténticas y datos reportados en la literatura.

  1. ALCALOIDES PRESENTES EN Hortia colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Cuca S.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Del extracto etanólico de la madera de Hortia colombiana (Rutaceae se aislaron e identificaron cinco alcaloides que corresponden a: Flindersina, N-metilflindersina, y-Fagarina, Skimmianina y 2,4- Dimetoxiquinolina, Del extracto toluénico de la corteza además de N-metilflindersina, y-Fagarina y Skimmianina se aislaron: Rutecarpina y Hortiacina. Las estructuras de estos alcaloides fueron establecidas por análisis de RMN, incluyendo técnicas bidímensionales, por comparación con muestras auténticas y datos espectroscópicos reportados en la literatura.

  2. N-Methyl-N-styrylcinnamamide (lansamide from Clausena lansium in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Luger

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C18H17NO, was isolated from the seeds of Clausena lansium (wampee (Rutaceae. The X-ray crystal structure analysis confirmed its chemical identity and revealed that it is solvent-free, in contrast to the previously reported monohydrate [Huang, Ou & Tang (2006. Acta Cryst. E62, o1987–o1988]. The molecular structures are practically identical but the molecules pack differently. In contrast to the monohydrate in which the water molecule generates two hydrogen bonds, no such intermolecular contacts are present in the title compound. The dihedral angle between the cinnamamide and the styryl group is 53.1 (1°.

  3. NMR studies of chalcones isolated from Neoraputia magnifica; Estudos por RMN de chalconas isoladas de Neoraputia magnifica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomazela, Daniela M.; Rodrigues Filho, Edson; Silva, M. Fatima das G. F. da; Fernandes, Joao B.; Vieira, Paulo C. [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    1997-12-31

    From Neoraputia magnifica (Rutaceae) we isolated two chalcones belonging to the 1,3-diarylprop-2-en-1-one group. The two chalcones presented two or three methoxyl groups at ring B; a dimethychromene between C-5`and O-6`and also an additional methoxyl at ring A. It has been noted that H-{beta} and C-{beta} of a chalcone are more deshielded than H-{alpha}. However, HMOC and HMBC experiments of the chalcones described here showed the opposite situation where H-{alpha} is more deshielded than H-{beta}. (author) 5 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Avaliação de furanocumarinas como inibidores da fotossíntese através de ensaios de fluorescência da clorofila a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olívia Moreira Sampaio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluations of Chorophyll a fluorescence emitted by superior plants carry structural information and photosynthetic apparatus function. Quantitative analysis apparatus of fluorescence kinetic were measured by energy flows (ABS, (TR, (ET and (DI, known as phenomenological phenomena of OJIP test. Four furocoumarins were isolated from Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae, and chorophyll a (Chl a fluorescence assays were performed with these compounds to evaluate the photosynthesis inhibition potential. This test was realized in spinach`s leaf discs and in Lolium perenne leaves. The results indicated the herbicide potential mainly for bergapten and chalepin.

  5. Indole and carbazole alkaloids from Glycosmis montana with weak anti-HIV and cytotoxic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junsong; Zheng, Yongtang; Efferth, Thomas; Wang, Ruirui; Shen, Yuemao; Hao, Xiaojiang

    2005-03-01

    A diprenylated indole, (E)-3-(3-hydroxymethyl-2-butenyl)-7-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1H-indole (1), and six known carbazole alkaloids were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Glycosmis montana Pierre (Rutaceae). Their structures were determined on the basis of analysis of spectral evidence including 1D and 2D NMR and MS. The alkaloids (1-3) exhibited weak to moderate take in vitro inhibitory activity against HIV replication in C8166 cells, and they (as well as carbalexine A and B) had cytotoxic activity against the human leukaemia cell line CCRF-CEM.

  6. Convenient synthesis of 2,2-Dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2 H-pyrano[2,3- b]quinolines

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parsekar, S.B.; Amonkar, C.P.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Tilve, S.G.

    (Rutaceae), a small Brazilian tree is a rich source of pyrano[2,3-b]quinolines and furo[2,3-b]quinolines. [4] The extract of this plant is used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal ailments. [5] Flindersin (1), ribalinine (2... and the residue was purified by column chromatography (silica gel, hexanes-EtOAc, 9:1) to give pure 4a-d. Data (3E)-6,6-Dimethyl-3-[(2-nitrophenyl)methylidene]tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-one (4a) Yield: 85%; white solid; mp 96-98 o C. IR (KBr): 1692 cm -1 (C...

  7. A new species of Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae from Brazil Uma nova espécie de Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro C. Strikis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., is described and illustrated. This new species was found in the south of Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, in the southeast (State of São Paulo and center west (State of Mato Grosso do Sul. It has been reared from fruits of guava (Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae, "araçá" (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae, "guabiroba" (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae, Surinam cherry (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae, cherry (Prunus avium, Rosaceae, orange (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae, "ingá" (Inga laurina, Fabaceae, "esporão-de-galo" (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae.Uma nova espécie de Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., é descrita e ilustrada. Esta nova espécie foi encontrada no sul do Brasil (Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina, no sudeste (Estado de São Paulo e na região centro-oeste (Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. Foi obtida de frutos de goiaba (Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae, araçá (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae, guabiroba (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae, acerola (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae, cereja (Prunus avium, Rosaceae, laranja (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae, ingá (Inga laurina, Fabaceae, esporão-de-galo (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae e maracujá (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae.

  8. Profiles of free and bound phenolics extracted from Citrus fruits and their roles in biological systems: content, and antioxidant, anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Rababah, Taha; Alhamad, Mohammad N; Al-Mahasneh, Majdi A; Ereifej, Khalil; Al-Karaki, Ghazi; Al-Duais, Mohammed; Andrade, Juan E; Tranchant, Carole C; Kubow, Stan; Ghozlan, Kawther A

    2017-09-20

    This study of selected plants of the Rutaceae family was carried out to investigate their phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and the in vitro inhibitory potential of extracted phenolics towards enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity and phenolic extract-mediated inhibitory activities for α-glucosidase and α-amylase were evaluated by spectrophotometry. The content of individual phenolics and the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of the phenolic extracts were evaluated by LC/MS-MS and RP-HPLC methods, respectively. A higher percentage of free phenolic content was seen for all the selected plants of the Rutaceae family (85.43-92.82% of the total phenolic content) than of the bound form (7.18-14.57% of total phenolic content). The major predominant bound phenolic in lemon and red blood orange was hesperidin. The major predominant bound phenolic in pummelo, shamouti and clementine was ferulic acid. The highest ACE and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the extracted phenolics from lemon was associated with free phenolic extracts obtained at 30 °C with values of 100% inhibition. Red blood orange free phenolic extract (30 °C) elicited the highest α-amylase inhibition activity (32.3%). In contrast, extracted bound phenolics after acid and base hydrolysis from all selected plants from the Citrus species were shown to induce activation of the ACE and α-amylase enzymes.

  9. Molecular phylogeny of swallowtail butterflies of the tribe Papilionini (Papilionidae, Lepidoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, J; Legal, L; Descimon, H; Michel, F

    1999-07-01

    Swallowtail butterflies of the tribe Papilionini number about 225 species and are currently used as model organisms in several research areas, including genetics, chemical ecology and phylogenetics of host plant utilization and mimicry, mechanisms of speciation, and conservation. We have inferred phylogenetic relationships for a sample of 18 species of the genus Papilio (sensu lato) and five outgroup taxa by sequencing two stretches of mitochondrial DNA that correspond to segments 12886-13370 and 12083-12545 of Drosophila melanogaster mitochondrial DNA and consist of sections of the genes for the large ribosomal RNA and subunit 1 of NADH-dehydrogenase. Our data support the monophyly of Papilio and, within it, of several traditionally recognized subgroups. Species belonging to groups that utilize primarily Rutaceae as larval foodplants form two clusters, corresponding to Old World and American taxa, respectively, while two previously recognized clades-of American and South Asian-Austronesian origin-whose members were known to feed mostly on Lauraceae and Magnoliaceae, are observed to form a clade. The sister group of Papilio is found to be the South Asian genus Meandrusa, which also happens to feed on Lauraceae. The latter plant family is therefore the probable larval host of the ancestor Papilio and the shift to Rutaceae (which four-fifths of extant Papilio species use as foodplants) is more likely to have occurred only after the initial diversification of the genus. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  10. Effects of temperature and food on the development of Dysdercus maurus Distant (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Fabio Souto; Goncalves, Lenicio

    2007-01-01

    Dysdercus maurus Distant, 1901 (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae) is an important pest on Gossypium spp. (cotton tree), Citrus sinensis Osbeck (Rutaceae) and Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae) crops. This insect also feeds on seeds of Chorisia speciosa St. Hil. (Bombacaceae). This work aimed to evaluate the effects of temperature and food on the development of D. maurus. Eight treatments were carried out, in six of them bugs were fed with seeds of C. speciosa and kept at 15, 18, 20, 25 and 30 ± 1 deg C, 80 ± 3% RH and 12h photo phase or in laboratory conditions (23.5 ± 2.6 deg C, 73.3 ± 9.9 % RH), and in the other two treatments bugs were fed with seeds of cotton variety IAC-22 and kept at 25 or 30 deg C. In all treatments five immature stages were observed. The increase of temperature caused reduction in the developmental time. The temperature of 15 deg C disabled nymphal eclosion and was also lethal to those nymphs ecloded at other temperatures. The lower mortality of nymphs occurred in the temperature of 25 deg C with cotton as food (24.07%). The lower threshold temperature (Tb) occurred for the first instar (11.54 deg C) and the higher for the second instar (15.33 deg C). The females of D. maurus required more degree-days (329.93 degree-days) than males (300.49 degree-days) until adult emergence. (author)

  11. A Method for LC-MS/MS Profiling of Coumarins in Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam. B. Zepernich and Timler Extracts and Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoro Tine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolites from the coumarin class, present in tissues of plants belonging mainly to the Rutaceae and Apiaceae families, included compounds with high chemical diversity such as simple coumarins and furocoumarins. These health-promoting components are recognized for their valuable biological activities in herbal preparations but also for their phototoxic effects. In this work, a targeted liquid chromatography (LC coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS2 was developed for the screening of 39 reference standards of coumarins and furocoumarins in essential oils and plant extracts. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on reversed phase column using water/acetonitrile as the mobile phase and detection was performed on a hybrid QqQ/linear ion trap spectrometer fitted with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI source operating in positive ion mode. This analytical approach was applied to investigate the coumarin compositions of fruit essential oils and methanolic extracts obtained from separated parts (fruit, leaf, stem, trunk, and root of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides. Ten coumarins and six furanocoumarins were reported in this species and data analyses were used to assess the suitability of these compounds to the metabolomics-based differentiation of plant organs. The quantification criteria of the metabolites in extract samples included linearity, limit of quantification, limit of detection, and matrix effect were validated. As reported for other species of the Rutaceae family, the concentration of coumarins was drastically higher in Z. zanthoxyloides fruits than in other plant organs.

  12. A Method for LC-MS/MS Profiling of Coumarins in Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) B. Zepernich and Timler Extracts and Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tine, Yoro; Renucci, Franck; Costa, Jean; Wélé, Alassane; Paolini, Julien

    2017-01-22

    The metabolites from the coumarin class, present in tissues of plants belonging mainly to the Rutaceae and Apiaceae families, included compounds with high chemical diversity such as simple coumarins and furocoumarins. These health-promoting components are recognized for their valuable biological activities in herbal preparations but also for their phototoxic effects. In this work, a targeted liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS²) was developed for the screening of 39 reference standards of coumarins and furocoumarins in essential oils and plant extracts. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on reversed phase column using water/acetonitrile as the mobile phase and detection was performed on a hybrid QqQ/linear ion trap spectrometer fitted with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source operating in positive ion mode. This analytical approach was applied to investigate the coumarin compositions of fruit essential oils and methanolic extracts obtained from separated parts (fruit, leaf, stem, trunk, and root) of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides . Ten coumarins and six furanocoumarins were reported in this species and data analyses were used to assess the suitability of these compounds to the metabolomics-based differentiation of plant organs. The quantification criteria of the metabolites in extract samples included linearity, limit of quantification, limit of detection, and matrix effect were validated. As reported for other species of the Rutaceae family, the concentration of coumarins was drastically higher in Z. zanthoxyloides fruits than in other plant organs.

  13. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts.

  14. Usos en medicina folclórica, actividad biológica y fitoquímica de metabolitos secundarios de algunas especies del género Zanthoxylum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Enríque Macias Villamizar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSegún el Herbario Nacional de Colombia de la familia Rutaceae en Colombia se encuentran 150 géneros y 900 especies (1, de las cuales muchas han sido utilizada no sólo en la medicina folklórica (2, 3, 4, 5 en tratamientos digestivos, tónico estomático, diuréticos, sedativos entre otros; sino también determinada su actividad biológica como antiplasmódico y citotóxico (5. En la familia Rutaceae se encuentra el género Zanthoxylum (6, del cual también se utiliza en medicina folklórica que incluyen tratamientos contra la tos, enteritis, diarrea, resfriado, reumatismo y ulceraciones (7, 8, 9, 10, 11; también se ha ensayado su actividad biológica donde se encontró ser efectiva, entre otras, a nivel: antimicrobial (7, 8, 9; citotóxica (12,13; Antiagregación plaquetaria (14, 15, y antitumoral (16. La amplia gama de usos etnobotánicos y farmacológicos convierte a los extractos (o compuestos aislados del género Zanthoxylum en materia prima a utilizar en el desarrollo de ensayos para evaluar la actividad biológica, la cual está asociada a la riqueza de metabolitos secundarios tales como alcaloides, lignanos, terpenos, flavonoides, cumarinas, entre otros; convirtiendo al género Zanthoxylum en objeto de estudió fitoquímico promisorio.En este artículo se realiza un aporte al estudió del género Zanthoxylum, en aspectos relacionados con su fitoquímica, sus usos en medicina folclórica y su actividad biológica; y en consecuencia un aporte pertinente al conocimiento en la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, debido a la actual tendencia de recurrir a medicina natural para el desarrollo de medicamentos de relativo bajo costo y con mayor probabilidad de adquisición del mismo. (Duazary 2007; 2: 140 - 159AbstractAccording to the Herbarium National of Colombia the Rutaceae family in Colombia are 150 genus and 900 species (1, of which many have been used not only in the folkloric medicine (2, 3, 4, 5 in digestive treatments, stomatic

  15. Polygamain, a New Microtubule Depolymerizing Agent That Occupies a Unique Pharmacophore in the Colchicine Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, R. M.; Peng, J.; Fest, G. A.; Dakshanamurthy, S.; Frantz, D. E.; Brown, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation was used to isolate the lignan polygamain as the microtubule-active constituent in the crude extract of the Mountain torchwood, Amyris madrensis. Similar to the effects of the crude plant extract, polygamain caused dose-dependent loss of cellular microtubules and the formation of aberrant mitotic spindles that led to G2/M arrest. Polygamain has potent antiproliferative activities against a wide range of cancer cell lines, with an average IC50 of 52.7 nM. Clonogenic studies indicate that polygamain effectively inhibits PC-3 colony formation and has excellent cellular persistence after washout. In addition, polygamain is able to circumvent two clinically relevant mechanisms of drug resistance, the expression of P-glycoprotein and the βIII isotype of tubulin. Studies with purified tubulin show that polygamain inhibits the rate and extent of purified tubulin assembly and displaces colchicine, indicating a direct interaction of polygamain within the colchicine binding site on tubulin. Polygamain has structural similarities to podophyllotoxin, and molecular modeling simulations were conducted to identify the potential orientations of these compounds within the colchicine binding site. These studies suggest that the benzodioxole group of polygamain occupies space similar to the trimethoxyphenyl group of podophyllotoxin but with distinct interactions within the hydrophobic pocket. Our results identify polygamain as a new microtubule destabilizer that seems to occupy a unique pharmacophore within the colchicine site of tubulin. This new pharmacophore will be used to design new colchicine site compounds that might provide advantages over the current agents. PMID:22169850

  16. Effects of Alternative Fuels and Aromatics on Gas-Turbine Particle Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, K. L., II; Moore, R.; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.; Klettlinger, J. L.; Ross, R. C.; Surgenor, A.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation describes experiments conducted with a Honeywell GTCP36-150 Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) to evaluate the effects of varying fuel composition on particle emissions. The APU uses a single-stage compressor stage, gas turbine engine with a can-type combustor to generate bypass flow and electrical power for supporting small aircraft and helicopters. It is installed in a "hush-house" at NASA Glenn Research Center and is configured as a stand-alone unit that can be fueled from an onboard tank or external supply. It operates at constant RPM, but its fuel flow can be varied by changing the electrical load or volume of bypass flow. For these tests, an external bank of resistors were attached to the APU's DC and AC electrical outlets and emissions measurements were made at low, medium and maximum electrical current loads. Exhaust samples were drawn from several points downstream in the exhaust duct and fed to an extensive suite of gas and aerosol sensors installed within a mobile laboratory parked nearby. Aromatic- and sulfur-free synthetic kerosenes from Rentech, Gevo, UOP, Amyris and Sasol were tested and their potential to reduce PM emissions evaluated against a single Jet A1 base fuel. The role of aromatic compounds in regulating soot emissions was also evaluated by adding metered amounts of aromatic blends (Aro-100, AF-Blend, SAK) and pure compounds (tetracontane and 1-methylnaphthalene) to a base alternative fuel (Sasol). Results show that, relative to Jet A1, alternative fuels reduce nonvolatile particle number emissions by 50-80% and--by virtue of producing much smaller particles—mass emissions by 65-90%; fuels with the highest hydrogen content produced the greatest reductions. Nonvolatile particle emissions varied in proportion to fuel aromatic content, with additives containing the most complex ring structures producing the greatest emission enhancements.

  17. Botanical novelties from Sierra de Maigualida, southern Venezuela. II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grande, José R.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Four new species, Siphocampylus acanthidiotrichus J.R. Grande (Campanulaceae, Phyllanthus huberi Riina & P.E. Berry (Phyllanthaceae, Sohnreyia maigualidensis J.R. Grande & Kallunki (Rutaceae, and Turnera maigualidensis J.R. Grande & Arbo (Turneraceae are described and illustrated from the summit areas of Sierra de Maigualida in the Gua - yana Highlands of southern Venezuela. To date, one genus, 32 spe cies, one subspecies, and one variety of angiosperms are known only from the Maigualida meadows and shrublands, between 1800 m and the highest elevation areas at 2400 m. Here we describe the first iteroparous species for the genus Sohnreyia K. Krause, a Turnera L. species with apically villose, apiculate petals, and a Siphocampylus Pohl species with aculeiform hairs and pinnatisect leaves. The new species, Siphocampylus acanthidiotrichus, together with S. Tillettii Steyerm., represents a morphologically distinct subgroup within the genus.

    Se describen e ilustran cuatro especies nuevas procedentes de las cumbres de la Sierra de Maigualida: Siphocampylus acanthidiotrichus J.R. Grande (Campanulaceae, Phyllanthus huberi Riina & P.E. Berry (Phyllanthaceae, Sohnreyia maigualidensis J.R. Grande & Kallunki (Rutaceae y Turnera maigualidensis J.R. Grande & Arbo (Turneraceae. Hasta ahora un género, 32 especies, una subespecie y una variedad de angiospermas se conocen exclusivamente de la Sierra de Maigualida, y todas ellas proceden de herbazales y arbustales desarrollados entre los 1800 m y las áreas más altas, a 2400 m. Aquí, se describen por primera vez una especie iterópara del género Sohnreyia K. Krause (Rutaceae, una especie de Turnera L. con pétalos apiculados apicalmente vilosos y una especie de Siphocampylus Pohl con pelos aculeiformes y hojas pinnatisectas. La nueva especie Siphocampylus acanthidiotrichus representa

  18. Validation of use of a traditional antimalarial remedy from French Guiana, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullian, V; Bourdy, G; Georges, S; Maurel, S; Sauvain, M

    2006-07-19

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium bark (Rutaceae) is a medicinal plant, traditionally used in French Guiana to treat and prevent malaria. Bioassay-guided extractions of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium bark have shown that antiplasmodial activity is concentrated in the alkaloid fraction. Further fractionation of this extract has yielded seven benzophenanthridine alkaloids, dihydroavicine 1, dihydronitidine 2, oxyavicine 3, oxynitidine 4, fagaridine 5, avicine 6 and nitidine 7. Antimalarial activity of the last five compounds has been evaluated, and nitidine was the most potent, displaying an IC(50)<0.27microM against Plasmodium falciparum. Investigation of the traditional remedy, a trunk bark decoction in water, has shown that fagaridine 5, avicine 6 and nitidine 7 are also present in the decoction, therefore justifying the traditional use of Zanthoxylumrhoifolium bark as antimalarial.

  19. Fungistatic activity of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. bark extracts against fungal plant pathogens and investigation on mechanism of action in Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenuto, Gennaro; Carrieri, Raffaele; Tarantino, Paola; Alfieri, Mariaevelina; Leone, Antonella; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Lahoz, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived compounds are emerging as an alternative choice to synthetic fungicides. Chloroform-methanol extract, obtained from the bark of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium, a member of Rutaceae, showed a fungistatic effect on Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Clonostachys rosea, when added to the growth medium at different concentrations. A fraction obtained by gel separation and containing the alkaloid O-Methylcapaurine showed significant fungistatic effect against B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum, two of the most destructive phytopathogenic fungi. The underlying mechanism of such an inhibition was further investigated in B. cinerea, a fungus highly prone to develop fungicide resistance, by analysing the expression levels of a set of genes (BcatrB, P450, CYP51 and TOR). O-Methylcapaurine inhibited the expression of all the analysed genes. In particular, the expression of BcatrB gene, encoding a membrane drug transporter involved in the resistance to a wide range of xenobiotic compounds, was strongly inhibited (91%).

  20. Antigenotoxic effects of Citrus aurentium L. fruit peel oil on mutagenicity of two alkylating agents and two metals in the Drosophila wing spot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Eşref; Kocaoğlu, Serap; Cetin, Huseyin; Kaya, Bülent

    2009-07-01

    Antigenotoxic effects of Citrus aurentium L. (Rutaceae) fruit peel oil (CPO) in combination with mutagenic metals and alkylating agents were studied using the wing spot test of D. melanogaster. The four reference mutagens, potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), cobalt chloride (CoCl2), ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS), and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) were clearly genotoxic. CPO alone at doses from 0.1 to 0.5% in Tween 80 was not mutagenic and did not enhance the mutagenic effect of the reference mutagens. However, antigenotoxic effects of CPO were clearly demonstrated in chronic cotreatments with mutagens and oil, by a significant decrease in wing spots induced by all four mutagens. The D. melanogaster wing spot test was found to be a suitable assay for detecting antigenotoxic effects in vivo. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. In vitro pollen germination of five citrus species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.; Perveen, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of present study is In vitro germination of the pollen grains of five Citrus species belonging to the family Rutaceae viz., Citrus aurantium L. var., aurantium Hook.f., C. limon (L.) Brum. f., C. paradisii Macfad, C. reticulata Blanco and C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck. using hanging drop technique. The germination was checked up to 48 weeks, for the pollen stored at different temperatures like 4 degree C, -20 degree C, -30 degree C and -60 degree C. The study indicates that low temperature and low relative humidity is better than high temperature and humidity with respect to pollen germination capacity and viability. Freeze dryer (-60 degree C) seems to be the best method to maintain pollen viability of stored pollen grains for a long period of time. Among five species Citrus aurantium, C. limon and C. sinensis showed high percentage of germination as compared to C. reticulata and C. paradisii. (author)

  2. Chemical Evidence for Potent Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Citrus aurantium L. Dried Immature Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Xanthine oxidase is a key enzyme which can catalyze hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid causing hyperuricemia in humans. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of 24 organic extracts of four species belonging to Citrus genus of the family Rutaceae were assayed in vitro. Since the ethyl acetate extract of C. aurantium dried immature fruits showed the highest xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity, chemical evidence for the potent inhibitory activity was clarified on the basis of structure identification of the active constituents. Five flavanones and two polymethoxyflavones were isolated and evaluated for inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase in vitro. Of the compounds, hesperetin showed more potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 16.48 μM. For the first time, this study provides a rational basis for the use of C. aurantium dried immature fruits against hyperuricemia.

  3. Atividade antibacteriana em alguns extratos de vegetais do semi-árido brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S Novais

    Full Text Available Espécies nativas ou endêmicas do semi-árido brasileiro foram investigadas com o intuito de se descobrir novas drogas antimicrobianas. Os ensaios foram realizados contra cepas padrões de Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli através do método de difusão em disco. Dos 137 extratos de vegetais avaliados, sete apresentaram atividade significativa contra o Staphylococcus aureus. Os extratos ativos foram preparados a partir de espécies pertencentes às famílias Leguminosae e Rutaceae e serão futuramente fracionados com o intuito de se chegar às moléculas ativas.

  4. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Marsaro Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit (Fabaceae, Morus nigra L. (Moraceae, Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae, Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae, Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae, Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae, in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  5. Fur rubbing behavior in free-ranging black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C J

    2000-07-01

    Members of the population of black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, use the leaves of three Rutaceae species in a behavior that resembles fur rubbing in the white faced capuchin (Cebus capucinus). This behavior has not been reported from other sites where Ateles has been studied. During more than 1,200 hours of observation, 30 episodes of this behavior were recorded ad libitum. Adult males engage in this behavior more than adult females. Season did not impact the frequency of the behavior. The behavior described here differs in many respects from that reported for Cebus capucinus, and does not fit the hypotheses that the behavior functions in repelling insects or other antiseptic purposes. It is proposed that fur rubbing in this group of spider monkeys is a modification of a behavior previously recorded in Ateles and may function in scent marking.

  6. A new quinoline alkaloid from the roots of Dictamnus angustifolius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian-Bo; Qu, Wei; Guan, Fu-Qin; Li, Lin-Zhen; Liang, Jing-Yu

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the quinoline alkaloids from the roots of Dictamnus angustifolius G.Don ex Sweet (Rutaceae). The quinoline alkaloids were isolated by various column chromatographic methods and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis. A new quinoline alkaloid, 5-methoxylrobustine (1), along with five known quinoline alkaloids were obtained, and their structures were identified as dictamnine (2), robustine (3), isopteleine (4), γ-fagarine (5), and skimmianine (6). Cytotoxicity testing of these alkaloids showed that all of them had weak cytotoxic activities against human breast cancer cells (MCF7). Compound 1 is a new quinoline alkaloid. Alkaloid 3 showed stronger anti-proliferation effect than the other alkaloids. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemoprotective influence of Zanthoxylum sps. on hepatic carcinogen metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes and skin papillomagenesis in murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamani, Paulraj; Banerjeet, Sanjeev; Rao, A Ramesha

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, the putative potential of pericarp of dried fruit of Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae Family), a common spice additive in India's west coast cuisines, in protecting against carcinogenesis has been reported. Extract from dried fruit of Zanthoxylum was orally administered to mice at two dose levels: 100 and 200 mg/kg body wt. for 14 days. Results reveal bifunctional nature of Zanthoxylum species as deduced from its potential to induce phase-I and phase-II enzyme activities associated with carcinogen activation and detoxification in the liver of mice. Hepatic glutathione S-transferase and DT-diaphorase were found significantly elevated by the treatment. Zanthoxylum was also effective in augmenting the antioxidant enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase albeit significantly by high dose of the extract (P Zanthoxylum on initiated mouse skin. Results showed a significant reduction in tumor incidence from 68% to 36% (P Zanthoxylum sps.

  8. A New Megastigmane Sesquiterpenoid from Zanthoxylum Schinifolium Sieb. et Zucc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Linzhen; Wang, Kongchao; Wang, Zhenzhen; Liu, Junjun; Wang, Kaiping; Zhang, Jinwen; Luo, Zengwei; Xue, Yongbo; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yonghui

    2016-03-19

    Zanthoxylum schinifolium Sieb. et Zucc. (Rutaceae), a dioecious shrub with hooked prickly branches, has been used as folk medicine for the treatment of the common cold, stomach ache, diarrhea, and jaundice in China, Korea, and Japan. In our phytochemical investigations on this genus, a new megastigmane sesquiterpenoid, which is referred to as schinifolenol A (1), was isolated from Z. schinifolium. The stereochemistry was characterized via the analyses of extensive spectra. The absolute configuration was established by the application of a modified Mosher's experiment and assisted by a time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) on calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD). Bioactivity screenings showed that compound 1 exhibited a safe hypotoxicity and a better selectivity on anti-Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpes virus (KSHV).

  9. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Zanthoxylum piperitum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghoon; Lee, Hyeon Ju; Kim, Kyunghee; Lee, Sang-Choon; Sung, Sang Hyun; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2016-09-01

    The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Zanthoxylum piperitum, a plant species with useful aromatic oils in family Rutaceae, was generated in this study by de novo assembly with whole-genome sequence data. The chloroplast genome was 158 154 bp in length with a typical quadripartite structure containing a pair of inverted repeats of 27 644 bp, separated by large single copy and small single copy of 85 340 bp and 17 526 bp, respectively. The chloroplast genome harbored 112 genes consisting of 78 protein-coding genes 30 tRNA genes and 4 rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete chloroplast genome sequences with those of known relatives revealed that Z. piperitum is most closely related to the Citrus species.

  10. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eNavarra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as Bergamot, is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy. Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO, employed in perfume, cosmetics, food and confections.The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on Citrus bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysis, focus on safety and the beneficial effects on human health. Clinical studies on the therapeutic applications of BEO exclusively focus on the field of aromatherapy, suggesting that its use can be useful for reducing anxiety and stress.

  11. Phytophotodermatitis in Rijeka region, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenković, Maja; Cabrijan, Leo; Gruber, Franjo; Saftić, Marina; Stanić Zgombić, Zrinka; Stasić, Adalbert; Peharda, Vesna

    2008-10-01

    Contact with plants can cause phototoxic or rarely photoallergic reactions. Phototoxic dermatitis (photophytodermatitis) occurs after contact or ingestion of plants containing furocumarins i.e. psoralens and followed by sun exposure. Skin lesions develop usually after 24-48 hours with erythema, bulla formation, itch or pain, followed by a long lasting hyperpigmentation. Furocumarins can be linear i.e. psoralens (5-MOP, 8-MOP), or angular like angelicin and pimpinellin. Their binding to DNA causes cellular damage. This can happen in florists, gardeners, farmers, horticulturists, food handlers, and botanists. The plants causing phototoxic reaction can vary with the local flora but are commonly a member of the family apiaceae (formerly umbelliferae), family rutaceae, leguminosae and moraceae. The authors give special consideration to the phytophotodermatitis that appeared in their region in spring and summer during a three year period.

  12. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Y Chaudhari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Citrus jambhiri Lush., commonly known as Jambīra Nimbū in Sanskrit is medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon and belonging to the family Rutaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used in many pharmaceutical procedures of purification (Śodhana, calcination (Māraṇa etc., Though it is an important plant, till date, no pharmacognostical reports have been available on its fruit. Materials and Methods: Study of fruit and its powder, histochemical tests and preliminary physicochemical investigations were done. Results and Conclusion: Results showed prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, aerenchyma cells, oil globules, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels, juicy sac, etc., Preliminary physicochemical analysis revealed loss on drying (1.1%, ash value (1.4%, alcohol soluble extract (28.6%, and water soluble extract (53.3%. These observations can be of use in future studies.

  13. Leaf-cutting ants toxicity of limonexic acid and degraded limonoids from Raulinoa echinata: X-ray structure of epoxy-fraxinellone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biavatti, Maique W.; Westerlon, Rosangela [Universidade do Vale do Itajai, SC (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: maique@univali.br; Vieira, Paulo C.; Silva, M. Fatima G.F. da; Fernandes, Joao B. [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Penaflor, M. Fernanda G.V.; Bueno, Odair C. [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos de Insetos Sociais; Ellena, Javier [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2005-11-15

    Phytochemical survey of roots extracts of the South Brazilian endemic plant Raulinoa echinata Cowan, Rutaceae led to the isolation of known degraded limonoids: fraxinellone, fraxinellonone and epoxy-fraxinellone. The latter was previously isolated also from the stems, but the relative configuration could not be solved by NMR experiments. This paper deals with the X-ray diffraction analysis of epoxy-fraxinellone and its toxicity to leaf-cutting ants, describes the isolation of fraxinellonone and fraxinellone for the first time in Raulinoa. Epoxy-fraxinellone showed no toxicity to the leaf-cutting ants (Atta sexdens rubropilosa). The limonoid limonexic acid, isolated from stems, presented high toxicity to the leaf-cutting ants, diminishing considerably their longevity. (author)

  14. New pyrone and quinoline alkaloid from Almeidea rubra and their trypanocidal activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrozin, Alessandra R.P.; Mafezoli, Jair; Vieira, Paulo C.; Fernandes, Joao B.; Silva, M. Fatima das G.F. da [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: paulo@dq.ufscar.br; Ellena, Javier A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Albuquerque, Sergio de [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas, Bromatologicas

    2005-05-15

    The investigation of the ethyl acetate fraction of methanol extract from leaves of Almeidea rubra A. St.-Hil. (Rutaceae) afforded two new compounds 4-methoxy-6-[2-(methylamino)phenyl]-2Hpyran- 2-one and rel-(7R,8R)-8-[(E)-3-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-butenyl]-4,8-dimethoxy-5,6,7,8- tetrahydrofuro[2,3-b]quinoline-7-yl acetate, along with the known compounds arborinine, N-methyl- 1-hydroxy-3-methoxyacridone, skimmianine, kokusagine, isodutaduprine, isoskimmianine, and isokokusagine. Their structures were established based on their spectral data, and for the new compounds these data are described herein. Additionally, these compounds were assayed on the tripomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi showing moderate trypanocidal activity. (author)

  15. Screening of Trypanosoma cruzi glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Leite

    Full Text Available The inhibitory activity of crude extracts of Meliaceae and Rutaceae plants on glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH enzyme from Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated at 100 μg/mL. Forty-six extracts were tested and fifteen of them showed significant inhibitory activity (IA % > 50. The majority of the assayed extracts of Meliaceae plants (Cedrela fissilis, Cipadessa fruticosa and Trichilia ramalhoi showed high ability to inhibit the enzymatic activity. The fractionation of the hexane extract from branches of C. fruticosa led to the isolation of three flavonoids: flavone, 7-methoxyflavone and 3',4',5',5,7-pentamethoxyflavone. The two last compounds showed high ability to inhibit the gGAPDH activity. Therefore, the assayed Meliaceae species could be considered as a promising source of lead compounds against Chagas' disease.

  16. Pharmacological properties of citrus and their ancient and medieval uses in the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Beatriz Alvarez; Ramón-Laca, Luis

    2005-02-10

    This paper reviews the pharmacological properties of Mediterranean-grown citrus species (Citrus L., Rutaceae), including citron (Citrus medica L.), lime (Citrus xauantiifolia [Christm.] Swingle), lemon (Citrus xlimon [L.] Osbeck), bitter orange (Citrus xaurantium L.) and pomelo (Citrus maxima [Burm.] Merr.), as referred to in ancient, medieval and 16th century sources. The virtues of the species reported in these texts were compared to those known to modern science. A much broader spectrum of pharmacological properties was recorded by these early writers than one might expect. The use of the citron and lemon as antidotes for 'poison and venom' is recorded in the very earliest material. According to modern scientific literature the citron and the bitter orange may possess anti-cancer activity, lime may have an immunomodulatory effect in humans, and the pomelo may be useful for treating circulatory problems. Lemons might even ease hangover symptoms. Research is required to confirm these properties.

  17. Targeting excessive free radicals with peels and juices of citrus fruits: grapefruit, lemon, lime and orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Sousa, M João; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study between the antioxidant properties of peel (flavedo and albedo) and juice of some commercially grown citrus fruit (Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrusxaurantiifolia) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) was performed. Different in vitro assays were applied to the volatile and polar fractions of peels and to crude and polar fraction of juices: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation using beta-carotene-linoleate model system in liposomes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay in brain homogenates. Reducing sugars and phenolics were the main antioxidant compounds found in all the extracts. Peels polar fractions revealed the highest contents in phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and reducing sugars, which certainly contribute to the highest antioxidant potential found in these fractions. Peels volatile fractions were clearly separated using discriminant analysis, which is in agreement with their lowest antioxidant potential. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular docking for thrombolytic activity of some isolated compounds from Clausena lansium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkajyoti Paul

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Clausena lansium (Family- Rutaceae is commonly known as wampee, is found in fallow lands throughout Bangladesh. Our aim of the study to performed molecular docking studies to identify potential binding affinities of the phytocompounds from Clausena lansium, namely Clausemarin B, Clausenaline C, Clausenaline E, Murrayanine, vanillic acid and Xanthotoxol for searching of lead molecule for thrombolytic activity. A wide range of docking score found during molecular docking by Schrodinger. Clausemarin B , Clausenaline C , Clausenaline E, Murrayanine , vanillic acid and Xanthotoxol showed the docking score -6.926, -4.041, -4.889 , -4.356, -3.007 and -5.816 respectively. Among all the compounds Clausemarin B showed the best docking score. So, Clausemarin B is the best compounds for thrombolytic activity, as it possessed the best value in Molecular docking. Further in vivo investigation need to identify the thrombolytic activity of isolated compounds from Clausena lansium.

  19. Ethnopharmacological study of medicinal plants used in Rosário da Limeira, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helaine B. de Oliveira

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the popular knowledge on the use of medicinal plants and the contribution in the preservation of medicinal flora, the present work aims to rescue and organize such knowledge on medicinal species and its relation with therapeutic uses, in the city of Rosario de Limeira, MG. Data were collected January to March, 2007. Fifteen informants, all resident in urban and agricultural communities, were asked about their knowledge on medicinal plants. The current survey revealed the use of 66 species belonging to 33 families (Asteraceae with the major number of species, followed by Lamiaceae, Rutaceae, and Bignoniaceae used in the treatment of various diseases. 44,3% of them grow spontaneously and 55,7% are cultivated. The main vegetal part used in the preparation of the phytotherapy was the leaf, and the most common preparation was the infusion. The most used species were: Baccharis trimera, Mentha sp., Plantago major, Chenopodium ambrosioides and Symphytum officinale.

  20. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Swapnil Y.; Harisha, C. R.; Galib, Ruknuddin; Prajapati, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Citrus jambhiri Lush., commonly known as Jambīra Nimbū in Sanskrit is medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon and belonging to the family Rutaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used in many pharmaceutical procedures of purification (Śodhana), calcination (Māraṇa) etc., Though it is an important plant, till date, no pharmacognostical reports have been available on its fruit. Materials and Methods: Study of fruit and its powder, histochemical tests and preliminary physicochemical investigations were done. Results and Conclusion: Results showed prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, aerenchyma cells, oil globules, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels, juicy sac, etc., Preliminary physicochemical analysis revealed loss on drying (1.1%), ash value (1.4%), alcohol soluble extract (28.6%), and water soluble extract (53.3%). These observations can be of use in future studies. PMID:25861144

  1. Chemical Evidence for Potent Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Citrus aurantium L. Dried Immature Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun; Wang, Wei; Guo, Bing-Hua; Gao, Hua; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Yao, Hui-Li; Cheng, Kun

    2016-03-02

    Xanthine oxidase is a key enzyme which can catalyze hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid causing hyperuricemia in humans. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of 24 organic extracts of four species belonging to Citrus genus of the family Rutaceae were assayed in vitro. Since the ethyl acetate extract of C. aurantium dried immature fruits showed the highest xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity, chemical evidence for the potent inhibitory activity was clarified on the basis of structure identification of the active constituents. Five flavanones and two polymethoxyflavones were isolated and evaluated for inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase in vitro. Of the compounds, hesperetin showed more potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 16.48 μM. For the first time, this study provides a rational basis for the use of C. aurantium dried immature fruits against hyperuricemia.

  2. Volatile constituents of Haplophyllum buhsei Boiss. flowering aerial parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Azadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil composition of flowering aerial parts of Haplophyllum buhsei Boiss. (Rutaceae from Iran was analyzed for the first time using gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. Thirty six compounds comprising 92.2% of the total oil were characterized. The main components were b-caryophyllene (12.9%, limonene (9.7%, b-pinene (7.9%, linalool (7.4%, α-pinene (6.4% and 1,8-cineole (5.5%. Volatile oil of Haplophyllum buhsei Boiss. flowering aerial parts was dominated by the high content of monoterpene hydrocarbons (39.2% and oxygenated monoterpenes (23.2%.

  3. The effect of (-)-linalool on the metabolic activity of liver CYP enzymes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosková, K; Dovrtělová, G; Zendulka, O; Řemínek, R; Juřica, J

    2016-12-21

    (-)-Linalool is the major floral scent occurring mainly in families Lamiaceae, Lauraceae and Rutaceae and is the main active compound of lavender oil. The purpose of this study was to reveal the influence of subchronic systemic treatment with (-)-linalool on the metabolic activity of CYP2A, 2B, 2C6, 2C11 and 3A in rat liver microsomes (RLM). The second aim was to reveal possible inhibitory effect of (-)-linalool on CYP2C6 in vitro. Wistar albino male rats were treated with (-)-linalool intragastrically at the doses of 40, 120, and 360 mg/kg/day for 13 days. Treatment with (-)-linalool at the dose of 360 mg/kg increased the metabolic activity of CYP2A assessed with testosterone as a probe substrate. (-)-Linalool showed weak competitive inhibition of CYP2C6 in rat liver microsomes, with IC(50) of 84 microM with use of diclofenac as a probe substrate.

