2013-11-26
modify its dispersive properties . To measure the dispersion of the CMD, we utilize the modulation phase shift method [19]. Using a radio-frequency...compensation using optical components such as integrated gratings and planar multimode waveguides. The CMD’s physical compactness, combined with the...measurements were performed by connecting an unamplified InGaAs photodiode with a 25-ps impulse response time to the output of the CMD. Electrical signals
Initial Results from the USNO Dispersed Fourier Transform Spectrograph
Hajian, A R; Cenko, A T; Olling, R P; Mozurkewich, D; Armstrong, J T; Pohl, B; Petrossian, S; Knuth, K H; Hindsley, R B; Murison, M; Efroimsky, M; Dantowitz, R; Kozubal, M; Currie, D G; Nordgren, T E; Tycner, C; McMillan, R S; Hajian, Arsen R.; Behr, Bradford B.; Cenko, Andrew T.; Olling, Robert P.; Mozurkewich, David; Pohl, Brian; Petrossian, Sevan; Knuth, Kevin H.; Hindsley, Robert B.; Murison, Marc; Efroimsky, Michael; Dantowitz, Ronald; Kozubal, Marek; Currie, Douglas G.; Nordgren, Tyler E.; Tycner, Christopher; Millan, Robert S. Mc
2006-01-01
We have designed and constructed a ``dispersed Fourier Transform Spectrometer'' (dFTS), consisting of a conventional FTS followed by a grating spectrometer. By combining these two devices, we negate a substantial fraction of the sensitivity disadvantage of a conventional FTS for high resolution, broadband, optical spectroscopy, while preserving many of the advantages inherent to interferometric spectrometers. In addition, we have implemented a simple and inexpensive laser metrology system, which enables very precise calibration of the interferometer wavelength scale. The fusion of interferometric and dispersive technologies with a laser metrology system yields an instrument well-suited to stellar spectroscopy, velocimetry, and extrasolar planet detection, which is competitive with existing high-resolution, high accuracy stellar spectrometers. In this paper, we describe the design of our prototype dFTS, explain the algorithm we use to efficiently reconstruct a broadband spectrum from a sequence of narrowband i...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guan, Pengyu; Da Ros, Francesco; Lillieholm, Mads
2016-01-01
We demonstrate simultaneous phase regeneration of 16-WDM DPSK channels using optical Fourier transformation and a single phase-sensitive amplifier. The BERs of 16-WDM×10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK signals are improved by 0.4-1.3 orders of magnitude......We demonstrate simultaneous phase regeneration of 16-WDM DPSK channels using optical Fourier transformation and a single phase-sensitive amplifier. The BERs of 16-WDM×10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK signals are improved by 0.4-1.3 orders of magnitude...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guan, Pengyu; Da Ros, Francesco; Lillieholm, Mads
2016-01-01
We demonstrate simultaneous phase regeneration of 16-WDM DPSK channels using optical Fourier transformation and a single phase-sensitive amplifier. The BERs of 16-WDM×10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK signals are improved by 0.4-1.3 orders of magnitude...
A Novel Application of Fourier Transform Spectroscopy with HEMT Amplifiers at Microwave Frequencies
Wilkinson, David T.; Page, Lyman
1995-01-01
The goal was to develop cryogenic high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) based radiometers and use them to measure the anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In particular, a novel Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) built entirely of waveguide components would be developed. A dual-polarization Ka-band HEMT radiometer and a similar Q-band radiometer were built. In a series of measurements spanning three years made from a ground-based site in Saskatoon, SK, the amplitude, frequency spectrum, and spatial frequency spectrum of the anisotropy were measured. A prototype Ka-band FTS was built and tested, and a simplified version is proposed for the MAP satellite mission. The 1/f characteristics of HEMT amplifiers were quantified using correlation techniques.
Andrianov, Alexey; Szabo, Aron; Sergeev, Alexander; Kim, Arkady; Chvykov, Vladimir; Kalashnikov, Mikhail
2016-11-14
We developed an improved approach to calculate the Fourier transform of signals with arbitrary large quadratic phase which can be efficiently implemented in numerical simulations utilizing Fast Fourier transform. The proposed algorithm significantly reduces the computational cost of Fourier transform of a highly chirped and stretched pulse by splitting it into two separate transforms of almost transform limited pulses, thereby reducing the required grid size roughly by a factor of the pulse stretching. The application of our improved Fourier transform algorithm in the split-step method for numerical modeling of CPA and OPCPA shows excellent agreement with standard algorithms.
Determination of Lamb wave dispersion curves by means of Fourier transform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hora P.
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This work reports on methods for determination of Lamb wave dispersion curves by means of Fourier transform (FT. Propagating Lamb waves are sinusoidal in both the frequency domain and the spatial domain. Therefore, the temporal FT may be carried out to go from the time to the frequency domain, and then the spatial FT may be carried out to go to the frequency–wave-number domain, where the amplitudes and the wave-numbers of individual modes may be measured. The result of this transform will be a 2D array of amplitudes at discrete frequencies and wave-numbers. Other method of determination of dispersion curves is based on the solution of FEM task in frequency domain. The frequency spectrum of a time-dependent excitation is defined using FT. Since a small number of frequencies are sufficient to achieve a correct representation of a wide variety of temporal excitations, this approach considerably speeds up the computation by avoiding the temporal FT and by decreasing the number of calculation steps.
Sun, Xin-Yuan; Xue, Jun-Fa; Xia, Zhi-Yue; Ouyang, Jian-Ming
2015-06-01
This study aimed to analyse the components of nanocrystallites in urines of patients with uric acid (UA) stones. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), fast Fourier transformation (FFT) of HRTEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were performed to analyse the components of these nanocrystallites. XRD and FFT showed that the main component of urinary nanocrystallites was UA, which contains a small amount of calcium oxalate monohydrate and phosphates. EDS showed the characteristic absorption peaks of C, O, Ca and P. The formation of UA stones was closely related to a large number of UA nanocrystallites in urine. A combination of HRTEM, FFT, EDS and XRD analyses could be performed accurately to analyse the components of urinary nanocrystallites.
Amplified Dispersive Optical Tomography
Goda, Keisuke; Jalali, Bahram
2008-01-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has proven to be a powerful technique for studying tissue morphology in ophthalmology, cardiology, and endomicroscopy. Its performance is limited by the fundamental trade-off between the imaging sensitivity and acquisition speed -- a predicament common in virtually all imaging systems. In this paper, we circumvent this limit by using distributed Raman post-amplification of the reflection from the sample. We combine the amplification with simultaneously performed dispersive Fourier transformation, a process that maps the optical spectrum into an easily measured time-domain waveform. The Raman amplification enables measurement of weak signals which are otherwise buried in noise. It extends the depth range without sacrificing the acquisition speed or causing damage to the sample. As proof of concept, single-shot imaging with 15 dB improvement in sensitivity at an axial scan rate of 36.6 MHz is demonstrated.
Whitehead, K A; Benson, P S; Verran, J
2011-09-01
Organic soiling is a major issue in the food processing industries, causing a range of biofouling and microbiological problems. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to quantify and determine the biochemical groups of food soils on stainless steel surfaces. EDX quantified organic material on surfaces where oily based residues predominated, but was limited in its usefulness since other food soils were difficult to detect. FT-IR provided spectral 'fingerprints' for each of the soils tested. Key soiling components were associated with specific peaks, viz. oils at 3025 cm(-1)-3011 cm(-1), proteins at 1698 cm(-1)-1636 cm(-1) and carbohydrates at 1658 cm(-1)-1596 cm(-1), 783 cm(-1)-742 cm(-1). High concentrations of some soils (10%) were needed for detection by both EDX and FT-IR. The two techniques may be of use for quantifying and identifying specific recalcitrant soils on surfaces to improve cleaning and hygiene regimes.
Fourier transform mass spectrometry.
Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander
2011-07-01
This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook.
Fourier transformation for pedestrians
Butz, Tilman
2006-01-01
Meant to serve an "entertaining textbook," this book belongs to a rare genre. It is written for all students and practitioners who deal with Fourier transformation. Fourier series as well as continuous and discrete Fourier transformation are covered, and particular emphasis is placed on window functions. Many illustrations and easy-to-solve exercises make the book especially accessible, and its humorous style will add to the pleasure of learning from it.
Generalized Fourier transforms classes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen
2002-01-01
The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory...
Shayesteh, S. Farjami; Dumelow, T.; Parker, T. J.; Benushis, T. I.; Ershov, S. N.; Vasilevskiy, M. I.
1995-04-01
Far infrared phase and amplitude reflectivity measurements have been made on two bulk CdxHg1-xTe mixed crystals with composition x=0.29 and x=0.22 by dispersive Fourier transform spectroscopy (DFTS). The results have been used to calculate the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function (ɛ', ɛ″) from the Fresnel relations. A plasma contribution is observed in the spectra in addition to the phonon response. For both samples a broad but weak reflection band around 95 105 cm-1 is observed as well as the expected two-oscillator response from the HgTe-like and CdTe-like optical phonons. This feature is attributed to absorption due to phonon combination bands, but it is too broad to enable assignments to be made. There is no evidence of additional features in the CdTe region due to clustering.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manso, M. [Centro de Fisica Atomica, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Valadas, S. [Chemistry Department, Evora Chemistry Centre and HERCULES Centre, University of Evora, Rua Romao Ramalho, 59 Evora (Portugal); Pessanha, S.; Guilherme, A. [Centro de Fisica Atomica, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Queralt, I. [Laboratory of X-ray Analytical Applications, Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC, Sole Sabaris s/n. 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Candeias, A.E. [Chemistry Department, Evora Chemistry Centre and HERCULES Centre, University of Evora, Rua Romao Ramalho, 59 Evora (Portugal); Carvalho, M.L., E-mail: luisa@cii.fc.ul.p [Centro de Fisica Atomica, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)
2010-04-15
This work comprises the use of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) techniques for the study of the composition of twentieth century traditional Japanese color sticks. By using the combination of analytical techniques it was possible to obtain information on inorganic and organic pigments, binders and fillers present in the sticks. The colorant materials identified in the sticks were zinc and titanium white, chrome yellow, yellow and red ochre, vermillion, alizarin, indigo, Prussian and synthetic ultramarine blue. The results also showed that calcite and barite were used as inorganic mineral fillers while Arabic gum was the medium used. EDXRF offered great potential for such investigations since it allowed the identification of the elements present in the sample preserving its integrity. However, this information alone was not enough to clearly identify some of the materials in study and therefore it was necessary to use XRD and FTIR techniques.
Fourier Transform Methods. Chapter 4
Kaplan, Simon G.; Quijada, Manuel A.
2015-01-01
This chapter describes the use of Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) for accurate spectrophotometry over a wide spectral range. After a brief exposition of the basic concepts of FTS operation, we discuss instrument designs and their advantages and disadvantages relative to dispersive spectrometers. We then examine how common sources of error in spectrophotometry manifest themselves when using an FTS and ways to reduce the magnitude of these errors. Examples are given of applications to both basic and derived spectrophotometric quantities. Finally, we give recommendations for choosing the right instrument for a specific application, and how to ensure the accuracy of the measurement results..
Fourier transformation for pedestrians
Butz, Tilman
2015-01-01
This book is an introduction to Fourier Transformation with a focus on signal analysis, based on the first edition. It is well suited for undergraduate students in physics, mathematics, electronic engineering as well as for scientists in research and development. It gives illustrations and recommendations when using existing Fourier programs and thus helps to avoid frustrations. Moreover, it is entertaining and you will learn a lot unconsciously. Fourier series as well as continuous and discrete Fourier transformation are discussed with particular emphasis on window functions. Filter effects of digital data processing are illustrated. Two new chapters are devoted to modern applications. The first deals with data streams and fractional delays and the second with the back-projection of filtered projections in tomography. There are many figures and mostly easy to solve exercises with solutions.
Generic Quantum Fourier Transforms
Moore, Cristopher; Russell, A; Moore, Cristopher; Rockmore, Daniel; Russell, Alexander
2003-01-01
The quantum Fourier transform (QFT) is the principal algorithmic tool underlying most efficient quantum algorithms. We present a generic framework for the construction of efficient quantum circuits for the QFT by ``quantizing'' the separation of variables technique that has been so successful in the study of classical Fourier transform computations. Specifically, this framework applies the existence of computable Bratteli diagrams, adapted factorizations, and Gel'fand-Tsetlin bases to offer efficient quantum circuits for the QFT over a wide variety a finite Abelian and non-Abelian groups, including all group families for which efficient QFTs are currently known and many new group families. Moreover, the method gives rise to the first subexponential-size quantum circuits for the QFT over the linear groups GL_k(q), SL_k(q), and the finite groups of Lie type, for any fixed prime power q.
Real Clifford Windowed Fourier Transform
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mawardi BAHRI; Sriwulan ADJI; Ji Man ZHAO
2011-01-01
We study the windowed Fourier transform in the framework of Clifford analysis, which we call the Clifford windowed Fourier transform (CWFT). Based on the spectral representation of the Clifford Fourier transform (CFT), we derive several important properties such as shift, modulation,reconstruction formula, orthogonality relation, isometry, and reproducing kernel. We also present an example to show the differences between the classical windowed Fourier transform (WFT) and the CWFT. Finally, as an application we establish a Heisenberg type uncertainty principle for the CWFT.
Fourier transforms in spectroscopy
Kauppinen, Jyrki
2000-01-01
This modern approach to the subject is clearly and logically structured, and gives readers an understanding of the essence of Fourier transforms and their applications. All important aspects are included with respect to their use with optical spectroscopic data. Based on popular lectures, the authors provide the mathematical fundamentals and numerical applications which are essential in practical use. The main part of the book is dedicated to applications of FT in signal processing and spectroscopy, with IR and NIR, NMR and mass spectrometry dealt with both from a theoretical and practical poi
Lin, Shan-Yang; Lin, Hong-Liang; Chi, Ying-Ting; Huang, Yu-Ting; Kao, Chi-Yu; Hsieh, Wei-Hsien
2015-12-30
The amorphous form of a drug has higher water solubility and faster dissolution rate than its crystalline form. However, the amorphous form is less thermodynamically stable and may recrystallize during manufacturing and storage. Maintaining the amorphous state of drug in a solid dosage form is extremely important to ensure product quality. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively determine the amount of amorphous indomethacin (INDO) formed in the Soluplus® solid dispersions using thermoanalytical and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral curve-fitting techniques. The INDO/Soluplus® solid dispersions with various weight ratios of both components were prepared by air-drying and heat-drying processes. A predominate IR peak at 1683cm(-1) for amorphous INDO was selected as a marker for monitoring the solid state of INDO in the INDO/Soluplus® solid dispersions. The physical stability of amorphous INDO in the INDO/Soluplus® solid dispersions prepared by both drying processes was also studied under accelerated conditions. A typical endothermic peak at 161°C for γ-form of INDO (γ-INDO) disappeared from all the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves of INDO/Soluplus® solid dispersions, suggesting the amorphization of INDO caused by Soluplus® after drying. In addition, two unique IR peaks at 1682 (1681) and 1593 (1591)cm(-1) corresponded to the amorphous form of INDO were observed in the FTIR spectra of all the INDO/Soluplus® solid dispersions. The quantitative amounts of amorphous INDO formed in all the INDO/Soluplus® solid dispersions were increased with the increase of γ-INDO loaded into the INDO/Soluplus® solid dispersions by applying curve-fitting technique. However, the intermolecular hydrogen bonding interaction between Soluplus® and INDO were only observed in the samples prepared by heat-drying process, due to a marked spectral shift from 1636 to 1628cm(-1) in the INDO/Soluplus® solid dispersions. The INDO/Soluplus® solid
Fast Fourier transform telescope
Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias
2009-04-01
We propose an all-digital telescope for 21 cm tomography, which combines key advantages of both single dishes and interferometers. The electric field is digitized by antennas on a rectangular grid, after which a series of fast Fourier transforms recovers simultaneous multifrequency images of up to half the sky. Thanks to Moore’s law, the bandwidth up to which this is feasible has now reached about 1 GHz, and will likely continue doubling every couple of years. The main advantages over a single dish telescope are cost and orders of magnitude larger field-of-view, translating into dramatically better sensitivity for large-area surveys. The key advantages over traditional interferometers are cost (the correlator computational cost for an N-element array scales as Nlog2N rather than N2) and a compact synthesized beam. We argue that 21 cm tomography could be an ideal first application of a very large fast Fourier transform telescope, which would provide both massive sensitivity improvements per dollar and mitigate the off-beam point source foreground problem with its clean beam. Another potentially interesting application is cosmic microwave background polarization.
Rahman, Ziyaur; Siddiqui, Akhtar; Bykadi, Srikant; Khan, Mansoor A
2014-08-01
The objective of the present research was to study the feasibility of using near-infrared (NIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)-based chemometric models in quantifying crystalline and amorphous tacrolimus from its sustained-release amorphous solid dispersion (ASD). ASD contained ethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, and lactose monohydrate as carriers, and amorphous form of tacrolimus in it was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction. Crystalline physical mixture was mixed with ASD in various proportions to prepare sample matrices containing 0%-100% amorphous/crystalline tacrolimus. NIR and FTIR of the samples were recorded, and data were mathematically pretreated using multiple scattering correction, standard normal variate, or Savitzky-Golay before multivariate analysis, partial-least-square regression (PLSR), and principle component regression (PCR). The PLSR models were more accurate than PCR for NIR and FTIR data as indicated by low value of root-mean-squared error of prediction, standard error of prediction and bias, and high value of R(2). Additionally, NIR data-based models were more accurate and precise than FTIR data models. In conclusion, NIR chemometric models provide simple and fast method to quantitate crystalline tacrolimus in the ASD formulation.
Fourier Transform Spectrometer System
Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor)
2014-01-01
A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data acquisition system includes an FTS spectrometer that receives a spectral signal and a laser signal. The system further includes a wideband detector, which is in communication with the FTS spectrometer and receives the spectral signal and laser signal from the FTS spectrometer. The wideband detector produces a composite signal comprising the laser signal and the spectral signal. The system further comprises a converter in communication with the wideband detector to receive and digitize the composite signal. The system further includes a signal processing unit that receives the composite signal from the converter. The signal processing unit further filters the laser signal and the spectral signal from the composite signal and demodulates the laser signal, to produce velocity corrected spectral data.
Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Mishchenko, Michael I.
2012-01-01
We present a novel technique for remote sensing of cloud droplet size distributions. Polarized reflectances in the scattering angle range between 135deg and 165deg exhibit a sharply defined rainbow structure, the shape of which is determined mostly by single scattering properties of cloud particles, and therefore, can be modeled using the Mie theory. Fitting the observed rainbow with such a model (computed for a parameterized family of particle size distributions) has been used for cloud droplet size retrievals. We discovered that the relationship between the rainbow structures and the corresponding particle size distributions is deeper than it had been commonly understood. In fact, the Mie theory-derived polarized reflectance as a function of reduced scattering angle (in the rainbow angular range) and the (monodisperse) particle radius appears to be a proxy to a kernel of an integral transform (similar to the sine Fourier transform on the positive semi-axis). This approach, called the rainbow Fourier transform (RFT), allows us to accurately retrieve the shape of the droplet size distribution by the application of the corresponding inverse transform to the observed polarized rainbow. While the basis functions of the proxy-transform are not exactly orthogonal in the finite angular range, this procedure needs to be complemented by a simple regression technique, which removes the retrieval artifacts. This non-parametric approach does not require any a priori knowledge of the droplet size distribution functional shape and is computationally fast (no look-up tables, no fitting, computations are the same as for the forward modeling).
Fourier transforms principles and applications
Hansen, Eric W
2014-01-01
Fourier Transforms: Principles and Applications explains transform methods and their applications to electrical systems from circuits, antennas, and signal processors-ably guiding readers from vector space concepts through the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Fourier series, and Fourier transform to other related transform methods. Featuring chapter end summaries of key results, over two hundred examples and four hundred homework problems, and a Solutions Manual this book is perfect for graduate students in signal processing and communications as well as practicing engineers.
Imaging Analysis by Means of Fractional Fourier Transform
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Starting from the diffraction imaging process,we have discussed the relationship between optical imaging system and fractional Fourier transform, and proposed a specific system which can form an inverse amplified image of input function.
Wavelet-fractional Fourier transforms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yuan Lin
2008-01-01
This paper extends the definition of fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) proposed by Namias V by using other orthonormal bases for L2 (R) instead of Hermite-Ganssian functions.The new orthonormal basis is gained indirectly from multiresolution analysis and orthonormal wavelets. The so defined FRFT is called wavelets-fractional Fourier transform.
Scarfone, A. M.
2017-08-01
We present a new formulation of Fourier transform in the picture of the κ-algebra derived in the framework of the κ-generalized statistical mechanics. The κ-Fourier transform is obtained from a κ-Fourier series recently introduced by Scarfone (2013). The kernel of this transform, that reduces to the usual exponential phase in the κ → 0 limit, is composed by a κ-deformed phase and a damping factor that gives a wavelet-like behaviour. We show that the κ-Fourier transform is isomorph to the standard Fourier transform through a changing of time and frequency variables. Nevertheless, the new formalism is useful to study, according to Fourier analysis, those functions defined in the realm of the κ-algebra. As a relevant application, we discuss the central limit theorem for the κ-sum of n-iterate statistically independent random variables.
Fast Numerical Nonlinear Fourier Transforms
Wahls, Sander
2014-01-01
The nonlinear Fourier transform, which is also known as the forward scattering transform, decomposes a periodic signal into nonlinearly interacting waves. In contrast to the common Fourier transform, these waves no longer have to be sinusoidal. Physically relevant waveforms are often available for the analysis instead. The details of the transform depend on the waveforms underlying the analysis, which in turn are specified through the implicit assumption that the signal is governed by a certain evolution equation. For example, water waves generated by the Korteweg-de Vries equation can be expressed in terms of cnoidal waves. Light waves in optical fiber governed by the nonlinear Schr\\"dinger equation (NSE) are another example. Nonlinear analogs of classic problems such as spectral analysis and filtering arise in many applications, with information transmission in optical fiber, as proposed by Yousefi and Kschischang, being a very recent one. The nonlinear Fourier transform is eminently suited to address them ...
Static Fourier transform infrared spectrometer.
Schardt, Michael; Murr, Patrik J; Rauscher, Markus S; Tremmel, Anton J; Wiesent, Benjamin R; Koch, Alexander W
2016-04-01
Fourier transform spectroscopy has established itself as the standard method for spectral analysis of infrared light. Here we present a robust and compact novel static Fourier transform spectrometer design without any moving parts. The design is well suited for measurements in the infrared as it works with extended light sources independent of their size. The design is experimentally evaluated in the mid-infrared wavelength region between 7.2 μm and 16 μm. Due to its large etendue, its low internal light loss, and its static design it enables high speed spectral analysis in the mid-infrared.
A More Accurate Fourier Transform
Courtney, Elya
2015-01-01
Fourier transform methods are used to analyze functions and data sets to provide frequencies, amplitudes, and phases of underlying oscillatory components. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) methods offer speed advantages over evaluation of explicit integrals (EI) that define Fourier transforms. This paper compares frequency, amplitude, and phase accuracy of the two methods for well resolved peaks over a wide array of data sets including cosine series with and without random noise and a variety of physical data sets, including atmospheric $\\mathrm{CO_2}$ concentrations, tides, temperatures, sound waveforms, and atomic spectra. The FFT uses MIT's FFTW3 library. The EI method uses the rectangle method to compute the areas under the curve via complex math. Results support the hypothesis that EI methods are more accurate than FFT methods. Errors range from 5 to 10 times higher when determining peak frequency by FFT, 1.4 to 60 times higher for peak amplitude, and 6 to 10 times higher for phase under a peak. The ability t...
Novel Micro Fourier Transform Spectrometers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
KONG Yan-mei; LIANG Jing-qiu; LIANG Zhong-zhu; WANG-Bo; ZHANG Jun
2008-01-01
The miniaturization of spectrometer opens a new application area with real-time and on-site measurements. The Fourier transform spectrometer(FTS) is much attractive considering its particular advantages among the approaches. This paper reviews the current status of micro FTS in worldwide and describes its developments; In addition, analyzed are the key problems in designing and fabricating FTS to be settled during the miniaturization. Finally, a novel model of micro FTS with no moving parts is proposed and analyzed, which may provide new concepts for the design of spectrometers.
Fourier-transform optical microsystems
Collins, S. D.; Smith, R. L.; Gonzalez, C.; Stewart, K. P.; Hagopian, J. G.; Sirota, J. M.
1999-01-01
The design, fabrication, and initial characterization of a miniature single-pass Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) that has an optical bench that measures 1 cm x 5 cm x 10 cm is presented. The FTS is predicated on the classic Michelson interferometer design with a moving mirror. Precision translation of the mirror is accomplished by microfabrication of dovetailed bearing surfaces along single-crystal planes in silicon. Although it is miniaturized, the FTS maintains a relatively high spectral resolution, 0.1 cm-1, with adequate optical throughput.
JPL Fourier transform ultraviolet spectrometer
Cageao, R. P.; Friedl, R. R.; Sander, Stanley P.; Yung, Y. L.
1994-01-01
The Fourier Transform Ultraviolet Spectrometer (FTUVS) is a new high resolution interferometric spectrometer for multiple-species detection in the UV, visible and near-IR. As an OH sensor, measurements can be carried out by remote sensing (limb emission and column absorption), or in-situ sensing (long-path absorption or laser-induced fluorescence). As a high resolution detector in a high repetition rate (greater than 10 kHz) LIF system, OH fluorescence can be discriminated against non-resonant background emission and laser scatter, permitting (0, 0) excitation.
Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectrometer
Schindler, R. A.
1986-01-01
Fourier-transform spectrometer provides approximately hundredfold increase in luminosity at detector plane over that achievable with older instruments of this type. Used to analyze such weak sources as pollutants and other low-concentration substances in atmosphere. Interferometer creates fringe patterns on two distinct arrays of light detectors, which observe different wavelength bands. Objective lens focuses scene on image plane, which contains optical chopper. To make instrument less susceptible to variations in scene under observation, field and detector lenses focus entrance aperture, rather that image, onto detector array.
Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei
2016-10-25
The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.
Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer
DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei
2013-09-03
The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.
The multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LANG Jun; TAO Ran; RAN QiWen; WANG Yue
2008-01-01
The fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) has multiplicity, which is intrinsic in frac-tional operator. A new source for the multiplicity of the weight-type fractional Fou-rier transform (WFRFT) is proposed, which can generalize the weight coefficients of WFRFT to contain two vector parameters MN,∈ZM. Therefore a generalized frac-tional Fourier transform can be defined, which is denoted by the multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform (MPFRFT). It enlarges the multiplicity of the FRFT, which not only includes the conventional FRFT and general multi-fractional Fourier transform as special cases, but also introduces new fractional Fourier transforms. It provides a unified framework for the FRFT, and the method is also available for fractionalizing other linear operators. In addition, numerical simulations of the MPFRFT on the Hermite-Gaussian and rectangular functions have been performed as a simple application of MPFRFT to signal processing.
Two modified discrete chirp Fourier transform schemes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
樊平毅; 夏香根
2001-01-01
This paper presents two modified discrete chirp Fourier transform (MDCFT) schemes.Some matched filter properties such as the optimal selection of the transform length, and its relationship to analog chirp-Fourier transform are studied. Compared to the DCFT proposed previously, theoretical and simulation results have shown that the two MDCFTs can further improve the chirp rate resolution of the detected signals.
The Fourier Transform on Quantum Euclidean Space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kevin Coulembier
2011-05-01
Full Text Available We study Fourier theory on quantum Euclidean space. A modified version of the general definition of the Fourier transform on a quantum space is used and its inverse is constructed. The Fourier transforms can be defined by their Bochner's relations and a new type of q-Hankel transforms using the first and second q-Bessel functions. The behavior of the Fourier transforms with respect to partial derivatives and multiplication with variables is studied. The Fourier transform acts between the two representation spaces for the harmonic oscillator on quantum Euclidean space. By using this property it is possible to define a Fourier transform on the entire Hilbert space of the harmonic oscillator, which is its own inverse and satisfies the Parseval theorem.
The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer
Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Manatt, Ken; Rider, David; Wu, Yen-Hung
2012-01-01
The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for a geostationary orbit (GEO) earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. GEO allows GeoFTS to continuously stare at a region of the earth for frequent sampling to capture the variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental spatial scales and temporal scales from diurnal, synoptic, seasonal to interannual. The measurement strategy provides a process based understanding of the carbon cycle from contiguous maps of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) collected many times per day at high spatial resolution (2.7kmx2.7km at nadir). The CO2/CH4/CO/CF measurement suite in the near infrared spectral region provides the information needed to disentangle natural and anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric carbon concentrations and to minimize uncertainties in the flow of carbon between the atmosphere and surface. The half meter cube size GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design that uses all high TRL components in a modular configuration to reduce complexity and cost. It is self-contained and as independent of the spacecraft as possible with simple spacecraft interfaces, making it ideal to be a "hosted" payload on a commercial communications satellite mission. The hosted payload approach for measuring the major carbon-containing gases in the atmosphere from the geostationary vantage point will affordably advance the scientific understating of carbon cycle processes and climate change.
Fourier transforms in radar and signal processing
Brandwood, David
2011-01-01
Fourier transforms are used widely, and are of particular value in the analysis of single functions and combinations of functions found in radar and signal processing. Still, many problems that could have been tackled by using Fourier transforms may have gone unsolved because they require integration that is difficult and tedious. This newly revised and expanded edition of a classic Artech House book provides you with an up-to-date, coordinated system for performing Fourier transforms on a wide variety of functions. Along numerous updates throughout the book, the Second Edition includes a crit
Composite Cyclotomic Fourier Transforms with Reduced Complexities
Wu, Xuebin; Chen, Ning; Yan, Zhiyuan; Wang, Ying
2010-01-01
Discrete Fourier transforms~(DFTs) over finite fields have widespread applications in digital communication and storage systems. Hence, reducing the computational complexities of DFTs is of great significance. Recently proposed cyclotomic fast Fourier transforms (CFFTs) are promising due to their low multiplicative complexities. Unfortunately, there are two issues with CFFTs: (1) they rely on efficient short cyclic convolution algorithms, which has not been investigated thoroughly yet, and (2) they have very high additive complexities when directly implemented. In this paper, we address both issues. One of the main contributions of this paper is efficient bilinear 11-point cyclic convolution algorithms, which allow us to construct CFFTs over GF$(2^{11})$. The other main contribution of this paper is that we propose composite cyclotomic Fourier transforms (CCFTs). In comparison to previously proposed fast Fourier transforms, our CCFTs achieve lower overall complexities for moderate to long lengths, and the imp...
Electronically-Scanned Fourier-Transform Spectrometer
Breckinridge, J. B.; Ocallaghan, F. G.
1984-01-01
Instrument efficient, lightweight, and stable. Fourier-transform spectrometer configuration uses electronic, instead of mechanical, scanning. Configuration insensitive to vibration-induced sampling errors introduced into mechanically scanned systems.
A new twist to fourier transforms
Meikle, Hamish D
2004-01-01
Making use of the inherent helix in the Fourier transform expression, this book illustrates both Fourier transforms and their properties in the round. The author draws on elementary complex algebra to manipulate the transforms, presenting the ideas in such a way as to avoid pages of complicated mathematics. Similarly, abbreviations are not used throughout and the language is kept deliberately clear so that the result is a text that is accessible to a much wider readership.The treatment is extended with the use of sampled data to finite and discrete transforms, the fast Fourier transform, or FFT, being a special case of a discrete transform. The application of Fourier transforms in statistics is illustrated for the first time using the examples operational research and later radar detection. In addition, a whole chapter on tapering or weighting functions is added for reference. The whole is rounded off by a glossary and examples of diagrams in three dimensions made possible by today's mathematics programs
A DISTRIBUTION SPACE FOR FOURIER TRANSFORM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhou Chaoying; Yang Lihua; Huang Daren
2007-01-01
A space DF is constructed and some characterizations of space DF are given. Itis shown that the classical Fourier transform is extended to the distribution space D'F, whichcan be embedded into the Schwartz distribution space D' continuously. It is also shown thatD'F is the biggest embedded subspace of D' on which the extended Fourier transform, F, is ahomeomorphism of D'F onto itself.
Shift sampling theory of Fourier transform computation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
柴玉璞
1997-01-01
The DFT transform us extended to DFTξη transform and the relationship between FT and DFTξη is given by the Fourier transform discretization theorem. Based on the theorem, the DFTξη algorithm-error equation (DFTξη A-E equation) is established, and the minimization property of discrete effect and the oscillation property of truncation effect are demonstrated. All these construct the shift sampling theory——a new theory about Fourier transform computation.
Fractional Fourier transform of Lorentz beams
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhou Guo-Quan
2009-01-01
This paper introduces Lorentz beams to describe certain laser sources that produce highly divergent fields. The fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is applied to treat the propagation of Lorentz beams. Based on the definition of convolution and the convolution theorem of the Fourier transform, an analytical expression for a Lorentz beam passing through a FRFT system has been derived. By using the derived formula, the properties of a Lorentz beam in the FRFT plane are illustrated numerically.
Ultrafast ranging lidar based on real-time Fourier transformation.
Xia, Haiyun; Zhang, Chunxi
2009-07-15
Real-time Fourier-transformation-based ranging lidar using a mode-locked femtosecond fiber laser is demonstrated. The object signal and the reference signal are guided from a fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer into a dispersive element. The two optical pulses extend and overlap with each other temporally, which yields a microwave pulse on the photodetector with its frequency proportional to the time delay between the two signals. The temporal interferograms are transformed from the time domain into the frequency domain using a time-to-frequency conversion function obtained in the calibration process. The Fourier transform is used in the data processing. A range resolution of 334 nm at a sampling rate of 48.6 MHz over a distance of 16 cm is demonstrated in the laboratory.
Glasser, L.
1987-01-01
This paper explores how Fourier Transform (FT) mimics spectral transformation, how this property can be exploited to advantage in spectroscopy, and how the FT can be used in data treatment. A table displays a number of important FT serial/spectral pairs related by Fourier Transformations. A bibliography and listing of computer software related to…
Fourier transforms and convolutions for the experimentalist
Jennison, RC
1961-01-01
Fourier Transforms and Convolutions for the Experimentalist provides the experimentalist with a guide to the principles and practical uses of the Fourier transformation. It aims to bridge the gap between the more abstract account of a purely mathematical approach and the rule of thumb calculation and intuition of the practical worker. The monograph springs from a lecture course which the author has given in recent years and for which he has drawn upon a number of sources, including a set of notes compiled by the late Dr. I. C. Browne from a series of lectures given by Mr. J . A. Ratcliffe of t
Fast Fourier Transform algorithm design and tradeoffs
Kamin, Ray A., III; Adams, George B., III
1988-01-01
The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is a mainstay of certain numerical techniques for solving fluid dynamics problems. The Connection Machine CM-2 is the target for an investigation into the design of multidimensional Single Instruction Stream/Multiple Data (SIMD) parallel FFT algorithms for high performance. Critical algorithm design issues are discussed, necessary machine performance measurements are identified and made, and the performance of the developed FFT programs are measured. Fast Fourier Transform programs are compared to the currently best Cray-2 FFT program.
Ultrafast Fourier-transform parallel processor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Greenberg, W.L.
1980-04-01
A new, flexible, parallel-processing architecture is developed for a high-speed, high-precision Fourier transform processor. The processor is intended for use in 2-D signal processing including spatial filtering, matched filtering and image reconstruction from projections.
On the Scaled Fractional Fourier Transformation Operator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FAN Hong-Yi; HU Li-Yun
2008-01-01
Based on our previous study [Chin.Phys.Lett.24(2007)2238]in which the Fresnel operator corresponding to classical Fresnel transform was introduced,we derive the fractional Fourier transformation operator,and the optical operator method is then enriched.
Fourier transforms on an amalgam type space
Liflyand, E
2012-01-01
We introduce an amalgam type space, a subspace of $L^1(\\mathbb R_+).$ Integrability results for the Fourier transform of a function with the derivative from such an amalgam space are proved. As an application we obtain estimates for the integrability of trigonometric series.
Clifford Fourier transform on vector fields.
Ebling, Julia; Scheuermann, Gerik
2005-01-01
Image processing and computer vision have robust methods for feature extraction and the computation of derivatives of scalar fields. Furthermore, interpolation and the effects of applying a filter can be analyzed in detail and can be advantages when applying these methods to vector fields to obtain a solid theoretical basis for feature extraction. We recently introduced the Clifford convolution, which is an extension of the classical convolution on scalar fields and provides a unified notation for the convolution of scalar and vector fields. It has attractive geometric properties that allow pattern matching on vector fields. In image processing, the convolution and the Fourier transform operators are closely related by the convolution theorem and, in this paper, we extend the Fourier transform to include general elements of Clifford Algebra, called multivectors, including scalars and vectors. The resulting convolution and derivative theorems are extensions of those for convolution and the Fourier transform on scalar fields. The Clifford Fourier transform allows a frequency analysis of vector fields and the behavior of vector-valued filters. In frequency space, vectors are transformed into general multivectors of the Clifford Algebra. Many basic vector-valued patterns, such as source, sink, saddle points, and potential vortices, can be described by a few multivectors in frequency space.
Fourier transform infrared spectrometery: an undergraduate experiment
Lerner, L.
2016-11-01
Simple apparatus is developed, providing undergraduate students with a solid understanding of Fourier transform (FT) infrared (IR) spectroscopy in a hands on experiment. Apart from its application to measuring the mid-IR spectra of organic molecules, the experiment introduces several techniques with wide applicability in physics, including interferometry, the FT, digital data analysis, and control theory.
Implementation of quantum and classical discrete fractional Fourier transforms.
Weimann, Steffen; Perez-Leija, Armando; Lebugle, Maxime; Keil, Robert; Tichy, Malte; Gräfe, Markus; Heilmann, René; Nolte, Stefan; Moya-Cessa, Hector; Weihs, Gregor; Christodoulides, Demetrios N; Szameit, Alexander
2016-03-23
Fourier transforms, integer and fractional, are ubiquitous mathematical tools in basic and applied science. Certainly, since the ordinary Fourier transform is merely a particular case of a continuous set of fractional Fourier domains, every property and application of the ordinary Fourier transform becomes a special case of the fractional Fourier transform. Despite the great practical importance of the discrete Fourier transform, implementation of fractional orders of the corresponding discrete operation has been elusive. Here we report classical and quantum optical realizations of the discrete fractional Fourier transform. In the context of classical optics, we implement discrete fractional Fourier transforms of exemplary wave functions and experimentally demonstrate the shift theorem. Moreover, we apply this approach in the quantum realm to Fourier transform separable and path-entangled biphoton wave functions. The proposed approach is versatile and could find applications in various fields where Fourier transforms are essential tools.
Fourier transform approach in modulation technique of experimental measurements.
Khazimullin, M V; Lebedev, Yu A
2010-04-01
An application of Fourier transform approach in modulation technique of experimental studies is considered. This method has obvious advantages compared with traditional lock-in amplifiers technique--simple experimental setup, a quickly available information on all the required harmonics, high speed of data processing using fast Fourier transform algorithm. A computationally simple, fast and accurate Fourier coefficients interpolation (FCI) method has been implemented to obtain a useful information from harmonics of a multimode signal. Our analysis shows that in this case FCI method has a systematical error (bias) of a signal parameters estimation, which became essential for the short data sets. Hence, a new differential Fourier coefficients interpolation (DFCI) method has been suggested, which is less sensitive to a presence of several modes in a signal. The analysis has been confirmed by simulations and measurements of a quartz wedge birefringence by means of the photoelastic modulator. The obtained bias, noise level, and measuring speed are comparable and even better than in lock-in amplifier technique. Moreover, presented DFCI method is expected to be promised candidate for using in actively developing imaging systems based on the modulation technique requiring fast digital signal processing of large data sets.
A Fourier transform Raman spectrometer with visible laser excitation
Dzsaber, S; Bernáth, B; Gyüre, B; Fehér, T; Kramberger, C; Pichler, T; Simon, F
2014-01-01
We present the development and performance of a Fourier transformation (FT) based Raman spectrometer working with visible laser (532 nm) excitation. It is generally thought that FT-Raman spectrometers are not viable in the visible range where shot-noise limits the detector performance and therein they are outperformed by grating based, dispersive ones. We show that contrary to this common belief, the recent advances of high-performance interference filters makes the FT-Raman design a valid alternative to dispersive Raman spectrometers for samples which do not luminesce. We critically compare the performance of our spectrometer to two dispersive ones: a home-built single channel and a state-of-the-art CCD based instruments. We demonstrate a similar or even better sensitivity than the CCD based dispersive spectrometer particularly when the laser power density is considered. The instrument possesses all the known advantages of the FT principle of spectral accuracy, high throughput, and economic design. We also d...
Quantum Fourier transform in computational basis
Zhou, S. S.; Loke, T.; Izaac, J. A.; Wang, J. B.
2017-03-01
The quantum Fourier transform, with exponential speed-up compared to the classical fast Fourier transform, has played an important role in quantum computation as a vital part of many quantum algorithms (most prominently, Shor's factoring algorithm). However, situations arise where it is not sufficient to encode the Fourier coefficients within the quantum amplitudes, for example in the implementation of control operations that depend on Fourier coefficients. In this paper, we detail a new quantum scheme to encode Fourier coefficients in the computational basis, with fidelity 1 - δ and digit accuracy ɛ for each Fourier coefficient. Its time complexity depends polynomially on log (N), where N is the problem size, and linearly on 1/δ and 1/ɛ . We also discuss an application of potential practical importance, namely the simulation of circulant Hamiltonians.
Replica Fourier Transform: Properties and applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Crisanti
2015-02-01
Full Text Available The Replica Fourier Transform is the generalization of the discrete Fourier Transform to quantities defined on an ultrametric tree. It finds use in conjunction of the replica method used to study thermodynamics properties of disordered systems such as spin glasses. Its definition is presented in a systematic and simple form and its use illustrated with some representative examples. In particular we give a detailed discussion of the diagonalization in the Replica Fourier Space of the Hessian matrix of the Gaussian fluctuations about the mean field saddle point of spin glass theory. The general results are finally discussed for a generic spherical spin glass model, where the Hessian can be computed analytically.
High order generalized permutational fractional Fourier transforms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ran Qi-Wen; Yuan Lin; Tan Li-Ying; Ma Jing; Wang Qi
2004-01-01
We generalize the definition of the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) by extending the new definition proposed by Shih. The generalized FRFT, called the high order generalized permutational fractional Fourier transform (HGPFRFT),is a generalized permutational transform. It is shown to have arbitrary natural number M periodic eigenvalues not only with respect to the order of Hermite-Gaussian functions but also to the order of the transform. This HGPFRFT will be reduced to the original FRFT proposed by Namias and Liu's generalized FRFT and Shih's FRFT at the three limits with M = +∞,M = 4k (k is a natural number), and M = 4, respectively. Therefore the HGPFRFT introduces a comprehensive approach to Shih's FRFT and the original definition. Some important properties of HGPFRFT are discussed. Lastly the results of computer simulations and symbolic representations of the transform are provided.
Fourier Transform Fabry-Perot Interferometer
Snell, Hilary E.; Hays, Paul B.
1992-01-01
We are developing a compact, rugged, high-resolution remote sensing instrument with wide spectral scanning capabilities. This relatively new type of instrument, which we have chosen to call the Fourier-Transform Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FT-FPI), is accomplished by mechanically scanning the etalon plates of a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) through a large optical distance while examining the concomitant signal with a Fourier-transform analysis technique similar to that employed by the Michelson interferometer. The FT-FPI will be used initially as a ground-based instrument to study near-infrared atmospheric absorption lines of trace gases using the techniques of solar absorption spectroscopy. Future plans include modifications to allow for measurements of trace gases in the stratosphere using spectral lines at terahertz frequencies.
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Studies in Flotation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been extensively employed in flotation research.The work done by the author and co-workers has been reported.A comparison has been made among the different FTIR spectroscopic techniques,e.g.,transmission FTIR spectroscopy,diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy,and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FTIR spectroscopy.FTIR spectroscopy has been used to study the mechanism of interaction between the collector and the surfaces of different minerals,the mechanism of action of the depressant in improving the selectivity of flotation,and the mechanism of adsorption of the polymeric modifying reagent on mineral surfaces.The interaction between particles in mineral suspension has also been studied by FTIR spectroscopy.
Fourier-transform spectroscopy instrumentation engineering
Saptari, Vidi
2003-01-01
Many applications today require the Fourier-transform (FT) spectrometer to perform close to its limitations, such as taking many quantitative measurements in the visible and in the near infrared wavelength regions. In such cases, the instrument should not be considered as a perfect ""black box."" Knowing where the limitations of performance arise and which components must be improved are crucial to obtaining repeatable and accurate results. One of the objectives of this book is to help the user identify the instrument's bottleneck.
Matrix isolation studies with Fourier transform IR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Green, David W.; Reedy, Gerald T.
1977-01-01
The combination of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy with the matrix-isolation techniques has advantages compared with the use of more conventional grating spectroscopy. Furthermore, the recent commercial availability of Fourier transform spectrometers has made FT-IR a practical alternative. Some advantages of the FT-IR spectrometer over the grating spectrometer are the result of the computerized data system that is a necessary part of the FT-IR spectrometer; other advantages are a consequence of the difference in optical arrangements and these represent the inherent advantages of the FT-IR method. In most applications with the matrix-isolation technique, the use of FT-IR spectroscopy results in either an improved signal-to-noise ratio or a shorter time for data collection compared with grating infrared spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been used in the laboratory to study several molecular species in low-temperature matrices. Some species have been produced by high-temperature vaporization from Knudsen cells and others by sputtering. By sputtering, Ar and Kr matrices have been prepared which contain U atoms, UO, UO/sub 2/, UO/sub 3/, PuO, PuO/sub 2/, UN, or UN/sub 2/, depending upon the composition of the gas used to sputter as well as the identity of the metallic cathode. Infrared spectra of matrices containing these compounds are presented and discussed. (JRD)
A portable Fourier transform infrared gas analyzer with a photoacoustic detector performed reliably during pollution prevention research at two industrial facilities. It exhibited good agreement (within approximately 6%) with other analytical instruments (dispersive infrared and ...
Electro-optic imaging Fourier transform spectrometer
Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Znod, Hanying (Inventor)
2009-01-01
An Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (EOIFTS) for Hyperspectral Imaging is described. The EOIFTS includes an input polarizer, an output polarizer, and a plurality of birefringent phase elements. The relative orientations of the polarizers and birefringent phase elements can be changed mechanically or via a controller, using ferroelectric liquid crystals, to substantially measure the spectral Fourier components of light propagating through the EIOFTS. When achromatic switches are used as an integral part of the birefringent phase elements, the EIOFTS becomes suitable for broadband applications, with over 1 micron infrared bandwidth.
The Fourier transform of tubular densities
Prior, C B
2012-05-18
We consider the Fourier transform of tubular volume densities, with arbitrary axial geometry and (possibly) twisted internal structure. This density can be used to represent, among others, magnetic flux or the electron density of biopolymer molecules. We consider tubes of both finite radii and unrestricted radius. When there is overlap of the tube structure the net density is calculated using the super-position principle. The Fourier transform of this density is composed of two expressions, one for which the radius of the tube is less than the curvature of the axis and one for which the radius is greater (which must have density overlap). This expression can accommodate an asymmetric density distribution and a tube structure which has non-uniform twisting. In addition we give several simpler expressions for isotropic densities, densities of finite radius, densities which decay at a rate sufficient to minimize local overlap and finally individual surfaces of the tube manifold. These simplified cases can often be expressed as arclength integrals and can be evaluated using a system of first-order ODEs. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.
