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Sample records for amplicor hiv-i monitortju

  1. COBAS AMPLICOR: fully automated RNA and DNA amplification and detection system for routine diagnostic PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDomenico, N; Link, H; Knobel, R; Caratsch, T; Weschler, W; Loewy, Z G; Rosenstraus, M

    1996-12-01

    The COBAS AMPLICOR system automates amplification and detection of target nucleic acids, making diagnostic PCR routine for a variety of infectious diseases. The system contains a single thermal cycler with two independently regulated heating/cooling blocks, an incubator, a magnetic particle washer, a pipettor, and a photometer. Amplified products are captured on oligonucleotide-coated paramagnetic microparticles and detected with use of an avidin-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugate. Concentrated solutions of amplicon or HRP were pipetted without detectable carryover. Amplified DNA was detected with an intraassay CV of < 4.5%; the combined intraassay CV for amplification and detection was < 15%. No cross-reactivity was observed when three different target nucleic acids were amplified in a single reaction and detected with three target-specific capture probes. The initial COBAS AMPLICOR menu includes qualitative tests for diagnosing infections with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and hepatitis C virus. All tests include an optional Internal Control to provide assurance that specimens are successfully amplified and detected.

  2. Comparison of the Becton Dickinson strand displacement amplification and Cobas Amplicor Roche PCR for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis: pooling versus individual tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, D; Angelsø, Lene; Schirakow, Bente

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the influence of pooling Chlamydia trachomatis specimens. We compared Becton Dickinson ProbeTec strand displacement amplification (SDA) with Cobas Amplicor Roche (PCR). With PCR as the standard, SDA performed equally well in single-sample testing. For poo......The objective of the study was to examine the influence of pooling Chlamydia trachomatis specimens. We compared Becton Dickinson ProbeTec strand displacement amplification (SDA) with Cobas Amplicor Roche (PCR). With PCR as the standard, SDA performed equally well in single-sample testing...

  3. Comparison of COBAS AMPLICOR Neissefia gonorrhoeae PCR, including confirmation with N-gonorrhoeae-specific 16S rRNA PCR, with traditional culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijt, DS; Bos, PAJ; van Zwet, AA; Vader, PCV; Schirm, J

    A total of 3,023 clinical specimens were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae by using COBAS AMPLICOR (CA) PCR and confirmation of positives by N. gonorrhoeae-specific 16S rRNA PCR. The sensitivity of CA plus 16S rRNA PCR was 98.8%, compared to 68.2% for culture. Confirmation of CA positives increased

  4. CD4+ T-Lymphocytes and HIV-I Patients in Ahmadu Bello University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel investigation was undertaken to determine CD4 T-lymphocyte profile of newly diagnosed HIV-I patients in Kaduna centre. There were (80) Eighty patients and (20) twenty controls. The studied HIV-I patients were males (38) and females (42). Female more than males P<0.05 not statistically significant. The minimum ...

  5. Viral release from HIV-I-induced syncytia of CD4+ C8166 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J R; Kitchen, A D; Harrison, J F; Tovey, G

    1989-06-01

    Infection of the permissive C8166 CD4+ lymphoid cell line with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-I rapidly leads to syncytium formation. Ultrastructural features of medium-sized (40 to 60 microns) syncytia and larger syncytia are presented, with emphasis upon HIV-I release from the syncytial surface and into intrasyncytial vacuoles. Although surface release of HIV-I is shown to diminish with increasing syncytial size, it does not totally stop. Massive HIV-I release and entrapment within intrasyncytial vacuoles is clearly apparent within the "foamy" multivacuolated zones within medium and large syncytia. Numerous multicored aberrant viruses are routinely detected within the intrasyncytial vacuoles, and double-budding events likewise are readily detectable at the vacuolar membranes, but less so at the syncytial surface. It is suggested that this observation may be a reflection of the more restricted availability of vacuolar membrane area for excessive viral budding as compared with that at the syncytial surface.

  6. Comparison of the Cobas 4800 Human Papillomavirus test against a combination of the Amplicor Human Papillomavirus and the Linear Array tests for detection of HPV types 16 and 18 in cervical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Samuel Bernal; Palomares, José Carlos; Artura, Antonio; Parra, Manuel; Cabezas, Jose Luis; Romo, Jose Ma; Martín-Mazuelos, Estrella

    2012-03-01

    The greater prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 compared to the other high-risk HPV types of cervical cancer led to the development of clinical tests that detect both types separately from other genotypes. One method is the Roche Cobas 4800 HPV test, which is based on a real-time PCR. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Cobas 4800 HPV test for detecting genotypes 16 and 18 by comparing the results with those obtained in a combination of the Roche Amplicor HPV assay and the Roche Linear Array (LA) HPV genotyping assay. Excellent concordance was found between both methods (92.7%, kappa value=0.872). The Cobas 4800 HPV test could be used as a single test for identifying HPV types 16 and 18 directly from clinical specimens. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the NucliSens EasyQ v2.0 assay in comparison with the Roche Amplicor v1.5 and the Roche CAP/CTM HIV-1 Test v2.0 in quantification of C-clade HIV-1 in plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Muenchhoff

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 genetic diversity poses a challenge to reliable viral load monitoring. Discrepancies between different testing platforms have been observed, especially for non-clade-B virus. Therefore we compare, in antiretroviral therapy (ART-naïve South African subjects predominantly infected with HIV-1 clade-C, three commercially available assays: the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Test version 2.0 by Roche (CAP/CTM v2.0, the BioMérieux NucliSens Version 2.0 Easy Q/Easy Mag (NucliSens v2.0 and the Roche COBAS Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor Test Version 1.5 (Amplicor v1.5. Strong linear correlation was observed and Bland-Altman analyses showed overall good agreement between the assays with mean viral load differences of 0.078 log cp/ml (NucliSens v2.0 - Amplicor v1.5, 0.260 log cp/ml (CAP/CTM v2.0 - Amplicor v1.5 and 0.164 log cp/ml (CAP/CTM v2.0 - NucliSens v2.0, indicating lower mean viral load results for the Amplicor v1.5 and higher mean readings for the CAP/CTM v2.0. Consistent with observations following previous comparisons of CAP/CTM v2.0 versus Amplicor v1.5, the CAP/CTM v2.0 assay detected low-level viremia (median 65 cp/ml in more than one-third of those in whom viremia had been undetectable (<20 cp/ml in assays using the NucliSens platform. These levels of viremia are of uncertain clinical significance but may be of importance in early detection of ART resistance in those on treatment. Overall the three assays showed good comparability of results but with consistent, albeit relatively small, discrepancies for HIV-1 clade-C samples, especially in the low-viremic range that should be taken into account when interpreting viral load data.

  8. Comparison of the Roche COBAS Amplicor Monitor, Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS Taqman and Abbott RealTime Test assays for quantification of hepatitis C virus and HIV RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Dietmar; Gerritzen, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    We have evaluated the performance of two newly developed automated real-time PCR assays, the COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan (CAP/CTM) and the Abbott RealTime tests, in the quantification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA. The widely used semi-automated COBAS Amplicor Monitor (CAM) assay served as the reference test. Several specimens were analyzed, including 102 plasma samples from HCV patients and 109 from HIV patients and 10 samples from negative donors, as well as Quality Control in Molecular Diagnostics (QCMD) and National Institute for Biological Standards and Controls (NIBSC) proficiency program panels. Good correlation was observed among the three assays, with correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.8 (CAM-CAP/CTM), 0.89 (CAM-RealTime) and 0.91 (CAP/CTM-RealTime) for HCV and 0.83 (CAM-RealTime), 0.85 (CAM-CAP/CTM) and 0.89 (CAP/CTM-RealTime) for HIV. The overall concordance for negative/positive results was 100% for HCV and 98% for HIV. All assays were equally able to quantify HCV genotypes 1, 3, 5 and HIV group M (subtypes A-H) and N from QCMD and NIBSC panels. In terms of workflow, the RealTime assay requires more hands-on-time than the CAP/CTM assay. The results indicate that real-time PCR assays can improve the efficiency of end-point PCR tests by better covering viral dynamic ranges and providing higher throughput and automation.

  9. Anti-HIV I/II activity and molecular cloning of a novel mannose/sialic acid-binding lectin from rhizome of Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jie; Liu, Jin-Zhi; Wu, Chuan-Fang; Li, Jian; Dai, Lei; Van Damme, Els; Balzarini, Jan; De Clercq, Erik; Chen, Fang; Bao, Jin-Ku

    2006-02-01

    The anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) I/II activity of a mannose and sialic acid binding lectin isolated from rhizomes of Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua was elucidated by comparing its HIV infection inhibitory activity in MT-4 and CEM cells with that of other mannose-binding lectins (MBLs). The anti-HIV activity of Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua lectin (PCL) was 10- to 100-fold more potent than other tested MBLs, but without significant cytotoxicity towards MT-4 or CEM cells. To amplify cDNA of PCL by 3'/5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), the 30 amino acids of N-terminal were determined by sequencing and the degenerate oligonucleotide primers were designed. The full-length cDNA of PCL contained 693 bp with an open reading frame encoding a precursor protein of 160 amino acid residues, consisting of a 28-residue signal peptide, a 22-residue C-terminal cleavage peptide and a 110-residue mature polypeptide which contained three tandemly arranged subdomains with an obvious sequence homology to the monocot MBL. However, only one active mannose-binding site (QDNVY) was found in subdomain I of PCL, that of subdomain II and III changed to HNNVY and PDNVY, respectively. There was no intron in PCL, which was in good agreement with other monocot MBLs. Molecular modeling of PCL indicated that its three-dimensional structure resembles that of the snowdrop agglutinin. By docking, an active sialic acid-binding site was found in PCL. The instabilization of translation initiation region (TIR) in mRNA of PCL benefits its high expression in rhizomes.

  10. Vertikal smitte med hiv i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvinesdal, Birgit Bak; Valerius, Niels Henrik; Herlin, Troels

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Vertical transmission of HIV can be reduced if the pregnant woman and new born child receive antiretroviral treatment. Delivery by caesarean section and avoidance of breast feeding further reduce vertical transmission. The aim of this study was to describe the treatment of HIV......-positive pregnant women in Denmark and the risk of vertical transmission. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively describe the risk of vertical transmission of HIV among HIV-positive women giving birth in Denmark during the period, mid-1994 to February 2000. RESULTS: Fifty children were born. One mother gave birth...... mothers was the HIV-infection known until the time of delivery or later. Transmission of HIV did not occur in the 34 mother-child pairs who received antepartum and intrapartum antiretroviral treatment, who had a caesarean delivery, who did not breast-feed, and whose children were given postpartum...

  11. Comparative evaluation of Amplicor HIV-1 DNA test, version 1.5, by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test using venous blood sample has been used for many years in low resource settings for early infant diagnosis of HIV infection in children less than 18 months. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the performance characteristics of ...

  12. Complementary Factors Contributing To The Rapid Spread Of HIV-I ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To examine and establish complementary factors that contribute to the alarmingly high prevalence of HIV-1 in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in order to create awareness and suggest possible measures to avert the spread of the pandemic. Data sources: Review of literature via Medline, the Internet, articles in refereed ...

  13. Complement and HIV-I infection/ HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengming; Dai, Shen; Gordon, Jennifer; Qin, Xuebin

    2014-01-01

    The various neurological complications associated with HIV-1 infection, specifically HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) persist as a major public health burden worldwide. Despite the widespread use of anti-retroviral therapy, the prevalence of HAND is significantly high. HAND results from the direct effects of an HIV-1 infection as well as secondary effects of HIV-1-induced immune reaction and inflammatory response. Complement, a critical mediator of innate and acquired immunity, plays important roles in defeating many viral infections by the formation of a lytic pore or indirectly by opsonization and recruitment of phagocytes. While the role of complement in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection and HAND has been previously recognized for over fifteen years, it has been largely underestimated thus far. Complement can be activated through HIV-1 envelope proteins, mannose binding lectins (MBL) and anti-HIV-1 antibodies. Complement not only fights against HIV-1 infection but also enhances HIV-1 infection. Also, HIV-1 can hijack complement regulators such as CD59 and CD55 and can utilize these regulators and factor H to escape from complement attack. Normally, complement levels in brain are much lower than plasma levels and there is no or little complement deposition in brain cells. Interestingly, local production and deposition of complement are dramatically increased in HIV-1-infected brain, indicating that complement may contribute to the pathogenesis of HAND. Here, we review the current understanding of the role of complement in HIV-1 infection and HAND as well as potential therapeutic approaches targeting to the complement system for the treatment and eradications of HIV-1 infection. PMID:24639397

  14. Comparison of two commercial assays for detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical scrape specimens: validation of the Roche AMPLICOR HPV test as a means to screen for HPV genotypes associated with a higher risk of cervical disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, M.A.P.C. van; Bakkers, J.M.J.E.; Harbers, G.; Quint, W.G.V.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Melchers, W.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Certain high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) types are a necessary cause for the development of cervical disorders. Women with persistent HR HPV infections have an increased risk of developing high-grade cervical lesions, compared with those who have no or low-risk HPV infections. Therefore,

  15. Subtle evolutionary changes in the distribution of N-glycosylation sequons in the HIV-I envelope glycoprotein 120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, R Shyama Prasad; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    in the recent past, even slight changes in the distribution of sequons may potentially play crucial roles in protein interaction and viral infection. This study tracked the prevalence and distribution of NXS/T sequons in gp120 over a period of 29 years (from 1981 to 2009). The gp120 showed location specific...... domain. Related changes were also seen in the distribution probabilities of sequons in two domains. The results indicate that the gp120, chiefly in subtype B, is redistributing NXS/T sequons within the molecule with specific selection for NXS sequons. The subtle evolution of sequons in gp120 may have...

  16. Complementary factors contributing to the rapid spread of HIV-I in sub-Saharan Africa: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyindo, M

    2005-01-01

    To examine and establish complementary factors that contribute to the alarmingly high prevalence of HIV-1 in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in order to create awareness and suggest possible measures to avert the spread of the pandemic. Review of literature via Medline, the Internet, articles in refereed journals, and un-refereed features from the East Africa media houses and personal communications. Most published data from 1981 to September 2004 found to have revealed an impact on the spread of HIV-1 in SSA were included in the review. Therefore, all selected articles were read and critically evaluated. Where possible the number of citations articles which had been received were sought to established the degree of impact. Abstracts of all articles identified were accessed, read and analysed to determined possible relevance to the spread of HIV-1. When relevance was established from the abstract the entire paper was read and important points were included in the review. A matrix was drawn to include all subtitles (e.g. polygamy, circumcision, poverty, etc). Below each subtitle all published works were included and prioritised. Published works that were found to have impact were included in the review. Finally a percent composite picture of all factors was drawn in an attempt to prioritise the factors, not withstanding the fact that most factors are interrelated and complementary. There are many reasons why the spread of HIV-1 in SSA has not been declining over the years. Main risk factors for HIV-1 infection and AIDS disease in SSA were found to include poverty, famine, low status of women in society, corruption, naive risk taking perception, resistance to sexual behaviour change, high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI), internal conflicts and refugee status, antiquated beliefs, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance of individual's HIV status, child and adult prostitution, uncertainty of safety of blood intended for transfusion, widow inheritance, circumcision, illiteracy and female genital cutting and polygamy. It is suggested that control programmes both local and donor-driven seeking to mitigate the spread of HIV-1 in SSA should take into account the apparent multiplicity of sub-Saharan African cultures and beliefs, some of which augment the spread of HIV-1.

  17. HIV-i võib nakatunud olla iga sajas täiskasvanud eestlane / Marika Raiski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raiski, Marika

    2005-01-01

    Vt. ka Nädaline 27. sept., lk. 7. Vastavalt Maailma Terviseorganisatsiooni (WHO) ja UNAIDS-i hinnangule on Eestis hulgaliselt registreerimata HIV-juhte ning tegelikult võib HIV-nakatunuid olla juba iga sajas täiskasvanud Eesti elanik

  18. Potent functional antibody responses elicited by HIV-I DNA priming and boosting with heterologous HIV-1 recombinant MVA in healthy Tanzanian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agricola Joachim

    Full Text Available Vaccine-induced HIV antibodies were evaluated in serum samples collected from healthy Tanzanian volunteers participating in a phase I/II placebo-controlled double blind trial using multi-clade, multigene HIV-DNA priming and recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (HIV-MVA virus boosting (HIVIS03. The HIV-DNA vaccine contained plasmids expressing HIV-1 gp160 subtypes A, B, C, Rev B, Gag A, B and RTmut B, and the recombinant HIV-MVA boost expressed CRF01_AE HIV-1 Env subtype E and Gag-Pol subtype A. While no neutralizing antibodies were detected using pseudoviruses in the TZM-bl cell assay, this prime-boost vaccination induced neutralizing antibodies in 83% of HIVIS03 vaccinees when a peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC assay using luciferase reporter-infectious molecular clones (LucR-IMC was employed. The serum neutralizing activity was significantly (but not completely reduced upon depletion of natural killer (NK cells from PBMC (p=0.006, indicating a role for antibody-mediated Fcγ-receptor function. High levels of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC-mediating antibodies against CRF01_AE and/or subtype B were subsequently demonstrated in 97% of the sera of vaccinees. The magnitude of ADCC-mediating antibodies against CM235 CRF01_AE IMC-infected cells correlated with neutralizing antibodies against CM235 in the IMC/PBMC assay. In conclusion, HIV-DNA priming, followed by two HIV-MVA boosts elicited potent ADCC responses in a high proportion of Tanzanian vaccinees. Our findings highlight the potential of HIV-DNA prime HIV-MVA boost vaccines for induction of functional antibody responses and suggest this vaccine regimen and ADCC studies as potentially important new avenues in HIV vaccine development.Controlled-Trials ISRCTN90053831 The Pan African Clinical Trials Registry ATMR2009040001075080 (currently PACTR2009040001075080.

  19. Prevention of perinatal HIV I transmission by protease inhibitor based triple drug antiretroviral therapy versus nevirapine as single dose at the time of delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendle, Meenakshi; Bajpai, Smrati; Choudhary, Ashwini; Pazare, Amar

    2012-12-01

    In India, parent to child transmission is the most important source of HIV infection in children below fifteen years of age. Transmission of HIV from mother to child can occur even at low or undetectable HIV virus levels. CD4 count or HIV RNA levels should not be the determining factor when deciding whether to use antiretroviral drugs for prevention of perinatal transmission of HIV. Use of single dose nevirapine during labour, in prevention of parent to child transmission (PPTCT) programme for pregnant females with CD4 count > 250 cells/cumm has less efficacy in reducing perinatal transmission. And there are high chances of development of nevirapine resistance to both mother and baby after single dose nevirapine exposure. Short course Protease inhibitor(PI) based triple drug combination ART from 28 weeks till delivery for perinatal prophylaxis is effective in reducing perinatal HIV transmission. PI's are safe in pregnancy and also have less chances of development of resistance when used for perinatal prophylaxis and stopped post delivery.Hence, it is opined that PI based combination ART should be offered to pregnant females in PPTCT programme, thereby preventing occurrence of paediatric HIV infection in India. This can have significant impact on the society at large.

  20. Performance of the new Bayer VERSANT HCV RNA 3.0 assay for quantitation of hepatitis C virus RNA in plasma and serum: Conversion to international units and comparison with the Roche COBAS amplicor HCV monitor, version 2.0, assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beld, Marcel; Sentjens, Roel; Rebers, Sjoerd; Weegink, Christine; Weel, Jan; Sol, Cees; Boom, René

    2002-01-01

    We have evaluated the VERSANT HCV RNA 3.0. Assay (HCV 3.0 bDNA assay) (Bayer Diagnostics, Berkeley, Calif.), which is an improved signal amplification procedure for the HCV 2.0 bDNA assay for the quantitation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in serum or plasma of HCV-infected individuals. The HCV 3.0

  1. Detection of genetically diverse human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M and O isolates by PCR.

    OpenAIRE

    Respess, R A; Butcher, A; Wang, H; Chaowanachan, T; Young, N; Shaffer, N; Mastro, T D; Biryahwaho, B; Downing, R; Tanuri, A; Schechter, M; Pascu, R; Zekeng, L; Kaptué, L; Gürtler, L

    1997-01-01

    A panel of 136 genetically diverse group M and 5 group O adult isolates from outside the United States and Europe were evaluated by PCR with the Roche AMPLICOR HIV-1 test, a modified version of the AMPLICOR HIV-1 test, and a new primer pair/probe system. Detection of some of these isolates was less efficient with the AMPLICOR HIV-1 test; however, the assay was significantly improved by reducing the sample input and lowering the annealing temperature. The new primer pair/probe set detected 140...

  2. Benefit of Hepatitis C Virus Core Antigen Assay in Prediction of Therapeutic Response to Interferon and Ribavirin Combination Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Masahiko; Saito, Hidetsugu; Higashimoto, Makiko; Atsukawa, Kazuhiro; Ishii, Hiromasa

    2005-01-01

    A highly sensitive second-generation hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen assay has recently been developed. We compared viral disappearance and first-phase kinetics between commercially available core antigen (Ag) assays, Lumipulse Ortho HCV Ag (Lumipulse-Ag), and a quantitative HCV RNA PCR assay, Cobas Amplicor HCV Monitor test, version 2 (Amplicor M), to estimate the predictive benefit of a sustained viral response (SVR) and non-SVR in 44 genotype 1b patients treated with interferon (IFN) ...

  3. Effects of escin on indinavir crystallization time in the urine of patients with HIV-I infection: a multicenter, randomized, open-label, controlled, four-period crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Felix; García-González, Ramón; Redondo, Enrique; Costa-Bauzá, Antonia; Simonet, Bartolomé M; Sartini, Raquel P; Bassa, Antoni; Gallegos, Carmen; Payeras, Antoni; Saro, Dulce; Martinez, Ana-Isabel; Cifuentes, Carmen; Homar, Francisco; Murillo, José A; Fernández, Cristina; Riera, Melchor; Conte, Antonio

    2004-12-01

    The combination of indinavir, a protease inhibitor, and reverse-transcriptase inhibitors is widely used in the treatment of HIV-1 infection. However, precipitation of indinavir crystals in the renal tubular lumen due to the drug's aqueous insolubility may result in characteristic symptoms of flank pain or classic renal colic. An in vitro study has shown that addition of escin to synthetic urine containing indinavir delayed the crystallization time of indinavir. This study examined the efficacy and tolerability of the addition of escin to highly active antiretroviral therapy containing indinavir to delay the crystallization time of indinavir in urine. This was a multicenter, randomized, open-label, controlled, 4-period crossover trial in which each period lasted 4 weeks. HIV-1-infected adults receiving treatment with indinavir plus 2 nucleoside analogue reverse-transcriptase inhibitors in whom plasma viral loads had been undetectable (HIV-1 RNA escin. Group I received escin during the second and third treatment periods, and group II received escin during the first and fourth treatment periods. The primary end point was the in vitro crystallization time of indinavir in 24-hour urine specimens, determined at the end of each 4-week period. Tolerability was assessed based on the number of patients with a rebound in plasma viral load and on the numbers of clinically and biologically relevant adverse events (including those requiring discontinuation of treatment). Clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed throughout each 4-week period. Fifty HIV-1-infected patients were enrolled, 47 were randomized to treatment (40 [85.1%] men, 7 [14.9%] women; median [interquartile range] age, 36 [34-45] years), and 30 completed the study. Urine pH and plasma and urine indinavir concentrations were unaffected by the addition of escin to antiretroviral treatment. The mean time to the onset of crystallization was 14.7 minutes with escin (95% Cl, 11.8-17.5) and 9.9 minutes without it (95% Cl, 6.7-13.1). Therefore, the addition of escin increased the mean crystallization time by 5.5 minutes (95% Cl, 1.5-9.5; P = 0.008), representing the overall capacity of study treatment to inhibit indinavir crystallization in the urine. Three of 47 patients had mild gastrointestinal symptoms associated with escin treatment. No episodes of nephrolithiasis were recorded during the study or after the completion of study treatment. The results of this prospective clinical trial of the effect of escin on indinavir crystallization time support the possibility that indinavir-associated nephrolithiasis may be prevented by means other than overhydration. Further research is needed in greater numbers of patients over longer follow-up times.

