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Sample records for ampicillin

  1. Ampicillin radioprotector effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padron, E.; Fernandez-Larrea, O.; Rios, F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of ampicillin during irradiation and recovery of the Bacillus licheniformis RI 75-1 stump with a savage genotype of recovery exposed to ionizing radiations and treated with gamma quantums. Previous research enabled to prove that in Bacillus licheniformis spores suspensions, irradiated of vegetative cells in ampicillin at D-1--0- dose, causes significative lethal increases. In this paper, The irradiation of vegetative cells in presence of 5 mcg/ml of ampicillin increases the viability at doses above 1 kGy. the survival rates was raised when vegetative cells of Bacillus lincheniformis were irradiated at 1.2 kGy and recovered in a nutrient environment during 2 hours (LHR) in presence of ampicillin. Twenty-two stumps of Bacillus licheniformis obtained through different mutagenic treatments were studied in relation to the resistance of ampicillim and at 3 Kgy gamma quantums and a direct correlation between these two was stablished. Previous treatment with ampicillin of the vegetative cells from the Bacillus licheniformis increased the number of resistants to gamma quantums. There was no information about this phenomenom in literature consulted

  2. Iodometric determination of ampicillin in proprietary capsules | Ejele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration of ampicillin in ampicillin capsule preparations purchased in Owerri main market, Imo State of Nigeria, was determined using the iodometric titration method. The results showed that the ampicillin concentrations in the capsules contained between 250 and 260 mg/cap of ampicillin trihydrate. Statistical ...

  3. Ampicillin potentials as Corrosion Inhibitor: fukui function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental study was carried out using gravimetric and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy methods of monitoring corrosion while the computational study was carried out using quantum chemical approach via Hyperchem program suit. The results obtained showed that various concentrations of ampicillin ...

  4. 21 CFR 522.90c - Ampicillin sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ampicillin sodium. 522.90c Section 522.90c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Ampicillin sodium. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of aqueous solution constituted from ampicillin sodium...

  5. Liver injury from ampicillin-induced intestinal microbiota distresses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of ampicillin on rat intestinal microflora and liver in the presence of high carbohydrate and protein diets. Methods: Male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as the control, the second group was treated with ampicillin (50 mg/kg for 3 weeks) and fed with a ...

  6. Studies On Effect Of Piperine On Oral Bioavailability Of Ampicillin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ampicillin and Norfloxacin are used to treat variety of bacterial infections. These two drugs have low oral bioavailability. Co-administration of Piperine (20mg/kg), an alkaloid from Piper nigrum L. enhanced oral bioavailability of Ampicillin and Norfloxacin in animal model. This is reflected in various pharmacokinetic ...

  7. Evaluation of aztreonam and ampicillin vs. amikacin and ampicillin for treatment of neonatal bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña, M A; Odio, C M; Castro, E; Salas, J L; McCracken, G H

    1990-03-01

    In a prospective randomized, open study we evaluated aztreonam (AZ) for treatment of neonatal bacterial infections. There were 147 patients enrolled in the study; 75 received AZ and ampicillin (AMP) and 72 amikacin (AM) and AMP (conventional therapy). Twenty-eight AZ/AMP-treated patients and 32 conventionally treated patients had bacteriologically documented infections caused by gram-negative enteric bacilli or Pseudomonas species. Treatment groups were comparable in age, clinical status, and type and severity of underlying disease at the time of enrollment. Bronchopneumonia and infections caused by Pseudomonas species occurred significantly more often in AM/AMP-treated patients compared with patients given AZ/AMP. Sepsis was documented in 83% of patients in each treatment group and Gram-negative enteric bacilli and Pseudomonas species were the principal pathogens. Median peak serum bactericidal titers against the etiologic agent were 1:64 for the AZ/AMP and 1:16 for AM/AMP-treated patients. Case fatality rates resulting from the primary infection were 7 and 22% (P = 0.011), superinfection occurred in 39% and 34% and treatment failure occurred in 7 and 28% (P = 0.036) of the AZ/AMP and AM/AMP-treated patients, respectively. No clinical adverse reactions were observed in either group. Based on these results aztreonam appears to be at least as effective as and possibly more effective than amikacin when used initially with ampicillin for empiric treatment of neonatal bacterial infections.