JCE Online: Interactive Fourier Transform Activities
Zielinski, Theresa Julia
1999-02-01
In our vigorous teaching of concepts and skills to students, we may cover (hide) more than we uncover, obscuring significant relationships between mathematical models and their associated chemical concepts with excessive mathematical derivations. To set the record straight, I find that mathematical treatments of physical phenomena are beautiful and elegant. Students should know from where the equations and simplifications leading to them arise. They should know the limits of the equations in order to use them properly. However, this can be the Siren's song. For example, the mathematical representation of the Fourier transform and its significance as presented in most texts are too brief to convey understanding to the typical undergraduate student. Furthermore, a few hand calculations would not permit deeper probing of the method and its intimate link to spectroscopy. The Fourier transform is a very good example of how symbolic equation software can help to uncover the science by making the mathematical manipulations easier and the mathematical concepts more accessible. The complete articles and Mathcad documents described in these abstracts are available from JCE Online at http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/JCEWWW/Columns/McadInChem/.
Fourier transforms in generalized Fock spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John Schmeelk
1990-01-01
Full Text Available A classical Fock space consists of functions of the form,Φ↔(ϕ0,ϕ1,…,ϕq,…,where ϕ0∈C and ϕq∈L2(R3q, q≥1. We will replace the ϕq, q≥1 with q-symmetric rapid descent test functions within tempered distribution theory. This space is a natural generalization of a classical Fock space as seen by expanding functionals having generalized Taylor series. The particular coefficients of such series are multilinear functionals having tempered distributions as their domain. The Fourier transform will be introduced into this setting. A theorem will be proven relating the convergence of the transform to the parameter, s, which sweeps out a scale of generalized Fock spaces.
Laser Field Imaging Through Fourier Transform Heterodyne
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cooke, B.J.; Laubscher, B.E.; Olivas, N.L.; Galbraith, A.E.; Strauss, C.E.; Grubler, A.C.
1999-04-05
The authors present a detection process capable of directly imaging the transverse amplitude, phase, and Doppler shift of coherent electromagnetic fields. Based on coherent detection principles governing conventional heterodyned RADAR/LADAR systems, Fourier Transform Heterodyne incorporates transverse spatial encoding of the reference local oscillator for image capture. Appropriate selection of spatial encoding functions allows image retrieval by way of classic Fourier manipulations. Of practical interest: (1) imaging may be accomplished with a single element detector/sensor requiring no additional scanning or moving components, (2) as detection is governed by heterodyne principles, near quantum limited performance is achievable, (3) a wide variety of appropriate spatial encoding functions exist that may be adaptively configured in real-time for applications requiring optimal detection, and (4) the concept is general with the applicable electromagnetic spectrum encompassing the RF through optical.
Multicomplementary operators via finite Fourier transform
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klimov, Andrei B [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, 44420 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Sanchez-Soto, Luis L [Department of Physics, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada); Guise, Hubert de [Department of Physics, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada)
2005-03-25
A complete set of d + 1 mutually unbiased bases exists in a Hilbert space of dimension d, whenever d is a power of a prime. We discuss a simple construction of d + 1 disjoint classes (each one having d - 1 commuting operators) such that the corresponding eigenstates form sets of unbiased bases. Such a construction works properly for prime dimension. We investigate an alternative construction in which the real numbers that label the classes are replaced by a finite field having d elements. One of these classes is diagonal, and can be mapped to cyclic operators by means of the finite Fourier transform, which allows one to understand complementarity in a similar way as for the position-momentum pair in standard quantum mechanics. The relevant examples of two and three qubits and two qutrits are discussed in detail.
Fourier transform spectroscopy for future planetary missions
Brasunas, John; Kolasinski, John; Kostiuk, Ted; Hewagama, Tilak
2017-01-01
Thermal-emission infrared spectroscopy is a powerful tool for exploring the composition, temperature structure, and dynamics of planetary atmospheres; and the temperature of solid surfaces. A host of Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) such as Mariner IRIS, Voyager IRIS, and Cassini CIRS from NASA Goddard have made and continue to make important new discoveries throughout the solar system. Future FTS instruments will have to be more sensitive (when we concentrate on the colder, outer reaches of the solar system), and less massive and less power-hungry as we cope with decreasing resource allotments for future planetary science instruments. With this in mind, we have developed CIRS-lite, a smaller version of the CIRS FTS for future planetary missions. We discuss the roadmap for making CIRS-lite a viable candidate for future planetary missions, including the recent increased emphasis on ocean worlds (Europa, Encelatus, Titan) and also on smaller payloads such as CubeSats and SmallSats.
FFTW: Fastest Fourier Transform in the West
Frigo, Matteo; Johnson, Steven G.
2012-01-01
FFTW is a C subroutine library for computing the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) in one or more dimensions, of arbitrary input size, and of both real and complex data (as well as of even/odd data, i.e. the discrete cosine/sine transforms or DCT/DST). Benchmarks performed on a variety of platforms show that FFTW's performance is typically superior to that of other publicly available FFT software, and is even competitive with vendor-tuned codes. In contrast to vendor-tuned codes, however, FFTW's performance is portable: the same program will perform well on most architectures without modification. The FFTW library is required by other codes such as StarCrash and Hammurabi.
Optical design of the ATMOS Fourier transform spectrometer
Abel, I. R.; Reynolds, B. R.; Breckinridge, J. B.; Pritchard, J.
1979-01-01
The optical system design of the ATMOS Fourier transform spectrometer to be operated from Spacelab for the measurement of stratospheric trace molecules is described. The design contains features which can achieve the required fringe contrast of 80% and spectral resolution of 0.02/cm over a spectral range of 2-16 microns. In particular, the design is based on the following features which alleviate the usual requirements for alignment precision: (1) 'cat's eye' mirror configuration in the two arms of the interferometer for retroreflection stability, (2) tilt-compensated system of beamsplitter, compensator, and fold mirrors for wavefront directional stability, (3) paraboloidal 'cat's eye' primary mirror for wavefront stability against shear, (4) rotatable compensator for matching chromatic dispersion, and (5) wedged refractive components to avoid channel spectra due to the Fabry-Perot effect.
Applying Quaternion Fourier Transforms for Enhancing Color Images
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.I. Khalil
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The Fourier transforms play a critical role in a broad range of image processing applications, including enhancement, analysis, restoration, and compression. Until recently, it was common to use the conventional methods to deal with colored images. These methods are based on RGB decomposition of the colored image by separating it into three separate scalar images and computing the Fourier transforms of these images separately. The computing of the Hypercomplex 2D Fourier transform of a color image as a whole unit has only recently been realized. This paper is concerned with frequency domain noise reduction of color images using quaternion Fourier transforms. The approach is based on obtaining quaternion Fourier transform of the color image and applying the Gaussian filter to it in the frequency domain. The filtered image is then obtained by calculating the inverse quaternion Fourier transforms.
Adaptive Controller for Compact Fourier Transform Spectrometer with Space Applications
Keymeulen, D.; Yiu, P.; Berisford, D. F.; Hand, K. P.; Carlson, R. W.; Conroy, M.
2014-12-01
Here we present noise mitigation techniques developed as part of an adaptive controller for a very compact Compositional InfraRed Interferometric Spectrometer (CIRIS) implemented on a stand-alone field programmable gate array (FPGA) architecture with emphasis on space applications in high radiation environments such as Europa. CIRIS is a novel take on traditional Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) and replaces linearly moving mirrors (characteristic of Michelson interferometers) with a constant-velocity rotating refractor to variably phase shift and alter the path length of incoming light. The design eschews a monochromatic reference laser typically used for sampling clock generation and instead utilizes constant time-sampling via internally generated clocks. This allows for a compact and robust device, making it ideal for spaceborne measurements in the near-IR to thermal-IR band (2-12 µm) on planetary exploration missions. The instrument's embedded microcontroller is implemented on a VIRTEX-5 FPGA and a PowerPC with the aim of sampling the instrument's detector and optical rotary encoder in order to construct interferograms. Subsequent onboard signal processing provides spectral immunity from the noise effects introduced by the compact design's removal of a reference laser and by the radiation encountered during space flight to destinations such as Europa. A variety of signal processing techniques including resampling, radiation peak removal, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), spectral feature alignment, dispersion correction and calibration processes are applied to compose the sample spectrum in real-time with signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) performance comparable to laser-based FTS designs in radiation-free environments. The instrument's FPGA controller is demonstrated with the FTS to characterize its noise mitigation techniques and highlight its suitability for implementation in space systems.
Stepwise Iterative Fourier Transform: The SIFT
Benignus, V. A.; Benignus, G.
1975-01-01
A program, designed specifically to study the respective effects of some common data problems on results obtained through stepwise iterative Fourier transformation of synthetic data with known waveform composition, was outlined. Included in this group were the problems of gaps in the data, different time-series lengths, periodic but nonsinusoidal waveforms, and noisy (low signal-to-noise) data. Results on sinusoidal data were also compared with results obtained on narrow band noise with similar characteristics. The findings showed that the analytic procedure under study can reliably reduce data in the nature of (1) sinusoids in noise, (2) asymmetric but periodic waves in noise, and (3) sinusoids in noise with substantial gaps in the data. The program was also able to analyze narrow-band noise well, but with increased interpretational problems. The procedure was shown to be a powerful technique for analysis of periodicities, in comparison with classical spectrum analysis techniques. However, informed use of the stepwise procedure nevertheless requires some background of knowledge concerning characteristics of the biological processes under study.
Fourier transform inequalities for phylogenetic trees.
Matsen, Frederick A
2009-01-01
Phylogenetic invariants are not the only constraints on site-pattern frequency vectors for phylogenetic trees. A mutation matrix, by its definition, is the exponential of a matrix with non-negative off-diagonal entries; this positivity requirement implies non-trivial constraints on the site-pattern frequency vectors. We call these additional constraints "edge-parameter inequalities". In this paper, we first motivate the edge-parameter inequalities by considering a pathological site-pattern frequency vector corresponding to a quartet tree with a negative internal edge. This site-pattern frequency vector nevertheless satisfies all of the constraints described up to now in the literature. We next describe two complete sets of edge-parameter inequalities for the group-based models; these constraints are square-free monomial inequalities in the Fourier transformed coordinates. These inequalities, along with the phylogenetic invariants, form a complete description of the set of site-pattern frequency vectors corresponding to bona fide trees. Said in mathematical language, this paper explicitly presents two finite lists of inequalities in Fourier coordinates of the form "monomial < or = 1", each list characterizing the phylogenetically relevant semialgebraic subsets of the phylogenetic varieties.
Integrability of the Fourier transform: functions of bounded variation
Liflyand, E
2012-01-01
Certain relations between the Fourier transform of a function of bounded variation and the Hilbert transform of its derivative are revealed. The widest subspaces of the space of functions of bounded variation are indicated in which the cosine and sine Fourier transforms are integrable.
Geometric interpretations of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)
Campbell, C. W.
1984-01-01
One, two, and three dimensional Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFT) and geometric interpretations of their periodicities are presented. These operators are examined for their relationship with the two sided, continuous Fourier transform. Discrete or continuous transforms of real functions have certain symmetry properties. The symmetries are examined for the one, two, and three dimensional cases. Extension to higher dimension is straight forward.
Realization of quantum discrete Fourier transform with NMR
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
The pulse sequences of the logic operations used in quantum discrete Fourier transform are designed for the experiment of nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR), and 2-qubit discrete Fourier transforms are implemented experimentally with NMR. The experimental errors are examined and methods for reducing the errors are proposed.
AN ANOMALY INTRUSION DETECTION METHOD USING FOURIER TRANSFORM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yue Bing; Zhao Yuexia; Xu Zhoujun; Fu Hongjuan; Ma Fengning
2004-01-01
A set of discrete points obtained from audit records on a behavior session is processed with Fourier transform. The criterion of selecting Fourier transform coefficients is introduced, and is used to find a unified value from the set of coefficients. This unified value is compared with a threshold to determine whether the session is abnormal. Finally simple test results are reported.
Fiber Optic Fourier Transform White-Light Interferometry
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yi Jiang; Cai-Jie Tang
2008-01-01
Fiber optic Fourier transform white-light inter-fereometry is presented to interrogate the absolute optical path difference of an Mach-Zehnder inter-ferometer. The phase change of the interferometer caused by scanning wavelength can be calculated by a Fourier transform-based phase demodulation technique. A linear output is achieved.
Research progress on discretization of fractional Fourier transform
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TAO Ran; ZHANG Feng; WANG Yue
2008-01-01
As the fractional Fourier transform has attracted a considerable amount of atten-tion in the area of optics and signal processing,the discretization of the fractional Fourier transform becomes vital for the application of the fractional Fourier trans-form.Since the discretization of the fractional Fourier transform cannot be obtained by directly sampling in time domain and the fractional Fourier domain,the discre-tization of the fractional Fourier transform has been investigated recently.A sum-mary of discretizations of the fractional Fourier transform developed in the last nearly two decades is presented in this paper.The discretizations include sampling in the fractional Fourier domain,discrete-time fractional Fourier transform,frac-tional Fourier series,discrete fractional Fourier transform (including 3 main types:linear combination-type;sampling-type;and eigen decomposition-type),and other discrete fractional signal transform.It is hoped to offer a doorstep for the readers who are interested in the fractional Fourier transform.
Fourier Transforms Simplified: Computing an Infrared Spectrum from an Interferogram
Hanley, Quentin S.
2012-01-01
Fourier transforms are used widely in chemistry and allied sciences. Examples include infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectroscopies. A thorough understanding of Fourier methods assists the understanding of microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and diffraction gratings. The theory of Fourier transforms has been presented in this "Journal",…
Thermal stabilization of static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometers
Schardt, Michael; Schwaller, Christian; Tremmel, Anton J.; Koch, Alexander W.
2017-05-01
Fourier transform spectroscopy has become a standard method for spectral analysis of infrared light. With this method, an interferogram is created by two beam interference which is subsequently Fourier-transformed. Most Fourier transform spectrometers used today provide the interferogram in the temporal domain. In contrast, static Fourier transform spectrometers generate interferograms in the spatial domain. One example of this type of spectrometer is the static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometer which offers a high etendue in combination with a simple, miniaturized optics design. As no moving parts are required, it also features a high vibration resistance and high measurement rates. However, it is susceptible to temperature variations. In this paper, we therefore discuss the main sources for temperature-induced errors in static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometers: changes in the refractive index of the optical components used, variations of the detector sensitivity, and thermal expansion of the housing. As these errors manifest themselves in temperature-dependent wavenumber shifts and intensity shifts, they prevent static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometers from delivering long-term stable spectra. To eliminate these shifts, we additionally present a work concept for the thermal stabilization of the spectrometer. With this stabilization, static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometers are made suitable for infrared process spectroscopy under harsh thermal environmental conditions. As the static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometer uses the so-called source-doubling principle, many of the mentioned findings are transferable to other designs of static Fourier transform spectrometers based on the same principle.
Cryogenic Scan Mechanism for Fourier Transform Spectrometer
Brasunas, John C.; Francis, John L.
2011-01-01
A compact and lightweight mechanism has been developed to accurately move a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) scan mirror (a cube corner) in a near-linear fashion with near constant speed at cryogenic temperatures. This innovation includes a slide mechanism to restrict motion to one dimension, an actuator to drive the motion, and a linear velocity transducer (LVT) to measure the speed. The cube corner mirror is double-passed in one arm of the FTS; double-passing is required to compensate for optical beam shear resulting from tilting of the moving cube corner. The slide, actuator, and LVT are off-the-shelf components that are capable of cryogenic vacuum operation. The actuator drives the slide for the required travel of 2.5 cm. The LVT measures translation speed. A proportional feedback loop compares the LVT voltage with the set voltage (speed) to derive an error signal to drive the actuator and achieve near constant speed. When the end of the scan is reached, a personal computer reverses the set voltage. The actuator and LVT have no moving parts in contact, and have magnetic properties consistent with cryogenic operation. The unlubricated slide restricts motion to linear travel, using crossed roller bearings consistent with 100-million- stroke operation. The mechanism tilts several arc seconds during transport of the FTS mirror, which would compromise optical fringe efficiency when using a flat mirror. Consequently, a cube corner mirror is used, which converts a tilt into a shear. The sheared beam strikes (at normal incidence) a flat mirror at the end of the FTS arm with the moving mechanism, thereby returning upon itself and compensating for the shear
Dispersion-Engineered Traveling Wave Kinetic Inductance Parametric Amplifier
Zmuidzinas, Jonas (Inventor); Day, Peter K. (Inventor)
2014-01-01
A traveling wave kinetic inductance parametric amplifier comprises a superconducting transmission line and a dispersion control element. The transmission line can include periodic variations of its dimension along its length. The superconducting material can include a high normal state resistivity material. In some instances the high normal state resistivity material includes nitrogen and a metal selected from the group consisting of titanium, niobium and vanadium. The traveling wave kinetic inductance parametric amplifier is expected to exhibit a noise temperature below 100 mK/GHz.
Fractional Fourier transform of apertured paraboloid refracting system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jiannong Chen; Jinliang Yan; Defa Wang; Yongjiang Yu
2007-01-01
The limitation of paraxial condition of paraboloid refracting system in performing fractional Fourier transform acts like an aperture, which makes the system different from ideal systems. With aperture expanded as the sum of finite complex Gaussian terms, a more practical approximate analytical solution of fractional Fourier transform of Gaussian beam in an apertured paraboloid refracting system is obtained and also numerical investigation is presented. Complicated and practical fractional Fourier transform systems can be constructed by cascading several apertured paraboloid refracting systems which are the simplest and the most basic units for performing more precise transform.
Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectral Polarimeter Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Boulder Nonlinear Systems, Inc. (BNS) proposes to develop an Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectral Polarimeter (E-O IFTSP). The polarimetric system is...
On the physical relevance of the discrete Fourier transform
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Greben, JM
1991-11-01
Full Text Available This paper originated from the author's dissatisfaction with the way the discrete Fourier transform is usually presented in the literature. Although mathematically correct, the physical meaning of the common representation is unsatisfactory...
Fourier Analysis and Structure Determination: Part I: Fourier Transforms.
Chesick, John P.
1989-01-01
Provides a brief introduction with some definitions and properties of Fourier transforms. Shows relations, ways of understanding the mathematics, and applications. Notes proofs are not included but references are given. First of three part series. (MVL)
Embolic Doppler ultrasound signal detection via fractional Fourier transform.
Gençer, Merve; Bilgin, Gökhan; Aydın, Nizamettin
2013-01-01
Computerized analysis of Doppler ultrasound signals can aid early detection of asymptomatic circulating emboli. For analysis, physicians use informative features extracted from Doppler ultrasound signals. Time -frequency analysis methods are useful tools to exploit the transient like signals such as Embolic signals. Detection of discriminative features would be the first step toward automated analysis of embolic Doppler ultrasound signals. The most problematic part of setting up emboli detection system is to differentiate embolic signals from confusing similar wave-like patterns such as Doppler speckle and artifacts caused by tissue movement, probe tapping, speaking etc. In this study, discrete version of fractional Fourier transform is presented as a solution in the detection of emboli in digitized Doppler ultrasound signals. An accurate set of parameters are extracted using short time Fourier transform and fractional Fourier transform and the results are compared to reveal detection quality. Experimental results prove the efficiency of fractional Fourier transform in which discriminative features becomes more evident.
Quantum Fourier Transform and Phase Estimation in Qudit System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAO Ye; PENG Shi-Guo; ZHENG Chao; LONG Gui-Lu
2011-01-01
The quantum Fourier transform and quantum phase estimation are the key components for many quantum algorithms, such as order-finding, factoring, and etc.In this article, the general procedure of quantum Fourier transform and phase estimation are investigated for high dimensional case.They can be seen as subroutines in a main program run in a qudit quantum computer, and the quantum circuits are given.
Simple optical setup implementation for digital Fourier transform holography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Oliveira, G N [Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica, TEM/PGMEC, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Passo da Patria, 156, Niteroi, R.J., Cep.: 24.210-240 (Brazil); Rodrigues, D M C; Dos Santos, P A M, E-mail: pams@if.uff.br [Instituto de Fisica, Laboratorio de Optica Nao-linear e Aplicada, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Nilton Tavares de Souza, s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, R.J., Cep.:24.210-346 (Brazil)
2011-01-01
In the present work a simple implementation of Digital Fourier Transform Holography (DFTH) setup is discussed. This is obtained making a very simple modification in the classical setup arquiteture of the Fourier Transform holography. It is also demonstrated the easy and practical viability of the setup in an interferometric application for mechanical parameters determination. The work is also proposed as an interesting advanced introductory training for graduated students in digital holography.
Fourier transform spectroscopy in the visible and ultraviolet range.
Luc, P; Gerstenkorn, S
1978-05-01
In cases where the photon noise is the limiting factor, the multiplex gain is not always conserved; however the throughput (Jacquinot's advantage) is not affected. Therefore extension of Fourier transform spectroscopy to higher frequencies has great possibilities. Studies at high resolution, both in emission and in absorption, show that the performance achieved by Fourier transform spectroscopy in the visible and uv range is comparable with that reached in the ir.
A discrete Fourier transform for virtual memory machines
Galant, David C.
1992-01-01
An algebraic theory of the Discrete Fourier Transform is developed in great detail. Examination of the details of the theory leads to a computationally efficient fast Fourier transform for the use on computers with virtual memory. Such an algorithm is of great use on modern desktop machines. A FORTRAN coded version of the algorithm is given for the case when the sequence of numbers to be transformed is a power of two.
Research progress of the fractional Fourier transform in signal processing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
The fractional Fourier transform is a generalization of the classical Fourier transform, which is introduced from the mathematic aspect by Namias at first and has many applications in optics quickly. Whereas its potential appears to have remained largely unknown to the signal processing community until 1990s. The fractional Fourier transform can be viewed as the chirp-basis expansion directly from its definition, but essentially it can be interpreted as a rotation in the time-frequency plane, i.e. the unified time-frequency transform. With the order from 0 increasing to 1, the fractional Fourier transform can show the characteristics of the signal changing from the time domain to the frequency domain. In this research paper, the fractional Fourier transform has been comprehensively and systematically treated from the signal processing point of view. Our aim is to provide a course from the definition to the applications of the fractional Fourier transform, especially as a reference and an introduction for researchers and interested readers.
Barnett, Patrick D; Strange, K Alicia; Angel, S Michael
2016-12-12
This work describes a method of applying the Fourier transform to the two-dimensional Fizeau fringe patterns generated by the spatial heterodyne Raman spectrometer (SHRS), a dispersive interferometer, to correct the effects of certain types of optical alignment errors. In the SHRS, certain types of optical misalignments result in wavelength-dependent and wavelength-independent rotations of the fringe pattern on the detector. We describe here a simple correction technique that can be used in post-processing, by applying the Fourier transform in a row-by-row manner. This allows the user to be more forgiving of fringe alignment and allows for a reduction in the mechanical complexity of the SHRS.
Dynamic measurement of deformation using Fourier transform digital holographic interferometry
Gao, Xinya; Wu, Sijin; Yang, Lianxiang
2013-10-01
Digital holographic interferometry (DHI) is a well-established optical technique for measurement of nano-scale deformations. It has become more and more important due to the rapid development of applications in aerospace engineering and biomedicine. Traditionally, phase shift technique is used to quantitatively measure the deformations in DHI. However, it cannot be applied in dynamic measurement. Fourier transform phase extraction method, which can determine the phase distribution from only a single hologram, becomes a promising method to extract transient phases in DHI. This paper introduces a digital holographic interferometric system based on 2D Fourier transform phase extraction method, with which deformations of objects can be measured quickly. In the optical setup, the object beam strikes a CCD via a lens and aperture, and the reference beam is projected on the CCD through a single-mode fiber. A small inclination angle between the diverging reference beam and optical axial is introduced in order to physically separate the Fourier components in frequency domain. Phase maps are then obtained by the utilization of Fourier transform and windowed inverse Fourier transform. The capability of the Fourier transform DHI is discussed by theoretical discussion as well as experiments.
Electro-Optical Imaging Fourier-Transform Spectrometer
Chao, Tien-Hsin; Zhou, Hanying
2006-01-01
An electro-optical (E-O) imaging Fourier-transform spectrometer (IFTS), now under development, is a prototype of improved imaging spectrometers to be used for hyperspectral imaging, especially in the infrared spectral region. Unlike both imaging and non-imaging traditional Fourier-transform spectrometers, the E-O IFTS does not contain any moving parts. Elimination of the moving parts and the associated actuator mechanisms and supporting structures would increase reliability while enabling reductions in size and mass, relative to traditional Fourier-transform spectrometers that offer equivalent capabilities. Elimination of moving parts would also eliminate the vibrations caused by the motions of those parts. Figure 1 schematically depicts a traditional Fourier-transform spectrometer, wherein a critical time delay is varied by translating one the mirrors of a Michelson interferometer. The time-dependent optical output is a periodic representation of the input spectrum. Data characterizing the input spectrum are generated through fast-Fourier-transform (FFT) post-processing of the output in conjunction with the varying time delay.
Rotation-invariant texture analysis using Radon and Fourier transforms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Songshan Xiao; Yongxing Wu
2007-01-01
@@ Texture analysis is a basic issue in image processing and computer vision, and how to attain the rotationinvariant texture characterization is a key problem. This paper proposes a rotation-invariant texture analysis technique using Radon and Fourier transforms. This method uses Radon transform to convert rotation to translation, then utilizes Fourier transform and takes the moduli of the Fourier transform of these functions to make the translation invariant. A k-nearest-neighbor rule is employed to classify texture images. The proposed method is robust to additive white noise as a result of summing pixel values to generate projections in the Radon transform step. Experiment results show the feasibility of the proposed method and its robustness to additive white noise.
SAW chirp Fourier transform for MB-OFDM UWB receiver
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HE Peng-fei; L(U) Ying-hua; ZHANG Hong-xin; WANG Ye-qiu; XU Yong
2006-01-01
In the conventional multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing ultra wideband (MB-OFDM UWB )receiver, the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm is realized by the expensive and power-consuming digital signal processor (DSP) chips. In this article, the lower power, lower cost, and lower complexity real-time analog surface acoustic wave (SAW)chirp Fourier transform devices were used to replace the DSP part. A MB-OFDM UWB receiver based on the M-C-M SAW chirp Fourier transform was presented, and the step of signal transformation from input signals was also depicted. The simulation results show that the proposed receiver provides similar bit error performance compared to the fully digital receiver when used in the channel environments proposed by the IEEE 802.15SG3a.
[Analysis of cell arrangements in Biota orientalis using Fourier transformation].
Duo, Hua-Qiong; Wang, Xi-Ming
2009-10-01
Fourier transform image-processing technology is applied for determining the cross section cell arrangement of early-wood in Biota orientalis. In this method, the disc-convoluted dot map from each cell radius with 10 pixels is transformed by Fourier transform, generating the angle distribution function in the power spectral pattern. The maximum value is the arrangement of the cell. The results of Fourier transform image-processing technology indicated that the arrangements of the cell of Biota orientalis are 15 degrees in oblique direction, respectively. This method provides a new basis for the digitized identification of the wood, and also the new theoretical research direction for the digitized identification and examination of the wood species.
The Formalization of Discrete Fourier Transform in HOL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhiping Shi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Traditionally, Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT is performed with numerical or symbolic computation, which cannot guarantee 100% accurate analysis which may be necessary for safety-critical applications. Machine theorem proving is one of the formal methods that perform accurate analysis with completeness to some extent. This paper proposes the formalization of DFT in a higher-order logic theorem prover named HOL. We propose the formal definition of DFT and verify the fundamental properties of DFT. Two case studies are presented to illustrate usefulness and correctness of the formalized DFT, including formal verifications of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT and cosine frequency shift.
Fourier transform infrared spectra applications to chemical systems
Ferraro, John R
1985-01-01
The final and largest volume to complete this four-volume treatise is published in response to the intense commercial and research interest in Fourier Transform Interferometry.Presenting current information from leading experts in the field, Volume 4 introduces new information on, for example, applications of Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy in the Far-Infrared Region. The editors place emphasis on surface studies and address advances in Capillary Gas Chromatography - Fourier Transform Interferometry.Volume 4 especially benefits spectroscopists and physicists, as well as researchers
Recording Fractional Fourier Transform Hologram Using Holographic Zone Plate
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
高峰; 曾阳素; 张怡霄; 杨静; 高福华; 郭永康
2002-01-01
FRTH(fractional Fourier transform hologram) is a new kind of hologram that differs from common Fresnel holograms and Fourier transform holograms. Due to the flexibility of zone plate. A method that uses the -1 order diffraction wave of zone plate as the object wave and the 0 order diffraction wave as the reference wave to record FRTH is presented. It provides a new simple way to record FRTH. In this paper, the theory of achieving FRT and recording FRTH using holographic zone plate is presented and experimental results are given.
Multifractional Fourier Transform Method and Its Applications to Image Encryption
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
RANQiwen; WANGQi; MAJing; TANLiying
2003-01-01
The multiplicity of the fractional Fourier transform(FRFT),which is intrinsic in any fractional operator,has been claimed by several authors,but never across-the-board developed.Particularly,the weight-type FRFT(WFRFT) has not been investigated.Starting with defining the multifractional Fourier transform (MFRFT),we gained the generalization permutation matrix group (GPMG)representation and multiplicity of the MFRFT,and the relationships among the MFRFT the standard WFRFT and the standard CFRFT.Finally,as a application,a novel image encryption method hased on the MFRFT is propounded.Similation results show that this method is safe,practicable and impactful.
Phase retrieval for attacking fractional Fourier transform encryption.
Kong, Dezhao; Shen, Xueju; Cao, Liangcai; Jin, Guofan
2017-04-20
An advanced iterative phase retrieval algorithm is applied to perform a ciphertext-only attack on the fractional Fourier transform-based double random phase encryption system. With the given complex amplitude of ciphertext and definite support of the object image, the original object image can be recovered by estimating the energy of support area in the recovered image. The encryption system can be attacked by analyzing the sensibility of fractional Fourier transform order keys and evaluating the energy of the object image support area. The proposed algorithm can obtain encrypted fractional order and retrieve two random phase keys. Numerical results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed attacking method.
Fourier-transform and global contrast interferometer alignment methods
Goldberg, Kenneth A.
2001-01-01
Interferometric methods are presented to facilitate alignment of image-plane components within an interferometer and for the magnified viewing of interferometer masks in situ. Fourier-transforms are performed on intensity patterns that are detected with the interferometer and are used to calculate pseudo-images of the electric field in the image plane of the test optic where the critical alignment of various components is being performed. Fine alignment is aided by the introduction and optimization of a global contrast parameter that is easily calculated from the Fourier-transform.
Fourier transform infrared spectra applications to chemical systems
Ferraro, John R
1978-01-01
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Applications to Chemical Systems presents the chemical applications of the Fourier transform interferometry (FT-IR).The book contains discussions on the applications of FT-IR in the fields of chromatography FT-IR, polymers and biological macromolecules, emission spectroscopy, matrix isolation, high-pressure interferometry, and far infrared interferometry. The final chapter is devoted to the presentation of the use of FT-IR in solving national technical problems such as air pollution, space exploration, and energy related subjects.Researc
SPICA/SAFARI fourier transform spectrometer mechanism evolutionary design
Dool, T.C. van den; Kruizinga, B.; Braam, B.C.; Hamelinck, R.F.M.M.; Loix, N.; Loon, D. van; Dams, J.
2012-01-01
TNO, together with its partners, have designed a cryogenic scanning mechanism for use in the SAFARI Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on board of the SPICA mission. SPICA is one of the M-class missions competing to be launched in ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme in 2022. JAXA leads the development o
Optical correlation based on the fractional Fourier transform.
Granieri, S; Arizaga, R; Sicre, E E
1997-09-10
Some properties of optical correlation based on the fractional Fourier transform are analyzed. For a particular set of fractional orders, a filter is obtained that becomes insensitive to scale variations of the object. An optical configuration is also proposed to carry out the fractional correlation in a flexible way, and some experimental results are shown.
Coupling of column liquid chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry
Somsen, G.W; Gooijer, C; Velthorst, N.H; Brinkman, U.A Th
1998-01-01
This paper provides an extensive overview of the literature on the coupling of column liquid chromatography (LC) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR). Flow-cell-based FT-IR detection and early solvent-elimination interfaces for LC-FT-IR are discussed in brief. A comprehensive descript
From Complex Fractional Fourier Transform to Complex Fractional Radon Transform
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FAN Hong-Yi; JIANG Nian-Quan
2004-01-01
We show that for n-dimensional complex fractional Fourier transform the corresponding complex fractional Radon transform can also be derived, however, it is different from the direct product of two n-dimensional real fractional Radon transforms. The complex fractional Radon transform of two-mode Wigner operator is calculated.
Quantum Discrete Fourier Transform in an Ion Trap System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENG Shi-Biao
2007-01-01
We propose two schemes for the implementation of quantum discrete Fourier transform in the ion trap system. In each scheme we design a tunable two-qubit phase gate as the main ingredient. The experimental implementation of the schemes would be an important step toward complex quantum computation in the ion trap system.
Imaginary angle fractional Fourier transform and its optical implementation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
华建文; 刘立人; 李国强
1997-01-01
The concept of imaginary angle fractional Fourier transform is proposed. Its existence and additive operation are proved. With this concept, FRT is expanded to the optical transform of convex lens outside the range of double focal length and that of concave lens.
Fourier transformation methods in the field of gamma spectrometry
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A Abdel-Hafiez
2006-09-01
The basic principles of a new version of Fourier transformation is presented. This new version was applied to solve some main problems such as smoothing, and denoising in gamma spectroscopy. The mathematical procedures were first tested by simulated data and then by actual experimental data.
Quaternion Fourier transforms for signal and image processing
Ell, Todd A; Sangwine, Stephen J
2014-01-01
Based on updates to signal and image processing technology made in the last two decades, this text examines the most recent research results pertaining to Quaternion Fourier Transforms. QFT is a central component of processing color images and complex valued signals. The book's attention to mathematical concepts, imaging applications, and Matlab compatibility render it an irreplaceable resource for students, scientists, researchers, and engineers.
AN ASYMPTOTIC ORDER OF FOURIER TRANSFORM ON SL(2,R)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Xinsong; Zheng Weixing
2003-01-01
In this paper, a better asymptotic order of Fourier transform on SL(2 ,R) is obtained by using classicalanalysis and Lie analysis comparing with that of [5]、 [6], and the Plancherel theorem on Cc2 (SL (2, R)) isalso obtained as an application.
Prediction of Tide Height Using the Discrete Fourier Transform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Md. Towhiduzzaman
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In this study, I have investigated some aspects of astronomical tide and predicted tide time and height by different methods. This thesis deals with the prediction of height and time for both high and low waters of the ports set up in several places by discrete Fourier transform. I computed the tide height using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT. The results are found to be in an agreement with the predicted data of others. By this work, we can predict the tide height of overall stations if the sample observed data are available for any kind of stations. I think that my work could be helpful to predict the tides over all stations where the observed data are available.
A simple scanning mirror mechanism for a Fourier transform spectrometer
Brasunas, John C.; Cushman, G. Mark
1998-04-01
We present a simple scanning mirror mechanism for a Fourier transform spectrometer, consisting of a voice coil actuator, a ball-bearing slide, and a single cube corner mirror or retroreflector. The use of a single cube corner reduces significantly the sensitivity of the Fourier transform spectrometer to the tilt of its moving mirror, enabling the simple mechanism. With simple velocity feedback using a linear velocity transducer, we achieve a scan speed stability of 2%-5% (root-mean-square) for scan speeds from 40 to 440 μm/s for a travel of 2.2 cm, corresponding to a spectral resolution of 0.06 cm-1. Fringe amplitude stability is about 5%. This scan mechanism was operated at standard temperature and pressure, but the relatively minute amount of lubricant in the ball-bearing slide may indicate possible operation under vacuum and/or cryogenic conditions.
Implementing quantum Fourier transform with integrated photonic devices
Tabia, Gelo Noel
2014-03-01
Many quantum algorithms that exhibit exponential speedup over their classical counterparts employ the quantum Fourier transform, which is used to solve interesting problems such as prime factorization. Meanwhile, nonclassical interference of single photons achieved on integrated platforms holds the promise of achieving large-scale quantum computation with multiport devices. An optical multiport device can be built to realize any quantum circuit as a sequence of unitary operations performed by beam splitters and phase shifters on path-encoded qudits. In this talk, I will present a recursive scheme for implementing quantum Fourier transform with a multimode interference photonic integrated circuit. Research at Perimeter Institute is supported by the Government of Canada through Industry Canada and by the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research and Innovation.
Fourier transform spectrometer based on Fabry-Perot interferometer.
Al-Saeed, Tarek A; Khalil, Diaa A
2016-07-10
We analyze the Fourier transform spectrometer based on a symmetric/asymmetric Fabry-Perot interferometer. In this spectrometer, the interferogram is obtained by recording the intensity as a function of the interferometer length. Then, we recover the spectrum by applying the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) directly on the interferogram. This technique results in spectral harmonic overlap and fictitious wavenumber components outside the original spectral range. For this purpose, in this work, we propose a second method to recover the spectrum. This method is based on expanding the DFT of the interferogram and the spectrum by a Haar or box function. By this second method, we recovered the spectrum and got rid of the fictitious spectral components and spectral harmonic overlap.
Perfect vortex beam: Fourier transformation of a Bessel beam.
Vaity, Pravin; Rusch, Leslie
2015-02-15
We derive a mathematical description of a perfect vortex beam as the Fourier transformation of a Bessel beam. Building on this development, we experimentally generate Bessel-Gauss beams of different orders and Fourier transform them to form perfect vortex beams. By controlling the radial wave vector of a Bessel-Gauss beam, we can control the ring radius of the generated beam. Our theoretical predictions match with the experimental results and also provide an explanation for previous published works. We find the perfect vortex resembles that of an orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode supported in annular profiled waveguides. Our prefect vortex beam generation method can be used to excite OAM modes in an annular core fiber.
Multiparty Quantum Secret Sharing Using Quantum Fourier Transform
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG Da-Zu; CHEN Zhi-Gang; GUO Ying
2009-01-01
A (n, n )-threshold scheme of multiparty quantum secret sharing of classical or quantum message is proposed based on the discrete quantum Fourier transform.In our proposed scheme, the secret message, which is encoded by using the forward quantum Fourier transform and decoded by using the reverse, is split and shared in such a way that it can be reconstructed among them only if all the participants work in concert.Furthermore, we also discuss how this protocol must be carefully designed for correcting errors and checking eavesdropping or a dishonest participant.Security analysis shows that our scheme is secure.Also, this scheme has an advantage that it is completely compatible with quantum computation and easier to realize in the distributed quantum secure computation.
Fully phase encrypted memory using cascaded extended fractional Fourier transform
Nishchal, Naveen K.; Joseph, Joby; Singh, Kehar
2003-11-01
In this paper, we implement a fully phase encrypted memory system using cascaded extended fractional Fourier transform (FRT). We encrypt and decrypt a two-dimensional image obtained from an amplitude image. The fully phase image to be encrypted is fractional Fourier transformed three times and random phase masks are placed in the two intermediate planes. Performing the FRT three times increases the key size, at an added complexity of one more lens. The encrypted image is holographically recorded in a photorefractive crystal and is then decrypted by generating through phase conjugation, conjugate of encrypted image. The decrypted phase image is converted into an amplitude image by using phase contrast technique. A lithium niobate crystal has been used as a phase contrast filter to reconstruct the phase image, alleviating the need of alignment in the Fourier plane, thereby making the system rugged.
On the Fourier transform of the greatest common divisor
van der Kamp, Peter H
2012-01-01
The discrete Fourier transform of the greatest common divisor is a multiplicative function that generalises both the gcd-sum function and Euler's totient function. On the one hand it is the Dirichlet convolution of the identity with Ramanujan's sum, and on the other hand it can be written as a generalised convolution product of the identity with the totient function. We show that this arithmetic function of two integers (a,m) counts the number of elements in the set of ordered pairs (i,j) such that i*j is equivalent to a modulo m. Furthermore we generalise a dozen known identities for the totient function, to identities which involve the discrete Fourier transform of the greatest common divisor, including its partial sums, and its Lambert series.
Scalable Fourier transform system for instantly structured illumination in lithography.
Ye, Yan; Xu, Fengchuan; Wei, Guojun; Xu, Yishen; Pu, Donglin; Chen, Linsen; Huang, Zhiwei
2017-05-15
We report the development of a unique scalable Fourier transform 4-f system for instantly structured illumination in lithography. In the 4-f system, coupled with a 1-D grating and a phase retarder, the ±1st order of diffracted light from the grating serve as coherent incident sources for creating interference patterns on the image plane. By adjusting the grating and the phase retarder, the interference fringes with consecutive frequencies, as well as their orientations and phase shifts, can be generated instantly within a constant interference area. We demonstrate that by adapting this scalable Fourier transform system into lithography, the pixelated nano-fringe arrays with arbitrary frequencies and orientations can be dynamically produced in the photoresist with high variation resolution, suggesting its promising application for large-area functional materials based on space-variant nanostructures in lithography.
Methods of theme presentation "The Fourier transform of impulse functions"
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Faniya Ahmetova
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The paper considers the Fourier transform of impulse functions, which is the mathematical basis of the tasks associated with the theory of reception and signal conversion in optoelectronic system. The method of calculating of two functions convolution, its Fourier image and the image of the Fourier-Bessel axisymmetric functions are demonstrated in details. A table, which summarizes the analytical expression for the shifted impulse functions and records their Fourier transforms, is provided. A wide range of examples of solving tasks, containing the graphic illustration, is analyzed. A structured approach to the presentation of the material, which combines basic theoretical information and analysis of typical tasks, will help second-year students of optoelectronic specialty in their independent work and homework.
Image restoration based on the discrete fraction Fourier transform
Yan, Peimin; Mo, Yu L.; Liu, Hong
2001-09-01
The fractional Fourier transform is the powerful tool for time-variant signal analysis. For space-variant degradation and non-stationary processes the filtering in fractional Fourier domains permits reduction of the error compared with ordinary Fourier domain filtering. In this paper the concept of filtering in fractional Fourier domains is applied to the problem of estimating degraded images. Efficient digital implementation using discrete Hermite eigenvectors can provide similar results to match the continuous outputs. Expressions for the 2D optimal filter function in fractional domains will be given for transform domains characterized by the two rotation angle parameters of the 2D fractional Fourier transform. The proposed method is used to restore images that have several degradations in the experiments. The results show that the method presented in this paper is valid.
Matrix-Vector Based Fast Fourier Transformations on SDR Architectures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. He
2008-05-01
Full Text Available Today Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFTs are applied in various radio standards based on OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex. It is important to gain a fast computational speed for the DFT, which is usually achieved by using specialized Fast Fourier Transform (FFT engines. However, in face of the Software Defined Radio (SDR development, more general (parallel processor architectures are often desirable, which are not tailored to FFT computations. Therefore, alternative approaches are required to reduce the complexity of the DFT. Starting from a matrix-vector based description of the FFT idea, we will present different factorizations of the DFT matrix, which allow a reduction of the complexity that lies between the original DFT and the minimum FFT complexity. The computational complexities of these factorizations and their suitability for implementation on different processor architectures are investigated.
Discrete Fourier Transform Analysis in a Complex Vector Space
Dean, Bruce H.
2009-01-01
Alternative computational strategies for the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) have been developed using analysis of geometric manifolds. This approach provides a general framework for performing DFT calculations, and suggests a more efficient implementation of the DFT for applications using iterative transform methods, particularly phase retrieval. The DFT can thus be implemented using fewer operations when compared to the usual DFT counterpart. The software decreases the run time of the DFT in certain applications such as phase retrieval that iteratively call the DFT function. The algorithm exploits a special computational approach based on analysis of the DFT as a transformation in a complex vector space. As such, this approach has the potential to realize a DFT computation that approaches N operations versus Nlog(N) operations for the equivalent Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) calculation.
Time-frequency representation measurement based on temporal Fourier transformation
Suen, Yifan; Xiao, Shaoqiu; Hao, Sumin; Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Xiong, Yigao; Liu, Shenye
2016-10-01
We propose a new scheme to physically realize the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) of chirped optical pulse using time-lens array that enables us to get time-frequency representation without using FFT algorithm. The time-lens based upon the four-wave mixing is used to perform the process of temporal Fourier transformation. Pump pulse is used for both providing the quadratic phase and being the window function of STFT. The idea of STFT is physically realized in our scheme. Simulations have been done to investigate performance of the time-frequency representation scheme (TFRS) in comparison with STFT using FFT algorithm. Optimal measurement of resolution in time and frequency has been discussed.
Magnetic suspension based Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer mechanism (FTIS)
Köker, Ingo; Langenbach, Harald; Schmid, Manfred; Lautier, Jean-Michel
2005-07-01
In the frame of an ESTEC technology contract the development of a Magnetically Suspended Fourier Transform Spectrometer Mechanism (FTIS) was carried out. The aim of the development is to avoid the issues found in mechanically suspended systems and to provide an active alignment and disturbance rejection capability for spectrometer applications. In the frame of FTIS an actively controlled suspension system based on the use of magnetic bearings was defined, developed and built as a demonstration model.
Homology of balanced complexes via the Fourier transform
Meshulam, Roy
2011-01-01
Let G_0,...,G_k be finite abelian groups and let G_0*...*G_k be the join of the 0-dimensional complexes G_i. We give a characterization of the integral k-coboundaries of subcomplexes of G_0*...*G_k in terms of the Fourier transform on the group G_0 \\times ... \\times G_k. This leads to an extension of a recent result of Musiker and Reiner on a topological interpretation of the cyclotomic polynomial.
Application of fast Fourier transformation in thermoluminescence thermogram reconstruction
Pla, C.; Podgorsak, E. B.
1984-03-01
A thermoluminescence (TL) thermogram reconstruction technique based on fast Fourier transformation (FFT) techniques is presented. Only the first few terms of the real and imaginary ``frequency arrays,'' representing the thermogram in the frequency domain, are used for thermogram reconstruction by an inverse transformation. A method to determine the optimum number of FFT terms is discussed and a reconstruction study performed on six commonly used TL materials.
10th International Conference on Progress in Fourier Transform Spectroscopy
Keresztury, Gábor; Kellner, Robert
1997-01-01
19 plenary lectures and 203 poster papers presented at the 10th International Conference of Fourier Transform Spectroscopy in Budapest 1995 give an overview on the state-of-the art of this technology and its wide range of applications. The reader will get information on any aspects of FTS including the latest instrumental developments, e.g. in diode array detection, time resolution FTS, microscopy and spectral mapping, double modulation and two-dimensional FTS.
Scaled Fractional Fourier Transform for Partially Coherent Beams
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蔡阳健; 林强
2003-01-01
The definition of scaled fractional Fourier transform (SFRT) is extended to partially coherent beams based directly on the cross-spectral density. Based on this formula, an equivalent tensor ABCD law for the SFRT of partially coherent twisted anisotropic Gaussian-Schell model beams is derived. The derived formulae provide a powerful tool for analysing and calculating the SFRT of partially coherent beams. An application example is provided.
Entangled Fractional Fourier Transform for the Multipartite Entangled State Representation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIAN Xiao-Qing; SONG Tong-Qiang
2006-01-01
We deduce entangled fractional Fourier transformation (EFFT) for the multipartite entangled state representation, which was newly constructed with two mutually conjugate n-mode entangled states of continuum variables in n-mode Fock space. We establish a formalism of EFFT for quantum mechanical wave functions, which provides us a convenient way to derive some wave functions. We find that the eigenmode of EFFT is different from the usual Hermite Polynomials. We also derive the EFFT of the n-mode squeezed state.
