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Sample records for ampicillin

  1. 21 CFR 522.90c - Ampicillin sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ampicillin sodium. 522.90c Section 522.90c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Ampicillin sodium. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of aqueous solution constituted from ampicillin...

  2. Emergence of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in Danish hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lester, Camilla H; Sandvang, Dorthe; Olsen, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates are reported in increasing numbers in many European hospitals. The clonal complex 17 (CC17) characterized by ampicillin resistance has been associated with nosocomial E. faecium outbreaks and infections in five continents. The aim was...

  3. Computational Analysis of Pharmacokinetic Behavior of Ampicillin

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    Mária Ďurišová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available orrespondence: Institute of Experimental Pharmacology and Toxicology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic. Phone + 42-1254775928; Fax +421254775928; E-mail: maria.durisova@savba.sk 84 RESEARCH ARTICLE The objective of this study was to perform a computational analysis of the pharmacokinetic behavior of ampicillin, using data from the literature. A method based on the theory of dynamic systems was used for modeling purposes. The method used has been introduced to pharmacokinetics with the aim to contribute to the knowledge base in pharmacokinetics by including the modeling method which enables researchers to develop mathematical models of various pharmacokinetic processes in an identical way, using identical model structures. A few examples of a successful use of the modeling method considered here in pharmacokinetics can be found in full texts articles available free of charge at the website of the author, and in the example given in the this study. The modeling method employed in this study can be used to develop a mathematical model of the pharmacokinetic behavior of any drug, under the condition that the pharmacokinetic behavior of the drug under study can be at least partially approximated using linear models.

  4. Ampicillin Resistance and Outcome Differences in Acute Antepartum Pyelonephritis

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    Laura G. Greer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To measure the incidence of ampicillin-resistant uropathogens in acute antepartum pyelonephritis and to determine if patients with resistant organisms had different clinical outcomes. Study design. This was a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of pregnant women admitted with pyelonephritis, diagnosed by standard clinical and laboratory criteria. All patients received ampicillin and gentamicin. Results. We identified 440 cases of acute pyelonephritis. Seventy-two percent (316 cases had urine cultures with identification of organism and antibiotic sensitivities. Fifty-one percent of uropathogens were ampicillin resistant. The patients with ampicillin-resistant organisms were more likely to be older and multiparous. There were no significant differences in hospital course (length of stay, days of antibiotics, ECU admission, or readmission. Patients with ampicillin-resistant organisms did not have higher complication rates (anemia, renal dysfunction, respiratory insufficiency, or preterm birth. Conclusion. A majority of uropathogens were ampicillin resistant, but no differences in outcomes were observed in these patients.

  5. A randomized, prospective study of adjunctive Ampicillin in preterm labor

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    Tehranian A

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute amniotic fluid infection has emerged as a possible cause of many heretofore unexplained preterm births. Our purpose was to determine the effect of ampicillin in the prolongation of pregnancies receiving tocolysis for preterm labor. A blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted to study ampicillin in women hospitalized for preterm labor between 24 and 37 weeks' gestation. A total of 60 patients with intact membranes and without chorioamnionitis who were receiving magnesium sulfate were screened. Thirty women with preterm labor received ampicillin, and 30 received placebos. The primary end point was prolongation of gestation. There was no difference in age of delivery (37.6±9.7 days vs 36.08±3.9 days, P=0.085 and no difference in retardation of delivery (4.7±3.1 vs 4.1±2.1, P=0.39. The mean degree of preterm delivery were 0.62±1.93 and 1.8±3.3 weeks in ampicillin and placebo groups, respectively (not significant, P>0.1. Conclusions: Ampicillin had no effect on interval to delivery or duration of pregnancy in women treated for preterm labor. So rotine clinical use of ampicillin during tocolysis should not be recommended.

  6. [Activity of an ampicillin/sulbactam combination in respiratory infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiarotti, P; Manara, G; Grassi, G; Gialdroni Grassi, G

    1989-01-01

    The combination of sulbactam (S) plus ampicillin (A) extends the activity of ampicillin (Amp) against beta-lactamase producing strains. This combination is therefore useful in many clinical situations including LRTI. A clinical trial was carried out to evaluate the clinical and bacteriological efficacy of S-Amp in LRTI in comparison with Amp alone. Concerning clinical outcome the results were satisfactory in 83.3% of cases for S-Amp group and 82.3% of cases for Amp group. Pathogen eradication was achieved in 87.5% and 70.5% of cases respectively for the S-Amp and Amp group.

  7. Furazolidone versus ampicillin in the treatment of traveler's diarrhea.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Ninety-four U.S. students who acquired diarrhea in Mexico were treated with furazolidone (47 subjects) or ampicillin (47 subjects) on a double-blind random basis. Of 47 students, 26 (55%) who received furazolidone (100 mg four times daily for 5 days) recovered from illness within 48 h after initiation of therapy, in contrast to 15 of 47 (32%) who received ampicillin (500 mg four times daily for 5 days) (P less than 0.05). Altogether, 74% of students treated with furazolidone and 49% of those ...

  8. Determination of flavonoids in Triticum aestivum L. treated with ampicillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soran, M. L.; Opriş, O.; Copaciu, F.; Varodi, C.

    2012-02-01

    Pharmaceutical residues in the environment, and their potential toxic effects, have been recognized as one of the emerging research area in the environmental chemistry. Antibiotics can reach plants from treated soil or due to irrigation. The flavonoids extraction from Triticum aestivum L. treated with ampicillin and separation of flavonoids are presented in this study. There were used classical and modern extraction techniques (maceration, microwave assisted solvents, etc). The efficiency of extraction process was spectrophotometricaly evaluated by determining the total flavonoids content and by HPTLC on silica gel plates using the mixture: carbon tetrachloride - acetone - formic acid (35:11:3, v/v) as mobile phase. The developed plates were inspected both in ultraviolet and visible after visualization with NTS reagent (diphenylboryloxyethylamin). The chromatographic plates were compared in respect to determine the changes in extract composition due to the different extraction techniques. Depending on the concentration of ampicillin administered to plants, comparative studies on flavonoids content were performed.

  9. The Kinetics of Ampicillin Release from Hydroxyapatite for Bones Regeneration

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    Giovanilton Ferreira da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotics are among the most used pharmaceuticals. Their use in veterinary and human medicine is in continuous expansion. There is a growing need for developing bioactive implants. Advantages of implantable drug delivery tools can include high release efficiency, precise dose control, low toxicity, and allow to overcome disadvantages connected with conventional methods. In this respect, hydroxyapatite (HA is an elective material. It enables to produce architectures similar to those of real bones. Here we studied a kinetic model to describe ampicillin release from HA. In the course of adsorption experiment, ampicillin was dissolved, maintained at 30∘C and shaken at 60 strokes/minute. Samples were withdrawn periodically for analysis and then returned to the mixture. Adsorbed amounts were measured by the difference of the concentration of the antibiotics before and after adsorption using UV adsorption at 225 nm. The aim of this work was to evaluate its application as ampicillin delivery carrier.

  10. Synergic Antibacterial Effect of Curcumin with Ampicillin; Free Drug Solutions in Comparison with SLN Dispersions

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    Faezeh Alihosseini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was designed to investigate benefit of using nanotechnology on increasing of synergic antibacterial effect of natural and chemical antibacterial agents. Methods: At first the MIC and MBC of Curcumin and Ampicillin as selected antibacterial agents was determined, after that Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs of each active ingredients as well as Curcumin-Ampicillin loaded SLNs were prepared using high pressure homogenization technique. Characterization of prepared SLNs was done, then MIC, MBC and contact killing time were investigated for Curcumin-Ampicillin loaded SLNs in comparison with free Curcumin and Ampicillin solutions as well as Ampicillin and Curcumin SLNs. Results: Based on results nanoparticles with the size of 150 nm show much more decreased MIC and MBC when Ampicillin and Curcumin were loaded together on SLNs than solutions in which free Ampicillin and Curcumin were mixed. Conclusion: It seems that using nanotechnology could cause decrease the dosage of antibiotics and risk of having antibiotic resistance bacteria strains.

  11. Synergic Antibacterial Effect of Curcumin with Ampicillin; Free Drug Solutions in Comparison with SLN Dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alihosseini, Faezeh; Azarmi, Shirzad; Ghaffari, Solmaz; Haghighat, Setareh; Rezayat Sorkhabadi, Seyed Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to investigate benefit of using nanotechnology on increasing of synergic antibacterial effect of natural and chemical antibacterial agents. Methods: At first the MIC and MBC of Curcumin and Ampicillin as selected antibacterial agents was determined, after that Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs) of each active ingredients as well as Curcumin-Ampicillin loaded SLNs were prepared using high pressure homogenization technique. Characterization of prepared SLNs was done, then MIC, MBC and contact killing time were investigated for Curcumin-Ampicillin loaded SLNs in comparison with free Curcumin and Ampicillin solutions as well as Ampicillin and Curcumin SLNs. Results: Based on results nanoparticles with the size of 150 nm show much more decreased MIC and MBC when Ampicillin and Curcumin were loaded together on SLNs than solutions in which free Ampicillin and Curcumin were mixed. Conclusion: It seems that using nanotechnology could cause decrease the dosage of antibiotics and risk of having antibiotic resistance bacteria strains. PMID:27766232

  12. Ampicillin in Combination with Ceftaroline, Cefepime, or Ceftriaxone Demonstrates Equivalent Activities in a High-Inoculum Enterococcus faecalis Infection Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Megan K; Rice, Louis B; LaPlante, Kerry L

    2016-05-01

    Ampicillin-ceftriaxone combination therapy has become a predominant treatment for serious Enterococcus faecalis infections, such as endocarditis. Unfortunately, ceftriaxone use is associated with future vancomycin-resistant enterococcus colonization. We evaluated E. faecalis in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model against simulated human concentration-time profiles of ampicillin plus ceftaroline, cefepime, ceftriaxone, or gentamicin. Ampicillin-cefepime and ampicillin-ceftaroline demonstrated activities similar to those of ampicillin-ceftriaxone against E. faecalis.

  13. Inhibition of Ampicillin-resistance in Bacteria by Modified DNAzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fei; LI Zhe; YANG Shuo; WANG Rui-jian; LIU Bin; SONG Yu-ming; SUN Yan-hong; HAO Dong-yun; NG Xlao-ping

    2008-01-01

    To overcome ampicillin-resistance of bacteria which is believed to attribute their endogenous β-lactamase,we designed three 10-23 DNAzymes(DZ1,Dz2,Dz3) targeting the coding region of β-lactamase mRNA and examined their inhibitory capabilities of the ampicillin-resistance of TEM-1 and TEM-3 bacteria,Dz1 was a traditional 10-23 DNAzyme,Dz2 was the mutant of Dz1 by addition of the protected nucleotide to each arm of the enzyme,and Dz3 was a mutant of DZ1 at antisense arms of which phosphorothioate modifications were made,Kinetic analysis,bacterial growth,and β-lactamase activity measurement showed that all the three DNAzymes worked efficiently in vitro and in vivo,A 9 hours bacterial growth inhibition test showed that the inhibition rates of TEM-1 bacteria by Dz1,Dz2,and Dz3 were 27%,50%,and 29%,respectively,In addition,the inhibition rates of TEM-3 bacteria by those three DNAzymes were found to be 49%,58%,and 45%,respectively,The current findings suggest that DNAzymes may become potential candidates of alternative inhibitors for bacteria drug-resistance.

  14. The Binding Interactions of the Macrolide Endectocide Ivermectin with the Antibiotics Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol and Tetracycline HCL

    OpenAIRE

    Kandeel, M.; Elgazar, W.; Kitade, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Ivermectin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin and tetracycline HCl are common drugs in human and veterinary practice. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possible binding interactions between ivermectin and the antibiotics chloramphenicol, ampicillin and tetracycline HCl. Isothermal titration calorimetry was used to determine the binding interactions between ivermectin and these antibiotics. Results indicated that, about three molecules of ampicillin can bind to one molecule of ivermect...

  15. Enterococci highly resistant to penicillin and ampicillin: an emerging clinical problem?

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Sixteen clinical isolates of ampicillin-resistant enterococci (ARE) were recovered from the microbiology laboratory of a 450-bed rehabilitation medical center from January 1981 to September 1987. These isolates were detected when a disk diffusion test using 10 micrograms of ampicillin on a blood agar plate revealed no zones of inhibition. Tube macrodilution tests yielded an MIC of greater than or equal to 16 micrograms of ampicillin per ml. None of the isolates were penicillinase producers by...

  16. Impact of three ampicillin dosage regimens on selection of ampicillin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae and excretion of blaTEM genes in swine feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibbal, D; Dupouy, V; Ferré, J P; Toutain, P L; Fayet, O; Prère, M F; Bousquet-Mélou, A

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of three ampicillin dosage regimens on ampicillin resistance among Enterobacteriaceae recovered from swine feces by use of phenotypic and genotypic approaches. Phenotypically, ampicillin resistance was determined from the percentage of resistant Enterobacteriaceae and MICs of Escherichia coli isolates. The pool of ampicillin resistance genes was also monitored by quantification of bla(TEM) genes, which code for the most frequently produced beta-lactamases in gram-negative bacteria, using a newly developed real-time PCR assay. Ampicillin was administered intramuscularly and orally to fed or fasted pigs for 7 days at 20 mg/kg of body weight. The average percentage of resistant Enterobacteriaceae before treatment was between 2.5% and 12%, and bla(TEM) gene quantities were below 10(7) copies/g of feces. By days 4 and 7, the percentage of resistant Enterobacteriaceae exceeded 50% in all treated groups, with some highly resistant strains (MIC of >256 microg/ml). In the control group, bla(TEM) gene quantities fluctuated between 10(4) and 10(6) copies/g of feces, whereas they fluctuated between 10(6) to 10(8) and 10(7) to 10(9) copies/g of feces for the intramuscular and oral routes, respectively. Whereas phenotypic evaluations did not discriminate among the three ampicillin dosage regimens, bla(TEM) gene quantification was able to differentiate between the effects of two routes of ampicillin administration. Our results suggest that fecal bla(TEM) gene quantification provides a sensitive tool to evaluate the impact of ampicillin administration on the selection of ampicillin resistance in the digestive microflora and its dissemination in the environment.

  17. Role of Ampicillin-Sulbactam: A District Hospital’s Experience in Treating Diabetic Foot Ulcers

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    Ng C S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ampicillin-sulbactam combination is themost frequently prescribed antibiotic in diabetic footulcers. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluatethe antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria isolated to thisantibiotic. In 33 patients with diabetic foot ulcer(September 2008-March 2009, 67% were culturepositive in which Citrobacter spp accounted for 36% ofthese isolates. The rest isolated included Pseudomonasaeruginosa (22%, Proteus spp (18%, Acinetobacter spp(9%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (5%, Escherichia coli (5%and Staphylococcus aureus (5%. These isolates weremore likely to be ampicillin-resistant (n=18 thanwere ampicillin-sensitive isolates (n=4. Ampicillinresistance has raised our concern about current practiceof prescribing ampicillin/ sulbactam as monotherapy formajority of our patients with such ulcers

  18. Fluorescent ampicillin analogues as multifunctional disguising agents against opsonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotagiri, Nalinikanth; Sakon, Joshua; Han, Haewook; Zharov, Vladimir P.; Kim, Jin-Woo

    2016-06-01

    Cancer nanomedicines are opening new paradigms in cancer management and recent research points to how they can vastly improve imaging and therapy through multimodality and multifunctionality. However, challenges to achieving optimal efficacy are manifold starting from processing materials and evaluating their intended effectiveness on biological tissue, to developing new strategies aimed at improving transport of these materials through the biological milieu to the target tissue. Here, we report a fluorescent derivative of a beta-lactam antibiotic, ampicillin (termed iAmp) and its multifunctional physicobiochemical characteristics and potential as a biocompatible shielding agent and an effective dispersant. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were chosen to demonstrate the efficacy of iAmp. CNTs are known for their versatility and have been used extensively for cancer theranostics as photothermal and photoacoustic agents, but have limited solubility in water and biocompatibility. Traditional dispersants are associated with imaging artifacts and are not fully biocompatible. The chemical structure of iAmp is consistent with a deamination product of ampicillin. Although the four-membered lactam ring is intact, it does not retain the antibiotic properties. The iAmp is an effective dispersant and simultaneously serves as a fluorescent label for single-walled CNTs (SWNTs) with minimal photobleaching. The iAmp also enables bioconjugation of SWNTs to bio-ligands such as antibodies through functional carboxyl groups. Viability tests show that iAmp-coated SWNTs have minimal toxicity. Bio-stability tests under physiological conditions reveal that iAmp coating not only remains stable in a biologically relevant environment with high protein and salt concentrations, but also renders SWNTs transparent against nonspecific protein adsorption, also known as protein corona. Mammalian tissue culture studies with macrophages and opsonins validate that iAmp coating affords immunological resistance

  19. Oxidant-scavenging activities of ampicillin and sulbactam and their effects on neutrophil functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, M R; Mao, J; Cohen, M S

    1993-05-01

    Luminol-enhanced luminescence is a method used to measure formation of reactive oxygen intermediates important in the ability of neutrophils to kill microbes. Several studies have demonstrated that under some conditions of incubation, ampicillin can inhibit neutrophil-derived luminol-enhanced luminescence. We evaluated the mechanism(s) by which ampicillin inhibited the luminescent response of stimulated neutrophils. We also investigated sulbactam, a beta-lactamase inhibitor which has been given in combination with ampicillin and other beta-lactam antibiotics to increase their spectra, for possible similar effects. Both ampicillin and sulbactam attenuated luminol-enhanced luminescence by approximately 40%. Superoxide production was not prevented by added ampicillin, nor was superoxide scavenged by it. Myeloperoxidase reacts with H2O2 and Cl- to generate OCl-, which is believed to be the oxidizer of luminol that is primarily responsible for enhancement of neutrophil-derived luminescence. Hydroxyl radicals (HO.), which may also oxidize luminol, resulting in luminescence, can be formed from O2- and H2O2 via either myeloperoxidase-dependent (involving intermediate OCl-) or myeloperoxidase-independent (through a metal ion catalyst) reactions. Ampicillin scavenged H2O2 and OCl- and prevented 95% of Fenton reaction-generated HO. from reacting with 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide. Sulbactam was found to scavenge OCl- and HO., but less avidly than ampicillin did. Neither ampicillin nor sulbactam inhibited myeloperoxidase activity. Sublethal concentrations of sulbactam had no significant effect on neutrophil killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Our results demonstrate a mechanism(s) by which ampicillin inhibits luminol-enhanced luminescence from stimulated neutrophils, namely, through scavenging of the oxidant(s) primarily responsible for the generation of luminescence.

  20. A population-based case-control teratologic study of ampicillin treatment during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This was a study of the association between ampicillin treatment during pregnancy and prevalence of different congenital abnormalities. Study Design: The paired analysis of case patients with congenital abnormalities and matched population control subjects was performed in the population......-based Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities between 1980 and 1996. Of 38,151 pregnant women who had babies without any defects (population control group), 2632 (6.9%) had been treated with ampicillin. Of 22,865 pregnant women who had offspring with congenital abnormalities (case patients......), 1643 (7.2%) had been treated with ampicillin (crude odds ratio, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.2). Of 812 mothers who were delivered of babies affected by Down syndrome (patient control subjects), 61 (7.5%) had ampicillin treatment, and these were also compared with the case group. Results...

  1. Rapid determination of ampicillin in bovine milk by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, C.Y.W.; Luo, Wenhong [National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for the determination of ampicillin residues in raw bovine milk, processed skim milk, and pasteurized, homogenized whole milk with vitamin D. Milk samples were deproteinized with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and acetonictrile. After centrifugation, the clear supernatant was reacted with formaldehyde and TCA under heat. The major fluorescent derivative of ampicillin was then determined by reversed-phase LC with fluorescence detection. Average recoveries of ampicillin fortified at 5, 10, and 20 ppb (ng/mL) were all >85% with coefficients of variation <10%. Limits of detection ranged from 0.31 to 0.51 ppb and limits of quantitation, from 0.66 to 1.2 ppb. After appropriate validation, this method should be suitable for rapid analysis of milk for ampicillin residues at the tolerance level of 10 ppb. 16 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Some pharmacokinetic parameters of ampicillin/sulbactam combination after intravenous and intramuscular administration to goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espuny, A; Carceles, C M; Vicente, M S; Escudero, E

    1996-12-01

    Some pharmacokinetic parameters of an ampicillin/sulbactam (2:1) combination were studied in six goats, after intravenous and intramuscular injection at a single dosage of 20 mg/kg bodyweight (13.33 mg/kg of sodium ampicillin and 6.67 mg/kg of sodium sulbactam). The drugs were distributed according to an open two-compartment model. The apparent volumes of distribution calculated by the area method of ampicillin and sulbactam were 0.34 +/- 0.04 l/kg and 0.45 +/- 0.15 l/kg, respectively, and the total body clearances were 0.72 +/- 0.11 and 0.38 +/- 0.07 l/kg.h. The half-lives of ampicillin after intravenous and intramuscular administration were 0.32 +/- 0.04 h and 0.71 +/- 0.14 h, respectively. For sulbactam the half-lives were 0.79 +/- 0.18 h and 1.13 +/- 0.21 h after administration by the same routes. The bioavailability after intramuscular injection was high and similar for both drugs (98.29% for ampicillin and 101.84% for sulbactam). The mean peak plasma levels of ampicillin (0.43 +/- 0.27 h) and sulbactam (0.34 +/- 0.14 h) were reached at a similar time, and peak concentrations were also similar and non-proportional to the dose of the products administered (11.02 +/- 3.11 mg/l of ampicillin and 9.5 +/- 0.98 mg/l of sulbactam).

  3. Study of vibrational spectra and hydrogen bonding network in dimeric and tetrameric model of ampicillin using DFT and AIM approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Anuradha; Khan, Eram; Tandon, Poonam; Sinha, Kirti

    2017-03-01

    Ampicillin is a β-lactam antibiotic that is active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and is widely used for the treatment of infections. In this work, molecular properties of ampicillin are calculated on the basis of calculations on its dimeric and tetrameric models using DFT/B3LYP/6-311G(d,p). HOMO-LUMO energy gap shows that chemical reactivity of tetrameric model of ampicillin is higher than the dimeric and monomeric model of ampicillin. To get a better understanding of intra and intermolecular bonding and interactions among bonds, NBO analysis is carried out with tetrameric model of ampicillin, and is further finalized with an 'quantum theory of atoms-in-molecules' (QTAIM) analysis. The binding energy of dimeric model of ampicillin is calculated as -26.84 kcal/mol and -29.34 kcal/mol using AIM and DFT calculations respectively. The global electrophilicity index (ω = 2.8118 eV) of tetrameric model of ampicillin shows that this behaves as a strong electrophile in comparison to dimeric and monomeric model of ampicillin. The FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra were recorded in the solid phase, and interpreted in terms of potential energy distribution analysis. A collective theoretical and experimental vibrational analysis approves the presence of hydrogen bonds in the ampicillin molecule.

  4. [In vitro activity of ampicillin-ceftriaxone against Enterococcus faecalis isolates recovered from invasive infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguer Moreira, Noelia; Nastro, Marcela; Vay, Carlos; Famiglietti, Ángela; Rodríguez, Carlos Hernán

    2016-01-01

    In vitro activity of the combination of ampicillin- ceftriaxone against 30 Enterococcus faecalis isolates recovered from invasive infections in patients admitted to Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martin in the city of Buenos Aires was assessed. Ampicillin- ceftriaxone synergies were determined by microdilution in Müeller-Hinton (MH) broth with and without subinhibitory concentrations of ceftriaxone. Synergy was detected in 22/30 isolates. A decrease in both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was observed in 14/30 isolates, whereas in 6/30 isolates the decrease was observed in the MIC value and only in the MBC value in the 2 remaining isolates. The bactericidal activity of the combination showed to be higher at low concentrations of ampicillin (faecalis.

  5. Genome-wide identification of ampicillin resistance determinants in Enterococcus faecium.

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    Xinglin Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecium has become a nosocomial pathogen of major importance, causing infections that are difficult to treat owing to its multi-drug resistance. In particular, resistance to the β-lactam antibiotic ampicillin has become ubiquitous among clinical isolates. Mutations in the low-affinity penicillin binding protein PBP5 have previously been shown to be important for ampicillin resistance in E. faecium, but the existence of additional resistance determinants has been suggested. Here, we constructed a high-density transposon mutant library in E. faecium and developed a transposon mutant tracking approach termed Microarray-based Transposon Mapping (M-TraM, leading to the identification of a compendium of E. faecium genes that contribute to ampicillin resistance. These genes are part of the core genome of E. faecium, indicating a high potential for E. faecium to evolve towards β-lactam resistance. To validate the M-TraM results, we adapted a Cre-lox recombination system to construct targeted, markerless mutants in E. faecium. We confirmed the role of four genes in ampicillin resistance by the generation of targeted mutants and further characterized these mutants regarding their resistance to lysozyme. The results revealed that ddcP, a gene predicted to encode a low-molecular-weight penicillin binding protein with D-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidase activity, was essential for high-level ampicillin resistance. Furthermore, deletion of ddcP sensitized E. faecium to lysozyme and abolished membrane-associated D,D-carboxypeptidase activity. This study has led to the development of a broadly applicable platform for functional genomic-based studies in E. faecium, and it provides a new perspective on the genetic basis of ampicillin resistance in this organism.

  6. Kinetics and dose calculations of ampicillin and gentamicin given as continuous intravenous infusion during parenteral nutrition in 88 newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Møller, S; Bentzon, M W

    1983-01-01

    Ampicillin and gentamicin were administered continuously intravenously to 88 newborn infants using individually calculated dosages. For infants with a mean value of plasma clearance of the antibiotics, it was calculated that the serum ampicillin and gentamicin concentrations would be between 35-5...

  7. Absorption of bacampicillin and ampicillin and penetration into body fluids (skin blister fluid, saliva, tears) in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, C; Malerczyk, V; Klaus, M

    1978-01-01

    Equimolar doses of bacampicillin, which is rapidly converted to ampicillin in the body by hydrolysis, and ampicillin were administered orally, in the case of ampicillin also by intravenous injection, to 10 healthy subjects (cross-over study). Comparison of the areas under the serum concentrations curves after intravenous and oral administration showed that bacampillin was absorbed to 95% and orally given ampicillin to 35%. The mean peak serum levels (Cmax) after 0.8 g of oral bacampicillin were higher (15.9 microgram/ml) and appeared earlier (tmax 60 min) than after 0.556 g of oral ampicillin (3.2 microgram/ml, tmax 150 min). One and three hours after oral administration skin blister fluid contained four times more ampicillin after doses of bacampicillin than after oral ampicillin. One hour after intravenous injection of ampicillin the skin blister concentrations were 20 times higher than after oral administration of this antibiotic and three to four times higher than after oral administration of bacampicillin. The levels in saliva and tears were also determined and showed similar relationships. Since higher peaks serum levels resulted in higher and longer lasting concentrations in the extravascular space, bacampicillin is to be preferred for oral therapy.

  8. Administration of gentamicin and ampicillin by continuous intravenous infusion to newborn infants during parenteral nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Andersen, G E

    1982-01-01

    Gentamicin and ampicillin were dissolved in an L-amino acid solution especially prepared for newborn infants and infused intravenously over 24 h in 7 babies with serious neonatal surgical problems. Serum concentrations of the antibiotics were maintained rather constant and well above the minimal ...

  9. Continuous intravenous infusion of ampicillin and gentamicin during parenteral nutrition in 88 newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Møller, S; Andersen, G E

    1982-01-01

    Ampicillin and gentamicin were dissolved once a day in an L-amino acid solution especially prepared for parenteral nutrition of newborn infants and infused continuously to 88 infants in whom septicaemia was suspected or had been proved. The mean dosages were 162 and 5.3 mg/kg per 24 hours...

  10. Ampicillin-Ester Bonded Branched Polymers: Characterization, Cyto-, Genotoxicity and Controlled Drug-Release Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Oledzka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The development and characterization of novel macromolecular conjugates of ampicillin using branched biodegradable polymers has been described in this study. The conjugates have been prepared coupling the β-lactam antibiotic with branched polymer matrices based on the natural oligopeptide core. The cyto- and genotoxicity of the synthesized polymers were evaluated with a bacterial luminescence test, two protozoan assays and Salmonella typhimurium TA1535. The presence of a newly formed covalent bond between the drug and the polymer matrices was confirmed by 1H-NMR and FTIR studies. A drug content (15.6 and 10.2 mole % in the macromolecular conjugates has been determined. The obtained macromolecular products have been subjected to further in vitro release studies. The total percentage of ampicillin released after 21 days of incubation was nearly 60% and 14% and this resulted from the different physicochemical properties of the polymeric matrices. This is the first report on the application of branched biodegradable polymeric matrices for the covalent conjugation of ampicillin. The obtained results showed that the synthesized macromolecular drug-conjugates might slowly release the active drug molecule and improve the pharmacokinetics of ampicillin.

  11. Depletion of long-acting ampicillin in goat milk following intramuscular administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrini, Anna Maria; Trenta, Simona; Mannoni, Veruscka; Rosati, Remo; Coni, Ettore

    2010-12-08

    Although goat milk production represents today a very small percentage of the world milk market, this percentage has been growing continuously during the past 20 years. Goat milk is the basic milk supply in many developing countries and provides tasteful derivative products in developed countries. Goats, as well as all milk-producing animals, can be affected by mastitis, but goats being considered a minor species, few drugs are specifically registered for these animals; most, at least for mastitis treatment, are usually tested and registered for use in cows. This situation leads often to the adoption for goat milk of withdrawal periods defined for cows even if these extrapolations prove almost never valid for goats. In the present study, the elimination of the β-lactam antibacterial agent ampicillin in goat milk was investigated. Ampicillin was chosen because it is one of the most common antibiotics used by goat farmers against mastitis due to the fact that it is well tolerated and has short elimination times in cows. Goats were treated with long-acting ampicillin at 15 mg (kg of body weight)(-1) by double intramuscular injection at 72 h interval. Milk was collected in a 12 h milking scheme. The method used to determine the levels of ampicillin in goat milk was based on a liquid-liquid extraction of this drug from the matrix, successive derivatization with formaldehyde, and final separation by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The results point out a slow depletion of ampicillin and, consequently, a withdrawal period (13 milkings) longer than that extrapolated and authorized for cows and sheep.

  12. Changes in the treatment of Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis in Spain in the last 15 years: from ampicillin plus gentamicin to ampicillin plus ceftriaxone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pericas, J M; Cervera, C; del Rio, A; Moreno, A; Garcia de la Maria, C; Almela, M; Falces, C; Ninot, S; Castañeda, X; Armero, Y; Soy, D; Gatell, J M; Marco, F; Mestres, C A; Miro, J M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess changes in antibiotic resistance, epidemiology and outcome among patients with Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (EFIE) and to compare the efficacy and safety of the combination of ampicillin and gentamicin (A+G) with that of ampicillin plus ceftriaxone (A+C). The study was a retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort of EFIE patients treated in our centre from 1997 to 2011. Thirty patients were initially treated with A+G (ampicillin 2 g/4 h and gentamicin 3 mg/kg/day) and 39 with A+C (ampicillin 2 g/4 h and ceftriaxone 2 g/12 h) for 4-6 weeks. Increased rates of high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR; gentamicin MIC ≥512 mg/L, streptomycin MIC ≥1024 mg/L or both) were observed in recent years (24% in 1997-2006 and 49% in 2007-2011; p 0.03). The use of A+C increased over time: 1997-2001, 4/18 (22%); 2002-2006, 5/16 (31%); 2007-2011, 30/35 (86%) (p <0.001). Renal failure developed in 65% of the A+G group and in 34% of the A+C group (p 0.014). Thirteen patients (43%) in the A+G group had to discontinue treatment, whereas only one patient (3%) treated with A+C had to discontinue treatment (p <0.001). Only development of heart failure and previous chronic renal failure were independently associated with 1-year mortality, while the individual antibiotic regimen (A+C vs. A+G) did not affect outcome (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.2-2.2; p 0.549). Our study shows that the prevalence of HLAR EFIE has increased significantly in recent years and that alternative treatment with A+C is safer than A+G, with similar clinical outcomes, although the sample size is too small to draw firm conclusions. Randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm these results.

  13. Reversal of Ampicillin Resistance in MRSA via Inhibition of Penicillin-Binding Protein 2a by Acalypha wilkesiana

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    Carolina Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory activity of a semipure fraction from the plant, Acalypha wilkesiana assigned as 9EA-FC-B, alone and in combination with ampicillin, was studied against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. In addition, effects of the combination treatment on PBP2a expression were investigated. Microdilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC. Synergistic effects of 9EA-FC-B with ampicillin were determined using the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC index and kinetic growth curve assay. Western blot experiments were carried out to study the PBP2a expression in treated MRSA cultures. The results showed a synergistic effect between ampicillin and 9EA-FC-B treatment with the lowest FIC index of 0.19 (synergism ≤ 0.5. The presence of 9EA-FC-B reduced the MIC of ampicillin from 50 to 1.56 μg mL−1. When ampicillin and 9EA-FC-B were combined at subinhibitory level, the kinetic growth curves were suppressed. The antibacterial effect of 9EA-FC-B and ampicillin was shown to be synergistic. The synergism is due the ability of 9EA-FC-B to suppress the activity of PBP2a, thus restoring the susceptibility of MRSA to ampicillin. Corilagin was postulated to be the constituent responsible for the synergistic activity showed by 9EA-FC-B.

  14. Evaluation of solubility and partition properties of ampicillin-based ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florindo, Catarina; Araújo, João M M; Alves, Filipa; Matos, Carla; Ferraz, Ricardo; Prudêncio, Cristina; Noronha, João Paulo; Petrovski, Željko; Branco, Luís; Rebelo, Luís Paulo N; Marrucho, Isabel M

    2013-11-18

    In order to overcome the problems associated with low water solubility, and consequently low bioavailability of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), herein we explore a modular ionic liquid synthetic strategy for improved APIs. Ionic liquids containing L-ampicillin as active pharmaceutical ingredient anion were prepared using the methodology developed in our previous work, using organic cations selected from substituted ammonium, phosphonium, pyridinium and methylimidazolium salts, with the intent of enhancing the solubility and bioavailability of L-ampicillin forms. In order to evaluate important properties of the synthesized API-ILs, the water solubility at 25 °C and 37 °C (body temperature) as well as octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow's) and HDPC micelles partition at 25 °C were measured. Critical micelle concentrations (CMC's) in water at 25 °C and 37 °C of the pharmaceutical ionic liquids bearing cations with surfactant properties were also determined from ionic conductivity measurements.

  15. Pharmacodynamics of ampicillin sodium transdermal patches in an in vitro infection model

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    Bagyalakshmi J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the activity of ampicillin sodium developed as transdermal patch against Escherichia coli . In the present work, the efficiency of ampicillin sodium against E. coli was investigated in an in vitro infection model which simulates human pharmacokinetics. The E. coli stains were exposed to transdermal patch with different kinds of polymers such as sodium alginate, cellulose acetate phthalate, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, chitosan and carboxymethylcellulose and the drug releasing capacity was studied through colony-forming units (CFU. The process was carried out for 24 h at 37°. It was found out that hydroxypropylmethylcellulose was the best polymer that gave less number of CFU, followed by carboxyl methyl cellulose, chitosan, cellulose acetate phthalate and sodium alginate.

  16. The molecular changing mechanism of Ampicillin-Sulbactam resistant Staphylococcus aureus towards Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

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    Mieke Hemiawati Satari

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the molecular changing of S.aureus, which is resistant to Ampicillin-Sulbactam and then become resistant to Methicillin as a result of improper dosage. The study was conducted by isolating Ampicillin-Sulbactam resistant and Methicillin Resistant S.aureus (MRSA, afterwards an amplification process was performed by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction. to isolate the betalactamase enzyme regulator and PBP 2a genes. The result of this research showed that there were a deletion of few amino acids from the regulator gene, and a suspicion that the DNA sequence had been substituted from PBP 2 gene into PBP 2a (gen mec. This process had formed MRSA.

  17. Isolation of Salmonella spp. and drug resistance to tetracycline , ampicillin and cotrimoxazole in kerman

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    Shahrnaz banuo Ashrafganjooyi

    2014-08-01

    Results and Conclusion: In this study 56 Salmonella spp were isolated in this rigion .Drug resistance pattern to antibiotics such as tetracycline , ampicillin and cotrimoxazole were: 55.3%, 7.5%, 35.7% with average MIC respectively: (MIC≥16µg/ml (MIC ≥ 32µg/ml ( MIC ≥ 4.76µg/ml From 56 Salmonella spp which were isolated from this region ,the most resistant was to tetracycline.

  18. Enterococci highly resistant to penicillin and ampicillin: an emerging clinical problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapico, F L; Canawati, H N; Ginunas, V J; Gilmore, D S; Montgomerie, J Z; Tuddenham, W J; Facklam, R R

    1989-09-01

    Sixteen clinical isolates of ampicillin-resistant enterococci (ARE) were recovered from the microbiology laboratory of a 450-bed rehabilitation medical center from January 1981 to September 1987. These isolates were detected when a disk diffusion test using 10 micrograms of ampicillin on a blood agar plate revealed no zones of inhibition. Tube macrodilution tests yielded an MIC of greater than or equal to 16 micrograms of ampicillin per ml. None of the isolates were penicillinase producers by the chromogenic cephalosporin disk test. Ten isolates were Enterococcus faecium, four isolates were E. raffinosus, one isolate was E. gallinarum, and one isolate was not identified (lost). There were 6 male and 10 female patients. The sources of isolates were urine (n = 7), wound (n = 5), ascitic fluid (n = 2), blood (n = 2), peritoneal catheter tip (n = 1), Bartholin's cyst abscess (n = 1), rectal swab (n = 2), and pancreatic abscess (n = 1). The organism was isolated from multiple sites in 4 patients, was a pure culture isolate in 5 patients, and was part of a polymicrobial flora in 11 patients. Six patients were diabetic, and four had liver cirrhosis. All but four patients had received at least one antibiotic within 3 weeks of ARE isolation. The MICs (micrograms per milliliter) for 50 and 90% of isolates tested, respectively, were as follows: ampicillin, 64 and 64; penicillin, 128 and greater than 128; vancomycin, 1 and 2; gentamicin, 4 and 16; ciprofloxacin, 1.6 and 3.2; imipenem, 128 and greater than 128; and daptomycin (LY146032), 1.6 and 6.4. ARE may be an emerging pathogen in the hospitalized patient population.

  19. UNUSUALLY STABLE ADDUCT BETWEEN METHANOLYZED AMOXICILLIN OR AMPICILLIN AND THEIR DIKETOPIPERAZINE DERIVATIVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosińska, Katarzyna; Frański, Rafał; Frańska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Amoxicillin and ampicillin were subjected to methanolysis. As expected, the methanolysis products were observed by HPLC-ESI-MS. Besides these products, diketopiperazine derivatives were also detected. Additionally, unusually stable adduct formed between the products of methanolysis and diketopiperazine derivatives was also identified. Analogical adducts were detected when ethanolysis was performed instead of methanolysis. HPLC-ESI-MS analysis of the separated adducts confirmed that the adducts were composed of methanolysis products and diketopiperazine derivatives.

  20. Freeze-drying of ampicillin solid lipid nanoparticles using mannitol as cryoprotectant

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    Faezeh Alihosseini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available abstract Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs are interesting colloidal drug-delivery systems, since they have all the advantages of the lipid and polymeric nanoparticles. Freeze-drying is a widely used process for improving the stability of SLNs. Cryoprotectants have been used to decrease SLN aggregations during freeze-drying. In this study Ampicillin was chosen to be loaded in a cholesterol carrier with nano size range. To support the stability of SLNs, freeze-drying was done using mannitol. Particle size, drug release profile and antibacterial effects were studied after freeze-drying in comparison with primary SLNs. Preparations with 5% mannitol showed the least particle size enlargement. The average particle size was 150 and 187 nm before and after freeze-drying, respectively. Freeze-drying did not affect the release profile of drug loaded nanopartilces. Also our study showed that lyophilization did not change the antimicrobial effect of ampicillin SLNs. DSC analysis showed probability of chemical interaction between ampicillin and cholesterol.

  1. Intravitreal Ampicillin Sodium for Antibiotic-Resistant Endophthalmitis: Streptococcus uberis First Human Intraocular Infection Report

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    Raul Velez-Montoya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment with intravitreal ampicillin sodium of a postoperative endophthalmitis case due to Streptococcus uberis; an environmental pathogen commonly seen in mastitis cases of lactating cows. Methods. Case Report. A 52-year-old, Hispanic diabetic patient who suddenly developed severe pain and severe loss of vision, following vitrectomy. Results. The patient was diagnosed with postoperative endophthalmitis secondary to a highly resistant strain of Streptococcus uberis that did not respond to intravitreal antibiotics. He was treated with an air-fluid interchange, anterior chamber washout, intravitreal ampicillin sodium (5 mg/0.1 mL, and silicon oil tamponade (5000 ck. The eye was anatomically stabilized, though there was no functional recovery. Conclusion. Streptococcus uberis is an uncommon pathogen to the human eye, which has unique features that help the strain in developing resistance to antibiotics. While treatment with intravitreal ampicillin is feasible, there are still concerns about its possible toxicity.

  2. A simplified kinetic model for the side reactions occurring during the enzymatic synthesis of ampicillin

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    A.L.O. Ferreira

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a kinetic study of the side reactions of the ampicillin enzymatic synthesis, from phenylglycine methyl ester and 6-aminopenicillanic acid using penicillin G acylase immobilized on agarose. A Michaelis-Menten model with competitive inhibition was fitted to initial rates of ester and antibiotic hydrolysis, at pH 6.5 and 25ºC. Inherent kinetic parameters were estimated for low enzymatic loads, to assure that diffusional resistance was not important. It was observed that ampicillin inhibits the hydrolysis of PGME, but the inhibitory effect of the ester on ampicillin hydrolysis was almost negligible. The obtained parameters were: k cat1= 0.025 mM/UI min, Km1 = 155.4mM, K AE = 16.18mM, k cat2= 4.67x10-3 mM/UI min, Km2 = 11.47, K EA = 0.68 mM. Parameter values are in the range reported in the literature, except for Km1, which is much higher. The large confidence interval for this parameter denotes that the model presents low sensitivity with respect to it.

  3. Determination of Ampicillin Resistant Enterococci (ARE Isolated From Canine and Feline Rectal Swabs

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    Baran CELIK

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci species, which are normal inhabitants of the gut flora of healthy animals and human, began to be recognized as an important pathogen in both human and veterinary medicine due to the acquired resistance profiles. The aim of the study is to examine the diversity of ampicillin resistance enterococci (ARE species in cats and dogs, their antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and to determine some of the virulence related genes; ace, gelE, efaA, agg and esp. For this purpose, rectal swabs from companion animals were collected and processed for ampicillin resistant enterococci isolation. One hundred fifty seven swab samples (86 canine and 71 feline were examined. ARE were isolated from 18 canine and 18 feline samples. All isolates identified as E. faecium by PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolates were determined by disk diffusion method. The isolates were resistant to ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline (100%, followed by rifampicin and erythromycin (97%, streptomycin (92%, gentamicin (81%, ciprofloxacin (61%, nitrofurantoin (19%. Only two of E. faecium isolates were resistant to vancomycin and one to chloramphenicol. Multidrug resistance (resistance ≥4 antimicrobials observed in all isolates. Virulence genes ace, agg and esp were not detected in any of the tested isolates. The efaA and gelE genes detection rates were, 13.8% and 11.1% respectively. The ARE isolation rate among pet animals was 22.9%. Screening of antimicrobial resistant enterococci among companion animals would be useful to detect any emerging antimicrobial resistance problem related with public health.

  4. The effects of the antibiotics ampicillin, florfenicol, sulfamethazine, and tylosin on biogas production and their degradation efficiency during anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Shannon M; Ullman, Jeffrey L; Teel, Amy L; Watts, Richard J; Frear, Craig

    2013-12-01

    The impacts of four common animal husbandry antibiotics (ampicillin, florfenicol, sulfamethazine, and tylosin) on anaerobic digestion (AD) treatment efficiency and the potential for antibiotic degradation during digestion were evaluated. Sulfamethazine and ampicillin exhibited no impact on total biogas production up to 280 and 350 mg/L, respectively, although ampicillin inhibited biogas production rates during early stages of AD. Tylosin reduced biogas production by 10-38% between 130 and 913 mg/L. Florfenicol reduced biogas by ≈ 5%, 40% and 75% at 6.4, 36 and 210 mg/L, respectively. These antibiotic concentrations are higher than commonly seen for mixed feedlot manure, so impacts on full scale AD should be minimal. Antibiotic degradation products were found, confirming AD effectively degraded ampicillin, florfenicol, and tylosin, although some products were persistent throughout the process. Contamination of AD solid and liquid effluents with sulfamethazine and antibiotic transformation products from florfenicol and tylosin could present an environmental concern.

  5. Spectrophotometric determination of ampicillin sodium in pharmaceutical products using sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic as the chromogentic reagent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lixiao; Wang, Huaiyou; Xiao, Yan

    2004-11-01

    Spectrophotometric determination of ampicillin sodium is described. The ampicillin sodium reacts with sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic in pH 9.00 buffer solution to form a salmon pink compound, and its maximum absorption wavelength is at 463 nm, ɛ463=1.14×10 4. The absorbance of ampicillin sodium from 2.0-80 μg ml -1 obeys Beer's law. The linear regression equation of the calibration graph is C=40.24 A-2.603, with a linear regression correlation coefficient is 0.9997, the detection limit is 1.5 μg ml -1, recovery is from 97.23 to 104.5%. Effects of pH, surfactant, organic solvents, and foreign ions on the determination of ampicillin sodium have been examined. This method is rapid and simple, and can be used for the determination of ampicillin sodium in the injection solution of ampicillin sodium. The results obtained by this method agreed with those by the official method (HPLC).

  6. Ampicillin-Improved Glucose Tolerance in Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6NTac Mice Is Age Dependent

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    I. Rune

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ampicillin has been shown to improve glucose tolerance in mice. We hypothesized that this effect is present only if treatment is initiated prior to weaning and that it disappears when treatment is terminated. High-fat fed C57BL/6NTac mice were divided into groups that received Ampicillin at different ages or not at all. We found that both diet and Ampicillin significantly changed the gut microbiota composition in the animals. Furthermore, there was a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in Ampicillin-treated, five-week-old mice compared to nontreated mice in the control group. At study termination, expressions of mRNA coding for tumor necrosis factor, serum amyloid A, and lactase were upregulated, while the expression of tumor necrosis factor (ligand superfamily member 15 was downregulated in the ileum of Ampicillin-treated mice. Higher dendritic cell percentages were found systemically in high-fat diet mice, and a lower tolerogenic dendritic cell percentage was found both in relation to high-fat diet and late Ampicillin treatment. The results support our hypothesis that a “window” exists early in life in which an alteration of the gut microbiota affects glucose tolerance as well as development of gut immunity and that this window may disappear after weaning.

  7. Stability of Ampicillin Sodium, Nafcillin Sodium, And Oxacillin Sodium in AutoDose Infusion System Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanping; Trissel, Lawrence A

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical stability of ampicillin sodium 1g/100mL, nafcillin sodium 1g/100mL, and oxacillin sodium 1g/100mL, each of which was admixed in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and packaged in an AutoDose Infusion System bag. Triplicate test samples were prepared by reconstituting the penicillin antibiotics and bringing the required amount of each drug to a final volume of 100 mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection. The test solutions were packaged in AutoDose Bags, which are ethylene vinyl acetate plastic containers designed for use in the AutoDose Infusion System. Samples were stored protected from light and were evaluated at appropriate intervals for up to 7 days at 23 deg C and up to 30 days at 4 deg C. Physical stability was assessed by means of a multistep evaluation procedure that included both turbidimetric and particulate measurement as well as visual inspection. Chemical stability was assesed with stability-indicating high-perofrmance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analytical techniques based on the determination of drug concentrations initially and at appropriate intervals over the study periods. All the penicillin admixtures were initially clear when viewed in normal fluorescent room light. When the admixtures were viewed with a Tyndall beam, a trace haze was observed with the ampicillin sodium and nafcillin sodium mixtures but not with the oxacillin sodium mixture. Measured turbidity and particulate content were low and exhibited little change in the ampicillin sodium and oxacillin sodium samples throughout the study. The nafcillin sodium samples stored at room temperature remained clear, but a microprecipitate developed in the refrigerated samples between 14 and 21 days of storage. All samples were essentially colorless throughout the study. HPLC analysis indicated some decomposition in the samples. Ampicillin sodium, which was the least stable, exhibited a 10% loss after 24 hours at 23 deg C. In the

  8. Treatment of serious urological infections with cefotaxime compared to ampicillin plus netilmicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, D; Bremmelgaard, A; Rasmussen, F;

    1986-01-01

    Fifty-nine patients with severe urinary tract infections were treated with either cefotaxime or ampicillin plus netilmicin in a controlled, open randomised study of the clinical and bacteriological effects. The patients responded favourably in both groups. The minimum inhibitory concentrations...... of cefotaxime against the isolates from blood were low for all bacterial strains except one (Streptococcus faecalis). Time to normalisation of temperature was significantly shorter in the cefotaxime group. The results suggest that cefotaxime is an effective and well-tolerated agent in the treatment of serious...

  9. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of ampicillin/sulbactam (2:1) combination after intravenous administration to sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carceles, C M; Espuny, A; Vicente, M S; Diaz, M S; Escudero, E

    1996-09-01

    The pharmacokinetic behaviour of a combination of ampicillin and sulbactam (2:1) in six sheep and six goats after single intravenous doses of 20 mg kg body weight-1 (13.33 mg kg-1 of ampicillin and 6.67 mg kg-1 of sulbactam) was investigated by using a high-performance liquid chromatographic method for determining plasma concentrations. The objective was to determine whether there are differences between sheep and goats in the disposition kinetics of ampicillin and sulbactam. The plasma concentration-time curves were analysed by compartmental pharmacokinetic and non-compartmental methods. The disposition curves for both drugs were best described by a biexponential equation (two-compartment open model) in both sheep and goats. The mean (SD) elimination half-lives of ampicillin were 0.32 (0.05) h in sheep and 0.32 (0.04) h in goats, and the half-lives of sulbactam were 0.74 (0.10) h and 0.79 (0.18) h in sheep and goats, respectively. The apparent volumes of distribution of ampicillin and sulbactam were similar in the two species. Mean (SD) body clearances of ampicillin were 0.69 (0.07) litre h-1 kg-1 in sheep and 0.72 (0.11) litre h-1 kg-1 in goats, and the body clearances of sulbactam were 0.38 (0.03) and 0.38 (0.07) litre h-1 kg-1 in sheep and goats, respectively. There were no significant differences between any of the pharmacokinetic parameters of ampicillin and sulbactam in the sheep and goats.

  10. Duplex real-time PCR assay for rapid detection of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, Stein Christian; Ulvik, Arve; Jureen, Roland; Willems, Rob J L; Top, Janetta; Leavis, Helen; Harthug, Stig; Langeland, Nina

    2004-02-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of carriers of resistant microorganisms is an important aspect of efficient infection control in hospitals. Traditional identification methods of antibiotic-resistant bacteria usually take at least 3 to 4 days after sampling. A duplex real-time PCR assay was developed for rapid detection of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (ARE). Primers and probes that are used in this assay specifically detected the D-Ala-D-Ala ligase gene of E. faecium and the modified penicillin-binding protein 5 gene (pbp5) carrying the Glu-to-Val substitution at position 629 (Val-629) in a set of 129 tested E. faecium strains with known pbp5 sequence. Presence of the Val-629 in the strain set from 11 different countries was highly correlated with ampicillin resistance. In a screening of hospitalized patients, the real-time PCR assay yielded a sensitivity and a specificity for the detection of ARE colonization of 95% and 100%, respectively. The results were obtained 4 h after samples were harvested from overnight broth of rectal swab samples, identifying both species and the resistance marker mutation in pbp5. This novel assay reliably identifies ARE 2 to 3 days more quickly than traditional culture methods, thereby increasing laboratory throughput, making it useful for rectal screening of ARE. The assay demonstrates the advantages of real-time PCR for detection of nosocomial pathogens.

  11. Extracting Conformational Ensembles of Small Molecules from Molecular Dynamics Simulations: Ampicillin as a Test Case

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    Giuliano Malloci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate and exhaustive description of the conformational ensemble sampled by small molecules in solution, possibly at different physiological conditions, is of primary interest in many fields of medicinal chemistry and computational biology. Recently, we have built an on-line database of compounds with antimicrobial properties, where we provide all-atom force-field parameters and a set of molecular properties, including representative structures extracted from cluster analysis over μs-long molecular dynamics (MD trajectories. In the present work, we used a medium-sized antibiotic from our sample, namely ampicillin, to assess the quality of the conformational ensemble. To this aim, we compared the conformational landscape extracted from previous unbiased MD simulations to those obtained by means of Replica Exchange MD (REMD and those originating from three freely-available conformer generation tools widely adopted in computer-aided drug-design. In addition, for different charge/protonation states of ampicillin, we made available force-field parameters and static/dynamic properties derived from both Density Functional Theory and MD calculations. For the specific system investigated here, we found that: (i the conformational statistics extracted from plain MD simulations is consistent with that obtained from REMD simulations; (ii overall, our MD-based approach performs slightly better than any of the conformer generator tools if one takes into account both the diversity of the generated conformational set and the ability to reproduce experimentally-determined structures.

  12. Ampicillin-Improved Glucose Tolerance in Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6NTac Mice Is Age Dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune, I.; Hansen, C. H. F.; Ellekilde, M.;

    2013-01-01

    at different ages or not at all. We found that both diet and Ampicillin significantly changed the gut microbiota composition in the animals. Furthermore, there was a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in Ampicillin-treated, five-week-old mice compared to nontreated mice in the control group. At study...... in high-fat diet mice, and a lower tolerogenic dendritic cell percentage was found both in relation to high-fat diet and late Ampicillin treatment. The results support our hypothesis that a "window" exists early in life in which an alteration of the gut microbiota affects glucose tolerance as well...... as development of gut immunity and that this window may disappear after weaning....

  13. Lack of detection of ampicillin resistance gene transfer from Bt176 transgenic corn to culturable bacteria under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badosa, Esther; Moreno, Carmen; Montesinos, Emilio

    2004-05-01

    Population levels of total and ampicillin-resistant culturable bacteria and the putative horizontal bla gene acquirement from Bt-corn were studied in commercial fields of transgenic corn in Spain during the years 2000-2003. Commercial fields consisting of conventional corn (Dracma) and Bt176 transgenic corn (Compa CB) were located in three climatic regions. The effect of corn type, plant material, field location, stage of sampling and year of study were studied on total and ampicillin resistant bacterial population levels, on median effective dose and on the slope of the dose-response curve to ampicillin. None of the parameters measured were significantly different (Ptransgenic and non-transgenic cornfields under the diverse conditions studied. However, in population levels of ampicillin resistant bacteria, the minimum difference between sample means to be significant with a likelihood of 80% was 8.9%. Specific detection of putative bacteria harbouring bla TEM-1 ampicillin resistance genes acquired from Bt176 corn was performed with a method based on the extraction of DNA from the culturable bacterial fraction and with PCR. Primers for PCR were targeted to the bla gene and the corresponding flanking regions present in the pUC18 cloning vector or the Bt176 construct. The culturable bacterial fraction of 144 field samples (up to 864 analysis, including ampicillin enrichments) was analysed by PCR. The estimated total number of bacteria analysed was 10(8). The level of detection of a transfer event according to the sensitivity of the methods used was 10(-6). Four samples of transgenic and five of non-transgenic corn gave positive signals. However, the amplification products did not correspond to the ones expected from Bt176 or pUC18. The limitations of the sampling design and of the methods used are discussed.

  14. Meningitis Due to Ampicillin-and Chloramphenicol-Resistant Haemophilus influenzae Type B in Canada. Case Report and Review

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    Amin Kabani

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The first report of a case of ampicillin- and chloramphenicol-resistant Haemophilus influenzae type b invasive infection in Canada is described in a four-month-old male with meningitis. He was treated with cefotaxime 200 mg/kg/day divided every 6 h and dexamethasone 0.6 mg/kg/day divided every 6 h, eventually recovering after a complicated course. Follow-up at 21 months showed mild to moderate global developmental delay. While chloramphenicol resistance is rare in North America, a case of meningitis initially unresponsive to ampicillin and chloramphenicol must be considered suspect for resistance. Third generation cephalosporins should be used for resistant cases.

  15. Transfer of plasmid-mediated ampicillin resistance from Haemophilus to Neisseria gonorrhoeae requires an intervening organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicol, P J; Albritton, W L; Ronald, A R

    1986-01-01

    Haemophilus species have been implicated as the source of plasmid-mediated ampicillin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Previous attempts to transfer conjugally the resistance plasmids from Haemophilus species to N. gonorrhoeae have met with limited success. Using both biparental and triparental mating systems, it was found that transfer will occur if the commensal Neisseria species, Neisseria cinerea, is used as a transfer intermediate. This organism stably maintains resistance plasmids of Haemophilus and facilitates transfer of these plasmids to N. gonorrhoeae, in a triparental mating system, at a transfer frequency of 10(-8). Both Haemophilus ducreyi and N. gonorrhoeae carry mobilizing plasmids capable of mediating conjugal transfer of the same resistance plasmids. However, restriction endonuclease mapping and DNA hybridization studies indicate that the mobilizing plasmids are distinctly different molecules. Limited homology is present within the transfer region of these plasmids.

  16. ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS IN BARIATRIC SURGERY: a continuous infusion of cefazolin versus ampicillin/sulbactam and ertapenem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Antônio Bandeira FERRAZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The incidence of surgical site infection in bariatric patients is significant and the current recommendations for antibiotic prophylaxis are sometimes inadequate. Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of three prophylactic antibiotic regimens on the incidence of surgical site infection. Methods A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2009 and January 2013 in which 896 Roux-en-Y gastric bypasses were performed to treat obesity. The study compared three groups of patients according to the perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis administered intravenously and beginning at anesthesia induction: Group I consisting of 194 patients treated with two 3-g doses of ampicillin/sulbactam; Group II with 303 patients treated with a single 1-g dose of ertapenem; and Group III with 399 patients treated with a 2-g dose of cefazolin at anesthesia induction followed by a continuous infusion of cefazolin 1g throughout the surgical procedure. The rate of surgical site infection was analyzed, as well as its association with age, sex, preoperative weight, body mass index and comorbidities. Results The rates of surgical site infection were 4.16% in the group treated prophylactically with ampicillin/sulbactam, 1.98% in the ertapenem group and 1.55% in the continuous cefazolin group. Conclusion The prophylactic use of continuous cefazolin in surgeries for morbid obesity shows very promising results. These findings suggest that some prophylactic regimens need to be reconsidered and even substituted by more effective therapies for the prevention of surgical site infections in bariatric patients.

  17. Stability of ampicillin, piperacillin, cefotaxime, netilmicin and amikacin in an L-amino acid solution prepared for total parenteral nutrition of newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, K; Colding, H; Andersen, G E

    1988-01-01

    The stability of ampicillin, piperacillin and cefotaxime, alone or in combination with either netilmicin or amikacin, was tested by microbiological methods at 29 degrees C (ampicillin, also at 22 degrees C) in an L-amino acid solution specially prepared for newborn infants. In the case of ampicil...

  18. Space-time clustering of ampicillin resistant Escherichia coli isolated from Danish pigs at slaughter between 1997 and 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abatih, E. N.; Ersbøll, A. K.; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo;

    2009-01-01

    or clustered in space and time. Data on E coli isolates between 1997 and 2005 were obtained from the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme (DANMAP) whereas data on the quantity of ampicillin consumed was obtained from the Danish Register of Veterinary Medicines (Vet...

  19. Immune haemolytic anaemia associated with ampicillin dependent warm antibodies and high titre cold agglutinins in a patient with Mycoplasma pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Sørensen, P G

    1984-01-01

    A case of severe immune haemolytic anaemia in a 54-year-old man suffering from Mycoplasma pneumonia is presented. A strongly positive direct Coombs test with erythrocyte bound IgG, C3d and C4 was demonstrated during the haemolytic process. Further, serologic investigations revealed ampicillin...

  20. Improved WO3 photocatalytic efficiency using ZrO2 and Ru for the degradation of carbofuran and ampicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gar Alalm, Mohamed; Ookawara, Shinichi; Fukushi, Daisuke; Sato, Akira; Tawfik, Ahmed

    2016-01-25

    The photocatalytic degradation of carbofuran (pesticide) and ampicillin (pharmaceutical) using synthesized WO3/ZrO2 nanoparticles under simulated solar light was investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectra analyses were used to characterize the prepared catalysts. The optimum ratio of WO3 to ZrO2 was determined to be 1:1 for the degradation of both contaminants. The degradation of carbofuran and ampicillin by WO3/ZrO2 after 240 min of irradiation was 100% and 96%, respectively. Ruthenium (Ru) was employed as an additive to WO3/ZrO2 to enhance the photocatalytic degradation rate. Ru/WO3/ZrO2 exhibited faster degradation rates than WO3/ZrO2. Furthermore, 100% and 97% degradation of carbofuran and ampicillin, respectively, was achieved using Ru/WO3/ZrO2 after 180 min of irradiation. The durability of the catalyst was investigated by reusing the same suspended catalyst, which achieved 92% of its initial efficiency. The photocatalytic degradation of ampicillin and carbofuran followed pseudo-first order kinetics according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model.

  1. Continuous intravenous infusion of ampicillin and gentamicin during parenteral nutrition to 36 newborn infants using a dosage schedule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Møller, S; Andersen, G E

    1984-01-01

    Ampicillin and gentamicin were given continuously i.v. to 36 newborn infants using a dosage schedule and the results were compared with those obtained in an earlier study including 88 infants who received individually calculated dosages. With the dosage schedule the variation in the serum concent...

  2. Ampicillin-Improved Glucose Tolerance in Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6NTac Mice Is Age Dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune, I.; Hansen, C. H. F.; Ellekilde, M.

    2013-01-01

    termination, expressions of mRNA coding for tumor necrosis factor, serum amyloid A, and lactase were upregulated, while the expression of tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily member 15 was downregulated in the ileum of Ampicillin-treated mice. Higher dendritic cell percentages were found systemically...

  3. Ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium clonal complex 17 is widespread in healthy dogs: anthropozoonosis or zooanthroponosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Peter Panduro; Williams, Nicola J; Willems, Rob;

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: An increase in nosocomial infections caused by ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (AREfm) has been recently observed in some European countries. Based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST), most hospital AREfm isolates belong to one distinct genogroup, clonal complex 17 (CC17...

  4. Adhesion of Enterococcus faecalis 1131 grown under subinhibitory concentrations of ampicillin and vancomycin to a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic substratum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallardo-Moreno, AM; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Gonzalez-Martin, ML; Bruque, JM; Perez-Giraldo, C

    2001-01-01

    The effect of two subinhibitory antibiotic concentrations of ampicillin and vancomycin during growth on the adhesion of Enterococcus faecalis 1131 to glass and silicone rubber was studied in a parallel plate flow chamber. Initial deposition rates and numbers of adhering bacteria after 4 h were highe

  5. Ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae isolates in Geneva: serotype, antimicrobial susceptibility, and β-lactam resistance mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkaoui, A; Diene, S M; Emonet, S; Renzi, G; Francois, P; Schrenzel, J

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the molecular mechanisms of ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae isolated in Geneva, Switzerland. We investigated the association between specific patterns of amino acid substitutions in penicillin-binding protein 3 (with or without β-lactamase production) and β-lactam susceptibility. Another main focus for this study was to compare the accuracy of disk diffusion and Etest methods to detect resistance to ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The antibiotic susceptibility to β-lactam antibiotics of 124 H. influenzae isolates was determined by disk diffusion and Etest methods, and interpreted by European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints. Alterations in PBP3 were investigated by sequencing the ftsI gene. Of the 124 clinical isolates analyzed, ampicillin resistance was found in 36% (45 out of 124). The rate of resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was 9% and 0.8%, using EUCAST and CLSI breakpoints respectively. For the 78 β-lactamase negative ampicillin-susceptible (BLNAS) isolates for which the Etest method indicated a high degree of susceptibility (MIC ≤ 1 mg/L), the disk diffusion method revealed resistance to ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in 33 cases (42%). Most common amino acid substitutions were Asn526Lys and Val547Ile, followed by Asp569Ser, Ala502Val, Asp350Asn, Met377Ile, Ile449Val, and Arg517His. The patterns observed were classified into six groups (IIa, IIb, IIc, IId, III-like, and miscellaneous). Continued characterization of both invasive and respiratory H. influenzae isolates is necessary in order to observe changes in the microbiology and epidemiology of this pathogen that could lead to clinical failure when treated by empirical antibiotic therapy.

  6. Gut microbiota modulation with norfloxacin and ampicillin enhances glucose tolerance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membrez, Mathieu; Blancher, Florence; Jaquet, Muriel; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Cani, Patrice D; Burcelin, Rémy G; Corthesy, Irène; Macé, Katherine; Chou, Chieh Jason

    2008-07-01

    Recent data suggest that the gut microbiota plays a significant role in fat accumulation. However, it is not clear whether gut microbiota is involved in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. To assess this issue, we modulated gut microbiota via antibiotics administration in two different mouse models with insulin resistance. Results from dose-determination studies showed that a combination of norfloxacin and ampicillin, at a dose of 1 g/L, maximally suppressed the numbers of cecal aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in ob/ob mice. After a 2-wk intervention with the antibiotic combination, both ob/ob and diet-induced obese and insulin-resistant mice showed a significant improvement in fasting glycemia and oral glucose tolerance. The improved glycemic control was independent of food intake or adiposity because pair-fed ob/ob mice were as glucose intolerant as the control ob/ob mice. Reduced liver triglycerides and increased liver glycogen correlated with improved glucose tolerance in the treated mice. Concomitant reduction of plasma lipopolysaccharides and increase of adiponectin further supported the antidiabetic effects of the antibiotic treatment in ob/ob mice. In summary, modulation of gut microbiota ameliorated glucose tolerance of mice by altering the expression of hepatic and intestinal genes involved in inflammation and metabolism, and by changing the hormonal, inflammatory, and metabolic status of the host.

  7. Modulation of release kinetics by plasma polymerization of ampicillin-loaded β-TCP ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labay, C.; Buxadera-Palomero, J.; Avilés, M.; Canal, C.; Ginebra, M. P.

    2016-08-01

    Beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) bioceramics are employed in bone repair surgery. Their local implantation in bone defects puts them in the limelight as potential materials for local drug delivery. However, obtaining suitable release patterns fitting the required therapeutics is a challenge. Here, plasma polymerization of ampicillin-loaded β-TCP is studied for the design of a novel antibiotic delivery system. Polyethylene glycol-like (PEG-like) coating of β-TCP by low pressure plasma polymerization was performed using diglyme as precursor, and nanometric PEG-like layers were obtained by simple and double plasma polymerization processes. A significant increase in hydrophobicity, and the presence of plasma polymer was visible on the surface by SEM and quantified by XPS. As a main consequence of the plasma polymerisation, the release kinetics were successfully modified, avoiding burst release, and slowing down the initial rate of release leading to a 4.5 h delay in reaching the same antibiotic release percentage, whilst conservation of the activity of the antibiotic was simultaneously maintained. Thus, plasma polymerisation on the surface of bioceramics may be a good strategy to design controlled drug delivery matrices for local bone therapies.

  8. Improving selectivity and productivity of the enzymatic synthesis of ampicillin with immobilized penicillin G acylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. O. Ferreira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental design was applied to improve the reaction conditions for enzymatic synthesis of ampicillin from phenylglycine methyl ester (PGME and 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA, catalyzed by penicillin G acylase from E. coli immobilized on an agarose-glyoxyl derivative. The presence and magnitude of interactions between reaction variables were estimated using a 2(5 factorial design. A batch reactor was employed to assess the influence of the following variables: pH, temperature, initial 6-APA concentration, buffer concentration, and the presence of methanol. Response variables were productivity, selectivity, and yield (based on initial 6-APA concentration. The best synthesis yield (56.9% was at T = 4ºC and pH 6.5. The highest productivity (49.3 ´ 10-3mM of antibiotic/min was achieved at T = 25ºC and pH 6.5. Our results indicate that it is possible to achieve high productivity for this system while maintaining a high selectivity and yield.

  9. Preseptal and orbital cellulitis: 15-year experience with sulbactam ampicillin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devrim, Ilker; Kanra, Güler; Kara, Ateş; Cengiz, A Bülent; Orhan, Mehmet; Ceyhan, Mehmet; Seçmeer, Gülten

    2008-01-01

    The infection of the orbita and ocular tissues can result in severe local and systemic complications. We aimed to determine the predisposing factors for preseptal and orbital cellulitis, the clinical and routine laboratory differences between orbital and preseptal cellulitis, and the change in the spectrum of the pathogens and the antibiotics used in the last 10 years. One hundred thirty-nine patients, hospitalized in Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine Children's Hospital between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2003 with diagnosis ofperiorbital or orbital cellulitis, were reviewed retrospectively. Ten of the patients (7%) had orbital and 129 (93%) had preseptal cellulitis. The male/female ratio was 1.7:1. The average age (mean+/-standard deviation) was 5.7+/-4 years. The seasonal distribution was most marked in spring and fall periods. When compared with preseptal cellulitis, the mean blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels were significantly higher in patients with orbital cellulitis. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 13 (41.9% of total microbiologically confirmed cases), coagulase-negative staphylococcus in 8 (25.8%), and H. influenza type b in 2 patients (6%). Thirty out of 77 clinical sample cultures (39%) were positive. In clinical studies, etiological agents of orbital and preseptal cellulitis could be identified in only 20-30% of cases, so in clinical practice treatment is usually empiric. We observed that sulbactam-ampicillin was a safe and effective choice of treatment in orbital and preseptal cellulitis in our cases.