  4. Real-time PCR assays for hepatitis C virus RNA (genotype 1) is useful for evaluating virological response to the treatment with peginterferon-alpha2b and ribavirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Mika; Enomoto, Masaru; Fujii, Hideki; Kobayashi, Sawako; Iwai, Shuji; Morikawa, Hiroyasu; Tamori, Akihiro; Sakaguchi, Hiroki; Kawada, Norifumi

    2013-12-01

    The real-time PCR, such as Abbott RealTime assay, have replaced end-point PCR, such as Amplicor assays, for the measurement of HCV RNA. However, 'response-guided therapy' to use on-treatment response for tailoring the duration of treatment with peginterferon-alpha and ribavirin has not been fully evaluated for real-time PCR. 43 patients with HCV genotype 1 (24 who had complete early virological responses (cEVR) on Amplicor assay and received 48-week therapy, and 19 who had late virological responses (LVR) and received 72-week therapy) were recruited. Using a RealTime assay, we retrospectively measured HCV RNA in stored sera. In 10 samples obtained during therapy, HCV RNA was undetectable on the Amplicor assay, but detectable on the RealTime assay. Among patients with cEVR on the Amplicor assay, those with detectable HCV RNA on the RealTime assay at week 12 were less likely to have a sustained virological response (SVR) than those without (2/4 vs 17/20, p = 0.116). Among patients with LVR on the Amplicor assay, those with HCV RNA detectable on the RealTime assay at week 24 were significantly less likely to have SVR than those without (1/4 vs 12/15, p = 0.041). The RealTime assay may be useful for tailoring duration of treatment for the patient with HCV genotype 1.

  5. Evaluation of an HIV/AIDS peer education programme in a South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To evaluate a South African workplace HIV I AIDS peer-education programme running since 1997. Methods. In 2001 a cross-sectional study was done of 900 retail-section employees in three geographical areas. The study measured HIV I AIDS knowledge, attitudes towards people living with HIV I AIDS, belief ...

  6. [Diagnosis of chlamydia trachomatis infections in women: urinary PCR compared to cervical culture and PCR on cervical swabs in high risk females.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsson, J H; Davidsson, S; Karlsson, S M; Palsdottir, R; Steingrimsson, O

    1995-07-01

    Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women has traditionally depended on cell culture or enzyme linked immunoassay. Recently Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) has been shown to be more sensitive than these methods when performed on endocervical swabs. A total of 203 high risk females were enrolled in a comparative study of three methods for diagnosing C. trachomatis infections: McCoy cell culture and Amplicor(R) PCR on endocervical swabs and urine. Thirty four had positive cultures, 38 positive PCR from cervix and 37 had positive PCR on urine specimens. When discrepancy occurred, the leftover Amplicor(R) specimen was retested by Roche with Amplicor(R) and a primer for the Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) gene. None was false positive in cell culture or in urinary PCR but two were false positive in cervical PCR. In all three tests, 32 were positive. The sensitivity of culture was 87%, 92% in cervical PCR and 95% in urinary PCR. The specificity was 100% in both culture and urinary PCR but 98% in cervical PCR. The results show that Amplicor(R) PCR performed on female urine is more sensitive and as specific as cell culture.

  7. Combination therapy containing ritonavir plus saquinavir has superior short-term antiretroviral efficacy: a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, O; Katzenstein, T L; Gerstoft, J

    1999-01-01

    trial. Two hundred and eighty-four patients started randomized treatment. The primary end-point was the proportion of patients with HIV RNA of 200 copies/ml or less (Roche Amplicor) and HIV RNA of 20 copies/ml or less (Roche ultradirect assay) at 6 months. Analysis was performed as intent...

  8. Multicenter evaluation of the new Abbott RealTime assays for quantitative detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and hepatitis C virus RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, M.; Peters, D.; Back, N. K. T.; Beld, M.; Beuselinck, K.; Foulongne, V.; Geretti, A.-M.; Pandiani, L.; Tiemann, C.; Niesters, H. G. M.

    2007-01-01

    The analytical performances of the new Abbott RealTime hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load assays were compared at nine laboratories with different competitor assays. These included the Abbott LcX, Bayer Versant bDNA, Roche COBAS Amplicor, and Roche COBAS

  9. Multicenter evaluation of the new Abbott RealTime assays for quantitative detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and hepatitis C virus RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Martin; Peters, D; Back, N K T; Beld, M; Beuselinck, K; Foulongne, V; Geretti, A-M; Pandiani, L; Tiemann, C; Niesters, H G M

    The analytical performances of the new Abbott RealTime hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load assays were compared at nine laboratories with different competitor assays. These included the Abbott LcX, Bayer Versant bDNA, Roche COBAS Amplicor, and Roche COBAS

  10. Benefit of hepatitis C virus core antigen assay in prediction of therapeutic response to interferon and ribavirin combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masahiko; Saito, Hidetsugu; Higashimoto, Makiko; Atsukawa, Kazuhiro; Ishii, Hiromasa

    2005-01-01

    A highly sensitive second-generation hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen assay has recently been developed. We compared viral disappearance and first-phase kinetics between commercially available core antigen (Ag) assays, Lumipulse Ortho HCV Ag (Lumipulse-Ag), and a quantitative HCV RNA PCR assay, Cobas Amplicor HCV Monitor test, version 2 (Amplicor M), to estimate the predictive benefit of a sustained viral response (SVR) and non-SVR in 44 genotype 1b patients treated with interferon (IFN) and ribavirin. HCV core Ag negativity could predict SVR on day 1 (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 85.0%, accuracy = 86.4%), whereas RNA negativity could predict SVR on day 7 (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 87.2%, accuracy = 88.6%). None of the patients who had detectable serum core Ag or RNA on day 14 achieved SVR (specificity = 100%). The predictive accuracy on day 14 was higher by RNA negativity (93.2%) than that by core Ag negativity (75.0%). The combined predictive criterion of both viral load decline during the first 24 h and basal viral load was also predictive for SVR; the sensitivities of Lumipulse-Ag and Amplicor-M were 45.5 and 47.6%, respectively, and the specificity was 100%. Amplicor-M had better predictive accuracy than Lumipulse-Ag in 2-week disappearance tests because it had better sensitivity. On the other hand, estimates of kinetic parameters were similar regardless of the detection method. Although the correlations between Lumipulse-Ag and Amplicor-M were good both before and 24 h after IFN administration, HCV core Ag seemed to be relatively lower 24 h after IFN administration than before administration. Lumipulse-Ag seems to be useful for detecting the HCV concentration during IFN therapy; however, we still need to understand the characteristics of the assay.

  11. Usefulness of in-house PCR methods for hepatitis B virus DNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilho, Moyra Machado; Baptista, Marcia Leite; da Silva, Messias; de Sousa, Paulo Sérgio Fonseca; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia Laura; Lampe, Elisabeth; Villar, Livia Melo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of three in-house PCR techniques for HBV DNA detection and compare it with commercial quantitative methods to evaluate the usefulness of in-house methods for HBV diagnosis. Three panels of HBsAg reactive sera samples were evaluated: (i) 50 samples were examined using three methods for in-house qualitative PCR and the Cobas Amplicor HBV Monitor Assay; (ii) 87 samples were assayed using in-house semi-nested PCR and the Cobas TaqMan HBV test; (iii) 11 serial samples obtained from 2 HBV-infected individuals were assayed using the Cobas Amplicor HBV test and semi-nested PCR. In panel I, HBV DNA was detected in 44 samples using the Cobas Amplicor HBV test, 42 samples using semi-nested PCR (90% concordance with Cobas Amplicor), 22 samples using PCR for the core gene (63.6% concordance) and 29 samples using single-round PCR for the pre-S/S gene (75% concordance). In panel II, HBV DNA was quantified in 78 of the 87 HBsAg reactive samples using Cobas TaqMan but 52 samples using semi-nested PCR (67.8% concordance). HBV DNA was detected in serial samples until the 17th and 26th week after first donation using in-house semi-nested PCR and the Cobas Amplicor HBV test, respectively. In-house semi-nested PCR presented adequate concordance with commercial methods as an alternative method for HBV molecular diagnosis in low-resource settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Transmissão materno-infantil do vírus da imunodeficiência humana: avaliação de medidas de controle no município de Santos Mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-I: evaluation of control measures in the city of Santos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Maria Isaac Nishimoto

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Estimar o risco da transmissão materno-infantil (TMI do HIV no município de Santos e avaliar o efeito da introdução de medidas preventivas na transmissão vertical do HIV, tais como: utilização de AZT pela gestante, durante o pré-natal, trabalho de parto e parto, uso de AZT pelo recém-nascido; substituição do aleitamento natural pelo artificial e indicação de cesárea. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo de coorte. Os dados foram coletados dos prontuários das gestantes e das crianças nos serviços de referência para o atendimento de pessoas vivendo com HIV/Aids. Para estimar o risco de transmissão materno-infantil do HIV, dividiu-se o número de mães cujos filhos adquiriram o vírus por transmissão vertical pelo número de mães incluídas no estudo. Para estimar o risco de TMI associado aos fatores investigados, calcularam-se os riscos relativos com intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC 95%, considerando a ocorrência de transmissão como variável dependente e os outros fatores (idade materna, realização de pré-natal, uso de AZT oral, uso de AZT xarope, idade gestacional e amamentação como variáveis independentes. Para controlar o possível efeito confundidor de algumas variáveis, foi realizada análise estratificada pela técnica de Mantel-Haenszel. RESULTADOS: A ocorrência da TMI do HIV foi estabelecida em 144 crianças. Quatorze delas foram classificadas como infectadas; o risco de transmissão foi de 0,097 (IC 95%; 0,030-0,163. O risco de transmissão foi menor nas mulheres com menos de 30 anos de idade. Na análise univariada, o risco de transmissão materno-infantil do HIV esteve associado de modo estatisticamente significante com: idade materna, realização do pré-natal, uso de AZT oral, uso de AZT xarope, idade gestacional (Capurro e amamentação. CONCLUSÃO: O presente trabalho mostrou que a implantação de medidas preventivas tem importância na prevenção da transmissão do HIV mãe-filho, com redução de quase 40% no risco desta transmissão comparada à encontrada anteriormente sem a utilização de medidas preventivas.OBJECTIVES: To estimate the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT of HIV-1 and evaluate the effect of preventive methods on vertical transmission of HIV, such as: use of AZT by pregnant women during the prenatal period, labor and delivery; use of AZT in newborns; replacement of breastfeeding by formula; and indication of cesarean section. METHODS: This was a cohort study. Data was collected from medical records of pregnant women and of children followed at reference health centers for HIV/AIDS patients. To estimate the risk of MTCT we divided the number of mothers whose children acquired the virus through vertical transmission by the total number of mothers included in the study; the relative risks were calculated with a CI=95%. Occurrence of transmission was regarded as a dependent variable, the other factors (maternal age, use of oral AZT and use of AZT syrup, gestational age and breastfeeding were considered as independent variables. Mantel-Haenszel's techniques were used in this analysis to control the possible effect of some variables. RESULTS: The occurrence of HIV in MTCT was identified in 144 children. Fourteen were classified as infected. Risk of transmission was of 0.097 (95% CI; 0.030-0.163. The risk of HIV vertical transmission was smaller in women under thirty years of age when compared with older ones. In the univariate analysis, the MTCT risk was significantly associated with maternal age, prenatal care, use of oral AZT and use of AZT syrup, gestational age and breastfeeding. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the implementation of preventive measures is important in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, providing a risk reduction of almost 40% when compared to that before use of these preventive measures.

  13. Hepatitis C virus detection in the semen of infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma de Paula Cavalheiro

    Full Text Available Though HCV infection is a serious public health problem, some aspects of its biology are still not well understood, such as its transmission through seminal fluid and sexual transmission. We looked for HCV in the semen of infected patients. Thirteen patients were included. Semen fractions (seminal plasma, leukocytes and spermatozoa were separated with 45% and 90% Percoll gradients. The HCV-RNA in blood and semen fractions was extracted using the same protocol (AMPLICOR Roche and was detected using the qualitative Roche Amplicor test and by agarose gel electrophoresis, with ethidium bromide staining. The mean age of the patients was 40.7 years. Risk factors for the acquisition of HCV included injectable and inhaled drug use in six (42.8%, blood transfusion in four (28.6%, and no risk factors in four (28.6% patients. Genotype 1 was detected in 62% of the patients, followed by genotype 3 in 23% and genotype 2 in 15%. All blood samples were positive, regardless of the technique used for detection. All semen samples identified by Roche Amplicor and analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis were negative. Among the 52 semen samples (total and fractions identified by the Roche Amplicor method, 45 (87% were inhibited. A negative result was recorded for one (1.9% total semen sample, one (1.9% leukocyte and four (7.7% seminal plasma fractions. Only one (1.9% sample of the spermatozoon fraction was positive. The results obtained suggested false-negative reactions for the semen samples.

  14. Evaluation of an HIV/AIDS peer education programme South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate a South African workplace HIV I AIDS peer-education programme running since 1997. Methods ... and was modelled on a similar workplace-based programme run by the Zimbabwe AIDS Prevention Project (ZAPP) in ..... HIV I AIDS prevention program at the workplace. Journal of Health Communication 2003; 8:.

  15. Clinical value of IS6110-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, Ehsan; Makvandi, Manoochehr; Farajzadeh, Ahmad; Huygen, Kris; Alvandi, Amir-Hooshang; Gouya, Mohammad-Mehdi; Sadrizadeh, Ali; Romano, Marta

    2013-06-01

    A fundamental to global tuberculosis (TB) control is timely and accurate diagnosis of infectious cases of the disease. Among various methods, techniques based on nucleic acid amplification are the ones with promising prospects. The present study evaluates the diagnostic value of the recently developed IS6110-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in sputum specimens. In this cross-sectional study (2008-2009), IS6110-LAMP was evaluated on 101 sputum specimens from 93 highly suspected TB patients and compared to Amplicor MTB test and in-house IS6110-PCR and -nested PCR assays. Culture results or clinical recovery following anti-TB therapy was considered as a reference to prove the TB cases. The overall sensitivity of IS6110-LAMP, Amplicor, nPCR, and PCR were respectively 89.6% (69/77 specimens; 95% confidence interval [CI], 80.5-95.4%), 76.6% (59/77 specimens; CI, 65.6-85.5%), 79.2% (61/77 specimens; CI, 68.5-87.6%) and 59.7% (46/77 specimens; CI, 47.9-70.8%). The specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) were 100% for all the tests, and the negative predictive value (NPV) of IS6110-LAMP, Amplicor, nPCR, and PCR were respectively 75%, 57.1%, 60%, and 43.6%. There was an excellent overall agreement between LAMP and nPCR (k 0.828), and between LAMP and Amplicor (k 0.746), in addition to a better tolerance of IS6110-LAMP to inhibitors present in clinical specimens. The better diagnostic performance of IS6110-LAMP compared to Amplicor (p = 0.009), nPCR (p = 0.013) and PCR (p < 0.0001) besides its rapidity, simplicity, and cost-effectiveness makes it a valuable method for the detection of MTBC in clinical samples, particularly in resource-limited settings. Copyright © 2013 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tanzania Dental Journal, Vol. 10 No.1 October 2003

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    standing herpes infection, major aphthous ulcers). In addition, oral lesions are included in staging systems for HIV disease progressions and as entry criteria or endpoints in clinical trials of antiretroviral drugs. Still and many of the oral HIV I AIDS ...

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TB), lower respiratory tract infections, diarrhoea, HIV I AIDS, perinatal diseases, malnutrition and septicaemia contributed to the pre- transitional conditions, while stroke, diabetes, ischaemic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, asthma, ...

  18. Aids ähvardab Venemaa, Hiina ja India tulevikku / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2002-01-01

    Ameerika analüütik Nicholas Eberstadt prognoosib, et Hiina, India ja Venemaa võivad järgmise veerandsaja jooksul seista silmitsi suurema arvu HIV-i nakatanute ja aidsi surnutega kui kogu maailm seni tervikuna

  19. Rheumatoid Case with HCV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Bita Behnava; Seyed-Moayed Alavian

    2005-01-01

    Case Presentation:A 46-year-old woman referred to our center due to abnormality in aminotransferase level during check up. She had a history of blood transfusion 12 years ago. Anti-HCV Ab by ELISA method and HCV RNA by RT-PCR were positive. HCV RNA by Amplicor HCV monitor test counted 800,000 IU/ml and the genotype was 3a by Specific Primer-Targeted Region Core method. Laboratory evaluation revealed: Hb 11.9 mg/dl, WBC 5000 /ml, platelet count 190,000/ ml, ALT 70 IU/ml, AST 65 IU/ml, Alk phos...

  20. Relationship between formation of HCV-bearing immune complexes and response to inteferon therapy for chroic hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    眞鍋, 良二

    2005-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the relationship between formation of HCV-bearing immune complexes (HCV-IC) and response to interferon (IFN) therapy for chronic hepatitis C (CH-C). Five CH-C patients with complete response (CR) to IFN therapy and pre-treatment HCV RNA titer measured by Amplicor HCV-monitor and five stage (biopsy proved fibrosis of the liver)-matiched CH-C patients who were non-esponders (NR) to IFN therapy were enrolled. Pretretment sera were separated into HCV-IC (supernatant) a...

  1. Low sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis in southeastern Brazil Baixa sensibilidade da reação em cadeia da polimerase para o diagnóstico de meningite tuberculosa no sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Maria Sabadoto Brienze

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Two polymerase chain reaction (PCR protocols showed low sensitivity (36% and 53% for TB AMPLICOR and MPB64 nested PCR, respectively, when compared with classic microbiological methods (73% and 54% for Ziehl-Neelsen staining and culture, respectively, in the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis in 91 patients in southeastern Brazil. Only three PCR-positive, microbiologically negative patients were found. Analysis of sequential cerebrospinal fluid samples by nested PCR detected Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA up to 29 days after the introduction of antituberculosis chemotherapy.Dois protocolos de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR apresentaram baixa sensibilidade (36% e 53%, respectivamente, para TB AMPLICOR e PCR aninhado baseado no gene MPB64, quando comparados aos métodos microbiológicos clássicos (73% e 54% respectivamente para baciloscopia e cultura, no diagnóstico de meningite tuberculosa em 91 pacientes do sudeste do Brasil. Somente três pacientes apresentaram PCR positiva e microbiologia negativa. A análise de amostras seqüenciais de líquor com a PCR aninhada detectou DNA de Mycobacterium tuberculosis até 29 dias após a introdução de tratamento.

  2. Global cost modeling analysis of HIV-1 and HCV viral load assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbeik, Tarek; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur; Soutchkov, Serguei V; Loftus, Richard A; Beringer, Scott

    2003-08-01

    This review addresses hidden costs associated with the Bayer VERSANT assay, Roche AMPLICOR MONITOR test and COBAS AMPLICOR MONITOR test and how these influence the final per reportable cost to a testing laboratory in resource-rich and -poor countries. An in-depth evaluation and recommendation of the most cost-effective approach for these tests is presented. The analyses demonstrate the need for manufacturers to consider labor and supply costs when marketing a kit in resource-poor countries, noting that marketing strategies need to change. In the absence of any proven monitoring alternative, emphasis is placed on increasing market share to promote significant reduction in kit prices to suit the demands of markets in resource-poor countries. Finally, recommendations are made to improve the overall cost structure of viral load testing. This review is intended as a tool to optimize assay usage in attaining the lowest performance costs by assay and is not to endorse any test, as will become apparent.

  3. Liposome encapsulation of the internal control for whole process quality assurance of nucleic acid amplification-based assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, E S; Skaug, K

    2003-10-01

    A system intended for whole process quality assurance of nucleic acid amplification assays was developed based on the use of liposomes as cell-mimicking vehicles for the internal control, allowing introduction of the internal control directly into the crude biological specimens. By the proof of principle testing, the Roche Cobas Amplicor CT assay was chosen as model system and the Roche CT/NG Internal Control was thus loaded into the liposomes. The liposome/DNA particles were spiked into a Chlamydia trachomatis-positive urine specimen. A quantitative "in-house" duplex real-time C. trachomatis PCR assay showed that liposomes having Blue Dextran 2000 polysaccharide co-entrapped were the most suited particles as they were efficiently deposited by the centrifugation carried out according to the Roche urine specimen preparation procedure. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the liposome/DNA particles might be used for whole process quality assurance of Amplicor assay without major modifications of the assay protocol. An additional feature of the use of these liposomes was that the pellet became blue coloured and that might facilitate a thorough removal of the urine supernatant without increasing the risk of disturbance of the pellet. Principally, the liposome/internal control system is versatile and seems to be applicable for whole process quality control of amplification-based assays for detection of various pathogens.