  4. Autecology of the common mormon butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera : Rhopalocera : Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atluri, J B; Ramana, S P Venkata; Reddi, C Subba

    2002-04-01

    The adults of the common mormon butterfly Papilio polytes Linn. feed on a variety of floral species. The larval food plants in the study area included Citrus limon and Murraya koenigii both of the family Rutaceae. The eggs are laid singly, and the hatching time is three days. The larvae pass through five instars. The larval growth is directly correlated with the quantity of food consumed. The AD (approximate digestibility) values decreased from first instar to the last, whereas the ECD (efficiency of conversion of digested food) and ECI (efficiency of conversion of ingested food) values increased, thus bearing an inverse relationship with AD. The development time from egg to adult is 28-30, giving 11-12 generations in a year, but with better breeding during August-February. Thus P. polytes is multivoltine.

  5. CONSTITUYENTES NO POLARES DE LA CORTEZA DE Esenbeckia alata Y ACTIVIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA

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    Olimpo García Beltrán

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available De la corteza de Esenbeckia alata (Rutaceae se aislaron cuatro compuestos identificados como: 5-hidroxi-2-metilcromanonaaislado por primera vez en vegetales (en este trabajo se completan sus datos espectroscópicos, (--episesamina,la amida pellitonina y sitosterol.La elucidación estructural de estos compuestos se realizó mediante técnicas espectroscópicas (IR, UV, RMN 1H y 13C y EM.Se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana del extracto de éter de petróleo de E. alata, de algunas fracciones de ésta, y del lignano obtenido, presentando resultados significativos frente algunas cepas bacterianas Gram positivas y Gram negativas.

  6. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Swapnil Y; Harisha, C R; Galib, Ruknuddin; Prajapati, P K

    2014-01-01

    Citrus jambhiri Lush., commonly known as Jambīra Nimbū in Sanskrit is medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon and belonging to the family Rutaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used in many pharmaceutical procedures of purification (Śodhana), calcination (Māraṇa) etc., Though it is an important plant, till date, no pharmacognostical reports have been available on its fruit. Study of fruit and its powder, histochemical tests and preliminary physicochemical investigations were done. Results showed prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, aerenchyma cells, oil globules, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels, juicy sac, etc., Preliminary physicochemical analysis revealed loss on drying (1.1%), ash value (1.4%), alcohol soluble extract (28.6%), and water soluble extract (53.3%). These observations can be of use in future studies.

  7. First report of Maconellicoccus hirsutus(Green, 1908 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and the associated parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae, in Brazil

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    AL Marsaro Júnior

    Full Text Available The pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae and the associated hymenopterous parasitoid, Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae, are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of the PHM were collected on nine hosts plants, Annona muricata L. (Anonnaceae, Glycine max (L. Merr. (Fabaceae, Centrolobium paraensis Tul. (Fabaceae, Inga edulis Mart. (Fabaceae, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae, Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae, Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck (Rutaceae and Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae, in four municipalities in the north-northeast of the state of Roraima. The plants C. paraensis, I. edulis and C. sinensis are recorded for the first time as a hosts for PHM. Characteristic injuries observed on the host plants infested by PHM and suggestions for its management are presented.

  8. First report of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green, 1908) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) and the associated parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Penteado-Dias, A M; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2013-05-01

    The pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and the associated hymenopterous parasitoid, Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of the PHM were collected on nine hosts plants, Annona muricata L. (Anonnaceae), Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabaceae), Centrolobium paraensis Tul. (Fabaceae), Inga edulis Mart. (Fabaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae) and Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae), in four municipalities in the north-northeast of the state of Roraima. The plants C. paraensis, I. edulis and C. sinensis are recorded for the first time as a hosts for PHM. Characteristic injuries observed on the host plants infested by PHM and suggestions for its management are presented.

  9. Avaliação da bioatividade e estudo da composição química do óleo essencial das folhas de zanthoxylum tingoassuiba A. St. Hil

    OpenAIRE

    NOGUEIRA, Jeane Andréia Pedrosa

    2017-01-01

    Zanthoxylum tingoassuiba é uma espécie da família Rutaceae, popularmente conhecida como guando-do-mato, mamica-de-porca e limãozinho. Este trabalho descreve a análise da composição química do óleo essencial das folhas, sendo silvestreno identificado como constituinte majoritário através da análise por CG/EM. É a primeira vez que os constituintes muurola-4,5-trans-dieno e isodauceno são identificados no óleo essencial desta espécie. Para a atividade inseticida do óleo essencial desta espécie f...

  10. Umbelliferone: Sources, chemistry and bioactivities review

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    Ofentse Mazimba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Umbelliferone is a 7-hydroxycoumarin that is a pharmacologically active agent. It is widely distributed within the Rutaceae and Apiaceae (Umbelliferae families and is efficiently extracted using methanol. Umbelliferone is a fluorescing compound used as a sunscreen agent. It is synthesized using the Pechmann condensation reaction of resorcinol and formyl acetic acid. Biosynthetically it is synthesized using the phenylpropanoid pathway. Umbelliferone is a synthon for other coumarins and heterocycles with improved biological activities. In the Literature modest antibacterial and antifungal activities are reported with MIC values of 500–1000 μg/mL, but exhibited good E. coli anti-biofilm formation. Umbelliferone shows good inhibitions of DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide anion and ABTS radicals. Other reported activities are anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycaemic, molluscicidal and anti-tumor activities. Keywords: Umbelliferone, Anti-bacterial, Anti-tumor, Cytotoxicity, Synthesis, Biosynthesis

  11. New pyranoflavones and trypanocidal activity of compounds isolated from Conchocarpus heterophyllus; Piranoflavonas ineditas e atividades tripanocidas das substancias isoladas de Conchocarpus heterophyllus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrozin, Alessandra Regina Pepe; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: paulo@dq.ufscar.br; Albuquerque, Sergio de [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas

    2008-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of trypanocidal extracts from leaves and stems of Conchocarpus heterophyllus (A. St.-Hil.) Kallunki and Pirani (Rutaceae) afforded new pyranoflavones along with the known compounds flavone, 7-methoxyflavone, 5-hydroxyflavone, haplotusine, 1-methyl-2-phenyl-4-quinolone alkaloid, {beta}sitosterol, stigmasterol, and {beta}-sitosteryl benzoate. Their structures were established based on their spectral data. NMR data for the alkaloid haplotusine and the new pyranoflavones are described for the first time herein. These compounds were assayed on the tripomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Among them, haplotusine and 1-methyl-2-phenyl-4-quinolone showed moderate values of IC{sub 50} 136.9 and 144.9 {mu}M, respectively. (author)

  12. Effect of light on contents of coumarin compounds in shoots of Ruta graveolens L. cultivated in vitro

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    Halina Ekiert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoots of Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae were cultivated in stationary liquid culture under different light conditions: constant artificial light (900 lx, darkness, constant artificial light (900 ix following irradiation with UV-C light. The contents of five furanocoumarins: psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin and imperatorin, as well as biogenetic precursor of these metabolites, umbelliferone, were determined by HPLC method in shoots cultivated in vitro and in overground parts of plants growing in open air. It was shown that light conditions, tested in these experiments, significantly influenced contents of the metabolites in shoots cultivated in in vitro culture. Total content of the coumarin compounds in shoots cultivated under constant artificial light (900 lx was equal or higher than in plants growing under natural conditions. Therefore, it is suggested that stationary liquid shoot culture of R. graveolens. can be an alternative source for obtaining biologically active furanocoumarins.

  13. A New Megastigmane Sesquiterpenoid from Zanthoxylum Schinifolium Sieb. et Zucc

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    Linzhen Hu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zanthoxylum schinifolium Sieb. et Zucc. (Rutaceae, a dioecious shrub with hooked prickly branches, has been used as folk medicine for the treatment of the common cold, stomach ache, diarrhea, and jaundice in China, Korea, and Japan. In our phytochemical investigations on this genus, a new megastigmane sesquiterpenoid, which is referred to as schinifolenol A (1, was isolated from Z. schinifolium. The stereochemistry was characterized via the analyses of extensive spectra. The absolute configuration was established by the application of a modified Mosher’s experiment and assisted by a time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT on calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD. Bioactivity screenings showed that compound 1 exhibited a safe hypotoxicity and a better selectivity on anti-Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpes virus (KSHV.

  14. New Umami Amides: Structure-Taste Relationship Studies of Cinnamic Acid Derived Amides and the Natural Occurrence of an Intense Umami Amide in Zanthoxylum piperitum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerot, Eric; Neirynck, Nathalie; Cayeux, Isabelle; Yuan, Yoyo Hui-Juan; Yuan, Yong-Ming

    2015-08-19

    A series of aromatic amides were synthesized from various acids and amines selected from naturally occurring structural frameworks. These synthetic amides were evaluated for umami taste in comparison with monosodium glutamate. The effect of the substitution pattern of both the acid and the amine parts on umami taste was investigated. The only intensely umami-tasting amides were those made from 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid. The amine part was more tolerant to structural changes. Amides bearing an alkyl- or alkoxy-substituted phenylethylamine residue displayed a clean umami taste as 20 ppm solutions in water. Ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with a high quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer (UPLC/MS) was subsequently used to show the natural occurrence of these amides. (E)-3-(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methoxyphenethyl)acrylamide was shown to occur in the roots and stems of Zanthoxylum piperitum, a plant of the family Rutaceae growing in Korea, Japan, and China.

  15. Tendências evolutivas de famílias produtoras de cumarinas em angiospermae Evolutionary tendency of coumarin-bearing families in angiospermae

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    Claudia Valeria Campos Ribeiro

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Coumarins are special metabolites well distributed in the Angiospermae, either in Monocotyledoneae or Dicotyledoneae. Simple coumarins, the most widespread type, is found in all coumarin-producing families, such as: Apiaceae, Rutaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Oleaceae, Moraceae e Thymelaeaceae. The other types, linear- and angular furanocoumarins, linear- and angular pyranocoumarins, lignocoumarins, bis- and triscoumarins, are of more restricted circumscription. Among the families with occurrence numbers (NO > 100, the more advanced ones are specialized in the production of only one or two coumarin types, while the primitive families are very well diversified in types. Calculations of percentual numbers of occurrence (%NO show relevant meaning of coumarin-types in the taxonomic positioning of the producing taxa.

  16. Efectos inducidos por Ruta graveolens L., Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh y Citrus aurantium L. sobre los niveles de glucosa, colesterol y triacilglicéridos en un modelo de rata diabética

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    Lauro Figueroa-Valverde

    Full Text Available Varias plantas con propiedades hipoglucemicas se han utilizado en medicina popular y sistemas curativos tradicionales en todo el mundo. El propósito de este trabajo fue evaluar los efectos inducidos por Ruta graveolens L., Rutaceae, Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh, Euphorbiaceae, y Citrus aurantium L., Rutaceae, en un modelo de rata diabética, a la que se le cuantificaron los niveles de glucosa cada 24 horas por un mes después de la administración gástrica del extracto de las plantas. Además, el colesterol y los triglicéridos fueron evaluados usando técnicas enzimáticas. Los resultados mostraron que la administración de Cnidoscolus chayamansa a dosis de 0.5 a 1.5 g/kg induce un aumento hipoglucemico ( 200 mg/dL. Otros resultados, mostraron que Citrus aurantium ejerce cambios en la concentración de triacilglicéridos (158-172 mg/dL y colesterol (120-128 mg/dL. Finalmente, la administración de Ruta graveolens a dosis de 0.5 g/kg induce un efecto hipoglucemico (< 200 mg/dL. Además, Ruta graveolens a dosis de 0.5 a 1.5 g/kg induce variaciones en los niveles de triacilglicéridos (110-120 mg/dL y colesterol (116-124 mg/dL. En conclusión la administración de Cnidoscolus chayamansa ejerce efectos hipoglucemicos en una manera dosis dependiente en comparación con Ruta graveolens y Citrus aurantium. Además, las plantas evaluadas inducen cambios en los niveles de lípidos dependiente de la dosis.

  17. Management of Fruit Species in Urban Home Gardens of Argentina Atlantic Forest as an Influence for Landscape Domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Violeta; Pochettino, María L; Hilgert, Norma I

    2017-01-01

    Home gardens are considered germplasm repositories and places for experimentation, thus they are key sites for the domestication of plants. Domestication is considered a constant process that occurs along a continuum from wild to managed to domesticated populations. Management may lead to the modification of populations and in other cases to their distribution, changing population structure in a landscape. Our objective is focused on the management received in home gardens by perennial species of fruits. For this, the management practices applied to native and exotic perennial fruits species by a group of 20 women in the periurban zone of Iguazú, Argentina, were analyzed. In-depth interviews were conducted, as well as guided tours for the recognition and collection of specimens of species and ethnovarieties. Sixty-six fruit species managed in the home gardens were recorded. The predominant families are Rutaceae, Myrtaceae, and Rosaceae. The fruit species with the highest number of associated management practices are pitanga ( Eugenia uniflora ) and pindó ( Syagrus rommanzoffiana ). The 10 species with the highest management intensity are (in decreasing order of intensity) banana ( Musa x paradisiaca ), palta ( Persea americana ), pitanga ( E. uniflora ), mango ( Mangifera indica ), cocú ( Allophylus edulis ), mamón ( Carica papaya ), guayaba ( Psidium guajava ), limón mandarina ( Citrus x taitensis ), güembé ( Philodendron bipinnatifidum ), and mandarina ( Citrus reticulata ). Among the families with the greatest modifications in their distribution, abundance and presence of ethnovarieties in domestic gardens, are the native Myrtaceae and the exotic Rutaceae. The main management practices involved are cultivation, tolerance, transplant and enhancement in decreasing order. It can be concluded that in Iguazú, fruit species management shows both in plant germplasm as in environment a continuum that through tolerance, transplant and cultivation latu sensu has

  18. Activities of ten essential oils towards Propionibacterium acnes and PC-3, A-549 and MCF-7 cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Yuangang; Yu, Huimin; Liang, Lu; Fu, Yujie; Efferth, Thomas; Liu, Xia; Wu, Nan

    2010-04-30

    Ten essential oils, namely, mint (Mentha spicata L., Lamiaceae), ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f., Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae), jasmine (Jasminum grandiflora L., Oleaceae), lavender (Mill., Lamiaceae), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L., Compositae), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae), rose (Rosa damascena Mill., Rosaceae) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum N. Lauraceae) were tested for their antibacterial activities towards Propionibacterium acnes and in vitro toxicology against three human cancer cell lines. Thyme, cinnamon and rose essential oils exhibited the best antibacterial activities towards P. acnes, with inhibition diameters of 40 +/- 1.2 mm, 33.5 +/- 1.5 mm and 16.5 +/- 0.7 mm, and minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.016% (v/v), 0.016% (v/v) and 0.031% (v/v), respectively. Time-kill dynamic procedures showed that thyme, cinnamon, rose, and lavender essential oils exhibited the strongest bactericidal activities at a concentration of 0.25% (v/v), and P. acnes was completely killed after 5 min. The thyme essential oil exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity towards three human cancer cells. Its inhibition concentration 50% (IC(50)) values on PC-3, A549 and MCF-7 tumor cell lines were 0.010% (v/v), 0.011% (v/v) and 0.030% (v/v), respectively. The cytotoxicity of 10 essential oils on human prostate carcinoma cell (PC-3) was significantly stronger than on human lung carcinoma (A549) and human breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines.

  19. Management of Fruit Species in Urban Home Gardens of Argentina Atlantic Forest as an Influence for Landscape Domestication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Furlan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Home gardens are considered germplasm repositories and places for experimentation, thus they are key sites for the domestication of plants. Domestication is considered a constant process that occurs along a continuum from wild to managed to domesticated populations. Management may lead to the modification of populations and in other cases to their distribution, changing population structure in a landscape. Our objective is focused on the management received in home gardens by perennial species of fruits. For this, the management practices applied to native and exotic perennial fruits species by a group of 20 women in the periurban zone of Iguazú, Argentina, were analyzed. In-depth interviews were conducted, as well as guided tours for the recognition and collection of specimens of species and ethnovarieties. Sixty-six fruit species managed in the home gardens were recorded. The predominant families are Rutaceae, Myrtaceae, and Rosaceae. The fruit species with the highest number of associated management practices are pitanga (Eugenia uniflora and pindó (Syagrus rommanzoffiana. The 10 species with the highest management intensity are (in decreasing order of intensity banana (Musa x paradisiaca, palta (Persea americana, pitanga (E. uniflora, mango (Mangifera indica, cocú (Allophylus edulis, mamón (Carica papaya, guayaba (Psidium guajava, limón mandarina (Citrus x taitensis, güembé (Philodendron bipinnatifidum, and mandarina (Citrus reticulata. Among the families with the greatest modifications in their distribution, abundance and presence of ethnovarieties in domestic gardens, are the native Myrtaceae and the exotic Rutaceae. The main management practices involved are cultivation, tolerance, transplant and enhancement in decreasing order. It can be concluded that in Iguazú, fruit species management shows both in plant germplasm as in environment a continuum that through tolerance, transplant and cultivation latu sensu has derived in a

  20. Activities of Ten Essential Oils towards Propionibacterium acnes and PC-3, A-549 and MCF-7 Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuangang Zu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ten essential oils, namely, mint (Mentha spicata L.,Lamiaceae, ginger (Zingiber officinaleRosc.,Zingiberaceae, lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f.,Rutaceae, grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae, jasmine (Jasminum grandiflora L.,Oleaceae, lavender (Mill.,Lamiaceae, chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L., Compositae, thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae, rose (Rosa damascena Mill.,Rosaceae and cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicumN. Lauraceae were tested for their antibacterial activities towards Propionibacterium acnes and in vitro toxicology against three human cancer cell lines. Thyme, cinnamon and rose essential oils exhibited the best antibacterial activities towards P. acnes, with inhibition diameters of 40 ± 1.2 mm, 33.5 ± 1.5 mm and 16.5 ± 0.7 mm, and minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.016% (v/v, 0.016% (v/v and 0.031% (v/v, respectively. Time-kill dynamic procedures showed that thyme, cinnamon, rose, and lavender essential oils exhibited the strongest bactericidal activities at a concentration of 0.25% (v/v, and P. acnes was completely killed after 5 min. The thyme essential oil exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity towards three human cancer cells. Its inhibition concentration 50% (IC50 values on PC-3, A549 and MCF-7 tumor cell lines were 0.010% (v/v, 0.011% (v/v and 0.030% (v/v, respectively. The cytotoxicity of 10 essential oils on human prostate carcinoma cell (PC-3 was significantly stronger than on human lung carcinoma (A549 and human breast cancer (MCF-7 cell lines.

  1. Furoquinoline Alkaloids and Methoxyflavones from the Stem Bark of Melicope madagascariensis (Baker T.G. Hartley

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    Vincent E. Rasamison

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Melicope madagascariensis (Rutaceae is an endemic plant species of Madagascar that was first classified as a member of the genus Euodia J. R. & G. Forst (Rutaceae under the scientific name Euodia madagascariensis Baker. Based on morphological characteristics, Thomas Gordon Hartley taxonomically revised E. madagascariensis Baker to be M. madagascariensis (Baker T.G. Hartley. Chemotaxonomical studies have long been used to help the identification and confirmation of taxonomical classification of plant species and botanicals. Aiming to find more evidences to support the taxonomical revision performed on E. madagascariensis, we carried out phytochemical investigation of two samples of the plant. Fractionation of the ethanol extracts prepared from two stem bark samples of M. madagascariensis (Baker T.G. Hartley led to the isolation of seven known furoquinoline alkaloids 1–7 and two known methoxyflavones 8 and 9. The presence of furoquinoline alkaloids and methoxyflavones in the title species is in agreement with its taxonomic transfer from Euodia to Melicope. Antiprotozoal evaluation of the isolated compounds showed that 6-methoxy-7-hydroxydictamnine (heliparvifoline, 3 showed weak antimalarial activity (IC50 = 35 µM against the chloroquine-resistant strain Dd2 of Plasmodium falciparum. Skimmianine (4 displayed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 value of 1.5 µM against HT-29 colon cancer cell line whereas 3,5-dihydroxy-3′,4′,7-trimethoxyflavone (9 was weakly active in the same assay (IC50 = 13.9 µM. Graphical Abstract

  2. A revised circumscription for the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae with associated nomenclatural adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin Penneys

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Systematic investigations and phylogenetic analyses of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae have indicated that Topobea should be synonymized under Blakea, and Huilaea under Chalybea. Presented here is a detailed description of the Blakeeae, a key to its two accepted genera, and a listing of 62 new combinations, including 3 new names, necessitated by the transfer of Topobea as follows: B. acuminata (Wurdack Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. adscendens (E.Cotton & Matezki Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. albertiae (Wurdack Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. amplifolia (Almeda Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. arboricola (Almeda Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. asplundii (Wurdack Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. barbata (Gleason Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. brenesii (Standl. Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. brevibractea (Gleason Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. bullata (E.Cotton & Matezki Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. calcarata (L.Uribe Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. calophylla (Almeda Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. calycularis (Naudin Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. castanedae (Wurdack Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. clavata (Triana Penneys & Judd, nom. nov., B. cordata (Gleason Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. cuprina Penneys & Judd, nom. nov., B. cutucuensis (Wurdack Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. dimorphophylla (Almeda Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. discolor (Hochr. Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. dodsonorum (Wurdack Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. eplingii (Wurdack Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. ferruginea (Gleason Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. fragrantissima (Almeda Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. gerardoana (Almeda Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. glaberrima (Triana Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. henripittieri (Cogn. Penneys & Almeda, comb. et nom. nov., B. hexandra (Almeda Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. horologica Penneys & Judd, nom. nov., B. induta (Markgr. Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. inflata (Triana Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. insignis

  3. A revised circumscription for the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae) with associated nomenclatural adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penneys, Darin S; Judd, Walter S

    2013-01-01

    Systematic investigations and phylogenetic analyses of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae) have indicated that Topobea should be synonymized under Blakea, and Huilaea under Chalybea. Presented here is a detailed description of the Blakeeae, a key to its two accepted genera, and a listing of 62 new combinations, including 3 new names, necessitated by the transfer of Topobea as follows: Blakea acuminata (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea adscendens (E.Cotton & Matezki) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea albertiae (Wurdack) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea amplifolia (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea arboricola (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea asplundii (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea barbata (Gleason) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea brenesii (Standl.) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea brevibractea (Gleason) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea bullata (E.Cotton & Matezki) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea calcarata (L.Uribe) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea calophylla (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea calycularis (Naudin) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea castanedae (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea clavata (Triana) Penneys & Judd, nom. nov., Blakea cordata (Gleason) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea cuprina Penneys & Judd, nom. nov., Blakea cutucuensis (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea dimorphophylla (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea discolor (Hochr.) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea dodsonorum (Wurdack) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea eplingii (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea ferruginea (Gleason) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea fragrantissima (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea gerardoana (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea glaberrima (Triana) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea henripittieri (Cogn.) Penneys & Almeda, comb. et nom. nov., Blakea hexandra (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea horologica Penneys

  4. Fitoseídeos (Acari: Phytoseiidae associados a cafezais e fragmentos florestais vizinhos Phytoseiids (Acari: Phytoseiidae associated to coffee plantations and adjacent forest fragments

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    Ester Azevedo Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Existem poucas informações sobre a fauna de ácaros predadores (Phytoseiidae em ambientes naturais brasileiros adjacentes a agroecossistemas cafeeiros (Coffea spp. ou sobre a influência que essa vegetação exerce como reservatório de ácaros predadores. Neste estudo, objetivou-se avaliar a diversidade destes organismos em cafeeiros e fragmentos florestais adjacentes. Coletaram-se amostras das espécies Calyptranthes clusiifolia (Miq. O. Berg (Myrtaceae, Esenbeckia febrifuga (A. St.-Hil. A. Juss. ex Mart. (Rutaceae, Metrodorea stipularis Mart. (Rutaceae e Allophylus semidentatus (Miq. Radlk. (Sapindaceae, em oito fragmentos florestais, de 5 a 51 ha, e cafezais adjacentes, nos meses de junho (final período chuvoso e outubro (final período seco nos anos 2004 e 2005, na região Sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Ácaros foram extraídos das folhas, utilizando o método de lavagem e, em seguida, montados em lâminas de microscopia em meio de Hoyer, para identificação específica. No total foram identificados 2.348 fitoseídeos, sendo 2.090 nos fragmentos florestais e 258 espécimes nos cafezais adjacentes, pertencentes a 38 espécies. Servindo-se de análise faunística, a espécie Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, 1972 apresentou os melhores índices no agroecossistema cafeeiro, sendo muito frequente e constante nas épocas estudadas. Nos fragmentos florestais Amblyseius herbicolus Chant, 1959, Iphiseiodes affs. neonobilis Denmark & Muma, 1978, Leonseius regularis DeLeon, 1965 e Euseius alatus DeLeon, 1966 foram dominantes, muito abundantes, muito frequentes e constantes nas épocas estudadas. Podemos concluir que a vegetação nativa abriga ácaros predadores, inimigos naturais de ácaros-praga, que ocorrem na cultura cafeeira, possibilitando o desenvolvimento de programas de manejo ecológico com áreas de vegetação natural e agroecossistemas cafeeiros adjacentes.There is little information about the fauna of predatory mites

  5. High resolution taxonomic study of the late Eocene (~34 Ma) Florissant palynoflora, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    .g. Fagaceae, Malvaceae, Onagraceae, Rosaceae, Rutaceae, Platanaceae), to group taxa into representative vegetation units, and to estimate the palaeoclimate. Preliminary results show that the Fagaceae are represented by at least 5 species (including two different Quercus types), the Malvaceae, Rosaceae and Rutaceae are represented by 3 species, and the Onagraceae and the Platanaceae by 2 species. The method used has also allowed the new discovery of the following: rarly occurring pollen grains of Asteraceae, and relatively small grains of Tetracentron (Trochodendraceae).

  6. Insecticide effects of Ruta graveolens, Copaifera langsdorffii and Chenopodium ambrosioides against pests and natural enemies in commercial tomato plantation = Ação inseticida de Ruta graveolens, Copaifera langsdorffii e Chenopodium ambrosioides sobre pragas de tomate

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    Flávia Silva Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the insecticide effect of watery leaf extracts of Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae, alcoholic leaf extracts of Copaifera langsdorffii (Caesalpinaceae and Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae in the concentration of 5% under field conditions. The experiment design was randomized blocks with six replications. The parcels treated with plant extracts showed reduction in the population of pests when compared with the controlparcels. The extract elaborated with C. langsdorffii presented greater insecticidal effect under Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae and sum of pests. It was verified that after 24 hours ofspraying, the parcels treated with the extract of C. ambrosioides presented minor numbers of adults of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, followed by the parcels treated with extract of R.graveolens. There were smaller numbers of parasitoid eggs of epidopterans Trichogramma sp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae and sum of natural enemies (predators + parasitoids in the parcels that had received spraying with extracts from the plants of C. langsdorffii and C. ambrosioides, followed by R. graveolens, compared to the control. There were a smaller number of parasitoids from the family Eulophidae (Hymenoptera attacking caterpillars of T. absoluta in plants treated with R. graveolens, followed by C. langsdorffii and C. ambrosioides than in the control.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito inseticida dos extratos aquosos de folhas de Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae e alcoólicos de folhas de Copaifera langsdorffii (Caesalpinaceae e de folhas de Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae a 5%. O experimento foi em blocos casualizados com seis repetições. As parcelas tratadas tiveram redução na população de pragas, quando comparadas às parcelas sem nenhum tratamento. O extrato elaborado com C. langsdorffii apresentou maior efeito inseticida em Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae e soma das pragas

  7. Métodos de extração e concentrações no efeito inseticida de Ruta graveolens L., Artemisia verlotorum Lamotte e Petiveria alliacea L. a Diabrotica speciosa Germar Extraction methods and concentrations for the insecticidal effect of Ruta graveolens L., Artemisia verlotorum Lamotte, and Petiveria alliacea L. against Diabrotica speciosa Germar

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    F.S. Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o melhor método de extração e concentração para Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae, Artemisia verlotorum Lamotte (Asteraceae e Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae quanto ao efeito inseticida a Diabrotica speciosa Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae. Os extratos que utilizaram óleo de soja comercial, pelo menos como um dos solventes, apresentaram maior mortalidade de D. speciosa em suas testemunhas (solvente = óleo, nas três plantas estudadas, em relação às suas concentrações. O extrato aquoso de R. graveolens, a 5% de concentração, apresentou maior mortalidade corrigida de D. speciosa (32,5% que os extratos de A. verlotorum em água (10% de concentração (20,3% e P. alliacea em álcool etílico (2% de concentração (12,5%. O método de extração com água é simples, sendo passível de utilização por pequenos agricultores. A R. graveolens é planta facilmente cultivada, sendo, portanto, boa alternativa de controle dessa praga.The aim of this work was to determine the best extraction method and concentration for Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae, Artemisia verlotorum Lamotte (Asteraceae and Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae concerning their insecticidal effect against Diabrotica speciosa Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae. Extracts using commercial soybean oil as at least one of the solvents resulted in higher D. speciosa mortality in controls (solvent = oil of the three studied plants, relative to their treatment concentrations. R. graveolens extract in water, at 5% concentration, showed higher D. speciosa corrected mortality (32.5% than A. verlotiorum extracts in water (10% concentration (20.3% and P. alliacea in ethanol (2% concentration (12.5%. The extraction method with water is simple and can be used by small farmers. R. graveolens is an easily cultivated plant and constitutes, therefore, a good alternative to control this plague.

  8. Flavonoids isolated fromCitrus platymammainduced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagappan, Arulkumar; Lee, Ho Jeong; Saralamma, Venu Venkatarame Gowda; Park, Hyeon Soo; Hong, Gyeong Eun; Yumnam, Silvia; Raha, Suchismita; Charles, Shobana Nancy; Shin, Sung Chul; Kim, Eun Hee; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Gon Sup

    2016-08-01

    Citrus platymamma hort. ex Tanaka belongs to the Rutaceae family and is widely used in folk medicines in Korea due to its anti-proliferative, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities. However, the molecular mechanism of its anti-cancer effect is not well understood. The present study was conducted to elucidate the anti-cancer effect and molecular mechanism of flavonoids from Citrus platymamma (FCP) on A549 cells. FCP displayed concentration-dependent inhibition on A549 cells proliferation. Further, flow cytometry revealed that FCP significantly increased the sub-G1 (apoptotic cell population) and G2/M phase population, and the total number of apoptotic cells, in a dose-dependent manner. Nuclear condensation and fragmentation were also observed upon staining with Hoechst 33342 in FCP-treated A549 cells. Immunoblotting demonstrated a dose-dependent downregulation of cyclin B1, cyclin-dependent kinase 1, cell division cycle 25c, pro-caspases -3, -6, -8 and -9, and poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in FCP-treated A549 cells. In addition, FCP induced caspase-3 activation and subsequent PARP cleavage, and increased the B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2-associated X protein/Bcl-extra large ratio in A549 cells. These findings suggest that FCP induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis of A549 cells. The present study provides evidence that FCP may be useful in the treatment of human lung cancer.

  9. Methodology for the insecticide potential evaluation of forest species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Soto, Leon; Garcia P, Carlos Mario

    2000-01-01

    The flora diversity of Colombia has an enormous potential in the rational use of its forest resources. Trees with biocides effects to pest control and diseases need to be investigated. The objective of this research was to develop a methodology with low costs, easy application and quick results. The methodology employed was as follows: selection of tree species based on bibliography, ancestral reports and personal observations. The process was as follows: field collection of plants, preparation of plants extracts, and test with Artemia Salina, leach to detect biological activity of the extracts using LC50. Bioassays with those extract more promising (LC50 less than 1000 ppm). The methodology was employed with 5 forest tree species: Guarea guidonia (L.) Sleumer and Trichia hirta L. (Meliaceae), machaerium moritzianum Benth. (Fabaceae), Swinglea glutinosa Merrill. (Rutaceae) and Mammea americana L. (Clusiaceae). Using Artemia salina Leach as indicator of biocidal potential, two species were selected as the most promising, those were: Swinglea glutinosa Merril and Machaerium moritzianum Benth. In addition bioassays were made to evaluate fagoinhibition on Atta cephalotes (L.) and control of Alconeura. This methodology is recommended for this kind of research

  10. Evaluation of French Guiana traditional antimalarial remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, S; Bourdy, G; Landau, I; Robinson, J C; Esterre, Ph; Deharo, E

    2005-04-08

    In order to evaluate the antimalarial potential of traditional remedies used in French Guiana, 35 remedies were prepared in their traditional form and screened for blood schizonticidal activity in vitro on Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine re4sistant strain (W2). Some of these extracts were screened in vivo against Plasmodium yoelii rodent malaria. Ferriprotoporphyrin inhibition test was also performed. Four remedies, widely used among the population as preventives, were able to inhibit more than 50% of the parasite growth in vivo at around 100 mg/kg: Irlbachia alata (Gentiananceae), Picrolemma pseudocoffea (Simaroubaceae), Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae), Tinospora crispa (Menispermaceae) and Zanthoxylum rhoifolium (Rutaceae). Five remedies displayed an IC50 in vitro < 10 microg/ml: Picrolemma pseudocoffea, Pseudoxandra cuspidata (Annonaceae) and Quassia amara leaves and stem, together with a multi-ingredient recipe. Two remedies were more active than a Cinchona preparation on the ferriprotoporphyrin inhibition test: Picrolemma pseudocoffea and Quassia amara. We also showed that a traditional preventive remedy, made from Geissospermum argenteum bark macerated in rum, was able to impair the intrahepatic cycle of the parasite. For the first time, traditional remedies from French Guiana have been directly tested on malarial pharmacological assays and some have been shown to be active.

  11. Bioactivity and chemical composition of the leaf essential oils of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium and Zanthoxylum setulosum from Monteverde, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehme, Amelia K; Noletto, Joseph A; Haber, William A; Setzer, William N

    2008-01-10

    The leaf essential oils of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium and Zanthoxylum setulosum (Rutaceae) from Monteverde, Costa Rica have been obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The principal constituents of Z. rhoifolium leaf oil were germacrene D (14.6%), limonene (12.5%), trans-2-hexenal (11.3%), beta-elemene (9.2%), 2-undecanone (9.2%), myrcene (7.9%), bicyclogermacrene (7.5%), and germacrene A (5.2%). The leaf oil of Z. setulosum was composed largely of beta-phellandrene (37.5%), beta-caryophyllene (13.7%), alpha-pinene (11.9%), germacrene D (10.9%), myrcene (5.9%), and nerolidol (5.4%). The essential oils were screened for in-vitro cytotoxic activity against Hep G2, MCF-7, and PC-3 human tumor cell lines; antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli; and for Artemia salina (brine shrimp) lethality. Neither Z. rhoifolium nor Z. setulosum leaf oils exhibited cytotoxicity or antibacterial activity. Both oils showed activity against A. salina.

  12. Análise florística e estrutural de um fragmento de floresta ombrófila mista montana, situado em Criúva, RS – Brasil

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    Rubens Neto Marques Rondon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to know and analyze the floristic composition and describe the structure of the arboreous component of a fragment of Montane Mixed Ombrophylous Forest in Cri úva – State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Were inventoried 673 individuous with DBH ³ 5 cm eight 10 x 100 m plots, distributed into 37 species, 32 genera and 22 families. The Shannon diversity index was 2,768. The families which presented the largest number of individuous were: Araucariaceae, Myrsinaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Anacardiaceae and Rutaceae. The forest canopy is dominated by Araucaria angustifolia and the understory, by species of the families Lauraceae and Myrtaceae. The total density found was 841,25 individuous/ha, the mean DBH was 24,01 cm and the highest VI values, in descending order, were: Araucaria angustifolia, Sebastiania commersoniana , Lithraea brasiliensis, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium and Myrcia sp.. The fragment presents a considerable floristic diversity of species, in spite of the suffered disturbances in the past. For the vegetation to reach the floristic and structural characteristics close to the one of the original vegetation it is necessary to avoid the presence of bovine and equine in the area and explorations of the forest.

  13. FLORISTIC OF NATIVE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF REMINISCENT SEASONAL SEMI-DECIDUAS FOREST IN THE ALTO RIO GRANDE REGION MINAS GERAIS

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    Valéria Evangelista Gomes Rodrigues

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Information was gathered in rural communities of the south of the State of Minas Gerais, microregion of Alto RioGrande, municipalities of Lavas, Carrancas, Ingaí, Itumirim and Itutinga, which ones, how and what for, the native semideciduousforest species plants, in this kind of vegetation, are used for popular medicine. The inquiring method used was that proposed byAlencar & Gomes (1998 and the survey and data analysis were based on Trivinos method. Eight informants participated in the fieldwork. For each medicinal species that was sampled, notes were taken on habit and the level of occurrence. In 12 sample areas, 351individuals belonging to 64 families, 112 genres and 142 species, were surveyed. The families that presented the largest number ofnative medicinal species, were: Fabaceae - 11; Asteraceae - 10; Annonaceae, Bignoniaceae, Myrtaceae e Rubiaceae - 7; Solanaceae - 5;Aristolochiaceae, Lamiaceae, e Malvaceae - 4; Anacardiaceae, Dilleniaceae, Lauraceae, Meliaceae e Rutaceae - 3; these speciescontributed with 56,7% of the total. The genres that presented the largest number of native medicinal species were: Aristolochia eEugenia - 4; Luehea, Mikania, Solanum, Vitex e Xylopia - 3. The occurrence of rare species in the studied forest fragments was alsoverified, among which were: Geissospermum laeve (Vell. Miers., Capsicodendron dinisii (Schwacke Occhioni, Citronella gongonha(Mart. R. A. Howard, Maytenus aquifolia Mart., Vitex megapotamica (Spreng. Moldenke, Virola sebifera Aubl., Eugenia pleuranthaO. Berg, Baufourodendron riedelianum (Engl. Engl., Solanum pseudoquina A. St.-Hil., e Styrax pohlii A. DC.

  14. Citrus essential oils and four enantiomeric pinenes against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelakis, Antonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Koliopoulos, George; Giatropoulos, Athanasios; Polissiou, Moschos G

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of pinenes (enantiomers of alpha- and beta-) and essential oils from Greek plants of the Rutaceae family against the mosquito larvae of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from fruit peel of orange (Citrus sinensis L.), lemon (Citrus limon L.), and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.). The chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Citrus essential oils contained in high proportion limonene and in lower quantities p-menthane molecules and pinenes. The insecticidal action of these essential oils and enantiomers of their pinenes on mosquito larvae was evaluated. Plant essential oils exhibited strong toxicity against larvae with the LC(50) values ranging from 30.1 (lemon) to 51.5 mg/L (orange) depending on Citrus species and their composition. Finally, the LC(50) value of pinenes ranging from 36.53 to 66.52 mg/L indicated an enantioselective toxicity only for the beta-pinene enantiomer.

  15. Siderin from Toona ciliata (Meliaceae) as photosystem II inhibitor on spinach thylakoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Thiago A M; González-Vázquez, Raquel; Neto, João Oiano; Silva, Maria F G F; King-Díaz, Beatriz; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas

    2007-09-01

    Four natural products were isolated from plants of the Rutaceae and Meliaceae families and their effect on photosynthesis was tested. Siderin (1) inhibited both ATP synthesis and electron flow (basal, phosphorylating, and uncoupled) from water to methylviologen (MV); therefore, it acts as Hill reaction inhibitor in freshly lysed spinach thylakoids. Natural products 2-4 were inactive. Secondary metabolite 1 did not inhibit PSI electron transport. It inhibits partial reactions of PSII electron flow from water to 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP), from water to sodium silicomolybdate, and partially inhibits electron flow from diphenylcarbazid (DPC) to DCPIP. These results established that the site of inhibition of 1 was at the donor and acceptor sides of PSII, between P(680) and Q(A). Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements confirmed the behavior of the Toona ciliate coumarin 1 as P(680) to Q(A) inhibitor by the creation of silent centers. May be this is the mechanisms of action of 1 and is the way in which it develops a phytotoxic activity against photosynthesis.

  16. Evaluation of limonoid production in suspension cell culture of Citrus sinensis

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    Elisângela Fumagali Gerolino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe use of cell and plant tissue culture techniques to produce economically important active metabolites has been growing. Among these substances are total limonoid aglycones, which are produced by "pera" orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, Rutaceae and have received considerable attention because of their anticancer actions. The main objective of the present study was to analyze and compare the levels of limonoid aglycones in seeds, callus cultures (originating from seeds, callus cultures (originating from hypocotyls, cell suspensions from hypocotyls cells, and cell suspensions from cotyledons. The cell cultures or C. sinensis were obtained by inoculating two strains of callus in MS medium supplemented with 2.0 µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 7.0 µM benzyl aminopurine, and 3% (w/v sucrose in the dark. The highest concentrations of limonoid aglycone that were obtained were observed in cotyledon cell lines (240 mg/100 g dry weight that were produced on day 21 of culture and hypocotyl cell lines on day 7 (210 mg/100 g dry weight. Explants of different origins under the same culture conditions had different limonoid aglycone content. The present results may suggest strategies for enhancing the productivity of biologically important limonoid aglycones and investigating the complex pathways of these secondary metabolites in plant tissue cultures.

  17. A bioassay using Artemia salina for detecting phototoxicity of plant coumarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, T; Vuorela, P; Kiviranta, J; Vuorela, H; Hiltunen, R

    1999-12-01

    Artemia salina (brine shrimp) has been successfully used for toxicity testing, and a screening test for phototoxicity has been developed based on this method. The ability of the method to test the phototoxic potential of seven known compounds was investigated. Athamantin (an angular furanocoumarin) and umbelliferone (a simple coumarin) showed no phototoxicity, while linear furanocoumarins exhibited phototoxic activity in the following order: psoralen > bergapten > peucedanin > xanthotoxin. The applicability of this method was also tested in screening the phototoxicity of plant material. Six plants from Apiaceae [Aegopodium podagraria L., Anethum graveolens L., Angelica archangelica L., Levisticum officinalis Koch, Petroselinum crispum (P. Mill) A. W. Hill., and Peucedanum palustre (L.) Moench] and one from Rutaceae (Ruta graveolens L.) were selected, all of them known to contain furanocoumarins. Extracts from leaves collected at different times during the growth period were used in the screening. Our results were in accordance with the furanocoumarin content of these plants and with the results of other phototoxicity tests. The Artemia salina method proved to be rapid, simple and inexpensive, and is therefore ideal in the initial biological screening of large numbers of samples for simultaneous detection of both toxicity and phototoxicity.