  10. Free radicals properties of gamma-irradiated penicillin-derived antibiotics: piperacillin, ampicillin, and crystalline penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczyński, Sławomir; Pilawa, Barbara; Koprowski, Robert; Wróbel, Zygmunt; Ptaszkiewicz, Marta; Swakoń, Jan; Olko, Paweł

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the concentrations and properties of free radicals in piperacillin, ampicillin, and crystalline penicillin after gamma irradiation. The radicals were studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy using an X-band spectrometer (9.3 GHz). Gamma irradiation was performed at a dose of 25 kGy. One- and two-exponential functions were fitted to the experimental data, in order to assess the influence of the antibiotics' storage time on the measured EPR lines. After gamma irradiation, complex EPR lines were recorded confirming the presence of a large number of free radicals formed during the irradiation. For all tested antibiotics, concentrations of free radicals and parameters of EPR spectra changed with storage time. The results obtained demonstrate that concentration of free radicals and other spectroscopic parameters can be used to select the optimal parameters of radiation sterilization of β-lactam antibiotics. The most important parameters are the constants τ (τ (1(A),(I)) and τ (2(A),(I))) and K (K (0(A),(I)), K (1(A),(I)), K (2(A),(I))) of the exponential functions that describe free radicals decay during samples storage.

  11. Nanoparticles functionalized with ampicillin destroy multiple-antibiotic-resistant isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogenes and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ashley N; Smith, Kathryn; Samuels, Tova A; Lu, Jiangrui; Obare, Sherine O; Scott, Maria E

    2012-04-01

    We show here that silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were intrinsically antibacterial, whereas gold nanoparticles (AuNP) were antimicrobial only when ampicillin was bound to their surfaces. Both AuNP and AgNP functionalized with ampicillin were effective broad-spectrum bactericides against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Most importantly, when AuNP and AgNP were functionalized with ampicillin they became potent bactericidal agents with unique properties that subverted antibiotic resistance mechanisms of multiple-drug-resistant bacteria.

  12. Prevalence of transposons encoding kanamycin, ampicillin and trimethoprim resistance in isolates from urinary tract infections detected using DNA probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S F; Chang, L L; Chow, T Y; Wu, W J; Chang, J C

    1992-03-01

    Drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria causing urinary tract infections were collected. Kanamycin, ampicillin or trimethoprim-resistant strains were analyzed separately for the presence of Tn5, Tn3, or Tn7 by colony hybridization. Of these isolates, kanamycin-resistant transposons were present in 38.2% of 60 kanamycin-resistant isolates. A 3.3 kb fragment containing SacI-BamHI transposase of Tn3 and 42.6% showed a positive reaction in 129 ampicillin-resistant clinical isolates. Among the 75 trimethoprim-resistant isolates studied, 52% were shown to contain Tn7 when probed with a 1 kb BamHI fragment of Tn7. Results from Southern hybridizations demonstrated that these antibiotic resistant genes had been born on plasmids in some clinical isolates.

  13. [Initial antibiotic therapy in maternal-fetal infections which include ampicillin even in countries where listeriosis is an incidental disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukadida, J; Taher, N Bel Hadj; Seket, B; Monastiri, K; Salem, N; Snoussi, N

    2002-06-01

    Neonatal listeriosis is an exceptional disease in Northern Africa. Hence, protocols for maternal-fetal infection treatment include only a third generation cephalosporin and an aminoside. This protocol does not take into account the possibility of Listeria monocytogenes infection. We report a fatal case of neonatal listeriosis in Tunisia. The use of first antibiotics in maternal-foetal infection must be reconsidered when lacking sufficient bacteriological data and include systematically ampicillin in presumptive antibiotic protocols.

  14. A Novel Metallo-β-Lactamase Involved in the Ampicillin Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49136 Strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yu Chang

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae, a penicillin-sensitive bacterium, is recognized as a major cause of pneumonia and is treated clinically with penicillin-based antibiotics. The rapid increase in resistance to penicillin and other antibiotics affects 450 million people globally and results in 4 million deaths every year. To unveil the mechanism of resistance of S. pneumoniae is thus an important issue to treat streptococcal disease that might consequently save millions of lives around the world. In this work, we isolated a streptococci-conserved L-ascorbate 6-phosphate lactonase, from S. pneumoniae ATCC 49136. This protein reveals a metallo-β-lactamase activity in vitro, which is able to deactivate an ampicillin-based antibiotic by hydrolyzing the amide bond of the β-lactam ring. The Michaelis parameter (Km = 25 μM and turnover number (kcat = 2 s-1 were obtained when nitrocefin was utilized as an optically measurable substrate. Through confocal images and western blot analyses with a specific antibody, the indigenous protein was recognized in S. pneumoniae ATCC 49136. The protein-overexpressed S. pneumonia exhibits a high ampicillin-tolerance ability in vivo. In contrast, the protein-knockout S. pneumonia reveals the ampicillin-sensitive feature relative to the wild type strain. Based on these results, we propose that this protein is a membrane-associated metallo-β-lactamase (MBL involved in the antibiotic-resistant property of S. pneumoniae.

  15. Orthogonal projection to latent structures combined with artificial neural networks in non-destructive analysis of Ampicillin powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Liu, Guoliang; Fei, Qiang; Zuo, Ye; Ren, YuLin

    2009-01-01

    A new method orthogonal projection to latent structures (O-PLS) combined with artificial neural networks is investigated for non-destructive determination of Ampicillin powder via near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. The modern NIR spectroscopy analysis technique is efficient, simple and non-destructive, which has been used in chemical analysis in diverse fields. Be a preprocessing method, O-PLS provides a way to remove systematic variation from an input data set X not correlated to the response set Y, and does not disturb the correlation between X and Y. In this paper, O-PLS pretreated spectral data was applied to establish the ANN model of Ampicillin powder, in this model, the concentration of Ampicillin as the active component was determined. The degree of approximation was employed as the selective criterion of the optimum network parameters. In order to compare the OPLS-ANN model, the calibration models that using first-derivative and second-derivative preprocessing spectra were also designed. Experimental results showed that the OPLS-ANN model was the best.

  16. Highly biocompatible chitosan with super paramagnetic calcium ferrite (CaFe2O4) nanoparticle for the release of ampicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilas, Ram; Sriram, K; Maheswari, P Uma; Sheriffa Begum, K M Meera

    2017-04-01

    The CaFe2O4 nanoparticles (CFNP) were synthesized using the solution combustion method. The CFNP-chitosan-ampicillin was prepared by the ionic gelation method using tripolyphosphate (TPP). The CFNP, chitosan-CFNP, chitosan-CFNP-ampicillin materials were characterized by XRD, FT-IR and TGA analysis in order to evaluate the particle nature and size, the presence of functional groups and their thermal stability. The FESEM and EDAX analysis were performed to understand the surface morphology of the materials and the presence of CFNP in the material, respectively. The vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis was performed to analyze the magnetic property of the chitosan-CFNP material. The squareness value of 0.1733 obtained by VSM measurements indicates the super paramagnetic nature of chitosan-CFNP. Taguchi orthogonal array method was applied to identify the significant impacting parameters for maximizing the drug encapsulation of chitosan-CFNP. The drug release studies showed that the drug was released rapidly in acidic medium as compared to the basic or neutral medium. The drug release kinetic data were fitted with different linear kinetic model equations and the best fit was obtained with Korsmeyer-Peppas model. The model drug ampicillin release from chitosan-CFNP was tested against staphylococcus epidermis bacteria through disc diffusion method for checking biocompatibility and antibacterial activity.

  17. Study on Ampicillin Sodium Spray-drying Process%喷雾干燥法生产氨苄西林钠的生产工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗猛; 崔振辉

    2012-01-01

    对原氨苄西林钠喷干法工艺改进,提高氨苄西林钠质量。通过改变成盐液底水的配比和氢氧化钠溶液的浓度,降低钠盐浓度的实验,提高氨苄西林钠无菌原粉质量。%The quality of Ampicillin Sodium is improved by experiments of changing the ratio of primer water of salt-forming improving the former Ampicillin Sodium spray-dry process.By the three solution and the concentration of sodium hydroxide solution to decrease the concentration of Ampicillin Sodium, so that the quality of Ampicillin Sodium aseptic original powder is improved.

  18. Synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial activity of an ampicillin-conjugated magnetic nanoantibiotic for medical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein-Al-Ali SH

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Samer Hasan Hussein-Al-Ali,1,2 Mohamed Ezzat El Zowalaty,3,4 Mohd Zobir Hussein,5 Benjamin M Geilich,6 Thomas J Webster6,7 1Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Isra University, Amman, Kingdom of Jordan; 3Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Faculty of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 6Department of Chemical Engineering and Program in Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 7Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Abstract: Because of their magnetic properties, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs have numerous diverse biomedical applications. In addition, because of their ability to penetrate bacteria and biofilms, nanoantimicrobial agents have become increasingly popular for the control of infectious diseases. Here, MNPs were prepared through an iron salt coprecipitation method in an alkaline medium, followed by a chitosan coating step (CS-coated MNPs; finally, the MNPs were loaded with ampicillin (amp to form an amp-CS-MNP nanocomposite. Both the MNPs and amp-CS-MNPs were subsequently characterized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity. X-ray diffraction results showed that the MNPs and nanocomposites were composed of pure magnetite. Fourier transform infrared spectra and thermogravimetric data for the MNPs, CS-coated MNPs, and amp-CS-MNP nanocomposite were compared, which confirmed the CS coating on the MNPs and the amp-loaded nanocomposite. Magnetization curves showed that both the MNPs and the amp-CS-MNP nanocomposites were superparamagnetic, with saturation magnetizations at 80.1 and 26.6 emu g-1, respectively. Amp was loaded at 8

  19. Clarithromycin Resistance Mechanisms of Epidemic β-Lactamase-Nonproducing Ampicillin-Resistant Haemophilus influenzae Strains in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyama, Shoji; Wajima, Takeaki; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the clarithromycin resistance mechanisms of β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae strains. In all clarithromycin-resistant strains, the transcript level of acrB was significantly elevated, and these strains had a frameshift mutation in acrR Introduction of the acrR mutation into H. influenzae Rd generated a clarithromycin-resistant transformant with the same MIC as the donor strain. Our results indicate that the acrR mutation confers clarithromycin resistance by the increasing the transcription of acrB.

  20. Successful treatment of skin and soft tissue infection due to carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii by ampicillin-sulbactam and meropenem combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Yoichi; Yoshida, Mayumi; Masuda, Yoko; Inoue, Daisuke; Tsuji, Yasuhiro; Kamimura, Hidetoshi; Karube, Yoshiharu; Takaki, Kazutaka; Kawano, Fumio

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections have been responsible for outbreaks in medical facilities. A 35-year-old Japanese woman developed a skin and soft tissue infection due to carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii. The isolate was resistant to antibiotics other than ampicillin-sulbactam and colistin, suggesting drug resistance due to carbapenemase production by OXA-23. We selected a combination therapy consisting of intravenous ampicillin-sulbactam and meropenem. No changes were observed in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, or serum creatinine during therapy, and carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii was not detected in wound exudates 3 days after therapy initiation. In our patient's case, combination therapy with ampicillin-sulbactam and meropenem was successful. Thus, combination therapy with ampicillin-sulbactam and meropenem is effective against skin and soft tissue infection due to carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii. Combination therapy with intravenous ampicillin-sulbactam and meropenem may be an option for skin and soft tissue infections due to carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii.

  1. Detection of Ampicillin Resistance Genes (bla in Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli with Polymerase Chain Reaction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiana Milanda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli is a rod negative Gram which could be pathogenic, if its value increases or located in outer gastrointestinal tract. Pathogenic E. coli will produce enterotoxin which will cause diarrhoea or infection in urine tract. Ampicilin was one of particular antibiotics to overcome infection. Ampicilin nowadays is no longer used as primary medicine, because of its resistance case. The aim of this research is to detect the presence of gene which is responsible to ampicilin resistant E. coli. We used isolated midstream urine from cystitis object in Hasan Sadikin Hospital (RSHS as samples. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR method (colony-PCR and DNA-PCR were done to invenstigate the antibiotic resistency. Based on the result of antibiotic susceptibility testing to ampicillin, E. coli samples were resistant to ampicilin. Elektroforegram products of colony-PCR and DNA-PCR showed that the resistance case of ampicilin caused by bla gene (199 bp. Selective and rational antibiotic treatment is required to prevent ampicillin resistance in patients with symptoms

  2. In vitro activity of RPR 106972 alone and in combination with vancomycin, ampicillin, and gentamicin against multidrug-resistant enterococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messick, C R; Woodward, J; Pendland, S L

    1998-10-01

    This investigation used checkerboard and time-kill assays to evaluate the in vitro activity of RPR 106972 (45% pristinamycin IB and 55% pristinamycin IIB) alone and in combination with vancomycin or ampicillin +/- gentamicin against multidrug-resistant enterococci. The checkerboard procedure resulted in synergistic or additive effects in 91% of the isolates with the combination of RPR 106972 plus vancomycin versus 68% with RPR 106972 plus ampicillin. The addition of gentamicin to either combination resulted in synergistic or additive results in 100% of the isolates. Inhibitory activity was observed with the time-kill assay with mean change in log10 CFU/mL at 24 h of -0.31 for RPR 106972, 3.3 for vancomycin, -0.46 for RPR 106972 plus vancomycin, and -0.35 for RPR 106972 plus vancomycin and gentamicin. No antagonism was noted with any of the combinations. RPR 106972 demonstrates good inhibitory activity against Enterococcus faecium and may prove useful in the treatment of enterococcal infections.

  3. Use of antibody gene library for the isolation of specific single chain antibodies by ampicillin-antigen conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann-Schaal, Meina; Messerschmidt, Katrin; Grenz, Nicole; Heilmann, Katja

    2013-03-01

    Isolation of recombinant antibodies from antibody libraries is commonly performed by different molecular display formats including phage display and ribosome display or different cell-surface display formats. We describe a new method which allows the selection of Escherichia coli cells producing the required single chain antibody by cultivation in presence of ampicillin conjugated to the antigen of interest. The method utilizes the neutralization of the conjugate by the produced single chain antibody which is secreted to the periplasm. Therefore, a new expression system based on the pET26b vector was designed and a library was constructed. The method was successfully established first for the selection of E. coli BL21 Star (DE3) cells expressing a model single chain antibody (anti-fluorescein) by a simple selection assay on LB-agar plates. Using this selection assay, we could identify a new single chain antibody binding biotin by growing E. coli BL21 Star (DE3) containing the library in presence of a biotin-ampicillin conjugate. In contrast to methods as molecular or cell surface display our selection system applies the soluble single chain antibody molecule and thereby avoids undesired effects, e.g. by the phage particle or the yeast fusion protein. By selecting directly in an expression strain, production and characterization of the selected single chain antibody is possible without any further cloning or transformation steps.

  4. Characterization of Hospital-Associated Lineages of Ampicillin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium from Clinical Cases in Dogs and Humans

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    Cindy-Love eTremblay

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (ARE has rapidly emerged worldwide and is one of the most important nosocomial pathogens. However, very few reports are available on ARE isolates from canine clinical cases. The objective of this study was to characterize ARE strains of canine clinical origin from a veterinary teaching hospital in Canada and to compare them with human strains. Ten ARE strains from dogs and humans were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm activities, presence of rep-families, CRISPR-cas and putative virulence genes. All ARE strains (n = 10 were resistant to ciprofloxacin and lincomycin. Resistances to tetracycline (n = 6, macrolides (n = 6, and to high concentrations of gentamicin, kanamycin and streptomycin (n = 5 were also observed. Canine ARE isolates were found to be susceptible to vancomycin whereas resistance to this antibiotic was observed in human strains. Ampicillin resistance was linked to PBP5 showing mutations at 25 amino acid positions. Fluoroquinolone resistance was attributable to ParC, GyrA, and GyrB mutations. Data demonstrated that all canine ARE were acm (collagen binding protein-positive and that most harbored the efaAfm gene, encoding for a cell wall adhesin. Biofilm formation was observed in two human strains but not in canine strains. Two to five rep-families were observed per strain but no CRISPR sequences were found. A total of six STs (1, 18, 65, 202, 205, and 803 were found with one belonging to a new ST (ST803. These STs were identical or closely related to human hospital-associated lineages. This report describes for the first time the characterization of canine ARE hospital-associated strains in Canada and also supports the importance of prudent antibiotic use in veterinary medicine to avoid zoonotic spread of canine ARE.

  5. Evaluation of polymorphisms in pbp4 gene and genetic diversity in penicillin-resistant, ampicillin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis from hospitals in different states in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Victor Hugo Pacagnelli; Conceição, Natália; de Oliveira, Adriana Gonçalves; Darini, Ana Lúcia da Costa

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify whether penicillin-resistant, ampicillin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis (PRASEF) occurred in Brazil prior to the beginning of the 21st century, and to verify whether ampicillin susceptibility can predict susceptibility to other β-lactams in E. faecalis with this inconsistent phenotype. The presence of polymorphisms in the pbp4 gene and genetic diversity among the isolates were investigated. Of 21 PRASEF analyzed, 5 (23.8%) and 4 (19.0%) were imipenem and piperacillin resistant simultaneously by disk diffusion and broth dilution respectively, contradicting the current internationally accepted standards of susceptibility testing. Sequencing of pbp4 gene revealed an amino acid substitution (Asp-573→Glu) in all PRASEF isolates but not in the penicillin-susceptible, ampicillin-susceptible E. faecalis. Most PRASEF (90.5%) had related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles, but were different from other PRASEF described to date. Results demonstrate that penicillin-resistant, ampicillin-susceptible phenotype was already a reality in the 1990s in E. faecalis isolates in different Brazilian states, and some of these isolates were also imipenem- and piperacillin-resistant; therefore, internationally accepted susceptibility criteria cannot be applied to these isolates. According to pbp4 gene sequencing, this study suggests that a specific amino acid substitution in pbp4 gene found in all PRASEF analyzed is associated with penicillin resistance.

  6. Enzymatic analysis of the effect of naturally occurring Leu138Pro mutation identified in SHV β-lactamase on hydrolysis of penicillin and ampicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Young

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to analyze the significance of leucine to proline substitution at position 138(Leu138Pro on the hydrolysis of penicillin and ampicillin that we identified in the blaSHV gene of clinical Escherichia coli swine isolate. Results Kinetic analysis of the mutant proteins showed that Km value of the purified L138P mutant was comparatively higher than SHV-1, SHV-33 and SHV-33(L138P enzyme for penicillin and ampicillin. Docking simulation of the SHV-1 and SHV-(L138P enzymes also confirmed that β-lactamases preferred penicillin to ampicillin and the SHV-1 had a higher binding affinity for antibiotics compared to the SHV-(L138P and other mutants. Conclusions Our result demonstrated that L138P has a reduced role in penicillin and ampicillin hydrolyzing properties of SHV β-lactamases. These naturally occurring mutations rendering reduced function of the existing protein could trigger the emergence or acquisition of more effective alternative mechanisms for β-lactam hydrolysis.

  7. Effects of ampicillin, gentamicin, and cefotaxime on the release of Shiga toxins from Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated during a diarrhea episode in Faisalabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, Mashkoor; Haque, Abdul; Ali, Aamir; Sarwar, Yasra; Bashir, Saira; Tariq, Ayesha; Afzal, Amna; Iftikhar, Tayyaba; Saeed, Muhammad Azeem

    2010-01-01

    The Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an emerging foodborne pathogen. The proportion of cases attributed to STEC in an episode of diarrhea in the Faisalabad region of Pakistan was investigated. In addition, as increase in Shiga toxin (Stx) release after exposure to various antimicrobial agents is widely reported, we also elucidated the in vitro effects of three commonly used antibiotics (ampicillin, gentamicin, and cefotaxime) on Stx release. Isolation and detection of STEC was done using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction, followed by phenotypic characterization. In vitro Stx release from isolated STEC was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Stx-induced verocytotoxicity was quantified using cytotoxicity detection assay. STEC was detected in 5 (21.7%) of 23 patients. Exposure to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ampicillin, gentamicin, and cefotaxime resulted in a considerable decrease in toxin release and level of cytotoxicity in most of the STEC isolates when compared with control (without antibiotic exposure). Exposure to sub-MIC of ampicillin resulted in a relative increase in Stx release and cytotoxicity (p cefotaxime. Sub-MIC of gentamicin resulted in largest decrease in Stx release and a similar trend was observed with cefotaxime to a lesser extent. In conclusion, these in vitro observations suggested that sub-MIC of ampicillin may stimulate Stx release and level of cytotoxicity and therefore should be avoided. Gentamicin did not show such effects and therefore may be considered for STEC antimicrobial therapy.

  8. A novel surface molecularly imprinted polymer as the solid-phase extraction adsorbent for the selective determination of ampicillin sodium in milk and blood samples

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    Ningli Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface molecularly imprinted polymers (SMIPs for selective adsorption of ampicillin sodium were synthesized using surface molecular imprinting technique with silica gel as a support. The physical and morphological characteristics of the polymers were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, elemental analysis and nitrogen adsorption–desorption test. The obtained results showed that the SMIPs displayed great adsorption capacity (13.5 μg/mg, high recognition ability (the imprinted factor is 3.2 and good binding kinetics for ampicillin sodium. Finally, as solid phase extraction adsorbents, the SMIPs coupled with HPLC method were validated and applied for the enrichment, purification and determination of ampicillin sodium in real milk and blood samples. The averages of spiked accuracy ranged from 92.1% to 107.6%. The relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 4.6%. This study provides a new and promising method for enriching, extracting and determining ampicillin sodium in complex biological samples.

  9. A novel surface molecularly imprinted polymer as the solid-phase extraction adsorbent for the selective determination of ampicillin sodium in milk and blood samples$

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ningli Wu; Qiang Fu; Zhimin Luo; Yanhui Ge; Pengqi Guo; Kangli Du; Weili Tang; Wei Du; Aiguo Zeng; Chun Chang

    2016-01-01

    Surface molecularly imprinted polymers (SMIPs) for selective adsorption of ampicillin sodium were synthesized using surface molecular imprinting technique with silica gel as a support. The physical and morphological characteristics of the polymers were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), elemental analysis and nitrogen adsorption–desorption test. The obtained results showed that the SMIPs displayed great adsorption capacity (13.5μg/mg), high recognition ability (the imprinted factor is 3.2) and good binding kinetics for ampicillin sodium. Finally, as solid phase extraction adsorbents, the SMIPs coupled with HPLC method were validated and applied for the enrichment, purification and determination of ampicillin sodium in real milk and blood samples. The averages of spiked accuracy ranged from 92.1%to 107.6%. The relative standard deviations of intra-and inter-day precisions were less than 4.6%. This study provides a new and promising method for enriching, extracting and determining ampicillin sodium in complex biological samples.

  10. Evaluation of Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates with 'penicillin-resistant, ampicillin-susceptible' phenotype as reported by Vitek-2 Compact system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yen Ee; Ng, Lily S Y; Tan, Thean Yen

    2014-10-01

    It has been recently reported that ampicillin susceptibility cannot accurately predict piperacillin and imipenem susceptibilities in penicillin-resistant, ampicillin-susceptible (Pen-R, Amp-S) Enterococcus faecalis isolates, contrary to the current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommendations. This has important therapeutic implications. Such isolates were noted after the use of Vitek-2 Compact system AST-GP67 susceptibility cards in a Singapore general hospital and they were increasing in numbers. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate these clinical isolates against microbroth dilution (MBD) technique and other commonly used antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) methods for penicillin and ampicillin. The secondary aim was to evaluate whether ampicillin susceptibility could indeed be a reliable surrogate marker for piperacillin and imipenem susceptibilities in E. faecalis isolates that were confirmed Pen-R, Amp-S.From 2009 to 2013, a total of 49 isolates (5%) of 983 non-duplicate E. faecalis tested by Vitek-2 displayed the 'Pen-R, Amp-S' phenotype in a general hospital in Singapore. These were tested against MBD which was the reference method, Etest and disc diffusion for penicillin and ampicillin. Susceptibilities to piperacillin and imipenem were also tested using MBD. In addition, β-lactamase production test was performed. Forty E. faecalis isolates with penicillin-susceptible, ampicillin-susceptible (Pen-S, Amp-S) phenotype were included for comparative purposes.The categorical agreement rate was 100% for all AST methods in ampicillin reporting for the 'Pen-R, Amp-S' group of E. faecalis isolates. However, a large number of isolates (46 isolates, 93.9%) fell into the major error category for penicillin testing by the Vitek-2 system. Penicillin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) generated by the Vitek-2 system for the majority of these isolates were two doubling dilutions higher compared to those obtained by the reference

  11. Hospital and community ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium are evolutionarily closely linked but have diversified through niche adaptation.

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    Marieke J A de Regt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (ARE has emerged as a nosocomial pathogen. Here, we quantified ARE carriage in different community sources and determined genetic relatedness with hospital ARE. METHODS AND RESULTS: ARE was recovered from rectal swabs of 24 of 79 (30% dogs, 11 of 85 (13% cats and 0 of 42 horses and from 3 of 40 (8% faecal samples of non-hospitalized humans receiving amoxicillin. Multi-locus Sequence Typing revealed 21 sequence types (STs, including 5 STs frequently associated with hospital-acquired infections. Genes previously found to be enriched in hospital ARE, such as IS16, orf903, orf905, orf907, were highly prevalent in community ARE (≥79%, while genes with a proposed role in pathogenesis, such as esp, hyl and ecbA, were found rarely (≤5% in community isolates. Comparative genome analysis of 2 representative dog isolates revealed that the dog strain of ST192 was evolutionarily closely linked to two previously sequenced hospital ARE, but had, based on gene content, more genes in common with the other, evolutionarily more distantly related, dog strain (ST266. CONCLUSION: ARE were detected in dogs, cats and sporadically in healthy humans, with evolutionary linkage to hospital ARE. Yet, their accessory genome has diversified, probably as a result of niche adaptation.

  12. Quantification of beta-lactam antibiotics in veterinary drugs: amoxicillin and ampicillin determination by high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Coelho Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focused on the development and validation of an RP-HPLC-UV method for quantification of beta-lactam antibiotics in three pharmaceutical samples. Active principles analyzed were amoxicillin and ampicillin, in 3 veterinary drugs. Mobile phase comprised 5 mmol L-1 phosphoric acid solution at pH 2.00, acetonitrile with gradient elution mode and detection wavelength at 220 nm. The method was validated according to the Brazilian National Health Surveillance regulation, where linear range and linearity, selectivity, precision, accuracy and ruggedness were evaluated. Inter day precision and accuracy for pharmaceutical samples 1, 2 and 3 were: 1.43 and 1.43%; 4.71 and 3.74%; 2.72 and 1.72%, respectively, while regression coefficients for analytical curves exceeded 0.99. The method had acceptable merit figure values, indicating reliable quantification. Analyzed samples had active principle concentrations varying from -12 to +21% compared to manufacturer label claims, rendering the medicine unsafe for administration to animals.

  13. Outbreak of Ampicillin/Piperacillin-Resistant Klebsiella Pneumoniae in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU: Investigation and Control Measures

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    Patrizia Farruggia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is a frequent cause of infectious outbreaks in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs. The aim of this paper is to describe an outbreak occurred in a 13-bed NICU and the control measures adopted in order to interrupt the chain of transmission. We described the microbiological investigations, the NICU staff compliance to the infection control measures by means of a specifically designed check-list and the control measures adopted. Six cases of primary bloodstream infections sustained by ampicillin/piperacillin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae were observed over a two-month period. One culture obtained from a 12% saccarose multiple-dose solution allowed the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae. During the inspections performed by the Hospital Infection Control Team, using the check-list for the evaluation of the NICU staff compliance to the infection control measures, several breaches in the infection control policy were identified and control measures were adopted. In our case the definition of a specific check-list led to the adoption of the correct control measures. Further studies would be helpful in order to develop a standard check-list able to identify critical flows in the adhesion to the guidelines. It could be used in different NICUs and allow to obtain reproducible levels of infection control.

  14. Antibacterial Activity of Alkaloid Fractions from Berberis microphylla G. Forst and Study of Synergism with Ampicillin and Cephalothin

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    Loreto Manosalva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Berberis microphylla is a native plant that grows in Patagonia and is commonly used by aboriginal ethnic groups in traditional medicine as an antiseptic for different diseases. The present study evaluated the antibacterial and synergistic activity of alkaloid extracts of B. microphylla leaves, stems and roots used either individually or in combination with antibiotics against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The in vitro antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root alkaloid extracts had significant activity only against Gram-positive bacteria. Disc diffusion tests demonstrated that the root extract showed similar activity against B. cereus and S. epidermidis compared to commercial antibiotics, namely ampicillin and cephalothin, and pure berberine, the principal component of the alkaloid extracts, was found to be active only against S. aureus and S. epidermidis with similar activity to that of the root extract. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the alkaloid extracts ranged from 333 to 83 μg/mL, whereas minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs varied from 717 to 167 μg/mL. In addition, synergistic or indifferent effects between the alkaloid extracts and antibiotics against bacterial strains were confirmed.

  15. Antibacterial Activity of Alkaloid Fractions from Berberis microphylla G. Forst and Study of Synergism with Ampicillin and Cephalothin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosalva, Loreto; Mutis, Ana; Urzúa, Alejandro; Fajardo, Victor; Quiroz, Andrés

    2016-01-11

    Berberis microphylla is a native plant that grows in Patagonia and is commonly used by aboriginal ethnic groups in traditional medicine as an antiseptic for different diseases. The present study evaluated the antibacterial and synergistic activity of alkaloid extracts of B. microphylla leaves, stems and roots used either individually or in combination with antibiotics against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The in vitro antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root alkaloid extracts had significant activity only against Gram-positive bacteria. Disc diffusion tests demonstrated that the root extract showed similar activity against B. cereus and S. epidermidis compared to commercial antibiotics, namely ampicillin and cephalothin, and pure berberine, the principal component of the alkaloid extracts, was found to be active only against S. aureus and S. epidermidis with similar activity to that of the root extract. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the alkaloid extracts ranged from 333 to 83 μg/mL, whereas minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) varied from 717 to 167 μg/mL. In addition, synergistic or indifferent effects between the alkaloid extracts and antibiotics against bacterial strains were confirmed.

  16. Spectrophotometric determination of ampicillin, dicluxacillin, flucloxacillin and amoxicillin antibiotic drugs: ion-pair formation with molybdenum and thiocyanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, G G

    2001-02-01

    A sensitive spectrophotometric method is developed for the determination of some antibiotic drugs such as ampicillin (amp), dicluxacillin (dicl), flucloxacillin (fluc) and amoxicillin (amox). The method involves the formation of ion-pairs between these drugs under investigation and inorganic complex of Mo (V) thiocyanate followed by its extraction with methylene chloride. The optimum conditions for the ion-pairs formation are established. The method permits the determination of amp, dicl, fluc and amox over a concentration range of 1.5-77.5, 3-75, 1.5-79 and 7.5-75 microg ml(-1) respectively. The sensitivity (S) is found to be 0.017, 0.061, 0.014 and 0.073 microg cm(-2) for amp, dicl, fluc and amox, respectively. The method is simple, rapid, reproducible and accurate within +/- 1%. The method is applicable for the assay of the four drugs under investigation in different dosage forms and the results are in good agreement with those obtained by the official method.

  17. Spectrophotometric methods for the determination of ampicillin by potassium permanganate and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene in pharmaceutical preparations

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    Aftab Aslam Parwaz Khan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Two simple and sensitive kinetic methods for the determination of ampicillin (AMP are described. The first method is based on kinetic investigation of the oxidation reaction of the drug with alkaline potassium permanganate at room temperature for a fixed time of 25 min. The absorbance of the colored manganate ions is measured at 610 nm. The second method is based on the reaction of AMP with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB in the presence of 0.1 mol L−1 sodium bicarbonate. Spectrophotometric measurement was achieved by recording the absorbance at 490 nm for a fixed time of 60 min. All variables affecting the development of the color were investigated and the conditions were optimized. Plots of absorbance against concentration in both procedures were rectilinear over the ranges 5–30 and 50–260 μg mL−1, with mean recoveries 99.80 and 99.91, respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of AMP in bulk powder and in capsule dosage form. The determination of AMP by the fixed concentration method is feasible with the calibration equations obtained, but the fixed time method proves to be more applicable.

  18. Distribution of phylogroups and co-resistance to antimicrobial agents in ampicillin resistant Escherichia coli isolated from healthy humans and from patients with bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, A.; Hammerum, A. M.; Porsbo, Lone Jannok;

    In 2002-03, 31 ampicillin resistant faecal isolates were collected from healthy humans. Moreover, 31 ampicillin resistant blood isolates from patients with bacte-raemia were collected in 2000-02. All isolates were tested positive for the pres-ence of blaTEM. Isolates were characterized by minimum...... inhibitory concentration to antimicrobial agents and examined by PCR to determine their phylogroups. The phylotyping grouped the faecal samples into A (13%), B1 (10%), B2 (42%), D (19%), NT (16%) while the blood isolates grouped into A (16%), B1 (0%), B2 (48%), D (32%) and NT (3%). The frequency...... of resistance in faecal and blood isolates (F/B) was: tetracycline (48%/48%), gentamicin (0%/10%), ciprofloxacin (3%,13%), sulfonamide (68%/77%) and trimethoprim (39%/39%). Conclusion: B2 was the most prevalent phylogroup found both in faecal isolates collected from healthy humans and in blood isolates from...

  19. Effects of subinhibitory amounts of ampicillin, amoxycillin and mecillinam on the adhesion of Escherichia coli bacteria to human urinary tract epithelial cells: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanborg-Edén, C; Sandberg, T; Stenqvist, K; Ahlstedt, S

    1979-01-01

    Attachment to mucous surfaces may be a prerequisite for bacteria colonizing these surfaces or invading underlying tissues. Subinhibitory amounts of ampicillin and amoxycillin but not mecillinam decreased the attachment of Escherichia coli bacteria to human uro-epithelial cells in vitro. No significant synergistic effect on the attachment by the antibiotics was obtained. The present report indicates a new parameter for the study of antibacterial actions of drugs.

  20. Biomonitoring marine habitats in reference to antibiotic resistant bacteria and ampicillin resistance determinants from oviductal fluid of the nesting green sea turtle, Chelonia mydas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahry, S N; Al-Zadjali, M A; Mahmoud, I Y; Elshafie, A E

    2012-06-01

    During the egg-laying process, oviductal fluid was collected using a non-invasive procedure from the cloacal vent of the green turtles. Forty-two independent isolates of antibiotic-resistant bacteria from 11 genera were obtained from 20 turtles during nesting. The dominant isolate was Citrobacter (52.4%), followed by Pseudomonas, Proteus, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Shigella, Edwardsiella, Morganella, Providencia and Arcomobacter. Most of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin. Ampicillin-resistant isolates showed variations in their resistance for the following classes of β-lactamases: extended-spectrum β-lactamases (EBSLs), AmpC type β-lactamases C (AmpC), and screen-positive β-lactamase. None of the isolates produced metallo β-lactamase. Some ampicillin-resistant genes were detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) only. Inhibitor based test (IBT) categorized some isolates as AmpC β-lactamase producers. β-Lactamase genes were detected from a few strains. The sequencing of those genes revealed the presence of cephamycinase (CMY) and AmpC β-lactamases. The oviductal fluid was used in this study as a source of bacterial antibiotic-resistant determinants for biomonitoring marine turtles exposed to contaminated effluents. This data can be of value in understanding the decline of this endangered species as a result of exposure to marine pollution which is threatening their survival.

  1. Conjugation of ampicillin and enrofloxacin residues with bovine serum albumin and raising of polyclonal antibodies against them

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    B. Sampath Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to test the potency of bovine serum albumin (BSA conjugated ampicillin (AMP and enrofloxacin (ENR antigens in eliciting an immune response in rats using indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA. Materials and Methods: AMP and ENR antibiotics were conjugated with BSA by carbodiimide reaction using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide (EDC as a cross-linker. The successful conjugation was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Sprague-Dawley rats were immunized with the conjugates and blood samples were collected serially at 15 days time interval after first immunization plus first booster, second booster, third booster, and the fourth sampling was done 1½ month after the third booster. The antibody titres in the antisera of each antibiotic in all the four immunization cycles (ICs were determined by an icELISA at various serum dilutions ranging from 1/100 to 1/6400. Results: Analysis of antibiotic-BSA conjugates by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and coomassie blue staining revealed high molecular weight bands of 85 kDa and 74 kDa for AMP-BSA and ENR-BSA respectively when compared to 68 kDa band of BSA. Both the antibiotic conjugates elicited a good immune response in rats but comparatively the response was more with AMP-BSA conjugate than ENR-BSA conjugate. Maximum optical density 450 value of 2.577 was recorded for AMP-BSA antisera, and 1.723 was recorded for ENR-BSA antisera at 1/100th antiserum dilution in third IC. Conclusion: AMP and ENR antibiotics proved to be good immunogens when conjugated to BSA by carbodiimide reaction with EDC as crosslinker. The polyclonal antibodies produced can be employed for detecting AMP and ENR residues in milk and urine samples.

  2. Distribution and characterization of ampicillin- and tetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli from feedlot cattle fed subtherapeutic antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanke L Jay

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feedlot cattle in North America are routinely fed subtherapeutic levels of antimicrobials to prevent disease and improve the efficiency of growth. This practice has been shown to promote antimicrobial resistance (AMR in subpopulations of intestinal microflora including Escherichia coli. To date, studies of AMR in feedlot production settings have rarely employed selective isolation, therefore yielding too few AMR isolates to enable characterization of the emergence and nature of AMR in E. coli as an indicator bacterium. E. coli isolates (n = 531 were recovered from 140 cattle that were housed (10 animals/pen in 14 pens and received no dietary antimicrobials (control - 5 pens, CON, or were intermittently administered subtherapeutic levels of chlortetracycline (5 pens-T, chlortetracycline + sulfamethazine (4 pens-TS, or virginiamycin (5 pens-V for two separate periods over a 9-month feeding period. Phenotype and genotype of the isolates were determined by susceptibility testing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis and distribution of characterized isolates among housed cattle reported. It was hypothesized that the feeding of subtherapeutic antibiotics would increase the isolation of distinct genotypes of AMR E. coli from cattle. Results Overall, patterns of antimicrobial resistance expressed by E. coli isolates did not change among diet groups (CON vs. antibiotic treatments, however; isolates obtained on selective plates (i.e., MA,MT, exhibited multi-resistance to sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol more frequently when obtained from TS-fed steers than from other treatments. Antibiograms and PFGE patterns suggested that AMR E. coli were readily transferred among steers within pens. Most MT isolates possessed the tet(B efflux gene (58.2, 53.5, 40.8, and 50.6% of isolates from CON, T, TS, and V steers, respectively whereas among the MA (ampicillin-resistant isolates, the tem1-like determinant was predominant (occurring in 50, 66

  3. Effects of ampicillin, cefazolin and cefoperazone treatments on GLT-1 expressions in the mesocorticolimbic system and ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P S S; Goodwani, S; Bell, R L; Wei, Y; Boddu, S H S; Sari, Y

    2015-06-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption is known to downregulate expression of the major glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1), which increases extracellular glutamate concentrations in subregions of the mesocorticolimbic reward pathway. While β-lactam antibiotics were initially identified as potent upregulators of GLT-1 expression, only ceftriaxone has been extensively studied in various drug addiction models. Therefore, in this study, adult male alcohol-preferring (P) rats exposed chronically to ethanol were treated with other β-lactam antibiotics, ampicillin, cefazolin or cefoperazone (100mg/kg) once daily for five consecutive days to assess their effects on ethanol consumption. The results demonstrated that each compound significantly reduced ethanol intake compared to the saline-treated control group. Importantly, each compound significantly upregulated both GLT-1 and pAKT expressions in the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex compared to saline-treated control group. In addition, only cefoperazone significantly inhibited hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 enzyme activity. Moreover, these β-lactams exerted only a transient effect on sucrose drinking, suggesting specificity for chronically inhibiting ethanol reward in adult male P rats. Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of ampicillin, cefazolin or cefoperazone have been confirmed using high-performance liquid chromatography. These findings demonstrate that multiple β-lactam antibiotics demonstrate efficacy in reducing alcohol consumption and appear to be potential therapeutic compounds for treating alcohol abuse and/or dependence. In addition, these results suggest that pAKT may be an important player in this effect, possibly through increased transcription of GLT-1.

  4. 洛西林钠舒巴坦治疗肺炎的效果研究%Study on Ampicillin Sodium Combined with Sulbactam Treatment Effect of Pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张守东

    2015-01-01

    Objective Clinical effect of ampicillin sodium combined with sulbactam in treatment of pneumonia is to be observed and studied. Methods Select 40 patients of pneumonia that are treated in hospital from December 2013 to December 2014 and separate them into control group and study group at random which are given mezlocillin sodium treatment and ampicillin sodium combined with sulbactam treatment respectively;and then compare clinical treatment effects between two groups. Results Patients’treatment efficacy in study group is much higher than treatment efficacy in control group; besides,patients’fever and coughing abatement time,pulmonary rales disappeared time and other symptoms alleviation time in study group are shorter than counterparts in control group;there is a treatment differential between two groups and such a differential has statistic value(P<0.05).Conclusion Ampicillin sodium combined with sulbactam treatment is of efficacy in treatment of pneumonia; it is conducive to relieving patients’symptoms rapidly; thus,such a treatment is of clinical significance in treatment of viral pneumonia.%目的:对洛西林钠舒巴坦治疗肺炎的临床效果进行观察研究。方法选取于2013年12月~2014年12月在我院接受治疗的的40例肺炎患者随机分成对照组和治疗组,分别采用美洛西林钠和洛西林钠舒巴坦进行治疗,对两种治疗方法的临床效果进行对比。结果治疗组的治疗总有效率显著高于对照组,退热时间、咳嗽消失时间、肺啰音消失时间等症状消失时间显著短于对照组,差异显著,有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论采用洛西林钠舒巴坦治疗肺炎具有显著的临床效果,能够快速缓解患者的临床症状,对治疗病毒性肺炎有着重要的临床应用价值。

  5. The molecular phenomena of the blaZ genes forming betalactamase enzymes structure in Staphylococcus aureus resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin

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    Mieke Satari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, infectious disease still an important problem. One of the bacteria causing infectious diseases is Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. In the effort to deal with infections caused by S. aureus, beta-lactam antibiotics, such as ampicillin, are used. In fact, it is unfortunately known that many of S. aureus bacteria are resistant to this group of antibiotics. Because of nucleotide base changes in the structure of the genes blaZ which encode beta-lactamase enzymes in S. aureus. Purpose: The objective of this study was to analyze the nucleotide base changes in the structure of the genes blaZ forming beta-lactamase enzymes in S. aureus resistant to ampicillin based on molecular point of view. Methods: Molecular examinations was conducted by isolating the genes, forming beta-lactamase enzyme, which length was 845bp, from 7 isolates of S. aureus resistant to ampicillin by using PCR technique. The results of blaZ amplification were then subjected to homology by using Tn 552 of S. aureus obtained from bank of genes. Results: Based on the result of the homology, it was found that there was a change in purine base TG, which was a pyrimidine base at the -37 position of the initial codon of blaZ. This change, however, did not affect the strength of the promoter since the number of A and T is still more than the number of G and C. In the structure of the blaZ gene there was even no mutation or deletion or nucleotide base substitution found, so it would not affect the effectiveness of beta-lactamase enzyme. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the resistance of S. aureus towards ampicillin was not caused by nucleotide base deletion/substation. It is suspected that there were other causes leading to the resistance, including the overproduction of beta-lactamase enzyme of the blaZ gene, causing the degradation of beta-lactam antibiotics.Latar belakang: Penyakit infeksi sampai saat ini masih merupakan masalah. Salah satu bakteri penyebab

  6. Application of the Vertex Exchange Method to estimate a semi-parametric mixture model for the MIC density of Escherichia coli isolates tested for susceptibility against ampicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Stijn; Verbeke, Geert; Böhning, Dankmar; Aerts, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, considerable attention has been paid to the collection of antimicrobial resistance data, with the aim of monitoring non-wild-type isolates. This monitoring is performed based on minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values, which are collected through dilution experiments. We present a semi-parametric mixture model to estimate the entire MIC density on the continuous scale. The parametric first component is extended with a non-parametric second component and a new back-fitting algorithm, based on the Vertex Exchange Method, is proposed. Our data example shows how to estimate the MIC density for Escherichia coli tested for ampicillin and how to use this estimate for model-based classification. A simulation study was performed, showing the promising behavior of the new method, both in terms of density estimation as well as classification.

  7. A prospective, multi centre, randomized clinical study to compare the efficacy and safety of Ertapenem 3 days versus Ampicillin - Sulbactam 3 days in the treatment of localized community acquired intra-abdominal infection. (T.E.A. Study: Three days Ertapenem vs three days Ampicillin-sulbactam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazzotti Filippo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recommendations outlined in the latest guidelines published by the Surgical Infection Society (SIS and the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA regarding the proper duration of antibiotic therapy in patients with intra-abdominal infections are limited and non-specific. This ambiguity is due mainly to the lack of clinical trials on the topic of optimal duration of therapy. It is well known that the overuse of antibiotics has several important consequences such as increased treatment costs, reduced clinical efficacy, and above all, the increased emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Ampicillin-Sulbactam is a commonly used "first line" antibiotic for intra-abdominal infections. Ertapenem and Ampicillin-sulbactam are recommended as primary treatment agents for localized peritonitis by both the SIS and IDSA guidelines. Methods/Design This study is a prospective multi-center randomized investigation. The study will be performed in the Departments of General, Emergency, and Transplant Surgery of Sant'Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital in Bologna, Italy, in the General Surgery Department of the Ospedali Riuniti of Bergamo, Italy, and in the Trauma and Emergency Surgery Department of Maggiore Hospital in Bologna, Italy, and will be conducted by all surgeons willing to participate in the study. The inclusion period of the study will take approximately two years before the planned number of 142 enrolled patients is reached. Discussion Ertapenem and Ampicillin-sulbactam are recommended both as primary treatment agents for localized peritonitis by both the SIS and IDSA guidelines. As one of the discussed topic is the optimal duration of the antibiotic therapy and this ambiguity is due mainly to the lack of clinical trials on the topic, the present study aims for obtain precise data. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00630513

  8. Antibioticoprofilaxia com ampicilina na rotura prematura das membranas: estudo randomizado e duplo cego Ampicillin prophylaxis in premature rupture of membranes: randomized and double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elias Soares da Rocha

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: avaliar se o uso profilático da ampicilina pode evitar ou reduzir a morbidade infecciosa materna e perinatal decorrente da ruptura prematura das membranas (RPM e prolongar a gestação em pacientes portadoras dessa complicação. Métodos: estudo prospectivo, randomizado e duplo-cego, avaliando 121 gestantes portadoras de RPM, divididas em dois grupos. O grupo tratado (61 gestantes recebeu ampicilina e o grupo controle (60 gestantes recebeu placebo, nas mesmas condições de horário, tempo de uso, embalagem e cor das cápsulas. Como parâmetros de infecção materna considerou-se a morbidade febril materna (índice térmico, presença de corioamnionite e/ou endometrite. Os parâmetros neonatais avaliados foram o índice de Apgar (1° e 5° minutos, colonização bacteriana do conduto auditivo e hemocultura. Para a análise estatística foram utilizados os testes: exato de Fisher, Wilcoxon e o chi². Resultados: o uso da ampicilina não prolongou a gestação, não reduziu a morbidade febril puerperal e nem as taxas de corioamnionite e/ou endometrite. Quanto à morbidade infecciosa perinatal também não foi possível demonstrar nenhuma redução decorrente do uso da ampicilina nem influência sobre as condições de nascimento. Estes dados foram consistentes em casos de RPM com até 72 horas de evolução, pois o limitado número de casos com tempo maior de evolução não permitiu uma análise estatística isenta de erro tipo II. Conclusões: com base nos resultados desse trabalho foi possível concluir que o uso profilático de ampicilina em gestantes com RPM com até 72 horas de evolução não reduz a morbidade infecciosa materna nem perinatal. No entanto, a presença de Streptococcus agalactiae do grupo B em hemocultura de recém-nascido do grupo controle indicou a necessidade imperiosa de antibioticoterapia para as gestantes colonizadas por esse microrganismo.Purpose: to evaluate whether prophylactic use of ampicillin could

  9. Lower Body Mass Index is a Risk Factor for In-Hospital Mortality of Elderly Japanese Patients Treated with Ampicillin/sulbactam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Makoto; Kuwahara, Akiko; Tomozawa, Akinori; Omae, Naoki; Yamamori, Motohiro; Kadoyama, Kaori; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: A retrospective examination was conducted to identify risk factors for in-hospital mortality of elderly patients (65 years or older) treated with the beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combination antibiotic, ampicillin/sulbactam (ABPC/SBT). Methods: Clinical data from 96 patients who were hospitalized with infectious diseases and treated with ABPC/SBT (9 g/day or 12 g/day) were analyzed. Risk factors examined included demographic and clinical laboratory parameters. Parameter values prior to treatment and changes after treatment were compared between survivors and non-survivors. Results: The study patients had an average age of 81.9±8.4 years (±SD) and body mass index (BMI) of 19.9±4.2 kg/m2. They were characterized by anemia (low hemoglobin and hematocrit levels), inflammation (high leukocyte count, neutrophil count, C-reactive protein level, and body temperature), and hepatic and renal dysfunction (high aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and blood urea nitrogen levels). The BMI of non-survivors, 16.2±2.9 kg/m2, was lower than that of survivors, 20.4±4.1 kg/m2. In addition, the hematological parameters deteriorated more remarkably, inflammation markers were not altered (or the decrease was marginal), and hepatic function was not improved, in non-survivors. Conclusions: A lower BMI value is a risk factor for in-hospital mortality of elderly patients treated with ABPC/SBT.

  10. Labelling of pneumococcal penicillin-binding proteins with (/sup 3/H)propionyl-ampicillin. A rapid method for monitoring penicillin-binding activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakenbeck, R. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Molekulare Genetik, Berlin (Germany, F.R.)); Kohiyama, M. (Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France). Inst. de Biologie Moleculaire)

    1982-08-01

    Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are membrane components ubiquitous to all bacteria examined so far. Some of them are present in only a few copies per cell. The conventional method of visualizing these proteins consists in binding of radioactive penicillin to the fractions containing PBPs followed by SDS-PAGE and finally fluorography. Although this procedure is laborious, it is necessary for the determination of the identity as well as for the quantification of each PBP. On the other hand, when penicillin-binding conditions are to be examined or binding activity has to be followed through fractionation and purification of PBPs, no fast monitoring device for these proteins has been available. The authors developed a rapid and easy assay for penicillin-binding activity with a filter-binding technique using (/sup 3/H)propionyl ampicillin (/sup 3/H-PA) of high specific activity. As little 2..mu..g of crude membranes obtained from the highly penicillin-sensitive, ..beta..-lactamase-negative organism Streptococcus pneumoniae, are sufficient to detect binding activity. In this paper they describe optimum conditions for the assay of PBPs and show that this binding activity correlates with the presence of native penicillin-binding proteins.

  11. Antibacterial activity and PK/PD of ceftriaxone against penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae isolates from patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Akira; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Kobayashi, Intetsu; Yamaguchi, Keizo

    2007-10-01

    The suitability of ceftriaxone for penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP) and ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae (especially beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) H. influenzae) and the relationship between in vitro antimicrobial activities and pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated. The values for percentage of time above the MIC (%T>MIC) for ceftriaxone, cefotiam, flomoxef, sulbactam/cefoperazone, sulbactam/ampicillin, and meropenem, using 400 S. pneumoniae isolates and 430 H. influenzae isolates from patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) from more than 100 geographically diverse medical centers during January to July of 2005, were calculated by measuring the MIC for each isolate and by using patameters of pharmacokinetics. A broth microdilution method was used to determine the MIC, using the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Meropenem showed the lowest MIC against penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae, followed by sulbactam/cefoperazone and ceftriaxone. Ceftriaxone had the best activity against penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and beta-lactamase-negative and beta-lactamase-producing ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae. Ceftriaxone was unique, showing a long elimination half-life and low MIC values where its serum level duration time was above the MIC for longer than other cephalosporins. Accordingly, the %T>MIC of ceftriaxone for a once-daily administration greatly exceeded the efficacy levels of those for the other antibacterial agents tested. Ceftriaxone has an excellent balance between in vitro antimicrobial activities and pharmacokinetic profiles; and therefore remains effective as a therapeutic agent against PRSP and BLNAR H. influenzae in CAP.

  12. Determination of ampicillin in human plasma by solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) and its use in bioequivalence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Talita Mota; Bedor, Danilo César Galindo; de Abreu, Luís Renato Pires; de Sousa, Carlos Eduardo Miranda; Rolim, Clarice M Bueno; de Santana, Davi Pereira

    2008-01-01

    A simple, fast, sensitive and selective solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) method for the quantitative analysis of ampicillin (CAS 69-53-4) in human plasma was developed using amoxicillin as internal standard, and sample extraction by solid-phase extraction (SPE). Extracts were separated by reversed-phase C18 with aqueous mobile phase (acetonitrile, 80:20, v/v) with 0.1% formic acid. The method was validated and successfully applied in a bioequivalence study of capsules 500 mg of ampicillin. Using a short running time of 2.5 min, the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for obtained ampicillin was 0.1 microg/ml for a plasma sample of 250 microl and a recovery of 94.38% +/- 4.05. Bioequivalence between the products was determined by calculating 90% confidence intervals (CI) for the ratio of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-inf values for the test and reference products, which were within the 0.80-1.25 interval proposed by FDA and EMEA. It is concluded that the two formulations are bioequivalent in their rate and extent of absorption, and thus, may be used interchangeably.

  13. The effects of amoxicillin treatment of newborn piglets on the prevalence of hernias and abscesses, growth and ampicillin resistance of intestinal coliform bacteria in weaned pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jinhyeon; Olkkola, Satu; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Oliviero, Claudio; Heinonen, Mari

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a single amoxicillin treatment of newborn piglets on the prevalence of hernias and abscesses until the age of nine weeks. We also studied whether the treatment was associated with growth and mortality, the need for treatment of other diseases, the proportions of ampicillin resistant coliforms and antimicrobial resistance patterns of intestinal Escherichia coli (E. coli). A total of 7156 piglets, from approximately 480 litters, were divided into two treatment groups: ANT (N = 3661) and CON (N = 3495), where piglets were treated with or without a single intramuscular injection of 75 mg amoxicillin one day after birth, respectively. The umbilical and inguinal areas of weaned pigs were palpated at four and nine weeks of age. At the same time, altogether 124 pigs with hernias or abscesses and 820 non-defective pigs from three pens per batch were weighed individually. Mortality and the need to treat piglets for other diseases were recorded. Piglet faecal samples were collected from three areas of the floors of each pen at four weeks of age. The prevalence of umbilical hernias or abscesses did not differ between the groups at four weeks of age, but it was higher in the CON group than in the ANT group at nine weeks of age (2.3% vs. 0.7%, P < 0.05). Numbers of inguinal hernias and abscesses did not differ between the groups at four or nine weeks of age. The ANT group, when it compared with the CON group, increased the weight gain between four and nine weeks of age (LS means ± SE; 497.5 g/d ± 5.0 vs. 475.3 g/d ± 4.9, P < 0.01), and decreased piglet mortality (19.5% ± 1.0 vs. 6.9% ± 1.0, P < 0.05) and the need to treat the piglets for leg problems (3.4% ± 0.3 vs. 1.9% ± 0.3%, P < 0.01) but not for other diseases by the age of four weeks. The proportion of ampicillin resistant intestinal coliform bacteria and the resistance patterns of the E. coli isolates were not different between the ANT and CON groups. In conclusion, our

  14. The biofilm matrix destabilizers, EDTA and DNaseI, enhance the susceptibility of nontypeable Hemophilus influenzae biofilms to treatment with ampicillin and ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, Rosalia; Ball, Jessica L; Turnbull, Lynne; Whitchurch, Cynthia B

    2014-08-01

    Nontypeable Hemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes chronic biofilm infections of the ears and airways. The biofilm matrix provides structural integrity to the biofilm and protects biofilm cells from antibiotic exposure by reducing penetration of antimicrobial compounds into the biofilm. Extracellular DNA (eDNA) has been found to be a major matrix component of biofilms formed by many species of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including NTHi. Interestingly, the cation chelator ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) has been shown to reduce the matrix strength of biofilms of several bacterial species as well as to have bactericidal activity against various pathogens. EDTA exerts its antimicrobial activity by chelating divalent cations necessary for growth and membrane stability and by destabilizing the matrix thus enhancing the detachment of bacterial cells from the biofilm. In this study, we have explored the role of divalent cations in NTHi biofilm development and stability. We have utilized in vitro static and continuous flow models of biofilm development by NTHi to demonstrate that magnesium cations enhance biofilm formation by NTHi. We found that the divalent cation chelator EDTA is effective at both preventing NTHi biofilm formation and at treating established NTHi biofilms. Furthermore, we found that the matrix destablilizers EDTA and DNaseI increase the susceptibility of NTHi biofilms to ampicillin and ciprofloxacin. Our observations indicate that DNaseI and EDTA enhance the efficacy of antibiotic treatment of NTHi biofilms. These observations may lead to new strategies that will improve the treatment options available to patients with chronic NTHi infections.

  15. Production of ACAT1 56-kDa isoform in human cells via trans-splicing involving the ampicillin resistance gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Jing Hu; Jia Chen; Xiao-Nan Zhao; Jia-Jia Xu; Dong-Qing Guo; Ming Lu; Ming Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Trans-splicing,a process involving the cleavage and joining of two separate transcripts,can expand the transcriptome and proteome in eukaryotes.Chimeric RNAs generated by trans-splicing are increasingly described in literatures.The widespread presence of antibiotic resistance genes in natural environments and human intestines is becoming an important challenge for public health.Certain antibiotic resistance genes,such as ampicillin resistance gene (Amp),are frequently used in recombinant plasmids.Until now,trans-splicing involving recombinant plasmid-derived exogenous transcripts and endogenous cellular RNAs has not been reported.Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) is a key enzyme involved in cellular cholesterol homeostasis.The 4.3-kb human ACAT1 chimeric mRNA can produce 50-kDa and 56-kDa isoforms with different enzymatic activities.Here,we show that human ACAT1 56-kDa isoform is produced from an mRNA species generated through the trans-splicing of an exogenous transcript encoded by the antisense strand of Ampr (asAmp) present in common Ampr-plasmids and the 4.3-kb endogenous ACAT1 chimeric mRNA,which is presumably processed through a prior event of interchromosomal trans-splicing.Strikingly,DNA fragments containing the asAmp with an upstream recombined cryptic promoter and the corresponding exogenous asAmp transcripts have been detected in human cells.Our findings shed lights on the mechanism of human ACAT1 56-kDa isoform production,reveal an exogenous-endogenous trans-splicing system,in which recombinant plasmid-derived exogenous transcripts are linked with endogenous cellular RNAs in human cells,and suggest that exogenous DNA might affect human gene expression at both DNA and RNA levels.

  16. Retrospective investigation of the clinical effects of tazobactam/piperacillin and sulbactam/ampicillin on aspiration pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Hiroki; Sakai, Kunihiko; Cho, Hiromi; Kimura, Yuka; Tetsuka, Takafumi; Nakajima, Haruhiko; Ito, Kazuhiko

    2012-10-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important causative bacterium of aspiration pneumonia in many elderly patients. We retrospectively investigated the clinical effects of the early treatment of aspiration pneumonia and background factors in 24 patients from whom Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated. Sulbactam/ampicillin (SBT/ABPC) was selected for early treatment in 12 of the 24 patients diagnosed with aspiration pneumonia, and tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC) was selected for the other patients. The effective rates and success rates of early treatment were significantly higher in the TAZ/PIPC group than in the SBT/ABPC group (p = 0.003 and 0.027, respectively). Although no significant difference was noted because of the limited number of cases, the survival rates after 30 days were 91.7 and 58.3 % in the TAZ/PIPC and SBT/ABPC groups, respectively. Several bacteria isolated with Klebsiella pneumoniae were resistant bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and no anaerobe or extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated. Thirteen and 11 of the 24 cases were classified as healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), respectively, with no case classified as community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). As population aging progresses, the frequency of aspiration pneumonia classified as HCAP will increase. To cover anaerobes, it is necessary to select antibacterial drugs, such as TAZ/PIPC, for early treatment in consideration of resistant gram-negative bacteria to improve the outcome, and not drugs with weak activity against these bacteria.

  17. Prevalence of macrolide-non-susceptible isolates among β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae in a tertiary care hospital in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajima, Takeaki; Seyama, Shoji; Nakamura, Yuka; Kashima, Chihiro; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Ushio, Masanobu; Fujii, Takeshi; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2016-09-01

    β-Lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) Haemophilus influenzae account for a large portion of H. influenzae clinical isolates in Japan. The aim of this study was to clarify the antimicrobial susceptibility of BLNAR H. influenzae clinical isolates as well as the annual changes in susceptibility. BLNAR H. influenzae isolates were collected from a tertiary care hospital from 2007 to 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and resistance mechanisms were analysed. All of the isolates (n=304) had amino acid substitutions in penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) and isolates were classified by these amino acid substitutions: R517H or N526K (class I); S385T and R517H (class II); and S385T and N526K (class III). Classes I, II and III represented 8.2% (n=25), 9.5% (n=29) and 81.6% (n=248) of the isolates, respectively; 2 isolates could not be classified because they had a PBP3 with a substantially mutated FtsI transpeptidase domain. All of the isolates were highly susceptible to fluoroquinolones and carbapenems. The number of clarithromycin (CAM)-non-susceptible [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥16μg/mL] H. influenzae isolates increased significantly between 2010 and 2012. Moreover, CAM-non-susceptible H. influenzae isolates were prevalent among class II and class III BLNAR H. influenzae. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of the CAM-resistant (MIC ≥32μg/mL) H. influenzae isolates showed that they were not specific sequence types, suggesting that CAM resistance may occur in any isolates. These results raise concern regarding the occurrence of multidrug-resistant BLNAR H. influenzae.

  18. 两种生物碱联合氨苄西林对表皮葡萄球菌抗菌作用研究%Research on Antibiotic Action of Two Kinds of Alkaloids Combining with Ampicillin on Staphylococcus Epidermidis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾芳; 杨江流; 刘文慧

    2014-01-01

    检测盐酸小檗碱和苦参碱联合氨苄西林对表皮葡萄球菌的抗菌作用.利用二倍稀释法、微量棋盘稀释法、时间-杀菌曲线评估法对8株临床分离的表皮葡萄球菌进行药物敏感性测定.结果表明,盐酸小檗碱、苦参碱、氨苄西林单药对表皮葡萄球菌的最小抑菌质量浓度分别为0.8~3.1μg/mL、12.5 mg/mL 和0.5~16.0μg/mL.盐酸小檗碱联合氨苄西林作用于8株分离株后,盐酸小檗碱和氨苄西林的最小抑菌质量浓度分别下降了88%~94%和75%,抑菌浓度指数为0.187~0.498;苦参碱联合氨苄西林作用于8株分离株后,苦参碱和氨苄西林的最小抑菌质量浓度分别下降了80%和75%~94%,抑菌质量浓度指数为0.188~0.450.2种生物碱联合氨苄西林作用于表皮葡萄球菌的时间-杀菌曲线显示,菌落减少量大于等于2 lg N.盐酸小檗碱、苦参碱与氨苄西林联合作用表皮葡萄球菌均具有抗菌协同作用.%This article is about testing the antibiotic action of berberine hydrochloride and matrine ’s combining with ampicilin on staphylococcus epidermidis.8 clinical isolated staphylococcus epidermidis were tested for drug susceptibility with two-fold dilution method,micro-chessboard assay method and time-sterilization curve evaluation method.The result shows that the minimum bacteriostasis concentration of berberine hydrochloride, sophocarpidine and ampicillin to staphylococcus epidermidis were 0.8-3.1μg/mL,12.5 mg/mL and 0.5-16.0 μg/mL respectively. After the action of berberine hydrochloride’s combining with ampicillin on 8 isolated staphylococcus, the minimum bacteriostasis concentration of berberine hydrochloride and ampicillin were down,88%-94% and 75% respectively,and fractional inhibitory concentration index was 0.187-0.498;The minimum bacteriostasis concentration of sophocarpidine and ampicillin declined,80% and 75%-94% respectively after the action of sophocarpidine combining with ampicillin

  19. Epidemiology of bloodstream infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii and impact of drug resistance to both carbapenems and ampicillin-sulbactam on clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Teena; Marchaim, Dror; Awali, Reda A; Krishna, Amar; Johnson, Paul; Tansek, Ryan; Chaudary, Khawar; Lephart, Paul; Slim, Jessica; Hothi, Jatinder; Ahmed, Harris; Pogue, Jason M; Zhao, Jing J; Kaye, Keith S

    2013-12-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii has become a leading cause of bloodstream infections (BSI) in health care settings. Although the incidence of infection with carbapenem- and ampicillin-sulbactam-resistant (CASR) A. baumannii has increased, there is a scarcity of studies which investigate BSI caused by CASR A. baumannii. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on adult patients with BSI caused by A. baumannii and who were admitted to the Detroit Medical Center between January 2006 and April 2009. Medical records were queried for patients' demographics, antimicrobial exposures, comorbidities, hospital stay, and clinical outcomes. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression were employed in the study. Two hundred seventy-four patients with BSI caused by A. baumannii were included in the study: 68 (25%) caused by CASR A. baumannii and 206 (75%) caused by non-CASR A. baumannii. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with BSI caused by CASR A. baumannii included admission with a rapidly fatal condition (odds ratio [OR] = 2.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27 to 6.32, P value = 0.01) and prior use of antimicrobials (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 1.18 to 6.78, P value = 0.02). In-hospital mortality rates for BSI caused by CASR A. baumannii were significantly higher than those for non-CASR A. baumannii-induced BSI (43% versus 20%; OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.60 to 5.23, P value < 0.001). However, after adjusting for potential confounders, the association between BSI caused by CASR A. baumannii and increased risk of in-hospital mortality was not significant (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.51 to 2.63, P value = 0.74). This study demonstrated that CASR A. baumannii had a distinct epidemiology compared to more susceptible A. baumannii strains; however, clinical outcomes were similar for the two groups. Admission with a rapidly fatal condition was an independent predictor for both CASR A. baumannii and in-hospital mortality.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of Sodium Ampicillin and Sodium Sulbactam for Injection in Pediatric Patients%注射用氨苄西林钠/舒巴坦钠在患儿中的药动学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王团结

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究注射用氨苄西林钠/舒巴坦钠在患儿中的药动学.方法:非抗生素治疗腹腔内感染、皮肤和/或皮肤结构感染、眶周-眶隔前和面部蜂窝组织炎的住院患儿(<12岁)共计56例纳入本研究,注射剂量为37.5~72 mg·kg-1的注射用氨苄西林钠/舒巴坦钠(2∶1).采用带紫外检测器的高效液相色谱仪测定血清或血浆中氨苄西林和舒巴坦浓度,并计算药动学参数.结果:剂量或性别不影响氨苄西林或舒巴坦的药动学.3个年龄组的平均CL、Vss、t1/2相似(P>0.05).氨苄西林或舒巴坦清除率与患儿年龄之间的关系无显著相关性.注射用氨苄西林钠/舒巴坦钠可通过静脉给药于≥1岁患儿,给药剂量为72 mg·kg-1(2∶1),q6h.结论:注射用氨苄西林钠/舒巴坦钠的药动学与剂量和性别无关.%OBJECTIVE: To study the pharmacokinetics of Sodium ampicillin and sodium sulbactam for injection in pediatric patients. METHODS: A total of 56 hospitalized children (under 12 years old) with non-antibiotic treatment of intra-abdominal infections, skin and/or skin structure infections, periorbital-orbital and face cellulitis were included in the study. The dose was 37.5~72 mg·kg‐1 of sodium ampicillin and sodium sulbactam (2:1) every 6 h. HPLC equipped with UV detector was adopted to determine the concentration of ampicillin and sulbactam in serum or plasma, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. RESULTS: The dose or gender didn' t affect the pharmacokinetics of ampicillin or sulbactam. The average levels of CL, Vm and t1/2 in 3 age groups were similar (P>0.05). There was no significant relationship between clearance rate of ampicillin or sulbactam and patient age. CONCLUSION: Sodium ampicillin/sodium sulbactam for injection can be administered intravenously to children aged 1 year or over with dose of 72 mg·kg‐1 every 6 h(2:l).

  1. Genetic diversity of the ftsI gene in β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant and β-lactamase-producing amoxicillin-/clavulanic acid-resistant nasopharyngeal Haemophilus influenzae strains isolated from children in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chulmin; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Shin, Na-Young; Byun, Ji-Hyun; Kwon, Eun-Young; Lee, Jae-Wook; Kwon, Hyo Jin; Choi, Eu Yoon; Lee, Dong-Gun; Sohn, Woo Yun; Kang, Jin Han

    2013-06-01

    Haemophilus influenzae frequently colonizes the nasopharynx of children and adults, which can lead to a variety of infections. We investigated H. influenzae carriage in the nasopharynx of 360 children, in terms of (1) the prevalence of strains with decreased susceptibility, and (2) the presence of amino acid substitutions in PBP3. One hundred twenty-three strains were isolated (34.2%, 123/360), 122 of which were classified as nontypable H. influenzae (NTHi). Of these, β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-susceptible strains accounted for 26.2%, β-lactamase-producing-ampicillin-resistant strains for 9.0%, β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains for 40.2%, and β-lactamase-producing amoxicillin-/clavulanic acid-resistant (BLPACR) for 24.6%, respectively. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were so diverse that they were clustered into 41 groups. The amino acid substitutions in the transpeptidase domain (292 amino acids) of ftsI in BLNAR isolates showed that group IIb accounted for 30.6%, IIc for 8.2%, IId for 16.3%, III for 32.7%, and the others for 12.2%. Moreover, groups IIb (56.7%; 17/30) and III (23.3%; 7/30) were prevalent among BLPACR strains. They were subclassified into more diverse sequence subtypes by analysis of the entire PBP3 (610 amino acids). Groups IIb, IIc, IId, and III exhibited 13, four, six, and four sequence subtypes, respectively. Such a genetic diversity is likely indicative of significant potential for decreased antimicrobial susceptibility in nasopharyngeal-colonizing NTHi strains.