  4. Systematic review of the performance of HIV viral load technologies on plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollis, Kimberly A; Smit, Pieter W; Fiscus, Susan; Ford, Nathan; Vitoria, Marco; Essajee, Shaffiq; Barnett, David; Cheng, Ben; Crowe, Suzanne M; Denny, Thomas; Landay, Alan; Stevens, Wendy; Habiyambere, Vincent; Perrins, Jos; Peeling, Rosanna W

    2014-01-01

    Viral load (VL) monitoring is the standard of care in developing country settings for detecting HIV treatment failure. Since 2010 the World Health Organization has recommended a phase-in approach to VL monitoring in resource-limited settings. We conducted a systematic review of the accuracy and precision of HIV VL technologies for treatment monitoring. A search of Medline and Embase was conducted for studies evaluating the accuracy or reproducibility of commercially available HIV VL assays. 37 studies were included for review including evaluations of the Amplicor Monitor HIV-1 v1.5 (n = 25), Cobas TaqMan v2.0 (n = 11), Abbott RealTime HIV-1 (n = 23), Versant HIV-1 RNA bDNA 3.0 (n = 15), Versant HIV-1 RNA kPCR 1.0 (n = 2), ExaVir Load v3 (n = 2), and NucliSens EasyQ v2.0 (n = 1). All currently available HIV VL assays are of sufficient sensitivity to detect plasma virus levels at a lower detection limit of 1,000 copies/mL. Bias data comparing the Abbott RealTime HIV-1, TaqMan v2.0 to the Amplicor Monitor v1.5 showed a tendency of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 to under-estimate results while the TaqMan v2.0 overestimated VL counts. Compared to the Amplicor Monitor v1.5, 2-26% and 9-70% of results from the Versant bDNA 3.0 and Abbott RealTime HIV-1 differed by greater than 0.5log10. The average intra and inter-assay variation of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 were 2.95% (range 2.0-5.1%) and 5.44% (range 1.17-30.00%) across the range of VL counts (2log10-7log10). This review found that all currently available HIV VL assays are of sufficient sensitivity to detect plasma VL of 1,000 copies/mL as a threshold to initiate investigations of treatment adherence or possible treatment failure. Sources of variability between VL assays include differences in technology platform, plasma input volume, and ability to detect HIV-1 subtypes. Monitoring of individual patients should be performed on the same technology platform to ensure appropriate interpretation of

  5. [Low rate of oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection among women with cervical lesion. Preliminary results from the South-Eastern Hungarian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanya, Melinda; Jakó, Mária; Terhes, Gabriella; Szakács, László; Kaiser, László; Deák, Judit; Bártfai, György

    2016-01-10

    Although the natural history of cervical and oral human papillomavirus infection has been intensively investigated in the past years, the ability of this virus to infect oral and genital mucosae in the same individual and its potential to co-infect both cervical and oral mucosa are still unclear. The aim of the authors was to assess the presence of oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection in women with cervical lesions in the South-Eastern Hungarian population. The total of 103 women have been included in the study between March 1, 2013 and January 1, 2015. Brushing was used to collect cells from the oropharyngeal mucosa. Human papillomavirus DNA was detected using polymerase chain reaction, and Amplicor line blot test was used for genotyping. Oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection was detected in 2 cases (3%). The detected genotypes were 31, 40/61 and 73 in the oropharyngeal region. The results indicate that in women with cervical lesions oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection rarely occurs.

  6. The Usefulness of Defining Rapid Virological Response by a Very Sensitive Assay (TMA) during Treatment of HCV Genotype 2/3 Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgard, Olav; Martinot-Peignoux, Michelle; Verbaan, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine in patients with HCV genotype 2 or 3 the performance at week 4 of two assays with different sensitivities for HCV RNA detection, for the prediction of SVR and stratification for treatment duration (14 and 24 weeks). Recruitment was from two trials comparing 14...... and 24 weeks treatment to patients with rapid virological response (RVR) (n = 550). RVR was originally defined as HCV RNA HCV-RNA was prospectively...... measured with COBAS Amplicor V2, Roche (CA) (lower detection limit 50 IU/ml) and retrospectively assessed with VERSANT HCV-RNA Qualitative Assay, Siemens (TMA) (lower limit detection 10 IU/ml). Genotype 3 was present in 80% and genotype 2 in 20%. A SVR was achieved in 82%. At week 4 HCV...

  7. CMV DNA e MRNA Pp67 nel monitoraggio del paziente sottoposto a trapianto di midollo osseo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bonaria Goffi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary infection of immunocompetent individuals does not lead to complication, but CMV is a major clinical problem in transplant recipients.Thus, it is important to use sensitive and specific diagnostic techniques to rapidly and accurately detect CMV infection and identify patients at risk of developing CMV disease. In the present study, CMV infection after bone marrow transplantation was monitored by two molecular biology assays: COBAS AMPLICOR CMV MONITOR and NUCLISENS CMV m-RNA pp67. CMV m-RNApp67 assay was found to show positivity later than CMV-DNA MONITOR. The increment of number of copies/ml agreed with the clinical symptoms of CMV infection. The quantitative results of the CMV MONTOR assay was more helpfull to select an antiviral strategy than the qualitative results of NUCLISENS m-RNA pp67 assay.

  8. Duplex detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and medically important non-tuberculosis mycobacteria by real-time PCR based on the rnpB gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeldaim, Guma; Svensson, Erik; Blomberg, Jonas; Herrmann, Björn

    2016-11-01

    A duplex real-time PCR based on the rnpB gene was developed for Mycobacterium spp. The assay was specific for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) and also detected all 19 tested species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The assay was evaluated on 404 clinical samples: 290 respiratory samples and 114 from tissue and other non-respiratory body sites. M. tuberculosis was detected by culture in 40 samples and in 30 samples by the assay. The MTB assay showed a sensitivity similar to Roche Cobas Amplicor MTB-PCR (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, CA, USA). There were only nine samples with non-tuberculous mycobacteria detected by culture. Six of them were detected by the PCR assay. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Development of a TaqMan assay for the six major genotypes of hepatitis C virus: Comparison with commercial assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engle, Ronald E; Russell, Rodney S; Purcell, Robert H

    2008-01-01

    A quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed that detects genomic RNA from reference strains representing the six major genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) with equal sensitivity and accurately measured HCV RNA in JFH1 HCV-infected Huh7.5 cells. The method is indirectly calibrated to the first...... international (WHO 96/790) HCV standard preparation and has a linear dynamic range of 10(2.6)-10(6.5) IU/ml. In addition, the inter- and intra-assay precision were approximately 3% CV and HCV RNA Nucleic Acid Technology kits...... (Versant HCV RNA 3.0 b-DNA and Amplicor HCV Monitor), that also employ the WHO standard, allowed validation of the TaqMan assay against all major HCV genotypes. Both commercial methods detected HCV RNA over a wide dynamic range, but showed a consistent difference of about 0.3 log10 when evaluating samples...

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public perceptions on national health insurance: Moving towards universal health coverage in South ... health care, national or social health insurance. South Africa is a middle-income country with a population ... shortfall of 19 000 nurses by 2011.10 The migration of health professionals and the impact of the HIV I AIDS ...

  11. MSD grant läks Narva / MSD Teaduskeskus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    MSD (Merck Sharpe & Dohme) regionaalsete grantide komitee kuulutas välja konkursi võitja, selleks osutus Narva MTÜ Rehabilitatsioonikeskus "Sind ei jäeta üksi". 2,4 mln kroonine grant on mõeldud noortele HIV-i ja narkootikumide alaseks ennetustööks Ida-Virumaal

  12. Maret Maripuu : HIV-haigete raviks jätkub raha ka järgmisel aastal / Maret Maripuu ; interv. Ille Grün-Ots

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maripuu, Maret, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    Sotsiaalministri Maret Maripuu sõnul leiab HIV-i vältimise vajalikkus üha rohkem kõlapinda kogu ühiskonnas ja poolele teele seisma jääda ei tohi. Kommenteerib Lääne-Tallinna Keskhaigla nakkuskeskuse juhataja Kai Zilmer

  13. The HIV/AIDS pandemic in Malawi: cultural and gender perspectives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic in Malawi: cultural and gender perspectives. J.C .. Chakilnza. Introduction. Researchers concerned with HIV I AIDS prevention have to grapple not only with ideas of disease aetiology and causation that are particular to the local contexts, but also with appropriate strategies for prevention that are ...

  14. Provincial mortality in South Africa, 2000- priority-setting for now and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quadruple burden experienced in all provinces requires a broad range of interventions, including improved access to health care; ensuring that basic needs such as those related to water and sanitation are met; disease and injury prevention; and promotion of a healthy lifestyle. High death rates as a result of HIV I AIDS ...

  15. Declining incidence of AIDS dementia complex after introduction of zidovudine treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portegies, P.; de Gans, J.; Lange, J. M.; Derix, M. M.; Speelman, H.; Bakker, M.; Danner, S. A.; Goudsmit, J.

    1989-01-01

    To assess the incidence of the AIDS dementia complex and the presence of HIV I p24 antigen in cerebrospinal fluid in relation to zidovudine treatment. Retrospective study of a consecutive series of patients with AIDS from 1982 to 1988. An academic centre for AIDS. 196 Patients with AIDS and

  16. Public perceptions on national health insurance: Moving towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on the findings of a national probability household sample of the South African population, drawn as part of the 2005 HIV I AIDS national survey, to gauge public opinion on universal health care coverage. The perceptions of South Africans were assessed on selected health care affordability and financing ...

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. An ongoing prospective clinical survey to determine the spectrum of vascular disease in HIV I AIDS patients and the risk factors affecting clinical outcome in order to formulate a management protocol for future use. Methods. Comprehensive screening for risk factors for vascular disease as well as HIV I ...

  18. A Historical and Gendered Perspective on HIV/AIDS in Botswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article discusses the historical roots of the high prevalence of HIV I AIDS in Botswana. The point of departure is the debate on African sexuality. It is then shown that economic reasons that forced a large part of the men, and later also women, to engage in labour migration to South Africa and more recently to towns in ...

  19. CD4 count and Nitro-Blue Tetrazolium reduction rate of neutrophil in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a parallel testing algorithm for serological testing of HIV antibodies in the patient's sera using a combination of three (3) different screening methods, in a stepwise order for the detection of HIV-1 and HIV-2 in the blood. Rapid HIV Screening test kits using. Determine HIV I/2, Unigold™ and Stat Pak. (Tie breaker) were used.

  20. Quality of Life of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: With the advent of free treatment with highly active anti-retroviral therapy across Nigeria, people living with HIV I AIDS (PLWHA) now live longer. However, the burden of the disease still remains high. Aside from quantity of life lived, quality oflife(QOL) as a second key component of the burden of the disease has ...

  1. the moralities of antiretroviral treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the moralities of antiretroviral treatment. Klaus Fiedler. AIDS - a moral issue. When HIV I AIDS was discovered in 1984 and began to spread all over the world, it was a moral ... may have to perform) and it has increased the number of working days lost due to attendance .... the other side, moral issues are addressed in detail.

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Pr•evalence of HIV infection and median CD4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV I AIDS in the health care workforce challenges the success of both general and AIDS-related health care ... of health care workers had CD4 counts below 350 cells/Jll, and many were already eligible for antiretroviral ... attended work on at least 1 of the test days were included in the study. Employees who were absent ...

  3. HIV/AIDS prevalence among South African health workers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    expected that HIV prevalence among health workers will ... HIV I AIDS. In Malawi,' researchers reported that in 1999 2% of health care workers died of AIDS (60 deaths out of 2 979). Among female health care workers, the highest death rates were among ..... Ministry needs to conduct an in-depth investigation into the·.

  4. Üle poole noortest istub vabal ajal baaris / Merike Enniko-Väljaots

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Enniko-Väljaots, Merike

    2004-01-01

    Lääne-Virumaa noorte hulgas korraldatud uurimus tõi välja teismeliste sõltuvusaine lembuse ja teadmatuse HIV-i ja AIDS-i osas. Lisaks diagramm: Vanus sõltuvusainete esmasel proovimisel sugude lõikes (%)

  5. mtct regimen choice, drug resistance and the treatment of hiv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perinauzl HW Unit, University ofcJu WilWalmTand. MTCT REGIMEN CHOICE, DRUG. RESISTANCE AND THE TREATMENT OF. HIV-I-INFECTED CHILDREN assessing ARV drug resistance. Genotypic assays detect specific point mutations in the HIV genome that are associated with phenotypic resistance. These are most.

  6. Cost to patients of obtaining treatment for HIV/AIDS in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. South Africa is providing antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for HIV I AIDS free of charge in order to increase access for poorer patients and promote adherence. However, non-drug costs of obtaining treatment may limit access. We estimated the costs that South African patients incur in obtaining antiretroviral therapy ...

  7. HIV Infection Rate Among Newly Recruited Senior Cadres In A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the rate of HIV infection among newly recruited personnel in a Nigerian Security Agency. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and thirty-one security officers were screened for HIV antibodies. Double ELISA technique and Immunocomb II, HIV I and II (Orgenics Isreal) were employed for the test.

  8. Working Memory Profiles in HIV-Exposed, Uninfected and HIV-Infected Children: A Comparison with Neurotypical Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Robyn; Cockcroft, Kate

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the working memory profiles of three groups of children, namely HIV-infected (HIV-I; n = 95), HIV-exposed, uninfected (HIV-EU; n = 86) and an HIV-unexposed, uninfected, (HIV-UU; n = 92) neurotypical control group. Working memory, an executive function, plays an important role in frontal lobe-controlled behaviors, such as motivation, planning, decision making, and social interaction, and is a strong predictor of academic success in school children. Memory impairments have been identified in HIV-I children, particularly in visuospatial processing. Verbal working memory has not been commonly investigated in this population, while it is unknown how the working memory profiles of HIV-EU children compare to their HIV-I and HIV-UU peers. Of interest was whether the working memory profiles of the HIV-EU children would be more similar to the HIV-I group or to the uninfected control group. The results revealed no significant differences in working memory performance between the HIV-I and HIV-EU groups. However, this does not mean that the etiology of the working memory deficits is the same in the two groups, as these groups showed important differences when compared to the control group. In comparison to the controls, the HIV-I group experienced difficulties with processing tasks irrespective of whether they drew on a verbal or visuospatial modality. This appears to stem from a generalized executive function deficit that also interferes with working memory. In the HIV-EU group, difficulties occurred with verbally based tasks, irrespective of whether they required storage or processing. For this group, the dual demands of complex processing and using a second language seem to result in demand exceeding capacity on verbal tasks. Both groups experienced the greatest difficulties with verbal processing tasks for these different reasons. Thus, disruption of different cognitive abilities could result in similar working memory profiles, as evidenced in this

  9. Working Memory Profiles in HIV-Exposed, Uninfected and HIV-Infected Children: A Comparison with Neurotypical Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Milligan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the working memory profiles of three groups of children, namely HIV-infected (HIV-I; n = 95, HIV-exposed, uninfected (HIV-EU; n = 86 and an HIV-unexposed, uninfected, (HIV-UU; n = 92 neurotypical control group. Working memory, an executive function, plays an important role in frontal lobe-controlled behaviors, such as motivation, planning, decision making, and social interaction, and is a strong predictor of academic success in school children. Memory impairments have been identified in HIV-I children, particularly in visuospatial processing. Verbal working memory has not been commonly investigated in this population, while it is unknown how the working memory profiles of HIV-EU children compare to their HIV-I and HIV-UU peers. Of interest was whether the working memory profiles of the HIV-EU children would be more similar to the HIV-I group or to the uninfected control group. The results revealed no significant differences in working memory performance between the HIV-I and HIV-EU groups. However, this does not mean that the etiology of the working memory deficits is the same in the two groups, as these groups showed important differences when compared to the control group. In comparison to the controls, the HIV-I group experienced difficulties with processing tasks irrespective of whether they drew on a verbal or visuospatial modality. This appears to stem from a generalized executive function deficit that also interferes with working memory. In the HIV-EU group, difficulties occurred with verbally based tasks, irrespective of whether they required storage or processing. For this group, the dual demands of complex processing and using a second language seem to result in demand exceeding capacity on verbal tasks. Both groups experienced the greatest difficulties with verbal processing tasks for these different reasons. Thus, disruption of different cognitive abilities could result in similar working memory profiles, as

  10. Cytology and Human Papillomavirus Testing 6 to 12 Months after ASCUS or LSIL Cytology in Organized Screening To Predict High-Grade Cervical Neoplasia between Screening Rounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjøborg, Katrine D.; Nygård, Mari; Røysland, Kjetil; Campbell, Suzanne; Alfsen, G. Cecilie; Jonassen, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    We carried out a prospective study comparing the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA (PreTect HPV-Proofer; NorChip, Klokkarstua, Norway) and DNA (Amplicor HPV test; Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland) triage testing of women 6 to 12 months after atypical-squamous-cells-of-undetermined-significance (ASCUS) or low-grade-squamous-intraepithelial-lesion (LSIL) cytology in organized screening to predict high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) between screening rounds. Between January 2005 and April 2008, 692 study women with screening-detected ASCUS/LSIL cytology 6 to 12 months earlier returned for HPV mRNA and DNA testing and repeat cytology. The median follow-up time was 3 years, using existing health care facilities. Follow-up test results were available for 625 women. Of the 145 CIN2+ cases detected during the study period, 95 (65.5%) were HPV mRNA positive 6 to 12 months after screening-detected ASCUS/LSIL, 44 (30.4%) were HPV mRNA negative, and 6 (4.1%) were invalid. The corresponding HPV DNA results were 139 (95.9%), 5 (3.4%), and 1 (0.7%), respectively. The cumulative incidences of CIN2+ 3 years after a negative HPV mRNA and DNA test were 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2 to 13.3%) and 1.8% (95% CI, 0.0 to 3.6%), respectively. The cumulative incidences of CIN2+ 3 years after positive HPV mRNA and DNA tests were 52.8% (95% CI, 40.1 to 60.1%) and 41.3% (95% CI, 35.5 to 46.6%), respectively. In conclusion, both positive HPV mRNA and DNA test results have a high enough long-term prediction of CIN2+ risk to consider referral to colposcopy as good practice when performed in delayed triage of women with ASCUS/LSIL cytology. In addition, the low CIN2+ risk among women with a negative Amplicor HPV test in our study confirms its safe use in a clinical setting. PMID:22518869

  11. Nucleic acid amplification technology screening for hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus for blood donations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamaga, Mohammad S.; Bokhari, Fawzi F.; Aboud, Abdulrehman M.; Al-Malki, M.; Alenzi, Faris Q.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the performance of the commercial Roche COBAS AmpliScreen assay, and demonstrate whether the COBAS AmpliScreen human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) test, v1.5, and COBAS AmpliScreen hepatitis C virus (HCV) v 2.0 for screening for HIV-1 and HCV RNA in the donated blood units from which plasma mini pools were collected, by nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT), could detect the positive pools and reduce the risk of transmission of infections for those routinely tested by serological assays. The study was performed on 3288 plasma samples collected from blood donors in a period of 13 months, from August 2004 to August 2005, at Al-Hada Armed Forces Hospital, Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The samples were tested by the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after RNA extraction (this represents the major method in NAT assays), in parallel with the routine serological testing to detect qualitatively for HIV-1 and HCV. The NAT assays that include an automated COBAS AmpliPrep system for RNA extraction and COBAS Amplicor Analyzer using AmpliScreen kits for RT-PCR assays, and the routine serological screening assays for the detection of the HIV-1 and HCV RNA in the plasma samples from the blood donors have shown to be a reliable combination that would meet our requirements. The collected data further confirms the results from the serological assays and enables us to decrease the residual risk of transmission to a minimum with the finding of no seronegative window period donation. The results demonstrate that out of 3288 samples, the percentages of RT-PCR (NAT) negative blood donations that were also confirmed as seronegative were 99% for HCV, and 99.1% for HIV-1. The modified combined systems (automated COBAS AmpliPrep system for RNA extraction and COBAS Amplicor Analyzer using AmpliScreen kits for RT-PCR assays) for NAT screening assays has allowed the release of all blood donations supplied in the

  12. Mechanisms of Cytotoxicity of the AIDS Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-10

    protein is required for Vpx packaging into virus particles. We are also constructing a packaging mutant of HIV -2. For this purpose, we are first subcloning ... HIV -I, HIV -2, and SIV are important in modulating virus infection and infection and transmission in vivo. Viral proteins R (VPR) and X (VPX) and the...deficiency viruses . Vpr was found to be important for productive infection of monocytes by HIV -1, but could be replaced by Vpu. Several Vpr mutants have

  13. Genetic Variation of HIV: Viral Load and Genotypic Diversity in Relation to Viral Pathogenesis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-20

    natural history and pathogenesis of HIV-I infection as occurs in infections by equine infectious anemia virus (5). 3. Quantification of Total... infectious anemia virus (EIAV), and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) which infect different animal species (3,4). For these other lentiviruses, there is...quantitative HIV-1 DNA and RNA levels determined by PCR and titers of cell-free infectious HIV-1 virus cultured from plasma. 3. Determine the relation between

  14. Natural History of HTLV III Infection in USAF Personnel: Clinical Evaluation, Laboratory Evaluation, Assessment of In Vivo and In Vitro Immunologic Status, and Data Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    stage disease than those with early stage disease supporting the hypothesis that there may be an autoimmune reaction between HlLA DR and HIV gp4l leading...of the Principal Neutralizing Determinant of HIV-I. In press, Vaccines 90, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. 24. Clerici M, Lucey D, Zajac R, Boswell R...VIRUS ( HPV ) in HIV Positive Individuals: Condylomata, Oral Hairy Leukoplakia and Cervical Dysplasia. Presented at 30th Annual Air Force Regional

  15. Expanded breadth of the T-cell response to mosaic HIV-1 envelope DNA vaccination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korber, Bette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fischer, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallstrom, Timothy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    An effective AIDS vaccine must control highly diverse circulating strains of HIV-1. Among HIV -I gene products, the envelope (Env) protein contains variable as well as conserved regions. In this report, an informatic approach to the design of T-cell vaccines directed to HIV -I Env M group global sequences was tested. Synthetic Env antigens were designed to express mosaics that maximize the inclusion of common potential Tcell epitope (PTE) 9-mers and minimize the inclusion of rare epitopes likely to elicit strain-specific responses. DNA vaccines were evaluated using intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) in inbred mice with a standardized panel of highly conserved 15-mer PTE peptides. I, 2 and 3 mosaic sets were developed that increased theoretical epitope coverage. The breadth and magnitude ofT-cell immunity stimulated by these vaccines were compared to natural strain Env's; additional comparisons were performed on mutant Env's, including gpl60 or gpl45 with or without V regions and gp41 deletions. Among them, the 2 or 3 mosaic Env sets elicited the optimal CD4 and CD8 responses. These responses were most evident in CD8 T cells; the 3 mosaic set elicited responses to an average of 8 peptide pools compared to 2 pools for a set of3 natural Env's. Synthetic mosaic HIV -I antigens can therefore induce T-cell responses with expanded breadth and may facilitate the development of effective T -cell-based HIV -1 vaccines.

  16. [Clinical benefit of HCV core antigen assay in patients receiving interferon and ribavirin combination therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashimoto, Makiko; Takahashi, Masahiko; Jokyu, Ritsuko; Saito, Hidetsugu

    2006-02-01

    A highly sensitive second generation HCV core antigen assay has recently been developed. We compared viral disappearance and kinetics data between commercially available core antigen assays, Lumipulse Ortho HCV Ag, and a quantitative HCV RNA PCR assay, Cobas Amplicor HCV Monitor Test, Version 2 to estimate the predictive benefit of sustained viral response (SVR) and non-SVR in 59 patients treated with interferon and ribavirin combination therapy. We found a good correlation between HCV core Ag and HCV RNA level regardless of genotype. Although the sensitivity of the core antigen assay was lower than PCR, the dynamic range was broader than that of the PCR assay, so that we did not need to dilute the samples in 59 patients. We detected serial decline of core Ag levels in 24 hrs, 7 days and 14 days after interferon combination therapy. The decline of core antigen levels was significant in SVR patients compared to non-SVR as well as in genotype 2a, 2b patients compared to 1b. Core antigen-negative on day 1 could predict all 10 SVR patients (PPV = 100%), whereas RNA-negative could predict 22 SVR out of 25 on day 14 (PPV = 88.0%). None of the patients who had detectable serum core antigen on day 14 became SVR(NPV = 100%), although NPV was 91.2% on RNA negativity. An easy, simple, low cost new HCV core antigen detecting system seems to be useful for assessing and monitoring IFN treatment for HCV.