CONCURRENT SPEECHES SEPARATION USING WRAPPED DISCRETE FOURIER TRANSFORM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Xichun; Li Yunjie; Zhang Jun; Wei Gang
2005-01-01
This letter proposes a new method for concurrent voiced speech separation. Firstly the Wrapped Discrete Fourier Transform (WDFT) is used to decompose the harmonic spectra of the mixed speeches. Then the individual speech is reconstructed by using the sinusoidal speech model. By taking advantage of the non-uniform frequency resolution of WDFT, harmonic spectra parameters can be estimated and separated accurately. Experimental results on mixed vowels separation show that the proposed method can recover the original speeches effectively.
A Student's Guide to Fourier Transforms - 2nd Edition
James, J. F.
2002-09-01
Fourier transform theory is of central importance in a vast range of applications in physical science, engineering, and applied mathematics. This new edition of a successful student text provides a concise introduction to the theory and practice of Fourier transforms, using qualitative arguments wherever possible and avoiding unnecessary mathematics. After a brief description of the basic ideas and theorems, the power of the technique is then illustrated by referring to particular applications in optics, spectroscopy, electronics and telecommunications. The rarely discussed but important field of multi-dimensional Fourier theory is covered, including a description of computer-aided tomography (CAT-scanning). The final chapter discusses digital methods, with particular attention to the fast Fourier transform. Throughout, discussion of these applications is reinforced by the inclusion of worked examples. The book assumes no previous knowledge of the subject, and will be invaluable to students of physics, electrical and electronic engineering, and computer science. Expanded to include more emphasis on applications An established successful textbook for undergraduate and graduate students Includes worked examples and copious diagrams throughout
Fourier-transform Ghost Imaging with Hard X-rays
Yu, Hong; Han, Shensheng; Xie, Honglan; Du, Guohao; Xiao, Tiqiao; Zhu, Daming
2016-01-01
Knowledge gained through X-ray crystallography fostered structural determination of materials and greatly facilitated the development of modern science and technology in the past century. Atomic details of sample structures is achievable by X-ray crystallography, however, it is only applied to crystalline structures. Imaging techniques based on X-ray coherent diffraction or zone plates are capable of resolving the internal structure of non-crystalline materials at nanoscales, but it is still a challenge to achieve atomic resolution. Here we demonstrate a novel lensless Fourier-transform ghost imaging method with pseudo-thermal hard X-rays by measuring the second-order intensity correlation function of the light. We show that high resolution Fourier-transform diffraction pattern of a complex structure can be achieved at Fresnel region, and the amplitude and phase distributions of a sample in spatial domain can be retrieved successfully. The method of lensless X-ray Fourier-transform ghost imaging extends X-ray...
Mass spectral peak distortion due to Fourier transform signal processing.
Rockwood, Alan L; Erve, John C L
2014-12-01
Distortions of peaks can occur when one uses the standard method of signal processing of data from the Orbitrap and other FT-based methods of mass spectrometry. These distortions arise because the standard method of signal processing is not a linear process. If one adds two or more functions, such as time-dependent signals from a Fourier transform mass spectrometer and performs a linear operation on the sum, the result is the same as if the operation was performed on separate functions and the results added. If this relationship is not valid, the operation is non-linear and can produce unexpected and/or distorted results. Although the Fourier transform itself is a linear operator, the standard algorithm for processing spectra in Fourier transform-based methods include non-linear mathematical operators such that spectra processed by the standard algorithm may become distorted. The most serious consequence is that apparent abundances of the peaks in the spectrum may be incorrect. In light of these considerations, we performed theoretical modeling studies to illustrate several distortion effects that can be observed, including abundance distortions. In addition, we discuss experimental systems where these effects may manifest, including suggested systems for study that should demonstrate these peak distortions. Finally, we point to several examples in the literature where peak distortions may be rationalized by the phenomena presented here.
Quasi- Chun- Ching Shih's Fractional Fourier Transform with Periodicity of 2,3 and M
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FAN Xi-zhi
2004-01-01
Based on Chun-Ching Shih's idea, the basic transform was substituted and the quasi-ChunChing Shih's fractional Fourier transform with periodicity of 2, 3 and M was deduced. The two former transforms and the Chun-Ching Shih's fractional Fourier transform were only the particular cases of quasiChun-Ching Shih's fractional Fourier transform with periodicity of M.
Eltagoury, Yomna M.; Sabry, Yasser M.; Khalil, Diaa A.
2016-03-01
In this work, we present a novel architecture for Fourier transform spectrometers based on cascaded low-finesse FP interferometers. One of the interferometers has fixed path length while the second is a scanning one using a relatively large stroke electrostatic comb-drive actuator. The fixed interferometer results in a spectrum modulation and, hence, a shifted version of the interferogram away from the point of the zero spacing between the two mirrors. The shifted interferogram can then be used with the Fourier transform algorithm to obtain the spectrum of the measured light. This cascaded FP configuration results in a simple arrangement of mirrors on a line, which makes it much tolerant to misalignment errors. The proposed configuration is implemented using the MEMS DRIE technology on an SOI wafer with a simple MEMS process flow without metallization or dielectric coating of the vertical optical surface. The fabricated compact structure is measured with both a laser source with narrow spectrum at 1550 nm and a wide spectrum source composed of an SLED and the ASE of a semiconductor optical amplifier source. The obtained results validate the concept of the new configuration.
A VLSI architecture for simplified arithmetic Fourier transform algorithm
Reed, Irving S.; Shih, Ming-Tang; Truong, T. K.; Hendon, E.; Tufts, D. W.
1992-01-01
The arithmetic Fourier transform (AFT) is a number-theoretic approach to Fourier analysis which has been shown to perform competitively with the classical FFT in terms of accuracy, complexity, and speed. Theorems developed in a previous paper for the AFT algorithm are used here to derive the original AFT algorithm which Bruns found in 1903. This is shown to yield an algorithm of less complexity and of improved performance over certain recent AFT algorithms. A VLSI architecture is suggested for this simplified AFT algorithm. This architecture uses a butterfly structure which reduces the number of additions by 25 percent of that used in the direct method.
Directional short-time Fourier transform of distributions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katerina Hadzi-Velkova Saneva
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we consider the directional short-time Fourier transform (DSTFT that was introduced and investigated in (Giv in J. Math. Anal. Appl. 399:100-107, 2013. We analyze the DSTFT and its transpose on test function spaces S ( R n $\\mathcal {S}(\\mathbb {R}^{n}$ and S ( Y 2 n $\\mathcal {S}(\\mathbb {Y}^{2n}$ , respectively, and prove the continuity theorems on these spaces. Then the obtained results are used to extend the DSTFT to spaces of distributions.
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Analysis of Protein Secondary Structures
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jilie KONG; Shaoning YU
2007-01-01
Infrared spectroscopy is one of the oldest and well established experimental techniques for the analysis of secondary structure of polypeptides and proteins. It is convenient, non-destructive, requires less sample preparation, and can be used under a wide variety of conditions. This review introduces the recent developments in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique and its applications to protein structural studies. The experimental skills, data analysis, and correlations between the FTIR spectroscopic bands and protein secondary structure components are discussed. The applications of FTIR to the secondary structure analysis, conformational changes, structural dynamics and stability studies of proteins are also discussed.
THREE-VARIABLE ALTERNATING TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS AND CORRESPONDING FOURIER TRANSFORMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agata Bezubik
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The common trigonometric functions admit generalizations to any higher dimension, the symmetric, antisymmetric and alternating ones. In this paper, we restrict ourselves to three dimensional generalization only, focusing on alternating case in detail. Many specific properties of this new class of special functions useful in applications are studied. Such are the orthogonalities, both the continuous one and the discrete one on the 3D lattice of any density, corresponding discrete and continuous Fourier transforms, and others. Rapidly increasing precision of the interpolation with increasing density of the 3D lattice is shown in an example.
Hyperspectral imaging using the single-pixel Fourier transform technique
Jin, Senlin; Hui, Wangwei; Wang, Yunlong; Huang, Kaicheng; Shi, Qiushuai; Ying, Cuifeng; Liu, Dongqi; Ye, Qing; Zhou, Wenyuan; Tian, Jianguo
2017-03-01
Hyperspectral imaging technology is playing an increasingly important role in the fields of food analysis, medicine and biotechnology. To improve the speed of operation and increase the light throughput in a compact equipment structure, a Fourier transform hyperspectral imaging system based on a single-pixel technique is proposed in this study. Compared with current imaging spectrometry approaches, the proposed system has a wider spectral range (400-1100 nm), a better spectral resolution (1 nm) and requires fewer measurement data (a sample rate of 6.25%). The performance of this system was verified by its application to the non-destructive testing of potatoes.
Parallel image registration method for snapshot Fourier transform imaging spectroscopy
Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Shuaishuai; Lin, Jie; Zhu, Feijia; Jin, Peng
2017-08-01
A fast and precise registration method for multi-image snapshot Fourier transform imaging spectroscopy is proposed. This method accomplishes registration of an image array using the positional relationship between homologous points in the subimages, which are obtained offline by preregistration. Through the preregistration process, the registration problem is converted to the problem of using a registration matrix to interpolate subimages. Therefore, the hardware interpolation of graphics processing unit (GPU) texture memory, which has speed advantages for its parallel computing, can be used to significantly enhance computational efficiency. Compared to a central processing unit, GPU performance showed ˜27 times acceleration in registration efficiency.
Atomic transition probabilities of Ce I from Fourier transform spectra
Lawler, J. E.; Chisholm, J.; Nitz, D. E.; Wood, M. P.; Sobeck, J.; Den Hartog, E. A.
2010-04-01
Atomic transition probabilities for 2874 lines of the first spectrum of cerium (Ce I) are reported. These data are from new branching fraction measurements on Fourier transform spectra normalized with previously reported radiative lifetimes from time-resolved laser-induced-fluorescence measurements (Den Hartog et al 2009 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42 085006). The wavelength range of the data set is from 360 to 1500 nm. Comparisons are made to previous investigations which are less extensive. Accurate Ce i transition probabilities are needed for lighting research and development on metal halide high-intensity discharge lamps.
Multi-band Image Registration Method Based on Fourier Transform
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
庹红娅; 刘允才
2004-01-01
This paper presented a registration method based on Fourier transform for multi-band images which is involved in translation and small rotation. Although different band images differ a lot in the intensity and features,they contain certain common information which we can exploit. A model was given that the multi-band images have linear correlations under the least-square sense. It is proved that the coefficients have no effect on the registration progress if two images have linear correlations. Finally, the steps of the registration method were proposed. The experiments show that the model is reasonable and the results are satisfying.
The Discrete Fourier Transform on hexagonal remote sensing image
Li, Yalu; Ben, Jin; Wang, Rui; Du, Lingyu
2016-11-01
Global discrete grid system will subdivide the earth recursively to form a multi-resolution grid hierarchy with no Overlap and seamless which help build global uniform spatial reference datum and multi-source data processing mode which takes the position as the object and in the aspect of data structure supports the organization, process and analysis of the remote sensing big data. This paper adopts the base transform to realize the mutual transformation of square pixel and hexagonal pixel. This paper designs the corresponding discrete Fourier transform algorithm for any lattice. Finally, the paper show the result of the DFT of the remote sensing image of the hexagonal pixel.
A high-resolution Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer.
Johnson, H. L.; Forbes, F. F.; Thompson, R. I.; Steinmetz , D. L.; Harris, O.
1973-01-01
We have developed a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer having a resolution of 0.5/cm over the range of wavelength from 1 to 5.5 microns. It has been used to observe the sun over this wavelength range from a Lear Jet flying at an altitude of 14 km, and to observe a number of stars from the ground, using the 229-cm telescope of the Steward Observatory and the 152-cm aluminum-mirror telescope at the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional in the Sierra de San Pedro Martir, Baja California, Mexico. The solar spectrum is given here, while the ground-based spectra are being published separately.
Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopic study of human hair
Akhtar, W.; Edwards, H. G. M.; Farwell, D. W.; Nutbrown, M.
1997-07-01
Fourier-transform Raman microscopic spectra of normal, untreated and bleached hair fibres are presented. Vibrational assignments are made and differences are ascribed to the production of cysteic acid from cysteine. Changes in conformation associated with the disulphide bond in the keratotic component are noted from the ν(CSSC) vibrational modes at wave numbers near 500 cm -1. Raman spectra of hair root ends have also been investigated with a diminution in cysteine content being observed. Application of the technique to the biomedical investigation of healthy and diseased hair is proposed.
Ash melting behavior by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Han-xu; QIU Xiao-sheng; TANG Yong-xin
2008-01-01
A Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic (FTIR) method involving a Fe2O3 flux was used to learn how China's coal ash melts. The relationship between ash fusion temperature and chemical composition, as well as the effects of Fe2O3 flux on the ash fusion temperature were studied. The relationship between ash fusion temperature and chemical composition, mineralogical phases and functional groups was analyzed with the FTIR method. The results show that the ash fusion temperature is related to the location and transmittance of certain absorption peaks, which is of great significance for the study of ash behavior.
Beam profile for the Herschel-SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer.
Makiwa, Gibion; Naylor, David A; Ferlet, Marc; Salji, Carl; Swinyard, Bruce; Polehampton, Edward; van der Wiel, Matthijs H D
2013-06-01
One of the instruments on board the Herschel Space Observatory is the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE). SPIRE employs a Fourier transform spectrometer with feed-horn-coupled bolometers to provide imaging spectroscopy. To interpret the resultant spectral images requires knowledge of the wavelength-dependent beam, which in the case of SPIRE is complicated by the use of multimoded feed horns. In this paper we describe a series of observations and the analysis conducted to determine the wavelength dependence of the SPIRE spectrometer beam profile.
Double passing the Kitt Peak 1-m Fourier transform spectrometer
Jennings, D. E.; Hubbard, R.; Brault, J. W.
1985-01-01
Attention is given to a simple technique for performing the conversion of the Kitt Peak 1-m Fourier transform spectrometer's dual input/output optical configuration to a double pass configuration that improves spectral resolution by a factor of 2. The modification is made by placing a flat mirror in the output beam from each cat's eye, retroreflecting the beams back through the cat's eyes to the first beam splitter. A single detector is placed at the second input port, which then becomes the instrument's output.
Fourier transform light scattering angular spectroscopy using digital inline holography.
Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, YongKeun
2012-10-01
A simple and practical method for measuring the angle-resolved light scattering (ARLS) from individual objects is reported. Employing the principle of inline holography and a Fourier transform light scattering technique, both the static and dynamic scattering patterns from individual micrometer-sized objects can be effectively and quantitatively obtained. First, the light scattering measurements were performed on individual polystyrene beads, from which the refractive index and diameter of each bead were retrieved. Also, the measurements of the static and dynamic light scattering from intact human red blood cells are demonstrated. Using the present method, an existing microscope can be directly transformed into a precise instrument for ARLS measurements.
Particle field holography data reduction by Fourier transform analysis
Hess, Cecil F.; Trolinger, James D.
1987-01-01
The size distribution of a particle field hologram is obtained with a Fourier transformation of the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of the reconstructed hologram. Off-axis absorption holograms of particle fields with known characteristics were obtained and analyzed with a commercially available instrument. The mean particle size of the reconstructed hologram was measured with an error of + or - 5 percent, while the distribution broadening was estimated within + or - 15 percent. Small sections of a pulsed laser hologram of a synthetic fuel spray were analyzed with this method thus yielding a spatially resolved size distribution. The method yields fast and accurate automated analysis of particle field holograms.
From fractional Fourier transformation to quantum mechanical fractional squeezing transformation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吕翠红; 范洪义; 李东韡
2015-01-01
By converting the triangular functions in the integration kernel of the fractional Fourier transformation to the hy-perbolic function, i.e., tanα→tanhα, sinα→sinhα, we find quantum mechanical fractional squeezing transformation (FrST) which satisfies additivity. By virtue of the integration technique within ordered product of operators (IWOP) wederive the unitary operator responsible for the FrST, which is composite and is made of eiπa†a/2 and exp[ iα2 (a2+a†2)]. The FrST may be implemented in combinations of quadratic nonlinear crystals with different phase mismatches.
Discrete Fourier Transform in a Complex Vector Space
Dean, Bruce H. (Inventor)
2015-01-01
An image-based phase retrieval technique has been developed that can be used on board a space based iterative transformation system. Image-based wavefront sensing is computationally demanding due to the floating-point nature of the process. The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) calculation is presented in "diagonal" form. By diagonal we mean that a transformation of basis is introduced by an application of the similarity transform of linear algebra. The current method exploits the diagonal structure of the DFT in a special way, particularly when parts of the calculation do not have to be repeated at each iteration to converge to an acceptable solution in order to focus an image.
Transfer Function Identification Using Orthogonal Fourier Transform Modeling Functions
Morelli, Eugene A.
2013-01-01
A method for transfer function identification, including both model structure determination and parameter estimation, was developed and demonstrated. The approach uses orthogonal modeling functions generated from frequency domain data obtained by Fourier transformation of time series data. The method was applied to simulation data to identify continuous-time transfer function models and unsteady aerodynamic models. Model fit error, estimated model parameters, and the associated uncertainties were used to show the effectiveness of the method for identifying accurate transfer function models from noisy data.
Twin image elimination in digital holography by combination of Fourier transformations
Choudhury, Debesh
2013-01-01
We present a new technique for removing twin image in in-line digital Fourier holography using a combination of Fourier transformations. Instead of recording only a Fourier transform hologram of the object, we propose to record a combined Fourier transform hologram by simultaneously recording the hologram of the Fourier transform and the inverse Fourier transform of the object with suitable weighting coefficients. Twin image is eliminated by appropriate inverse combined Fourier transformation and proper choice of the weighting coefficients. An optical configuration is presented for recording combined Fourier transform holograms. Simulations demonstrate the feasibility of twin image elimination. The hologram reconstruction is sensitive to phase aberrations of the object, thereby opening a way for holographic phase sensing.
A prototype stationary Fourier transform spectrometer for near-infrared absorption spectroscopy.
Li, Jinyang; Lu, Dan-feng; Qi, Zhi-mei
2015-09-01
A prototype stationary Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) was constructed with a fiber-coupled lithium niobate (LiNbO3) waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) for the purpose of rapid on-site spectroscopy of biological and chemical measurands. The MZI contains push-pull electrodes for electro-optic modulation, and its interferogram as a plot of intensity against voltage was obtained by scanning the modulating voltage from -60 to +60 V in 50 ms. The power spectrum of input signal was retrieved by Fourier transform processing of the interferogram combined with the wavelength dispersion of half-wave voltage determined for the MZI used. The prototype FTS operates in the single-mode wavelength range from 1200 to 1700 nm and allows for reproducible spectroscopy. A linear concentration dependence of the absorbance at λmax = 1451 nm for water in ethanolic solution was obtained using the prototype FTS. The near-infrared spectroscopy of solid samples was also implemented, and the different spectra obtained with different materials evidenced the chemical recognition capability of the prototype FTS. To make this prototype FTS practically applicable, work on improving its spectral resolution by increasing the maximum optical path length difference is in progress.
Herschel SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer: Calibration of its Bright-source Mode
Lu, Nanyao; Swinyard, Bruce M; Benielli, Dominique; Fulton, Trevor; Hopwood, Rosalind; Imhof, Peter; Lim, Tanya; Marchili, Nicola; Naylor, David A; Schulz, Bernhard; Sidher, Sunil; Valtchanov, Ivan
2014-01-01
The Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) of the Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver (SPIRE) on board the ESA Herschel Space Observatory has two detector setting modes: (a) a nominal mode, which is optimized for observing moderately bright to faint astronomical targets, and (b) a bright-source mode recommended for sources significantly brighter than 500 Jy, within the SPIRE FTS bandwidth of 446.7-1544 GHz (or 194-671 microns in wavelength), which employs a reduced detector responsivity and out-of-phase analog signal amplifier/demodulator. We address in detail the calibration issues unique to the bright-source mode, describe the integration of the bright-mode data processing into the existing pipeline for the nominal mode, and show that the flux calibration accuracy of the bright-source mode is generally within 2% of that of the nominal mode, and that the bright-source mode is 3 to 4 times less sensitive than the nominal mode.
Zarnowiec, Paulina; Lechowicz, Łukasz; Czerwonka, Grzegorz; Kaca, Wiesław
2015-01-01
Methods of human bacterial pathogen identification need to be fast, reliable, inexpensive, and time efficient. These requirements may be met by vibrational spectroscopic techniques. The method that is most often used for bacterial detection and identification is Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It enables biochemical scans of whole bacterial cells or parts thereof at infrared frequencies (4,000-600 cm(-1)). The recorded spectra must be subsequently transformed in order to minimize data variability and to amplify the chemically-based spectral differences in order to facilitate spectra interpretation and analysis. In the next step, the transformed spectra are analyzed by data reduction tools, regression techniques, and classification methods. Chemometric analysis of FTIR spectra is a basic technique for discriminating between bacteria at the genus, species, and clonal levels. Examples of bacterial pathogen identification and methods of differentiation up to the clonal level, based on infrared spectroscopy, are presented below.
Novel fringe scanning/Fourier transform method of synthetic imaging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Crawford, T.M.; Albano, R.K.
1993-08-01
We have developed a one-dimensional theory and a computer model for synthetically imaging scenes using a novel fringe scanning/Fourier transform technique. Our method probes a scene using two interfering beams of slightly different frequency. These beams form a moving fringe pattern which scans the scene and resonates with any spatial frequency components having the same spatial frequency as the scanning fringe pattern. A simple, non-imaging detector above the scene observes any scattered radiation from the scene falling onto it. If a resonance occurs between the scanning fringe pattern and the scene, then the scattered radiation will be modulated at the difference frequency between the two probing beams. By changing the spatial period of the fringe pattern and then measuring the amplitude and phase of the modulated radiation that is scattered from the scene, the Fourier amplitudes and phases of the different spatial frequency components making up the scene can be measured. A synthetic image of the scene being probed can be generated from this Fourier amplitude and phase data by taking the inverse Fourier transform of this information. This technique could be used to image objects using light, ultrasonic, or other electromagnetic or acoustic waves.
Quantum process tomography of the quantum Fourier transform.
Weinstein, Yaakov S; Havel, Timothy F; Emerson, Joseph; Boulant, Nicolas; Saraceno, Marcos; Lloyd, Seth; Cory, David G
2004-10-01
The results of quantum process tomography on a three-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processor are presented and shown to be consistent with a detailed model of the system-plus-apparatus used for the experiments. The quantum operation studied was the quantum Fourier transform, which is important in several quantum algorithms and poses a rigorous test for the precision of our recently developed strongly modulating control fields. The results were analyzed in an attempt to decompose the implementation errors into coherent (overall systematic), incoherent (microscopically deterministic), and decoherent (microscopically random) components. This analysis yielded a superoperator consisting of a unitary part that was strongly correlated with the theoretically expected unitary superoperator of the quantum Fourier transform, an overall attenuation consistent with decoherence, and a residual portion that was not completely positive-although complete positivity is required for any quantum operation. By comparison with the results of computer simulations, the lack of complete positivity was shown to be largely a consequence of the incoherent errors which occurred over the full quantum process tomography procedure. These simulations further showed that coherent, incoherent, and decoherent errors can often be identified by their distinctive effects on the spectrum of the overall superoperator. The gate fidelity of the experimentally determined superoperator was 0.64, while the correlation coefficient between experimentally determined superoperator and the simulated superoperator was 0.79; most of the discrepancies with the simulations could be explained by the cumulative effect of small errors in the single qubit gates.
High Etendue Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer: initial results
Horton, Richard F.; Conger, Chris A.; Pelligrino, L. S.
1997-10-01
At the Denver meeting, last year, we presented the High Etendue Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer, (HEIFTS), theory and optical design. This device uses a new 'image plane interferometer' geometry to produce 'autocorrelation function modulation' in the image plane of a 2D imaging array, such that the phase offset of the modulation varies linearly across the image. As a 2D image is pushbroomed across the imaging, array, the record of an individual scene pixel is recorded for each autocorrelation phase offset. The 3D array of this data is processed to yield an 'autocorrelation function' data cube, which is Fourier transformed to yield a 'wavenumber' hyperspectral data curve. A phase I device has been demonstrated in the laboratory and initial results are presented. The significant increase in signal to noise ratio, which the HEIFTS optical design promises over conventional hyperspectral imaging schemes, has been simulated, and results will be discussed. A Phase II system is being prepared for initial field deployment, and will be described.
Image encryption techniques based on the fractional Fourier transform
Hennelly, B. M.; Sheridan, J. T.
2003-11-01
The fractional Fourier transform, (FRT), is a generalisation of the Fourier transform which allows domains of mixed spatial frequency and spatial information to be examined. A number of method have recently been proposed in the literature for the encryption of two dimensional information using optical systems based on the FRT. Typically, these methods require random phase screen keys to decrypt the data, which must be stored at the receiver and must be carefully aligned with the received encrypted data. We have proposed a new technique based on a random shifting or Jigsaw transformation. This method does not require the use of phase keys. The image is encrypted by juxtaposition of sections of the image in various FRT domains. The new method has been compared numerically with existing methods and shows comparable or superior robustness to blind decryption. An optical implementation is also proposed and the sensitivity of the various encryption keys to blind decryption is quantified. We also present a second image encryption technique, which is based on a recently proposed method of optical phase retrieval using the optical FRT and one of its discrete counterparts. Numerical simulations of the new algorithm indicates that the sensitivity of the keys is much greater than any of the techniques currently available. In fact the sensitivity appears to be so high that optical implementation, based on existing optical signal processing technology, may be impossible. However, the technique has been shown to be a powerful method of 2-D image data encryption.
Chiral Analysis of Isopulegol by Fourier Transform Molecular Rotational Spectroscopy
Evangelisti, Luca; Seifert, Nathan A.; Spada, Lorenzo; Pate, Brooks
2016-06-01
Chiral analysis on molecules with multiple chiral centers can be performed using pulsed-jet Fourier transform rotational spectroscopy. This analysis includes quantitative measurement of diastereomer products and, with the three wave mixing methods developed by Patterson, Schnell, and Doyle (Nature 497, 475-477 (2013)), quantitative determination of the enantiomeric excess of each diastereomer. The high resolution features enable to perform the analysis directly on complex samples without the need for chromatographic separation. Isopulegol has been chosen to show the capabilities of Fourier transform rotational spectroscopy for chiral analysis. Broadband rotational spectroscopy produces spectra with signal-to-noise ratio exceeding 1000:1. The ability to identify low-abundance (0.1-1%) diastereomers in the sample will be described. Methods to rapidly identify rotational spectra from isotopologues at natural abundance will be shown and the molecular structures obtained from this analysis will be compared to theory. The role that quantum chemistry calculations play in identifying structural minima and estimating their spectroscopic properties to aid spectral analysis will be described. Finally, the implementation of three wave mixing techniques to measure the enantiomeric excess of each diastereomer and determine the absolute configuration of the enantiomer in excess will be described.
Integrated optics in an electrically scanned imaging Fourier transform spectrometer
Breckinridge, James B. (Inventor); Ocallaghan, Fred G. (Inventor)
1982-01-01
An efficient, lightweight and stable, Fourier transform spectrometer was developed. The mechanical slide mechanism needed to create a path difference was eliminated by the use of retro-reflecting mirrors in a monolithic interferometer assembly in which the mirrors are not at 90 degrees to the propagation vector of the radiation, but rather at a small angle. The resulting plane wave fronts create a double-sided inteferogram of the source irradiance distribution which is detected by a charge-coupled device image sensor array. The position of each CCD pixel in the array is an indication of the path difference between the two retro-reflecting mirrors in the monolithic optical structure. The Fourier transform of the signals generated by the image sensor provide the spectral irradiance distribution of the source. For imaging, the interferometer assembly scans the source of irradiation by moving the entire instrument, such as would occur if it was fixedly mounted to a moving platform, i.e., a spacecraft. During scanning, the entrace slot to the monolithic optical structure sends different pixels to corresponding interferograms detected by adjacent columns of pixels of the image sensor.
[Fourier Transform Spectrometer Based on Rotating Parallel-Mirror-Pair].
Zhao, Bao-wei; Xiangli, Bin; Cai, Qi-sheng; Lü, Qun-bo; Zhou, Jin-song
2015-11-01
In the temporally-modulated Fourier transform spectroscopy, the translational moving mirror is difficult to drive accurately, causing tilt and shear problems. While, a rotational moving mirror can solve these problems. A rotary Fourier transform spectrometer is recommanded in this paper. Its principle is analyzed and the optical path difference is deduced. Also, the constrains for engineering realization are presented. This spectrometer consists of one beamsplitter, two fixed mirrors, one rotating parallel mirror pair, a collimating lens, a collecting lens, and one detector. From it's principle, this spectrometer show a simple structure, and it is assembled and adjustmented easily because the two split light are interfered with each other after reflected through the same plane mirror; By calculating the expression of it's optical path difference, the spectrometer is easy to realize large optical path difference, meaning high spectral resolution; Through analyzing it's engineering design constraints and computer simulation, it is known that the spectrometer should get the high resolution sample by high-speed spinning motor, so it is easy to achieve precise motion control, good stability, fast measurement speed.
Fourier-Transform Ghost Imaging with Hard X Rays
Yu, Hong; Lu, Ronghua; Han, Shensheng; Xie, Honglan; Du, Guohao; Xiao, Tiqiao; Zhu, Daming
2016-09-01
Knowledge gained through x-ray crystallography fostered structural determination of materials and greatly facilitated the development of modern science and technology in the past century. However, it is only applied to crystalline structures and cannot resolve noncrystalline materials. Here we demonstrate a novel lensless Fourier-transform ghost imaging method with pseudothermal hard x rays that extends x-ray crystallography to noncrystalline samples. By measuring the second-order intensity correlation function of the light, Fourier-transform diffraction pattern of a complex amplitude sample is achieved at the Fresnel region in our experiment and the amplitude and phase distributions of the sample in the spatial domain are retrieved successfully. For the first time, ghost imaging is experimentally realized with x rays. Since a highly coherent x-ray source is not required, the method can be implemented with laboratory x-ray sources and it also provides a potential solution for lensless diffraction imaging with fermions, such as neutrons and electrons where intensive coherent sources usually are not available.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Lillieholm, Mads;
2016-01-01
four-wave mixing (FWM), separated by a dispersive medium, which enables time-to-frequency and frequency-to-time conversions simultaneously, thus performing an exchange between the temporal and spectral profiles of the input signal. Using the proposed complete OFT, several advanced all-optical signal......We review recent progress in the use of time lens based optical Fourier transformation for advanced all-optical signal processing. A novel time lens based complete optical Fourier transformation (OFT) technique is introduced. This complete OFT is based on two quadratic phase-modulation stages using...... processing schemes for spectrally-efficient systems and networks have been achieved, including all-optical generation, detection and format conversion of spectrally-efficient signals. The spectrally-efficient signals in this paper mainly refer to efficiently multiplexed signals with a high symbol rate per Hz...
Dispersion management for a sub-10-fs, 10 TW optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier.
Tavella, Franz; Nomura, Yutaka; Veisz, Laszlo; Pervak, Vladimir; Marcinkevicius, Andrius; Krausz, Ferenc
2007-08-01
We report the amplification of three-cycle, 8.5 fs optical pulses in a near-infrared noncollinear optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier (OPCPA) up to energies of 80 mJ. Improved dispersion management in the amplifier by means of a combination of reflection grisms and a chirped-mirror stretcher allowed us to recompress the amplified pulses to within 6% of their Fourier limit. The novel ultrabroad, ultraprecise dispersion control technology presented in this work opens the way to scaling multiterawatt technology to even shorter pulses by optimizing the OPCPA bandwidth.
Wavelets for approximate Fourier transform and data compression
Guo, Haitao
This dissertation has two parts. In the first part, we develop a wavelet-based fast approximate Fourier transform algorithm. The second part is devoted to the developments of several wavelet-based data compression techniques for image and seismic data. We propose an algorithm that uses the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) as a tool to compute the discrete Fourier transform (DFT). The classical Cooley-Tukey FFT is shown to be a special case of the proposed algorithm when the wavelets in use are trivial. The main advantage of our algorithm is that the good time and frequency localization of wavelets can be exploited to approximate the Fourier transform for many classes of signals, resulting in much less computation. Thus the new algorithm provides an efficient complexity versus accuracy tradeoff. When approximations are allowed, under certain sparsity conditions, the algorithm can achieve linear complexity, i.e. O(N). The proposed algorithm also has built-in noise reduction capability. For waveform and image compression, we propose a novel scheme using the recently developed Burrows-Wheeler transform (BWT). We show that the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) should be used before the Burrows-Wheeler transform to improve the compression performance for many natural signals and images. We demonstrate that the simple concatenation of the DWT and BWT coding performs comparably as the embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) compression for images. Various techniques that significantly improve the performance of our compression scheme are also discussed. The phase information is crucial for seismic data processing. However, traditional compression schemes do not pay special attention to preserving the phase of the seismic data, resulting in the loss of critical information. We propose a lossy compression method that preserves the phase as much as possible. The method is based on the self-adjusting wavelet transform that adapts to the locations of the significant signal components
Chirped pulse amplification in an all-normal-dispersion erbium-doped fiber amplifier
Wang, Yiqin; Li, Lei; Zhao, Luming
2017-03-01
Chirped pulse amplification in an all-normal-dispersion erbium-doped fiber amplifier is presented. Wavelength dependent amplification is examined. It is found that gain dispersion limits the spectral profile of the amplified pulse. If the central wavelength of the seed pulse is far away from that of the gain profile of the amplifier, the gain profile partially shapes the spectrum of the amplified pulse while maintaining the characteristic steep spectral edge at one side. If the optical spectrum of the seed pulse is most covered by the gain profile, the characteristic steep spectral edges will be both maintained. The amplified pulse becomes deformed ultimately with increasing pump power, no matter whether the seed pulse is a transform-limited pulse or a chirped pulse.
Numerical Analysis of Inhomogeneous Dielectric Waveguide Using Periodic Fourier Transform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Moradian
2007-01-01
Full Text Available A general method is introduced to obtain the propagation constants of the inhomogeneous dielectric waveguide. The periodic Fourier transform is applied to the normalized Maxwell's equations and makes the field components periodic. Then they are expanded in Fourier series. Finally, the trapezoidal rule is applied to approximate the convolution integral which leads to a set of coupled second-order differential equations that can be solved as an eigenvalue-eigenvector problem. The normalized propagation constant can be obtained as the square roots of the eigenvalues of the coefficient matrices. The proposed method is applied to the dielectric waveguide with a two-layered dielectric profile in the transverse direction, and the first four-confined TE modes are obtained. The propagation constants for the mentioned dielectric waveguide are also derived analytically and are then compared with those derived by the proposed method. Comparison of results shows the efficacy of the proposed method.
Fractional Fourier transform of Cantor sets: further numerical study
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Gao Qiong; Liao tian-He; Cui Yuan-Feng
2008-01-01
This paper is a further work of the authors' paper published previously (Liao T H and Gao Q 2005 Chin. Phys. Lett. 22 2316). The amplitudes of fractional Fourier transform of Cantor sets are analysed from the viewpoint of multifractal by wavelet transform maxima method (WTMM). An integral operation is carried out before the application of WTMM, such that the function obtained can be considered as the perturbed devil staircase. Also, wavelets with large number of vanishing moments are used, which makes the complete singularity spectrum more accessible. The validity of multifractal formalism is guaranteed by restricting parameter q to a proper range, so that the phenomenon of multifractal phase transition can be explained reasonably. Particularly, the method of determining the range of parameter q in the above paper is developed to be more operational and rigorous.
Charge reversal Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.
Lobodin, Vladislav V; Savory, Joshua J; Kaiser, Nathan K; Dunk, Paul W; Marshall, Alan G
2013-02-01
We report the first charge reversal experiments performed by tandem-in-time rather than tandem-in-space MS/MS. Precursor odd-electron anions from fullerene C(60), and even-electron ions from 2,7-di-tert-butylfluorene-9-carboxylic acid and 3,3'-bicarbazole were converted into positive product ions ((-)CR(+)) inside the magnet of a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Charge reversal was activated by irradiating precursor ions with high energy electrons or UV photons: the first reported use of those activation methods for charge reversal. We suggest that high energy electrons achieve charge reversal in one step as double electron transfer, whereas UV-activated (-)CR(+) takes place stepwise through two single electron transfers and formally corresponds to a neutralization-reionization ((-)NR(+)) experiment.
Observing Extended Sources with the \\Herschel SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer
Wu, Ronin; Etxaluze, Mireya; Makiwa, Gibion; Naylor, David A; Salji, Carl; Swinyard, Bruce M; Ferlet, Marc; van der Wiel, Matthijs H D; Smith, Anthony J; Fulton, Trevor; Griffin, Matt J; Baluteau, Jean-Paul; Benielli, Dominique; Glenn, Jason; Hopwood, Rosalind; Imhof, Peter; Lim, Tanya; Lu, Nanyao; Panuzzo, Pasquale; Pearson, Chris; Sidher, Sunil; Valtchanov, Ivan
2013-01-01
The Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) on the European Space Agency's Herschel Space Observatory utilizes a pioneering design for its imaging spectrometer in the form of a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). The standard FTS data reduction and calibration schemes are aimed at objects with either a spatial extent much larger than the beam size or a source that can be approximated as a point source within the beam. However, when sources are of intermediate spatial extent, neither of these calibrations schemes is appropriate and both the spatial response of the instrument and the source's light profile must be taken into account and the coupling between them explicitly derived. To that end, we derive the necessary corrections using an observed spectrum of a fully extended source with the beam profile and the source's light profile taken into account. We apply the derived correction to several observations of planets and compare the corrected spectra with their spectral models to study the beam c...
Mid-Infrared Frequency Comb Fourier Transform Spectrometer
Adler, Florian; Foltynowicz, Aleksandra; Cossel, Kevin C; Briles, Travis C; Hartl, Ingmar; Ye, Jun
2010-01-01
Optical frequency-comb-based-high-resolution spectrometers offer enormous potential for spectroscopic applications. Although various implementations have been demonstrated, the lack of suitable mid-infrared comb sources has impeded explorations of molecular fingerprinting. Here we present for the first time a frequency-comb Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the 2100-to-3700-cm-1 spectral region that allows fast and simultaneous acquisitions of broadband absorption spectra with up to 0.0056 cm-1 resolution. We demonstrate part-per-billion detection limits in 30 seconds of integration time for various important molecules including methane, ethane, isoprene, and nitrous oxide. Our system enables precise concentration measurements even in gas mixtures that exhibit continuous absorption bands, and it allows detection of molecules at levels below the noise floor via simultaneous analysis of multiple spectral features. This system represents a near real-time, high-resolution, high-bandwidth mid-infrared sp...
Persian Sign Language Recognition Using Radial Distance and Fourier Transform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bahare Jalilian
2013-11-01
Full Text Available This paper provides a novel hand gesture recognition method to recognize 32 static signs of the Persian Sign Language (PSL alphabets. Accurate hand segmentation is the first and important step in sign language recognition systems. Here, we propose a method for hand segmentation that helps to build a better vision based sign language recognition system. The proposed method is based on YCbCr color space, single Gaussian model and Bayes rule. It detects region of hand in complex background and non-uniform illumination. Hand gesture features are extracted by radial distance and Fourier transform. Finally, the Euclidean distanceis used to compute the similarity between the input signs and all training feature vectors in the database. The system is tested on 480 posture images of the PSL, 15 images for each 32 signs. Experimental results show that our approach is capable to recognize all 32 PSL alphabets with 95.62% recognition rate.
A rheumatoid arthritis study by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
Carvalho, Carolina S.; Silva, Ana Carla A.; Santos, Tatiano J. P. S.; Martin, Airton A.; dos Santos Fernandes, Ana Célia; Andrade, Luís E.; Raniero, Leandro
2012-01-01
Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic inflammatory disease of unknown causes and a new methods to identify it in early stages are needed. The main purpose of this work is the biochemical differentiation of sera between normal and RA patients, through the establishment of a statistical method that can be appropriately used for serological analysis. The human sera from 39 healthy donors and 39 rheumatics donors were collected and analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The results show significant spectral variations with p<0.05 in regions corresponding to protein, lipids and immunoglobulins. The technique of latex particles, coated with human IgG and monoclonal anti-CRP by indirect agglutination known as FR and CRP, was performed to confirm possible false-negative results within the groups, facilitating the statistical interpretation and validation of the technique.
Lamellar grating optimization for miniaturized fourier transform spectrometers.
Ferhanoglu, Onur; Seren, Hüseyin R; Lüttjohann, Stephan; Urey, Hakan
2009-11-09
Microfabricated Lamellar grating interferometers (LGI) require fewer components compared to Michelson interferotemeters and offer compact and broadband Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) with good spectral resolution, high speed and high efficiency. This study presents the fundamental equations that govern the performance and limitations of LGI based FTS systems. Simulations and experiments were conducted to demonstrate and explain the periodic nature of the interferogram envelope due to Talbot image formation. Simulations reveal that the grating period should be chosen large enough to avoid Talbot phase reversal at the expense of mixing of the diffraction orders at the detector. Optimal LGI grating period selection depends on a number of system parameters and requires compromises in spectral resolution and signal-to-bias ratio (SBR) of the interferogram within the spectral range of interest. New analytical equations are derived for spectral resolution and SBR of LGI based FTS systems.
Spatially Resolved Fourier Transform Spectroscopy in the Extreme Ultraviolet
Jansen, G S M; Freisem, L; Eikema, K S E; Witte, S
2016-01-01
Coherent extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation produced by table-top high-harmonic generation (HHG) sources provides a wealth of possibilities in research areas ranging from attosecond physics to high resolution coherent imaging. However, it remains challenging to fully exploit the coherence of such sources for interferometry and Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS). This is due to the need for a measurement system that is stable at the level of a wavelength fraction, yet allowing a controlled scanning of time delays. Here we demonstrate XUV interferometry and FTS in the 17-55 nm wavelength range using an ultrastable common-path interferometer suitable for high-intensity laser pulses that drive the HHG process. This approach enables the generation of fully coherent XUV pulse pairs with sub-attosecond timing variation, tunable time delay and a clean Gaussian spatial mode profile. We demonstrate the capabilities of our XUV interferometer by performing spatially resolved FTS on a thin film composed of titanium and...
The RC Circuit: An Approach with Fourier Transforms
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-11-01
In this article we shall mathematically analyse the Resistor-Capacitor (RC) circuit with the help of Fourier transforms(FT). This very general technique gives us a lot of insight intosolving first order differential equations with source terms dependingon time. In itself, the RC circuit is by far the mostcommonplace entity in modern electronics. But the method ofFT is not the accepted custom for an electronic engineer, whois probably more comfortable working with complex impedancesand phasors while solving problems in network analysis.In fact, what is used much more extensively is the Laplacetransform. But a lot of things, (including the complex impedanceitself, and some insight into complex analysis) can be understoodbetter if we use the FT approach to solve the differentialequations that come up in network analysis. The use of FTcomes smoothly from first principles – precisely what we setout to demonstrate here.
Wide-Field Detected Fourier Transform CARS Microscopy
Duarte, Alex Soares; Schnedermann, Christoph; Kukura, Philipp
2016-11-01
We present a wide-field imaging implementation of Fourier transform coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (wide-field detected FT-CARS) microscopy capable of acquiring high-contrast label-free but chemically specific images over the full vibrational ‘fingerprint’ region, suitable for a large field of view. Rapid resonant mechanical scanning of the illumination beam coupled with highly sensitive, camera-based detection of the CARS signal allows for fast and direct hyperspectral wide-field image acquisition, while minimizing sample damage. Intrinsic to FT-CARS microscopy, the ability to control the range of time-delays between pump and probe pulses allows for fine tuning of spectral resolution, bandwidth and imaging speed while maintaining full duty cycle. We outline the basic principles of wide-field detected FT-CARS microscopy and demonstrate how it can be used as a sensitive optical probe for chemically specific Raman imaging.
Microscope system with on axis programmable Fourier transform filtering
Martínez, José Luis; García-Martínez, Pascuala; Moreno, Ignacio
2017-02-01
We propose an on-axis microscope optical system to implement programmable optical Fourier transform image processing operations, taking advantage of phase and polarization modulation of a liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) display. We use a Hamamatsu spatial light modulator (SLM), free of flickering, which therefore can be tuned to fully eliminate the zero order component of the encoded diffractive filter. This allows the realization of filtering operation on axis (as opposed to other systems in the literature that require operating off axis), therefore making use of the full space bandwidth provided by the SLM. The system is first demonstrated by implementing different optical processing operations based on phase-only blazed gratings such as phase contrast, band-pass filtering, or additive and substractive imaging. Then, a simple Differential interference contrast (DIC) imaging is obtained changing to a polarization modulation scheme, achieved simply by selecting a different incident state of polarization on the incident beam.
Motion saliency detection using a temporal fourier transform
Chen, Zhe; Wang, Xin; Sun, Zhen; Wang, Zhijian
2016-06-01
Motion saliency detection aims at detecting the dynamic semantic regions in a video sequence. It is very important for many vision tasks. This paper proposes a new type of motion saliency detection method, Temporal Fourier Transform, for fast motion saliency detection. Different from conventional motion saliency detection methods that use complex mathematical models or features, variations in the phase spectrum of consecutive frames are identified and extracted as the key to obtaining the location of salient motion. As all the calculation is made on the temporal frequency spectrum, our model is independent of features, background models, or other forms of prior knowledge about scenes. The benefits of the proposed approach are evaluated for various videos where the number of moving objects, illumination, and background are all different. Compared with some the state of the art methods, our method achieves both good accuracy and fast computation.
On the finite Fourier transforms of functions with infinite discontinuities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Branko Saric
2002-01-01
Full Text Available The introductory part of the paper is provided to give a brief review of the stability theory of a matrix pencil for discrete linear time-invariant singular control systems, based on the causal relationship between Jordan's theorem from the theory of Fourier series and Laurent's theorem from the calculus of residues. The main part is concerned with the theory of the integral transforms, which has proved to be a powerful tool in the control systems theory. On the basis of a newly defined notion of the total value of improper integrals, throughout the main part of the paper, an attempt has been made to present the global theory of the integral transforms, which are slightly more general with respect to the Laplace and Fourier transforms. The paper ends with examples by which the results of the theory are verified.
High-Throughput Screening Using Fourier-Transform Infrared Imaging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erdem Sasmaz
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Efficient parallel screening of combinatorial libraries is one of the most challenging aspects of the high-throughput (HT heterogeneous catalysis workflow. Today, a number of methods have been used in HT catalyst studies, including various optical, mass-spectrometry, and gas-chromatography techniques. Of these, rapid-scanning Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR imaging is one of the fastest and most versatile screening techniques. Here, the new design of the 16-channel HT reactor is presented and test results for its accuracy and reproducibility are shown. The performance of the system was evaluated through the oxidation of CO over commercial Pd/Al2O3 and cobalt oxide nanoparticles synthesized with different reducer-reductant molar ratios, surfactant types, metal and surfactant concentrations, synthesis temperatures, and ramp rates.
Short-time Fourier transform laser Doppler holography
Atlan, Michael
2012-01-01
We report a demonstration of laser Doppler holography at a sustained acquisition rate of 250 Hz on a 1 Megapixel complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) sensor array and image display at 10 Hz frame rate. The holograms are optically acquired in off-axis configuration, with a frequency-shifted reference beam. Wide-field imaging of optical fluctuations in a 250 Hz frequency band is achieved by turning time-domain samplings to the dual domain via short-time temporal Fourier transformation. The measurement band can be positioned freely within the low radio-frequency spectrum by tuning the frequency of the reference beam in real-time. Video-rate image rendering is achieved by streamline image processing with commodity computer graphics hardware. This experimental scheme is validated by a non-contact vibrometry experiment.