  8. A randomized, prospective study of adjunctive Ampicillin in preterm labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehranian A

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute amniotic fluid infection has emerged as a possible cause of many heretofore unexplained preterm births. Our purpose was to determine the effect of ampicillin in the prolongation of pregnancies receiving tocolysis for preterm labor. A blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted to study ampicillin in women hospitalized for preterm labor between 24 and 37 weeks' gestation. A total of 60 patients with intact membranes and without chorioamnionitis who were receiving magnesium sulfate were screened. Thirty women with preterm labor received ampicillin, and 30 received placebos. The primary end point was prolongation of gestation. There was no difference in age of delivery (37.6±9.7 days vs 36.08±3.9 days, P=0.085 and no difference in retardation of delivery (4.7±3.1 vs 4.1±2.1, P=0.39. The mean degree of preterm delivery were 0.62±1.93 and 1.8±3.3 weeks in ampicillin and placebo groups, respectively (not significant, P>0.1. Conclusions: Ampicillin had no effect on interval to delivery or duration of pregnancy in women treated for preterm labor. So rotine clinical use of ampicillin during tocolysis should not be recommended.

  9. Ampicillin Resistance and Outcome Differences in Acute Antepartum Pyelonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura G. Greer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To measure the incidence of ampicillin-resistant uropathogens in acute antepartum pyelonephritis and to determine if patients with resistant organisms had different clinical outcomes. Study design. This was a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of pregnant women admitted with pyelonephritis, diagnosed by standard clinical and laboratory criteria. All patients received ampicillin and gentamicin. Results. We identified 440 cases of acute pyelonephritis. Seventy-two percent (316 cases had urine cultures with identification of organism and antibiotic sensitivities. Fifty-one percent of uropathogens were ampicillin resistant. The patients with ampicillin-resistant organisms were more likely to be older and multiparous. There were no significant differences in hospital course (length of stay, days of antibiotics, ECU admission, or readmission. Patients with ampicillin-resistant organisms did not have higher complication rates (anemia, renal dysfunction, respiratory insufficiency, or preterm birth. Conclusion. A majority of uropathogens were ampicillin resistant, but no differences in outcomes were observed in these patients.

  10. Evaluation of hypersensitivity to microencapsulated ampicillin in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, I S; Kopydlowski, K M; Cuenin, P; Setterstrom, J A

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the sustained release of ampicillin from a biodegradable drug-delivery system (microencapsulated ampicillin anhydrate (MEAA)) will increase or decrease the intensity of a hypersensitivity reaction compared with that observed with free drug. Ovalbumin, which is known to elicit a marked hypersensitivity reaction in guinea pigs, and microencapsulated ovalbumin (MOVA) were tested in parallel with ampicillin and MEAA. Guinea pigs were sensitized biweekly by subcutaneous and intramuscular injections of ampicillin, MEAA, ovalbumin, MOVA or placebo microspheres (test articles), each mixed with Freund's adjuvant, and challenged 2 weeks later, intradermally, with the free compounds. In a separate set of experiments, guinea pigs were sensitized by implantation of the same agents in the caudal thigh of anaesthetized animals. Skin allergic reactions were tested at 1 and 3 weeks following local implantation of the test articles. Sera of sensitized guinea pigs were tested for specific IgG antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and skin samples from the site of the inflammatory reaction were fixed, stained and evaluated histologically. Guinea pigs sensitized systemically with MEAA or MOVA showed smaller, but not statistically different skin allergic response than animals given corresponding free compounds. However, guinea pigs sensitized by local implantation of MEAA showed a significantly lower inflammatory response (P MEAA. There was no significant difference in specific IgG antibody response in the sera of guinea pigs sensitized locally with either free or microencapsulated ampicillin or ovalbumin. Histology of skin revealed a milder inflammatory reaction with MEAA or MOVA than with ampicillin or ovalbumin, respectively. We conclude that the encapsulated ampicillin or ovalbumin and subsequent release of each agent will elicit a reduced hypersensitivity reaction in guinea pigs than will the free agent.

  11. The gold/ampicillin interface at the atomic scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrat, N.; Benoit, M.; Giraud, M.; Ponchet, A.; Casanove, M. J.