  17. Stable hepatitis C virus RNA detection by RT-PCR during four days storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horsmans Yves

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suboptimal specimen processing and storage conditions of samples which contain hepatitis C virus (HCV RNA may result in a decline of HCV RNA concentration or false-negative results in the detection of HCV RNA in serum. We evaluated the stability of HCV RNA in serum and clotted blood samples stored at room temperature or at 4°C for 4 days with the aim of optimizing the standard procedures of processing and storage of samples. Methods Blood from five HCV RNA positive patients was collected in tubes with and without separator gel, centrifuged 1 or 6 hours after collection. Samples were then left 6, 24, 48, 72 or 96 h at room temperature (21.5 – 25.4°C or at 4°C before determining their HCV RNA level using the COBAS AMPLICOR HCV MONITOR Test, vs 2.0 (Roche Diagnostic Systems. Results The logarithm of the HCV RNA level measurements remained within a 0.3 value of the means for 4 days at both temperatures (room temperature or 4°C. Conclusions We conclude that blood samples may be collected and aliquoted within 6 h of collection and can be stored at 4°C for 72 hours as proposed by the manufacturer without significant differences in measured HCV RNA level. Our results indicate that lapses in this scheme may still yield reliable results.

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis ompA genotypes in male patients with urethritis in Greece: conservation of the serovar distribution and evidence for mixed infections with Chlamydophila abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psarrakos, Panagiotis; Papadogeorgakis, Eleni; Sachse, Konrad; Vretou, Evangelia

    2011-08-01

    PCR amplification and nucleotide sequencing of the ompA gene of Chlamydia trachomatis were used to determine the prevalence and distribution of genotypes in 51 urine and urethral specimens from Greek male patients with urethritis, that were positive by the COBAS Amplicor test. A single C. trachomatis serovar was identified in 43 of the 51 amplified samples. Serovars F and E were the most prevalent (both 12, 28%), followed by D (9, 21%), G (4, 9%), B and K (both 2, 5%) and H and J (both 1, 2%). Over one third of the samples bared a variant ompA genotype that had been previously identified in other areas worldwide. Two results in this study, both observed for the first time, were of particular interest. First, the emergence of the unique variant genotype D/Ep6 (X77364.2) identified in 3 urethral samples. Second, the ompA genotype OCLH196 of the animal pathogen Chlamydophila abortus as well as a 23S rRNA gene fragment of this species detected by the assay ArrayTube™ was found in 7 urethral samples. The implications resulting from this observation for the health of the general population are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of the Hologic gen-probe PANTHER, APTIMA Combo 2 assay in a tertiary care teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Annie; Kirby, James E

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the performance of the Hologic Gen-Probe (San Diego, CA) PANTHER system. The performance of PANTHER was compared with the Hologic Gen-Probe TIGRIS and/or Roche (Indianapolis, IN) COBAS AMPLICOR systems through testing of patient specimens and the spiked-urine matrix. After discrepant resolution, PANTHER demonstrated a 99.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 96.0%-99.9%) positive and 100% (98.5%-100.0%) negative agreement for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and 100% (96.6%-100.0%) positive and 100% (98.6%-100.0%) negative agreement for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) for all male, female, unsexed, and NG-spiked female urine specimens combined. For other specimen types collectively, the PANTHER demonstrated 100% (95% CI, 90.6%-100.0%) positive and 100% (88.3%-100.0%) negative agreement for CT and 90.9% (62.8%-98.4%) positive and 100% (93.5%-100.0%) negative agreement for NG. Analytical sensitivity of the PANTHER in urine matrix was similar to the TIGRIS system. The PANTHER system provides an excellent new addition to options for detecting CT and NG, is appropriate for testing urine samples, and will facilitate high-throughput testing in the clinical laboratory.

  20. Strategy for the maximization of clinically relevant information from hepatitis C virus, RT-PCR quantification.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Levis, J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The increasing clinical application of viral load assays for monitoring viral infections has been an incentive for the development of standardized tests for the hepatitis C virus. OBJECTIVE: To develop a simple model for the prediction of baseline viral load in individuals infected with the hepatitis C virus. METHODOLOGY: Viral load quantification of each patient\\'s first sample was assessed by RT-PCR-ELISA using the Roche MONITOR assay in triplicate. Genotype of the infecting virus was identified by reverse line probe hybridization, using amplicons resulting from the qualitative HCV Roche AMPLICOR assay. RESULTS: Retrospective evaluation of first quantitative values suggested that 82.4% (n=168\\/204) of individuals had a viral load between 4.3 and 6.7 log(10) viral copies per ml. A few patients (3.4%; n=7\\/204) have a serum viremia less than the lower limit of the linear range of the RT-PCR assay. Subsequent, prospective evaluation of hepatitis C viral load of all new patients using a model based on the dynamic range of viral load in the retrospective group correctly predicted the dynamic range in 75.9% (n=33\\/54). CONCLUSION: The dynamic range of hepatitis C viremia extends beyond the linear range of the Roche MONITOR assay. Accurate determination of serum viremia is substantially improved by dilution of specimens prior to quantification.

  1. Detection of HIV-1 in Saliva: Implications for Case-Identification, Clinical Monitoring and Surveillance for Drug Resistance§

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamane, Maya; Winters, Mark A; Dalai, Sudeb C; Freeman, Alexandra H; Traves, Mark W; Israelski, Dennis M; Katzenstein, David A; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2010-01-01

    Background: Saliva tests that detect antibodies are used to diagnose HIV infection. The goal of this study was to determine whether saliva could be used for nucleic acid-based tests to measure HIV-1 virus load (VL) and detect drug resistance. Methods: 69 HIV infected individuals provided 5-10 ml of saliva and blood samples. Viral RNA was isolated from saliva and dried blood spots using the Nuclisens extraction. Saliva VL was measured using a modified Amplicor assay, and genotyping was performed using an in-house RT-PCR/sequencing protocol. Plasma VLs were obtained from concurrently drawn clinical tests. Results: Thirty-six of 47 (77%) plasma viremic patients had measurable saliva HIV-1 RNA. Paired plasma and saliva HIV RNA levels were significantly correlated (Spearman’s correlation = .6532, p50 copies/mL had detectable saliva HIV RNA, and the genotypic data was highly concordant between saliva and plasma. In patients with high levels of plasma HIV RNA, saliva might be useful in identifying viremia and evaluating drug resistance. PMID:21673840

  2. Detection of HIV-1 in Saliva: Implications for Case-Identification, Clinical Monitoring and Surveillance for Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamane, Maya; Winters, Mark A; Dalai, Sudeb C; Freeman, Alexandra H; Traves, Mark W; Israelski, Dennis M; Katzenstein, David A; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2010-01-01

    Saliva tests that detect antibodies are used to diagnose HIV infection. The goal of this study was to determine whether saliva could be used for nucleic acid-based tests to measure HIV-1 virus load (VL) and detect drug resistance. 69 HIV infected individuals provided 5-10 ml of saliva and blood samples. Viral RNA was isolated from saliva and dried blood spots using the Nuclisens extraction. Saliva VL was measured using a modified Amplicor assay, and genotyping was performed using an in-house RT-PCR/sequencing protocol. Plasma VLs were obtained from concurrently drawn clinical tests. Thirty-six of 47 (77%) plasma viremic patients had measurable saliva HIV-1 RNA. Paired plasma and saliva HIV RNA levels were significantly correlated (Spearman's correlation = .6532, p50 copies/mL had detectable saliva HIV RNA, and the genotypic data was highly concordant between saliva and plasma. In patients with high levels of plasma HIV RNA, saliva might be useful in identifying viremia and evaluating drug resistance.

  3. Persistence of hepatitis C virus in a white population: associations with human leukocyte antigen class 1.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fanning, Liam J

    2012-02-03

    The aim of this study was to define novel associations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class 1 alleles and persistence or clearance of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a white population. All individuals in the study were seropositive for anti-HCV antibodies. Viral status was determined by the Roche HCV Amplicor test. HLA-A, -B, -C allelic group profile was molecularly defined by reverse line probe hybridization. The strongest individual allelic group associations with persistent HCV infection were HLA A*11 (p = 0.044) and Cw*04 (p = 0.006). However, only the HLA C*04 association survived correction for multiple comparisons. Further analysis of alleles in linkage with HLA Cw*04 revealed that the haplotype HLA A*11, Cw*04 was present in 11 individuals, 10 of whom were viremic (p = 0.05). No gene dosage effect was observed. No association between HLA class 1 allelic groups and aviremia and virus load was evident in this white population. HLA B*44 is associated with low virus load in human immunodeficiency virus disease, but this association was not evident in this HCV-infected population. Novel HLA class 1 alleles associated with persistence of HCV have been identified.

  4. Rapid assessment of sexually transmitted diseases in a sentinel population in Thailand: prevalence of chlamydial infection, gonorrhoea, and syphilis among pregnant women--1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmarx, P H; Black, C M; Limpakarnjanarat, K; Shaffer, N; Yanpaisarn, S; Chaisilwattana, P; Siriwasin, W; Young, N L; Farshy, C E; Mastro, T D; St Louis, M E

    1998-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among pregnant women in Thailand, where case reporting suggests a marked decrease in STDs following a campaign promoting condom use during commercial sex. Cross sectional study of women at their first visit to the study hospitals' antenatal clinics in Chiang Rai (n = 500) and Bangkok (n = 521). First catch urine specimens were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using the Amplicor CT/NG polymerase chain reaction assay. Syphilis and HIV serological testing were performed in the study hospitals' laboratories. The prevalence of chlamydial infection was 5.7%, gonorrhoea 0.2%, and syphilis 0.5% (all VDRL or RPR titres were gestational age at first antenatal clinic visit, but was not associated with marital status, gravidity, city of enrollment, or HIV infection status. There was a low prevalence of gonorrhoea and syphilis among these pregnant women in Thailand. Chlamydial infection was detected at a higher prevalence, especially among younger women and women registering later for antenatal care. Testing of pregnant women using easily collected urine specimens and a sensitive nucleic acid amplification assay is a feasible method of rapidly assessing chlamydial and gonococcal prevalence.

  5. Sieroprevalenza di infezione da HBV e HCV tra pazienti in dialisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Anna Leone

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV among dialysis patients in the Lamezia Terme (CZ area during the period 1999-2002. Sera from 63 patients in haemodialysis (HD and 10 patients in peritoneal dialysis (PD were analyzed with a follow-up every three months for HBsAg, HBcAb, HBsAb, anti-HCV and anti-HIV (Elisa Test,AxSYM,Abbott;we analyzed reactive sera for anti-HCV by using supplemental test (RIBA Test, Ortho; we also looked for viremia (RT-PCR Amplicor, Roche Diagnostics and HCV genotypes (Inno-Lipa HCV II, Innogenetics.The results show that, among the HD patients, 3 were HBsAg positive (Chronic Infection and 7 HBcAb and HBsAb positive/HBsAg negative (Passed Infection; 14 individuals were anti-HCV positive. No patients in PD were positive for HBV and HCV markers.The prevalence of chronic HBV infection was 4.8% (instead of 3% in other Dialysis Units, that of anti-HCV positive was 22% (in others 24%- 33%; among anti-HCV positive patients, the HCV-RNA prevalence was 79% (instead of 80%; the most recurrent HCV genotype was 2a/2c (instead of 1b in general population.These findings lead us to hypothesize that the environmental transmission in the dialysis setting is tightly correlated to the risk of HBV and HCV infection.

  6. Frequency of very low HCV viremia detected by a highly sensitive HCV-RNA assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fytili, P; Tiemann, C; Wang, C; Schulz, S; Schaffer, S; Manns, M P; Wedemeyer, H

    2007-08-01

    Only limited data is available on the frequency and clinical significance of very low hepatitis C viremia (HCV quantification. We evaluated the new Abbott m2000 RealTime PCR assay in 3213 consecutive anti-HCV-positive sera as well as in 50 HCV-recovered patients with sustained virological response to standard antiviral therapy. The assay showed a linear range between 10(1) IU/ml and 10(7) IU/ml for HCV genotypes 1-6. An HCV viremia below 600 IU/ml was detected more often with the m2000 RealTime PCR assay than with the Cobas Amplicor assay in viremic sera (7.1% versus 1.8%). Seventy-seven cases with HCV levels below 100 IU/ml not related to ongoing antiviral therapy were identified. An HCV-RNA of less than 12 IU/ml was found in nine of the 50 SVR patients. Two patients had a viral load of 34 IU/ml and 84 IU/ml, respectively, one of those showed persistently elevated ALT levels over a period of 5 years after the end of antiviral treatment. An HCV viremia below 600 IU/ml can be detected in almost every 40th anti-HCV-positive sera using real-time PCR based assays. Low persisting HCV-RNA in patients after antiviral therapy may be associated with mild liver inflammation in single cases.

  7. COBAS ® AmpliPrep/COBAS ® Taqman ® HCV Quantitative Test, version 2.0: an in vitro test for hepatitis C virus RNA quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeks, Emma D

    2015-02-01

    The COBAS(®) AmpliPrep/COBAS(®) Taqman(®) HCV Quantitative Test, version 2.0, is an in vitro, fully automated, real-time, nucleic acid amplification test indicated for quantifying hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels in the plasma/serum of patients infected with HCV of genotypes 1-6 who are receiving anti-viral therapy. By quantifying levels of HCV RNA in these patients, the test can be used early in the course of treatment to predict the likelihood of a sustained virologic response being achieved and can also be used to assess virologic response during treatment as part of response-guided therapy. The test has excellent sensitivity, high specificity and a broad linear range of quantitation. It correlates well with version 1.0 of the same test, but has the benefit of better sensitivity and genotype inclusivity and a smaller sample input volume. It also correlates well with other available HCV tests, including other quantitative real-time PCR tests (specifically the COBAS(®) Taqman(®) HCV Test, version 2.0, used with the high pure system, and the Abbott Realtime and Artus HCV QS-RGQ tests), the Versant(®) branched DNA quantitative test, the COBAS(®) Amplicor HCV Qualitative PCR Test and the Versant(®) HCV qualitative transcription-mediated amplification assay. The test is not indicated for HCV infection diagnosis or to screen for the presence of HCV in blood/blood products.

  8. [Prevalence of hepatitis C virus and excessive consumption of alcohol in a nonhospital worker population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto Domingo, J J; Carrión Bolaños, J A; Bandrés Moya, F

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the study was to know the prevalence of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a non hospital work population by ELISA 3.0 and PCR-Amplicor, as well as its relationship with excessive alcohol intake (more than 280 g/week in men and 168 g/week in women). A transversal seroepidemiologic study was carried out in 1,109 workers of the Empresa Nacional de Electricidad, S.A. (ENDESA). During the annual medical examinations (April 1993-October 1994) the amount of alcoholic beverages each worker had consumed over the 7 days prior to the medical examination was obtained by anamnesis together with a blood sample for different laboratory tests. Sixteen percent of the workers had had excessive alcohol intake. The prevalence of anti HCV antibodies in the study population was 2.4% being up to 4.6% in the workers declaring excessive alcohol consumption and 10.4% if they also presented an elevation in any of the transaminases. The prevalence of the potentially ineffective workers was 1.46%. The prevalence of anti C antibodies by ELISA 3.0 was greater than expected (2.4%) significantly increasing in the population group which declared excessive alcohol intake, thereby demonstrating the relationship between alcohol and hepatitis C.

  9. Evaluation of the screening test results before marriage

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    Süleyman Durmaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C viruses and Treponema pallidum are parenterally and sexually transmitted infection agents. Screening test is made before marriage to pre-marital couples legally under the relevant legislation and legal procedures in our country; applicants are evaluated in terms of sexually transmitted diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate pre-marital test results for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV I/II and Treponema pallidum.Materials and methods: To make screening test before marriage, randomized 117 patients who were applied to Kızıltepe General Hospital of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, were included in this study between January 2011 and March 2011. Of these patients, 64 were women (average age 24.7±5.7, and 55 were males (mean age 24.7±4.7. HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV I/II tests of the patients were studied by macro-ELISA device (ECIQ Vitros, Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, USA, screening of anti-Treponema pallidum IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies were studied by immunochromatographic rapid test (syphilis syphilis 3.0, Standard Diagnostics, inc. Korea.Results: Of the 119 patients, five patients (4.2% were positive for HBsAg (3 male and 2 female. Anti-HCV, anti-HIV I/II and anti-Treponema pallidum antibodies were negative in all patients.Conclusion: HBsAg test result which was obtained in present study has been found consistent with HBsAg positivity rate in our region. As a result of screening test that was done before marriage will continue to believe that the increased importance of the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (3: 292-294.

  10. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Research (AIDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-15

    and CD8+ TO cells appeared to be autoimmune in nature. The Appearance of SIV Antigen on the Follicular Dendritic Cell of SIV Infected Macaques Is...estimation of the rate of new HIV infections in US Army. Int Conf AIDS. Jun 1988. McNe l1 Manu-icript 1989 McNeil JG, Brundage JF, Wann ZF, Burke DS...Yeager J, Wagner KF. Concurrent HPV -16 infection of the nipple and perianal area in an HIV-I (+) patient. Accepted for publication. Int. J of Dermatol

  11. The initial antibody response to HIV-1: induction of ineffective early B cell responses against GP41 by the transmitted/founder virus

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    Chavez, Leslie L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perelson, Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    A window of opportunity for immune responses to extinguish HIV -1 exists from the moment of transmission through establishment of the latent pool of HIV -I-infected cells. A critical time to study the initial immune responses to the transmitted/founder virus is the eclipse phase of HIV-1 infection (time from transmission to the first appearance of plasma virus) but, to date, this period has been logistically difficult to analyze. Studies in non-human primates challenged with chimeric simianhuman immunodeficiency virus have shown that neutralizing antibodies, when present at the time of infection, can prevent virus infection.

  12. Targeted Analysis of KLF6/KLF6-SV1 Regulating Pathways in Prostate Cancer Development and Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    described by Henderson et al., 2000 we compared the KLF6 NES to that of the human immunodeficiency virus type I ( HIV -I) Rev protein. We used three different...primers fwd-KLF6pCIneo and rev- KLF6pCIneo (Table S1). The resulting amplicon was then subcloned using EcoRI sites into the pEGFP-C3 vector (Clontech...were then subcloned into the pEGFP- C3 vector. Point mutations in the NES and NLS were sequentially generated in the pEGFP-KLF6 plasmid using

  13. Targeted Analysis of KLF6/KLF6-SV1 Regulating Pathways in Prostrate Cancer Development and Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    the human immunodeficiency virus type I ( HIV -I) Rev protein. We used three different constructs: pRev1.4- EGFP, encoding an NES-deficient Rev protein...KLF6pCIneo (Table S1). The resulting amplicon was then subcloned using EcoRI sites into the pEGFP-C3 vector (Clontech). The pEGFP-KLF6-SV1 plasmid was...283/rev-KLF6pCIneo, fwd-57-283/rev-KLF6pCIneo and fwd- 17KLF6/rev-KLF6pCIneo, respectively (Table S1). EcoRI digested amplicons were then subcloned

  14. Language and HIV communication

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    Lynn VA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Vickie A LynnDepartment of Community and Family Health, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USAI am writing to comment on Kontomanolis et al’s recent article entitled “The social stigma of HIV-AIDS: society’s role”.1 Although I applaud the authors for writing about this important topic and I wholeheartedly agree that HIV-related stigma is devastating to women living with HIV, I want to point out that using stigmatizing language when writing an article about HIV-related stigma is counterproductive.View the original paper by Kontomanolis and colleagues.

  15. Treatment seeking behaviors related to gonorrhea among female sex workers in 7 cities in Indonesia

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    Roselinda Roselinda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Latar belakang:Gonore merupakan salah satu infeksi menular seksual yang menjadi permasalahan besar kesehatan terutama pada wanita penjaja seks (WPS di Indonesia. Tujuan dari artikel ini adalah untuk melihat hubungan antara pola pencarian pengobatan gonore. Metode:Data berasal dari studi potong lintang dengan responden WPS yang dipilih secara cluster random sampling dari 7 kota (Timika, Yogyakarta, Kupang, Samarinda, Pontianak, Makassar dan Tangerang di Indonesia pada tahun 2007. Diagnosis gonore berdasarkan hasil pemeriksaan Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR menggunakan Amplicor CT/NG dari Roche yang telah disetujui oleh World Health Orgazation (WHO sebagai alat skrining gonore. Hasil:Proporsi responden yang menderita gonore sebesar 26.1% (404/1750. Persentase penderita gonore yang melakukan upaya pengobatan terdistribusi hampir sama dengan yang mengunjungi fasilitas kesehatan / dokter dengan yang membeli obat sendiri. Subyek yeng melakukan pengobatan tradisional memiliki risiko 44% lebih tinggi menderita gonore dibandingkan dengan subyek yang melakukan pengobatan di fasilitas kesehatan / dokter [risiko relatif suaian (RRa = 1,44; P = 0.044]. Sedangkan subyek yang tidak diobati dibandingkan dengan yang berobat ke fasilitas kesehatan / dokter lebih berisiko 55% menderita gonore (RRa = 1.55; P = 0.002.Kesimpulan: Wanita penjaja seks yang melakukan maupun yang tidak pengobatan tradisional dibandingkan dengan yang mengunjungi fasilitas kesehatan/dokter memiliki risiko yang lebih tinggi menderita gonore. (Health Science Indones 2013;2:87-92Kata kunci:gonore, wanita penjaja seks, IndonesiaAbstractBackground:Gonorrhea is one of sexually transmitted infections that have become a major health problem especially among female sex workers (FSW in Indonesia. The objective of this article is to identify the relationship between treatment seeking behaviors, the sites of study and gonorrhea among FSW. Methods: The data that analyzed derived from cross

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and associated risk factors in a low-income marginalized urban population in coastal Peru Infección por Chlamydia trachomatis y factores de riesgo asociados en una población marginal urbana de bajos ingresos de la costa peruana

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    Segundo R. León

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infection prevalence and associated risk factors among a low-income marginalized urban population in Peru. METHODS: Between April 2003 and April 2005, men and women at high-risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs were recruited from low-income urban areas in three coastal cities in Peru (Chiclayo, Lima, and Trujillo. Consenting participants were studied using a sero-epidemiologic survey. Urine and vaginal swabs collected from men and women were evaluated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR (COBAS® AMPLICOR (CT/NG Test, Roche Molecular Diagnostics, Branchburg, NJ, USA for CT. RESULTS: Among the 2 440 participants recruited for the study (2 145 men and 295 women, overall prevalence of CT infection was 6.6% (95% CI, 5.6-7.6%: 5.5% (95% CI, 4.5-6.5% in men and 14.9% (95% CI, 11.7-27.1% in women. Chlamydial infection was inversely associated with age and positively associated with HIV infection and dysuria in men. Among women, chlamydial infection was inversely associated with age and positively associated with number of sex partners. CONCLUSIONS: CT infection was common among high-risk men and women in urban coastal Peru. Because chlamydial infection is associated with complications related to female reproduction, including infertility and ectopic pregnancy, interventions to prevent and treat infection and studies to determine the feasibility of population-based screening for CT should be conducted among the high-risk female population.OBJETIVOS: Estimar la prevalencia de la infección por Chlamydia trachomatis y los factores de riesgo asociados en una población marginal urbana de bajos ingresos de Perú. MÉTODOS: Entre abril de 2003 y abril de 2005 se captaron hombres y mujeres con alto riesgo de contraer infecciones de transmisión sexual, en áreas urbanas de bajos ingresos de tres ciudades costeras de Perú (Chiclayo, Lima y Trujillo. Los participantes que aceptaron colaborar

  17. [Innate immunity restoration in patients with HIV/AIDS infection associated with antiretroviral therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afani, Alejandro; Jiusán, Lorena; Raby, Pablo; Sitia, Giovanni; Puente, Javier; Sepúlveda, Cecilia; Miranda, Dante; Cabrera, Roy; Guidotti, Luca; Lanza, Paola

    2006-06-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV/AIDS infection induces an important reduction of the viral load (VL) and an immune system reconstitution. CD4+ T lymphocyte count is the immunological measurement commonly used for the follow up of HIV/AIDS patients. To study prospectively the restoration of the innate immune system in patients with HIV/AIDS infection during their first year on HAART. 25 naive HIV/AIDS patients, from San José Hospital and University of Chile Clinical Hospital, Santiago, Chile, were studied between years 2002-2003. Every 4 months after HAART initiation, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ T lymphocytes and CD16/56+ natural killer (NK) cells were quantified by flow cytometry. NK cell cytotoxicity was measured using radioactive chrome liberation (Cr51). Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and viral load was determined using Amplicor HIV-1 from Roche Diagnostics Systems. Thirteen of the 25 patients continued in the study. They were all males, average age 35 years old (23-50). At baseline average CD4+ count was 146 cells/microL (31-362) and average viral load was 82.000 copies/mL (4.000-290.000). A raise in CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, and CD16/56 cells was noted at months 9-12 of therapy. Viral load became undetectable in the same period. NK cell function was decreased at the beginning of the therapy (1-4 months), reaching its highest values at months 9-12. There was no significant change in IL-10. TNF-alpha increased in six patients during the study. In this group of patients, innate immunity was restored during HAART. These results should be confirmed in studies with a longer follow up period and also measuring cytokines such as MIP-1a, MIP-1ss and RANTES.