  2. Desenvolvimento e validação de método analítico por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE para determinação de associação de ampicilinas em pó liofilizado para injeção Development and validation of analytical method for determination of an association of ampicillins in lyophilized powder for injection by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paola Prata Cione

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method has been developed and validated for the determination of an association of ampicillins in a lyophilized powder for injection by HPLC. The advantage of chromatographic method other than the microbiological one is that, it is possible to monitor precisely, out-of-specification results in quality control processes and also during stability studies, in which an association of ampicillins is present. The proposed HPLC method was developed by using forced degraded samples, in order to reach a selective analysis of ampicillins when in the presence of their degradation products. It was possible to detect benzatine and through indirect calculation, to determine the ampicillin sodium in the drug sample. The method showed to be selective, accurate, precise, robust and linear (from 45.92 to 36.04 μg mL-1 of total ampicillin and from 14.53 to 43.28 μg mL-1 of benzatine. The accuracy determined from recovery test, gave results in the range of 99.41% of total ampicillin to 100.31% of benzatine. Hence, it can be concluded that the proposed HPLC method is applicable for ampicillins determination.

  3. Removal of Ampicillin Sodium in Solution Using Activated Carbon Adsorption Integrated with H 2 O2 Oxidation%改性 GAC 联合 H2 O2去除氨苄青霉素钠的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张南南; 王倩; 万军

    2013-01-01

    文章研究了用Fe( NO3)3、NaOH改性的活性炭联合过氧化氢对水溶液中氨苄青霉素钠的处理效果,确定了它们的优化处理条件,并对两者的处理效果作了相应比较。在T=30℃,pH=3.0,青霉素初始浓度为200 mg/L条件下,投加5.0 g/L Fe( NO3)3改性活性炭和80 mg/L H2 O2,反应120 min后,COD、TOC去除率分别可以达到88.5%和77.9%;在T=30℃,pH=70,青霉素200 mg/L条件下,投加8.0 g/L NaOH改性活性炭和80 mg/L H2 O2,反应120 min后,COD、TOC去除率分别可以达到85.2%和76.4%。%Fe( NO3 ) 3 and NaOH modified activated carbon were used in the experiment to catalytic hydrogen peroxide for the treatment of ampicillin sodium solution .The optimal conditions were determined and the treatment effect of the two activated car-bons was compared.Under the condition of T=30℃, pH =3.0, 5.0 g/L Fe(NO3)3 modified activated carbon and 80 mg/L H2 O2 ,90.0% COD and 77.9% TOC can be removed for 200 mg/L ampicillin sodium after 2 h reaction;under the condition of T=30℃, pH=5.0, 8.0 g/L NaOH modified activated carbon and 80 mg/L H2O2,92.5% COD and 74.6% TOC can be re-moved for 200 mg/L ampicillin sodium after 2h reaction.The stability of Fe(NO3)3 modified activated carbon was also evaluated.

  4. 注射用氨苄西林钠中二甲硅油迁移量对澄清度的影响%Effect of migration of polydimethylsiloxane on clarity in ampicillin sodium for injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚羽; 王文艳; 郭景文; 张琳

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish a fourier transform infrared spectroscopy - attenuated total reflection spectra( FTIR -ATR)method for determination of polydimethylsiloxane in ampicillin sodium for injection,and to study the correlation between the migration of polydimethylsiloxane and the clarity of the drug. Methods: The sample of ampicillin sodium (0. 1 g · mL )was made with dichloromethane solution which was carefully shaked, avoiding contact with stopper. After standing for 1 h,the sample was put into the ZnSe crystal tank for FTIR -ATR to achieve the infra -red spectrogram. The dimethicone peak area at(v = 1260 ±5)cm-1 was used to do quantitative calculation. Results: The linear range of polydimethylsiloxane was 0 -32. 0 mg · mL-1 with correlation coefficient of 0. 999. The average recovery(n = 9) of the method was 98. 7% . Positive correlation was found between the migration of polydimethylsiloxane in ampicillin sodium for injection and the turbidimetric value(r = 0. 672,P < 0. 05) . Conclusion: Migration of polydimethylsiloxane is related to the turbidimetric value,which may be one of the factors for hight turbidimetric values.%目的:建立傅立叶变换衰减全反射红外光谱(FTIR-ATR)定量法测定氨苄西林钠中二甲硅油含量,探索二甲硅油量与药物澄清度的相关性.方法:二氯甲烷溶解并制成每1 mL中含0.1g氨苄西林钠的溶液,避免与胶塞接触的情况下小心摇匀,静置1h,加样至FTIR-ATR的ZnSe晶体槽,扫描红外光谱图.利用二甲基硅油在(1260±5)cm-1处的特征吸收峰峰面积定量计算.结果:二甲硅油在0~ 32.0 mg·mL-1范围内线性良好,r=0.999.样品平均加样回收率为98.7%(n=9).注射用氨苄西林钠中二甲硅油迁移量与浊度值呈一定的正相关,相关系数为r =0.672(P <0.05).结论:二甲硅油迁移量与浊度值有一定的相关性,可能是药物浊度值高的原因之一.

  5. 氨苄青霉素单克隆抗体及其与青霉素类抗生素交叉反应性%Anti-ampicillin Monoclonal Antibodies and Their Cross-reactivity to Penicillin Antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青梅; 刘庆堂; 王寅彪; 柴书军; 王自良; 郭军庆; 职爱民; 孟红丽; 张改平

    2011-01-01

    Ampicillin ( Amp) was coupled to carrier proteins of bovine serum albumin ( BSA ) and ovalbumin (OVA) to synthetize immunogen BSA-Amp and detection antigen OVA-Amp. Four hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for Amp were established by immunizing BALB/c mice with BSA-Amp u-sing hybridoma technology. The antibody titers of mAb ascites (1G7, 2A11, 2D10 and 3F6) were determined as 1:2.56×107, 1:1.28×107, 1 :5.12 × 106 and 1:5.12 × 106 in ELISA, and their half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Amp were 10.22, 3.58, 4.03,4.95 ng/mL in the inhibitive ELISA, respectively. The Amp mAbs showed significant cross-reactivity to the penicillin antibiotics of carbenicillin (1G7, 2A11, 2D10 and 3F6 ) , penicillin G (1G7 and 3F6) , and amoxicillin (1G7) , whereas no obvious cross-reactivity to dicloxacillin or clox-acillin was found.%以戊二醛法将氨苄青霉素(Ampicillin,Amp)偶联于牛血清白蛋白(BSA)和卵清白蛋白(OVA),合成免疫抗原BSA-Amp和检测抗原0VA-Amp,并进行了鉴定;用BSA-Amp免疫BALB/c小鼠,应用杂交瘤技术建立了4株分泌抗Amp单克隆抗体的杂交瘤细胞株.ELISA和竞争ELISA结果显示,单克隆抗体1G7、2A11、2D10和3F6的腹水抗体效价分别为1:2.56×107、1:1.28×107、1:5.12 ×106和1:5.12×106,Amp的半数抑制浓度(IC50)分别为10.22,3.58,4.03,4.95 ng/mL.Amp单克隆抗体与羧苄青霉素(1G7、2A11、2D10和3F6)、青霉素G(1G7和3F6)、阿莫西林(1G7)等青霉素类抗生素存在显著的交叉反应,而与双氯霉素和邻氯霉素未见明显交叉反应.

  6. A new application of micellar liquid chromatography in the determination of free ampicillin concentration in the drug-human serum albumin standard solution in comparison with the adsorption method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępnik, Katarzyna E; Malinowska, Irena; Maciejewska, Małgorzata

    2016-06-01

    The determination of free drug concentration is a very important issue in the field of pharmacology because only the unbound drug fraction can achieve a pharmacological effect. Due to the ability to solubilize many different compounds in micellar aggregates, micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) can be used for direct determination of free drug concentration. Proteins are not retained on the stationary phase probably due to the formation of protein - surfactant complexes which are excluded from the pores of stationary phase. The micellar method is simple and fast. It does not require any pre-preparation of the tested samples for analysis. The main aim of this paper is to demonstrate a completely new applicability of the analytical use of MLC concerning the determination of free drug concentration in the standard solution of human serum albumin. The well-known adsorption method using RP-HPLC and the spectrophotometric technique was applied as the reference method. The results show that the free drug concentration value obtained in the MLC system (based on the RP-8 stationary phase and CTAB) is similar to that obtained by the adsorption method: both RP-HPLC (95.83μgmL(-1), 79.86% of free form) and spectrophotometry (95.71μgmL(-1), 79.76%). In the MLC the free drug concentration was 93.98μgmL(-1) (78.3%). This indicates that the obtained results are within the analytical range of % of free ampicillin fraction and the MLC with direct sample injection can be treated like a promising method for the determination of free drug concentration.

  7. Use of a standardized JaCVAM in vivo rat comet assay protocol to assess the genotoxicity of three coded test compounds; ampicillin trihydrate, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride, and N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, J P; Bellier, P V

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), our laboratory examined ampicillin trihydrate (AMP), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH), and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDA) using a standard comet assay validation protocol (v14.2) developed by the JaCVAM validation management team (VMT). Coded samples were received by our laboratory along with basic MSDS information. Solubility analysis and range-finding experiments of the coded test compounds were conducted for dose selection. Animal dosing schedules, the comet assay processing and analysis, and statistical analysis were conducted in accordance with the standard protocol. Based upon our blinded evaluation, AMP was not found to exhibit evidence of genotoxicity in either the rat liver or stomach. However, both NDA and DMH were observed to cause a significant increase in % tail DNA in the rat liver at all dose levels tested. While acute hepatoxicity was observed for these compounds in the high dose group, in the investigators opinion there were a sufficient number of consistently damaged/measurable cells at the medium and low dose groups to judge these compounds as genotoxic. There was no evidence of genotoxicity from either NDA or DMH in the rat stomach. In conclusion, our laboratory observed increased DNA damage from two blinded test compounds in rat liver (later identified as genotoxic carcinogens), while no evidence of genotoxicity was observed for the third blinded test compound (later identified as a non-genotoxic, non-carcinogen). This data supports the use of a standardized protocol of the in vivo comet assay as a cost-effective alternative genotoxicity assay for regulatory testing purposes.

  8. Eficácia e segurança de Sultamicilina (Ampicilina/Sulbactam e Amoxacilina/Clavulanato no tratamento das infecções de via aéreas superiores em adultos: um estudo multicêntrico, aberto e randomizado Efficacy and safety of Sultamicillin (Ampicillin/Sulbactan and Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections in adults: an open-label, multicentric, randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Ferreira

    2006-02-01

    pro-drug of Ampicillin/Sulbactan, is a potent beta-lactamase inhibitor which can face this challenge. AIM: evaluate efficacy, safety and tolerability of Ampicillin/Sulbactan compared to Amoxicillin/Clavulanate in upper respiratory tract infections in adults. METHODS: 102 patients were enrolled and randomized to receive Ampicillin/Sulbactan or Amoxicillin/Clavulanate during 10 days. They were evaluated 10 and 30 days after treatment to learn about the therapeutic response. RESULTS: There were no differences between the two groups respecting cure at the end of treatment (visit 2 or at the end of the study (visit 3. Cure ratio was 61.7% and 93.2% (visits 2 and 3 in the Amoxicillin/Clavulanate group compared to 64.4% and 97.4%, respectively, in Ampicillin/Sulbactan group. The adverse events ratio for the two groups was the same (p=0.940. The number of patients with diarrhea was greater in the group of patients receiving Amoxicillin/Clavulanate (70.6% than in the group receiving Ampicillin/Sulbactan (29.4% (p=0.0164. CONCLUSIONS: Ampicillin/Sulbactan is as safe and efficient as Amoxicillin/Clavulanate in the empiric treatment of upper respiratory infections in adults. The low occurrence of diarrhea in the group receiving Ampicillin/Sulbactan needs confirmation in other studies.

  9. 21 CFR 520.90e - Ampicillin trihydrate soluble powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Indications for use. Oral treatment of porcine colibacillosis (Escherichia coli) and salmonellosis (Salmonella spp.) infections in swine up to 75 pounds of body weight, and bacterial pneumonia caused by Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Salmonella spp. (3) Limitations. For...

  10. 21 CFR 522.90b - Ampicillin trihydrate for suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...., Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Pasteurella multocida, and Escherichia coli. (iii) Limitations. Do not treat cattle for more than 7 days. Milk from treated cows must not be used for food during treatment and... this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian. (3) Cattle—(i) Amount. 2 to...

  11. 76 FR 17336 - New Animal Drugs; Amikacin Sulfate, Ampicillin Trihydrate, Ceftiofur Hydrochloride, Cephapirin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ..., Fenbendazole, Formalin, Furosemide, Glucose/Glycine/Electrolyte, Pyrantel Pamoate, Sulfadimethoxine...), (e)(2)(iii), (e)(3)(i), and (e)(3)(iii) to read as follows: Sec. 520.905a Fenbendazole suspension.... * * * * * 0 4. In Sec. 520.905c, revise paragraph (e)(2)(iii) to read as follows: Sec. 520.905c...

  12. STUDIES ON THE USE OF AMPICILLIN-DEXTRIN AGAR ASAS AEROMONAS RECOVERY MEDIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) includes the unregulated chemical and microbiological contaminants the EPA has identified as possibly posing a significant public risk to consumers if present in drinking water (1). There are three bacterial species listed in the CCL (Aeromon...

  13. 76 FR 53050 - New Animal Drugs; Ampicillin Trihydrate, Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate, Flunixin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... Trihydrate, Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate, Flunixin, Gonadotropin Releasing Factor Analog-Diphtheria.... Revise Sec. 520.970 to read as follows: Sec. 520.970 Flunixin. (a) Specifications. (1) Each 10-gram (g) packet of granules contains flunixin meglumine equivalent to 250 milligrams (mg) of flunixin. (2) Each...

  14. Ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium : ecology, transmission dynamics and intervention strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Regt, M.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    For years, E. faecium only sporadically caused opportunistic infections in humans and was considered a relatively harmless commensal. In the last two decades, however, a specific polyclonal E. faecium subpopulation has rapidly become a prominent cause of nosocomial infections, which are often diffic

  15. 流感嗜血杆菌耐药基因及耐药机制分析%Detection of Ampicillin- Resistant Genes and Studies on the Molecular Mechanisms of Ampicillin - Resistant Haemophilus Influenzae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟天鹰; 王惠云; 谈华; 陈倩; 胡正; 糜祖煌; 迟富丽

    2006-01-01

    目的从分子水平了解南京地区儿童流感嗜血杆菌(Hi)对氨苄西林的耐药状况.方法对158株Hi临床分离株进行β-内酰胺酶检测,PCR扩增β-内酰胺酶的TEM及ROB编码基因,并克隆到T载体中作核酸序列测定与分析.结果本地区儿童感染Hi对氨苄西林的耐药率为41.77%.β-内酰胺酶阳性率为40.51%.TEM基因阳性89株,ROB阳性基因1株.63株耐氨苄西林且β-内酰胺酶阳性,耐药性主要是由于产生β-内酰胺酶和TEM基因.2株耐氨苄西林且β-内酰胺酶阴性.1株β-内酰胺酶阳性,但未检测到TEM或ROB基因.结论本地区儿童感染Hi对氨苄西林的耐药情况不容乐观,耐药机制主要是产生β-内酰胺酶,且以TEM型为主.

  16. Prevalence of beta-lactamases among ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolated from food animals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Inger; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2004-01-01

    variants of bla(TEM-1), of which bla(TEM-1b) was the most frequently detected (80 E. coli and 47 Salmonella), followed by bla(TEM-1a) (eight E. coli, one Salmonella) and bla(TEM-1c) (seven E. coli). A few isolates were found to express OXA, TEM-30, or PSE beta-lactamases. Mutations in the ampC promoter...

  17. Determination of penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxicillin, cloxacillin and cephapirin by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, R F; Voyksner, R D

    1993-09-10

    This report contributes to a preliminary investigation of high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC)-mass spectrometric (MS) methods for confirming beta-lactam antibiotic residues in bovine milk. Initial work for each antibiotic evaluated the collisional activated dissociation (CAD) spectra that could be generated between the capillary and skimmer in the electrospray (ESP) interface. The drugs show various characteristic fragmentation, mostly within the beta-lactam ring and the amide group. Response for a particular compound in a given solvent can vary drastically. Usually, the more organic component in the solvent, the higher the ESP response. In many cases use of acetonitrile also results in slightly better ion currents than for methanol when comparing equal percentages of either organic solvent in water. The ESP response of most of the tested antibiotics can be enhanced by the addition of formic acid or acetic acid to the mobile phase methanol-water (1:1). In general, the negative ion spectra are lower in intensity, exhibiting an [M-H]- ion and producing less fragmentation at higher CAD voltages as compared to positive ion spectra. An isocratic reversed-phase HPLC method for the separation of a mixture of five common beta-lactam antibiotics was developed using acetic acid as a mobile phase additive and optimized for detection with a new ESP HPLC-MS interface. A post-column split ratio of 70:1 for the eluent from a 150 x 2 mm I.D. column was chosen to provide the required lower flow-rate (approximately 4 microliters/min). The limit of detection for the simultaneous determination of these antibiotics was estimated to be 100 ppb. Electrospray HPLC-MS could be used to confirm these antibiotics for quantities down to about 100 pg entering the mass spectrometer. Multiresidue analysis with microbore HPLC-ESP-MS has the advantage that no post-column splitting of the eluent is required and all of the analyte (on-column injected) will be transferred into the ESP interface. Preliminary work showed good mass spectrometric sensitivity down to the level of regulatory interest, but chromatographic separation efficiency must be improved.

  18. Dogs are a reservoir of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium lineages associated with human infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Peter Panduro; Top, Janetta; Hendrickx, Antoni P.A.;

    2009-01-01

    generally differed from those previously described for clinical human isolates. The results indicate that dogs are frequent carriers of CC17-related lineages and may play a role in the spread of this nosocomial pathogen. The distinctive virulence and antimicrobial resistance profiles observed among canine...

  19. Modeling the growth dynamics of multiple Escherichia coli strains in the pig intestine following intramuscular ampicillin treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Amais; Zachariasen, Camilla; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo;

    2016-01-01

    after the treatment ended. When the duration of high excretion was set to be limited to the treatment time (i.e. the treatment was assumed to result in a cure of diarrhea) resistant strains required longer time to reach the previous level. Conclusion : No fitness cost was found to be associated......, and could be used for prediction of the effect of treatment with other drugs and other administration routes for effect on resistance development in the intestine of pigs....

  20. Comparison between Source-induced Dissociation and Collision-induced Dissociation of Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol, Ciprofloxacin, and Oxytetracycline via Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is a very powerful instrument that can be used to analyze a wide range of materials such as proteins, peptides, DNA, drugs, and polymers. The process typically involves either chemical or electron (impact) ionization of the analyte. The resulting charged species or fragment is subsequently identified by the detector. Usually, single mass uses source-induced dissociation (SID), whereas mass/mass uses collision-induced dissociation (CID) to analyze the chemical fragmentat...

  1. 氨苄西林耐药流感嗜血杆菌的基因分型研究%Genotyping of ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜敏; 王亚娟; 高薇; 袁林; 沈叙庄; 俞桑洁; 杨永弘

    2005-01-01

    目的了解2000-2003年北京、上海、广州细菌耐药监测项目中,小于5岁呼吸道感染儿童鼻咽部携带氨苄西林(AMP)耐药流感嗜血杆菌(Haemophilus influenzae,Hi)的分子流行病学情况.方法对上述呼吸道感染儿童鼻咽部分离的899株Hi进行AMP敏感性检测,筛选出74株AMP耐药Hi,采用巢式PCR荚膜分型和玻片凝集法,对AMP耐药菌株进行b型Hi(Haemophilus influenzae type b,Hib)检测,并用脉冲电场凝胶电泳(pulsed-field gel electrophoresis,PFGE)和多重PCR两种方法,对AMP耐药菌株进行基因分型.结果 74株AMP耐药Hi中,有2株Hib(占2.7%).PFGE分型74株AMP耐药Hi中有38种基因型,具有克隆传播趋势的有5型,包括41株Hi(占55.4%).其中菌株数最多的为A型,有18株,占24.3%,以2002年上海地区为主.多重PCR分型结果有31型,多重PCR与PFGE分型结果一致率为63.5%.结论北京、上海、广州三地区四年内小于5岁的呼吸道感染儿童鼻咽部携带的AMP耐药Hi有55.4%的菌株存在克隆传播.

  2. 流感嗜血杆菌氨苄西林耐药基因研究%Detection of ampicillin resistant genes in Haemophilus influenzae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泓; 吴文娟; 李万华; 孔青; 盖晶; 陆权

    2006-01-01

    目的 明确我院分离的流感嗜血杆菌(HI)氨苄西林耐药的基因.方法 用E试验测定我院上呼吸道感染患儿鼻咽部分离300株HI对氨苄西林耐药情况;以Nitrocefin纸片检测β内酰胺酶;PCR扩增及序列分析确定产酶株的基因型.结果 32株氨苄西林耐药株均产β内酰胺酶,占总菌株数11%(32/300),PCR检测出TEM-1 31株,ROB-1 1株.结论 产β内酰胺酶是HI对氨苄西林耐药的重要机制,TEM-1型是β内酰胺酶主要基因型,ROB-1型β内酰胺酶也首次被检出,值得关注和长期监测.

  3. [Bmim]BF4/salt aqueous two-phase extraction and separation of ampicillin sodium%[Bmim]BF4/盐双水相萃取分离氨苄西林钠

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 邵晨

    2012-01-01

    采用离子液体/盐双水相萃取的方法,研究了亲水性离子液体[Bmim]BF4/盐双水相对氨苄西林钠萃取性能,分别讨论(NH4)2S04加入量、离子液体[Bmim]BF4体积及氨苄西林钠溶液浓度对萃取率的影响,并通过紫外分光光度计进一步验证了氨苄西林钠与离子液体的相互作用.结果表明,[BTnim]BF4/盐双水相萃取分离氨苄西林钠的最佳参数为:(NH4)2SO4质量0.55g,氨苄西林钠溶液浓度0.013mol·L-1,离子液体[Bmim]BF4体积2.5mL,氨苄西林钠溶液和离子液体[Bmim]BF4的体积比为1∶1.

  4. 流感嗜血杆菌对氨苄西林耐药性及耐药机制研究进展%Haemophilus influenzae ampicillin resistance and the research progress of resistance mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱利强; 程薇; 华春珍

    2009-01-01

    流感嗜血杆菌(Haemophilus influenzae,Hi)是儿童呼吸道感染的常见致病菌,治疗Hi感染,氨苄西林是历史沿袭的首选药物.近年来,随着抗生素的广泛使用,Hi对氨苄西林的耐药日趋严重,特别是产生β-内酰胺酶(常见的有TEM-1和ROB-1型β-内酰胺酶).β-内酰胺酶阳性的Hi对多种抗生素耐药.此外,β-内酰胺酶阴性的耐氨苄西林Hi(BLNAR)近年报道增加,而BLNAR的耐药机制更复杂,本文就Hi对氨苄西林的耐药性及其耐药机制作一综述.

  5. Studied on the PAE of Apramycin and It's Combined with Amoxicillin or Ampicillin on E.coli%安普霉素及其联合用药对大肠杆菌的PAE研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宝明; 王新; 崔一喆

    2009-01-01

    采用菌落计数法和中性粒细胞减少的小鼠股部感染模型,分别测定了安普霉素及其与阿莫西林或氨苄西林联用对大肠杆菌的体内、外PAE.当药物以2xMIC、4×MIC和8×MIC浓度作用于大肠杆菌时,安普霉素体外PAE分别为1.15、2.04、3.27 h,体内PAE分别为3.46、4.49、5.77 h;安普霉素与阿莫西林联用的体外PAE分别为1.53、3.06、4.75 h,体内PAE分别为4.95、6.50、8.47 h;安普霉素与和氨苄西林联用的体外PAE分别为1.95、3.57、5.58 h,体内PAE分别为5.24、6.95、9.28 h.结果表明:安普霉素在体内外对大肠杆菌均有较长的PAE,且随药物浓度的升高其PAE也相应的延长,呈明显的剂量依赖性.安普霉素与阿莫西林、氨苄西林联用对大肠杆菌体内、外PAE呈现相加或协同作用.

  6. Study of Ampicillin Resistant Gene in Haemophilus Influenzae and in Children%儿童流感嗜血杆菌氨苄青霉素耐药基因的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈强; 朱晓华; 余晓君; 周红平; 刘建梅; 杨智辉; 段荣; 张小玲; 章高平; 李岚

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究儿童流感嗜血杆菌(HI)对氨苄青霉素的耐药状况,并从分子生物学的角度研究其耐药机制.方法 对儿童痰标本及咽拭子中分离的55株HI菌株进行β-内酰胺酶检测,PCR扩增β-内酰胺酶基因TEM-1、ROB-1的编码基因,并进行核酸序列测定与分析.结果 分离的55株HI有17株产生β-内酰胺酶,并对氨苄青霉素耐药,耐药率30.9%.未发现β-内酰胺酶阴性而对氨苄青霉素耐药的菌株.PCR法检测产酶HI中β-内酰胺酶基因TEM-1阳性率为100%,不产酶HI中无TEM-1阳性者.在32株菌株(17株产酶菌和15株不产酶菌)中未检测到ROB-1基因.结论 流感嗜血杆菌是急性下呼吸道感染的主要病原体之一,对氨苄青霉素的耐药率较高.流感嗜血杆菌对氨苄青霉素的耐药主要由质粒介导的TEM-1型β-内酰胺酶所致.

  7. Drug: D08773 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1 Antibiotics 619 Miscellaneous 6191 Penicillins combinations D08773 Ampicillin sodium - cloxacillin sodium ...ctrum J01CA51 Ampicillin, combinations D08773 Ampicillin sodium - cloxacillin sod...ium hydrate mixt J01CR Combinations of penicillins, incl. beta-lactamase inhibitors J01CR50 Combinations of ...penicillins D08773 Ampicillin sodium - cloxacillin sodium hydrate mixt J01R COMBINATIONS OF ANTIBACTERIALS J01RA Combinations... of antibacterials J01RA01 Penicillins, combinations with other antibacterials D08773 Ampicillin sodium - cloxacillin sodium hydrate mixt PubChem: 96025456 ...

  8. Drug: D02136 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available J01CA Penicillins with extended spectrum J01CA51 Ampicillin, combinations D02136 Ampicillin - dicloxacillin... sodium mixt J01CR Combinations of penicillins, incl. beta-lactamase inhibitors J01CR50 Combinations of peni...ns of antibacterials J01RA01 Penicillins, combinations with other antibacterials D0...cillins D02136 Ampicillin - dicloxacillin sodium mixt J01R COMBINATIONS OF ANTIBACTERIALS J01RA Combinatio

  9. Risk of resistance related to antibiotic use before admission in patients with community-acquired bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gitte; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Steffensen, Flemming Hald

    1999-01-01

    %), Streptococcus pneumoniae (23%) Staphylococcus aureus (10%). Of the 575 isolates of E. coli, 425 (74%), 432 (75%) and 518 (90%) were susceptible to ampicillin, sulphonamides and trimethoprim, respectively. Previous antibiotic prescriptions were strongly associated with resistance to ampicillin, sulphonamides...... admission and to 37% during the 6 months. The most frequently prescribed antibiotics within 30 days were ampicillin (28%), penicillin G (27%), sulphonamides and/or trimethoprim (16%) and macrolides (14%). The most frequent blood isolates were Escherichia coli (33%), other Enterobacteriaceae 8...

  10. Drug: D02502 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ectrum J01CA51 Ampicillin, combinations D02502 Ampicillin - cloxacillin mixt J01CR Combinations of penicilli...ns, incl. beta-lactamase inhibitors J01CR50 Combinations of penicillins D02502 Ampicillin - cloxacillin mixt... J01R COMBINATIONS OF ANTIBACTERIALS J01RA Combinations of antibacterials J01RA01 Penicillins, combination...ents against pathologic organisms and parasites 61 Antibiotics 619 Miscellaneous 6191 Penicillins combinat...ions D02502 Ampicillin hydrate - cloxacillin sodium mixt Anatomical Therapeutic Che

  11. Drug: D02065 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CTAM ANTIBACTERIALS, PENICILLINS J01CA Penicillins with extended spectrum J01CA51 Ampicillin, combinations D...02065 Ampicillin sodium - sulbactam sodium mixt J01CR Combinations of penicillins...am sodium mixt J01R COMBINATIONS OF ANTIBACTERIALS J01RA Combinations of antibacterials J01RA01 Penicillins, combinations

  12. Genetic Transformation of Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Robert.

    1991-01-01

    An activity in which students transform an ampicillin-sensitive strain of E. coli with a plasmid containing a gene for ampicillin resistance is described. The procedure for the preparation of competent cells and the transformation of competent E. coli is provided. (KR)

  13. Drug: D01251 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available br08301] 6 Agents against pathologic organisms and parasites 61 Antibiotics 613 Acting mainly on gram-positi...trum J01CA01 Ampicillin D01251 Ampicillin hydrate (JP16) S SENSORY ORGANS S01 OPHTHALMOLOGICALS S01A ANTIINFECTIVES S01AA Antibiotics

  14. Silver nanoparticle-embedded polymersome nanocarriers for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geilich, Benjamin M.; van de Ven, Anne L.; Singleton, Gloria L.; Sepúlveda, Liuda J.; Sridhar, Srinivas; Webster, Thomas J.

    2015-02-01

    The rapidly diminishing number of effective antibiotics that can be used to treat infectious diseases and associated complications in a physician's arsenal is having a drastic impact on human health today. This study explored the development and optimization of a polymersome nanocarrier formed from a biodegradable diblock copolymer to overcome bacterial antibiotic resistance. Here, polymersomes were synthesized containing silver nanoparticles embedded in the hydrophobic compartment, and ampicillin in the hydrophilic compartment. Results showed for the first time that these silver nanoparticle-embedded polymersomes (AgPs) inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli transformed with a gene for ampicillin resistance (bla) in a dose-dependent fashion. Free ampicillin, AgPs without ampicillin, and ampicillin polymersomes without silver nanoparticles had no effect on bacterial growth. The relationship between the silver nanoparticles and ampicillin was determined to be synergistic and produced complete growth inhibition at a silver-to-ampicillin ratio of 1 : 0.64. In this manner, this study introduces a novel nanomaterial that can effectively treat problematic, antibiotic-resistant infections in an improved capacity which should be further examined for a wide range of medical applications.

  15. Experimentally produced calf pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourlay, R N; Howard, C J; Thomas, L H; Stott, E J

    1976-03-01

    Experimental pneumonia was produced in calves by the endobronchial inoculation of pneumonic lung homogenates. Irradiated homogenates produced minimal pneumonia. Ampicillin treatment of the homogenates and the experimental calves reduced the extent of pneumonia. Treatment with tylosin tartrate prevented experimental pneumonia. These results suggest that the total pneumonia was due to organisms susceptible to tylosin tartrate and that the residual pneumonia remaining after ampicillin treatment was due to organisms susceptible to tylosin tartrate but not to ampicillin. Of the organisms isolated from the lungs, the ones in this latter category most likely to be responsible are Mycoplasma dispar and ureaplasmas (T-mycoplasmas).

  16. Underexpression of Ap from R-Plasmids in Fast-Growing Rhizobium Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, Virendra K.; Kumar, Sushil

    1984-01-01

    The presence of the plasmid RP1 in the cells of Rhizobium leguminosarum strains Rld1, 300, and 248, R. phaseoli 1233, R. trifolii strains T1 and 6661, and R. meliloti 4013 was found to appreciably increase bacterial resistance toward kanamycin and tetracycline but not toward ampicillin. The presence of 16 other R-plasmids in R. leguminosarum was also found to either not increase or only marginally increase bacterial resistance toward ampicillin. It appears now that underexpression of the plasmid-specified ampicillin function is common to most fast- and slow-growing rhizobia. PMID:16346686

  17. [Bactericidal activity of serum and chemotherapy in sensitive and resistant exciter (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, H; Metz, H; Preac-Mursic, V

    1975-11-21

    Comparing examinations with Ampicillin sensitive and resistant bacteria-strains show that the bactericidal activity of serum is dependent on the bacteria-strains, on the Ampicillin sensitivity of the particular exciter and on the number of bacteria/ml (germ count). Bactericide effect could always be obtained with sensitive strains as a result of additional chemotherapy. With several resistant strains a bactericide effect could not be obtained in this case the continuous optimal Ampicillin addition was the decisive factor. Because of the extremely complicated process of the bactericide one should not make general conclusions from the individual experimental results.

  18. Population dynamics of transgenic strain Escherichia coli Z905/pPHL7 in freshwater and saline lake water microcosms with differing microbial community structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, L. Yu.; Kargatova, T. V.; Ganusova, E. E.; Lobova, T. I.; Boyandin, A. N.; Mogilnaya, O. A.; Pechurkin, N. S.

    Populations of Escherichia coli Z905/pPHL7, a transgenic microorganism, were heterogenic in the expression of plasmid genes when adapting to the conditions of water microcosms of various mineralization levels and structure of microbial community. This TM has formed two subpopulations (ampicillin-resistant and ampicillin-sensitive) in every microcosm. Irrespective of mineralization level of a microcosm, when E. coli Z905/pPHL7 alone was introduced, the ampicillin-resistant subpopulation prevailed, while introduction of the TM together with indigenous bacteria led to the dominance of the ampicillin-sensitive subpopulation. A high level of lux gene expression maintained longer in the freshwater microcosms than in sterile saline lake water microcosms. A horizontal gene transfer has been revealed between the jointly introduced TM and Micrococcus sp. 9/pSH1 in microcosms with the Lake Shira sterile water.

  19. Study of antagonistic effects of Lactobacillus strains as probiotics on multi drug resistant (MDR bacteria isolated from urinary tract infections (UTIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiyeh Naderi

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Treatment of E. coli with probiotic suspension was not effective on inhibition of the plasmid carrying hypothetical ampicillin resistant gene. Moreover, the plasmid profiles obtained from probiotic-treated isolates were identical to untreated isolates.

  20. Population dynamics of transgenic strain Escherichia coli Z905/pPHL7 in freshwater and saline lake water microcosms with differing microbial community structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, L. Yu; Kargatova, T. V.; Ganusova, E. E.; Lobova, T. I.; Boyandin, A. N.; Mogilnaya, O. A.; Pechurkin, N. S.

    2005-01-01

    Populations of Escherichia coli Z905/pPHL7, a transgenic microorganism, were heterogenic in the expression of plasmid genes when adapting to the conditions of water microcosms of various mineralization levels and structure of microbial community. This TM has formed two subpopulations (ampicillin-resistant and ampicillin-sensitive) in every microcosm. Irrespective of mineralization level of a microcosm, when E. coli Z905/pPHL7 alone was introduced, the ampicillin-resistant subpopulation prevailed, while introduction of the TM together with indigenous bacteria led to the dominance of the ampicillin-sensitive subpopulation. A high level of lux gene expression maintained longer in the freshwater microcosms than in sterile saline lake water microcosms. A horizontal gene transfer has been revealed between the jointly introduced TM and Micrococcus sp. 9/pSH1 in microcosms with the Lake Shira sterile water. c2005 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterisation of recently emerged multiple antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104 and other multiresistant phage types from Danish pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    1998-01-01

    A total of 670 isolates of Salmonella enterica were isolated from Danish pig herds, phage typed and tested for susceptibility to amoxycillin + clavulanate, ampicillin, colistin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, neomycin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim + sulphadiazine. S...... electrophoresis (PFGE) using the restriction enzyme Xba I, Overall, 66 per cent of the 670 isolates were sensitive to all the antimicrobial agents tested. Eleven isolates of S typhimurium were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline and also resistant to other antibiotics in different resistance...

  2. Antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from fish processing factory workers

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    One hundred and twenty two strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from throats and palms of 39 workers from 6 fish processing factories situated in and around Cochin were tested for their sensitivity to nine commonly used antibiotics-ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, kanamycin, neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin-B, streptomycin and tetracycline. Highest percentage of resistance was observed towards ampicillin followed by penicillin i.e. 64.75% and 59.84%. Resistance towards other ant...

  3. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of 24 antimicrobial agents against Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni.

    OpenAIRE

    Vanhoof, R.; Gordts, B; Dierickx, R; Coignau, H; Butzler, J P

    1980-01-01

    The bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of 24 antimicrobial agents were tested with the Dynatech MIC 2000 system against 86 strains of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni from human sources. The penicillins (penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxycillin, carbenicillin) had poor activity. Ampicillin and amoxycillin were equally active. Cefotaxime revealed a rather good activity. Erythromycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, and furazolidone were the most active compounds. Two strains (2.3%) wer...

  4. Antibacterial compounds of Canadian honeys target bacterial cell wall inducing phenotype changes, growth inhibition and cell lysis that resemble action of β-lactam antibiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Brudzynski

    Full Text Available Honeys show a desirable broad spectrum activity against Gram-positive and negative bacteria making antibacterial activity an intrinsic property of honey and a desirable source for new drug development. The cellular targets and underlying mechanism of action of honey antibacterial compounds remain largely unknown. To facilitate the target discovery, we employed a method of phenotypic profiling by directly comparing morphological changes in Escherichia coli induced by honeys to that of ampicillin, the cell wall-active β-lactam of known mechanism of action. Firstly, we demonstrated the purity of tested honeys from potential β-lactam contaminations using quantitative LC-ESI-MS. Exposure of log-phase E. coli to honey or ampicillin resulted in time- and concentration-dependent changes in bacterial cell shape with the appearance of filamentous phenotypes at sub-inhibitory concentrations and spheroplasts at the MBC. Cell wall destruction by both agents, clearly visible on microscopic micrographs, was accompanied by increased permeability of the lipopolysaccharide outer membrane as indicated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. More than 90% E. coli exposed to honey or ampicillin became permeable to propidium iodide. Consistently with the FACS results, both honey-treated and ampicillin-treated E. coli cells released lipopolysaccharide endotoxins at comparable levels, which were significantly higher than controls (p<0.0001. E. coli cells transformed with the ampicillin-resistance gene (β-lactamase remained sensitive to honey, displayed the same level of cytotoxicity, cell shape changes and endotoxin release as ampicillin-sensitive cells. As expected, β-lactamase protected the host cell from antibacterial action of ampicillin. Thus, both honey and ampicillin induced similar structural changes to the cell wall and LPS and that this ability underlies antibacterial activities of both agents. Since the cell wall is critical for cell growth and

  5. Estimated Incidence of Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections, United States, 2004–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Weidong; Mahon, Barbara E.; Judd, Michael; Folster, Jason; Griffin, Patricia M.; Hoekstra, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella infections are a major cause of illness in the United States. The antimicrobial agents used to treat severe infections include ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin. Antimicrobial drug resistance has been associated with adverse clinical outcomes. To estimate the incidence of resistant culture-confirmed nontyphoidal Salmonella infections, we used Bayesian hierarchical models of 2004–2012 data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System and Laboratory-based Enteric Disease Surveillance. We based 3 mutually exclusive resistance categories on susceptibility testing: ceftriaxone and ampicillin resistant, ciprofloxacin nonsusceptible but ceftriaxone susceptible, and ampicillin resistant but ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin susceptible. We estimated the overall incidence of resistant infections as 1.07/100,000 person-years for ampicillin-only resistance, 0.51/100,000 person-years for ceftriaxone and ampicillin resistance, and 0.35/100,000 person-years for ciprofloxacin nonsusceptibility, or ≈6,200 resistant culture-confirmed infections annually. These national estimates help define the magnitude of the resistance problem so that control measures can be appropriately targeted. PMID:27983506

  6. Is Ceftizoxime an Appropriate Surrogate for Amikacin in Neonatal Sepsis Treatment? A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Salamati

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal sepsis, a life-threatening condition, presents with non-specific clinical manifestations and needs immediate empirical antimicrobial therapy. Choosing an appropriate antibiotic regimen covering the most probable pathogens is an important issue. In this study we compared the effectiveness of ceftizoxime and amikacin in the treatment of neonatal sepsis both in combination with ampicillin. In a randomized clinical trial, all term neonates with suspected sepsis referred to Bahrami hospital during March 2008 to March 2010 were evaluated. Patients were randomly recruited into two groups; one group receiving ampicillin and amikacin and the other ampicillin and ceftizoxime. Blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid cultures, leukocyte count and C-reactive protein level were measured in all neonates. A total of 135 neonates were evaluated, 65 in amikacin group and 70 in ceftizoxime group. 60 neonates (85.7% in ceftizoxime group and 54 neonates (83.1% in amikacin group responded to the treatment (P= 0.673 and χ2 = 0.178. Only 24 (18% blood samples had a report of positive blood culture. The most frequent pathogen was coagulase negative staphylococcus with the frequency of 58.32% of all positive blood samples. Ceftizoxime in combination with ampicillin is an appropriate antimicrobial regimen for surrogating the combination of ampicillin and amikacin to prevent bacterial resistance against them.

  7. Frequency and Susceptibility of Bacteria Caused Urinary Tract Infection in Neonates: Eight-Year Study at Neonatal Division of Bahrami Children's Hospital, Tehran Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peymaneh Alizadeh Taheri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility pattern of organisms causing urinary tract infection (UTI in neonate would potentially improve the clinical management by enabling clinicians to choose most reasonable first line empirical antibiotics. This study aimed to this end by studying isolated organisms from neonates with UTI in an inpatient setting.Current retrospective study has recruited all cases of neonatal UTI diagnosed through a suprapubic/catheterized sample, admitted to Neonatal Division of Bahrami Children's Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from June 2004 to June 2012.Escherichia coli was the dominant (64.4% bacteria among a total of 73 cases (69.9% boys and 30.1% girls; aged 14.14 ± 7.68 days; birth weight of 3055.85 ± 623.00 g and Enterobacter (19.2%, Klebsiella (12.3%, and Staphylococcus epidermdisis (4.1% were less frequent isolated bacteria. E. coli was mostly resistant to ampicillin (93.6%, cefixime (85.7% and cephalexin (77.3%, and sensitive to cefotaxime (63.6%. Enterobacter found to be most resistant to amikacin (100%, ampicillin (92.85%, and most sensitive to ceftizoxime (71.4%.A high ratio (> 92.85% of resistance toward ampicillin was observed among common neonatal UTI bacterial agents. Having this finding along with previous reports of emerging resistance of neonatal uropathogensto ampicillin could be a notion that a combination of a third generation cephalosporin and an aminoglycoside would be a more reasonable first choice than ampicillin plus an aminoglycoside.

  8. Analysis on Anti-bacterial Effect of Three Antibiotics by Bioassay%微生物法对三种抗生素抗菌作用的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾勤芬; 虞盘兴; 武煜; 管明敏

    2003-01-01

    Objective To boserve the antibacterial effect of several commonly used oral antibiotics clinically, chooseproper drugs according to the sympotms and take the price into consideration. Methods To analyze the antibacterial effect inclinical of Ampicillin, Cephradine and Cifram on commomly seen pathogens, including G+ and G- bacteria. Results Thereis some difference between three antibiotics in the effect on bacteria. Cifram has stronger antibacterial effect compared withAmpicillin and Cepgradine on Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterococcus faecalils. The effect ofAmpicillin on Staph. Aureus is far superior to Cifran and cephradine. Cephradine is ineffective to Enterobacter cloacae andPseudomonos aeruginosa. Only Cifran has antibacterial effect on Pseudomonos aeruginosa. Conclusion To select and usedrugs reasonably and clinically. to indective diseases, such factors sa variety of pathogens, the sensitivity of antibiotic,potency, the price of drug should be considered comprehensively. Not all expensive drugs have satisfied therapeutic effect.

  9. Detection and Characterization of β-Lactam Resistance in Bacillus cereus PTCC 1015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Behravan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, detection, isolation, and characterization of β-lactamases from Bacillus cereus PTCC 1015 were investigated. B. cereus was inoculated in nutrient broth containing ampicillin (50 μg.ml−1 for 24 h (35°C, 200 rpm. Activity measurements were carried out against ampicillin (0.1 mg.ml−1 and cephalexin (0.08 mg.ml−1 by a spectrophotometric method at different conditions (pH 6–10, temperatures 25–45°C.Maximum penicillinase and cephalosporinase activity was observed at pH 7. The optimized temperatures for penicillinase and cephalosporinase activity were 30 and 40°C, respectively. At the above conditions, maximum enzymatic activity was calculated as 0.89 ± 0.014 and 0.037 ± 0.001 units against ampicillin and cephalexin.

  10. Transmission of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli between cattle, humans and the environment in peri-urban livestock keeping communities in Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupindu, Athumani M; Dalsgaard, Anders; Msoffe, Peter L. M.;

    2015-01-01

    between livestock and people, 100 household clusters keeping cattle in close proximity of humans were selected in urban and peri-urban areas of Morogoro in Tanzania. One hundred eighteen ampicillin and tetracycline resistant Escherichia coli (40 from human stool, 50 from cattle feces, 21 from soil...... and seven from water samples) were isolated from 44 different clusters. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of XbaI digested chromosomal DNA was used to compare the genetic relatedness of the ampicillin- and tetracycline-resistant E. coli isolates. Indistinguishable PFGE band patterns of the ampicillin......- and tetracycline-resistant E. coli isolates were found in samples from 23 (52%) clusters. This suggests that transfer of fecal microorganisms between cattle, humans, water and soils within the farms and from livestock farms to the neighborhood occurred commonly. Logistic regression showed that animal housing...

  11. Designed to penetrate: Time-resolved interaction of single antibiotic molecules with bacterial pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestorovich, Ekaterina M.; Danelon, Christophe; Winterhalter, Mathias; Bezrukov, Sergey M.

    2002-07-01

    Membrane permeability barriers are among the factors contributing to the intrinsic resistance of bacteria to antibiotics. We have been able to resolve single ampicillin molecules moving through a channel of the general bacterial porin, OmpF (outer membrane protein F), believed to be the principal pathway for the -lactam antibiotics. With ion channel reconstitution and high-resolution conductance recording, we find that ampicillin and several other efficient penicillins and cephalosporins strongly interact with the residues of the constriction zone of the OmpF channel. Therefore, we hypothesize that, in analogy to substrate-specific channels that evolved to bind certain metabolite molecules, antibiotics have "evolved" to be channel-specific. Molecular modeling suggests that the charge distribution of the ampicillin molecule complements the charge distribution at the narrowest part of the bacterial porin. Interaction of these charges creates a region of attraction inside the channel that facilitates drug translocation through the constriction zone and results in higher permeability rates.

  12. Haemophilus segnis endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Tvede, M; Skinhøj, P

    1988-01-01

    Haemophilus segnis is a rarely recognised commensal in the oropharynx. We wish to report the first published case of endocarditis caused by H. segnis. The patient, a 76-year-old female did not recover until after 2 courses of ampicillin given for a total of 57 days. In the second course of treatm......Haemophilus segnis is a rarely recognised commensal in the oropharynx. We wish to report the first published case of endocarditis caused by H. segnis. The patient, a 76-year-old female did not recover until after 2 courses of ampicillin given for a total of 57 days. In the second course...

  13. Effect of electron irradiation and packaging atmosphere on the survival of Aeromonas hydrophila in minced poultry meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecchini, M.L.; Sarais, I.; Del Torre, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti, Udine (Italy); Fuochi, P.G. [Istituto FRAE-CNR, Bologna (Italy)

    1995-10-01

    Resistance to electron irradiation of Aeromonas hydrophila inoculated in minced poultry meat packed in presence of air or under vacuum was examined. Surviving bacteria were counted on starch ampicillin agar containing 100 {mu}g/ml of ampicillin. Radiation resistance, expressed as D{sub 10} values, was calculated from the survival curves and found to be 0.12 and 0.14 kGy in poultry meat packed in air or under vacuum respectively. Storage at 2{sup o}C of meat samples irradiated at 0.5 kGy further reduced the number of A. hydrophila. (Author).

  14. Effect of electron irradiation and packaging atmosphere on the survival of aeromonas hydrophila in minced poultry meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecchini, M. L.; Sarais, I.; Del Torre, M.; Fuochi, P. G.

    1995-02-01

    Resistance to electron irradiation of Aeromonas hydrophila inoculated in minced poultry meat packed in presence of air or under vacuum was examined. Surviving bacteria were counted on starch ampicillin agar containing 100 μg/ml of ampicillin. Radiation resistance, expressed as D 10 values, was calculated from the survival curves and found to be 0.12 and 0.12 kGy in poultry meat packed in air or under vacuum respectively. Storage at 2°C of meat samples irradiated at 0.5 kGy further reduced the number of A. hydrophila.

  15. In-vitro activity of 21 antimicrobial agents against Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Brussels.

    OpenAIRE

    Gordts, B; Vanhoof, R; Hubrechts, J M; Dierickx, R; Coignau, H; Butzler, J P

    1982-01-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 21 antimicrobial agents was measured for 80 strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated in Brussels in 1978. Bimodal distributions were found for penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxycillin, carbenicillin, and cephalexin. Of the strains, 17.5% were relatively resistant to penicillin G (MIC greater than 0.08 microgram/ml) 27.5% to ampicillin (MIC greater than 0.16 microgram/ml), 23.8% to amoxycillin, and 43.3% to carbenicillin. Cefotaxime was the most act...

  16. Neuroinfections due to Enterococcus faecalis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benca, J; Ondrusova, A; Huttova, M; Rudinsky, B; Kisac, P; Bauer, F

    2007-06-01

    Enterococcal meningitis is a rare complication of neurosurgical procedure or high technology treatment of children and occurs mainly imunocompromised neonates with very low birth weight, severe prematurity and complicates sometime ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion or perinatal trauma. E. faecalis caused 10 nosocomial meningitis and all strains were susceptible to vancomycin and chloramphenicol, and in our database 90% also to gentamicin and ampicillin. Mortality in our group of 10 children was 20% what is insignificantly higher than overall mortality in the whole cohort of meningitis within last 15 years in our database (15.1%). Early empiric therapy should include also ampicillin or vancomycin, if enterococcal etiology is suspected.

  17. Zero-magnetic field effect in pathogen bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creanga, D.E. E-mail: Dorina.Creanga@email.romdor@uaic.ro; Poiata, A.; Morariu, V.V. E-mail: vvm@140.itim-cj.ro; Tupu, P

    2004-05-01

    Two lots of Gram-negative bacterial strains were tested for antibiotic drug resistance after exposure to zero-magnetic field. We found that the magneto-sensitive strains represent half of the analyzed samples (three Pseudomonas and five Enterobacter strains), some of them presenting two-three times modified resistance to antibiotic, while others revealed eight or 16 times changed resistance. Pseudomonas strain magnetic sensitivity is revealed better by ampicillin and tetracycline, while Enterobacter strain magnetic sensitivity is revealed better by ampicillin, kanamycin and ofloxacin.

  18. Efficacy of ceftobiprole Medocaril against Enterococcus faecalis in a murine urinary tract infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kavindra V; Murray, Barbara E

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated ceftobiprole against the well-characterized Enterococcus faecalis strain OG1RF (with and without the β-lactamase [Bla] plasmid pBEM10) in a murine urinary tract infection (UTI) model. Ceftobiprole was equally effective for Bla(+) and Bla(-) OG1 strains, while ampicillin was moderately to markedly (depending on the inoculum) less effective against Bla(+) than Bla(-) OG1 strains. These data illustrate an in vivo effect on ampicillin of Bla production by E. faecalis and the stability and efficacy of ceftobiprole in experimental UTI.

  19. Rapid detection of cefotaxime-resistant Escherichia coli by LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrer, A; Findeisen, P; Jäger, E; Ghebremedhin, B; Grundt, A; Ahmad-Nejad, P; Miethke, T; Neumaier, M

    2015-12-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an unsolved healthcare problem with increasing impact on patient management in the last years. In particular, multidrug resistance among Gram-negative bacterial strains has become the most pressing challenge. In order to deliver the most efficacious antimicrobial therapy with minimum delay, rapid diagnostic tests are required in order to detect multidrug resistant pathogens early during infection. In line with these efforts, we have developed a mass spectrometry-based assay for the rapid determination of ampicillin and cefotaxime resistance. The assay quantifies beta-lactamase activities towards ampicillin and cefotaxime within a turnaround time of 150 min, which is substantially faster than classical susceptibility testing.

  20. Creation and Analysis of a mutL Knockout Strain of Vibrio Cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    the fragment and pBluescript with KpnI and HindIII, joining the two with T4 DNA ligase , and selecting for ampicillin resistant colonies in E. coli...digesting both the fragment and pBMN with HindIII and XbaI, joining the two with T4 DNA ligase , and selecting for ampicillin resistant colonies in...mut1 fragment and pBluescript with KpnI and HindIII, separation by gel electrophoresis, extraction, purification and joining the two with T4 DNA ligase (Figure

  1. Transformation of Haemophilus influenzae by recombinant molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setlow, J.K.; McCarthy, D.R.; Clayton, N.L.

    1981-01-01

    A gene library of Haemophilus influenzae DNA has been constructed by ligating chromosomal DNA from cells resistant to a number of antibiotics, together with DNA of the H. influenzae plasmid RSF0885. Before ligation both DNAs were cut with the enzyme PvuII. The ligated DNA was allowed to enter competent H. influenzae sensitive to the antibiotics and selection was made for resistance to ampicillin, conferred by the plasmid RSF0885 DNA. Plasmids conferring resistance to various other antibiotics, as well as to ampicillin, have been obtained by this procedure and subsequent selection for chromosomal markers.

  2. Impact of experimental trauma and niflumic acid administration on antimicrobials' concentration in serum and mandible of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiou, A; Anagnostou, M; Mourouzis, C; Rallis, G; Chantzi, Ch; Tesseromatis, C

    2006-01-01

    Administration of antibiotics and analgesics in surgery or trauma is of great importance for an effective treatment. Trauma, as stress stimulus, causes alterations in various functions of the organism as well as in drug pharmacokinetics. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of trauma upon the serum and bone levels of the antimicrobial ampicillin and cefapirin, with and without co-administration of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesic (NSAIDs). Fifty-six male Wistar rats were divided into two groups A (control) and B (experimental). Each group consisted of 4 subgroups (n=7) receiving ampicillin, ampicillin with niflunic acid, cefapirin, and cefapirin with niflunic acid. In group B traumatic injury was performed by incision (7 mm length) in the right cheek. The levels of the antibiotics were estimated by the inhibition zone of B. subtilis. An increase in antibiotic levels was observed in group B, being statistically significant only for cefapirin level in the mandible. Upon niflumic acid co-administration a statistically significant rise in serum ampicillin and mandible cefapirin levels was observed in both control and experimental groups (student t-test). It can be concluded that the combination of antibiotics and non-steroid antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may enhance the antibacterial drug concentration.

  3. A novel Listeria monocytogenes-based DNA delivery system for cancer gene therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    van Pijkeren, Jan Peter

    2012-01-31

    Bacteria-mediated transfer of plasmid DNA to mammalian cells (bactofection) has been shown to have significant potential as an approach to express heterologous proteins in various cell types. This is achieved through entry of the entire bacterium into cells, followed by release of plasmid DNA. In a murine model, we show that Listeria monocytogenes can invade and spread in tumors, and establish the use of Listeria to deliver genes to tumors in vivo. A novel approach to vector lysis and release of plasmid DNA through antibiotic administration was developed. Ampicillin administration facilitated both plasmid transfer and safety control of vector. To further improve on the gene delivery system, we selected a Listeria monocytogenes derivative that is more sensitive to ampicillin, and less pathogenic than the wild-type strain. Incorporation of a eukaryotic-transcribed lysin cassette in the plasmid further increased bacterial lysis. Successful gene delivery of firefly luciferase to growing tumors in murine models and to patient breast tumor samples ex vivo was achieved. The model described encompasses a three-phase treatment regimen, involving (1) intratumoral administration of vector followed by a period of vector spread, (2) systemic ampicillin administration to induce vector lysis and plasmid transfer, and (3) systemic administration of combined moxifloxacin and ampicillin to eliminate systemic vector. For the first time, our results reveal the potential of Listeria monocytogenes for in vivo gene delivery.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella spp. recovered from patients admitted to six different hospitals in Tehran, Iran from 2007 to 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tajbakhsh, Mercedeh; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Nochi, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    . Additionally, blaPSE and blaTEM β-lactamase genes were detected in 63% and 18% of the ampicillin-resistant isolates. The 23 sulphonamide resistant isolates harboured sul1 and intI1 genes, typical to class 1 integrons. Nine of these isolates also yielded amplicons for intI2 (class 2 integrons). The presence...

  5. On the natural and laboratory evolution of an antibiotic resistance gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, M.L.M.

    2008-01-01

    TEM-1 ß-lactamase is one of the most notorious antibiotic resistance enzymes around. It exists at high frequencies in antibiotic-resistant bacteria around the world and confers resistance to ß-lactam antibiotics, including penicillins (e.g. ampicillin) and cephalosporins. The enzyme displays a remar

  6. Utility of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of multiple Haemophilus influenzae isolates from throat swabs of children with adenoid hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antos-Bielska, Małgorzata; Lau-Dworak, Magdalena; Olszewska-Sosińska, Olga; Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, Beata; Trafny, Elżbieta A

    2014-07-01

    Eleven out of 40 children with adenoiditis were colonized with multiple genotypes of Haemophilus influenzae. Heterogeneous antibiotic susceptibility to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole was observed in 6 children. A multiple-colony methodology may potentially help to find the resistant strains of H. influenzae in patients who do not respond to the antibiotic treatment.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance among invasive Haemophilus influenzae strains: results of a Brazilian study carried out from 1996 through 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casagrande S.T.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1712 strains of Haemophilus influenzae isolated from patients with invasive diseases were obtained from ten Brazilian states from 1996 to 2000. ß-Lactamase production was assessed and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone and rifampin were determined using a method for broth microdilution of Haemophilus test medium. The prevalence of strains producing ß-lactamase ranged from 6.6 to 57.7%, with an overall prevalence of 18.4%. High frequency of ß-lactamase-mediated ampicillin resistance was observed in Distrito Federal (25%, São Paulo (21.7% and Paraná (18.5%. Of the 1712 strains analyzed, none was ß-lactamase negative, ampicillin resistant. A total of 16.8% of the strains were resistant to chloramphenicol, and 13.8% of these also presented resistance to ampicillin, and only 3.0% were resistant to chloramphenicol alone. All strains were susceptible to ceftriaxone and rifampin and the MIC90 were 0.015 µg/ml and 0.25 µg/ml, respectively. Ceftriaxone is the drug of choice for empirical treatment of bacterial meningitis in pediatric patients who have not been screened for drug susceptibility. The emergence of drug resistance is a serious challenge for the management of invasive H. influenzae disease, which emphasizes the fundamental role of laboratory-based surveillance for antimicrobial resistance.

  8. Hematogenous osteomyelitis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rud, B; Halken, S; Damholt, V

    1986-01-01

    approach. At follow-up after 5 (1-12) years, 3 neonates had developed severe growth disturbances despite optimal initial treatment. Acceptable results were obtained with antibiotic therapy for 6 weeks or more. We recommend ampicillin and a penicillinase-resistant penicillin, unless bacterial resistance...

  9. Clostridium difficile causing acute renal failure: Case presentation and review

    OpenAIRE

    Arrich, Jasmin; Sodeck, Gottfried H.; Sengölge, Gürkan; Konnaris, Christoforos; Müllner, Marcus; Anton N Laggner; Domanovits, Hans

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Clostridium difficile infection is primarily a nosocomial infection but asymptomatic carriers of Clostridium difficile can be found in up to 5% of the general population. Ampicillin, cephalosporins and clindamycin are the antibiotics that are most frequently associated with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea or colitis. Little is known about acute renal failure as a consequence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.

  10. Antibiotic selection of Escherichia coli sequence type 131 in a mouse intestinal colonization model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Frederik Boetius; Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2014-01-01

    , clindamycin, penicillin, ampicillin, meropenem, ciprofloxacin, and amdinocillin) against a CTX-M-15-producing E. coli sequence type 131 (ST131) isolate with a fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype. Mice (8 per group) were orogastrically administered 0.25 ml saline with 10(8) CFU/ml E. coli ST131. On that same...

  11. Stability of antibiotics and amino acids in two synthetic L-amino acid solutions commonly used for total parenteral nutrition in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Andersen, G E

    1978-01-01

    The stability and interaction at 29 degrees C of ampicillin, carbenicillin, gentamicin, and polymyxin B were examined in a common electrolyte solution, invertose darrow, and in two synthetic l-amino acid solutions, one commercial (vamin with fructose; Vitrum) and the other a neonatal preparation ...

  12. To tilfaelde af neonatal meningitis efter indførelse af nyt gentamicinregime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Anne Sofie; Fenger-Grøn, Jesper; Møller, Jens Kjølseth;

    2016-01-01

    Neonates with suspected or proven sepsis are treated with ampicillin and until recently with 5 mg gentamicin/kg every 24 h. New guidelines recommend the same gentamicin dose, but with longer intervals depending on gestational age. Two neonates receiving gentamicin every 48 h improved initially, b...

  13. Infectious Complications of Open Type III Tibial Fractures among Combat Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-15

    13) 10 20 (M, IIIb) ESBL Klebsiella pneumoniae (3) Ampicillin, gentamicin, imipenem-cilastatin (2)d MSSA (16) Union (25) 11 27 (M, IIIb) Acb (15...CoNS, coagulase-negative staphylococci; ESBL , extended-spectrum b-lactamase–producing; M, male; MRSA, methicillin resistant Staph- ylococcus aureus

  14. Multidrug resistance among different serotypes of clinical Salmonella isolates in Taiwan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauderdale, T. L.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Chen, P. C.;

    2006-01-01

    Of the 798 clinical Salmonella isolates collected from multiple hospitals in Taiwan, resistance to ampicillin (48.5%), chloramphenicol (55.3%), streptomycin (59.0%), sulfamethoxazole (68.0%), and tetracycline (67.8%) was high, whereas resistance to all 5 antimicrobials (ACSSuT R-type) comprised 3...

  15. Disease: H01050 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available la spp. are resistant to cefoxitin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. PMID:18810513 (description, env_factor) Bouza E, Per...ez-Parra A, Rosal M, Martin-Rabadan P, Rodriguez-Creixems M, Marin M Tsukamurella:

  16. High-density fecal Enterococcus faecium colonization in hospitalized patients is associated with the presence of the polyclonal subcluster CC17

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Garbajosa, P.; de Regt, M.; Bonten, M.; Baquero, F.; Coque, T. M.; Canton, R.; Harmsen, H. J. M.; Willems, Rob J. L.

    2012-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium belonging to the polyclonal subcluster CC17, with a typical ampicillin-resistant E. faecium (AREfm) phenotype, have become prevalent among nosocomial infections around the world. High-density intestinal AREfm colonization could be one of the factors contributing to the successfu

  17. Characterization of Escherichia coli nucleoids released by osmotic shock.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegner, A.S.; Alexeeva, S.; Odijk, T.; Woldringh, C.L.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleoids were isolated by osmotic shock from Escherichia coli spheroplasts at relatively low salt concentrations and in the absence of detergents. Sucrose-protected cells, made osmotically sensitive by growth in the presence of ampicillin or by digestion with low lysozyme concentrations (50-5 μg/ml

  18. Characterization of Escherichia coli nucleoids released by osmotic shock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegner, S.; Alexeeva, S.V.; Odijk, T.; Woldringh, C.L.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleoids were isolated by osmotic shock from Escherichia coli spheroplasts at relatively low salt concentrations and in the absence of detergents. Sucrose-protected cells, made osmotically sensitive by growth in the presence of ampicillin or by digestion with low lysozyme concentrations (50–5 µg/ml

  19. A randomised controlled trial of prophylaxis of post-abortal infection: ceftriaxone versus placebo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriques, C U; Wilken-Jensen, C; Thorsen, P;

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of post-operative infection after first trimester abortion in women treated with a long-acting cephalosporin (ceftriaxone) compared with low risk patients receiving no treatment and with high risk patients receiving our standard treatment of ampicillin/piva...

  20. A prospective study on Aeromonas in outpatients with diarrhea in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline de Campos Prediger

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas spp. were identified in five (2,7% of 182 diarrheal stool cultures, A. caviae was predominant, resistant mainly to ampicillin and cephalotin. This is the first study showing the presence of Aeromonas spp. in diarrheal stools of outpatients in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

  1. Antimicrobial Resistance Among Uropathogens That Cause Childhood Community-acquired Urinary Tract Infections in Central Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubov, Renata; van den Akker, Machiel; Machamad, Kaba; Hochberg, Amit; Nadir, Erez; Klein, Adi

    2017-01-01

    In this retrospective study 829 positive urine cultures were analyzed. Escherichia coli bacterium was the leading uropathogen (86%). Almost 60% were resistant to ampicillin and first generation cephalosporins, and about 30% of them resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Almost none of them were resistant to second and third generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, ciprofloxacin or nitrofurantoin.

  2. Microbiologic and Clinical Features of Salmonella Species Isolated From Bacteremic Children in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandenberg, Olivier; Nyarukweba, Deo Z.; Ndeba, Prudence M.

    2010-01-01

    typhimurium (60.5%) and Salmonella enteritidis (22.3%) were the most common Salmonella serotypes. In total, 92.4% were resistant to at least 3 antimicrobials with the following proportion of strains resistant to: ampicillin (86%), chloramphenicol (92%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (95%), and tetracycline...

  3. Antibiotikavalg ved purulent meningitis uden bakteriologisk diagnose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, H B

    1989-01-01

    A case of meningitis in a 16 month old boy caused by Hemophilus influenzae resistant to ampicillin is presented. The question is raised whether a third generation cephalosporin such as cefotaxime should be the drug of choice in the treatment of bacterial meningitis with unknown etiology...

  4. Management of early onset neonatal sepsis differs in the north and south of Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drageset, Martin; Fjalstad, Jon Widding; Mortensen, Sven

    2017-01-01

    was the most frequently detected pathogen in 11 cases (31%), followed by Group B streptococci in nine (26%) and Escherichia coli in six (17%). In 85% of the 238 cases the empiric therapy comprised gentamicin and a beta-lactam, namely ampicillin in Denmark and benzylpenicillin in Norway. Patients with positive...

  5. Life-Threatening Infantile Diarrhea from Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Salmonella enteric Typhimurium with Mutations in Both gyrA and parC

    OpenAIRE

    Nakaya, Hideo; Yasuhara, Akihiro; Yoshimura, Ken; Oshihoi, Yukio; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Watanabe, Haruo

    2003-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium DT12, isolated from a 35-day-old infant with diarrhea, was highly resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, gentamycin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, nalidixic acid, and fluoroquinolones. The patient responded to antibiotic therapy with fosfomycin. Multidrug-resistance may become prevalent in Salmonella infections in Japan, as shown in this first case of a patient infected with fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella.

  6. The baboon syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hjorth, N; Menné, T

    1984-01-01

    The catchword "baboon syndrome" is used to denote a characteristic distribution pattern of systemic allergic contact dermatitis. Diffuse erythema of the buttocks, upper inner surface of the thighs, and axillae are characteristic features. We describe 3 cases provoked by ampicillin, nickel...... and mercury. The condition may be overlooked and suspected of being a textile dermatitis or seborrhoeic dermatitis of the elderly....

  7. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of sulfonamide derivatives at C-8 alkyl chain of anacardic acid mixture isolated from a natural product cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Subhakara Reddy; A Srinivas Rao; M Adharvana Chari; V Ravi Kumar; V Jyothy; V Himabindu

    2012-05-01

    Synthesis and antibacterial activity of some novel biologically active sulfonamide derivatives at C-8 alkyl chain of anacardic acid (7a-7l), prepared from commercially available anacardic acid mixture (1a-d). These compounds were tested for Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial cultures; most of the compounds showed higher antibacterial activity compared with standard drug ampicillin.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF A CRYPTIC PLASMID FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 AND EVALUATION OF THE EXPRESSION OF GREEN-FLUORESCENT PROTEIN FROM GENETICALLY ENGINEERED DERIVATIVES OF THIS PLASMID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain 86-24 harbors a 3.3 kb cryptic plasmid (pSP). Our objectives were to clone a DNA cassette expressing a green-fluorescent protein (GFP) from a lac promoter and an ampicillin resistance (Amp**r) gene on pSP, and to monitor both the expression of GFP and the stability o...

  9. Design and exploration of novel boronic acid inhibitors reveals important interactions with a clavulanic acid-resistant sulfhydryl-variable (SHV) β-lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Marisa L; Rodkey, Elizabeth A; Taracila, Magdalena A; Drawz, Sarah M; Bethel, Christopher R; Papp-Wallace, Krisztina M; Smith, Kerri M; Xu, Yan; Dwulit-Smith, Jeffrey R; Romagnoli, Chiara; Caselli, Emilia; Prati, Fabio; van den Akker, Focco; Bonomo, Robert A

    2013-02-14

    Inhibitor resistant (IR) class A β-lactamases pose a significant threat to many current antibiotic combinations. The K234R substitution in the SHV β-lactamase, from Klebsiella pneumoniae , results in resistance to ampicillin/clavulanate. After site-saturation mutagenesis of Lys-234 in SHV, microbiological and biochemical characterization of the resulting β-lactamases revealed that only -Arg conferred resistance to ampicillin/clavulanate. X-ray crystallography revealed two conformations of Arg-234 and Ser-130 in SHV K234R. The movement of Ser-130 is the principal cause of the observed clavulanate resistance. A panel of boronic acid inhibitors was designed and tested against SHV-1 and SHV K234R. A chiral ampicillin analogue was discovered to have a 2.4 ± 0.2 nM K(i) for SHV K234R; the chiral ampicillin analogue formed a more complex hydrogen-bonding network in SHV K234R vs SHV-1. Consideration of the spatial position of Ser-130 and Lys-234 and this hydrogen-bonding network will be important in the design of novel antibiotics targeting IR β-lactamases.

  10. Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes Strains Isolated from a Pork Processing Plant and Its Respective Meat Markets in Southern China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Lili; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Ye, Lei;

    2016-01-01

    ) being predominant (42.3%, 33/78). Antimicrobial resistance was most frequently observed for tetracycline (20.5%, 16/78), streptomycin (9.0%, 7/78), cefotaxime (7.7%, 6/78), and gentamicin (6.4%, 5/78). Multiple resistances occurred among 10.2% (8/78) isolates. All strains were sensitive to ampicillin...

  11. Early onset neonatal sepsis due to Morganella morganii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sourabh; Narang, Anil

    2004-11-01

    Two neonates, both 32-weekers, developed Morganella morganii sepsis on the first day of life. They presented within a day of each other, primarily with respiratory signs. In both cases there was a history of spontaneous premature rupture of membranes, exposure to a single dose of ampicillin ante-partum, and similar antibiograms. No common source could be identified.