  18. Medicinal Plants with Antiplatelet Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haouari, Mohammed; Rosado, Juan A

    2016-07-01

    Blood platelets play an essential role in the hemostasis and wound-healing processes. However, platelet hyperactivity is associated to the development and the complications of several cardiovascular diseases. In this sense, the search for potent and safer antiplatelet agents is of great interest. This article provides an overview of experimental studies performed on medicinal plants with antiplatelet activity available through literature with particular emphasis on the bioactive constituents, the parts used, and the various platelet signaling pathways modulated by medicinal plants. From this review, it was suggested that medicinal plants with antiplatelet activity mainly belong to the family of Asteraceae, Rutaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Zygophyllaceae, Rhamnaceae, Liliaceae, and Zingiberaceae. The antiplatelet effect is attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, flavonoids, coumarins, terpenoids, and other substances which correct platelet abnormalities by interfering with different platelet signalization pathways including inhibition of the ADP pathway, suppression of TXA2 formation, reduction of intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, and phosphoinositide breakdown, among others. The identification and/or structure modification of the plant constituents and the understanding of their action mechanisms will be helpful in the development of new antiplatelet agents based on medicinal plants which could contribute to the prevention of thromboembolic-related disorders by inhibiting platelet aggregation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Advances in Studies on Natural Preservativesfor Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haisheng; Shi, Pengbao; Zhao, Yuhua

    The author introduced g eneral research and application situations of natural preservatives for fruits and vegetables all over the world these years, and summarized application of vegetation of Murraya in Rutaceae, Cinnamomum in Lauraceae, Artemisia in Compositae and other families and genera on fruits and vegetables preservation and fresh-keeping. Decoction or extraction of Chinese traditional medicine, such as Alpinia Officinarum, Amarphalus Konjac K., stemona etc, could be used in fresh-keeping for orange, apple, strawberry, edible fungi and so on. Garlic could be used in fresh-keeping for orange. Phytic acid and fresh-keeping agents compounded with Phytic acid could extend storage periods of easily rotting fruits and vegetables, such as strawberry, banana, cantaloup, edible fungi and so on, and better keep original fresh condition. Extraction of Snow Fresh, Semper Fresh, Arthropod shell extraction, and halite also had better effect on preservation and fresh-keeping for fruits and vegetables. Main problems exsited in the application of natural preservatives for fruits and vegetables were showed in this article and the applying prospect were discussed too.

  20. Behavioral effects of essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. inhalation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana P. Leite

    Full Text Available The orange essential oil (OEO and its components obtained from Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae has been attracting interest due to its sedative and relaxing actions. In the present study, rats previously exposed to OEO at the concentrations of 1.0%; 2.5% and 5.0%, w/w, by inhalation during 7 minutes in acrylic boxes were evaluated in two anxiety models: elevated plus maze (EPM and open-field. The OEO at the concentration of 2.5% increased both the time of the animals in the open arms of the EPM and the time of active social interaction in the open-field being longer than that of the diazepam group (1.5 mg/kg i.p. In conclusion, the decrease in the level of emotionality of the animals observed in the two experimental models suggests a possible central action, which is in agreement with the phytochemical profile of the oil under study, since it showed the presence of limonene (96.24% and mircene (2.24%, components with a well-known depressant activity on the central nervous system.

  1. Extractos vegetales utilizados como biocontroladores con énfasis en la familia Piperaceae. Una revisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celis Álvaro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    El presente trabajo es una recopilación de casos comprobados de actividad biológica de extractos y sustancias de origen vegetal para el control de arvenses, plagas y enfermedades en el sector agrícola. De esta forma, se pone en evidencia que una de las familias con mayor número de reportes en este tipo de actividad biológica es la Piperaceae, esto las convierte en una de las más promisorias para la búsqueda de extractos o compuestos que tengan aplicaciones en la solución de problemas fitosanitarios. Debido a la importancia de Piperaceae y en especial del género Piper, los grupos de investigación BioGuavio/ AgroUDEC de la Universidad de Cundinamarca y Estudio Químico y de Actividad Biológica de Rutaceae y Myristicaceae Colombianas de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia con el apoyo de Colciencias, desarrollan un proyecto titulado Bioprospección participativa de comunidades vegetales asociadas a la familia Piperaceae en la región del Sumapaz medio y bajo occidental” (Código 1101-05-17783 que busca identificar y comprobar en las especies prospectadas aplicaciones de interés en el sector agrícola.

  2. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV influence on the behavior of Tahiti lime (Citrus latifoliaTanaka grafted on six rootstocks in the plain piedmont of Colombia (1997-2008

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    Hans Nicolás Chaparro Zambrano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tahiti lime, Citrus latifolia Tanaka (Rutaceae, is susceptible to Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV, and if affected, decreases the profitability of the crop. In the well-drained high terrace of the Meta piedmont, the influence of the virus attack was evaluated on the performance of Tahiti lime grafted on six rootstocks (Carrizo; Sunki × English; Sunki × Jacobson; Pomeroy; Rubidoux, y Kryder 15-3 on a completely randomized experiment design taking each tree as an experimental unit. A comparison of means and inferential statistic were used for: plant height, height and canopy diameter; canopy volume, yield and severity of CTV. All rootstocks showed homogenous height. Carrizo was the exception with less size and canopy volume. The highest accumulated fruit yield (Kg/tree wasobtained by Sunki x English, followed by Rubidoux and the lowest yield was obtained by Carrizo. The highest yield efficiency of average canopy volume was obtained with Sunki x Jacobson. The Tahiti lime yield and morphological development fell in the seventh year (2007 in all rootstocks, due to an infection caused by a mix of isolates of CTV type Madeira and type B128, isolates which cause stem channeling : type B31 which causes moderate stem channeling and B7 and VT isolate,

  3. Bitter plants used as substitute of Cinchona spp. (quina) in Brazilian traditional medicine.

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    Cosenza, Gustavo P; Somavilla, Nádia S; Fagg, Christopher W; Brandão, Maria G L

    2013-10-07

    Bitter tasting plant species are used as tonics and have been previously used to treat intermittent fevers in Brazil, the principal symptom of malaria. Many of these species were named quina and were used as substitutes of Cinchona spp., the source of quinine. To present data on these bitter species named quina and to discuss their potential as sources of bioactive substances. Data about the plants were obtained from a survey of the literature and documents written by early naturalists and clinical doctors living in the 18th and 19th centuries in Brazil. Correlated pharmacological studies were obtained from different scientific databases. A total of 29 species were recorded. The largest number of species belonged to the Rubiaceae family (14), being Remijia ferruginea (A. St.-Hil) DC. the most representative. Strychnos pseudoquina A. St.-Hil. (Loganiaceae), Hortia brasiliana Vand. ex DC. (Rutaceae) and Solanum pseudoquina A. St.-Hil. (Solanaceae) were also frequently mentioned in the historical bibliography. Pharmacological studies have shown the presence of bitter bioactive substances useful to treat digestive disorders and/or with antimalarial activities, in all of the recorded botanic families. This study shows that several bitter species named quina were used in the past as substitute of Cinchona spp. and studying these plants can lead to the development of new products. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Bael) and its phytochemicals in the treatment and prevention of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Thilakchand, Karadka Ramdas; Rai, Manoj Ponadka; Rao, Suresh; Venkatesh, Ponemone

    2013-05-01

    Aegle marmelos, commonly known as Bael and belonging to the family Rutaceae is an important medicinal plant in the traditional Indian system of medicine, the Ayurveda. The extract prepared by boiling the bark, leaves or roots in water is useful as laxative, febrifuge, and expectorant. The extract is also useful in ophthalmia, deafness, inflammations, catarrh, diabetes, and asthmatic complaints. The fruits are used in treating diarrhea, dysentery, stomach ache, and cardiac ailments. Scientific studies have validated many of Bael's ethnomedicinal properties and its potential antimicrobial effects, hypoglycemic, astringent, antidiarrheal, antidysenteric, demulcent, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound-healing, insecticidal, and gastroprotective properties. In addition, studies have also shown that Bael and some of the Bael phytochemicals possess antineoplastic, radioprotective, chemoprotective, and chemopreventive effects, properties efficacious in the treatment and prevention of cancer. For the first time, the current review summarizes the results related to these properties and emphasizes aspects that require further investigation for Bael's safe and effective use in the near future.

  5. De novo transcriptome assembly of Zanthoxylum bungeanum using Illumina sequencing for evolutionary analysis and simple sequence repeat marker development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shijing; Zhao, Lili; Liu, Zhenshan; Liu, Yulin; Yang, Tuxi; Wei, Anzhi

    2017-12-01

    Zanthoxylum, an ancient economic crop in Asia, has a satisfying aromatic taste and immense medicinal values. A lack of genomic information and genetic markers has limited the evolutionary analysis and genetic improvement of Zanthoxylum species and their close relatives. To better understand the evolution, domestication, and divergence of Zanthoxylum, we present a de novo transcriptome analysis of an elite cultivar of Z. bungeanum using Illumina sequencing; we then developed simple sequence repeat markers for identification of Zanthoxylum. In total, we predicted 45,057 unigenes and 22,212 protein coding sequences, approximately 90% of which showed significant similarities to known proteins in databases. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Zanthoxylum is relatively recent and estimated to have diverged from Citrus ca. 36.5-37.7 million years ago. We also detected a whole-genome duplication event in Zanthoxylum that occurred 14 million years ago. We found no protein coding sequences that were significantly under positive selection by Ka/Ks. Simple sequence repeat analysis divided 31 Zanthoxylum cultivars and landraces into three major groups. This Zanthoxylum reference transcriptome provides crucial information for the evolutionary study of the Zanthoxylum genus and the Rutaceae family, and facilitates the establishment of more effective Zanthoxylum breeding programs.

  6. Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Six Zanthoxylum Species and Their Repellent Activities against Two Stored-Product Insects

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    Wen-Juan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze six essential oils from Zanthoxylum genus (family Rutaceae in China and evaluate their repellent activities against Tribolium castaneum and Lasioderma serricorne adults. Six essential oils from Zanthoxylum genus, including Z. armatum, Z. dimorphophyllum, Z. dimorphophyllum var. spinifolium, Z. piasezkii, Z. stenophyllum, and Z. dissitum, were obtained by hydrodistillation and their yields were ranging from 0.02% to 0.53%. Totally, there were 39 chemical components revealed by GC-MS. Among them, some components with high relative content existed in more than three Zanthoxylum species. For instance, both δ-cadinene (1.21%–17.15% and spathulenol (0.36%–10.19% appeared in essential oils of Z. dimorphophyllum, Z. piasezkii, Z. stenophyllum, and Z. dissitum which were found to have higher content of sesquiterpenoids. The repellent activities of six essential oil samples against T. castaneum and L. serricorne adults were investigated for the first time. Data demonstrated that six Zanthoxylum species had much stronger repellent activities against T. castaneum than L. serricorne adults, especially in 2 hours after exposure. The results indicate that these six essential oils from Zanthoxylum have significant potential to be developed into natural repellents to control insects in grains, food, and traditional Chinese medicinal materials.

  7. Toxicity of Zanthoxylum piperitum and Zanthoxylum armatum oil constituents and related compounds to Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae).

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    Hieu, Tran Trung; Kim, Soon-Il; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-09-01

    Zanthoxylum plants (Rutaceae) have drawn attention because they contain insecticidal principles against insects. An assessment was made of the insecticidal and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities of Zanthoxylum piperitum steam distillate and Zanthoxylum armatum seed oil, their 28 constituents, and eight structurally related compounds against female stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Results were compared with those of two organophosphorus insecticides chlorpyrifos and dichlorvos. Potent fumigant toxicity was observed with cuminaldehyde, thymol, (1S)-(-)-verbenone, (-)-myrtenal, carvacrol, (S)-(Z)-verbenol, Zanthoxylum piperitum steam distillate, cuminyl alcohol, Zanthoxylum armatum seed oil, piperitone, (-)-(Z)-myrtanol, and citronellal (LC50, 0.075-0.456 microg/cm3). However, they were five orders of magnitude less toxic than either chlorpyrifos or dichlorvos. An in vitro bioassay using female fly heads indicates that strong AChE inhibition was produced by citronellyl acetate, alpha-pinene, thymol, carvacrol, and alpha-terpineol (1.20-2.73 mM), but no direct correlation between fly toxicity and AChE inhibition by the test compounds was observed. Structure-activity relationships indicate that structural characteristics, such as carbon skeleton, degrees of saturation and types of functional groups, and vapor pressure parameter, appear to play a role in determining toxicities of the test monoterpenoids to stable flies. Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on Z. piperitum and Z. armatum oil-derived materials as potential insecticides for the control of stable fly populations.

  8. Zanthoxylum bungeanum pericarp extract prevents dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in mice via the regulation of TLR4 and TLR4-related signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zecai; Liu, Jiuxi; Shen, Peng; Cao, Yongguo; Lu, Xiaojie; Gao, Xuejiao; Fu, Yunhe; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2016-12-01

    Zanthoxylum bungeanum, which belongs to the Zanthoxylum genus of the Rutaceae family, is now wildly distributed in most parts of China and some Southeast Asian countries. The pericarp of Zanthoxylum bungeanum has been known to exhibit antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and other important therapeutic activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of Zanthoxylum bungeanum pericarp extract (ZBE) on DSS-induced experimental colitis in mice. The results demonstrated that the major flavonoid composition of ZBE includes rutin (32.36%), quercetin (13.61%) and isoquercitrin (24.89%). ZBE alleviated DSS-induced body weight loss, colon length shortening and colonic pathological damage. Furthermore, ZBE inhibited the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-12 via the regulation of TLR4 and TLR4-related pathways in DSS-induced experimental colitis in mice and LPS-triggered inflammation in J774.1 cells. Our findings suggest that ZBE is effective in ameliorating experimental colitis, and further investigation is necessary on the use of ZBE as a new dietary strategy to lower the risk of ulcerative colitis (UC). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Regulation of apoptosis through bcl-2/bax proteins expression and DNA damage by Zanthoxylum alatum.

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    Karmakar, Indrajit; Haldar, Sagnik; Chakraborty, Mainak; Chaudhury, Keya; Dewanjee, Saikat; Haldar, Pallab Kanti

    2016-01-01

    Many of the major chemotherapeutic agents are secondary metabolites found in nature. Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. (Rutaceae) is traditionally used in the treatment of various diseases. The present study evaluates the apoptotic activity of methanol extract of Z. alatum (MEZA) on Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) in Swiss albino mice. The presence of flavonoids in MEZA was standardized by HPLC. The in vitro cytotoxicity of MEZA was measured by the MTT assay. The in vivo antitumor activity of MEZA (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w., i.p. for 9 days) was also evaluated. On the 10th day, EAT tumor volume, cell viability, and hematological parameters were assayed. Apoptotic morphology was determined by acredine orange/ethedium bromide using fluorescence microscopy. Apoptosis percentage was measured by flow cytometric analysis using annexine-V-FITC. Also, DNA damage and bcl-2/bax were estimated by UV-method and western blot, respectively. HPLC analysis revealed presence of three flavonoids, rutin, myricetin, and quercetin. MEZA showed satisfactory cytotoxicity in MTT assay (IC50 = 111.50 µg/ml). The extract significantly (p < 0.01) changed the tumor volume, viable, non-viable cell count, and hematological parameters towards the normal. Apoptotic activity of MEZA was confirmed by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, annexin-V-FITC staining, DNA fragmentation, and Bcl-2/Bax ratio. The study showed that MEZA has antitumor activity which may be due to the presence of flavonoids in the extract.

  10. Evaluation of Antiviral Activity ofZanthoxylumSpecies Against Picornaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hwa-Jung

    2016-12-01

    Human rhinoviruses and enteroviruses (family Picornaviridae) infect millions of people worldwide each year, but little is known about effective therapeutical treatment for the infection caused by these viruses. We sought to determine whether or not Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) species can exhibit antiviral activity against picornaviruses. The leaf parts of four Zanthoxylum species were extracted with methanol, and the extracts were investigated for their antiviral activity against picornaviruses using cytopathic effects by cytopathic effect reduction. Leaf extracts of Zanthoxylum piperitum among four Zanthoxylum species were found to possess only broad-spectrum antipicornavirus activity against human rhninovirus 2 with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) value of 59.48 μg/mL, human rhinovirus 3 with an IC 50 value of 39.94 μg/mL, coxsackie A16 virus with an IC 50 value of 45.80 μg/mL, coxsackie B3 virus with an IC 50 value of 68.53 μg/mL, coxsackie B4 virus with an IC 50 value of 93.58 μg/mL, and enterovirus 71 virus with an IC 50 value of 4.48 μg/mL. However, ribavirin did not possess antiviral activity against human rhinovirus 3 and four enteroviruses. Therefore, leaves of Z. piperitum showed broad-spectrum antipicornavirus activity, and may be useful as a candidate for studying picornavirus agents and development of pharmaceuticals.

  11. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants marketed in the municipality of Uruará, Pará, Brazil

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    Reinaldo Lucas Cajaiba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to perform an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants marketed by the population of the municipality of Uruará, Pará, and its main districts. The respondents mentioned 63 species distributed in 36 botanical families. The most representative families were Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Rutaceae. The species with the highest Use Value were capim cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus, UV = 0.90, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides, UV = 0.83 and hortelã (Mentha sp., UV = 0.79, while capim cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus and picão (Bidens pilosa had a higher indicator value, and were indicated as a tranquilizer/painkiller and for treating kidney disease, respectively. Among the main disorders treated with medicinal plants, diseases of the digestive system, infections/inflammations, colds and respiratory system diseases were the most cited. There was no significant difference between the number of species mentioned and the number of individuals per family or the distance of households to the urban zone. There was also no difference between the number of species mentioned and education level. Most medicinal plants marketed in the municipality are herbs, leaves are the most used parts and the most common form of preparation is tea.

  12. Late Holocene paleoenvironments of the floodplain of the Solimões River, Central Amazonia, based on the palynological record of Lake Cabaliana

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    Natália de Paula Sá

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The core PD-67 of 160 cm depth was collected from the delta of Lake Cabaliana situated on the Solimões River. Seventeen samples were removed for palynological and sedimentological analysis and three for radiocarbon analysis. Two dry periods, both in the Late Holocene, were observed (2800-2550 cal yr BP, 1450-550 cal yr BP separated by a wetter phase (2550-1450 cal yr BP. In 2800-2550 cal yr BP, varzea forests of Alchornea, Symmeria, Cecropia, Alternanthera and Asteraceae were predominant. Beginning in 2,550-1450 cal yr BP, the varzea was characterized by pioneer elements, such as Cassia, Laetia, Mabea, Symmeria and Cecropia, and by the expansion of Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Sagittaria, Montrichardia and Asteraceae. In 1450-550 cal yr BP the succession of varzea continued with Pseudobombax, Laetia, Luehea/Lueheopsis and Ryanaea increasing simultaneously with the terra firme vegetation of Rutaceae, Sapotaceae, Styrax, Scleronema, Anthurium, Araceae, pteridophytes and Pariana. The successional dynamics at Lake Cabaliana indicated that the local varzea had become established recently, and is composed of a mosaic of different successional stages of vegetation influenced mainly by flood pulse and variation in rainfall. It is therefore possible to propose that the recent climate history of Central Amazonia reflects changes in rainfall patterns in the basin.

  13. PATENT ANALYSIS: A LOOK AT THE INNOVATIVE NATURE OF PLANT-BASED COSMETICS

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    Francine C. S. César

    Full Text Available The use of plants have become a important trend in cosmetic market, with a crescent number of patent applications. Despite various herbal-based ingredients have been described in scientific literature, most of them are restricted to patent databases. In this work we analyze the innovative use of plants and its derivatives in cosmetic technologies, based on patent analysis. The investigation was conducted using Derwent World Patents Index (Thomson Reuters Scientific, USA from 1995 to 2015. The search was carried out to evaluate the number of patent deposits, the patent depositors profiles, the countries with most patent applications, the International Patent Classification (IPC and the main plant families using in cosmetics. Patent analysis revealed an increase number of applications involving cosmetic containing plants components, with a higher number of deposits related to anti-ageing and whitening skin treatment. Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Poaceae, Rutaceae, Lilliacae and Apiaceae were the key plant families used in cosmetic formulations for skin care treatment. Comparison between scientific and technological data pointed out divergences between patents deposits and aid-based scientific reports. The use of patent analysis in combination with scientific data opens up wider aspects of knowledge and enables a better rationalization of innovative works.

  14. RESPOSTA FUNCIONAL DA JOANINHA CRYPTOLAEMUS PREDANDO COCHONILHA BRANCA EM DIFERENTES TEMPERATURAS E SUBSTRATOS VEGETAIS

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    SERGIO ANTONIO DE BORTOLI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to evaluate the functional response of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant, 1850 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae fed with Planococcus citri Risso, 1813 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae reared on a pumpkin hybrid (Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moscata (Cucurbitaceae, seedlings of Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Rutaceae and potato (Solanum tuberosum (Solanaceae at two temperatures. The predation rate of C. montrouzieri was measured using Petri dishes of 15 cm diameter with 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 adults of P. Citri. One third instar larva, one fourfh instar and one newly emerged adult (without differentiation of sex of C. montrouzieri were added to each plate. The study was conducted in climatic chambers at temperatures of 25 and 30 º C and photophase of 12 hours. The predation rate was evaluated after 24 hours of prey exposition to the predator, by counting the number of preys trapped in the different treatments and control. The statistical design was completely randomized with four treatments x 6 subplots with 7 repetitions, the two temperatures. The values obtained were subjected to analysis of variance, to relate the number of scales preyed by larvae and adults of C. montrouzieri set up in different substrates. The amount of prey consumed by larvae and adults of the predator increased with increasing the prey density until it reaches a plateau, characterizing functional response type II. In general, the number of scales preyed by larvae and adults of C. montrouzieri was higher on potato and under temperature of 30 °C.

  15. Phytochemical Evaluation, Antimicrobial Activity, and Determination of Bioactive Components from Leaves of Aegle marmelos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujeeb, Farina; Bajpai, Preeti; Pathak, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic value of Aegle marmelos Correa (Rutaceae), commonly known as ‘‘Bael,” has been recognized as a component of traditional medication for the treatment of various human ailments. The plant, though, being highly explored, still lacks sufficient evidences for the best variety possessing the highest degree of medicinal values. The present study is focused on phytochemical screening of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of 18 varieties/accessions of A. marmelos. The crude extracts of A. marmelos revealed the presence of several biologically active phytochemicals with the highest quantity of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols in Pant Aparna variety. The antibacterial efficacy was investigated against pathogenic bacterial strains and the highest inhibitory activity of aqueous extract was obtained against S. epidermidis, whereas methanolic extract was found to be most potent against S. aureus at 40 mg/mL concentration. However, in aqueous : ethanol, the best results were observed against E. aerogenes followed by K. pneumonia and S. epidermidis. The MIC of aqueous and methanol extract of Aegle marmelos ranged from 10 mg/mL to 40 mg/mL whereas in aqueous : ethanol it ranged between 40 mg/mL and 160 mg/mL. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of many bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, fatty acid methyl esters, terpenoids, phenolics, and steroids that can be postulated for antibacterial activity. PMID:24900969

  16. Effect of formula compatibility on the pharmacokinetics of components from Dachengqi Decoction [See Text] in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Han-Lin; Tang, Wen-Fu; Wang, Jia; Chen, Guang-Yuan; Huang, Xi

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the effect of prescription compatibility on the pharmacokinetics of components from Dachengqi Decoction (DCQD, ) in rats. Twenty-four male rats were randomly and equally divided into the DCQD group, Dahuang (Radix et Rhizoma Rhei, Polygonaceae) group, Houpo (Magnolia officinalis Rehd., Magnoliaceae) group, and Zhishi (Fructus Aurantii Immaturus, Rutaceae) group. The blood samples were collected before dosing and subsequently at 10, 15, 20, 30, 45 min, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h following gavage. The levels of aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol, honokiol, magnolol, hesperidin, and naringin in rat serum were quantified using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for pharmacokinetic study. The area under the curve (AUC), mean retention time (MRT), the peak concentration (C(max)) of aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, and chrysophanol in the DCQD group were significantly different compared with the Dahuang group (P 0.05, respectively), while the MRT of naringin was significantly longer. The compatibility in Chinese medicine could affect the drug's pharmacokinetics in DCQD, which proves that the prescription compatibility principle of Chinese medicine formulations has its own pharmacokinetic basis.

  17. Phytochemical portfolio and anticancer activity of Murraya koenigii and its primary active component, mahanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Suman Kumar; Kandimalla, Raghuram; Gogoi, Bhaskarjyoti; Dutta, Krishna Nayani; Choudhury, Paramita; Deb, Prashanta Kumar; Devi, Rajlakshmi; Pal, Bikas Chandra; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra

    2018-03-01

    Murraya koenigii, a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family is widely distributed in Eastern-Asia and its medicinal properties are well documented in Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine. Through systematic research and pharmacological evaluation of different parts of the plant extracts has been shown to possess antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, antileishmanial, and antitumor activity. In the plant extracts, carbazole alkaloid, mahanine has been identified as the principle bioactive component among several other chemical constituents. Scientific evidence derived not only from in vitro cellular experiments but also from in vivo studies in various cancer models is accumulating for the pronounced anticancer effects of mahanine. The primary objective of this review is to summarize research data on cytotoxic chemical constituents present in different parts of Murraya koenigii and the anticancer activity of mahanine along with the recent understanding on the mechanism of its action in diverse cancer models. The information on its bioavailability and the toxicity generated from the recent studies have also been incorporated in the review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses.

  19. Chemical composition of the essential oils isolated from peel of three citrus species and their mosquitocidal activity against Culex pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Mohamed E I; Taktak, Nehad E M; El-Aswad, Ahmed F

    2017-10-10

    Three essential oils (EOs) were isolated from the peel of citrus fruits Citrus reticulata L., Citrus reticulata chinase Blanco and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Family: Rutaceae) and evaluated against Culex pipiens L.1758 (Family: Culicidae). Chemical composition indicated that the EOs were rich in essential phytochemicals including hydrocarbons, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. These constituents revealed some variability among the oils displaying interesting chemotypes limonene (35-51%), 1R-α-pinene (1.04-2.5%), γ-terpinene (0.46-5.65%) and sabinene (0.51-5.42%). The toxicity proved that C. sinensis oil had more effect than C. reticulata chinase and C. reticulata oils against larvae (LC 50  = 15.35, 16.11 and 32.84 mg/L, respectively). However, C. reticulate was the most active as fumigant against adults (LC 50 2.74 μL/L air). The in vivo effect on acetylcholine esterase (AChE), carboxyl esterase (CbE), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were also demonstrated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the chemical composition and mosquitocidal activity of C. reticulata chinase essential oils. Conclusively, the tested essential oils could be used as eco-friendly alternatives in mosquitoes control programme.

  20. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka Essential Oil and Limonene in Experimental Mouse Models

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    Raquel Kummer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Citrus (Rutaceae includes several species of plants that produce some of the most cultivated fruits in the world, providing an appreciable content of essential oil. In folk medicine, they are used as a cholagogue, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, sedative, and antitoxic effects. Lemon essential oil has been used since ancient times for its antiseptic, carminative, diuretic, and eupeptic effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka essential oil (CLEO and its main constituent LIM. In the cell viability assay, CLEO and LIM (3, 10, 30, and 90 μg/mL had low cytotoxicity. In zymosan-induced peritonitis, LIM (500 mg/kg decreased the infiltration of peritoneal exudate leukocytes and decreased the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In vitro chemotaxis revealed that CLEO and LIM (1, 3, and 10 µg/mL promoted a significant reduction of neutrophil migration toward fMLP and LTB4. LIM (500 mg/kg also reduced TNF-α levels but did not alter IL-10 levels in the peritoneal exudate. In conclusion, this study showed that LIM isolated from CLEO had potential anti-inflammatory effects, likely by inhibiting proinflammatory mediators present in inflammatory exudate and leukocyte chemotaxis.

  1. Chemical composition of essential oils of leaves, flowers and fruits of Hortia oreadica

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    Danillo L. Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Hortia oreadica Groppo, Kallunki & Pirani, Rutaceae, known as “para-tudo”, “quina”, and “quina-do-campo”, is used in traditional medicine locally to treat stomach pain and fevers. The aims of this study were: analyze the chemical composition of essential oils from leaves, flowers and fruits of H. oreadica and verify the seasonal variation of the chemical components of essential oils from leaves. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger type apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. The major components found in the samples of the essential oils were the amorpha-4,7(11-diene (29.27% – flowers, 20.26% – fruits, 27.66–37.89% – leaves, bicyclogermacrene (23.28% – flowers, 20.64% – fruits, 14.71% to 31.37% – leaves. This work represents the first study of the chemical composition of essential oils from leaves, flowers and fruits and seasonal variation in the essential oils from leaves of H. oreadica.

  2. Satkara (Citrus macroptera Fruit Protects against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatorenal Toxicity in Rats

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    Sudip Paul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Citrus macroptera (Rutaceae, an indigenous fruit in Bangladesh, has long been used in folk medicine, however, there is a lack of information concerning its protective effects against oxidative damage. The protective effects of an ethanol extract of Citrus macroptera (EECM against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity were investigated in rats. Rats (treatment groups were pretreated with EECM at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, respectively, orally for 30 days followed by acetaminophen administration. Silymarin (100 mg/kg was administered as a standard drug over a similar treatment period. Our findings indicated that oral administration of acetaminophen induced severe hepatic and renal injuries associated with oxidative stress, as observed by 2-fold higher lipid peroxidation (TBARS compared to control. Pretreatment with EECM prior to acetaminophen administration significantly improved all investigated biochemical parameters, that is, transaminase activities, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transferase activities and total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglyceride and creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium and chloride ions, and TBARS levels. These findings were confirmed by histopathological examinations. The improvement was prominent in the group that received 1000 mg/kg EECM. These findings suggested that C. macroptera fruit could protect against acetaminophen-induced hepatonephrotoxicity, which might be via the inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  3. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus citrus based on the nuclear ribosomal dna its region sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.L.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Citrus (Aurantioideae, Rutaceae) is the sole source of the citrus fruits of commerce showing high economic values. In this study, the taxonomy and phylogeny of Citrus species is evaluated using sequence analysis of the ITS region of nrDNA. This study is based on 26 plants materials belonging to 22 Citrus species having wild, domesticated, and cultivated species. Through DNA alignment of the ITS sequence, ITS1 and ITS2 regions showed relatively high variations of sequence length and nucleotide among these Citrus species. According to previous six-tribe discrimination theory by Swingle and Reece, the grouping in our ITS phylogenetic tree reconstructed by ITS sequences was not related to tribe discrimination but species discrimination. However, the molecular analysis could provide more information on citrus taxonomy. Combined with ITS sequences of other subgenera in then true citrus fruit tree group, the ITS phylogenetic tree indicated subgenera Citrus was monophyletic and nearer to Fortunella, Poncirus, and Clymenia compared to Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Abundant sequence variations of the ITS region shown in this study would help species identification and tribe differentiation of the genus Citrus. (author)

  4. Chemical Profile and Antioxidant Properties of Extracts and Essential Oils from Citrus × limon (L.) Burm. cv. Femminello Comune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Tundis, Rosa; Bonesi, Marco; Sanzo, Giuseppe Di; Verardi, Alessandra; Lopresto, Catia Giovanna; Pugliese, Alessandro; Menichini, Francesco; Balducchi, Roberto; Calabrò, Vincenza

    2016-05-01

    Citrus × limon cv. Femminello Comune (Rutaceae) from Rocca Imperiale (Italy), one of the six Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) Italian lemon crops, has been recently received renewed interest. In this work, fresh and dried peels and leaves were extracted by hydrodistillation, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and Soxhlet apparatus. Chemical profile was assessed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Except for leaves extracts obtained by Soxhlet apparatus, the monoterpene hydrocarbons fraction dominated. Limonene, γ-terpinene, and β-pinene were the main identified compounds. The antioxidant activity was investigated using different in vitro assays namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ABTS, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP), and β-carotene bleaching test. In DPPH test, the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of fresh peel exhibited the highest activity (IC50 of 1.17 mg/ml). Leaves extracted by SFE showed a good activity in both DPPH and β-carotene bleaching test with IC50 values of 2.20 and 6.66 mg/ml, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons fraction exhibited a positive Pearson's correlation coefficient with all antioxidant assays. Leaves, often considered waste material, should be considered from a different point because they represent a matrix of indisputable interest. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  5. Secondary metabolites of ponderosa lemon (Citrus pyriformis) and their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Dalia; El-Readi, Mahmoud Zaki; Tahrani, Ahmad; Herrmann, Florian; Kaufmann, Dorothea; Farrag, Nawal; El-Shazly, Assem; Wink, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Column chromatography of the dichloromethane fraction from an aqueous methanolic extract of fruit peel of Citrus pyriformis Hassk. (Rutaceae) resulted in the isolation of seven compounds including one coumarin (citropten), two limonoids (limonin and deacetylnomilin), and four sterols (stigmasterol, ergosterol, sitosteryl-3-beta-D-glucoside, and sitosteryl-6'-O-acyl-3-beta-D-glucoside). From the ethyl acetate fraction naringin, hesperidin, and neohesperidin were isolated. The dichloromethane extract of the defatted seeds contained three additional compounds, nomilin, ichangin, and cholesterol. The isolated compounds were identified by MS (EI, CI, and ESI), 1H, 13C, and 2D-NMR spectral data. The limonoids were determined qualitatively by LC-ESI/MS resulting in the identification of 11 limonoid aglycones. The total methanolic extract of the peel and the petroleum ether, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate fractions were screened for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited a significant scavenging activity for DPPH free radicals (IC50 = 132.3 microg/mL). The petroleum ether fraction inhibited 5-lipoxygenase with IC50 = 30.6 microg/mL indicating potential anti-inflammatory properties. Limonin has a potent cytotoxic effect against COS7 cells [IC50 = (35.0 +/- 6.1) microM] compared with acteoside as a positive control [IC50 = (144.5 +/- 10.96) microM].

  6. The Methanolic Extract from Murraya koenigii L. Inhibits Glutamate-Induced Pain and Involves ATP-Sensitive K+ Channel as Antinociceptive Mechanism

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    Nushrat Sharmin Ani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Murraya koenigii L. is a perennial shrub, belonging to the family Rutaceae. Traditionally, the leaves of this plant are extensively used in treatment of a wide range of diseases and disorders including pain and inflammation. Although researchers have revealed the antinociceptive effects of this plant’s leaves during past few years, the mechanisms underlying these effects are still unknown. Therefore, the present study evaluated some antinociceptive mechanisms of the methanolic extract of M. koenigii (MEMK leaves along with its antinociceptive potential using several animal models. The antinociceptive effects of MEMK were evaluated using formalin-induced licking and acetic acid-induced writhing tests at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg. In addition, we also justified the possible participations of glutamatergic system and ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the observed activities. Our results demonstrated that MEMK significantly (p<0.01 inhibited the pain thresholds induced by formalin and acetic acid in a dose-dependent manner. MEMK also significantly (p<0.01 suppressed glutamate-induced pain. Moreover, pretreatment with glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker at 10 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05 reversed the MEMK-mediated antinociception. These revealed that MEMK might have the potential to interact with glutamatergic system and the ATP-sensitive potassium channels to exhibit its antinociceptive activities. Therefore, our results strongly support the antinociceptive effects of M. koenigii leaves and provide scientific basis of their analgesic uses in the traditional medicine.

  7. Biological Activity of Carbazole Alkaloids and Essential Oil of Murraya koenigii Against Antibiotic Resistant Microbes and Cancer Cell Lines

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    Thilahgavani Nagappan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of three carbazole alkaloids and essential oil from the leaves of Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae were obtained and examined for their effects on the growth of five antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria and three tumor cell lines (MCF-7, P 388 and Hela. The structures of these carbazoles were elucidated based on spectroscopy data and compared with literature data, hence, were identified as mahanine (1, mahanimbicine (2 and mahanimbine (3. The chemical constituents of the essential oil were identified using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GCMS. These compounds exhibited potent inhibition against antibiotic resistant bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus (210P JTU, Psedomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 25619, Klebsiella pneumonia (SR1-TU, Escherchia coli (NI23 JTU and Streptococcus pneumoniae (SR16677-PRSP with significant minimum inhibition concentration (MIC values (25.0–175.0 mg/mL and minimum bacteriacidal concentrations (MBC (100.0–500.0 mg/mL. The isolated compounds showed significant antitumor activity against MCF-7, Hela and P388 cell lines. Mahanimbine (3 and essential oil in particular showed potent antibacteria and cytotoxic effect with dose dependent trends (≤5.0 μg/mL. The findings from this investigation are the first report of carbazole alkaloids’ potential against antibiotic resistant clinical bacteria, MCF-7 and P388 cell lines.

  8. Mechanism involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of Spiranthera odoratissima (Manacá

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    Daniela B. M. Barbosa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid-induced writhing, hot-plate, carrageenan-induced pleurisy, formalin-induced pain, croton oil-induced ear edema, vascular permeability tests and phospholipase A2 activity assay were used to study the analgesic and/or anti-inflammatory activity of the hydromethanolic fraction of ethanolic extract from Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil., Rutaceae, leaves (HMF and its subfraction (sub-Fr10-28. HMF and sub-Fr10-28 reduced the leukocyte migration on the carrageenan-induced pleurisy test; sub-Fr10-28 reduced the pain reaction time in the second phase of formalin-induced pain, as well as the ear edema and vascular permeability. Both HMF and sub-Fr10-28 inhibited the phospholipase A2 activity. These results suggest that the analgesic effect of this plant could be, in part, due to an anti-inflammatory action produced by the inhibition of phospholipase A2 activity.

  9. A Nuclear Ribosomal DNA Phylogeny of Acer Inferred with Maximum Likelihood, Splits Graphs, and Motif Analysis of 606 Sequences

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    Guido W. Grimm

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The multi-copy internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA is widely used to infer phylogenetic relationships among closely related taxa. Here we use maximum likelihood (ML and splits graph analyses to extract phylogenetic information from ~ 600 mostly cloned ITS sequences, representing 81 species and subspecies of Acer, and both species of its sister Dipteronia. Additional analyses compared sequence motifs in Acer and several hundred Anacardiaceae, Burseraceae, Meliaceae, Rutaceae, and Sapindaceae ITS sequences in GenBank. We also assessed the effects of using smaller data sets of consensus sequences with ambiguity coding (accounting for within-species variation instead of the full (partly redundant original sequences. Neighbor-nets and bipartition networks were used to visualize conflict among character state patterns. Species clusters observed in the trees and networks largely agree with morphology-based classifications; of de Jong’s (1994 16 sections, nine are supported in neighbor-net and bipartition networks, and ten by sequence motifs and the ML tree; of his 19 series, 14 are supported in networks, motifs, and the ML tree. Most nodes had higher bootstrap support with matrices of 105 or 40 consensus sequences than with the original matrix. Within-taxon ITS divergence did not differ between diploid and polyploid Acer, and there was little evidence of differentiated parental ITS haplotypes, suggesting that concerted evolution in Acer acts rapidly.

  10. The antiplasmodium effects of a traditional South American remedy: Zanthoxylum chiloperone var. angustifolium against chloroquine resistant and chloroquine sensitive strains of Plasmodium falciparum

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    Gerardo Cebrian-Torrejon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Zanthoxylum chiloperone var. angustifolium Engl., Rutaceae, is used in traditional medicine to treat fungal and protozoal infections in the central area of South America. Considering the increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum in malarial ridden areas, we explored the anti-plasmodial effects of three compounds isolated from Z. chiloperone. The pyranocoumarin transavicennol and the canthinone alkaloids, canthin-6-one and 5-methoxycanthin-6-one, were found to have IC50 on chloroquine/mefloquine resistant and sensitive strains of P. falciparum of 0.5-2.7, 2.0-5.3 and 5.1-10.4 ƒÊg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the formation of heme adducts by these compounds is described by a novel alternative method based on MS-CID methods. The alkylamide sanshool was also identified, for first time in this plant, in the dichloromethanic and ethanolic extracts and the extracts were found to be notably non-toxic and displayed good anti-plasmodial effects.

  11. Phytochemistry and pharmacognosy of the genus Acronychia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore

    2013-11-01

    The genus Acronychia (Rutaceae) comprise 44 species, most of which are represented by shrubs and small trees, distributed in a wide geographical area of South-Eastern Asia comprising China, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Australia, and the islands of the western Pacific Ocean. Most of the species of the genus Acronychia have been used for centuries as natural remedies in the ethnomedical traditions of indigenous populations as anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-spasmodic, stomachic, anti-pyretic, and anti-haemorragic agent. Moreover fruits and aerial parts are used as food in salads and condiments, while the essential oil obtained from flowers and leaves has been employed in cosmetics production. Phytochemicals isolated from Acronychia spp. include acetophenones, quinoline and acridone alkaloids, flavonoids, cinnamic acids, lignans, coumarins, steroids, and triterpenes. The reported biological activities of the above mentioned natural compounds refer to anti-plasmodial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, and neuroprotective effects. The aim of this review is to examine in detail from a phytochemical and pharmacologically point of view what is reported in the current literature about the properties of phytopreparations or individual active principles obtained from plants belonging to the Acronychia genus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic relationships among wild and cultivated accessions of curry leaf plant (Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.), as revealed by DNA fingerprinting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sushma; Rana, T S

    2013-02-01

    Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. (Rutaceae), is an aromatic plant and much valued for its flavor, nutritive and medicinal properties. In this study, three DNA fingerprinting methods viz., random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), directed amplification of minisatellite DNA (DAMD), and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), were used to unravel the genetic variability and relationships across 92 wild and cultivated M. koenigii accessions. A total of 310, 102, and 184, DNA fragments were amplified using 20 RAPD, 5 DAMD, and 13 ISSR primers, revealing 95.80, 96.07, and 96.73% polymorphism, respectively, across all accessions. The average polymorphic information content value obtained with RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR markers was 0.244, 0.250, and 0.281, respectively. The UPGMA tree, based on Jaccard's similarity coefficient generated from the cumulative (RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR) band data showed two distinct clusters, clearly separating wild and cultivated accessions in the dendrogram. Percentage polymorphism, gene diversity (H), and Shannon information index (I) estimates were higher in cultivated accessions compared to wild accessions. The overall high level of polymorphism and varied range of genetic distances revealed a wide genetic base in M. koenigii accessions. The study suggests that RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR markers are highly useful to unravel the genetic variability in wild and cultivated accessions of M. koenigii.