  18. Genotyping of hepatitis C virus-comparison of three assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haushofer, Alexander C; Berg, Jörg; Hauer, René; Trubert-Exinger, Doris; Stekel, Herbert G; Kessler, Harald H

    2003-08-01

    Genotyping of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is clinically relevant to epidemiology, prognosis, and therapeutical management of HCV infection. Accuracy and specificity of three assays for HCV genotyping/subtyping were determined. The TruGene HCV 5'NC Genotyping Kit (TruGene), which is a direct sequencing test and two assays based on reversed hybridization, Inno-LiPA HCV II assay and ViennaLab HCV Strip Assay, were compared. Amplification products generated by the Cobas Amplicor HCV Test were used. A total of 100 consecutive HCV RNA positive samples derived from patients with chronic hepatitis C were examined for their genotypes/subtypes by the three assays. Identification of genotypes and subtypes by the TruGene assay as reference test for the Inno-LiPA HCV II assay and the ViennaLab HCV Strip Assay or Inno-LiPA HCV II assay as reference test for the TruGene and the ViennaLab HCV Strip Assay showed similar results for overall accuracies (TruGene as reference test for Inno-LiPA HCV II and ViennaLab HCV Strip Assay, genotypes/subtypes: 100%/95.5% and 97%/92%; Inno-LiPA HCV II as reference test for TruGene and ViennaLab HCV Strip Assay, genotypes/subtypes: 99%/85.9% and 97%/87.9%) and specificities (TruGene as reference test for Inno-LiPA HCV II and ViennaLab HCV Strip Assay, genotypes/subtypes: 100%/97.8% and 99%/97.7%; Inno-LiPA HCV II as reference test for TruGene and ViennaLab HCV Strip Assay, genotypes/subtypes: 100%/99.4% and 99.7%/98%). The three assays were found to be reliable for the detection and discrimination of all HCV genotypes common in Europe and in North America and to be suitable for the routine diagnostic laboratory.

  19. Human papillomavirus prevalence among indigenous and non-indigenous Australian women prior to a national HPV vaccination program

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    Condon John R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous women in Australia have a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer despite a national cervical screening program. Prior to introduction of a national human papilloma virus (HPV vaccination program, we determined HPV genotype prevalence by Indigenous status and residence in remote areas. Methods We recruited women aged 17 to 40 years presenting to community-based primary health services for routine Pap screening across Australia. A liquid-based cytology (LBC cervical specimen was tested for HPV DNA using the AMPLICOR HPV-DNA test and a PGMY09/11-based HPV consensus PCR; positive specimens were typed by reverse hybridization. We calculated age-adjusted prevalence by weighting to relevant population data, and determined predictors of HPV-DNA positivity by age, Indigenous status and area of residence using logistic regression. Results Of 2152 women (655 Indigenous, prevalence of the high-risk HPV genotypes was similar for Indigenous and non-Indigenous women (HPV 16 was 9.4% and 10.5%, respectively; HPV 18 was 4.1% and 3.8%, respectively, and did not differ by age group. In younger age groups, the prevalence of other genotypes also did not differ, but in those aged 31 to 40 years, HPV prevalence was higher for Indigenous women (35% versus 22.5%; P Conclusion Although we found no difference in the prevalence of HPV16/18 among Australian women by Indigenous status or, for Indigenous women, residence in remote regions, differences were found in the prevalence of risk factors and some other HPV genotypes. This reinforces the importance of cervical screening as a complement to vaccination for all women, and the value of baseline data on HPV genotype prevalence by Indigenous status and residence for the monitoring of vaccine impact.

  20. Therapy of chronic hepatitis C: Virologic response monitoring

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    Kuljić-Kapulica Nada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Virological testing is considered to be essential in the management of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in order to diagnose infection, and, most importantly, as a quide for treatment decisions and assess the virological response to antiviral therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of a sustained virological response (SVR and various factors associated with response rates in chronic hepatitis C infected patients treated with pegiinterferon alpha (PEGINF and ribavirin (RBV combination therapy. Methods. A total of 34 patients, treated with PEG-IFN and RBV were studied. Serum HCV-RNA was measured before the treatment, 12 weeks following the start of the therapy and 6 weeks after the treatment cessation. SVR was defined as undetectable serum HCV-RNA 6 months of post-treatment follow-up, virologic relapse (VR as relapse of HCV-RNA during the post-treatment follow-up. Serum HCV-RNA was measured with the Cobas Amplicor test. Results. At the end of post-treatment follow-up 19 (55.8% patients demonstrated a SVR. The majority of the patients were genotype 1 (27, and the other were genotype 3 (5 patients and genotype 4 (2 patients. There was VR in 6 patients 6 months after the therapy. In 9 patients HCV-RNA was positive after 12 weeks. Conclusion. We demonstrated that patients with chronic HCV infection can be successfully treated with combination of PEG-INF and RBV. This result emphasizes also that post-treatment follow-up to identify patients with SVR or VR could be important.

  1. Genotype 3 is the predominant hepatitis C genotype in a multi-ethnic Asian population in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shiaw-Hooi; Ng, Kee-Peng; Kaur, Harvinder; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2015-06-01

    Genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) are distributed differently across the world. There is a paucity of such data in a multi-ethnic Asian population like Malaysia. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution of HCV genotypes between major ethnic groups and to ascertain their association with basic demographic variables like age and gender. This was a cross-sectional prospective study conducted from September 2007 to September 2013. Consecutive patients who were detected to have anti-HCV antibodies in the University of Malaya Medical Centre were included and tested for the presence of HCV RNA using Roche Cobas Amplicor Analyzer and HCV genotype using Roche single Linear Array HCV Genotyping strip. Five hundred and ninety-six subjects were found to have positive anti-HCV antibodies during this period of time. However, only 396 (66.4%) were HCV RNA positive and included in the final analysis. Our results showed that HCV genotype 3 was the predominant genotype with overall frequency of 61.9% followed by genotypes 1 (35.9%), 2 (1.8%) and 6 (0.5%). There was a slightly higher prevalence of HCV genotype 3 among the Malays when compared to the Chinese (P=0.043). No other statistical significant differences were observed in the distribution of HCV genotypes among the major ethnic groups. There was also no association between the predominant genotypes and basic demographic variables. In a multi-ethnic Asian society in Malaysia, genotype 3 is the predominant genotype among all the major ethnic groups with genotype 1 as the second commonest genotype. Both genotypes 2 and 6 are uncommon. Neither genotype 4 nor 5 was detected. There is no identification of HCV genotype according to ethnic origin, age and gender.

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of a prototype point-of-care test for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis under field conditions in The Gambia and Senegal.

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    Emma M Harding-Esch

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The clinical signs of active trachoma are often present in the absence of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection in low prevalence and mass treated settings. Treatment decisions are currently based on the prevalence of clinical signs, and this may result in the unnecessary distribution of mass antibiotic treatment. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a prototype point-of-care (POC test, developed for field diagnosis of ocular C. trachomatis, in low prevalence settings of The Gambia and Senegal.Three studies were conducted, two in The Gambia and one in Senegal. Children under the age of 10 years were screened for the clinical signs of trachoma. Two ocular swabs were taken from the right eye. The first swab was tested by the POC test in the field and the result independently graded by two readers. The second swab was tested for the presence of C. trachomatis by Amplicor Polymerase Chain Reaction. In Senegal, measurements of humidity and temperature in the field were taken. A total of 3734 children were screened, 950 in the first and 1171 in the second Gambian study, and 1613 in Senegal. The sensitivity of the prototype POC test ranged between 33.3-67.9%, the specificity between 92.4-99.0%, the positive predictive value between 4.3-21.0%, and the negative predictive value between 98.0-99.8%. The rate of false-positives increased markedly at temperatures above 31.4°C and relative humidities below 11.4%.In its present format, this prototype POC test is not suitable for field diagnosis of ocular C. trachomatis as its specificity decreases in hot and dry conditions: the environment in which trachoma is predominantly found. In the absence of a suitable test for infection, trachoma diagnosis remains dependent on clinical signs. Under current WHO recommendations, this is likely resulting in the continued mass treatment of non-infected communities.

  3. Prevalence of oral lesions in HIV patients related to CD4 cell count and viral load in a Venezuelan population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Inés María; Correnti, María; Escalona, Laura; Perrone, Marianella; Brito, Aubert; Tovar, Vilma; Rivera, Helen

    2006-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of oral lesions in a HIV+ group of patients, related to CD4 cell count and viral load in a Venezuelan population. In the present study, we evaluated 75 HIV+ adult patients, attended at the Center of Infectious Diseases, at the Faculty of Dentistry, Central University of Venezuela. Each patient was clinically examined for detection of oral mucosal lesions. In addition, CD4 cell count was determined by flow cytometry, as well as viral load by RT-PCR (Amplicor HIV-RNA, TM test 1.5, Roche). 85% (64/75) of HIV/AIDS patients showed associated HIV lesions. Oral Candidiasis constituted the most common lesion representing a 61% (39/64), followed by Oral Hairy Leukoplakia 53% (34/64); Oral Leukoplakia 34% (22/64), Melanic Hyperpigmentation 38% (18/64); Papilloma 13 (6/64), Lineal Gingival Erythema 8% (5/64); Aphtous Recurrent Stomatitis 5% (4/64) and Kaposi's Sarcoma 5% (3/64). Only one case of the following lesions were represented by Non Hodgkin Lymphoma, Multifocal Epithelial Hyperplasia, Recurrent Herpes, Histoplasmosis and Molluscum Contagiosum. The patients with a viral load of 30.000 copies/mm3 exhibited oral lesions related with HIV, independent of CD4 cell count, although patients with CD4+ levels of 200 cel/mm3 were more susceptible to develop these lesions. The most common oral lesion was Oral Candidiasis followed by Oral Hairy Leukoplakia, Oral Leukoplakia and Melanic Hyperpigmentation. A high viral load was strongly associated to the oral lesions occurrence independently of CD4+ cell count.

  4. Expression of HLA-G1 at the placental interface of HIV-1 infected pregnant women and vertical transmission of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, S; Bobat, R

    2011-10-01

    The ability of Human Leucocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G) to inhibit the cytolytic effect to immunocompetent cell types, suggests that HLA-G has an immunomodulatory role. In view of this concept the objective of the study was to assess whether the Major Histocompatibility Complex -coded molecule HLA-G mRNA is a risk factor at the placental barrier in HIV-1 positive pregnant women. Placental HLA-G1 levels in HIV-1 infected mothers and viral loads in both mothers and their babies were performed on fifty-five participants. Synthesis of complementary deoxyribose nucleic acid (cDNA) was performed using ribose nucleic acid (RNA) extracted from placental tissue samples. Amplification of cDNA using specifically designed primers complementary to the full length HLA-G1 isoform was quantified using real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Viral load assays (Amplicor Version 1.5, Roche Diagnostics) were performed on all plasma samples. HLA-G1 primers detected the full length isoform HLA-G1 PCR product at 86.5 °C. Logistic regression calculations indicated that the risk of babies becoming infected increased by 1.3 with every 1 unit increase in HLA-G1 expression. Female babies were 3.7 times more likely to become infected than male. There was a positive correlation between mothers' log viral load and transmission of infection to the baby (p = 0.047; 95%CI 1.029-11.499). Maternal viral load was a strong predictor of viral transmission. Placental HLA-G1 expression was up-regulated 3.95 times more in placentas of HIV-1 infected mothers with infected babies when compared to uninfected babies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Indeterminate RIBA results were associated with the absence of hepatitis C virus RNA (HCV-RNA in blood donors

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    Felicidade Mota Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is diagnosed by the presence of antibodies and is supplemented by confirmatory testing methods, such as recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA and HCV-RNA detection. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of RIBA testing to diagnose HCV infection in blood donors positive for anti-HCV antibodies. Methods: A total of 102 subjects positive for anti-HCV determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA at the Hematology and Hemotherapy Foundation of Bahia (HEMOBA were later assessed with new samples using the Abbott Architect anti-HCV test (Abbott Diagnostics, Wiesbaden, Germany, the RIBA III test (Chiron RIBA HCV 3.0 SIA, Chiron Corp., Emeryville, CA, USA, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR; COBAS® AMPLICOR HCV Roche Diagnostics Corp., Indianapolis, IN, USA and line probe assay (LiPA - Siemens, Tarrytown, NY, USA genotyping for HCV diagnosis. Results: Of these new samples, 38.2% (39/102 were positive, 57.8% (59/102 were negative and 3.9% (4/102 were indeterminate for anti-HCV; HCV-RNA was detected in 22.5% (23/102 of the samples. RIBA results were positive in 58.1% (25/43, negative in 9.3% (4/43 and indeterminate in 32.6% (14/43 of the samples. The prevailing genotypes were 1 (78.3%, 18/23, 3 (17.4%, 4/23 and 2 (4.3%, 1/23. All 14 samples with indeterminate RIBA results had undetectable viral loads (detection limit ≤50 IU/mL. Of these samples, 71.4% (10/14 were reevaluated six months later. Eighty percent (8/10 of these samples remained indeterminate by RIBA, and 20% (2/10 were negative. Conclusions: In this study, individuals with indeterminate RIBA results had no detectable HCV-RNA.

  6. Comparison of M4 and M4RT media for transporting cervical swab samples for PCR detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanzadeh, Jaber; Jones, Mathew

    2002-01-01

    In a prospective study, M4RT medium was compared to the traditional M4 medium to transport cervical swab specimens for Neisseria gonorrhoeae/Chlamydia trachomatis (NG/CT) PCR testing using the Roche COBAS Amplicor. Two cervical swab samples were collected from 270 consecutive patients screened for NG/CT in a satellite facility. The swabs were placed individually in M4RT and M4 medium and were immediately refrigerated, transported to the laboratory on wet ice, and stored at 2 to 8 degrees C until the PCR testing was performed within 7 da of collection. Seven of the cervical swab samples transported in M4 or M4RT were PCR positive for CT. Two additional samples transported in M4RT and a third swab transported in M4 were CT PCR positive. These samples were PCR negative in the alternative medium. Similarly, 12 of the cervical swabs transported in M4 or M4RT were NG PCR positive. Three additional swabs transported in M4 media were NG PCR positive. Initially, 2 of these samples when transported in M4RT were NG PCR equivocal and were considered NG PCR positive on repeat testing. Similarly, 2 additional swab samples transported in M4 RT media were NG PCR positive. These samples, when transported in M4 media, were NG PCR equivocal or negative. However, on repeat testing the equivocal sample was considered NG PCR positive. We conclude M4 and M4RT transport media are equally reliable for transporting cervical swab samples for NG/CT PCR testing. M4RT medium is more convenient to use, as it did not require refrigeration until it was inoculated with the clinical sample.

  7. Clinic-based evaluation of Clearview Chlamydia MF for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in vaginal and cervical specimens from women at high risk in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y-P; Peeling, R W; Chen, X-S; Gong, K-L; Zhou, H; Gu, W-M; Zheng, H-P; Wang, Z-S; Yong, G; Cao, W-L; Shi, M-Q; Wei, W-H; Dai, X-Q; Gao, X; Chen, Q; Mabey, D

    2006-12-01

    To determine the performance of a rapid Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) test (Clearview Chlamydia MF) compared to the current "gold standard" (Roche Amplicor CT assay) test, and to assess acceptability of the tests to patients. A total of 1497 women at sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinics or re-education centres in six urban cities (Shanghai, Nanjing, Shenzhen, Guangzhou, Chengdu and Fuzhou) in China participated in the study. Three vaginal and three cervical swabs were collected from each participant. Rapid CT tests were performed locally on the first vaginal and cervical swabs and the results were read independently by two staff members. The second and third swabs were randomised for performing the Roche CT assay at the National STD Reference Laboratory. Acceptability of the rapid tests to patients was determined by asking patients in clinics about their willingness to wait for the results. The prevalence of CT was 13.2% (197/1497), as determined by the Roche assay with cervical specimens. CT was detected in 78 vaginal and 127 cervical specimens by the rapid test and the positive rates determined with cervical specimens were significantly higher than those with vaginal specimens (pgood agreement between the results read by two independent staff for either vaginal or cervical specimens (both kappa = 0.98, p<0.001). Sensitivities for vaginal and cervical specimens were 32.8% and 49.7%, respectively, and specificities were 99.2% and 97.9%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 85.7% for vaginal and 78.4% for cervical specimens. The vast majority of the patients (99.1%) were willing to wait up to two hours for the results. Clearview Chlamydia MF, while yielding a rapid result and requiring minimal laboratory facilities, had unacceptably low sensitivity compared to a nucleic acid amplification test. Rapid tests yielding results within one hour are generally accepted by the clients.

  8. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infection in Teenage Pregnancy in Rajavithi Hospital, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asavapiriyanont, Suvanna; Chaovarindr, Udom; Kaoien, Surasak; Chotigeat, Uraiwan; Kovavisarach, Ekachai

    2016-02-01

    Behavioral and social changes in the modern era have triggered an increase in the incidence of early sexual contact and teenage pregnancy. Since there is no routine Gonococcal & Chlamydial (GC & CT) screening in teens in antenatal clinics in Thailand, the present study was performed to find the prevalence of STI, especially Chlamydial infection, in teenage pregnancy. To evaluate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), especially Chlamydial infection (CT), in teenage pregnancy and its related factors. One hundred and twenty-one teenage pregnancies were recruited at the ANC in Rajavithi Hospital from October 2006 to May 2007. After signing informed consent forms, they were asked to answer questionnaires about baseline data, sexual information and risk factors, after which urine specimens were collected for screening for GC and CT using the PCR technique (AMPLICOR by Roche). Later, pelvic examination was per formed by the gynecologist at the STD (sexually transmitted disease) clinic. All the data and LAB results were recorded and analyzed by the SPSS program. Numbers, percentages, means with SD, Chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test and odds ratio were used. Potential risk factors were analyzed using binary logistic regression. The prevalence of STI in pregnant teenagers was 28.1% (CT = 19.8%, GC = 1.7%, hepatitis B = 3.3%, trichomoniasis 1.7%, Herpes simplex = 0.8% and condyloma acuminata = 0.8%). No Syphilis, chancroid or HIV were found in the present study Other non-STI like candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis were found in 45.5% of participants (candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis at 19.0% and 24.8%, respectively). The risk of CT infection was significantly related (6.9 times higher) to having previous sexual contact before the current partner (95% CI, 1.8-27.0). STI, especially Chlamydial infection, was found in a significant number of teenage pregnancies. Measures should be taken to prevent this resulting in complicated outcomes in the future.

  9. Abbott RealTime PCR assay is useful for evaluating virological response to antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezaki, Hiroaki; Furusyo, Norihiro; Ihara, Takeshi; Hayashi, Takeo; Ogawa, Eiichi; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Taniai, Hiroaki; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Murata, Masayuki; Hayashi, Jun

    2011-12-01

    This study was done to evaluate the utility of the Abbott RealTime PCR assay (ART) for the monitoring of chronic hepatitis C patients. The serum samples of 183 patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b who had completed a 48-week period of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) alpha-2b plus ribavirin treatment were prospectively analyzed. Serum HCV RNA levels were measured both by ART and by the Roche COBAS Amplicor Monitor test, version2.0 (CAM) at baseline and at weeks 4, 12, 24, 36, and 48 of treatment, and at 24 weeks after the end of treatment (EOT). A significant positive correlation of pretreatment HCV RNA levels was found between ART and CAM (r = 0.595, P HCV RNA level from the pretreatment level determined by ART in SVR patients was significantly higher than that in non-SVR patients at all time points tested. The logarithmic decline determined by CAM in SVR patients was significantly higher than that in non-SVR patients only at week 4, but there was no significant difference at other weeks. Of 124 patients who were HCV RNA-negative at EOT by ART, 58 (46.8%) had a relapse of viremia at 24 weeks after EOT, whereas 77 of 143 patients (53.8%) who were HCV RNA-negative at EOT by CAM had a relapse. The relapse rate was lower when determined by ART than by CAM, but not significantly so. ART is more useful than CAM for evaluating the virological response to antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C.