  12. [Transmissivity of antibiotic resistance factors in intergeneric crossing of salmonellae and Escherichia Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharchenko, G I; Zadorina, T M; Belova, N N

    1981-11-01

    The results of the crosses between Salmonella and Escherichia 0151C are presented. Transmissive determinants resistant to ampicillin, dentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, monomycin, streptomycin, morphocyclin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol were detected. It was shown that almost 50 per cent of Escherichia 0151K except the transmissive R factors were able to transferring the colicinogenic determinants.

  13. Demonstrating Effectiveness of Antibiotics Against Known Bacteria Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Lois M.

    1977-01-01

    Procedures are described for showing the effectiveness of antibiotics (penicillin, ampicillin, and tetracycline) against a nonpathogenic bacteria strain (Bacillus cereus). Methods are outlined for preparing nutrient agar, sterilizing tubes, pouring agar plates, preparing antibiotic discs, and transferring antibiotic discs to agar plates. (CS)

  14. A study on the bacteriological profile of urinary tract infection in adults and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern in a tertiary care hospital in central Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jubina Bency A. T.

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In this study, females were mostly affected and the most common organisms were E.Coli and Klebsiella. These organisms were most sensitive to Amikacin, Nitrofurantoin and resistant predominantly to Ampicillin. The sensitivity and resistance pattern of uropathogens to common antimicrobial agents must be taken into account when selecting treatment plans for UTI.

  15. Antibiotic Resistant Salmonella and Vibrio Associated with Farmed Litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjoy Banerjee; Mei Chen Ooi; Mohamed Shariff; Helena Khatoon

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella and Vibrio species were isolated and identified from Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in shrimp farms. Shrimp samples showed occurrence of 3.3% of Salmonella and 48.3% of Vibrio. The isolates were also screened for antibiotic resistance to oxolinic acid, sulphonamides, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, norfloxacin, ampicillin, doxycycline hydrochloride, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and nitrofurantoin. Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis isolated from shrimp showed indiv...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1130 - Hetacillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... ampicillin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000010 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in dogs and cats—(1) Amount—(i) Dogs. Administer 5 mg per pound (/lb) of body weight orally, twice daily. In...

  17. Drug: D02119 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 6 Agents against pathologic organisms and parasites 61 Antibiotics 613 Acting mai...picillin D02119 Ampicillin sodium (JP16/USP) S SENSORY ORGANS S01 OPHTHALMOLOGICALS S01A ANTIINFECTIVES S01AA Antibiotics

  18. Study on the Sensitivity of Chlorella sp.to Three Common Antibiotics%小球藻对3种常用抗生素的敏感性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻晓霞; 石勋祥; 马丽萍; 马玉龙

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨小球藻(Chlorella sp.)对3种常用抗生素的敏感性.[方法]采用分光光度法研究了青霉素、氨苄青霉素、头孢他啶3种常用抗生素对小球藻生长的影响,以确定分离、纯化微藻时对藻细胞无害并能抑制伴生杂菌生长的抗生素浓度.[结果]小球藻对青霉素较为敏感,而对氨苄青霉素和头孢他啶敏感性较弱,低浓度(1.0 mg/L)的氨苄青霉素对微藻细胞生长有明显促进作用.[结论]氨苄青霉素可用于小球藻纯化过程中抑菌,其适宜浓度为1.0 mg/L.%[Objective] The aim was to esplore the sensitivity of Chlorella sp. To 3 kinds of common antibiotics. [ Method ] Effects of three common antibiotics such as penicillin, ampicillin, and ceftazidime on the growth of Chlorella sp. Were studied by spectrophotometric method. The aim was to determine the optimal antibiotic concentration, which was harmless to the growth of Chlorella sp. , but had an inhibitory action on bacteria. [ Result ] Penicillin had strong inhibition to the Chlorella sp. While ampicillin and ceftazidime exhibited a low inhibition. An a-mount of 1.0 mg/L of ampicillin significantly promoted the growth of the tested microalgae. [ Conclusion ] Ampicillin can be used to prevent microbial contamination during the purification of Chlorella sp.. The optimal content of ampicillin was 1.0 mg/ L.

  19. Kinetic Features of L,D-Transpeptidase Inactivation Critical for β-Lactam Antibacterial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoq, Lauriane; Bougault, Catherine; Mainardi, Jean-Luc; Rice, Louis B.; Ethève-Quelquejeu, Mélanie; Gutmann, Laurent; Marie, Arul; Dubost, Lionel; Hugonnet, Jean-Emmanuel; Simorre, Jean-Pierre; Arthur, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Active-site serine D,D-transpeptidases belonging to the penicillin-binding protein family (PBPs) have been considered for a long time as essential for peptidoglycan cross-linking in all bacteria. However, bypass of the PBPs by an L,D-transpeptidase (Ldtfm) conveys high-level resistance to β-lactams of the penam class in Enterococcus faecium with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ampicillin >2,000 µg/ml. Unexpectedly, Ldtfm does not confer resistance to β-lactams of the carbapenem class (imipenem MIC = 0.5 µg/ml) whereas cephems display residual activity (ceftriaxone MIC = 128 µg/ml). Mass spectrometry, fluorescence kinetics, and NMR chemical shift perturbation experiments were performed to explore the basis for this specificity and identify β-lactam features that are critical for efficient L,D-transpeptidase inactivation. We show that imipenem, ceftriaxone, and ampicillin acylate Ldtfm by formation of a thioester bond between the active-site cysteine and the β-lactam-ring carbonyl. However, slow acylation and slow acylenzyme hydrolysis resulted in partial Ldtfm inactivation by ampicillin and ceftriaxone. For ampicillin, Ldtfm acylation was followed by rupture of the C5–C6 bond of the β-lactam ring and formation of a secondary acylenzyme prone to hydrolysis. The saturable step of the catalytic cycle was the reversible formation of a tetrahedral intermediate (oxyanion) without significant accumulation of a non-covalent complex. In agreement, a derivative of Ldtfm blocked in acylation bound ertapenem (a carbapenem), ceftriaxone, and ampicillin with similar low affinities. Thus, oxyanion and acylenzyme stabilization are both critical for rapid L,D-transpeptidase inactivation and antibacterial activity. These results pave the way for optimization of the β-lactam scaffold for L,D-transpeptidase-inactivation. PMID:23861815

  20. Evaluation of cefotaxime and desacetylcefotaxime concentrations in cord blood after intrapartum prophylaxis with cefotaxime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepercq, Jacques; Treluyer, Jean Marc; Auger, Christelle; Raymond, Josette; Rey, Elisabeth; Schmitz, Thomas; Jullien, Vincent

    2009-06-01

    Preterm premature rupture of the membranes is associated with a high risk of neonatal sepsis. An increase in the incidence of early-onset neonatal sepsis due to ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli in premature infants has been observed in the past few years. Intrapartum prophylaxis with ampicillin has proven to be efficient for the prevention of early neonatal sepsis due to group B streptococci. To date, there is no strategy for the prevention of early neonatal sepsis due to ampicillin-resistant E. coli. Our aim was to investigate whether a standardized dosage regimen of intrapartum cefotaxime could provide concentrations in the cord blood greater than the cefotaxime MIC(90) for E. coli. Seven pregnant women hospitalized with preterm premature rupture of the membranes and colonized with ampicillin-resistant isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae were included. Cefotaxime was given intravenously during delivery, as follows: 2 g at the onset of labor and then 1 g every 4 h until delivery. Blood specimens were collected from the mother 30 min after the first injection and just before the second injection, and at birth, blood specimens were simultaneously collected from the mother and the umbilical cord. The concentrations of cefotaxime in the cord blood ranged from 0.5 to 8.5 mg/liter. The MIC(90) of cefotaxime for E. coli strains (0.125 mg/liter) was achieved in all cases. This preliminary study supports the use of cefotaxime for intrapartum prophylaxis in women colonized with ampicillin-resistant isolates of Enterobacteriaceae. The effectiveness of this regimen for the prevention of neonatal sepsis needs to be evaluated with a larger population.

  1. Remarkably high prevalence of fts I gene mutations in Haemophilus influenzae isolates from upper respiratory tract infections in children of the Sapporo district, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harimaya, Atsushi; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Sato, Kiyoshi; Himi, Tetsuo; Fujii, Nobuhiro

    2008-06-01

    Recently, the frequency of isolation of beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin resistant (BLNAR) strains of Haemophilus influenzae in Japanese children has been increasing rapidly. Drug resistance in BLNAR strains is associated with mutations of the fts I gene, which encodes penicillin-binding protein 3. In the otolaryngological field, only a few reports have been available concerning fts I gene mutations in BLNAR. We investigated the prevalence of fts I gene mutations, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping, in H. influenzae isolates from the upper respiratory tracts of children in the Sapporo district, Japan. When the isolates were classified according to PCR genotyping, 34 (44.2%) of 77 isolates were beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-sensitive (g-BLNAS), 8 (10.4%) were g-low-BLNAR, 30 (39.0%) were g-high-BLNAR, 2 (2.6%) were beta-lactamase-positive ampicillin-resistant (g-BLPAR), and 3 (3.9%) were beta-lactamase-positive ampicillin/clavulanic acid-resistant (g-high-BLPACR). Mutations in the fts I gene were generally parallel to ampicillin susceptibility, and were frequently observed in children who were 7 years or younger. Of the beta-lactams tested, cefditoren showed the strongest inhibition of H. influenzae isolates, and it inhibited g-BLNAR and g-BLPACR. This study revealed a remarkably high prevalence of fts I gene mutations (g-BLNAR and g-BLPACR) in our district. Furthermore, a regional difference in the prevalence of fts I gene mutations was observed even at the district level.

  2. Kinetic features of L,D-transpeptidase inactivation critical for β-lactam antibacterial activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Triboulet

    Full Text Available Active-site serine D,D-transpeptidases belonging to the penicillin-binding protein family (PBPs have been considered for a long time as essential for peptidoglycan cross-linking in all bacteria. However, bypass of the PBPs by an L,D-transpeptidase (Ldt(fm conveys high-level resistance to β-lactams of the penam class in Enterococcus faecium with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of ampicillin >2,000 µg/ml. Unexpectedly, Ldt(fm does not confer resistance to β-lactams of the carbapenem class (imipenem MIC = 0.5 µg/ml whereas cephems display residual activity (ceftriaxone MIC = 128 µg/ml. Mass spectrometry, fluorescence kinetics, and NMR chemical shift perturbation experiments were performed to explore the basis for this specificity and identify β-lactam features that are critical for efficient L,D-transpeptidase inactivation. We show that imipenem, ceftriaxone, and ampicillin acylate Ldt(fm by formation of a thioester bond between the active-site cysteine and the β-lactam-ring carbonyl. However, slow acylation and slow acylenzyme hydrolysis resulted in partial Ldt(fm inactivation by ampicillin and ceftriaxone. For ampicillin, Ldt(fm acylation was followed by rupture of the C(5-C(6 bond of the β-lactam ring and formation of a secondary acylenzyme prone to hydrolysis. The saturable step of the catalytic cycle was the reversible formation of a tetrahedral intermediate (oxyanion without significant accumulation of a non-covalent complex. In agreement, a derivative of Ldt(fm blocked in acylation bound ertapenem (a carbapenem, ceftriaxone, and ampicillin with similar low affinities. Thus, oxyanion and acylenzyme stabilization are both critical for rapid L,D-transpeptidase inactivation and antibacterial activity. These results pave the way for optimization of the β-lactam scaffold for L,D-transpeptidase-inactivation.

  3. Synergistic antibacterial effect of apigenin with β-lactam antibiotics and modulation of bacterial resistance by a possible membrane effect against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akilandeswari, K; Ruckmani, K

    2016-12-30

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are easily spread among infected patients, where resistance has dramatically increased resulted in serious health issues. Therefore, there is a need to develop alternative natural or combination drug therapies. Apigenin (AP) is a natural poly phenolic flavonoid has been found to possess many beneficial biological actions. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-MRSA efficacy and synergistic effect of apigenin (AP) and in combination with ampicillin (AM) and ceftriaxone (CEF). The antibacterial activity of apigenin was assessed by the broth macro dilution, checkerboard micro dilution method and time-kill assay.  The mode of action was studied by outer and inner membrane permeabilisation assays, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of apigenin against gram positive and gram negative strain ranged from 32.5 to 62.5µg/ml. In checkerboard method apigenin markedly reduced the MIC of the antibiotics ampicillin 800 µg/ml shifted to 107 µg/ml (AM+AP) and ceftriaxone 58 µg/ml shifted to 2.6 µg/ml (CEF+AP) against MRSA. The synergistic activity of ampicillin and ceftriaxone plus apigenin combinations with FIC indices (CI) between 0.18-0.47. The modulation of methicillin-resistance by apigenin significantly enhanced the activities of ampicillin and ceftriaxone. The result of time-kill assays of the two drug combinations AM +AP and CEF+AP against MRSA showed significant inhibitory effect and reduced the colony count by approximately 99% after 8 h The results for outer membrane (OM) and inner membrane (IM) permeabilization showed that ampicillin and ceftriaxone in combination with apigenin damaged MRSA cytoplasmic membrane and caused subsequent leakage of intracellular constituents. Electron microscopy clearly showed that the above said combination also caused marked morphological damage of cell wall, cell shape and plasma

  4. The use of Listeria monocytogenes as a DNA delivery vector for cancer gene therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tangney, Mark

    2012-01-31

    Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular pathogen that lyses the phagosomal vacuole of infected cells, proliferates in the host cell cytoplasm and can actively enter adjacent cells. The pathogen is therefore well suited to exploitation as a vector for the delivery of DNA to target cells as the lifecycle favors cellular targeting with vector amplification and the potential for cell-to-cell spread. We have recently demonstrated DNA transfer by L. monocytogenes in growing tumors in murine models. Our approach exploited an ampicillin sensitive stain of L. monocytogenes which can be lysed through systemic administration of ampicillin to facilitate release of plasmid DNA for expression by infected mammalian cells. Here, we discuss the implications of this technology and the potential for future improvements of the system.

  5. Increased microbe-receptor contact in early life – approaching immune regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Katja Maria Bangsgaard; Hansen, Camilla H. F.; Krych, Lukasz;

    Sulphate Sodium interrupts the barrier function of the gut wall by shaving the mucus layer. In low doses it may have the desired contact-increasing effect without inducing colitis-related disease. Following low-dose DSS treatment in early life of BALB/c mice, we did a gene expression screening in ileum...... and colon together with cell counts in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes combined with sequencing the gut microbiota. We investigated the effect of DSS alone, and in combination with Ampicillin and LPS to elucidate the importance of bacterial ligands. Our study shows that DSS changes the gut microbiota......, and Ampicillin itself can act protective as well as activating on inflammatory markers in a time-dependent manner. It is apparent that DSS works differently in the ileum and colon for some genes. In some cases LPS as only ligand reduces inflammatory markers, but overall it is confirmed that the abundance...

  6. Listeria monocytogenes following orthotopic liver transplantation: Central nervous system involvement and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Listeria monocytogene is a well-recognized cause of bacteremia in immunocompromised individuals, including solid organ transplant recipients, but has been rarely reported following orthotopic liver transplantation. We describe a case of listeria meningitis that occurred within a week after liver transplantation. The patient developed a severe headache that mimicked tacrolimus encephalopathy, and was subsequently diagnosed with listeria meningitis by cerebrospinal fluid culture. The infection was successfully treated with three-week course of intravenous ampicillin. Recurrent hepatitis C followed and was successfully treated with interferon alfa and ribavirin. Fourteen cases of listeriosis after orthotopic liver transplantation have been reported in the English literature. Most reported cases were successfully treated with intravenous ampicillin. There were four cases of listeria meningitis, and the mortality of them was 50%.Early detection and treatment of listeria meningitis are the key to obtaining a better prognosis.

  7. Antibiotic Resistance Pattern Of Bacterial Pathogens Isolated From Poultry Manure Used To Fertilize Fish Ponds In New Bussa, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funso Omojowo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to isolate and identify antibiotic resistant bacteria from poultry manure usually used for pond fertilization. Poultry manure from 120 Chickens in National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research (NIFFR integrated fish farms, New-Bussa, Nigeria was collected. Five bacterial pathogens; Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus and Aeromonas hydrophila were isolated. Antibiotic susceptibility testing carried out using the disk diffusion technique. Antibiotics used were; ofloxacin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, ampicillin, erythromycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol. All the isolated organisms were 100% sensitive to ofloxacin. The multiple resistance pattern revealed that 100% were resistant to tetracycline, 84.34% resistant to ampicillin, 76.68% resistant to amoxicillin, 66% resistant to chloramphenicol, 66% resistant to gentamicin, 29% resistant to erythromycin, 28.34% resistant to nalidixic acid. The risk posed by untreated poultry manure used in fish pond fertilization and the public health implications of these results were discussed.

  8. Antibiotic Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Goats with Subclinical Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Virdis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance patterns and gene coding for methicillin resistance (mecA were determined in 25 S. aureus and 75 Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS strains isolates from half-udder milk samples collected from goats with subclinical mastitis. Fourteen (56.0% S. aureus and thirty-one (41.3% CNS isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. S. aureus showed the highest resistance rate against kanamycin (28.0%, oxytetracycline (16.0%, and ampicillin (12.0%. The CNS tested were more frequently resistant to ampicillin (36.0% and kanamycin (6.7%. Multiple antimicrobial resistance was observed in eight isolates, and one Staphylococcus epidermidis was found to be resistant to six antibiotics. The mecA gene was not found in any of the tested isolates. Single resistance against β-lactamics or aminoglicosides is the most common trait observed while multiresistance is less frequent.

  9. Assessment of Antimicrobial Treatment Strategies in Pig Production Using Mathematical Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Amais

    strategies. Dosing factors, along with the in vivo epidemiological parameters, govern the relation between resistance and antimicrobial use. Mathematical modeling and simulation techniques have been used over the past two decades to evaluate the effect of these factors on the development of resistance......, and are considered to be powerful tools in designing treatment strategies. The overall aim of the thesis was to develop an in vivo bacterial growth model to predict and assess the effect of dosing factor on resistance growth in order to optimize treatment strategies. Specific aims were to a) estimate pharmacodynamic...... (PD) parameters of E. coli strains representative of the Danish porcine E. coli strains, when these are exposed to tetracycline and ampicillin, b) characterize the PD effect of combined concentrations of tetracycline and ampicillin, and c) evaluate the treatment strategies that better suppress...

  10. Susceptibilidad in vitro de Arcobacter butzleri a seis drogas antimicrobianas In vitro susceptibility of Arcobacter butzleri to six antimicrobial drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Otth

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron los patrones de susceptibilidad de 50 cepas de A. butzleri mediante el método del E-test. Ninguna cepa fue resistente a gentamicina y tetraciclina, pero, hubo cepas resistentes a eritromicina (2% y ciprofloxacina (2%. Además, el 90 y el 98% de las cepas fueron resistentes a ampicilina y cloramfenicol respectivamente. Solamente dos de las 45 cepas ampicilina-resistentes fueron productoras de ß-lactamasa. Palabras clave: Arcobacter butzleri, susceptibilidad antimicrobiana, bacterias emergentes, E-test, ß-lactamasaThe susceptibility patterns of 50 A. butzleri strains to six antimicrobial agents were determined using the E-test method. No strain was found to be resistant to gentamicin and tetracycline, but two different strains (2% were resistant to erythromycin and ciprofloxacin. Ninety and 98% of the strains were resistant to ampicillin and chloramphenicol, respectively. Only two of the 45 ampicillin resistant strains were able to produce ß-lactamase.

  11. Quantitative assessment of faecal shedding of β-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli and enterococci in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Shah, Syed Qaswar Ali; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative data on faecal shedding of antimicrobial resistant bacteria are crucial to assess the risk of transmission from dogs to other animals as well as humans. In this study we investigated prevalence and concentrations of β-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli and enterococci in the faeces...... of 108 dogs presenting at a veterinary hospital in Denmark. The dogs had not been treated with antimicrobials for 4 weeks prior to the study. Total E. coli and enterococci were quantified by counts on MacConkey and Slanetz-Bartley, respectively. Resistant E. coli and enterococci were counted on the same...... media containing relevant antibiotic concentrations, followed by species identification using MALDI-TOF. Ampicillin- and cefotaxime-resistant E. coli were detected in 40% and 8% of the dogs, respectively, whereas approximately 15% carried ampicillin-resistant enterococci, mainly Enterococcus faecium...

  12. Survey of 82 cases of meningitis in infants under 2 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatehi I

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we review 82 infants under two months with bacterial meningitis admitted in Tehran University's hospitals during a 14 year period. Male to female ratio was 1.4 to 1. The patterns of predominance among bacterial pathogens changed during the period of study. During the first six years the most common pathogens were Salmonella-SP., but during the later years E.coli became the predominant pathogen, and also meningitis caused by GBS and Staph. epidermidis was observed. The case fatality rate was 37.8 percent. The antibiogram revealed that E.coli were hundred percent resistant to ampicillin and 50% resistant to gentamicin, 40% of all bacteria isolated were resistant to ampicillin and gentamicin. These findings provide guidelines for the selection of empiric antimicrobial agents in our country

  13. Antibiotic therapy for Listeria monocytogenes bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, C C; Chang, S C; Chen, Y C; Hsieh, W C; Luh, K T

    1995-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes has been recognized as an important pathogen in immunocompromised patients, but it has been rarely reported in Taiwan. We reviewed 13 cases of L. monocytogenes bacteremia at National Taiwan University Hospital over a 12-year period. All of the patients had underlying diseases. Fever was the most common presenting symptom, and neurologic signs were found in 6 patients. Most of the patients received penicillin G, ampicillin or piperacillin with an aminoglycoside. Corticosteroids were used in 9 of 13 patients. The overall mortality directly due to L. monocytogenes bacteremia was 31%. However, patients treated with cephalosporins or oxacillin had higher mortality than those treated with penicillin G, ampicillin or piperacillin (p = 0.05). Given the increasing number of immunosuppressed patients in Taiwan, it is likely that more cases will be encountered. Physicians in Taiwan should be aware of L. monocytogenes bacteremia and its treatment.

  14. Antibiotic binding of STY3178, a yfdX protein from Salmonella Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Paramita; Manna, Camelia; Das, Santasabuj; Ghosh, Mahua

    2016-02-19

    The yfdX family proteins are known for long time to occur in various virulent bacteria including their multidrug resistant (MDR) strains, without any direct assigned function for them. However, yfdX protein along with other proteins involved in acid tolerance response is reported to be up regulated by the multidrug response regulatory system in E. coli. Hence, molecular and functional characterization of this protein is important for understanding of key cellular processes in bacterial cells. Here we study STY3178, a yfdX protein from a MDR strain of typhoid fever causing Salmonella Typhi. Our experimental results indicate that STY3178 is a helical protein existing in a trimeric oligomerization state in solution. We also observe many small antibiotics, like ciprofloxacin, rifampin and ampicillin viably interact with this protein. The dissociation constants from the quenching of steady state fluorescence and isothermal titration calorimetry show that ciprofloxacin binding is stronger than rifampin followed by ampicillin.

  15. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of 24 antimicrobial agents against Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoof, R; Gordts, B; Dierickx, R; Coignau, H; Butzler, J P

    1980-07-01

    The bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of 24 antimicrobial agents were tested with the Dynatech MIC 2000 system against 86 strains of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni from human sources. The penicillins (penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxycillin, carbenicillin) had poor activity. Ampicillin and amoxycillin were equally active. Cefotaxime revealed a rather good activity. Erythromycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, and furazolidone were the most active compounds. Two strains (2.3%) were resistant to erythromycin. One strain (1.2%) was completely resistant to tobramycin. The tetracyclines (tetracyline, doxycycline, minocycline) were generally effective, but 8% of the strains were totally resistant to them. Minocycline was the most active. Chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, and clindamycin had good activity. The bacteriostatic and bactericidal distributions for colistin, nalidixic acid, and metronidazole were broad.

  16. Computational Dehydration of Crystalline Hydrates Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Støttrup; Rantanen, Jukka; Johansson, Kristoffer E

    2016-01-01

    . The structural changes could be followed in real time, and in addition, an intermediate amorphous phase was identified. The computationally identified dehydrated structure (anhydrate) was slightly different from the experimentally known anhydrate structure suggesting that the simulated computational structure...... to the dehydration of ampicillin trihydrate. The crystallographic unit cell of the trihydrate is used to construct the simulation cell containing 216 ampicillin and 648 water molecules. This system is dehydrated by removing water molecules during a 2200 ps simulation, and depending on the computational dehydration...... rate, different dehydrated structures were observed. Removing all water molecules immediately and removing water relatively fast (10 water molecules/10 ps) resulted in an amorphous system, whereas relatively slow computational dehydration (3 water molecules/10 ps) resulted in a crystalline anhydrate...

  17. Evaluation of Eight Different Cephalosporins for Detection of Cephalosporin Resistance in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hasman, Henrik; Veldman, K

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of eight different cephalosporins for detection of cephalosporin resistance mediated by extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC beta-lactamases in Salmonella and Escherichia coli. A total of 138 E. coli and 86 Salmonella isolates with known beta......-resistant but cephalosporin-susceptible, 56 ESBL isolates and 19 isolates with plasmidic AmpC, as well as 10 ampC hyper-producing E. coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration distributions and zone inhibitions varied with the tested compound. Ampicillin-resistant isolates showed reduced susceptibility to the cephalosporins...... compared to ampicillin-susceptible isolates. Cefoperazone, cefquinome, and cefuroxime were not useful in detecting isolates with ESBL or plasmidic AmpC. The best substances for detection were cefotaxime, cefpodoxime, and ceftriaxone, whereas ceftazidime and ceftiofur were not as efficient. Ceftriaxone may...

  18. Antibiotic-Resistant Vibrios in Farmed Shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Albuquerque Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined in 100 strains of Vibrio isolated from the Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp and identified phenotypically. A high antibiotic-resistance index (75% was observed, with the following phenotypic profiles: monoresistance (n=42, cross-resistance to β-lactams (n=20 and multiple resistance (n=13. Plasmid resistance was characterized for penicillin (n=11, penicillin + ampicillin (n = 1, penicillin + aztreonam (n = 1, and ampicillin (n = 1. Resistance to antimicrobial drugs by the other strains (n=86 was possibly mediated by chromosomal genes. The findings of this study support the conclusion that the cultured shrimps can be vehicles of vibrios resistant to β-lactam and tetracycline.

  19. Drug resistance and adherence to human intestines of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T; Echeverria, P; Yokota, T

    1992-04-01

    Clinical isolates of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAggEC) were tested for their in vitro susceptibilities to 27 antimicrobial agents. Marked drug resistance was observed with sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, and chloramphenicol in contrast to such antimicrobial agents as cefixime, sparfloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. One of the EAggEC strains carried a plasmid that conferred on its host resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, and spectinomycin and an ability to adhere to child ileal villi or HeLa cells in the characteristic aggregative pattern. This plasmid also mediated D-mannose-resistant hemagglutinin production and bacterial clump formation (autoagglutination). The data demonstrate appearance of marked drug resistance and an intestine-adherence and drug-resistance plasmid in the newest category of diarrheagenic E. coli.

  20. Studies on the ecology of aquatic bacteria of the lower Niger Delta: multiple antibiotic resistance among the standard plate count organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogan, M T; Nwiika, D E

    1993-05-01

    The ecology of multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) bacteria in the fresh-waters of the lower Niger Delta was studied in the Port Harcourt area, Rivers State. On the basis of decreasing pollution levels three zones, A, B, C, were recognized. Cell recovery by two viable count media, casein-peptone-starch (CPS) and plate count (PC) agar containing chloramphenicol, tetracycline, penicillin, streptomycin or ampicillin were compared in an initial study. Higher numbers of antibiotic resistant (AR) bacteria were recovered on CPS containing tetracycline, penicillin, streptomycin and ampicillin from the faecally-polluted New Calabar River (zone A) than on SPC agar containing similar antibiotics but the reverse was observed for forest stream (zone B) samples. Differences between the two media were also observed at individual sample sites. The proportions of strains of AR bacteria resistant to their primary isolation antibiotic varied from 55% (zone B) to 72% in the least polluted Isiokpo and Elele-Alimini streams (zone C), for ampicillin, and mostly count media without antibiotics included mainly species of Bacillus (12) and enterobacteria (18). Between five and 10 strains were resistant to > or = three antibiotics; seven were resistant to all five. The antibiograms of most strains were variable and depended on the method of drug application (discs or incorporation into agar), media and temperature of incubation (25 degrees, 37 degrees or 44.5 degrees C). Twenty-one strains were consistently resistant to ampicillin by the two methods; 10 to 19 were consistent for chloramphenicol, tetracycline and penicillin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of Some Halo Substituted Schiff Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Junne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some new halo substituted Schiff bases have been prepared from different aromatic aldehydes and a series of substituted aromatic amines to form a number of potentially biologically active compounds. The structures of the Schiff bases have been characterized by using IR and 1HNMR spectroscopy. These compounds were screened against human pathogenic bacteria by agar diffusion method. Ampicillin was used as control.

  2. Two Cases of Vulvovaginitis Caused by Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei: a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Gülçin Bayramoğlu; Faruk Aydın; Gülay Karagüzel; Mustafa İmamoğlu; Ayşenur Ökten

    2014-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis caused by Shigella species (Shigella spp.) has rarely been reported. This paper describes two cases of prepubertal vulvovaginitis, presenting with a bloody and purulent vaginal discharge, separately caused by ampicillin-resistant Shigella flexneri and trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazoleresistant Shigella sonnei. Our conclusions are that Shigella spp. is the potential cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls in developing countries where these pathogens are endemic, and identifica...

  3. Trends in the epidemiology of pandemic and non-pandemic strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from diarrheal patients in Kolkata, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gururaja P Pazhani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A total of 178 strains of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from 13,607 acute diarrheal patients admitted in the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kolkata has been examined for serovar prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic traits with reference to virulence, and clonal lineages. Clinical symptoms and stool characteristics of V. parahaemolyticus infected patients were analyzed for their specific traits. The frequency of pandemic strains was 68%, as confirmed by group-specific PCR (GS-PCR. However, the prevalence of non-pandemic strains was comparatively low (32%. Serovars O3:K6 (19.7%, O1:K25 (18.5%, O1:KUT (11.2% were more commonly found and other serovars such as O3:KUT (6.7%, O4:K8 (6.7%, and O2:K3 (4.5% were newly detected in this region. The virulence gene tdh was most frequently detected in GS-PCR positive strains. There was no association between strain features and stool characteristics or clinical outcomes with reference to serovar, pandemic/non-pandemic or virulence profiles. Ampicillin and streptomycin resistance was constant throughout the study period and the MIC of ampicillin among selected strains ranged from 24 to >256 µg/ml. Susceptibility of these strains to ampicillin increased several fold in the presence of carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenyldrazone. The newly reported ESBL encoding gene from VPA0477 was found in all the strains, including the susceptible ones for ampicillin. However, none of the strains exhibited the β-lactamase as a phenotypic marker. In the analysis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, the pandemic strains formed two different clades, with one containing the newly emerged pandemic strains in this region.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of beta-lactams against multiresistant micro-organisms from the family Enterobacteriaceae, and genus Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebla, A; González, I; Vallín, C

    1994-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of twenty beta-lactams was determined against multiresistant micro-organisms from the Enterobacteriaceae family (450) and the genus Pseudomonas (90). The antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed by the disk diffusion method. The most effective antibiotics were cephalosporins of the second and third generation, and non-classical beta-lactams (imipenem and moxalactam). A pronounced resistance was found to carbenicillin, ampicillin, cephalotin and cefazolin. These resistance patterns corresponded to a high consumption of these antibiotics.

  5. Diversity and distribution of commensal fecal Escherichia coli bacteria in beef cattle administered selected subtherapeutic antimicrobials in a feedlot setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ranjana; Munns, Krysty; Alexander, Trevor; Entz, Toby; Mirzaagha, Parasto; Yanke, L Jay; Mulvey, Michael; Topp, Edward; McAllister, Tim

    2008-10-01

    Escherichia coli strains isolated from fecal samples were screened to examine changes in phenotypic and genotypic characteristics including antimicrobial susceptibility, clonal type, and carriage of resistance determinants. The goal of this 197-day study was to investigate the influence of administration of chlortetracycline alone (T) or in combination with sulfamethazine (TS) on the development of resistance, dissemination of defined strain types, and prevalence of resistance determinants in feedlot cattle. Inherent tetracycline resistance was detected in cattle with no prior antimicrobial exposure. Antimicrobial administration was not found to be essential for the maintenance of inherently ampicillin-resistant and tetracycline-resistant (Tet(r)) E. coli in control animals; however, higher Tet(r) E. coli shedding was observed in animals subjected to the two treatments. At day 0, high tetracycline (26.7%), lower sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline (19.2%), and several other resistances were detected, which by the finishing phase (day 197) were restricted to ampicillin-tetracycline (47.5%), tetracycline (31.7%), and ampicillin-tetracycline-sulfamethoxazole (20.8%) from both treated and untreated cattle. Among the determinants, bla(TEM1), tet(A), and sul2 were prevalent at days 0 and 197. Further, E. coli from day 0 showed diverse antibiogram profiles and strain types, which by the finishing phase were limited to up to three, irrespective of the treatment. Some genetically identical strains expressed different phenotypes and harbored diverse determinants, indicating that mobile genetic elements contribute to resistance dissemination. This was supported by an increased linked inheritance of ampicillin and tetracycline resistance genes and prevalence of specific strains at day 197. Animals in the cohort shed increasingly similar genotypes by the finishing phase due to animal-to-animal strain transmission. Thus, characterizing inherent resistance and propagation of cohort

  6. Penicillin degradation catalysed by Zn(II) ions in methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Pilar Gutiérrez; Blázquez, Iluminada Hernández; Osso, Bartolomé Quintero; Martínez de las Parras, Pedro J; Puentedura, María I Martínez; García, Ana A Márquez

    2003-12-01

    The rates of degradation, catalysed by Zn(2+), of four classical penicillins-amoxicillin, ampicillin and penicillins G and V-were followed at 20 degrees C in methanol by spectrophotometric assays. Kinetic schemes of the reactions of degradation catalysed by Zn(2+) ions were analogous to those given previously for the reaction catalysed by Cd(2+) ions. The methanolysis of penicillin V occurs with the formation of a single intermediate substrate-metal complex (SM), whereas the degradations of amoxicillin, ampicillin and penicillin G occur with the initial formation of two complexes with different stoichiometry, SM and S(2)M, both in equilibrium. In all cases, the degradation reaction is of the first order with respect to SM, with velocity constants at 20 degrees C of 0.0093, 0.0288, 0.0304 and 0.0349 min(-1), for amoxicillin, ampicillin, penicillin V and penicillin G, respectively. The compound S(2)M degraded at a much lower rate than SM and constitutes a zero-order process. The catalytic effect of the ion Zn(2+) in the degradation of the penicillins was much weaker than that of the ion Cd(2+), owing to the lesser ionic radius of the former and the fact that in the case of the reaction catalysed by Zn(2+), the compound S(2)M occurred in a much greater amount than the SM. At the end of the degradation reaction, the corresponding penamaldic derivative of the antibiotic was produced, established by the coordination of the Zn(2+) ion, forming a single complex 2:1 (derivative penamaldic-metal) in the case of amoxicillin and ampicillin; and two complexes, 1:1 and 2:1, for the other antibiotics. Finally, the molar absorption coefficients of the products of reaction at the wavelength of maximum absorption at 20 degrees C were calculated.

  7. A Proposed Formulary Based on the Identification of Medications Determined by Diagnoses/Problems in a Troop Medical Clinic During Calendar Year 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    Fascitis , Leg (1) Tolectin (1) 28. Fascitis , Plantar (1) Motrin (1) 29. Fracture, Stress (Toe) (1) Indocin (1) 30. Ganglion, Wrist (1) ASA (1) 31...AVC Cream Vibramycin G.E. Tylenol Tigan Herpes Genitalis Zovirax 17. WS N.V. 18. GH N.V. 19. AT Ankle Sprain ASA Plantar Fascitis Motrin 20. RT N.V. 1...Loz. 103. JT URI Actifed Blisters, Foot Bacitracin 104. SB Bronchitis E-Mycin Fascitis , Leg Tolectin Sinusitis Ampicillin URI Robitussin Entex Acute

  8. The beta-lactam-sensitive D,D-carboxypeptidase activity of Pbp4 controls the L,D and D,D transpeptidation pathways in Corynebacterium jeikeium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavollay, Marie; Arthur, Michel; Fourgeaud, Martine; Dubost, Lionel; Marie, Arul; Riegel, Philippe; Gutmann, Laurent; Mainardi, Jean-Luc

    2009-11-01

    Corynebacterium jeikeium is an emerging nosocomial pathogen responsible for vascular catheters infections, prosthetic endocarditis and septicemia. The treatment of C. jeikeium infections is complicated by the multiresistance of clinical isolates to antibiotics, in particular to beta-lactams, the most broadly used class of antibiotics. To gain insight into the mechanism of beta-lactam resistance, we have determined the structure of the peptidoglycan and shown that C. jeikeium has the dual capacity to catalyse formation of cross-links generated by transpeptidases of the d,d and l,d specificities. Two ampicillin-insensitive cross-linking enzymes were identified, Ldt(Cjk1), a member of the active site cysteine l,d-transpeptidase family, and Pbp2c, a low-affinity class B penicillin-binding protein (PBP). In the absence of beta-lactam, the PBPs and the l,d-transpeptidase contributed to the formation of 62% and 38% of the cross-links respectively. Although Ldt(Cjk1) and Pbp2C were not inhibited by ampicillin, the participation of the l,d-transpeptidase to peptidoglycan cross-linking decreased in the presence of the drug. The specificity of Ldt(Cjk1) for acyl donors containing a tetrapeptide stem accounts for this effect of ampicillin since the essential substrate of Ldt(Cjk1) was produced by an ampicillin-sensitive d,d-carboxypeptidase (Pbp4(Cjk)). Acquisition and mutational alterations of pbp2C accounted for high-level beta-lactam resistance in C. jeikeium.

  9. High level multiple antibiotic resistance among fish surface associated bacterial populations in non-aquaculture freshwater environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaktas, Tugba; Taskin, Bilgin; Gozen, Ayse G

    2012-12-01

    Freshwater fish, Alburnus alburnus (bleak), were captured from Lake Mogan, situated in Ankara, during spring. The surface mucus of the fish was collected and associated bacteria were cultured and isolated. By sequencing PCR-amplified 16S RNA encoding genes, the isolates were identified as members of 12 different genera: Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Bacillus, Brevundimonas, Gordonia, Kocuria, Microbacterium, Mycobacterium, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, and Staphylococcus, in addition to one strain that was unidentified. The mucus-dwelling bacterial isolates were tested for resistance against ampicillin, kanamycin, streptomycin and chloramphenicol. About 95% of the isolates were found to be resistant to ampicillin, 93% to chloramphenicol, and 88% to kanamycin and streptomycin. A Microbacterium oxydans and the unidentified environmental isolate were resistant to all four antibiotics tested at very high levels (>1600 μg/ml ampicillin and streptomycin; >1120 μg/ml kanamycin; >960 μg/ml chloramphenicol). Only a Kocuria sp. was sensitive to all four antibiotics at the lowest concentrations tested (3.10 μg/ml ampicillin and streptomycin; 2.15 μg/ml kanamycin; 1.85 μg/ml chloramphenicol). The rest of the isolates showed different resistance levels. Plasmid isolations were carried out to determine if the multiple antibiotic resistance could be attributed to the presence of plasmids. However, no plasmid was detected in any of the isolates. The resistance appeared to be mediated by chromosome-associated functions. This study indicated that multiple antibiotic resistance at moderate to high levels is common among the current phenotypes of the fish mucus-dwelling bacterial populations in this temperate, shallow lake which has not been subjected to any aquaculturing so far but under anthropogenic effect being in a recreational area.

  10. In vitro susceptibility of Haemophilus equigenitalis, the causative organism of contagious equine metritis 1977, to antimicrobial agents.

    OpenAIRE

    DABERNAT, H.J.; Delmas, C F; Tainturier, D J; Lareng, M B

    1980-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of recent clinical isolates of Haemophilus equigenitalis to various antimicrobial agents was determined by the disk diffusion test and the World Health Organization-International Collaborative Study agar dilution procedure. Ampicillin and tetracycline were the most active drugs. All strains were susceptible to beta-lactam antibiotics, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid, nitrofurantoin (Furadantin), and bacitracin. All but two strains wer...

  11. Anti Microbial Resistance Profile of E. coli isolates From Tropical Free Range Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoli CI

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal intestinal flora of humans and animals constitute enormous reservoir of resistance genes for potentially pathogenic bacteria and may serve as major indictors of selection pressure exerted by anti-microbial use in a given population. A study was conducted in September 2003 at 3 purposively selected peri-urban sites spread across 3 senatorial zones of Imo state, Nigeria to determines the anti-microbial resistance profile of commensal E. coli isolated from free range chickens. The isolates were screened for anti-microbial resistance profile against 10 antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. E. coli strains from local fowls, recorded 100 and 78.9% resistances against ampicillin and cotrimoxazole respectively, while resistance rates against ciprofloxacin, gentamycin and norfloxacin were 0.0, 5.3 and 5.3% respectively. Isolates from free-range cockerels recorded 100% resistance against norfloxacin, cotrimoxazole and ampicillin and 83.3% against nitrofurantoin. Similarly, isolates from old layers, recorded 100% resistance against nitrofurantoin, cotrimoxazole, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and ampicillin and 80% against nalidixic acid. Similar resistance trends were observed in E. coli isolates from free-range turkeys and broiler roosters against the inexpensive broad-spectrum first line antibiotics (ampicillin, nalidixic acid, cotrimoxazole, nitrofurantoin and chloramphenicol, although values varied slightly across poultry types. Resistances against gentamycin were consistently low in isolates from the different types of poultry. Twenty-nine resistance patterns were observed in the E. coli isolates with predominant patterns being distributed widely across poultry types indicating a striking diversity of resistance patterns in the areas.

  12. Simultaneous determination of 14 β-lactam antibiotics in cosmetic products by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Sheng Wu; Jin Lan Zhang; Yan Ling Qiao; Yi Lin Wang; Zhi Rong Chen

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was established and validated to determine the 14 β-lactam antibiotics in cosmetic products, including 1 (ceftazidime), 2 (cefaclor), 3 (cefdinir), 4 (ampicillin), 5 (cefalexin), 6 (ceftezole), 7 (cefotaxim), 8 (cefradine), 9 (cefuroxime), 10 (cephazoline), 11 (cefathiamidine), 12 (cefoperazone), 13 (cafalotin), 14 (piperacillin).

  13. Haemophilus influenzae with Non-Beta-Lactamase-Mediated Beta-Lactam Resistance: Easy To Find but Hard To Categorize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaare, Dagfinn; Lia, Astrid; Hannisdal, Anja; Tveten, Yngvar; Matuschek, Erika; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Kristiansen, Bjørn-Erik

    2015-11-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a major pathogen, and beta-lactams are first-line drugs. Resistance due to altered penicillin-binding protein 3 (rPBP3) is frequent, and susceptibility testing of such strains is challenging. A collection of 154 beta-lactamase-negative isolates with a large proportion of rPBP3 (67.5%) was used to evaluate and compare Etest (Haemophilus test medium [HTM]) and disk diffusion (EUCAST method) for categorization of susceptibility to aminopenicillins and cefuroxime, using MICs generated with broth (HTM) microdilution and clinical breakpoints from CLSI and EUCAST as the gold standards. In addition, the proficiency of nine disks in screening for the rPBP3 genotype (N526K positive) was evaluated. By Etest, both essential and categorical agreement were generally poor (<70%), with high very major errors (VME) (CLSI, 13.0%; EUCAST, 34.3%) and falsely susceptible rates (FSR) (CLSI, 87.0%; EUCAST, 88.3%) for ampicillin. Ampicillin (2 μg) with adjusted (+2 mm) zone breakpoints was superior to Etest for categorization of susceptibility to ampicillin (agreement, 74.0%; VME, 11.0%; FSR, 28.3%). Conversely, Etest was superior to 30 μg cefuroxime for categorization of susceptibility to cefuroxime (agreement, 57.1% versus 60.4%; VME, 2.6% versus 9.7%; FSR, 7.1% versus 26.8%). Benzylpenicillin (1 unit) (EUCAST screening disk) and cefuroxime (5 μg) identified rPBP3 isolates with highest accuracies (95.5% and 92.2%, respectively). In conclusion, disk screening reliably detects rPBP3 H. influenzae, but false ampicillin susceptibility is frequent with routine methods. We suggest adding a comment recommending high-dose aminopenicillin therapy or the use of other agents for severe infections with screening-positive isolates that are susceptible to aminopenicillins by gradient or disk diffusion.

  14. Susceptibility to penicillin derivatives among third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae recovered on hospital admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischnik, Alexander; Baumert, Philipp; Hamprecht, Axel; Rohde, Anna; Peter, Silke; Feihl, Susanne; Knobloch, Johannes; Gölz, Hanna; Kola, Axel; Obermann, Birgit; Querbach, Christiane; Willmann, Matthias; Gebhardt, Friedemann; Tacconelli, Evelina; Gastmeier, Petra; Seifert, Harald; Kern, Winfried V

    2017-01-01

    As part of the multicenter Antibiotic Therapy Optimisation Study-the largest study on the prevalence of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae carriage upon hospital admission-minimum inhibitory concentration values were generated for ampicillin/sulbactam, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, mecillinam, mecillinam/clavulanic acid, and temocillin against third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species and Enterobacter species.

  15. Enterococcus spp. in a single blood culture: bacteremia or contamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, R; Labalo, V; Sharma, M; Johnson, L B; Riederer, K

    2017-03-01

    We retrospectively evaluated adult cases with Enterococcus spp. in 1 blood culture (BC) (1/1/2010-12/31/2015; n=294) and stratified them into bacteremia or contamination. Contamination frequency was similar in community versus hospital-onset, E. faecalis versus E. faecium, and number of BC drawn per day. Contamination predictors were vancomycin-resistance, ampicillin-resistance, commensal organism copresence, and nonurinary/abdominal sources.

  16. SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF IMIDAZOLE DERIVED CHALCONES AND IT’S PYRIMIDINES

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Microbial contribution increasing rapidly due to invasion by the pathogenic organisms like bacteria, fungi and virus in the present disease burden of human health. To treat these diseases many potent and broad spectrum antibiotics were discovered e.g., ampicillin, amoxicillin, carbenicillin, ofloxacin and tetracycline etc., Even though antibiotics are life saving drugs in therapeutics but they are potentially harmful. These harmful effects include allergic and anaphylactic reaction, developme...

  17. 2008: A Year of Transition. DoD Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    collaborating sentinel sites in Peru and Paraguay, yielding 640 Gram-negative pathogens, including Shigella spp ., Salmonella spp ., Campylobacter spp ., and...Thailand Table 1. Preliminary Prevalence of Resistance of Campylobacter, Salmonella , Shigella, ETEC, EPEC, and EAgg E. coli Isolates to Selected...Antibiotics in Children in Thailand Pathogen n Ampicillin TMP-SXT Ciprofloxacin Azithromycin Campylobacter 105 11% 39% 62% 4% Salmonella 158 79% 22% 0

  18. High prevalence of antibiotic resistance in commensal Escherichia coli among children in rural Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyar Oliver

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Commensal bacteria represent an important reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. Few community-based studies of antibiotic resistance in commensal bacteria have been conducted in Southeast Asia. We investigated the prevalence of resistance in commensal Escherichia coli in preschool children in rural Vietnam, and factors associated with carriage of resistant bacteria. Methods We tested isolates of E. coli from faecal samples of 818 children aged 6-60 months living in FilaBavi, a demographic surveillance site near Hanoi. Daily antibiotic use data was collected for participating children for three weeks prior to sampling and analysed with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics extracted from FilaBavi's re-census survey 2007. Descriptive statistics were generated, and a logistic regression model was used to identify contributions of the examined factors. Results High prevalences of resistance were found to tetracycline (74%, co-trimoxazole (68%, ampicillin (65%, chloramphenicol (40%, and nalidixic acid (27%. Two isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Sixty percent of isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics. Recent sulphonamide use was associated with co-trimoxazole resistance [OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.8-5.7], and beta-lactam use with ampicillin resistance [OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.4]. Isolates from children aged 6-23 months were more likely to be resistant to ampicillin [OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.4] and co-trimoxazole [OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.0]. Associations were identified between geographical areas and tetracycline and ampicillin resistance. Conclusions We present high prevalence of carriage of commensal E. coli resistant to commonly used antibiotics. The identified associations with recent antibiotic use, age, and geographical location might contribute to our understanding of carriage of antibiotic resistant commensal bacteria.

  19. Agents of urinary tract infections in children and their antibiotic susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resul Yilmaz

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: Over the years, the resistance to ampicillin and TMP + SMX has increased. By unnecessary, improper and irregular drug use, the development of antimicrobial resistance for different antibiotics can be expected. Choosing appropriate antibiotic with taking into consideration of offers that were in common guidelines with the regional antibiotic resistance, development of resistance to different antibiotics can be prevented. [J Contemp Med 2012; 2(1.000: 17-21

  20. Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia fergusonii Isolated from Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Karen; Islam, M Rashedul; Rempel, Heidi; Block, Glenn; Topp, Edward; Diarra, Moussa S

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antibiotic resistance of Escherichia fergusonii isolated from commercial broiler chicken farms. A total of 245 isolates from cloacal and cecal samples of 28- to 36-day-old chickens were collected from 32 farms. Isolates were identified using PCR, and their susceptibility to 16 antibiotics was determined by disk diffusion assay. All isolates were susceptible to meropenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. The most common resistances were against ampicillin (75.1%), streptomycin (62.9%), and tetracycline (57.1%). Of the 184 ampicillin-resistant isolates, 127 were investigated using a DNA microarray carrying 75 probes for antibiotic resistance genetic determinants. Of these 127 isolates, the β-lactamase blaCMY2, blaTEM, blaACT, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M-15 genes were detected in 120 (94.5%), 31 (24.4%), 8 (6.3%), 6 (4.7%), and 4 (3.2%) isolates, respectively. Other detected genes included those conferring resistance to aminoglycosides (aadA1, strA, strB), trimethoprims (dfrV, dfrA1), tetracyclines (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetE), and sulfonamides (sul1, sul2). Class 1 integron was found in 35 (27.6%) of the ampicillin-resistant isolates. However, our data showed that the tested E. fergusonii did not carry any carbapenemase blaOXA genes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the selected ampicillin-resistant E. fergusonii isolates were genetically diverse. The present study indicates that the monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria should include enteric bacteria such as E. fergusonii, which could be a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. The detection of isolates harboring extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes, particularly blaCTX-M-15, in this work suggests that further investigations on the occurrence of such genes in broilers are warranted.

  1. Two Cases of Vulvovaginitis Caused by Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei: a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bayramoğlu, Gülçin; Aydın, Faruk; Karagüzel, Gülay; İMAMOĞLU, Mustafa; Ökten, Ayşenur

    2012-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis caused by Shigella species (Shigella spp.) has rarely been reported. This paper describes two cases of prepubertal vulvovaginitis, presenting with a bloody and purulent vaginal discharge, separately caused by ampicillin-resistant Shigella flexneri and trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazoleresistant Shigella sonnei. Our conclusions are that Shigella spp. is the potential cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls in developing countries where these pathogens are endemic, and identifica...

  2. Haemophilus paragallinarum in chickens in Indonesia: III. Antimicrobial drug sensitivity test ofHaemophilus paragallinarum from chickens suffering of coryza

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    An agar disc diffusion method was used to examine the sensitivity of 27 Haemophilus paragallinarum (Hpg) isolates consisted of 23 local isolates, 4 standard isolates (serotype A) and Escherichia coli ATCC 24922 as a control to eight antimicrobial drugs (ampicillin, erythromycin, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, neomycin, streptomycin, colistine and sulphanlethoxazole-trimethoprim) . Twenty one out of 23 local isolates of Hpg were sensitive to doxycycline, 19 isolates to ampsllin, 18 isolates to ...

  3. The resistance of Salmonella spp. isolates from Alabio duck against several antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    A total of 172 isolates of Salmonella spp. consisted of S. typhimurium (70), S. Radar (52), S. senftenberg (25), S. Virchow (14), and S. amsterdam (11) from Alabio duck hatcheries in the District of Hulu Sungai Utara, South Kalimantan, were examined their resistencies against seven kinds of antibiotics, consisted of chloramphenicol, neomycin, trimethoprim, streptomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, and polymixin B, by using agar disc diffusion method. The results showed that 70 isolates of S. ty...

  4. The Effect of Antibiotics on Associated Bacterial Community of Stored Product Mites

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacteria are associated with the gut, fat bodies and reproductive organs of stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata). The mites are pests due to the production of allergens. Addition of antibiotics to diets can help to characterize the association between mites and bacteria. Methodology and Principal Findings Ampicillin, neomycin and streptomycin were added to the diets of mites and the effects on mite population growth (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescen...

  5. [Antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from patients in Córdoba (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causse, M; Franco-Alvarez de Luna, F; García-Mayorgas, A D; Rodríguez, F C; Casal, M

    2006-06-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a pathogenic microorganism. The aim of this investigation was to study the antibiotic susceptibility of the strains isolated in Cordoba in a 20-month period (January 2004 to August 2005). Susceptibility rates to betalactamics were 98% to ampicillin and 99% to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid; high-dose aminoglycosides (streptomycin 1000 microg and gentamycin 500 microg) obtained 56% and 76%, respectively. We found no strains resistant to glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin) or to linezolid.

  6. DNA as Genetic Material: Revisiting Classical Experiments through an Easy, Practical Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Malagó

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1928, Frederick Griffith demonstrated a process of transmission of genetic information by transforming  Pneumococcus. In 1944, Oswald Avery, Colin Munro MacLeod and Maclyn McCarty showed that Griffith´stransformation principle  is DNA. Here, we intend to revisit these classicalexperiments by reproducing them in easier adapted forms, for a practical class given to undergraduate students. The Griffith experiment was reproduced by mixing heat-killed, ampicillin - resistant  E. coliwith live ampicillin -susceptible  E. coli, followed by plating samples in the presence or absence of the antibiotic. Cells were also plated separately as control. Avery’s work was reproduced by pre-treating a purified plasmid harboring the ampicillin resistan ce gene with Dnase I. Treated and untreated plasmids were then used to transform  E. colicells, which were plated in culture media containing ampicillin. The students received a class guide with brief theoretical explanations and protocols to perform the experiments. The original papers by Griffith and Avery  et al. were also provided, along with a list of questions to encourage a discussion on the experimental approach and results obtained. The adapted experiments were successful completed and all expected results were obtained in class. Thus the students effectively revisited the classical experiments which revealed that DNA is the genetic material. Also, the class was very well accepted, as indicated by students’ evaluations. Thus, we presented an inexpens ive, quick class involving important concepts, which can be easily reproduced in any laboratory withminor resources.

  7. Waterborne typhoid fever in Dade County, Florida. Clinical and therapeutic evaluation of 105 bacteremic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, T A; Ruiz, C J; Counts, G W; Sachs, J M; Nitzkin, J L

    1975-10-01

    An extensive outbreak of waterborne typhoid fever occurred in 1973 at a migrant labor camp in Dade County, Florida. Blood cultures from 105 of the 188 patients with proved or presumptive cases of typhoid fever grew Salmonella typhi. The clinical and laboratory findings in these patients were reviewed. Fever, usually with temperatures above 38.8 degrees C and of the sustained type, was a primary manifestation of disease, although a majority of the patients also complained of headache and gastroenteric symptoms. Hepatic or splenic enlargement was present in 52 per cent and 42 per cent, respectively, whereas rose spots were detected in only 13 per cent. The total leukocyte count was normal in 74 per cent, but serum levels of liver and muscle enzymes were frequently elevated. Gastrointestinal, pulmonary and neurologic complications were infrequent; circulatory failure was not observed. Defervescence in response to antibiotic therapy was variable; however, the median response among 68 patients who received chloramphenicol was two days less than that in 34 patients treated with ampicillin. There was one possible treatment failure with ampicillin. The relapse rate of 10 per cent in chloramphenicol-treated patients was not significantly greater than the 3 per cent rate among those treated with ampicillin. Serologic studies for typhoid fever were of limited diagnostic value since the titer of agglutinins was 1:160 or higher in 49 per cent of the serums obtained before treatment, and a fourfold rise in titer occurred in only 24 per cent of 57 patients studied. The serologic response to chloramphenicol treatment did not differ from that to ampicillin.

  8. Anti-biogram and resistogram profiling of Aeromonas species isolated from Malaysian aquatic sources

    OpenAIRE

    Olumide Adedokun Odeyemi; Asmat Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate antibiotics and heavy metals resistance profile of Aeromonas species isolated from Kuala Gula and Kuala Sepetang, Perak. Methods: Isolated Aeromonas species were subjected to 12 antibiotics: penicillin G 10 units, tetracycline 30 µg, novobiocin 5 µg, nitrofurantoin 100 µg, ampicillin 10 µg, chloramphenicol 10 µg, fluconazole 25 µg, gentamicin 10 µg, streptomycin 10 µg and 25 µg, kanamycin 30 µg, and vancomycin 30 µg and 5 heavy metals: MnSO4.H2O, Cr(NO...

  9. Tricuspid valve endocarditis due to Neisseria cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benes, J; Dzupova, O; Krizova, P; Rozsypal, H

    2003-02-01

    Reported here is a case of infective endocarditis caused by the saprophytic species Neisseria cinerea. To the best of our knowledge, this etiology has not been documented in the medical literature previously. The patient was an intravenous drug addict who developed tricuspid endocarditis with lung embolism. The disease was cured after treatment with ampicillin/clavulanate that was changed to ceftriaxone after an embolic event.

  10. Report of a rare case of sepsis caused by Bacillus pumilus in an immunocompetent child with the involvement of soft tissues cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libera Clemente

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus pumilus is an environmental contaminant, rarely associated with human diseases. In this report we describe a case of a severe sepsis caused by B. pumilus in a 7-year-old healthy child. The microorganism has been isolated from two blood cultures and has been identified using both biochemical tests and mass spectrometry. The patient fully recovered after an ampicillin treatment.

  11. A study of predisposing factors and microbial flora in puerperal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajinder Kaur

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Puerperal sepsis is by and large a preventable cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. From our study and review of literature we conclude that early booking of all the antenatal cases, correction of maternal anemia, better aseptic conditions, deferring undue PV examinations, recognition of all the high risk cases and prophylactic administration of ampicillin and gentamycin can go a long way in preventing puerperal sepsis. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(9.000: 3133-3136

  12. [Clinical analysis of 410 cases of drug eruption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Bao-han

    2003-02-01

    An clinical analysis was conducted among a cohort of 410 patients drug eruption with treated in our department from January 1995 to December 2001. We found that the common drugs likely to lead to anaphylactic reactions included cephalosporins, ampicillin types, antipyretic analgesic types, rabies vaccine, sulfonamides, tetracyclines types, etc. The drug eruption mostly presents diverse clinical features resembling the rashes as seen in cases of scarlet fever, measles, urtica, or mucosal edema or ulceration.

  13. Efektifitas Minyak Atsiri Lengkuas Putih (Alpinia galangal) terhadap Pertumbuhan Staphylococcus Aureus 302 yang Resisten Multiantibiotik

    OpenAIRE

    Rozie Puji Lestari; Regina TC. Tandelilin; Juni Handajani

    2015-01-01

    The rhizome of white galangal (Alpinia galanga) is one of the cultivated remedies traditionally administered for skin disease, asthma and anabolism troubles such as colic, food poisoning, and convulsions. A part of the chemical composition of white galangal rhizome is essential oil. The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial effect of the esential oil of white galangal rhizome against the growth of Staphylococcus aureus 302 resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin G, kan...

  14. Co-diversification of Enterococcus faecium Core Genomes and PBP5: Evidences of pbp5 Horizontal Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Carla; Tedim, Ana P.; Lanza, Val F.; Freitas, Ana R.; Silveira, Eduarda; Escada, Ricardo; Roberts, Adam P.; Al-Haroni, Mohammed; Baquero, Fernando; Peixe, Luísa; Coque, Teresa M.

    2016-01-01

    Ampicillin resistance has greatly contributed to the recent dramatic increase of a cluster of human adapted Enterococcus faecium lineages (ST17, ST18, and ST78) in hospital-based infections. Changes in the chromosomal pbp5 gene have been associated with different levels of ampicillin susceptibility, leading to protein variants (designated as PBP5 C-types to keep the nomenclature used in previous works) with diverse degrees of reduction in penicillin affinity. Our goal was to use a comparative genomics approach to evaluate the relationship between the diversity of PBP5 among E. faecium isolates of different phylogenomic groups as well as to assess the pbp5 transferability among isolates of disparate clonal lineages. The analyses of 78 selected E. faecium strains as well as published E. faecium genomes, suggested that the diversity of pbp5 mirrors the phylogenomic diversification of E. faecium. The presence of identical PBP5 C-types as well as similar pbp5 genetic environments in different E. faecium lineages and clones from quite different geographical and environmental origin was also documented and would indicate their horizontal gene transfer among E. faecium populations. This was supported by experimental assays showing transfer of large (≈180–280 kb) chromosomal genetic platforms containing pbp5 alleles, ponA (transglycosilase) and other metabolic and adaptive features, from E. faecium donor isolates to suitable E. faecium recipient strains. Mutation profile analysis of PBP5 from available genomes and strains from this study suggests that the spread of PBP5 C-types might have occurred even in the absence of a significant ampicillin resistance phenotype. In summary, genetic platforms containing pbp5 sequences were stably maintained in particular E. faecium lineages, but were also able to be transferred among E. faecium clones of different origins, emphasizing the growing risk of further spread of ampicillin resistance in this nosocomial pathogen. PMID

  15. Novel carbapenem antibiotics for parenteral and oral applications: in vitro and in vivo activities of 2-aryl carbapenems and their pharmacokinetics in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Koichi; Takemoto, Koji; Hatano, Kazuo; Nakai, Toru; Terashita, Shigeyuki; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Eriguchi, Yoshiro; Eguchi, Ken; Shimizudani, Takeshi; Sato, Kimihiko; Kanazawa, Katsunori; Sunagawa, Makoto; Ueda, Yutaka

    2013-02-01

    SM-295291 and SM-369926 are new parenteral 2-aryl carbapenems with strong activity against major causative pathogens of community-acquired infections such as methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae (including penicillin-resistant strains), Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae (including β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant strains), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (including ciprofloxacin-resistant strains), with MIC(90)s of ≤ 1 μg/ml. Unlike tebipenem (MIC(50), 8 μg/ml), SM-295291 and SM-369926 had no activity against hospital pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC(50), ≥ 128 μg/ml). The bactericidal activities of SM-295291 and SM-369926 against penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae were equal or superior to that of tebipenem and greater than that of cefditoren. The therapeutic efficacies of intravenous administrations of SM-295291 and SM-369926 against experimentally induced infections in mice caused by penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae were equal or superior to that of tebipenem and greater than that of cefditoren, respectively, reflecting their in vitro activities. SM-295291 and SM-369926 showed intravenous pharmacokinetics similar to those of meropenem in terms of half-life in monkeys (0.4 h) and were stable against human dehydropeptidase I. SM-368589 and SM-375769, which are medoxomil esters of SM-295291 and SM-369926, respectively, showed good oral bioavailability in rats, dogs, and monkeys (4.2 to 62.3%). Thus, 2-aryl carbapenems are promising candidates that show an ideal broad spectrum for the treatment of community-acquired infections, including infections caused by penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae, have low selective pressure on antipseudomonal

  16. Co-diversification of Enterococcus faecium core genomes and PBP5: evidences of pbp5 horizontal transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Novais

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ampicillin resistance has greatly contributed to the recent dramatic increase of a cluster of human adapted Enterococcus faecium lineages (ST17, ST18 and ST78 in hospital-based infections. Changes in the chromosomal pbp5 gene have been associated with different levels of ampicillin susceptibility, leading to protein variants (designated as PBP5 C-types to keep the nomenclature used in previous works with diverse degrees of reduction in penicillin affinity. Our goal was to use a comparative genomics approach to evaluate the relationship between the diversity of PBP5 among E. faecium isolates of different phylogenomic groups as well as to assess the pbp5 transferability among isolates of disparate clonal lineages. The analyses of 78 selected E. faecium strains as well as published E. faecium genomes, suggested that the diversity of pbp5 mirrors the phylogenomic diversification of E. faecium. The presence of identical PBP5 C-types as well as similar pbp5 genetic environments in different E. faecium lineages and clones from quite different geographical and environmental origin was also documented and would indicate their horizontal gene transfer among E. faecium populations. This was supported by experimental assays showing transfer of large (≈180-280 kb chromosomal genetic platforms containing pbp5 alleles, ponA (transglycosilase and other metabolic and adaptive features, from E. faecium donor isolates to suitable E. faecium recipient strains. Mutation profile analysis of PBP5 from available genomes and strains from this study suggests that the spread of PBP5 C-types might have occurred even in the absence of a significant ampicillin resistance phenotype. In summary, genetic platforms containing pbp5 sequences were stably maintained in particular E. faecium lineages, but were also able to be transferred among E. faecium clones of different origins, emphasizing the growing risk of further spread of ampicillin resistance in this nosocomial pathogen.

  17. Modulating the Gut Microbiota Improves Glucose Tolerance, Lipoprotein Profile and Atherosclerotic Plaque Development in ApoE-Deficient Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Rune

    Full Text Available The importance of the gut microbiota (GM in disease development has recently received increased attention, and numerous approaches have been made to better understand this important interplay. For example, metabolites derived from the GM have been shown to promote atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD, and to increase CVD risk factors. Popular interest in the role of the intestine in a variety of disease states has now resulted in a significant proportion of individuals without coeliac disease switching to gluten-free diets. The effect of gluten-free diets on atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors is largely unknown. We therefore investigated the effect of a gluten-free high-fat cholesterol-rich diet, as compared to the same diet in which the gluten peptide gliadin had been added back, on atherosclerosis and several cardiovascular risk factors in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/- mice. The gluten-free diet transiently altered GM composition in these mice, as compared to the gliadin-supplemented diet, but did not alter body weights, glucose tolerance, insulin levels, plasma lipids, or atherosclerosis. In parallel, other Apoe-/- mice fed the same diets were treated with ampicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic known to affect GM composition. Ampicillin-treatment had a marked and sustained effect on GM composition, as expected. Furthermore, although ampicillin-treated mice were slightly heavier than controls, ampicillin-treatment transiently improved glucose tolerance both in the absence or presence of gliadin, reduced plasma LDL and VLDL cholesterol levels, and reduced aortic atherosclerotic lesion area. These results demonstrate that a gluten-free diet does not seem to have beneficial effects on atherosclerosis or several CVD risk factors in this mouse model, but that sustained alteration of GM composition with a broad-spectrum antibiotic has beneficial effects on CVD risk factors and atherosclerosis

  18. Single-Dose Oral Amoxicillin or Linezolid for Prophylaxis of Experimental Endocarditis Due to Vancomycin-Susceptible and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Moreillon, Philippe; Wilson, Walter R.; Leclercq, Roland; Entenza, José M,

    2007-01-01

    Endocarditis prophylaxis following genitourinary or gastrointestinal procedures targets Enterococcus faecalis. Prophylaxis recommendations advocate oral amoxicillin (2 g in the United States and 3 g in the United Kingdom) in moderate-risk patients and intravenous amoxicillin (2 g) or vancomycin (1 g) plus gentamicin in high-risk patients. While ampicillin-resistant (or amoxicillin-resistant) E. faecalis is still rare, there is a concern that these regimens might fail against vancomycin-resist...

  19. Haemophilus influenzae with Non-Beta-Lactamase-Mediated Beta-Lactam Resistance: Easy To Find but Hard To Categorize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lia, Astrid; Hannisdal, Anja; Tveten, Yngvar; Matuschek, Erika; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Kristiansen, Bjørn-Erik

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a major pathogen, and beta-lactams are first-line drugs. Resistance due to altered penicillin-binding protein 3 (rPBP3) is frequent, and susceptibility testing of such strains is challenging. A collection of 154 beta-lactamase-negative isolates with a large proportion of rPBP3 (67.5%) was used to evaluate and compare Etest (Haemophilus test medium [HTM]) and disk diffusion (EUCAST method) for categorization of susceptibility to aminopenicillins and cefuroxime, using MICs generated with broth (HTM) microdilution and clinical breakpoints from CLSI and EUCAST as the gold standards. In addition, the proficiency of nine disks in screening for the rPBP3 genotype (N526K positive) was evaluated. By Etest, both essential and categorical agreement were generally poor (<70%), with high very major errors (VME) (CLSI, 13.0%; EUCAST, 34.3%) and falsely susceptible rates (FSR) (CLSI, 87.0%; EUCAST, 88.3%) for ampicillin. Ampicillin (2 μg) with adjusted (+2 mm) zone breakpoints was superior to Etest for categorization of susceptibility to ampicillin (agreement, 74.0%; VME, 11.0%; FSR, 28.3%). Conversely, Etest was superior to 30 μg cefuroxime for categorization of susceptibility to cefuroxime (agreement, 57.1% versus 60.4%; VME, 2.6% versus 9.7%; FSR, 7.1% versus 26.8%). Benzylpenicillin (1 unit) (EUCAST screening disk) and cefuroxime (5 μg) identified rPBP3 isolates with highest accuracies (95.5% and 92.2%, respectively). In conclusion, disk screening reliably detects rPBP3 H. influenzae, but false ampicillin susceptibility is frequent with routine methods. We suggest adding a comment recommending high-dose aminopenicillin therapy or the use of other agents for severe infections with screening-positive isolates that are susceptible to aminopenicillins by gradient or disk diffusion. PMID:26354813

  20. ENTRAPMENT OF FLUORESCENT E. COLI CELLS IN ALGINATE GEL

    OpenAIRE

    V. IGNA; M. DRAGOMIRESCU; T. VINTILA; D. Vintila

    2009-01-01

    By this experiment we will demonstrate the possibility to obtain genetically modified microbial strains that can be used as markers in different studies. The trait transferred in this study is the fluorescence in UV light expressed by a gene isolated from jellyfish. This gene was insered into a plasmid carrying ampiciline resistance and in the operon for arabinose fermentation. The plasmid was called pGLO. E coli HB101 K-12, ampicillin resistant colonies has been obtained. The colonies on the...