  13. PLANTAS ÚTILES EN LOS SISTEMAS AGROFORESTALES TRADICIONALES DEL LITORAL ECUATORIANO

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    Luz García Cruzatty

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en la Cuenca Media del Río Guayas, Ecuador, en el área correspondiente a los cantones Mocache y Palenque. El inventario de las especies se obtuvo mediante recorridos participativos. Las especies se clasificaron de acuerdo al Sistema Filogenético de Cronquist. Los datos sobre el uso de las especies se obtuvieron mediante charlas y entrevistas no formales. Se determinó que los agricultores de la Cuenca Media del Río Guayas conocen y utilizan 262 especies vegetales que pertenecen a 67 familias y 164 géneros. Las familias vegetales más comunes fueron: Anacardiaceae, Papilonaceae, Solanaceae, Rutaceae, Musaceae y Lamiaceae, con más de diez especies cada una. Se documentaron 21 tipos de usos, de los cuales los más importantes son: alimenticio, medicinal y construcción, lo que demuestra la preocupación de las familias por satisfacer sus necesidades básicas. La mayoría de las especies utilizadas son árboles, seguido por hierbas y arbustos. Entre las especies de mayor importancia por los múltiples usos y productos que se obtienen están: Persea americana Mill. (aguacate, Artocarpus altilis Fosberg (fruta de pan, Musa sp. (plátano, Manguifera sp. (mango, Phythelephas aequatoriales Spruce (cade, Inga edulis Matius (guaba de bejuco, entre otros.

  14. Seasonal change in main alkaloids of jaborandi (Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardleworth, an economically important species from the Brazilian flora.

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    David Fernandes Lima

    Full Text Available Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardleworth (jaborandi, Rutaceae is one of the most important Brazilian medicinal species owing to its content of pilocarpine (PIL, an alkaloid used for treating glaucoma and xerostomia. This species contains another alkaloid, epiisopiloturine (EPI, which has demonstrated effectiveness against schistosomiasis. The aim of this work was to assess seasonal changes of PIL and EPI in three populations of cultivated P. microphyllus from northeastern Brazil over one year, including the dry and rainy seasons. Alkaloid profiles were correlated to phenotypic and genetic patterns in the morphological and molecular characterizations. PIL was the primary alkaloid and its levels differed among populations in all months except September. The S01 population (green line showed an especially high PIL content compared to populations S02 and S03 (traditional line, which had similar alkaloid contents. PIL content gradually decreased in the three populations in the rainy season.EPI content was significantly different between the green line (S01 and the traditional line (S02 and S03.S01 had a significantly lower EPI content in all months, demonstrating that it was not the best source for EPI extraction. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers and morphological analyses clearly separated S01 from S02 and S03, in agreement with the alkaloid results. This study shows the first correlation between the chemical, morphological, and molecular markers of P. microphyllus and highlights the potential benefits of a multidisciplinary research approach aimed at supporting both industry and conservation of natural resources.

  15. In situ detection and identification of hesperidin crystals in satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) peel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Yoshinaga, Arata; Takabe, Keiji; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ogawa, Kazunori; Sakamoto, Masahiro; Azuma, Jun-ichi; Honda, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Hesperidin, a flavonoid known to have important pharmacological effects, accumulates particularly in the peels of satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). Although histochemical studies have suggested that hesperidin forms crystals in some tissues of the Rutaceae and Umbelliferae, there has been no rigorous in situ detection or identification of hesperidin crystals in C. unshiu. To characterise the chemical component of the crystals found in C. unshiu peels using Raman microscopy. Sections of C. unshiu peels were made. The distribution and morphology of crystals in the sections were analysed microscopically. Raman microscopy was used to detect hesperidin in the sections directly. The crystals were more abundant in immature peel and were observed particularly in areas surrounding vascular bundles, around the border between the flavedo and albedo layers and just below the epidermal cells. In the morphological analysis by scanning electron microscopy, needle-shaped crystals aggregated and formed clusters of spherical crystals. Spectra obtained by Raman microscopy of the crystals in the peel sections were consistent with those of the hesperidin standard. This study showed the detailed distribution of crystals in C. unshiu peels and their main component was identified using Raman microscopy to be hesperidin for the first time. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Chemosensory basis of larval performance of Papilio hospiton on different host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollai, Giorgia; Biolchini, Maurizio; Solari, Paolo; Crnjar, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    Papilio hospiton Géné is an oligophagous species, endemic of the islands of Corsica and Sardinia, using various Apiaceae and Rutaceae as host plants, such as Ferula communis, Ferula arrigonii, Peucedanum paniculatum, Ruta lamarmorae and Pastinaca latifolia. We previously found that the lateral maxillary styloconic sensillum in the larva has two deterrent neurons, one phagostimulant and one salt specific, while the medial sensillum has two phagostimulant neurons, one deterrent and one salt specific. In this work we studied the sensitivity of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) to saps of F. communis, F. arrigonii, P. paniculatum, P. latifolia and R. lamarmorae and evaluated the relationship between taste sensitivity to different host-plants and larval growth rate on each of them. The spike activity was recorded from medial and lateral taste sensilla stimulated with plant saps, and GRN response patterns were cross compared in the light of a different feeding acceptance. The phagodeterrent GRNs show a higher activity in response to F. arrigonii and R. lamarmorae than to F. communis, P. paniculatum and P. latifolia. Behavioral trials showed that the time to pupation is significantly longer when larvae are reared on F. arrigonii and R. lamarmorae than on the other host-plants. These results suggest that the different activity of the phagodeterrent GRNs may inhibit food acceptance and extend the duration of the larval stage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Herbological study on the botanical origin of the Chinese crude drug shan-zhu-yu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikage, Masayuki; Hutagi, Yukari

    2008-01-01

    The historical change in the botanical origin of the Chinese herbal drug Shan-zhu-yu, San-syu-yu in Japanese) was studied herbologically. The results obtained were as follows: The original plant, described in Shen-nong-ben-cao-jing written in the Hou-Han Dynasty (A.D. 25-220) and Wu-pu-ben-cao written in the Wei dynasty (A.D. 220-265), was Prunus pseudocerasus or an allied species such as P. tomentosa. However, the original plant described in Ming-yi-bie-lu, written in the same era, was thought to be Cornus officinalis; the fruit of which is used commonly today as Shan-zhu-yu. In addition to Prunus and Cornus, the plants of the genus Berberis, of the family Berberidaceae, and Zanthoxylum of Rutaceae were also used in China until the Ming Dynasty. The plants of Elaeagnus, of the family Elaeagnaceae, were possibly used in ancient Japan. Cornus officinalis was determined to be the origin of Shan-zhu-yu during the Qing Dynasty, China.

  18. A new blend of white sapote fruit volatiles as potential attractant to Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ricardo; Toledo, Jorge; Cruz-Lopez, Leopoldo; Virgen, Armando; Santiesteban, Antonio; Malo, Edi A

    2006-12-01

    The behavioral and electrophysiological responses of nonirradiated male and female Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to white sapote, Casimiroa edulis Oerst. (Rutaceae), volatiles were investigated. Females flew upwind and landed more often on fruit than on artificial fruit in wind tunnel bioassays. Males flew upwind (but not landed) more frequently on fruit than on artificial fruit. Porapak Q volatile extracts of white sapote also elicited upwind flight and landing on artificial fruit for both sexes. Gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection analysis of white sapote extracts revealed that antennae of both sexes responded to eight compounds. Two peaks were unidentified because they did not separate from the solvent. Subsequent peaks were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as styrene, myrcene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,8-cineole, and linalool in a proportion of 50: 21: 0.5: 27: 1.5, respectively. Eight peaks were tentatively identified as beta-trans-ocimene. The number of A. ludens captured in multilure traps baited with the synthetic white sapote blend was higher than the flies captured by the multilure unbaited traps (control) in field cages. However, the number of flies captured by traps baited with the white sapote blend was not different from that of flies captured by traps baited with hydrolyzed protein. Using standard chemical ecology techniques, we found potential attractants from wild sapote fruit for monitoring and management of A. ludens population.

  19. Response surface optimization of ultrasound-assisted flavonoids extraction from the flower of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Engl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Cao, Ya-Lan; Jiang, Jian-Guo; Lin, Qing-Sheng; Chen, Jian; Zhu, Liang

    2010-05-01

    Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Engl is a member of genus Citrus (Rutaceae) and has been used in Chinese medicine with the effectiveness of digestant and expectorant. Ultrasonic-assisted extraction process for maximum flavonoids from the flower of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Engl was investigated by response surface methodology. Through single factor experiment, ranges of the main variables (including ethanol concentration, solid/liquid ratio, extraction time and temperature) affecting the extraction yield of flavonoids were confirmed. Box-Behnken central composite design consisting of 24 experimental runs and 5 replicates at zero point was then applied and a regress model was obtained to predict the optimal extraction yield. The ANOVA indicated that the regression equation fits very well with the actual situation, reflecting the relationship between the extraction yield of flavonoids and extraction conditions. The optimal conditions were as follows: extraction temperature 72.11 degrees C, time 51.89 min, ethanol concentration 51.19% and liquid/solid ratio of 40:10. Under the optimal conditions, the maximum response value of yield (1.88%) was consistent with the experimental value (1.87%), indicating the feasibility and validation of response surface methodology in optimizing the extraction of flavonoids from the flower of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Engl.

  20. Bioactivity evaluations of ingredients extracted from the flowers of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Engl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-Yan; Yang, Li; Wei, Jian; Huang, Ming; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2012-12-15

    Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Engl, a member of genus Citrus (Rutaceae), widespread in China, is used as folk medicine for the treatment of helping digest, phlegm, enteritidis, stomachic and other deceases. In the present research, silica gel column, Sephadex LH-20, mass spectrometer (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used to separate and identify the chemical compounds from the flowers of C. aurantium var. amara, and several bioactivity assays were used to evaluate their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-virus and antitumour activities. Two major compounds, 5-hydroxy-6,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone (HTF) and limonexic acid (LA), were isolated and identified from C. aurantium var. amara for the first time. The results of the bioactivity assays showed that HTF and LA displayed significant antioxidant activities and showed significant inhibition effects on the B16 cell lines at a concentration range from 6.25 to 50 μg/ml, and on the SMCC-7721 cell lines from 12.5 to 200 μg/ml. The antitumour effect, anti-inflammatory activity and the inhibiting expression of HBsAg and HBeAg of 2.2.15 cells displayed the tendency in a concentration-dependent manner. These two compounds from C. aurantium var. amara could potentially be used as a promising natural agent in the pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The protective role of Aegle marmelos on aspirin-induced gastro-duodenal ulceration in albino rat model: a possible involvement of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shyamal K; Roy, Chandan

    2012-01-01

    Gastro duodenal ulcer is a common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Several Indian medicinal plants have been traditionally and extensively used to prevent different diseases. In the present research studies, Bael fruit (Aegle marmelos (AM), family: Rutaceae) which are also called as Bilva in ancient Sanskrit was used as a herbal drug and its antioxidative role in aspirin- induced gastroduodenal ulceration in albino rat was evaluated using essential biochemical parameters. Mucosal thickness (MT), ulcer index (UI), different biochemical parameters, such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured in all the groups, to study the possible involvement of antioxidants with gastroduodenal protection. A significant decrease in MT, SOD and CAT activities and GSH level and a significant increase in UI, AST, ALT, and ALP activities and LPO level were observed in aspirin treated stomach and duodenum of albino rats. Pretreatment with AM fruit pulp extract for 14 consecutive days showed the reverse effects of aspirin suggesting gastro-duodenal protective and anti- ulcerogenic properties of AM through its antioxidant mechanism.

  2. The Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus altissima (Mill. (Sapindales: Simaroubaceae, an Important Pantropical Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josphat K. Saina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ailanthus altissima (Mill. Swingle (Simaroubaceae is a deciduous tree widely distributed throughout temperate regions in China, hence suitable for genetic diversity and evolutionary studies. Previous studies in A. altissima have mainly focused on its biological activities, genetic diversity and genetic structure. However, until now there is no published report regarding genome of this plant species or Simaroubaceae family. Therefore, in this paper, we first characterized A. altissima complete chloroplast genome sequence. The tree of heaven chloroplast genome was found to be a circular molecule 160,815 base pairs (bp in size and possess a quadripartite structure. The A. altissima chloroplast genome contains 113 unique genes of which 79 and 30 are protein coding and transfer RNA (tRNA genes respectively and also 4 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA with overall GC content of 37.6%. Microsatellite marker detection identified A/T mononucleotides as majority SSRs in all the seven analyzed genomes. Repeat analyses of seven Sapindales revealed a total of 49 repeats in A. altissima, Rhus chinensis, Dodonaea viscosa, Leitneria floridana, while Azadirachta indica, Boswellia sacra, and Citrus aurantiifolia had a total of 48 repeats. The phylogenetic analysis using protein coding genes revealed that A. altissima is a sister to Leitneria floridana and also suggested that Simaroubaceae is a sister to Rutaceae family. The genome information reported here could be further applied for evolution and invasion, population genetics, and molecular studies in this plant species and family.

  3. In vitro antibacterial effects of Zanthoxylum tingoassuiba root bark extracts and two of its alkaloids against multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus

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    Rafael S. Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The emergence of multiresistant strains of bacteria reinforces the need to search for new compounds able to combat resistant organisms. Medicinal plants are a great resource of bioactive substances, providing the possibility of obtaining molecules with potential antimicrobial activity. The aim of the present study is the evaluation of the antibacterial activity of extracts and alkaloids isolated from the root bark of Zanthoxylum tingoassuiba A. St.-Hil., Rutaceae, against four resistant clinical isolates and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The dichloromethane and methanol extracts were fractionated by chromatography on silica gel, leading to the isolation of dihydrocheleryhtrine and N-methylcanadine, identified by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. The antibacterial activity of the extracts and isolated compounds was evaluated by the disc diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined. The dichloromethane extract was the most active against all the tested strains and the two pure alkaloids were more active than the extracts. The anti-MRSA activity of the two benzophenanthridine alkaloids is demonstrated for the first time in this study. These compounds appear as potential leads for the development of new anti-MRSA compounds and could be responsible for the antibacterial activity, justifying the ethnobotanical use of Z. tingoassuiba and other species for the treatment of various infectious diseases.

  4. Comparative analysis of the essential oil composition of Murraya paniculata and M. exotica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hai-Ning; Guo, Xiao-Yu; Tu, Peng-Fei; Jiang, Yong

    2013-10-01

    Murrayae Folium et Cacumen (MFC) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) derived from the leaves and twigs of two aromatic species of Rutaceae: Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack and M. exotica L. It has long been used as a folk medicine in South China for the treatment of a variety of disorders, particularly for inflammatory lesions and pains. In the present study, a detailed chemical examination as well as a comparative analysis of the essential oil composition of M. paniculata and M. exotica was conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 141 volatile components were identified from the essential oil of these two plants. Sesquiterpenes were found to be the predominant constituents, accounting for 92.8% of the oil from M. paniculata and 87.9% of that from M. exotica. A comparative analysis of the essential oil composition of these two plants revealed a high level of similarity in their main constituents, such as the co-occurrence of E-caryophyllene, spathulenol and delta-elemene, which gave the chemical evidence for their equal medicinal application as MFC in TCMs. Moreover, in combination with literature reports, E-caryophyllene was theoretically deduced as one of the pharmacologically effective components of MFC that is responsible for treating inflammatory lesions and for local anaesthesia.

  5. Phytossociology of wood community in Seasonal Dry Montane Forest in Paraiba, Brazil

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    Maria do Carmo Learth Cunha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pico do Jabre Seasonally Dry Montane Forest in Paraiba state, Brazil, the highest regional elevation, 1197 m, distant 360 km the sea was assessed aiming to survey its phytosociology and woody structure. In 36 systematic sampling plots, 10x50m, individuals, Dbh > 4.8cm, had their diameters and height measured. Botanical samples were collected during five years and vouchers were deposited at the Paraiba Federal University Herbaria (JPB. It was found 2050 trees distributed in 64 species of 51 genera of 31 families, which accounted for 1138 ind.ha-1 and 22.45 m2.ha -1. Diversity and equability were assessed as H' = 3.17 nats.ind-1 and J' = 0.76 similar to some others regional seasonally dry montane forest communities. Malpighiaceae, Myrtaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Vochysiaceae, Celastraceae, Rutaceae, Sapindaceae e Fabaceae-Faboideae stood out and summed 66.72% of the total VI. Byrsonima nitidifolia, Eugenia ligustrina, Calisthene microphylla, Maytenus distichophylla and Erythroxylum mucronatum species accounted for 120.79 (40.3% of the total VI. B. nitidifolia ecological dominance is firstly reported in the Brazilian northeast region.

  6. Identification and Comparison of Constituents of Aurantii Fructus and Aurantii Fructus Immaturus by UFLC-DAD-Triple TOF-MS/MS

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    Yang Bai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Although Aurantii Fructus (AF and Aurantii Fructus Immaturus (AFI are both the fruits of the same rutaceae plant at different stages of growth, they exert similar yet distinct clinical effects. The chemical composition is crucial for quality control as well as therapeutic application. To address this concern, it is significant to evaluate the similarities and differences of the constituents in both AF and AFI. The extract of AF and AFI were comprehensively analyzed by ultra fast liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector-triple-time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-DAD-Triple TOF-MS/MS. Among the 40 compounds detected, 19 metabolites were detected in both the AF and AFI; whereas 13 compounds were only detected in AF and five constituents were exclusively detected in AFI. In particular, even in AFI, three compounds were only identified in AFI (Citrus aurantium’ L. and its cultivar. Among the 18 compounds confirmed by standard database, 13 compounds were reported in AF and AFI for the first time. Furthermore, the distinction was also revealed by the content of naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, and synephrine. The study directly contributed to the similarities and differences of AF and AFI. Herein, similarities and the differences in chemical profiles of AF and AFI could explain the current clinical applications.

  7. Isolation of quinoline alkaloids from three Choisya species by high-speed countercurrent chromatography and the determination of their antioxidant capacity

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    Gilda G. Leitão

    Full Text Available Abstract Choisya ternata Kunth, C. ternata var. sundance Kunth and the hybrid Choisya ‘Aztec-Pearl’ are three related species belonging to the Rutaceae family. Ethanol extracts were prepared from the leaves of these three species and evaluated in relation to their antioxidant activity using in vitro and ex vivo models. The ethanol extracts belonging to the three species produced a very high antioxidant profile as evidenced by the DPPH radical scavenging activity, the determination of total phenolics and flavonoid equivalent. The generation of reactive species of oxygen in leukocytes stimulated with LPS was dramatically reduced when the three ethanol extracts were used. The alkaloids anhydroevoxine and choisyine were isolated from the ethanol extract of C. ternata using HEMWat (4:6:5:5 as the solvent system by means of high-speed countercurrent chromatography. This was the first time quinoline alkaloids were isolated from this species using HSCCC. These compounds were also assayed for their capacity to inhibit the generation of ROS in leukocytes stimulated by LPS and the results also suggested that they are reactive oxygenase inhibitors.

  8. Aurapten, a coumarin with growth inhibition against Leishmania major promastigotes

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    Napolitano H.B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several natural compounds have been identified for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Among them are some alkaloids, chalcones, lactones, tetralones, and saponins. The new compound reported here, 7-geranyloxycoumarin, called aurapten, belongs to the chemical class of the coumarins and has a molecular weight of 298.37. The compund was extracted from the Rutaceae species Esenbeckia febrifuga and was purified from a hexane extract starting from 407.7 g of dried leaves and followed by four silica gel chromatographic fractionation steps using different solvents as the mobile phase. The resulting compound (47 mg of shows significant growth inhibition with an LD50 of 30 µM against the tropical parasite Leishmania major, which causes severe clinical manifestations in humans and is endemic in the tropical and subtropical regions. In the present study, we investigated the atomic structure of aurapten in order to determine the existence of common structural motifs that might be related to other coumarins and potentially to other identified inhibitors of Leishmania growth and viability. This compound has a comparable inhibitory activity of other isolated molecules. The aurapten is a planar molecule constituted of an aromatic system with electron delocalization. A hydrophobic side chain consisting of ten carbon atoms with two double bonds and negative density has been identified and may be relevant for further compound synthesis.

  9. To Have and to Hold: Selection for Seed and Fruit Retention During Crop Domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L-F; Olsen, K M

    2016-01-01

    Crop domestication provides a useful model system to characterize the molecular and developmental bases of morphological variation in plants. Among the most universal changes resulting from selection during crop domestication is the loss of seed and fruit dispersal mechanisms, which greatly facilitates harvesting efficiency. In this review, we consider the molecular genetic and developmental bases of the loss of seed shattering and fruit dispersal in six major crop plant families, three of which are primarily associated with seed crops (Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae) and three of which are associated with fleshy-fruited crops (Solanaceae, Rosaceae, Rutaceae). We find that the developmental basis of the loss of seed/fruit dispersal is conserved in a number of independently domesticated crops, indicating the widespread occurrence of developmentally convergent evolution in response to human selection. With regard to the molecular genetic approaches used to characterize the basis of this trait, traditional biparental quantitative trait loci mapping remains the most commonly used strategy; however, recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies are now providing new avenues to map and characterize loss of shattering/dispersal alleles. We anticipate that continued application of these approaches, together with candidate gene analyses informed by known shattering candidate genes from other crops, will lead to a rapid expansion of our understanding of this critical domestication trait. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by somes promising Brazilian medicinal plants

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    CM. Feitosa

    Full Text Available A microplate assay and a thin-layer chromatography (TLC "in situ" assay based on the Ellman assay was used to screen for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Brazilian medicinal plants of families that, according to the literature, have traditional uses that might be connected with acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Eighteen species belonging to Convolvulaceae, Crassulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Rutaceae families were tested. The most active plants were Ipomoea asarifolia (IC50 = 0.12 mg/mL, Jatropha curcas (IC50 = 0.25 mg/mL, Jatropha gossypiifolia (IC50 = 0.05 mg/mL, Kalanchoe brasiliensis (IC50 = 0.16 mg/mL and Senna alata (IC50 = 0.08 mg/mL. The most promising extracts were the Jatropha gossypiifolia and Senna alata species assuming there were compounds with a similar activity to galanthamine, which should contain about 1% of an active compound, or if present at lower levels even more active compounds than galanthamine (IC50 = 0.37 x 10-3 mg/mL should be present.

  11. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of essential oils extracted from Guatemalan medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew B; Cates, Rex G; Lawrence, Michael; Soria, J Alfonso Fuentes; Espinoza, Luis V; Martinez, Jose Vicente; Arbizú, Dany A

    2015-04-01

    Essential oils are prevalent in many medicinal plants used for oral hygiene and treatment of diseases. Medicinal plant species were extracted to determine the essential oil content. Those producing sufficient oil were screened for activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Candida albicans. Plant samples were collected, frozen, and essential oils were extracted by steam distillation. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using a tube dilution assay for those species yielding sufficient oil. Fifty-nine of the 141 plant species produced sufficient oil for collection and 12 species not previously reported to produce essential oils were identified. Essential oil extracts from 32 species exhibited activity against one or more microbes. Oils from eight species were highly inhibitory to S. mutans, four species were highly inhibitory to C. albicans, and 19 species yielded MIC values less than the reference drugs. RESULTS suggest that 11 species were highly inhibitory to the microbes tested and merit further investigation. Oils from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae), Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle (Rutaceae), Lippia graveolens Kunth (Verbenaceae), and Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) yielded highly significant or moderate activity against all microbes and have potential as antimicrobial agents. Teas prepared by decoction or infusion are known methods for extracting essential oils. Oils from 11 species were highly active against the microbes tested and merit investigation as to their potential for addressing health-related issues and in oral hygiene.

  12. Ethnobotanical study of some aromatic and medicinal plants in the Middle Atlas mountains of Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Midaoui, Mohammed; Maataoui, Abdelwahed; Benbella, Mohamed; Houssa, Abdelhadi Ait; Labazi, Nadia

    2011-10-01

    By the diversity of its soil and climatic factors, Morocco offers a flora particularly rich in aromatic and medicinal plants (MAP). In order to obtain the most information about the flora (flowering times, fruiting, harvesting and their main uses in traditional medicine), a study was conducted in the mountainous Khenifra region. A survey of users of MAP (rural population, herbalists arborists) has been undertaken and was completed by field observations and sampling at different stages of growth. The results showed a range of indigenous and diversified MAP belonging to 10 botanical families (Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Papaveraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cupressaceae, Rutaceae, Anacardiaceae and Zygophyllaceae). The flowering period of all species, according to the local community surveyed, spread from February (2%) to September (12%), with a significant concentration from April to June (65%).The highest rate of fructification occurred in June-July (64%). The harvesting period of the main MAP from this mountain area stretches mainly from March to April (61%). The mode of propagation stated varied among species, and concerned mainly replication by seeds (53%) and cuttings (24%). Regarding the use of these indigenous MAP as traditional medicines, all plant parts are used, especially leaves, flowers and stems.

  13. Cytotoxicity of obacunone and obacunone glucoside in human prostate cancer cells involves Akt-mediated programmed cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Kotamballi N Chidambara; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2015-03-02

    Obacunone and obacunone glucoside (OG) are naturally occurring triterpenoids commonly found in citrus and other plants of the Rutaceae family. The current study reports the mechanism of cytotoxicity of citrus-derived obacunone and OG on human androgen-dependent prostate cancer LNCaP cells. Both limonoids exhibited time- and dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation, with more than 60% inhibition of cell viability at 100 μM, after 24 and 48 h. Analysis of fragmentation of DNA, activity of caspase-3, and cytosolic cytochrome-c in the cells treated with limonoids provided evidence for activation of programmed cell death by limonoids. Treatment of LNCaP cells with obacunone and OG resulted in dose-dependent changes in expression of proteins responsible for the induction of programmed cell death through the intrinsic pathway and down-regulation of Akt, a key molecule in cell signaling pathways. In addition, obacunone and OG also negatively regulated an inflammation-associated transcription factor, androgen receptor, and prostate-specific antigen, and activated proteins related to the cell cycle, confirming the ability of limonoids to induce cytotoxicity through multiple pathways. The results of this study provided, for the first time, an evidence of the cytotoxicity of obacunone and OG in androgen-dependent human prostate cancer cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Methodology to evaluate the insecticide potential of forest tree species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Soto, Leon; Garcia P, Carlos Mario

    2000-01-01

    The flora diversity of Colombia has an enormous potential in the rational use of its forest resources. Trees with biocidal effects to control pests and diseases need to be investigated. The objective of this research was to develop a methodology with low costs, easy application and quick results. The methodology employed was as follows: selection of tree species based on bibliography, ancestral reports and personal observations. The process was as follows: field collection of plants, preparation of plants extracts and test with Artemia salina Leach to detect biological activity of the extracts using LC50. Bioassays with those extract more promising (LC50 less than 1000 ppm) Determination of active compounds. The methodology was employed with 5 forest tree species: guarea guidonia (L) Sleumer and trichia hirta L. (Meliaceae), Machaerium Moritzianum Benth. (Fabaceae), Swinglea glutinosa Merrill (rutaceae) and Mammea americana L. (Clusiaceae). Using Artemia salina Leach as indicator of biocidal potential, two species were selected as the most promising, those were: Swinglea glutinosa Merril and Machaerium moritzianum Benth. In addition bioassays were made to evaluate fagoinhibition on Atta cephalotes (L.) (Hym: Formicidae) and control of Alconeura. This methodology is recommended for this kind of research

  15. Rapid Identification of Coumarins from Micromelum falcatum by UPLC-HRMS/MS and Targeted Isolation of Three New Derivatives

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    Eirini Kouloura

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Micromelum falcatum, a medicinal plant of the Rutaceae family, has been used in the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM mainly against colds and rheumatoid arthritis. Despite its traditional use the association of its constituents with possible anti-inflammatory activity has not been explored. During this study, a rapid UPLC-ESI(+-HRMS method was developed for the profiling of M. falcatum leave extracts and the targeted isolation of coumarin constituents. Based on chromatographic, spectroscopic and spectrometric features several 7-oxygenated coumarin derivatives were detected. After targeted isolation, eight coumarins, among them three new natural products, namely microfalcrin, microcoumaririn and micromelosidester, were purified using semi-preparative HPLC and unambiguously identified by 1 and 2D NMR. Furthermore, important spectrometric characteristics were revealed based on the HRMS and HRMS/MS spectra of the isolated 7-oxygenated coumarins facilitating their identification in complex mixtures. Finally, the anti-inflammatory properties of the extracts and representative compounds were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of the pro-inflammatory mediator NF-κB induction and nitric oxide (NO production.

  16. Analysis of E. rutaecarpa Alkaloids Constituents In Vitro and In Vivo by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS Combined with Diagnostic Fragment

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    Shenshen Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss. Benth. (Rutaceae dried ripe fruit is used for dispelling colds, soothing liver, and analgesia. Pharmacological research has proved that alkaloids are the main active ingredients of E. rutaecarpa. This study aimed to rapidly classify and identify the alkaloids constituents of E. rutaecarpa by using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS coupled with diagnostic fragments. Furthermore, the effects of the material base of E. rutaecarpa bioactive ingredients in vivo were examined such that the transitional components in the blood of rats intragastrically given E. rutaecarpa were analyzed and identified. In this study, the type of alcohol extraction of E. rutaecarpa and the corresponding blood sample were used for the analysis by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS in positive ion mode. After reviewing much of the literature and collected information on the fragments, we obtained some diagnostic fragments of the alkaloids. Combining the diagnostic fragments with the technology of UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, we identified the compounds of E. rutaecarpa and blood samples and compared the ion fragment information with that of the alkaloids in E. rutaecarpa. A total of 17 alkaloids components and 6 blood components were identified. The proposed method was rapid, accurate, and sensitive. Therefore, this technique can reliably and practically analyze the chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM.

  17. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants marketed in the municipality of Uruará, Pará, Brazil

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    Reinaldo Lucas Cajaiba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2016v29n1p115 The present study aimed to perform an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants marketed by the population of the municipality of Uruará, Pará, and its main districts. The respondents mentioned 63 species distributed in 36 botanical families. The most representative families were Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Rutaceae. The species with the highest Use Value were capim cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus, UV = 0.90, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides, UV = 0.83 and hortelã (Mentha sp., UV = 0.79, while capim cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus and picão (Bidens pilosa had a higher indicator value, and were indicated as a tranquilizer/painkiller and for treating kidney disease, respectively. Among the main disorders treated with medicinal plants, diseases of the digestive system, infections/inflammations, colds and respiratory system diseases were the most cited. There was no significant difference between the number of species mentioned and the number of individuals per family or the distance of households to the urban zone. There was also no difference between the number of species mentioned and education level. Most medicinal plants marketed in the municipality are herbs, leaves are the most used parts and the most common form of preparation is tea.

  18. Influence of Solvent Polarity and DNA-Binding on Spectral Properties of Quaternary Benzo[c]phenanthridine Alkaloids.

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    Michal Rájecký

    Full Text Available Quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids are secondary metabolites of the plant families Papaveraceae, Rutaceae, and Ranunculaceae with anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Their spectral changes induced by the environment could be used to understand their interaction with biomolecules as well as for analytical purposes. Spectral shifts, quantum yield and changes in lifetime are presented for the free form of alkaloids in solvents of different polarity and for alkaloids bound to DNA. Quantum yields range from 0.098 to 0.345 for the alkanolamine form and are below 0.033 for the iminium form. Rise of fluorescence lifetimes (from 2-5 ns to 3-10 ns and fluorescence intensity are observed after binding of the iminium form to the DNA for most studied alkaloids. The alkanolamine form does not bind to DNA. Acid-base equilibrium constant of macarpine is determined to be 8.2-8.3. Macarpine is found to have the highest increase of fluorescence upon DNA binding, even under unfavourable pH conditions. This is probably a result of its unique methoxy substitution at C12 a characteristic not shared with other studied alkaloids. Association constant for macarpine-DNA interaction is 700000 M(-1.

  19. A comparative study on analytical method of total alkaloids from cortex Phellodendri amurens by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC and pressurized capillary electrochromatography (pCEC

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    Bo Yang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A pressurized capillary electrochromatography (pCEC method with post-column detection cell has been developed for the analysis of total alkaloids of cortex Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Rutaceae. The separation of total alkaloids (berberine, palmatine, oatrorrhizine, magnoflorine, phellodendrine, candicine, menisperine was optimized by compositions of the mobile phase, ionic strength of buffers, pH value, and applied voltage. Separation of total alkaloids was achieved within 11 min by using a mobile phase of Na2HPO4-citric acid solution-acetonitrile (pH 4.00; 3 mM (60:40, v/v and applying a voltage of -10 kV. This method showed satisfactory retention times and peak shapes. Meanwhile, a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC has also been established for the separation of total alkaloids extracted from cortex Phellodendri amurens. Baseline separation of total alkaloids was achieved within 25 min by using a mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid with 0.1 g sodium dodecanesulphonate per 100 mL (35:65, v/v. Compared to conventional RP-HPLC, pCEC led to higher column efficiency, less consumption of reagent, and shorter analysis time.

  20. Anthelmintic, Antibacterial and Cytotoxicity Activity of Imidazole Alkaloids from Pilocarpus microphyllus Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Jefferson A; Andrade, Ivanilza M; Véras, Leiz M C; Quelemes, Patrick V; Lima, David F; Soares, Maria J S; Pinto, Pedro L S; Mayo, Simon J; Ivanova, Galya; Rangel, Maria; Correia, Manuela; Mafud, Ana Carolina; Mascarenhas, Yvonne P; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; de Moraes, Josué; Eaton, Peter; Leite, José R S A

    2017-04-01

    Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardlew (Rutaceae), popularly known as jaborandi, is a plant native to the northern and northeastern macroregions of Brazil. Several alkaloids from this species have been isolated. There are few reports of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities for these compounds. In this work, we report the antibacterial and anthelmintic activity of five alkaloids found in P. microphyllus leaves, namely, pilosine, epiisopilosine, isopilosine, epiisopiloturine and macaubine. Of these, only anthelmintic activity of one of the compounds has been previously reported. Nuclear magnetic resonance, HPLC and mass spectrometry were combined and used to identify and confirm the structure of the five compounds. As regards the anthelmintic activity, the alkaloids were studied using in vitro assays to evaluate survival time and damaged teguments for Schistosoma mansoni adult worms. We found epiisopilosine to have anthelmintic activity at very low concentrations (3.125 μg mL -1 ); at this concentration, it prevented mating, oviposition, reducing motor activity and altered the tegument of these worms. In contrast, none of the alkaloids showed antibacterial activity. Additionally, alkaloids displayed no cytotoxic effect on vero cells. The potent anthelmintic activity of epiisopilosine indicates the potential of this natural compound as an antiparasitic agent. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Chemical composition and seasonality variability of the Spiranthera odoratissima volatile oils leaves

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    Sônia J.O. de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil., Rutaceae, known as “manacá” is a shrub native of the Brazilian Cerrado. Their leaves and roots are popularly used to treat rheumatism, infection and abdominal pain. This study analyzed the chemical composition of volatile oils from leaves of S. odoratissima and verified the seasonal variability of its chemical composition. The volatile oils were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger type apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The main chemical components found in samples of volatile oils were β-caryophyllene, bicyclogermacrene, δ-cadinene, amorphous-4,7(11-diene, α-epi-muurolol, α-cadinol, α-muurolol and γ-cadinene. The hierarchical clustering identified three groups: the first was characterized by α-epi-muurolol, the second by amorphous-4,7(11-diene and the third group was characterized by α-muurolol. The discriminant canonical analysis was used to differentiate between clusters on the basis of oil composition. The results suggest that the rainfall presented a relationship with the chemical composition of the volatile oil. This is the first study conducted on the seasonal behavior of the chemical constituents in volatile oil from leaves of S. odoratissima.

  2. Evaluation of Effects of Zingiber officinale on Salivation in Rats

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    Goli Chamani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There are some herbal plants in Iranian traditional system of medicine which are believed to be excellent remedies to alleviate the symptoms of xerostomia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of systemic administration of seven different herbal extracts on the rate of salivation in rats. The extracts of 7 herbs; Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae, Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck (Rutaceae, Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae, Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae, Pimpinella anisum L.(Apiaceae, Portulaca oleracea L.(Portulacaceae, Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae were prepared. Nine groups of animals (including negative and positive control groups were used and seven rats were tested in each group. After the injection of extracts, saliva volume was measured gravimetrically in four continuous seven-minute intervals. The results showed that after injection of ginger extracts salivation was significantly higher as compared to the negative control group and other herbal extracts in all of the four intervals (P<0.01. The peak action of the ginger was during the first 7-minute interval and following this, salivation decreased to some extent. The present study suggests that the extract of Zingiber offiicianle can increase the rate of salivation significantly in animal model. Further investigations on different constituents of ginger seem to be essential to identify the responsible constituent for stimulation of saliva secretion.

  3. Chemical profile, antioxidant activity and cytotoxic effect of extract from leaves of Erythrochiton brasiliensis Nees

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    Baj Tomasz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The total phenolic content (TPC, total tannin content (TTC and total flavonoid content (TFC as well as the antioxidant activity and the cytotoxic effect of the extract from leaves of Erythrochiton brasiliensis Nees & Mart. (Rutaceae were evaluated. Raw material was collected in different European botanical gardens. Statistical analysis revealed a clear grouping of populations according to their climatic zone. The average TPC, TTC and TFC in tested samples were 35.92 (± 7.11 mg GAE·g–1 DW, 14.98 (± 4.08 mg PyE·g–1 DW and 2.92 (± 0.76 mg QuE·g–1 DW, respectively. The scavenged DPPH and Trolox equivalents determined by EPR spectroscopy were 1.23–4.14 and 0.50–1.44 mmol·g–1 of dry extract, respectively. Thirteen compounds (derivatives of bezoic acid acid and trans-cinnammic acid were identified in the samples. The flavonoid vitexin was also present as the major component in three investigated samples. The in vitro cytotoxicity test of the extract on Vero cells provided IC50 and IC10 values of 175.6 and 72.5 μg·mL–1, respectively. Incubation of samples with HHV-1 infected Vero cells had no effect on the occurrence of cytopathic effect.

  4. Evaluation of central nervous system effects of Citrus limon essential oil in mice

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    Lidianne Mayra Lopes Campêlo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system (CNS depressant and anticonvulsant activities of Citrus limon (L. Osbeck, Rutaceae, essential oil (EO were investigated in animal models. The EO (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg injected by oral route (p.o. in mice caused a significant decrease in the motor activity of animals when compared with the control group, up to thirty days after the administration and the dose of 150 mg/kg significantly reduced the remaining time of the animals on the Rota-rod apparatus. Additionally, C. limon essential oil was also capable to promote an increase of latency for development of convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ. The administration of FLU (10 mg/kg, i.p., GABA A-benzodiazepine (GABA-BZD receptor antagonist, antagonized the effect of C. limon essential oil at higher dose. This C. limon essential oil was also capable to promote an increase of latency for development of convulsions induced by picrotoxin (PIC at higher dose. In the same way, the anticonvulsant effect of the EO was affected by pretreatment with flumazenil, a selective antagonist of benzodiazepine site of GABA A receptor. These results suggest a possible CNS depressant and anticonvulsant activities in mice that needs further investigation.