  10. Abbott RealTime hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Roche Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV assays for prediction of sustained virological response to pegylated interferon and ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Kentaro; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Hasegawa, Izumi; Ohno, Tomoyoshi; Tokuda, Hiroshi; Kurbanov, Fuat; Sugauchi, Fuminaka; Nojiri, Shunsuke; Joh, Takashi; Mizokami, Masashi

    2009-02-01

    Two commercial real-time PCR assays are currently available for sensitive hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA quantification: the Abbott RealTime HCV assay (ART) and Roche Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV assay (CAP/CTM). We assessed whether the two real-time PCR assays were more effective than Roche Cobas Amplicor HCV Monitor test, v.2.0 (CAM) for prediction of the sustained virological response (SVR) to pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV) in chronic hepatitis C. Sixty patients chronically infected with HCV genotype 1b (37 males and 23 females, 53 +/- 12 years of age) were treated with PEG-IFNalpha2b plus RBV for 48 weeks. Stored specimens at nine time points for each patient (at baseline, on treatment, and 24 weeks after treatment) were tested by the two real-time PCR assays and CAM. Twenty-six (43.3%) patients reached SVR. The positive predictive values (PPVs) for SVR of undetectable HCV RNA at week 12 by CAM, ART, and CAP/CTM were 74.3%, 88.0%, and 95.2%, respectively. An undetectable HCV RNA level by CAM, ART, and CAP/CTM correctly predicted SVR at week 4 in 100%, 100%, and 100% of patients, at weeks 5 to 8 in 91.7%, 100%, and 100% of patients, at weeks 9 to 12 in 55.6%, 75%, and 87.5% of patients, and at weeks 13 to 24 in 0%, 26.7%, and 40% of patients, respectively. Of 16 patients who relapsed after treatment, HCV RNA was detectable in 2 patients at the end of treatment by CAP/CTM but undetectable by ART and CAM. HCV RNA tests using ART and CAP/CTM are considered to be more effective at predicting SVR than CAM, and the PPV for SVR was slightly higher in CAP/CTM than in ART.

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and sexual behaviour among female students attending higher education in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Emer

    2009-10-29

    BACKGROUND: There are no prevalence data on Chlamydia trachomatis relating to female students attending higher education available for the Republic of Ireland. This information is required to guide on the necessity for Chlamydia screening programmes in higher education settings. This research aimed to determine the prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection among female higher education students in Ireland. METHODS: All females presenting during one-day periods at Student Health Units in three higher education institutions in two cities in the Republic of Ireland were invited to participate. Participants completed a questionnaire on lifestyle and socio-demographic factors and provided a urine sample. Samples were tested for C. trachomatis DNA by a PCR based technique (Cobas Amplicor, Roche). To examine possible associations between a positive test and demographic and lifestyle risk factors, a univariate analysis was performed. All associations with a p value < 0.05 were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 460 sexually active participants 22 tested positive (prevalence 4.8%; 95% CI 3.0 to 7.1%). Variables associated with significantly increased risk were current suggestive symptoms, two or more one-night stands and three or more lifetime sexual partners. The students displayed high-risk sexual behaviour. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection and the lack of awareness of the significance of suggestive symptoms among sexually experienced female students demonstrate the need for a programme to test asymptomatic or non-presenting higher education students. The risk factors identified by multivariate analysis may be useful in identifying those who are most likely to benefit from screening. Alcohol abuse, condom use, sexual behaviour (at home and abroad) and, knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (including asymptomatic nature or relevant symptoms) were

  12. Síndrome da meningite asséptica por enterovírus e Leptospira sp em crianças de Salvador, Bahia

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    Silva Hagamenon R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando verificar a freqüência de enterovírus (EV, leptospiras e arbovírus como agentes causais da síndrome da meningite asséptica (SMA, em períodos não-epidêmicos, e comparar os pacientes com e sem diagnóstico etiológico determinado, foram selecionados 112 pacientes de idade entre 3 meses e 15 anos, com suspeita clínica de SMA, referenciados para Hospital Couto Maia, especializado em Doenças Infecciosas e Parasitárias (Salvador, Bahia, Em 44,6% (n=50 a etiologia foi determinada: enterovírus em 37,7% (n=42 dos casos, pelo teste de PCR Amplicor, por cultura do líquor e/ou de fezes; a Leptospira sp. em 7,1% (n=8, pelo método da micro-aglutinação, e nenhum caso de arbovírus foi detectado (inibição da hemaglutinação passiva. Entre os 14 enterovírus dos 22 isolados, foram identificados seis diferentes sorotipos, sendo o Echovirus-4 predominante (27,2%; 6/22 entre outros (Coxsackie B2, B3, B6 e B9; EV 71. Conclui-se que, os enterovírus foram os agentes mais freqüentes, e que a leptospirose deve ser lembrada no diagnóstico diferencial da SMA. Uma vez que as características clínicas e liquóricas dos pacientes dos grupos com e sem determinação do agente etiológico foram semelhantes, pode-se supor que o diagnóstico presuntivo de SMA é de provável etiologia viral ou pela leptospira.

  13. “That’s True Love:” Lived Experiences of Puerto Rican Perinatally HIV-Infected Youth within Their Families’ Context

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    Georgina Silva-Suárez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The burden of HIV affects not only HIV-infected patients but also their families and caregivers. It is also known that family support is crucial for people living with HIV. A qualitative study was conducted to explore the life experiences, within the family context, of perinatally HIV-infected (pHIV-I youth in Puerto Rico. Twenty in-depth interviews were performed and audio-recorded. Within the family context, study participants experienced acceptance, love and support but also stigma and discrimination. They reported that family is an essential component in their lives and treatment. Losing one or both parents at a young age was considered more difficult than having HIV. Most participants who lost their parents lived with other family members. This was a challenging situation for both pHIV-I youth and their caregivers. Participants described their healthcare providers as part of their families and would like to keep in touch as they transition to adult care. Despite the challenges, participants expressed a desire to have children. Services targeted to this population should stress social support, incorporate family members into the medical process, provide special guidance and support while transitioning to adult care, and provide them with the latest information regarding HIV and reproductive options.

  14. Photosensitized inactivation of infectious blood-borne human parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy, Millard M.; Sogandares-Bernal, Franklin M.; Matthews, James Lester

    1995-05-01

    Blood-borne viruses and protozoan parasites that are infectious to humans pose risk world-wide of infection transmission through blood and blood product transfusion. Blood-borne infectious viruses include human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-I), which causes AIDS; hepatitis C virus, which can cause chronic hepatitis; and cytomegalovirus, which can be dangerous to immunocompromised patients, e.g., the newborn, transplant recipients, and AIDS patients. Infectious blood-borne protozoan parasites include Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes Chagas' disease, endemic throughout Central and South America; the Trypanosoma species causing African sleeping sickness endemic in Central Africa; and Plasmodium falciparum, which causes malignant and increasingly drug- resistant human malaria prevalent throughout the tropics. Some researchers have focused on using photosensitizers to inactivate HIV-I and other viruses in whole blood, packed red cells, and platelet concentrates without compromising blood product function. Our group previously has reported photosensitized in vitro inactivation of P. falciparum and the mouse malaria organism Plasmodium berghei in whole blood using hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) and of T. cruzi using benzoporphyrin derivatives BPDMA and BPDDA, dihematoporphyrin ether (DHE), and hydroxyethylvinyldeuteroporphyrin (HEVD). These results suggest that continued investigation is warranted to evaluate the potential for photosensitized inactivation of blood-borne parasites in blood banking.

  15. In Four ACA Expansion States, The Percentage Of Uninsured Hospitalizations For People With HIV Declined, 2012-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinger, Fred J

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the influence of the Affordable Care Act's optional state Medicaid expansion on insurance coverage and health outcomes for hospitalized patients with HIV. I used data from the State Inpatient Databases of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project for all hospitalizations of patients with HIV from 2012 through the first six months of 2014 in four states that expanded their Medicaid programs and two states that did not. I found that the percentage of hospitalizations of uninsured people with HIV in the four expansion states fell from 13.7 percent to 5.5 percent in the study period, while the percentage in the two nonexpanding states increased from 14.5 percent to 15.7 percent. I also found that hospitalized patients with HIV who did not have insurance were 40 percent more likely to die during their hospital stays than comparable patients with insurance. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  16. "Rice is essential but tiresome; you should get some noodles": Doi Moi and the political economy of men's extramarital sexual relations and marital HIV risk in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, Harriet M

    2008-04-01

    Research from around the world has suggested that married women's greatest risk for contracting HIV is from having sexual intercourse with their husbands. On the basis of 6 months of ethnographic research in Hanoi, Vietnam, I argue that the contemporary nature of the HIV epidemic in Hanoi is shaped by 3 interrelated policies implemented in 1986 as part of the government's new economic policy, Doi Moi (Renovation). Together, these policies structure men's opportunities for extramarital sexual relations and encourage wives to acquiesce to their husbands' sexual infidelity, putting both at risk of HIV. I propose 4 structural intervention strategies that address the policies that contribute to men's opportunities for extramarital liaisons and to marital HIV risk.

  17. [The biological properties of the HIV isolated from a virus carrier living in the Byelorussian SSR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytik, P G; van der Groen, G; Eremin, V F; Kolomiets, N D; Popov, S A; Nijs, P; Willems, V; Verkauteren, G; Il'kevich, Iu G; Lemeshko, N N

    1990-01-01

    Biological properties of an AIDS agent first isolated from a native citizen in the USSR are presented. The source of the virus was a young Byelorussian woman who in the near past had had sexual contacts with a citizen from one of the Central Africa countries. The isolate is thought to be of HIV-I type. It replicated perfectly in many continuous lymphocyte lines and had HIV-characteristic morphology. The protein spectrum of the isolate was gp120, gp41, p65/51, p55, p32, p24, p17. Reverse transcriptase activity was detected in the culture fluid of the virus-containing cell cultures. The isolate was designated HIV-IZ.

  18. A full-coordinate model of the polymerase domain of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and its interaction with a nucleic acid substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlik, R. F.; Meyer, D. J.; Shibata, M.; Roskwitalski, R.; Ornstein, R. L.; Rein, R.

    1994-01-01

    We present a full-coordinate model of residues 1-319 of the polymerase domain of HIV-I reverse transcriptase. This model was constructed from the x-ray crystallographic structure of Jacobo-Molina et al. (Jacobo-Molina et al., P.N.A.S. USA 90, 6320-6324 (1993)) which is currently available to the degree of C-coordinates. The backbone and side-chain atoms were constructed using the MAXSPROUT suite of programs (L. Holm and C. Sander, J. Mol. Biol. 218, 183-194 (1991)) and refined through molecular modeling. A seven base pair A-form dsDNA was positioned in the nucleic acid binding cleft to represent the template-primer complex. The orientation of the template-primer complex in the nucleic acid binding cleft was guided by the positions of phosphorus atoms in the crystal structure.

  19. Evaluation of a Chlamydia trachomatis-specific, commercial, real-time PCR for use with ocular swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Harry; Holland, Martin J; Last, Anna R; Burton, Matthew J; Burr, Sarah E

    2018-02-20

    Trachoma, the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide, is caused by conjunctival Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Trachoma is diagnosed clinically by observation of conjunctival inflammation and/or scarring; however, there is evidence that monitoring C. trachomatis infection may be required for elimination programmes. There are many commercial and 'in-house' nucleic acid amplification tests for the detection of C. trachomatis DNA, but the majority have not been validated for use with ocular swabs. This study evaluated a commercial assay, the Fast-Track Vaginal swab kit, using conjunctival samples from trachoma-endemic areas. An objective, biostatistical-based method for binary classification of continuous PCR data was developed, to limit potential user-bias in diagnostic settings. The Fast-Track Vaginal swab assay was run on 210 ocular swab samples from Guinea-Bissau and Tanzania. Fit of individual amplification curves to exponential or sigmoid models, derivative and second derivative of the curves and final fluorescence value were examined for utility in thresholding for determining positivity. The results from the Fast-Track Vaginal swab assay were evaluated against a commercial test (Amplicor CT/NG) and a non-commercial test (in-house droplet digital PCR), both of whose performance has previously been evaluated. Significant evidence of exponential amplification (R 2  > 0.99) and final fluorescence > 0.15 were combined for thresholding. This objective approach identified a population of positive samples, however there were a subset of samples that amplified towards the end of the cycling protocol (at or later than 35 cycles), which were less clearly defined. The Fast-Track Vaginal swab assay showed good sensitivity against the commercial (95.71) and non-commercial (97.18) tests. Specificity was lower against both (90.00 and 96.55, respectively). This study defined a simple, automated protocol for binary classification of continuous, real-time q

  20. Hepatitis B virus activity in patients with anti-hepatitis C virus antibody positivity and hepatitis B antigen positivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haushofer, Alexander C; Hauer, René; Brunner, Harald; Köller, Ursula; Trubert-Exinger, Doris; Halbmayer, Walter Michael; Haas, Josef; Kessler, Harald H

    2002-12-01

    Co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HCV seems to be relatively frequent. There might be a mutual influence on replication activity of HBV and HCV. To determine the HBV activity in patients with serum HCV RNA and HBsAg positivity and in those with confirmed anti-HCV antibody and HBsAg positivity but serum HCV RNA negativity. A total of 1,200 anti-HCV antibody positive samples were investigated. Samples of HCV RNA and HBsAg positive patients were compared with those of confirmed anti-HCV and HBsAg positive but serum HCV RNA negative patients. HBV activity was tested with the quantitative Cobas Amplicor HBV Monitor Test (Roche Diagnostic Systems, Pleasanton, CA). Of all studied patients with chronic hepatitis C (serum HCV RNA positivity) only 1.0% were found to be HBsAg positive. In contrast, of all patients with confirmed anti-HCV positivity but serum HCV RNA negativity, 11.9% tested HBsAg positive. The median of HBV DNA levels of patients with serum HCV RNA positivity and HBeAg seroconversion (4.0 x 10(2) HBV DNA copies per ml) was found to be slightly lower than that of patients with serum HCV RNA negativity and HBeAg seroconversion (2.5 x 10(3) HBV DNA copies per ml; P>0.05). The median of HBV DNA levels of patients with serum HCV RNA positivity but without HBeAg seroconversion (1.1 x 10(4) HBV DNA copies per ml) was found to be significantly lower than that of patients with serum HCV RNA negativity but without HBeAg seroconversion (2.6 x 10(7) HBV DNA copies per ml; P<0.05). A mutual effect on HBV and HCV replication could be observed. The molecular assay for quantification of serum HBV DNA was found to be useful for the routine diagnostic laboratory.

  1. Analysis of Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Region in Patients with Cirrhosis Using an Ultra-Deep Pyrosequencing Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Fahriye; Ciftci, Sevgi; Akyuz, Filiz; Abaci, Neslihan; Cakiris, Aris; Akyuz, Umit; Demir, Kadir; Besisik, Fatih; Ustek, Duran; Kaymakoglu, Sabahattin

    2017-09-01

    HCV (Hepatitis C Virus) is genetically more diverse than HBV and HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and exists as quasispecies within infected individuals. This is due to the lack of efficient proofreading of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Consequently, quasispecies emerge depending on the mutation rate of the viral polymerase, which may display a high level of genetic variability in a population. In infected individuals, HCV replicates and circulates as quasispecies composed of a complex mixture of different but closely related genomes that undergoes continuous change due to competitive selection and cooperation between arising mutants. The aim of this study is to investigate mutations in the NS5A region as a whole, including ISDR, PKRBD, IRRDR, and V3 of HCV genotype 1b cirrhosis patients being naive and nonresponders, treated with IFN (interferon) + ribavirin (RBN) by using an ultra-deep pyrosequencing method (UDPS). During the study, five patients (four females, and one male, mean age 59.8 ± 11 years) with HCV related cirrhosis were analyzed. Three patients received IFN + RBN for six months, but two patients did not receive any therapy. HCV-RNA concentrations in patients' sera were determined using a COBAS AMPLICOR HCV MONITOR Test, Version 2.0. Genotyping was performed by using a commercial reverse hybridization method, Line Probe Assay. The quasispecies for the NS5A region were investigated using UDPS. All five patients were HCV genotype 1b (Mean Child-Pugh score 7.2 ± 1.9, 2 pts Child A, 2 pts Child B, and one pt Child C) but only one patient had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A total of 19 different mutations were detected in each of the five patients (ranging from 3 to 6 mutations per patient). In all five patients, several mutations in the ISDR and PKR-BD regions were detected. On the other hand, mutations in the V3 and IRRDR regions were only detected in one patient. UDPS is a new sequencing technology and a very sensitive method in detection

  2. Community risk factors for ocular Chlamydia infection in Niger: pre-treatment results from a cluster-randomized trachoma trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdou Amza

    Full Text Available Trachoma control programs utilize mass azithromycin distributions to treat ocular Chlamydia trachomatis as part of an effort to eliminate this disease world-wide. But it remains unclear what the community-level risk factors are for infection.This cluster-randomized, controlled trial entered 48 randomly selected communities in a 2×2 factorial design evaluating the effect of different treatment frequencies and treatment coverage levels. A pretreatment census and examination established the prevalence of risk factors for clinical trachoma and ocular chlamydia infection including years of education of household head, distance to primary water source, presence of household latrine, and facial cleanliness (ocular discharge, nasal discharge, and presence of facial flies. Univariate and multivariate associations were tested using linear regression and Bayes model averaging.There were a total of 24,536 participants (4,484 children aged 0-5 years in 6,235 households in the study. Before treatment in May to July 2010, the community-level prevalence of active trachoma (TF or TI utilizing the World Health Organization [WHO] grading system was 26.0% (95% CI: 21.9% to 30.0% and the mean community-level prevalence of chlamydia infection by Amplicor PCR was 20.7% (95% CI: 16.5% to 24.9% in children aged 0-5 years. Univariate analysis showed that nasal discharge (0.29, 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.54; P = 0.03, presence of flies on the face (0.40, 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.64; P = 0.001, and years of formal education completed by the head of household (0.07, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.13; P = 0.03 were independent risk factors for chlamydia infection. In multivariate analysis, facial flies (0.26, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.49; P = 0.03 and years of formal education completed by the head of household (0.06, 95% CI: 0.008 to 0.11; P = 0.02 were associated risk factors for ocular chlamydial infection.We have found that the presence of facial flies and years of education of the head

  3. Survival of infants born to HIV-positive mothers, by feeding modality, in Rakai, Uganda.

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    Joseph Kagaayi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data comparing survival of formula-fed to breast-fed infants in programmatic settings are limited. We compared mortality and HIV-free of breast and formula-fed infants born to HIV-positive mothers in a program in rural, Rakai District Uganda. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred eighty two infants born to HIV-positive mothers were followed at one, six and twelve months postpartum. Mothers were given infant-feeding counseling and allowed to make informed choices as to whether to formula-feed or breast-feed. Eligible mothers and infants received antiretroviral therapy (ART if indicated. Mothers and their newborns received prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (pMTCT if they were not receiving ART. Infant HIV infection was detected by PCR (Roche Amplicor 1.5 during the follow-up visits. Kaplan Meier time-to-event methods were used to compare mortality and HIV-free survival. The adjusted hazard ratio (Adjusted HR of infant HIV-free survival was estimated by Cox regression. Seventy-five infants (41% were formula-fed while 107 (59% were breast-fed. Exclusive breast-feeding was practiced by only 25% of breast-feeding women at one month postpartum. The cumulative 12-month probability of infant mortality was 18% (95% CI = 11%-29% among the formula-fed compared to 3% (95% CI = 1%-9% among the breast-fed infants (unadjusted hazard ratio (HR = 6.1(95% CI = 1.7-21.4, P-value < 0.01. There were no statistically significant differentials in HIV-free survival by feeding choice (86% in the formula-fed compared to 96% in breast-fed group (Adjusted RH = 2.8[95%CI = 0.67-11.7, P-value = 0.16] CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Formula-feeding was associated with a higher risk of infant mortality than breastfeeding in this rural population. Our findings suggest that formula-feeding should be discouraged in similar African settings.

  4. Real-time ed end-point Polymerase Chain Reaction per la quantizzazione del DNA di Citomegalovirus: confronto tra metodi e con il test per l’antigene pp65

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    Tiziano Allice

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitave Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR for Cytomegalovirus (CMV DNA provides highly sensitive and specific data for detecting CMV as well as monitoring the infection and determining the appropriate antiviral strategy.To determine the clinical application of a recently introduced real-time (RT PCR assay for CMV DNA quantitation in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs and defining its correlation with the commercial quantitative end-point (EP PCR method COBAS AMPLICOR CMV Monitor and pp65 antigen test. Sequential PBL samples (n=158 from 32 liver transplanted patients with CMV asymptomatic infection and positive for CMV DNA by EP-PCR were retrospectively analysed with RT-PCR and studied according to pp65 antigen levels. A good correlation was found between RT-PCR and pp65 antigen test (r=0.691 and between the two PCR assays (r=0.761. RT-PCR data were significantly higher in pre-emptive treated patients (those with >20 pp65+positive cells, median value: 3.8 log10 copies/500,000 PBLs than in not-treated ones (2.9 logs.According to pp65 levels of 0, 1-10, 11-20, 21-50, 51-100 and >100 positive cells/200,000 PBLs, median CMV DNA load by RT-PCR was 2.6, 3.0, 3.6, 4.0. 4.2 and 4.8, log10 copies/ 500,000 PBLs, respectively (EP-PCR CMV DNA levels: 2. 8, 2.9, 3.8, 3.7, 3.9 and 4.0 logs. For samples with >20 pp65+cells, that is above the level at which pre-emptive therapy was started, RT-PCR values were significantly higher than in groups with less than 20 pp65+cells, whereas EP-PCR values did not significantly differ and showed a slower progression rate. Dilutions of DNA from CMV AD169 strain were used to probe RT-PCR reproducibility (between and intra-assay variability < 2% and sensitivity (100% detection rate at 10 copies/reaction, 28.5% with EP-PCR. A significant improvement is coming from the introduction of RT-PCR to the study of CMV DNA dynamics in differently CMV infected patients due to a more reliable quantitation of CMV DNA for moderate and high

  5. 548 Immunoglobulin a Deficiency, HPV and Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jorge; Garip, Emilio; Benitez, Monica; Guzman, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Background Selective IgA deficiency is the most common primary immunodeficiency. Serum IgA level lower than 7 mg/dL is considered selective IgA deficiency. Most people with selective IgA deficiency are asymptomatic, with incidental findings. Others may present recurrent respiratory infections, allergic symptoms, other infections and autoimmune diseases. It represents a genetically heterogeneous group of abnormalities. We report 2 cases of IgA-deficiency, HPV, and cancer, which required oral mucosa and tongue surgery. Methods Case I: Female patient, 30 years old. Medical history: vaginal HPV and Herpes. No promiscuous conduct. Complaint: recurrent infections. Physical exam: oral white lesions are observed. Laboratory findings: serum immunoglobulin A: lower than 7 mg%, secretory immunoglobulin A: lower than 1 mg%. Both exams were repeated and determinations showed low values. Cytology - Glucose - serum protein electrophoresis - Ig G - Ig M - CD3 - CD4 - CD8 - CD19 - CD56 all determinations showed normal values. HIV I /II: negative. Biopsy of oral mucosa with the following report: severe dysplasia and intraepithelial carcinoma. Signs of HPV. Surgery was performed on oral mucosa with the following pathology report: moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Microscopic, morphological changes related to cytopathogenic viral effects. The patient presented good evolution. Case II: Female patient 40 years of age. Medical history: HPV and genital herpes. No promiscuous conduct. Complaint: leukoplakia in tongue edges. Physical examination: oral white lesions. Laboratory serum immunoglobulin A: value obtained: lower than 7 mg%. Cytology - Glucose - serum protein electrophoresis - Ig G - Ig M - CD3 - CD4 - CD8 - CD19 - CD56 with normal values. HIV I/II: negative. Surgery was performed in tongue and regional lymph node. Tongue Pathology: moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with negative edges. HPV (+) PCR. Conclusion We report on the possible association

  6. A comprehensive serological and supplemental evaluation of hepatitis B "seroyield" blood donors: A cross-sectional study from a tertiary healthcare center in India

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    Prashant Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study addressed the interesting findings of supplemental evaluation of hepatitis B "seroyield" donors. Materials and Methods: Each blood donor sample was tested for anti-human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-I/HIV type II (HIV-II, HBsAg, and anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV antibody by enhanced chemiluminescence method and subjected to individual donor-nucleic acid testing (NAT for HIV-I, hepatitis B virus (HBV, and HCV. NAT test was performed using the eSAS system, Procleix Ultrio Assay, Novartis Diagnostics, CA, US. Confirmation of HBsAg was done using HBsAg Confirmatory Kit (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, Johnson & Johnson, USA and viral load assessment was done using Cobas TaqMan real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay (Roche Molecular Systems, Branchburg, NJ, USA. To provide information on the stage of infection, specimens were tested for anti-HBc total (IgG + IgM, anti-HBc IgM and HBeAg. HBeAg-negative samples were tested for anti-HBe antibody. Results: A total of 60 hepatitis B seroyield donors which showed mean initial sample/cutoff of 1.6 with enhanced chemiluminescence assay were investigated further for confirmation of disease status. All 60 cases were confirmed positive with neutralization assay (VITROS HBsAg Confirmatory Kit while no target was detected on viral load assessment with RT-PCR. Sixteen donors were HBeAg positive (4 IgM anti-HBc positive and 12 IgM anti-HBc negative and 44 were IgM anti-HBc negative, anti-HBc total positive, and anti-HBe positive. Conclusion: About 7.7% of HBsAg positive and NAT nonreactive donors (nondetectable HBV DNA could be potentially infectious (HBeAg positive, whereas rest of the donors were consistent with chronic HBV infection.