  1. RESISTANCE PATTERN OF FECAL ESCHERICHIA COLI IN SELECTED BROILER FARMS OF EASTERN HARARGHE ZONE, ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaheywet Zeryehun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the pattern of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from Cloacal swab of broiler chickens in selected farms of Eastern Harrarge zone of Ethiopia. Isolation and identification of Escherichia coli were done by using enrichment media, selective media, and biochemical tests.65 selected isolates were subjected to 9 antimicrobial agents to determine their resistance by the disk diffusion method. Accordingly, the resistance of E.coli was tetracycline (90%, streptomycin (78%, ampicillin (60%, amoxicillin (56%, erythromycin (45%, ciprofloxacin (38%, and chloramphenicol (15%. None of the isolates showed resistance to gentamicin. Sensitivity was observed in case of 80%, 77%, 44%, 32%, 26%, 20%, 20%, 15%, and 10% of the isolates for chloramphenicol, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, streptomycin, erythromycin, and tetracycline, respectively. Intermediate resistance/susceptibility was recorded for 5-35% of the isolates. 92.3% of the isolates tested showed multidrug resistance for 2 or more antimicrobials and the highest levels (18.5% of multidrug-resistant E. coli were observed for 3 antimicrobials accounting 7.7% for tetracycline-ampicillin-streptomycin and 10.8% for tetracycline-ampicillin-amoxicillin. This study showed resistance against the antibiotics that are commonly used in poultry. Furthermore, it was concluded that gentamicin, chloramphenicole and ciproflaxin will be the first drugs of choice to resist infections caused by E. coli in chicken in Ethiopia. These findings confirm significant increase in the incidence of antimicrobial resistance in the E. coli isolates which is most probably due to increased use of antibiotics asfeed additives for growth promotion and prevention of diseases and use of inappropriate antibiotics for treatment of diseases. Hence, excess or abusive use of antimicrobials should be guarded through judicious application of antimicrobials.

  2. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANT PATTERN OF FECAL ESCHERICHIA COLI IN SELECTED BROILER FARMS OF EASTERN HARARGE ZONE, ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaheywet Zeryehun

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the pattern of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from Cloacal swab of broiler chickens in selected farms of Eastern Harrarge zone of Ethiopia. Isolation and identification of Escherichia coli were done by using enrichment media, selective media, and biochemical tests. 65 selected isolates were subjected to 9 antimicrobial agents to determine their resistance by the disk diffusion method. Accordingly, the resistance of E.coli was tetracycline (90%, streptomycin (78%, ampicillin (60%, amoxicillin (56%, erythromycin (45%, ciprofloxacin (38%, and chloramphenicol (15%. None of the isolates showed resistance to gentamicin. Sensitivity was observed in case of 80%, 77%, 44%, 32%, 26%, 20%, 20%, 15%, and 10% of the isolates for chloramphenicol, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, streptomycin, erythromycin, and tetracycline, respectively. Intermediate resistance/susceptibility was recorded for 5-35% of the isolates. 92.3% of the isolates tested showed multidrug resistance for 2 or more antimicrobials and the highest levels (18.5% of multidrug-resistant E. coli were observed for 3 antimicrobials accounting 7.7% for tetracycline-ampicillin-streptomycin and 10.8% for tetracycline-ampicillin-amoxicillin. This study showed resistance against the antibiotics that are commonly used in poultry. Furthermore, it was concluded that gentamicin, chloramphenicole and ciproflaxin will be the first drugs of choice to resist infections caused by E. coli in chicken in Ethiopia. These findings confirm significant increase in the incidence of antimicrobial resistance in the E. coli isolates which is most probably due to increased use of antibiotics as feed additives for growth promotion and prevention of diseases and use of inappropriate antibiotics for treatment of diseases. Hence, excess or abusive use of antimicrobials should be guarded through judicious application of antimicrobials

  3. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from seafoods in Lagos Lagoon Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigozie Oramadike

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a total of 90 seafood samples; croaker fish (Pseudotolithus senegalensis, shrimps (Penaeus notialis and blue crab (Callinectes sapidus collected from landing sites along the Lagos Lagoon in Nigeria were examined for the prevalence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus using both biochemical and molecular methods. Biochemical identification of the isolates was confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. The presence of the virulence-associated tdh (thermostable direct haemolysin, trh1 (thermostable-related haemolysin and trh2 genes in the V. parahaemolyticus isolates was also detected by the PCR method. PCR products from the V.16S primers were sequenced. Antibiotics susceptibility of the isolates was also determined. About, eight isolates were presumptively identified as V. parahaemolyticus, PCR identified five and none of the isolates were positive for the genes tdh or trh. The five isolates sequenced were identified as different strains of V. parahaemolyticus. V. parahaemolyticus_RIMD_2210633 = 2MKSHa remained resistant to all antimicrobials tested. However, only V. parahaemolyticus_MP-2_AY911391 = TBSHy showed strong sensitivity to all the antimicrobials with ampicillin (minimum inhibitory concentration-4 μg/ml. In addition, the other three isolates showed sensitivity for Tetracycline, Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin and Ceftazidime. Ampicillin resistance in most of the isolates suggests low efficiency of ampicillin in management of V. parahaemolyticus infection.

  4. Assessment of antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolates and screening of Salmonella spp. in wild ungulates from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Diana; Torres, Rita T; Kronvall, Göran; Fonseca, Carlos; Mendo, Sónia; Caetano, Tânia

    2015-09-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an emerging global problem. Wild animals are rarely exposed to antibiotics and therefore low levels of antibiotic resistance are expected. However, the growing interactions of these animals with humans and livestock may have a huge impact on their bacterial flora. This study aimed to assess the levels of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from widespread wild ungulates in Portugal. The interpretation of inhibition zone diameters was performed according to clinical breakpoints and epidemiological cut-offs, determined with the normalized resistance interpretation (NRI) method. For clinical breakpoints, 16% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, including ampicillin (10%), tetracycline (9%), streptomycin (5%) co-trimoxazole (4%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (1%) and cefoxitin (1%). The levels of resistance detected in E. coli strains isolated from wild boar were statistically different for ampicillin and co-trimoxasol. According to NRI cut-offs, 10% of the population showed a non-wild-type phenotype against at least one antibiotic, also including tetracycline (9%), co-trimoxazole (6%), streptomycin (4%), ampicillin (2%) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (1%). Considering this parameter of comparison, no statistically different levels of resistance were identified between E. coli recovered from the three wild ungulates. Screening of Salmonella spp., which can be potentially pathogenic, was also performed, revealing that its prevalence was very low (1.5%). The study demonstrated that wild ungulates from Portugal are also reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

  5. Trends in antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of enterococci in a Brazilian tertiary hospital: a 4-year study

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    Natália Conceição

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the past two decades members of the genus Enterococcus have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens worldwide. This study prospectively analyzed the distribution of species and trends in antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of enterococci in a Brazilian tertiary hospital from 2006-2009. METHODS: Enterococcal species were identified by conventional biochemical tests. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile was performed by disk diffusion in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. A screening test for vancomycin was also performed. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC for vancomycin was determined using the broth dilution method. Molecular assays were used to confirm speciation and genotype of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE. RESULTS: A total of 324 non-repetitive enterococcal isolates were recovered, of which 87% were E. faecalis and 10.8% E. faecium. The incidence of E. faecium per 1,000 admissions increased significantly (p 256µg/ mL and harbored vanA genes. The majority (89.5% of VRE belonged to E. faecium species, which were characteristically resistant to ampicillin and quinolones. Overall, ampicillin resistance rate increased significantly from 2.5% to 21.4% from 2006-2009. Resistance rates for gentamicin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and erythromycin significantly decreased over time, although they remained high. Quinolones resistance rates were high and did not change significantly over time. CONCLUSIONS: The data obtained show a significant increasing trend in the incidence of E. faecium resistant to ampicillin and vancomycin.

  6. Epidemic and nonepidemic multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavis, Helen L; Willems, Rob J L; Top, Janetta; Spalburg, Emile; Mascini, Ellen M; Fluit, Ad C; Hoepelman, Andy; de Neeling, Albert J; Bonten, Marc J M

    2003-09-01

    The epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant Entero- coccus faecium (VREF) in Europe is characterized by a large community reservoir. In contrast, nosocomial outbreaks and infections (without a community reservoir) characterize VREF in the United States. Previous studies demonstrated host-specific genogroups and a distinct genetic lineage of VREF associated with hospital outbreaks, characterized by the variant esp-gene and a specific allele-type of the purK housekeeping gene (purK1). We investigated the genetic relatedness of vanA VREF (n=108) and vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium (VSEF) (n=92) from different epidemiologic sources by genotyping, susceptibility testing for ampicillin, sequencing of purK1, and testing for presence of esp. Clusters of VSEF fit well into previously described VREF genogroups, and strong associations were found between VSEF and VREF isolates with resistance to ampicillin, presence of esp, and purK1. Genotypes characterized by presence of esp, purK1, and ampicillin resistance were most frequent among outbreak-associated isolates and almost absent among community surveillance isolates. Vancomycin-resistance was not specifically linked to genogroups. VREF and VSEF from different epidemiologic sources are genetically related; evidence exists for nosocomial selection of a subtype of E. faecium, which has acquired vancomycin-resistance through horizontal transfer.

  7. Poly (vinyl alcohol-alginate physically crosslinked hydrogel membranes for wound dressing applications: Characterization and bio-evaluation

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    Elbadawy A. Kamoun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available PVA-sodium alginate (SA hydrogel membranes containing sodium ampicillin as a topical antibiotic were developed using the freeze–thawing method for wound dressing application. Aqueous solution of sodium alginate has been blended in a certain ratio with PVA, followed by the crosslinking method has been conducted by freeze–thawing method as physical crosslinking instead of the use of traditional chemical crosslinking to avoid riskiness of chemical reagents and crosslinkers. The physicochemical properties of PVA-SA membranes e.g. gel fraction and water uptake % have been performed. Increased SA content with PVA decreased gel fraction, elasticity, and elongation to break of PVA-SA membranes. However, it resulted in an increase in swelling degree, protein adsorption, and roughness of membrane surface. High SA content in PVA membranes had apparently an impact on surface morphology structure of hydrogel membranes. Pore size and pore area distribution have been observed with addition of high SA concentration. However, high SA content had an insignificant effect on the release of ampicillin. The hydrolytic degradation of PVA-SA membranes has prominently increased with increasing SA content. Furthermore, hemolysis (% and in vitro inhibition (% for both Gram positive and negative bacteria have been sharply affected by addition of SA into PVA, indicating the improved blood hemocompatibility. Thus, PVA-SA hydrogel membrane based wound dressing system containing ampicillin could be a good polymeric membrane candidate in wound care.

  8. [ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF SALMONELLA SPP. ISOLATED IN THE TERRITORY OF THE KRASNOIARSK REGION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetneva, I T; Per'ianova, O V; Dmitrieva, G M; Ostapova, T S

    2015-01-01

    There were studied Salmonella spp. isolated from various objects (sick patients, bacteria carriers, food, sewages) in the Krasnoyarsk region. Susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs was estimated with disc diffusion method. Bacterial cultures form sick patients were highly susceptible to aminoglycosides (amikacin and gentamicin)--susceptible strains accounted for 98-99%, carbapenems (imipenem)--100%, cephalosporins (cephtriaxone)--97.8%, fluoroquinolones (ophloxacin)--95.8%, quinolones (ciprofloxacin)-- 88.9%, chloramphenicol--86.8%. Salmonella showed lesser susceptibility to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim 81.4%. Ampicillin--73.6% inhibitor protected antibiotic amoxicillin/clavulanic acid--86.4%. Salmonella spp. are the most resistant to tetracycline, the proportion of susceptible strains was less than a third--22.1%. The comparison of resistance of serovar S. enterica Enteritidis. with other serologic strains 'of S. enterica (S. Typhimurium, S. Infantis, S. Tshiongtve, S. Agama et al.) revealed greater resistance of anot Eneteritidis)) isolates to ampicillin, amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid,. ciprofloxacin and greater differences in resistance were to ofloksacin and, co-trimoxasol. The most high resistance ofthe all serovars S. enterica is to tetracycline (S. Enteritidis--26.2%, "non Enteritidis"--9.1%). Thus salmonella circulating in the Krasnoyarsk region are characterized by susceptibility to the most of antimicrobial drugs. The high resistance of islitates is revealed to tetracycline, ampicillin and sulfonamides.

  9. The resistance of Salmonella spp. isolates from Alabio duck against several antibiotics

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    Istiana

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 172 isolates of Salmonella spp. consisted of S. typhimurium (70, S. Radar (52, S. senftenberg (25, S. Virchow (14, and S. amsterdam (11 from Alabio duck hatcheries in the District of Hulu Sungai Utara, South Kalimantan, were examined their resistencies against seven kinds of antibiotics, consisted of chloramphenicol, neomycin, trimethoprim, streptomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, and polymixin B, by using agar disc diffusion method. The results showed that 70 isolates of S. typhimurium were resistant against six kinds of antibiotics with various percentages, that is chlorampenicol 5 .7%, neomycin 12 .8%, trimethoprim 7.1 %, streptomycin 8 .6%, tetracycline 11 .4%, and the highest against ampicillin 30 %. Ofthe 52 S. hadar isolates showed that all ofthem were resistent against 6 kinds of antibiotics, that is chloramphenicol 1 .9%, neomycin 7.7%, trimethoprim 5.8%, streptomycin 48 .0%, tetracycline 48.0%, and polymixin B 3.8%. Futhermore S. senftenberg (25 isolates were resistent against three kinds of antibiotics, that is neomycin 12%, streptomycin 20%, and tetracyclines 16%. Meanwhile S. virchow (14 isolates, were resistant against two kinds of antibiotics namely streptomycin 7.1% and tetracylines 14.3%. Whereas S. amsterdam (11 isolates were resistant against four kinds of antibiotics, that is neomycin 45 .5%, streptomycin 18 .2%, tetracycline 18 .2%, and ampicillin 9.10%.

  10. Multiresistant Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- in Europe: a new pandemic strain?

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    Hopkins, K L; Kirchner, M; Guerra, B; Granier, S A; Lucarelli, C; Porrero, M C; Jakubczak, A; Threlfall, E J; Mevius, D J

    2010-06-03

    A marked increase in the prevalence of S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- with resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines (R-type ASSuT) has been noted in food-borne infections and in pigs/pig meat in several European countries in the last ten years. One hundred and sixteen strains of S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- from humans, pigs and pig meat isolated in England and Wales, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain and the Netherlands were further subtyped by phage typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis to investigate the genetic relationship among strains. PCR was performed to identify the fljB flagellar gene and the genes encoding resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines. Class 1 and 2 integrase genes were also sought. Results indicate that genetically related serovar 4,[5],12:i:- strains of definitive phage types DT193 and DT120 with ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamide and tetracycline resistance encoded by blaTEM, strA-strB, sul2 and tet(B) have emerged in several European countries, with pigs the likely reservoir of infection. Control measures are urgently needed to reduce spread of infection to humans via the food chain and thereby prevent the possible pandemic spread of serovar 4,[5],12:i:- of R-type ASSuT as occurred with S. Typhimurium DT104 during the 1990s.

  11. Antimicrobial resistance in community and nosocomial Escherichia coli urinary tract isolates, London 2005 – 2006

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    Wareham David W

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli is the commonest cause of community and nosocomial urinary tract infection (UTI. Antibiotic treatment is usually empirical relying on susceptibility data from local surveillance studies. We therefore set out to determine levels of resistance to 8 commonly used antimicrobial agents amongst all urinary isolates obtained over a 12 month period. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefalexin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim and cefpodoxime was determined for 11,865 E. coli urinary isolates obtained from community and hospitalised patients in East London. Results Nitrofurantoin was the most active agent (94% susceptible, followed by gentamicin and cefpodoxime. High rates of resistance to ampicillin (55% and trimethoprim (40%, often in combination were observed in both sets of isolates. Although isolates exhibiting resistance to multiple drug classes were rare, resistance to cefpodoxime, indicative of Extended spectrum β-lactamase production, was observed in 5.7% of community and 21.6% of nosocomial isolates. Conclusion With the exception of nitrofurantoin, resistance to agents commonly used as empirical oral treatments for UTI was extremely high. Levels of resistance to trimethoprim and ampicillin render them unsuitable for empirical use. Continued surveillance and investigation of other oral agents for treatment of UTI in the community is required.

  12. Characterisation of recently emerged multiple antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104 and other multiresistant phage types from Danish pig herds.

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    Baggesen, D L; Aarestrup, F M

    1998-07-25

    A total of 670 isolates of Salmonella enterica were isolated from Danish pig herds, phage typed and tested for susceptibility to amoxycillin + clavulanate, ampicillin, colistin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, neomycin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim + sulphadiazine. S enterica serovar typhimurium (S typhimurium) isolates resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline and three isolates of S typhimurium DT104, two from 1994 and one from 1995, were further tested for resistance against chloramphenicol and sulphonamide and analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using the restriction enzyme Xba I. Overall, 66 per cent of the 670 isolates were sensitive to all the antimicrobial agents tested. Eleven isolates of S typhimurium were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline and also resistant to other antibiotics in different resistance patterns. Seven different multiresistant clones were identified. The most common clones were four isolates of DT104 and three isolates of DT193. Two of the three S typhimurium DT104 from 1994 and 1995 were sensitive to all the antimicrobials tested whereas the remaining isolate from 1994 was resistant to spectinomycin, streptomycin and sulphonamides. All three isolates showed PFGF profiles identical to the four multiresistant DT104 isolates. Compared with most other countries antimicrobial resistance among S enterica isolated from Danish pig herds is uncommon. However, several different multiresistant clones were found.

  13. Benurestat, a urease inhibitor for the therapy of infected ureolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, J A

    1975-03-01

    A single oral administration of the urease inhibitor benurestat (2-(p-chlorobenz-amido)acetohydroxamic acid) to the human at 15 or 25 mg per kg produced, for 4 hr, mean urinary levels of inhibitory activity that were 700 to 1900 times that equivalent concentration of benurestat required to inhibit Proteus mirabilis urease by 90 per cent. In the rat these same dosage levels produced urinary inhibitory activity equivalent to 16 to 140 fold that required for 90 per cent urease inhibition. Benurestat administration, 25, 50, or 100 mg per kg, caused a decrease in the urinary excretion of ammonia from rats with experimental P. mirabilis genitourinary tract infection. The formation of struvite calculi was inhibited under these conditions. Nitrofurantoin, sulfamethoxazole, and ampicillin also slowed the formation of struvite calculi in infected rats and together with benurestat a potentiation of the inhibition of calculi formation was secured. Some combination therapies composed of benurestat plus an antibacterial agent, sulfamethoxazole or ampicillin, were effective in promoting the net dissolution of formed calculi. The number of viable bacteria present in the bladders of infected rats was significantly less after the administration of benurestat plus nitrofurantoin, sulfamethoxazole, or ampicillin than the respective numbers that were obtained from control infected rats or from rats administered either component of the combination separately.

  14. Influences of antibiotics on plantlet regeneration via organogenesis in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Wei; Latoya Harris; Ronald J. Newton

    2003-01-01

    Three antibiotics ampicillin, carbenicillin, and cefotaxime were evaluated for their effects on induction, growth, and differentiation of organogenic calli, as well as rooting of regenerated shoots of three loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genotypes. Of the antibiotics administered, cefotaxime maximally increased the frequency of callus formation and growth rate of organogenic calli, carbenicillin maximally increased the frequency of shoot regeneration and the average number of adventitious shoots per piece of organogenic callus, ampicillin maximally decreased the rooting frequency of regenerated shoots and mean number of roots per regenerated shoot, in comparison with antibiotic-free media. Compared with the control, ampicillin minimally increased the frequency of callus formation, cefotaxime minimally increased the frequency of shoot regeneration, and carbenicillin minimally decreased the rooting frequency of regenerated shoots in three loblolly pine genotypes tested. All three antibiotics increased the frequencies of callus formation and shoot regeneration, and reduced the rooting frequency of regenerated shoots suggested that the establishment of an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol for stable integration of foreign genes into loblolly pine need to select a suitable antibiotic. This investigation could be useful for optimizing genetic transformation of conifers.

  15. Celecoxib sensitizes Staphylococcus aureus to antibiotics in macrophages by modulating SIRT1.

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    Madhavi Annamanedi

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that celecoxib in combination with an antibiotic, increase the bacterial sensitivity to antibiotics. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remained elusive. Efficacy of the combinatorial treatment of celecoxib and ampicillin in vitro was evaluated on macrophage-phagocytosed S. aureus. To elucidate the mechanism, signaling pathway of infection and inflammation involving TLR2, JNK, SIRT1 and NF-κB was studied by FACS, Western blot, ELISA and activity assays. Combinatorial treatment of ampicillin and celecoxib reduced the bacterial load in the macrophages. Further studies clearly suggested the activation of the master regulator of oxidative stress and inflammation SIRT1, by celecoxib when used alone and/or in combination with ampicillin. Also, the results indicated that celecoxib inhibited JNK phosphorylation thereby stabilizing and activating SIRT1 protein that inhibited the COX-2 gene transcription with a significant decrease in the levels of protein inflammatory cytokines like IL-6, MIP-1α and IL-1β via inhibition of NF-κB. SIRT1 activation by celecoxib also resulted in increase of catalase and peroxidase activity with a decrease in Nitric oxide levels. In conclusion, we demonstrate a novel role of celecoxib in controlling inflammation as an enhancer of antibiotic activity against bacteria by modulating SIRT1.

  16. Resistenza ai principali antibiotici dei microrganismi isolati presso l’ospedale “Luigi Sacco” di Milano nel periodo 1997-2001

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    Giampietro Nardi

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance of commonly isolated bacterial species at “L. Sacco” Hospital of Milan (Italy is evaluated in the period 1997-2001. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are quite completely resistant to penicillin, while the agents with β-lactamase inhibitors are more active against Staphylococcus aureus than against Staphylococcus epidermidis. Also cephalotin and eritromycine are more active against Staphylococcus aureus than against Staphylococcus epidermidis. Cephalosporins are active against beta-haemolytic streptococci, while Streptococcus pyogenes shows a resistance of 25-30% against erytromicin. For Streptococcus pneumoniae there is a sporadic, not increasing, resistance to penicillin. Enterococcus faecalis shows an increasing resistance for the year 2001 against cotrimoxazole, but ampicillin and imipenem are always active against this species. Aztreonam is always active against Escherichia coli, while there is resistance to piperacillin (20-25% and ampicillin (35-45%. Resistance to cephalotin is increasing in time, while cefotaxime is always active. For Haemophilus influenzae there is a certain resistance to ampicillin (10-20%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is often resistant to widespectrum penicillins and to imipenem and ciprofloxacin (30%. With the only exclusion of a great increase of resistance of Enterococcus faecalis to cotrimoxazole in the year 2001, all the other patterns of resistance appear to be comparable in each of the five years considered. Substantially we do not observe an increase of antibiotic resistance.

  17. Identification and antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Luffa acutangula Roxb.

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    Resmi Mustarichie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of Luffa acutangula Roxb. (angled luffa has been assayed against some pathogenic bacterial. Fruit powder of angled luffa was macerated with methanol, and the methanol extract extracted sequentially with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and buthanol. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by well diffusion method. Extract with the highest antibacterial activity was identified regarding their class of compounds using phytochemical screening and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC method. The antibacterial activity of the extract was compared with that of the ampicillin used. The methanol extract inhibited the growth of the P. aeruginosa, E. Coli, B. Subtilis and S.aureus, but did not inhibit the growth of the E. Aerogenes, S. dysentriae and S. thypi. The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa, E. Coli, B. Subtilis and S. aureus, followed by chloroform, buthanol, and hexane extract, respectively. The ethyl acetate extract possed phenolic, condensed tannin, flavonoids, saponins and terpenoids. Based on the MIC and the equivalent value of ethyl acetate extract compared with that ampicillin used, the antibacterial activity of ethyl acetate extract was lower than with that of the ampicillin used.

  18. Factors associated with antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Kanako; Hosokawa, Yuko; Makita, Kohei; Noda, Jun; Ueno, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Yasukazu; Ueno, Hiroshi; Mukai, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Ito, Masaki; Tamura, Yutaka

    2012-10-01

    Factors associated with the carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolates were analysed among zoo animals. An association was observed between selection of amoxicillin as the first-line therapy and a significantly higher percentage of resistance to ampicillin (54.5%) from 11 animals treated with antimicrobials, compared with isolates from 32 untreated animals (9.4%). In addition, the percentage resistance to kanamycin (36.4%), gentamicin (27.3%), trimethoprim (27.3%) and tetracycline (63.6%) from 11 treated animals was significantly higher than those from 32 untreated animals (3.1%, 3.1%, 3.1% and 25%, respectively), although these antimicrobials were rarely used. All kanamycin-, gentamicin- and trimethoprim-resistant isolates and more than half of the tetracycline-resistant isolates from treated animals were also resistant to ampicillin. Co-resistance to other antimicrobials with ampicillin was suggested to contribute to an increasing of resistance towards antimicrobials that were rarely administered. The present investigation revealed an association of antimicrobial treatment with the spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria among zoo animals.

  19. TEM-1 AND ROB-1 PRESENCE AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE STRAINS, ISTANBUL, TURKEY.

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    Kuvat, Nuray; Nazik, Hasan; Berkiten, Rahmiye; Öngen, Betigül

    2015-03-01

    Resistance of 235 Haemophilus influenzae clinical isolates from Istanbul Medical Faculty Hospital, Turkey were determined against 19 antibiotics by disc diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of those found resistant to ampicillin, cefuroxim, chloramphenicol and meropenem were measured using E-test. Ampicillin-resistant isolates producing beta-lactamase as demonstrated by a nitrocefin assay were analyzed for the presence of TEM-1 and ROB-1 genes by PCR. Eleven percent of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin (10 µg/ml), of which 73% were beta-lactamase positive and carried TEM-1 gene, but none were positive for ROB-1 gene. All isolates susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate (20/10 µg/ml), azithromycin (15 µg/ml), aztreonam (30 µg/ml), cefotaxime (30 µg/ml), ceftriaxone (30 µg/ml), ciprofloxacin (5 µg/ml), levofloxacin (5 µg/ml), and telithromycin (15 µg/ml) but 24%, 15%, 4%, 4%, 2%, 1%, 1%, 0.5%, 0.5% and 0.5% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (1.25/23.75 µg/ml), tetracycline (30 µg/ml), cefaclor (30 µg/ml), clarithromycin (15 µg/ml), cefuroxime (30 µg/ml), meropenem (10 µg/ml), chloramphenicol (30 µg/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (10/10 µg/ml), nalidixic acid (30 µg/ml), and fosfomycin (30 µg/ml), respectively. MIC values of three cefuroxime-resistant isolates was 24, 48 and > 256 µg/ml, respectively; of two meropenem-resistant strains > 256 µg/ml; and of two chloramphenicol-susceptible isolates (by disc diffusion method) 6 µg/ml (considered as intermediate susceptible). Multiple- antibiotics resistance was detected in 15% of the strains, with resistance to 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 antibiotics in 8.5%, 4%, 2%, 0.5% and 0.5% of the isolates, respectively. By identifying beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae, empirical therapy with beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations and second generation cephalosporins would be inappropriate for such patients (approximately 3%). Our findings will

  20. Bactericidal activities of parenteral antibiotics and genotype of penicillin-binding protein in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolated from children's blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Hiroshi

    2006-10-01

    A total of 16 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and 18 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae were obtained from the blood of children admitted to the pediatric wards of hospitals in Hokkaido Kamikawa subprefecture between January 2003 and December 2005. The ages of the patients with S. pneumoniae or H. influenzae infection ranged from 2 months to 9 years and from 1 month to 4 years, respectively. The diagnoses of S. pneumoniae infection were as follows: pneumonia in 8 patients, occult bacteremia in 5 patients, and meningitis in 3 patients. The diagnoses of H. influenzae were: meningitis in 6 patients, pneumonia in 4 patients, occult bacteremia in 4 patients, epiglotitis in 2 patients, and facial cellulitis in 2 patients. Out of 16 S. pneumoniae isolates, penicillin-resistant strains with a mutation of 3 genes were observed in 7 children, and penicillin intermediate-resistant strains with a mutation of 1 or 2 genes were observed in 8 children. Out of 18 H. influenzae isolates, the beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant strain with a substitution of 2 points in the ftsI gene was revealed in 2 children, the beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant strain with a substitution of 1 point in the ftsI gene was observed in 4 children, the beta-lactamase-positive amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-resistant strain with blaTEM-1 and ftsI with 2 substitutions in the ftsI gene was observed in 3 children, and the beta-lactamase-positive ampicillin-resistant strain with blaTEM-1was not observed. The MBC90s of ampicillin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, meropenem, panipenem, and vancomycin against S. pneumoniae were 8 microg/ml, 1 microg/ml, 1 microg/ml 1 microg/ml, 0.25 microg/ml, and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively. Those of ampicillin, piperacillin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, meropenem, and panipenem against H. influenzae were >128 microg/ml, >128 microg/ml, 0.25 microg/mL, 1 microg/ml, 0.12 microg/ml, and 0.5 g/ml, respectively. It is suggest that the minimum bactricidal concentration

  1. Indagine epidemiologica locale dell’eziologia delle infezioni delle vie urinarie (IVU nosocomiali e comunitarie e dell’antibiotico-sensibilità degli uropatogeni.

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    Agostina Ronca

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are common infectious diseases that can be associated with substantial morbidity. During the last decade, resistance to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole has increased in Escherichia coli, the most common uropathogen, and recent reports have shown increasing resistance even to fluoroquinolones. The aim of this local surveillance study was to determine the distribution of bacterial strains isolated from outpatients and inpatients with UTIs and antibiotic susceptibility patterns to antimicrobial agents currently used in the treatment of pathogens causing these infections. Materials and methods: Between January and March 2006 a total of 1596 urine specimens, 968 from outpatients and 628 from inpatients, respectively, were recovered. Urinary pathogens isolated were 235, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed by Vitek II.The following antimicrobial agents were tested: ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftazidime, imipenem, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and nitrofurantoin. E test® method were used to study the production of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL. Results:The most frequent pathogen found was Escherichia coli (68.5%, followed by Klebsiella spp. (8.5%, Proteus mirabilis (7.6%, and Enterococcus spp. (6%. E. coli resistance rates less than 10% was observed for ceftazidime, imipenem and nitrofurantoin. In strains isolated from outpatients resistance to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was 37% and 19%, respectively, and resistance to fluoroquinolones was about 20%. Resistance rates of E. coli was significantly higher in complicated nosocomial-acquired infection: ampicillin 53.6%, cotrimossazole 35.7% and ciprofloxacin 33.9%. ESBL producer strains were 7 E.coli (4.3% and 6 Proteus spp. (33%. Conclusions: This study confirmed that E. coli and other Enterobacteriaceae are the predominant bacterial pathogens envolved in UTIs. Currently, the

  2. 48株流感嗜血杆菌耐药性分析及β-内酰胺酶基因检测%Analysis on antimicrobial resistance and beta-lactamases gene detection of 48 haemophilus influenzae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂和翠; 王中新; 沈继录

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解本地区流感嗜血杆菌的分布及耐药性,为指导临床合理用药提供依据.方法 k-B法进行药敏试验,玻片法测定β-内酰胺酶.PCR扩增TEM及ROB型β-内酰胺酶基因.结果 48株流感嗜血杆菌主要分布于呼吸内科和门诊.对复方新诺明、四环素和氨苄西林耐药率分别为62.50%、35.42% 和22 92%;阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾、氨曲南耐药率为12.50%;氨苄西林/舒巴坦、头孢噻肟、头孢拉定、头孢曲松、阿奇霉素、氯霉素耐药率为8.33%;头孢吡肟、头孢呋辛、环丙沙星、左氧氟沙星耐药率为6.25%.哌拉西林/三唑巴坦、亚胺培南敏感率高为100%.10株氨苄西林耐药菌株均产β-内酰胺酶,产酶率为20.83%,且均检测到TEM基因.结论 复方新诺明和四环素已不再适于临床治疗流感嗜血杆菌引起的感染.氨苄西林仍可作为临床经验用药.哌拉西林/三唑巴坦和亚胺培南抗菌活性高,可望作为治疗耐氨苄西林流感嗜血杆菌感染的理想用药.喹诺酮类药物耐药率高,应引起重视.流感嗜血杆菌对氨苄西林耐药的主要机制为产TEM型β-内酰胺酶.%To investigate antimicrobial resistance and genotypes of β-lactamase of in this erea , and guide clinical rational drug use effectively. Methods Kirby-Bauer method was applied for the drug susceptibility test and nitrocefin slide test was used to detect β-lactamase. The genotypes of β-lactamase were detected by PCR. Results A total of 48 strains of haemophilus influenzae were mainly distributed in department of respiratory and outpatient service. The resistant straint to compound sulf-amethoxazole, ampicillin and tetrocycline were 62. 50% , 35. 42% ,22. 92% respectively, the resistant rate to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftriaxome, aztreonam, ciprofloxa-cin and levofloxacin was 12.50% ,the resistant rate to ampicillin-sulbactam, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefuroxime, azithromycin, chlorampheniol was 8. 33% ;the

  3. Synergistic Antibacterial Effect between Silibinin and Antibiotics in Oral Bacteria

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    Young-Soo Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Silibinin is a composition of the silymarin group as a hepatoprotective agent, and it exhibits various biological activities, including antibacterial activity. In this study, the antibacterial activities of silibinin were investigated in combination with two antimicrobial agents against oral bacteria. Silibinin was determined with MIC and MBC values ranging from 0.1 to 3.2 and 0.2 to 6.4 μg/mL, ampicillin from 0.125 to 64 and 0.5 to 64 μg/mL, gentamicin from 2 to 256 and 4 to 512 μg/mL, respectively. The ranges of MIC50 and MIC90 were 0.025–0.8 μg/mL and 0.1–3.2 μg/mL, respectively. The antibacterial activities of silibinin against oral bacteria were assessed using the checkerboard and time-kill methods to evaluate the synergistic effects of treatment with ampicillin or gentamicin. The results were evaluated showing that the combination effects of silibinin with antibiotics were synergistic (FIC index <0.5 against all tested oral bacteria. Furthermore, a time-kill study showed that the growth of the tested bacteria was completely attenuated after 2–6 h of treatment with the MBC of silibinin, regardless of whether it was administered alone or with ampicillin or gentamicin. These results suggest that silibinin combined with other antibiotics may be microbiologically beneficial and not antagonistic.

  4. Confirmatory determination of six penicillins in honey by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

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    Wang, Jian

    2004-01-01

    A confirmatory method for 6 penicillin antibiotics (amoxicillin, ampicillin, penicillin G, oxacillin, cloxacillin, and dicloxacillin) in honey is presented that allows determination and confirmation of identity of the antibiotics at trace levels. The method includes the use of a stable isotope-labeled internal standard benzyl (d7-phenyl) penicillate and removal of sugar and other substances by solvent and solid-phase extraction. The honey extracts are then analyzed for penicillin residues by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Mass spectral acquisition was achieved in an electrospray positive ion mode by applying multiple reaction monitoring of 2 or 3 fragment ion transitions to provide a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. Typical recoveries of 6 penicillins at fortification levels of 6, 16, 40, and 80 microg/kg ranged from 51.4 to 132.9%. The recoveries varied with the individual penicillins and were affected by different honey matrixes. The ion ratios were consistent and could be used for confirmation of identity of the penicillins. The method limits of detection (microg/kg) were 0.25 for amoxicillin, 0.19 for ampicillin, 0.068 for penicillin G, 0.028 for oxacillin, 0.052 for cloxacillin, and 0.085 for dicloxacillin. The method limits of confirmation (microg/kg) were 0.44 for amoxicillin, 0.52 for ampicillin, 0.23 for penicillin G, 0.14 for oxacillin, 0.14 for cloxacillin, and 0.15 for dicloxacillin when a sample size of 5 g honey was used.

  5. Antibiotic resistant Esherichia coli strains from seafood and its susceptibility to seaweed extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subramanian Kumaran; Balaraman Deivasigamani; Kumarappan Alagappan; Mannikam Sakthivel; Rajamani Karthikeyan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli (E.coli) , in seafood obtained from Cuddalore and Parangipettai fish landing centres. Also, to identify the susceptibility of E. coli against predominant seaweeds red alga Kappaphycusalvarezii (K. alvarezii) and brown alga Padina boergessenii (P. boergessenii) extracts as sulfated polysaccharides and polyphenols respectively. Methods: A total of 48 samples (Two stations Cuddalore and Parangipettai, Tamil Nadu, India). Sampling area are fish landing centre where fishes caught from sea and estuary, seafood processing plants (packing and ice packed fishes) and local fish markets (fish samples). After isolation totally 80 strains were analyzed for its antimicrobial resistance and sensitivity against commercially 10 antibiotics. The ampicillin resistant E. coli CE21 was identified through molecular techniques as 16S rDNA sequencing. Two seaweeds K. alvarezii and P. boergessenii were screened for antibacterial activity against 12 antibiotic resistant E. coli strains. Results: Totally 48 swabbed samples from two different fish handling area were characterized for total bacterial and E. coli count. Mostly, the E. coli strains were isolated from fish local market and seafood processing plants before and after packaging process. In that maximum 56.25% strains were resistant to ampicillin and the minimum 2.5% strains were resistant to chloramphenicol. Therefore, the E. coli CE21 was identified through molecular techniques E. coli (GenBank accession number GU065251), The MIC value for polyphenol extract was slightly less than sulfated polysaccharides. E. coli strain isolated from Parangipettai was considerably increased MIC value that Cuddalore. Conclusions:The polyphenol and sulfated polysaccharides showed promising inhibitory response against all antimicrobial resistant E. coli strains and in particular the inhibitory response of ampicillin resistant E. coli.

  6. Antibacterial activity of fourGracilaria species of red seaweeds collected from Mandapam Coast, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sethu Rameshkumar; Kolidoss Radhakrishnan; Arasan Sreenivasan; Samraj Aanand

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the antibacterial activities of diethyl ether, toluene, ethanol and methanol extracts of red seaweeds such asGracilaria crassa(G. crassa),Gracilaria folifera(G. folifera), Gracilaria debilis (G. debilis) andGracilaria corticata. Methods:The crude extracts were tested against different types of Gram-positive and -negative bacterial strains and all the seaweed extracts were tested a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. Antibacterial activity was made using paper disc diffusion method. Four organic solvents (diethyl ether, toluene, methanol and ethanol) were used separately in a Soxhlet apparatus for seven bacterial strains. Antibacterial activity of the known antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, streptomycin, kanamycin and ampicillin was determined by testing them against different test organisms. Results:The high antibacterial activity was noted in the extracts ofG. crassa,G. folifera andG. debilis. However,G. crassa andG. debilis have good antibacterial activity. Pathogens likeBacillus subtilis andEscherichia coli were less susceptible to the methanol and diethyl ether extracts ofG. folifera. The comparative study on the antibacterial activity was also made by using 200μg concentration of solvent extracts (diethyl ether, ethanol, toluene and methanol)and different five antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, streptomycin, kanamycin, amoxicillin and ampicillin. The bacterial strains tested were more sensitive to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, kanamycin, and ampicillin when compared to algal extracts. Conclusions: The present study proved that the extracts ofG. crassa,G. folifera andG. debilis have high antibacterial activity. AlthoughG. crassa andG. debilis showed good antibacterial activity, many known antibiotics are active against a few organisms individually. Hence, the extracts of seaweeds were active against all test organisms used and the activities were comparable to that of antibiotics and the seaweeds offer a feasible alternative for

  7. Antibacterial activity of four Gracilaria species of red seaweeds collected from Mandapam Coast, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, India

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    Sethu Rameshkumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the antibacterial activities of diethyl ether, toluene, ethanol and methanol extracts of red seaweeds such as Gracilaria crassa (G. crassa, Gracilaria folifera (G. folifera, Gracilaria debilis (G. debilis and Gracilaria corticata. Methods: The crude extracts were tested against different types of Gram-positive and -negative bacterial strains and all the seaweed extracts were tested a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. Antibacterial activity was made using paper disc diffusion method. Four organic solvents (diethyl ether, toluene, methanol and ethanol were used separately in a Soxhlet apparatus for seven bacterial strains. Antibacterial activity of the known antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, streptomycin, kanamycin and ampicillin was determined by testing them against different test organisms. Results: The high antibacterial activity was noted in the extracts of G. crassa, G. folifera and G. debilis. However, G. crassa and G. debilis have good antibacterial activity. Pathogens like Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli were less susceptible to the methanol and diethyl ether extracts of G. folifera. The comparative study on the antibacterial activity was also made by using 200 μg concentration of solvent extracts (diethyl ether, ethanol, toluene and methanoland different five antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, streptomycin, kanamycin, amoxicillin and ampicillin. The bacterial strains tested were more sensitive to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, kanamycin, and ampicillin when compared to algal extracts. Conclusions: The present study proved that the extracts of G. crassa, G. folifera and G. debilis have high antibacterial activity. Although G. crassa and G. debilis showed good antibacterial activity, many known antibiotics are active against a few organisms individually. Hence, the extracts of seaweeds were active against all test organisms used and the activities were comparable to that of antibiotics and the

  8. High-level Multi-Resistant and Virulent Escherichia coli in Abeokuta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinduti, Paul Akinniyi; Aboderin, Bukola W; Oloyede, Rasaq; Ogiogwa, Joseph I; Motayo, Babatunde O; Ejilude, Oluwaseun

    2016-01-01

    Multi-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains co-harboring virulence genes is a cause of high morbidity in Abeokuta, Nigeria. This study was designed to determine some virulent factors among enteropathogenic E. coli in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Approximately non-repetitive 102 isolates of E. coli were recovered from clinical samples from two health facilities in Abeokuta. Biotyping using API and antibiotic susceptibility was determined, and eae and flic genes were assayed by PCR. Antibiotic resistance relatedness was performed by DendroUPGMA. Results showed that 48.0% and 52.0 % were intestinal and extra-intestinal E. coli, ampicillin recorded 100% resistance, amoxycilli/clavulanic acid 64.7%, cotrimoxazole 57.8% and 56.8% resistance against cefotaxime, at MIC >16 ug/mL, 100%, 57.8%, and 50% have MIC50 to ampicillin, tetracycline, and ceftazidime, while 74.5% and 48.0% have MIC90 to ampicillin and ceftazidime. Significant rates of 4.9%, 7.8%, and 9.8% flic, eae, and flic/eae genes were found in intestinal isolates, while 2.9%, 2.0%, and 3.9% were found in extra-intestinal (P < 0.05). Two major clades of the resistant isolates reveal significant antibiotic relatedness among intestinal and extra-intestinal isolates, at 54% resistance similarities with very high multi-antibiotic resistance index of 1.0 (MARI). A high rate of undetected virulent E. coli pathotypes with high resistance could trigger unprecedented morbidity and mortality, mostly among children and the elderly.

  9. Effects of antibiotics on hydrogen production and gut symbionts in the Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueqing Cao; Jian-Zhong Sun; Jose M.Rodriguez

    2012-01-01

    Symbiotic microorganisms that inhabit the gut of Coptoterrnes forrnosanus enable this termite to degrade lignocelluloses and further produce hydrogen as an important intermediate to be recycled in its hindgut or as a byproduct to be emitted to the atmosphere.Both symbiotic protists and prokaryotes in the guts of termites demonstrated some different roles with respect to hydrogen production.In this study,the effects of two antibiotics,ampicillin and tetracycline,on hydrogen emission and the gut symbionts of C.formosanus were investigated.Hydrogen emission from termite guts was significantly enhanced when termites fed on wood diets treated with either ampicillin or tetracycline.The greatest H2 emission rates,2519 ± 74 and 2080 ± 377 nmol/h/g body weight,were recorded with the treatments of ampicillin and tetracycline,respectively,which showed 6-7 times more H2 production than that of controls.Antibiotic-treated diets negatively affected the prokaryotic communities and reduced their abundances,particularly on those ectosymbionts inhabiting the gut walls or in the gut fluid of C.formosanus,such as spirochetes.However,no significant reductions in the counts of gut cellulolytic protists,Pseudotrichonympha grassii and Holonastigotoids hartmanni,were recorded; and with a further observation by confocal laser scanning microscopy,the endosymbionts inhabiting P.grassii generally survived the antibiotic treatments.These results suggest that some prokaryotes may serve as the main hydrogen consumers,while P.grassii,together with its endosymbionts,may function as the main contributors for hydrogen production in the hindgut of C.formosanus.

  10. Antibacterial Activity and Antibiotic-Enhancing Effects of Honeybee Venom against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

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    Sang Mi Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, along with other antibiotic resistant bacteria, has become a significant social and clinical problem. There is thus an urgent need to develop naturally bioactive compounds as alternatives to the few antibiotics that remain effective. Here we assessed the in vitro activities of bee venom (BV, alone or in combination with ampicillin, penicillin, gentamicin or vancomycin, on growth of MRSA strains. The antimicrobial activity of BV against MRSA strains was investigated using minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC, minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC and a time-kill assay. Expression of atl which encodes murein hydrolase, a peptidoglycan-degrading enzyme involved in cell separation, was measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The MICs of BV were 0.085 µg/mL and 0.11 µg/mL against MRSA CCARM 3366 and MRSA CCARM 3708, respectively. The MBC of BV against MRSA 3366 was 0.106 µg/mL and that against MRSA 3708 was 0.14 µg/mL. The bactericidal activity of BV corresponded to a decrease of at least 3 log CFU/g cells. The combination of BV with ampicillin or penicillin yielded an inhibitory concentration index ranging from 0.631 to 1.002, indicating a partial and indifferent synergistic effect. Compared to ampicillin or penicillin, both MRSA strains were more susceptible to the combination of BV with gentamicin or vancomycin. The expression of atl gene was increased in MRSA 3366 treated with BV. These results suggest that BV exhibited antibacterial activity and antibiotic-enhancing effects against MRSA strains. The atl gene was increased in MRSA exposed to BV, suggesting that cell division was interrupted. BV warrants further investigation as a natural antimicrobial agent and synergist of antibiotic activity.

  11. The European Union Summary Report on antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic and indicator bacteria from humans, animals and food in 2011

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    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial resistance data among zoonotic and indicator bacteria in 2011, submitted by 26 European Union Member States, were jointly analysed by the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Data covered resistance in zoonotic Salmonella and Campylobacter isolates from humans, food and animals, and in indicator Escherichia coli and enterococci isolates from animals and food. Data on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in animals and food were also presented. Resistance in isolates from humans were mainly interpreted using clinical breakpoints, while animal and food isolate resistance was interpreted using epidemiological cut-off values. Resistance was commonly found in isolates from humans, animals and food, although disparities in resistance were frequently observed between Member States. High resistance levels were recorded to ampicillin, tetracyclines and sulfonamides in Salmonella isolates from humans, while resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones remained low. In Salmonella and indicator Escherichia coli isolates from fowl, pigs, cattle and meat thereof, resistance to ampicillin, tetracyclines and sulfonamides was also commonly detected, while resistance to third-generation cephalosporins was low. Moderate to high resistance to (fluoroquinolones was observed in Salmonella isolates from turkeys, fowl and broiler meat. In Campylobacter isolates from human cases, resistance to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and tetracyclines was high, while resistance to erythromycin was low to moderate. High resistance to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and tetracyclines was observed in Campylobacter isolates from fowl, broiler meat, pigs and cattle, whereas much lower levels were observed for erythromycin and gentamicin. Among the indicator enterococci isolates from animals and food, resistance to tetracyclines and erythromycin was commonly detected. The

  12. Gentamicin induces efaA expression and biofilm formation in Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Mobarez, Ashraf Mohabati; Moghadam, Mehdi Forouzandeh; Hashemi, Zahra Sadat; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2016-03-01

    Enterococci have been ranked among the leading causes of nosocomial bacteremia and urinary tract infection. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ampicillin, vancomycin, gentamicin and ceftizoxime on biofilm formation and gene expression of colonization factors on Enterococcus faecalis. Twelve clinical isolates of E. faecalis were used to investigate the effect of antibiotics on biofilm formation and gene expression of efaA, asa1, ebpA, esp and ace. Flow system assay and Microtiter plates were used for biofilm assay. Two hundred clinical isolates were used for confirming the effect of antibiotics on biofilm formation. Ampicillin, vancomycin and ceftizoxime did not have any significant effect on biofilm formation, but gentamicin induced biofilm formation in 89% of isolates. In twelve selected isolate gentamicin increased expression of esp (+50.9%) and efaA (+33.9%) genes and reduced or maintained expression of others (asa1:-47.4%, ebpA: 0, ace:-19.2%). Vancomycin increased expression of esp (+89.1%) but reduced the others (asa1: -34.9%, ebpA:-11%, ace:-30%, efaA:-60%). Ceftizoxime increased slightly ebpA (+19.7%) and reduced others (asa1:-66.2%, esp:-35%, ace:-28.1%, efaA:-38.4%). and ampicillin strongly increased expression of ace (+231%), esp (+131%) and ebpA (+83%) but reduced others (asa1:-85.5%, efaA:-47.4%). The findings of the present study showed that antibiotics may have a role in biofilm formation and sustainability of enterococci, especially in case of gentamicin. efaA gene may have an important role, especially in antibiotic induced biofilm formation by gentamicin. Experiments with efaA mutants are needed to investigate the exact effect of efaA on biofilm formation with antibiotic induced cells.

  13. Child morbidity of salmonellosis and the level of resistance of clinical isolates of salmonella to antibacterial preparations in saint Petersburg

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    N. V. Gonchar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to study the dynamics of the incidence of salmonellosis children in St. Petersburg and phenotypic resistance of clinical isolates of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium to antibiotics in recent years. Materials and methods. The incidence of salmonellosis children studied according to the report for the first nine months of Rospotrebnadzor in 2013–2014. Incidence of salmonellosis in the structure of bacterial intestinal infections caused by pathogens in children hospitalized in the Department of intestinal infections in 2013–2014, studied according to annual reports. Antibiotic sensitivity was studied 86 Salmonella isolates (S. Enteritidis strain 64 and strain 22 S. Typhimurium, isolated from patients in children 2010–2014. Used the method of serial microdilution broth. Salmonella isolates were divided into sensitive, resistant, intermediate sensitivity to antibiotics. The Results. Analysis of the incidence of salmonellosis children of St. Petersburg has revealed its decline in 2014 (109.2 compared to 2013 (123,9 but relatively long-term average level was an increase in incidence (107,6. In the structure of salmonellosis in children prevailed salmonellosis Group D. In hospitalized children in the structure of bacterial intestinal infections detected Excess of share of salmonellosis in 2014 (36,9±3,4% compared to 2013 (24,5±2,4%; p <0,01. A reduction in the frequency sensitivity of S. Enteritidis to ampicillin, cefepime, ceftazidime and chloramphenicol. Compared to S. Enteritidis S. Typhimurium isolates were more resistant to ceftazidime and ampicillin, but more sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Conclusion. Morbidity of salmonellosis in recent years characterized by a relatively long-term average increase of the level. In the structure of salmonellosis in children prevailed salmonellosis Group D. There was a reduction of sensitivity S. Enteritidis isolates to cephalosporins new generations, and S. Typhimurium isolates

  14. Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia Coli Isolated From Poultry and Poultry Environment of Bangladesh

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    Muhammad A. Akond

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Increased emergence in microbial resistance to antibiotics is a growing problem in Bangladesh, a tropical country with a large agrarian population having limited medical facilities. Wide spread use of antimicrobials in poultry farming here is a concern of multi-drug microbial resistance development that can potentially be transmitted to human pathogens even from non-pathogenic carrier strains. Attempt was made to assess drug susceptibility in Escherichia coli from poultry sources of Bangladesh. Approach: Eighty selected strains isolated from poultry sources were thoroughly characterized by standard cultural and biochemical tests followed by final identification using latex agglutination test of polyvalent anti-sera, from which 50 were tested for susceptibility to 13 antibiotics following disk diffusion method. Results: 145 (58%, out of total 250, were found positive for E. coli. 52-88% of tested E. coli strains from poultry sources were found resistant to Penicillin, Ciprofloxacin, Riphampicin, Kanamycin, Streptomycin, Cefixine, Erythromycin, Ampicillin, Tetracycline, and 20% strains showed resistance to both Chloramphenicol and Neomycin. No strains showed resistance to Norfloxacin and Gentamicin. Sensitivity was recorded in case of 60-86% strains to Norfloxacin, Gentamicin, Chloramphenicol, and Neomycin; and 26-36% strains against Tetracycline, Streptomycin, and Ampicillin. Intermediate resistance/ susceptibility to various antibiotics were observed for 12-36% Escherichia coli strains. Both, resistance and susceptibility were exhibited against Chloramphenicol, Ampicillin, Gentamicin, Neomycin, Tetracycline, Streptomycin and Norfloxacin. Multi drug resistance was found in case of 6-10 antibiotics for all strains tested. Conclusion: Further study is required on the role of poultry borne bacteria as vectors in transmitting drug resistance. Attention is to be paid for personnel hygiene in processing and handling of poultry and

  15. Purification and synergistic antibacterial activity of arginine derived cyclic dipeptides, from Achromobacter sp. associated with a rhabditid entomopathogenic nematode against major clinically relevant biofilm forming wound bacteria

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    NISHANTH KUMAR S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Skin and chronic wound infections caused by various pathogenic bacteria are an increasing and urgent health problem worldwide. In the present study ethyl acetate cell-free culture filtrate of an Achromobacter sp. associated with a Rhabditis entomopathogenic nematode (EPN, displayed promising antibacterial property and was further purified by silica gel column chromatography to get three different cyclic dipeptides (CDPs. Based on the spectral data and Marfey’s analyses, the CDPs were identified as cyclo(D-Leu-D-Arg (1, cyclo(L-Trp-L-Arg (2, and cyclo(D-Trp-D-Arg (3, respectively. Three CDPs were active against all the ten wound associated bacteria tested. The significant antibacterial activity was recorded by CDP 3, and highest activity of 0.5 µg/ml was recorded against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The synergistic antibacterial activities of CDPs and ampicillin were assessed using the checkerboard microdilution method. The results of the current study recorded that the combined effects of CDPs and ampicillin principally recorded synergistic activity. Interestingly, the combination of CDPs and ampicillin also recorded enhanced inhibited biofilm formation by bacteria. Moreover, CDPs significantly stimulate the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-4 by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells but are without significant effect on the production of TNF-α, a pro-inflammatory cytokines. The three CDPs have been examined for their activities against intracellular S. aureus in murine macrophages (J774 using 24 h exposure to 1X and 2X MIC concentrations. Significance decrease in intracellular S. aureus burden was recorded by CDPs. CDPs also recorded no cytotoxicity towards FS normal fibroblast, VERO and L231 normal lung epithelial cell lines. Antimicrobial activity of the arginine containing CDPs against the wound associated bacteria is reported here for the first. Moreover, this is also the report on the

  16. Aquaculture can promote the presence and spread of antibiotic-resistant Enterococci in marine sediments.

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    Andrea Di Cesare

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is an expanding activity worldwide. However its rapid growth can affect the aquatic environment through release of large amounts of chemicals, including antibiotics. Moreover, the presence of organic matter and bacteria of different origin can favor gene transfer and recombination. Whereas the consequences of such activities on environmental microbiota are well explored, little is known of their effects on allochthonous and potentially pathogenic bacteria, such as enterococci. Sediments from three sampling stations (two inside and one outside collected in a fish farm in the Adriatic Sea were examined for enterococcal abundance and antibiotic resistance traits using the membrane filter technique and an improved quantitative PCR. Strains were tested for susceptibility to tetracycline, erythromycin, ampicillin and gentamicin; samples were directly screened for selected tetracycline [tet(M, tet(L, tet(O] and macrolide [erm(A, erm(B and mef] resistance genes by newly-developed multiplex PCRs. The abundance of benthic enterococci was higher inside than outside the farm. All isolates were susceptible to the four antimicrobials tested, although direct PCR evidenced tet(M and tet(L in sediment samples from all stations. Direct multiplex PCR of sediment samples cultured in rich broth supplemented with antibiotic (tetracycline, erythromycin, ampicillin or gentamicin highlighted changes in resistance gene profiles, with amplification of previously undetected tet(O, erm(B and mef genes and an increase in benthic enterococcal abundance after incubation in the presence of ampicillin and gentamicin. Despite being limited to a single farm, these data indicate that aquaculture may influence the abundance and spread of benthic enterococci and that farm sediments can be reservoirs of dormant antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including enterococci, which can rapidly revive in presence of new inputs of organic matter. This reservoir may constitute an

  17. Use of natural antimicrobials to increase antibiotic susceptibility of drug resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, Kavitha; Holley, Richard A

    2010-06-15

    Plant-derived antibacterial compounds may be of value as a novel means for controlling antibiotic resistant zoonotic pathogens which contaminate food animals and their products. Individual activity of natural antimicrobials (eugenol, thymol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, allyl isothiocyanate (AIT)) and activity when paired with an antibiotic was studied using broth microdilution and checkerboard methods. In the latter assays, fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) values were calculated to characterize interactions between the inhibitors. Bacteria tested were chosen because of their resistance to at least one antibiotic which had a known genetic basis. Substantial susceptibility of these bacteria toward the natural antimicrobials and a considerable reduction in the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC's) of the antibiotics were noted when paired combinations of antimicrobial and antibiotic were used. In the interaction study, thymol and carvacrol were found to be highly effective in reducing the resistance of Salmonella Typhimurium SGI 1 (tet A) to ampicillin, tetracycline, penicillin, bacitracin, erythromycin and novobiocin (FIC<0.4) and resistance of Streptococcus pyogenes ermB to erythromycin (FIC<0.5). With Escherichia coli N00 666, thymol and cinnamaldehyde were found to have a similar effect (FIC<0.4) in reducing the MIC's of ampicillin, tetracycline, penicillin, erythromycin and novobiocin. Carvacrol, thymol (FIC<0.3) and cinnamaldehyde (FIC<0.4) were effective against Staphylococcus aureus blaZ and in reducing the MIC's of ampicillin, penicillin and bacitracin. Allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) was effective in reducing the MIC of erythromycin (FIC<0.3) when tested against S. pyogenes. Fewer combinations were found to be synergistic when the decrease in viable population (log DP) was calculated. Together, fractional inhibitory concentrations < or = 0.5 and log DP<-1 indicated synergistic action between four natural antimicrobials and as many as three antibiotics

  18. Feeding bovine milks with low or high IgA levels is associated with altered re-establishment of murine intestinal microbiota after antibiotic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Wayne; Cakebread, Julie A.; Haigh, Brendan J.

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics are a vital and commonly used therapeutic tool, but their use also results in profound changes in the intestinal microbiota that can, in turn, have significant health consequences. Understanding how the microbiota recovers after antibiotic treatment will help to devise strategies for mitigating the adverse effects of antibiotics. Using a mouse model, we have characterized the changes occurring in the intestinal microbiota immediately after five days exposure to ampicillin, and then at three and fourteen days thereafter. During the fourteen day period of antibiotic recovery, groups of mice were fed either water, cows’ milk containing high levels of IgA, or cows’ milk containing low levels of IgA as their sole source of liquid. Effects on microbiota of feeding milks for 14 days were also assessed in groups of mice that had no ampicillin exposure. Changes in microbiota were measured by high throughput sequencing of the V4 to V6 variable regions of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. As expected, exposure to ampicillin led to profound changes to the types and abundance of bacteria present, along with a loss of diversity. At 14 days following antibiotic exposure, mice fed water had recovered microbiota compositions similar to that prior to antibiotics. However, feeding High-IgA milk to mice that has been exposed to antibiotics was associated with altered microbiota compositions, including increased relative abundance of Lactobacillus and Barnesiella compared to the start of the study. Mice exposed to antibiotics then fed Low-IgA milk also showed increased Barnesiella at day 14. Mice without antibiotic perturbation, showed no change in their microbiota after 14 days of milk feeding. Overall, these findings add to a knowledge platform for optimizing intestinal function after treatment with antibiotics in the human population. PMID:27703861

  19. Risk factors associated with the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele C. Beuron

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate herd management practices and mastitis treatment procedures as risk factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial resistance. For this study, 13 herds were selected to participate in the study to evaluate the association between their management practices and mastitis treatment procedures and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 1069 composite milk samples were collected aseptically from the selected cows in four different periods over two years. The samples were used for microbiological culturing of S. aureus isolates and evaluation of their antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 756 samples (70.7% were culture-positive, and S. aureus comprised 27.77% (n=210 of the isolates. The S. aureus isolates were tested using the disk-diffusion susceptibility assay with the following antimicrobials: ampicillin 10mg; clindamycin 2μg; penicillin 1mg; ceftiofur 30μg; gentamicin 10mg; sulfa-trimethoprim 25μg; enrofloxacin 5μg; sulfonamide 300μg; tetracycline 30μg; oxacillin 1mg; cephalothin 30μg and erythromycin 5μg. The variables that were significantly associated with S. aureus resistance were as follows: the treatment of clinical mastitis for ampicillin (OR=2.18, dry cow treatment for enrofloxacin (OR=2.11 and not sending milk samples for microbiological culture and susceptibility tests, for ampicillin (OR=2.57 and penicillin (OR=4.69. In conclusion, the identification of risk factors for S. aureus resistance against various mastitis antimicrobials is an important information that may help in practical recommendations for prudent use of antimicrobial in milk production.

  20. Feeding bovine milks with low or high IgA levels is associated with altered re-establishment of murine intestinal microbiota after antibiotic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J. Hodgkinson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are a vital and commonly used therapeutic tool, but their use also results in profound changes in the intestinal microbiota that can, in turn, have significant health consequences. Understanding how the microbiota recovers after antibiotic treatment will help to devise strategies for mitigating the adverse effects of antibiotics. Using a mouse model, we have characterized the changes occurring in the intestinal microbiota immediately after five days exposure to ampicillin, and then at three and fourteen days thereafter. During the fourteen day period of antibiotic recovery, groups of mice were fed either water, cows’ milk containing high levels of IgA, or cows’ milk containing low levels of IgA as their sole source of liquid. Effects on microbiota of feeding milks for 14 days were also assessed in groups of mice that had no ampicillin exposure. Changes in microbiota were measured by high throughput sequencing of the V4 to V6 variable regions of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. As expected, exposure to ampicillin led to profound changes to the types and abundance of bacteria present, along with a loss of diversity. At 14 days following antibiotic exposure, mice fed water had recovered microbiota compositions similar to that prior to antibiotics. However, feeding High-IgA milk to mice that has been exposed to antibiotics was associated with altered microbiota compositions, including increased relative abundance of Lactobacillus and Barnesiella compared to the start of the study. Mice exposed to antibiotics then fed Low-IgA milk also showed increased Barnesiella at day 14. Mice without antibiotic perturbation, showed no change in their microbiota after 14 days of milk feeding. Overall, these findings add to a knowledge platform for optimizing intestinal function after treatment with antibiotics in the human population.

  1. Magnitude of drug resistant shigellosis: A report from Bangalore

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    Srinivasa H

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Shigella is an important cause of acute invasive diarrhea in children and others. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Shigella spp. isolated from diarrhoeal/ dysenteric patients in Bangalore was studied in our hospital from January 2002 to December 2007. One hundred and thirty-four isolates were identified as Shigella species. S. flexneri, S. sonnei , S. boydii and S. dysenteriae were accounted respectively for 64.9%, 21.6%, 8.2% and 3.7% of the total number of Shigella isolated. Of these 56 (41.8% were from children (0 to 14 years and 78 (58.2% were from adults and elderly patients. Over 70% of Shigella isolates were resistant to two or more drugs including Ampicillin and Co-trimoxazole. During 2002 to 2007, resistance to Ampicillin had increased from 46.7% to 68%. For Co-trimoxazole, though the resistance had gradually decreased from 100% to 72%, but still the resistance is high. Chloramphenicol resistance showed sudden decline from 73.3% to 25% from 2002 to 2003, but gradually has reached 48%. Nalidixic acid resistance was more than 70%. All isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin during the period 2002 to 2004, but over the years the resistance pattern gradually increased up to 48%. Ceftriaxone had shown no resistance. The results of the study revealed the endemicity of Shigellosis with S. flexneri as the predominant serogroup. Children were at a higher risk of severe shigellosis. The results also suggest that Ampicillin, Co-trimoxazole, Chloramphenicol, Nalidixic acid and Ciprofloxacin should not be used empirically as the first line drugs in the treatment of Shigellosis. Periodic analysis and reporting of antibiotic susceptibility is an important measure to guide antibiotic treatment.

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolated from community-acquired respiratory tract infections in China: Results from the CARTIPS Antimicrobial Surveillance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yawei; Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wang, Zhanwei; Cao, Bin; Du, Yan; Feng, Xianju; Hu, Yunjian; Hu, Bijie; Ji, Ping; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Yong; Liao, Wanzhen; Lu, Juan; Sun, Hongli; Wang, Zhongxin; Xu, Xiuli; Xu, Xuesong; Yang, Qing; Yu, Yunsong; Zhang, Rong; Zhuo, Chao

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolates causing adult community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs) in China. A multicentre resistance surveillance study (CARTIPS) investigating 1046 clinical isolates from 19 hospitals in China was conducted from 2013 to 2014. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints of oral penicillin, the percentages of penicillin-resistant, penicillin-intermediate and penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae were 44.1%, 13.7%, and 42.2%, respectively. The rates of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae ranged from 27.9% to 72.2% in different cities, with the highest rate in Nanchang. Macrolides, including azithromycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin, showed the lowest activities against S. pneumoniae isolates, with resistance rates of 90.5%, 92.2% and 93.0%, respectively. However, 98% of these strains were susceptible to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin. For H. influenzae isolates, most of the antimicrobials agents exhibited good activities. However, ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole showed relatively lower activity against H. influenzae, with resistance rates of 35.0% and 54.4%, respectively. β-lactamase production rates amongst H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis were 31.0% and 87.1%, respectively. In addition, a total of 15 β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains identified in this study were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefaclor and cefuroxime. Most of the antimicrobial agents showed excellent activity against M. catarrhalis, with susceptibility rates of >90%. The results from the current study confirmed the regional variations in antimicrobial susceptibility of major CARTI pathogens and provided some choices for the treatment of these organisms. Continuous national surveillance of the epidemiology of CARTIs is strongly warranted in China.

  3. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Satureja Khuzestanica J. Essential Oil against Standard and Isolated Strains of Listeria monocytogenes

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    Sheida Akbari-Shahabi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to determine antibacterial activity of essential oil of Satureja khuzestanica against Listeria monocytogenes (PTCC1295 and strains isolated from breast milk show that. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, Essence of leave’s plant was extracted and identified its compounds and then carvacrol was isolated. Antibacterial activities were examined by agar dilution method against L. monocytogenes. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bacterial concentration (MBC were carried out by micro dilution method. Then bacterial suspension injected the BALB/c mice. Forty-eight h after seeing the listeriosis disease signs were started the treatment. Ampicillin (10 μg/disc and trimethoprim (5 g were used as controls. Results: The results showed that the inhibitory zone diameter standard and essential oils for strains isolated species were respectively 59 and 50 mm. This amount was determined by carvacrol, respectively, 60 and 48 mm. Inhibition zone diameter measurements for standard strains of ampicillin and trimethoprim tedious strains, respectively, 21, 40, 18 and 33 mm, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration of essential oils, carvacrol and ampicillin than standard strains, respectively 1.56, 1.56 and 155×10˗8 μg/mL and MBC 3.125, 3.125 and 125×10-7 μg/mL was determined by the ratio of the strain 3.125, 3.125 and 0.0062 μg/mL and MBC was 6.25, 6.25 and 0.025 μg/mL. Conclusion: This study showed that bacterial cleansing properties of essential oil of this plant have a strong and effective combination that is carvacrol.

  4. [Sensitivity of Kingella kingae to antibiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prère, M F; Seguy, M; Vezard, Y; Lareng, M B

    1986-06-01

    Kingella kingae is a small Gram negative rod of the Neisseriaceae family, formerly called Moraxella kingae. This microorganism is found occasionally in the oral cavity and is capable of causing infections. We report three cases of septic arthritis in children due to K. kingae. In vitro susceptibility of the recovered strains was tested using determination of MICs in agar. The strains were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, ticarcillin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and pefloxacin, less susceptible to erythromycin and resistant to lincomycin (MIC 32 mg/l).

  5. Two Cases of Vulvovaginitis Caused by Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei: a Case Report

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    Gülçin Bayramoğlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Vulvovaginitis caused by Shigella species (Shigella spp. has rarely been reported. This paper describes two cases of prepubertal vulvovaginitis, presenting with a bloody and purulent vaginal discharge, separately caused by ampicillin-resistant Shigella flexneri and trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazole-resistant Shigella sonnei. Our conclusions are that Shigella spp. is the potential cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls in developing countries where these pathogens are endemic, and identification of the bacteria and making antibiotic susceptibility testing in these cases should not be overlooked.

  6. Stored-product insects carry antibiotic-resistant and potentially virulent enterococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channaiah, Lakshmikantha H; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju; McKinney, Leland J; Zurek, Ludek

    2010-11-01

    A total of 154 enterococcal isolates from 95 stored-product insects collected from a feed mill, a grain storage silo, and a retail store were isolated and identified to the species level using PCR. Enterococcus casseliflavus represented 51% of the total isolates, followed by Enterococcus gallinarum (24%), Enterococcus faecium (14%), Enterococcus faecalis (7%), and Enterococcus hirae (5%). Many isolates were resistant to tetracycline (48%), followed by streptomycin (21%), erythromycin (14%), kanamycin (13%), ciprofloxacin (12%), ampicillin (4%), and chloramphenicol (resistance gene, tetM, was transferable among E. faecalis by conjugation. These data demonstrated that stored-product insects can serve as potential vectors in disseminating antibiotic-resistant and potentially virulent enterococci.

  7. An outbreak of multidrug-resistant, quinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium DT104

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molbak, K.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    1999-01-01

    Background Food-borne salmonella infections have become a major problem in industrialized countries. The strain of Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium known as definitive phage type 104 (DT104) is usually resistant to five drugs: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides...... findings here. Results Until 1997, DT104 infections made up less than 1 percent of all human salmonella infections. The strain isolated from patients in the first community outbreak of DT104 in Denmark, in 1998, was resistant to nalidixic acid and had reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones...