  5. Proceedings of Synthetic Biology: Engineering, Evolution and Design (SEED) Conference 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, Pamela [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); SEED 2015 Conference Chair; Flach, Evan [American Institute of Chemical Engineers; SEED 2015 Conference Organizer

    2016-10-27

    Synthetic Biology is an emerging discipline that seeks to accelerate the process of engineering biology. As such, the tools are broadly applicable to application areas, including chemicals and biofuels, materials, medicine and agriculture. A characteristic of the field is to look holistically at cellular design, from sensing and genetic circuitry to the manipulation of cellular processes and actuators, to controlling metabolism, to programming multicellular behaviors. Further, the types of cells that are manipulated are broad, from in vitro systems to microbes and fungi to mammalian and plant cells and living animals. Many of the projects in synthetic biology seek to move biochemical functions across organisms. The field is highly interdisciplinary with faculty and students spread across departments that focus on engineering (biological, chemical, electrical, mechanical, civil, computer science) and basic science (biology and systems biology, chemistry, physics). While there have been many one-off workshops and meeting on synthetic biology, the 2014 Synthetic Biology: Engineering, Evolution and Design (SEED) was the first of an annual conference series that serves as a reliable place to pull together the involved disciplines in order to organize and exchange advances in the science and technology in the field. Further, the SEED conferences have a strong focus on industry, with many companies represented and actively participating. A number of these companies have started major efforts in synthetic biology including large companies (e.g., Pfizer, Novartis, Dow, Dupont, BP, Total), smaller companies have recently gone public (e.g., Amyris, Gevo, Intrexon), and many start-ups (e.g., Teslagen, Refactored Materials, Pivot, Genomatica). There are a number of loosely affiliated Synthetic Biology Centers, including ones at MIT, Boston University, UCSD, UCSF, UC-Berkeley, Imperial College, Oxford, and ETH. SEED 2015 will serve as the primary meeting at which international

  6. Feeding visit time of fruit-eating birds in Cerrado plants: revisiting the predation risk model Tempo de visita de aves que comem frutos em plantas de Cerrado: revisitando o modelo do risco de predação

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    Igor Aurélio Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruiting plants that attract frequent visits by fruit-eating birds tend to be predictable patches for a predator. Consequently, the risk of a predator attack increases the longer a bird stays on a fruiting plant. We tested whether large and cryptic species of fruit-eating birds spend more time per feeding visit than smaller and conspicuous ones in fruiting plants of the Brazilian Cerrado. Data were obtained from the literature for eight fruiting plant species and from field observations of birds feeding on fruits of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium (Rutaceae. We searched for a positive linear relationship between the mean visit time and the total length of the species, considering bird color as a covariate. Feeding visits of the large and cryptic bird species lasted longer than feeding visits of small and conspicuous species. Large birds may be safer from predators because large predators are less common. Cryptic birds may be difficult to be detected by predators and, consequently, may be less likely to be attacked by predators than conspicuous birds. Thus, our results provide support to the hypothesis that vulnerable bird species spend less time foraging in fruiting plants.Plantas em frutificação atraem visitas freqüentes de aves que comem frutos e tendem a ser manchas previsíveis para um predador. Conseqüentemente, o risco de ataque de um predador aumenta com o tempo de permanência de uma ave frugívora em uma planta com frutos. Neste estudo, testamos se espécies de aves grandes e crípticas passam mais tempo por visita de alimentação em plantas em frutificação que espécies pequenas e conspícuas. Obtivemos dados da literatura para oito espécies de plantas do Cerrado e também de observações em campo de aves que se alimentam de frutos de Zanthoxylum rhoifolium (Rutaceae. Procuramos por uma relação positiva entre o tempo médio de visita e o comprimento total das espécies de aves, considerando a cor das espécies como uma co

  7. A vegetação arbórea do Parque Estadual do Morro do Diabo, município de Teodoro Sampaio, Estado de São Paulo

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    João Batista Baitello

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Fez-se o levantamento florístico da vegetação arbórea da floresta mesófila do Parque Estadual do Morro do Diabo, Município de Teodoro Sampaio, Estado de São Paulo (22º30'S, 52º20'W pelos métodos de quadrantes e parcelas, incluindo as árvores com diâmetro à altura do peito igual ou superior a 10 cm. A utilização dos dois métodos deu-se em função das características fisionômicas, solo e drenagem dos locais amostrados. O método de quadrante envolveu 462 pontos com intervalos de 30 m., e o método de parcelas ca. 26.900 m² (ca. 2,7 ha.. Os parâmetros fitossociológicos serão abordados em futuros trabalhos. Os dados florísticos subsidiaram o reassentamento dos grupos faunísticos, em especial o Leontopithecus chrysopygus Mikan, 1823 (mico-leão-preto, dentro das áreas remanescentes. O "check list" inclui também algumas espécies coletadas aleatoriamente em outras áreas do Parque. Constatou-se nas áreas de amostragem e adjacentes 113 espécies, 95 gêneros e 42 famílias, das quais 6 contribuíram com 56% das espécies levantadas. As famílias mais representativas no Parque, envolvendo todos os locais de coleta são: Leguminosae (13 Faboideae, 6 Caesalpinioideae e 6 Mimosoideae, Rutaceae 11, Meliaceae 8, Lauraceae 7, Euphorbiaceae 7 e Myrtaceae 6. A listagem das espécies revela que o Parque Estadual do Morro do Diabo apresenta uma vegetação de grande heterogeneidade florística.In a mesophyll forest at the State Park of "Morro do Diabo", in the municipality of Teodoro Sampaio, State of São Paulo (22º30'S, 52º20'W the floristic composition was surveyed. The point centered quarter and quadrant methods were used to survey trees with a diameter equal or greater than 10 cm at breast height. These methods were used as a function of soil features, drainage and physionomical characteristics of the place where the samples were taken. The quarter method sampled 462 points with intervals of 30 m, and the other one had an area

  8. Resprouting from roots in four Brazilian tree species

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    Adriana Hissae Hayashi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies pointed out that species richness and high density values within the Leguminosae in Brazilian forest fragments affected by fire could be due, at least partially, to the high incidence of root sprouting in this family. However, there are few studies of the factors that induce root sprouting in woody plants after disturbance. We investigated the bud formation on root cuttings, and considered a man-made disturbance that isolates the root from the shoot apical dominance of three Leguminosae (Bauhinia forficata Link., Centrolobium tomentosum Guill. ex Benth, and Inga laurina (Sw. Willd and one Rutaceae (Esenbeckia febrifuga (St. Hil. Juss. ex Mart.. All these species resprout frequently after fire. We also attempted to induce bud formation on root systems by removing the main trunk, girdling or sectioning the shallow lateral roots from forest tree species Esenbeckia febrifuga and Hymenaea courbaril L. We identified the origin of shoot primordia and their early development by fixing the samples in Karnovsky solution, dehydrating in ethyl alcohol series and embedding in plastic resin. Serial sections were cut on a rotary microtome and stained with toluidine blue O. Permanent slides were mounted in synthetic resin. We observed different modes of bud origin on root cuttings: close to the vascular cambium (C. tomentosum, from the callus (B. forficata and E. febrifuga and from the phloematic parenchyma proliferation (I. laurina. Fragments of B. forficata root bark were also capable of forming reparative buds from healing phellogen formed in callus in the bark’s inner side. In the attempt of bud induction on root systems, Hymenaea courbaril did not respond to any of the induction tests, probably because of plant age. However, Esenbeckia febrifuga roots formed suckers when the main trunk was removed or their roots were sectioned and isolated from the original plant. We experimentally demonstrated the ability of four tree species to

  9. Composições florística e fitossociológica de uma mata secundária de um trecho da Mata Atlântica Floristic and fitossociological compositions of a secondary forest in a site of the Atlantic Forest

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    Marcos Antônio Drumond

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou conhecer a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica de uma mata de regeneração natural da tipologia de Mata Atlântica. O presente estudo foi desenvolvido numa mata secundária, de regeneração natural, 25 anos após um corte raso, na região do Médio Rio Doce, Estado de Minas Gerais, entre as coordenadas de 19°58' S e 42°62' W. A mata original consistia de vegetação do tipo mata média alta com bambuzóides e graminóides, predominante na região. O trabalho foi desenvolvido de julho a agosto de 1994 e foram coletadas e identificadas 43 espécies arbóreas com diâmetro à altura do peito superior a 5cm, pertencentes a 23 famílias, com densidade de 1247 indivíduos por hectare. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Fabaceae, Lauraceae e Sapotaceae com quatro, seguida de Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae e Rutaceae, com três, e das demais famílias, 78% são representadas por uma única espécie. Entretanto, as famílias com maior número de indivíduos foram Sapotaceae com 66, Anacardiaceae com 56 e Mimosaceae com 45. As espécies com maior índice do valor de importância foram gonçalo-alves (Astronium fraxinifolium Schott, angico (Pseudopiptadenia contorta (DC., Lewis & Lima e garapa (Apuleia leiocarpa (Vog. Macbr., com valores de 56,80; 24,54 e 23,03, respectivamente, representando 34,79% das espécies da área e 37,42% do total de indivíduos. O Índice Shannon-Weaver para espécies é (H’=3,09 nats/espécie.The study was carried to evaluate floristic composition and its sociability in a secondary forest of natural regeneration 25 years after a clear cut at Médio Rio Doce region, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil located, at 19°58' latitude South and 42°62' longitude West. The original forest consisted of a high medium forest type with bamboo and grasses predominance. Total 43 tree species were collected and identified with DBH height higher than 5 cm, belonging to 23 families. Families

  10. Análise da vegetação de floresta pluvial tropical de terra firme, pelo método dos quadrantes: Serra Norte, Carajás, PA

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    Rafael de Paiva Salomão

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Aplicou-se o Método dos Quadrantes em uma floresta densa sobre mina de arenito em Serra Norte, PA. Foram amostrados todos os indivíduos vivos ou mortos com DAP > 10 cm (um indivíduo por quadrante. Trinta e oito famílias, 85 gêneros e 110 espécies foram registrados nos 104 pontos (ou 416 indivíduos amostrados. Sapotaceae (40,90, Leguminosae sensu latu (26,76 e Rutaceae (25,82 foram as famílias que apresentaram maior índice de valor de importância - VIF - (13,63%, 8,9% e 8,61% respectivamente. Erisma uncinatum Warm. (15,86 foi a espécie que apresentou maior índice de importância (IVI, as árvores mortas apresentaram o 2o. maior índice: 14,07. A densidade por área (DTA calculada foi de 1065 indivíduos/ha. A área basal encontrada foi de 28,9057m² para os 416 indivíduos amostrados (74,0502 m²/ha. Tanto a densidade quanto a área basal por unidade de área (ha estimadas foram consideradas muito altas para a região. A estrutura da vegetação foi também analisada: o diâmetro médio foi de 31,21 cm; as alturas médias do fuste, copa e total estimados foi de 12,4, 5,8 e 18,2 m, respectivamente. A vegetação do sub-bosque foi também descrita qualitativamente.The Quadrant Method was applied in dense forest on a sandstone mine in Serra Pará State. , All living or dead individuals with DBH 10 cm were sampled (one > individual per quadrant. In 104 points (or 416 individuals sampled, 38 families, 85 genera and 110 species were registered. The families presenting the highest importance value index (VIF were Sapotaceae (40,90, Leguminosae sensu latu (26,76 and Rutaceae (25,82. Erisma uncinatum Warm, was the species presenting the highest importance value index (15,86; as a group, dead trees presented the second highest index (14,07. The calculated density was 1 065 individuals/ha. The basal area was 28.9057m² for the 416 sampled individuals, or 74.0502m²/ha. The estimated density as well as the basal area per unit area (ha were

  11. Determinação de parâmetros físico-químicos e da origem botânica de méis indicados monoflorais do sudeste do Brasil Physico-chemical parameters and botanical origin of indicated monofloral honeys from the southeast of Brazil

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    Monika O. Barth

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho analisou a composição físico-química e origem botânica de 31 amostras de mel indicadas como sendo de origem monofloral, comercializadas e produzidas na região Sudeste do Brasil, a fim de verificar parâmetros de qualidade. As análises físico-químicas compreenderam o teste de Fiehe, a reação de lugol, a determinação do teor de umidade, do pH, de açúcares redutores, de cinzas e do índice de diastase. Todas as amostras apresentaram-se dentro do limite previsto pela legislação brasileira para o teor de umidade. Dez amostras apresentaram teor de açúcares redutores inferior ao previsto na legislação, três tinham número de diastase (unidades Schade/Gothe inferior a 8, uma apresentou pH abaixo do padrão e outra apresentou teor de cinzas superior ao previsto. A análise polínica mostrou que cerca de 57% das amostras poderiam ser classificadas como monoflorais, correspondendo nove amostras a mel de eucalipto (Eucalyptus, Myrtaceae, duas a mel de aroeira (Schinus, Anacardiaceae, duas a mel de assa-peixe (Vernonia, Asteraceae, duas a mel de laranjeira (Citrus, Rutaceae, uma a mel de cambará (Gochnatia, uma a mel de capixingui (Croton, Euphorbiaceae. As demais amostras eram bi- ou heteroflorais. A influência de uma determinada espécie botânica nas variáveis físico-químicas analisadas não foi significativa (p>0,05 segundo a análise de regressão.The physico-chemical properties and the botanical origin of 31 commercial honey samples from Southeast Brazil, indicated as monofloral honeys, were analyzed in order to verify quality parameters. The physico-chemical analyses comprised the test of Fiehe, the lugol reaction, the determination of humidity, pH, reduced sugars, ashes and diastase. In accordance with Brazilian legislation all samples showed adequate water content. The level of reducing sugars from 10 samples was below the Brazilian quality parameters for honey, three presented a Schade/Gothe number of

  12. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the management of skin disorders among the Xhosa communities of the Amathole District, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

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    Afolayan, Anthony J; Grierson, Donald S; Mbeng, Wilfred O

    2014-04-11

    Skin diseases have been of major concern recently due to the association of skin opportunistic infections and HIV/AIDS, are usually the first sign of HIV infection and conversion to AIDS. More than 90% of HIV-infected individuals develop skin and mucosal complications at some stage during the disease. Although classical medicine is undoubtedly addressing these diseases, the people of the Eastern Cape, South Africa still depend, to a large extent on traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of various diseases. The current study was undertaken to investigate the local peoples characterisation of skin diseases/disorders and to document the medicinal plants used for various skin disorders among the Xhosa-speaking communities of the Amathole District, Eastern Cape. Information was obtained by interviewing 54 respondents in 7 locations. Collection of the reported medicinal plants from the wild was assisted by the informants and identification of the collected plants specimens was done with the help of floristic works of South Africa. Quantitative methods including the use-value and the informant consensus factor (ICF) were computed for determining the relative importance of species known locally and the homogeneity of the informants׳ knowledge respectively. Twenty five skin disorders, classified under 5 categories are being treated with the listed medicinal plants in the study area. The highest ICF (0.45) was linked to bacteria-related skin disorders. This category comprised of 57 use citations, 3 skin disorders; with sore throat being the most frequently mentioned (4.2%). In this study, 106 plant species distributed in 61 families and 107 genera were identified as being used to treat one or more of the skin disorders. The species with the highest use-value was Aloe ferox Mill. (Xanthorrhoeaceae) known locally as Umhlaba. The most representative families were Solanaceae and Asteraceae with 6 species each, followed by Fabaceae, Poaceae and Rutaceae (5 species each

  13. Fitossociologia de um trecho da mata ciliar do rio da Prata, Jardim, MS, Brasil Phythossociologic along a riparian forest at rio da Prata, Jardim, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

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    Joanice Lube Battilani

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivos descrever a riqueza e a diversidade em espécies e analisar os aspectos fitossociológicos de um trecho da mata ciliar do rio da Prata, localizado na Fazenda Nossa Senhora Aparecida no município de Jardim, MS. Seis transectos de 150 m cada foram distribuídos aleatoriamente perpendiculares à margem do rio e subdivididos em 90 parcelas de 10 m×10 m. Em cada parcela foram amostrados todos os indivíduos com diâmetro à 1,30 m de altura do solo (DAP > 3,18 cm, totalizando 661 indivíduos pertencentes a 33 famílias, 57 gêneros e 66 espécies. As famílias Meliaceae, Mimosaceae, Sapindaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae e Rutaceae destacaramse pelo elevado número de espécies. Myrcianthes pungens (O. Berg D. Legrand, Adelia membranifolia (Müll. Arg. Chodat & Hassl., Dalbergia sp., Holocalyx balansae Micheli, Unonopsis lindmanii R.E. Fr., Guarea kunthiana A. Juss., Trichilia claussenii C. DC., Guarea guidonea (L. Sleumer, Averrhoidium paraguaiense Radlk.e Astronium graveolens Jacq. foram as espécies de maior valor de importância. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' obtido foi 3,413 nats/indivíduo e a eqüabilidade (J' foi 0,815. A densidade e a área basal estimada foi 734,44 indivíduos/ha e 21,32 m²/ha respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho reforçam a necessidade de preservação da mata ciliar do rio da Prata e são de extrema importância para subsidiar projetos de manejo e recomposição nestas formações.The present study describes species richness and diversity, and analyses phythossociologic aspects of a riparian forest at Rio da Prata, Jardim district, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The phytosociological study was carried out on six 150 m transects perpendicular to the river subdivided in 90 quadrats (10 m×10 m. All trees and shrubs with a minimum of 3,18 cm diameter at breast height were recorded, totalizing 661 individuals of 33 families, 57 genera and 66

  14. Florística e fitogeografia da vegetação arbustiva subcaducifólia da Chapada de São José, Buíque, PE, Brasil Floristics and phytogeography of semideciduous vegetation on the São José plateau, Buíque, Pernambuco State, Brazil

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    Ana Paula de Souza Gomes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o levantamento da flora angiospérmica de um trecho de vegetação arbustiva subcaducifólia na Chapada de São José, Buíque, Pernambuco, com a finalidade de ampliar o conhecimento sobre a flora daquela chapada, bem como compreender suas relações florísticas com outros conjuntos vegetacionais do Nordeste, especialmente no semi-árido. A flora angiospérmica foi composta por 192 táxons, distribuídos em 130 gêneros e 60 famílias. Euphorbiaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Myrtaceae, Mimosaceae, Fabaceae e Cactaceae foram as mais representativas em número de espécies. A análise de agrupamento revelou que o tipo de substrato exerce uma forte influência na repartição espacial das espécies dentro do semi-árido e confirmou a existência de um conjunto de espécies indicadoras das áreas sedimentares, formado por Caesalpinia microphylla Mart. (Caesalpiniaceae, Bocoa mollis (Benth. R.S. Cowan (Fabaceae, Byrsonima gardneriana A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae e Zanthoxylum stelligerum Turic. (Rutaceae. A flora da área de estudo é relacionada com a da caatinga do cristalino, caatinga de áreas sedimentares e carrasco. Todavia, o alto número de espécies de Myrtaceae, raras na caatinga, o carácter subcaducifólio da vegetação e a presença de Cactaceae e Bromeliaceae, típicas da caatinga, sugerem que a área de estudo representa o final de um gradiente que se inicia em áreas sedimentares situadas em menores altitudes.A floristic survey was carried out in a semideciduous vegetation on São José plateau with the objective of amplifying the knowledge of its angiospermic flora and establishing its relationship with other vegetations types in the semi-arid region of Northeast Brazil. The flora was composed by 192 taxa belonging to 130 genera and 60 families. Euphorbiaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Myrtaceae, Mimosaceae Fabaceae and Cactaceae were the families with the highest numbers of species. A cluster analysis indicated influence of the soil type

  15. Medicinal plants used for hypertension treatment by folk healers in Songkhla province, Thailand.

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    Neamsuvan, Oratai; Komonhiran, Panadda; Boonming, Kamonvadee

    2018-03-25

    Hypertension is the most dominant risk factor for the development of cardiovascular, kidney, and eye diseases. In Thailand, illness and hospitalisation in the modern public health system due to high blood pressure is increasing. However, some Thai people have turned their attention to the use of herbal medicines for healthcare. Therefore, this study aimed (1) to study the folk knowledge of hypertension treatment and (2) to study plant utilisation in the treatment of high blood pressure by Songkhla folk healers. Field surveys and semi-structured interviews about theories of disease, principles of healing, and herbal usage (plant species, parts used, preparation, and application methods) were gathered. The data were analysed by descriptive statistics. The literatures regarding medicinal plants used in any traditional medicine, antihypertension activity, and toxicity was reviewed. Most healers believed that hypertension was caused by the disorder of fire and wind elements in the body. The medicinal plants containing hot and mild tastes, which had the potential for treating problems in the wind element, were applied. A total of 62 species were used for hypertension treatment. Most plants were in the Asteraceae, Piperaceae, Rutaceae, or Zingiberaceae family (4 species each). Herbal medicines were preferred to be prepared by boiling (78%) and consumed by drinking 1 teacup before 3 meals each day (26%). Piper retrofractum and Cleome viscosa had the greatest Frequency of Citation (FC = 6, n = 14). Thirty-seven species have been reported for use in traditional medicine. Twenty-four and 46 species have already been investigated for antihypertension activity and toxicity, respectively. Identifying medicinal plants that have been tested by experienced folk doctors would provide an opportunity for people to choose and consume local herbs that are easy to access in their local area. However, the remaining plants that have not been studied for antihypertension activity and

  16. Medicinal plants used by the people of Nsukka Local Government Area, south-eastern Nigeria for the treatment of malaria: An ethnobotanical survey.

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    Odoh, Uchenna E; Uzor, Philip F; Eze, Chidimma L; Akunne, Theophine C; Onyegbulam, Chukwuma M; Osadebe, Patience O

    2018-05-23

    Malaria is a serious public health problem especially in sub-Saharan African countries such as Nigeria. The causative parasite is increasingly developing resistance to the existing drugs. There is urgent need for alternative and affordable therapy from medicinal plants which have been used by the indigenous people for many years. This study was conducted to document the medicinal plant species traditionally used by the people of Nsukka Local Government Area in south-eastern Nigeria for the treatment of malaria. A total of 213 respondents, represented by women (59.2%) and men (40.8%), were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The results were analysed and discussed in the context of previously published information on anti-malarial and phytochemical studies of the identified plants. The survey revealed that 50 plant species belonging to 30 botanical families were used in this region for the treatment of malaria. The most cited families were Apocynaceae (13.3%), Annonaceae (10.0%), Asteraceae (10.0%), Lamiaceae (10.0%), Poaceae (10.0%), Rubiaceae (10.0%) and Rutaceae (10.0%). The most cited plant species were Azadirachta indica (11.3%), Mangifera indica (9.1%), Carica papaya (8.5%), Cymbopogon citratus (8.5%) and Psidium guajava (8.5%). The present findings showed that the people of Nsukka use a large variety of plants for the treatment of malaria. The identified plants are currently undergoing screening for anti-malarial, toxicity and chemical studies in our laboratory. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The status of conservation of urban forests in eastern Amazonia.

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    Amaral, D D; Vieira, I C G; Salomão, R P; Almeida, S S; Jardim, M A G

    2012-05-01

    This study aims to identify the remnant tree flora in six forest fragments in the metropolitan area of Belém and to analyze these fragments in terms of biological conservation, species richness and diversity in the local urban landscape. The fragments and their respective sampling areas were as follows: Amafrutas reserve (15 ha), Trambioca Is. reserve (2 ha), Bosque Rodrigues Alves city park (15 ha), Combu Is. reserve (10 ha), Gunma Park reserve (10 ha) and Mocambo reserve (5 ha). Inventories were built from lineal plots of 250 m² and included trees with DBH equal to or greater than 10 cm at a height of 1.3 m above ground. Sixty-nine families and 759 species, of which eight were officially listed as endangered (Brazilian National Flora: Ministry of Environment, Normative Instruction of September, 2008; Pará State Flora: Decree Nº. 802 of February 2008) were recorded. These endangered species are: Aspidosperma desmanthum Benth. ex Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae), Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae), Eschweilera piresii S.A Mori (Lecythidaceae), Euxylophora paraensis Huber (Rutaceae), Hymenolobium excelsum Ducke (Leguminosae), Manilkara huberi (Ducke) Chevalier (Sapotaceae), Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC.) Standl. (Bignoniaceae), Mezilaurus itauba (Meisn.) Taub. ex Mez (Lauraceae) and Qualea coerulea Aubl. (Vochysiaceae). Emergency actions such as implementing management plans for already existing Conservation Units, the creation of new such units in areas of primary forest fragments (as in the case of the Amafrutas reserve), as well as the intensification of actions of surveillance and monitoring, should be undertaken by Federal, State, and Municipal environmental agencies so as to ensure the conservation of these last primary forest remnants in the metropolitan area of Belém.

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of Choisya ternata Kunth essential oil, ternanthranin, and its two synthetic analogs (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Mariana Martins Gomes; Miltojević, Ana B; Radulović, Niko S; Abdul-Wahab, Ikarastika Rahayu; Boylan, Fabio; Fernandes, Patrícia Dias

    2015-01-01

    Choisya ternata Kunth (Rutaceae) is native to North America where it is popularly known as "Mexican orange". In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil (EO) obtained from the leaves of C. ternata, one of its minor components (ternanthranin-ISOAN) and its two synthetic analogues (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilate--MAN and PAN) were evaluated. Mice pretreated with the EO (EO) obtained from C. ternata leaves (3-100 mg/kg, p.o.), ISOAN, MAN or PAN (1-30 mg/kg, p.o.) and the reference drugs, morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o.) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 100 mg/kg, p.o.), were evaluated in inflammation models such as formalin and subcutaneous air pouch models, with measurement of cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravasation, nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The EO from C. ternata significantly inhibited the time that the animals spent licking the formalin-injected paw in the second phase of the model at their higher doses (30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively). An inhibition of the inflammatory reaction induced after subcutaneous carrageenan injection into air pouch was also observed. In this model, the EO significantly reduced cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravased, and the increase in levels of inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β). ISOAN, MAN and PAN behaved in the same fashion at much smaller doses. Also, these molecules were able to show significant effects in the reduction of paw edema (at all tested doses) when the phlogistic agent was carrageenan, bradykinin, 5-HT, PGE2, C48/80 or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-acetate (TPA). None of the tested doses had any effect in reducing histamine-induced edema. Our results indicate that the EO from C. ternata and anthranilate derivatives demonstrates an anti-inflammatory effect.

  19. COMPOSIÇÃO FLORÍSTICA E ESTRUTURA DA COMUNIDADE ARBÓREA DE UM FRAGMENTO FLORESTAL NO MUNICÍPIO DE SANTA MARIA-BRASIL

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    Leandro W. Charão

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetiva descrever a composição florística e a estrutura de uma comunidade arbórea em um fragmento florestal e discutir algumas características dendrométricas das espécies componentes do mesmo. Esta comunidade enquadra-se na região da Floresta Estacional Decidual, estando localizada no Município de Santa Maria, na região da Depressão Central do Estado do RS. Foram locadas, de maneira sistemática, 18 parcelas de 200 m² no interior do fragmento. Na área amostrada foram mensuradas 56 espécies vegetais com CAP ³ 15 cm, distribuídas em 46 gêneros e 28 famílias botânicas. As famílias Rutaceae, Rubiaceae, Flacourtiaceae e Myrsinaceae apresentaram as maiores riquezas em relação ao número de espécies e indivíduos. Helietta apiculata, Casearia sylvestris, Faramea marginata, Myrsine umbellata, Chomelia obtusa e Cabralea canjerana foram as espécies mais importantes da comunidade vegetal estudada. As alturas variaram de 3,5 m, para árvores do estrato inferior até 22 m, para árvores emergentes. A maior parte das árvores vegetam em baixa competição, pois apresentam relação h/d igual ou inferior a 1. Pela distribuição das freqüências das circunferências, verifica-se que 42,25% dos indivíduos tem CAP entre 15 e 25 centímetros e que somente 4,25% tem CAP superior a 65 cm.

  20. Análise florística e estrutural de um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Mista Montana, situado em Criúva, RS - Brasil.

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    Rubens Marques Rondon Neto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer e analisar a composição florística e descrever a estrutura do componente arbóreo de um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Mista Montana, localizado no município de Criúva, RS. Em oito parcelas de 10 x 100 m foram inventariados 673 indivíduos com DAP  5 cm, distribuídos em 37 espécies, pertencentes a 32 gêneros e 22 famílias. O valor do índice de diversidade de Shannon foi de 2,768. As famílias que apresentaram maior número de indivíduos amostrados são: Araucariaceae, Myrsinaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Anacardiaceae e Rutaceae. O dossel dessa floresta é dominado pela Araucaria angustifolia e o sub-bosque por espécies das famílias Lauraceae e Myrtaceae. A densidade total encontrada foi de 841,25 indivíduos/ha, com DAP médio de 24,01 cm e altura média de 9,34 m. As cinco espécies que tiveram os maiores valores de importância, em ordem decrescente, foram: Araucaria angustifolia, Sebastiania commersoniana, Lithraea brasiliensis, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium e Myrcia sp.. O fragmento apresenta uma considerável diversidade florística de espécies, apesar das perturbações sofridas no passado. Para que a vegetação atinja as características florísticas e estruturais próximas às da vegetação original é preciso evitar a presença de bovinos e eqüinos na área e explorações da floresta.

  1. ANÁLISE FLORÍSTICA E ESTRUTURAL DE UM FRAGMENTO DE FLORESTA OMBRÓFILA MISTA MONTANA, SITUADO EM CRIÚVA, RS - BRASIL

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    Rubens Marques Rondon Neto

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer e analisar a composição florística e descrever a estrutura do componente arbóreo de um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Mista Montana, localizado no município de Criúva, RS. Em oito parcelas de 10 x 100 m foram inventariados 673 indivíduos com DAP  5 cm, distribuídos em 37 espécies, pertencentes a 32 gêneros e 22 famílias. O valor do índice de diversidade de Shannon foi de 2,768. As famílias que apresentaram maior número de indivíduos amostrados são: Araucariaceae, Myrsinaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Anacardiaceae e Rutaceae. O dossel dessa floresta é dominado pela Araucaria angustifolia e o sub-bosque por espécies das famílias Lauraceae e Myrtaceae. A densidade total encontrada foi de 841,25 indivíduos/ha, com DAP médio de 24,01 cm e altura média de 9,34 m. As cinco espécies que tiveram os maiores valores de importância, em ordem decrescente, foram: Araucaria angustifolia, Sebastiania commersoniana, Lithraea brasiliensis, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium e Myrcia sp.. O fragmento apresenta uma considerável diversidade florística de espécies, apesar das perturbações sofridas no passado. Para que a vegetação atinja as características florísticas e estruturais próximas às da vegetação original é preciso evitar a presença de bovinos e eqüinos na área e explorações da floresta.

  2. Structure-activity relationship of benzophenanthridine alkaloids from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium having antimicrobial activity.

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    Luciana de C Tavares

    Full Text Available Zanthoxylum rhoifolium (Rutaceae is a plant alkaloid that grows in South America and has been used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of different health problems. The present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the steam bark crude methanol extract, fractions, and pure alkaloids of Z. rhoifolium. Its stem bark extracts exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, ranging from 12.5 to 100 µg/mL using bioautography method, and from 125 to 500 µg/mL in the microdilution bioassay. From the dichloromethane basic fraction, three furoquinoline alkaloids (1-3, and nine benzophenanthridine alkaloids (4-12 were isolated and the antimicrobial activity of the benzophenanthridine alkaloids is discussed in terms of structure-activity relationships. The alkaloid with the widest spectrum of activity was chelerythrine (10, followed by avicine (12 and dihydrochelerythrine (4. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of chelerythrine, of 1.50 µg/mL for all bacteria tested, and between 3.12 and 6.25 µg/mL for the yeast tested, show this compound to be a more powerful antimicrobial agent when compared with the other active alkaloids isolated from Z. rhoifolium. To verify the potential importance of the methylenedioxy group (ring A of these alkaloids, chelerythrine was selected to represent the remainder of the benzophenanthridine alkaloids isolated in this work and was subjected to a demethylation reaction giving derivative 14. Compared to chelerythrine, the derivative (14 was less active against the tested bacteria and fungi. Kinetic measurements of the bacteriolytic activities of chelerythrine against the bacteria Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative were determined by optical density based on real time assay, suggesting that its mechanism of action is not bacteriolytic. The present study did not detect hemolytic effects of chelerythrine on erythrocytes and found a protective

  3. Structure-activity relationship of benzophenanthridine alkaloids from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium having antimicrobial activity.

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    Tavares, Luciana de C; Zanon, Graciane; Weber, Andréia D; Neto, Alexandre T; Mostardeiro, Clarice P; Da Cruz, Ivana B M; Oliveira, Raul M; Ilha, Vinicius; Dalcol, Ionara I; Morel, Ademir F

    2014-01-01

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium (Rutaceae) is a plant alkaloid that grows in South America and has been used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of different health problems. The present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the steam bark crude methanol extract, fractions, and pure alkaloids of Z. rhoifolium. Its stem bark extracts exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, ranging from 12.5 to 100 µg/mL using bioautography method, and from 125 to 500 µg/mL in the microdilution bioassay. From the dichloromethane basic fraction, three furoquinoline alkaloids (1-3), and nine benzophenanthridine alkaloids (4-12) were isolated and the antimicrobial activity of the benzophenanthridine alkaloids is discussed in terms of structure-activity relationships. The alkaloid with the widest spectrum of activity was chelerythrine (10), followed by avicine (12) and dihydrochelerythrine (4). The minimal inhibitory concentrations of chelerythrine, of 1.50 µg/mL for all bacteria tested, and between 3.12 and 6.25 µg/mL for the yeast tested, show this compound to be a more powerful antimicrobial agent when compared with the other active alkaloids isolated from Z. rhoifolium. To verify the potential importance of the methylenedioxy group (ring A) of these alkaloids, chelerythrine was selected to represent the remainder of the benzophenanthridine alkaloids isolated in this work and was subjected to a demethylation reaction giving derivative 14. Compared to chelerythrine, the derivative (14) was less active against the tested bacteria and fungi. Kinetic measurements of the bacteriolytic activities of chelerythrine against the bacteria Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive) and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) were determined by optical density based on real time assay, suggesting that its mechanism of action is not bacteriolytic. The present study did not detect hemolytic effects of chelerythrine on erythrocytes and found a protective effect

  4. Phylogenetic relationships of citrus and its relatives based on matK gene sequences.

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    Tshering Penjor

    Full Text Available The genus Citrus includes mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit and lime, which have high economic and nutritional value. The family Rutaceae can be divided into 7 subfamilies, including Aurantioideae. The genus Citrus belongs to the subfamily Aurantioideae. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast matK genes of 135 accessions from 22 genera of Aurantioideae and analyzed them phylogenetically. Our study includes many accessions that have not been examined in other studies. The subfamily Aurantioideae has been classified into 2 tribes, Clauseneae and Citreae, and our current molecular analysis clearly discriminate Citreae from Clauseneae by using only 1 chloroplast DNA sequence. Our study confirms previous observations on the molecular phylogeny of Aurantioideae in many aspects. However, we have provided novel information on these genetic relationships. For example, inconsistent with the previous observation, and consistent with our preliminary study using the chloroplast rbcL genes, our analysis showed that Feroniella oblata is not nested in Citrus species and is closely related with Feronia limonia. Furthermore, we have shown that Murraya paniculata is similar to Merrillia caloxylon and is dissimilar to Murraya koenigii. We found that "true citrus fruit trees" could be divided into 2 subclusters. One subcluster included Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus, while the other cluster included Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Compared to previous studies, our current study is the most extensive phylogenetic study of Citrus species since it includes 93 accessions. The results indicate that Citrus species can be classified into 3 clusters: a citron cluster, a pummelo cluster, and a mandarin cluster. Although most mandarin accessions belonged to the mandarin cluster, we found some exceptions. We also obtained the information on the genetic background of various species of acid citrus grown in Japan. Because the genus Citrus contains many important accessions

  5. Phylogenetic relationships of citrus and its relatives based on matK gene sequences.

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    Penjor, Tshering; Yamamoto, Masashi; Uehara, Miki; Ide, Manami; Matsumoto, Natsumi; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Nagano, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    The genus Citrus includes mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit and lime, which have high economic and nutritional value. The family Rutaceae can be divided into 7 subfamilies, including Aurantioideae. The genus Citrus belongs to the subfamily Aurantioideae. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast matK genes of 135 accessions from 22 genera of Aurantioideae and analyzed them phylogenetically. Our study includes many accessions that have not been examined in other studies. The subfamily Aurantioideae has been classified into 2 tribes, Clauseneae and Citreae, and our current molecular analysis clearly discriminate Citreae from Clauseneae by using only 1 chloroplast DNA sequence. Our study confirms previous observations on the molecular phylogeny of Aurantioideae in many aspects. However, we have provided novel information on these genetic relationships. For example, inconsistent with the previous observation, and consistent with our preliminary study using the chloroplast rbcL genes, our analysis showed that Feroniella oblata is not nested in Citrus species and is closely related with Feronia limonia. Furthermore, we have shown that Murraya paniculata is similar to Merrillia caloxylon and is dissimilar to Murraya koenigii. We found that "true citrus fruit trees" could be divided into 2 subclusters. One subcluster included Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus, while the other cluster included Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Compared to previous studies, our current study is the most extensive phylogenetic study of Citrus species since it includes 93 accessions. The results indicate that Citrus species can be classified into 3 clusters: a citron cluster, a pummelo cluster, and a mandarin cluster. Although most mandarin accessions belonged to the mandarin cluster, we found some exceptions. We also obtained the information on the genetic background of various species of acid citrus grown in Japan. Because the genus Citrus contains many important accessions, we have

  6. Medicinal plants used for neurological and mental disorders in Navarra and their validation from official sources.

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    Calvo, María Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda

    2015-07-01

    This paper provides important ethnopharmacological information on plants used in neurological and mental disorders in Navarra. Information was collected using semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews with 667 informants in 265 locations. In order to confirm the pharmacological validation of the uses claimed by the informants, monographs from Official International Agencies (ESCOP, Commission E, WHO and EMA) were reviewed. A literature review was conducted focusing on the plants that were widely used but had no published monograph. A total of 172 pharmaceutical uses were reported, for 46 plants and 26 families, mainly represented by Lamiaceae (15%), Asteraceae (13%), Rosaceae and Rutaceae (7%, each one), and Clusiaceae, Malvaceae, Papaveraceae and Urticaceae (4%, each one). The most frequently used parts were inflorescence (39%), flowered aerial parts (16%), and aerial parts (13%), followed by inflorescence bract (8%) and leaves (7%). Nine out of 46 plants (20%) and 81 of 172 uses (47%), have already been pharmacologically validated. The remaining 37 plants (of total 46, 80%) have been reported for neurological and mental disorders and need to be screened through standard pharmacological and clinical procedures for their activities. The most used species are Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All., Jasonia glutinosa (L.) DC., and Santolina chamaecyparissus L. ssp. squarrosa (DC.) Nyman, in all cases the administration as infusion. Data indicate a high degree of plants knowledge in Navarra regarding neurological and mental disorders. The present study constitutes a good basis for further phytochemical and pharmacological research of C. nobile, J. glutinosa and S. chamaecyparissus, which could be of interest in the design of new inexpensive, effective and safe drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Neutralization of the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of Bothrops asper venom by extracts of plants used by healers in Colombia.

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    Núñez, V; Otero, R; Barona, J; Saldarriaga, M; Osorio, R G; Fonnegra, R; Jiménez, S L; Díaz, A; Quintana, J C

    2004-07-01

    We determined the neutralizing activity of 12 ethanolic extracts of plants against the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of Bothrops asper venom in Swiss Webster mice. The material used consisted of the leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae), Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae), Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae) and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae); the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); the whole plant of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae) and Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae), Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae) and Dracontium croatii (Araceae), and the ripe fruit of Citrus limon (Rutaceae). After preincubation of varying amounts of each extract with either 1.0 microg venom for the edema-forming effect or 2.0 microg venom for the defibrinating effect, the mixture was injected subcutaneously (sc) into the right foot pad or intravenously into the tail, respectively, to groups of four mice (18-20 g). All extracts (6.2-200 microg/mouse) partially neutralized the edema-forming activity of venom in a dose-dependent manner (58-76% inhibition), with B. orellana, S. orbicularis, G. panamensis, B. rosademonte, and D. croatii showing the highest effect. Ten extracts (3.9-2000 microg/mouse) also showed 100% neutralizing ability against the defibrinating effect of venom, and nine prolonged the coagulation time induced by the venom. When the extracts were administered either before or after venom injection, the neutralization of the edema-forming effect was lower than 40% for all extracts, and none of them neutralized the defibrinating effect of venom. When they were administered in situ (sc at the same site 5 min after venom injection), the neutralization of edema increased for six extracts, reaching levels up to 64% for C. limon.

  8. Synergistic interaction and mode of action of Citrus hystrix essential oil against bacteria causing periodontal diseases.

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    Wongsariya, Karn; Phanthong, Phanida; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan; Srisukh, Vimol; Chomnawang, Mullika Traidej

    2014-03-01

    Citrus hystrix de Candolle (Rutaceae), an edible plant regularly used as a food ingredient, possesses antibacterial activity, but there is no current data on the activity against bacteria causing periodontal diseases. C. hystrix essential oil from leaves and peel were investigated for antibiofilm formation and mode of action against bacteria causing periodontal diseases. In vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm formation activities were determined by broth microdilution and time kill assay. Mode of action of essential oil was observed by SEM and the active component was identified by bioautography and GC/MS. C. hystrix leaves oil exhibited antibacterial activity at the MICs of 1.06 mg/mL for P. gingivalis and S. mutans and 2.12 mg/mL for S. sanguinis. Leaf oil at 4.25 mg/mL showed antibiofilm formation activity with 99% inhibition. The lethal effects on P. gingivalis were observed within 2 and 4 h after treated with 4 × MIC and 2 × MIC, respectively. S. sanguinis and S. mutans were completely killed within 4 and 8 h after exposed to 4 × MIC and 2 × MIC of oil. MICs of tested strains showed 4 times reduction suggesting synergistic interaction of oil and chlorhexidine. Bacterial outer membrane was disrupted after treatment with leaves oil. Additionally, citronellal was identified as the major active compound of C. hystrix oil. C. hystrix leaf oil could be used as a natural active compound or in combination with chlorhexidine in mouthwash preparations to prevent the growth of bacteria associated with periodontal diseases and biofilm formation.

  9. Taxonomic research priorities for the conservation of the South African flora

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    Lize von Staden

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic revisions, monographs and floras are the most important, and often the only source of data for assessing the extinction risk of plants, with recent revisions contributing to more accurate assessments. The recently completed Red List of South African plants involved an overview of the taxonomic literature pertaining to the South African flora, providing an opportunity to identify critical gaps in taxonomic coverage. In this study we identified taxonomic research priorities for effective conservation of South African plants. Priorities were identified at genus level, according to time since last revision, level of endemism, collecting effort, proportion of taxa included in revisions, and specimen identification confidence. Although the results indicate that 62% of the flora has been recently revised, revisionary taxonomic output has declined drastically, particularly in the past 10 years. This decline is a result of a decrease in revisionary productivity per taxonomist and not a result of a decline in the number of working taxonomists. The family Aizoaceae is the top priority for taxonomic research with 55% of taxa in need of revision, followed by Hyacinthaceae with 34% of taxa not yet revised. Ericaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rutaceae, Malvaceae, Asteraceae and Acanthaceae are also priorities with over 30% of taxa last revised before 1970. We recommend the reinstatement of the Flora of Southern Africa project in an online format in order to centralise South Africa's existing taxonomic information and reinvigorate revisionary taxonomic study. This project will allow South Africa to fulfil its commitments to the Convention on Biodiversity by achieving Target 1 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation.