  7. Detecção do DNA de Chlamydia trachomatis em espondiloartropatias e artrite reumatóide Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA in spondyloarthropathies and rheumatoid arthritis

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    Rafael Navarrete Fernandez

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis é a bactéria responsável pela doença sexualmente transmissível mais prevalente no mundo. A maioria das infecções em homens e mulheres é assintomática e, quando não diagnosticada e tratada, pode causar artrite e complicações relacionadas ao aparelho reprodutor feminino. OBJETIVO: pesquisar o DNA de C. trachomatis no líquido sinovial e urina de pacientes com espondiloartropatias e artrite reumatóide (AR, avaliar a presença de anticorpos séricos IgG e IgM anti-C. trachomatis nesses dois grupos de doenças e identificar o antígeno HLA-B27 em pacientes com espondiloartropatias. MÉTODOS: a população do estudo consistiu em 15 pacientes com espondiloartropatias: nove com espondiloartropatia indiferenciada (EI e seis com artrite reativa (ARe (grupo I e 15 pacientes com AR (grupo II. O DNA clamidial foi pesquisado em amostras de líquido sinovial e urina de todos os pacientes, empregando-se a PCR (Amplicor Roche, Suíça. Os anticorpos IgG e IgM anticlamidiais foram quantificados por imunofluorescência indireta (IFI, enquanto o HLA-B27 foi tipado em 15 pacientes do grupo I por citometria de fluxo. RESULTADOS: o DNA da C. trachomatis foi evidenciado apenas em uma amostra de líquido sinovial do grupo I (6,7%, sendo o paciente portador de ARe. Em dois pacientes com AR, o DNA clamidial foi identificado na urina (13,3%. Os anticorpos IgG anticlamidiais estavam presentes em oito pacientes da população estudada, três do grupo I (20% e cinco do grupo II (33,3%. O maior título desse anticorpo (1/256 associou-se com a presença do DNA clamidial na urina de um paciente do grupo II. O anticorpo IgM não foi detectado em nenhuma amostra dos dois grupos. O antígeno HLA-B27 foi positivo em quatro indivíduos do grupo II (26,7% e sua presença relacionou-se com sacroileíte. CONCLUSÕES: os resultados deste estudo indicam que em pacientes com diagnóstico de espondiloartropatias e artrite reumatóide, com quadro articular

  8. HIV classification using coalescent theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ming [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letiner, Thomas K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Algorithms for subtype classification and breakpoint detection of HIV-I sequences are based on a classification system of HIV-l. Hence, their quality highly depend on this system. Due to the history of creation of the current HIV-I nomenclature, the current one contains inconsistencies like: The phylogenetic distance between the subtype B and D is remarkably small compared with other pairs of subtypes. In fact, it is more like the distance of a pair of subsubtypes Robertson et al. (2000); Subtypes E and I do not exist any more since they were discovered to be composed of recombinants Robertson et al. (2000); It is currently discussed whether -- instead of CRF02 being a recombinant of subtype A and G -- subtype G should be designated as a circulating recombination form (CRF) nd CRF02 as a subtype Abecasis et al. (2007); There are 8 complete and over 400 partial HIV genomes in the LANL-database which belong neither to a subtype nor to a CRF (denoted by U). Moreover, the current classification system is somehow arbitrary like all complex classification systems that were created manually. To this end, it is desirable to deduce the classification system of HIV systematically by an algorithm. Of course, this problem is not restricted to HIV, but applies to all fast mutating and recombining viruses. Our work addresses the simpler subproblem to score classifications of given input sequences of some virus species (classification denotes a partition of the input sequences in several subtypes and CRFs). To this end, we reconstruct ancestral recombination graphs (ARG) of the input sequences under restrictions determined by the given classification. These restritions are imposed in order to ensure that the reconstructed ARGs do not contradict the classification under consideration. Then, we find the ARG with maximal probability by means of Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The probability of the most probable ARG is interpreted as a score for the classification. To our

  9. Contrasting HIV phylogenetic relationships and V3 loop protein similarities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korber, B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States) Santa Fe Inst., NM (United States)); Myers, G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1992-01-01

    At least five distinct sequence subtypes of HIV-I can be identified from the major centers of the AMS pandemic. While it is too early to tell whether these subtypes are serologically or phenotypically similar or distinct in terms of properties such as pathogenicity and transmissibility, we can begin to investigate their potential for phenotypic divergence at the protein sequence level. Phylogenetic analysis of HIV DNA sequences is being widely used to examine lineages of different viral strains as they evolve and spread throughout the globe. We have identified five distinct HIV-1 subtypes (designated A-E), or clades, based on phylogenetic clustering patterns generated from genetic information from both the gag and envelope (env) genes from a spectrum of international isolates. Our initial observations concerning both HIV-1 and HIV-2 sequences indicate that conserved patterns in protein chemistry may indeed exist across distant lineages. Such patterns in V3 loop amino acid chemistry may be indicative of stable lineages or convergence within this highly variable, though functionally and immunologically critical, region. We think that there may be parallels between the apparently stable HIV-2 V3 lineage and the previously mentioned HIV-1 V3 loops which are very similar at the protein level despite being distant by cladistic analysis, and which do not possess the distinctive positively charged residues. Highly conserved V3 loop protein sequences are also encountered in SIVAGMs and CIVs (chimpanzee viral strains), which do not appear to be pathogenic in their wild-caught natural hosts.

  10. Contrasting HIV phylogenetic relationships and V3 loop protein similarities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korber, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Santa Fe Inst., NM (United States); Myers, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1992-12-31

    At least five distinct sequence subtypes of HIV-I can be identified from the major centers of the AMS pandemic. While it is too early to tell whether these subtypes are serologically or phenotypically similar or distinct in terms of properties such as pathogenicity and transmissibility, we can begin to investigate their potential for phenotypic divergence at the protein sequence level. Phylogenetic analysis of HIV DNA sequences is being widely used to examine lineages of different viral strains as they evolve and spread throughout the globe. We have identified five distinct HIV-1 subtypes (designated A-E), or clades, based on phylogenetic clustering patterns generated from genetic information from both the gag and envelope (env) genes from a spectrum of international isolates. Our initial observations concerning both HIV-1 and HIV-2 sequences indicate that conserved patterns in protein chemistry may indeed exist across distant lineages. Such patterns in V3 loop amino acid chemistry may be indicative of stable lineages or convergence within this highly variable, though functionally and immunologically critical, region. We think that there may be parallels between the apparently stable HIV-2 V3 lineage and the previously mentioned HIV-1 V3 loops which are very similar at the protein level despite being distant by cladistic analysis, and which do not possess the distinctive positively charged residues. Highly conserved V3 loop protein sequences are also encountered in SIVAGMs and CIVs (chimpanzee viral strains), which do not appear to be pathogenic in their wild-caught natural hosts.

  11. HLA-C -35kb expression SNP is associated with differential control of β-HPV infection in squamous cell carcinoma cases and controls.

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    Karin A Vineretsky

    Full Text Available A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP 35 kb upstream of the HLA-C gene is associated with HLA-C expression, and the high expressing genotype (CC has been associated with HIV-I control. HLA-C is unique among the classical MHC class I molecules for its role in the control of viral infections and recognition of abnormal or missing self. This immunosurveillance is central to the pathogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC, and of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC in particular. While sun exposure is a major risk factor for these cancers, cutaneous infections with genus β-HPV have been implicated in the development of SCC. We hypothesized that the high expression HLA-C genotype is associated with β-HPV infections. Therefore, we investigated the association between β-HPV serology and the -35 kb SNP (rs9264942 in a population-based case-control study of 510 SCC cases and 608 controls. Among controls, the high expression -35 kb SNP genotype (CC reduced the likelihood of positive serology for multiple (≥2 β-HPV infections (OR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.25-0.97, and β-HPV species 2 infection (OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.23-0.79. However, no association with β-HPV status was observed among SCC cases. Our findings suggest that underlying immunogenotype plays an important role in differential control of β-HPV in SCC cases and controls.

  12. Induction of a protein-targeted catalytic response in autoimmune prone mice: antibody-mediated cleavage of HIV-1 glycoprotein GP120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarenko, Natalia A; Vorobiev, Ivan I; Alexandrova, Elena S; Reshetnyak, Andrew V; Telegin, Georgy B; Khaidukov, Sergey V; Avalle, Bérangère; Karavanov, Alexander; Morse, Herbert C; Thomas, Daniel; Friboulet, Alain; Gabibov, Alexander G

    2006-01-10

    We have induced a polyclonal IgG that degrades the HIV-1 surface antigen, glycoprotein gp120, by taking advantage of the susceptibility of SJL mice to a peptide-induced autoimmune disorder, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Specific pathogen-free SJL mice were immunized with structural fragments of gp120, fused in-frame with encephalitogenic peptide MBP(85-101). It has resulted in a pronounced disease-associated immune response against antigens. A dramatic increase of gp120 degradation level by purified polyclonal IgG from immunized versus nonimmunized mice has been demonstrated by a newly developed fluorescence-based assay. This activity was inhibited by anti-mouse immunoglobulin antibodies as well as by Ser- and His-reactive covalent inhibitors. A dominant proteolysis site in recombinant gp120 incubated with purified polyclonal IgG from immunized mice was shown by SDS-PAGE. The SELDI-based mass spectrometry revealed that these antibodies exhibited significant specificity toward the Pro484-Leu485 peptide bond. The sequence surrounding this site is present in nearly half of the HIV-I variants. This novel strategy can be generalized for creating a catalytic vaccine against viral pathogens.

  13. Gender, culture and changing attitudes: experiences of HIV in Zimbabwe.

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    O'Brien, Stephen; Broom, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws on a series of qualitative interviews with 60 people living in economically poor communities of Harare, the capital of Zimbabwe, to provide new insight into the cultural landscape of HIV. While there has been extensive exploration of gender, sexuality, culture and HIV in Zimbabwe, there is a need to revisit these issues given the country's recent political and economic history. These questions have shaped the meanings that have been created around HIV (i.e., notions of HIV-as-death and as being produced by promiscuity) and the gendered mediation of cultural practices (i.e., forms of sexual expression and treatment uptake). Drawing on the accounts from a group directly affected by HIV, we illustrate the persistence of gendered and spiritualised ideas about 'blame', 'transmission' and 'treatment' and the disproportionate burden that still falls on Zimbabwean women. We conclude with an exploration of how everyday understandings of HIV may be shifting and the ways in which marginality, discrimination and stigma may be being challenged by openness, dialogue and attitude change.

  14. Molecular cloning and analysis of full-length genome of HIV type 1 strains prevalent in countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masharsky, Alexei E; Klimov, Nikolai A; Kozlov, Andrei P

    2003-10-01

    The HIV-1 epidemic among injecting drug users (IDUs) in countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU) was caused mainly by two HIV-1 variants: subtype A and CRF03-AB. To date only three full-length HIV-I genomes from the FSU have been sequenced: one subtype A from Byelorussia and two CRF03-AB from Russia. We report the full-length genome cloning and analysis of two more HIV-1 strains from the FSU countries (98UA0116 of subtype A and 98BY10443 of CRF03-AB). Isolate 98UA0116 is the second cloned and sequenced full-length HIV-1 genome of subtype A lineage from the FSU, which may be a novel subsubtype within sub-type A. Isolate 98BY10443 is the third full-length HIV-1 genome of CRF03-AB in the world to be cloned and sequenced. Additionally, it is the first CRF03-AB strain discovered in Byelorussia. Cloned genomic sequences of the FSU HIV-1 isolates are being used for the development of a region-specific HIV-1 vaccine.

  15. Cultured, AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma cells express endothelial cell markers and are weakly malignant in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, W K; Werner, S; Risau, W; Remberger, K; Hofschneider, P H

    1988-11-15

    Up to 30% of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) suffer from Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS). The histogenesis and neoplastic nature of this tumor is still controversial. We have established cell cultures of KS biopsies from 7 patients with AIDS. All donors were seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus I (HIV-I), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). The tumors were histologically shown to be KS. Cell cultures derived from these tumors all expressed the endothelial cell marker BMA 120 antigen. Most of these cultures were positive for acetylated low-density lipoprotein (acLDL) uptake and alkaline phosphatase (AP) expression, and negative for factor-VIII-related antigen (FVIII-RAg). The staining pattern was heterogeneous with respect to number of endothelial cell markers expressed in each culture. We conclude from subcloning experiments that the cultured cells cease to express acLDL receptor and AP, but not the antigen detected by the monoclonal antibody (MAb) BMA 120. The cells grew well in culture up to 50 passages and showed a fibroblast-like morphology. Assays performed to investigate their degree of malignancy revealed a significantly increased passage number under reduced serum conditions as compared to normal fibroblasts but no tumor formation in nude mice. Neither HIV, HBV nor CMV sequences were found in any of the cell lines tested. We conclude that AIDS-KS is an endothelial-cell-derived neoplasm of low malignancy and that HIV, HBV and CMV are not directly involved in its genesis.

  16. Structure of a novel shoulder-to-shoulder p24 dimer in complex with the broad-spectrum antibody A10F9 and its implication in capsid assembly.

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    Ying Gu

    Full Text Available Mature HIV-1 viral particles assemble as a fullerene configuration comprising p24 capsid hexamers, pentamers and dimers. In this paper, we report the X-ray crystal structures of the p24 protein from natural HIV-1 strain (BMJ4 in complex with Fab A10F9, which recognizes a conserved epitope in the C-terminal domain of the BMJ4 p24 protein. Our structures reveal a novel shoulder-to-shoulder p24 dimerization mode that is mediated by an S-S bridge at C177. Consistent with these structures, the shoulder-to-shoulder dimer that was obtained from the BMJ4 strain was also observed in p24 proteins from other strains by the introduction of a cysteine residue at position 177. The potential biological significance was further validated by the introduction of a C177A mutation in the BMJ4 strain, which then displays a low infectivity. Our data suggest that this novel shoulder-to-shoulder dimer interface trapped by this unique S-S bridge could represent a physiologically relevant mode of HIV-1 capsid assembly during virus maturation, although Cys residue itself may not be critical for HIV-I replication.

  17. Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Activities of the Genus Swertia (Gentianaceae): A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zhao, Yan-Li; Huang, Heng-Yu; Wang, Yuan-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Swertia plants have been considered to be medicinal plants useful for the treatment of various ailments for thousands of years, especially in Asian countries. This is due to the broad variety of chemical compounds that provide multiple ligands for bonding to different endogenous biomacromolecules for patients. Chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Swertia plants are summarized in this paper. Approximately 419 metabolites and 40 bioactive compounds have been reported from 30 Swertia species, including xanthones, flavonoids, seco-iridiods, iridiods, triterpenoids, alkaloids, volatiles, and other secondary metabolites. The bioactivities of Swertia plants include anticarcinogenic, hepatoprotective, anti-oxidant, hypoglycemic, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-diabetic, gut, and airways modulatory, metabolizing isozymes inhibitory, neuroprotective, HIV-I reverse transcriptases inhibitory, anticholinergic, and CNS-depressant activities, etc. In addition, biosynthetic pathways of xanthones, and seco-iridiods, two most important secondary metabolites for Swertia, are elucidated. The xanthones biosynthetic pathway is a mixed biosynthetic pathway involved the shikimate and the malonate routes, and the seco-iridoid pathway starts with geraniol derived from IPP which is produced either via the MEP or the MVA pathway. This review will offer a reference for future researches on the protection of natural resources, the investigation of therapeutic basis, new drug development, and so forth. Metabolic pathways of some crucial active compounds were also discussed in this review.

  18. Differences in time of virus appearance in the blood and virus-specific immune responses in intravenous and intrarectal primary SIVmac251 infection of rhesus macaques; a pilot study

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    Washington Parks Robyn

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-I can be transmitted by intravenous inoculation of contaminated blood or blood product or sexually through mucosal surfaces. Here we performed a pilot study in the SIVmac251 macaque model to address whether the route of viral entry influences the kinetics of the appearance and the size of virus-specific immune in different tissue compartments. Methods For this purpose, of 2 genetically defined Mamu-A*01-positive macaques, 1 was exposed intravenously and the other intrarectally to the same SIVmac251 viral stock and virus-specific CD8+ T-cells were measured within the first 12 days of infection in the blood and at day 12 in several tissues following euthanasia. Results Virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses to Gag, Env, and particularly Tat appeared earlier in the blood of the animal exposed by the mucosal route than in the animal exposed intravenously. The magnitude of these virus-specific responses was consistently higher in the systemic tissues and GALT of the macaque exposed by the intravenous route, suggesting a higher viral burden in the tissues as reflected by the faster appearance of virus in plasma. Differences in the ability of the virus-specific CD8+ T-cells to respond in vitro to specific peptide stimulation were also observed and the greatest proliferative ability was found in the GALT of the animal infected by the intrarectal route. Conclusions These data may suggest that the natural mucosal barrier may delay viral spreading. The consequences of this observation, if confirmed in studies with a larger number of animals, may have implications in vaccine development.

  19. HBV, HCV and HIV seroprevalence among blood donors in Istanbul, Turkey: how effective are the changes in the national blood transfusion policies?

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    Ali Acar

    Full Text Available The national blood transfusion policies have been changed significantly in recent years in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV in blood donors at the Red Crescent Center in Istanbul and to evaluate the effect of changes in the national blood transfusion policies on the prevalence of these infections. The screening results of 72695 blood donations at the Red Crescent Center in Istanbul between January and December 2007 were evaluated retrospectively. HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV-1/2 were screened by microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA method. Samples found to be positive for anti-HIV 1/2 and anti-HCV were confirmed by Inno-Lia HCV Ab III and Inno-Lia HIV I/II Score, respectively. The seropositivity rates for HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV-1/2 were determined as 1.76%, 0.07%, and 0.008%, respectively. Compared to the previously published data from Red Crescent Centers in Turkey, it was found that HBV and HCV seroprevalances decreased and HIV seroprevalance increased in recent years. In conclusion, we believe that the drop in HBV and HCV prevalence rates are likely multifactorial and may have resulted from more diligent donor questioning upon screening, a higher level of public awareness on viral hepatitis as well as the expansion of HBV vaccination coverage in Turkey. Another factor to contribute to the decreased prevalence of HCV stems from the use of more sensitive confirmation testing on all reactive results, thereby eliminating a fair amount of false positive cases. Despite similar transmission routes, the increase in HIV prevalence in contrast to HBV and HCV may be linked to the increase in AIDS cases in Turkey in recent years.

  20. Cervical dysplasia and human immunodeficiency virus infection in women: prevalence and associated factors. Groupe d'Epidémiologie Clinique du SIDA en Aquitaine (GESCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocke, C; Leroy, V; Morlat, P; Rivel, J; Duluc, M C; Boulogne, N; Tandonnet, B; Dupon, M; Brun, J L; Dabis, F

    1998-10-01

    To study the prevalence of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) and its association with HIV-I infection, controlling for other risk factors of CIN. Cross-sectional survey. HIV-1 seropositive (HIV+) and seronegative (HIV-) women were enrolled at the Obstetrics-Gynecologic Departments of the Bordeaux University Hospital from April 1993 to June 1995. A gynecologic check-up was performed with a clinical examination, a colposcopy and a Papanicolaou smear. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) were screened. Colposcopy was interpreted as: normal, low-grade or high-grade lesions. Interpretation of Papanicolaou smears was based on the 1988 Bethesda system using three descriptive diagnoses: normal, low-grade and high-grade Squamous Intraepithelial lesions (SILs). If colposcopy showed a high grade lesion or Papanicolaou smear a high-grade SIL, a cervical biopsy was performed. Absence of CIN was defined by normal Papanicolaou smear and colposcopy. High grade CIN was defined by either identification of high grade SIL on Papanicolaou smear or high grade lesion on colposcopy confirmed by CIN2-3 lesion on biopsy. Other cases were classified as low-grade CIN. HPV infection was diagnosed on presence of koilocytosis on cytological or histological specimens. Prevalence of CIN was significantly higher in the 128 HIV+ women than in the 102 HIV- women: 34.4% vs. 13.7% (O.R.=3.30). Among HIV+ women, 25.8% had low-grade CIN and 8.6% high-grade CIN versus 10.8% and 2.9%, respectively among the HIV- women. Prevalence of HPV infection was 50.0% among women with CIN vs. 5.8% in women without CIN (P= 10(-6)). In the multivariate analysis of the determinants of CIN, smoking more than ten pack-years and HPV infection were the only two variables associated with CIN while association with HIV infection disappeared. Among HIV+ women, the variables associated with CIN were clinical AIDS and HPV infection.