  8. Mastite subclínica por Staphylococcus coagulase negativa em ovinos de corte

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    T.S. Tejada

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms that cause mastitis were isolated in a herd of sheep and their sensitivity to antimicrobials was tested. Twenty-one sheep had their mammary glands monitored during lactation. Eighty-eight milk sample from CMT-positive sheep were analyzed in order to isolate the etiologic agent of mastitis. Coagulase negative Staphylococcus were isolated from 29.5% of samples. Ampicillin and penicillin were the antimicrobials with higher number of resistant strains. The importance of coagulase negative staphylococci has been demonstrated, especially S. lentus and S. sciuri as a cause of ovine mastitis.

  9. The soil microbiota harbors a diversity of carbapenem-hydrolyzing β-lactamases of potential clinical relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudeta, Dereje Dadi; Bortolaia, Valeria; Amos, Greg

    2016-01-01

    to identification of seven new MBLs in presumptive Pedobacter roseus (PEDO-1), Pedobacter borealis (PEDO-2), Pedobacter kyungheensis (PEDO-3), Chryseobacterium piscium (CPS-1), Epilithonimonas tenax (ESP-1), Massilia oculi (MSI-1), and Sphingomonas sp. (SPG-1). Carbapenemase production was likely an intrinsic...... (PEDO-1), an unusual amino acid residue at a key position for MBL structure and catalysis (CPS-1), and overlap with a putative OXA β-lactamase (MSI-1). Heterologous expression of PEDO-1, CPS-1, and ESP-1in E. coli significantly increased the MICs of ampicillin, ceftazidime, cefpodoxime, cefoxitin...

  10. Isolation and Antimicrobial Testing of Aeromonas spp., Citrobacter spp., Cronobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Escherichia spp., Klebsiella spp., and Trabulsiella spp. from the Gallbladder of Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelopoulou, Grammato; Filioussis, Georgios; Kritas, Spyridon; Kantere, Maria; Burriel, Angeliki R

    2015-01-01

    The presence of Gram-negative bacteria species, other than Salmonella spp., in the gallbladder of pigs was examined. Isolated Gram-negative bacteria were assigned to species using the Microgen™ GnA+B-ID Systems. Of the 64 isolated strains 43 were identified as Escherichia coli, seven as Enterobacter spp., three each as Klebsiella spp., Citrobacterfreundii, Aeromonas hydrophila and Cronobacter sakazakii and one each as Escherichiafergusonii and Trabulsiella guamensis. Their antibiograms showed very high resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. It was concluded that the pigs' gallbladder is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria for pork consumers.

  11. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of novel amino/nitro substituted 3-arylcoumarins as antibacterial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Maria J; Vazquez-Rodriguez, Saleta; Santana, Lourdes; Uriarte, Eugenio; Fuentes-Edfuf, Cristina; Santos, Ysabel; Muñoz-Crego, Angeles

    2013-01-24

    A new series of amino/nitro-substituted 3-arylcoumarins were synthesized and their antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) was evaluated. Some of these molecules exhibited antibacterial activity against S. aureus comparable to the standards used (oxolinic acid and ampicillin). The preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) study showed that the antibacterial activity against S. aureus depends on the position of the 3-arylcoumarin substitution pattern. With the aim of finding the structural features for the antibacterial activity and selectivity, in the present manuscript different positions of nitro, methyl, methoxy, amino and bromo substituents on the 3-arylcoumarin scaffold were reported.

  12. Occurrence of integrons and antimicrobial resistance genes among Salmonella enterica from Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peirano, G.; Agersø, Yvonne; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2006-01-01

    . The genetic location of class 1 integrons was determined in 25 isolates by hybridization and plasmid transfer experiments. Results: Fifty-five of the isolates were positive for class I integrons. Integron-positive isolates represented 17 different serovars and were mainly from human (n = 28) and animal (n...... resistance was primarily mediated by sul2 and sul3, tetracycline resistance by tet(B) and tet(A), chloramphenicol resistance by catA1, streptomycin resistance by strA and ampicillin resistance by bla(TEM). bla(CTX) and bla(CMY-2) were found in cephalosporin-resistant isolates. Mating and hybridization...

  13. A Clinico-bacteriological study of primary pyodermas of children in Pondicherry

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    Mathew Mariette

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and twenty children selected at random and diagnosed as having Primary Pyoderma lesions were studied for clinical patterns and bacteriological profile. Sixty percent of the cases were girls. The commonest clinical type was impetigo contagiosa (45% followed by folliculities of the scalp (44.2%. Staphylococcus aureus was the etiological agent in 47.5% while 26.7% of the cases were due to mixed infection along with Streptococcus pyogenes. Almost all strains were sensitive to Erythromycin and Gentamycin. The highest resistance was to Penicillin (79.3% followed by Ampicillin (73.9% and Tetracycline (42.3%.

  14. Clonal relationship among Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains isolated in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrascia, Maria; Pugliese, Nicola; Maimone, Francesco; Mohamud, Kadigia A; Grimont, Patrick A D; Materu, Sadiki F; Pazzani, Carlo

    2009-03-01

    One hundred and three Vibrio cholerae O1 strains, selected to represent the cholera outbreaks which occurred in Somalia in 1998-1999, were characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns, ribotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility. All strains showed a unique amplified DNA pattern and 2 closely related ribotypes (B5a and B8a), among which B5a was the more frequently identified. Ninety-one strains were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, spectinomycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim, conferred, except for spectinomycin, by a conjugative plasmid IncC. These findings indicated that the group of strains active in Somalia in the late 1990s had a clonal origin.

  15. Listeria monocytogenes meningitis in an elderly, alcoholic male

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    Meena Dias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeriosis is a zoonotic infection seen normally in herd animals. Humans can be infected by consumption of raw meat, fish, milk, vegetables or canned refrigerated foods. There are many reports of listeriosis in pregnant females, neonates and immune-compromised individuals. However, due to limited clinical suspicion in India, only a few cases has been reported, most of them in neonates. We report here a case of Listeria meningitis in an elderly alcoholic male who was treated successfully with ampicillin and vancomycin.

  16. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME NOVEL β LACTAM CONDENSED BIOACTIVE 2-AZETIDINONE DERIVATIVES AS PROSPECTIVE ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maity S.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It is worthwhile to synthesize some novel series of β- lactam, 2-azetidinone derivatives carrying quinoline moiety. Structures of these 2-azetidinone derivatives have been characterized by spectral data like IR, 1HNMR & Mass spectroscopy. Compounds 4a,4b,4f,4g and 4h has been found extremely significant anti bacterial activity against four different strains like Staphylococcus aureus (NCIM 2079, Bacillus subtilius (NCIM 2708, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCIM 2242 and Escherichia coli (NCIM 2685 as compared to ampicillin antibiotic, while compound 4f was found extremely significant antifungal activity against Candida albicans(NCIM 22491 as compared to griseofulvin.

  17. In vitro studies of Dermatophilus congolensis antimicrobial susceptibility by determining minimal inhibitory and bacteriocidal concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermoso de Mendoza, J; Arenas, A; Rey, J; Alonso, J M; Gil, M C; Naranjo, G; Hermoso de Mendoza, M

    1994-01-01

    The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimal Bacteriocidal Concentration (MBC) of 19 antimicrobials on 16 isolates of D. congolensis were determined. The potential field efficacy of the agents was evaluated by comparing the results with serum levels of drug unbound to proteins and the in vitro and in vivo findings of other authors. A modified standard microtechnique was used for serial dilution-antimicrobial sensitivity and found to be easy and reproducible. Erythromycin, spiramycin, penicillin G, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, the streptomycin, amoxicillin, the tetracyclines and novobiocin had high serum concentrations in comparison with their MBCs and were shown to have potential use for the treatment of dermatophilosis.

  18. Forekomst af resistente bakterier og forbrug af antibiotika til hunde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Pedersen, Kristina; Jensen, Helene;

    2007-01-01

    ), Pasteurella multocida (n=25), Bordetella bronchiseptica (n=14), Proteus spp. (n=29), og E. coli (n=449). I undersøgelsen anvendtes data fra VetStat databasen. Størstedelen af de antibiotika, der bruges til hunde er bredspektrede. Penicilliner med udvidet spektrum, cephalosporiner samt sulphonamider...... penicillin, 30,2% overfor fucidin og 27,9% overfor macrolider. E. coli isolaterne var mest resistente overfor ampicillin, sulphonamider, trimethoprim, tetracykliner og streptomycin, og anhæmolytiske isolater var oftere resistente overfor tetracykliner, trimethoprim og chloramphenikol end hæmolytiske isolater...

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility and phylotyping profile of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica isolates from calves and pigs in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Monalisa S M; Coura, Fernanda M; Dorneles, Elaine M S; Stynen, Ana Paula R; Alves, Telma M; Santana, Jordana Almeida; Pauletti, Rebeca B; Guedes, Roberto M C; Viott, Aline M; Heinemann, Marcos B; Lage, Andrey P

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine (i) the profiles of phylogroup and (ii) the antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from calves, and of Salmonella spp. strains isolated from calves and pigs in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Sixty-one pathogenic E. coli strains and Salmonella spp. (n = 24) strains isolated from fecal samples of calves and Salmonella spp. (n = 39) strains previously isolated from fecal samples of growing/finishing pigs were tested. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using the agar dilution method was determined for nalidixic acid, amikacin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cefoxitin, norfloxacin, gentamicin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. All E. coli isolates were susceptible to amikacin. Tetracycline was the antimicrobial that presented the higher frequency of resistance among E. coli strains, followed by ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, gentamicin, and cefoxitin. E. coli (n = 61) strains isolated from calves belonged to different phylogroup namely, phylogroup A (n = 26), phylogroup B1 (n = 31), phylogroup E (n = 3), and phylogroup F (n = 1). Phylogroups B2, C, and D were not identified among the E. coli in the present study. All Salmonella spp. (n = 24) strains isolated from fecal samples of calves were susceptible to amikacin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, norfloxacin, gentamicin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Resistance to nalidixic acid and cefoxitin was detected in 16.66 and 8.33 % of the Salmonella spp. strains, respectively. Among the Salmonella spp. (n = 39) strains isolated from fecal samples of pigs, the higher frequency of resistance was observed to tetracycline, followed by amoxicillin, gentamicin, ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid, cefoxitin, and norfloxacin. All strains were susceptible to amikacin. Forty-eight (78.68 %) of the E. coli strains

  20. Septic abortion caused by Campylobacter jejuni bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuhala, Tomislava; Škerk, Višnja; Markotić, Alemka; Bukovski, Suzana; Desnica, Boško

    2016-08-01

    A 20-year-old female patient, 14 weeks pregnant, was admitted to hospital with anamnestic and clinical features of acute pyelonephritis. Clinical signs of septic abortion developed and after obstetric examination the therapy was changed to ampicillin, gentamicin and clindamycin. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from blood cultures. Pathohistological findings confirmed diagnosis of purulent chorioamnionitis. After 2 weeks of ciprofloxacin administration the patient fully recovered. Campylobacter jejuni was not isolated from stool culture and no signs of acute enteritis were registered during the illness. Invasive forms of Campylobacter disease without enteritis are not unusual in immunocompromised hosts but they are restricted to C. fetus rather than C. jejuni isolates.

  1. Bug on the back: vertebral osteomyelitis secondary to fluoroquinolone resistant Salmonella typhi in an immunocompetent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Pragya; Mohan, Sachin; Roy, Satyajeet

    2015-11-27

    Although Salmonella osteomyelitis is commonly seen in immunocompromised patients, it may occasionally affect an immunocompetent host. Symptoms are usually non-specific, such as fever, abdominal or back pain; hence it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with a history of travel to endemic regions. Fluoroquinolone resistance is rising and non-responsive patients should be treated with ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ceftriaxone. We present a case of acute T8-T11 osteomyelitis with cord compression caused by a fluoroquinolone resistant strain of Salmonella typhi.

  2. Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase producing Cephalosporin resistant Salmonella Typhi, reported from Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Tehmina; Lodhi, Munir; Ansari, Jawad Khaliq; Andleeb, Saadia; Ahmed, Mushtaq

    2016-08-01

    Typhoid is endemic in many parts of southeast Asia. Due to the resistance of the organism to first line of antibiotics (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole) as well as to fluoroquinolones, third generation cephalosporins have been in use for the empiric treatment of typhoid for years. However an increasing incidence of Salmonella Typhi is being reported sporadically from various regions. We report a case of typhoid due to Salmonella Typhi which was non-responsive to treatment with a cephalosporin, was found to be multidrug resistant and resistant to ciprofloxacin and third generation cephalosporin as well. The patient was finally treated successfully with intravenous administration of a carbapenem.

  3. Revised ciprofloxacin breakpoints for Salmonella Typhi: its implications in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, V; Sharma, A; Ranjan, P; Kapil, A

    2014-01-01

    The rise of multidrug resistant strains of Salmonella Typhi in the last decade of the previous century led to the use of fluoroquinolones as the drug of choice. However, over the past few years fluoroquinolone resistance has been increasingly reported. In accordance with the revised Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints, only 3% of the isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin in comparison to 95% as per the earlier guidelines when 488 isolates collected between 2010 and 2012 were re-interpreted. Interestingly, re-emergence of strains susceptible to chloramphenicol, ampicillin and cotrimoxazole is being seen. Amidst the changing susceptibility profile, azithromycin remains a promising alternative.

  4. Haemophilus paragallinarum in chickens in Indonesia: III. Antimicrobial drug sensitivity test ofHaemophilus paragallinarum from chickens suffering of coryza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Poernomo

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available An agar disc diffusion method was used to examine the sensitivity of 27 Haemophilus paragallinarum (Hpg isolates consisted of 23 local isolates, 4 standard isolates (serotype A and Escherichia coli ATCC 24922 as a control to eight antimicrobial drugs (ampicillin, erythromycin, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, neomycin, streptomycin, colistine and sulphanlethoxazole-trimethoprim . Twenty one out of 23 local isolates of Hpg were sensitive to doxycycline, 19 isolates to ampsllin, 18 isolates to oxytetracycline, 17 isolates to sulphametoxazole-trimethoprim, 16 isolates to erythromycin, and 13 isolates to neomycin, while 13 isolates were resistance to colistine and 11 isolates were also resistance to streptomycin .

  5. Lemierre's Syndrome Associated with Periodontal Injury-derived Odontogenic Infection that Did Not Respond to Meropenem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Morihiko; Tanimoto, Takao; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Hakozaki, Yukiya

    2015-01-01

    A 33-year-old previously healthy man injured his gums and subsequently developed dyspnea and fever. A chest X-ray showed nodules and infiltrates in both lungs, and the patient was initially diagnosed with pneumonia and administered meropenem hydrate, although his symptoms did not improve. A blood culture identified Fusobacterium necrophorum, and thrombophlebitis in the internal jugular vein of the neck was observed on computed tomography and ultrasound scans. We replaced the meropenem with clindamycin, sulbactam/ampicillin and metronidazole, and the patient's symptoms improved.

  6. CesRK, a two-component signal transduction system in Listeria monocytogenes, responds to the presence of cell wall-acting antibiotics and affects beta-lactam resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallipolitis, Birgitte H; Ingmer, Hanne; Gahan, Cormac G

    2003-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that can cause a variety of illnesses ranging from gastroenteritis to life-threatening septicemia. The beta-lactam antibiotic ampicillin remains the drug of choice for the treatment of listeriosis. We have previously identified a response regulator...... of L. monocytogenes to tolerate ethanol and cell wall-acting antibiotics of the beta-lactam family. Furthermore, CesRK controls the expression of a putative extracellular peptide encoded by the orf2420 gene, located immediately downstream from cesRK. Inactivation of orf2420 revealed that it contributes...

  7. DNA as Genetic Material: Revisiting Classical Experiments through an Easy, Practical Class

    OpenAIRE

    W. J. Malagó; A. Soares-Costa; F. Henrique-Silva

    2009-01-01

    In 1928, Frederick Griffith demonstrated a process of transmission of genetic information by transforming  Pneumococcus. In 1944, Oswald Avery, Colin Munro MacLeod and Maclyn McCarty showed that Griffith´stransformation principle  is DNA. Here, we intend to revisit these classicalexperiments by reproducing them in easier adapted forms, for a practical class given to undergraduate students. The Griffith experiment was reproduced by mixing heat-killed, ampicillin - resistant  E. coliwith live a...

  8. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to Listeria monocytogenes: importance of enrichment culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Saroj; Connor, Martin; Donaldson, Shona; Austin, Hannah; Foster, Adele

    2010-09-01

    A case of Listeria monocytogenes induced spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is reported in a patient with primary biliary cirrhosis. It is an indolent illness and may not show a neutrophil reaction in peritoneal fluid. Enrichment broth was required to isolate L monocytogenes in the patient. This is not routinely used in the UK and therefore isolates may be missed. L monocytogenes remains sensitive to ampicillin, penicillin and gentamicin, but is resistant to cephalosporin antibiotics. The rising incidence of listeriosis in the population suggests that the incidence of SBP from L monocytogenes is likely to increase.

  9. Antibiotic resistance profiling and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from aquatic sources

    OpenAIRE

    Olumide A. Odeyemi; Ahmad, Asmat

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate antibiotics resistance pattern and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from different aquatic sources in Melaka, Malaysia. A total of 53 Aeromonas species were isolated from the following sources: sediment (n = 13), bivalve (n = 10), sea cucumber (n = 16) and sea water (n = 14) and resistance to 12 antibiotics – Tetracycline (30 μg), Kanamycin (30 μg), Oxytetracycline (30 μg), Ampicillin (10 μg), Streptomycin (10 μg), Gentamicin (10 μg), Sulphamethoxazole...

  10. Antibiotic resistance profiling and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from aquatic sources

    OpenAIRE

    Olumide A. Odeyemi; Asmat Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate antibiotics resistance pattern and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from different aquatic sources in Melaka, Malaysia. A total of 53 Aeromonas species were isolated from the following sources: sediment (n = 13), bivalve (n = 10), sea cucumber (n = 16) and sea water (n = 14) and resistance to 12 antibiotics – Tetracycline (30 μg), Kanamycin (30 μg), Oxytetracycline (30 μg), Ampicillin (10 μg), Streptomycin (10 μg), Gentamicin (10 μg), Sulphamethoxazole...

  11. Use of fenbendazole for treatment of Crenosoma vulpis infection in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, E N; Barr, S C; Gould, W J; Beck, K A; Bowman, D D

    1993-05-01

    An 8-month-old Labrador Retriever was examined because of a 1-month history of productive coughing unresponsive to ampicillin treatment. Larvae of Crenosoma vulpis were found in fecal samples examined by zinc sulfate centrifugation and Baermann technique. Physical examination abnormalities or larvae in fecal samples were not detected 6 weeks after treatment with prednisone (1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h, for 7 days, then 0.5 mg/kg, PO, q 48 h, for 8 days) and fenbendazole granules (50 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h, for 3 days). This report suggests that fenbendazole may be effective for treating Crenosoma vulpis infection in dogs.

  12. Hepatoencephalopathy and hypocalcemia in a miniature horse mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarratt, W K; Furr, M O; Robertson, J L

    1991-12-15

    A pregnant, miniature horse mare had clinical signs of hepatoencephalopathy and concurrent hypocalcemia. The signs included dullness, inappetence, blindness, head pressing, weakness, muscle fasiculations, uveitis, and urinary incontinence. Hepatic dysfunction and hypocalcemia were confirmed by serum biochemical analysis. The mare was treated successfully with a continuous infusion of Ringer solution, calcium gluconate, dextrose, B-complex vitamins, sodium ampicillin, and flunixin meglumine; topical administration of ophthalmic ointments; and decompression of the urinary bladder. Histologic examination of a liver biopsy specimen revealed acute hepatic necrosis, which likely was associated with administration of a vaccine of equine origin 2 months earlier.

  13. A rare cause of pulmonary infiltrates one should be aware of: a case of daptomycin-induced acute eosinophilic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rether, C; Conen, A; Grossenbacher, M; Albrich, W C

    2011-12-01

    We report a 69-year-old patient who developed fever and dyspnea 3 weeks after the initiation of daptomycin therapy for spondylodiscitis with lumbar epidural and bilateral psoas abscesses due to ampicillin- and high-level-gentamicin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. There was profound hypoxia and the chest X-ray showed extensive patchy infiltrates bilaterally. A bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 30% eosinophils and results of microbiological studies were normal. Daptomycin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia was diagnosed and the patient rapidly improved after the discontinuation of daptomycin and a brief course of prednisone. Increased attention must be paid to this rare but serious side effect of daptomycin.

  14. ENTEROCOCCAL BRAIN ABSCESS OF OTOGENIC ORIGIN: A CA SE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyasagar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Various aerobic and anaerobic bacteria have been r eported as causative agents of brain abscess but only a few cases of enterococcal brain abscesses have been reported. We report a case of enterococcal brain abscess of otoge nic origin in a 35 year old male who was known case of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM and cholesteotoma of the right ear. The abscess material culture yielded an isolate which w as identified as Enterococcus faecium by standard biochemical reaction. The isolate was sens itive to penicillin, ampicillin, gentamicin, vancomycin, ofloxacin, lincomycin, and cloxacillin.

  15. Population biology of intestinal enterococcus isolates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized individuals in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedim, Ana P; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2015-03-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n = 133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n = 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages ≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized persons (77.44% to 79.77%) of all age groups (75.0% to 82.61%). Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were predominant, although seven other Enterococcus species were identified. E. faecalis and E. faecium (including ampicillin-resistant E. faecium) colonization rates in nonhospitalized persons were age independent. For inpatients, E. faecalis colonization rates were age independent, but E. faecium colonization rates (particularly the rates of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium colonization) significantly increased with age. The population structure of E. faecium and E. faecalis was determined by superimposing goeBURST and Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS). Most E. faecium sequence types (STs; 150 isolates belonging to 75 STs) were linked to BAPS groups 1 (22.0%), 2 (31.3%), and 3 (36.7%). A positive association between hospital isolates and BAPS subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a (which included major ampicillin-resistant E. faecium human lineages) and between community-based ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates and BAPS subgroups 1.2 and 3.3b was found. Most E. faecalis isolates (130 isolates belonging to 58 STs) were grouped into 3 BAPS groups, BAPS groups 1 (36.9%), 2 (40.0%), and 3 (23.1%), with each one comprising widespread lineages. No positive associations with age or hospitalization were established. The diversity and dynamics of enterococcal populations in the fecal microbiota of healthy humans are largely unexplored, with the available knowledge being fragmented and contradictory. The study offers a novel and comprehensive analysis of enterococcal population landscapes and suggests that E. faecium

  16. Haemophilus influenzae infections in adults: a pathogen in search of respect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strausbaugh, L J

    1997-02-01

    Despite the success of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines in preventing bacterial disease in children, H influenzae remains a common pathogen in adult patients in the United States and Europe. At least half of invasive H influenzae infections are caused by nontypable strains. The spectrum of diseases includes sinusitis, pneumonia, otitis media, epiglotitis, and meningitis. An etiologic diagnosis is most reliably established by positive cultures from a normally sterile site. Although resistance to ampicillin and amoxicillin has steadily increased in clinical H influenzae isolates during the past two decades, a variety of other antimicrobial agents are available for the treatment of infections caused by this bacterium.

  17. Differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maboni, Grazieli; Gressler, Leticia T.; Espindola, Julia P.; Schwab, Marcelo; Tasca, Caiane; Potter, Luciana; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis. Thirty-two strains of Moraxella spp. isolated from cattle and sheep with infectious keratoconjunctivitis were tested via broth microdilution method to determine their susceptibility to ampicillin, cefoperazone, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, oxytetracycline and penicillin. The results demonstrated that Moraxella spp. strains could be considered sensitive for most of the antimicrobials tested in this study, but differences between the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of these three Moraxella species were found. M. bovis might differ from other species due to the higher MIC and MBC values it presented. PMID:26273272

  18. Drugs resistance and penicillinase activity in skin isolated Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhat K

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to evaluate the drug resistance pattern and penicillinase production in skin isolated Staphylococcus aurpus. The disk diffusion method showed prevalence of: multidrug resistance among S. aureus, strains, isolated from locafised skin abscesses. method for detection of penicilfinase could detect this enzyme m 98.60/o of the isolates all fo which were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin. C16xacillin resistance as detected by the agar dilution method was found in 1.4% of the isolates. On the whole cloxacillin and gentamy′cin were found to be the most effective ′antistaphylococcal antibotics.

  19. Kinetic analysis of Enterococcus faecium L,D-transpeptidase inactivation by carbapenems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubée, Vincent; Arthur, Michel; Fief, Hélène; Triboulet, Sébastien; Mainardi, Jean-Luc; Gutmann, Laurent; Sollogoub, Matthieu; Rice, Louis B; Ethève-Quelquejeu, Mélanie; Hugonnet, Jean-Emmanuel

    2012-06-01

    Bypass of classical penicillin-binding proteins by the L,D-transpeptidase of Enterococcus faecium (Ldt(fm)) leads to high-level ampicillin resistance in E. faecium mutants, whereas carbapenems remain the lone highly active β-lactams. Kinetics of Ldt(fm) inactivation was determined for four commercial carbapenems and a derivative obtained by introducing a minimal ethyl group at position 2. We show that the bulky side chains of commercial carbapenems have both positive and negative effects in preventing hydrolysis of the acyl enzyme and impairing drug binding.

  20. Lactobacillus farciminis MD, a newer strain with potential for bacteriocin and antibiotic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halami, P M; Chandrashekar, A; Nand, K

    2000-03-01

    A native isolate Lactobacillus farciminis MD isolated from fermenting mushroom exhibited a high degree of sensitivity to the majority of the bacteriocins produced by strains of lactobacilli, leuconostoc and pediococci. Also, the efficacy of Lact. farciminis MD as a sensitive strain for antibiotic assay was established against different antibiotics including ampicillin, cefazoline, chloramphenicol and nitrofurantoin at concentrations of 30 microg each, showing an inhibition zone of 30 mm diameter. The high degree of sensitivity towards bacteriocins and antibiotics provide potential for the exploitation of Lact. farciminis MD in establishing very well-defined bacteriocin producers.

  1. Synthesis, and antimicrobial evaluation of new pyridine imidazo [2,1b]-1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Bhardwaj

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of producing new biologically active compounds, a series of New Pyridine Imidazo [2,1b]-1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives 4(a–k were synthesized. All the compounds were characterized via IR, 1H-NMR and Mass spectral studies. The antimicrobial activity of newly synthesized compounds against various bacteria; Bacillus pumillus, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholera, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and fungi; Candida albicans were evaluated. Among the compounds tested, 4(a, 4(b, 4(f, 4(h and 4(k exhibited good antimicrobial activity while others responded moderately with reference to standard drugs ampicillin and amphotericin B.

  2. TERMINALIA CHEBULA: A TREATMENT AGAINST PATHOGENIC PROTEUS VULGARIS STRAINS ASSOCIATED WITH URINARY TRACT INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq. A. L; Reyaz. A. L

    2013-01-01

    Terminalia chebula was used to find out the new sort of treatment for the urinary tract infections caused by Proteus vulgaris. The causative agent was identified as Proteus vulgaris by staining and biochemical methods. It is responsible to cause urinary tract infection and most of strains show the resistance against the broad spectrum antibiotics: Ceftazidime (30μg), Ofloxacin (50μg), Norfloxacin (30μg), Tetracycline (30μg), Ampicillin (30μg), Chloramphenicol (25μg) and Gentamycin (20μg). The...

  3. OLD WINE IN A NEW BOTTLE – ENTEROCOCCAL URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN NOSOCOMIAL SETUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : Enterococc al UTI is a well - known source of fatal bacteraemia & endocarditis. OBJECTIVE : Identification of different species of Enterococci causing nosocomial urinary tract infection in a tertiary care hospital along with antibiotic susceptibility pattern. METHODS : A dmitted patients developing symptoms of UTI atleast after 48 hours of admission were included in this study over a period from January - June 2013.Urine samples collected in appropriate sterile manner were screened for pus cells and bacteria followed by spec iation according to Facklam - Collins scheme. Enterococcal isolates were preserved in CTA until tested by VITEK2 (bioMerieux with AES to confirm the speciation. Antibiogram was performed by disk diffusion method (modified Kirby - Bauer technique on Muller - Hi nton agar and blood agar media. MIC of the tested antibiotics was detected by VITEK 2 with AES which provides accurate “fingerprint” recognition of bacterial resistance. RESULTS : Out of total 187 urine samples, 34 were culture positive (18% of which Enter ococci were isolated in 9 cases (26.4%; E nterococ cus f aec alis & Enteroc occ us f aec ium four each along with one E nteroc occ us gallinarum strain. Isolated E nterococc us gallinarum and all isolated E nterococc us f aec alis were sensitive to Penicillin group of dru gs, although all isolated Enterococcus faecium were resistant to them. None of the Enterococcal isolates produced β - lactamase. In isolated Enterococcus gallinarum and one Enterococcus faecalis isolate, MIC value of Ampicillin was double that of Benzyl - penicillin. Isolated Enterococcus gallinarum was t he only Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus strain. According to VITEK2 AEC, it was of vanA type with MIC ≥32μg/ml. All four Enterococcus faecalis isolates were resistant to Quinupristin & Dalfopristin whereas isolated Enterococcus faecium were sensitive to those antimicrobials. All of the isolates were sensitive to Nitrofurantoin

  4. Susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos de bactérias isoladas de otite externa em cães Antimicrobial sensitivity of bacteria from otitis externa in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Oliveira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of canine externa otitis in Fortaleza-Ceará is reported. About 91.5% of the animals with clinical signs were positive to bacterial culture. Among all infections, 49.5% were mixed infections and the most common pathogens were Staphylococcus spp coagulase negative or positive and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The most effective antimicrobials for Staphylococcus coagulase negative were: the quinolones, the aminoglicoside netilmycin and the beta-lactams, excepted ampicillin, penicillin and oxacilin; for Staphylococcus coagulase positive were: cefotoxin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, imipenem, netilmycin and cephatoxin; for Pseudomonas aeruginosa were: ciprofloxacin, tobramycin and imipenem.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolated from shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) and pond environment in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Regine H S Dos F; Carvalho, Edirsana M R; Carvalho, Fatima C T; Silva, Camila M; Sousa, Oscarina V; Rodrigues, Dalia P

    2010-04-01

    This study aimed to test the susceptibility of Escherichia coli strains isolated from the water, bottom sediments and individuals cultivated in shrimp farm ponds, to antibiotics belonging to different families, namely B-Lactams: Imipenem (IPM; 10 micro g), Ampicillin (AMP; 10 micro g), Cephalothin (CEP; 30 micro g), Cefoxitin (FOX; 30 micro g), Ceftriaxone (CRO; 30 micro g); Tetracycline: Tetracycline (TCY; 30 micro g); Aminoglycosides: Gentamicin (GEN; 10 micro g), Amikacin (AMK; 30 micro g); Chloramphenicol: Chloramphenicol (CHO; 30 micro g); Fluoroquinolones: Ciprofloxacin (CIP; 5 micro g); Nitrofurans: Nitrofurantoin (NIT; 300 micro g); Sulfonamides: Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (SXT; 30 micro g); Quilononas: Nalidixic Acid (NAL; 30 micro g). In the laboratory, the method of dissemination (Test Kirby-Bauer) was performed in order to fulfill the antibiogram tests. The results showed high indices of resistance to Imipenem, Cephalothin and Ampicillin. Chloramphenicol, Nitrofurantoin, Cefoxitin, Ceftiaxone and Ciprofloxacin have displayed the highest index of sensitive strains. The antibiotic resistance index (ARI) and the multiple resistance index (MAR) varied within the ranges of 0.068-0.077 and 0.15-0.39, respectively. More than 90.5% of strains of Escherichia coli showed a variety of resistance profiles to the tested antibiotics. The high indices of resistance may be a consequence of indiscriminate use of antibiotics, but also the transfer of resistance through mobile genetic elements found in shrimp farms.

  6. Experimental modeling of the processes resulting from the introduction of the transgenic microorganism Escherichia coli Z905/pPHL7 (lux+) into aquatic microcosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargatova, T.; Popova, L.; Pechurkin, N.

    The processes resulting from the introduction of the transgenic microorganism (TM) E. coli Z905/pPHL7 into aquatic microcosms have been modeled experimentally. It has been shown that the TM E. coli is able to adapt to a long co-existence with aboriginal heterotrophic microflora, whatever the structure of a microcosm. In more complex microcosms the numerical dynamics of the introduced E. coli Z905/pPHL7 population is more stable. In the TM populations staying in the microcosms for a prolonged time changes are recorded in the phenotypic expression of plasmid genes (ampicillin resistance and the luminescence level) and chromosome genes (morphological and physiological traits). However, in every study microcosm the recombinant plasmid persists in the TM cells during 6 years after the introduction, and as the population adapts to the conditions of the microcosms, the efficiency of the cloned gene expression in the cells is restored. In the microcosms with high microalgal counts (107 cells/ml), cells with a high threshold of sensitivity to ampicillin dominate in the population of the TM E. coli Z905/pPHL7.

  7. Construction of a multiplex promoter reporter platform to monitor Staphylococcus aureus virulence gene expression and the identification of usnic acid as a potent suppressor of psm gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng GAO

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As antibiotic resistance becomes phenomenal, alternative therapeutic strategies for bacterial infections such as anti-virulence treatments have been advocated. We have constructed a total of 20 gfp-luxABCDE dual-reporter plasmids with selected promoters from S. aureus virulence-associated genes. The plasmids were introduced into various S. aureus strains to establish a gfp-lux based multiplex promoter reporter platform for monitoring S. aureus virulence gene expressions in real time to identify factors or compounds that may perturb virulence of S. aureus. The gene expression profiles monitored by luminescence correlated well with qRT-PCR results and extrinsic factors including carbon dioxide and some antibiotics were shown to suppress or induce the expression of virulence factors in this platform. Using this platform, sub-inhibitory ampicillin was shown to be a potent inducer for the expression of many virulence factors in S. aureus. Bacterial adherence and invasion assays using mammalian cells were employed to measure S. aureus virulence induced by ampicillin. The platform was used for screening of natural extracts that perturb the virulence of S. aureus and usnic acid was identified to be a potent repressor for the expression of psm.

  8. Experimental evaluation of the processes resulting from the introduction of the transgenic microorganism Escherichia coli Z905/pPHL7 ( lux+) into aquatic microcosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargatova, T. V.; Boyandin, A. N.; Popova, L. Yu.; Pechurkin, N. S.

    The processes resulting from the introduction of the tranagenic microorganism (TM) E. coli Z905/pPHL7 into aquatic microcosms have been modeled experimentally. It has been shown that the TM E. coli is able to adapt to a long co-existence with indigenous heterotropbic microflora in variously structured microcosms. In more complex microcosms the numerical dynamics of the introduced E. coli Z905/pPHL7 population is more stable. In the TM populations staying in the microcosms for a prolonged time, changes are recorded in the phenotypic expression of plasmid genes (ampicillin resistance and the luminescence level) and chromosome genes (morphological and physiological traits). However, in our study microcosms, the recombinant plasmid persisted in the TM cells for 6 years after the introduction, and as the population adapts to the conditions of the microcosms, the efficiency of the cloned gene expression in the cells is restored. In the microcosms with high microalgal counts (10 7 cells/ml), cells with a high threshold of sensitivity to ampicillin dominate in the population of the TM E. coli Z905/pPHL7.

  9. Patterns of antimicrobial resistance in a surgical intensive care unit of a university hospital in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balci Iclal

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have reported higher rates of antimicrobial resistance among isolates from intensive care units than among isolates from general patient-care areas. The aims of this study were to review the pathogens associated with nosocomial infections in a surgical intensive care unit of a university hospital in Turkey and to summarize rates of antimicrobial resistance in the most common pathogens. The survey was conducted over a period of twelve months in a tertiary-care teaching hospital located in the south-eastern part of Turkey, Gaziantep. A total of 871 clinical specimens from 615 adult patients were collected. From 871 clinical specimens 771 bacterial and fungal isolates were identified. Results Most commonly isolated microorganisms were: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.3%, Candida species (15% and Staphylococcus aureus (12.9%. Among the Gram-negative microorganisms P. aeruginosa were mostly resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (71.3–98.1%, while Acinetobacter baumannii were resistant in all cases to piperacillin, ceftazidime and ceftriaxone. Isolates of S. aureus were mostly resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, and methicillin (82–95%, whereas coagulase-negative staphylococci were 98.6% resistant to methicillin and in all cases resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline. Conclusion In order to reduce the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in ICUs, monitoring and optimization of antimicrobial use in hospitals are strictly recommended. Therefore local resistance surveillance programs are of most value in developing appropriate therapeutic guidelines for specific infections and patient types.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF VIRULENCE GENES AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF LUNG PATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATES IN FOREST MUSK DEER (MOSCHUS BEREZOVSKII).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xi; Wang, Peng; Cheng, Jian-guo; Luo, Yan; Dai, Lei; Zhou, Xin; Zou, Li-kou; Li, Bei; Xiao, Jiu-Jin

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated genotypic diversity, 26 virulence genes, and antimicrobial susceptibility of lung pathogenic Escherichia coli (LPEC) isolated from forest musk deer. Associations between virulence factors (VFs) and phylogenetic group, between antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and phylogenetic group, and between AMR and VFs were subsequently assessed. The results showed 30 LPEC isolated were grouped into seven different clusters (A, B, C, D, E, F, and G). The detection rates of crl (90%), kpsMT II (76.67%), mat (76.67%), and ompA (80%) were over 75%. The most frequent types of resistance were to amoxicillin (100%), sulfafurazole (100%), ampicillin (96.67%), and tetracycline (96.67%), with 93.33% (n = 28) of isolates resistant to more than eight types of drugs. There were significant relationships between resistance to cefalotin and the presence of iucD(a) (P < 0.001), papC (P = 0.032), and kpsMT II (P = 0.028); between resistance to chloromycetin and the presence of irp2 (P = 0.004) and vat (P = 0.047); between resistance to nalidixic acid and the presence of crl (P = 0.002) and iucD(a) (P = 0.004); and between resistance to ampicillin/sulbactam and the presence of vat (P = 0.013). These results indicated there could be some association between resistance and VFs, and there is a great need for the prudent use of antimicrobial agents in LPEC.

  11. Case report: Infective endocarditis caused by Brevundimonas vesicularis

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    Chen Tun-Chieh

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few reports in the literature of invasive infection caused by Brevundimonas vesicularis in patients without immunosuppression or other predisposing factors. The choice of antimicrobial therapy for bacteremia caused by the pathogen requires more case experience to be determined. Case presentation The case of a 40-year-old previously healthy man with subacute endocarditis proposed to be contributed from an occult dental abscess is described. The infection was found to be caused by B. vesicularis on blood culture results. The patient recovered without sequelae after treatment with ceftriaxone followed by subsequent ciprofloxacin therapy owing to an allergic reaction to ceftriaxone and treatment failure with ampicillin/sulbactam. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of B. vesicularis as a cause of infective endocarditis. According to an overview of the literature and our experience, we suggest that third-generation cephalosporins, piperacillin/tazobactam, and ciprofloxacin are effective in treating invasive B. vesicularis infections, while the efficacy of ampicillin-sulbactam needs further evaluation.

  12. [Simultaneous determination of five penicillins in muscle, liver and kidney from slaughtered animals using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Kazuhiro

    2003-02-01

    A simple and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of five penicillins (ampicillin, penicillin G, penicillin V, oxacillin and cloxacillin) in muscle, liver and kidney tissues using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed. Mass spectral acquisition was done in the negative ion mode by applying selected reaction monitoring (SRM). The five penicillins were extracted with water, and the extracted solution was cleaned up on a C18 cartridge. Phenethicillin was added as an internal standard, and the extract was diluted with water for injection into the LC-ESI-MS/MS. The recoveries of the five penicillins were in the range of 77.3-99.8% from muscle, liver and kidney fortified at 10-250 ng/g. The detection limits for ampicillin were 6 ng/g in muscle and kidney and 15 ng/g in liver. For penicillin G and penicillin V, the detection limits were 2 ng/g in muscle and kidney and 5 ng/g in liver. For oxacillin and cloxacillin, the detection limits were 4 ng/g in muscle and kidney and 10 ng/g in liver. Twenty-three muscle, fourteen liver and twenty-two kidney samples from the markets were analyzed by this method. No penicillins were detected in any sample.

  13. Sample stacking for the analysis of penicillins by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsi-Ya; Hsieh, Shih-Huan

    2008-09-01

    In this study, on-line sample concentration methods, which coupled field-amplified sample injection and sweeping technology with MEEKC, were used to detect and analyze eight common penicillin antibiotics (nafcillin, dicloxacillin, ampicillin, oxacillin, penicillin V, cloxacillin, penicillin G, and amoxicillin). During the optimization of field-amplified sample injection-sweeping MEEKC, the composition of sample matrix and the length of acidic plug were found to be the predominant influences for penicillin stacking. Both zwitterionic ampicillin and amoxicillin could only be stacked through cation-selective-exhaustive-injection sweeping, whereas the other six penicillin compounds were found to be concentrated by anion-selective-exhaustive-injection sweeping. Hence, in order to simultaneously concentrate the eight penicillins in a single-run sweeping step, a combination of successive anion- and cation-selective injections was used. When compared with previous CE-UV methods, the proposed on-line concentration MEEKC method provided better detection sensitivity and faster separation for these penicillins either in single ion-selective injection or in successive anion-/cation-selective injection where the LODs were in the range of 0.2-2.8 microg/L and 0.5-5.8 microg/L, respectively.

  14. Pharmacokinetic detection of penicillin excreted in urine using a totally internally reflected resonance light scattering technique with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng Zhi; Feng, Ping; Li, Yuan Fang; Tan, Ke Jun

    2005-05-01

    A quantitative analysis method for penicillins including ampicillin (AmP), benzyl penicillin (BP), oxacillin (OA) and amoxycillin (AmO) is proposed that makes use of the totally internally reflected resonance light scattering (TIR-RLS) signal from the penicillin at the H2O/CCl4 interface in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB), and enables the pharmacokinetics of penicillin taken orally and excreted through urine to be monitored. Penicillin is coadsorbed with CTMAB at the H2O/CCl4 interface in neutral solution, resulting in the formation of ion associates that display greatly enhanced TIR-RLS signals (maximum at 368-372 nm). This enhanced TIR-RLS intensity was found to be proportional to the penicillin concentration over the range 0.2 x 10(-6) to 2.2 x 10(-6) mol L(-1), with limits of determination (3sigma) of 5.0 x 10(-8) to 7.0 x 10(-8) mol L(-1). Pharmacokinetics studies performed using the present method show that the excretion of orally-taken ampicillin through urine has a half-time of 1.05 h and an excremental quantum over 8 h of 49.3%, respectively.

  15. Characterization of persistent and transient Escherichia coli isolates recovered from clinical mastitis episodes in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Julie-Hélène; Dufour, Simon; Fairbrother, John Morris; Francoz, David; Nadeau, Éric; Messier, Serge

    2015-03-23

    Escherichia coli usually cause transient intramammary infections in dairy cows, but persistent intramammary infections have been observed. The objective of the study was to compare antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes found in persistent and transient E. coli isolated from clinical mastitis cases in a cohort of 91 Canadian dairy herds monitored over a 2-year period. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution and the presence of 27 virulence genes associated with extra-intestinal E. coli infections was determined by colony hybridization. Proportion of resistance in persistent E. coli ranged from 0.0% (enrofloxacin) to 27.8% (ampicillin and tetracycline). Proportion of resistance in transient E. coli ranged from 0.0% (enrofloxacin) to 16.8% (tetracycline). Odds of being classified as a persistent isolate increased by a factor of 1.6 (95% CI: 1.1, 2.4) for each aditional resistance observed (e.g. isolates resistant to four antimicrobial agents had 1.6 times higher odds of belonging to the persistent groups compared to isolates demonstrating resistance to three agents). Persistency was associated with higher odds of resistance to ampicillin (OR: 9.8, Pcoli isolates is associated with certain traits. Findings concerning iron-acquisition shed new light on the mechanisms of intramammary survival.

  16. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from carriers

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    Dayamí García

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available When it is necessary to determine the susceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis (Nm strains to antimicrobial drugs, it is important to consider that it should be analyzed in a double context. One of them related to the use of drugs in a specific medical treatment; and the other; to chemoprophylatic drugs, both with the same purpose: the accurate selection of the “in vivo” antimicrobial agent. This requires the study of the sensitivity and resistance of strains isolated in both carriers and patients. With the aim of further studying the behavior of the strains that currently circulate in Cuba, an antimicrobial drug susceptibility study was conducted in 90 strains isolated from carriers during the first half of 1998. The agar dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs to: penicillin, ampicillin, rifampin, sulfadiazine, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime. The study of the three latter drugs was done for the first time in our country. The search for β- lactamase-producer strains was also performed. There was a predominance of penicillin sensitive strains (82,2% with an intermediate sensitivity to ampicillin (57,8%, while 70% of the strains were sensitive to sulfadiazine. Regarding the rest of the antimicrobial drugs, 100% of the strains were sensitive. The paper shows the MICs for each drug as well as the phenotypic characteristics of the strains with the penicillin and sulfadiazine sensitivity and resistance patterns. No β-lactamase-producer strains were found.

  17. Prophylactic antibiotics versus post- operative antibiotics in herniorraphy

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    Abedulla Khan Kayamkani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative surgical site infections are a major source of illness.  Infection results in longer hospital stay and higher costs.  Uses of preoperative antibiotics have been standardized and are being used routinely in most clinical surgeries and include controversial areas like breast surgery and herniorraphy. Objective of the study is to find out the benefit of prophylactic use of antibiotics in the management of herniorraphy.This project was carried out in a multispeciality tertiary care teaching hospital from 1st-30th April in 2002. Group 1 patients were treated prophylactically half an hour before surgery with single dose of I.V. antibiotics (injection.  Ampicillin 1gm + injection.  Gentamicin 80mg. Group 2 patients were treated post surgery with capsule. Ampicillin 500mg 4 times a day for 7 days and injection. Gentamicin twice a day for first 4 days. In case of group 1 patients only one out of 20 patients (5% was infected.  Whereas in-group 2 patients 5 out of 20 patients (25% were infected. The cost of prophylactic antibiotic treatment was Rs. 25.56 per patient.  The postoperative antibiotic treatment cost was Rs. 220.4 per patient.  That means postoperative treatment is around 8.62 times costlier than prophylactic treatment.             From this study it is evident that prophylactic (preoperative treatment is better than postoperative treatment with antibiotics.

  18. [Production of hydrolases by lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria and their antibiotic resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novik, G I; Astanovich, N I; Riabaia, N E

    2007-01-01

    It was demonstrated that bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria B. adolescentis and Lactobacillus sp. synthesized extracellular enzymes cleaving glycoside bonds in the molecules of dextran, pectic acid, and soluble starch. The maximal production of extracellular beta-galactosidase by B. adolescentis 91-BIM and 94-BIM at a rate of 0.08 and 0.03 U/mg h was observed during the exponential growth phase at 5 and 12 h of cultivation, respectively. The cultures of bifidobacteria retained 60-70% of beta-galactosidase and alpha-amylase activities after six months of storage. The bifidobacterium strains studied were resistant to amphotericin and aminoglycosides (gentamicin, kanamycin, and netromycin). The lactam antibiotics (ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, bicillin 3, bicillin 5, and carbenicillin), the preparations inhibiting protein synthesis at the level of ribosomes (lincomycin), RNA polymerase inhibitors (rifampin), cephalosporin, and Maxipime inhibited the growth of bifidobacteria. Rifampin, erythromycin, amphotericin, Maxipime, Fortum, doxycycline, levomycetin, streptomycin, and the aminoglycosides netromycin, gentamicin, and kanamycin did not have an effect on the growth of Lactobacillus sp., whereas semisynthetic derivatives of penicillin, carbenicillin and ampicillin, inhibited its growth as well as Oxamp and lincomycin. The lactam antibiotics benzylpenicillin, bicillin 3, and bicillin 5 inhibited the growth of lactic acid bacilli by 30-90%.

  19. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in raw milk in the selected areas of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysok, B; Wiszniewska-Łaszczych, A; Uradziński, J; Szteyn, J

    2011-01-01

    During the recent years, an immense increase in the number of food poisoning cases in people caused by Campylobacter (C.) species has occurred. Raw milk, next to poultry meat, is considered the most frequent cause of food poisoning in people caused by the subject bacteria, although it is not always possible to isolate Campylobacter cells from the incriminated milk. Most probably this difficulty is caused by low concentration of the pathogen in milk at the level of 2/3 cells/ml although even such low concentration represents risk to human health. The present study was aimed at determining the occurence of Campylobacter bacteria in milk originating from selected regions of Poland. The isolation method applied in this work was effective in recovering as few as 0.1 cell of Campylobacter per g of food. Among 150 bulk milk samples tested, Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 7 (4.6%) ones. The biochemical identification of the isolated strains conducted by means of conventional biochemical tests as well as by applying the API - Campy tests revealed that all the isolates belonged to the C. jejuni species. Determination of resistance to antibiotics was performed by means of the diffusion disks method for the following antibiotics: gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, doxycyclin and tetracycline. Among 7 isolates tested, all were susceptible to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin and gentamicin, 28.5% to doxycyclin and 14.2% to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin.

  20. Antibiotic Resistance of Vibrio cholerae Isolates from Kashan, Iran

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    Afzali H.MD,

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease that can lead to severe dehydration and death. Antibiotic resistance is a big challenge in infective disease like Cholera. The present study aimed to understand the characteristics and trends of antibiotic resistance of V. cholerae isolations in and around Kashan, Iran. Instrument & Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, samples were gathered using census method from 1998 to 2013 in Kashan, Iran. 1132 fecal samples of patients with acute diarrhea and 237 samples of suspected water samples were taken. The serotypes and biotypes were determined by an enzymatic method. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by using Disk Diffusion Method. Data were analyzed using SPSS 23 software. Fisher-exact and Chi-square tests were used to compare the statistical parameters. Findings: 96 fecal samples (8.5% and 18 water samples (7.6% were positive for Vibrio cholerae. Non-agglutinating (Nag isolates (75.4% were more common than serotype Inaba (13.2% and Ogawa (11.4%. Nag serotypes were mostly resistant to cefixime (44% and ampicillin (33%. In contaminated water samples also the most frequent cases were Nag serotype (50%. Nag serotype showed 22.2% of resistance to ampicillin and nitrofurantoin. Conclusion: Vibrio cholerae isolates in Kashan, Iran, are highly resistant to antibiotics, especially Nag serotypes.

  1. Antimicrobial activities of several parts of Pinus brutia, Juniperus oxycedrus, Abies cilicia, Cedrus libani and Pinus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diğrak, M; Ilçim, A; Hakki Alma, M

    1999-11-01

    In this study, the antimicrobial activities of several parts of various trees grown in the Kahramanmaraş region of Turkey were investigated by the disc diffusion method. Chloroform, acetone and methanol extracts of leaves, resins, barks, cones and fruits of Pinus brutia Ten., Juniperus oxycedrus L., Abies cilicia Ant. & Kotschy Carr., Cedrus libani A. Rich. and Pinus nigra Arn. were prepared and tested against Bacillus megaterium DSM 32, Bacillus subtilis IMG 22, Bacillus cereus FMC 19, Escherichia coli DM, Klebsiella pneumoniae FMC 3, Enterobacter aerogenes CCM 2531, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1, Mycobacterium smegmatis RUT, Proteus vulgaris FMC 1, Listeria monocytogenes Scoot A, Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSM 5007, Candida albicans CCM 314, Candida tropicalis MDC 86 and Penicillium italicum K. The results showed that antifungal effects were not observed for the whole extracts, E. coli was not inhibited by any of the plant extracts except by the chloroform and acetone extracts of the leaves of A. cilicia, which showed inhibition zones of 16-18 mm, respectively. All the plant extracts used in this study inhibited the development of the other bacteria studied. When the results of this study were compared with an ampicillin standard, it was found that the microorganisms studied were generally susceptible, intermediate or resistant to the extracts of species when compared with the ampicillin standard. On the other hand, the acetone and methanol extracts of Juniperus fruits were found to be quite resistant.

  2. Isolation frequency and susceptibility pattern of non-O1 and non-O139 Vibrio cholerae in a tertiary health care laboratory, 1999-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, S; Fasih, N; Ghanchi, N K; Khan, E

    2016-04-28

    In the past decade the importance of non-O1 and non-O139 strains of Vibrio cholerae has been highlighted globally. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of non-O1 and non-O139 V. cholerae in Pakistan. Data of stool specimens yielding growth of non-O1 and non-O139 V. cholerae isolated at a national referral laboratory from 1999 to 2012 were retrospectively analysed and evaluated for resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole and ofloxacin. A total of 95 800 stool samples submitted over 1999-2012 yielded 3668 strains of V. cholerae, of which 6% were non-O1 and non-O139 V. cholerae. A high isolation rate was found in the summer season, with a peak in the year 2003. Antimicrobial susceptibility data revealed increasing resistance to co-trimoxazole and ampicillin, but strains remained highly susceptible to ofloxacin. Active surveillance of serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility is essential to predict future epidemics and define measures to curtail the disease.

  3. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM UKRAINIAN BETULA VERRUCOSA EHRH. POLLEN AFTER MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

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    Tetiana Shevtsova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Seven samples of silver birch pollen from different habitat of Ukraine were investigated in order to estimate their contamination with the Enterobacteriaceae family, anaerobic bacteria and fungi. Also resistance of 108 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from seven samples of Ukrainian Betula verrucosa Ehrh. pollen against 5 antibiotics: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, meropenem, ceftriaxone and ofloxacin were determined. Disc diffusion method was used for antibiotic suceptibility testing according to EUCAST 2012. It is established the concentrations of enterobacteria ranged from 0.00 to 4.16 log cfu/g, of anaerobic bacteria – 2.48 to 4.90 log cfu/g and concentration of fungi ranged from 2.48 to 4.14 log cfu/g. Degree of pollen contamination is different depending on the habitats. The resistance of E. coli isolates was determined against ampicillin, chloramphenicol, meropenem and ofloxacin. But intermediate resistance in the 33.3% of E. coli isolates and susceptibility in the 8.3% to ceftriaxone was found out. Antibiotic resistance was evaluated for all samples of pollen in whole.

  4. Mutation Landscape of Acquired Cross-Resistance to Glycopeptide and β-Lactam Antibiotics in Enterococcus faecium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Emmanuelle; Cortes, Mélanie; Josseaume, Nathalie; Bouchier, Christiane; Dubée, Vincent; Hugonnet, Jean-Emmanuel; Mainardi, Jean-Luc; Rice, Louis B.

    2015-01-01

    Bypass of the d,d-transpeptidase activity of penicillin-binding proteins by an l,d-transpeptidase (Ldtfm) results in resistance to ampicillin and glycopeptides in Enterococcus faecium M9, a mutant obtained by nine consecutive selection steps. Resistance requires activation of a cryptic locus for production of the essential tetrapeptide-containing substrate of Ldtfm and impaired activity of protein phosphatase StpA. Here, whole-genome sequencing revealed a high mutation rate for the entire selection procedure (79 mutations in 900 generations). Acquisition of a mutation in the mismatch repair gene mutL had little impact on the frequency of rifampin-resistant mutants although the mutation spectrum of M9 was typical of impaired MutL with high transversion to transition (40/11) and substitution to deletion (51/28) ratios. M9 did not mainly accumulate neutral mutations since base substitutions occurred more frequently in coding sequences than expected (χ2 = 5.0; P < 0.05) and silent mutations were underrepresented (χ2 = 5.72; P < 0.02). None of the mutations directly affected recognition of the tetrapeptide substrate of Ldtfm by peptidoglycan synthesis enzymes. Instead, mutations appear to remodel regulatory circuits involving two-component regulatory systems and sugar metabolism. The high number of mutations required for activation of the l,d-transpeptidase pathway may strongly limit emergence of cross-resistance to ampicillin and glycopeptides by this mechanism. PMID:26077262

  5. Changes in gram negative microorganisms’ resistance pattern during 4 years period in a referral teaching hospital; a surveillance study

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    Khalili Hossein

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Surveillance studies evaluating antimicrobial susceptibilities are of great value in preventing the spread of resistant pathogens by elucidating the trend of resistance in commonly used antibiotics and as a consequence providing information for prescribing the most appropriate agent. This study is a longitudinal antimicrobial resistance surveillance study designed to evaluate the trend in antimicrobial resistance to gram negative microorganisms from 2007 to 2010. Method During a four-year period (2007–2010 isolates derived from all patients admitted to infectious diseases ward of Imam Khomeini Hospital, the major referral center for infectious disease in Iran with the highest admission rates, were evaluated. Based on disk diffusion method and zone of inhibition size, the microorganism was regarded as to be sensitive, resistant or has intermediate susceptibility to the antimicrobial agents. Results The widest spread Gram-negative microorganism in all of isolates taken together in our study was E.coli (30% followed by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in 28.6% and Enterobacter spp. in 11.9%, respectively. The susceptibility to amikacin, imipenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, and nitrofurantoin was equal or above 50% for all microorganisms over four years. However, the susceptibility to ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefotaxim, and ceftriaxone was less than 50% in derived isolates during the study period. Conclusion In conclusion, the finding of the present study revealed that resistance rate to common antimicrobial agents in Iran is growing and isolates were susceptible mostly to broad-spectrum antibiotics including imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam.

  6. Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Surface Water in Bassaseachic Falls National Park, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Gardea, Ma Carmen E; Tamez-Guerra, Patricia; Gomez-Flores, Ricardo; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Francisco Javier; Eroza-de la Vega, Gilberto; Nevárez-Moorillón, Guadalupe Virginia; Pérez-Recoder, María Concepción; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; González-Horta, María Del Carmen; Infante-Ramírez, Rocío

    2016-06-16

    Bacterial pathogens are a leading cause of waterborne disease, and may result in gastrointestinal outbreaks worldwide. Inhabitants of the Bassaseachic Falls National Park in Chihuahua, Mexico show seasonal gastroenteritis problems. This aim of this study was to detect enteropathogenic microorganisms responsible for diarrheal outbreaks in this area. In 2013, 49 surface water samples from 13 selected sampling sites along the Basaseachi waterfall and its main rivers, were collected during the spring, summer, autumn, and winter seasons. Fecal and total coliform counts were determined using standard methods; the AutoScan-4 system was used for identification of isolates and the antibiotic resistance profile by challenging each organism using 21 antibiotics. Significant differences among seasons were detected, where autumn samples resulted in the highest total (p microbiological analysis, 33 bacterial isolates from 13 different sites and four sampling seasons were selected; 53% of isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and 15% exhibited a multidrug resistance (MDB) phenotype. MDB were identified as Klebsiella oxytoca (two out of four identified isolates), Escherichia coli (2/7), and Enterobacter cloacae (1/3). In addition, some water-borne microorganisms exhibited resistance to cefazoline, cefuroxime, ampicillin, and ampicillin-sulbactam. The presence of these microorganisms near rural settlements suggests that wastewater is the contamination source, providing one possible transmission mechanism for diarrheal outbreaks.

  7. The Dac-tag, an affinity tag based on penicillin-binding protein 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David Wei; Peggie, Mark; Deak, Maria; Toth, Rachel; Gage, Zoe Olivia; Wood, Nicola; Schilde, Christina; Kurz, Thimo; Knebel, Axel

    2012-09-01

    Penicillin-binding protein 5 (PBP5), a product of the Escherichia coli gene dacA, possesses some β-lactamase activity. On binding to penicillin or related antibiotics via an ester bond, it deacylates and destroys them functionally by opening the β-lactam ring. This process takes several minutes. We exploited this process and showed that a fragment of PBP5 can be used as a reversible and monomeric affinity tag. At ambient temperature (e.g., 22°C), a PBP5 fragment binds rapidly and specifically to ampicillin Sepharose. Release can be facilitated either by eluting with 10mM ampicillin or in a ligand-free manner by incubation in the cold (1-10°C) in the presence of 5% glycerol. The "Dac-tag", named with reference to the gene dacA, allows the isolation of remarkably pure fusion protein from a wide variety of expression systems, including (in particular) eukaryotic expression systems.

  8. Modelling considerations in the analysis of associations between antimicrobial use and resistance in beef feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, N R; Benedict, K M; Gow, S P; Waldner, C L; Reid-Smith, R J; Booker, C W; McAllister, T A; Morley, P S

    2016-04-01

    A number of sophisticated modelling approaches are available to investigate potential associations between antimicrobial use (AMU) and resistance (AMR) in animal health settings. All have their advantages and disadvantages, making it unclear as to which model is most appropriate. We used advanced regression modelling to investigate AMU-AMR associations in faecal non-type-specific Escherichia coli (NTSEC) isolates recovered from 275 pens of feedlot cattle. Ten modelling strategies were employed to investigate AMU associations with resistance to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, sulfisoxazole, tetracycline and streptomycin. Goodness-of-fit statistics did not show a consistent advantage for any one model type. Three AMU-AMR associations were significant in all models. Recent parenteral tetracycline use increased the odds of finding tetracycline-resistant NTSEC [odds ratios (OR) 1·1-3·2]; recent parenteral sulfonamide use increased the odds of finding sulfisoxazole-resistant NTSEC (OR 1·4-2·5); and recent parenteral macrolide use decreased the odds of recovering ampicillin-resistant NTSEC (OR 0·03-0·2). Other results varied markedly depending on the modelling approach, emphasizing the importance of exploring and reporting multiple modelling methods based on a balanced consideration of important factors such as study design, mathematical appropriateness, research question and target audience.

  9. Construction of a Multiplex Promoter Reporter Platform to Monitor Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Gene Expression and the Identification of Usnic Acid as a Potent Suppressor of psm Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Wang, Yanli; Villanueva, Iván; Ho, Pak Leung; Davies, Julian; Kao, Richard Yi Tsun

    2016-01-01

    As antibiotic resistance becomes phenomenal, alternative therapeutic strategies for bacterial infections such as anti-virulence treatments have been advocated. We have constructed a total of 20 gfp-luxABCDE dual-reporter plasmids with selected promoters from S. aureus virulence-associated genes. The plasmids were introduced into various S. aureus strains to establish a gfp-lux based multiplex promoter reporter platform for monitoring S. aureus virulence gene expressions in real time to identify factors or compounds that may perturb virulence of S. aureus. The gene expression profiles monitored by luminescence correlated well with qRT-PCR results and extrinsic factors including carbon dioxide and some antibiotics were shown to suppress or induce the expression of virulence factors in this platform. Using this platform, sub-inhibitory ampicillin was shown to be a potent inducer for the expression of many virulence factors in S. aureus. Bacterial adherence and invasion assays using mammalian cells were employed to measure S. aureus virulence induced by ampicillin. The platform was used for screening of natural extracts that perturb the virulence of S. aureus and usnic acid was identified to be a potent repressor for the expression of psm.

  10. Oral antibiotics enhance antibody responses to keyhole limpet hemocyanin in orally but not muscularly immunized chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Atsushi; Kitahara, Kazuki; Okumura, Shouta; Kobayashi, Misato; Horio, Fumihiko

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies have emphasized the crucial role of gut microbiota in triggering and modulating immune response. We aimed to determine whether the modification of gut microbiota by oral co-administration of two antibiotics, ampicillin and neomycin, would lead to changes in the antibody response to antigens in chickens. Neonatal chickens were given or not given ampicillin and neomycin (0.25 and 0.5 g/L, respectively) in drinking water. At 2 weeks of age, the chicks were muscularly or orally immunized with antigenic keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), and then serum anti-KLH antibody levels were examined by ELISA. In orally immunized chicks, oral antibiotics treatment enhanced antibody responses (IgM, IgA, IgY) by 2-3-fold compared with the antibiotics-free control, while the antibiotics did not enhance antibody responses in the muscularly immunized chicks. Concomitant with their enhancement of antibody responses, the oral antibiotics also lowered the Lactobacillus species in feces. Low doses of antibiotics (10-fold and 100-fold lower than the initial trial), which failed to change the fecal Lactobacillus population, did not modify any antibody responses when chicks were orally immunized with KLH. In conclusion, oral antibiotics treatment enhanced the antibody response to orally exposed antigens in chickens. This enhancement of antibody response was associated with a modification of the fecal Lactobacillus content, suggesting a possible link between gut microbiota and antibody response in chickens.

  11. Detection of antibiotic resistant Avibacterium paragallinarum from broiler chickens in Bangladesh

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    Mst. Mousumi Khatun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An attempt was undertaken for the detection and characterization of Avibacterium paragallinarum from clinically sick broiler chickens during field outbreaks. Materials and methods: Nasal and ocular discharges (n=6, tracheal swab (n=6, tracheal washing (n=4 and infraorbital sinus exudates (n=4 were collected aseptically from broiler chickens (n=10. To isolate A. paragallinarum, the clinical samples were cultured onto blood agar and chocolate agar enriched with Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD and feeder organism (Staphylococcus aureus. Identification of A. paragallinarum was performed by Gram staining reaction, sugar fermentation profiles using five basic sugars (Dextrose, Maltose, Sucrose, Lactose and Mannitol and biochemical tests (Indole, Voges Proskauer and Methyl red tests. Antibiogram of the bacterial isolates of infected chicken was performed against five antibiotics namely Ciprofloxacin, Azithromycin, Gentamicin, Ampicillin and Cefalexin using disk diffusion method. Results: Results of colonial morphology, Gram staining reaction, sugar fermentation and biochemical tests confirmed one isolate as A. paragallinarum. The overall prevalence of IC in broiler chicken was 10% (1 of 10. This isolate was found to be sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Azithroycin and Gentamicin and resistant to Ampicillin and Cefalexin. Conclusion: This is the first report of detection of A. paragallinarum from broiler chicken in Bangladesh. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 173-177

  12. Anti-Microbial Resistance Profiles Of E. Coli Isolated From Free Range Chickens In Urban And Rural Environments Of Imo State, Nigeria

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    Okoli IC

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Information on the resistance profiles of normal intestinal flora of extensively reared chickens that hardly receive antibiotics in the developing countries can serve as important means of understanding the human/animal pathogens drug resistance interactions in the zone. Three hundred and fifty E. coli isolates, comprising 133 from urban and 217 from rural sites in Imo state, Nigeria, were screened for anti-microbial resistance profile against 10 antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. Overall percentage anti-microbial resistance of the isolates against cotrimoxazole, ampicillin, nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol and nitrofurantoin (72–92% were very high. The organisms were highly sensitive to other antibiotics, especially gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. The 59.5% overall mean percentage resistance recorded at the urban area was significantly higher than the 46.8% recorded at the rural area (p<0.05. With the exception of the figures for cotrimoxazole and ampicillin, resistance values obtained against the other antibiotics at the urban sites were statistically higher than those obtained at the rural sites (p<0.05. Zero resistance was recorded against the fluoroquinolones, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin at all the rural sites except at Enyiogwugwu where a 28.6% resistance was obtained against norfloxacin. Since free-range chickens rarely receive antibiotic medication, it is concluded that the highly resistant E. coli organisms isolated from them may be reflecting consequences of human drug use in the study areas.

  13. Detection of Beta-Lactamase and Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase of Pathogens Isolated from Pig and Chicken and Their Antibiotic Susceptibility Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of beta-lactam antibiotics or their combinations with inhibitor sulbactum against non-lactamaseproducing strains, lactamase-producing and ESBLs-producing isolates was evaluated with twofold dilution method after pathogens isolated from pigs and chickens were detected, respectively, for beta-lactamase and extended-spectrum betalactamases (ESBLs). The results revealed that most of 43 clinically isolated strains could produce beta-lactamase and 3strains of shigella isolated from chicken samples produced ESBLs. All of 30 lactamase-producing strains isolated and only one of 16 non-lactamase-producing strains were resistant to amoxicillin and ampicillin. MICs of ampicillin against lactamaseproducing isolates decreased 10-40 and 10-20 times respectively, when it was conbined with sulbactam at ration of 1:2 and 1:4. All clinical isolates were susceptible to third-generation cephalosporins. The MICs of third-generation cephalosporins against lactamase-producing isolates did not change when they were conbined with sulbactam. MICs of ceftiofur and ceftriaxone against ESBLs-producing isolates decreased 2-4 times when they were conbined with sulbactam.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from chickens with colibacillosis in and around Harare, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Bamusi; Mafirakureva, Prettimore; Mbanga, Joshua

    2013-03-01

    Colibacillosis, a disease caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), can lead to great economic losses in the poultry industry. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance and antibiotic resistance patterns in APEC in Zimbabwe. From 503 chickens diagnosed with colibacillosis, 103 E. coli isolates were obtained. Isolation and identification of E. coli were carried out using microscopy and biochemical tests. The disc diffusion method was used to determine antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates to 8 commercial antibiotics. Many isolates exhibited resistance to more than one antibiotic. Antibiogram profiles indicated maximum resistance to tetracycline (100%), bacitracin (100%), and cloxacillin (100%) and a high prevalence of resistance to ampicillin (94.1%). However; there were high prevalences of sensitivity to ciprofloxacin (100%) and gentamycin (97.1%). The isolates showed moderate rates of sensitivity to chloramphenicol and neomycin. All isolates in this study showed multidrug resistance because they were all resistant to 3 or more antibiotics. Seven multidrug resistance patterns were observed. The most common pattern (resistance to ampicillin, bacitracin, cloxacillin, and tetracycline) was exhibited by 30 isolates. Our findings show that there is emerging drug resistance in APEC associated with colibacillosis in Zimbabwe. The observed high level of multidrug resistance could hamper the treatment of colibacillosis in Zimbabwe.

  15. Performance evaluation of reverse osmosis technology for selected antibiotics removal from synthetic pharmaceutical wastewater

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    Gholami Mitra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study addresses the possibility for low pressure reverse osmosis membrane (RE 2521, CSM process to serve as an alternative to remove selected antibiotics (ampicillin and amoxicillin from synthetic wastewater by changing operating conditions such as pH = 3, 6.5 and 10; Pressure = 9, 11 and13 (bar; antibiotic concentration = 10, 255 and 500(mg/L, and temperature = 20, 30 and 40°C. The experiment was designed based on Box-benken, which is a Response Surface methodology design (RSM, using Design Expert software. The concentration of antibiotics was measured by applying a UV-spectrophotometer (Cecil, at the wavelength of 254 nm. Results showed a range of rejection percentage from 73.52% to 99.36% and 75.1% to 98.8%, for amoxicillin and ampicillin, respectively. Considering the solute rejections and the membrane porosity show that the prevailing rejection mechanism of the examined antibiotics by the membrane was the size exclusion effect. The permeate flux for both of the antibiotics was 12–18.73 L/m2.h. Although the permeate flux and antibiotic rejection are influenced by operating pressure, pH, and temperature individually, the interaction between operating parameters did not have noticeable effects. According to the results obtained in this study, the application of RO membrane is recommended for the selected antibiotics to be removed to a considerable degree (up to 95%.