Instrument concept of the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer GLORIA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Friedl-Vallon
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA is an imaging limb emission sounder operating in the thermal infrared region. It is designed to provide measurements of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere with high spatial and high spectral resolution. The instrument consists of an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer integrated into a gimbal. The assembly can be mounted in the belly pod of the German High Altitude and Long Range research aircraft (HALO and in instrument bays of the Russian M55 Geophysica. Measurements are made in two distinct modes: the chemistry mode emphasises chemical analysis with high spectral resolution, and the dynamics mode focuses on dynamical processes of the atmosphere with very high spatial resolution. In addition, the instrument allows tomographic analyses of air volumes. The first measurement campaigns have shown compliance with key performance and operational requirements.
Calibration of the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS)
Best, F. A.; Revercomb, H. E.; Bingham, G. E.; Knuteson, R. O.; Tobin, D. C.; LaPorte, D. D.; Smith, W. L.
2001-01-01
The NASA New Millennium Program's Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) requires highly accurate radiometric and spectral calibration in order to carry out its mission to provide water vapor, wind, temperature, and trace gas profiling from geostationary orbit. A calibration concept has been developed for the GIFTS Phase A instrument design. The in-flight calibration is performed using views of two on-board blackbody sources along with cold space. A radiometric calibration uncertainty analysis has been developed and used to show that the expected performance for GIFTS exceeds its top level requirement to measure brightness temperature to better than 1 K. For the Phase A GIFTS design, the spectral calibration is established by the highly stable diode laser used as the reference for interferogram sampling, and verified with comparisons to atmospheric calculations.
A direct digital synthesis chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer.
Finneran, Ian A; Holland, Daniel B; Carroll, P Brandon; Blake, Geoffrey A
2013-08-01
Chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometers have become the instrument of choice for acquiring rotational spectra, due to their high sensitivity, fast acquisition rate, and large bandwidth. Here we present the design and capabilities of a recently constructed CP-FTMW spectrometer using direct digital synthesis (DDS) as a new method for chirped pulse generation, through both a suite of extensive microwave characterizations and deep averaging of the 10-14 GHz spectrum of jet-cooled acetone. The use of DDS is more suited for in situ applications of CP-FTMW spectroscopy, as it reduces the size, weight, and power consumption of the chirp generation segment of the spectrometer all by more than an order of magnitude, while matching the performance of traditional designs. The performance of the instrument was further improved by the use of a high speed digitizer with dedicated signal averaging electronics, which facilitates a data acquisition rate of 2.1 kHz.
[Influence of collimation system on static Fourier transform spectrometer].
Jiang, Cheng-Zhi; Liang, Jing-Qiu; Liang, Zhong-Zhu; Sun, Qiang; Wang, Wei-Biao
2014-01-01
Collimation system provides collimated light for the static Fourier-transform spectroscopy (SFTS). Its quality is crucial to the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of SFTS. In the present paper, the physical model of SFTS was established based on the Fresnel diffraction theory by means of numerical software. The influence of collimation system on the SFTS was discussed in detail focusing on the aberrations of collimation lens and the quality of extended source. The results of simulation show that the influences of different kinds of aberrations on SNR take on obvious regularity, and in particular, the influences of off-axis aberrations on SNR are closely related to the location of off-axis point source. Finally the extended source's maximum radius allowed was obtained by simulation, which equals to 0.65 mm. The discussion results will be used for the design of collimation system.
How to tickle spins with a fourier transform NMR spectrometer.
Segawa, Takuya F; Carnevale, Diego; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey
2013-02-01
In the long bygone days of continuous-wave nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, a selected transition within a multiplet of a high-resolution spectrum could be irradiated by a highly selective continuous-wave (CW) radio-frequency (rf) field with a very weak amplitude ω(2)/(2π)≤J. This causes splittings of connected transitions, allowing one to map the connectivities of all transitions within the energy-level diagram of the spin system. Such "tickling" experiments stimulated the invention of two-dimensional spectroscopy, but seem to have been forgotten for nearly 50 years. We show that tickling can readily be achieved in homonuclear systems with Fourier transform spectrometers by applying short pulses in the intervals between the sampling points. Extensions to heteronuclear systems are even more straightforward since they can be carried out using very weak CW rf fields.
On-chip photonic Fourier transform with surface plasmon polaritons
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shan Shan Kou; Guanghui Yuan; Qian wang; Luping Du; Eugeniu Balaur; Daohua Zhang; Dingyuan Tang
2016-01-01
The Fourier transform (FT),a cornerstone of optical processing,enables rapid evaluation of fundamental mathematical operations,such as derivatives and integrals.Conventionally,a converging lens performs an optical FT in free space when light passes through it.The speed of the transformation is limited by the thickness and the focal length of the lens.By usingthe wave nature of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs),here we demonstrate that the FT can be implemented in a planar configuration with a minimal propagation distance of around 10 μm,resulting in an increase of speed by four to five orders of magnitude.The photonic FT was tested by synthesizing intricate SPP waves with their Fourier components.The reduced dimensionality in the minuscule device allows the future development of an ultrafast on-chip photonic information processing platform for large-scale optical computing.
A high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer for planetary spectroscopy
Cruikshank, D. P.; Sinton, W. M.
1973-01-01
The employment of a high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) is described for planetary and other astronomical spectroscopy in conjunction with the 88-inch telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. The FTS system is designed for a broad range of uses, including double-beam laboratory spectroscopy, infrared gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The data system is well-suited to astronomical applications because of its great speed in acquiring and transforming data, and because of the enormous storage capability of the magnetic tape unit supplied with the system. The basic instrument is outlined 2nd some of the initial results from the first attempted use on the Mauna Kea 88-inch telescope are reported.
Improved Spectral Representation for Birdcall Based on Fractional Fourier Transform
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
A novel spectral representation based on fractional Fourier transform (FrFT) is proposed and applied to birdcall analysis. The FrFT-based spectrogram of a signal is derived and compared with its FT-based counterpart, and the spectrum gathering method is used to show the energy distribution related to the pitch frequency. The fixed transform order and adaptive orders for FrFT are tested. The fixed order can be obtained empirically or calculated according to the known chirp rate. The adaptive optimal orders are determined by using ambiguity function. Experimental results with birdcalls show that the FrFT-based spectrogram with an optimal transform order has higher resolution than its STFT-based counterpart, and the better performance can be achieved if adaptive orders are used.
A Matrix Formulation of Discrete Chirp Fourier Transform Algorithms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Juan Pablo Soto Quiros; Domingo Rodriguez
2014-01-01
This work presents a computational matrix framework in terms of tensor signal algebra for the formulation of discrete chirp Fourier transform algorithms. These algorithms are used in this work to estimate the point target functions (impulse response functions) of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems. This estimation technique is being studied as an alternative to the estimation of point target functions using the discrete cross-ambiguity function for certain types of environmental surveillance applications. The tensor signal algebra is presented as a mathematics environment composed of signal spaces, finite dimensional linear operators, and special matrices where algebraic methods are used to generate these signal transforms as computational estimators. Also, the tensor signal algebra contributes to analysis, design, and implementation of parallel algorithms. An instantiation of the framework was performed by using the MATLAB Parallel Computing Toolbox, where all the algorithms presented in this paper were implemented.
Robust Video Watermarking Based on Discrete Fractional Fourier Transform
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
NIU Xiamu; SUN Shenghe
2001-01-01
A video watermarking techniquebased on discrete fractional Fourier transform(DFRFT) is proposed. Each frame of an original videois first decomposed into two-dimensional (2-D) mul-tiresolution representations by 2-D discrete wavelettransforms (DWT) along the spatial axis. Then thewavelet coefficient frames in each group of pictures(GOP, each GOP has 16 frames) are transformed intoDFRFT coefficient frames by one-dimensional (1-D)DFRFT along the temporal axis. The watermark isembedded into each DFRFT coefficient frame in theGOP, and the angular parameter of the DFRFT canbe changed to adapt itself to the original video. Experimental results show that the proposed techniqueis robust enough against the attacks of frame dropping, averaging and lossy compression.
Indirect Fourier transform in the context of statistical inference.
Muthig, Michael; Prévost, Sylvain; Orglmeister, Reinhold; Gradzielski, Michael
2016-09-01
Inferring structural information from the intensity of a small-angle scattering (SAS) experiment is an ill-posed inverse problem. Thus, the determination of a solution is in general non-trivial. In this work, the indirect Fourier transform (IFT), which determines the pair distance distribution function from the intensity and hence yields structural information, is discussed within two different statistical inference approaches, namely a frequentist one and a Bayesian one, in order to determine a solution objectively From the frequentist approach the cross-validation method is obtained as a good practical objective function for selecting an IFT solution. Moreover, modern machine learning methods are employed to suppress oscillatory behaviour of the solution, hence extracting only meaningful features of the solution. By comparing the results yielded by the different methods presented here, the reliability of the outcome can be improved and thus the approach should enable more reliable information to be deduced from SAS experiments.
OCTAD-S: digital fast Fourier transform spectrometers by FPGA
Iwai, Kazumasa; Kubo, Yûki; Ishibashi, Hiromitsu; Naoi, Takahiro; Harada, Kenichi; Ema, Kenji; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Chikahiro, Yuichi
2017-07-01
We have developed a digital fast Fourier transform spectrometer made of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The base instrument has independent ADC and FPGA modules, which allow us to implement different spectrometers in a relatively easy manner. Two types of spectrometers have been instrumented: one with 4.096 GS/s sampling speed and 2048 frequency channels and the other with 2.048 GS/s sampling speed and 32,768 frequency channels. The signal processing in these spectrometers has no dead time, and the accumulated spectra are recorded in external media every 8 ms. A direct sampling spectroscopy up to 8 GHz is achieved by a microwave track-and-hold circuit, which can reduce the analog receiver in front of the spectrometer. Highly stable spectroscopy with a wide dynamic range was demonstrated in a series of laboratory experiments and test observations of solar radio bursts.
Radix-3 Algorithm for Realization of Discrete Fourier Transform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.Narayan Murty
2016-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new radix-3 algorithm for realization of discrete Fourier transform (DFT of length N = 3m (m = 1, 2, 3,... is presented. The DFT of length N can be realized from three DFT sequences, each of length N/3. If the input signal has length N, direct calculation of DFT requires O (N 2 complex multiplications (4N 2 real multiplications and some additions. This radix-3 algorithm reduces the number of multiplications required for realizing DFT. For example, the number of complex multiplications required for realizing 9-point DFT using the proposed radix-3 algorithm is 60. Thus, saving in time can be achieved in the realization of proposed algorithm.
Fourier transform for fermionic systems and the spectral tensor network.
Ferris, Andrew J
2014-07-01
Leveraging the decomposability of the fast Fourier transform, I propose a new class of tensor network that is efficiently contractible and able to represent many-body systems with local entanglement that is greater than the area law. Translationally invariant systems of free fermions in arbitrary dimensions as well as 1D systems solved by the Jordan-Wigner transformation are shown to be exactly represented in this class. Further, it is proposed that these tensor networks be used as generic structures to variationally describe more complicated systems, such as interacting fermions. This class shares some similarities with the Evenbly-Vidal branching multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz, but with some important differences and greatly reduced computational demands.
Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry: The Transformation of Modern Environmental Analyses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lucy Lim
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Unknown compounds in environmental samples are difficult to identify using standard mass spectrometric methods. Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS has revolutionized how environmental analyses are performed. With its unsurpassed mass accuracy, high resolution and sensitivity, researchers now have a tool for difficult and complex environmental analyses. Two features of FTMS are responsible for changing the face of how complex analyses are accomplished. First is the ability to quickly and with high mass accuracy determine the presence of unknown chemical residues in samples. For years, the field has been limited by mass spectrometric methods that were based on knowing what compounds of interest were. Secondly, by utilizing the high resolution capabilities coupled with the low detection limits of FTMS, analysts also could dilute the sample sufficiently to minimize the ionization changes from varied matrices.
Fractional Fourier Transform for Ultrasonic Chirplet Signal Decomposition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yufeng Lu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A fractional fourier transform (FrFT based chirplet signal decomposition (FrFT-CSD algorithm is proposed to analyze ultrasonic signals for NDE applications. Particularly, this method is utilized to isolate dominant chirplet echoes for successive steps in signal decomposition and parameter estimation. FrFT rotates the signal with an optimal transform order. The search of optimal transform order is conducted by determining the highest kurtosis value of the signal in the transformed domain. A simulation study reveals the relationship among the kurtosis, the transform order of FrFT, and the chirp rate parameter in the simulated ultrasonic echoes. Benchmark and ultrasonic experimental data are used to evaluate the FrFT-CSD algorithm. Signal processing results show that FrFT-CSD not only reconstructs signal successfully, but also characterizes echoes and estimates echo parameters accurately. This study has a broad range of applications of importance in signal detection, estimation, and pattern recognition.
Quantum copying and simplification of the quantum Fourier transform
Niu, Chi-Sheng
Theoretical studies of quantum computation and quantum information theory are presented in this thesis. Three topics are considered: simplification of the quantum Fourier transform in Shor's algorithm, optimal eavesdropping in the BB84 quantum cryptographic protocol, and quantum copying of one qubit. The quantum Fourier transform preceding the final measurement in Shor's algorithm is simplified by replacing a network of quantum gates with one that has fewer and simpler gates controlled by classical signals. This simplification results from an analysis of the network using the consistent history approach to quantum mechanics. The optimal amount of information which an eavesdropper can gain, for a given level of noise in the communication channel, is worked out for the BB84 quantum cryptographic protocol. The optimal eavesdropping strategy is expressed in terms of various quantum networks. A consistent history analysis of these networks using two conjugate quantum bases shows how the information gain in one basis influences the noise level in the conjugate basis. The no-cloning property of quantum systems, which is the physics behind quantum cryptography, is studied by considering copying machines that generate two imperfect copies of one qubit. The best qualities these copies can have are worked out with the help of the Bloch sphere representation for one qubit, and a quantum network is worked out for an optimal copying machine. If the copying machine does not have additional ancillary qubits, the copying process can be viewed using a 2-dimensional subspace in a product space of two qubits. A special representation of such a two-dimensional subspace makes possible a complete characterization of this type of copying. This characterization in turn leads to simplified eavesdropping strategies in the BB84 and the B92 quantum cryptographic protocols.
[Continuum based fast Fourier transform processing of infrared spectrum].
Liu, Qing-Jie; Lin, Qi-Zhong; Wang, Qin-Jun; Li, Hui; Li, Shuai
2009-12-01
To recognize ground objects with infrared spectrum, high frequency noise removing is one of the most important phases in spectrum feature analysis and extraction. A new method for infrared spectrum preprocessing was given combining spectrum continuum processing and Fast Fourier Transform (CFFT). Continuum was firstly removed from the noise polluted infrared spectrum to standardize hyper-spectra. Then the spectrum was transformed into frequency domain (FD) with fast Fourier transform (FFT), separating noise information from target information After noise eliminating from useful information with a low-pass filter, the filtered FD spectrum was transformed into time domain (TD) with fast Fourier inverse transform. Finally the continuum was recovered to the spectrum, and the filtered infrared spectrum was achieved. Experiment was performed for chlorite spectrum in USGS polluted with two kinds of simulated white noise to validate the filtering ability of CFFT by contrast with cubic function of five point (CFFP) in time domain and traditional FFT in frequency domain. A circle of CFFP has limited filtering effect, so it should work much with more circles and consume more time to achieve better filtering result. As for conventional FFT, Gibbs phenomenon has great effect on preprocessing result at edge bands because of special character of rock or mineral spectra, while works well at middle bands. Mean squared error of CFFT is 0. 000 012 336 with cut-off frequency of 150, while that of FFT and CFFP is 0. 000 061 074 with cut-off frequency of 150 and 0.000 022 963 with 150 working circles respectively. Besides the filtering result of CFFT can be improved by adjusting the filter cut-off frequency, and has little effect on working time. The CFFT method overcomes the Gibbs problem of FFT in spectrum filtering, and can be more convenient, dependable, and effective than traditional TD filter methods.
Fast Fourier Transform Co-Processor (FFTC)- Towards Embedded GFLOPs
Kuehl, Christopher; Liebstueckel, Uwe; Tejerina, Isaac; Uemminghaus, Michael; Wite, Felix; Kolb, Michael; Suess, Martin; Weigand, Roland
2012-08-01
Many signal processing applications and algorithms perform their operations on the data in the transform domain to gain efficiency. The Fourier Transform Co- Processor has been developed with the aim to offload General Purpose Processors from performing these transformations and therefore to boast the overall performance of a processing module. The IP of the commercial PowerFFT processor has been selected and adapted to meet the constraints of the space environment.In frame of the ESA activity “Fast Fourier Transform DSP Co-processor (FFTC)” (ESTEC/Contract No. 15314/07/NL/LvH/ma) the objectives were the following:Production of prototypes of a space qualified version of the commercial PowerFFT chip called FFTC based on the PowerFFT IP.The development of a stand-alone FFTC Accelerator Board (FTAB) based on the FFTC including the Controller FPGA and SpaceWire Interfaces to verify the FFTC function and performance.The FFTC chip performs its calculations with floating point precision. Stand alone it is capable computing FFTs of up to 1K complex samples in length in only 10μsec. This corresponds to an equivalent processing performance of 4.7 GFlops. In this mode the maximum sustained data throughput reaches 6.4Gbit/s. When connected to up to 4 EDAC protected SDRAM memory banks the FFTC can perform long FFTs with up to 1M complex samples in length or multidimensional FFT- based processing tasks.A Controller FPGA on the FTAB takes care of the SDRAM addressing. The instructions commanded via the Controller FPGA are used to set up the data flow and generate the memory addresses.The presentation will give and overview on the project, including the results of the validation of the FFTC ASIC prototypes.
Fast Fourier Transform Co-processor (FFTC), towards embedded GFLOPs
Kuehl, Christopher; Liebstueckel, Uwe; Tejerina, Isaac; Uemminghaus, Michael; Witte, Felix; Kolb, Michael; Suess, Martin; Weigand, Roland; Kopp, Nicholas
2012-10-01
Many signal processing applications and algorithms perform their operations on the data in the transform domain to gain efficiency. The Fourier Transform Co-Processor has been developed with the aim to offload General Purpose Processors from performing these transformations and therefore to boast the overall performance of a processing module. The IP of the commercial PowerFFT processor has been selected and adapted to meet the constraints of the space environment. In frame of the ESA activity "Fast Fourier Transform DSP Co-processor (FFTC)" (ESTEC/Contract No. 15314/07/NL/LvH/ma) the objectives were the following: • Production of prototypes of a space qualified version of the commercial PowerFFT chip called FFTC based on the PowerFFT IP. • The development of a stand-alone FFTC Accelerator Board (FTAB) based on the FFTC including the Controller FPGA and SpaceWire Interfaces to verify the FFTC function and performance. The FFTC chip performs its calculations with floating point precision. Stand alone it is capable computing FFTs of up to 1K complex samples in length in only 10μsec. This corresponds to an equivalent processing performance of 4.7 GFlops. In this mode the maximum sustained data throughput reaches 6.4Gbit/s. When connected to up to 4 EDAC protected SDRAM memory banks the FFTC can perform long FFTs with up to 1M complex samples in length or multidimensional FFT-based processing tasks. A Controller FPGA on the FTAB takes care of the SDRAM addressing. The instructions commanded via the Controller FPGA are used to set up the data flow and generate the memory addresses. The paper will give an overview on the project, including the results of the validation of the FFTC ASIC prototypes.
Speeding-up exchange-mediated saturation transfer experiments by Fourier transform
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carneiro, Marta G.; Reddy, Jithender G.; Griesinger, Christian; Lee, Donghan, E-mail: dole@nmr.mpibpc.mpg.de [Max-Planck Institute for Biophysical chemistry, Department of NMR-based Structural Biology (Germany)
2015-11-15
Protein motions over various time scales are crucial for protein function. NMR relaxation dispersion experiments play a key role in explaining these motions. However, the study of slow conformational changes with lowly populated states remained elusive. The recently developed exchange-mediated saturation transfer experiments allow the detection and characterization of such motions, but require extensive measurement time. Here we show that, by making use of Fourier transform, the total acquisition time required to measure an exchange-mediated saturation transfer profile can be reduced by twofold in case that one applies linear prediction. In addition, we demonstrate that the analytical solution for R{sub 1}ρ experiments can be used for fitting the exchange-mediated saturation transfer profile. Furthermore, we show that simultaneous analysis of exchange-mediated saturation transfer profiles with two different radio-frequency field strengths is required for accurate and precise characterization of the exchange process and the exchanging states.
Long-distance super-resolution imaging assisted by enhanced spatial Fourier transform.
Tang, Heng-He; Liu, Pu-Kun
2015-09-07
A new gradient-index (GRIN) lens that can realize enhanced spatial Fourier transform (FT) over optically long distances is demonstrated. By using an anisotropic GRIN metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion, evanescent wave in free space can be transformed into propagating wave in the metamaterial and then focused outside due to negative-refraction. Both the results based on the ray tracing and the finite element simulation show that the spatial frequency bandwidth of the spatial FT can be extended to 2.7k(0) (k(0) is the wave vector in free space). Furthermore, assisted by the enhanced spatial FT, a new long-distance (in the optical far-field region) super-resolution imaging scheme is also proposed and the super resolved capability of λ/5 (λ is the wavelength in free space) is verified. The work may provide technical support for designing new-type high-speed microscopes with long working distances.
2014-10-09
Radon -Fractional Fourier Transform and Its Application to Radar Maneuvering Target Detection Xiaolong Chen*, Fuqing Cai, Yu Cong, Jian Guan...unit (ARU) and Doppler frequency migration (DFM) effects. In this paper, a novel transform called the Radon -fractional Fourier transform (RFRFT) is...are carried out and the performances of different methods including MTD, FRFT, and the Radon -Fourier transform (RFT) are compared, which demonstrate
2014-09-18
DEVELOPMENT OF IMAGING FOURIER -TRANSFORM SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF TURBULENT JET FLAMES DISSERTATION Jacob L. Harley, Captain, USAF...work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENP-DS-14-S-13 DEVELOPMENT OF IMAGING FOURIER -TRANSFORM...DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT-ENP-DS-14-S-13 DEVELOPMENT OF IMAGING FOURIER -TRANSFORM SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF TURBULENT JET FLAMES Jacob L
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
van Agthoven, Maria A; Barrow, Mark P; Chiron, Lionel; Coutouly, Marie-Aude; Kilgour, David; Wootton, Christopher A; Wei, Juan; Soulby, Andrew; Delsuc, Marc-André; Rolando, Christian; O’Connor, Peter B
2015-01-01
...) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. In the resulting 2D mass spectrum, the fragmentation patterns of the radical and protonated species from cholesterol are differentiated...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
魏鑫宇; 冯立新; 张国艳
2012-01-01
Based on the trigonometric interpolation theory, a function is approximated by its trigonometric interpolation function. By the properties of Dirac distribution function, the analytic expressions of the Fourier transform and inverse Fourier transform for the trigonometric interpolation function are derived to approximate the Fourier transform and inverse Fourier transform for the original function. The numerical formulations for calculating the Fourier transforms and the inverse Fourier transforms of the functions with one variable and two variables are derived, respectively. Comparing with the algorithm using rectangular formula of numerical integration, the numerical examples show that the proposed method achieves higher accuracy.%基于三角插值理论,用函数的三角插值函数代替函数本身,并借助Dirac广义函数的性质写出三角插值函数的Fourier变换、逆变换的解析表达式,将之作为函数的Fourier变换、逆变换的近似.基于这种想法,分别推导一元函数、二元函数的Fourier变换和Fourier逆变换的计算公式.数值实验表明,这种方法比通常基于矩形求积公式计算连续Fourier变换、逆变换的精度要高.
Calibration of the Herschel SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer
Swinyard, B M; Hopwood, R; Valtchanov, I; Lu, N; Fulton, T; Benielli, D; Imhof, P; Marchili, N; Baluteau, J -P; Bendo, G J; Ferlet, M; Griffin, M J; Lim, T L; Makiwa, G; Naylor, D A; Orton, G S; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Schulz, B; Sidher, S D; Spencer, L D; van der Wiel, M H D; Wu, R
2014-01-01
The Herschel SPIRE instrument consists of an imaging photometric camera and an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), both operating over a frequency range of 450-1550 GHz. In this paper, we briefly review the FTS design, operation, and data reduction, and describe in detail the approach taken to relative calibration (removal of instrument signatures) and absolute calibration against standard astronomical sources. The calibration scheme assumes a spatially extended source and uses the Herschel telescope as primary calibrator. Conversion from extended to point-source calibration is carried out using observations of the planet Uranus. The model of the telescope emission is shown to be accurate to within 6% and repeatable to better than 0.06% and, by comparison with models of Mars and Neptune, the Uranus model is shown to be accurate to within 3%. Multiple observations of a number of point-like sources show that the repeatability of the calibration is better than 1%, if the effects of the satellite absolu...
Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy of jet-cooled radicals
Rohrs, Henry W.; Wickham-Jones, C. Tom; Ellison, G. Barney; Berry, David; Argrow, Brian M.
1995-03-01
We describe an experiment that couples a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) to a supersonic jet of radicals. A 1-mm-i.d. cylindrical SiC nozzle is resistively heated to 1500 K in order to decompose organic precursors and generate expansions of jet-cooled radicals. We have used this apparatus to pyrolyze alkyl nitrites to make alkoxy and nitric oxide radicals. The residence time of radicals in this hot nozzle is roughly 20 μs RONO→ΔRO+NO. We use the FTS to detect the IR absorption of the product NO (ν0=1876.1 cm-1) at resolutions as fine as 0.005 cm-1 FWHM. We observe the product NO from the pyrolysis of CH3CH2ONO to be rotationally cooled to roughly 50 K. The IR spectra indicate that the optical path length is about 3/4 cm and that the nitrites pyrolyze to produce approximately 1014 NO radicals cm-3 some 9 mm downstream from the nozzle. Our spectrometer is capable of detecting an absorption signal of 0.1% over a bandwidth of 100 cm-1 at 0.005 cm-1 resolution. Depending on the infrared cross section of the radical, this implies that we are able to monitor diatomic radical densities of roughly 5×1012 cm-3 (quantum state)-1.
External Second Gate-Fourier Transform Ion Mobility Spectrometry.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tarver, Edward E., III
2005-01-01
Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is recognized as one of the most sensitive and versatile techniques for the detection of trace levels of organic vapors. IMS is widely used for detecting contraband narcotics, explosives, toxic industrial compounds and chemical warfare agents. Increasing threat of terrorist attacks, the proliferation of narcotics, Chemical Weapons Convention treaty verification as well as humanitarian de-mining efforts has mandated that equal importance be placed on the analysis time as well as the quality of the analytical data. (1) IMS is unrivaled when both speed of response and sensitivity has to be considered. (2) With conventional (signal averaging) IMS systems the number of available ions contributing to the measured signal to less than 1%. Furthermore, the signal averaging process incorporates scan-to-scan variations decreasing resolution. With external second gate Fourier Transform ion mobility spectrometry (FT-IMS), the entrance gate frequency is variable and can be altered in conjunction with other data acquisition parameters to increase the spectral resolution. The FT-IMS entrance gate operates with a 50% duty cycle and so affords a 7 to 10-fold increase in sensitivity. Recent data on high explosives are presented to demonstrate the parametric optimization in sensitivity and resolution of our system.
The Non-uniform Fast Fourier Transform in Computed Tomography
Tang, Junqi
2016-01-01
This project is aimed at designing the fast forward projection algorithm and also the backprojection algorithm for cone beam CT imaging systems with circular X-ray source trajectory. The principle of the designs is based on utilizing the potential computational efficiency which the Fourier Slice Theorem and the Non-uniform Fast Fourier Transform (NUFFT) will bring forth. In this Masters report, the detailed design of the NUFFT based forward projector including a novel 3D (derivative of) Radon space resampling method will be given. Meanwhile the complexity of the NUFFT based forward projector is analysed and compared with the non-Fourier based CT projector, and the advantage of the NUFFT based forward projection in terms of the computational efficiency is demonstrated in this report. Base on the design of the forward algorithm, the NUFFT based 3D direct reconstruction algorithm will be derived. The experiments will be taken to test the performance of the forward algorithm and the backprojection algorithm to sh...
Transmission fourier transform Raman spectroscopy of pharmaceutical tablet cores.
Pelletier, Michael J; Larkin, Peter; Santangelo, Matthew
2012-04-01
Transmission Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy of pharmaceutical tablet cores is demonstrated using traditional, unmodified commercial instrumentation. The benefits of improved precision over backscattering Raman spectroscopy due to increased sample volume are demonstrated. Self-absorption effects on analyte band ratios and sample probe volume are apparent, however. A survey of near-infrared (NIR) absorption spectra in the FT-Raman spectral range (approximately 0 to 3500 wavenumber shift from 1064 nm, or 1064 to 1700 nm) of molecules with a wide range of NIR-active functional groups shows that although absorption at the laser wavelength (1064 nm) is relatively small, some regions of the Raman spectrum coincide with NIR absorbances of 0.5 per cm or greater. Fortunately, the pharmaceutically important regions of the Raman shift spectrum from 0 to 600 cm(-1) and from 1400 to 1900 cm(-1) exhibit low self-absorption for most organic materials. A statistical analysis of transmission FT-Raman noise in spectra collected from different regions of a pharmaceutical tablet provides insight into both spectral distortion and reduced sampling volume caused by self-absorption.
Fourier transform Raman approach to structural correlation in hemoglobin derivatives.
Venkatesh, B; Ramasamy, S; Mylrajan, M; Asokan, R; Manoharan, P T; Rifkind, J M
1999-07-01
In order to obtain information on the structural aspects of hemoglobin (Hb), Fourier transform Raman (FT-R) measurements on various ferrous, ferric derivatives and nickel reconstituted Hb (NiHb) has been made. FT-R spectra for these derivatives were obtained by laser excitation in the near infrared region (NIR) (1064 nm) whereby the wave-number region (600-1700 cm-1) related to both porphyrin ring modes and some globin modes were monitored. Comparison of various modes was made based on previous resonance Raman (RR) results. The wave-number shifts with respect to changes in oxidation state and spin state are very similar to those observed by RR. Additional bands at 1654, 1459, and 1003 cm-1 for deoxyHb and at 1656, 1454, and 1004 cm-1 for oxy Hb can be correlated to globin modes. The shift in the position of these bands for the binding of oxygen can be related to changes in conformation during the transformation. The presence of two distinct sites in NiHb could be monitored by the use of FT-R technique.
Spin Glass Field Theory with Replica Fourier Transforms
Pimentel, Iveta R.; De Dominicis, Cirano
We develop a field theory for spin glasses using Replica Fourier Transforms (RFT). We present the formalism for the case of replica symmetry and the case of replica symmetry breaking on an ultrametric tree, with the number of replicas n and the number of replica symmetry breaking steps R generic integers. We show how the RFT applied to the two-replica fields allows to construct a new basis which block-diagonalizes the four-replica mass-matrix, into the replicon, anomalous and longitudinal modes. The eigenvalues are given in terms of the mass RFT and the propagators in the RFT space are obtained by inversion of the block-diagonal matrix. The formalism allows to express any i-replica vertex in the new RFT basis and hence enables to perform a standard perturbation expansion. We apply the formalism to calculate the contribution of the Gaussian fluctuations around the Parisi's solution for the free-energy of an Ising spin glass.
Resource requirements for a fault-tolerant quantum Fourier transform
Goto, Hayato; Nakamura, Satoshi; Kujiraoka, Mamiko; Ichimura, Kouichi
2015-03-01
The quantum Fourier transform (QFT) is a basic subroutine for most quantum algorithms providing an exponential speedup over classical ones. We investigate resource requirements for a fault-tolerant QFT. To implement single-qubit rotations for a QFT in a fault-tolerant manner, we examine three types of approaches: ancilla-free gate synthesis, ancilla-assisted gate synthesis, and state distillation. While the gate synthesis approximates single-qubit rotations with basic quantum operations, the state distillation enables to perform specific single-qubit rotations required for the QFT exactly. It is unknown, however, which approach is better for the QFT. We estimated the resource requirement for a QFT in each case, where the resource is measured by the total number of the π / 8 gates denoted by T, which is called the T count. Contrary to the initial expectation, the total T count for the state distillation is considerably larger than those for the ancilla-free and ancilla-assisted gate synthesis. Thus, we conclude that the ancilla-assisted gate synthesis is the best for a fault-tolerant QFT so far.
Online Botnet Detection Based on Incremental Discrete Fourier Transform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaocong Yu
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Botnet detection has attracted lots of attention since botnet attack is becoming one of the most serious threats on the Internet. But little work has considered the online detection. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that can monitor the botnet activities in an online way. We define the concept of “feature streams” to describe raw network traffic. If some feature streams show high similarities, the corresponding hosts will be regarded as suspected bots which will be added into the suspected bot hosts set. After activity analysis, bot hosts will be confirmed as soon as possible. We present a simple method by computing the average Euclidean distance for similarity measurement. To avoid huge calculation among feature streams, classical Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT technique is adopted. Then an incremental calculation of DFT coefficients is introduced to obtain the optimal execution time. The experimental evaluations show that our approach can detect both centralized and distributed botnet activities successfully with high efficiency and low false positive rate.
SAR-based vibrometry using the fractional Fourier transform
Campbell, Justin B.; Wang, Qi; Ade-Bello, Jelili; Caudana, Humberto; Trujillo, Nicole B.; Bhatta, Ishwor; Dunkel, Ralf; Atwood, Thomas; Doerry, Armin; Gerstle, Walter H.; Santhanam, Balu; Hayat, Majeed M.
2015-05-01
A fundamental assumption when applying Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to a ground scene is that all targets are motionless. If a target is not stationary, but instead vibrating in the scene, it will introduce a non-stationary phase modulation, termed the micro-Doppler effect, into the returned SAR signals. Previously, the authors proposed a pseudosubspace method, a modification to the Discrete Fractional Fourier Transform (DFRFT), which demonstrated success for estimating the instantaneous accelerations of vibrating objects. However, this method may not yield reliable results when clutter in the SAR image is strong. Simulations and experimental results have shown that the DFRFT method can yield reliable results when the signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) > 8 dB. Here, we provide the capability to determine a target's frequency and amplitude in a low SCR environment by presenting two methods that can perform vibration estimations when SCR < 3 dB. The first method is a variation and continuation of the subspace approach proposed previously in conjunction with the DFRFT. In the second method, we employ the dual-beam SAR collection architecture combined with the extended Kalman filter (EKF) to extract information from the returned SAR signals about the vibrating target. We also show the potential for extending this SAR-based capability to remotely detect and classify objects housed inside buildings or other cover based on knowing the location of vibrations as well as the vibration histories of the vibrating structures that house the vibrating objects.
Improved Fast Fourier Transform Based Method for Code Accuracy Quantification
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ha, Tae Wook; Jeong, Jae Jun [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ki Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
The capability of the proposed method is discussed. In this study, the limitations of the FFTBM were analyzed. The FFTBM produces quantitatively different results due to its frequency dependence. Because the problem is intensified by including a lot of high frequency components, a new method using a reduced cut-off frequency was proposed. The results of the proposed method show that the shortcomings of FFTBM are considerably relieved. Among them, the fast Fourier transform based method (FFTBM) introduced in 1990 has been widely used to evaluate a code uncertainty or accuracy. Prosek et al., (2008) identified its drawbacks, the so-called 'edge effect'. To overcome the problems, an improved FFTBM by signal mirroring (FFTBM-SM) was proposed and it has been used up to now. In spite of the improvement, the FFTBM-SM yielded different accuracy depending on the frequency components of a parameter, such as pressure, temperature and mass flow rate. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the frequency dependence of the FFTBMs. In this study, the deficiencies of the present FFTBMs are analyzed and a new method is proposed to mitigate its frequency dependence.
Analysis of ovarian tumor pathology by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehrotra Ranjana
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian cancer is the second most common cancer among women and the leading cause of death among gynecologic malignancies. In recent years, infrared (IR spectroscopy has gained attention as a simple and inexpensive method for the biomedical study of several diseases. In the present study infrared spectra of normal and malignant ovarian tissues were recorded in the 650 cm-1 to 4000 cm-1 region. Methods Post surgical tissue samples were taken from the normal and tumor sections of the tissue. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR data on twelve cases of ovarian cancer with different grades of malignancy from patients of different age groups were analyzed. Results Significant spectral differences between the normal and the ovarian cancerous tissues were observed. In particular changes in frequency and intensity in the spectral region of protein, nucleic acid and lipid vibrational modes were observed. It was evident that the sample-to-sample or patient-to-patient variations were small and the spectral differences between normal and diseased tissues were reproducible. Conclusion The measured spectroscopic features, which are the spectroscopic fingerprints of the tissues, provided the important differentiating information about the malignant and normal tissues. The findings of this study demonstrate the possible use of infrared spectroscopy in differentiating normal and malignant ovarian tissues.
Two-dimensional Fourier transform ESR correlation spectroscopy
Gorcester, Jeff; Freed, Jack H.
1988-04-01
We describe our pulsed two-dimensional Fourier transform ESR experiment and demonstrate its applicabilty for the double resonance of motionally narrowed nitroxides. Multiple pulse irradiation of the entire nitroxide spectrum enables the correlation of two precessional periods, allowing observation of cross correlations between hyperfine lines introduced by magnetization transfer in the case of a three-pulse experiment (2D ELDOR), or coherence transfer in the case of a two-pulse experiment (COSY). Cross correlations are revealed by the presence of cross peaks which connect the autocorrelation lines appearing along the diagonal ω1=ω2. The amplitudes of these cross peaks are determined by the rates of magnetization transfer in the 2D ELDOR experiment. The density operator theory for the experiment is outlined and applied to the determination of Heisenberg exchange (HE) rates in 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone-N-oxyl-d15 (PD-tempone) dissolved in toluene-d8. The quantitative accuracy of this experiment is established by comparison with the HE rate measured from the dependence of the spin echo T2 on nitroxide concentration.
Screening cervical lesions with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The screening results were reported based on the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the samples of exfoliated cervical cells from 354 women. Their spectra can be sorted into two types based on the emerging or not of the absorption bands near 970 cm-1 and 1 170 cm-1: T1 (83.1%) type without emerging, and T2 (16.9%) type with obviously emerging. All of the samples assigned to T1 were cytologically diagnosed as normal or within normal limits (PapⅠ). 28.9% and 71.1% of samples exhibiting T2 profile, were cytologically evaluated as Pap Ⅰand abnormal respectively. 3 women in the abnormal group were diagnosed as to have cervical cells with changes associated with high grade of inflammation, cervical scar and cervical erosion. Furthermore, based on the progressive change of the relative intensities of the absorption bands, both T1 and T2 profiles can be categorized into 6 subtypes. The observed heterogeneous spectra and the progressive changes in the absorption frequencies and the relative intensities exhibit features suggestive of the progressive process of cervical lesion. The FTIR method has the potential to complement the cytological smear for large-volume screening of cervical lesions.
Chiral Process Monitoring Using Fourier Transform Microwave Spectroscopy
Neill, Justin L.; Muckle, Matt; Pate, Brooks
2017-06-01
We present the application of Fourier transform microwave (FTMW) spectroscopy in monitoring the chiral purity of components in a reaction mixture. This is of particular interest due to the increasing use of continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing processes, in which a number of attributes (including the chiral purity of the product) can change on short time scales. Therefore, new techniques that can accomplish this measurement rapidly are desired. The excellent specificity of FTMW spectroscopy, coupled with newly developed techniques for measuring enantiomeric excess in a mixture, have motivated this work. In collaboration with B. Frank Gupton (Virginia Commonwealth University), we are testing this application first with the synthesis of artemisinin. Artemisinin, a common drug for malaria treatment, is of high global health interest and subject to supply shortages, and therefore a strong candidate for continuous manufacturing. It also has moderately high molecular weight (282 amu) and seven chiral centers, making it a good candidate to test the capabilities of FTMW spectroscopy. Using a miniature cavity-enhanced FTMW spectrometer design, we aim to demonstrate selective component quantification in the reaction mixture. Future work that will be needed to fully realize this application will be discussed. R.D. Suenram, J.U. Grabow, A.Zuban, and I.Leonov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2127 (1999).
Continued Development of a Planetary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PIFTS)
Sromovsky, L. A.
2002-01-01
This report describes continued efforts to evaluate a breadboard of a Planetary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PIFTS). The PIFTS breadboard was developed under prior PIDDP funding. That effort is described in the final report for NASA Grant NAG5-6248 and in two conference papers (Sromovsky et al. 2000; Revercomb et al. 2000). The PIFTS breadboard was designed for near-IR (1-5.2 micrometer imaging of planetary targets with spectral resolving powers of several hundred to several thousand, using an InSb detector array providing at least 64x64 pixels imaging detail. The major focus of the development effort was to combine existing technologies to produce a small and low power design compatible with a very low mass flyable instrument. The objective of this grant (NAG5-10729) was further characterization of the breadboard performance, including intercomparisons with the highly accurate non-imaging Advanced Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) (Revercomb et al. 1994; Best et al. 1997).
Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS): Imaging and Tracking Capability
Zhou, D. K.; Larar, A. M.; Liu, Xu; Reisse, R. A.; Smith, W. L.; Revercomb, H. E.; Bingham, G. E.; Zollinger, L. J.; Tansock, J. J.; Huppi, Ronald J.
2007-01-01
The geosynchronous-imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (GIFTS) engineering demonstration unit (EDU) is an imaging infrared spectrometer designed for atmospheric soundings. It measures the infrared spectrum in two spectral bands (14.6 to 8.8 microns, 6.0 to 4.4 microns) using two 128 128 detector arrays with a spectral resolution of 0.57/cm with a scan duration of approx. 11 seconds. From a geosynchronous orbit, the instrument will have the capability of taking successive measurements of such data to scan desired regions of the globe, from which atmospheric status, cloud parameters, wind field profiles, and other derived products can be retrieved. The GIFTS EDU provides a flexible and accurate testbed for the new challenges of the emerging hyperspectral era. The EDU ground-based measurement experiment, held in Logan, Utah during September 2006, demonstrated its extensive capabilities and potential for geosynchronous and other applications (e.g., Earth observing environmental measurements). This paper addresses the experiment objectives and overall performance of the sensor system with a focus on the GIFTS EDU imaging capability and proof of the GIFTS measurement concept.
Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy and multivariate methods for radiobiological dosimetry.
Meade, A D; Clarke, C; Byrne, H J; Lyng, F M
2010-02-01
The scientific literature contains an ever-growing number of reports of applications of vibrational spectroscopy as a multivariate non-invasive tool for analysis of biological effects at the molecular level. Recently, Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) has been demonstrated to be sensitive to molecular events occurring in cells and tissue after exposure to ionizing radiation. In this work the application of FTIRM in the examination of dose-dependent molecular effects occurring in skin cells after exposure to ionizing radiation with the use of partial least-squares regression (PLSR) and generalized regression neural networks (GRNN) was studied. The methodology is shown to be sensitive to molecular events occurring with radiation dose and time after exposure. The variation in molecular species with dose and time after irradiation is shown to be non-linear by virtue of the higher modeling efficiency yielded from the non-linear algorithms. Dose prediction efficiencies of approximately +/-10 mGy were achieved at 96 h after irradiation, highlighting the potential applications of the methodology in radiobiological dosimetry.
Ordered fast fourier transforms on a massively parallel hypercube multiprocessor
Tong, Charles; Swarztrauber, Paul N.
1989-01-01
Design alternatives for ordered Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) algorithms were examined on massively parallel hypercube multiprocessors such as the Connection Machine. Particular emphasis is placed on reducing communication which is known to dominate the overall computing time. To this end, the order and computational phases of the FFT were combined, and the sequence to processor maps that reduce communication were used. The class of ordered transforms is expanded to include any FFT in which the order of the transform is the same as that of the input sequence. Two such orderings are examined, namely, standard-order and A-order which can be implemented with equal ease on the Connection Machine where orderings are determined by geometries and priorities. If the sequence has N = 2 exp r elements and the hypercube has P = 2 exp d processors, then a standard-order FFT can be implemented with d + r/2 + 1 parallel transmissions. An A-order sequence can be transformed with 2d - r/2 parallel transmissions which is r - d + 1 fewer than the standard order. A parallel method for computing the trigonometric coefficients is presented that does not use trigonometric functions or interprocessor communication. A performance of 0.9 GFLOPS was obtained for an A-order transform on the Connection Machine.
Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry: a primer.
Marshall, A G; Hendrickson, C L; Jackson, G S
1998-01-01
This review offers an introduction to the principles and generic applications of FT-ICR mass spectrometry, directed to readers with no prior experience with the technique. We are able to explain the fundamental FT-ICR phenomena from a simplified theoretical treatment of ion behavior in idealized magnetic and electric fields. The effects of trapping voltage, trap size and shape, and other nonidealities are manifested mainly as perturbations that preserve the idealized ion behavior modified by appropriate numerical correction factors. Topics include: effect of ion mass, charge, magnetic field, and trapping voltage on ion cyclotron frequency; excitation and detection of ICR signals; mass calibration; mass resolving power and mass accuracy; upper mass limit(s); dynamic range; detection limit, strategies for mass and energy selection for MSn; ion axialization, cooling, and remeasurement; and means for guiding externally formed ions into the ion trap. The relation of FT-ICR MS to other types of Fourier transform spectroscopy and to the Paul (quadrupole) ion trap is described. The article concludes with selected applications, an appendix listing accurate fundamental constants needed for ultrahigh-precision analysis, and an annotated list of selected reviews and primary source publications that describe in further detail various FT-ICR MS techniques and applications.
Single beam Fourier transform digital holographic quantitative phase microscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anand, A., E-mail: arun-nair-in@yahoo.com; Chhaniwal, V. K.; Mahajan, S.; Trivedi, V. [Optics Laboratory, Applied Physics Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390001 (India); Faridian, A.; Pedrini, G.; Osten, W. [Institut für Technische Optik, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 9, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Dubey, S. K. [Siemens Technology and Services Pvt. Ltd, Corporate Technology—Research and Technology Centre, Bangalore 560100 (India); Javidi, B. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, U-4157, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-2157 (United States)
2014-03-10
Quantitative phase contrast microscopy reveals thickness or height information of a biological or technical micro-object under investigation. The information obtained from this process provides a means to study their dynamics. Digital holographic (DH) microscopy is one of the most used, state of the art single-shot quantitative techniques for three dimensional imaging of living cells. Conventional off axis DH microscopy directly provides phase contrast images of the objects. However, this process requires two separate beams and their ratio adjustment for high contrast interference fringes. Also the use of two separate beams may make the system more vulnerable to vibrations. Single beam techniques can overcome these hurdles while remaining compact as well. Here, we describe the development of a single beam DH microscope providing whole field imaging of micro-objects. A hologram of the magnified object projected on to a diffuser co-located with a pinhole is recorded with the use of a commercially available diode laser and an arrayed sensor. A Fourier transform of the recorded hologram directly yields the complex amplitude at the image plane. The method proposed was investigated using various phase objects. It was also used to image the dynamics of human red blood cells in which sub-micrometer level thickness variation were measurable.