  10. Larvicidal activity of lignans and alkaloid identified in Zanthoxylum piperitum bark toward insecticide-susceptible and wild Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon-Il; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2017-05-04

    The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and the common house mosquito, Culex pipiens pallens, transmit dengue fever and West Nile virus diseases, respectively. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of the three lignans (-)-asarinin, sesamin and (+)-xanthoxylol-γ,γ-dimethylallylether (XDA), and the alkaloid pellitorine from Zanthoxylum piperitum (Rutaceae) bark to third-instar larvae from insecticide-susceptible C. pipiens pallens and Ae. aegypti as well as wild C. pipiens pallens resistant to deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, fenthion, and temephos. The toxicities of all isolates were compared with those of mosquito larvicide temephos. LC 50 values for each species and their treatments were significantly different from one another when their 95% confidence intervals did not overlap. XDA was isolated from Z. piperitum as a new larvicidal principle. XDA (LC 50 , 0.27 and 0.24 mg/l) was 4, 53, and 144 times and 4, 100, and 117 times more toxic than pellitorine, sesamin, and asarinin toward larvae from susceptible C. pipiens pallens and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Overall, all the isolates were less toxic than temephos (LC 50 , 0.006 and 0.009 mg/l). These constituents did not differ in toxicity to larvae from the two Culex strains. The present finding indicates that the lignans and alkaloid and the insecticides do not share a common mode of larvicidal action or elicit cross-resistance. Naturally occurring Z. piperitum bark-derived compounds, particularly XDA, merit further study as potential mosquito larval control agents or as lead compounds for the control of insecticide-resistant mosquito populations.

  11. Neutralization of the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of Bothrops asper venom by extracts of plants used by healers in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Núñez

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available We determined the neutralizing activity of 12 ethanolic extracts of plants against the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of Bothrops asper venom in Swiss Webster mice. The material used consisted of the leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae, Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae, Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae; the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae; the whole plant of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae and Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae; rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae, Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae and Dracontium croatii (Araceae, and the ripe fruit of Citrus limon (Rutaceae. After preincubation of varying amounts of each extract with either 1.0 µg venom for the edema-forming effect or 2.0 µg venom for the defibrinating effect, the mixture was injected subcutaneously (sc into the right foot pad or intravenously into the tail, respectively, to groups of four mice (18-20 g. All extracts (6.2-200 µg/mouse partially neutralized the edema-forming activity of venom in a dose-dependent manner (58-76% inhibition, with B. orellana, S. orbicularis, G. panamensis, B. rosademonte, and D. croatii showing the highest effect. Ten extracts (3.9-2000 µg/mouse also showed 100% neutralizing ability against the defibrinating effect of venom, and nine prolonged the coagulation time induced by the venom. When the extracts were administered either before or after venom injection, the neutralization of the edema-forming effect was lower than 40% for all extracts, and none of them neutralized the defibrinating effect of venom. When they were administered in situ (sc at the same site 5 min after venom injection, the neutralization of edema increased for six extracts, reaching levels up to 64% for C. limon.

  12. Natural products from Zanthoxylum heitzii with potent activity against the malaria parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Christopher Dean; Austarheim, Ingvild; Mollard, Vanessa; Mikolo, Bertin; Malterud, Karl Egil; McFadden, Geoffrey I; Wangensteen, Helle

    2016-09-20

    Zanthoxylum heitzii (Rutaceae) (olon) is used in traditional medicine in Central and West Africa to treat malaria. To identify novel compounds with anti-parasitic activity and validate medicinal usage, extracts and compounds isolated from this tree were tested against the erythrocytic stages of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and for inhibition of transmission in rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Hexane bark extract showed activity against P. falciparum (IC50 0.050 μg/ml), while leaf and seed extracts were inactive. Fractionation of the hexane bark extract led to the identification of three active constituents; dihydronitidine, pellitorine and heitziquinone. Dihydronitidine was the most active compound with an IC50 value of 0.0089 µg/ml (25 nM). This compound was slow acting, requiring 50 % longer exposure time than standard anti-malarials to reach full efficacy. Heitziquinone and pellitorine were less potent, with IC50 values of 3.55 μg/ml and 1.96 µg/ml, but were fast-acting. Plasmodium berghei ookinete conversion was also inhibited by the hexane extract (IC50 1.75 µg/ml), dihydronitidine (0.59 µg/ml) and heitziquinone (6.2 µg/ml). Water extracts of Z. heitzii bark contain only low levels of dihydronitidine and show modest anti-parasitic activity. Three compounds with anti-parasitic activity were identified in Z. heitzii bark extract. The alkaloid dihydronitidine is the most effective of these, accounting for the bulk of activity in both erythrocytic and transmission-blocking assays. These compounds may present good leads for development of novel anti-malarials and add to the understanding of the chemical basis of the anti-parasitic activity in these classes of natural product.

  13. Pharmacognostic specification of Zanthoxylum limonella (Dennst.) Alston: Fruits and seeds in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoensup, Rawiwan; Duangyod, Thidarat; Phuneerub, Pravaree; Singharachai, Chatubhong

    2016-01-01

    Zanthoxylum limonella (Dennst.) Alston. (Rutaceae) or Ma-khwaen is one of the medicinal plants in Thai traditional medicine. To investigate the pharmacognostic specifications and chemical constituents of Z. limonella fruits and seeds. Fruits and seeds of Z. limonella were collected from 15 sources throughout Thailand; then examined the pharmacognostic specification following WHO guideline of quality control method for medicinal plant materials. Microscopic determination of Z. limonella powders demonstrated fragment of mesocarp, fragment of brown vitta, oil glands, fragment of endocarp, and endosperm containing oil globule, trichome and pale brown stone cells. Stomatal index and pellucid dots in mm2 were 19.87 and 4.2 respectively. Physico-chemical parameters unveiled that loss on drying, water content, total ash, and acid-insoluble ash should be not >17.90%, 9.18%, 4.50%, and 0.60% of dried weight respectively; while ethanol, water, and hexane extractive values and volatile oil content should be not <2.24%, 2.27%, 1.57% and 9.63% of dried weight respectively. Rf values of thin-layer chromatographic fingerprint of Z. limonella fruits and seeds ethanolic extract were 0.38, 0.45, 0.90, and 0.97 detected ultraviolet (UV) light 254 nm, 0.30, 0.44, 0.67, and 0.77 detected UV light 366 nm, and 0.24, 0.73, 0.78, and 0.93 detected 10% sulfuric acid. There are three main chemical compounds in Z. limonella oil including limonene (43.63%), (+)-sabinene (16.72%), and terpinen-4-ol (10.95%). The result gained from pharmacognostic specifications and chemical fingerprints could be used as standardization data of Z. limonella fruits and seeds to apply or provide for guarantee of quality. PMID:27833892

  14. Diurnal and seasonal carbon balance of four tropical tree species differing in successional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, G M; Ribeiro, R V; Sato, A M; Oliveira, M S

    2008-11-01

    This study addressed some questions about how a suitable leaf carbon balance can be attained for different functional groups of tropical tree species under contrasting forest light environments. The study was carried out in a fragment of semi-deciduous seasonal forest in Narandiba county, São Paulo Estate, Brazil. 10-month-old seedlings of four tropical tree species, Bauhinia forficata Link (Caesalpinioideae) and Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae) as light-demanding pioneer species, and Hymenaea courbaril L. (Caesalpinioideae) and Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. (Rutaceae) as late successional species, were grown under gap and understorey conditions. Diurnal courses of net photosynthesis (Pn) and transpiration were recorded with an open system portable infrared gas analyzer in two different seasons. Dark respiration and photorespiration were also evaluated in the same leaves used for Pn measurements after dark adaptation. Our results showed that diurnal-integrated dark respiration (Rdi) of late successional species were similar to pioneer species. On the other hand, photorespiration rates were often higher in pioneer than in late successional species in the gap. However, the relative contribution of these parameters to leaf carbon balance was similar in all species in both environmental conditions. Considering diurnal-integrated values, gross photosynthesis (Pgi) was dramatically higher in gap than in understorey, regardless of species. In both evaluated months, there were no differences among species of different functional groups under shade conditions. The same was observed in May (dry season) under gap conditions. In such light environment, pioneers were distinguished from late successional species in November (wet season), showing that ecophysiological performance can have a straightforward relation to seasonality.

  15. Diurnal and seasonal carbon balance of four tropical tree species differing in successional status

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    GM. Souza

    Full Text Available This study addressed some questions about how a suitable leaf carbon balance can be attained for different functional groups of tropical tree species under contrasting forest light environments. The study was carried out in a fragment of semi-deciduous seasonal forest in Narandiba county, São Paulo Estate, Brazil. 10-month-old seedlings of four tropical tree species, Bauhinia forficata Link (Caesalpinioideae and Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae as light-demanding pioneer species, and Hymenaea courbaril L. (Caesalpinioideae and Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. (Rutaceae as late successional species, were grown under gap and understorey conditions. Diurnal courses of net photosynthesis (Pn and transpiration were recorded with an open system portable infrared gas analyzer in two different seasons. Dark respiration and photorespiration were also evaluated in the same leaves used for Pn measurements after dark adaptation. Our results showed that diurnal-integrated dark respiration (Rdi of late successional species were similar to pioneer species. On the other hand, photorespiration rates were often higher in pioneer than in late successional species in the gap. However, the relative contribution of these parameters to leaf carbon balance was similar in all species in both environmental conditions. Considering diurnal-integrated values, gross photosynthesis (Pgi was dramatically higher in gap than in understorey, regardless of species. In both evaluated months, there were no differences among species of different functional groups under shade conditions. The same was observed in May (dry season under gap conditions. In such light environment, pioneers were distinguished from late successional species in November (wet season, showing that ecophysiological performance can have a straightforward relation to seasonality.

  16. Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia. Part III: neutralization of the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, R; Núñez, V; Barona, J; Fonnegra, R; Jiménez, S L; Osorio, R G; Saldarriaga, M; Díaz, A

    2000-11-01

    Thirty-one of 75 extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites, had moderate or high neutralizing ability against the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom from Antioquia and Chocó, north-western Colombia. After preincubation of several doses of every extract (7.8-4000 microg/mouse) with six minimum haemorrhagic doses (10 microg) of venom, 12 of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity when the mixture was i.d. injected into mice (18-20 g). These were the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); the whole plants of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae), Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae) and Senna dariensis (Caesalpiniaceae); rhizomes of Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae); leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae), Philodendron tripartitum (Araceae), Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae) and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae); the ripe fruits of Citrus limon (Rutaceae); leaves, branches and stem of Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae). Extracts of another 19 species showed moderate neutralization (21-72%) at doses up to 4 mg/mouse, e.g. the whole plants of Aristolochia grandiflora (Aristolochiaceae), Columnea kalbreyeriana (Gesneriaceae), Sida acuta (Malvaceae), Selaginella articulata (Selaginellaceae) and Pseudoelephantopus spicatus (Asteraceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae); the stem of Strychnos xinguensis (Loganiaceae); leaves, branches and stems of Hyptis capitata (Lamiaceae), Ipomoea cairica (Convolvulaceae), Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae), Ocimum micranthum (Lamiaceae), Piper pulchrum (Piperaceae), Siparuna thecaphora (Monimiaceae), Castilla elastica (Moraceae) and Allamanda cathartica (Apocynaceae); the macerated ripe fruits of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae); the unripe fruits of Crescentia cujete (Bignoniaceae); leaves and branches of Piper arboreum (Piperaceae) and Passiflora quadrangularis (Passifloraceae). When the extracts were independently administered

  17. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used as insects repellents in six malaria endemic localities of Cameroon.

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    Youmsi, Roger Ducos Fokouo; Fokou, Patrick Valère Tsouh; Menkem, Elisabeth Zeuko'o; Bakarnga-Via, Issakou; Keumoe, Rodrigue; Nana, Victor; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam

    2017-06-08

    The combined efforts to combat outdoor/indoor transmission of malaria parasites are hampered by the emerging vector resistance in a wide variety of malaria-endemic settings of Africa and the rest of the world, stressing the need for alternative control measures. This study aimed at documenting insect's repellent plant species used by indigenous populations of 6 localities of East, South, West and Centre regions of Cameroon. Information was gathered through face-to-face interviews guided by a semi-structured questionnaire on the knowledge of medicinal plants with insect repellent properties. A total of 182 informants aged from 25 to 75 years were recruited by convenience from May to June 2015. The informants had general knowledge about insects' repellent plants (78.6%). A total of 16 plant species were recorded as insects' repellents with 50% being trees. The most cited plants were Canarium schweinfurthii (Burseraceae) (in four localities, 58/182), Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae) (in three localities, 38/182), Chromolaena odorata (Compositae) (16/182) and Citrus limon (Rutaceae) (11/182) in two localities each. Among the repellent plant species recorded, 50% were reported to be burnt to produce in-house smokes, 31.2% were mashed and applied on the body, and 18.8% were hung in the houses. The leaf was the most commonly used plant part (52.9%), followed by the bark (17.6%). This study has shown that rural populations of the 6 targeted localities possess indigenous knowledge on repellent plants that are otherwise cost-effective and better choice for repelling insects including malaria-transmitting mosquitoes. Meanwhile, such practices should be validated experimentally and promoted as sustainable malaria transmission control tools in the remotely located communities.

  18. Oral administration of alkaloid fraction from Ruta graveolens inhibits oxidative stress and inflammation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

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    Ratheesh, M; Helen, A

    2013-12-01

    The anti-atherogenic effect of alkaloid fraction from Ruta graveolens Linn (Rutaceae) extract is suspected to be related to its activities of antioxidation and anti-inflammation. This study investigated the efficacy of alkaloid fraction isolated from Ruta graveolens (AFR) in reducing oxidative damage and inflammation in hypercholesteremic rabbits. The New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: Group I rabbits were fed with normal chow diet for 90 d. Group II rabbits were fed with 1% cholesterol-enriched diet. Group III rabbits were fed with 1% cholesterol-enriched diet together with AFR (10 mg/kg/daily for 90 d). The results showed that on treatment with AFR significantly lowered the level of total cholesterol and LDL-C and showed an increment in the level of HDL-C. LD50 of the AFR in rats is greater than 525 mg/kg. Activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and GSH level were decreased in cholesterol-fed rabbit and supplementation of AFR significantly enhanced the activities of these antioxidant enzymes and GSH level. Increased activities of enzymes such as cyclooxygenase-2, 15-lipoxygenase and myeloperoxidase were significantly suppressed by AFR administration. The acute phase proteins, total WBC count and TBARS concentrations were significantly increased by hypercholesteromic diet, which were significantly decreased by AFR treatment. Histopathological studies of aorta in cholesterol-fed rabbit showed plaque formation and significant changes in aortic wall. Administration of AFR showed no changes in aortic wall. AFR reduces oxidative stress and inflammation and reduces the aortic pathology in hypercholesteromic rabbits.

  19. Flora arbustivo-arbórea do fragmento de floresta estacional semidecidual do Ribeirão Cachoeira, município de Campinas, SP

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    Santos Karin dos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado inventário florístico das árvores e arbustos da mata Ribeirão Cachoeira (233,7ha, altitude 650m, coordenadas 46°55'58''W, 22°50'13''S, o segundo maior e mais bem conservado fragmento de floresta estacional semidecidual do município de Campinas, SP. O solo característico é o Podzólico Vermelho Amarelo e o clima é Cwag' de Köppen. As coletas foram feitas durante o período de agosto/1996 a setembro/1997. Foram incluídos apenas indivíduos férteis com perímetro a altura do peito igual ou superior a 9cm. Foram encontradas 175 espécies de 119 gêneros e 49 famílias. As famílias mais ricas foram Myrtaceae (14 espécies, Rutaceae e Fabaceae (13, Caesalpiniaceae (11, Solanaceae (9 e Rubiaceae (8. Algumas espécies foram encontradas pela primeira vez na região: Tachigali multijuga Benth. e Schoepfia brasiliensis A.DC. A floração foi maior entre agosto e outubro. A frutificação foi maior nos meses de agosto a novembro. A maioria das espécies encontradas é zoocórica (58%, as anemocóricas foram 23% e as autocóricas 19%. Compararam-se as relações florísticas desta mata com outros 20 levantamentos do Estado. Os resultados obtidos indicaram a formação de dois grupos distintos. O mais homogêneo deles inclui as florestas do município de Campinas, mostrando que, possivelmente, são remanescentes de uma vegetação originalmente contínua.

  20. Uso tradicional de plantas medicinales en la vereda San Isidro, municipio de San José de Pare-Boyacá: un estudio preliminar usando técnicas cuantitativas

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    Jarvis Yamith Toscano González

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó cuantitativamente el uso de plantas medicinales con el propósito de documentar la importancia relativa de dichas especies y estimar el estado actual del conocimiento tradicional de las comunidades campesinas de la vereda San Isidro, municipio de San José de Pare, Boyacá. Esta zona en particular, se considera un sector agrícola de alta confluencia y denota una apropiación del conocimiento de sus pobladores en el uso y manejo de las especies vegetales de la región. Se aplicaron aleatoriamente 180 encuestas a personas entre los 20 y 80 años, en donde se investigó respecto al uso y manejo de las plantas. Se aplicaron entrevistas programadas a aquellas personas que manejan en gran parte la demanda de plantas medicinales en la región. Los datos obtenidos a partir del consenso de informantes, fueron analizados mediante el índice de valor de uso (IVU y el nivel de uso significativo de TRAMIL. Se registraron 84 especies con 78 géneros, agrupadas en 42 familias botánicas entre medicinales, aromáticas y mágico-religiosas; las familias mejor representadas fueron Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae, Solanaceae y Rutaceae. Se reportaron 10 especies con un mayor nivel de uso significativo y 25 especies con un mayor IVU. La documentación de los usos de las plantas medicinales en el área de influencia, revela que el conocimiento tradicional continúa profundamente arraigado entre la comunidad y se mantiene el saber popular a manos de curanderos y madres cabeza de familia.

  1. Fumigant, contact, and repellent activities of essential oils against the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus.

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    Wang, Xuegui; Li, Qian; Shen, Litao; Yang, Jizhi; Cheng, Huabao; Jiang, Surong; Jiang, Chunxian; Wang, Haijian

    2014-05-30

    The fumigant, contact, and repellent activities of four essential oils extracted from Citrus limonum (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Litsea cubeba (Laurales: Lauraceae), Cinnamomum cassia, and Allium sativum L. (Asparagales: Alliaceae) against 6th instars and adults of the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), one of the main pests of materials and products of Juncus effuses L. (Poales: Juncaceae) during the storage period, were assayed, and chemical ingredients were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in this study. While the major ingredients found in C. limonum and C. cassia were limonene and (E)-cinnamaldehyde, the main constituents of L. cubea were D-limonene, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-,2,6-octadienal, (Z)-3,7-dimethyl,2 ,6-octadienal, and diallyl disulphide (18.20%), while the main constituents of and A. sativum were di-2-propenyl trisulfide and di-2-propenyl tetrasulfide. The fumigation activities of A. sativum and C. limonum on A. diaperinus adults were better than those of the other two essential oilss. The toxicities of A. sativum and C. limonum were almost equitoxic at 96 hr after treatment. Essential oils from Allium sativum and L. cubeba also showed good contact activities from 24 hr to 48 hr, and toxicities were almost equitoxic 48 hr posttreatment. The repellent activities of A. sativum and L. cubeba oils on 6th instars were also observed, showing repellence indexes of 90.4% and 88.9% at 12 hr after treatment, respectively. The effects of A. sativum on AChE activity of 6th instars of A. diaperinus were strongest compared to the other essential oils, followed by C. limonum, L. cubeba, and C. cassia. These results suggest that the essential oils of C. limonum and A. sativum could serve as effective control agents of A. diaperinus. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  2. Efficacy and safety of Citrus sudachi peel in obese adults: A randomized, double-blind, pilot study

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    Masashi Akaike

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was undertaken to explore the efficacy and safety of Citrus sudachi peel for metabolic risk factors in obese male and female adults. Background: Citrus sudachi Hort. ex Shirai (Rutaceae, called “sudachi”, is a small, round, green citrus fruit that is mainly cultivated in Tokushima Prefecture in Japan. Our group reported that Citrus sudachi peel powder improved glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia in Zucher-fatty rats and reduced hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia in GK diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 40 participants with abdominal obesity and metabolic risk factors including hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and elevated triglyceride levels. Participants were randomized to receive either tablets that contained 1.3 g dried Citrus sudachi peel powder or placebo tablets for 12 weeks. The sudachi peel group included 14 males and 5 females with a mean age of 54.5 years, and the placebo group included 18 males and 2 females with a mean age of 51.9 years. Results: Physical status including body weight, waist circumference and blood pressure and laboratory markers including metabolic parameters were not different at any observation point between the two groups. However, among participants with serum triglyceride levels of more than 120 mg/dl, body weight, waist circumference and serum triglyceride levels were significantly decreased at several observation points after the start of treatment in the sudachi peel group but not in the placebo group. No serious adverse events were observed in the sudachi peel group. Conclusions: Citrus sudachi peel has the potential effect to safely improve abdominal obesity and lower serum levels of TG in obese individuals with hypertriglyceridemia. A large-scale randomized, double-blind clinical study targeting subjects with both abdominal obesity and high TG levels is needed to confirm the metabolic effects of

  3. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activities of Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata, and Citrus grandis Against Pathogenic Bacteria

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    Sholeh Saeb

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microorganisms resistant to most antibiotics are rapidly spreading, and there is an urgent and continuous need for novel antimicrobial compounds. The genus Citrus belongs to the family Rutaceae has many biologically active secondary metabolites. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial activity of essential oil and extract of Lemon (Citrus limon, Mandarin (Citrus reticulata and Pummelo (Citrus grandis against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi. Materials and Methods: The fresh Citrus leaves were shade-dried and powdered. Antimicrobial metabolites were extracted from them by 80% methanol for extract and using a Clevenger-type apparatus for essential oil. Eight different concentrations of the each leaf extract and essential oil were prepared. The antimicrobial susceptibility assay of Citrus leaves metabolites were subjected against four bacterial strains by agar disc diffusion and E-test method. Results: In this study, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of different Citrus leaf extracts were determined against all four food-borne pathogens. The C. grandis leaf essential oil had potent antimicrobial activity against all four pathogens, and the C. limon leaf essential oil was effective on Gram-positive bacteria. S. typhi was resistant against two leaves essential oils. Conclusions: The results showed that there was no antimicrobial activity effect in all extracts on tested bacteria. In this study, the antibacterial effect of essential oil of Citrus leaves on four strains of pathogenic microorganisms was confirmed. The C. grandis leaf essential oil had the most powerful antimicrobial properties, suggesting its potential application as natural preservative in foods or an effective medicine against different pathogenic microbes. Key words: Antibacterial activity, E-test, Citr

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of Choisya ternata Kunth essential oil, ternanthranin, and its two synthetic analogs (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilates.

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    Mariana Martins Gomes Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Choisya ternata Kunth (Rutaceae is native to North America where it is popularly known as "Mexican orange". In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil (EO obtained from the leaves of C. ternata, one of its minor components (ternanthranin-ISOAN and its two synthetic analogues (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilate--MAN and PAN were evaluated. Mice pretreated with the EO (EO obtained from C. ternata leaves (3-100 mg/kg, p.o., ISOAN, MAN or PAN (1-30 mg/kg, p.o. and the reference drugs, morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o. and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 100 mg/kg, p.o., were evaluated in inflammation models such as formalin and subcutaneous air pouch models, with measurement of cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravasation, nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The EO from C. ternata significantly inhibited the time that the animals spent licking the formalin-injected paw in the second phase of the model at their higher doses (30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively. An inhibition of the inflammatory reaction induced after subcutaneous carrageenan injection into air pouch was also observed. In this model, the EO significantly reduced cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravased, and the increase in levels of inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β. ISOAN, MAN and PAN behaved in the same fashion at much smaller doses. Also, these molecules were able to show significant effects in the reduction of paw edema (at all tested doses when the phlogistic agent was carrageenan, bradykinin, 5-HT, PGE2, C48/80 or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-acetate (TPA. None of the tested doses had any effect in reducing histamine-induced edema. Our results indicate that the EO from C. ternata and anthranilate derivatives demonstrates an anti-inflammatory effect.

  5. Therapeutic and cosmetic applications of Evodiamine and its derivatives--A patent review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaraskar, Kirti; Dhulap, Sivakami; Hirwani, R R

    2015-10-01

    Evodiamine, ((+)-(S)-8,13,13b,14-tetrahydro-14-methylindolo[2',3':3,4]pyrido[2,1-b]quinazolin-5(7H)-one) indoloquinazoline alkaloid, is the major component isolated from the fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa, family Rutaceae. Broad spectrum of pharmacological activities of Evodiamine suggests its imperative role in treating a variety of diseases influencing the function of diverse targets. A comprehensive search was carried out to collect patent information regarding Evodiamine and its derivatives using different patent databases covering priority years to till date. The patents claiming therapeutic as well as cosmetic applications of Evodiamine and its derivatives were analyzed in detail and were classified technically based on the its application such as treatment of metabolic disorders, cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular disorders, etc. The analysis revealed that the use and the mode of actions of Evodiamine and its derivatives in weight management treatments are currently well established. For example the fat reducing property of this alkaloid is primarily due to its mode of actions such as prevention of muscle protein catabolism, enhancement of thermogenesis and lipid oxidation. Apart from its use for treating obesity, Evodiamine and its derivatives are also experimentally explored for their anti-cancer, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. The possible mechanisms related to its anti-cancer activity as illustrated by different experimental studies include its potential action as modulator of specific receptors such as topoisomerase I, NF-kappa B and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2). The analysis hence highlights that, clinical studies pertaining to the anti-cancer, anti-diabetes as well as anti-inflammatory activities of the Evodiamine and its derivatives would possess important market potential for the development of Evodiamine based therapeutics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identity and pharmacognosy of Ruta graveolens Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, R; Babu, U V

    2012-07-01

    Ruta graveolens L., is a odoriferous herb belonging to the family Rutaceae. It is the source of Rue or Rue oil, called as Sadab or Satab in Hindi. It is distributed throughout the world and cultivated as a medicinal and ornamental herb. The ancient Greeks and Romans, held the plant in high esteem. It is used in Ayurveda, Homoeopathy and Unani. Phytochemical constituents and pharmacological properties were studied in depth. In 14 species of genus Ruta, R. graveolens and R. chalepensis are available in India and also cultivated in gardens. Taxonomical characters to identify the Indian plants are very clear with fringed and or non-fringed petals. However, references to it are confused in the traditional literature. Due to sharing of regional language name, its identity is confused with Euphorbia dracunculoides. Morphological and anatomical characters were described. Pharmacognostic studies with microscopic characters were also published. Upon reviewing the anatomical characters and pharmacognostic characters one finds that it is highly confused and conflicting. The characters described are opposite of each other and authenticity of the market sample of R. graveolens cannot be guaranteed and able to be differentiated from R. chalepensis. Present work is to describe the pharmacognostic characters of R. graveolens to differentiate it from R. chalepensis. It is concluded that morphologically, R. graveolens can be identified with its non-fringed petals and blunted apices of fruit lobes. Whereas, in R. chalepensis petals are fringed or ciliated and apices of the fruit lobes are sharp and projected. Microscopically, in stem of R. graveolens pericyclic fibers have wide lumen. Whereas, in R. chalepensis, it is narrow. The published pharmacognosy reports do not pertain to authentic plant or some of the characteristic features like glandular trichomes are not observed in our samples.

  7. Plantas útiles en la medicina tradicional de Malpasito-Huimanguillo, Tabasco, México

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    Edelia Claudina Villarreal-Ibarra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En México las plantas medicinales son el recurso terapéutico por excelencia en la medicina tradicional, es rescatable en gran medida por constituir un importante elemento al combinar el conocimiento popular con el científi co para el tratamiento de diversas enfermedades en la atención primaria de la salud. El presente estudio documenta el conocimiento tradicional de las plantas medicinales en la comunidad de Malpasito, dentro de la Reserva Ecológica de Agua Selva en Huimanguillo, Tabasco, México. Se incluye un inventario de plantas medicinales de la región, información sobre el uso terapéutico, la forma de preparación y parte vegetal utilizada. La información se recabó mediante entrevistas estructuradas TRAMIL. Se registraron 128 especies de plantas medicinales empleadas en la comunidad distribuidas en 63 familias botánicas cuyas especies dominantes pertenence a: Asteraceae (10, Leguminosae y Lamiaceae (siete, Verbeneaceae (cinco, Rutaceae y Solanaceae (cuatro. Se reportan 13 especies medicinales con nivel de uso signifi cativo superior al 20%. Los usos medicinales se agruparon y clasifi caron en 17 categorías, en orden de prioridad: desórdenes del sistema digestivo, genitourinario y endócrino, seguidos de las infecciones y desórdenes del sistema respiratorio. Los resultados sugieren la necesidad de futuros estudios de valoración científica para las especies locales empleadas para el tratamiento de alguna enfermedad.

  8. Immunomodulatory effect of Aegle marmelos leaf extract on freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio infected by bacterial pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratheepa, V; Ramesh, S; Sukumaran, N

    2010-11-01

    Aquatic organisms (especially fish) require potent defense mechanisms to protect themselves against pathogen invasion and disease formation. The use of immunostimulants in fish culture can prevent the diseases through augmentation of both specific and non-specific immunity. A study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of different dietary doses of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Corr. Serr. (Rutaceae) leaf extract for the immune response and the disease resistance of the freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio Linn. (Cyprinidae) infected by Aeromonas hydrophila Chester (Aeromonadaceae). Hematological, specific immune response, non-specific immune response and enzyme assay studies were performed on fish and were scrutinized after 50 days of feeding trial. Fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila at a dose of 1.5 × 10(4) cells/mL through intraperitoneal injection, and the hematological changes, the immune response, the enzyme activity and the disease resistance of Cyprinus carpio against the pathogen were also studied for 20 days at 5-day intervals. The results obtained from the study demonstrated that the fish fed with leaf extract of Aegle marmelos incorporated into feed significantly enhanced the red blood cell count, white blood cell count, hemoglobin, phagocytic activity, nitroblue tetrazolium chloride assay, lysozyme, pathogen clearance and enzyme activity compared with the control group. The survivability was higher in the fish which consumed leaf extract-incorporated feed, and the fish group fed with 5 g diet showed highest percentage survival of the fish. These results indicate that Aegle marmelos stimulates the immunity and makes the freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio more resistant to Aeromonas hydrophila.

  9. Emergence of Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & Lasalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from pupae of Heraclides anchisiades capys (Hübner, [1809]) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Wagner de Souza; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Poderoso, Júlio César Melo; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2013-01-01

    Heraclides anchisiades capys (Hübner, [1809]) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) is an abundant insect pest on crops of Citrus spp. (Rutaceae) in Brazil and pupae of this defoliator could be used for the mass rearing of parasitoids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the parasitism of Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) on H. anchisiades capys pupae in the laboratory. Twenty 1-day-old H. anchisiades capys pupae were individualized in test tubes (14 cm length x 2.2 cm diameter) with a drop of honey as food and with ten mated P. elaeisis females for ten days. The duration of the life cycle (egg to adult), emergence rate, total individuals emerged per pupa, sex ratio, size of the body and longevity of P. elaeisis males and females emerged from H. anchisiades capys pupae were evaluated. The duration of the life cycle of P. elaeisis was 21.15 +/- 0.15 days. Forty percent of H. anchisiades capys pupae showed emergence of parasitoids, with an average of 323 +/- 38 individuals from each one and a sex ratio of 0.95 +/- 0.02. The total number of parasitoids emerged was 2,584 individuals. The size of the body and the head capsule (mm) of female and male P. elaeisis progeny were 1.92 +/- 0.04; 0.52 +/- 0.02 and 1.28 +/- 0.04; 0.40 +/- 0.02, respectively. The average longevity was 23.72 +/- 1.15 days for females and 30.1 +/- 2.42 days for males of P. elaeisis. Heraclides anchisiades capys, abundant on crops of Citrus spp. in Brazil, has potential to be used as a host for mass rearing of P. elaeisis in the laboratory for biological control programs.

  10. Chromatographic and electrophoretic methods for the analysis of phenethylamine [corrected] alkaloids in Citrus aurantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellati, Federica; Benvenuti, Stefania

    2007-08-17

    Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) is a plant belonging to the family Rutaceae, whose fruit extracts have been used recently for the treatment of obesity. The most important biologically active constituents of the C. aurantium fruits are phenethylamine alkaloids (i.e. octopamine, synephrine, tyramine, N-methyltyramine and hordenine). Synephrine is a primary synthesis compound with pharmacological activities such as vasoconstriction, elevation of blood pressure and relaxation of bronchial muscle. Synephrine is present in the peel and the edible part of Citrus fruit. Of the adrenergic amines of natural origin, synephrine has been found to be the main constituent of C. aurantium fruits and extracts; the other alkaloids are either absent or present in only low concentrations. It is known that synephrine and the other amines found in C. aurantium have adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, owing to adrenergic stimulation. In light of the great commercial proliferation of C. aurantium herbal medicines in recent years, this review provides an overview of various extraction, separation and detection techniques employed for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the alkaloids in C. aurantium and related species. The application of chromatographic and electrophoretic methods for the separation and determination of these active components in C. aurantium plant material and derivatives are described. Since synephrine is a chiral compound, enantioselective chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques for the analysis of synephrine enantiomers in natural products are presented. Furthermore, examples of identification of these active compounds in complex matrices by hyphenated methods, such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, are described. The advantages and limitations of these separation and identification methods are assessed and discussed.

  11. Isopropylnorsynephrine is a stronger lipolytic agent in human adipocytes than synephrine and other amines present in Citrus aurantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercader, Josep; Wanecq, Estelle; Chen, Jian; Carpéné, Christian

    2011-09-01

    The weight loss observed in consumers of extracts of Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) has been tentatively attributed to the lipolytic and thermogenic effects of the alkaloids abundant in the unripe fruit. Synephrine, octopamine, tyramine, and other alkaloids have been repeatedly identified and quantified in Citrus members of the Rutaceae family or in their extracts incorporated in dietary supplements for weight management. However, there are only scarce reports on their lipolytic action. This study aimed at comparing the acute lipolytic activity of synephrine, octopamine, tyramine, and N-methyltyramine in rat and human adipocytes. Maximal response to the prototypical β-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline was taken as reference in both species. In rat, octopamine was slightly more active than synephrine while tyramine and N-methyl tyramine did not stimulate-and even inhibited-lipolysis. In human adipocytes, none of these amines stimulated lipolysis when tested up to 10 μg/ml. At higher doses (≥100 μg/ml), tyramine and N-methyl tyramine induced only 20% of the maximal lipolysis and exhibited antilipolytic properties. Synephrine and octopamine were partially stimulatory at high doses. Since synephrine is more abundant than octopamine in C. aurantium, it should be the main responsible for the putative lipolytic action of the extracts claimed to mitigate obesity. Noteworthy, their common isopropyl derivative, isopropylnorsynephrine (also named isopropyloctopamine or betaphrine), was clearly lipolytic: active at 1 μg/ml and reproducing more than 60% of isoprenaline maximal effect in human adipocytes. This compound, not detected in C. aurantium, and which has few reported adverse effects to date, might be useful for in vivo triglyceride breakdown.

  12. Oxidative stress-related lung dysfunction by chromium(VI): alleviation by Citrus aurantium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudani, Nejla; Rafrafi, Moez; Ben Amara, Ibtissem; Hakim, Ahmed; Troudi, Afef; Zeghal, Khaled Mounir; Ben Salah, Hichem; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2013-06-01

    Chromium(VI), a very strong oxidant, causes high cytotoxicity through oxidative stress in tissue systems. Our study investigated the potential ability of ethanolic Citrus aurantium L., family Rutaceae extract, used as a nutritional supplement, to alleviate lung oxidative damage induced by Cr(VI). A high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer method was developed to separate and identify flavonoids in C. aurantium L. Six flavonoids were identified, as (1) poncirin, (2) naringin, (3) naringenin, (4) quercetin, (5) isosinensetin, and (6) tetramethyl-o-isoscutellarein. Adult Wistar rats, used in this study, were divided into six groups of six animals each: group I served as controls which received standard diet, group II received via drinking water K2Cr2O7 alone (700 ppm), groups III and IV were pretreated for 10 days with ethanol extract of C. aurantium L. at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively, and then K2Cr2O7 was administrated during 3 weeks, and groups V and VI received during 10 days only C. aurantium L. ethanol extract at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg/day, respectively. Ethanol extract of C. aurantium L. was administered orally. Rats exposed to Cr(VI) showed in lung an increase in malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels and a decrease in sulflydryl content, glutathione, nonprotein thiol, and vitamins C and E levels. Decreases in enzyme activities such as in Na(+)K(+) ATPase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase were noted. Pretreatment with C. aurantium L. of chromium-treated rats ameliorated all biochemical parameters. Lung histological studies confirmed the biochemical parameters and the beneficial role of C. aurantium L.

  13. Resprouting from roots in four Brazilian tree species.

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    Hayashi, Adriana Hissae; Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz

    2009-09-01

    Previous studies pointed out that species richness and high density values within the Leguminosae in Brazilian forest fragments affected by fire could be due, at least partially, to the high incidence of root sprouting in this family. However, there are few studies of the factors that induce root sprouting in woody plants after disturbance. We investigated the bud formation on root cuttings, and considered a man-made disturbance that isolates the root from the shoot apical dominance of three Leguminosae (Bauhinia forficata Link., Centrolobium tomentosum Guill. ex Benth, and Inga laurina (Sw.) Willd) and one Rutaceae (Esenbeckia febrifuga (St. Hil.) Juss. ex Mart.). All these species resprout frequently after fire. We also attempted to induce bud formation on root systems by removing the main trunk, girdling or sectioning the shallow lateral roots from forest tree species Esenbeckia febrifuga and Hymenaea courbaril L. We identified the origin of shoot primordia and their early development by fixing the samples in Karnovsky solution, dehydrating in ethyl alcohol series and embedding in plastic resin. Serial sections were cut on a rotary microtome and stained with toluidine blue O. Permanent slides were mounted in synthetic resin. We observed different modes of bud origin on root cuttings: close to the vascular cambium (C. tomentosum), from the callus (B. forficata and E. febrifuga) and from the phloematic parenchyma proliferation (I. laurina). Fragments of B. forficata root bark were also capable of forming reparative buds from healing phellogen formed in callus in the bark's inner side. In the attempt of bud induction on root systems, Hymenaea courbaril did not respond to any of the induction tests, probably because of plant age. However, Esenbeckia febrifuga roots formed suckers when the main trunk was removed or their roots were sectioned and isolated from the original plant. We experimentally demonstrated the ability of four tree species to resprout from roots

  14. Mapping and Assessment of Ethno-Medicinal Trees in Built Up Areas - University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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    Olatunde Sunday Eludoyin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Several urban tree species are important in ethno-medicine, especially in the developing tropical regions. Their assessment in urban landscapes is becoming an important issue. The study assessed and mapped the ethno-medicinal trees in the built up area land use type of the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, with a view to examining their spatial variation in terms of composition and diversity between the residential and non-residential areas of the University Park. Materials and Methods: The study employed the use of geographic information system (ArcGIS 9.3 for the mapping. Built up area land use was subdivided into residential and non-residential where the ethno-medicinal trees were recorded, identified and enumerated. Global positioning system was used to determine the coordinates of each tree. The species composition and diversity were calculated and a comparison was made between the residential and non- residential land use types. The pattern of spread of the ethno-medicinal trees was determined by the nearest neighbour analysis. Results: A total of 37 ethno-medicinal trees species were found in the study area, while the species composition was 499 in the residential area and 438 in the non-residential area. Azadirachta indica was the highest (233 in composition. Ethno-medicinal tree species in the study area consist of 19 families of which Anacardiaceae, Rutaceae, Moraceae and Combretaceae were the highest. Species diversity was higher in the non-residential land use (2.698 than in the residential land use (2.222. Conclusion: The nearest neighbour analysis reveals that the z-score value was higher in the non-residential area (-23.06 than in the residential area (-0.30, but the pattern of distribution in both areas were clustered. The study recommended periodic monitoring and the assessment of ethno-medicinal trees in the study area for conservation purposes.

  15. 3D QSAR studies on binding affinities of coumarin natural products for glycosomal GAPDH of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Lopes, Julio C. D.; Montanari, Carlos A.; Oliva, Glaucius; Pavão, Fernando; Castilho, Marcelo S.; Vieira, Paulo C.; Pupo, M.^onica T.

    2003-05-01

    Drug design strategies based on Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) have been used to predict the activity of new compounds. The major advantage of this approach is that it permits the analysis of a large number of quantitative descriptors and uses chemometric methods such as partial least squares (PLS) to correlate changes in bioactivity with changes in chemical structure. Because it is often difficult to rationalize all variables affecting the binding affinity of compounds using CoMFA solely, the program GRID was used to describe ligands in terms of their molecular interaction fields, MIFs. The program VolSurf that is able to compress the relevant information present in 3D maps into a few descriptors can treat these GRID fields. The binding affinities of a new set of compounds consisting of 13 coumarins, for one of which the three-dimensional ligand-enzyme bound structure is known, were studied. A final model based on the mentioned programs was independently validated by synthesizing and testing new coumarin derivatives. By relying on our knowledge of the real physical data (i.e., combining crystallographic and binding affinity results), it is also shown that ligand-based design agrees with structure-based design. The compound with the highest binding affinity was the coumarin chalepin, isolated from Rutaceae species, with an IC50 value of 55.5 μM towards the enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) from glycosomes of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease. The proposed models from GRID MIFs have revealed the importance of lipophilic interactions in modulating the inhibition, but without excluding the dependence on stereo-electronic properties as found from CoMFA fields.