  16. Enterobacteria and Vibrio from Macrobrachium amazonicum prawn farming in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manoel de Arajo Neto Paiva; Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro; Andr Jalles Monteiro; Jos Jlio Costa Sidrim; Marcos Fbio Gadelha Rocha; Jamille Alencar Sales; Glaucia Morgana de Melo Guedes; Yago Brito de Ponte; Clia Maria de Souza Sampaio; Jos Luciano Bezerra Moreira; Lucas Pereira de Alencar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the isolation of enterobacteria associated with Macrobrachium amazonicum (M. amazonicum) farming and evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio strains. Methods: Strains were isolated from female M. amazonicum prawns and environmental and hatchery water. Biochemical assays were used to identify bacterial genera and those belonging to the genus Vibrio were submitted to further analyses for species identification, through Vitek 2 automated system and serotyping. Susceptibility test was performed according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: The following genera of enterobacteria were recovered: Enterobacter (n=11), Citrobacter (n=10), Proteus (n=2), Serratia (n=2), Kluyvera (n=2), Providencia (n=2), Cedecea (n=1), Escherichia (n=1), Edwardsiella (n=1) and Buttiauxella (n=1). As for Vibrio, three species were identified: Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 (n=4), Vibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus) (n=1) and Vibrio mimicus (n=1). Vibrio spp. showed minimum inhibitory concentrations values within the susceptibility range established by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute for almost all antibiotics, except for V. vulnificus, which presented intermediate profile to ampicillin. Conclusions:Enterobacteria do not seem to be the most important pathogens associated with M. amazonicum farming, whereas the recovery of Vibrio spp. from larviculture, with emphasis on Vibrio cholerae and V. vulnificus, deserves special attention due to their role as potentially zoonotic aquaculture-associated pathogens. Furthermore, the intermediate susceptibility of V. vulnificus to ampicillin reflects the importance of monitoring drug use in prawn farming.

  17. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus strains isolated from healthy domestic dogs.

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    Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Salvadori, Claudia; Lotti, Giulia; Cerri, Domenico; Ebani, Valentina Virginia

    2016-12-15

    Enterococci are opportunistic bacteria that cause severe infections in animals and humans, capable to acquire, express, and transfer antimicrobial resistance. Susceptibility to 21 antimicrobial agents was tested by the disk diffusion method in 222 Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from the fecal samples of 287 healthy domestic dogs. Vancomycin and ampicillin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) tests were also performed. Isolates showed resistance mainly to streptomycin (88.7%), neomycin (80.6%), and tetracycline (69.4%). Forty-two (18.9%) isolates showed an HLAR to streptomycin and 15 (6.7%) to gentamicin. Vancomycin and ampicillin MIC values showed 1 and 18 resistant strains, respectively. One hundred and thirty-six (61.2%) strains were classified as multidrug resistant and six (2.7%) strains as possibly extensively drug-resistant bacteria. Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis were the most prevalent antimicrobial resistant species. Companion animals, which often live in close contact with their owners and share the same environment, represent a serious source of enterococci resistant to several antibiotics; for this reason, they may be a hazard for public health by providing a conduit for the entrance of resistance genes into the community.

  18. Analysis of Haemophilus influenzae serotype f isolated from three Japanese children with invasive H. influenzae infection.

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    Hoshino, Tadashi; Hachisu, Yushi; Kikuchi, Takashi; Tokutake, Shoko; Okui, Hideyuki; Kutsuna, Satoru; Fukasawa, Chie; Murayama, Kei; Oohara, Asami; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Ito, Midori; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Ishiwada, Naruhiko

    2015-04-01

    In Japan, publicly subsidized Haemophilus influenzae serotype b vaccines became available in 2011; consequently, the incidence of invasive H. influenzae infection in paediatric patients of less than 5 years of age decreased dramatically. In 2013, the first case of H. influenzae serotype f (Hif) meningitis in a Japanese infant was reported, and another case of Hif meningitis in a Japanese infant was observed in 2013. We experienced a fatal paediatric case of Hif bacteraemia in 2004; therefore, we conducted an analysis of the three Hif strains isolated from these three Japanese children with invasive Hif infections. All three strains were β-lactamase-non-producing, ampicillin-sensitive strains, with MICs of 1 µg ml(-1) or less. However, one of the three strains showed slightly elevated MICs for ampicillin (1 µg ml(-1)), cefotaxime (0.25 µg ml(-1)) and meropenem (0.13 µg ml(-1)). A molecular analysis by multilocus sequence typing identified all three strains as sequence type (ST) 124, which is a predominant invasive Hif strain in many countries. SmaI-digested PFGE showed variable DNA fragmentation patterns among the strains, suggesting that some highly virulent strains have originated from a single ST124 clone and caused invasive Hif infections in Japan. Additional studies are needed to determine the factors that have led to the clonal expansion of virulent ST124 strains.

  19. Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria Involved in Urinary Infections in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional and Retrospective Study

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    Wellington Francisco Rodrigues

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Empirical and prolonged antimicrobial treatment of urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli is associated with the emergence of bacterial resistance, and not all countries have strict policies against the indiscriminate use of drugs in order to prevent resistance. This cross-sectional and retrospective study (2010–2015 aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and resistance of patient-derived E. coli to different drugs broadly used to treat urinary infections in Brazil: ampicillin + sulbactam, cephalothin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and nitrofurantoin. We obtained 1654 E. coli samples from ambulatory patients with disease symptoms of the urinary tract from a Brazilian public hospital. While all antibiotics were effective in killing E. coli to a large degree, nitrofurantoin was the most effective, with fewer samples exhibiting antibiotic resistance. We assessed the costs of generic and brand name versions of each antibiotic. Nitrofurantoin, the most effective antibiotic, was the cheapest, followed by the fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, ampicillin + sulbactam and, lastly, cephalothin. Finally, assessment of antibiotic resistance to fluoroquinolones over the study period and extrapolation of the data led to the conclusion that these antibiotics could no longer be effective against E. coli-based urinary infections in approximately 20 years if their indiscriminate use in empirical treatment continues.

  20. URINARY TRACT INFECTION: BACTERIOLOGICAL PROFILE AND ITS ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY IN WESTERN INDIA

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    Latika J Shah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are counted among the most common infections in humans. In spite of the availability and use of the antimicrobial drugs, UTIs caused by bacteria have been showing increasing trends. The extensive and inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents has invariably resulted in the development of antibiotic resistance which, in recent years, has become a major problem worldwide. Materials and Methods: Patients diagnosed clinically as UTI during the study period were included in the study. Urine sample of these patients were tested for Culture. All positive cultures were tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Results: Out of total 232 patients, Isolates were detected in 177 (76.29% samples. Out of these, 137 (77.40% were female. Most common organism found positive was Escherichia Coli. E. coli was highly sensitive to Amikacin and Nitrofurantoin. Whereas, E.coli was highly resistant to Ampicillin and Nalidixic acid. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Klebsiella and Acinitobacter shows that they were also highly sensitive to Amikacin. Klebsiella and Acinobacter were highly resistant to Ampicillin and Gentamycin. Conclusion: The pattern of resistance to commonly used antibiotics for treating UTI alerts us against indiscriminate usage of antibiotics [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(1.000: 71-74

  1. Antibiotic sensitivity of escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infection referred to Kermanshah central laboratory

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    Parviz Mohajeri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Escherichia coli (Ecoli has been considered as the most common agent of urinary tract infection in all regions. Recently, increased drug resistance has been lead to some problems in treatment related diseases. So, evaluation of resistance patterns of bacteria in each region could be a valuable guide for empirical treatment.Methods: All referred urine sample to Kermanshah Central Laboratory during 1998 that was reported positive to Ecoli were assessed. Susceptibility pattern to 19 antimicrobial agents was evaluated using Kirby Bauer method according to CLSI standards.Results: A total of 834 Ecoli isolated from 19,208 positive urine cultures. 84% of subjects were females and 16% males. Sensitivity rate for nitrofurantoin (84%, ceftizoxime (72%, norfloxacin (70%, cefotaxime (69%, Amikacin (66%, ciprofloxacin (65%, ceftriaxone (64%, ceftazidim (55% was higher than 50%. Sensitivity to nalidixic acid, cefexime, gentamicin, co-trimoxazole, ticarcillin, caphalexin, cephalotin, tetracycline, amoxicillin, amoxicillin clavulanate and ampicillin were determined less than 50%.Conclusion: Nitrofurantoin and ceftizoxime are currently effective against Ecoli, although an indiscriminate use of antibiotics should be avoided because of drug resistance probable. It seems that ampicillin could be excluded from routine sensitivity testing.

  2. Porous bioceramic bead prepared by calcium phosphate with sodium alginate gel and PE powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Y.C. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Ho, M.L.; Wu, S.C. [Department of Physiology, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Rd, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, H.S. [Faculty of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Rd, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Wang, C.K. [Faculty of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Rd, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: ckwang@kmu.edu.tw

    2008-08-01

    The porous calcium phosphate beads were made by an alginate-interacting Ca ions mechanism on addition of a pore-forming polyethylene (PE) powder at 1250 deg. C sintering. The nature of the powders and porous beads were analyzed through X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and heavy metal analysis by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The porous beads size and the pore microstructure characteristics were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Beside, the porosity analysis was evaluated out using an Archimedes' principle and mercury porosimetry. Then, the sodium ampicillin was penetrated/adsorbed onto calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite porous beads, and was subsequently released in PBS. No matter whether the raw material was HAp, TCP or biphase, the Ca{sub 9}(HPO{sub 4})(PO{sub 4}){sub 5}OH phase (CDHA) was formed only after sintering. Porous beads of various calcium phosphates with different sizes (0.9-1.1 mm) and pore size groups (60-120 {mu}m and lower than 10 {mu}m) were appeared. The release kinetics of sodium ampicillin from these porous beads have indicated the possibility of using these materials as possible carriers for drug delivery.

  3. Neonatal bacteriemia isolates and their antibiotic resistance pattern in neonatal insensitive care unit (NICU at Beasat Hospital, Sanandaj, Iran.

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    Parvin Mohammadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacteremia continues to result in significant morbidity and mortality, particularly among neonates. There is scarce data on neonatal bacteremia in among Iranian neonates. In this study, we determined neonatal bacteremia isolates and their antibiotic resistance pattern in neonatal insensitive care unit at Beasat hospital, Sanandaj, Iran. During one year, all neonates admitted to the NICU were evaluated. Staphylococcal isolates were subjected to determine the prevalence of MRS and mecA gene. A total of 355 blood cultures from suspected cases of sepsis were processed, of which 27 (7.6% were positive for bacterial growth. Of the 27 isolates, 20 (74% were Staphylococcus spp as the leading cause of bacteremia. The incidence of Gram negative bacteria was 04 (14.8%. The isolated bacteria were resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Maximum resistance among Staphylococcus spp was against Penicillin, and Ampicillin. In our study, the isolated bacteria were 7.5 % Vancomycin and Ciprofloxacin sensitive. Oxacillin disk diffusion and PCR screened 35% and 30% mec a positive Staphylococcus spp. The spectrum of neonatal bacteremia as seen in NICU at Beasat hospital confirmed the importance of pathogens such as Staphylococcus spp. Penicillin, Ampicillin and Cotrimoxazol resistance was high in theses isolates with high mecA gene carriage, probably due to antibiotic selection.

  4. Class I Integron and β-lactamase encoding genes of multidrug resistance Salmonella isolated from pigeons and their environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, S; Mamdouh, R

    2016-12-30

    Seroprevalence of Salmonella spp. was investigated in pigeon and its surrounding environment of Sharkia province, Egypt. Samples were randomly collected from fifty freshly dead squabs, forty freshly dead adults pigeons, sixty diseased adult pigeons and 100 apparently healthy adult pigeons. Bacterial isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 17 different antimicrobial discs, by using the disc diffusion method. The bacterial isolates were tested for Class I and β-lactamase encoding genes by using PCR. In vitro sensitivity of all Salmonella isolates were completely resistant to Streptomycin, Amoxicillin, clavulanic acid, Amoxicillin, Ampicillin and Ceftazidime (100%). Class1 integron were characterized in 70% Salmonella isolates from squabs, 42.9 % in adult pigeons and 14.3% in pigeon environment which confer their resistance to streptomycin and ampicillin. Meanwhile TEM-1 β-lactamase was characterized in 20% of tested Salmonella isolates from squabs including S. Entertidis, 42.9% of tested Salmonella isolates from adult pigeons including S. Entertidis which confer their resistance to cephalosporin and not detected in all isolates from pigeons environments. In conclusion TEM-1 β-lactamase was characterized in 20% of Salmonella isolates from squabs while Class1 integron was characterized in 70% Salmonella isolates from squabs.

  5. Screening for Salmonella in backyard chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Johanna; Gole, Vaibhav; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2015-06-15

    Salmonellosis is a significant zoonotic disease which has a considerable economic impact on the egg layer industry. There is limited information about the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in backyard chickens. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in backyard chickens, and the associated virulence of any serovars identified. Hundred and fifteen pooled samples from 30 backyard flocks in South Australia were screened. Four flocks tested positive for Salmonella spp. The overall Salmonella isolation rate in the current study was 10.4%. The estimated prevalence at individual bird level was 0.02% (95% CI 0.025-0.975). The serovars isolated were Salmonella Agona, Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) and Salmonella Bovismorbificans. All Salmonella isolates tested positive for the prgH, orfL and spiC genes. The Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) had the most antibiotic resistance, being resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin and having intermediate resistance to florphenicol. All of the Salmonella Agona had intermediate resistance to the ampicillin, while the Salmonella Bovismorbificans were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. With the increased interest of keeping backyard chickens, the current study highlights the zoonotic risk from Salmonella spp. associated with home flocks.

  6. Current antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of typhoidal salmonellae in a referral diagnostic centre

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    Umer Shujat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infections caused by typhoidal salmonellae are an important public health concern in Pakistan. Inappropriate and injudicious use of fluoroquinolones has reduced their efficacy due to development of high level resistance. Aim: To ascertain the current susceptibility pattern of typhoidal salmonellae thus guiding the physicians for better management of typhoid patients.Materials and Methods: A study was conducted at our institution from January 2012 through December 2013 to investigate current susceptibility pattern of typhoidal salmonellae. Results: Out of 200 isolates, 107 (53.5% were identified as Salmonella Typhi and 93 (46.5% as Salmonella Paratyphi A. Sensitivities of Salmonella Typhi were as follows: ampicillin (48.6%, chloramphenicol (45.8%, co-trimoxazole (40.1%, ciprofloxacin (11.2%. Sensitivities of Salmonella Paratyphi A were: ampicillin (80.6%, chloramphenicol (89.2%, co-trimoxazole (90.3%, and ciprofloxacin (16.1%. No resistance was detected against third generation cephalosporins. Conclusions: Typhoidal salmonellae are still entirely susceptible to third generation cephalosporins in our setting. Marked rise in resistance to fluoroquinolones has reduced their empirical usage. Sensitivity of Salmonella Paratyphi A to conventional antityphoid drugs was encouraging.

  7. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Isolated from Animal-Origin Food Items in Gondar, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garedew, Legesse; Alebachew, Zabishwork; Worku, Walelgn

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella has been found to be the major cause of foodborne diseases and a serious public health problem in the world, with an increasing concern for the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant strains. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February 2014 and December 2015 on food items of animal origin to assess the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella isolates using standard bacteriological methods. The overall prevalence rate of 5.5% was recorded from the total analyzed food items of animal origin. Salmonella isolates were detected from 12% of raw meat, 8% of minced meat, 2.9% of burger samples, 18% of raw eggs, and 6% of raw milk. Furthermore, antimicrobial susceptibility test identified 47.6% resistant Salmonella isolates, 28.6% intermediately sensitive isolates, and 23.8% susceptible isolates. Among Salmonella isolates tested, 42.6%, 28.6%, and 14.3% were found to be relatively resistant to tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and ampicillin, respectively, while 9.5%–19% were intermediately resistant to tetracycline, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, and nitrofurantoin. Therefore, our findings provide the prevalence and drug resistance of Salmonella from foods of animal origin and contribute information to scientists as well as public health researchers to minimize the prevalent and resistant foodborne Salmonella species in Ethiopia. PMID:28074185

  8. Antimicrobial Resistant Pattern of Escherichia Coli Strains Isolated from Pediatric Patients in Jordan

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    Mohammad Alshara

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial resistant pattern of Escherichia coli (E. coli strains isolated from clinical specimens of Jordanian pediatric patients during the period from January to December 2008. A total of 444 E. coli strains were isolated from clinical specimens and tested for their susceptibility to different antimicrobial drugs. Overall, high resistance rate was observed for ampicillin (84%, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (74.3%, cotrimoxazole (71%, nalidixic acid (47.3%, cephalothin (41%. Lower resistance rates were observed for amikacin (0% followed by Cefotaxime (11%, Ceftriaxone (11.7%, ciprofloxacin (14.5%, Norfloxacin (16.5%, gentamicin (17.3% cephalexin (20.9%, Ceftazidime (22.5%, cefixime (29.6%, and cefaclor (32.8%. Ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cotrimoxazole were found to be ineffective at in vitro inhibition of the E. coli of pediatric origin. Amikacin was highly effective for E. coli with susceptibility rate of 100%. The majority of E. coli strains were susceptible to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones.

  9. High-level ciprofloxacin resistance from point mutations in gyrA and parC confined to global hospital-adapted clonal lineage CC17 of Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavis, Helen L; Willems, Rob J L; Top, Janetta; Bonten, Marc J M

    2006-03-01

    To substantiate a common genetic background of ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, 32 ciprofloxacin-resistant (Cip(r)) and 31 ciprofloxacin-susceptible (Cip(s)) isolates from outbreaks, clinical infections, surveillances, and animals from 10 different countries were genotyped by multilocus sequence typing. Additionally, susceptibilities to ampicillin and vancomycin and the presence of esp were determined and the quinolone resistance-determining regions of parC, gyrA, parB, and gyrE were sequenced. High-level Cip(r) (MIC > or = 64 microg/ml) due to point mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region was unique to a distinct hospital-adapted genetic complex in E. faecium, previously designated CC17. Low-level Cip(r) (MIC = 4 microg/ml) in non-CC17 strains is not attributable to point mutations in any subunit of the topoisomerase genes, and the mechanism of resistance remains unclear. Acquisition of mutations in parC and gyrA, leading to high-level Cip(r), is, in addition to ampicillin resistance and the presence of a putative pathogenicity island, another cumulative step in hospital adaptation of CC17.

  10. Detection of antibiotic resistance and tetracycline resistance genes in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from the Pearl rivers in South China

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    Tao Ran [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 511 Kehua Street, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ying Guangguo, E-mail: guangguo.ying@gmail.co [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 511 Kehua Street, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Su Haochang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 511 Kehua Street, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhou Hongwei [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Southern Medical University, 1838 North Guangzhou Street, Baiyun District, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Sidhu, Jatinder P.S. [CSIRO Land and Water, Queensland Bioscience Precinct, 306 Carmody Road, St Lucia QLD 4067 (Australia)

    2010-06-15

    This study investigated antibiotic resistance profiles and tetracycline resistance genes in Enterobacteriaceae family isolates from the Pearl rivers. The Enterobacteriaceae isolates were tested for susceptibility to seven antibiotics ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, tetracycline and trimethoprim. In Liuxi reservoir, with an exception to ampicillin resistant strains (11%) no other antibiotic resistance bacterial strains were detected. However, multiple drug resistance in bacterial isolates from the other sites of Pearl rivers was observed which is possibly due to sewage discharge and input from other anthropogenic sources along the rivers. Four tetracycline resistance genes tet A, tet B, tet C and tet D were detected in the isolates from the rivers. The genes tet A and tet B were widely detected with the detection frequencies of 43% and 40% respectively. Ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin resistant enteric bacteria were also isolated from the pig and duck manures which suggest a wider distribution of human specific drugs in the environment. This investigation provided a baseline data on antibiotic resistance profiles and tetracycline resistance genes in the Pearl rivers delta. - High rates of antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae from river water are attributed to wastewater contamination.

  11. Biochemical characterization, antimicrobial and hemolytic studies on skin mucus of fresh water spiny eel Mastacembelus armatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Venkatachalam Uthayakumar; Venkatachalam Ramasubramanian; Dhanabalan Senthilkumar; Ramasamy Harikrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the biochemical, antimicrobial and hemolytic activities of Mastacembalus armatus skin mucus. Methods: Antimicrobial and antifungal activities of mucus extractions against human and fish pathogens were tested along with ampicillin as control. Hemolytic activity of the extraction was evaluated against sheep and cow blood cells. Amino acid and fatty acid profiles were analyzed by HPLC and gas chromatography in the mucus of fish. SDS-PAGE analysis of mucus and muscle tissue was done. Oneway-ANOVA was performed against all extraction and pathogens, amino acids and fatty acids. Result: All the mucus extracts exhibited higher inhibitory activity than antibiotic ampicillin against bacterial and fungal pathogens. The hemolytic activity was increased with higher mucus concentrations in both sheep and cow blood cells. The protein content soluble and insoluble fractions of mucus were 63.22 μg/g and 55.79μg/g, respectively. Out of 17 amino acids leucine was higher (8.54 mole %) in soluble gel, and glutamic acid was higher (6.92 mole %) in the insoluble gel, Histidine was very low (i.e. 0.20 mole%) both in soluble and (0.30 mole %) insoluble gel. In SDS-PAGE analysis, 6 bands of mucus and 9 bands of muscle were observed. Conclusions: The soluble and insoluble proteins are responsible for antimicrobial and hemolytic activity, these results indicate that mucus gel was prospective applications in fish and human therapeutics.

  12. Isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria from genital tract of the Arabian mares affected with genital tract infection and antimicrobial sensitivity

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    H. F. AL-Abidy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for isolation and identification of the pathogenic bacteria presented in the genital tract infectionof the Arabian mares, and shows the anti microbial sensitivity. The study included 75 samples taken from infected maressuffering from genital tract infection diagnosed on the basis of case history and clinical signs which included bloody purulentdischarge ranched from yellow to green in colure, fetid oder with congested and oedematous vagina and from some abortioncases, and from mares suffered from tetanus disease symptoms during the period between October 2007 to April 2008 in studfarms breeding mares in Mosul. The samples were collected by swabs from the clitoris, clitorial fossa and the vagina. Isolationof bacteria was performed using aerobic and anaerobic culture techniques. Results of the present study showed a total ofisolation 75% from all samples taken with a high percentage isolation of Clostridium tetani (16.6%, followed by Archanobacterium pyogenes (10.6%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8%, (6.7% for each Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiellapneumonia, Streptococcus dysagalactiae subsp equisimilis, and (5.3% for each bacteria Actinobacillus equilli, Streptococcuszooepidemicus, Staphylococcus aureus, then Proteus vulgaris (2.6%, and Escherichia coli (1.3%. The most bacterial isolateswere resistant to amoxicillin (100%, ampicillin (90.9 %, and erythromycin (65.9%, while the most isolates were sensitive tokanamycin (70.4%. It could be concluted that the most important bacteria causing genital tract infection of mares could beClostridium tetani and Archanobacterium pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The most bacterial isolates were resistant toamoxicillin, ampicillin and erythromycin.

  13. A Qualitative Survey of Five Antibiotics in a Water Treatment Plant in Central Plateau of Iran

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    Mohsen Heidari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study aimed to survey a total of five common human and veterinary antibiotics based on SPE-LC-MS-MS technology in a water treatment plant at central plateau of Iran. Also two sampling techniques, passive and grab samplings, were compared in the detection of selected antibiotics. Materials and Methods. In January to March 2012, grab and passive samples were taken from the influent and effluent of a water treatment plant. The samples were prepared using solid-phase extraction (SPE, and extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS. Results. The results showed that enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, and tylosin were not detected in none of the samples. However, ampicillin was detected in the grab and passive samples taken from the influent (source water of the plant, and ciprofloxacin was detected in passive samples taken from the influent and effluent (finished water of the plant. Conclusion. The results imply that passive sampling is a better approach than grab sampling for the investigation of antibiotics in aquatic environments. The presence of ampicillin and ciprofloxacin in source water and finished water of the water treatment plant may lead to potential emergence of resistant bacteria that should be considered in future studies.

  14. [Antibiotic sensitivity of meningococci isolated from patients and carriers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabernat, H; Delmas, C; Lareng, M B

    1984-06-01

    Ninety-two strains of Neisseria meningitidis (twenty-four recovered from CSF, four from blood, and sixty-four from oropharyngeal swabs) were tested for susceptibility to penicillin, ampicillin, minocycline, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, erythromycin, spiramycin, josamycin, sulphamethoxazole, and trimethoprim. Antibiotic activity (MIC) was determined by agar dilution. Among the 92 cultures, strains were in the following decreasing order: group B, undefined groups, and group C. 75% of strains recovered from carriers and 50% of those recovered from CSF were susceptible to 8 mg/l of sulphamethoxazole. No strain was susceptible to trimethoprim (MIC 8 mg/l). All strains were susceptible to penicillin (range MICs: 0.007-0.25; mean MIC: 0.06), ampicillin (0.015-0.5; 0.12), minocycline (0.03-0.05; 0.25), chloramphenicol (0.12-4; 0.5). and rifampin (0.007-0.25; 0.015). In vitro activity of macrolides was influenced by culture conditions. With 5 to 10% CO2, MICs were 2 to 4 times greater than those culture conditions. With 5 to 10% CO2, MICs were 2 to 4 times greater than those observed without CO2. Josamycin was more active than erythromycin and spiramycin.

  15. In-vitro activity of 21 antimicrobial agents against Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Brussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordts, B; Vanhoof, R; Hubrechts, J M; Dierickx, R; Coignau, H; Butzler, J P

    1982-02-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 21 antimicrobial agents was measured for 80 strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated in Brussels in 1978. Bimodal distributions were found for penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxycillin, carbenicillin, and cephalexin. Of the strains, 17.5% were relatively resistant to penicillin G (MIC greater than 0.08 microgram/ml) 27.5% to ampicillin (MIC greater than 0.16 microgram/ml), 23.8% to amoxycillin, and 43.3% to carbenicillin. Cefotaxime was the most active antibiotic, with MICs in the nanogram range; 3.8% and 5% of the strains were relatively resistant to cephaloridine and cephalexin respectively, but no strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefuroxime, or cefotaxime. Resistance to tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, erythromycin, and spiramycin (MIC greater than 1 microgram/ml) was found in 6.3%, 2.5%, 5%, and 51.3% of the strains respectively. A very good correlation was present between chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol, with 16.3% and 10% of relatively resistant strains respectively. Only two isolates showed an MIC greater than 1.25 microgram/ml for rifampicin, and 10% of the strains needed greater than or equal to 12 microgram/ml of spectinomycin for complete inhibition of growth. A very high energy was found for the 20 : 1 combination of sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim, with only one isolate resistant to this combination. None of the strains tested produced beta-lactamase.

  16. Physically crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol-hydroxyethyl starch blend hydrogel membranes: Synthesis and characterization for biomedical applications

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    El-Refaie Kenawy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinyl alcohol, PVA is a polymer of great importance because of its many appealing characteristics specifically for various pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Physically crosslinked hydrogel membranes composed of different amounts of hydroxyethyl starch (HES in (PVA and ampicillin were prepared by applying freeze–thawing method. This freezing–thawing cycle was repeated for three consecutive cycles. Physicochemical properties of PVA–HES membrane gel such as gel fraction, swelling, morphology, elongation, tensile strength, and protein adsorption were investigated. Introducing HES into freeze–thawed PVA structure affected crystal size distribution of PVA; and hence physicochemical properties and morphological structure have been affected. Increased HES concentration decreased the gel fraction %, maximum strength and break elongation. Indeed it resulted into a significant incrementing of the swelling ability, amount of protein adsorption, broader pore size, and pore distribution of membrane morphological structure. Furthermore, an increase in HES concentration resulted in better and still lower thermal stability compared to virgin PVA and freeze–thawed PVA. The maximum weight loss of PVA–HES hydrogel membranes ranged between 18% and 60% according to HES content, after two days of degradation in phosphate buffer saline (PBS, which indicates they are biodegradable. Thus, PVA–HES hydrogel membranes containing ampicillin could be a novel approach for biomedical application e.g. wound dressing purposes.

  17. ENTRAPMENT OF FLUORESCENT E. COLI CELLS IN ALGINATE GEL

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    T. VINTILA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available By this experiment we will demonstrate the possibility to obtain genetically modified microbial strains that can be used as markers in different studies. The trait transferred in this study is the fluorescence in UV light expressed by a gene isolated from jellyfish. This gene was insered into a plasmid carrying ampiciline resistance and in the operon for arabinose fermentation. The plasmid was called pGLO. E coli HB101 K-12, ampicillin resistant colonies has been obtained. The colonies on the LB/amp/ara plate fluoresce green under UV light and the transformed colonies can grow on ampicillin. Transformation efficiency = 362 transformed colonies/ μg DNA. The cells where immobilized by entrapment in alginate gel to study the phenomenon involved in cells immobilization. After immobilization in alginate gel, 5x104 cells of E. coli pGLO / capsule and 1,4 x 105 cells of E. coli HB101/capsule has been found. Fluorescent microscopy revealed the presence of pGLO carrying cells into the capsules. After cultivation of alginate capsules containing E. coli in LB broth, and fluorescent microscopy of the capsule sections, several observations of the phenomenon involved in continuous fermentation using biocatalysts in has been made. These cells grow and migrate to the cortical part of the matrix where they are immobilized.

  18. Bacterial Flora from Healthy Clarias gariepinus and their Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern

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    M.O. Efuntoye

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic resistance of bacteria isolated from Clarias gariepinus from 3 farms in Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria was investigated. Morphological and biochemical characteristics of isolates revealed that majority of the bacteria belonged to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also recovered. E. coli strains were highly resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and oxytetracycline (82.4%. Majority of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resistant to ampicillin (63.6%, amoxycillin (54.5%, nalidixic acid (63.6% and oxytetracycline (72.7%, whereas most of the Salmonella spp. were resistant to erythromycin (85.7%, gentamycin (71.4%, amoxicillin (57.1%, chloramphenicol (57.1% and sulphamethoxazole (57.1%. All isolates were highly sensitive to ciprofloxacin, novobiocin and ofloxacin. While the presence of potentially pathogenic bacterial species as observed in the study may not present a serious human health hazard because of heat treatment accorded fish before consumption, the presence of antibiotic resistant strains should not be ignored because of the potential for horizontal gene transfer in the food chain.

  19. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in cane toads (Bufo marinus) from Grenada, West Indies, and their antimicrobial susceptibility.

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    Drake, M; Amadi, V; Zieger, U; Johnson, R; Hariharan, H

    2013-09-01

    Cloacal swabs and caecal contents sampled from 58 cane toads (Bufo marinus) in St George's parish, Grenada, during a 7-month period in 2011 were examined by an enrichment and selective culture method for presence of Salmonella spp. Twenty-four (41%) toads were positive for Salmonella spp. of which eight were Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana, and eight were S. enterica serovar Rubislaw. The other serovars were as follows: Montevideo, 6; Arechavaleta, 1; and serovar: IV:43:-:-, 1. The high frequency of isolation of serovar Javiana, an emerging human pathogen associated with several outbreaks in the recent years in the eastern United States, suggests a possible role for cane toads in transmission of this serovar. Although S. Rubislaw has been isolated from lizards, bats and cases of some human infections, there is no report of its carriage by cane toads, and in such high frequency. The rate of carriage of S. Montevideo, a cause for human foodborne outbreaks around the world was also over 10% in the 58 toads sampled in this study. The antimicrobial drug susceptibility tests against amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole showed that drug resistance is minimal and is of little concern. Antimicrobial resistance was limited to ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in one isolate of S. Javiana and one isolate of S. Rubislaw. This is the first report of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibilities of various Salmonella serovars not identified previously in cane toads in Grenada, West Indies.

  20. Sponge microbiota are a reservoir of functional antibiotic resistance genes

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    Dennis Versluis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wide application of antibiotics has contributed to the evolution of multi-drug resistant human pathogens, resulting in poorer treatment outcomes for infections. In the marine environment, seawater samples have been investigated as a resistance reservoir; however, no studies have methodically examined sponges as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance. Sponges could be important in this respect because they often contain diverse microbial communities that have the capacity to produce bioactive metabolites. Here, we applied functional metagenomics to study the presence and diversity of functional resistance genes in the sponges Aplysina aerophoba, Petrosia ficiformis and Corticium candelabrum. We obtained 37 insert sequences facilitating resistance to D-cycloserine (n=6, gentamicin (n=1, amikacin (n=7, trimethoprim (n=17, chloramphenicol (n=1, rifampicin (n=2 and ampicillin (n=3. Fifteen of 37 inserts harboured resistance genes that shared <90% amino acid identity with known gene products, whereas on 13 inserts no resistance gene could be identified with high confidence, in which case we predicted resistance to be mainly mediated by antibiotic efflux. One marine-specific ampicillin-resistance-conferring β-lactamase was identified in the genus Pseudovibrio with 41% global amino acid identity to the closest β-lactamase with demonstrated functionality, and subsequently classified into a new family termed PSV. Taken together, our results show that sponge microbiota host diverse and novel resistance genes that may be harnessed by phylogenetically distinct bacteria.

  1. Bacillus cereus from blood cultures: virulence genes, antimicrobial susceptibility and risk factors for blood stream infection.

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    Horii, Toshinobu; Notake, Shigeyuki; Tamai, Kiyoko; Yanagisawa, Hideji

    2011-11-01

    We characterized the profiles of virulence genes and antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacillus cereus isolates from blood cultures as well as the risk factors for blood stream infections (BSIs). The diversity of virulence gene patterns was found to be wide among 15 B. cereus isolates from BSIs and also among 11 isolates from contaminated blood cultures. The MicroScan broth microdilution method yielded results corresponding with those of the agar dilution (reference) method for levofloxacin, linezolid, and vancomycin, while the Etest results were consistent with the reference results for clindamycin, gentamicin, imipenem, levofloxacin, and linezolid. Compared with the reference values, however, some isolates showed marked differences of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for ampicillin and clindamycin when determined using the MicroScan method, or the MICs for ampicillin, meropenem, and vancomycin when determined using the Etest method. Significantly more patients were treated with antimicrobials for more than 3 days during the 3-month period before isolation in the BSI group. Prior antimicrobial therapy may be a risk factor for BSIs due to B. cereus.

  2. Isolation of a new quinic acid derivative and its antibacterial modulating activity

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    A.R. Gohari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and the purpose of the study: The species Hymenocrater calycinus, belongs to the plant family Lamiaceae and grows wildly in the north-east of Iran. Previously, the antimicrobial activity of the plant extracts was reported. In the present study, the bioactivity-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of H. calycinus and the combination effects of the isolated compound with cell wall active agents against S. aureus and E. coli was investigated. "n "nMethods: Column and thin layer chromatographic methods were used for isolation and purification and spectroscopic data (MS, 1H- and 13C-NMR, HMQC, HMBC and 1H-1H COSY were employed for identification of the compound isolated from the extract. A disk diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of the isolated compound against S. aureus and E. coli in comparison with 7 different antibiotics.Results: The isolated compound 1 was identified as 3-(3, 4- dihydroxyphenyl lactic acid 2-O-quinic acid. Compound 1 (500 µg/disc enhanced antibacterial effect of ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin and cefepime against S. aureus and activated the effects of ampicillin and vancomycin against E. coli. "nConclusion: Results showed that the compound 1 was not active against both tested strains at any concentration below 1 mg/disk, and as a result the enhancing effect of the compound could be due its association with antibiotics.

  3. Assessment of antibiotic resistance phenotype and integrons in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolated from swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayamajhi, Nabin; Kang, Sang Gyun; Kang, Mi Lan; Lee, Hee Soo; Park, Kyung Yoon; Yoo, Han Sang

    2008-10-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) isolated and identified from swine were subjected for the analysis of antibiotic resistance pattern and clinically important class 1 and 2 integrons. In addition, S. Typhimurium isolates exhibiting ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline and florfenicol (ACSSuTF) resistance pattern as described in most Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium definitive type 104 (DT104) were characterized by polymerase chain reaction. All the isolates were resistant to more than four antibiotics and showed the highest resistance to streptomycin (94.1%), followed by tetracycline (90.1%), ampicillin (64.7%), chloramphenicol (56.8%) and gentamicin (54.9%). MIC value for the ten isolates ranged between 0.125-2 mug/ml for ciprofloxacin. Among the beta-lactams used, only one of the isolate exhibited resistance to ceftiofur (MIC 8 microg/ml). Sixty eight percent of these multi drug resistance (MDR) S. Typhimurium isolates carried clinically important class 1 integron with 1kb (aadA) and/or 2kb (dhfrXII-orfF-aadA2) resistance gene cassettes. This study reports the increasing trend of multi drug resistance (MDR) S. Typhimurium with clinically important class 1 integron in pigs. In addition, emergence of the ACSSuTF-type resistance in S. Typhimurium PT other than DT104 may limit the use of resistance gene markers in its detection methods by PCR.

  4. Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Isolates from Swine in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

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    Iwu, Chinwe Juliana; Iweriebor, Benson Chuks; Obi, Larry Chikwelu; Basson, Albertus Kotze; Okoh, Anthony Ifeanyi

    2016-07-01

    The exposure of farm animals to antimicrobials for treatment, prophylaxis, or growth promotion can select for resistant bacteria that can be transmitted to humans, and Salmonella as an important zoonotic pathogen can act as a potential reservoir of antimicrobial resistance determinants. We assessed the antibiogram profiles of Salmonella species isolated from pig herds in two commercial farms in South Africa. Two hundred fifty-eight presumptive Salmonella isolates were recovered from the fecal samples of 500 adult pigs. Specific primers targeting Salmonella serogroups A, B, C1, C2, and D were used to determine the prevalence of different serogroups. Only serogroup A (n = 48) was detected, while others were not. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the confirmed Salmonella serogroup A isolates was performed by using the disk diffusion method against a panel of 18 antibiotics. All the 48 isolates were resistant to tetracycline and oxytetracycline, while 75% were resistant to ampicillin, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim, nalidixic acid, and streptomycin. All the isolates exhibited multidrug resistance, with the predominant phenotype being against 11 antibiotics, and multiple antibiotic resistance index ranged between 0.3 and 0.6. The incidence of genes encoding resistance against ampicillin (ampC), tetracycline (tetA), and streptomycin (strA) were 54, 61, and 44%, respectively. We conclude that healthy pigs are potential reservoirs of multidrug-resistant Salmonella that could be transmitted to humans through the food chain and, hence, a significant public health threat.

  5. Fecal contamination of drinking water in Kericho District, Western Kenya: role of source and household water handling and hygiene practices.

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    Too, Johana Kiplagat; Kipkemboi Sang, Willy; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Ngayo, Musa Otieno

    2016-08-01

    Inadequate protection of water sources, and poor household hygienic and handling practices have exacerbated fecal water contamination in Kenya. This study evaluated the rate and correlates of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) household water contamination in Kericho District, Western Kenya. Culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to characterize TTCs. The disk diffusion method was used for antibiotic susceptibility profiling of pathogenic Escherichia coli. Out of the 103 households surveyed, 48 (46.6%) had TTC contaminated drinking water (TTC levels of >10 cfu/100 mL). Five of these households were contaminated with pathogenic E. coli, including 40% enteroaggregative E. coli, 40% enterotoxigenic E. coli, and 20% enteropathogenic E. coli. All these pathogenic E. coli strains were multidrug resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, ampicillin, tetracycline and ampicillin/sulbactam. Rural household locality, drinking water hand contact, water storage container cleaning practice, hand washing before water withdrawal, water source total coliforms water. Significant proportions of household drinking water in Kericho District are contaminated with TTCs including with pathogenic multidrug-resistant E. coli. Source and household hygiene and practices contribute significantly to drinking water contamination.

  6. Profiling of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid replicon types in β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli isolated from Korean beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung Won; Jung, Myunghwan; Shin, Min-Kyung; Yoo, Han Sang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 78 isolates of Escherichia coli isolated from Korean beef cattle farms were investigated for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and/or AmpC β-lactamase. In the disc diffusion test with ampicillin, amoxicillin, cephalothin, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefoxitin, 38.5% of the isolates showed resistance to all of ampicillin, amoxicillin, and cephalothin. The double disc synergy method revealed that none of the isolates produced ESBL or AmpC β-lactamases. DNA sequencing showed that all isolates encoded genes for TEM-1-type β-lactamase. Moreover, 78.2% of the isolates transferred the TEM-1-type β-lactamase gene via conjugation. In plasmid replicon typing of all donors, IncFIB and IncFIA were identified in 71.4% and 41.0% of plasmids, respectively. In transconjugants, IncFIB and IncFIA were the most frequent types detected (61.5% and 41.0%, respectively). Overall, the present study indicates that selection pressures of antimicrobials on β-lactamases in beef cattle may be low relative to other livestock animals in Korea. Moreover, to reduce selection pressure and dissemination of β-lactamase, the long-term surveillance of antimicrobial use in domestic beef cattle should be established.

  7. Detection of multidrug resistance Aeromonas hydrophila in farm raised fresh water prawns

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    Md. Bakhtiar Lijon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken for isolation, identification and determination of antibiogram profile of Aeromonas hydrophila in farm raised fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii on five commercial ghers. Fresh water prawns (n=25 were collected from five ghers located at Satkhira, Bagerhat and Khulna districts of Bangladesh. Brain (n=25, muscle (n=25 and intestine (n=25 samples were collected aseptically from fresh water prawn and inoculated into alkaline peptone (APW water for enrichment at 37℃ for 8 h. Enriched cultured was streaked into Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt Sucrose (TCBS agar to isolate bacteria. Bacteria were identified by cultural, Gram staining, biochemical properties and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. The antibiogram profiles of bacteria were investigated against 5 commonly used antibiotics (Gentamicin, Cefalexin, Ampicillin, Azithromycin and Ciprofloxacin by disc diffusion method. Thirteen A. hydrophila isolates were identified and the prevalence of the A. hydrophila in fresh water prawn was 17.33%. All 13 (100% isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin, Azithromycin and resistant to Ampicillin and Cefalexin. The results of this study indicate that farm raised fresh water prawn harbor multidrug resistant A. hydrophila which might causes public health problem if enter into human food chain.

  8. Antibacterial Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Punica granatum Linn. Petal on Common Oral Microorganisms.

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    Hajifattahi, Farnaz; Moravej-Salehi, Elham; Taheri, Maryam; Mahboubi, Arash; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to assess the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum Linn. (P. granatum) petal on Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods. In this in vitro study, P. granatum extract was prepared using powdered petals and water-ethanol solvent. Antibacterial effect of the extract, chlorhexidine (CHX), and ampicillin was evaluated on brain heart infusion agar (BHIA) using the cup-plate method. By assessing the diameter of the growth inhibition zone, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extract were determined for the above-mentioned bacteria. Results. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum petal had inhibitory effects on the proliferation of all five bacterial strains with maximum effect on S. mutans with MIC and MBC of 3.9 mg/mL. The largest growth inhibition zone diameter belonged to S. sanguinis and the smallest to E. faecalis. Ampicillin and CHX had the greatest inhibitory effect on S. sanguinis. Conclusions. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum had a significant antibacterial effect on common oral bacterial pathogens with maximum effect on S. mutans, which is the main microorganism responsible for dental plaque and caries.

  9. Antibiotic resistance profiling and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from aquatic sources

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    Olumide A. Odeyemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate antibiotics resistance pattern and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from different aquatic sources in Melaka, Malaysia. A total of 53 Aeromonas species were isolated from the following sources: sediment (n = 13, bivalve (n = 10, sea cucumber (n = 16 and sea water (n = 14 and resistance to 12 antibiotics – Tetracycline (30 μg, Kanamycin (30 μg, Oxytetracycline (30 μg, Ampicillin (10 μg, Streptomycin (10 μg, Gentamicin (10 μg, Sulphamethoxazole (25 μg, Nalixidic acid (30 μg, Trimethoprim (1.25 μg, Novobiocin (5 μg, Penicilin (10 μg and Chloramphenicol (10 μg was tested. The results obtained from this study reveal multi drug resistance pattern among the isolates. All the isolates were completely resistant to Ampicillin, Novobiocin, Sulphamethoxazole and Trimethoprim, respectively but susceptible to Tetracycline (100%, Kanamycin (5.7%, Gentamicin (5.7% and Oxytetracycline (24.5%. Antibiotics phenotyping of the bacteria revealed 21 different phenotypes among the isolates.

  10. Prevalence and bacterial susceptibility of hospital acquired urinary tract infection

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    Dias Neto José Anastácio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Urinary tract infection is the most common nosocomially acquired infection. It is important to know the etiology and antibiotic susceptibility infectious agents to guide the initial empirical treatment. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bacterial strains and their antibiotic susceptibility in nosocomially acquired urinary tract infection in a university hospital between January and June 2003. METHODS: We analyzed the data of 188 patients with positive urine culture (= 10(5 colony-forming units/mL following a period of 48 hours after admission. RESULTS: Half of patients were male. Mean age was 50.26 ± 22.7 (SD, range 3 months to 88 years. Gram-negative bacteria were the agent in approximately 80% of cases. The most common pathogens were E. coli (26%, Klebsiella sp. (15%, P. aeruginosa (15% and Enterococcus sp. (11%. The overall bacteria susceptibility showed that the pathogens were more sensible to imipenem (83%, second or third generation cephalosporin and aminoglycosides; and were highly resistant to ampicillin (27% and cefalothin (30%. It is important to note the low susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (42% and norfloxacin (43%. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that if one can not wait the results of urine culture, the best choices to begin empiric treatment are imipenem, second or third generation cephalosporin and aminoglycosides. Cefalothin and ampicillin are quite ineffective to treat these infections.

  11. Genetic Diversity of Methylotrophic Bacteria from Human Mouth Based on Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA

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    CINDY OKTAVIA SUSANTO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Methylotrophs inhabit the human mouth. In this study, methylotrophic bacteria were isolated from the human mouth microflora of 63 subjects, especially from the tongue, gingival, and subgingival area using minimal agar supplemented with 1% methanol. The obtained isolates were subjected to biochemical assays, continued with antibiotics susceptibility testing using ampicillin (10 g, tetracycline (20 g, kanamycin (30 g, trimethoprim (5 g, and streptomycin (10 g. Genetic diversity was analyzed using ARDRA method. Isolates varying in morphology characteristics were amplified for 16S rRNA gene and continued with DNA sequencing. As many as 21 methylotrophic bacterial isolates were purified and divided into seven groups with different phenotypic profiles. A majority of the isolates were resistant to trimethoprim but sensitive to kanamycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline. Resistance to ampicillin was variable in each isolate. ARDRA showed nine different digestion profiles. DNA sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that six isolates with different phenotypic and digestion profiles were closely related to Methylobacterium radiotoleran (94%, Microbacterium esteraromaticum (99%, Pseudomonas sp. (100%, and three of them were exhibited 99, 99, and 98% sequence similarity with Gordonia sp., respectively. The results of this study revealed diversity among methylotrophic bacteria particularly in human mouth.

  12. Effect of inoculum size on the antibiotic susceptibilities of β-lactamase positive isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis

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    J. Vraneš

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that bacteria producing β-lactamases in general show marked inoculum effect in susceptibility testing. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of inoculum size on the susceptibility of β-lactamase positive strains of M. catarrhalis to oral β-lactam and non β-lactam antibiotics. MICs of antibiotics were determined by a twofold microdilution technique with two different inoculum sizes were tested: 5x 105 CFU/ml -standard inoculum and 5 x107 CFU/ml -high inoculum. The highest increase (4-fold was observed with penicillins alone (amoxycillin and ampicillin or combined with inhibitor and ceftibuten, followed by older cephalosporins, erithromycine and chloramphenicol ( 2-fold. Tetracycline did not show a significant increase in MIC when a higher inoculum size was applied. In spite of the increase in MIC with high inoculum all strains were still susceptible to amoxycillin combined with clavulanate. MICs of cephalosporins were also below the resistance breakpoint for most of the strains at the higher inoculum. Based on that, we can conclude that therapeutic implications of the inoculum effect were not significant.These data suggest that high inocula should be used to determine MICs of ampicillin and amoxycillin for M. catarrhalis but that this precaution is unnecessary with the cephalosporins tested or with amoxycillin/clavulanate

  13. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of microflora colonizing feral pig (Sus scrofa) of Brazilian Pantanal.

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    Lessa, Ss; Paes, Rcs; Santoro, Pn; Mauro, Ra; Vieira-da-Motta, O

    2011-04-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is a worldwide problem affecting wild life by living with resistant bacteria in the environment. This study presents a discussion of outside factors environment on microflora of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) from Brazilian Pantanal. Animals had samples collected from six different body sites coming from two separated geographic areas, Nhecolandia and Rio Negro regions. With routine biochemical tests and commercial kits 516 bacteria were identified, with 240 Gram-positive, predominantly staphylococci (36) and enterococci (186) strains. Among Gram-negative (GN) bacteria the predominant specimens of Enterobacteriaceae (247) mainly represented by Serratia spp. (105), Escherichia coli (50), and Enterobacter spp. (40) and specimens not identified (7). Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against 17 drugs by agar diffusion method. Staphylococci were negative to production of enterotoxins and TSST-1, with all strains sensitive towards four drugs and highest resistance toward ampicillin (17%). Enterococci presented the highest sensitivity against vancomycin (98%), ampicillin (94%) and tetracycline (90%), and highest resistance pattern toward oxacillin (99%), clindamycin (83%), and cotrimoxazole (54%). In GN the highest resistance was observed with Serratia marcescens against CFL (98%), AMC (66%) and AMP (60%) and all drugs was most effective against E. coli SUT, TET (100%), AMP, TOB (98%), GEN, CLO (95%), CFO, CIP (93%). The results show a new profile of oxacillin-resistant enterococci from Brazilian feral pigs and suggest a limited residue and spreading of antimicrobials in the environment, possibly because of low anthropogenic impact reflected by the drug susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated.

  14. In vitro and in vivo activities of novel 2-(thiazol-2-ylthio)-1beta-methylcarbapenems with potent activities against multiresistant gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yutaka; Sunagawa, Makoto

    2003-08-01

    SM-197436, SM-232721, and SM-232724 are new 1beta-methylcarbapenems with a unique 4-substituted thiazol-2-ylthio moiety at the C-2 side chain. In agar dilution susceptibility testing these novel carbapenems were active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) with a MIC(90) of Enterococcus faecium, and the MIC(90) s for ampicillin-resistant E. faecium ranged between 8 and 16 micro g/ml, which were slightly higher than the value for linezolid. However, time-kill assays revealed the superior bactericidal activity of SM-232724 compared to those of quinupristin-dalfopristin and linezolid against an E. faecium strain with a 4-log reduction in CFU at four times the MIC after 24 h of exposure to antibiotics. In addition, SM-232724 significantly reduced the numbers of bacteria in a murine abscess model with the E. faecium strain: its efficacy was superior to that of linezolid, although the MICs (2 micro g/ml) of these two agents are the same. Among gram-negative bacteria, these three carbapenems were highly active against Haemophilus influenzae (including ampicillin-resistant strains), Moraxella catarrhalis, and Bacteroides fragilis, and showed antibacterial activity equivalent to that of imipenem for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus spp. Thus, these new carbapenems are promising candidates for agents to treat nosocomial bacterial infections by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, especially multiresistant gram-positive cocci, including MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci.

  15. Identification, antimicrobial susceptibility, and virulence factors of Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from Camels in Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor Junco, María Teresa; Gonzalez-Martin, Margarita; Rodriguez Gonzalez, Noe Francisco; Gutierrez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of Enterococcus spp. strains in camel faeces, their virulence factors, and resistance to the antibiotics commonly used as therapy of enterococcal infections. One hundred and seventy three Enterococcus strains were isolated and identified to species level using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Susceptibility to 11 antimicrobials was determined by disk diffusion method. Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin, teicoplanin, gentamicin, and streptomycin were all determined. Genes encoding resistance to vancomycin, tetracycline, and erythromycin as well as genes encoding some virulence factors were identified by PCR. Enterococcus hirae (54.3%) and Enterococcus faecium (25.4%) were the species most frequently isolated. None of the strains were resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin, ampicillin or showed high level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR). Strains resistant to rifampicin (42.42%) were those most commonly found followed those resistant to trimethoprim - sulfamethoxazole (33.33%). The genes tetM, tetL, vanC1, and vanC2-C3 were detected in some strains. Virulence genes were not detected. Monitoring the presence of resistant strains of faecal enterococci in animal used with recreational purposes is important to prevent transmission of those strains to humans and to detect resistance or virulence genes that could be transferred to other clinically important bacteria.

  16. Clustering of antibiotic resistance of E. coli in couples: suggestion for a major role of conjugal transmission

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    von Baum Heike

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spread of antibiotic resistance in hospitals is a well-known problem, but studies investigating the importance of factors potentially related to the spread of resistant bacteria in outpatients are sparse. Methods Stool samples were obtained from 206 healthy couples in a community setting in Southern Germany in 2002–2003. E. coli was cultured and minimal inhibition concentrations were tested. Prevalences of E. coli resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics according to potential risk factors were ascertained. Results Prevalences of ampicillin resistance were 15.7% and 19.4% for women and men, respectively. About ten percent and 15% of all isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole and doxycycline, respectively. A partner carrying resistance was the main risk factor for being colonized with resistant E. coli. Odds ratios (95% CI for ampicillin and cotrimoxazole resistance given carriage of resistant isolates by the partner were 6.9 (3.1–15.5 and 3.3 (1.5–18.0, respectively. Conclusion Our data suggest that conjugal transmission may be more important for the spread of antibiotic resistance in the community setting than commonly suspected risk factors such as previous antibiotic intake or hospital contacts.

  17. Mutagenicity test system based on a reporter gene assay for short-term detection of mutagens (MutaGen assay).

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    Schmid, Claudia; Arndt, Christian; Reifferscheid, Georg

    2003-02-05

    The construction of a bacterial mutation assay system detecting reversions of base substitutions and frameshifts in tetracycline (tet) and ampicillin resistance genes located on low copy plasmids is described. Frameshift mutations were introduced into repetitive GC-sequences and G-repeats known to be mutagenic hot-spots. Base pair substitutions were inserted in or around the active site of the ampicillinase gene thus generating reversibility of the ampicilline sensitivity. The plasmids carry genes to enable sensitive, fast and specific detection of mutagens in bacteria. MucAB was cloned into the test plasmid to enhance error-prone DNA-repair. The conventional reversion principle has been combined with the luminometric measurement of an inducible reporter gene. The revertants are detected after induction of the beta-galactosidase-producing lacZ-gene either controlled by its natural lac-promotor or by the more stringently repressed (anhydrotetracyclin inducible) tetA promotor. The tester strains containing the tetA/lacZ reporter gene construct can grow in full medium over the complete assay. This test procedure enables screening for mutations within one working day. Incubation for 16 h reveals high sensitivity.

  18. Resistance to β-lactam and tetracycline in Campylobacter spp.isolated from broiler slaughterhouses in southern Brazil

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    Yuli M. Sierra-Arguello

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study was carried out to screen and analyze the genetic characteristics of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. from poultry sources. A total of 141 strains of Campylobacter isolated from samples of broilers of slaughterhouses in southern Brazil was identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Campylobacter isolates were evaluated for its antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of resistance genes. The strains were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility against two agents (ampicillin and tetracycline by disk diffusion method. PCR assay was used to confirm the specie and the presence of ampicillin (blaOXA-61, tetracycline tet(O, and the energy-dependent multi-drug efflux pump (cmeB genes. Campylobacter jejuni was the most ubiquitous; its presence was determined in 140 samples out of 141 (99.3%, whereas Campylobacter coli was found only in one of the contaminated samples (0.70%. The results obtained showed 65% and 35.5% of Campylobacter isolates resistant to β-lactams and tetracyclines, respectively. The cmeB gene responsible for multidrug resistance was detected in 26 isolates out 141 strains (18.5%. Moreover, 36 out of 141 Campylobacter strains (25.6% were found to be resistant to at least two different antimicrobia resistance markers (β-lactams and tetracyclines.

  19. Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria Involved in Urinary Infections in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional and Retrospective Study

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    Rodrigues, Wellington Francisco; Miguel, Camila Botelho; Nogueira, Ana Paula Oliveira; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos; Paulino, Tony De Paiva; Soares, Siomar De Castro; De Resende, Elisabete Aparecida Mantovani Rodrigues; Lazo-Chica, Javier Emilio; Araújo, Marcelo Costa; Oliveira, Carlo José

    2016-01-01

    Empirical and prolonged antimicrobial treatment of urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli is associated with the emergence of bacterial resistance, and not all countries have strict policies against the indiscriminate use of drugs in order to prevent resistance. This cross-sectional and retrospective study (2010–2015) aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and resistance of patient-derived E. coli to different drugs broadly used to treat urinary infections in Brazil: ampicillin + sulbactam, cephalothin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and nitrofurantoin. We obtained 1654 E. coli samples from ambulatory patients with disease symptoms of the urinary tract from a Brazilian public hospital. While all antibiotics were effective in killing E. coli to a large degree, nitrofurantoin was the most effective, with fewer samples exhibiting antibiotic resistance. We assessed the costs of generic and brand name versions of each antibiotic. Nitrofurantoin, the most effective antibiotic, was the cheapest, followed by the fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin), ampicillin + sulbactam and, lastly, cephalothin. Finally, assessment of antibiotic resistance to fluoroquinolones over the study period and extrapolation of the data led to the conclusion that these antibiotics could no longer be effective against E. coli-based urinary infections in approximately 20 years if their indiscriminate use in empirical treatment continues. PMID:27649224

  20. Prebiotics Modulate the Effects of Antibiotics on Gut Microbial Diversity and Functioning in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laura P; Walton, Gemma E; Psichas, Arianna; Frost, Gary S; Gibson, Glenn R; Barraclough, Timothy G

    2015-06-04

    Intestinal bacteria carry out many fundamental roles, such as the fermentation of non-digestible dietary carbohydrates to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which can affect host energy levels and gut hormone regulation. Understanding how to manage this ecosystem to improve human health is an important but challenging goal. Antibiotics are the front line of defence against pathogens, but in turn they have adverse effects on indigenous microbial diversity and function. Here, we have investigated whether dietary supplementation--another method used to modulate gut composition and function--could be used to ameliorate the side effects of antibiotics. We perturbed gut bacterial communities with gentamicin and ampicillin in anaerobic batch cultures in vitro. Cultures were supplemented with either pectin (a non-fermentable fibre), inulin (a commonly used prebiotic that promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria) or neither. Although antibiotics often negated the beneficial effects of dietary supplementation, in some treatment combinations, notably ampicillin and inulin, dietary supplementation ameliorated the effects of antibiotics. There is therefore potential for using supplements to lessen the adverse effects of antibiotics. Further knowledge of such mechanisms could lead to better therapeutic manipulation of the human gut microbiota.

  1. Profile of antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from cockroaches (Periplaneta americana in a Brazilian health care institution

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    Marinésia Aparecida Prado

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches carry microorganisms to sterilized materials, equipment and non-contaminated food in hospitals and in homes. Hence, they are regarded as major microbial vectors. We isolated and identified microorganisms from living cockroaches captured from a Brazilian health care institution and we determined the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates. Following collection, cockroaches were immobilized at 4ºC for 10 to 20 minutes, immersed in 0.8% saline solution and then homogenized. Next, the suspension was seeded in culture media: brain and heart agar infusion, MacConkey agar, Naito agar, and they were incubated for up to 48 hours at 37ºC. Sabouraud agar cultures were incubated at ambient temperature. The microbial colonies were analyzed with a stereomicroscope to count and phenotypically identify the colony-forming units (cfu. The discdiffusion method was used to determine the profile of susceptibility to antimicrobials. Among the 103 cockroaches analyzed, fungi were found in 97%, enterobacteria in 74.6% and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS in 25.40%. Among the enterobacteria, 96% were resistant to gentamicin, 84% to ampicillin, 75.3% to caphalothin, 66.7% to ampicillin-sulbactam, 50% to aztreonam and 30% to chloramphenicol. Among the CNS, 61% were resistant to oxacillin. We concluded that cockroaches carry organisms associated with nosocomial infections and that are resistant to antimicrobials. This fact contributes to the epidemiological chain, complicating therapeutics, and consequently, medical costs are increased.

  2. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of N-Alkoxyphenyl-3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxanilides

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    Tomas Gonec

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of fifteen new N-alkoxyphenylanilides of 3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxylic acid was prepared and characterized. Primary in vitro screening of the synthesized compounds was performed against Staphylococcus aureus, three methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Some of the tested compounds showed antibacterial and antimycobacterial activity against the tested strains comparable with or higher than that of the standards ampicillin or rifampicin. 3-Hydroxy-N-(2-propoxyphenylnaphthalene-2-carboxamide and N-[2-(but-2-yloxy-phenyl]-3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamide had MIC = 12 µM against all methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains; thus their activity is 4-fold higher than that of ampicillin. The second mentioned compound as well as 3-hydroxy-N-[3-(prop-2-yloxyphenyl]-naphthalene-2-carboxamide had MICs = 23 µM and 24 µM against M. tuberculosis respectively. N-[2-(But-2-yloxyphenyl]-3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamide demonstrated higher activity against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis than rifampicin. Screening of the cytotoxicity of the most effective antimycobacterial compounds was performed using THP-1 cells, and no significant lethal effect was observed for the most potent compounds. The compounds were additionally tested for their activity related to inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport (PET in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. chloroplasts. N-(3-Ethoxyphenyl-3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamide (IC50 = 4.5 µM was the most active PET inhibitor. The structure-activity relationships are discussed.

  3. Prebiotics Modulate the Effects of Antibiotics on Gut Microbial Diversity and Functioning in Vitro

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    Laura P. Johnson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal bacteria carry out many fundamental roles, such as the fermentation of non-digestible dietary carbohydrates to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs, which can affect host energy levels and gut hormone regulation. Understanding how to manage this ecosystem to improve human health is an important but challenging goal. Antibiotics are the front line of defence against pathogens, but in turn they have adverse effects on indigenous microbial diversity and function. Here, we have investigated whether dietary supplementation—another method used to modulate gut composition and function—could be used to ameliorate the side effects of antibiotics. We perturbed gut bacterial communities with gentamicin and ampicillin in anaerobic batch cultures in vitro. Cultures were supplemented with either pectin (a non-fermentable fibre, inulin (a commonly used prebiotic that promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria or neither. Although antibiotics often negated the beneficial effects of dietary supplementation, in some treatment combinations, notably ampicillin and inulin, dietary supplementation ameliorated the effects of antibiotics. There is therefore potential for using supplements to lessen the adverse effects of antibiotics. Further knowledge of such mechanisms could lead to better therapeutic manipulation of the human gut microbiota.

  4. Risk factors for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Serratia marcescens and Klebsiella pneumoniae acquisition in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivaro, V; Bagattini, M; Salza, M F; Raimondi, F; Rossano, F; Triassi, M; Zarrilli, R

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the molecular epidemiology of gentamicin-resistant, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Serratia marcescens, and risk factors associated with their acquisition in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a university hospital in Italy. During the study period (April-November 2004), S. marcescens was responsible for six infections and 31 colonisations, while K. pneumoniae was responsible for six infections and 103 colonisations. Concurrent isolation of both organisms occurred in 24 neonates. Molecular typing identified one major pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern each for S. marcescens and K. pneumoniae strains isolated during the study period. An 80 kb plasmid containing bla(SHV-12), bla(TEM-1) and aac(6')-Ib genes, isolated from both S. marcescens and K. pneumoniae strains, and showing identical restriction profiles, transferred resistance to third-generation cephalosporins to a previously susceptible Escherichia coli host. Birthweight, gestational age and use of invasive devices were significantly associated with S. marcescens and K. pneumoniae acquisition on univariate analysis, while empiric antimicrobial treatment with ampicillin and gentamicin, and duration of hospital stay, proved to be the only independent risk factors. In conclusion, conjugal plasmid transfer and empiric antimicrobial therapy with ampicillin and gentamicin might have contributed to the selection and spread of gentamicin-resistant ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the NICU.

  5. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Enterococci Isolated From Patients in Tehran

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    Saderi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Enterococci are one of the most common nosocomial pathogens and the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains has been increasing. Objectives We studied the antimicrobial susceptibility of enterococci isolated from different clinical specimens of patients in Tehran. Materials and Methods From the beginning of April 2013 to the end of June 2013, a total of 146 enterococci were isolated from the Pars General Hospital in Tehran. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates against ampicillin, clindamaycin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, levofloxacin, linezolid, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, and vancomycin was determined using the disk diffusion method according to the guidelines of clinical laboratory standards institute (CLSI. Results The rates of resistance were high to clindamycin, tetracycline, and erythromycin (97.2%, 89%, and 74.5%, respectively; moderate to ciprofloxacilin and levofloxacilin (40.6% and 36.4%, respectively; and low to ampicillin and nitrofurantoin (13.8% and 3.5%, respectively. All isolates were linezolid sensitive. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE accounted for 9.6% of the isolates. Conclusions VRE and a high rate of resistance to some of antimicrobial agents were found among the enterococci isolated from patients in Tehran. These findings highlight the importance of regular supervision of antimicrobial susceptibilities.

  6. Flow cytometric evaluation of antibiotic effects on viability and mitochondrial function of refrigerated spermatozoa of Nile tilapia

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    Segovia, M.; Jenkins, J.A.; Paniagua-Chavez, C.; Tiersch, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Improved techniques for storage and evaluation of fish sperm would enhance breeding programs around the world. The goal of this study was to test the effect of antibiotics on refrigerated sperm from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by use of flow cytometry with 2 dual-staining protocols for objective assessment of sperm quality. Concentrations of 1 x 109 sperm/mL were suspended in Ringer's buffer at 318 mOsmol/kg (pH 8.0). The fluorescent stains Sybr 14 (10 ??M), propidium iodide (2.4 mM), and rhodamine 123 (0.13 ??M) were used to assess cell viability and mitochondrial function. Three concentrations of ampicillin, gentamicin, and an antibiotic/antimycotic solution were added to fresh spermatozoa. Motility estimates and flow cytometry measurements were made daily during 7 d of refrigerated storage (4 ??C). The highest concentrations of gentamicin and antibiotic/antimycotic and all 3 concentrations of ampicillin significantly reduced sperm viability. The highest of each of the 3 antibiotic concentrations significantly reduced mitochondrial function. This study demonstrates that objective sperm quality assessments can be made using flow cytometry and that addition of antibiotics at appropriate concentrations can lengthen refrigerated storage time for tilapia spermatozoa. With minor modifications, these protocols can be adapted for use with sperm from other species and with other tissue types.

  7. [Efficacy and safety of clavulanic acid/amoxicillin (1: 14) dry syrup in the treatment of children with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Rinya; Yamamoto, Shuichi; Motoyama, Hidekatsu; Yarita, Masao

    2015-06-01

    To demonstrate clinical value of clavulanic acid/amoxicillin (CVA/AMPC) 1:14 combination dry syrup for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS), the efficacy and safety were evaluated in a multicenter, open-label, uncontrolled study in 27 children with ABRS. The proportion of subjects who were 'cured' at the test of cure as the primary endpoint was 88.5%. In subjects with a major pathogenic bacteria at baseline (i.e., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis) bacterial eradication was achieved in ≥ 80% of the subjects with the exception of β-lactamase non-producing ampicillin resistant H. influenzae: BLNAR and β-lactamase producing ampicillin resistant H. influenzae: BLPAR (β-lactamase producing amoxicillin/clavulanic acid resistant H. influenzae: BLPACR). The MIC of CVA/AMPC (1:14) was not higher than 4 μg/mL for all pathogens except one strain each of BLNAR and BLPAR (BLPACR). Drug-related adverse events were reported in 19% of patients (5/27 patients). All of the reported drug-related adverse events were classified as gastrointestinal disorders that have been commonly reported with antibacterial drugs. These results indicate that CVA/AMPC (1:14) was clinically useful for the treatment of ABRS and is also suggested that was effective especially for the treatment of ABRS in children caused by beta-lactamase-producing bacteria including M. catarrhalis.

  8. Molecular characterization and evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC isolated from minas soft cheese

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    Mariana Tavares Dias

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne disease caused by microorganisms is a problem of public health. Minas soft cheese is a national product manufactured using simple technology; it has high level of acceptance in the country making its production an important economic activity. Many microorganisms may be present in foods including the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli. Overall, E. coli is a harmless commensal bacterium; however, some strains may have a pathogenic potential. Several outbreaks of foodborne diseases associated with consumption of contaminated cheese have been reported, and the presence of pathogenic strains of E. coli has increased. The objective of this study was to isolate, evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility, and characterize, by Multiplex PCR, the pathogenic E. coli strains isolated from Minas cheese commercialized in Rio de Janeiro. Thirty samples were analyzed and five strains of E. coli (EPEC were identified. The assessment of antimicrobial susceptibility revealed 40% of the isolates resistant to ampicillin and 40% with intermediate resistance to ampicillin-sulbactam combination. These findings are a warning signal to health authorities since Minas cheese is a ready to eat food product, and therefore should not pose health risks to the population.