High-resolution wide-band Fast Fourier Transform spectrometers
Klein, Bernd; Krämer, Ingo; Bell, Andreas; Meyer, Klaus; Güsten, Rolf
2012-01-01
We describe the performance of our latest generations of sensitive wide-band high-resolution digital Fast Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FFTS). Their design, optimized for a wide range of radio astronomical applications, is presented. Developed for operation with the GREAT far infrared heterodyne spectrometer on-board SOFIA, the eXtended bandwidth FFTS (XFFTS) offers a high instantaneous bandwidth of 2.5 GHz with 88.5 kHz spectral resolution and has been in routine operation during SOFIA's Basic Science since July 2011. We discuss the advanced field programmable gate array (FPGA) signal processing pipeline, with an optimized multi-tap polyphase filter bank algorithm that provides a nearly loss-less time-to-frequency data conversion with significantly reduced frequency scallop and fast sidelobe fall-off. Our digital spectrometers have been proven to be extremely reliable and robust, even under the harsh environmental conditions of an airborne observatory, with Allan-variance stability times of several 1000 se...
Fourier transform optical profilometry using fiber optic Lloyd's mirrors.
Kart, Türkay; Kösoğlu, Gülşen; Yüksel, Heba; İnci, Mehmet Naci
2014-12-10
A fiber optic Lloyd's mirror assembly is used to obtain various optical interference patterns for the detection of 3D rigid body shapes. Two types of fiber optic Lloyd's systems are used in this work. The first consists of a single-mode optical fiber and a highly reflecting flat mirror to produce bright and dark strips. The second is constructed by locating a single-mode optical fiber in a v-groove, which is formed by two orthogonal flat mirrors to allow the generation of square-type interference patterns for the desired applications. The structured light patterns formed by these two fiber Lloyd's techniques are projected onto 3D objects. Fringe patterns are deformed due to the object's surface topography, which are captured by a digital CCD camera and processed with a Fourier transform technique to accomplish 3D surface topography of the object. It is demonstrated that the fiber-optic Lloyd's technique proposed in this work is more compact, more stable, and easier to configure than other existing surface profilometry systems, since it does not include any high-cost optical tools such as aligners, couplers, or 3D stages. The fringe patterns are observed to be more robust against environmental disturbances such as ambient temperature and vibrations.
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Saliva Analysis.
Mikkonen, Jopi J W; Raittila, Jussi; Rieppo, Lassi; Lappalainen, Reijo; Kullaa, Arja M; Myllymaa, Sami
2016-09-01
Saliva provides a valuable tool for assessing oral and systemic diseases, but concentrations of salivary components are very small, calling the need for precise analysis methods. In this work, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy using transmission and photoacoustic (PA) modes were compared for quantitative analysis of saliva. The performance of these techniques was compared with a calibration series. The linearity of spectrum output was verified by using albumin-thiocyanate (SCN(-)) solution at different SCN(-) concentrations. Saliva samples used as a comparison were obtained from healthy subjects. Saliva droplets of 15 µL were applied on the silicon sample substrate, 6 drops for each specimen, and dried at 37 ℃ overnight. The measurements were carried out using an FT-IR spectrometer in conjunction with an accessory unit for PA measurements. The findings with both transmission and PA modes mirror each other. The major bands presented were 1500-1750 cm(-1) for proteins and 1050-1200 cm(-1) for carbohydrates. In addition, the distinct spectral band at 2050 cm(-1) derives from SCN(-) anions, which is converted by salivary peroxidases to hypothiocyanate (OSCN(-)). The correlation between the spectroscopic data with SCN(-) concentration (r > 0.990 for transmission and r = 0.967 for PA mode) was found to be significant (P < 0.01), thus promising to be utilized in future applications.
Localization Operators and an Uncertainty Principle for the Discrete Short Time Fourier Transform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carmen Fernández
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Localization operators in the discrete setting are used to obtain information on a signal f from the knowledge on the support of its short time Fourier transform. In particular, the extremal functions of the uncertainty principle for the discrete short time Fourier transform are characterized and their connection with functions that generate a time-frequency basis is studied.
Debnath, Lokenath
2012-01-01
This article deals with a brief biographical sketch of Joseph Fourier, his first celebrated work on analytical theory of heat, his first great discovery of Fourier series and Fourier transforms. Included is a historical development of Fourier series and Fourier transforms with their properties, importance and applications. Special emphasis is made…
Precise and fast spatial-frequency analysis using the iterative local Fourier transform.
Lee, Sukmock; Choi, Heejoo; Kim, Dae Wook
2016-09-19
The use of the discrete Fourier transform has decreased since the introduction of the fast Fourier transform (fFT), which is a numerically efficient computing process. This paper presents the iterative local Fourier transform (ilFT), a set of new processing algorithms that iteratively apply the discrete Fourier transform within a local and optimal frequency domain. The new technique achieves 210 times higher frequency resolution than the fFT within a comparable computation time. The method's superb computing efficiency, high resolution, spectrum zoom-in capability, and overall performance are evaluated and compared to other advanced high-resolution Fourier transform techniques, such as the fFT combined with several fitting methods. The effectiveness of the ilFT is demonstrated through the data analysis of a set of Talbot self-images (1280 × 1024 pixels) obtained with an experimental setup using grating in a diverging beam produced by a coherent point source.
Ogawa, Takahiro; Haseyama, Miki
2013-03-01
A missing texture reconstruction method based on an error reduction (ER) algorithm, including a novel estimation scheme of Fourier transform magnitudes is presented in this brief. In our method, Fourier transform magnitude is estimated for a target patch including missing areas, and the missing intensities are estimated by retrieving its phase based on the ER algorithm. Specifically, by monitoring errors converged in the ER algorithm, known patches whose Fourier transform magnitudes are similar to that of the target patch are selected from the target image. In the second approach, the Fourier transform magnitude of the target patch is estimated from those of the selected known patches and their corresponding errors. Consequently, by using the ER algorithm, we can estimate both the Fourier transform magnitudes and phases to reconstruct the missing areas.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Palushani, Evarist; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Galili, Michael
2012-01-01
a dispersive medium followed by phase modulation; the latter being achieved by a four-wave mixing process with linearly chirped pump pulses. Both numerical and experimental investigations of the OTDM-to-WDM conversion technique are carried out. Experimental validations are performed on......This paper reports on the utilization of the timedomain optical Fourier transformation (OFT) technique for serial-to-parallel conversion of optical time division multiplexed (OTDM) data tributaries into dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) channels. The OFT is implemented by using...
A Fourier transform infrared trace gas analyser for atmospheric applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. W. T. Griffith
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Concern in recent decades about human impacts on Earth's climate has led to the need for improved and expanded measurement capabilities for greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In this paper we describe in detail an in situ trace gas analyser based on Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy that is capable of simultaneous and continuous measurements of carbon dioxide (CO_{2}, methane (CH_{4}, carbon monoxide (CO, nitrous oxide (N_{2}O and ^{13}C in CO_{2} in air with high precision and accuracy. Stable water isotopes can also be measured in undried airstreams. The analyser is automated and allows unattended operation with minimal operator intervention. Precision and accuracy meet and exceed the compatibility targets set by the World Meteorological Organisation – Global Atmosphere Watch Programme for baseline measurements in the unpolluted troposphere for all species except ^{13}C in CO_{2}.
The analyser is mobile and well suited to fixed sites, tower measurements, mobile platforms and campaign-based measurements. The isotopic specificity of the optically-based technique and analysis allows application of the analyser in isotopic tracer experiments, for example ^{13}C in CO_{2} and ^{15}N in N_{2}O. We review a number of applications illustrating use of the analyser in clean air monitoring, micrometeorological flux and tower measurements, mobile measurements on a train, and soil flux chamber measurements.
Fourier Transform Spectrometer measurements of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Methane
Kivi, Rigel; Heikkinen, Pauli; Chen, Huilin; Hatakka, Juha; Laurila, Tuomas
2016-04-01
Ground based remote sensing measurements of column CO2 and CH4 using Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) within the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) are known for high precision and accuracy. These measurements are performed at various locations globally and they have been widely used in carbon cycle studies and validation of space born measurements. The relevant satellite missions include the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); the SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) by the European Space Agency (ESA); the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the upcoming Sentinel-5 Precursor mission, which is an ESA mission and scheduled for launch in 2016. Results of the column CO2 and CH4 measurements at Sodankylä in northern Finland (at 67.4° N, 26.6° E) are reported in this study. The measurements have been performed on regular basis since the beginning of the program in early 2009. We also present evaluation of the data quality of the ground based measurements and comparisons with the available satellite based retrievals. In case of comparisons between the GOSAT and ground based retrievals of CO2 and CH4 no significant biases were found. Sodankylä is one of the northernmost stations in the TCCON network. However, the data coverage has been relatively good thanks to the progress towards automation of the FTS measurement system. At Sodankylä the retrievals have been also compared with the balloon borne AirCore measurements at the site. AirCore sampling system is directly related to the World Meteorological Organization in situ trace gas measurement scales. The balloon platform allows sampling in both stratosphere and troposphere, which is a benefit, compared to the aircraft in situ measurements.
Fractional Fourier Transform Applied to Digital Images Encryption
Vilardy, Juan M.; Torres, Cesar O.; Mattos, Lorenzo
2008-04-01
In the present paper a digital algorithm was developed to make phase encryption of digital indexed images to color using the fractional Fourier transform (the images in RGB are converted to indexed before to encrypt). The indexed images are represented by a matrix of M×N pixels (where M defines the height and N is the Width of the image) and a color map (it's a matrix of C×3 elements, where C indicates the colors number of the image and the number 3 indicates the three columns associated with the color components: Red, Green and Blue of each pixel of the matrix of M×N) associated to the matrix of pixels to suitably represent the color information of the image. The indexed image (matrix of M×N pixels) to encrypt is placed as the phase of a complex exponential, then is transformed three times and multiplied in intermediate steps by two random phase masks statistically independent thus to obtain the encrypted image, for decrypt the coding image the encryption procedure is applied in the inverse sense to the conjugated complex of the encrypted image, then is taken the negative of the phase of the resulting function of the decryption process and the original image is obtained this way that had been encrypted; For the color map equal procedure is applied in the encryption/decryption process described previously for the matrix of M×N pixels. In the implemented cryptographic algorithm five keys are used, constituted by three fractional orders and two random phase masks, all these keys are necessary for a correct decryption providing a dependability to the transference of images by means of the communications nets.
[Biological Process Oriented Online Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer].
Xie, Fei; Wu, Qiong-shui; Zeng, Li-bo
2015-08-01
An online Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer and an ATR (Attenuated Total Reflection) probe, specifically at the application of real time measurement of the reaction substrate concentration in biological processes, were designed. (1) The spectrometer combined the theories of double cube-corner reflectors and flat mirror, which created a kind of high performance interferometer system. The light path folding way was utilized to makes the interferometer compact structure. Adopting double cube-corner reflectors, greatly reduces the influence of factors in the process of moving mirror movement such as rotation, tilt, etc. The parallelogram oscillation flexible support device was utilized to support the moving mirror moves. It cancelled the friction and vibration during mirror moving, and ensures the smooth operation. The ZnSe splitter significantly improved the hardware reliability in high moisture environment. The method of 60° entrance to light splitter improves the luminous flux. (2) An ATR in situ measuring probe with simple structure, large-flux, economical and practical character was designed in this article. The transmission of incident light and the light output utilized the infrared pipe with large diameter and innerplanted-high plating membrane, which conducted for the infrared transmission media of ATR probe. It greatly reduced the energy loss of infrared light after multiple reflection on the inner wall of the light pipe. Therefore, the ATR probe obtained high flux, improved the signal strength, which make the signal detected easily. Finally, the high sensitivity of MCT (Mercury Cadmium Telluride) detector was utilized to realize infrared interference signal collection, and improved the data quality of detection. The test results showed that the system yields the advantages of perfect moisture-proof performance, luminous flux, online measurement, etc. The designed online Fourier infrared spectrometer can real-time measured common reactant substrates
Continuously tunable optical multidimensional Fourier-transform spectrometer.
Dey, P; Paul, J; Bylsma, J; Deminico, S; Karaiskaj, D
2013-02-01
A multidimensional optical nonlinear spectrometer (MONSTR) is a robust, ultrastable platform consisting of nested and folded Michelson interferometers that can be actively phase stabilized. The MONSTR provides output pulses for nonlinear excitation of materials and phase-stabilized reference pulses for heterodyne detection of the induced signal. This platform generates a square of identical laser pulses that can be adjusted to have arbitrary time delays between them while maintaining phase stability. This arrangement is ideal for performing coherent optical experiments, such as multidimensional Fourier-transform spectroscopy. The present work reports on overcoming some important limitations on the original design of the MONSTR apparatus. One important advantage of the MONSTR is the fact that it is a closed platform, which provides the high stability. Once the optical alignment is performed, it is desirable to maintain the alignment over long periods of time. The previous design of the MONSTR was limited to a narrow spectral range defined by the optical coating of the beam splitters. In order to achieve tunability over a broad spectral range the internal optics needed to be changed. By using broadband coated and wedged beam splitters and compensator plates, combined with modifications of the beam paths, continuous tunability can be achieved from 520 nm to 1100 nm without changing any optics or performing alignment of the internal components of the MONSTR. Furthermore, in order to achieve continuous tunability in the spectral region between 520 nm and 720 nm, crucially important for studies on numerous biological molecules, a single longitudinal mode laser at 488.5 nm was identified and used as a metrology laser. The shorter wavelength of the metrology laser as compared to the usual HeNe laser has also increased the phase stability of the system. Finally, in order to perform experiments in the reflection geometry, a simple method to achieve active phase stabilization
Headspace Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for the differentiation of Pandanus species.
Aganda, Kim Christopher C; Nonato, Maribel G; Sevilla, Fortunato; Santiago, Karen S
2017-03-01
Headspace Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (HS-FTIR) in tandem with chemometrics was applied to differentiate several species of the genus Pandanus. The headspace was generated from each Pandanus sample after incubation in a tightly sealed sample chamber. The resulting FTIR spectra of the headspace samples were found to be almost similar, but the application of principal component analysis (PCA) effectively differentiated the species. The unique spectral features for some samples were highlighted in the second-derivative FTIR spectra. A higher variance was exhibited in the PCA bi-plot of the 2nd derivative spectral data. The principal components differentiated not only the species, but also the cultivars or varieties, which formed distinct but proximate clusters. The manner of clustering obtained in this study resembled the behavior reported in a Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA analysis conducted on the Pandanus samples. The results demonstrate the potential of headspace FTIR spectroscopy as a simple, rapid, non-destructive, and relatively inexpensive method to discriminate between plant species and varieties.
A sapphire fibre thermal probe based on fast Fourier transform and phase-lock loop
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Yu-Tian; Wang Dong-Sheng; Ge Wen-Qian; Cui Li-Chao
2006-01-01
A sapphire fibre thermal probe with Cra+ ion-doped end is developed by using the laser heated pedestal growth method. The fluorescence thermal probe offers advantages of compact structure, high performance and ability to withstand high temperature in a detection range from room temperature to 450℃. Based on the fast Fourier transform(FFT), the fluorescence lifetime is obtained from the tangent function of phase angle of the non-zeroth terms in the FFT result. This method has advantages such as quick calculation, high accuracy and immunity to the background noise. This FFT method is compared with other traditional fitting methods, indicating that the standard deviation of the FFT method is about half of that of the Prony method and about 1/6 of that of the log-fit method. And the FFT method is immune to the background noise involved in a signal. So, the FFT method is an excellent way of processing signals. In addition, a phase-lock amplifier can effectively suppress the noise.
a KA-BAND Chirped-Pulse Fourier Transform Microwave Spectrometer.
Zaleski, Daniel P.; Neill, Justin L.; Muckle, Matthew T.; Pate, Brooks H.; Carroll, P. Brandon; Weaver, Susanna L. Widicus
2010-06-01
The design and performance of a new chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometer operating from 25-40 GHz will be discussed. A 10.5-3 GHz linear frequency sweep, generated by a 24 GS/s arbitrary waveform generator, is upconverted by a 23.00 GHz phase-locked oscillator, then fed into an active doubler to create a 25-40 GHz chirped pulse. After amplification with a 60-80 W pulsed traveling wave tube amplifier, the pulse is broadcast across a molecular beam chamber where it interacts with a molecular sample. The molecular FID signal is downconverted with the 23 GHz oscillator so that it can be digitized on a 50 GS/s oscilloscope with 16 GHz hardware bandwidth. The sensitivity and phase stability of this spectrometer is comparable to that of the previously reported 6.5-18.5 CP-FTMW spectrometer. On propyne (μ=0.78 D), a single-shot signal to noise ratio of approximately 200:1 is observed on the J=2-1 rotational transition at 34183 MHz when the full bandwidth is swept; optimal excitation is observed for this transition with a 250 MHz bandwidth sweep. The emission has a T_2 lifetime of 4 μs. Early results from this spectrometer, particularly in the study of species of astrochemical interest, will be presented. G.G. Brown et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79 (2008) 053103.
Broadband Mid-Infrared Comb-Resolved Fourier Transform Spectroscopy
Lee, Kevin; Mills, Andrew; Mohr, Christian; Jiang, Jie; Fermann, Martin; Maslowski, Piotr
2014-06-01
We report on a comb-resolved, broadband, direct-comb spectroscopy system in the mid-IR and its application to the detection of trace gases and molecular line shape analysis. By coupling an optical parametric oscillator (OPO), a 100 m multipass cell, and a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS), sensitive, comb-resolved broadband spectroscopy of dilute gases is possible. The OPO has radiation output at 3.1-3.7 and 4.5-5.5 μm. The laser repetition rate is scanned to arbitrary values with 1 Hz accuracy around 417 MHz. The comb-resolved spectrum is produced with an absolute frequency axis depending only on the RF reference (in this case a GPS disciplined oscillator), stable to 1 part in 10^9. The minimum detectable absorption is 1.6x10-6 wn Hz-1/2. The operating range of the experimental setup enables access to strong fundamental transitions of numerous molecular species for applications based on trace gas detection such as environmental monitoring, industrial gas calibration or medical application of human breath analysis. In addition to these capabilities, we show the application for careful line shape analysis of argon-broadened CO band spectra around 4.7 μm. Fits of the obtained spectra clearly illustrate the discrepancy between the measured spectra and the Voigt profile (VP), indicating the need to include effects such as Dicke narrowing and the speed-dependence of the collisional width and shift in the line shape model, as was shown in previous cw-laser studies. In contrast to cw-laser based experiments, in this case the entire spectrum (˜ 250 wn) covering the whole P and R branches can be measured in 16 s with 417 MHz resolution, decreasing the acquisition time by orders of magnitude. The parallel acquisition allows collection of multiple lines simultaneously, removing the correlation of possible temperature and pressure drifts. While cw-systems are capable of measuring spectra with higher precision, this demonstration opens the door for fast
Fast Fourier Transform Chlorine Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy.
D'Iorio, Marie
A nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrometer operating in the frequency range 1-40 MHz was updated for fast Fourier transform spectroscopy and coupled to a Nicolet 1180 computer and data acquisition system. It was used with a low temperature cryostat for studies shown down to liquid helium temperature and with a high pressure/low temperature system for studies down to liquid nitrogen temperature and up to six kilobars. The study of the ('35)Cl NQR spectrum of K(,2)OsCl(,6) at 298 K and 77 K revealed the presence of a satellite associated with the nearest neighbour chlorines to H('+) ion impurities located at vacant octahedral sties. This result is in agreement with the predictions of a point charge model calculation. A residence time for the H('+) ion was deduced and is consistent with the result obtained from dielectric measurements. A detailed study of the ('35)Cl NQR frequency in K(,2)ReCl(,6) was performed in the temperature range 85 - 130K where two structural phase transitions occur, and at pressures from 1 to 2643 bars. A number of unusual features were revealed and discussed as the possible signature of incommensurate behavior. The primary effect of the pressure was to alter the temperatures at which the phase transitions occurred. Contrary to the behavior expected, the transition temperature for the antiferrorotative transition has a negative pressure coefficient. The spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times for the ('35)Cl and ('37)Cl isotopes of the one dimensional XY system, PrCl(,3), were measured at 4.2K. The spin-lattice relaxation is exponential and dominated by magnetic dipole -dipole interactions. The spin-spin relaxation is non-exponential and dominated by electric quadrupolar interactions arising from the coupling of the electric dipole moment at the praseodymium site and the quadrupole moment of the chlorine ion. The temperature dependence of the spin-spin relaxation time was investigated. At 17.4 K both magnetic dipolar and electric
Optimal Padding for the Two-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform
Dean, Bruce H.; Aronstein, David L.; Smith, Jeffrey S.
2011-01-01
One-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) operations work fastest on grids whose size is divisible by a power of two. Because of this, padding grids (that are not already sized to a power of two) so that their size is the next highest power of two can speed up operations. While this works well for one-dimensional grids, it does not work well for two-dimensional grids. For a two-dimensional grid, there are certain pad sizes that work better than others. Therefore, the need exists to generalize a strategy for determining optimal pad sizes. There are three steps in the FFT algorithm. The first is to perform a one-dimensional transform on each row in the grid. The second step is to transpose the resulting matrix. The third step is to perform a one-dimensional transform on each row in the resulting grid. Steps one and three both benefit from padding the row to the next highest power of two, but the second step needs a novel approach. An algorithm was developed that struck a balance between optimizing the grid pad size with prime factors that are small (which are optimal for one-dimensional operations), and with prime factors that are large (which are optimal for two-dimensional operations). This algorithm optimizes based on average run times, and is not fine-tuned for any specific application. It increases the amount of times that processor-requested data is found in the set-associative processor cache. Cache retrievals are 4-10 times faster than conventional memory retrievals. The tested implementation of the algorithm resulted in faster execution times on all platforms tested, but with varying sized grids. This is because various computer architectures process commands differently. The test grid was 512 512. Using a 540 540 grid on a Pentium V processor, the code ran 30 percent faster. On a PowerPC, a 256x256 grid worked best. A Core2Duo computer preferred either a 1040x1040 (15 percent faster) or a 1008x1008 (30 percent faster) grid. There are many industries that
Implementation of Period-Finding Algorithm by Means of Simulating Quantum Fourier Transform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zohreh Moghareh Abed
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce quantum fourier transform as a key ingredient for many useful algorithms. These algorithms make a solution for problems which is considered to be intractable problems on a classical computer. Quantum Fourier transform is propounded as a key for quantum phase estimation algorithm. In this paper our aim is the implementation of period-finding algorithm.Quantum computer solves this problem, exponentially faster than classical one. Quantum phase estimation algorithm is the key for the period-finding problem .Therefore, by means of simulating quantum Fourier transform, we are able to implement the period-finding algorithm. In this paper, the simulation of quantum Fourier transform is carried out by Matlab software.
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Part II. Advantages of FT-IR.
Perkins, W. D.
1987-01-01
This is Part II in a series on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Described are various advantages of FT-IR spectroscopy including energy advantages, wavenumber accuracy, constant resolution, polarization effects, and stepping at grating changes. (RH)
Improved method of generating bit reversed numbers for calculating fast fourier transform
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Suresh, T.
Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is an important tool required for signal processing in defence applications. This paper reports an improved method for generating bit reversed numbers needed in calculating FFT using radix-2. The refined algorithm takes...
D'Astous, Y.; Blanchard, M.
1982-05-01
In the past years, the Journal has published a number of articles1-5 devoted to the introduction of Fourier transform spectroscopy in the undergraduate labs. In most papers, the proposed experimental setup consists of a Michelson interferometer, a light source, a light detector, and a chart recorder. The student uses this setup to record an interferogram which is then Fourier transformed to obtain the spectrogram of the light source. Although attempts have been made to ease the task of performing the required Fourier transform,6 the use of computers and Cooley-Tukey's fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm7 is by far the simplest method to use. However, to be able to use FFT, one has to get a number of samples of the interferogram, a tedious job which should be kept to a minimum. (AIP)
Xi, Jiaxin; Liu, Ning
2017-09-01
Vibration characteristic of timing chain system is very important for an engine. In this study, we used a bush roller chain drive system as an example to explain how to use mulitybody dynamic techniques and short-time Fourier transform to investigate vibration characteristics of timing chain system. Multibody dynamic simulation data as chain tension force and external excitation sources curves were provided for short-time Fourier transform study. The study results of short-time Fourier transform illustrate that there are two main vibration frequency domain of timing chain system, one is the low frequency vibration caused by crankshaft sprocket velocity and camshaft sprocket torque. Another is vibration around 1000Hz lead by hydraulic tensioner. Hence, short-time Fourier transform method is useful for basic research of vibration characteristics for timing chain system.
Cageao, R.; Sander, S.; Blavier, J.; Jiang, Y.; Nemtchinov, V.
2000-01-01
A compact, high resolution Fourier-transform spectrometer for atmospheric near ultraviolet spectroscopy has been installed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Table Mountain Facility (34.4N, 117.7 W, elevation 2290m).
The Fourier Transform in Chemistry. Part 1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Introduction.
King, Roy W.; Williams, Kathryn R.
1989-01-01
Using fourier transformation methods in nuclear magnetic resonance has made possible increased sensitivity in chemical analysis. This article describes these methods as they relate to magnetization, the RF magnetic field, nuclear relaxation, the RF pulse, and free induction decay. (CW)
Fourier transform of delayed fluorescence as an indicator of herbicide concentration.
Guo, Ya; Tan, Jinglu
2014-12-21
It is well known that delayed fluorescence (DF) from Photosystem II (PSII) of plant leaves can be potentially used to sense herbicide pollution and evaluate the effect of herbicides on plant leaves. The research of using DF as a measure of herbicides in the literature was mainly conducted in time domain and qualitative correlation was often obtained. Fourier transform is often used to analyze signals. Viewing DF signal in frequency domain through Fourier transform may allow separation of signal components and provide a quantitative method for sensing herbicides. However, there is a lack of an attempt to use Fourier transform of DF as an indicator of herbicide. In this work, the relationship between the Fourier transform of DF and herbicide concentration was theoretically modelled and analyzed, which immediately yielded a quantitative method to measure herbicide concentration in frequency domain. Experiments were performed to validate the developed method.
Multi-channel sampling theorems for band-limited signals with fractional Fourier transform
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Multi-channel sampling for band-limited signals is fundamental in the theory of multi-channel parallel A/D environment and multiplexing wireless communication environment. As the fractional Fourier transform has been found wide applications in signal processing fields, it is necessary to consider the multi-channel sampling theorem based on the fractional Fourier transform. In this paper, the multi-channel sampling theorem for the fractional band-limited signal is firstly proposed, which is the generalization of the well-known sampling theorem for the fractional Fourier transform. Since the periodic nonuniformly sampled signal in the fractional Fourier domain has valuable applications, the reconstruction expression for the periodic nonuniformly sampled signal has been then obtained by using the derived multi-channel sampling theorem and the specific space-shifting and phase-shifting properties of the fractional Fourier transform. Moreover, by designing different fractional Fourier filters, we can obtain reconstruction methods for other sampling strategies.
The Design of Lens Imaging System by Means of Fractional Fourier Transform
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Jiannong; XU Qiang; D.R.Selviah
2002-01-01
The relation between the 2nd fractional Fourier transform and the imaging process of an optical system is discussed. By changing the coordinate scales of the input plane in respect to the magnification of the optical imaging system, the fractional Fourier transform can be a powerful tool in designing specific imaging system. The Gaussian imaging formula of single lens is obtained by using the tool. Finally the procedures are generalized for designing a double-lens imaging system through an example.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Lin-Fei; ZHAO Dao-Mu
2006-01-01
@@ We propose a new method to add different images together by optical implementation that is realized by the multi-exposure based on fractional Fourier transform hologram. Partial image fusion is proposed and realized by this method. Multiple images encryption can also be implemented by the multi-exposure of the hologram based on fractional Fourier transform. Computer simulations prove that this method is valid.
Far-field radiation patterns of aperture antennas by the Winograd Fourier transform algorithm
Heisler, R.
1978-01-01
A more time-efficient algorithm for computing the discrete Fourier transform, the Winograd Fourier transform (WFT), is described. The WFT algorithm is compared with other transform algorithms. Results indicate that the WFT algorithm in antenna analysis appears to be a very successful application. Significant savings in cpu time will improve the computer turn around time and circumvent the need to resort to weekend runs.
Pisani, Marco; Zucco, Massimo
2009-05-11
An imaging spectrometer based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer is presented. The Fabry-Perot interferometer scans the mirror distance up to contact and the intensity modulated light signal is transformed using a Fourier Transform based algorithm, as the Michelson based Fourier Transform Spectrometers does. The resulting instrument has the advantage of a compact, high numerical aperture, high luminosity hyperspectral imaging device. Theory of operation is described along with one experimental realization and preliminary results.
Krovi, Hari; Russell, Alexander
2012-01-01
Knot and link invariants naturally arise from any braided Hopf algebra. We consider the computational complexity of the invariants arising from an elementary family of finite-dimensional Hopf algebras: quantum doubles of finite groups (denoted D(G), for a group G). Regarding algorithms for these invariants, we develop quantum circuits for the quantum Fourier transform over D(G); in general, we show that when one can uniformly and efficiently carry out the quantum Fourier transform over the ce...
OTDM-to-WDM Conversion of Complex Modulation Formats by Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Palushani, Evarist; Richter, T.; Ludwig, R.
2012-01-01
We demonstrate the utilization of the optical Fourier transform technique for serial-to-parallel conversion of 64×10-GBd OTDM data tributaries with complex modulation formats into 50-GHz DWDM grid without loss of phase and amplitude information.......We demonstrate the utilization of the optical Fourier transform technique for serial-to-parallel conversion of 64×10-GBd OTDM data tributaries with complex modulation formats into 50-GHz DWDM grid without loss of phase and amplitude information....
Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation for OTDM-DWDM and DWDM-OTDM Conversion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Palushani, Evarist; Galili, Michael
2011-01-01
Applications of time-domain optical Fourier transformation (OFT) in ultra-high-speed optical time-division multiplexed systems (OTDM) are reviewed, with emphasis on the recent demonstrations of OFT-based conversion between the OTDM and DWDM formats.......Applications of time-domain optical Fourier transformation (OFT) in ultra-high-speed optical time-division multiplexed systems (OTDM) are reviewed, with emphasis on the recent demonstrations of OFT-based conversion between the OTDM and DWDM formats....
Discrimination of organic coffee via Fourier transform infrared-photoacoustic spectroscopy.
Gordillo-Delgado, Fernando; Marín, Ernesto; Cortés-Hernández, Diego Mauricio; Mejía-Morales, Claudia; García-Salcedo, Angela Janet
2012-08-30
Procedures for the evaluation of the origin and quality of ground and roasted coffee are constantly needed for the associated industry due to complexity of the related market. Conventional Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy can be used for detecting changes in functional groups of compounds, such as coffee. However, dispersion, reflection and non-homogeneity of the sample matrix can cause problems resulting in low spectral quality. On the other hand, sample preparation frequently takes place in a destructive way. To overcome these difficulties, in this work a photoacoustic cell has been adapted as a detector in a FTIR spectrophotometer to perform a study of roasted and ground coffee from three varieties of Coffea arabica grown by organic and conventional methods. Comparison between spectra of coffee recorded by FTIR-photoacoustic spectrometry (PAS) and by FTIR spectrophotometry showed a better resolution of the former method, which, aided by principal components analysis, allowed the identification of some absorption bands that allow the discrimination between organic and conventional coffee. The results obtained provide information about the spectral behavior of coffee powder which can be useful for establishing discrimination criteria. It has been demonstrated that FTIR-PAS can be a useful experimental tool for the characterization of coffee. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
Fourier-transform spectroscopy of Sr2 and revised ground-state potential
Stein, A.; Knöckel, H.; Tiemann, E.
2008-10-01
Precise potentials for the ground-state XΣg+1 and the minimum region of the excited state 2Σu+1 of Sr2 are derived by high-resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy of fluorescence progressions from single-frequency laser excitation of Sr2 produced in a heat pipe at 950°C . A change of the rotational assignment by four units compared to an earlier work [G. Gerber , J. Chem. Phys. 81, 1538 (1984)] is needed for a consistent description leading to a significant shift of the potentials toward longer interatomic distances. The huge amount of ground-state data derived for the three different isotopomers Sr288 , Sr86Sr88 , and Sr87Sr88 (almost 60% of all excisting bound rovibrational ground-state levels for the isotopomer Sr288 ) fixes this assignment beyond a doubt. The presented ground-state potential is derived from the observed transitions for the radial region from 4to11Å ( 9cm-1 below the asymptote) and is extended to the long-range region by the use of theoretical dispersion coefficients together with already available photoassociation data. New estimations of the scattering lengths for the complete set of isotopic combinations are derived by mass scaling with the derived potential. The data set for the excited state 2Σu+1 was sufficient to derive a potential energy curve around the minimum.
Smith, Peter L.; Pickering, Juliet C.; Thorne, A. P.
2002-01-01
Currently available laboratory spectroscopic data of doubly ionized iron-group element were obtained about 50 years ago using spectrographs of modest dispersion, photographic plates, and eye estimates of intensities. The accuracy of the older wavelength data is about 10 mAngstroms at best, whereas wavelengths are now needed to an accuracy of 1 part in 10(exp 6) to 10(exp 7) (0.2 to 2 mAngstroms at 2000 Angstroms). The Fourier transform (FT) spectroscopy group at Imperial College, London, and collaborators at the Harvard College Observatory have used a unique VUV FT spectrometer in a program focussed on improving knowledge of spectra of many neutral and singly and doubly ionized, astrophysically important, iron group elements. Spectra of Fe II and Fe III have been recorded at UV and VUV wavelengths with signal-to-noise ratios of several hundred for the stronger lines. Wavelengths and energy levels for Fe III are an order of magnitude more accurate than previous work; analysis is close to completion. f-values for Fe II have been published.
Sinclair, Wayne; Leane, Michael; Clarke, Graham; Dennis, Andrew; Tobyn, Mike; Timmins, Peter
2011-11-01
The solid-state physical stability and recrystallization kinetics during storage stability are described for an amorphous solid dispersed drug substance, ibipinabant, at a low concentration (1.0%, w/w) in a solid oral dosage form (tablet). The recrystallization behavior of the amorphous ibipinabant-polyvinylpyrrolidone solid dispersion in the tablet product was characterized by Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy. A partial least-square analysis used for multivariate calibration based on Raman spectra was developed and validated to detect less than 5% (w/w) of the crystalline form (equivalent to less than 0.05% of the total mass of the tablet). The method provided reliable and highly accurate predictive crystallinity assessments after exposure to a variety of stability storage conditions. It was determined that exposure to moisture had a significant impact on the crystallinity of amorphous ibipinabant. The information provided by the method has potential utility for predictive physical stability assessments. Dissolution testing demonstrated that the predicted crystallinity had a direct correlation with this physical property of the drug product. Recrystallization kinetics was measured using FT Raman spectroscopy for the solid dispersion from the tablet product stored at controlled temperature and relative humidity. The measurements were evaluated by application of the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) kinetic model to determine recrystallization rate constants and Avrami exponent (n = 2). The analysis showed that the JMA equation could describe the process very well, and indicated that the recrystallization kinetics observed was a two-step process with an induction period (nucleation) followed by rod-like crystal growth.
Ma, Q.; Tipping, R. H.; Lavrentieva, N. N.
2012-01-01
By adopting a concept from signal processing, instead of starting from the correlation functions which are even, one considers the causal correlation functions whose Fourier transforms become complex. Their real and imaginary parts multiplied by 2 are the Fourier transforms of the original correlations and the subsequent Hilbert transforms, respectively. Thus, by taking this step one can complete the two previously needed transforms. However, to obviate performing the Cauchy principal integrations required in the Hilbert transforms is the greatest advantage. Meanwhile, because the causal correlations are well-bounded within the time domain and band limited in the frequency domain, one can replace their Fourier transforms by the discrete Fourier transforms and the latter can be carried out with the FFT algorithm. This replacement is justified by sampling theory because the Fourier transforms can be derived from the discrete Fourier transforms with the Nyquis rate without any distortions. We apply this method in calculating pressure induced shifts of H2O lines and obtain more reliable values. By comparing the calculated shifts with those in HITRAN 2008 and by screening both of them with the pair identity and the smooth variation rules, one can conclude many of shift values in HITRAN are not correct.
Fleming, Barry D; Barlow, Nicola L; Zhang, Jie; Bond, Alan M; Armstrong, Fraser A
2006-05-01
This paper describes an application of Fourier transform (FT) voltammetry that provides a quantitative evaluation of the electron-transfer kinetics of protein molecules attached to electrode surfaces. The potential waveform applied in these experiments consists of a large-amplitude square wave of frequency f superimposed onto the traditional triangular voltage used in dc cyclic voltammetry. The resultant current-time response, when Fourier transformed into the frequency domain, provides patterns of data at the even harmonic frequencies that arise from nonlinearity in the Faradaic response. These even harmonic contributions are ideally suited for kinetic evaluation of electron-transfer processes because they are highly selective to quasi-reversible behavior (insensitive to reversible or irreversible processes) and almost devoid of background charging current. Inverse FT methods can then be used to provide the wave shapes of the dc as well as the ac voltammetric components and other characteristics employed to detect the level of nonideality present relative to theoretical models based upon noninteracting surface-confined molecules. The new form of data evaluation has been applied to the electron-transfer properties of a typical biological electron carrier, the blue copper protein azurin, immobilized on polycrystalline gold electrodes modified with self-assembled monolayers of different length alkanethiols. Details of the electrode kinetics (rates of electron transfer, dispersion, and charge-transfer coefficients) as a function of alkanethiol, apparent surface coverage, and capacitance are all deduced from the square wave (FT-inverse FT) protocol, and the implications of these findings are considered.
Astra, Egon; Olsson, Samuel L I; Eliasson, Henrik; Andrekson, Peter A
2017-06-12
We present an investigation of dispersion map optimization for two-span single-channel 28 GBaud QPSK transmission systems with phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs). In experiments, when the PSA link is operated in a highly nonlinear regime, a 1.4 dB error vector magnitude (EVM) improvement is achieved compared to a one-span optimized dispersion map link due to improved nonlinearity mitigation. The two-span optimized dispersion map of a PSA link differs from the optimized dispersion map of a dispersion managed phase-insensitive amplifier (PIA) link. Simulations show that the performance of the two-span dispersion map optimized PSA link does not improve by residual dispersion optimization. Further, by using the two-span optimized dispersion maps repeatedly in a long-haul PSA link instead of one-span optimized maps, the maximum transmission reach can be improved 1.5 times.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
This paper focuses on the non-zero dispersion shifted fiber optical transmission system which employs cascaded in-line Phase-sensitive Amplifiers (PSAs). By computer simulation, we have revealed that the eye-penalty of high-speed signal pulses increases with the accretion of dispersion and the transmission distance limited by Intersymbol Interference (ISI) of signals varies with the spacing and average output power of amplifiers for positive and negative fiber dispersion. The analysis shows that although PSA can compensate for both positive and negative dispersion, it is only valid for small dispersion coefficient fiber. Owing to the effect of Self-phase-modulation (SPM), the ISI limited transmission distance of positive dispersion fiber is much longer than that of negative dispersion fiber. In addition, for positive fiber dispersion, there is an optimum value of average output signal power from PSA leading to the longest ISI limited transmission distance.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LINHong－rong; CHENRu－quan
2001-01-01
This paper focuses on the non-zero dispersion shifted fiber optical transmission system which employs cas-caded in-line Phase-sensitive Amplifiers(PSAs).By computer simulation, we have revealed that the eye-penalty of high-speed signal pulses increases with the accretion of dispersion and the transmission distance limited by Intersymbol Interference (ISI) of signals varies with the spacing and average output power of amplifiers for positive and nega-tive fiber dispersion.The analysis shows that although PSA can compensate for both positive and negative dispersion, it is only valid for small dispersion coefficient fiber.Owing to the effect of Self-phase-modulation (SPM), the ISI limited transmission distance of positive dispersion fiber is much longer than that of negative dispersion fiber.In ad-dition, for positive fiber dispersion,there is an optimum value of average output signal power from PSA leading to the longest ISI limited transmission distance.
Adachi, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Yuya; Sudo, Yuki; Suzuki, Toshinori
2017-09-01
We present a novel design of a few-cycle noncollinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) pumped by the second harmonic of a Ti:sapphire laser. A quasi-transform-limited sub-6 fs pulse width was realized by static dispersion compensation with commercially available chirped mirrors. The performance of the NOPA was tested by performing transient absorption spectroscopy on sensory rhodopsin II, and we observe short-lived oscillatory components that are associated with the vibrational coherence from the isomerizing molecule in the excited electronic state.
Safari, M J; Afarideh, H; Jamili, S; Bayat, E
2016-01-01
A Discrete Fourier Transform Method (DFTM) for discrimination between the signal of neutrons and gamma rays in organic scintillation detectors is presented. The method is based on the transformation of signals into the frequency domain using the sine and cosine Fourier transforms in combination with the discrete Fourier transform. The method is largely benefited from considerable differences that usually is available between the zero-frequency components of sine and cosine and the norm of the amplitude of the DFT for neutrons and gamma-ray signals. Moreover, working in frequency domain naturally results in considerable suppression of the unwanted effects of various noise sources that is expected to be effective in time domain methods. The proposed method could also be assumed as a generalized nonlinear weighting method that could result in a new class of pulse shape discrimination methods, beyond definition of the DFT. A comparison to the traditional Charge Integration Method (CIM), as well as the Frequency G...
Functional differential equations for the q-Fourier transform of q-Gaussians
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Umarov, S [Department of Mathematics, Tufts University, Medford, MA (United States); Queiros, S M Duarte, E-mail: sdqueiro@gmail.co [Unilever R and D Port Sunlight, Quarry Road East, Wirral, CH63 3JW (United Kingdom)
2010-02-05
In this paper the question 'is the q-Fourier transform of a q-Gaussian a q'-Gaussian (with some q') up to a constant factor?' is studied for the whole range of q in (- infty, 3). This question is connected with applicability of the q-Fourier transform in the study of limit processes in nonextensive statistical mechanics. Using the functional differential equation approach we prove that the answer is affirmative if and only if 1 <= q < 3, excluding two particular cases of q < 1, namely q=1/2 and q=2/3. Complementarily, we discuss some applications of the q-Fourier transform to nonlinear partial differential equations such as the porous medium equation.
Fast Inverse Nonlinear Fourier Transforms for Fiber Bragg Grating Design and Related Problems
Wahls, Sander
2016-01-01
The problem of constructing a fiber Bragg grating profile numerically such that the reflection coefficient of the grating matches a given specification is considered. The well-known analytic solution to this problem is given by a suitable inverse nonlinear Fourier transform (also known as inverse scattering transform) of the specificed reflection coefficient. Many different algorithms have been proposed to compute this inverse nonlinear Fourier transform numerically. The most efficient ones require $\\mathcal{O}(D^{2})$ floating point operations (flops) to generate $D$ samples of the grating profile. In this paper, two new fast inverse nonlinear Fourier transform algorithms that require only $\\mathcal{O}(D\\log^{2}D)$ flops are proposed. The merits of our algorithms are demonstrated in numerical examples, in which they are compared to a conventional layer peeling method, the Toeplitz inner bordering method and integral layer peeling. One of our two algorithms also extends to the design problem for fiber-assiste...
Image encryption based on the reality-preserving multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform
Lang, Jun
2012-05-01
In recent years, a number of methods have been proposed in the literature for the encryption of two-dimensional information by using the fractional Fourier transform, but most of their encryptions are complex values and need digital hologram technique to record information, which is inconvenient for digital transmission. In this paper, we propose a new approach for image encryption based on the real-valuedness and decorrelation property of the reality-preserving multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform in order to meet the requirements of the secure image transmission. In the proposed scheme, the original and encrypted images are respectively in the spatial domain and the reality-preserving multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transformed domain determined by the encryption keys. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate that the proposed method is reliable and more robust to blind decryption than several existing methods.
Inversion of Fourier Transforms by Means of Scale-Frequency Series
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nassar H. S. Haidar
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We report on inversion of the Fourier transform when the frequency variable can be scaled in a variety of different ways that improve the resolution of certain parts of the frequency domain. The corresponding inverse Fourier transform is shown to exist in the form of two dual scale-frequency series. Upon discretization of the continuous scale factor, this Fourier transform series inverse becomes a certain nonharmonic double series, a discretized scale-frequency (DSF series. The DSF series is also demonstrated, theoretically and practically, to be rate-optimizable with respect to its two free parameters, when it satisfies, as an entropy maximizer, a pertaining recursive nonlinear programming problem incorporating the entropy-based uncertainty principle.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Patino, A [Universidad Technologica de Bolivar, Cartagena de Indias (Colombia); Durand, P-E; Fogret, E; Pellat-Finet, P, E-mail: alberto.patino-vanegas@univ-ubs.fr [Laboratoire de mathematiques et applications des mathematiques, Universite de Bretagne Sud, B P 92116, 56321 Lorient cedex (France)
2011-01-01
According to a scalar theory of diffraction, light propagation can be expressed by two-dimensional fractional order Fourier transforms. Since the fractional Fourier transform of a chirp function is a Dirac distribution, focusing a light beam is optically achieved by using a diffractive screen whose transmission function is a two-dimensional chirp function. This property is applied to designing Fresnel microlenses, and the orders of the involved Fourier fractional transforms depend on diffraction distances as well as on emitter and receiver radii of curvature. If the emitter is astigmatic (with two principal radii of curvature), the diffraction phenomenon involves two one-dimensional fractional Fourier transforms whose orders are different. This degree of freedom allows us to design microlenses that can focus astigmatic Gaussian beams, as produced by a line-shaped laser diode source.
Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Way, M. J.; Gazis, P. G.
2017-01-01
We demonstrate the effectiveness of a relatively straightforward analysis of the complex 3D Fourier transform of galaxy coordinates derived from redshift surveys. Numerical demonstrations of this approach are carried out on a volume-limited sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey redshift survey. The direct unbinned transform yields a complex 3D data cube quite similar to that from the Fast Fourier Transform of finely binned galaxy positions. In both cases, deconvolution of the sampling window function yields estimates of the true transform. Simple power spectrum estimates from these transforms are roughly consistent with those using more elaborate methods. The complex Fourier transform characterizes spatial distributional properties beyond the power spectrum in a manner different from (and we argue is more easily interpreted than) the conventional multipoint hierarchy. We identify some threads of modern large-scale inference methodology that will presumably yield detections in new wider and deeper surveys.
Atomic Gaussian type orbitals and their Fourier transforms via the Rayleigh expansion
Yükçü, Niyazi
2016-03-01
Gaussian type orbitals (GTOs), which are one of the types of exponential type orbitals (ETOs), are used usually as basis functions in the multi-center atomic and molecular integrals to better understand physical and chemical properties of matter. In the Fourier transform method (FTM), basis functions have not simplicity to make mathematical operations, but their Fourier transforms are easier to use. In this work, with the help of FTM, Rayleigh expansion and some properties of unnormalized GTOs, we present new mathematical results for the Fourier transform of GTOs in terms of Laguerre polynomials, hypergeometric and Whittaker functions. Physical and analytical properties of GTOs are discussed and some numerical results have been given in a table. Finally, we compare our mathematical results with the other known literature results by using a computer program and details of evaluation are presented.
Munoz, R. M. (Inventor)
1974-01-01
An input analog signal to be frequency analyzed is separated into N number of simultaneous analog signal components each identical to the original but delayed relative to the original by a successively larger time delay. The separated and delayed analog components are combined together in a suitable number of adders and attenuators in accordance with at least one component product of the continuous Fourier transform and analog signal matrices to separate the analog input signal into at least one of its continuous analog frequency components of bandwidth 1/N times the bandwidth of the original input signal. The original analog input signal can be reconstituted by combining the separate analog frequency components in accordance with the component products of the continuous Fourier transform and analog frequency component matrices. The continuous Fourier transformation is useful for spectrum analysis, filtering, transfer function synthesis, and communications.
van Agthoven, Maria A.; Barrow, Mark P.; Chiron, Lionel; Coutouly, Marie-Aude; Kilgour, David; Wootton, Christopher A.; Wei, Juan; Soulby, Andrew; Delsuc, Marc-André; Rolando, Christian; O'Connor, Peter B.