  16. Caracterização florística, fitossociológica e regeneração natural do sub-bosque da reserva genética florestal Tamanduá, D.F.

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    José Silva Alves da

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out in the Tamanduá Forest Genetic Reserve, in Brasília, Brazil, comprised mainly by gallery forest. It aimed to assess the floristic composition, natural regeneration and the spatial distribution of the main woody species in the undergrowth. The species were Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi O. Kuntze, Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel J. F.Macbr., Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan, Virola sebifera Aubl., Hymenaea courbaril var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee & Lang., Aspidosperma discolor A. St. Hil., Astronium fraxinifolium Schott and Schefflera morototoni B. Maguire, Stey. & Frodin, all considered priorities for in situ conservation. Five transects were used, each 10 meters wide, laid perpendicular to the main watercourse in the studied area. A total of 21,482 regenerants per hectare were found in 69 species, 53 genera and 39 families. The families which had the largest numbers of species as seedlings were, in descending order, Leguminosae (Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, Sapindaceae and Meliaceae. Surveying of young individuals, the dominant families with higher importance value (IV were as follows: Meliaceae (32.78 %, Rubiaceae (13.92 %, Burseraceae (13.76 %, Rutaceae (8.54 % and Hippocrateaceae (6.36 %, accounting for 75.36 % of total IV and 78.56 % of cover. All target species studied were represented among regenerants, especially Cariniana estrelllensis. However, only Copaifera langsdorffii and Virola sebifera were found among young individuals. A mixture quotient of 1:3 was calculated and indicates a forest rich in species, when compared to other similar forest formations. The spatial distribution of the regenerant species showed different patterns.

  17. The Influence of Learning on Host Plant Preference in a Significant Phytopathogen Vector, Diaphorina citri.

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    Dara G Stockton

    Rutaceae in the area being monitored.

  18. Clausena anisata and Dysphania ambrosioides essential oils: from ethno-medicine to modern uses as effective insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, Roman; Maggi, Filippo; Lupidi, Giulio; Mbuntcha, Hélène; Woguem, Verlaine; Womeni, Hilaire Macaire; Barboni, Luciano; Tapondjou, Léon Azefack; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-10-01

    Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants (Amaranthaceae) and Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook. f. ex Benth. (Rutaceae) are two aromatic species traditionally used in Cameroon to repel and kill insects. The present work was carried out to substantiate this traditional use and to evaluate the possible incorporation in commercial botanical insecticides of their essential oils (EOs). The EOs were distilled from leaves of C. anisata and aerial parts of D. ambrosioides and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The insecticidal activity of both EOs was investigated against the filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, and the housefly, Musca domestica. As possible mode of action, the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by the two EOs was investigated as well. The D. ambrosioides EO was characterized by the monoterpene peroxide ascaridole (61.4%) and the aromatic p-cymene (29.0%), whereas the C. anisata EO was dominated by the phenylpropanoids (E)-anethole (64.6%) and (E)-methyl isoeugenol (16.1%). The C. anisata EO proved to be very toxic to third instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus showing LC 50 of 29.3 μl/l, whereas D. ambrosioides EO was more toxic to adults of M. domestica showing a LD 50 of 51.7 μg/adult. The mixture of both EOs showed a significant synergistic effect against mosquito larvae with LC 50 estimated as 19.3 μl/l, whereas this phenomenon was not observed upon application to M. domestica adults (LD 50 = 75.9 μg/adult). Of the two EOs, the D. ambrosioides one provided a good inhibition of AChE (IC 50 = 77 μg/ml), whereas C. anisata oil was not effective. These findings provide new evidences supporting the ethno-botanical use of these two Cameroonian plants, and their possible application even in synergistic binary blends, to develop new eco-friendly, safe and effective herbal insecticides.

  19. Insecticidal Constituents of Essential Oil Derived from Zanthoxylum armatum against Two Stored-Product Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Fang; Zhang, Wen-Juan; You, Chun-Xue; Guo, Shan-Shan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Fan, Li; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2015-01-01

    In the course of our search for natural bioactive chemicals and investigations on their insecticidal activities from some medicinal plants growing in China, the essential oil derived from the twigs of Zanthoxylum armatum (Rutaceae) was found to possess strong insecticidal activities against two stored-product insects, Lasioderma serricorne and Tribolium castaneum. A total of 32 constituents of the essential oil were identified by GC and GC-MS analysis, and it revealed (E)-anethole (20.5%), 1,8-cineole (14.0%), 2-tridecanone (12.5%), limonene (9.0%) and piperitone (8.0%) as major components, followed by β-phellandrene (6.3%), β-pinene (5.1%) and 4-terpineol (4.4%). From the essential oil, five compounds were isolated and identified as (E)-anethole, 1,8-cineole, 2-tridecanone, limonene and piperitone. The results of insecticidal bioassays showed that the essential oil of Z. armatum exhibited strong fumigant toxicity towards L. serricorne and T. castaneum with LC50 values of 13.83 and 4.28 mg/L air, respectively, and also possessed contact toxicity against two insect species with LD50 values of 18.74 and 32.16 μg/adult, respectively. Among the active compounds, piperitone performed the strongest fumigant toxicity against L. serricorne (LC50 = 1.21 mg/L air) and contact toxicity against T. castaneum (LD50 = 3.16 μg/adult). 1,8-Cineole, limonene and piperitone showed similar fumigant toxicity against T. castaneum with LC50 values of 5.47, 6.21 and 7.12 mg/L air, respectively. Meanwhile, L. serricorne was the most sensitive to 2-tridecanone (LD50 = 5.74 μg/adult) in the progress of contact toxicity assay.

  20. Useful ethnophytomedicinal recipes of angiosperms used against diabetes in South East Asian Countries (India, Pakistan & Sri Lanka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwat, Sarfaraz Khan; Rehman, Fazalur; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khakwani, Abdul Aziz; Ullah, Imdad; Khan, Kaleem Ullah; Khan, Inam Ullah

    2014-09-01

    This paper is based on data recorded from various literatures pertaining to ethnophytomedicinal recipes used against diabetes in South East Asia (India, Pakistan and Srilanka). Traditional plant treatments have been used throughout the world for the therapy of diabetes mellitus. In total 419 useful phytorecipes of 270 plant species belonging to 74 Angiospermic families were collected. From the review it was revealed that plants showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belong to the families, Cucurbitaceae (16 spp.), Euphorbiaceae (15 spp.), Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae (13 spp. each), Moraceae (11 spp.), Acanthaceae (10 spp.), Mimosaceae (09 spp.), Asteraceae, Malvaceae and Poaceae (08 spp. each), Hippocrateaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (07 spp. each), Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Verbenaceae (06 spp. each), Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae (05 spp.each). The most active plants are Syzigium cumini (14 recipes), Phyllanthus emblica (09 recipes), Centella asiatica and Momordica charantia (08 recipes each), Azadirachta indica (07 recipes), Aegle marmelos, Catharanthus roseus, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus racemosa, Gymnema sylvestre (06 recipes each), Allium cepa, A. sativum, Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa (05 recipes each), Citrullus colocynthis, Justicia adhatoda, Nelumbo nucifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Ziziphus mauritiana and Wattakaka volubilis (4 recipes each). These traditional recipes include extracts, leaves, powders, flour, seeds, vegetables, fruits and herbal mixtures. Data inventory consists of botanical name, recipe, vernacular name, English name. Some of the plants of the above data with experimentally confirmed antidiabetic properties have also been recorded. More investigations must be carried out to evaluate the mechanism of action of diabetic medicinal plants. Toxicity of these plants should also be explained. Scientific validation of these recipes may help in discovering new drugs from

  1. Inhibitory effects of Ponciri Fructus on testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Woo-Young; Kim, Ohn Soon; Seo, Chang-Seob; Jin, Seong Eun; Kim, Jung-Ae; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Kim, Yong-Ung; Lee, Mee-Young

    2017-08-03

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is non-cancerous condition of enlargement of the prostate, a common occurrence in older men. The immature fruits of Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Rafinesque (Rutaceae), Ponciri Fructus are widely used in traditional oriental medicine for the therapy of various diseases. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of BPH. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of a Ponciri Fructus extract (PFE) on the development of BPH in a in a rat model of BPH induced by testosterone propionate (TP). Male Sprague Dawley rats were used as a model of BPH after its induction by daily subcutaneous injections of TP/corn oil, for a period of four weeks. PFE was administrated daily 1 h before TP/corn oil injection by oral gavage at a dose level of 200 mg/kg during the 4 weeks of TP/corn oil injections. All rats were sacrificed at the end of the experiment, we measured the relative prostate weight, the levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), histological changes, activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase), and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In addition, we also measured the inhibition (%) of 5α-reductase in the prostatic tissue. Our findings indicate that PFE significantly inhibited the development of BPH; decreased the relative prostate weight, the level of testosterone and DHT in serum and prostatic tissue, prostatic hyperplasia, expression of PCNA, and increased the antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, PFE showed a weak inhibitory activity on 5α-reductase. These results suggest that PFE may be used as a therapeutic agent for BPH via antiproliferative and antioxidant effects.

  2. Cytotoxicity of obacunone and obacunone glucoside in human prostate cancer cells involves Akt-mediated programmed cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, Kotamballi N. Chidambara; Jayaprakasha, G.K.; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Possible mechanism of inhibiting LNCaP cells proliferation by obacunone and obacunone glucoside is demonstrated for the first time. • Inhibition of LNCaP cells by limonoids though induction of programmed cell death, inhibition of cell signaling and inflammatory pathways. • Limonoids exhibited multi-mode inhibition of androgen expression in LNCaP cells. - Abstract: Obacunone and obacunone glucoside (OG) are naturally occurring triterpenoids commonly found in citrus and other plants of the Rutaceae family. The current study reports the mechanism of cytotoxicity of citrus-derived obacunone and OG on human androgen-dependent prostate cancer LNCaP cells. Both limonoids exhibited time- and dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation, with more than 60% inhibition of cell viability at 100 μM, after 24 and 48 h. Analysis of fragmentation of DNA, activity of caspase-3, and cytosolic cytochrome-c in the cells treated with limonoids provided evidence for activation of programmed cell death by limonoids. Treatment of LNCaP cells with obacunone and OG resulted in dose-dependent changes in expression of proteins responsible for the induction of programmed cell death through the intrinsic pathway and down-regulation of Akt, a key molecule in cell signaling pathways. In addition, obacunone and OG also negatively regulated an inflammation-associated transcription factor, androgen receptor, and prostate-specific antigen, and activated proteins related to the cell cycle, confirming the ability of limonoids to induce cytotoxicity through multiple pathways. The results of this study provided, for the first time, an evidence of the cytotoxicity of obacunone and OG in androgen-dependent human prostate cancer cells

  3. An ethnobotany of Western Cape Rasta bush medicine.

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    Aston Philander, Lisa

    2011-11-18

    This descriptive ethnobiological research is the first documentation of the materials utilized in the pharmacopeia of a novel group of herbalists, Rasta bush doctors, found in the botanically diverse Western Cape of South Africa. This article suggests that medicinal plants used by bush doctors unite the disparate ethnomedicines found in South Africa. Ethnospecies name and parts used were recorded during detailed inventories of 39 bush doctors. Collection of voucher specimens for botanical identification occurred in 15 locations. Herbal remedies were classified into use categories and were compared to historical ethnobotanical literature to ascertain previous cultural affiliations. There were 205 ethnospecies found in the Rastafari ethnobiology, 181 were used medicinally. Ethnospecies belong to 71 plant families and 71% belonged to six plant families: Rutaceae (13), Asteraceae (13), Apiaceae (9), Lamiaceae (8), Fabaceae (8), and Euphorbiaceae (7). The majority of remedies (49%) were foliage. Medicinal plants treated over 30 ailments including: gastrointestinal symptoms (11%), urogential complaints (11%), skin ailments (9%), and cardiovascular diseases (8%). Bush doctors appropriated remedies traditionally important to Zulu, KhoiSan, European and Xhosa healing traditions. Novel plants and plant utilization were noted for 22 plant species. Use of previously undocumented plant materials as medicinals denote distinct local knowledge including novel Rastafarian utilization of herbs for spiritual and ritual purposes. The range of the largely herbaceous pharmacopeia is narrow compared to the region's highly biodiverse materials and historical records of medicinal use. Bush doctors' experimentation with known herbal remedies illustrates a striking level of cross-cultural adaptation. This syncretic pharmacopeia reflects the cultural diversity of Southern Africa, drawing upon recent invasive species, European influence and traditional herbs used by the KhoiSan, Zulu and Xhosa

  4. Insecticidal and Feeding Deterrent Effects of Fraxinellone from Dictamnus dasycarpus against Four Major Pests

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    Huixia Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fraxinellone, a well-known and significant naturally occurring compound isolated from Meliaceae and Rutaceae spp. has been widely used as a drug for the treatment of tumors. On the other hand, fraxinellone exhibited a variety of insecticidal activities including feeding-deterrent activity, inhibition of growth, and larvicidal activity. The present study focused on the antifeedant and larvicidal activities of fraxinellone against the larvae of Lepidoptera, including Mythimna separata, Agrotis ypsilon, Plutella xylostella, and one kind of sanitary pest, Culux pipiens pallens. Meanwhile, the ovicidal activities and the effects of fraxinellone on the larval development of M. separata were also observed. The LC50 values of fraxinellone against 3rd instar larvae of M. separata, 2nd instar larvae of P. xylostella and 4th instar larvae of C. pipiens pallens were 15.95/6.43/3.60 × 10−2 mg mL−1, and its AFC50 values against 5th instar larvae of M. separata, 2nd instar larvae of P. xylostella and 2nd instar larvae of A. ypsilon were 10.73/7.93/12.58 mg mL−1, respectively. Compared with the control group, fraxinellone obviously inhibited the pupation rate and the growth of M. separata. Once M. separata was treated with fraxinellone at concentrations of 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 mg mL−1, respectively, the stages from the larvae to adulthood and the egg hatching duration were prolonged to 1/2/3, and 4/3/4 days, respectively. Additionally, fraxinellone strongly inhibited the development rate and the egg hatch proportion of M. separata.

  5. Cape plants: corrections and additions to the flora. 1

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    P. Goldblatt

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Comprising an area of ± 90 000 km:, less than 5% of the land surface of the southern African subcontinent, the Cape Floristic Region (CFR is one of the world’s richest areas for plant species diversity. A recent synoptic flora for the Region has established a new base line for an accurate assessment of the flora. Here we document corrections and additions to the flora at family, genus and species ranks. As treated in Cape plants, which was completed in 1999. the flora comprised 173 families (five endemic, 988 genera (160 endemic: 16.2%, and 9 004 species (6 192 endemic: 68.8%. Just four years later, a revised count resulting from changes in the circumscriptions of families and genera, and the discovery of new species or range extensions of species, yields an estimate of 172 families (four endemic, 992 genera (162 endemic: 16.3% and 9 086 species (6 226: 68.5% endemic. Of these, 948 genera and 8 971 species are seed plants. The number of species packed into so small an area is remarkable for the temperate zone and compares favourably with species richness for areas of compa­rable size in the wet tropics. The degree of endemism is also remarkable for a continental area. An unusual family compo­sition includes, in descending order of size, based on species number. Asteraceae. Fabaceae. Iridaceae. Ericaceae. Aizoaceae, Scrophulariaceae. Proteaceae. Restionaceae, Rutaceae. and Orchidaceae. Disproportionate radiation has resulted in 59.1% of the species falling in the 10 largest families and 74.6% in the largest 20 families. Thirteen genera have more than 100 species and the 20 largest genera contribute some 31.5% of the total species number.

  6. Lipolytic and antiadipogenic effects of (3,3-dimethylallyl) halfordinol on 3T3-L1 adipocytes and high fat and fructose diet induced obese C57/BL6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Munisankar; Pandikumar, Perumal; Saravanan, Subramaniam; Toppo, Erenius; Pazhanivel, Natesan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2014-10-05

    Aegle marmelos Correa., (Rutaceae) is a medium sized tree distributed in South East Asia and used traditionally for the management of obestiy and diabetes. In this study the lipolytic and antiadipogenic effects of (3,3-dimethylallyl) halfordinol (Hfn) isolated from leaves of A. marmelos have been investigated. Intracellular lipid accumulation was measured by oil red O staining and glycerol secretion. The expression of genes related to adipocyte differentiation was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Hfn decreased intracellular triglyceride accumulation and increased glycerol release in a dose dependent manner (5-20 μg/ml) in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In high fat diet fed C57/BL 6J mice, treatment with Hfn for four weeks reduced plasma glucose, insulin and triglyceride levels and showed a significant reduction in total adipose tissue mass by 37.85% and visceral adipose tissue mass by 62.99% at 50mg/kg b.w. concentration. RT-PCR analyses indicated that Hfn decreased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein α (CEBPα) and increased the expression of sterol regulatory enzyme binding protein (SREBP-1c), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), Adiponectin and Glucose transporter protein 4 (GLUT4) compared to the high fat diet group. These results suggested that Hfn decreased adipocyte differentiation and stimulated lipolysis of adipocytes. This study justifies the folklore medicinal uses and claims about the therapeutic values of this plant for the management of insulin resistance and obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The status of conservation of urban forests in eastern Amazonia

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    DD Amaral

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the remnant tree flora in six forest fragments in the metropolitan area of Belém and to analyze these fragments in terms of biological conservation, species richness and diversity in the local urban landscape. The fragments and their respective sampling areas were as follows: Amafrutas reserve (15 ha, Trambioca Is. reserve (2 ha, Bosque Rodrigues Alves city park (15 ha, Combu Is. reserve (10 ha, Gunma Park reserve (10 ha and Mocambo reserve (5 ha. Inventories were built from lineal plots of 250 m² and included trees with DBH equal to or greater than 10 cm at a height of 1.3 m above ground. Sixty-nine families and 759 species, of which eight were officially listed as endangered (Brazilian National Flora: Ministry of Environment, Normative Instruction of September, 2008; Pará State Flora: Decree Nº. 802 of February 2008 were recorded. These endangered species are: Aspidosperma desmanthum Benth. ex Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae, Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae, Eschweilera piresii S.A Mori (Lecythidaceae, Euxylophora paraensis Huber (Rutaceae, Hymenolobium excelsum Ducke (Leguminosae, Manilkara huberi (Ducke Chevalier (Sapotaceae, Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC. Standl. (Bignoniaceae, Mezilaurus itauba (Meisn. Taub. ex Mez (Lauraceae and Qualea coerulea Aubl. (Vochysiaceae. Emergency actions such as implementing management plans for already existing Conservation Units, the creation of new such units in areas of primary forest fragments (as in the case of the Amafrutas reserve, as well as the intensification of actions of surveillance and monitoring, should be undertaken by Federal, State, and Municipal environmental agencies so as to ensure the conservation of these last primary forest remnants in the metropolitan area of Belém.

  8. Structure-Activity Relationship of Benzophenanthridine Alkaloids from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Having Antimicrobial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Luciana de C.; Zanon, Graciane; Weber, Andréia D.; Neto, Alexandre T.; Mostardeiro, Clarice P.; Da Cruz, Ivana B. M.; Oliveira, Raul M.; Ilha, Vinicius; Dalcol, Ionara I.; Morel, Ademir F.

    2014-01-01

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium (Rutaceae) is a plant alkaloid that grows in South America and has been used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of different health problems. The present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the steam bark crude methanol extract, fractions, and pure alkaloids of Z. rhoifolium. Its stem bark extracts exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, ranging from 12.5 to 100 µg/mL using bioautography method, and from 125 to 500 µg/mL in the microdilution bioassay. From the dichloromethane basic fraction, three furoquinoline alkaloids (1–3), and nine benzophenanthridine alkaloids (4–12) were isolated and the antimicrobial activity of the benzophenanthridine alkaloids is discussed in terms of structure-activity relationships. The alkaloid with the widest spectrum of activity was chelerythrine (10), followed by avicine (12) and dihydrochelerythrine (4). The minimal inhibitory concentrations of chelerythrine, of 1.50 µg/mL for all bacteria tested, and between 3.12 and 6.25 µg/mL for the yeast tested, show this compound to be a more powerful antimicrobial agent when compared with the other active alkaloids isolated from Z. rhoifolium. To verify the potential importance of the methylenedioxy group (ring A) of these alkaloids, chelerythrine was selected to represent the remainder of the benzophenanthridine alkaloids isolated in this work and was subjected to a demethylation reaction giving derivative 14. Compared to chelerythrine, the derivative (14) was less active against the tested bacteria and fungi. Kinetic measurements of the bacteriolytic activities of chelerythrine against the bacteria Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive) and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) were determined by optical density based on real time assay, suggesting that its mechanism of action is not bacteriolytic. The present study did not detect hemolytic effects of chelerythrine on erythrocytes and found a protective effect

  9. 2-undecanone rich leaf essential oil from Zanthoxylum armatum.

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    Bisht, Deepa; Chanotiya, Chandan S

    2011-01-01

    The leaf essential oils of Zanthoxylum armatum DC (Rutaceae) from Kumaon, India, extracted by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major classes of compounds found in the leaf oils were acyclic and menthane monoterpenoids as well as simple alcohols, aldehydes and ketones. The high proportion of non-terpenic acyclic ketones, notably 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone, and the low abundance of undec-10-en-1-al and p-phellandren-8-ol make the composition entirely new. Other constituents present in significant amounts were oxygenated monoterpenes, which include 1,8-cineole, linalool, terpinen-4-ol, and alpha-terpineol, and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons represented mainly by trans-caryophyllene, a-humulene and germacrene D. On the contrary, the oil distilled from the leaves on the second day of distillation was characterized by a high content of 2-tridecanone (27.1%) and trans-caryophyllene (7.4%), as compared with 3.5% and 4.6%, respectively, for the fresh leaves; a slight decrease in pH of the distillate was also significant. Moreover, the presence of a high 2-undecanone content followed by 2-tridecanone is being reported for the first time for Z. armatum from this region. In terms of molecular diversity, the simple acyclic ketones dominate the essential oils as compared with linalool that was reported in several previous studies on Z. armatum. Therefore, the two acyclic ketones may be utilized to establish the origin and authenticity of the material.

  10. Cytotoxic potential of selected medicinal plants in northeast Brazil.

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    da Silva, Thiago B C; Costa, Cinara O D'Sousa; Galvão, Alexandre F C; Bomfim, Larissa M; Rodrigues, Ana Carolina B da C; Mota, Mauricio C S; Dantas, Alex A; Dos Santos, Tiago R; Soares, Milena B P; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2016-07-08

    Great biodiversity is a highlight of Brazilian flora. In contrast, the therapeutic potentialities of most species used in folk medicine remain unknown. Several of these species are commonly used to treat cancer. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic activity of 18 plants from 16 families that are found in the northeast region of Brazil. The following species were studied: Byrsonima sericea DC. (Malpighiaceae), Cupania impressinervia Acev. Rodr. var. (revoluta) Radlk (Sapindaceae), Duranta repens Linn. (Verbenaceae), Helicostylis tomentosa (Poepp. & Endl) Rusby (Moraceae), Himatanthus bracteatus (A.DC.) Woodson (Apocynaceae), Ipomoea purga (Wender.) Hayne (Convolvulaceae), Ixora coccinea Linn. (Rubiaceae), Mabea piriri Aubl. (Euphorbiaceae), Miconia minutiflora (Melastomataceae), Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae), Ocotea glomerata (Nees) Mez (Lauraceae), Ocotea longifolia Kunth (Oreodaphne opifera Mart. Nees) (Lauraceae), Pavonia fruticosa (Mill.) Fawc. & Rendle (Malvaceae), Psychotria capitata Ruiz & Pav. (Rubiaceae), Schefflera morototoni (Aubl.) Maguire, Steyerm. & Frodin (Araliaceae), Solanum paludosum Moric. (Solanaceae), Xylopia frutescens Aubl. (Annonaceae) and Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae). Their dried leaves, stems, flowers or fruits were submitted to different solvent extractions, resulting in 55 extracts. After incubating for 72 h, the cytotoxicity of each extract was tested against tumor cell lines using the alamar blue assay. The B. sericea, D. repens, H. bracteatus, I. purga, I. coccinea, M. piriri, O. longifolia and P. capitata extracts demonstrated the most potent cytotoxic activity. The chloroform soluble fractions of D. repens flowers and the hexane extract of I. coccinea flowers led to the isolation of quercetin and a mixture of α- and β-amyrin, respectively, and quercetin showed moderate cytotoxic activity. The B. sericea, D. repens, H. bracteatus, I. purga, I. coccinea, M. piriri, O. longifolia and P. capitata plants were

  11. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used to manage High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bitterfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Denver; Gibson, Diana; Johnson, Quinton

    2016-12-24

    The aim of this study was to identify and document medicinal plants used to manage High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bitterfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa. One hundred and twelve (112) respondents were interviewed between August 2014 and September 2015 through semi-structured surveys to gather data on the percentage of people who had been diagnosed with High Blood Pressure and/or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and to determine the frequency of medicinal plant and allopathic medicine use. Twelve (12) key respondents were subsequently selected, using a non-probability snowball sampling method. They were interviewed in-depth concerning their plant practices and assisted with plant collection. Twenty-four plant (24) species belonging to 15 families were identified for the management of High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The most frequently reported families were Asteraceae (20.8%), Lamiaceae (16.67%), Crassulaceae (8.33%) and Aizoaceae (8.33%). The remaining (45.54%) were evenly split over eleven families- Fabaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Capparaceae, Geraniaceae, Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Apocynaceae, Rutaceae, Asphodelaceae and Thymelaeaceae. The most commonly used plant species overall was Lessertia frutescens (96.55%). The most frequently used plant parts included leaves (57.63%) roots/bulbs (15.25%) and stems (11.86%), mostly prepared as infusions or decoctions for oral administration. Medicinal plants are widely used by High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus sufferers. They employ diverse plant species to manage both conditions. In addition, some sufferers often use prescribed allopathic medication, as well as medicinal plants, but at different intervals. Despite high usage the plants identified are not currently threatened (Red Data list status: least concern). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of fluoride air pollution on citrus orchards in the Kanbara district, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Y.

    1967-01-01

    Since the construction of the largest Japanese aluminum plant in 1942 in Kanbara, the effects of fluorides have been evident in the surrounding agricultural and silk industries. Kanbara is a principal citrus growing area, and for several years, the orange crop has been severely affected. During the rainy spring and summer, air pollution from fluoride increases, causing leaf and fruit drop as well as poor tree growth. Trees yield poorly, and the quality of the fruit which is produced is inferior. Spraying with OED or lime-sulfur solutions had no effect on these damages; the use of wind-breaking hedges to shut out the fluoride-laden air was slightly beneficial. The resistance of 251 wild and cultivated plants around the factory was investigated. Plants of the Equisetaeae, Orchidaceae, Iridaceae, Liliaceae, Araceae, Rosaceae, and Rutaceae families are sensitive to the effects of fluorides. Plants belonging to the Composita, Apiaceae, Lamiaceae and Teaceae families are not. Of the citrus plants, sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbec) is sensitive to fluorides, as are Matsudaidai, Iyo and Satsuma orange trees. According to a leaf analysis performed in September 1966, affected and non-affected leaves of Satsuma orange trees from 30 orchards up to 20 km distant from the factory, contained 135-378 p.p.m. fluoride in the affected area, while leaves from non-affected areas contained 9-82 p.p.m. Recommended indicator plants for fluoride air pollution are Equisetum arvense L., Sasa species, Reymoutria japonica Hout, Colocasia antiquorum Schott, Prunus mume Sieb, Irida species, and Gladiolus gandavensis Hout.

  13. Bioactivity of Six Plant Extracts on Adults of Demotispa neivai (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Luis C.; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Zanuncio, José C.; Serrão, José E.

    2015-01-01

    Demotispa neivai Bondar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) damage oil palm fruits, which makes it necessary to develop products to control this insect. The mortality, repellency, and antifeeding effects on adults of D. neivai of six plant extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Sapindales: Meliaceae), Ricinus communis (L.) (Malpighiaes: Euphorbiaceae), Citrus sinensis Oesbek (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (L.) (Slanales: Solanaceae), Capsicum annuum (L.) (Solanales: Solanaceae), and Artemisia absinthium (L.) (Asterales: Asteraceae) were determined: 1) the lethal concentration LC50-90, lethal time of D. neivai was evaluated after spraying the fruits of oil palm; 2) repellent effects of each ingredient were evaluated by calculating the index of repellency; 3) antifeeding effects with the rate of inhibition calculated between doses of 20 and 24 g/liter. The mortality of D. neivai was higher with the extracts Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum. The mortality of D. neivai increased in the first 72 hr in all treatments. The extracts of N. tabacum, Ca. annuum, and A. indica were more repellent to D. neivai that those of Ci. sinensis, Ar. Absinthium, and R. communis. Antifeeding effect was higher with Ci. sinensis and R. communis. The increased mortality of D. neivai by Ci. sinensis can be explained by the effect of this compound on the respiratory system of insects. Extracts of Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum repelled and caused mortality of D. neivai and, thus, can be used in integrate pest management programs of this pest in oil palm plantations. PMID:25843587

  14. A draft of the genome and four transcriptomes of a medicinal and pesticidal angiosperm Azadirachta indica

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    Krishnan Neeraja M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Azadirachta indica (neem tree is a source of a wide number of natural products, including the potent biopesticide azadirachtin. In spite of its widespread applications in agriculture and medicine, the molecular aspects of the biosynthesis of neem terpenoids remain largely unexplored. The current report describes the draft genome and four transcriptomes of A. indica and attempts to contextualise the sequence information in terms of its molecular phylogeny, transcript expression and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. A. indica is the first member of the family Meliaceae to be sequenced using next generation sequencing approach. Results The genome and transcriptomes of A. indica were sequenced using multiple sequencing platforms and libraries. The A. indica genome is AT-rich, bears few repetitive DNA elements and comprises about 20,000 genes. The molecular phylogenetic analyses grouped A. indica together with Citrus sinensis from the Rutaceae family validating its conventional taxonomic classification. Comparative transcript expression analysis showed either exclusive or enhanced expression of known genes involved in neem terpenoid biosynthesis pathways compared to other sequenced angiosperms. Genome and transcriptome analyses in A. indica led to the identification of repeat elements, nucleotide composition and expression profiles of genes in various organs. Conclusions This study on A. indica genome and transcriptomes will provide a model for characterization of metabolic pathways involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds, comparative evolutionary studies among various Meliaceae family members and help annotate their genomes. A better understanding of molecular pathways involved in the azadirachtin synthesis in A. indica will pave ways for bulk production of environment friendly biopesticides.

  15. Effect and mechanism of evodiamine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice by suppressing Rho/NF-кB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhongyan; Gong, Shilin; Wang, Shumin; Ma, Chunhua

    2015-09-01

    Evodiamine (EVD), a major alkaloid compound extracted from the dry unripened fruit Evodia fructus (Evodia rutaecarpa Benth., Rutaceae), has various pharmacological effects. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible anti-ulcerogenic potential of EVD and explore the underlying mechanism against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Administration of EVD at the doses of 20, 40mg/kg body weight prior to the ethanol ingestion could effectively protect the stomach from ulceration. The gastric lesion was significantly ameliorated in the EVD group compared with that in the model group. Pre-treatment with EVD prevented the oxidative damage and decreased the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). In addition, EVD pretreatment markedly increased the serum levels of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), decreased malonaldehyde (MDA) content in serum and activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in stomach tissues compared with those in the model group. In the mechanistic study, significant elevation of Rho, Rho-kinase 1 (ROCK1), ROCK2, cytosolic and nucleic NF-κBp65 expressions were observed in the gastric mucosa group, whereas EVD effectively suppressed the protein expressions of Rho, Rho-kinase 1 (ROCK1), ROCK2, cytosolic and nucleic NF-κBp65 in mice. Moreover, EVD showed protective activity on ethanol-induced GES-1 cells, while the therapeutic effects were not due to its cytotoxity. Taken together, these results strongly indicated that EVD exerted a gastro-protective effect against gastric ulceration. The underlying mechanism might be associated with the improvement of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory status through Rho/NF-κB pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Gastroprotective activity of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, F F B P; Fernandes, H B; Piauilino, C A; Pereira, S S; Carvalho, K I M; Chaves, M H; Soares, P M G; Miura, L M C V; Leite, J R S A; Oliveira, R C M; Oliveira, F A

    2011-09-01

    The stem barks of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae), locally known as "mamica de cadela", are popularly used in dyspepsies, stomachic, tonic, antitumoral, antipyretic and are used in treating flatulence and colic. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium (EEZR) stem barks in acute gastric lesion models, investigating their possible mechanisms. Mice were used for the evaluation of the acute toxicity, and mice and rats to study the gastroprotective activity. The gastroprotective action of EEZR was analyzed in the absolute ethanol, HCl/ethanol and indomethacin-induced gastric lesion models in mice, hypothermic-restraint stress, and ischemia/reperfusion in rats. In the investigation of the gastroprotective mechanisms of EEZR, the participation of the NO-synthase pathway, ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP)), the levels of the non-protein sulfhydril groups (NP-SH) and the catalase activity using the ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesion model and the quantification of the gastric mucus and the antisecretory activity through pylorus ligature model in rats were analyzed. The animals did not present any signs of acute toxicity for the EEZR (up to the 4 g/kg dose, po), and it was not possible to calculate the DL(50). EEZR (125-500 mg/kg) exhibited a significant gastroprotective effect in absolute ethanol, HCl/ethanol, hypothermic-restraint stress, and ischemia/reperfusion-induced gastric lesion models. EEZR (250 and 500 mg/kg) exhibited still a gastroprotective activity in the indomethacin-induced ulcer model. Gastroprotection of EEZR was significantly decreased in pre-treated mice with l-NAME or glibenclamide, the respective nitric oxide synthase and K(ATP) channels inhibitors. Our studies revealed that EEZR (500 mg/kg) prevented the decrease of the non-protein sulfhydril groups (NP-SH) and increased the catalase levels in ethanol-treated animals. Furthermore, the extract (500 mg

  17. Traditional alcoholic beverages and their value in the local culture of the Alta Valle del Reno, a mountain borderland between Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Teresa; Signorini, Maria Adele; Ongaro, Luca; Rivera, Diego; Obón de Castro, Concepción; Bruschi, Piero

    2016-06-22

    Traditional alcoholic beverages (TABs) have only received marginal attention from researchers and ethnobotanists so far, especially in Italy. This work is focused on plant-based TABs in the Alta Valle del Reno, a mountainous area on the border between Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna regions. The aims of our study were to document local knowledge about TABs and to analyze and discuss the distribution of related knowledge within the investigated communities. Field data were collected through semi-structured interviews. The relative importance of each plant species used to prepare TABs was assessed by calculating a general Use Value Index (UV general), a current UV (UV current) and a past UV (UV past). We also assessed personal experience of use by calculating effective and potential UV (UV effective, UV potential). A multivariate analysis was performed to compare ingredients in recipes recorded in the Alta Valle del Reno with those reported for neighboring areas. Forty-six plant species, belonging to 20 families, were recorded. Rosaceae was the most significant family (98 citations, 19 species), followed by Rutaceae (15, 3) and Lamiaceae (12, 4). The most important species was Prunus cerasus L. (UV general = 0.44), followed by Juglans regia L. (0.38), Rubus idaeus L. (0.27) and Prunus spinosa L. (0.22). Species with the highest UV current were Juglans regia (0.254), Prunus cerasus (0.238) and Citrus limon L. (0.159). The highest UV effective values were obtained by Prunus cerasus (0.413), Juglans regia (0.254), Rubus idaeus (0.222) and Citrus limon (0.206). We also discuss the results of the multivariate analysis. TABs proved to occupy an important place in the traditional culture and social life of the studied communities. Moreover, data highlight the local specificity and richness of this kind of tradition in the Alta Valle del Reno, compared to other Italian areas. Some plant ingredients used for TABs have potential nutraceutical and even therapeutic properties

  18. The local knowledge of medicinal plants trader and diversity of medicinal plants in the Kabanjahe traditional market, North Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silalahi, Marina; Nisyawati; Walujo, Eko Baroto; Supriatna, Jatna; Mangunwardoyo, Wibowo

    2015-12-04

    Market is the main place for transactions of medicinal plants and traditional ingredients by local community in the Karo regency, North Sumatra, Indonesia. This is the first study to document the local knowledge of traders on and the diversity of the medicinal plants. The investigation was carried out in the Kabanjahe traditional market, in the Karo regency. The research goal was to reveal the local knowledge, diversity and utilization of medicinal plants, which have been traded in the Kabanjahe traditional market, as a basis for conservation efforts. The study was conducted through ethnobotanical approach using market surveys. All traders of medicinal plants were surveyed applying in-depth interviews and participative observations. Data were analyzed qualitatively using descriptive statistics. The diversity of medicinal plants was expressed in term of the Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H'), whereas the similarity among traders was indicated by Jaccard index (Ji). Traders of medicinal plants stored the simplicia of medicinal plants in chest of drawers, plastic baskets, plastic bags, and in the air by suspending them from the the stall ceilings. We recorded 344 species, 217 genera and 90 families of medicinal plants. Those that were sold mostly belong to Zingeberaceae (20 species), Poaceae (19 species), and Asclepiadaceae (17 species), and the species received high consumers demand, mostly belong to Zingiberaceae, Rutaceae, and Asclepidiaceae. Asclepidiaceae was used to treat diseases like cancer and heart problems. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index of medicinal plants at the Kabanjahe traditional market was high (H'= 5.637). The high Jaccard similarity index (Ji>0.56) suggested that the traders were trading similar species of medicinal plants. Kabanjahe traditional market is the center for the sale of of medicinal plants as traditional ingredients. Several species are well known for their pharmacological properties but others, [such as: Dischidia imbricata (Blume

  19. Caracterização florística, fitossociológica e regeneração natural do sub-bosque da reserva genética florestal Tamanduá, DF.

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    José Alves da Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho, desenvolvido na Reserva Genética Florestal Tamanduá, DF, teve como objetivo efetuar o levantamento fitossociológico, composição florística e distribuição espacial dos indivíduos das espécies arbóreas ocorrentes no sub-bosque da Reserva, focalizando Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi O. Kuntze, Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel J. F.Macbr., Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan, Virola sebifera Aubl., Hymenaea courbaril var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee & Lang., Aspidosperma discolor A. St. Hil., Astronium fraxinifolium Schott e Schefflera morototoni B. Maguire, Stey. & Frodin, consideradas prioritárias para conservação in situ. Foram utilizados cinco transectos com 10 m de largura cada, alocados eqüidistantes e de comprimento variável, demarcados perpendicularmente ao curso da drenagem principal. Foram encontrados 21.482 regenerantes ha-1 em 69 espécies vegetais, 53 gêneros e 39 famílias botânicas. Em número de espécies, as famílias que mais se destacaram entre os regenerantes foram, em ordem decrescente, Leguminosae, Rubiaceae, Sapindaceae e Meliaceae. Entre os jovens, as famílias com maiores valor de importância (VI foram pela ordem Meliaceae (32,78 %, Rubiceae (13,92 %, Burseraceae (13,76 %, Rutaceae (8,54 % e Hippocrateaceae (6,36, totalizando 75,36 % de valor de importância e 78,56 % de valor de cobertura. Todas as espécies objeto deste trabalho ocorreram entre os regenerantes, destacando-se Cariniana estrellensis, porém, apenas Copaifera lagsdorffii e Virola sebifera ocorreram entre os indivíduos jovens. O quociente de mistura de 1:3 indicou tratar-se de uma mata rica em espécies, comparativamente a outros tipos florestais. A distribuição espacial dos regenerantes das espécies em questão mostrou padrões diferenciados.