  9. Study of endotoxin release by Salmonella thyphi by antibiotics in Chromogenic Limulus Amebocyte Lyssate Method

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    Shagari G

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available It seems, rapid destruction of gram negative bacteria by antibiotics contribute to the clinical deterioration of some patients with lethal endotoxemia. In this research we evaluated LPS (lipopolysaccharide release during antibiotic killing of salmonella typhi (Ty2-5536. The organism was incubated in the presence of Chloramphenicol, Ampicillin and Co-trimoxazole at concentrations that killed >99.9% of the organisms as determined by quantitative culture techniques. After incubation the antibiotic-bacterial cultures were centrifuged and the supernatants were filtered and collected for "in vivo" and "in vitro" studies. Injection of 1 ml/kg of filtrates in rabbits raised normal temperature of the animals by 1.2°C that it showes the presence of LPS in the filtrates. Quantitative chromogenic limulus amebocyte lyssate (L.A.L assay was used to determine the amount of LPS in the filtrates. The amount of LPS was 86.67±2.53 Pg/ml for chloramphenicol, 113.33±8.07 Pg/ml for Ampicillin and 134.18±11.59 Pg/ml for Co-trimoxazole. According to our investigation chloramphenicol is the best antibiotic against S.typhi because it decrease the induced-pathological effects of LPS in gram negative infection

  10. Characterization of Shigella Strains by Plasmid Profile Analysis and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns in a Pediatric Hospital in Ahvaz

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    Sakhaei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background High incidences of dysentery and diarrhea were reported in a pediatric hospital in Ahvaz, Iran during March to April, 2013. Objectives A cross-sectional study was therefore undertaken to identify the causative agents. Patients and Methods A total of 230 diarrhea samples were collected from the patients and analyzed by routine bacteriological methods. Bacterial identification, serological assay, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs screening and plasmid profile analysis were performed according to the standard guidelines. Results A total of 70 Shigella strains including %70 (n = 49 S. sonnei and 30% (n = 21 S. flexneri were isolated from diarrhea samples. Most of the Shigella isolates showed high degrees of resistance to ampicillin, ulafamethoxazole- trimethoprime and cefexim. Concurrent resistance to sulafametoxazole- trimethoprime and ampicillin was the most common resistance pattern. Overall, 11.4% of Shigella isolates showed the ESBL producer criteria. The plasmid profile patterns of all the strains were determined by a modified alkaline lysis method. By plasmid profile analysis 23 genotypes were identified among all the isolates, 14 and 9 genotypes among the S. sonnei and S. flexneri respectively. S. sonnei and S. flexneri isolates demonstrated unique plasmid profiles. Conclusions These data demonstrated that S. sonnei strains are the main cause of shigellosis as the prevalent Shigella serotype in Iran. We also found that the antibiotic resistance rates are increasing among Shigella strains. Plasmid profile analysis is more reliable than antibiotic susceptibility patterns in epidemiologic studies.

  11. Distribution, Detection of Enterotoxigenic Strains and Antimicrobial Drug Susceptibility Patterns of Bacteroides Fragilis Group in Diarrheic and Non-Diarrheic Feces from Brazilian Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Débora Paula; Silva, Vânia Lúcia; Guimarães, Danielle Aparecida; Coelho, Cíntia Marques; Zauli, Danielle Alves Gomes; Farias, Luiz Macêdo; Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora Roque; Diniz, Claudio Galuppo

    2010-01-01

    Despite the importance of gastrointestinal diseases and their global distribution, affecting millions of individuals around the world, the role and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of anaerobic bacteria such as those in the Bacteroides fragilis group (BFG) are still unclear in young children. This study investigated the occurrence and distribution of species in the BFG and enterotoxigenic strains in the fecal microbiota of children and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Diarrheic (n=110) and non-diarrheic (n=65) fecal samples from children aged 0–5 years old were evaluated. BFG strains were isolated and identified by conventional biochemical, physiological and molecular approaches. Alternatively, bacteria and enterotoxigenic strains were detected directly from feces by molecular biology. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns were determined by the agar dilution method according to the guidelines for isolated bacteria. BFG was detected in 64.3% of the fecal samples (55% diarrheic and 80.4% non-diarrheic), and 4.6% were enterotoxigenic. Antimicrobial resistance was observed against ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, meropenem, ceftriaxone, clindamycin and chloramphenicol. The data show that these bacteria are prevalent in fecal microbiota at higher levels in healthy children. The molecular methodology was more effective in identifying the B. fragilis group when compared to the biochemical and physiological techniques. The observation of high resistance levels stimulates thoughts about the indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs in early infancy. Further quantitative studies are needed to gain a better understanding of the role of these bacteria in acute diarrhea in children. PMID:24031535

  12. Ultrastructural Changes in Clinical and Microbiota Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carriers of Genes bla SHV, bla TEM, bla CTX-M, or bla KPC When Subject to β-Lactam Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Dyana Leal; Lopes, Ana Catarina de Souza; da Silva, Grasielle Vaz; Gonçalves, Gabriel Gazzoni Araújo; de Freitas, Catarina Fernandes; de Lima, Fernanda Cristina Gomes; Maciel, Maria Amélia Vieira; Feitosa, Ana Paula Sampaio; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Brayner, Fábio André

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the ultrastructural effects caused by β-lactam antibiotics in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. Three K. pneumoniae clinical isolates were selected for the study with resistance profiles for third-generation cephalosporins, aztreonam, and/or imipenem and with different resistance genes for extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) or Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC). Two K. pneumoniae isolates obtained from the microbiota, which were both resistant to amoxicillin and ampicillin, were also analyzed. In accordance with the susceptibility profile, the clinical isolates were subjected to subminimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of cefotaxime, ceftazidime, aztreonam, and imipenem and the isolates from the microbiota to ampicillin and amoxicillin, for analysis by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The K. pneumoniae isolates showed different morphological and ultrastructural changes after subjection to β-lactams tested at different concentrations, such as cell filamentation, loss of cytoplasmic material, and deformation of dividing septa. Our results demonstrate that K. pneumoniae isolates harboring different genes that encode for β-lactamases show cell alterations when subjected to different β-lactam antibiotics, thus suggesting that they possess residual activity in vitro, despite the phenotypic resistance presented in the isolates analyzed.

  13. Association of Pattern of Bacteria Sensitivity During the Empirical Antibiotics Use to the Achievement of Clinical Outcome in Pediatric Patients with Pneumonia

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    Vesara A. Gatera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonia is one of infectious diseases that require a comprehensive and effective effort in its treatment, including in the use of empirical antibiotics. The use of empirical antibiotics should be based on patterns of sensitivity toward bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of antibiotics based on the sensitivity patterns by clinical outcomes as the goal of treatment. This study was conducted in Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung in October–December 2013 using a retrospective cross-sectional study design. Secondary data were obtained from medical records during January 2011–December 2012. This study consisted of 24 patients with positive culture test and received antibiotic prescription. The results showed the percentage of the use of cefotaxime-ampicillin (37.5%, cefotaxime (33.3%, ceftriaxone (20.8%, and Ampicillin (8.4%. The most influential antibiotics for achieving clinical outcome using 95% confidence level is combination of cefotaxime-ampiciline (P=0.044 with 77.7% sensitivity level. This study suggested that the pattern of antibiotic sensitivity affected the clinical outcomes of pediatric patients with pneumonia.

  14. Study of Sensibility and Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolated from Urinary Tract Infection in Tabriz City

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    Hamed Molaabaszadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  Background & Objective: Urinary infection is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases, and Escherichia coli is the most important cause of urinary infections. This study was done with the aim of surveying the amount of susceptibility and resistance among the strains of Escherichia coli isolated from those who referred to the private laboratories in the Iranian city of Tabriz.   Materials & Methods: This survey was done periodically during the first 6 months of the year 2010. Samples were obtained in a sterile manner and were subjected to all necessary pathological tests. Evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility was conducted with disk diffusion standard method, and the results were analyzed.   Results: Totally, 5701 Escherichia coli strains were identified. The highest sensitivity to Imipenem was 90.95%, Nitrofurantoin 85.97%, and Cefotaxime 71.02% and the highest resistance to Ampicillin was 83.95%, Tetracycline 80.97%, and Co-trimoxazole 63.92%.   Conclusion: Our results suggest that the cause of the high resistance of Escherichia coli strains to Ampicillin and Tetracycline could be the consumption of these antibiotics. Therefore, abstaining from overuse of unnecessary antibiotics and production of new-generation and cost-effective antibiotics are recommend. 

  15. Inhibition of Bacterial Adhesion by Subinhibitory Concentrations of Antibiotics

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    Vidya K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs due to Escherichia coli is one of the most common diseases encountered in clinical practice. Most common recognised pathogenic factor in E.coli is adhesion. There is accumulating evidence that through subinhibitory concentrations (sub - MICs of many antibiotics do not kill bacteria, they are able to interfere with some important aspects of bacterial cell function. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted to investigate the effect of sub MICs (1/2-1/8 MIC of ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, gentamicin, ampicillin and co - trimoxazole on E. coli adhesiveness to human vaginal epithelial cells using three strains ATCC 25922, MTCC 729 and U 105. Results: The 1/2 MIC of all the antibiotics tested produced the greatest inhibition of bacterial adhesion. Morphological changes were observed with ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime and ampicillin at 1/2 MIC and to a lesser extent at 1/4 and 1/8 MIC. Co-trimoxazole caused the greatest suppression of adhesion at 1/2 MIC of E. coli strain MTCC 729 when compared with the controls, followed by ceftazidime. Conclusion: These results suggest that co - trimoxazole is the most effective antibiotic in the treatment of urinary tract infections caused by uropathogenic E. coli.

  16. Distribution, detection of enterotoxigenic strains and antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns of bacteroides fragilis group in diarrheic and non-diarrheic feces from brazilian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Débora Paula; Silva, Vânia Lúcia; Guimarães, Danielle Aparecida; Coelho, Cíntia Marques; Zauli, Danielle Alves Gomes; Farias, Luiz Macêdo; Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora Roque; Diniz, Claudio Galuppo

    2010-07-01

    Despite the importance of gastrointestinal diseases and their global distribution, affecting millions of individuals around the world, the role and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of anaerobic bacteria such as those in the Bacteroides fragilis group (BFG) are still unclear in young children. This study investigated the occurrence and distribution of species in the BFG and enterotoxigenic strains in the fecal microbiota of children and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Diarrheic (n=110) and non-diarrheic (n=65) fecal samples from children aged 0-5 years old were evaluated. BFG strains were isolated and identified by conventional biochemical, physiological and molecular approaches. Alternatively, bacteria and enterotoxigenic strains were detected directly from feces by molecular biology. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns were determined by the agar dilution method according to the guidelines for isolated bacteria. BFG was detected in 64.3% of the fecal samples (55% diarrheic and 80.4% non-diarrheic), and 4.6% were enterotoxigenic. Antimicrobial resistance was observed against ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, meropenem, ceftriaxone, clindamycin and chloramphenicol. The data show that these bacteria are prevalent in fecal microbiota at higher levels in healthy children. The molecular methodology was more effective in identifying the B. fragilis group when compared to the biochemical and physiological techniques. The observation of high resistance levels stimulates thoughts about the indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs in early infancy. Further quantitative studies are needed to gain a better understanding of the role of these bacteria in acute diarrhea in children.

  17. High Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum Beta Lactamases among Salmonella enterica Typhimurium Isolates from Pediatric Patients with Diarrhea in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fangyou; Chen, Qiang; Yu, Xiaojun; Li, Qiaoqiao; Ding, Baixing; Yang, Lehe; Chen, Cong; Qin, Zhiqiang; Parsons, Chris; Zhang, Xueqing; Huang, Jinwei; Luo, Yun; Wang, Liangxing; Pan, Jingye

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the extended-spectrum beta lactamases among 62 Salmonella enterica Typhimurium isolates recovered from children with diarrhea in a Chinese pediatric hospital. A large proportion of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates were resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents, including ampicillin (90.3%), tetracycline (80.6%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (74.2%), chloramphenicol (66.1%), cefotaxime (27.4%). Forty-nine (79.0%) of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates were positive for blaTEM-1b and resistant to ampicillin. Thirteen S. enterica Typhimurium isolates (21.0%) were positive for blaCTX-M-1-group and blaCTX-M-9-group, and all isolates harboring blaCTX-M genes were positive for ISEcp1. Two main clones (PFGE type A and D) accounted for nearly 70% of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates, and 7 CTX-M-producing isolates belonged to PFGE type D. Collectively, our data reveal multi-drug resistance and a high prevalence of extended spectrum beta lactamases among S. enterica Typhimurium isolates from children in China. In addition, we report the first identification of blaCTX-M-55 within Salmonella spp. Our data also suggest that clonal spread is responsible for the dissemination of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates. PMID:21390297

  18. Antibiotic resistance of bacteria responsible of acute respiratory tract infections in children

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    Makhtar Camara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis are the most common causative agents of acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs. The objective of this study was to assess their susceptibility to several antibiotics.Materials and methods. A total of 58 strains (16 S. pneumoniae, 19 H. influenzae and 23 M. catarrhalis were isolated from samples collected in two paediatric centres, and their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics tested by E-test. Results. Among H. influenzae isolates, 10.5% were resistant to ampicillin (all β-lactamase-positive, and 88.9% were susceptible to cefaclor. High β-lactam resistance rates (penicillin: 31.3% and cephalosporins: 18.7 to 31.3% had been observed among S. pneumonia strains. Only 50% of isolates were susceptible to azithromycine. 91.3% of M. catarrhalis isolates β-lactamases producers were resistant to ampicillin while susceptible to the most tested antibiotics. Conclusions. Except M. catarrhalis β-lactamases producing strains, frequency of antibiotic resistance was mainly observed among S. pneumoniae, and to a lesser extent among H. influenzae clinical isolates, suggesting the need for continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance patterns in the management of RTIs.

  19. Antibiotic resistance of streptococcus pneumoniae and haemophilus influenzae isolated from respiratory tract specimens

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    Hikmet Eda Aliskan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are two of the major pathogens in respiratory infections, treatment is usually started empirically. The aim of this study was to detect in vitro resistance rates of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae strains isolated from different lower respiratory clinical samples to the antibotics which are used for therapy of infections due to these pathogens. Material and Methods: Seventy seven S.pneumoniae and 117 H.influenzae strains, isolated from patients were included in the study. S.pneumoniae isolates which gave an inhibition zone diameter of >20 mm for oxacillin were considered susceptible for penicilin. For the isolates which had an oxacillin zone diameter of 2 mg/l and 31.1 % were intermediately resistant to parenteral penicillin. Resistance rates to antibiotics were as follows: erythromycin 40 %, trimethoprim/sulphametoxazole (TMP/SMX 54.5 % and ofloxacin 6.4%. beta-lactamases were detected in 15.6% of the H.influenzae isolates by nitrocefin positivity. Conclusion: H.influenzae strains (8.6% were identified as beta-lactamase negative ampicillin resistant (BLNAR strains. Resistance rates for other antibiotics were as follows: ampicillin 28.6%, cefaclor 36.5% , cefuroxime 30.1%, clarithromycin 9.6%, cloramphenicol 7% and TMP-SMX 43.9%. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 201-207

  20. Utilization of Fenton-like reaction for antibiotics and resistant bacteria elimination in different parts of WWTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackuľak, Tomáš; Nagyová, Kristína; Faberová, Milota; Grabic, Roman; Koba, Olga; Gál, Miroslav; Birošová, Lucia

    2015-09-01

    Utilization of relatively low-cost modification of Fenton reaction for the elimination of selected antibiotics and resistant coliforms in different part of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was studied. The concentration of antibiotics and occurrence of resistant gems in different stages of WWTP in the capital city of Slovakia - Bratislava was analyzed by LC-MS/MS technique. Consequently, Fenton-like reaction was applied for the elimination of chemical and biological contaminants. Comparative study with classical Fenton reaction was also done. Very high concentrations of clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin and azithromycin in influent water were found. Coliform bacteria were predominantly resistant to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. After the mechanical stage, the concentration of antibiotics in water was significantly decreased because of the sorption during this step. Biological step degraded 12 types of antibiotics. Analyses of effluent water showed very bad elimination of azithromycin (919ng/L) and clarithromycin (684ng/L). Contrary, ciprofloxacin was removed with very high efficiency (95%). The number of resistant bacteria was also significantly decreased in effluent water. In the case of Escherichia coli only ampicillin and gentamicin resistance bacteria were detected. Our results show that antibiotics as well as resistant bacteria were eliminated by the modification of classical Fenton reaction with high efficiency. The modification of the Fenton reaction can decrease the process wages, environmental impact. Moreover, the degradation process was easily controlled, monitored and tuned.

  1. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of microflora colonizing feral pig (Sus scrofa of Brazilian Pantanal

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    SS Lessa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is a worldwide problem affecting wild life by living with resistant bacteria in the environment. This study presents a discussion of outside factors environment on microflora of feral pigs (Sus scrofa from Brazilian Pantanal. Animals had samples collected from six different body sites coming from two separated geographic areas, Nhecolandia and Rio Negro regions. With routine biochemical tests and commercial kits 516 bacteria were identified, with 240 Gram-positive, predominantly staphylococci (36 and enterococci (186 strains. Among Gram-negative (GN bacteria the predominant specimens of Enterobacteriaceae (247 mainly represented by Serratia spp. (105, Escherichia coli (50, and Enterobacter spp. (40 and specimens not identified (7. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against 17 drugs by agar diffusion method. Staphylococci were negative to production of enterotoxins and TSST-1, with all strains sensitive towards four drugs and highest resistance toward ampicillin (17%. Enterococci presented the highest sensitivity against vancomycin (98%, ampicillin (94% and tetracycline (90%, and highest resistance pattern toward oxacillin (99%, clindamycin (83%, and cotrimoxazole (54%. In GN the highest resistance was observed with Serratia marcescens against CFL (98%, AMC (66% and AMP (60% and all drugs was most effective against E. coli SUT, TET (100%, AMP, TOB (98%, GEN, CLO (95%, CFO, CIP (93%. The results show a new profile of oxacillin-resistant enterococci from Brazilian feral pigs and suggest a limited residue and spreading of antimicrobials in the environment, possibly because of low anthropogenic impact reflected by the drug susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated.

  2. Incidence and toxigenicity of Aeromonas hydrophila in seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, G J; Chen, T H

    1996-08-01

    Three selective media, Oxoid Aeromonas agar (OA), blood ampicillin agar (BA) and starch ampicillin agar (SA) were used to evaluate the presence of Aeromonas hydrophila in 66 samples of oyster, shrimp, fish and surimi products. Oyster had the highest incidence, with 50% positive, whilst no A. hydrophila was found in the surimi. Of the three selective media, BA displayed the highest recovery rate of A. hydrophila from seafood. Forty-eight isolates from this survey were tested for their capability to produce hemolysin and cytotoxin. Hemolysin was produced by 79.2% of the isolates and cytotoxin was produced by 91.7% of the isolates in brain heart infusion broth. One of the toxin-producing isolates from oyster, strain 8-169, was further tested for growth and toxin production in oyster, shrimp and fish at various temperatures. This particular isolate grew best and had highest toxin production in oyster. Hemolysin and cytotoxin were produced earlier at 28 degrees C than at 37 degrees C, and titers of hemolysin were also higher at 28 degrees C. At 5 degrees C, it was able to grow and produce hemolysin in oyster.

  3. Multidrug resistant Escherichia coli strains isolated from urine sample, University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Setegn Eshetie; Fentahun Tarekegn; Gemechu Kumera; Feleke Mekonnen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess multidrug resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates from patients with urinary tract infection. Methods: From February to June 2014, a cross sectional study was conducted among urinary tract infection patients at the University of Gondar Hospital. Culture and disk diffusion method were used for E. coli isolation and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. P Results: A total of 112 E. coli isolates were identified and the rate of isolation was higher among female participants (28.7%; P = 0.03). Of the isolates, 104 (92.9%) were MDR E. coli; and the isolates showed high resistance rates towards ampicillin (99%), cotrimoxazole (69%), chloramphenicol (58.7%), gentamycin (56.7%) and ceftazidime (55.8%). However, comparative isolates showed low resistance rates to ciprofloxacin (1%), cefepime (8.7%), and ceftriaxone (11.5%). Moreover, resistance rates of MDR E. coli isolates were significantly higher than non-MDR strains for ceftazidime (55.8% versus 12.5%; P = 0.015), and ampicillin (99% versus 87.5%; P = 0.018). Conclusions: High prevalence of MDR E. coli isolates was observed in this study. Regular monitoring of antibiotic resistance rates is necessarily required to improve and revise empirical antibiotic therapy protocols.

  4. Degradation kinetics and mechanism of β-lactam antibiotics by the activation of H2O2 and Na2S2O8 under UV-254nm irradiation.

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    He, Xuexiang; Mezyk, Stephen P; Michael, Irene; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2014-08-30

    The extensive production and usage of antibiotics have led to an increasing occurrence of antibiotic residuals in various aquatic compartments, presenting a significant threat to both ecosystem and human health. This study investigated the degradation of selected β-lactam antibiotics (penicillins: ampicillin, penicillin V, and piperacillin; cephalosporin: cephalothin) by UV-254nm activated H2O2 and S2O8(2-) photochemical processes. The UV irradiation alone resulted in various degrees of direct photolysis of the antibiotics; while the addition of the oxidants improved significantly the removal efficiency. The steady-state radical concentrations were estimated, revealing a non-negligible contribution of hydroxyl radicals in the UV/S2O8(2-) system. Mineralization of the β-lactams could be achieved at high UV fluence, with a slow formation of SO4(2-) and a much lower elimination of total organic carbon (TOC). The transformation mechanisms were also investigated showing the main reaction pathways of hydroxylation (+16Da) at the aromatic ring and/or the sulfur atom, hydrolysis (+18Da) at the β-lactam ring and decarboxylation (-44Da) for the three penicillins. Oxidation of amine group was also observed for ampicillin. This study suggests that UV/H2O2 and UV/S2O8(2-) advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are capable of degrading β-lactam antibiotics decreasing consequently the antibiotic activity of treated waters.

  5. Antibacterial properties of Alkaloid rich fractions obtained from various parts of Prosopis juliflora

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    Shachi Singh,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The alkaloid rich fraction obtained from various parts of Prosopis juliflora were assessed for their antibacterial property using disc diffusion method on several Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains like E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Psuedomonas putida, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Acinetobacter andAlcaligen. Strong antibacterial effect was shown by leaf, pod and flower extract, with MIC value ranging between 25μg/ml-100μg/ml. The extracts of leaves showed highest activity among all the plant parts. Klebsiella was found to be the most susceptible bacteria, whereas Acinetobacter and Alcaligen were the least susceptible. A comparison of zone of inhibition created by alkaloid rich fractions with that of standard antibiotics, ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, oflaxacin, refampin, streptomycin and sulfa drug showed a comparable zone of inhibition. Growth of Acinetobacter and Alcaligen which were not inhibited by antibiotics, showed inhibition by the alkaloidal extracts, similarly a known ampicillin resistant E.coli strain was found to be inhibited by the plant extracts. Alkaloids present in the extracts were analysed by DART-MS. DART-MS analysis of the alkaloid rich fractions showed the presence of piperidine alkaloids.

  6. Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Shrimp Farming Freshwater Environment in Northeast Region of Brazil

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    Fátima C. T. Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the presence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. in a shrimp farming environment in Northeast Region of Brazil. Samples of water and sediments from two farms rearing freshwater-acclimated Litopenaeus vannamei were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Afterwards, Salmonella isolates were serotyped, the antimicrobial resistance was determined by a disk diffusion method, and the plasmid curing was performed for resistant isolates. A total of 30 (16.12% of the 186 isolates were confirmed to be Salmonella spp., belonging to five serovars: S. serovar Saintpaul, S. serovar Infantis, S. serovar Panama, S. serovar Madelia, and S. serovar Braenderup, along with 2 subspecies: S. enterica serovar houtenae and S. enterica serovar enterica. About twenty-three percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and twenty percent were resistant to at least two antibiotics. Three strains isolated from water samples (pond and inlet canal exhibited multiresistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and nitrofurantoin. One of them had a plasmid with genes conferring resistance to nitrofurantoin and ampicillin. The incidence of bacteria pathogenic to humans in a shrimp farming environment, as well as their drug-resistance pattern revealed in this study, emphasizes the need for a more rigorous attention to this area.

  7. Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Shrimp Farming Freshwater Environment in Northeast Region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fátima C. T.; Sousa, Oscarina V.; Carvalho, Edirsana M. R.; Hofer, Ernesto; Vieira, Regine H. S. F.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the presence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. in a shrimp farming environment in Northeast Region of Brazil. Samples of water and sediments from two farms rearing freshwater-acclimated Litopenaeus vannamei were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Afterwards, Salmonella isolates were serotyped, the antimicrobial resistance was determined by a disk diffusion method, and the plasmid curing was performed for resistant isolates. A total of 30 (16.12%) of the 186 isolates were confirmed to be Salmonella spp., belonging to five serovars: S. serovar Saintpaul, S. serovar Infantis, S. serovar Panama, S. serovar Madelia, and S. serovar Braenderup, along with 2 subspecies: S. enterica serovar houtenae and S. enterica serovar enterica. About twenty-three percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and twenty percent were resistant to at least two antibiotics. Three strains isolated from water samples (pond and inlet canal) exhibited multiresistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and nitrofurantoin. One of them had a plasmid with genes conferring resistance to nitrofurantoin and ampicillin. The incidence of bacteria pathogenic to humans in a shrimp farming environment, as well as their drug-resistance pattern revealed in this study, emphasizes the need for a more rigorous attention to this area. PMID:24455280

  8. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Isolated from Animal-Origin Food Items in Gondar, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejo, Mebrat; Garedew, Legesse; Alebachew, Zabishwork; Worku, Walelgn

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella has been found to be the major cause of foodborne diseases and a serious public health problem in the world, with an increasing concern for the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant strains. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February 2014 and December 2015 on food items of animal origin to assess the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella isolates using standard bacteriological methods. The overall prevalence rate of 5.5% was recorded from the total analyzed food items of animal origin. Salmonella isolates were detected from 12% of raw meat, 8% of minced meat, 2.9% of burger samples, 18% of raw eggs, and 6% of raw milk. Furthermore, antimicrobial susceptibility test identified 47.6% resistant Salmonella isolates, 28.6% intermediately sensitive isolates, and 23.8% susceptible isolates. Among Salmonella isolates tested, 42.6%, 28.6%, and 14.3% were found to be relatively resistant to tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and ampicillin, respectively, while 9.5%-19% were intermediately resistant to tetracycline, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, and nitrofurantoin. Therefore, our findings provide the prevalence and drug resistance of Salmonella from foods of animal origin and contribute information to scientists as well as public health researchers to minimize the prevalent and resistant foodborne Salmonella species in Ethiopia.

  9. Efflux pump-deficient mutants as a platform to search for microbes that produce antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Santiago, Carlos; Udaondo, Zulema; Daddaoua, Abdelali; Roca, Amalia; Martín, Jesús; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Reyes, Fernando; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E-18 is a strain deficient in the major antibiotic efflux pump (TtgABC) that exhibits an overall increased susceptibility to a wide range of drugs when compared with the wild-type strain. We used this strain as a platform to search for microbes able to produce antibiotics that inhibit growth. A collection of 2400 isolates from soil, sediments and water was generated and a drop assay developed to identify, via growth inhibition halos, strains that prevent the growth of DOT-T1E-18 on solid Luria–Bertani plates. In this study, 35 different isolates that produced known and unknown antibiotics were identified. The most potent inhibitor of DOT-T1E-18 growth was an isolate named 250J that, through multi-locus sequence analysis, was identified as a Pseudomonas sp. strain. Culture supernatants of 250J contain four different xantholysins that prevent growth of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative and fungi. Two of the xantholysins were produced in higher concentrations and purified. Xantholysin A was effective against Bacillus, Lysinibacillus and Rhodococcus strains, and the effect against these microbes was enhanced when used in combination with other antibiotics such as ampicillin, gentamicin and kanamycin. Xantholysin C was also efficient against Gram-positive bacteria and showed an interesting antimicrobial effect against Pseudomonas strains, and a synergistic inhibitory effect with ampicillin, chloramphenicol and gentamicin. PMID:26059350

  10. Simultaneous determination of β-lactam antibiotics and β-lactamase inhibitors in bovine milk by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nasi; Feng, Feng; Yang, Bingcheng; Jiang, Pingping; Chu, Xiaogang

    2014-01-15

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of four β-lactam antibiotics (amoxicillin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, and cefoperazone) and two β-lactamase inhibitors (tazobactam, sulbactam) in bovine milk. The analytes were extracted with water from bovine milk and purified with Oasis HLB solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. The analytes were determined in less than 3min by UPLC-MS/MS in positive and negative electrospray ionization (ESI) modes, separately. The method was linear over the range of 1-100μg/L for tazobactam, sulbactam, ampicillin, and cefoperazone, and 2-100μg/L for amoxicillin and cefotaxime. The recoveries for all six analytes in bovine milk ranged from 82.5 to 98.3%. The limits of detection and the limits of quantitation were 0.1-0.2μg/L and 0.3-0.5μg/L, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 6% for each compound.

  11. Prevalence, genetic diversity, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Zhejiang Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-ping LI; Hai-jian ZHOU; Lin YUAN; Ting HE; Song-hua HU

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine genetic diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcusaureus recovered from bovine mastitis in Zhejiang Province, China. Out of 3178 quarter milk samples from 846 lactating cows, among which 459 cows (54.3%) were found HMT positive, 890 quarters (28%) were found having subclinical mastitis. From 75 representative S. aureus isolates, 16 distinct types were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Four major PFGE types (A, B, C, and D) accounted for 82.7% of all isolates, and type A (41.3%) was observed in multiple herds across the studied areas. Each region was found to have a predominant type: Hangzhou type A (64.1%), Ningbo type C (34.5%) and type B (23.1%), Jinhua type D (53.3%), and Taizhou type C (62.5%). Results of antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that 90.7% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. Resistance to penicillin and ampicillin (77.3%), tetracycline (60.0%), or erythromycin (48.0%) was observed. The bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics such as penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin were commonly found. The information obtained from this study is useful for designing specific control programs for bovine S. aureus mastiffs in this region.

  12. [Pathogenesis of beta-lactam-resistant Haemophilus influenzae isolated from sputum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanuki, Yuji; Odagiri, Shigeki; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ogura, Takashi; Tomioka, Toshiaki

    2004-10-01

    Haemophlus influenzae persists in the respiratory tract and sometimes causes respiratory tract infections. To evaluate the pathogenesis of beta-lactam-resistant Haemophilus influenzae, we classified 193 Haemophilus influenzae strains isolated from sputum of patients with respiratory tract disease in 24 beta-lactamase positive (BLP) strains, 65 beta-lactamase negative ampicillin resistant (BLNAR) strains and 104 beta-lactamase negative ampicillin sensitive (BLNAS) strains and reviewed the pathogenesis of the strains. The pathogenesis of the strains was evaluated as definite pathogen, presumptive pathogen, colonization and contamination. It was judged to be the definite pathogen that many bacteria isolated from high quality sputum of the patients with respiratory tract infections. Presumptive pathogen was considered to be the bacteria provided from the patient with respiratory infections when the quality of the sputum or quantity of bacteria did not satisfy superscription basis. We considered the bacteria to be colonization or contamination isolated from patients without infections. The breakdown of definite pathogen/presumptive pathogen/colonization/contamination in each by groups was BLP (8/4/8/4), BLNAR (26/14/15/10), BLNAS (36/20/31/17). The ratio of definite or presumptive pathogen was 50% in BLP, 62% in BLNAR and 54% in BLNAS and the significant difference was not recognized in these. Pathogenesis of beta-lactam-resistant Haemophilus influenzae is estimated to be equal with beta-lactam-sensitive Haemophilus influenzae.

  13. Investigations on prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC among dairy farms in the north part of the Republic of Bulgaria

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    Valentina Urumova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over a 2-year period, from January 2011 to May 2013, a total of 1094 faecal swab samples were collected from cattle at different age at 4 farms in North Bulgaria: Okorsh, Slavyanovo (Popovo municipality, Dobri dol and Trem. Out of them, 36 coli strains (3.3% positive in the E. coli O:157 antiserum agglutination test and identified by the BBL CRYSTAL identification system as belonging to the E. coli O:157 serotype were isolated. The distribution of isolates was as followed: 5 (0.5% E. coli O:157 strains at the Okorsh dairy cattle farm, 7 (0.6% E. coli isolates at the Slavyanovo dairy farm, 16 (1.5% isolates at the Dobri dol farm and 8 (0.7% isolates at the Trem farm. Colibacteria exhibited 100% sensitivity to oxyimino-cephalosporins, gentamicin and enrofloxacin, and were resistant to ampicillin (19.4% and tetracycline (41.6%. From the 15 strains resistant to tetracycline, 11 were isolated from the cows at Dobri dol, while the other 4 originated from the other three farms. The 7 ampicillin-resistant E. coli isolates were detected only at the Dobri dol cattle farm.

  14. High prevalence of extended-spectrum beta lactamases among Salmonella enterica Typhimurium isolates from pediatric patients with diarrhea in China.

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    Fangyou Yu

    Full Text Available We investigated the extended-spectrum beta lactamases among 62 Salmonella enterica Typhimurium isolates recovered from children with diarrhea in a Chinese pediatric hospital. A large proportion of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates were resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents, including ampicillin (90.3%, tetracycline (80.6%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (74.2%, chloramphenicol (66.1%, cefotaxime (27.4%. Forty-nine (79.0% of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates were positive for bla(TEM-1b and resistant to ampicillin. Thirteen S. enterica Typhimurium isolates (21.0% were positive for bla(CTX-M-1-group and bla(CTX-M-9-group, and all isolates harboring bla(CTX-M genes were positive for ISEcp1. Two main clones (PFGE type A and D accounted for nearly 70% of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates, and 7 CTX-M-producing isolates belonged to PFGE type D. Collectively, our data reveal multi-drug resistance and a high prevalence of extended spectrum beta lactamases among S. enterica Typhimurium isolates from children in China. In addition, we report the first identification of bla(CTX-M-55 within Salmonella spp. Our data also suggest that clonal spread is responsible for the dissemination of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates.

  15. Distribution, detection of enterotoxigenic strains and antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns of Bacteroides fragilis group in diarrheic and non-diarrheic feces from Brazilian infants

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    Débora Paula Ferreira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of gastrointestinal diseases and their global distribution, affecting millions of individuals around the world, the role and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of anaerobic bacteria such as those in the Bacteroides fragilis group (BFG are still unclear in young children. This study investigated the occurrence and distribution of species in the BFG and enterotoxigenic strains in the fecal microbiota of children and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Diarrheic (n=110 and non-diarrheic (n=65 fecal samples from children aged 0-5 years old were evaluated. BFG strains were isolated and identified by conventional biochemical, physiological and molecular approaches. Alternatively, bacteria and enterotoxigenic strains were detected directly from feces by molecular biology. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns were determined by the agar dilution method according to the guidelines for isolated bacteria. BFG was detected in 64.3% of the fecal samples (55% diarrheic and 80.4% non-diarrheic, and 4.6% were enterotoxigenic. Antimicrobial resistance was observed against ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, meropenem, ceftriaxone, clindamycin and chloramphenicol. The data show that these bacteria are prevalent in fecal microbiota at higher levels in healthy children. The molecular methodology was more effective in identifying the B. fragilis group when compared to the biochemical and physiological techniques. The observation of high resistance levels stimulates thoughts about the indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs in early infancy. Further quantitative studies are needed to gain a better understanding of the role of these bacteria in acute diarrhea in children.

  16. R-plasmid transfer in a wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, P A; Grimes, D J

    1982-12-01

    Enteric bacteria have been examined for their ability to transfer antibiotic resistance in a wastewater treatment plant. Resistant Salmonella enteritidis, Proteus mirabilis, and Escherichia coli were isolated from clinical specimens and primary sewage effluent. Resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfadiazine, and tetracycline was demonstrated by spread plate and tube dilution techniques. Plasmid mediation of resistance was shown by ethidium bromide curing, agarose gel electrophoresis, and direct cell transfer. Each donor was mated with susceptible E. coli and Shigella sonnei. Mating pairs (and recipient controls) were suspended in unchlorinated primary effluent that had been filtered and autoclaved. Suspensions were added to membrane diffusion chambers which were then placed in the primary and secondary setting tanks of the wastewater treatment plant. Resistant recombinants were detected by replica plating nutrient agar master plates onto xylose lysine desoxycholate agar plates that contained per milliliter of medium 10 micrograms of ampicillin, 30 micrograms of chloramphenicol, 10 micrograms of streptomycin, 100 micrograms of sulfadiazine, or 30 micrograms of tetracycline. Mean transfer frequencies for laboratory matings were 2.1 X 10(-3). In situ matings for primary and secondary settling resulted in frequencies of 4.9 X 10(-5) and 7.5 X 10(-5), respectively. These values suggest that a significant level of resistance transfer occurs in wastewater treatment plants in the absence of antibiotics as selective agents.

  17. Molecular epidemiology of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae causing community-acquired pneumonia in adults.

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    Carmen Puig

    Full Text Available Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi is an opportunistic pathogen which causes a variety of respiratory infections. The objectives of the study were to determine its antimicrobial susceptibility, to characterize the β-lactam resistance, and to establish a genetic characterization of NTHi isolates. Ninety-five NTHi isolates were analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multi locus sequence typing (MLST. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by microdilution, and the ftsI gene (encoding penicillin-binding protein 3, PBP3 was PCR amplified and sequenced. Thirty (31.6% isolates were non-susceptible to ampicillin (MIC ≥ 2 mg/L, with 10 of them producing β-lactamase type TEM-1 as a resistance mechanism. After ftsI sequencing, 39 (41.1% isolates showed amino acid substitutions in PBP3, with Asn526 → Lys being the most common (69.2%. Eighty-four patients were successfully treated with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone and levofloxacin. Eight patients died due either to aspiration or complication of their comorbidities. In conclusion, NTHi causing CAP in adults shows high genetic diversity and is associated with a high rate of reduced susceptibility to ampicillin due to alterations in PBP3. The analysis of treatment and outcomes demonstrated that NTHi strains with mutations in the ftsI gene could be successfully treated with ceftriaxone or fluoroquinolones.

  18. Antibiotic resistance profiling and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from aquatic sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeyemi, Olumide A; Ahmad, Asmat

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate antibiotics resistance pattern and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from different aquatic sources in Melaka, Malaysia. A total of 53 Aeromonas species were isolated from the following sources: sediment (n = 13), bivalve (n = 10), sea cucumber (n = 16) and sea water (n = 14) and resistance to 12 antibiotics - Tetracycline (30 μg), Kanamycin (30 μg), Oxytetracycline (30 μg), Ampicillin (10 μg), Streptomycin (10 μg), Gentamicin (10 μg), Sulphamethoxazole (25 μg), Nalixidic acid (30 μg), Trimethoprim (1.25 μg), Novobiocin (5 μg), Penicilin (10 μg) and Chloramphenicol (10 μg) was tested. The results obtained from this study reveal multi drug resistance pattern among the isolates. All the isolates were completely resistant to Ampicillin, Novobiocin, Sulphamethoxazole and Trimethoprim, respectively but susceptible to Tetracycline (100%), Kanamycin (5.7%), Gentamicin (5.7%) and Oxytetracycline (24.5%). Antibiotics phenotyping of the bacteria revealed 21 different phenotypes among the isolates.

  19. Health risks associated with the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in greywater

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    Juan Moretton

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The removal and disposal of waste from domestic activities is a major health problem in densely populated urban areas. In many areas of Greater Buenos Aires, greywater is disposed in open ditches and risk potential of this has not been adequately quantified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and its resistance profile present in raw greywater obtained from a channel located in the area of Ingeniero Budge Buenos Aires Province. Thus, the prevalence of heterotrophic bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics and vancomycin-resistant enterococci in greywater, their typing, and resistance to other antibiotics were determined. The prevalence of resistant bacteria was determined by the agar dilution method. Of all the antibiotics tested, the highest prevalence of resistant heterotrophic bacteria was detected with cephalothin (19% and ampicillin (8%. With regard to Gram-negative bacteria, the highest prevalence of resistance was given by coliforms ampicillin (34% and cephalothin (17%. A total of 38% of enterococci with low level resistance to vancomycin was detected. The multiresistant isolates were identified as Escherichia coli, Alcaligenes faecalis y Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. These results indicate that greywater can be considered as a reservoir of bacteria resistant to antibiotics, thus increasing their health risk.

  20. ENTRAPMENT OF FLUORESCENT E. COLI CELLS IN ALGINATE GEL

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    V. IGNA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available By this experiment we will demonstrate the possibility to obtain genetically modifiedmicrobial strains that can be used as markers in different studies. The traittransferred in this study is the fluorescence in UV light expressed by a gene isolatedfrom jellyfish. This gene was insered into a plasmid carrying ampiciline resistanceand in the operon for arabinose fermentation. The plasmid was called pGLO. E coliHB101 K-12, ampicillin resistant colonies has been obtained. The colonies on theLB/amp/ara plate fluoresce green under UV light and the transformed colonies cangrow on ampicillin. Transformation efficiency = 362 transformed colonies/ μg DNA.The cells where immobilized by entrapment in alginate gel to study the phenomenoninvolved in cells immobilization. After immobilization in alginate gel, 5x104 cells ofE. coli pGLO / capsule and 1,4 x 105 cells of E. coli HB101/capsule has been found.Fluorescent microscopy revealed the presence of pGLO carrying cells into thecapsules. After cultivation of alginate capsules containing E. coli in LB broth, andfluorescent microscopy of the capsule sections, several observations of thephenomenon involved in continuous fermentation using biocatalysts in has beenmade. These cells grow and migrate to the cortical part of the matrix where they areimmobilized.

  1. Antiviral and antimicrobial activities of three sesquiterpene lactones from Centaurea solstitialis L. ssp. solstitialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozçelik, Berrin; Gürbüz, Ilhan; Karaoglu, Taner; Yeşilada, Erdem

    2009-01-01

    Three sesquiterpene lactones (centaurepensin = chlorohyssopifolin A, chlorojanerin and 13-acetyl solstitialin A) isolated from the aerial parts of Centaurea solstitialis L. ssp. solstitialis (Asteraceae) were investigated for antimicrobial and antiviral activities. For the antimicrobial activity assessment, both standard and isolated strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis were employed by the microdilution method. Herpes simplex type-1, a DNA virus, and Parainfluenza, an RNA virus, were employed for the determination of the antiviral activity of these three sesquiterpene lactones using Vero cell lines. Ampicilline, ofloxocine, ketoconazole, fluconazole, acyclovir and oseltamivir were used as the reference drugs. 13-Acetyl solstitialin A displayed remarkable antibacterial activity against isolated strains of E. faecalis at 1 microg/ml concentration, which was close to the effective concentrations of ampicillin. The same compound also showed significant activity against the DNA virus, being as potent as the reference compound acyclovir at maximum and minimum concentrations of 16-<0.00006 microg/ml. This is the first report showing that 13-acetyl solstitialin A possesses significant antiviral activity.

  2. Isolation and identification of zoonotic species of genus arcobacter from chicken viscera obtained from retail distributors of the metropolitan area of San José, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Edgar García; Jaramillo, Heriberto Fernández; Ulate, Carolina Chaves; Echandi, María Laura Arias

    2013-05-01

    Arcobacter is a genus of growing importance worldwide; some of its species are considered emerging enteropathogens and potential zoonotic agents. In Costa Rica, as well as in other countries, its isolation has been reported, so the objective of this project was to evaluate and identify the presence of Arcobacter in chicken viscera sold in the metropolitan area of San José, Costa Rica, as well as to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns associated with it. One hundred fifty samples of chicken viscera including heart, liver, and other gastrointestinal organs were purchased from 15 supermarkets and 15 local retailers. De Boer and Houf broths were used as enrichment media; isolation was done with Arcobacter-selective medium and with membrane filtration with blood agar. Typical colonies were identified with genus-specific PCR, and species identification was made with multiplex PCR. Susceptibility to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline was done with the Epsilometer test. The isolation frequency of Arcobacter genus obtained in this study was of 17.3%. A total of 33 isolates were obtained from the poultry samples, and according to the multiplex PCR methodology, 22 (66.7%) isolates were identified as Arcobacter butzleri, 8 (24.2%) as Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and 1 (3.1%) as Arcobacter skirrowii. Two strains were not identified. No statistical significant difference was found when the source of samples was compared. Resistance toward chloramphenicol was 68.75%, followed by ampicillin (43.75%) and ciprofloxacin (18.75%); all strains were susceptible to tetracycline.

  3. Gut microbiota of Tenebrio molitor and their response to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaejoon; Heo, Aram; Park, Yong Woo; Kim, Ye Ji; Koh, Hyelim; Park, Woojun

    2014-07-01

    A bacterial community analysis of the gut of Tenebrio molitor larvae was performed using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. A predominance of genus Spiroplasma species in phylum Tenericutes was observed in the gut samples, but there was variation found in the community composition between T. molitor individuals. The gut bacteria community structure was not significantly affected by the presence of antibiotics or by the exposure of T. molitor larvae to a highly diverse soil bacteria community. A negative relationship was identified between bacterial diversity and ampicillin concentration; however, no negative relationship was identified with the addition of kanamycin. Ampicillin treatment resulted in a reduction in the bacterial community size, estimated using the 16S rRNA gene copy number. A detailed phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Spiroplasma-associated sequences originating from the T. molitor larvae were distinct from previously identified Spiroplasma type species, implying the presence of novel Spiroplasma species. Some Spiroplasma species are known to be insect pathogens; however, the T. molitor larvae did not experience any harmful effects arising from the presence of Spiroplasma species, indicating that Spiroplasma in the gut of T. molitor larvae do not act as a pathogen to the host. A comparison with the bacterial communities found in other insects (Apis and Solenopsis) showed that the Spiroplasma species found in this study were specific to T. molitor.

  4. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella and Shigella Species Isolated from Outpatients, Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamboro, Tesfahun; Ketema, Tsige; Bacha, Ketema

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella among outpatients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Cross-sectional study was conducted involving a total of 176 outpatients. Stool specimens from both adult and pediatric outpatients were collected and analyzed for the presence of presumptive Salmonella and Shigella colonies followed by confirmation by biochemical tests. Pure cultures of Salmonella and Shigella species were further subjected to test for antibiotic resistance against the commonly used antibiotics. Furthermore, growth potential of the isolates in selected foods items was assessed following standard procedures. The result indicated that the prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella among outpatients in the study area was 19 (10.8%) and 2 (1.1%), respectively. In addition, Salmonella species were resistant to ampicillin (100%) followed by tetracycline (47.4%) and nalidixic acid (26.3%) while Shigella species were highly resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline (100%, each). Multidrug resistance towards maximum of four drugs was observed in both pathogens. The pathogens were observed growing to their infective dose within 24 hours. In conclusion, Salmonella and Shigella are still among microbes of public health importance in the study area. Thus, this calls for frequent monitory and evaluation of their prevalence and drug resistance patterns besides awareness development on water sanitation and hygienic food handling practices to the public at large.

  5. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella and Shigella Species Isolated from Outpatients, Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia

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    Tesfahun Lamboro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella among outpatients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Cross-sectional study was conducted involving a total of 176 outpatients. Stool specimens from both adult and pediatric outpatients were collected and analyzed for the presence of presumptive Salmonella and Shigella colonies followed by confirmation by biochemical tests. Pure cultures of Salmonella and Shigella species were further subjected to test for antibiotic resistance against the commonly used antibiotics. Furthermore, growth potential of the isolates in selected foods items was assessed following standard procedures. The result indicated that the prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella among outpatients in the study area was 19 (10.8% and 2 (1.1%, respectively. In addition, Salmonella species were resistant to ampicillin (100% followed by tetracycline (47.4% and nalidixic acid (26.3% while Shigella species were highly resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline (100%, each. Multidrug resistance towards maximum of four drugs was observed in both pathogens. The pathogens were observed growing to their infective dose within 24 hours. In conclusion, Salmonella and Shigella are still among microbes of public health importance in the study area. Thus, this calls for frequent monitory and evaluation of their prevalence and drug resistance patterns besides awareness development on water sanitation and hygienic food handling practices to the public at large.

  6. 儿童呼吸道流感嗜血杆菌的耐药性分析%Antibiotic resistance of the Haemophilus inf luenzae strains isolated from respiratory tract in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓华; 谭南; 林爱心; 汪伟山

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antibiotic resistance of Haemophilus influenzae isolates collected from the children with respiratory tract infection for rational use of antibiotics in clinical practice .Methods The H .influenzae strains were isolated from children and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Kirby-Bauer method .Nitrocefin disc test was used to detect the production of beta-lactamases .WHONET 5 .6 software was used to analyze the susceptibility data .Results A totalof1256strainsof H.influenzaewereisolated.About37.8% ,65.5% and16.5% ofthe1256strainsof H.influenzae were resistant to ampicillin ,trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole ,and ampicillin-sulbactam ,respectively .Less than 10 .0% of these strains were resistant to any other antibiotics tested .Beta-lactamase was produced in 33 .5% of the 1 256 strains of H . influenzae .Conclusions The H . influenzae strains in this study are mainly resistant ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole .About 80 .0% of these H . influenzae strains were still susceptible to cefaclor ,ampicillin-sulbactam , cefixime ,ceftazidime ,azithromycin ,ciprofloxacin ,meropenem and rifampin .The primary mechanism of ampicillin resistance in Haemophilus is production of beta-lactamases .%目的:了解儿童呼吸道流感嗜血杆菌的临床分布特征和耐药特点,为指导临床合理用药提供科学依据。方法收集儿童痰液标本进行培养并分离出流感嗜血杆菌,用K-B纸片扩散法进行抗菌药物敏感试验,并对其进行β内酰胺酶测定;数据用WHONET5.6统计软件统计分析。结果从12374份痰液标本中共分离出1256株流感嗜血杆菌,分离率为10.2%;1256株流感嗜血杆菌对氨苄西林、甲氧苄啶-磺胺甲口恶唑和氨苄西林-舒巴坦的耐药率分别为37.8%、65.5%和16.5%,对其余测试的抗菌药物耐药率均<10.0%;β内酰胺酶阳性率为33.5%。结论流感嗜血杆菌对氨苄西

  7. 交联壳聚糖微球及其接枝精氨酸树脂吸附性质的比较研究%STUDIES ON ADSORPTION PROPERTIES OF CROSSLINKED CHITOSAN MICROSPHERE AND ITS DERIVATIVE GRAFTING ARGININE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周桢; 王娟

    2011-01-01

    研究了交联壳聚糖接枝精氨酸阴离子吸附树脂及交联壳聚糖微球吸附L-谷氨酸、β-内酰胺抗生素(青霉素G及氨苄青霉素)、尿素及Zn2+的动态吸附时间进程曲线及吸附容量.实验结果表明,交联壳聚糖接枝精氨酸阴离子吸附树脂对L-谷氨酸、青霉素G、氨苄青霉素、尿素及Zn2+的动态吸附平衡时间分别为120min、60min、75min、90min及50min,比交联壳聚糖微球分别缩短15min、15min、45min、45min、30min;对L-谷氨酸、青霉素G、氨苄青霉素、尿素及Zn2+的动态吸附容量分别是214.95mg/g干树脂、78.56mg/g干树脂、67.91mg/g干树脂、530mg/g干树脂及85.01mg/g干树脂,分别比交联壳聚糖微球提高了2.35倍,2.26倍、2.41倍,3.64倍和2.37倍.%Crosslinked chitosan microsphere (CCTS) and its derivative grafting arginine (CCTS-Arg) were prepared for adsorption of L-glutamic acid, urea, Penicillin G, Ampicillin and Zn2+, respectively. The experiments showed that the equilibrium time for L-glutamic acid,Penicillin G, Ampicillin, Urea and Zn2+ by CCTS-Arg was 120min, 60min, 75min, 90min and 50min, respectively, which was shorter than equilibrium time by CCTS for 15min, 15min,45min, 45min and 30min, respectively. The dynamic adsorption capacities for L-glutamic acid,Penicillin G, Ampicillin, Zn2+ and Urea were 214.95mg/g dry resin, 78.56mg/g dry resin,67.91mg/g dry resin, 530mg/g dry resin and 85.01mg/g dry resin, respectively, which increased 2.35, 2.26, 2.41, 3.64 and 2.37 times compared with CCTS, respectively.

  8. Eradication of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a female patient with total hip arthroplasty, with debridement and retention: a case report

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    Beieler Alison M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has become a significant cause of healthcare-associated infections, but few reports have addressed Acinetobacter baumannii infections associated with orthopedic devices. The current recommended treatment for complicated infections due to orthopedic devices, including resistant gram-negative rods, consists of antimicrobial therapy with debridement and removal of implants. Case presentation The patient, a 47-year-old woman, had previously had a prior total hip arthroplasty at 16 years of age for a complex femoral neck fracture, and multiple subsequent revisions. This time, she underwent a fifth revision secondary to pain. Surgery was complicated by hypotension resulting in transfer to the intensive care unit and prolonged respiratory failure. She received peri-operative cefazolin but postoperatively developed surgical wound drainage requiring debridement of a hematoma. Cultures of this grew ampicillin-sensitive Enterococcus and Acinetobacter baumannii (sensitive only to amikacin and imipenem. The patient was started on imipenem. Removal of the total hip arthroplasty was not recommended because of the recent surgical complications, and the patient was eventually discharged home. She was seen weekly for laboratory tests and examinations and, after 4 months of therapy, the imipenem was discontinued. She did well clinically for 7 months before recurrent pain led to removal of the total hip arthroplasty. Intra-operative cultures grew ampicillin-sensitive Enterococcus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus but no multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. The patient received ampicillin for 8 weeks and had not had recurrent infection at the time of writing, 37 months after discontinuing imipenem. Conclusion We describe the successful treatment of an acute infection from multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii with debridement and retention of the total hip arthroplasty, using

  9. Antimicrobial Resistance analysis of 278 strains Klebsiella pneumoniae from sputum%278株痰肺炎克雷伯菌耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵世峰; 张丽霞

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyze the antimicrobial resistance of 278 strains klebsiella pneumoniae from sputum sample. Methods Klebsiella pneumoniae was cultured and isolated from sputum, The strain identification, antimicrobial susceptibility test and extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) identification were measured by VITEK-32 full automated microbiology analyzer. Results The antimicrobial resistance percentage to ampicillin was 98.56%, imipenem was 0, Piperacillin/ tazobactam was 9.7%, amikacin was 12.23%, ampicillin/sulbactam、ciprofloxacin、ceftriaxone、nitrofurantoin、cefepime gentamicin and tobramycin was lower than 30%, to cefazolin、sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim、cefuroxime、cefuroxime axetil and levofloxacin was between 30% and 40%. The percentage of ESBLs strains was 19.06%, The resistance percentage of ESBLs strains was higher than non-ESBLs strains. Conclusion Klebsiella pneumoniae from sputum was resistant to quite a few of antibiotics, was sensitive to imipenem. The resistance percentage to ampicillin was the highest. The resistance percentage of ESBLs strains was higher than non-ESBLs strains.%目的 分析痰肺炎克雷伯菌的耐药性.方法 使用VITEK-32全自动微生物分析系统进行细菌的鉴定、药物敏感性试验及ESBLs检测.结果 278株痰肺炎克雷伯菌对AMP的耐药率98.56%.对IMI耐药率为0,对TZP耐药率为9.7%,AMK为12.23%,对AMPS、CIP、CTR、FD、FEP、GM、TOB耐药率均在30%以下,对CZ、SXT、ROX、ROXA、LEV耐药率均在30%~40%之间.产ESBLs株占19.06%,产ESBLs株对多种抗生素的耐药率高于不产ESBLs株,差异有统计学意义.结论 痰肺炎克雷伯菌多种抗生素耐药,对IMI均敏感,对AMP耐药率最高,产ESBLs株耐药率高于不产ESBLs株.

  10. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF N-HEXANE EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF NAPOLEONEAE IMPERIALIS FAMILY LECYTHIACEAE

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    C.F. Anowi , A.F. Onyegbule *, T.H. Gugu and U.A. Utoh- Nedosa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Napoleonaea imperialis is used to treat wounds in most parts of Nigeria. Against this background, N-hexane extract of the leaves were screened against some microorganisms to ascertain this claim and to recommend it for further investigation for possible inclusion into official compendium. The plant leaves were dried, powdered and extracted by cold maceration with N-hexane for 24hours. Phytochemical screening was done for alkaloids, saponin, steroidal nucleus, simple sugar, starch, glycoside, proteins and flavonoid using standard procedures. Antimicrobial screenings were carried out using agar diffusion technique. Antibacterial activity was conducted by screening against six pathogens comprising both Gram positive (B. subtilis and S. aureus and Gram negative bacteria (P. aeruginosa, Klebsiella, E. coli and S. typhi obtained from pharmaceutical Microbiology laboratory stock. The extract was screened against 24hour broth culture of bacteria seeded in the nutrient agar at concentrations 400, 200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25and 3.125 mg/ml in DMSO and incubated at 370C, for 24 hours and measuring the inhibition zone diameter - IZD. The positive controls were ampicillin 20µg/ml for bacteria. The organisms were very sensitive to ampicillin. DMSO was used as negative control. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, glycosides and proteins whereas flavonoids, resins and steroids were absent. N-hexane extract exhibited activity against all the test bacteria at 400mg/ml and 200mg/ml. The N-hexane extract exhibited varying activity as the concentration is reduced, to Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, B. subtilis, P. saeruginosa, Kleb pneumonia, Salmonella typhi with minimal inhibitory concentration of 50, 25, 200, 50, 400 and 200 mg/ml of N-hexane extract respectively. The extract demonstrated activities against certain bacteria confirming the use of the plant in ethno pharmacology and since the root extract are more

  11. Antibacterial resistances in uncomplicated urinary tract infections in women: ECO·SENS II data from primary health care in Austria

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    Kamenski Gustav

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI are a frequent reason for consultation of women in primary health care. To avoid therapy failure and development of resistances, the choice of an antibiotic should be based on the knowledge of recent local resistance data but these data are scarce for the Austrian primary health care sector. Within the context of the ECO·SENS II study it was the aim to obtain appropriate and relevant local resistance data and describe the changes in the resistance pattern in comparison to the ECO·SENS study. Methods 23 GPs from different parts of Austria participated in the study between July 2007 and November 2008. According to the defined inclusion- and exclusion criteria female patients with symptoms of an uncomplicated UTI were included and a midstream urine sample was collected. In case of significant bacteriuria susceptibility testing of E. coli against 14 antibiotics was performed. Descriptive statistical methods were used. Results In 313 patients included in the study, a total of 147 E. coli isolates (47% were detected and tested. The resistance rates were in %: Mecillinam (0.0, nitrofurantoin (0.7, fosfomycin trometamol (0.7, gentamycin (1.4, cefotaxime (2.7, ceftazidime (2.7, Cephadroxil (4.1 and ciprofloxacin (4.1. Higher resistance rates were found in amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (8.9, nalidixic acid (9.6, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (14.4, trimethoprim (15.8, sulphamethoxazole (21.2 and ampicillin (28.8. Additionally, the comparison of these results with the results of the ECO·SENS study demonstrated an increase in resistance rates of ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Conclusions The resistance data for E. coli in uncomplicated UTIs in women gained by this study are the most recent data for this disease in Austria at the moment. The increased resistance rates of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid should be

  12. Prescription of antibiotics in community-acquired pneumonia in children: are we following the recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca Lima, Eduardo Jorge; Lima, Débora Ellen Pessoa; Serra, George Henrique Cordeiro; Abreu e Lima, Maria Anaide Zacche S; de Mello, Maria Júlia Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the adequacy of antibiotic prescription in children hospitalized for pneumonia in a reference pediatric hospital in Brazil. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving children aged between 1 month and 5 years who were hospitalized between October 2010 and September 2013. The classification of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) was based on the clinical and radiological criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO). The analysis of antibiotic adequacy was performed according to the main guidelines on CAP treatment, which include the WHO guidelines, Brazilian Society of Pediatrics guidelines, and international guidelines (Pediatrics Infectious Diseases Society, the Infectious Disease Society of America, British Thoracic Society, and Consenso de la Sociedad latinoamericana de Infectología). A multivariate analysis was performed including variables that have statistical significance of P≤0.25 in the bivariate analysis. Results The majority of the 452 hospitalized children were classified as having severe or very severe CAP (85.18%), and inadequate empiric antimicrobial therapy was started in 26.10% (118/452) of them. Ampicillin was the most used empiric antibiotic therapy (62.17%) for pneumonia, followed by a combination of ampicillin and associated with gentamicin. The initially proposed regimen was modified in 29.6% of the patients, and the most frequent change was the replacement of ampicillin by oxacillin combined with chloramphenicol. The median hospitalization time was 8.5 days, and the lethality rate was 1.55%. There was no statistical difference in adequacy in relation to the severity of pneumonia or degree of malnutrition. In the bivariate analysis, inadequacy of antibiotic therapy regimen was higher in patients undergoing oxygen therapy (P<0.05), which was given to 219 patients (48.45%). Pleural effusion was observed in 118 patients (26.11%) and was associated with higher prescription inadequacy, and it was the only factor

  13. A STUDY OF LABORATORY PROFILE OF NEONATAL SEPSIS AT NICU (SNCU, WARANGAL

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    Sudhakar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Of the 130 million babies born worldwide each year, 26 million are born in India alone. Four million babies die with in first 30 days of birth and another four million are stillborn. Newborn mortality represents 40% of all deaths of children less than five years of age. Of the four million deaths each year, nearly 98% occur in developing countries. Globally major causes of neonatal deaths are due to preterm births (28%, sepsis or pneumonia (26% and birth asphyxia (23%. Neonatal sepsis is one of the commonest causes of neonatal deaths in the developing world accounting to 30-50% of all neonatal deaths per year. The present study is intended to help the practising paediatrician to accurately diagnose the sepsis early using the specific laboratory tests and avert the progression of the disease. METHODS It is an observational cross-sectional study in NICU, Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Hospital. The study was conducted in the period November 2013 to October 2014. After admission, detailed history and thorough clinical examination was done. Required data was entered in a pre-set proforma and statistical analysis was done. Blood culture was sent. Bacterial culture and sensitivity was checked. RESULTS In proven sepsis, 50.25% were Gram-positive, 43.65% were Gram-negative and 6.09% were fungal sepsis Candida. Klebsiella (32.48% was the most common organism followed by Coagulase positive Staphylococcus (25.38% and CONS (20.81%. In this study, Gram-negative sepsis was more common in preterm and Gram-positive sepsis was more common in term neonates. Early onset sepsis was the common presentation of proven sepsis, Klebsiella was common organism causing EOS. Whereas CONS was commonest causing late onset sepsis. Among Gram-negative organisms, 58.1% and 27.9% were resistant to cefotaxime and ampicillin+sulbactam respectively. Among Gram-positive isolates, 35% and 22% were resistant to cefotaxime and ampicillin+sulbactam respectively. Klebsiella, most

  14. Mechanisms, molecular and sero-epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in bacterial respiratory pathogens isolated from Japanese children

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    Sunakawa Keisuke

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical management of community-acquired respiratory tract infections (RTIs is complicated by the increasing worldwide prevalence of antibacterial resistance, in particular, β-lactam and macrolide resistance, among the most common causative bacterial pathogens. This study aimed to determine the mechanisms and molecular- and sero-epidemiology of antibacterial resistance among the key paediatric respiratory pathogens in Japan. Methods Isolates were collected at 18 centres in Japan during 2002 and 2003 from children with RTIs as part of the PROTEKT surveillance programme. A proportion of Haemophilus influenzae isolates was subjected to sequencing analysis of the ftsI gene; phylogenetic relatedness was assessed using multilocus sequence typing. Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were screened for macrolide-resistance genotype by polymerase chain reaction and serotyped using the capsular swelling method. Susceptibility of isolates to selected antibacterials was performed using CLSI methodology. Results and Discussion Of the 557 H. influenzae isolates collected, 30 (5.4% were β-lactamase-positive [BL+], 115 (20.6% were BL-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR; MIC ≥ 4 mg/L and 79 (14.2% were BL-nonproducing ampicillin-intermediate (BLNAI; MIC 2 mg/L. Dabernat Group III penicillin binding protein 3 (PBP3 amino acid substitutions in the ftsI gene were closely correlated with BLNAR status but phylogenetic analysis indicated marked clonal diversity. PBP mutations were also found among BL+ and BL-nonproducing ampicillin-sensitive isolates. Of the antibacterials tested, azithromycin and telithromycin were the most active against H. influenzae (100% and 99.3% susceptibility, respectively. A large proportion (75.2% of the 468 S. pneumoniae isolates exhibited macrolide resistance (erythromycin MIC ≥ 1 mg/L; erm(B was the most common macrolide resistance genotype (58.8%, followed by mef(A (37.2%. The most common pneumococcal

  15. 武汉地区儿童流感嗜血菌耐药性的分析%Antibiotic resistance of haemophilus influenzae isolated from children in Wuhan area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 虞涛; 鲍连生; 余星

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the antibiotic resistance of Heamophilus influenzae isolated from children in Wuhan area. METHODS A total of 2212 strains of H. influenzae isolated from hospitalized children were collected between Jan 2009 and Jun 2010, bacterial susceptibility testing was carried out by using Kirby-Bauer and E-test method. The results were analyzed according to CLSI 2008. The variance of antibiotics resistance was analyzed by Chi-squared methods. RESULTS The antibiotics resistance rates of 2212 strains of H. influenzae to azithromycin, ampicillin/sulbactam, ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, meropenem, cefuroxime, cefaclor and ceftriaxone were 1. 45%, 3. 89%, 35. 71%, 75. 50%, 0. 36%, 0. 59%, 2. 53% and 2. 26%, respectively.CONCLUSION The resistant rates of H. influenzae isolated from the children in Wuhan area to ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole are high, and the drug resistance situation is grim, the monitoring of the drug sensitivity and the rational use of antibiotics should be strengthened in clinics.%目的 了解武汉地区儿童呼吸道感染流感嗜血菌(HIN)的耐药情况. 方法 收集医院2009年1月-2010年6月住院患儿分离的流感嗜血菌2212株,采用纸片扩散法(K-B法)进行抗菌药敏试验,对其进行β-内酰胺酶测定,按CLSI 2008年版判断结果 ,使用χ2检验分析耐药性的变化.结果 2212株流感嗜血菌对阿奇霉素、氨苄西林/舒巴坦、氨苄西林、磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶、美罗培南、头孢呋辛、头孢克洛、头孢曲松的耐药率分别为:1.45%、3.89%、35.71%、75.50%、0.36%、0.59%、2.53%、2.26%. 结论 武汉地区儿童分离流感嗜血菌对氨苄西林及磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶的耐药率高,耐药形势严峻,临床应加强对其的药敏监测并合理使用抗菌药物.

  16. A study of drug eruptions by provocative tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das J

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Sixty cases of drug eruptions were observed during the period of one year. The incidence of drug eruption was 0.47% amongst all Dermatology O.P.D. attendances. Male to female ratio was 7:3. The highest number of cases were seen in the age group of 21-30 years. Fixed drug eruptions were the most frequent (58.3%, followed by urticaria and angioedema (20%. The drug sulphonamides (including co-trimoxazole accounted for the highest number of eruptions (35%. The other drugs which were responsible for the eruptions, in order of frequency, were oxyphenbutazone, ampicillin, analgin, penicillin, tetracycline, ibuprofen, paracetamol, phenylbutazone, acetaminophen and phenobarbitone. The causative drug (s were confirmed by provocation tests in 42 (70% cases.

  17. EUCAST recommendations for antimicrobial susceptibility testing applied to the three main Campylobacter species isolated in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifré, Elodie; Salha, Ben Amor; Ducournau, Astrid; Floch, Pauline; Chardon, Hubert; Mégraud, Francis; Lehours, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Campylobacter isolates is of great importance for treatment options especially in systemic diseases. The European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) recently proposed epidemiological cut-offs (ECOFFs) for a limited number of antimicrobial compounds and for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli only. In the present study, the EUCAST method was used after minor modifications to define antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for, 1997 C. jejuni, 419 C. coli and 100 Campylobacter fetus strains received at the French National Reference Center for Campylobacters and Helicobacters. Our results show that the ECOFFs defined by EUCAST for tetracycline and ciprofloxacin can be used for C. jejuni and C. coli. The same ECOFF can be used for erythromycin for the three species. The C. jejuni and C. coli ECOFFs for ciprofloxacin however cannot be applied to C. fetus. We also provide data to categorise two 2 β-lactams of interest for systemic diseases, ampicillin and amoxicillin+clavulanate, for the three species.

  18. Biofilm vivacity and destruction on antimicrobial nanosurfaces assayed within a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugnaux, Marc; Fischer, Fabian

    2016-08-01

    A novel method was developed to assay the antimicrobial capacity of nanostructured surfaces for medical implants in a bicathodic microbial fuel cell. Nano-structured gold surfaces with protruding nanopillars and nanorings were investigated. Escherichia coli K12 were used as a model microbe to record electronic effects caused by the interaction with nanosurfaces. The nanostructured gold surfaces enabled power density maxima up to 1910mW/m(2), indicating fair vivacity, while flat surfaces on the nanoscale provided almost no power 0.35mW/m(2). The biofilm presence on antimicrobial nanosurfaces was confirmed by the addition of ampicillin and its bactericidal effect resulted in oscillating and declining potentiometric signals. Current density experiments showed that biofilms on antimicrobial nanostructured electrodes caused low currents, indicating that E.coli biofilm remained functional before destruction. The bicathodic microbial fuel cell sensor is a novel tool for evaluating antimicrobial effects caused by nanosurfaces and antibiotics.

  19. Phenotypic and Genetic Characterization ofBacillusSpecies Exhibiting Strong Proteolytic Activity Isolated fromTerasi, An Indonesian Fermented Seafood Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ekachai Chukeatirote; Novi Arfarita; Piyanuch Niamsup; Anittaya Kanghae

    2015-01-01

    In this study, twoBacillistrains namely S2-3 and S4-5, isolated fromTerasi, a traditional fermented seafood product of Indonesia, were studied in terms of their phenotypic and genotypic properties. Both strains are of great interests due to their high proteolytic activity. Initially, they were subjected to morphological determination and a series of biochemical tests. These bacteria were gram-positive, endospore-formingBacilli. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the identities of the strains S2-3 and S4-5 were confirmed asBacillus thuringiensisandB. subtilis, respectively. Additionally, the two strains were also evaluated for their antibiogram profiles. It was found that they were susceptible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, kanamycin, tetracycline and vancomycin and resistant to ampicillin and intermediately susceptible to bacitracin.

  20. Visible Light Triggered Drug Release from TiO2 Nanotube Arrays: A Novel Controllable Antibacterial Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jingwen; Gao, Zhida; Song, Yan-Yan; Schmuki, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we use a double-layered stack of TiO2 nanotubes (TiNTs) to construct a visible-light triggered drug delivery system. Key for visible-light drug release is a hydrophobic cap on the nanotubes containing Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). The AuNPs allow for a photocatalytic scission of the hydrophobic chain under visible light. To demonstrate the principle, we loaded antibiotic (ampicillin sodium (AMP)) in the lower part of the TiO2 nanotube stack, triggered visible light induced release, and carried out antibacterial studies. The release from the platform becomes most controllable if the drug is silane-grafted in hydrophilic bottom layer for drug storage. Thus visible-light photocatalysis can also determine the release kinetics of the active drug from the nanotube wall.