2015-12-01
Two-dimensional Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry is a data-independent analytical method that records the fragmentation patterns of all the compounds in a sample. This study shows the implementation of atmospheric pressure photoionization with two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. In the resulting 2D mass spectrum, the fragmentation patterns of the radical and protonated species from cholesterol are differentiated. This study shows the use of fragment ion lines, precursor ion lines, and neutral loss lines in the 2D mass spectrum to determine fragmentation mechanisms of known compounds and to gain information on unknown ion species in the spectrum. In concert with high resolution mass spectrometry, 2D Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry can be a useful tool for the structural analysis of small molecules.
Fourier-transform spectroscopy: new methods and applications: introduction by the feature editors.
Traub, W A; Winkel, R J; Goldman, A
1996-06-01
We are pleased to introduce this special issue of papers on Fourier-transform spectroscopy, which grew out of a recent topical meeting sponsored by the Optical Society of America. The topical meeting welcomed all researchers who practice the art of Fourier-transform spectroscopy in the laboratory, in the atmosphere, and in space. The power and the wide applicability of Fourier-transform spectroscopy unite these fields with a common mathematical and instrumental bond. The meeting probed each of these areas in depth, bringing out new ideas for instrumentation, analysis, and applications. There was a strong sentiment at the meeting that the quality of papers and posters was exceptionally high and that it would be important for future progress in the field to have the results of this meeting captured in print. This special issue is the fruit of that effort.
Building a symbolic computer algebra toolbox to compute 2D Fourier transforms in polar coordinates.
Dovlo, Edem; Baddour, Natalie
2015-01-01
The development of a symbolic computer algebra toolbox for the computation of two dimensional (2D) Fourier transforms in polar coordinates is presented. Multidimensional Fourier transforms are widely used in image processing, tomographic reconstructions and in fact any application that requires a multidimensional convolution. By examining a function in the frequency domain, additional information and insights may be obtained. The advantages of our method include: •The implementation of the 2D Fourier transform in polar coordinates within the toolbox via the combination of two significantly simpler transforms.•The modular approach along with the idea of lookup tables implemented help avoid the issue of indeterminate results which may occur when attempting to directly evaluate the transform.•The concept also helps prevent unnecessary computation of already known transforms thereby saving memory and processing time.
Luo, David; Kudenov, Michael W
2016-05-16
Systematic phase errors in Fourier transform spectroscopy can severely degrade the calculated spectra. Compensation of these errors is typically accomplished using post-processing techniques, such as Fourier deconvolution, linear unmixing, or iterative solvers. This results in increased computational complexity when reconstructing and calibrating many parallel interference patterns. In this paper, we describe a new method of calibrating a Fourier transform spectrometer based on the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs). In this way, it is demonstrated that a simpler and more straightforward reconstruction process can be achieved at the cost of additional calibration equipment. To this end, we provide a theoretical model for general systematic phase errors in a polarization birefringent interferometer. This is followed by a discussion of our experimental setup and a demonstration of our technique, as applied to data with and without phase error. The technique's utility is then supported by comparison to alternative reconstruction techniques using fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) and linear unmixing.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Kjøller, Niels-Kristian;
2015-01-01
We propose a novel all-optical WDM regeneration scheme for DPSK signals based on optical Fourier transformation and phase sensitive amplification. Phase regeneration of a WDM signal consisting of 4x10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK channels is demonstrated for the first time.......We propose a novel all-optical WDM regeneration scheme for DPSK signals based on optical Fourier transformation and phase sensitive amplification. Phase regeneration of a WDM signal consisting of 4x10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK channels is demonstrated for the first time....
Security of image encryption scheme based on multi-parameter fractional Fourier transform
Zhao, Tieyu; Ran, Qiwen; Yuan, Lin; Chi, Yingying; Ma, Jing
2016-10-01
Recently, multi-parameter fractional Fourier transform (MPFRFT) has been widely applied in the optics cryptosystem, which has attracted more and more researchers' attention. However, in further study we find a serious security problem on the MPFRFT which is the multi-choice of decryption key corresponding to an encryption key. The existence of multi-decryption-key hinders the application of this algorithm. We present a new generalized fractional Fourier transform, which can overcome the problem and enlarge the key space. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has higher security and key sensitivity.
The Pegg-Barnett phase operator and the discrete Fourier transform
Perez-Leija, Armando; Andrade-Morales, Luis A.; Soto-Eguibar, Francisco; Szameit, Alexander; Moya-Cessa, Héctor M.
2016-04-01
In quantum mechanics the position and momentum operators are related to each other via the Fourier transform. In the same way, here we show that the so-called Pegg-Barnett phase operator can be obtained by the application of the discrete Fourier transform to the number operators defined in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space. Furthermore, we show that the structure of the London-Susskind-Glogower phase operator, whose natural logarithm gives rise to the Pegg-Barnett phase operator, is contained in the Hamiltonian of circular waveguide arrays. Our results may find applications in the development of new finite-dimensional photonic systems with interesting phase-dependent properties.
Interferometric time delay correction for Fourier transform spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet
Meng, Yijian; Zhang, Chunmei; Marceau, Claude; Naumov, A. Yu.; Corkum, P. B.; Villeneuve, D. M.
2016-09-01
We demonstrate a Fourier transform spectrometer in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectrum using a high-harmonic source, with wavelengths as short as 32 nm. The femtosecond infrared laser source is divided into two separate foci in the same gas jet to create two synchronized XUV sources. An interferometric method to determine the relative delay between the two sources is shown to improve the accuracy of the delay time, with corrections of up to 200 asec required. By correcting the time base before the Fourier transform, the frequency resolution is improved by up to an order of magnitude.
Three-dimensional radiative transfer using a Fourier-transform matrix-operator method
Martonchik, J. V.; Diner, D. J.
1985-01-01
The three-dimensional equation of transfer for a scattering medium with planar geometry is solved by using a spatial Fourier transform and extending matrix-operator techniques developed previously for the one-dimensional equation. Doubling and adding algorithms were derived by means of an interaction principle for computing the Fourier-transformed radiation field. The resulting expressions fully describe the radiative transfer process in a scattering medium, inhomogeneous in the x-, y- and z-directions, illuminated from above by an arbitrarily general intensity field and bounded from below by a surface with completely general reflection properties.
Estimation of structural modal parameters by fourier transform with an optimal window
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU Hong-ping; WAN Xin-hua
2005-01-01
An adaptive Fourier Transform (FT) with an optimal window has been proposed for the time-frequency analysis of nonstationary time series. The method allows for a good estimation of both frequency and amplitude of the spectrum and can be easily applied to the general case of time-varying signals. The evaluation of the proposed approach has been performed on measured time-varying signals from a suspension bridge model and a steel frame model whose data have the typical non-stationary characteristics. The numerical results show that the proposed approach can overcome some of the difficulties encountered in the classic Fourier transform technique and can achieve higher computation accuracy.
Local structure information by EXAFS analysis using two algorithms for Fourier transform calculation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aldea, N; Pintea, S; Rednic, V [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Matei, F [University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 3-5 Calea Manastur, 400372 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Hu Tiandou; Xie Yaning, E-mail: nicolae.aldea@itim-cj.r [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facilities of Beijing Electron Positron Collider National Laboratory (China)
2009-08-01
The present work is a comparison study between different algorithms of Fourier transform for obtaining very accurate local structure results using Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure technique. In this paper we focus on the local structural characteristics of supported nickel catalysts and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core-shell nanocomposites. The radial distribution function could be efficiently calculated by the fast Fourier transform when the coordination shells are well separated while the Filon quadrature gave remarkable results for close-shell coordination.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zheng, Y. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Shirley, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
1995-02-01
The authors show by Fourier analyses of experimental data, with no further treatment, that the positions of all the strong peaks in Fourier transforms of angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure (ARPEFS) from adsorbed surfaces can be explicitly predicted from a trial structure with an accuracy of about {+-} 0.3 {angstrom} based on a single-scattering cluster model together with the concept of a strong backscattering cone, and without any additional analysis. This characteristic of ARPEFS Fourier transforms can be developed as a simple method for determining the structures of adsorbed surfaces to an accuracy of about {+-} 0.1 {angstrom}.
DWDM-TO-OTDM Conversion by Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Hu, Hao; Galili, Michael
2011-01-01
We propose DWDM-OTDM conversion by time-domain optical Fourier transformation. Error-free conversion of a 16×10 Gbit/s 50 GHz-spacing DWDM data signal to a 160 Gbit/s OTDM signal with a 2.1 dB average penalty is demonstrated.......We propose DWDM-OTDM conversion by time-domain optical Fourier transformation. Error-free conversion of a 16×10 Gbit/s 50 GHz-spacing DWDM data signal to a 160 Gbit/s OTDM signal with a 2.1 dB average penalty is demonstrated....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hu, Hao; Kong, Deming; Palushani, Evarist
2013-01-01
We demonstrate transmission of a 1.28-Tbaud Nyquist-OTDM signal over a record distance of 100 km with detection by time-domain optical Fourier transformation followed by FEC decoding, resulting in error-free performance for all tributaries.......We demonstrate transmission of a 1.28-Tbaud Nyquist-OTDM signal over a record distance of 100 km with detection by time-domain optical Fourier transformation followed by FEC decoding, resulting in error-free performance for all tributaries....
Accelerating the Non-equispaced Fast Fourier Transform on Commodity Graphics Hardware
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Thomas Sangild; Schaeffter, Tobias; Noe, Karsten Østergaard
2008-01-01
We present a fast parallel algorithm to compute the Non-equispaced fast Fourier transform on commodity graphics hardware (the GPU). We focus particularly on a novel implementation of the convolution step in the transform, which was previously its most time consuming part. We describe the performa......We present a fast parallel algorithm to compute the Non-equispaced fast Fourier transform on commodity graphics hardware (the GPU). We focus particularly on a novel implementation of the convolution step in the transform, which was previously its most time consuming part. We describe...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fedotov A.
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The article proposes a method of mathematical simulation of electrical machines with thyristor exciters on the basis of the local Fourier transform. The present research demonstrates that this method allows switching from a variable structure model to a constant structure model. Transition from the continuous variables to the discrete variables is used. The numerical example is given in the paper.
Fedotov, A.; Fedotov, E.; Bahteev, K.
2017-02-01
The article proposes a method of mathematical simulation of electrical machines with thyristor exciters on the basis of the local Fourier transform. The present research demonstrates that this method allows switching from a variable structure model to a constant structure model. Transition from the continuous variables to the discrete variables is used. The numerical example is given in the paper.
Digital watermarking for still image based on discrete fractional fourier transform
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Presents a digital watermarking technique based on discrete fractional Fourier transform(DFRFT), discusses the transformation of the original image by DFRFT, and the modification of DFRFT coefficients of the original image by the information of watermark, and concludes from experimental results that the proposed tech nique is robust to lossy compression attack.
Dool, T.C. van den; Hamelinck, R.F.M.M.; Kruizinga, B.; Gielesen, W.L.M.; Braam, B.C.; Nijenhuis, J.R.; Loix, N.; Luyckx, S.; Loon, D. van; Kooijman, P.P.; Swinyard, B.M.
2010-01-01
TNO, together with its partners Micromega and SRON, have designed a cryogenic scanning mechanism for use in the SAFARI Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on board of the SPICA mission. The optics of the FTS scanning mechanism (FTSM) consists of two back-to-back cat's-eyes. The optics are mounted
Vélez-Rábago, Rodrigo; Solorza-Calderón, Selene; Jordan-Aramburo, Adina
2016-12-01
This work presents an image pattern recognition system invariant to translation, scale and rotation. The system uses the Fourier transform to achieve the invariance to translation and the analytical Forier-Mellin transform for the invariance to scale and rotation. According with the statistical theory of box-plots, the pattern recognition system has a confidence level at least of 95.4%.
Subpixel translation of MEMS measured by discrete fourier transform analysis of CCD images
Yamahata, C.; Sarajlic, Edin; Stranczl, M.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Gijs, M.A.M.
2011-01-01
We present a straightforward method for measuring in-plane linear displacements of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with subnanometer resolution. The technique is based on Fourier transform analysis of a video recorded with a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera attached to an optical microscope
Specification of the Fast Fourier Transform algorithm as a term rewriting system
Rodenburg, P.H.; Hoekzema, D.J.
2008-01-01
We specify an algorithm for multiplying polynomials with complex coefficients incorporating, the Fast Fourier Transform algorithm of Cooley and Tukey [CT]. The specification formalism we use is a variant of the formalism ASF described in. [BHK]. The difference with ASF is essentially a matter of sem
Subpixel translation of MEMS measured by discrete fourier transform analysis of CCD images
Yamahata, C.; Sarajlic, E.; Stranczl, M.; Krijnen, G.J.M.; Gijs, M.A.M.
2011-01-01
We present a straightforward method for measuring in-plane linear displacements of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with subnanometer resolution. The technique is based on Fourier transform analysis of a video recorded with a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera attached to an optical microscope
Wiedermann, Guenter; Jennings, D. E.; Hanel, R. H.; Kunde, V. G.; Moseley, S. H.
1989-01-01
A postdispersion system for astronomical observations with Fourier transform spectrometers in the thermal infrared has been developed which improves the sensitivity of radiation noise limited observations by reducing the spectral range incident on the detector. Special attention is given to the first-generation blocked impurity band detector. Planetary, solar, and stellar observations are reported.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Sønnik; Morgenstjerne, Axel; Rathmann, Ole
1996-01-01
Surface temperatures are estimated with high precision based on a multitemperature method for Fourier-transform spectrometers. The method is based on Planck's radiation law and a nonlinear least-squares fitting algorithm applied to two or more spectra at different sample temperatures and a single...
Barbu, I.M.
2008-01-01
This thesis describes, the use of a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron (FTICR) mass spectrometer in the study of biological samples with, imaging mass spectrometry (MS). To achieve this goal experiments were performed on an in-house modified FTICR-MS instrument (for which special acquisition software w
VUV Fourier-transform absorption study of the Lyman and Werner bands in D-2
Lange, de A.; Dickenson, G.D.; Salumbides, E.J.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; Oliveira, de N.; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L.
2012-01-01
An extensive survey of the D-2 absorption spectrum has been performed with the high-resolution VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer employing synchrotron radiation. The frequency range of 90 000-119 000 cm (1) covers the full depth of the potential wells of the B (1)Sigma(+)(u), B' 1 Sigma(+)(u), and
Dool, T.C. van den; Hamelinck, R.F.M.M.; Kruizinga, B.; Gielesen, W.L.M.; Braam, B.C.; Nijenhuis, J.R.; Loix, N.; Luyckx, S.; Loon, D. van; Kooijman, P.P.; Swinyard, B.M.
2010-01-01
TNO, together with its partners Micromega and SRON, have designed a cryogenic scanning mechanism for use in the SAFARI Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on board of the SPICA mission. The optics of the FTS scanning mechanism (FTSM) consists of two back-to-back cat's-eyes. The optics are mounted o
A Graphical Presentation to Teach the Concept of the Fourier Transform
Besalu, E.
2006-01-01
A study was conducted to visualize the reason why the Fourier transform technique is useful to detect the originating frequencies of a complicated superposition of waves. The findings reveal that students respond well when instructors adapt pictorial presentation to show how the time-domain function is transformed into the frequency domain.
Fourier Transform Moire Deflectometry for Measuring the 3-D Temperature Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Li; WANG Ming; LIU Song; QI Xiaopin
2000-01-01
Fourier transform evaluation of fringe phase is applied to Moire deflectometry. 3-D gas temperature distribution for a given layer is reconstructed by optical tomography. The results show that the high-precise and automatic measurement for the 3-D gas temperature field can be realized by this technique.
Fourier transform spectroscopy around 3 microns with a broad difference frequency comb
Meek, Samuel A; Guelachvili, Guy; Hänsch, Theodor W; Picqué, Nathalie
2013-01-01
We characterize a new mid-infrared frequency comb generator based on difference frequency generation around 3.2 microns. High power per comb mode (>10-7 W/mode) is obtained over a broad spectral span (>700 nm). The source is used for direct absorption spectroscopy with a Michelson-based Fourier transform interferometer.
The Fourier transform solution for the Green's function of monoenergetic neutron transport theory
Ganapol, Barry D.
2014-01-01
Nearly 45 years ago, Ken Case published his seminal paper on the singular eigenfunction solution for the Green's function of the monoenergetic neutron transport equation with isotropic scattering. Previously, the solution had been obtained by Fourier transform. While it is apparent the two had to be equivalent, a convincing equivalence proof for general anisotropic scattering remained a challenge until now.
The Kinetics of Mo(Co)6 Substitution Monitored by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometry.
Suslick, Kenneth S.; And Others
1987-01-01
Describes a physical chemistry experiment that uses Fourier transform (FTIR) spectrometers and microcomputers as a way of introducing students to the spectral storage and manipulation techniques associated with digitized data. It can be used to illustrate FTIR spectroscopy, simple kinetics, inorganic mechanisms, and Beer's Law. (TW)
An Introduction to Fast Fourier Transforms through the Study of Oscillating Reactions.
Eastman, M. P.; And Others
1986-01-01
Discusses an experiment designed to introduce students to the basic principles of the fast Fourier transform and Fourier smoothing through transformation of time-dependent optical absorption data from an oscillating reaction. Uses the Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction. Describes the experimental setup and data analysis techniques.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Percival Almoro
1998-12-01
Full Text Available Microscopic deformations on the surface of a circular diaphragm were measured using double exposure holographic interferometry and Fourier transform method (FTM. The three-dimensional surface deformations were successfully visualized by applying FTM to holographic interferogram analysis. The minimum surface displacement measured was 0.317 µm. This was calibrated via the Michelson interferometry technique.
Our presentation will focus on continuing efforts to examine secondary cell wall development in cotton fibers using infrared Spectroscopy. Cotton fibers harvested at 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 days after flowering were examined using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-...
Soil science research is increasingly applying Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for analysis of soil organic matter (SOM). However, the compositional complexity of soils and the dominance of the mineral component can limit spectroscopic resolution of SOM and other minor components. The...
Teaching Stable Two-Mirror Resonators through the Fractional Fourier Transform
Moreno, Ignacio; Garcia-Martinez, Pascuala; Ferreira, Carlos
2010-01-01
We analyse two-mirror resonators in terms of their fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) properties. We use the basic ABCD ray transfer matrix method to show how the resonator can be regarded as the cascade of two propagation-lens-propagation FRFT systems. Then, we present a connection between the geometric properties of the resonator (the g…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Uceda Otero, E. P.; Eliel, G. S. N.; Fonseca, E. J. S.
2013-01-01
In this work we have used Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) / vibrational absorption (VA) spectroscopy to study two cancer cell lines: the Henrietta Lacks (HeLa) human cervix carcinoma and 5637 human bladder carcinoma cell lines. Our goal is to experimentally investigate biochemical changes and d...
Fang, Yishan; Huang, Xinjian; Wang, Lishi
2015-01-06
Discrimination and quantification of electroactive species are traditionally realized by a potential difference which is mainly determined by thermodynamics. However, the resolution of this approach is limited to tens of millivolts. In this paper, we described an application of Fourier transformed sinusoidal voltammetry (FT-SV) that provides a new approach for discrimination and quantitative evaluation of electroactive species, especially thermodynamic similar ones. Numerical simulation indicates that electron transfer kinetics difference between electroactive species can be revealed by the phase angle of higher order harmonics of FT-SV, and the difference can be amplified order by order. Thus, even a very subtle kinetics difference can be amplified to be distinguishable at a certain order of harmonics. This method was verified with structurally similar ferrocene derivatives which were chosen as the model systems. Although these molecules have very close redox potential (<10 mV), discrimination and selective detection were achieved by as high as the thirteenth harmonics. The results demonstrated the feasibility and reliability of the method. It was also implied that the combination of the traditional thermodynamic method and this kinetics method can form a two-dimension resolved detection method, and it has the potential to extend the resolution of voltammetric techniques to a new level.
Gundreddy, Rohith Reddy; Tan, Maxine; Qui, Yuchen; Zheng, Bin
2015-03-01
The purpose of this study is to develop and test a new content-based image retrieval (CBIR) scheme that enables to achieve higher reproducibility when it is implemented in an interactive computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system without significantly reducing lesion classification performance. This is a new Fourier transform based CBIR algorithm that determines image similarity of two regions of interest (ROI) based on the difference of average regional image pixel value distribution in two Fourier transform mapped images under comparison. A reference image database involving 227 ROIs depicting the verified soft-tissue breast lesions was used. For each testing ROI, the queried lesion center was systematically shifted from 10 to 50 pixels to simulate inter-user variation of querying suspicious lesion center when using an interactive CAD system. The lesion classification performance and reproducibility as the queried lesion center shift were assessed and compared among the three CBIR schemes based on Fourier transform, mutual information and Pearson correlation. Each CBIR scheme retrieved 10 most similar reference ROIs and computed a likelihood score of the queried ROI depicting a malignant lesion. The experimental results shown that three CBIR schemes yielded very comparable lesion classification performance as measured by the areas under ROC curves with the p-value greater than 0.498. However, the CBIR scheme using Fourier transform yielded the highest invariance to both queried lesion center shift and lesion size change. This study demonstrated the feasibility of improving robustness of the interactive CAD systems by adding a new Fourier transform based image feature to CBIR schemes.
q-Extension of Mehta's eigenvectors of the finite Fourier transform for q, a root of unity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Atakishiyeva, Mesuma K [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, CP 62250 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Atakishiyev, Natig M [Instituto de Matematicas, Unidad Cuernavaca Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 273-3 Admon 3, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62251 (Mexico); Koornwinder, Tom H [Korteweg-de Vries Institute, University of Amsterdam, PO Box 94248, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: mesuma@servm.fc.uaem.mx, E-mail: natig@matcuer.unam.mx, E-mail: T.H.Koornwinder@uva.nl
2009-10-30
It is shown that the continuous q-Hermite polynomials for q, a root of unity, have simple transformation properties with respect to the classical Fourier transform. This result is then used to construct q-extended eigenvectors of the finite Fourier transform in terms of these polynomials.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Anders; Guan, Pengyu; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen
2014-01-01
All-optical time-domain Optical Fourier Transformation utilised for signal processing of ultra-high-speed OTDM signals and OFDM signals will be presented.......All-optical time-domain Optical Fourier Transformation utilised for signal processing of ultra-high-speed OTDM signals and OFDM signals will be presented....
Zhang, Fang; Zhu, Jing; Song, Qiang; Yue, Weirui; Liu, Jingdan; Wang, Jian; Situ, Guohai; Huang, Huijie
2015-10-20
In general, Fourier transform lenses are considered as ideal in the design algorithms of diffractive optical elements (DOEs). However, the inherent aberrations of a real Fourier transform lens disturb the far field pattern. The difference between the generated pattern and the expected design will impact the system performance. Therefore, a method for modifying the Fourier spectrum of DOEs without introducing other optical elements to reduce the aberration effect of the Fourier transform lens is proposed. By applying this method, beam shaping performance is improved markedly for the optical system with a real Fourier transform lens. The experiments carried out with a commercial Fourier transform lens give evidence for this method. The method is capable of reducing the system complexity as well as improving its performance.
Sun, Zhiwei; Zhi, Ya'nan; Liu, Liren; Sun, Jianfeng; Zhou, Yu; Hou, Peipei
2013-09-01
The synthetic aperture imaging ladar (SAIL) systems typically generate large amounts of data difficult to compress with digital method. This paper presents an optical SAIL processor based on compensation of quadratic phase of echo in azimuth direction and two dimensional Fourier transform. The optical processor mainly consists of one phase-only liquid crystal spatial modulator(LCSLM) to load the phase data of target echo and one cylindrical lens to compensate the quadratic phase and one spherical lens to fulfill the task of two dimensional Fourier transform. We show the imaging processing result of practical target echo obtained by a synthetic aperture imaging ladar demonstrator. The optical processor is compact and lightweight and could provide inherent parallel and the speed-of-light computing capability, it has a promising application future especially in onboard and satellite borne SAIL systems.
Dong, Bing; Qin, Shun; Hu, Xinqi
2013-09-01
Large-aperture segmented primary mirror will be widely used in next-generation space-based and ground-based telescopes. The effects of intersegment gaps, obstructions, position and figure errors of segments, which are all involved in the pupil plane, on the image quality metric should be analyzed using diffractive imaging theory. Traditional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method is very time-consuming and costs a lot of memory especially in dealing with large pupil-sampling matrix. A Partial Fourier Transform (PFT) method is first proposed to substantially speed up the computation and reduce memory usage for diffractive imaging analysis. Diffraction effects of a 6-meter segmented mirror including 18 hexagonal segments are simulated and analyzed using PFT method. The influence of intersegment gaps and position errors of segments on Strehl ratio is quantitatively analyzed by computing the Point Spread Function (PSF). By comparing simulation results with theoretical results, the correctness and feasibility of PFT method is confirmed.
Fast Inverse Nonlinear Fourier Transform For Generating Multi-Solitons In Optical Fiber
Wahls, Sander
2015-01-01
The achievable data rates of current fiber-optic wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) systems are limited by nonlinear interactions between different subchannels. Recently, it was thus proposed to replace the conventional Fourier transform in WDM systems with an appropriately defined nonlinear Fourier transform (NFT). The computational complexity of NFTs is a topic of current research. In this paper, a fast inverse NFT algorithm for the important special case of multi-solitonic signals is presented. The algorithm requires only $\\mathcal{O}(D\\log^{2}D)$ floating point operations to compute $D$ samples of a multi-soliton. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first algorithm for this problem with $\\log^{2}$-linear complexity. The paper also includes a many samples analysis of the generated nonlinear Fourier spectra.
The X1Σ +g ground state of Mg2 studied by Fourier-transform spectroscopy
Knöckel, H.; Rühmann, S.; Tiemann, E.
2013-03-01
The A^1Σ u^+ - X^1Σ g^+ UV spectrum of Mg2 has been investigated with high resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy. Mg2 vapor was created in a heat pipe. Various spectroscopic methods have been employed, such as conventional absorption spectroscopy with light from a broad band lamp and laser-induced fluorescence. The high resolution of the Fourier-transform spectrometer, together with computer aided evaluation methods of the spectra, yields precise transition frequencies. The new data and data available from earlier investigations are applied in direct potential fits of lower and upper electronic states. Various representations of potential energy curves for the ground state X^1Σ g^+ have been employed and their benefits in terms of smallest number of parameters are discussed. Scattering lengths are derived for the homonuclear isotopologues and compared with previous results.
Foliage Plant Retrieval using Polar Fourier Transform, Color Moments and Vein Features
Kadir, Abdul; Susanto, Adhi; Santosa, Paulus Insap
2011-01-01
This paper proposed a method that combines Polar Fourier Transform, color moments, and vein features to retrieve leaf images based on a leaf image. The method is very useful to help people in recognizing foliage plants. Foliage plants are plants that have various colors and unique patterns in the leaf. Therefore, the colors and its patterns are information that should be counted on in the processing of plant identification. To compare the performance of retrieving system to other result, the experiments used Flavia dataset, which is very popular in recognizing plants. The result shows that the method gave better performance than PNN, SVM, and Fourier Transform. The method was also tested using foliage plants with various colors. The accuracy was 90.80% for 50 kinds of plants.
Kaneko, Tak
2008-01-01
Context: Fourier transform (or lag) correlators in radio interferometers can serve as an efficient means of synthesising spectral channels. However aliasing corrupts the edge channels so they usually have to be excluded from the data set. In systems with around 10 channels, the loss in sensitivity can be significant. In addition, the low level of residual aliasing in the remaining channels may cause systematic errors. Moreover, delay errors have been widely reported in implementations of broadband analogue correlators and simulations have shown that delay errors exasperate the effects of aliasing. Aims: We describe a software-based approach that suppresses aliasing by oversampling the cross-correlation function. This method can be applied to interferometers with individually-tracking antennas equipped with a discrete path compensator system. It is based on the well-known property of interferometers where the drift scan response is the Fourier transform of the source's band-limited spectrum. Methods: In this p...
Gaseous effluent monitoring and identification using an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carter, M.R.; Bennett, C.L.; Fields, D.J.; Hernandez, J.
1993-10-01
We are developing an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer for chemical effluent monitoring. The system consists of a 2-D infrared imaging array in the focal plane of a Michelson interferometer. Individual images are coordinated with the positioning of a moving mirror in the Michelson interferometer. A three dimensional data cube with two spatial dimensions and one interferogram dimension is then Fourier transformed to produce a hyperspectral data cube with one spectral dimension and two spatial dimensions. The spectral range of the instrument is determined by the choice of optical components and the spectral range of the focal plane array. Measurements in the near UV, visible, near IR, and mid-IR ranges are possible with the existing instrument. Gaseous effluent monitoring and identification measurements will be primarily in the ``fingerprint`` region of the spectrum, ({lambda} = 8 to 12 {mu}m). Initial measurements of effluent using this imaging interferometer in the mid-IR will be presented.
Method of local pointed function reduction of original shape in Fourier transformation
Dosch, H
2002-01-01
The method for analytical reduction of the original shape in the one-dimensional Fourier transformation by the fourier image modulus is proposed. The basic concept of the method consists in the presentation of the model shape in the form of the local peak functions sum. The eigenfunctions, generated by the linear differential equations with the polynomial coefficients, are selected as the latter ones. This provides for the possibility of managing the Fourier transformation without numerical integration. This reduces the reverse task to the nonlinear regression with a small number of the evaluated parameters and to the numerical or asymptotic study on the model peak functions - the eigenfunctions of the differential tasks and their fourier images
Sharpening the response of an FIR filter using Fractional Fourier Transform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Somesh Chaturvedi
2012-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper we have implemented FIR filter with the help of Kaiser Window and Fractional Fourier Transform (FRFT. The window shape parameter is tuned for the transition band by considering linear phase FRFT Finite Impulse Response (FIR filter. Here FRFT of Kaiser Window is taken and convolved with the response function for tuning purposes of the transition band which makes effective transition band. This proposed method includes the change of parameters of Kaiser window by which other windows like Rectangle, Bartlett, Hamming Blackman and Hanning windows are generated by using FRFT. The efficiencies of this method in terms of main lobe and side ripples are better than the above mentioned windows under Fourier transform.
A New LFM-Signal Detector Based on Fractional Fourier Transform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yin Zhiping
2010-01-01
Full Text Available A new LFM-signal detector formulated by the integration of the 4th-power modulus of the fractional Fourier transform is proposed. It has similar performance to the modulus square detector of Radon-ambiguity transform because of the equivalence relationship between them. But the new detector has much lower computational complexity in the case that the number of the searching angles is far less than the length of the signal. Moreover, it is proved that the new detector can be generalized to the integration of the nth-power ( modulus of the fractional Fourier transform via mathematical derivation. Computer simulation results have confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed detector in LFM-signal detection.
A New LFM-Signal Detector Based on Fractional Fourier Transform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhiping Yin
2010-01-01
Full Text Available A new LFM-signal detector formulated by the integration of the 4th-power modulus of the fractional Fourier transform is proposed. It has similar performance to the modulus square detector of Radon-ambiguity transform because of the equivalence relationship between them. But the new detector has much lower computational complexity in the case that the number of the searching angles is far less than the length of the signal. Moreover, it is proved that the new detector can be generalized to the integration of the nth-power (2
The Fractional Fourier Transform and Its Application to Energy Localization Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ter Morsche Hennie G
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Applying the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT and the Wigner distribution on a signal in a cascade fashion is equivalent to a rotation of the time and frequency parameters of the Wigner distribution. We presented in ter Morsche and Oonincx, 2002, an integral representation formula that yields affine transformations on the spatial and frequency parameters of the -dimensional Wigner distribution if it is applied on a signal with the Wigner distribution as for the FRFT. In this paper, we show how this representation formula can be used to solve certain energy localization problems in phase space. Examples of such problems are given by means of some classical results. Although the results on localization problems are classical, the application of generalized Fourier transform enlarges the class of problems that can be solved with traditional techniques.
The data processing pipeline for the Herschel SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer
Fulton, T; Polehampton, E T; Valtchanov, I; Hopwood, R; Lu, N; Baluteau, J -P; Mainetti, G; Pearson, C; Papageorgiou, A; Guest, S; Zhang, L; Imhof, P; Swinyard, B M; Griffin, M J; Lim, T L
2016-01-01
We present the data processing pipeline to generate calibrated data products from the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer on the Herschel Space Observatory. The pipeline processes telemetry from SPIRE observations and produces calibrated spectra for all resolution modes. The spectrometer pipeline shares some elements with the SPIRE photometer pipeline, including the conversion of telemetry packets into data timelines and calculation of bolometer voltages. We present the following fundamental processing steps unique to the spectrometer: temporal and spatial interpolation of the scan mechanism and detector data to create interferograms; Fourier transformation; apodization; and creation of a data cube. We also describe the corrections for various instrumental effects including first- and second-level glitch identification and removal, correction of the effects due to emission from the Herschel telescope and from within the spectrometer instrument, interferogra...
Fully phase-encrypted memory using cascaded extended fractional Fourier transform
Nishchal, Naveen Kumar; Joseph, Joby; Singh, Kehar
2004-08-01
In this paper, we implement a fully phase-encrypted memory system using cascaded extended fractional Fourier transform (FRT). We encrypt and decrypt a two-dimensional image obtained from an amplitude image. The full phase image to be encrypted is fractional Fourier transformed three times and random phase masks are placed in the two intermediate planes. Performing the FRT three times increases the key size, at an added complexity of one more lens. The encrypted image is holographically recorded in a photorefractive crystal and is then decrypted by generating through phase conjugation, the conjugate of the encrypted image. A lithium niobate crystal has been used as a phase contrast filter to reconstruct the decrypted phase image, alleviating the need of alignment in the Fourier plane making the system rugged.
Suppression law of quantum states in a 3D photonic fast Fourier transform chip
Crespi, Andrea; Osellame, Roberto; Ramponi, Roberta; Bentivegna, Marco; Flamini, Fulvio; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Viggianiello, Niko; Innocenti, Luca; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio
2016-01-01
The identification of phenomena able to pinpoint quantum interference is attracting large interest. Indeed, a generalization of the Hong–Ou–Mandel effect valid for any number of photons and optical modes would represent an important leap ahead both from a fundamental perspective and for practical applications, such as certification of photonic quantum devices, whose computational speedup is expected to depend critically on multi-particle interference. Quantum distinctive features have been predicted for many particles injected into multimode interferometers implementing the Fourier transform over the optical modes. Here we develop a scalable approach for the implementation of the fast Fourier transform algorithm using three-dimensional photonic integrated interferometers, fabricated via femtosecond laser writing technique. We observe the suppression law for a large number of output states with four- and eight-mode optical circuits: the experimental results demonstrate genuine quantum interference between the injected photons, thus offering a powerful tool for diagnostic of photonic platforms. PMID:26843135
Perspective: The first ten years of broadband chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy
Park, G. Barratt; Field, Robert W.
2016-05-01
Since its invention in 2006, the broadband chirped pulse Fourier transform spectrometer has transformed the field of microwave spectroscopy. The technique enables the collection of a ≥10 GHz bandwidth spectrum in a single shot of the spectrometer, which allows broadband, high-resolution microwave spectra to be acquired several orders of magnitude faster than what was previously possible. We discuss the advantages and challenges associated with the technique and look back on the first ten years of chirped pulse Fourier transform spectroscopy. In addition to enabling faster-than-ever structure determination of increasingly complex species, the technique has given rise to an assortment of entirely new classes of experiments, ranging from chiral sensing by three-wave mixing to microwave detection of multichannel reaction kinetics. However, this is only the beginning. Future generations of microwave experiments will make increasingly creative use of frequency-agile pulse sequences for the coherent manipulation and interrogation of molecular dynamics.
Prakash, A.; Lebensohn, R. A.
2009-09-01
In this work, we compare finite element and fast Fourier transform approaches for the prediction of the micromechanical behavior of polycrystals. Both approaches are full-field approaches and use the same visco-plastic single crystal constitutive law. We investigate the texture and the heterogeneity of the inter- and intragranular stress and strain fields obtained from the two models. Additionally, we also look into their computational performance. Two cases—rolling of aluminum and wire drawing of tungsten—are used to evaluate the predictions of the two models. Results from both the models are similar, when large grain distortions do not occur in the polycrystal. The finite element simulations were found to be highly computationally intensive, in comparison with the fast Fourier transform simulations. Figure 9 was corrected in this article on the 25 August 2009. The corrected electronic version is identical to the print version.
Simulation of micromechanical behavior of polycrystals: finite elements vs. fast Fourier transforms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lebensohn, Ricardo A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prakash, Arun [IWM FREIBURG
2009-01-01
In this work, we compare finite element and fast Fourier transform approaches for the prediction of micromechanical behavior of polycrystals. Both approaches are full-field approaches and use the same visco-plastic single crystal constitutive law. We investigate the texture and the heterogeneity of the inter- and intragranular, stress and strain fields obtained from the two models. Additionally, we also look into their computational performance. Two cases - rolling of aluminium and wire drawing of tungsten - are used to evaluate the predictions of the two mode1s. Results from both the models are similar, when large grain distortions do not occur in the polycrystal. The finite element simulations were found to be highly computationally intensive, in comparison to the fast Fourier transform simulations.
Wu, Xuebin
2011-01-01
Long Reed-Solomon (RS) codes are desirable for digital communication and storage systems due to their improved error performance, but the high computational complexity of their decoders is a key obstacle to their adoption in practice. As discrete Fourier transforms (DFTs) can evaluate a polynomial at multiple points, efficient DFT algorithms are promising in reducing the computational complexities of syndrome based decoders for long RS codes. In this paper, we first propose partial composite cyclotomic Fourier transforms (CCFTs) and then devise syndrome based decoders for long RS codes over large finite fields based on partial CCFTs. The new decoders based on partial CCFTs achieve a significant saving of computational complexities for long RS codes. Since partial CCFTs have modular and regular structures, the new decoders are suitable for hardware implementations. To further verify and demonstrate the advantages of partial CCFTs, we implement in hardware the syndrome computation block for a $(2720, 2550)$ sho...
Multiple-image encryption based on phase mask multiplexing in fractional Fourier transform domain.
Liansheng, Sui; Meiting, Xin; Ailing, Tian
2013-06-01
A multiple-image encryption scheme is proposed based on the phase retrieval process and phase mask multiplexing in the fractional Fourier transform domain. First, each original gray-scale image is encoded into a phase only function by using the proposed phase retrieval process. Second, all the obtained phase functions are modulated into an interim, which is encrypted into the final ciphertext by using the fractional Fourier transform. From a plaintext image, a group of phase masks is generated in the encryption process. The corresponding decrypted image can be recovered from the ciphertext only with the correct phase mask group in the decryption process. Simulation results show that the proposed phase retrieval process has high convergence speed, and the encryption algorithm can avoid cross-talk; in addition, its encrypted capacity is considerably enhanced.
Zhong, Zhi; Qin, Haitao; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Yabin; Shan, Mingguang
2017-03-20
A novel approach for silhouette-free image encryption based on interference is proposed using discrete multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform (DMPFrFT), which generalizes from fractional Fourier transform. An original image is firstly applied by chaotic pixel scrambling (CPS) and then encoded into the real part of a complex signal. Using interference principle, the complex signal generates three phase-only masks in DMPFrFT domain. The silhouette of the original image cannot be extracted using one or two of the three phase-only masks. The parameters of both CPS and DMPFrFT can also serve as encryption keys to extend the key space, which further enhance the level of cryptosystem security. Numerical simulations are demonstrated to show the feasibility and validity of this approach.
Ion collision cross section measurements in Fourier transform-based mass analyzers.
Li, Dayu; Tang, Yang; Xu, Wei
2016-06-01
With the increasing demands of molecular structure analysis, several methods have been developed to measure ion collision cross sections within Fourier transform (FT) based mass analyzers. Particularly in the recent three years since 2012, the method of obtaining biomolecule collision cross sections was achieved in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) cells. Furthermore, similar methods have been realized or proposed for orbitraps and quadrupole ion traps. This technique adds a new ion structure analysis capability to FT-based mass analyzers. By providing complementary ion structure information, it could be used together with tandem mass spectrometry and ion mobility spectroscopy techniques. Although many questions and challenges remain, this technique potentially would greatly enhance the ion structure analysis capability of a mass spectrometer, and provide a new tool for chemists and biochemists.
Surpassing the Path-Limited Resolution of a Fourier Transform Spectrometer with Frequency Combs
Maslowski, Piotr; Johansson, Alexandra C; Khodabakhsh, Amir; Kowzan, Grzegorz; Rutkowski, Lucile; Mills, Andrew A; Mohr, Christian; Jiang, Jie; Fermann, Martin E; Foltynowicz, Aleksandra
2015-01-01
Fourier transform spectroscopy based on incoherent light sources is a well-established tool in research fields from molecular spectroscopy and atmospheric monitoring to material science and biophysics. It provides broadband molecular spectra and information about the molecular structure and composition of absorptive media. However, the spectral resolution is fundamentally limited by the maximum delay range ({\\Delta}$_{max}$) of the interferometer, so acquisition of high-resolution spectra implies long measurement times and large instrument size. We overcome this limit by combining the Fourier transform spectrometer with an optical frequency comb and measuring the intensities of individual comb lines by precisely matching the {\\Delta}$_{max}$ to the comb line spacing. This allows measurements of absorption lines narrower than the nominal (optical path-limited) resolution without ringing effects from the instrumental lineshape and reduces the acquisition time and interferometer length by orders of magnitude.
Gaseous effluent monitoring and identification using an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carter, M.R.; Bennett, C.L.; Fields, D.J.; Hernandez, J.
1993-10-01
We are developing an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer for chemical effluent monitoring. The system consists of a 2-D infrared imaging array in the focal plane of a Michelson interferometer. Individual images are coordinated with the positioning of a moving mirror in the Michelson interferometer. A three dimensional data cube with two spatial dimensions and one interferogram dimension is then Fourier transformed to produce a hyperspectral data cube with one spectral dimension and two spatial dimensions. The spectral range of the instrument is determined by the choice of optical components and the spectral range of the focal plane array. Measurements in the near UV, visible, near IR, and mid-IR ranges are possible with the existing instrument. Gaseous effluent monitoring and identification measurements will be primarily in the ``fingerprint`` region of the spectrum, ({lambda} = 8 to 12 {mu}m). Initial measurements of effluent using this imaging interferometer in the mid-IR will be presented.
Rejection of Linear FM Interference in DSSS System Based on Fractional Fourier Transform
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QI Lin; TAO Ran; ZHOU Si-yong
2005-01-01
A new method for the rejection of linear frequency modulation (LFM) interference in direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) system based on the fractional Fourier transform is proposed, and the configuration of the receiver with an interference exciser is also presented. Based on the property that the fractional Fourier transform of a signal is equivalent to rotating the signal in the time-frequency plane, the received signal is transform into a certain fractional Fourier domain, this transform will result in the least spectrum overlap between the signal and interference. Then, a narrowband filter is exploited to extract most of the interference energy. The performance analyses show that remarkable improvements in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and biterror-ratio (BER) are obtained.
Fractional Fourier transform for partially coherent beam in spatial-frequency domain
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cai Yang-Jian; Lin Qiang
2004-01-01
By using Fourier transform and the tensor analysis method, the fractional Fourier transform (FRT) in the spatialfrequency domain for partially coherent beams is derived. Based on the FRT in the spatial-frequency domain, an analytical transform formula is derived for a partially coherent twisted anisotropic Gaussian-Schell model (GSM) beam passing through the FRT system. The connections between the FRT formula and the generalized diffraction integral formulae for partially coherent beams through an aligned optical system and a misaligned optical system in the spatialfrequency domain are discussed, separately. By using the derived formula, the intensity distribution of partially coherent twisted anisotropic GSM beams in the FRT plane are studied in detail. The formula derived provide a convenient tool for analysing and calculating the FRTs of the partially coherent beams in spatial-frequency domain.
Park, G Barratt; Field, Robert W
2016-05-28
Since its invention in 2006, the broadband chirped pulse Fourier transform spectrometer has transformed the field of microwave spectroscopy. The technique enables the collection of a ≥10 GHz bandwidth spectrum in a single shot of the spectrometer, which allows broadband, high-resolution microwave spectra to be acquired several orders of magnitude faster than what was previously possible. We discuss the advantages and challenges associated with the technique and look back on the first ten years of chirped pulse Fourier transform spectroscopy. In addition to enabling faster-than-ever structure determination of increasingly complex species, the technique has given rise to an assortment of entirely new classes of experiments, ranging from chiral sensing by three-wave mixing to microwave detection of multichannel reaction kinetics. However, this is only the beginning. Future generations of microwave experiments will make increasingly creative use of frequency-agile pulse sequences for the coherent manipulation and interrogation of molecular dynamics.
Nagler, Peter C; Kogut, Alan; Tucker, Gregory S
2015-01-01
The detection of the primordial B-mode polarization signal of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) would provide evidence for inflation. Yet as has become increasingly clear, the detection of a such a faint signal requires an instrument with both wide frequency coverage to reject foregrounds and excellent control over instrumental systematic effects. Using a polarizing Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) for CMB observations meets both these requirements. In this work, we present an analysis of instrumental systematic effects in polarizing Fourier transform spectrometers, using the Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) as a worked example. We analytically solve for the most important systematic effects inherent to the FTS - emissive optical components, misaligned optical components, sampling and phase errors, and spin synchronous effects - and demonstrate that residual systematic error terms after corrections will all be at the sub-nK level, well below the predicted 100 nK B-mode signal.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
The mismatch between echo and replica caused by underwater moving target(UMT)'s radial velocity degrades the detection performance of the matched filter(MF) for the linear frequency modulation(LFM) signal. By using the focusing property of fractional Fourier transform(FRFT) to that signal, a detection algorithm for UMT's LFM echo based on the discrete fractional Fourier transform(DFRFT) is proposed. This algorithm is less affected by the target's radial velocity compared with the other MF detection algorithm utilizing zero radial velocity replica(ZRVR), and the mathematical relation between the output peak positions of these two algorithms exists in the case of existence of target echo. The algorithm can also estimate the target distance by using this relation. The simulation and experiment show that this algorithm's detection performance is better than or equivalent to that of the other MF algorithm utilizing ZRVR for the LFM echo of UMT with unknown radial velocity under reverberation noise background.
Multi-modal Color Medical Image Fusion Using Quaternion Discrete Fourier Transform
Nawaz, Qamar; Xiao, Bin; Hamid, Isma; Jiao, Du
2016-12-01
Multimodal image fusion is a process of combining multiple images, generated by identical or diverse imaging modalities, to get precise inside information about the same body organ. In recent years, various multimodal image fusion algorithms have been proposed to fuse medical image. However, most of them focus on fusing grayscale images. This paper proposes a novel algorithm for the fusion of multimodal color medical images. The proposed algorithm divides source images into blocks, converts each RGB block into quaternion representation and transforms them from special domain to frequency domain by applying quaternion discrete Fourier transform. The fused coefficients are obtained by calculating and comparing contrast values of corresponding coefficients in transformed blocks. The resultant fused image is reconstructed by merging all the blocks after applying inverse quaternion discrete Fourier transform on each block. Experimental evaluation demonstrates that the proposed algorithm qualitatively outperforms many existing state-of-the-art multimodal image fusion algorithms.
Clark, W. G.; Hanson, M. E.; Lefloch, F.; Ségransan, P.