  1. Spirituality/religiosity, substance use, and HIV testing among young black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrico, Adam W; Storholm, Erik David; Flentje, Annesa; Arnold, Emily A; Pollack, Lance M; Neilands, Torsten B; Rebchook, Gregory M; Peterson, John L; Eke, Agatha; Johnson, Wayne; Kegeles, Susan M

    2017-05-01

    Spirituality and religiosity may serve as both a resource and a barrier to HIV prevention with young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM). We examined indices of spirituality/religiosity as correlates of binge drinking, stimulant use, and recent HIV testing in a sample of YBMSM. From 2011-2013, annual venue-based surveys of sexually active YBMSM ages 18-29 were conducted in Dallas and Houston, Texas. Binge drinking and stimulant use were assessed in the past two months. Participants recently tested for HIV (i.e., within the past six months) were compared to those without recent HIV testing (i.e., never tested or tested more than six months ago). Among the 1565 HIV-negative or HIV-unknown YBMSM enrolled, more engagement in spiritual and religious activities was associated with greater odds of reporting stimulant use (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]=1.20; 95% CI=1.04-1.40) while higher spiritual coping was associated with lower odds of reporting stimulant use (AOR=0.66; 95% CI=0.56-0.78). Binge drinking was independently associated with 29% lower odds of recent HIV testing (AOR=0.71; 95% CI=0.55-0.92), but lower odds of binge drinking did not mediate the association of engagement in spiritual and religious activities with 27% greater odds of recent HIV testing (AOR=1.27; 95% CI=1.11-1.46). Among YBMSM, culturally tailored approaches addressing spirituality/religiosity could support prevention of stimulant use and increase HIV testing. In particular, expanded efforts are needed to promote HIV testing in binge drinkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Diagnostic performance of line-immunoassay based algorithms for incident HIV-1 infection

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    Schüpbach Jörg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serologic testing algorithms for recent HIV seroconversion (STARHS provide important information for HIV surveillance. We have previously demonstrated that a patient's antibody reaction pattern in a confirmatory line immunoassay (INNO-LIA™ HIV I/II Score provides information on the duration of infection, which is unaffected by clinical, immunological and viral variables. In this report we have set out to determine the diagnostic performance of Inno-Lia algorithms for identifying incident infections in patients with known duration of infection and evaluated the algorithms in annual cohorts of HIV notifications. Methods Diagnostic sensitivity was determined in 527 treatment-naive patients infected for up to 12 months. Specificity was determined in 740 patients infected for longer than 12 months. Plasma was tested by Inno-Lia and classified as either incident ( Results The 10 best algorithms had a mean raw sensitivity of 59.4% and a mean specificity of 95.1%. Adjustment for overrepresentation of patients in the first quarter year of infection further reduced the sensitivity. In the preferred model, the mean adjusted sensitivity was 37.4%. Application of the 10 best algorithms to four annual cohorts of HIV-1 notifications totalling 2'595 patients yielded a mean IIR of 0.35 in 2005/6 (baseline and of 0.45, 0.42 and 0.35 in 2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively. The increase between baseline and 2008 and the ensuing decreases were highly significant. Other adjustment models yielded different absolute IIR, although the relative changes between the cohorts were identical for all models. Conclusions The method can be used for comparing IIR in annual cohorts of HIV notifications. The use of several different algorithms in combination, each with its own sensitivity and specificity to detect incident infection, is advisable as this reduces the impact of individual imperfections stemming primarily from relatively low sensitivities and

  3. Resilience as a moderator between syndemics and depression in mothers living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Idia B; Howell, Kathryn H; Kamody, Rebecca C; Maclin-Akinyemi, Courtney; Mandell, Jessica

    2018-03-02

    Physical and emotional adversities in mothers have rippling effects across the family system. While an association between individual maternal adversities and problematic mental health outcomes has been established, less is known about co-existing adversities in mothers. Consistent with the syndemic conceptual framework, we examined the co-occurrence of Substance Abuse, Violence, and AIDS/HIV (i.e., SAVA), which are three adversities that uniquely affect racial/ethnic minorities, individuals living in poverty, and people in urban communities. We assessed the relationship between SAVA adversities and depressive symptoms among mothers living with HIV, as well as the moderating effect of resilience on this relationship. Participants included 55 mothers (M age  = 41.24, SD = 9.01; 81% Black) living with HIV in the U.S. MidSouth. Mothers were recruited from community agencies serving individuals living with HIV and completed hour-long interviews about SAVA, depression, resilience, life stressors, and their child's mental health. Analyses were conducted in PROCESS for SPSS to test the relationship between SAVA and depression, as moderated by resilience. Analyses controlled for the influence of child maladaptive functioning (given known associations with maternal mental health) and maternal life stressors (given established associations with depressive symptoms). Findings indicated that experiencing more than one SAVA variable was associated with greater depressive symptoms (p resilience was associated with lower depressive symptoms (r = -.45; p resilience was low and weaker when resilience was high. Results not only highlight how co-occurring adversities exacerbate depressive symptoms, but also underscore the role of resilience as a key protective factor among mothers living with HIV. Resilience could therefore be a target of strengths-based treatment to reduce the negative effects of SAVA on depressive symptoms among mothers.

  4. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related Kaposi's sarcoma: clinical features, staging, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezube, B J

    2000-08-01

    The clinical course of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is highly variable, ranging from minimal stable disease to explosive growth. Although KS is primarily a cutaneous disease, extracutaneous spread is common; the oral cavity, gastrointestinal (GI) tract, lungs, and lymph nodes are often involved. The psychosocial burden associated with KS may be profound. The initial evaluation of a patient with KS consists mainly of a thorough physical examination with special attention paid to those areas typically affected by the disease, the testing of stool for occult blood, and a chest x-ray. Treatment options depend greatly on the tumor (extent of tumor and rate of growth), human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-I) viral load, and host factors (CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and overall medical condition). Limited cutaneous disease may be treated with topical alitretinoin gel, intralesional vinblastine, radiation therapy, laser therapy, or cryotherapy. The high benefit-to-risk ratio of liposomal anthracyclines (daunorubicin and doxorubicin) and paclitaxel have tremendously simplified the management of patients in whom systemic therapy is warranted. Additionally, epidemiologic evidence of a marked decline in new KS since the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) advocates its use. KS herpes virus/human herpes virus 8 (KSHV/HHV-8), sex hormones, and the processes of angiogenesis and cellular differentiation all serve as targets for pathogenesis-based clinical trials. Virtually all patients with KS can benefit from the many approved and investigational agents developed through years of collaborative translational and clinical research.

  5. Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay seroreactivity among healthy Indian donors and its association with other transfusion transmitted diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Pahuja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of syphilis infection by Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA among blood donors in Delhi and to study their correlation with other markers of transfusion transmitted infections such as hepatitis C virus (HCV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg so as to establish the utility of TPHA over and above venereal diseases research laboratory test (VDRL, not only as a marker for testing T. pallidum infection, but also as a marker of high risk behavior. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in the Regional Blood Transfusion Centre, Lady Hardinge Medical College and associated Sucheta Kriplani Hospital, New Delhi for a period of 2 years. Donated blood was screened for TPHA seroreactivity along with screening for anti HIV I and II, anti-HCV, HBsAg by third generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. A total of 8082 serum samples of blood donors were collected from healthy blood donors in our blood bank. They were classified into two groups- test group and control group based on TPHA positivity. The co-occurrence of HBsAg, HIV and HCV infection were determined in TPHA positive blood donors (test group in comparison with TPHA negative blood donors (control group. Results: We found the TPHA seroreactivity to be 4.4% in Delhi′s blood donors. Nearly 8.2% (663/8082 of the donated blood had serological evidence of infection by at least one pathogen (syphilis/HIV/hepatitis B virus/HCV and 6.63% (44/663 donors with positive serology had multiple infections (two or more. Quadruple infection was seen in one donor, triple infection was seen in three donors and double infection was seen in 40 donors. Prevalence of HIV seroreactivity was found to be statistically significant and HCV seroreactivity statistically insignificant in TPHA positive group in comparison to TPHA negative group. Discussion: In our study, the

  6. Job satisfaction and turnover intentions among health care staff providing services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naburi, Helga; Mujinja, Phares; Kilewo, Charles; Orsini, Nicola; Bärnighausen, Till; Manji, Karim; Biberfeld, Gunnel; Sando, David; Geldsetzer, Pascal; Chalamila, Guerino; Ekström, Anna Mia

    2017-09-06

    Option B+ for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV (i.e., lifelong antiretroviral treatment for all pregnant and breastfeeding mothers living with HIV) was initiated in Tanzania in 2013. While there is evidence that this policy has benefits for the health of the mother and the child, Option B+ may also increase the workload for health care providers in resource-constrained settings, possibly leading to job dissatisfaction and unwanted workforce turnover. From March to April 2014, a questionnaire asking about job satisfaction and turnover intentions was administered to all nurses at 36 public-sector health facilities offering antenatal and PMTCT services in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with job dissatisfaction and intention to quit one's job. Slightly over half (54%, 114/213) of the providers were dissatisfied with their current job, and 35% (74/213) intended to leave their job. Most of the providers were dissatisfied with low salaries and high workload, but satisfied with workplace harmony and being able to follow their moral values. The odds of reporting to be globally dissatisfied with one's job were high if the provider was dissatisfied with salary (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 5.6, 95% CI 1.2-26.8), availability of protective gear (aOR 4.0, 95% CI 1.5-10.6), job description (aOR 4.3, 95% CI 1.2-14.7), and working hours (aOR 3.2, 95% CI 1.3-7.6). Perceiving clients to prefer PMTCT Option B+ reduced job dissatisfaction (aOR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.8). The following factors were associated with providers' intention to leave their current job: job stability dissatisfaction (aOR 3.7, 95% CI 1.3-10.5), not being recognized by one's superior (aOR 3.6, 95% CI 1.7-7.6), and poor feedback on the overall unit performance (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-5.8). Job dissatisfaction and turnover intentions are comparatively high among nurses in Dar es Salaam's public-sector maternal care

  7. HIV evolution in early infection: selection pressures, patterns of insertion and deletion, and the impact of apobec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korber, Bette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Giorgi, Elena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gaschen, B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daniels, M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The pattern of viral diversification in newly infected individuals provides information about the host environment and immune responses typically experienced by the newly transmitted virus. For example, sites that tend to evolve rapidly across multiple early-infection patients could be involved in enabling escape from common early immune responses, represent adaptation for rapid growth in a newly infected host, or reversion from less fit forms of the virus that were selected for immune escape in previous hosts. Here we investigated the diversification of HIV -I env coding sequences in 81 very early B SUbtype infections previously shown to have resulted from transmission or expansion of single viruses (n=78) or two closely related viruses (n=3). In these cases the sequence of the infecting virus can be estimated accurately, enabling inference of both the direction of substitutions as well as distinction between insertion and deletion events. By integrating information across multiple acutely infected hosts, we find evidence of adaptive evolution of HIV-1 envand identified a subset of codon sites that diversified more rapidly than can be explained by a model of neutral evolution. Of 24 such rapidly diversifying sites, 14 were either (i) clustered and embedded in CTL epitopes that were verified experimentally or predicted based on the individual's HLA or (ii) in a nucleotide context indicative of APOBEC mediated G-to-A substitutions, despite having excluded heavily hypermutated sequences prior to the analysis. In several cases, a rapidly evolving site was both embedded in an APOBEC motif and in a CTL epitope, suggesting that APOBEC may facilitate early immune escape. Ten rapidly diversifying sites could not be explained by CTL escape or APOBEC hypermutation, including the most frequently mutated site, in the fusion peptide of gp4l. We also examined the distribution, extent, and sequence context of insertions and deletions and provide evidence that the length

  8. A clinical, epidemological, laboratorial, histological and ultrasonographical evaluation of anti-HCV EIA-2 positive blood donors Avaliação clínica, epidemiológica, laboratorial, histológica e ultrassonográfica de doadores de sangue anti-HCV EIA-2 positivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando L. GONÇALES JR

    2000-06-01

    RIBA-2 positive subjects, in 37.5% of the indeterminate RIBA-2 donors and in 9% of the negative RIBA-2 donors. Chronic hepatitis has also been observed in 50% of the histopathological exams of the anti-HCV EIA-2 reagent donors which were indeterminate RIBA-2. Among 18 blood donors with minimal changes histopathological exam 11 (61% were HCV-RNA positive. Our blood donors anti-HCV reagent generally had clinical, laboratorial and histopathological features observed in patients with chronic HCV hepatitis and a high proportion could be identified in interviews and medical evaluation realized in blood blanks. Generally, these HCV infected donors are identified and discharged only by the serological tests results.Entre 1992 e 1997 foram avaliados, ambulatorialmente, 790 doadores de sangue com teste anti-HCV EIA-2 fortemente reagente (relação entre a densidade ótica da amostra / "cut-off" > 3, que haviam sido detectados na triagem sorológica do banco de sangue. Todos eram negativos para doença de Chagas, sífilis, hepatite B (HBsAg e AIDS. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas, na primeira consulta ambulatorial, para a realização de hemograma, exames bioquímicos e novos testes sorológicos para a HVC (anti-HCV EIA-2. Em 226 doadores anti-HCV EIA-2 repetidamente reagentes, realizou-se o teste suplementar de "immunoblot" para a HVC (RIBA-2. Em 209 doadores, pesquisou-se a presença do RNA do VHC pelo teste do PCR, através de exame automatizado (HCV-AMPLICOR, ROCHE. A ultra-sonografia abdominal foi realizada em 366 doadores e a biópsia hepática em 269 concordantes. Notou-se que 95,6% eram EIA-2 repetidamente reagentes, 94% eram assintomáticos e que apenas 2% referiram icterícia pregressa. Em 47% detectou-se, pelo menos, um fator de risco para a transmissão do VHC, sendo o uso de drogas E.V. o principal deles (27,8%. A transfusão de sangue foi o segundo fator na transmissão da HVC (27,2%. Hepatomegalia foi encontrada em 54%. Esplenomegalia e sinais de hipertens

  9. A phase-I study of the safety, pharmacokinetics, and antiviral activity of combination didanosine and ribavirin in patients with HIV-1 disease. AIDS Clinical Trials Group 231 Protocol Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japour, A J; Lertora, J J; Meehan, P M; Erice, A; Connor, J D; Griffith, B P; Clax, P A; Holden-Wiltse, J; Hussey, S; Walesky, M; Cooney, E; Pollard, R; Timpone, J; McLaren, C; Johanneson, N; Wood, K; Booth, D; Bassiakos, Y; Crumpacker, C S

    1996-11-01

    A phase-I study was conducted to examine the safety, pharmacokinetics, and activity of combination 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI) and ribavirin against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-positive individuals with CD4+ cell counts of < or = 500/microliter. Nineteen patients were enrolled into the study in which ddI monotherapy (200 mg p.o.b.i.d.) was administered for the first 4 weeks, followed by the coadministration of ribavirin (600 mg p.o.q.d.) and ddI (200 mg p.o.b.i.d.) for 8 or 20 additional weeks. The combination regimen was safe and well tolerated. Three patients did not complete 12 weeks of the study because of adverse events or voluntary withdrawal. The pharmacokinetic studies performed at weeks 4, 6, and 12 on specimens collected from the 15 individuals who completed 12 weeks of therapy revealed no pharmacokinetic interaction between ddI and ribavirin. A significant decline from baseline in HIV-1 titer as measured by quantitative HIV-1 culture was detected both during the ddI-monotherapy phase (week 4, p < 0.001) and during the combination-therapy ddI + ribavirin phase (week 12, p < 0.001); the median drop observed was 0.90 log10 at week 4 and 0.92 log10 at week 12. While the addition of ribavirin did not result in further reductions in viremia in the following weeks on study treatment, 13 (81%) of the 16 patients had at least a -0.5 log10 change in viral titer at week 12. The median decline in plasma viral RNA was 0.68 log10 at week 4(p < 0.001) and 0.67 log10 at week 12 (p = 0.005). CD4+ cell counts increased above baseline significantly during the ddI-monotherapy phase of the study (p = 0.0038). The median increase was +26 cells/mm3 at week 4 and +11 cells/mm3 at week 12; for patients who remained on treatment through 24 weeks, the median CD4+ cell count increase was +10 cells/mm3. The L74V ddI resistance-conferring HIV-I reverse-transcriptase mutation emerged in 53% of the patients. Patients with non-syncytium-inducing HIV variants demonstrated

  10. Spatially Defined Oligonucleotide Arrays. Technical Report for Phase II; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    ,4,1 2). The hybridization pattern of a fluorescently labeled nucleic acid target is used to gain primary structure information of the target. This format can be applied to a broad range of nucleic acid sequence analysis problems including pathogen identification, polymorphism detection, human identification, mRNA expression monitoring and de novo sequencing. In this review, we briefly describe the method of light-directed chemid synthesis to create high-density arrays of oligonucleotide probes, the method of fluorescently labeling target nucleic acids for hybridization to the probe arrays, the detection of hybridized targets by epi-fluorescence confocal scanning and the data analysis procedures used to interpret the hybridization signals. To illustrate the use of specific high-density oligonucleotide probe arrays, we describe their application to screening the reverse transcriptase (rt) and protease (pro) genes of HIV-I for polymorphisms and drug-resistance conferring mutations

  11. CINP 2005 Regional Meeting, 20-22 April 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anissa Abi-Dargham

    2005-04-01

    . Alcohol use ong young persons: A focus group study in Southwest Nigeria O A Obeijide 22. Personality disorders and personality traits among tyoe 2 Diabetic patients Prof. O El Rufaie, Dr M Sabosy, Dr M S Abuzeid 23. Association of traumatic experiences with depression among Nigerian adolescents Dr O Omigbodun, Dr K BakareMs O B Yusuf, Dr O Esan 24. Prevalence of depression among women attending outpatient clinics in Malawi Dr  M Tugumisirize, Prof. Agn, Dr Musisi 25. Non-fatal suicidalbehaviour at the Johannesburg General Hospital Dr  M Y H Moosa, Prof. F Y Jeenah, Dr A Pillay, Pof. M Vorstere, Dr R Liebenberg 26. Integrating mental health into general primary health care - Uganda's experience Dr N Kigozi 27. Depression among Nigerian survivors of stroke:Prevalance and associated factors Dr F.O Fatoye Dr M A Komolafe, Dr A. O Adewuya, Dr B.A. Eegunranti Prof. M.A. Lawal 28. NGO Involvement mental health care -The way forward Dr  Basangwa 29. Prevalen of Attenton Deficit Hyperactivity sorder among African school children Dr E KashalaProf. T Tylleskar, Dr I Elgen, Dr K Sommerfelt 30. Barriers to effective mental health care in Nigeria Ms L. Kola 31. Quay of life evaluation in patients with HIV-I infection with respect to the impact of Phyttherapy (Traditional Herb in Zimbabwe M B Sebit, S K Chandiwaa, A S Latif, E Gomo, S W Acuda, F Makoni, J Vushe

  12. Pulmão profundo – Reacção celular ao VIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alcide Tavares Marques

    2007-03-01

    sido instituída terapêutica anti-retroviral, primeiro grupo, enquanto o segundo grupo incluía doentes com doença mais prolongada, com vários episódios infecciosos oportunistas e tratamento anti-retroviral, para além de outros esquemas terapêuticos. Métodos: Todos os doentes após, consentimento informado, foram submetidos a exame broncoendoscó-pico e LBA, após anestesia local da orofaringe e cordas vocais com lidocaína a 2%, sob monitorização cárdio-respiratória. O LBA foi efectuado com base nas alterações evidenciadas pela telerradiografia do tórax: lobo médio nas lesões difusas, ou outro brônquio segmentar correspondente a alterações radiológicas localizadas A determinação das cargas virais no líquido de lavagem broncoalveolar (LLBA, em 9 doentes, foi efectuada pela quantificação do ARN-VIH1, através de PCR-RT, nas primeiras 4horas após a colheita (sendo cada amostra centrifugada, procedendose posteriomente nas aliquo-tas do sobrenadante à congelação a menos 80 º C, até à extracção e amplificação dos ácidos nucleicos. Realizou-se igualmente, na totalidade da amostra, a determinação das viremias plasmáticas (14 doentes, a partir de amostras de sangue colhido em EDTA, com processa-mento ulterior (separação do plasma e congelamento a menos 80 ºC. A extração e amplificação dos ácidos nucleicos foi efectuada por um método automatizado Cobas Ampliprep/Cobas Amplicor HIV1 Monitor TM Test, version 1.5 Roche Diagnostic Systems. Este método permite a obtenção duma sequência de 155 nucleótidos situada numa região altamente conservada do gene gag. Os resultados foram observados numa escala numérica com uma variação dinâmica situada entre as 50 e 750 000 cópias de ARN VIH1/cm3, procedendo-se posterior-mente à sua conversão logarítmica. No LLBA (10 doentes e no sangue

  13. Pulmão profundo – Reacção celular ao VIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alcide Tavares Marques

    2007-03-01

    ída terapêutica anti-retroviral, primeiro grupo, enquanto o segundo grupo incluía doentes com doença mais prolongada, com vários episódios infecciosos oportunistas e tratamento antiretroviral, para além de outros esquemas terapêuticos.Métodos: Todos os doentes após, consentimento informado, foram submetidos a exame broncoendoscópico e LBA, após anestesia local da orofaringe e cordas vocais com lidocaína a 2%, sob monitorização cárdio--respiratória. O LBA foi efectuado com base nas alterações evidenciadas pela telerradiografia do tórax: lobo médio nas lesões difusas, ou outro brônquio segmentar correspondente a alterações radiológicas localizadas A determinação das cargas virais no líquido de lavagem broncoalveolar (LLBA, em 9 doentes, foi efectuada pela quantificação do ARN-VIH1, através de PCR-RT, nas primeiras 4horas após a colheita (sendo cada amostra centrifugada, procedendo-se posteriomente nas aliquotas do sobrenadante à congelação a menos 80° C, até à extracção e amplificação dos ácidos nucleicos. Realizou--se igualmente, na totalidade da amostra, a determinação das viremias plasmáticas (14 doentes, a partir de amostras de sangue colhido em EDTA, com processamento ulterior (separação do plasma e congelamento a menos 80°C. A extração e amplificação dos ácidos nucleicos foi efectuada por um método automatizado Cobas Ampliprep/Cobas Amplicor HIV1 Monitor TM Test, version 1.5 Roche Diagnostic Systems. Este método permite a obtenção duma sequência de 155 nucleótidos situada numa região altamente conservada do gene gag. Os resultados foram observados numa escala numérica com uma variação dinâmica situada entre as 50 e 750 000 cópias de ARN VIH1/cm3, procedendo-se posteriormente à sua conversão logarítmica. No LLBA (10 doentes e no sangue (13 doentes foi efectuado um