  20. Biocide plants as a sustainable tool for the control of pests and pathogens in vegetable cropping systems

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    Trifone D'Addabbo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic pesticides have played a major role in crop protection related to the intensification of agricultural systems. In the recent years, environmental side effects and health concerns raised by an indiscriminate use have led the EU to the ban of many synthetic pesticides. As a result of this drastic revision, currently there is a strong need for new and alternative pest control methods. An interesting source of biorational pesticides may be represented by the biocidal compounds naturally occurring in plants as products of the secondary metabolism. Groups of plant secondary metabolites most promising for the development of pesticidal formulations are glucosinolates, saponins, and more generally terpenoid phytoconstituents, such as essential oil and their constituents. Glucosinolates are thioglucosidic secondary metabolites occurring mainly in the Brassicaceae and, at a less extent, in Capparidaceae families. The incorporation of glucosinolate- containing plant material into the soil results in degradation products highly toxic to soilborne pest, pathogens and weeds. This practice, known as biofumigation, may be considered as an ecological alternative to soil toxic fumigants. Plant-derived saponins are triterpene glycosides present in top and root tissues of plant species of the families Leguminosae, Alliaceae, Asteraceae, Polygalaceae and Agavaceae. Saponins and saponin-rich plant materials have been also reported for a biocidal activity on phytoparasites and soilborne plant pathogens. Essential oils are volatile, natural, heterogeneous mixtures of single substances, mainly terpenes and phenolics, formed as secondary metabolites by aromatic plants belonging to several botanical families. Among terpenes, limonoid triterpenes have been demonstrated to possess interesting insecticidal, nematicidal and antifungal properties. Occurrence of these compounds is mainly limited to Meliaceae and Rutaceae. Alkaloids, phenolics, cyanogenic glucosides

  1. Ethnomedicinal uses of plants for the treatment of malaria in Soon Valley, Khushab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amin; Rahim, Sarvat

    2017-03-22

    To best of our knowledge this is the first quantitative ethno-medicinal study with the aim of documenting the indigenous knowledge and practices of using plants for malarial therapy in Soon Valley, Khushab, Pakistan. In this Valley, malaria is among the major public health problems but, until now, the population still mostly relies on herbal medicine for treatment. Ethno-medicinal data were documented from 63 informants by using semi-structured questionnaires and interviewing the informants about their knowledge of plants regarding malaria and related symptoms. Documented data were evaluated using the quantitative ethno-botanical indices of frequency citation (FC), relative frequency of citation (RFC), percentage of respondents having knowledge (PRK) and Jaccard index (JI). A total of 70 plant species belonging to 62 genera and 34 families were recorded as anti-malarial in the study area. Solanaceae was found to be the most cited family with 7 species, followed by Fabaceae, Rutaceae and Lamiaceae with 5 species each. Ocimum americanum and Solanum incanum were the species with the highest relative frequency of citation (RFC =0.25 each) and percentage of respondents having knowledge (PRK =25.4% each), followed by Grewia tenax (RFC =0.23, PRK =23.8%), which indicates that these plants are the best species with anti-malarial properties. The most highly cited life form was found to be herbs (56%). The dominant plant part used in preparations were leaves (49%). The main mode of utilization was decoction (47%) followed by infusion (29%). In comparison, maximum similarity index is found in our study with JI (16.83) followed by (13.13). Similarity percentage of plants uses ranges from 0.81 to 16.83 while dissimilarity percentage varies from 0% to 17.65%. To the best of our knowledge seven plant species, viz. Withania coagulans, Fagonia cretica, Carthamus oxyacantha, Ehretia obtusifolia, Helianthus annuus, Olea ferruginea and Vitex trifolia, are reported from this region for

  2. Plants traditionally prescribed to treat tazo (malaria in the eastern region of Madagascar

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    Mulholland Dulcie A

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is known as tazo or tazomoka in local terminology in Madagascar. Within the context of traditional practice, malaria (and/or malaria symptoms is commonly treated by decoctions or infusions from bitter plants. One possible approach to the identification of new antimalarial drug candidates is to search for compounds that cure or prevent malaria in plants empirically used to treat malaria. Thus, it is worth documenting the ethnobotanical data, and testing the antiplasmodial activity of the extractive from plants. Methods We interviewed traditional healers, known locally as ombiasy, at Andasibe in the eastern, rainy part of Madagascar. We recorded details of the preparation and use of plants for medicinal purposes. We extracted five alkaloids from Z. tsihanimposa stem bark, and tested them in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum FCM29. Results We found that traditional healers treat malaria with herbal remedies consisting of one to eight different plants. We identified and listed the medicinal plants commonly used to treat malaria. The plants used included a large number of species from different families. Zanthoxylum sp (Rutaceae was frequently cited, and plants from this genus are also used to treat malaria in other parts of Madagascar. From the plant list, Zanthoxylum tsihanimposa, bitter plant endemic to Madagascar, was selected and examined. Five alkaloids were isolates from the stem bark of this plant, and tested in vitro against malaria parasite. The geometric mean IC50 values ranged from 98.4 to 332.1 micromolar. The quinoline alkaloid gamma-fagarine exhibited the strongest antiplasmodial activity. Conclusions The current use of plants for medicinal purposes reflects the attachment of the Malagasy people to their culture, and also a lack of access to modern medicine. The possible extrapolation of these in vitro findings, obtained with plant extracts, to the treatment of malaria and/or the signs evoking malaria is

  3. Enhancing activity of antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus: Zanthoxylum capense constituents and derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Vanessa; Luo, Xuan; Junqueira, Elisabete; Costa, Sofia S; Mulhovo, Silva; Duarte, Aida; Couto, Isabel; Viveiros, Miguel; Ferreira, Maria-José U

    2015-04-15

    Six compounds (1-6), isolated from the methanol extract of the roots of the African medicinal plant Zanthoxylum capense Thunb. (Rutaceae), and seven ester derivatives (7-13) were evaluated for their antibacterial activities and modulatory effects on the MIC of antibiotics (erythromycin, oxacillin, and tetracycline) and ethidium bromide (EtBr) against a Staphylococcus aureus reference strain (ATCC 6538). Using the same model, compounds 1-13 were also assessed for their potential as efflux pump inhibitors by a fluorometric assay that measures the accumulation of the broad range efflux pump substrate EtBr. Compounds 8 and 11 were further evaluated for their antibacterial, modulatory and EtBr accumulation effects against four additional S. aureus strains, which included two clinical methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains. Compounds (1-13) have not shown antibacterial activity at the concentration ranges tested. When evaluated against S. aureus ATCC 6538, oxychelerythrine (1) a benzophenanthridine alkaloid, showed the highest modulatory activity enhancing the susceptibility of this strain to all the tested antibiotics from two to four-fold. Ailanthoidiol diacetate (8) and ailanthoidiol di-2-ethylbutanoate (11) were also good modulators when combined with EtBr, increasing the bacteria susceptibility by four and two-fold, respectively. In the EtBr accumulation assay, using ATCC 6538 strain, the phenylpropanoid (+)-ailanthoidiol (6) and most of its ester derivatives (8-11) exhibited higher activity than the positive control verapamil. The highest effects were found for compounds 8 and 11 that also increased the accumulation of EtBr, using S. aureus ATCC 25923 as model. Furthermore, both compounds (8, 11) were able to enhance the ciprofloxacin activity against the MRSA clinical strains tested, causing a reduction of the antibiotic MIC values from two to four-fold. The EtBr accumulation assay revealed that this modulation activity was not due to an inhibition of

  4. Prophylactic effects of Clausena excavata Burum. f. leaf extract in ethanol-induced gastric ulcers

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    Albaayit SFA

    2016-06-01

    the levels of tumor necrotic factor-alpha and interleukin-6, while the level of interleukin-10 was increased. This study showed that the gastroprotective effect of MECE is achieved through inhibition of gastric juice secretion and ulcer lesion development, stimulation of mucus secretion, elevation of gastric pH, reduction of reactive oxygen species production, inhibition of apoptosis in the gastric mucosa, and modulation of inflammatory cytokines.Keywords: Rutaceae, antiulcer, antioxidant enzymes, histopathology, immunohistochemical proteins, cytokines

  5. CARACTERIZAÇÃO FLORÍSTICA, FITOSSOCIOLÓGICA E REGENERAÇÃO NATURAL DO SUB-BOSQUE DA RESERVA GENÉTICA FLORESTAL TAMANDUÁ, DF

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    Salomão João Marcelo de Rezende

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho, desenvolvido na Reserva Genética Florestal Tamanduá, DF, teve como objetivo efetuar o levantamento fitossociológico, composição florística e distribuição espacial dos indivíduos das espécies arbóreas ocorrentes no sub-bosque da Reserva, focalizando Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi O. Kuntze, Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel J. F.Macbr., Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan, Virola sebifera Aubl., Hymenaea courbaril var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee & Lang., Aspidosperma discolor A. St. Hil., Astronium fraxinifolium Schott e Schefflera morototoni B. Maguire, Stey. & Frodin, consideradas prioritárias para conservação in situ. Foram utilizados cinco transectos com 10 m de largura cada, alocados eqüidistantes e de comprimento variável, demarcados perpendicularmente ao curso da drenagem principal. Foram encontrados 21.482 regenerantes ha-1 em 69 espécies vegetais, 53 gêneros e 39 famílias botânicas. Em número de espécies, as famílias que mais se destacaram entre os regenerantes foram, em ordem decrescente, Leguminosae, Rubiaceae, Sapindaceae e Meliaceae. Entre os jovens, as famílias com maiores valor de importância (VI foram pela ordem Meliaceae (32,78 %, Rubiceae (13,92 %, Burseraceae (13,76 %, Rutaceae (8,54 % e Hippocrateaceae (6,36, totalizando 75,36 % de valor de importância e 78,56 % de valor de cobertura. Todas as espécies objeto deste trabalho ocorreram entre os regenerantes, destacando-se Cariniana estrellensis, porém, apenas Copaifera lagsdorffii e Virola sebifera ocorreram entre os indivíduos jovens. O quociente de mistura de 1:3 indicou tratar-se de uma mata rica em espécies, comparativamente a outros tipos florestais. A distribuição espacial dos regenerantes das espécies em questão mostrou padrões diferenciados.

  6. Metodología para la evaluación del potencial insecticida de especies forestales.

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    Morales Soto León

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available La diversidad florística de Colombia plantea enormes retos de investigación, con miras a una utilización racional e integral de sus recursos forestales. Las plantas con efectos biocidas utilizables en el control de plagas o enfermedades revisten una singular importancia. El objetivo de este trabajo es plantear una metodología de fácil aplicación, bajo costo y rápidos resultados, que permita acopiar la información necesaria sobre el mayor número de especies con potencial en este sentido. La metodología plantea la siguiente secuencia: selección de las especies vegetales de interés, apoyada en los reportes bibliográficos, conocimiento ancestral y observaciones personales; recolección del material en el campo; preparación del extracto total a partir del material seco; pruebas iniciales con Artemia salina Lech. para detectar actividad biológica, a través de la determinación de la LC50 (las especies con LC50 menores de 1000 ppm se consideran promisorias y ameritan procesos posteriores de fraccionamiento químico, bioensayos con las sustancias más promisorias sobre algún organismo de interés particular y determinación final de los compuestos activos en la planta. La metodología descrita fue empleada en la evaluación del potencial de acción biocida de 5 especies arbóreas o arbustivas, Guarea guidonia (L. Sleumer y Trichia hirta L. (Meliaceae, Machaerium moritzianum Benth. (Fabaceae, Swinglea glutinosa Merrill. (Rutaceae y Mammea americana L. (Clusiaceae. Se utilizó para los bioensayos iniciales el microcrustáceo Artemia salina Leach como indicador del potencial biocida con el fin de seleccionar las dos especies más promisorias a partir de las LC50 obtenidas. Con las dos se realizaron los bioensayos para evaluar la acción fagoinhibidora en la hormiga arriera Atta cephalotes (L., y el posible control de Alconeura sp. (Homoptera: Cicadellidae, insecto chupador que afecta la ceiba verde Pseudobombax septenatum (Jacq. Dugand

  7. Comparing Early to Middle Miocene floras and probable vegetation types of Oberdorf N Voitsberg (Austria), Bohemia (Czech Republic), and Wackersdorf (Germany).

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    Kovar-Eder, J; Kvacek, Z; Meller, B

    2001-03-01

    The Early Miocene vegetation of western Styria, Austria, is reconstructed on the basis of detailed investigations of leaves and diaspores from the mining area Oberdorf N Voitsberg. In this paper, the flora and probable vegetation are compared with other assemblages of similar age from the Czech Republic and Germany to elucidate the diversity of wetland and mesophytic plant communities. The floristic composition and the vegetational units represented in Oberdorf are compared to the middle part of the Most Formation (M Most Fm), Cypris Shale, Mydlovary Formation (Mydlovary Fm) of Bohemia, and the Wackersdorf mining area of Bavaria. Among these sites, Oberdorf is extremely poor in hydrophytes and reed-like monocotyledons, indicating rare pond-like habitats as well as possibly more closed swamp forest conditions than, e.g. in the M Most Fm. In Oberdorf, relatively high pH-values in the lignite-forming swamps and the possible scarcity of acidic, nutrient-poor (sandy) soils have probably influenced the floristic composition of the azonal communities. The peat-forming associations in all regions share the abundance of Glyptostrobus europaeus. However, distinct differences in the accompanying elements, such as Taxodium dubium (present and abundant only in the M Most Fm) indicate even stronger floristic variability of Early(/Middle) Miocene peat-forming and riparian plant communities than previously expected. The virtual absence of Pinus, Engelhardia, Comptonia, and probably also of Quercus kubinyii/Quercus drymeja in the megafossil record of Oberdorf can possibly be explained by the edaphic conditions. The abundance of Sequoia abietina (absent in all the other compared sites), which we assign to riparian (and mesophytic) forests in Oberdorf, may have been favoured by rich alluvial soils.In the mesophytic associations, thermophilous elements of the Lauraceae, Mastixiaceae, Symplocaceae, and Rutaceae are diverse. Usually they include Trigonobalanopsis rhamnoides

  8. Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium (Chenpi): Botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine.

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    Yu, Xin; Sun, Shuang; Guo, Yuyan; Liu, Yan; Yang, Dayu; Li, Guoyu; Lü, Shaowa

    2018-04-05

    Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium (Rutaceae, CRP), commonly called as Chenpi () in Chinese, is most frequently used as a qi-regulating drug in thousands of Chinese medicine prescriptions. CRP is found mainly in major citrus-producing areas such as the Guangdong, Guangxi, Sichuan, Fujian, and Zhejiang Provinces of China. Since thousands of years in China, CRP has been used widely in clinical practice to treat nausea, vomiting, indigestion, anepithymia, diarrhea, cough, expectoration, and so on. Currently, CRP is listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China. The present paper reviews the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, quality control, and toxicology of CRP. Information on CRP was gathered from various sources including the books on traditional Chinese herbal medicine; scientific databases including Elsevier, PubMed, and ScienceDirect; Baidu Scholar; CNKI; and others and from different professional websites. Approximately 140 chemical compounds have been isolated and identified from CRP. Among them, volatile oils and flavonoids are generally considered as the main bioactive and characteristic ingredients. CRP possesses wide pharmacological effects such as having a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular, digestive, and respiratory systems, antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties; and a protective effect on the liver and nerve. Moreover, hesperidin is chosen as an indicator in the quantitative determination of CRP, and the quantity of aflatoxin in CRP must not exceed the standard limit mentioned in the pharmacopoeia. In brief, CRP has a warming nature, and hence, it can be used in harmony with a lot of medicines. CRP not only exhibits its effects individually but also aids other medicines exhibit a better effect. CRP can be consumed with tea, food, alcohol, and medicine. Irrespective of the form it is being consumed, CRP not only shows a synergistic effect but also has strengths on its own. Modern pharmacological

  9. First report of Phyllosticta citricarpa and description of two new species, P. paracapitalensis and P. paracitricarpa, from citrus in Europe

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    V. Guarnaccia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Phyllosticta occurs worldwide, and contains numerous plant pathogenic, endophytic and saprobic species. Phyllosticta citricarpa is the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot disease (CBS, affecting fruits and leaves of several citrus hosts (Rutaceae, and can also be isolated from asymptomatic citrus tissues. Citrus Black Spot occurs in citrus-growing regions with warm summer rainfall climates, but is absent in countries of the European Union (EU. Phyllosticta capitalensis is morphologically similar to P. citricarpa, but is a non-pathogenic endophyte, commonly isolated from citrus leaves and fruits and a wide range of other hosts, and is known to occur in Europe. To determine which Phyllosticta spp. occur within citrus growing regions of EU countries, several surveys were conducted (2015–2017 in the major citrus production areas of Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain to collect both living plant material and leaf litter in commercial nurseries, orchards, gardens, backyards and plant collections. A total of 64 Phyllosticta isolates were obtained from citrus in Europe, of which 52 were included in a multi-locus (ITS, actA, tef1, gapdh, LSU and rpb2 genes DNA dataset. Two isolates from Florida (USA, three isolates from China, and several reference strains from Australia, South Africa and South America were included in the overall 99 isolate dataset. Based on the data obtained, two known species were identified, namely P. capitalensis (from asymptomatic living leaves of Citrus spp. in Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain, and P. citricarpa (from leaf litter of C. sinensis and C. limon in Italy, Malta and Portugal. Moreover, two new species were described, namely P. paracapitalensis (from asymptomatic living leaves of Citrus spp. in Italy and Spain, and P. paracitricarpa (from leaf litter of C. limon in Greece. On a genotypic level, isolates of P. citricarpa populations from Italy and Malta (MAT1-2-1 represented a single clone

  10. Citrus lemon essential oil: chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities with its preservative effect against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in minced beef meat.

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    Ben Hsouna, Anis; Ben Halima, Nihed; Smaoui, Slim; Hamdi, Naceur

    2017-08-03

    Lemon (Citrus limon) is a flowing plant belonging to the Rutaceae family. Citrus plants constitute one of the main valuable sources of essential oil used in foods and medicinal purposes. In this study, we assessed chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of C. limon essential oil (ClEO) with its preservative effect against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in minced beef meat. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the major components of the obtained ClEO. The antioxidant activities of this ClEO were determined according to the β-carotene bleaching assay, as well as by 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. For antimicrobial activity, agar well diffusion method was used and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) as well as the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) were determined. The in situ effect of the ClEO was evaluated through physicochemical parameters (pH and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), as well as against L. monocytogenes in minced beef meat model. Twenty one components were identified in the ClEO and the two dominant compounds were limonene (39.74%) and β-Pinene (25.44%). This ClEO displayed an excellent DPPH scavenging ability with an extract concentration providing 50% inhibition (IC 50 ) of 15.056 μg/ml and a strong β-carotene bleaching inhibition after 120 min of incubation with an IC 50 of 40.147 μg/ml. The MICs varied from 0.039 to 1.25 mg/ml for Gram positive bacteria and from 0.25 to 2.5 mg/ml for Gram-negative bacteria. The meat preserving potential of ClEO was investigated against L. monocytogenes. ClEO successfully inhibited development of L. monocytogenes in minced beef meat. The application of ClEO at a 0.06 and 0.312 mg/g, may open new promising opportunities for the prevention of contamination from and growth of pathogenic bacteria, particularly L. monocytogenes, during minced beef meat storage at 4 °C. Additionally, during

  11. Estudo da concordância das citações de uso e importância das espécies e famílias utilizadas como medicinais pela comunidade do bairro Ponta Grossa, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil

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    Giovana Secretti Vendruscolo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ferramentas para quantificar dados etnobotânicos estão sendo usadas como complementares aos levantamentos sobre a utilização de plantas por populações. Neste trabalho são utilizadas técnicas para avaliar a concordância das citações de uso e a importância das espécies e famílias para as 51 pessoas entrevistadas no bairro Ponta Grossa, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. Para tal, foram utilizados os cálculos de Valor de Uso (UV e a porcentagem corrigida de Concordância quanto aos Usos Principais (CUPc para as 142 espécies mencionadas no levantamento. As espécies Aloe arborescens Mill., Citrus × aurantium L., Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC., Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Eugenia uniflora L., Cunila microcephala Benth., Citrus limon (L. Osveck, Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf, Psidium guajava L., Artemisia absinthium L., Ocimum basilicum L., Plantago tomentosa Lam., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Persea americana Mill., Aloysia citrodora Palau, Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl., Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq. J.F. Macbr., Petroselinum crispum (Mill. Nyman ex A.W. Hill, Ocimum selloi Benth. e Tanacetum vulgare L., nesta ordem de Valor de Uso, foram consideradas como as mais importantes para a população estudada. As famílias mais importantes foram Asphodelaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Rutaceae e Lythraceae. Para o cálculo da porcentagem a corrigida de Concordância quanto aos Usos Principais (CUPc foram consideradas como espécies principais as que apresentaram valores acima de 24%: Eugenia uniflora, Achyrocline satureioides, Psidium guajava, Cunila microcephala, Plectranthus barbatus, Citrus × aurantium, Citrus limon, Cymbopogon citratus, Punica granatum L., Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw., Sphagneticola trilobata (L. Pruski, Aloysia citrodora, Foeniculum vulgare, Plectranthus neochilus Schltr., Artemisia absinthium, Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Br., Mikania laevigata Sch. Bip ex Baker, Aloe arborescens e Petroselinum

  12. Corte foliar e tempo de transplantio para o uso de plântulas do sub-bosque na restauração florestal

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    Ricardo Augusto Gorne Viani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plântulas da regeneração natural tem sido recomendado como estratégia para produção de mudas visando à restauração florestal, contudo muitos aspectos técnicos desse método ainda carecem de investigação científica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da redução da área foliar e do transplantio imediato na sobrevivência e crescimento de mudas de espécies arbóreas produzidas a partir de plântulas obtidas da regeneração natural. Plântulas de Esenbeckia leiocarpa (Rutaceae, Eugenia ligustrina (Myrtaceae e Maytenus salicifolia (Celastraceae, obtidas em remanescente de vegetação secundária de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual em Bofete, SP, foram extraídas do solo e submetidas aos tratamentos: I redução de 50% da área de cada folha e transplantio imediato; II nenhuma redução de área das folhas e transplantio imediato; III redução de 50% da área de cada folha, manutenção das plântulas em água e transplantio 24 h após a coleta; e IV nenhuma redução de área das folhas, manutenção das plântulas em água e transplantio 24 h após a coleta. As mudas foram avaliadas com relação à sobrevivência e ao crescimento em altura, ao longo de oito meses. Os resultados evidenciaram que nem o corte das folhas ou a manutenção das plântulas dentro de recipientes com água por 24 h antes do transplantio afetaram os parâmetros avaliados. Assim, para as espécies estudadas a redução da área foliar e o transplantio imediato são desnecessários para a produção de mudas em viveiro a partir de plântulas obtidas da regeneração natural.

  13. Composição florística de uma floresta ripária na Reserva Estadual de Porto Ferreira, SP Floristic composition of a riparian forest area in Porto Ferreira State Reserve, State of São Paulo, S.E. Brasil

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    José Eduardo de Arruda Bertoni

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Aplicou-se o método de quadrantes (63 pontos na Reserva Estadual de Porto Ferreira (21º49'S e 47º25'W, numa área (l,08ha à margem direita do rio Moji Guaçu, amostrando dois indivíduos lenhosos em cada quadrante: um com fuste mínimo de 130cm e DAP 10cm. Os resultados obtidos foram comparados com os publicados por outros autores para uma área de mata riparia na Estação Ecológica de Moji Guaçu (Mata da Figueira, cerca de 100 km a montante daquele rio. Em Porto Ferreira, encontraram-se 107 espécies, sendo 80 exclusivas. Das 59 espécies listadas por outros autores para a Mata da Figueira, 31 foram exclusivas. As duas áreas tiveram 27 espécies comuns, com uma similaridade de Sørensen de 48,6%, considerada baixa. A grande heterogeneidade ambiental das várzeas e os diferentes graus de perturbação antrópica poderiam contribuir para essa variação florística. Os maiores números de espécies ocorreram em Leguminosae (20, Myrtaceae (17, Rutaceae (9, Euphorbiaceae (7 e Lauraceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae e Rubiaceae (6 espécies cada. Ao nível de família, parece haver poucas diferenças'com as florestas paulistas não inundáveis, mas as espécies mostram diferentes graus de preferência pelo habitat. As duas áreas apresentaram uma mistura de espécies típicas com outras de florestas nâo inundáveis. Estas ocorreriam na várzea em decorrência de, principalmente: a adaptações do sistema radicular a períodos relativamente curtos de inundação; b menor tempo de inundação nos pontos mais elevados do microrrelevo da várzea; c maior aeração provocada pela água corrente.The point-centred quarter method (63 points was applied in Porto Ferreira State Reserve (21º49'S and 47º25'W in an area (1.08ha on the right margin of Moji Guaçu river, including two woody individuals per quarter - one with DBH 10cm. The results obtained were compared with those published by other authors for a riparian forest (Mata da Figueira at Moji Gua

  14. Uso de Plantas com Fins Medicinais no Município de Barra – BA

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    Antonia Mirian Nogueira de Moura Guerra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado no Assentamento de Reforma Agrária Sítio Novo, Barra–BA, objetivando conhecer as espécies medicinais e suas formas de uso adotadas pela população local. Entre Abril e Maio de 2015 foram realizadas entrevistas com aplicação de questionários estruturados. Todos os entrevistados fazem uso de plantas medicinais e cultivam alguma espécie em suas residências, usam as plantas por tradição familiar e por se tratar de um remédio natural  consomem principalmente quando estão doentes. Foram registradas 258 citações, nas quais foram relatadas a utilização de várias partes vegetais das 41 espécies, em 11 formas de preparo, com diferentes finalidades terapêuticas. As folhas e as cascas foram as partes mais utilizadas e os chás a principal forma de uso. As famílias Lamiaceae, Anacardiaceae, Myrtaceae e Rutaceae foram aquelas com maior representatividade e adoção medicinal. As espécies mais citadas foram a Cymbopogon citratus (Capim Santo – 15,5%, Lantana camara L. (Camará – 10,5%, Mentha sp.  (Hortelã Miúdo – 9,7%, Ocimum basilicum L. (Manjericão – 5,4% e Ruta graveolens L. (Arruda – 4,6% que corresponderam por 45,7% das citações. Entre as indicações terapêuticas citadas, destacam-se: doenças associadas ao sistema respiratório, indicações anti-inflamatórias, hipertensão, calmante e doenças associadas ao sistema digestivo. Nota-se que os moradores são detentores de um vasto conhecimento empírico relacionados à etnobotânica e as condições climáticas relacionadas ao manejo da flora da região e que o uso de plantas medicinais para fins terapêuticos é marcante, evidenciando que o uso popular de plantas medicinais está inserido significativamente nas esferas social e cultural dessa comunidade, o que assegurará a perpetuação dos costumes entre as próximas gerações.Use plants with medicinal purposes in Barra - BA MunicipalityAbstract: This work was carried out in the

  15. Concentración natural de compuestos antimaláricos en artrópodos tropicales (in vitro

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    Misael Chinchilla-Carmona

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Extractos alcohólicos, hexánicos y diclorometánicos de 751 muestras de artrópodos fueron estudiados por la presencia de actividad antimalárica. En este trabajo se empleó un modelo murino usando el Plasmodium berghei, modelo que es biológicamente similar a la malaria humana. El estudio fue realizado determinando el efecto del extracto sobre el parásito por la inclusión o no del colorante azul de cresil brillante. Estimando como positivos aquellos extractos cuya actividad antimalárica se mostró en concentraciones no mayores de 50 mg, se encontró que los órdenes más promisorios fueron Lepidoptera (24.1%, Polydesmida (81.3%, Blattodea (25% y Opiliones, entre otros. Las formas inmaduras de Lepidoptera fueron las más positivas, por lo que se analizaron las plantas hospederos de donde se alimentaban dichos organismos. Las familias de estas plantas eran Malvaceae, Acanthaceae, Rutaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Urticaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae y Caprifoliaceae. Especies de casi todas estas familias han sido reportadas con actividad antimalárica. En el caso de los órdenes Polydesmida, Opiliones y Blattodea, cuyas formas adultas presentaron alguna actividad contra P. berghei, encontramos que todos esos grupos se alimentan también de plantas. En el caso de Opiliones sus especies son predadores de lepidópteros, coleópteros, hemípteros fitófagos y otros artrópodos, además de que producen sustancias de defensas tales como alcoholes, cetonas y quinonas, entre otros, todo lo cual podría explicar la actividad encontrada. Algunas especies del Orden Polydesmida, también secretan ciertas sustancias químicas, las cuales podrían tener un efecto antiparasitario. Así, a través de este trabajo en artrópodos hemos llegado a identificar fuentes vegetales potenciales para componentes antimaláricos.Natural concentration of antimalaric components in Tropical arthropods (in vitro. Alcohol, hexane and

  16. Ethnopharmacological survey on medicinal plants used in snakebite treatments in Western and Sabaragamuwa provinces in Sri Lanka.

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    Dharmadasa, R M; Akalanka, G C; Muthukumarana, P R M; Wijesekara, R G S

    2016-02-17

    Sri Lanka has a great diversity of snake species. In this relation, over 40,000 cases of snakebite accidents are reported annually from different agro-ecological regions of the country. Since more than 95% of victims rely on traditional treatments, there is an urgent necessity to improve the system. Traditional knowledge on snakebite treatments has been passed on from generation to generation within families. Unfortunately, there has been a limited update of information on pertinent issues related to this subject. In the present study we conducted a comprehensive survey on the types of medicinal plant materials, including the specific plant parts that are available for this purpose. In addition, various treatment types, frequency index, heavily used and rare materials, family wise distribution, challenges faced by traditional practitioners and future prospects were also explored. The present survey covered two provinces with a high population of traditional practitioners for snakebites treatment in Sri Lanka.Information was gathered from a total of seventy-four (74) traditional practitioners from the Sabaragamuwa and Western provinces. A questionnaire was prepared and pre-tested by 10-15 respondents prior to the survey. Actual data were gathered through face-to-face interviews. Collected data were tabulated and analyzed. A total of 341 different plant species belonging to 99 families were documented. The highest number of plants was reported from the family Fabaceae (32 species). This was followed by Malvaceae (16 species), Asteraceae (15 species), Rutaceae (13 species Apocyanaceae (14 species), Lamiaceae (11 species), Poaceae, Euphorbaceae and Phyllanthaceae (10 species per each) respectively. Different parts of the plant such as leaves (53.67%), barks (26.10%), entire plant (14.08%), roots (10.26%), bulbs (8.80%), seeds (7.62%), fruits (6.45%), buds (5.87%), flowers (3.23%) stems (2.93%) and latex (2.05%) were used for the preparation of nine different types of

  17. Medicinal Plants of the markets of Izúcar de Matamoros and Acatlán de Osorio, Puebla

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    David Martínez Moreno

    2016-03-01

    applied surveys showed that in the mentioned markets 31 plants are sold to cure 31 diseases, 25 at the Izúcar de Matamoros market, and 27 at the Acatlán de Osorio market. The most used part of the plants to cure the ailments are the leaves, stems and flowers, and the application is oral and local. The use of medicinal plants is to cure diseases of the respiratory, digestive, circulatory, excretory, nervous systems, as well as for the cultural syndrome. The way of selling them is as a bunch or as a compound. It is concluded that both markets are traditional and the most important sold families of plants are Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Fabaceae and Rutaceae; the market that presented a major recorded medicinal plants was the Acatlán de Osorio with 144 species. The majority of medicinal plants in both markets are to cure diseases of the digestive, excretory, nervous, respiratory and circulatory systems as well as cultural syndrome; most of the species are wild and the most used parts of the plants are the stem, leaves, flowers and fruits.

  18. Synergism of coumarins from the Chinese drug Zanthoxylum nitidum with antibacterial agents against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Guo-Ying; Wang, Chun-Juan; Han, Jun; Li, Yu-Qing; Wang, Gen-Chun

    2016-12-15

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious therapeutic challenge in current clinic and new drug development. Natural coumarins have diverse bioactivities and the potential of resistance modifying effects. This study is to present in-depth evaluations of in vitro antimicrobial activities of four natural coumarins 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin (Gm, 1), (5,7-dimethoxy-8-prenyloxycoumarin (artanin, Ar, 2)), isopimpinellin (Is, 3) and phellopterin (Ph, 4) from Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb.) DC. (Rutaceae) extracts, focusing on their potential restoration the activity of conventional antibacterial agents against clinical MRSA strains. Bioactivity-guided fractionation and spectral analyses were used to isolate the coumarins and identify the structures, respectively. The double broth microdilution method was used to assay the coumarins' alone activity. The classic checkerboard microdilution and dynamic time-killing methods were used to evaluate combinatory effects. The four plant coumarins Gm (1), Ar (2), Is (3) and Ph (4) were isolated and identified from Z. nitidum extracts. Coumarins 1-4 displayed promising inhibition against both MSSA and MRSA with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 8-64µg/ml, but very weak against Gram-negative pathogen and yeast with MICs of 256 to ≥1024µg/ml. The geranyloxy and prenyloxy substitutions showed to be more active than the methoxy substitution on the coumarin skeletons. 1-4 also showing different extent of synergism with a total of eight conventional antibacterial agents, i.e. chloramphenicol (CL), gentamicin (CN), fosfomycin (FF), levofloxacin (LE), minocycline (MI), piperacillin/tazobactam (P/T), teicoplanin (TE) and vancomycin (VA) against ten clinical MRSA strains. Four to ten of the tested MRSA strains showed bacteriostatic synergy in the eleven combinations. The anti-MRSA modifying effects were related to different arrangement in the combinations with fractional inhibitory concentration indices

  19. Zanthoxylum chiloperone leaves extract: first sustainable Chagas disease treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria Elena; Cebrián-Torrejón, Gerardo; Corrales, Alba Segovia; Vera de Bilbao, Ninfa; Rolón, Miriam; Gomez, Celeste Vega; Leblanc, Karine; Yaluf, Gloria; Schinini, Alicia; Torres, Susana; Serna, Elva; Rojas de Arias, Antonieta; Poupon, Erwan; Fournet, Alain

    2011-02-16

    Zanthoxylum chiloperone var. angustifolium Engl. (Rutaceae) stem bark is used traditionally in Paraguay for its antiparasitic properties. Canthin-6-one is main compound isolated from Zanthoxylum chiloperone var angustifolium with broad spectrum antifungal, leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activities. The qualitative and quantitative characterization and the isolation of main alkaloidal components of different organs of Zanthoxylum chiloperone are investigated by HPLC-UV-MS. The in vitro biological activity of each extract against trypomastigote and amastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi parasites were evaluated, then comparison the in vivo efficacy of the ethanolic leaves extract of Zanthoxylum chiloperone with reference drug, benznidazole, in acute Trypanosoma cruzi infected mice when administered by oral route. We have also evaluated the mutagenic and cytotoxic activity of the main component of Zanthoxylum chiloperone, i.e. canthin-6-one, by mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. The compositions of the ethanol extracts obtained after the maceration process were studied by HPLC-UV-MS methods. The quantitation analysis was performed by external standard method, using a calibration curve constructed utilizing solutions containing different concentrations of the reference samples. The anti-trypomastigote activity was evaluated by the lysis effect on mouse blood trypomastigotes (Y strain Trypanosoma cruzi). The anti-amastigote Trypanosoma cruzi activity was evaluated by a modified colorimetric method with chlorophenol red-β-d-galactopyranoside (CPRG). The cytotoxicity of extracts and compounds was performed on NCTC 929 cells. The in vivo efficacy of the ethanolic leaves extract of Zanthoxylum chiloperone and benznidazole, in acute Trypanosoma cruzi (two different strains) was evaluated in Trypanosoma cruzi infected mice; the drugs were administered by oral route. The mortality rates were recorded and parasitaemias in control and treated mice were determined once weekly

  20. Potential of Zanthoxylum leprieurii as a source of active compounds against drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunalema, Lydia; Fotso, Ghislain Wabo; Waako, Paul; Tabuti, John; Yeboah, Samuel O

    2017-02-02

    Tuberculosis (TB) is still a global health problem mainly due to development of resistance and co-infection with the Human immune Virus (HIV). Treatment of multi and extensively drug resistant TB requires use of second line drugs which are less efficacious, expensive and very toxic. This has necessitated a need to search for new treatment regimens especially from medicinal plants. Zanthoxylum leprieurii, a plant species from Rutaceae is used locally in the treatment of tuberculosis in Uganda. The aim of the study was to isolate, identify and characterize bio active compounds from Z. leprieurii stem bark with antimycobacterial activity. Crude extracts, fractions and compounds from air dried stem bark of Z. leprieurii were tested against pan sensitive (H37rv), isoniazid resistant (TMC 301) and rifampicin resistant (TMC 331) strains of M. tuberculosis using micro plate alamar blue assay. Isolation of active compounds was done by using column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. They were analysed using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. The methanol extract had minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 47.5, 75.3 and 125.0 μg/ml on the pan sensitive strain, rifampicin resistant and isozianid resistant strains of M. tuberculosis respectively. The chloroform extract had MIC values of 260 μg/ml agnaist the pan sensitive strain and 156 μg/ml on the rifampicin resistant strain. Of the sixteen fractions from the methanol extract, fraction Za 4 (MIC = 6.3 μg/mL, 23.0 μg/mL, 11.7 μg/mL) and Za 6 (MIC = 11.7 μg/mL 31.2 μg/ml, 31.2 μg/ml) were the most active. Three acridone alkaloids; hydroxy-1, 3-dimethoxy-10-methyl-9-acridone (1), 1-hydroxy-3-methoxy-10-methyl-9-acridone (2) and 3-hydroxy-1, 5, 6-trimethoxy-9-acridone (3) were isolated from Za 4 and Za 6 . The MIC of compound 3 was found to be 5.1 μg/ml, 4.5 μg/ml and 3.9 μg/ml on H37rv, TMC 331 and TMC 301 while that of 1 was found to be 1.5 μg/ml, 8.3

  1. Plantas medicinais conhecidas na zona urbana de Cajueiro da Praia, Piauí, Nordeste do Brasil

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    A.B.N. SANTOS

    Full Text Available RESUMO A utilização de plantas com fins medicinais para tratamento, cura e prevenção de doenças é considerada uma das mais antigas formas de prática medicinal da humanidade. O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar as espécies de plantas medicinais usadas dentro da comunidade de Cajueiro da Praia, Piauí, bem como a parte da planta utilizada, o modo de preparo, a sua importância relativa, o valor de uso e o consenso em relação às propriedades terapêuticas das espécies citadas. Foram aplicadas 12 entrevistas semiestruturadas com especialistas locais indicados, utilizando o método de amostragem por “bola-de-neve” e a técnica de “turnê-guiada” para coleta das espécies citadas. Análises quantitativas tais como Valor de Uso, Importância Relativa e Fator de Consenso dos Informantes foram associadas à análises qualitativas. As coletas botânicas seguiram a metodologia usual. Foram citadas 43 espécies, distribuídas em 24 famílias botânicas, sendo Lamiaceae a mais representada em número de espécies (oito espécies, seguida de Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae e Rutaceae (todas com três. Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (mastruz obteve o maior valor de uso (VU=1,58, sendo portanto, a planta com elevado potencial de uso para a comunidade. Quanto ao uso terapêutico, observou-se que um maior número de espécies foi indicado no combate à gripe, seguido por má digestão. O IR demonstrou que planta mais versátil foi Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (mastruz, com IR=2, referido em cinco categorias de uso e o FCI apontou que os sistemas corporais que apresentam maior importância local são: sistema circulatório (FCI=0,57, seguido por lesões e consequências de causas externas (FCI=0,50, sistema endócrino (FCI=0,50 e respiratório (FCI=0,40. No âmbito geral, verificou-se que a diversidade de plantas medicinais conhecida e a obtenção das plantas na comunidade estudada sugerem uma correlação entre uso/conhecimento de

  2. The Role of Rootstock in Antioxidant Activity of Citrus Fruit: Comparison of Antioxidant Activity of The Fruits of Two Commercial Citrus Varieties With The Fruits of Four Different Rootstocks

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    N . Hemmati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: all fruits that called citrus are from rutaceae family and aurantioideae subfamily. This subfamily have more than 33 different genus that only three of its genus (citrus, poncirus and fortunella have economic aspects and in citrus producing country are important. It's reported that orange skin has a phenolic compounds which play a role in natural defense mechanism. Also various compounds of phenolic and antioxidant have a major role in fruit tolerance to stressful condition suh as cold and drought. Metabolites found in citrus fruits have antioxidant properties and it's very useful in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industries. Oranges, like other citrus fruits, are an excellent source of vitamin C; Vitamin C is a powerful natural antioxidant. Consumption of foods rich in vitamin C helps the body develop resistance against infectious agents and scavenge harmful, pro-inflammatory free radicals from the blood. Various factors such as rootstock type can effect on quality and quantity of citrus fruits. Also, the usage of rootstock causes the change in plant characteristics such as flowering time, ripening time, fruit quality and antioxidant characters of the fruits. Other factors except the rootstock such as scion, geographical and climate factors are effective on producing secondary metabolites. Also active substances or secondary metabolites are producing by the conduction of genetic processes, but their production are being effected by other factors obviously. The aim of this study is to investigating the biochemical changes grafted tree fruit that affected by rootstock with study the correlation between grafted tree and rootstock changes. Materials and Methods: This study was done to compare the amount of total phenol, total flavonoids and antioxidant features of fruit flesh and skin with investigating the effect of cultivar and rootstock on these parameters based on completely randomized factorial design with three replications

  3. Antimalarial activity of selected Sudanese medicinal plants with emphasis to Maytenus senegalensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris, Ahmed El Tahir Mohamed

    1998-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to identify and characterize the antimalrial agents from traitional Sudanese medicinal plants. 49 plants parts representing 26 species from 15 families were extracted and screened for their in vitro antimalrial activity using P. falciparum strain 3D7 which is chloroquine sensitive and Dd2 strain which is chloroquine resistant and pyrimethamine sensitive.The plant species investigated exhibited diverse botanical families. They includes Annonaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Asteraceae, Balantiaceae, Caesalpiniceae, Celasteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Graminae, Meliaceae, Myrtaceae, Polygonaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, and simaroubaceae. The evaluation of these plants for their antimalarial activity and their effect on lymphocyte proliferation was carried out. 57 extracts were tested on the chloroquine sensitive strain (3D7). Where 34 extracts (59%) exhibited significant activity against 3D7 with IC 50 values ≤ 50 μ g/ml. While 21 extracts (57%) showed antimalrial activities with IC 50 values ≤ 50 μ g/ml on Dd2. 13 extracts (22%) and ten extracts (18%) only showed an activity with IC 50 values ≤ 5 μ g/ml on 3 D7 and Dd2, respectively. The activities of some plant extracts, which affected 3D7 strain, were measured using the radiolabelled ( 3 H) hypoxanthine method and microscopical count. 15 plant extracts (48%) from 32 showed IC 50 values ≤ 50 μ g/ml against 3D7 strain using the radiolabelled hypoxanthine methods and only 5 extracts (16%) showed IC 50 values ≤ 5 μ g/ml against 3D7. Most of the extracts screened had a low effect on lymphocyte proliferation (IC 50 values >100 μ g/ml), where as Sonochous cornatus, Balanites aegyptiaca, Tamarindus indica, Acacia nilotica, Annona squamosa, Eucalyptus globulus and Cassia tora enhanced lymphocyte proliferation. liquid-liquid partition of methanolic preparation of Acacia nilotica seeds and husk showed that the ethylacetate phase possessed the highest activity against both 3D7 and Dd2