1995-03-01
A novel method of Fourier transform spectroscopy of the transient signals from wide, inhomogeneously broadened magnetic resonance spectra is described and analyzed. It has the advantages of high resolution, high sensitivity, and freedom from the distortions introduced by the finite amplitude of the pulsed rf magnetic field and the finite bandwidth of the receiving system. It consists of recording the transient signal at a series of magnetic fields, shifting the frequency of the transient by the corresponding field step for each point, and summing the corresponding Fourier transformed signals. Although the primary emphasis is on pulsed NMR, the analysis also applies to pulsed ESR. Criteria for the range and step interval of the magnetic field variation are discussed. The accuracy and sensitivity of the method are compared with earlier methods of spin echo spectroscopy. A description of the corresponding measurement of NQR, NMR, and ESR spectra obtained by stepping the frequency of the spectrometer is also presented.
Fourier Transform Ultrasound Spectroscopy for the determination of wave propagation parameters.
Pal, Barnana
2017-01-01
The reported results for ultrasonic wave attenuation constant (α) in pure water show noticeable inconsistency in magnitude. A "Propagating-Wave" model analysis of the most popular pulse-echo technique indicates that this is a consequence of the inherent wave propagation characteristics in a bounded medium. In the present work Fourier Transform Ultrasound Spectroscopy (FTUS) is adopted to determine ultrasonic wave propagation parameters, the wave number (k) and attenuation constant (α) at 1MHz frequency in tri-distilled water at room temperature (25°C). Pulse-echo signals obtained under same experimental conditions regarding the exciting input signal and reflecting boundary wall of the water container for various lengths of water columns are captured. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) components of the echo signals are taken to compute k, α and r, the reflection constant at the boundary, using Oak Ridge and Oxford method. The results are compared with existing literature values.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bartosch, T. [Erlanger-Nuernberg Univ., Erlanger (Germany). Lehrstul fuer Nachrichtentechnik I; Seidl, D. [Seismologisches Zentralobservatorium Graefenberg, Erlanegen (Greece). Bundesanstalt fuer Geiwissenschaften und Rohstoffe
1999-06-01
Among a variety of spectrogram methods short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) were selected to analyse transients in non-stationary signals. Depending on the properties of the tremor signals from the volcanos Mt. Stromboli, Mt. Semeru and Mt. Pinatubo were analyzed using both methods. The CWT can also be used to extend the definition of coherency into a time-varying coherency spectrogram. An example is given using array data from the volcano Mt. Stromboli (Italy).
Kumar, Manoj; Shakher, Chandra
2016-04-01
In this paper, moisture induced deformation and shrinkage behaviour of deodar wood during convective drying is experimentally investigated by using digital holographic interferometry. There induces dimensional changes in wood due to the moisture absorption and desorption. Lensless Fourier transform digital holographic interferometry (LLFTDH) is used to study the moisture induced deformation and strain distribution in deodar wood. The proposed technique having high sensitivity and enables the observation of deformation and strain distribution during the variations of moisture content in the deodar wood.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mark J. Tobin
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared (FTIR microspectroscopy shows potential as a benign, objective and rapid tool to screen pluripotent and multipotent stem cells for clinical use. It offers a new experimental approach that provides a holistic measurement of macromolecular composition such that a signature representing the internal cellular phenotype is obtained. The use of this technique therefore contributes information that is complementary to that acquired by conventional genetic and immunohistochemical methods.
Automotive FMCW Radar-enhanced Range Estimation via a Local Resampling Fourier Transform
2016-01-01
In complex traffic scenarios, more accurate measurement and discrimination for an automotive frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar is required for intelligent robots, driverless cars and driver-assistant systems. A more accurate range estimation method based on a local resampling Fourier transform (LRFT) for a FMCW radar is developed in this paper. Radar signal correlation in the phase space sees a higher signal-noise-ratio (SNR) to achieve more accurate ranging, and the LRFT - whi...
Multivariate quality control of lubricating oils using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
Borin,Alessandra; Poppi, Ronei Jesus
2004-01-01
Multivariate quality control in conjunction with Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to qualitatively detect the class and the condition of lubricating oils. The multivariate approach was based on principal component analysis (PCA), first to classify the lubricating oil type (mineral, synthetic and semi-synthetic) and then to develop two control charts: a T² chart using the most significant principal components and a Q chart with the PC not used in the first chart. From t...
Song, Xinbing; Sun, Yifan; Li, Pengyun; Qin, Hongwei; Zhang, Xiangdong
2015-09-15
We perform Bell's measurement for the non-separable correlation between polarization and orbital angular momentum from the same classical vortex beam. The violation of Bell's inequality for such a non-separable classical correlation has been demonstrated experimentally. Based on the classical vortex beam and non-quantum entanglement between the polarization and the orbital angular momentum, the Hadamard gates and conditional phase gates have been designed. Furthermore, a quantum Fourier transform has been implemented experimentally.
Kinetics of Graphite Oxidation in Reacting Flow from Imaging Fourier Transform Spectroscopy
2016-09-21
A brief review. Energy, 36(1):12–40, jan 2011. 37. J. R. Arthur. Reactions between carbon and oxygen. Transactions of the Faraday Society, 47:164...1995. 44. Micheal Eismann. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing. SPIE, 2012. 45. Elizabeth a. Moore, Kevin C. Gross, Spencer J. Bowen, Glen P. Perram, Martin...AIAA Entry Vehicle Sysyems and Technology Meeting, 1968. 79. Micheal R Rhoby and K C Gross. Application of an Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer to
Fast Fourier transform for Voigt profile: Comparison with some other algorithms
Abousahl, S.; Gourma, M.; Bickel, M.
1997-02-01
There are different algorithms describing the Voigt profile. This profile is encountered in many areas of physics which could be limited by the resolution of the instrumentation used to measure it and by other phenomena like the interaction between the emitted waves and matter. In nuclear measurement field, the codes used to characterise radionucleides rely on algorithms resolving the Voigt profile equation. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm allows the validation of some algorithms.
Tajahuerce, E; Saavedra, G; Furlan, W D; Sicre, E E; Andrés, P
2000-01-10
An optical implementation of the fractional Fourier transform (FRT) with broadband illumination is proposed by use of a single imaging element, namely, a blazed diffractive lens. The setup displays an achromatized version of the FRT of order P of any two-dimensional input function. This fractional order can be tuned continuously by shifting of the input along the optical axis. Our compact and flexible configuration is tested with a chirplike input signal, and the good experimental results obtained support the theory.
On Analog of Fourier Transform in Interior of the Light Cone
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tatyana Shtepina
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce an analog of Fourier transform Fhρ in interior of light cone that commutes with the action of the Lorentz group. We describe some properties of Fhρ, namely, its action on pseudoradial functions and functions being products of pseudoradial function and space hyperbolic harmonics. We prove that Fhρ-transform gives a one-to-one correspondence on each of the irreducible components of quasiregular representation. We calculate the inverse transform too.
Mossoulina, O. A.; Kirilenko, M. S.; Khonina, S. N.
2016-08-01
We use radial Fractional Fourier transform to model vortex laser beams propagation in optical waveguides with parabolic dependence of the refractive index. To overcome calculation difficulties at distances proportional to a quarter of the period we use varied calculation step. Numerical results for vortex modes superposition propagation in a parabolic optical fiber show that the transverse beam structure can be changed significantly during the propagation. To provide stable transverse distribution input scale modes should be in accordance with fiber parameters.
Osbin, K.; Jayan, Manuel; Bhadrakumari, S.; Predeep, P.
2017-06-01
This study investigates the presence of various amide bands present in different spider silk species, which provides extraordinary physical properties. Three different spider silks were collected from Western Ghats region. The collected spider silks samples belonging to the spider Heteropoda venatoria (species 1), Hersilia savignyi (species 2) and Pholcus phalangioides (species 3). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra reveals the protein peaks in the amide I, II, and III regions in all the three types of spider silk species.
Fondeur, F; Mitchell, B S
2000-02-15
A modified diffused reflectance infrared Fourier transformed spectroscopy (DRIFTS) accessory was used to analyze the surface properties of alumino-silicate fibers. The modifications are simple and involve a different way of performing depth-profiling from traditional DRIFTS by removing approximately 2 mm of salt from a full cup prior to placing the sample in for depth profiling. This method proved successful in elucidating the effects of quenching alumino-silicate fibers in mineral oil versus quenching in an air stream.
Multiphoton Interference in Quantum Fourier Transform Circuits and Applications to Quantum Metrology
Su, Zu-En; Li, Yuan; Rohde, Peter P.; Huang, He-Liang; Wang, Xi-Lin; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2017-08-01
Quantum Fourier transforms (QFTs) have gained increased attention with the rise of quantum walks, boson sampling, and quantum metrology. Here, we present and demonstrate a general technique that simplifies the construction of QFT interferometers using both path and polarization modes. On that basis, we first observe the generalized Hong-Ou-Mandel effect with up to four photons. Furthermore, we directly exploit number-path entanglement generated in these QFT interferometers and demonstrate optical phase supersensitivities deterministically.
Raman spectroscopy of gases with a Fourier transform spectrometer - The spectrum of D2
Jennings, D. E.; Weber, A.; Brault, J. W.
1986-01-01
Fourier transform spectrometry (FTS) is presently used to record the spontaneous incoherent laser Raman spectra of gases. The high resolution, sensitivity, calibration accuracy and spectral coverage achieved demonstrate the viability of FTS for Raman spectroscopy. Attention is given to the coefficients obtained by fitting measurements obtained from the spectrum of D2, containing both v = 0-0 and 1-0 transitions, to the Dunham (1932) expansion of the vibration-rotation energy levels.
On the Entangled Fractional Fourier Transform in Tripartite Entangled State Representation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FAN Hong-Yi; JIANG Nian-Quan
2003-01-01
Based on the newly constructed two mutually conjugate 3-mode entangled states of continuum variablesin three-mode Fock space we introduce entangled fractional Fourier transform (EFFT) for the tripartite entangled staterepresentations, which are not a direct product of three 1-dimensional FFTs. The eigenmodes of EFFT are obtained,which is different from the usual Hermite polynomials. The EFFT of the three-mode squeezed state is derived.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Xu; WAN Jian-ping
2007-01-01
To study the approximation of foreign currency option prices when the underlying assets'price dynamics are described by exponential Lévy processes, the convolution representations for option pricing formulas were given, and then the fast Fourier transform(FFT) algorithm was used to get the approximate values of option prices. Finally, a numerical example was given to demonstrate the calculate steps to the option price by FFT.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FAN Hong-Yi; FAN Yue
2003-01-01
By introducing a convenient complex form of the α-th 2-dimensional fractional Fourier transform (CFFT) operation we find that it possesses new eigenmodes which are two-mode Hermite polynomials. We prove the eigenvalues of propagation in quadratic graded-index medium over a definite distance are the same as the eigenvalues of the α-th CFFT, which means that our definition of the α-th CFFT is physically meaningful.
Using single buffers and data reorganization to implement a multi-megasample fast Fourier transform
Brown, R. D.
1992-01-01
Data ordering in large fast Fourier transforms (FFT's) is both conceptually and implementationally difficult. Discribed here is a method of visualizing data orderings as vectors of address bits, which enables the engineer to use more efficient data orderings and reduce double-buffer memory designs. Also detailed are the difficulties and algorithmic solutions involved in FFT lengths up to 4 megasamples (Msamples) and sample rates up to 80 MHz.
Aboul-Enein, Y; BUNACIU, Andrei; Nita, Sultana; FLESCHIN, Serban; AYDOGMUS, Zeynep
2012-01-01
A Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometric method was developed for the rapid, direct measurement of oseltamivir phosphate (OP) in pharmaceutical formulations. Conventional KBr-spectra were compared for best determination of the active substance in pharmaceutical preparations. The Beer-Lambert law and two chemometric approaches, partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR+) methods, were used in data processing. Key words: FT-IR analysis, oseltamivir, ...
Intel Cilk Plus for Complex Parallel Algorithms: "Enormous Fast Fourier Transform" (EFFT) Library
Asai, Ryo; Vladimirov, Andrey
2014-01-01
In this paper we demonstrate the methodology for parallelizing the computation of large one-dimensional discrete fast Fourier transforms (DFFTs) on multi-core Intel Xeon processors. DFFTs based on the recursive Cooley-Tukey method have to control cache utilization, memory bandwidth and vector hardware usage, and at the same time scale across multiple threads or compute nodes. Our method builds on single-threaded Intel Math Kernel Library (MKL) implementation of DFFT, and uses the Intel Cilk P...
Discrete fourier transform (DFT) analysis for applications using iterative transform methods
Dean, Bruce H. (Inventor)
2012-01-01
According to various embodiments, a method is provided for determining aberration data for an optical system. The method comprises collecting a data signal, and generating a pre-transformation algorithm. The data is pre-transformed by multiplying the data with the pre-transformation algorithm. A discrete Fourier transform of the pre-transformed data is performed in an iterative loop. The method further comprises back-transforming the data to generate aberration data.
Kamnev, A. A.; Ristić, M.; Antonyuk, L. P.; Chernyshev, A. V.; Ignatov, V. V.
1997-06-01
The data of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic measurements performed on intact cells of the soil nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum brasilense grown in a standard medium and under the conditions of an increased metal uptake are compared and discussed. The structural FTIR information obtained is considered together with atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) data on the content of metal cations in the bacterial cells. Some methodological aspects concerning preparation of bacterial cell samples for FTIR measurements are also discussed.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Amit K Sharma; D P Chhachhia; D Mohan; A K Aggarwal
2008-01-01
This paper describes a simple method for making dual beam encoded extended fractional Fourier transform (EFRT) security holograms. The hologram possesses different stages of encoding so that security features are concealed and remain invisible to the counterfeiter. These concealed and encoded anticounterfeit security features in the security hologram can only be read through a key hologram. Key hologram also facilitates in-built repositioning of security hologram. The method of fabrication, the principle of reconstruction and the experimental results are presented.
Lee, Ju; Chang, You; Han, Young-Geun; Kim, Sang; Lee, Sang
2004-12-27
We experimentally investigate transient effects of our proposed single pump, dispersion-compensating Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier recycling residual Raman pump in a cascaded EDF under the situation of multi-channel add/drop, and then demonstrate the use of a FBG based all-optical gain-clamping technique to efficiently suppress the output transients. The results show that the proposed hybrid amplifier has a significantly long transient response time of ~ 2 ms compared to the previous reported value of the conventional separate pump, Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifiers due to both the low-pumping regime operation of 14XX nm pumped EDFA section and the additional pump transit time through the 12.6 km long dispersion compensating fiber to reach the EDF. However, using a simple gain-clamping method we obtain an almost, transient-free operation.
Fernandez-de-Cossio, Jorge
2010-03-01
Fine isotopic structure patterns resolvable by ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometers are diagnostic of the elemental composition of moderately large compounds. Despite the proven performance of Fourier transforms algorithms to calculate accurate high resolution isotopic distribution, its application to finer ultrahigh resolving power exhibits limited performance. Fast Fourier transforms algorithm requires sampling the relevant range at equally spaced mass values, but ultrahigh resolution mass spectrum displays highly localized complex patterns (peaks) separated in between by relatively large unstructured intervals. Computational efforts consumed on those uninformative intervals are a waste of resources. A fast and memory efficient procedure is introduced in this paper to calculate the isotopic distribution of a single relatively high-mass molecule at ultrahigh resolution by Fourier transforms approaches. The whole isotopic distribution is packed closer to the monoisotopic peak without distorting the actual scale of the peak fine structure. This packing procedure reduced 8 to 32 times the computation resources in comparison to the same calculation performed without packing. The procedure can be readily implemented in existing software.
The Relationship between Tsallis Statistics, the Fourier Transform, and Nonlinear Coupling
Nelson, Kenric P
2008-01-01
Tsallis statistics (or q-statistics) in nonextensive statistical mechanics is a one-parameter description of correlated states. In this paper we use a translated entropic index: $1 - q \\to q$ . The essence of this translation is to improve the mathematical symmetry of the q-algebra and make q directly proportional to the nonlinear coupling. A conjugate transformation is defined $\\hat q \\equiv \\frac{{- 2q}}{{2 + q}}$ which provides a dual mapping between the heavy-tail q-Gaussian distributions, whose translated q parameter is between $ - 2 < q < 0$, and the compact-support q-Gaussians, between $0 < q < \\infty $ . This conjugate transformation is used to extend the definition of the q-Fourier transform to the domain of compact support. A conjugate q-Fourier transform is proposed which transforms a q-Gaussian into a conjugate $\\hat q$ -Gaussian, which has the same exponential decay as the Fourier transform of a power-law function. The nonlinear statistical coupling is defined such that the conjugate ...
[A novel spatial modulation Fourier transform spectrometer with adjustable spectral resolution].
Lian, Yu-Sheng; Liao, Ning-Fang; Lü, Hang; Wu, Wen-Min; Dong, Zhi-Gang
2014-11-01
In the premise of fulfilling the application requirement, the adjustment of spectral resolution can improve efficiency of data acquisition, data processing and data saving. So, by adjusting the spectral resolution, the performance of spectrometer can be improved, and its application range can be extended. To avoid the problems of the fixed spectral resolution of classical Fourier transform spectrometer, a novel type of spatial modulation Fourier transform spectrometer with adjustable spectral resolution is proposed in this paper. The principle of the novel spectrometer and its interferometer is described. The general expressions of the optical path difference and the lateral shear are induced by a ray tracing procedure. The equivalent model of the novel interferometer is analyzed. Meanwhile, the principle of the adjustment of spectral resolution is analyzed. The result shows that the novel spectrometer has the merits of adjustable spectral resolution, high stability, easy assemblage and adjustment etc. This theoretical study will provide the theoretical basis for the design of the spectrometer with adjustable spectral resolution and expand the application range of Fourier transform spectrometer.
A Fourier transform method for powder diffraction based on the Debye scattering equation.
Thomas, Noel William
2011-11-01
A fast Fourier transform algorithm is introduced into the method recently defined for calculating powder diffraction patterns by means of the Debye scattering equation (DSE) [Thomas (2010). Acta Cryst. A66, 64-77]. For this purpose, conventionally used histograms of interatomic distances are replaced by compound transmittance functions. These may be Fourier transformed to partial diffraction patterns, which sum to give the complete diffraction pattern. They also lead to an alternative analytical expression for the DSE sum, which reveals its convergence behaviour. A means of embedding the DSE approach within the reciprocal-lattice-structure-factor method is indicated, with interpolation methods for deriving the peak profiles of nanocrystalline materials outlined. Efficient calculation of transmittance functions for larger crystallites requires the Patterson group symmetry of the crystals to be taken into account, as shown for α- and β-quartz. The capability of the transmittance functions to accommodate stacking disorder is demonstrated by reference to kaolinite, with a fully analytical treatment of disorder described. Areas of future work brought about by these developments are discussed, specifically the handling of anisotropic atomic displacement parameters, inverse Fourier transformation and the incorporation of instrumental (diffractometer) parameters.
Nonuniform fast Fourier transform method for numerical diffraction simulation on tilted planes.
Xiao, Yu; Tang, Xiahui; Qin, Yingxiong; Peng, Hao; Wang, Wei; Zhong, Lijing
2016-10-01
The method, based on the rotation of the angular spectrum in the frequency domain, is generally used for the diffraction simulation between the tilted planes. Due to the rotation of the angular spectrum, the interval between the sampling points in the Fourier domain is not even. For the conventional fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based methods, a spectrum interpolation is needed to get the approximate sampling value on the equidistant sampling points. However, due to the numerical error caused by the spectrum interpolation, the calculation accuracy degrades very quickly as the rotation angle increases. Here, the diffraction propagation between the tilted planes is transformed into a problem about the discrete Fourier transform on the uneven sampling points, which can be evaluated effectively and precisely through the nonuniform fast Fourier transform method (NUFFT). The most important advantage of this method is that the conventional spectrum interpolation is avoided and the high calculation accuracy can be guaranteed for different rotation angles, even when the rotation angle is close to π/2. Also, its calculation efficiency is comparable with that of the conventional FFT-based methods. Numerical examples as well as a discussion about the calculation accuracy and the sampling method are presented.
Kawada, Mitsunobu; Murakami, Noriko; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Okada, Yoko; Yasuda, Akiko; Matsuura, Shuji; Shirahata, Mai; Doi, Yasuo; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Nakagawa, Takao; Shibai, Hiroshi
2008-01-01
We have developed an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) for space-based far-infrared astronomical observations. The FTS employs a newly developed photoconductive detector arrays with a capacitive trans-impedance amplifier, which makes the FTS a completely unique instrument. The FTS was installed as a function of the far-infrared instrument (FIS: Far-Infrared Surveyor) on the Japanese astronomical satellite, AKARI, which was launched on February 21, 2006 (UT) from the Uchinoura Space Center. The FIS-FTS had been operated for more than one year before liquid helium ran out on August 26, 2007. The FIS-FTS was operated nearly six hundreds times, which corresponds to more than one hundred hours of astronomical observations and almost the same amount of time for calibrations. As expected from laboratory measurements, the FIS-FTS performed well and has produced a large set of astronomical data for valuable objects. Meanwhile, it becomes clear that the detector transient effect is a considerable factor for ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chujun Zheng; Peng Han; Hongsen Chang
2006-01-01
@@ A new one-step four-quadrant spatial phase-shifting Fourier transform digital holography is presented for recording of cosine transform coefficients, because cosine transform is a real-even symmetric Fourier transform. This approach implements four quadrant spatial phase shifting at a time using a special phase mask, which is located in the reference arm, and the phase distributions of its four-quadrants are 0, π/2, π,and 3π/2 respectively. The theoretical analysis and computer simulation results show that cosine transform coefficients of real-valued image can be calculated by capturing single four-quadrant spatial phase-shifting Fourier transform digital hologram.
Nourazar, S. S.; Nazari-Golshan, A.
2015-01-01
A hybrid of Fourier transform and new modified homotopy perturbation method based on the Adomian method is developed to solve linear and nonlinear partial differential equations. The Taylor series expansion is used to expand nonlinear term of partial differential equation and the Adomian polynomial incorporated into homotopy perturbation method combined with Fourier transform, is used to solve partial differential equations. Three case study problems, partial differential equations, are handled using homotopy perturbation method and Fourier transform modified homotopy perturbation method (FTMHPM). Results obtained are compared with exact solution. The comparison reveals that for same components of recursive sequences, errors associated with Fourier transform modified method are much less than the other and are valid for a large range of x-axis coordinates.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Eglof Ritter; Katja Stehfest; Andre Berndt; Peter Hegemann; Franz J. Bartl
2008-01-01
... . We expressed ChR2 in COS-cells, purified it, and subsequently investigated this unusual photoreceptor by flash photolysis and UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FENG; Shaotong; HAN; Dianrong; DING; Heping
2004-01-01
By means of experimental technique of optical fractional Fourier transform,we have determined the Hurst exponent of a regular self-affine fractal pattern to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. Then we extend this method to determine the Hurst exponents of some irregular self-affine fractal patterns. Experimental results show that optical fractional Fourier transform is a practical method for analyzing the self-affine fractal patterns.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Morioka, Toshio
2016-01-01
We review recent progress in the use of time lens based optical Fourier transformation for advanced optical signal processing, with focus on all-optical generation, detection and format conversion of spectrally-efficient OFDM and N-WDM signals.......We review recent progress in the use of time lens based optical Fourier transformation for advanced optical signal processing, with focus on all-optical generation, detection and format conversion of spectrally-efficient OFDM and N-WDM signals....
Wang, Kun; Li, Jinyang; Lu, Dan-Feng; Qi, Zhi-Mei
2016-07-08
In a recent report we demonstrated a miniature static Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) that was implemented with a LiNbO3 (LN) waveguide electro-optic modulator (EOM) combined with the dispersion relation between its half-wave voltage and wavelength. The FTS was verified to be able to measure laser wavelength and for low-resolution spectroscopy. In this report, we successfully applied the resolution enhancement algorithm to the FTS, resulting in at least a three-fold increase in its spectral resolution without causing obvious distortion of the measured spectra. The algorithm method used is based on an autoregressive (AR) model, singular value decomposition (SVD), and forward-backward linear prediction (FBLP). The combination of these methods allows the FTS to remain a small size but to possess good spectral resolution, effectively mitigating the conflict between the small size and high resolution of the device. This study opens the way to development of high-resolution miniature FTS. © The Author(s) 2016.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rekha Gautam
Full Text Available Acetaminophen is a widely prescribed drug used to relieve pain and fever; however, it is a leading cause of drug-induced liver injury and a burden on public healthcare. In this study, hepatotoxicity in mice post oral dosing of acetaminophen was investigated using liver and sera samples with Fourier Transform Infrared microspectroscopy. The infrared spectra of acetaminophen treated livers in BALB/c mice show decrease in glycogen, increase in amounts of cholesteryl esters and DNA respectively. Rescue experiments using L-methionine demonstrate that depletion in glycogen and increase in DNA are abrogated with pre-treatment, but not post-treatment, with L-methionine. This indicates that changes in glycogen and DNA are more sensitive to the rapid depletion of glutathione. Importantly, analysis of sera identified lowering of glycogen and increase in DNA and chlolesteryl esters earlier than increase in alanine aminotransferase, which is routinely used to diagnose liver damage. In addition, these changes are also observed in C57BL/6 and Nos2(-/- mice. There is no difference in the kinetics of expression of these three molecules in both strains of mice, the extent of damage is similar and corroborated with ALT and histological analysis. Quantification of cytokines in sera showed increase upon APAP treatment. Although the levels of Tnfα and Ifnγ in sera are not significantly affected, Nos2(-/- mice display lower Il6 but higher Il10 levels during this acute model of hepatotoxicity. Overall, this study reinforces the growing potential of Fourier Transform Infrared microspectroscopy as a fast, highly sensitive and label-free technique for non-invasive diagnosis of liver damage. The combination of Fourier Transform Infrared microspectroscopy and cytokine analysis is a powerful tool to identify multiple biomarkers, understand differential host responses and evaluate therapeutic regimens during liver damage and, possibly, other diseases.
Zhang, Leihong; Liang, Dong; Li, Bei; Kang, Yi; Pan, Zilan; Zhang, Dawei; Gao, Xiumin; Ma, Xiuhua
2016-07-01
On the basis of analyzing the cosine light field with determined analytic expression and the pseudo-inverse method, the object is illuminated by a presetting light field with a determined discrete Fourier transform measurement matrix, and the object image is reconstructed by the pseudo-inverse method. The analytic expression of the algorithm of computational ghost imaging based on discrete Fourier transform measurement matrix is deduced theoretically, and compared with the algorithm of compressive computational ghost imaging based on random measurement matrix. The reconstruction process and the reconstruction error are analyzed. On this basis, the simulation is done to verify the theoretical analysis. When the sampling measurement number is similar to the number of object pixel, the rank of discrete Fourier transform matrix is the same as the one of the random measurement matrix, the PSNR of the reconstruction image of FGI algorithm and PGI algorithm are similar, the reconstruction error of the traditional CGI algorithm is lower than that of reconstruction image based on FGI algorithm and PGI algorithm. As the decreasing of the number of sampling measurement, the PSNR of reconstruction image based on FGI algorithm decreases slowly, and the PSNR of reconstruction image based on PGI algorithm and CGI algorithm decreases sharply. The reconstruction time of FGI algorithm is lower than that of other algorithms and is not affected by the number of sampling measurement. The FGI algorithm can effectively filter out the random white noise through a low-pass filter and realize the reconstruction denoising which has a higher denoising capability than that of the CGI algorithm. The FGI algorithm can improve the reconstruction accuracy and the reconstruction speed of computational ghost imaging.
Tropical Forest Biomass Estimation from Vertical Fourier Transforms of Lidar and InSAR Profiles
Treuhaft, R. N.; Goncalves, F.; Drake, J.; Hensley, S.; Chapman, B. D.; Michel, T.; Dos Santos, J. R.; Dutra, L.; Graca, P. A.
2010-12-01
Structural forest biomass estimation from lidar or interferometric SAR (InSAR) has demonstrated better performance than radar-power-based approaches for the higher biomasses (>150 Mg/ha) found in tropical forests. Structural biomass estimation frequently regresses field biomass to some function of forest height. With airborne, 25-m footprint lidar data and fixed-baseline C-band InSAR data over tropical wet forests of La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica, we compare the use of Fourier transforms of vertical profiles at a few frequencies to the intrinsically low-frequency “average height”. RMS scatters of Fourier-estimated biomass about field-measured biomass improved by 40% and 20% over estimates base on average height from lidar and fixed-baseline InSAR, respectively. Vertical wavelengths between 14 and 100 m were found to best estimate biomass. The same airborne data acquisition over La Selva was used to generate many 10’s of repeat-track L-band InSAR baselines with time delays of 1-72 hours, and vertical wavelengths of 5-100 m. We will estimate biomass from the Fourier transforms of L-band radar power profiles (InSAR complex coherence). The effects of temporal decorrelation will be modeled in the Fourier domain to try to model and reduce their impact. Using L-band polarimetric interferometry, average heights will be estimated as well and biomass regression performance compared to the Fourier transform approach. The more traditional approach of using L-band radar polarimetry will also be compared to structural biomass estimation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Seidl
1999-06-01
Full Text Available Among a variety of spectrogram methods Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT and Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT were selected to analyse transients in non-stationary tremor signals. Depending on the properties of the tremor signal a more suitable representation of the signal is gained by CWT. Three selected broadband tremor signals from the volcanos Mt. Stromboli, Mt. Semeru and Mt. Pinatubo were analyzed using both methods. The CWT can also be used to extend the definition of coherency into a time-varying coherency spectrogram. An example is given using array data from the volcano Mt. Stromboli.
Nih-3T3 Fibroblast Studied by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
Iovenitti, Marco
2009-01-01
In this work I present the study of the behaviour response of mouse fibroblasts NIH-3T3 under UVB radiation using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), the preferred method of infrared spectroscopy. FT-IR, in fact, it is convenient to study molecular cell processes because it has the potential to provide the identification of the vibrational modes of some of the major compounds (lipid, proteins and nucleic acids) without being invasive in the biomaterials. The results show that apoptotic process is induced by UVB radiation.
Lefier, Dominique; Lamprell, Helen; Mazerolles, Gérard
2000-01-01
International audience; The diversity of the Lactococcus flora during maturation of soft cheese, produced using one of 2 different starter cultures (S$_{\\rm A}$ and S$_{\\rm B}$), was determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Identification of Lactococcus sp. was achieved using a model composed of the 6 strains of Lc. lactis ssp. lactis and the 2 strains of Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris, present in the starter cultures S$_{\\rm A}$ and S$_{\\rm B}$, as well as a reference strai...
The optimum scheme of a static Fourier-transform spectrometer based on birefringent crystal
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Dongqing Zhang(张冬青); Fuquan Wu(吴福全); Shuhai Fan(范树海)
2003-01-01
An optimum design of static Fourier-transform spectrometer based on Savert prisms is presented in this paper. A new method of increasing path difference and resolution of spectrometer is given. When the angle between the crystal optical axis of the first Savert prism and the incident interface is 58° and the angle between the crystal optical axis of the second Savert prism and the incident interface is 28°, the maximum path difference will be 0.63 mm, the maximum resolution will be 15.8 cm-1, and the whole field-of-view will reach 6°.
Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy of a halogen substituted Criegee intermediate ClCHOO
Cabezas, Carlos; Guillemin, Jean-Claude; Endo, Yasuki
2016-11-01
Pure rotational spectra of the chloro-substituted Criegee intermediate (ClCHOO) were observed by Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy. Two conformers (syn and anti) of the isolated molecule were identified from the rotational spectra of the parent and 37Cl and 13C isotopologues detected in natural abundance. Rotational constants, centrifugal distortion constants, and all components of the nuclear quadrupole coupling tensor were determined for both conformers. Structural features of the molecule have been rationalized with supporting ab initio calculations and the natural bond orbital analysis, which suggest that the conformational preferences are driven by hyperconjugative effects.
a Chirped-Pulse Fourier Transform Microwave Spectrometer Combined with a Laser Ablation Source
Mata, S.; Pena, I.; Cabezas, C.; López, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.; Pate, B. H.
2011-06-01
The design of a chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer CP-FTMW combined with a laser ablation LA source is presented. The spectrometer is capable of measuring the 6.5-18 GHz region. Rotational spectra of solid samples of proline (m.p. 228° C) and alanine (m.p. 290° C) vaporized by laser ablation has been recorded. Four low-energy conformers of proline and two in alanine have been detected. 13C species of alanine in their natural abundance have been also observed. The performance of this spectrometer is compared to a LA-MB-FTMW spectrometer.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodriguez G, A.; Bowtell, R.; Mansfield, P. [Area de Procesamiento Digital de Senales e Imagenes Biomedicas. Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa. Mexico D.F. 09340 Mexico (Mexico)
1998-12-31
Velocity maps were studied combining Doyle and Mansfield method (1986) with each of the following transforms: Fourier, window Fourier and wavelet (Mexican hat). Continuous wavelet transform was compared against the two Fourier transform to determine which technique is best suited to study blood maps generated by Half Fourier Echo-Planar Imaging. Coefficient images were calculated and plots of the pixel intensity variation are presented. Finally, contour maps are shown to visualize the behavior of the blood flow in the cardiac chambers for the wavelet technique. (Author)
Fractional Fourier transform-based optical encryption with treble random phase-encoding
Xin, Yi; Tao, Ran; Wang, Yue
2008-03-01
We propose a new architecture of optical encryption technique using the fractional Fourier transform with three statistically independent random phase masks. Compared with the existing double-phase encoding method in the fractional Fourier-domain, the proposed extra phase mask in the last fractional Fourier domain makes the architecture symmetrical, and additive processing to the encrypted image can be turned into complex stationary white noise after decryption, and enlarge the key space without any degradation of its robustness to blind decryption. This property can be utilized to improve the quality of the recover image. Simulation results have verified the validity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Venedikt A. Kapitanov
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Measurements of ethylene absorption spectra with Fourier Transform (FT and Photoacoustic (PA spectrometers within 6035–6210 cm−1 are described. The methodology used for building the frequency scale for both spectrometers is presented. The methane absorption spectrum, included into the HITRAN database, was used in both cases to calibrate the frequency scale. Ethylene absorption spectra were obtained with the two recording methods; a coincidence of the measured line center positions was obtained with an accuracy of 0.0005 cm−1.
Non-uniform sampled scalar diffraction calculation using non-uniform fast Fourier transform
Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Oikawa, Minoru; Okada, Naohisa; Endo, Yutaka; Hirayama, Ryuji; Ito, Tomoyoshi
2013-01-01
Scalar diffraction calculations such as the angular spectrum method (ASM) and Fresnel diffraction, are widely used in the research fields of optics, X-rays, electron beams, and ultrasonics. It is possible to accelerate the calculation using fast Fourier transform (FFT); unfortunately, acceleration of the calculation of non-uniform sampled planes is limited due to the property of the FFT that imposes uniform sampling. In addition, it gives rise to wasteful sampling data if we calculate a plane having locally low and high spatial frequencies. In this paper, we developed non-uniform sampled ASM and Fresnel diffraction to improve the problem using the non-uniform FFT.
INVERSE CORRECTION OF FOURIER TRANSFORMS FOR ONE-DIMENSIONAL STRONGLY SCATTERING APERIODIC LATTICES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. F. Hsin
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The accuracy of the Fourier transform (FT, advantageous for the aperiodic lattice (AL design, is significantly improved for strongly scattering periodic lattices (PLs and ALs. The approach is to inversely obtain corrected parameters from an accurate transfer matrix method for the FT. We establish a corrected FT in order to improve the spectral inaccuracy of strongly scattering PLs by redefining wave numbers and reflective intensity. We further correct the FT for strongly scattering ALs by implementing improvements applied to strongly scattering PLs and then making detailed wave number adjustments in the main band spectral region. Silicon lattice simulations are presented.
Hettich, Robert L.; Jin, Changming; Compton, Robert N.; Buseck, Peter R.; Tsipursky, Semeon J.
1993-10-01
Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) employing both laser desorption/ionization and thermal desorption/electron ionization is useful for the detection and structural characterization of fullerenes and chemically-modified fullerenes. Examination of a carbon-rich shungite rock sample from Russia by transmission electron microscopy and FTMS provided evidence of naturally-occurring fullerenes. Ion-molecule reactions can be studied with FTMS to investigate the electron affinities of modified fullerenes. By monitoring charge exchange reactions, the electron affinities of C60Fx (x=44,46) and C70Fy (y=52,54) were found to be substantially higher than the values for the parent fullerenes.
A New LFM-Signal Detector Based on Fractional Fourier Transform
Zhiping Yin; Weidong Chen
2010-01-01
A new LFM-signal detector formulated by the integration of the 4th-power modulus of the fractional Fourier transform is proposed. It has similar performance to the modulus square detector of Radon-ambiguity transform because of the equivalence relationship between them. But the new detector has much lower computational complexity in the case that the number of the searching angles is far less than the length of the signal. Moreover, it is proved that the new detector can be generalized to th...
Potential-Field Forward Modeling and Inversion Using 3D Fast Fourier Transforms
Phillips, J. D.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Cocchi, L.
2008-12-01
Although 1D and 2D fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) have long been used for the filtering, interpretation, and modeling of potential-field data, 3D FFTs have not enjoyed similar popularity. This may change with the recent discovery (Caratori Tontini et al., in press, JGR) that simple 3D FFT filters can be used to transform distributions of density (or magnetization) within a box-shaped 3D volume into gravity (or magnetic) fields within the same volume. For example, the continuous 3D Fourier transform of the vertical gravity anomaly Δgz(x,y,z) in a volume is related to the 3D Fourier transform of the density ρ(x,y,z) in the volume by ℑ[Δgz] = i4πG(kz/ | k | 2)ℑ[ρ]; | k | ≠0, (1) where G is the gravitational constant, kx, ky, kz are wavenumbers, and | k | 2 = kx2+ ky2+ kz2. (2) Translating (1) into a digital FFT filtering operation requires careful consideration of the periodicity of the density distribution and the gravity field. Nevertheless, (1) provides a highly efficient way to calculate the vertical gravity anomaly of a 3D density distribution within a few minutes. The calculated gravity anomaly can be sampled at random points or on an arbitrary surface using tri-linear interpolation. An equivalent space- domain calculation of the gravity field on an arbitrary surface can take many hours. The inverse relation to (1) does not appear to offer a practical approach for calculating a reliable density distribution from observed gravity data. This is because the data would have to cover a substantial portion of the model volume, and because the transformation is undefined on the plane kz = 0, where both the denominator of the filter kernel and the Fourier transform of the gravity field are identically zero. Numerical experiments show that the density distribution resulting from the power on the plane kz = 0 represents a classic Parker annihilator. This annihilator can be calculated from the density distribution but not from the gravity field, as would be
Townley-Smith, Keeley; Nave, Gillian; Pickering, Juliet C.; Blackwell-Whitehead, Richard J.
2016-09-01
We expand on the comprehensive study of hyperfine structure (HFS) in Mn II conducted by Holt et al. (1999) by verifying hyperfine magnetic dipole constants (A) for 20 levels previously measured by Holt et al. (1999) and deriving A constants for 47 previously unstudied levels. The HFS patterns were measured in archival spectra from Fourier transform (FT) spectrometers at Imperial College London and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Analysis of the FT spectra was carried out in XGREMLIN. Our A constant for the ground level has a lower uncertainty by a factor of 6 than that of Blackwell-Whitehead et al.
Parsons, C. L.; Gerlach, J. C.; Whitehurst, M.
1982-01-01
The development of a prototype, ground-based, Sun-pointed Michelson interferometric spectrometer is described. Its intended use is to measure the atmospheric amount of various gases which absorb in the near-infrared, visible, and near-ultraviolet portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Preliminary spectra which contain the alpha, 0.8 micrometer, and rho sigma tau water vapor absorption bands in the near-infrared are presented to indicate the present capability of the system. Ultimately, the spectrometer can be used to explore the feasible applications of Fourier transform spectroscopy in the ultraviolet where grating spectrometers were used exclusively.
Color pattern recognition based on the joint fractional Fourier transform correlator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Weimin Jin; Yupei Zhang
2007-01-01
A new system of multi-channel single-output joint fractional Fourier transform correlator (JFRTC) for color pattern recognition is proposed based on the conventional system of multi-channel single-output joint transform correlator (JTC). The theoretical analysis and optical experiments are performed. With this method, one can obtain three correlation peaks at the output plane which show a pair of desired cross-correlation peaks and one auto-correlation peak. In comparison, the conventional system leads to more correlation peaks playing a noise role in color pattern recognition.
Universal and special keys based on phase-truncated Fourier transform
Qin, Wan; Peng, Xiang; Meng, Xiangfeng; Gao, Bruce
2011-08-01
We propose a novel optical asymmetric cryptosystem based on a phase-truncated Fourier transform. Two decryption keys independent of each other are generated. They are referred to as universal key and special key, respectively. Each of them can be used for decryption independently in absence of the other. The universal key is applicable to decrypt any ciphertext encoded by the same encryption key, but with poor legibility. On the contrary, the special key is adequate for legible decryption, but only valid for one ciphertext corresponding to the specified plaintext. A set of simulation results show the interesting performance of two types of decryption keys.
Wang, Yong-Ying; Wang, Yu-Rong; Wang, Yong; Li, Hui-Juan; Sun, Wen-Jia
2007-07-01
A new method of optical image encryption with binary Fourier transform computer-generated hologram (CGH) and pixel-scrambling technology is presented. In this method, the orders of the pixel scrambling, as well as the encrypted image, are used as the keys to decrypt the original image. Therefore, higher security is achieved. Furthermore, the encrypted image is binary, so it is easy to be fabricated and robust against noise and distortion. Computer simulation results are given to verify the feasibility of this method and its robustness against occlusion and additional noise.
Parallel 3-dim fast Fourier transforms with load balancing of the plane waves
Gao, Xingyu; Fang, Jun; Wang, Han
2016-01-01
The plane wave method is most widely used for solving the Kohn-Sham equations in first-principles materials science computations. In this procedure, the three-dimensional (3-dim) trial wave functions' fast Fourier transform (FFT) is a regular operation and one of the most demanding algorithms in terms of the scalability on a parallel machine. We propose a new partitioning algorithm for the 3-dim FFT grid to accomplish the trade-off between the communication overhead and load balancing of the plane waves. It is shown by qualitative analysis and numerical results that our approach could scale the plane wave first-principles calculations up to more nodes.
Mastering the discrete Fourier transform in one, two or several dimensions pitfalls and artifacts
Amidror, Isaac
2013-01-01
The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is an extremely useful tool that finds application in many different disciplines. However, its use requires caution. The aim of this book is to explain the DFT and its various artifacts and pitfalls and to show how to avoid these (whenever possible), or at least how to recognize them in order to avoid misinterpretations. This concentrated treatment of the DFT artifacts and pitfalls in a single volume is, indeed, new, and it makes this book a valuable source of information for the widest possible range of DFT users. Special attention is given to the one and
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weber, C.; Dilling, J.; Kluge, H.J.; Marx, G.; Mukherjee, M.; Quint, W.; Rahaman, S.; Rodriguez, D.; Schoenfelder, J.; Sikler, G.; Tarisien, M. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)
2003-07-01
The physics program of the SHIPTRAP facility comprises mass spectrometry, nuclear spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, and chemistry of fusion reaction produced nuclides and, especially, transeinsteinium elements. One of the major limitations to the experimental investigations is the low production rate for exotic nuclei. Detection schemes based on a destructive time-of-flight measurement lead to intolerably long beam times. An alternative is the Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) technique. It is suited for ion identification and mass measurements as well as for chemical studies. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bruun, Susanne Wrang; Kohler, Achim; Adt, Isabelle
2006-01-01
Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a valuable technique for characterization of biological samples, providing a detailed fingerprint of the major chemical constituents. However, water vapor and CO(2) in the beam path often cause interferences in the spectra, which can hamper...... an absorption band from either water vapor or CO(2). From two calibration data sets, gas model spectra were estimated in each of the four spectral regions, and these model spectra were applied for correction of gas absorptions in two independent test sets (spectra of aqueous solutions and a yeast biofilm (C...
Zheng, Ying; Liang, Jingqiu; Liang, Zhongzhu
2013-01-14
A model of miniaturized space-modulated Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) is given. The two step mirrors as the key components are designed and a lithography-electroplating technique used to fabricate the small step mirror is proposed. We analyze the effect of the experiment results resulted from fabricating technics on the recovery spectrum in theory, and demonstrate that the lithography-electroplating technique is an effective method to fabricate the step mirror, which make miniaturized FTIR realized. We believe that the performances of FTIR can be better realized by optimizing experimental conditions to make this fabricating method more attractive.
Chelliah, Pandian; Sahoo, Trilochan; Singh, Sheela; Sujatha, Annie
2015-10-20
A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) used for interrogating a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) consists of a scanning-type interferometer. The FTS has a broad wavelength range of operation and good multiplexing capability. However, it has poor wavelength resolution and interrogation speed. We propose a modification to the FTS using path delay multiplexing to improve the same. Using this method, spatial resolution and interrogation time can be improved by n times by using n path delays. In this paper, simulation results for n=2, 5 are shown.
Planetary infrared astronomy using a cryogenic postdisperser on Fourier transform spectrometers
Jennings, D. E.; Kunde, V. G.; Hanel, R. A.; Maguire, W. C.; Lamb, G. M.
1986-01-01
High resolution infrared spectra of planets from ground-based observatories were analyzed and instrumentation to improve sensitivity was developed. A cryogenic postdisperser (a narrow bandpass spectral filter) for use with Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS's) at facility observatories was constructed. This instrument has improved the sensitivity of FTS observations at 8 to 20 microns by about an order of magnitude. Spectra of Jupiter, Saturn and Comet Halley were obtained using the postdisperser with FTS facilities at the Kitt Peak 4-meter and McMath telescopes. Spectral resolution as high as 0.01/cm was achieved.
Côté, Alex; Levasseur, Simon; Boudreau, Sylvain; Genest, Jérôme
2014-07-01
This paper presents a concept using field cameras in combination with Fourier transform spectrometers. The device can produce five-dimensional (position-angle-spectra) data cubes. This can lead to accurate measurements in both spectrum and distance and allows a thorough characterization of the interferometer, as well as adds passive ranging information to hyperspectral images. Shear and tilt fringes are simultaneously observed in a fixed optical path difference interferometer, and a passive spectral ranging demonstration is done in both absorption and emission for the 500-900 nm spectral bands.
Design of spatio-temporally modulated static infrared imaging Fourier transform spectrometer.
Wang, WenCong; Liang, JingQiu; Liang, ZhongZhu; Lü, JinGuang; Qin, YuXin; Tian, Chao; Wang, WeiBiao
2014-08-15
A novel static medium wave infrared (MWIR) imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (IFTS) is conceptually proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In this system, the moving mirror in traditional temporally modulated IFTS is replaced by multi-step micro-mirrors to realize the static design. Compared with the traditional spatially modulated IFTS, they have no slit system and are superior with larger luminous flux and higher energy efficiency. The use of the multi-step micro-mirrors can also make the system compact and light.
[The principle and analysis of micro-Fourier transform spectrometer based on MEMS micro-mirror].
Chen, Jian-Jun; Zhu, Yong; Liu, Bo; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Ning
2012-11-01
The present paper puts forward a novel micro-Fourier transform infrared spectrometer based on programmable MEMS micro-mirror. This design uses a MEMS micro-mirror and a slantwise reflector to replace the moving mirror system on traditional spectrometer. This paper analyzes the operating principle of this spectrometer and gives the simulation result to prove the feasibility of this method. The results show that the spectral resolution is less than 5 nm in near-infrared wave band, the wave-length accuracy is approximately 1 nm and the sampling period of this spectrometer is approximately 50 ms. This method can use Hadamard transform to improve the SNR.
A transformada de Fourier em basic The Fourier transform (FFT in basic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mauricio Gomes Constantino
2000-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper we describe three computer programs in Basic language about the Fourier transform (FFT which are available in the Internet site http://artemis.ffclrp.usp.br/SoftwareE.htm (in English or http://artemis.ffclrp.usp.br/softwareP.htm (in Portuguese since October 1998. Those are addresses to the Web Page of our Laboratory of Organic Synthesis. The programs can be downloaded and used by anyone who is interested on the subject. The texts, menus and captions in the programs are written in English.
Beecken, Brian P.; Kleinman, Randall R.
2004-01-01
New developments in infrared sensor technology have potentially made possible a new space-based system which can measure far-infrared radiation at lower costs (mass, power and expense). The Stationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (SIFTS) proposed by NASA Langley Research Center, makes use of new detector array technology. A mathematical model which simulates resolution and spectral range relationships has been developed for analyzing the utility of such a radically new approach to spectroscopy. Calculations with this forward model emulate the effects of a detector array on the ability to retrieve accurate spectral features. Initial computations indicate significant attenuation at high wavenumbers.
Hardware schemes for fast Fourier transform, part 7.4A
Stitt, G. R.; Bowhill, S. A.
1984-01-01
Real-time fast fourier transformer (FFT) processing of a MST radar data and cost-effective approaches to hardware FFT generation were studied. Previously devised hardware FFT configurations are described including the estimated number of chips used and the time required to perform a 1024-point FFT. The remaining entries in the table correspond to original designs, which presuppose the availability of a microcomputer and a modestly complicated hardware peripheral. These original designs, all of which implement a radix-4 FFT with twiddle factors, are assigned model numbers to make them easier to refer to.
Pan, Nina; Cai, Xiaoqiang; Tang, Kai; Zou, Guolin
2005-11-01
Chemical unfolding of bovine testicular hyaluronidase (HAase) has been studied by fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Thermodynamic parameters were determined for unfolding HAase from changes in the intrinsic fluorescence emission intensity and the formations of several possible unfolding intermediates have been identified. This was further confirmed by representation of fluorescence data in terms of 'phase diagram'. The secondary structures of HAase have been assigned and semiquantitatively estimated from the FTIR. The occurrence of conformational change during chemical unfolding as judged by fluorescence and FTIR spectroscopy indicated that the unfolding of HAase may not follow the typical two-state model.
Double-resolution electron holography with simple Fourier transform of fringe-shifted holograms.
Volkov, V V; Han, M G; Zhu, Y
2013-11-01
We propose a fringe-shifting holographic method with an appropriate image wave recovery algorithm leading to exact solution of holographic equations. With this new method the complex object image wave recovered from holograms appears to have much less traditional artifacts caused by the autocorrelation band present practically in all Fourier transformed holograms. The new analytical solutions make possible a double-resolution electron holography free from autocorrelation band artifacts and thus push the limits for phase resolution. The new image wave recovery algorithm uses a popular Fourier solution of the side band-pass filter technique, while the fringe-shifting holographic method is simple to implement in practice.
Simple atmospheric transmittance calculation based on a Fourier-transformed Voigt profile.
Kobayashi, Hirokazu
2002-11-20
A method of line-by-line transmission calculation for a homogeneous atmospheric layer that uses the Fourier-transformed Voigt profile is presented. The method is based on a pure Voigt function with no approximation and an interference term that takes into account the line-mixing effect. One can use the method to calculate transmittance, considering each line shape as it is affected by temperature and pressure, with a line database with an arbitrary wave-number range and resolution. To show that the method is feasible for practical model development, we compared the calculated transmittance with that obtained with a conventional model, and good consistency was observed.
Analysis of the Interference Modulation Depth in the Fourier Transform Spectrometer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rilong Liu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Based on the principle of the Michelson interferometer, the paper briefly describes the theoretical significance and calculates and deduces three expressions of the interference modulation depth. The influence of the surface shape error of plane mirror on modulation depth is analyzed, and the tolerance of error is also pointed out. Moreover, the dependence of modulation depth on the reflectance change of beam splitter interface is also analyzed, and the curve is given. It is concluded that this paper is of general significance for the Fourier transform spectrometer based on the principle of the Michelson two-beam interference.
On pointwise inversion of the Fourier transform of $BV_{0}$ functions
Mendoza Torres, Francisco J.
2010-01-01
Using a Riemann-Lebesgue lemma for the Fourier transform over the class of bounded variation functions that vanish at infinity, we prove the Dirichlet--Jordan theorem for functions on this class. Our proof is in the Henstock--Kurzweil integral context and is different to that of Riesz-Livingston [Amer. Math. Monthly 62 (1955), 434--437]. As consequence, we obtain the Dirichlet--Jordan theorem for functions in the intersection of the spaces of bounded...
Mao, Haidan; Du, Xinyue; Chen, Linfei; Zhao, Daomu
2011-06-01
On the basis of the fact that a hard-edged aperture function can be expressed as finite matrices with different weighting coefficients, we obtain the analytical formula for the propagation of the broadband gaussian Schell-model (BGSM) beam through the apertured fractional Fourier transformation (AFrFT) system. It is shown by numerical examples that the intensity distribution in the plane of a small fractional order is obviously influenced by the bandwidth when the BGSM beams propagate through the AFrFT system. Further extensions are also pointed out.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evan Senter
Full Text Available Using complex roots of unity and the Fast Fourier Transform, we design a new thermodynamics-based algorithm, FFTbor, that computes the Boltzmann probability that secondary structures differ by [Formula: see text] base pairs from an arbitrary initial structure of a given RNA sequence. The algorithm, which runs in quartic time O(n(4 and quadratic space O(n(2, is used to determine the correlation between kinetic folding speed and the ruggedness of the energy landscape, and to predict the location of riboswitch expression platform candidates. A web server is available at http://bioinformatics.bc.edu/clotelab/FFTbor/.
Predictive analog-to-digital converter for Fourier-transform spectrometers.
Deschênes, Jean-Daniel; Potvin, Simon; Ash, Jean-Simon; Genest, Jérôme
2010-09-10
This paper proposes the use of predictive analog-to-digital converters (ADC) to handle dynamic range issues in Fourier-transform spectrometers. Several predictive approaches are proposed, and one is implemented experimentally to show that the technique works. A system was implemented with 16 bit (13 bits effective) ADCs and digital-to-analog converters (DACs) operated at 8 bits to provide a comparison basis. Measurements of a blackbody at 900 °C performed using the setup show a 13 bit effective performance, limited by the input noise of the data acquisition card.
Fourier transform acousto-optic imaging with a custom-designed CMOS smart-pixels array.
Barjean, Kinia; Contreras, Kevin; Laudereau, Jean-Baptiste; Tinet, Éric; Ettori, Dominique; Ramaz, François; Tualle, Jean-Michel
2015-03-01
We report acousto-optic imaging (AOI) into a scattering medium using a Fourier Transform (FT) analysis to achieve axial resolution. The measurement system was implemented using a CMOS smart-pixels sensor dedicated to the real-time analysis of speckle patterns. This first proof-of-principle of FT-AOI demonstrates some of its potential advantages, with a signal-to-noise ratio comparable to the one obtained without axial resolution, and with an acquisition rate compatible with a use on living biological tissue.
Wave scattering theory a series approach based on the Fourier transformation
Eom, Hyo J
2001-01-01
The book provides a unified technique of Fourier transform to solve the wave scattering, diffraction, penetration, and radiation problems where the technique of separation of variables is applicable. The book discusses wave scattering from waveguide discontinuities, various apertures, and coupling structures, often encountered in electromagnetic, electrostatic, magnetostatic, and acoustic problems. A system of simultaneous equations for the modal coefficients is formulated and the rapidly-convergent series solutions amenable to numerical computation are presented. The series solutions find practical applications in the design of microwave/acoustic transmission lines, waveguide filters, antennas, and electromagnetic interference/compatibilty-related problems.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2011-01-01
Real time digital recording and numerical reconstruction of a temporal digital hologram sequence have become feasible in recent years.They provide a new measurement method which enjoys the valuable advantages of being full-field,noncontact and high precision.In this paper,a combined method of temporal digital hologram sequence and windowed Fourier transform is proposed to measure the kinematic parameters of random vibration.A series of holograms are recorded by CCD camera and the original phase can be recon...
A Synthetic Quadrature Phase Detector/Demodulator for Fourier Transform Transform Spectrometers
Campbell, Joel
2008-01-01
A method is developed to demodulate (velocity correct) Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data that is taken with an analog to digital converter that digitizes equally spaced in time. This method makes it possible to use simple low cost, high resolution audio digitizers to record high quality data without the need for an event timer or quadrature laser hardware, and makes it possible to use a metrology laser of any wavelength. The reduced parts count and simplicity implementation makes it an attractive alternative in space based applications when compared to previous methods such as the Brault algorithm.
Applications of asynoptic space - Time Fourier transform methods to scanning satellite measurements
Lait, Leslie R.; Stanford, John L.
1988-01-01
A method proposed by Salby (1982) for computing the zonal space-time Fourier transform of asynoptically acquired satellite data is discussed. The method and its relationship to other techniques are briefly described, and possible problems in applying it to real data are outlined. Examples of results obtained using this technique are given which demonstrate its sensitivity to small-amplitude signals. A number of waves are found which have previously been observed as well as two not heretofore reported. A possible extension of the method which could increase temporal and longitudinal resolution is described.
Hanafi, Abdelmalek; Gharbi, Tijani; Cornu, Jean-Yves
2005-07-01
We explore the potential use of the Fourier-transform profilometry technique in in vivo studies of muscular contractions through the variation of muscle-group cross sections. Thanks to a tensorial analysis of the technique, a general expression of its sensitivity vector is established. It allows derivation of the expression of the resolution and the limit condition imposed by the spatial sampling of the fringe pattern. Key parameters that maximize the sensitivity are then simulated. A measurement system is accordingly built up and characterized. It is then successfully applied to the evaluation of the deformation of the forearm muscles during grasping exertions.
Use of discrete Fourier transform to sum spectra in measurements with long counting times
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pilar Rubio Montero, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, Sta. Teresa de Jornet 38, E-06800, Merida (Spain); Garcia-Torano, Eduardo [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: E.garciatorano@ciemat.es
2007-07-11
When measuring nuclear spectra for long counting times, it is usual to split the acquisition in a set of spectra of shorter duration that are later added after correcting by drift during the measurements. We describe a method to determine the shifting correction by using the properties of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). The method does not require assuming a particular spectral shape and the implementation is essentially independent of the kind of spectra being analyzed. The drift correction is defined for an integer number of channels. We present the results of the application to alpha-particle spectroscopy of long-lived nuclides.
Opto-digital image encryption by using Baker mapping and 1-D fractional Fourier transform
Liu, Zhengjun; Li, She; Liu, Wei; Liu, Shutian
2013-03-01
We present an optical encryption method based on the Baker mapping in one-dimensional fractional Fourier transform (1D FrFT) domains. A thin cylinder lens is controlled by computer for implementing 1D FrFT at horizontal direction or vertical direction. The Baker mapping is introduced to scramble the amplitude distribution of complex function. The amplitude and phase of the output of encryption system are regarded as encrypted image and key. Numerical simulation has been performed for testing the validity of this encryption scheme.
Large net-normal dispersion Er-doped fibre laser mode-locked with a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror
Bowen, Patrick; Broderick, Neil G R
2016-01-01
We report on an environmentally stable, all-PM-fibre, Er-doped, mode-locked laser with a central wavelength of 1550 nm. Significantly, the laser possesses large net-normal dispersion such that its dynamics are comparable to that of an all-normal dispersion fibre laser at 1 {\\mu}m with an analogous architecture. The laser is mode-locked with a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror to produce pulses that are externally compressible to 500 fs. Experimental results are in good agreement with numerical simulations.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Zhi-Ming; Liu Wen-qing; Gao Ming-Guang; Tong Jing-Jing; Zhang Wian-Shu; Xu Liang; Wei Xiuai
2008-01-01
Passive Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) remote sensing measurement of chemical gas cloud is a vital technology.It takes an important part in many fields for the detection of released gases.The principle of concentration measurement is based on the Beer-Lambert law.Unlike the active measurement,for the passive remote sensing,in most cases,the difference between the temperature of the gas cloud and the brightness temperature of the background is usually a few kelvins.The gas cloud emission is almost equal to the background emission,thereby the emission of the gas cloud cannot be ignored.The concentration retrieval algorithm is quite different from the active measurement.In this paper,the concentration retrieval algorithm for the passive FTIR remote measurement of gas cloud is presented in detail,which involves radiative transfer model,radiometric calibration,absorption coefficient calculation,et al.The background spectrum has a broad feature,which is a slowly varying function of frequency.In this paper,the background spectrum is fitted with a polynomial by using the Levenberg-Marquardt method which is a kind of nonlinear least squares fitting algorithm.No background spectra are required.Thus,this method allows mobile,real-time and fast measurements of gas clouds.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yih-Shiaw Huang; Shih-Yi Chang; Tai-Ly Tso [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (China)
1996-12-31
Toxic air pollutants were investigated in several petrochemical industrial park in Taiwan using a movable open-path Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show the qualitative and quantitative analysis of emission gases from plants, and also provide the emission rates of various compounds. More than twenty compounds under usual operation were found from these industrial park. The concentration variation with time could be correlated exactly with the distances from the emission source along the wind direction. This means that by changing the measuring points the source of emission could be unambiguously identified. The point, area and line source (PAL) plume dispersion model has been applied to estimate the emission rate of either a point or an area source. The local atmospheric stability was determined by releasing an SF{sub 6} tracer. The origin of errors came mainly from the uncertainty of the source configuration and the variation of the meteorological condition. Through continuous measurement using a portable open-path Fourier transform infrared (POP-FTIR) spectrometer, the maximum value of the emission rate and the annual amount of emission could be derived. The emission rate of the measured toxic gases was derived by the model technique, and the results show that the emission amount is on the order of ten to hundred tons per year.
Kamalian, Morteza; Prilepsky, Jaroslaw E; Le, Son Thai; Turitsyn, Sergei K
2016-08-08
In this work, we introduce the periodic nonlinear Fourier transform (PNFT) method as an alternative and efficacious tool for compensation of the nonlinear transmission effects in optical fiber links. In the Part I, we introduce the algorithmic platform of the technique, describing in details the direct and inverse PNFT operations, also known as the inverse scattering transform for periodic (in time variable) nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). We pay a special attention to explaining the potential advantages of the PNFT-based processing over the previously studied nonlinear Fourier transform (NFT) based methods. Further, we elucidate the issue of the numerical PNFT computation: we compare the performance of four known numerical methods applicable for the calculation of nonlinear spectral data (the direct PNFT), in particular, taking the main spectrum (utilized further in Part II for the modulation and transmission) associated with some simple example waveforms as the quality indicator for each method. We show that the Ablowitz-Ladik discretization approach for the direct PNFT provides the best performance in terms of the accuracy and computational time consumption.
Fast large scale structure perturbation theory using one-dimensional fast Fourier transforms
Schmittfull, Marcel; Vlah, Zvonimir; McDonald, Patrick
2016-05-01
The usual fluid equations describing the large-scale evolution of mass density in the universe can be written as local in the density, velocity divergence, and velocity potential fields. As a result, the perturbative expansion in small density fluctuations, usually written in terms of convolutions in Fourier space, can be written as a series of products of these fields evaluated at the same location in configuration space. Based on this, we establish a new method to numerically evaluate the 1-loop power spectrum (i.e., Fourier transform of the 2-point correlation function) with one-dimensional fast Fourier transforms. This is exact and a few orders of magnitude faster than previously used numerical approaches. Numerical results of the new method are in excellent agreement with the standard quadrature integration method. This fast model evaluation can in principle be extended to higher loop order where existing codes become painfully slow. Our approach follows by writing higher order corrections to the 2-point correlation function as, e.g., the correlation between two second-order fields or the correlation between a linear and a third-order field. These are then decomposed into products of correlations of linear fields and derivatives of linear fields. The method can also be viewed as evaluating three-dimensional Fourier space convolutions using products in configuration space, which may also be useful in other contexts where similar integrals appear.
Dziuba, B
2013-01-01
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and artificial neural networks (ANN's) were used to identify species of Propionibacteria strains. The aim of the study was to improve the methodology to identify species of Propionibacteria strains, in which the differentiation index D, calculated based on Pearson's correlation and cluster analyses were used to describe the correlation between the Fourier transform infrared spectra and bacteria as molecular systems brought unsatisfactory results. More advanced statistical methods of identification of the FTIR spectra with application of artificial neural networks (ANN's) were used. In this experiment, the FTIR spectra of Propionibacteria strains stored in the library were used to develop artificial neural networks for their identification. Several multilayer perceptrons (MLP) and probabilistic neural networks (PNN) were tested. The practical value of selected artificial neural networks was assessed based on identification results of spectra of 9 reference strains and 28 isolates. To verify results of isolates identification, the PCR based method with the pairs of species-specific primers was used. The use of artificial neural networks in FTIR spectral analyses as the most advanced chemometric method supported correct identification of 93% bacteria of the genus Propionibacterium to the species level.
Zhang, Y. G.; Gu, Y.; Wang, K.; Fang, X.; Li, A. Z.; Liu, K. H.
2012-05-01
An improved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy approach adapting to photoluminescence and electroluminescence measurements in mid-infrared has been developed, in which diode-pumped solid-state excitation lasers were adopted for photoluminescence excitation. In this approach, three different Fourier transform infrared modes of rapid scan, double modulation, and step scan were software switchable without changing the hardware or connections. The advantages and limitations of each mode were analyzed in detail. Using this approach a group of III-V and II-VI samples from near-infrared extending to mid-infrared with photoluminescence intensities in a wider range have been characterized at room temperature to demonstrate the validity and overall performances of the system. The weaker electroluminescence of quantum cascade lasers in mid-infrared band was also surveyed at different resolutions. Results show that for samples with relatively strong photoluminescence or electroluminescence out off the background, rapid scan mode is the most preferable. For weaker photoluminescence or electroluminescence overlapped with background, double modulation is the most effective mode. To get a better signal noise ratio when weaker photoluminescence or electroluminescence signal has been observed in double modulation mode, switching to step scan mode should be an advisable option despite the long data acquiring time and limited resolution.
Subpixel shift with Fourier transform to achieve efficient and high-quality image interpolation
Chen, Qin-Sheng; Weinhous, Martin S.
1999-05-01
A new approach to image interpolation is proposed. Different from the conventional scheme, the interpolation of a digital image is achieved with a sub-unity coordinate shift technique. In the approach, the original image is first shifted by sub-unity distances matching the locations where the image values need to be restored. The original and the shifted images are then interspersed together, yielding an interpolated image. High quality sub-unity image shift which is crucial to the approach is accomplished by implementing the shift theorem of Fourier transformation. It is well known that under the Nyquist sampling criterion, the most accurate image interpolation can be achieved with the interpolating function (sinc function). A major drawback is its computation efficiency. The present approach can achieve an interpolation quality as good as that with the sinc function since the sub-unity shift in Fourier domain is equivalent to shifting the sinc function in spatial domain, while the efficiency, thanks to the fast Fourier transform, is very much improved. In comparison to the conventional interpolation techniques such as linear or cubic B-spline interpolation, the interpolation accuracy is significantly enhanced. In order to compensate for the under-sampling effects in the interpolation of 3D medical images owing to a larger inter-slice distance, proper window functions were recommended. The application of the approach to 2- and 3-D CT and MRI images produced satisfactory interpolation results.
Source brightness fluctuation correction of solar absorption fourier transform mid infrared spectra
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Ridder
2011-06-01
Full Text Available The precision and accuracy of trace gas observations using solar absorption Fourier Transform infrared spectrometry depend on the stability of the light source. Fluctuations in the source brightness, however, cannot always be avoided. Current correction schemes, which calculate a corrected interferogram as the ratio of the raw DC interferogram and a smoothed DC interferogram, are applicable only to near infrared measurements. Spectra in the mid infrared spectral region below 2000 cm^{−1} are generally considered uncorrectable, if they are measured with a MCT detector. Such measurements introduce an unknown offset to MCT interferograms, which prevents the established source brightness fluctuation correction. This problem can be overcome by a determination of the offset using the modulation efficiency of the instrument. With known modulation efficiency the offset can be calculated, and the source brightness correction can be performed on the basis of offset-corrected interferograms. We present a source brightness fluctuation correction method which performs the smoothing of the raw DC interferogram in the interferogram domain by an application of a running mean instead of high-pass filtering the corresponding spectrum after Fourier transformation of the raw DC interferogram. This smoothing can be performed with the onboard software of commercial instruments. The improvement of MCT spectra and subsequent ozone profile and total column retrievals is demonstrated. Application to InSb interferograms in the near infrared spectral region proves the equivalence with the established correction scheme.
Calculation of Fresnel diffraction from 1D phase step by discrete Fourier transform
Aalipour, Rasoul
2017-01-01
When a part of an optical wave-front experiences a sharp change in its phase, Fresnel diffraction becomes appreciable. Sharp change in phase occurs as a wave-front strikes with a phase step. The intensity distributions of diffraction patterns of the phase step is formulated by applying Fresnel-Kirchhoff integral. For while the incident light on the step is coherent, the Fresnel-Kirchhoff integral can be solved by using familiar Fresnel integrals. But, when the incident light is partially coherent, one can not express the diffraction integral as the Fresnel integrals and the problem is summarized in solving some unusual integrals. In this report, we propose Fourier transform method for solving the Fresnel-Kirchhoff integral. In this regard we use discrete Fourier transform method and calculate Fresnel diffraction from the 1D phase step by FFT-based algorithms. This method does not have any restriction on the coherence and profile shape of the incident light. We show that the method have appropriate solutions for coherent and partially coherent lights. For the case of the coherent light illumination of the step, the obtained results are in good agreement with the calculated results by using the Fresnel integrals in reported literatures.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Muthuramalingam Uthaya Siva; Mohideen Abdul Badhul Haq; Deivasigamani Selvam; Ganesan Dinesh Babu; Rathinam Bakyaraj
2013-01-01
Objective: To investigate functional groups of toxic spines in stingray by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis.Methods:sephen were centrifuged at 6000 r/min for 10 min. The supernatant was collected and preserved separately in methanol, ethanol, chloroform, acetone (1:2) and then soaked in the mentioned solvents for 48 h. Then extracts were filtered and used for Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis.Results:The venom extract of Himantura gerrardi, Himantura imbricata and Pastinachus and random coiled secondary structure. The presence of O-H stretch, C=O stretch, C-H stretch, N-H deformation, O-H deformation and C-O stretch in the sample aligned with standard bovine serum albumin. The influence of functional groups within the molecule was because of the impact of preferred spatial orientation, chemical and physical interaction on the molecule. In conclusion, compared to bovine serum albumin, Himantura imbricata consists of two C=O stretch, are involved in the hydrogen bonding that takes place between the different elements of secondary structure.Conclusions:The results identified that the presence of free amino acids and protein having β-sheet medicine not available for treatment against injuries causing stingray. Therefore, it's the baseline study, to motivate further process and produce effective antibiotics. The venom of poisonous animals has been extensively studied, since standard.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muthuramalingam Uthaya Siva
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate functional groups of toxic spines in stingray by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis. Methods: The venom extract of Himantura gerrardi, Himantura imbricata and Pastinachus sephen were centrifuged at 6 000 r/min for 10 min. The supernatant was collected and preserved separately in methanol, ethanol, chloroform, acetone (1:2 and then soaked in the mentioned solvents for 48 h. Then extracts were filtered and used for Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis. Results: The results identified that the presence of free amino acids and protein having β-sheet and random coiled secondary structure. The presence of O-H stretch, C=O stretch, C-H stretch, N-H deformation, O-H deformation and C-O stretch in the sample aligned with standard bovine serum albumin. The influence of functional groups within the molecule was because of the impact of preferred spatial orientation, chemical and physical interaction on the molecule. In conclusion, compared to bovine serum albumin, Himantura imbricata consists of two C=O stretch, are involved in the hydrogen bonding that takes place between the different elements of secondary structure. Conclusions: The venom of poisonous animals has been extensively studied, since standard medicine not available for treatment against injuries causing stingray. Therefore, it's the baseline study, to motivate further process and produce effective antibiotics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiu Bo
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Binaural cue coding (BCC is an efficient technique for spatial audio rendering by using the side information such as interchannel level difference (ICLD, interchannel time difference (ICTD, and interchannel correlation (ICC. Of the side information, the ICTD plays an important role to the auditory spatial image. However, inaccurate estimation of the ICTD may lead to the audio quality degradation. In this paper, we develop a novel ICTD estimation algorithm based on the nonuniform discrete Fourier transform (NDFT and integrate it with the BCC approach to improve the decoded auditory image. Furthermore, a new subjective assessment method is proposed for the evaluation of auditory image widths of decoded signals. The test results demonstrate that the NDFT-based scheme can achieve much wider and more externalized auditory image than the existing BCC scheme based on the discrete Fourier transform (DFT. It is found that the present technique, regardless of the image width, does not deteriorate the sound quality at the decoder compared to the traditional scheme without ICTD estimation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Palushani, Evarist; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael;
2009-01-01
This paper reports on the generation of 1.6-ps fullwidth at half-maximum flat-top pulses by the optical Fourier transform technique, and the utilization of these pulses in a 320-Gb/s demultiplexing experiment. It is demonstrated how a narrow pulse having a 15-nm wide third-order super-Gaussian sp......This paper reports on the generation of 1.6-ps fullwidth at half-maximum flat-top pulses by the optical Fourier transform technique, and the utilization of these pulses in a 320-Gb/s demultiplexing experiment. It is demonstrated how a narrow pulse having a 15-nm wide third-order super......-Gaussian spectral intensity profile is mapped into a flat-top pulse resembling its spectrum by simple propagation in SMF. Theoretical and experimental descriptions are given on flat-top pulse generation, and an experimental validation of the systems performance of the pulses is carried out, demonstrating a benefit...
Monitoring wine aging with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Basalekou Marianthi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Oak wood has commonly been used in wine aging but recently other wood types such as Acacia and Chestnut, have attracted the interest of the researchers due to their possible positive contribution to wine quality. However, only the use of oak and chestnut woods is approved by the International Enological Codex of the International Organisation of Vine and Wine. In this study Fourier Transform (FT-mid-infrared spectroscopy combined with Discriminant Analysis was used to differentiate wines aged in barrels made from French oak, American oak, Acacia and Chestnut and in tanks with oak chips, over a period of 12 months. Two red (Mandilaria, Kotsifali and two white (Vilana, Dafni native Greek grape varieties where used to produce four wines. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectra of the samples were recorded on a Zinc Selenide (ZnSe window after incubation at 40 °C for 30 min. A complete differentiation of the samples according to both the type of wood used and the contact time was achieved based on their FT-IR spectra.
Zhang, Y G; Gu, Y; Wang, K; Fang, X; Li, A Z; Liu, K H
2012-05-01
An improved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy approach adapting to photoluminescence and electroluminescence measurements in mid-infrared has been developed, in which diode-pumped solid-state excitation lasers were adopted for photoluminescence excitation. In this approach, three different Fourier transform infrared modes of rapid scan, double modulation, and step scan were software switchable without changing the hardware or connections. The advantages and limitations of each mode were analyzed in detail. Using this approach a group of III-V and II-VI samples from near-infrared extending to mid-infrared with photoluminescence intensities in a wider range have been characterized at room temperature to demonstrate the validity and overall performances of the system. The weaker electroluminescence of quantum cascade lasers in mid-infrared band was also surveyed at different resolutions. Results show that for samples with relatively strong photoluminescence or electroluminescence out off the background, rapid scan mode is the most preferable. For weaker photoluminescence or electroluminescence overlapped with background, double modulation is the most effective mode. To get a better signal noise ratio when weaker photoluminescence or electroluminescence signal has been observed in double modulation mode, switching to step scan mode should be an advisable option despite the long data acquiring time and limited resolution.
Algorithm, applications and evaluation for protein comparison by Ramanujan Fourier transform.
Zhao, Jian; Wang, Jiasong; Hua, Wei; Ouyang, Pingkai
2015-12-01
The amino acid sequence of a protein determines its chemical properties, chain conformation and biological functions. Protein sequence comparison is of great importance to identify similarities of protein structures and infer their functions. Many properties of a protein correspond to the low-frequency signals within the sequence. Low frequency modes in protein sequences are linked to the secondary structures, membrane protein types, and sub-cellular localizations of the proteins. In this paper, we present Ramanujan Fourier transform (RFT) with a fast algorithm to analyze the low-frequency signals of protein sequences. The RFT method is applied to similarity analysis of protein sequences with the Resonant Recognition Model (RRM). The results show that the proposed fast RFT method on protein comparison is more efficient than commonly used discrete Fourier transform (DFT). RFT can detect common frequencies as significant feature for specific protein families, and the RFT spectrum heat-map of protein sequences demonstrates the information conservation in the sequence comparison. The proposed method offers a new tool for pattern recognition, feature extraction and structural analysis on protein sequences.
Quantitative assessment with improved fast Fourier transform based method by signal mirroring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prosek, Andrej [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: andrej.prosek@ijs.si; Leskovar, Matjaz; Mavko, Borut [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)
2008-10-15
The comparison of calculated results to experimental measurements is very important for thermal-hydraulic code qualification. Recently, it was observed that the fast Fourier transform based method (FFTBM) favors certain trends when an edge (difference) is present in the signal between the first and the last data point of the investigated time signal. Namely, the discrete Fourier transform used for the code accuracy calculation views the time domain signal as an infinite periodic signal. The purpose of the present study was therefore to improve the FFTBM regarding the unphysical edge impact. This was achieved by signal mirroring. In the demonstration it was shown how the improved FFTBM by signal mirroring works. Besides two case studies also the code accuracy of the LOFT L2-5 test calculations performed in the frame of the Best-Estimate Methods Uncertainty and Sensitivity Evaluation (BEMUSE) program was assessed. The results show that the improved FFTBM by signal mirroring judges the accuracy in a consistent and unbiased way.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bo Qiu
2008-05-01
Full Text Available Binaural cue coding (BCC is an efficient technique for spatial audio rendering by using the side information such as interchannel level difference (ICLD, interchannel time difference (ICTD, and interchannel correlation (ICC. Of the side information, the ICTD plays an important role to the auditory spatial image. However, inaccurate estimation of the ICTD may lead to the audio quality degradation. In this paper, we develop a novel ICTD estimation algorithm based on the nonuniform discrete Fourier transform (NDFT and integrate it with the BCC approach to improve the decoded auditory image. Furthermore, a new subjective assessment method is proposed for the evaluation of auditory image widths of decoded signals. The test results demonstrate that the NDFT-based scheme can achieve much wider and more externalized auditory image than the existing BCC scheme based on the discrete Fourier transform (DFT. It is found that the present technique, regardless of the image width, does not deteriorate the sound quality at the decoder compared to the traditional scheme without ICTD estimation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Chuandan; Zhang Zhongpei; Li Shaoqian
2007-01-01
The method of FRactional Fourier Transform (FRFT) is introduced to Transform Domain Communication System (TDCS) for signal transforming in the paper after theoretical analysis. The method yields optimal Basis Function (BF) by FRFT with optimal transform angle. The TDCS using the proposed method has wider usable spectrum, stronger robustness and better ability of anti non-stationary jamming than using usual methods, such as Fourier Transform (FT), Auto Regressive (AR), Wavelet Transform (WT), etc. The main simulation results are as follows. First, the Bit Error Rate (BER) Pb is close to theoretical bound of no jamming no matter in single tone or in linear chirp interference. Second, the interference-to-signal ratio J/E is at least 12dB more than that of Direct Spread Spectrum System (DSSS) under the same BER if the spectrum hopping-to-signal ratio is 1:20 in chirp plus hopping interfering. Third, the Eb/No (when estimation difference is 90% between transmitter and receiver) is about 3.5dB or about 0.5dB (when estimation difference is 10% between transmitter and receiver) more than that of theoretical result when no estimation difference under Pb = 10-2.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ding Lu; Weimin Jin
2011-01-01
A novel fully phase color image encryption/decryption scheme based on joint fractional Fourier transform correlator (JFRTC) and phase retrieval algorithm (PRA) is proposed. The security of the system is enhanced by the fractional order as a new added key. This method takes full advantage of the parallel processing features of the optical system and could optically realize single-channel color image encryption.The system and operation procedures are simplified. The simulation results of a color image indicate that the new method provides efficient solutions with a strong sense of security.%@@ A novel fully phase color image encryption/decryption scheme based on joint fractional Fourier transform correlator (JFRTC) and phase retrieval algorithm (PRA) is proposed. The security of the system is enhanced by the fractional order as a new added key. This method takes full advantage of the parallel processing features of the optical system and could optically realize single-channel color image encryption. The system and operation procedures are simplified. The simulation results of a color image indicate that the new method provides efficient solutions with a strong sense of security.
[A phase error correction method for the new Fourier transforms spectrometer].
Wang, Ning; Gong, Tian-Cheng; Chen, Jian-Jun; Li, Yang; Yang, Yi-Ning; Zhu, Yong; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Wei-Min
2014-11-01
To decrease the distortion of the recovered spectrum, improve the quantity of the recovered spectrum and decrease the influence of the phase error of the new spectrum detection system based on MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) micro-mirrors, a new phase error correction method for this system is proposed in the present paper. The source of phase error of the spectrum detection system based on MEMS micro-mirrors is analyzed firstly. The analyzed result indicated that the phase error of the new spectral Fourier transform detection system is the zero drift of the optical path difference, and the phase error can be corrected by Zero-crossing sampling which is realized by improving the structure of the interferometer system and Mertz product The spectrum detection system is set up and the phase error correction method is verified by this system. The experiment result is show that the quantity of the recovered spectrum of the spectrum detection is improved obviously by using the improved interferometer system and Mertz product, and the recovered spectrum has no negative peaks and the side lobes is suppressed markedly. This correction method can reduce the influence caused by phase error to the system performance well and improve the spectral detection performance effectively. In this paper, the origin of the system phase error based on the new MEMS micromirror Fourier transform spectroscopy detection system is analyzed, and the phase error correction method is proposed. This method can improve the performance of the spectrum detection system.
Iterative Fourier transform algorithm: different approaches to diffractive optical element design
Skeren, Marek; Richter, Ivan; Fiala, Pavel
2002-10-01
This contribution focuses on the study and comparison of different design approaches for designing phase-only diffractive optical elements (PDOEs) for different possible applications in laser beam shaping. Especially, new results and approaches, concerning the iterative Fourier transform algorithm, are analyzed, implemented, and compared. Namely, various approaches within the iterative Fourier transform algorithm (IFTA) are analyzed for the case of phase-only diffractive optical elements with quantizied phase levels (either binary or multilevel structures). First, the general scheme of the IFTA iterative approach with partial quantization is briefly presented and discussed. Then, the special assortment of the general IFTA scheme is given with respect to quantization constraint strategies. Based on such a special classification, the three practically interesting approaches are chosen, further-analyzed, and compared to eachother. The performance of these algorithms is compared in detail in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio characteristic developments with respect to the numberof iterations, for various input diffusive-type objects chose. Also, the performance is documented on the complex spectra developments for typical computer reconstruction results. The advantages and drawbacks of all approaches are discussed, and a brief guide on the choice of a particular approach for typical design tasks is given. Finally, the two ways of amplitude elimination within the design procedure are considered, namely the direct elimination and partial elimination of the amplitude of the complex hologram function.
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Sodium Phosphate Solids and Solutions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
龚文琪
2001-01-01
Solids and solutions of sodium phosphates with various chain lengths have been studied by using the techniques of diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, respectively. A systematic study of the infrared spectra of the solid sodium phosphates has been conducted on the basis of the information available in the literatures to establish the assignments of the infrared vibrations of the different groups in the phosphate molecules. The infrared spectra of the solutions of sodium phosphates have been analyzed according to the infrared study on the relevant solids, in conjunction with the study of the phosphate species distribution in solution on the basis of the acid-base reaction equilibria. The results obtained have revealed the correlations between the infrared absorption spectra and the structure of the different P-O groups in different kinds of phosphates and are useful in the analysis of phosphate solids and solutions widely used in the various operations of mineral processing.
Menke, Jan; Helms, Gunther; Larsen, Jörg
2010-01-01
The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate whether the effective k-space coverage of MR images can in principle be viewed after multidimensional Fourier transform back to k-space. A water-soaked sponge phantom providing homogeneous k-space pattern was imaged with different standard MR sequences, utilizing elliptic acquisitions, partial-Fourier acquisitions and elliptic filtering as imaging examples. The resulting MR images were Fourier-transformed to the spatial frequency domain (the k-space) to visualize their effective k-space coverage. These frequency domain images are named "backtransformed k-space images." For a quantitative assessment, the sponge phantom was imaged with three-dimensional partial-Fourier sequences while varying the partial acquisition parameters in slice and phase direction. By linear regression analysis, the k-space coverage as expected from the sequence menu parameters was compared to the effective k-space coverage as observed in the backtransformed k-space images. The k-space coverage of elliptic and partial-Fourier acquisitions became visible in the backtransformed k-space images, as well as the effect of elliptic filtering. The expected and the observed k-space coverage showed a highly significant correlation (r=.99, PFourier-transforming MR images of a sponge phantom back to k-space. This method could be used for several purposes including sequence parameter optimization, basic imaging research, and to enhance a visual understanding of k-space, especially in three-dimensional MR imaging.
A fractional Fourier transform analysis of a bubble excited by an ultrasonic chirp.
Barlow, Euan; Mulholland, Anthony J
2011-11-01
The fractional Fourier transform is proposed here as a model based, signal processing technique for determining the size of a bubble in a fluid. The bubble is insonified with an ultrasonic chirp and the radiated pressure field is recorded. This experimental bubble response is then compared with a series of theoretical model responses to identify the most accurate match between experiment and theory which allows the correct bubble size to be identified. The fractional Fourier transform is used to produce a more detailed description of each response, and two-dimensional cross correlation is then employed to identify the similarities between the experimental response and each theoretical response. In this paper the experimental bubble response is simulated by adding various levels of noise to the theoretical model output. The method is compared to the standard technique of using time-domain cross correlation. The proposed method is shown to be far more robust at correctly sizing the bubble and can cope with much lower signal to noise ratios.
MATLAB. Application on Fourier Transform%MATLAB在傅里叶变换中的应用
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周玲
2011-01-01
Fourier transform knowledge is always difficult to be understood because of high abstract characteristics in the signals and systems. It is realized for the visualization of various operations by the powerfully signal processing functions of MATLAB based on the content of Fourier transform, Fourier series and convolution theorem. The concept of time and frequency domains and the analysis method are deeply understood by MATLAB programming.%针对信号与系统中傅里叶变换具有抽象度高、难于理解的特点，利用MATLAB强大的信号处理功能，结合傅里叶变换、傅里叶级数、卷积定理的内容，通过MATLAB程序设计实现傅里叶变换中各种运算的直观演示。通过MATLAB编程加深对信号时域和频域概念、分析方法的理解。
Quantization maps, algebra representation, and non-commutative Fourier transform for Lie groups
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guedes, Carlos; Oriti, Daniele [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Am Mühlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Raasakka, Matti [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Am Mühlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); LIPN, Institut Galilée, Université Paris-Nord, 99, av. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)
2013-08-15
The phase space given by the cotangent bundle of a Lie group appears in the context of several models for physical systems. A representation for the quantum system in terms of non-commutative functions on the (dual) Lie algebra, and a generalized notion of (non-commutative) Fourier transform, different from standard harmonic analysis, has been recently developed, and found several applications, especially in the quantum gravity literature. We show that this algebra representation can be defined on the sole basis of a quantization map of the classical Poisson algebra, and identify the conditions for its existence. In particular, the corresponding non-commutative star-product carried by this representation is obtained directly from the quantization map via deformation quantization. We then clarify under which conditions a unitary intertwiner between such algebra representation and the usual group representation can be constructed giving rise to the non-commutative plane waves and consequently, the non-commutative Fourier transform. The compact groups U(1) and SU(2) are considered for different choices of quantization maps, such as the symmetric and the Duflo map, and we exhibit the corresponding star-products, algebra representations, and non-commutative plane waves.
Lu, Wenlong; Xie, Junwei; Wang, Heming; Sheng, Chuan
2016-01-01
Inspired by track-before-detection technology in radar, a novel time-frequency transform, namely polynomial chirping Fourier transform (PCFT), is exploited to extract components from noisy multicomponent signal. The PCFT combines advantages of Fourier transform and polynomial chirplet transform to accumulate component energy along a polynomial chirping curve in the time-frequency plane. The particle swarm optimization algorithm is employed to search optimal polynomial parameters with which the PCFT will achieve a most concentrated energy ridge in the time-frequency plane for the target component. The component can be well separated in the polynomial chirping Fourier domain with a narrow-band filter and then reconstructed by inverse PCFT. Furthermore, an iterative procedure, involving parameter estimation, PCFT, filtering and recovery, is introduced to extract components from a noisy multicomponent signal successively. The Simulations and experiments show that the proposed method has better performance in component extraction from noisy multicomponent signal as well as provides more time-frequency details about the analyzed signal than conventional methods.
Hewagama, TIlak; Aslam, Shahid; Talabac, Stephen; Allen, John E., Jr.; Annen, John N.; Jennings, Donald E.
2011-01-01
Fourier transform spectrometers have a venerable heritage as flight instruments. However, obtaining an accurate spectrum exacts a penalty in instrument mass and power requirements. Recent advances in a broad class of non-scanning Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) devices, generally called spatial heterodyne spectrometers, offer distinct advantages as flight optimized systems. We are developing a miniaturized system that employs photonics lightwave circuit principles and functions as an FTS operating in the 7-14 micrometer spectral region. The inteferogram is constructed from an ensemble of Mach-Zehnder interferometers with path length differences calibrated to mimic scan mirror sample positions of a classic Michelson type FTS. One potential long-term application of this technology in low cost planetary missions is the concept of a self-contained sensor system. We are developing a systems architecture concept for wide area in situ and remote monitoring of characteristic properties that are of scientific interest. The system will be based on wavelength- and resolution-independent spectroscopic sensors for studying atmospheric and surface chemistry, physics, and mineralogy. The self-contained sensor network is based on our concept of an Addressable Photonics Cube (APC) which has real-time flexibility and broad science applications. It is envisaged that a spatially distributed autonomous sensor web concept that integrates multiple APCs will be reactive and dynamically driven. The network is designed to respond in an event- or model-driven manner or reconfigured as needed.
Huang, Anmin; Zhou, Qun; Liu, Junliang; Fei, Benhua; Sun, Suqin
2008-07-01
Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen, Pterocarpus santalinus L.F. and Pterocarpus soyauxii are three kinds of the most valuable wood species, which are hard to distinguish. In this paper, differentiation of D. odorifera, P. santalinus and P. soyauxii was carried out by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), second derivative IR spectra and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy. The three woods have their characteristic peaks in conventional IR spectra. For example, D. odorifera has obvious absorption peaks at 1640 and 1612 cm -1; P. santalinus has only one peak at 1614 cm -1; and P. soyauxii has one peak at 1619 cm -1 and one shoulder peak at 1597 cm -1. To enhance spectrum resolution and amplify the differences between the IR spectra of different woods, the second derivative technology was adopted to examine the three wood samples. More differences could be observed in the region of 800-1700 cm -1. Then, the thermal perturbation is applied to distinguish different wood samples in an easier way, because of the spectral resolution being enhanced by the 2D correlation spectroscopy. In the region of 1300-1800 cm -1, D. odorifera has five auto-peaks at 1518, 1575, 1594, 1620 and 1667 cm -1; P. santalinus has four auto-peaks at 1469, 1518, 1627 and 1639 cm -1 and P. soyauxii has only two auto-peaks at 1627 and 1639 cm -1. It is proved that the 2D correlation IR spectroscopy can be a new method to distinguish D. odorifera, P. santalinus and P. soyauxii.
Chen, Li; Yap, Yee Leng
2008-01-01
This study describes a new algorithm for charge state determination of complex isotope-resolved mass spectra. This algorithm is based on peak-target Fourier transform (PTFT) of isotope packets. It is modified from the widely used Fourier transform method because Fourier transform may give ambiguous charge state assignment for low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) or overlapping isotopic clusters. The PTFT algorithm applies a novel "folding" strategy to enhance peaks that are symmetrically spaced about the targeted peak before applying the FT. The "folding" strategy multiplies each point to the high-m/z side of the targeted peak by its counterpart on the low-m/z side. A Fourier transform of this "folded" spectrum is thus simplified, emphasizing the charge state of the "chosen" ion, whereas ions of other charge states contribute less to the transformed data. An intensity-dependent technique is also proposed for charge state determination from frequency signals. The performance of PTFT is demonstrated using experimental electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectra. The results show that PTFT is robust for charge state determination of low S/N and overlapping isotopic clusters, and also useful for manual verification of potential hidden isotopic clusters that may be missed by the current analysis algorithms, i.e., AID-MS or THRASH.
Zhang, Mingjing; Wen, Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Min; Lu, Hongmei; Liang, Yizeng; Zhan, Dejian
2015-03-01
Retention time shift is one of the most challenging problems during the preprocessing of massive chromatographic datasets. Here, an improved version of the moving window fast Fourier transform cross-correlation algorithm is presented to perform nonlinear and robust alignment of chromatograms by analyzing the shifts matrix generated by moving window procedure. The shifts matrix in retention time can be estimated by fast Fourier transform cross-correlation with a moving window procedure. The refined shift of each scan point can be obtained by calculating the mode of corresponding column of the shifts matrix. This version is simple, but more effective and robust than the previously published moving window fast Fourier transform cross-correlation method. It can handle nonlinear retention time shift robustly if proper window size has been selected. The window size is the only one parameter needed to adjust and optimize. The properties of the proposed method are investigated by comparison with the previous moving window fast Fourier transform cross-correlation and recursive alignment by fast Fourier transform using chromatographic datasets. The pattern recognition results of a gas chromatography mass spectrometry dataset of metabolic syndrome can be improved significantly after preprocessing by this method. Furthermore, the proposed method is available as an open source package at https://github.com/zmzhang/MWFFT2.
A Static Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (SIFTS) for infrared remote sensing
Mortimer, Hugh; Hussain, Ali
2017-04-01
A Static Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer, SIFTS, has been developed for hyperspectral remote sensing in the infrared. The compact instrument has no moving components and so is insensitive to vibration. It has been optimised for operation from the Near (3 microns) to Mid Infrared (15 microns) through the use of an uncooled, wideband microbolometer detector array. The resolution across this spectral range has been shown to be 8cm-1. This instrument is inherently imaging, whereby spectral information is recorded along the of the detector array whilst imaging information is recorded down the column of the detector array. The Connes advantage, inherent to the Michelson spectrometer Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), whereby the spectral wavelength accuracy is referenced to a stabilised laser has also been demonstrated in the SIFTS instrument. This has been implemented through the use of an expanded internal laser diode with Distributed Bragg Reflector (DFB) which acts as the calibration source used to maintain the wavelength stability of the SIFTS instrument. As there are no moving components, the instrument is compact, light and insensitive to mechanical vibration, additionally the speed of measurement is determined by the frame rate of the detector array. Thus, this instrument has a temporal advantage over common Michelson FTIR instruments. The novel optical design has reduced the optics to only 3 optical components, and the detector array, to generate and measure the interferogram. The experimental performance of the SIFTS instrument is demonstrated in measurements against theoretical and The technique is based on a static optical configuration whereby light is split into two paths and made to recombine along a focal plane producing an interference pattern. The spectral information is returned using a detector array to digitally capture the interferogram which can then be processed into a spectrum by applying a Fourier transform. As there are no moving