    2015-08-01

    In the fight against antibiotic resistance, gold nanoparticles (AuNP) with antibiotics grafted on their surfaces have been found to be potent agents. Ampicillin-conjugated AuNPs have been thus reported to overcome highly ampicillin-resistant bacteria. However, the structure at the atomic scale of these hybrid systems remains misunderstood. In this paper, the structure of the interface between an ampicillin molecule AMP and three flat gold facets Au(111), Au(110) and Au(100) has been investigated with numerical simulations (dispersion-corrected DFT). Adsorption energies, bond distances and electron densities indicate that the adsorption of AMP on these facets goes through multiple partially covalent bonding. The stability of the AuNP/AMP nanoconjugates is explained by large adsorption energies and their potential antibacterial activity is discussed on the basis of the constrained spatial orientation of the grafted antibiotic.In the fight against antibiotic resistance, gold nanoparticles (AuNP) with antibiotics grafted on their surfaces have been found to be potent agents. Ampicillin-conjugated AuNPs have been thus reported to overcome highly ampicillin-resistant bacteria. However, the structure at the atomic scale of these hybrid systems remains misunderstood. In this paper, the structure of the interface between an ampicillin molecule AMP and three flat gold facets Au(111), Au(110) and Au(100) has been investigated with numerical simulations (dispersion-corrected DFT). Adsorption energies, bond distances and electron densities indicate that the adsorption of AMP on these facets goes through multiple partially covalent bonding. The stability of the AuNP/AMP nanoconjugates is explained by large adsorption energies and their potential antibacterial activity is discussed on the basis of the constrained spatial orientation of the grafted antibiotic. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03318g

  12. Liver injury from ampicillin-induced intestinal microbiota distresses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum hepatospecific markers (AST, ALT and ALP) were estimated. The antioxidant status of liver tissues was estimated for GSH, MDA, GST, LDH and vitamin C l, in addition to sodium and potassium. Results: Administration of orogastric dose of ampicillin for 3 weeks induced inhibition of E.coli, yeasts, total anaerobes, and ...

  13. A Comparison Between Doxycycline and Ampicillin in the treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty-nine cases of measles with bronchopneumonia as a complication were treated with either doxycycline or ampicillin. The differences in the duration of pyrexia and consolidation are discussed and various conclusions drawn. The results did not correspond with sensitivity tests conducted on swabs taken on admission.

  14. 21 CFR 520.90b - Ampicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.90b Ampicillin... 5 days, stop treatment, reevaluate diagnosis, and change therapy. (2) Indications for use. Oral... animals which have shown hypersensitivity to penicillin or for infections caused by penicillinase...

  15. Simple test of synergy between ampicillin and vancomycin for resistant strains of Enterococcus faecium.

    OpenAIRE

    Green, M; Barbadora, K; Wadowsky, R M

    1994-01-01

    The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin kills some but not all strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. We compared a simple test for synergy utilizing a commercially available microdilution susceptibility system with time-kill studies and determined acceptable breakpoints for this test for 20 strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium. The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin was tested for synergy by time-kill, broth macrodilution, and b...

  16. Efficacy of ampicillin versus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in a mouse model of lethal enterococcal peritonitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Chenoweth, C E; Robinson, K A; Schaberg, D R

    1990-01-01

    Lethal enterococcal peritonitis in mice was used to compare trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) therapy with ampicillin therapy. Peritoneal fluid showed a 10(3)-CFU decrease in enterococci with ampicillin compared with TMP-SMX. Mortality of the untreated mice was 100%, compared with 40% for ampicillin and 95% for TMP-SMX, despite adequately measured levels in serum and peritoneal fluid.

  17. Evaluation of hard gelatin capsules and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose containing ampicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Gonçalves Weigert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop and evaluate formulations containing ampicillin in capsules of gelatin and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC. Two formulations (A and B were developed. The final product quality was evaluated by testing for quality control and the results were in agreement with the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia. The formulations with HPMC capsules showed lower percentages of drug dissolved (99.67%, HPMC-A and 87.70%, HPMC-B than the gelatin (100.18%, GEL-A and 101.16% GEL-B. Because of the delay of the ampicillin release observed in the dissolution profiles, it becomes necessary to evaluate the drugs that can be conditioned in the HPMC capsules.

  18. Neodymium(III) complexing with ampicillin, amoxicillin, and cephalexin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, V.G.

    2007-01-01

    The interaction of Nd 3+ ions with ampicillin, amoxicillin, and cephalexin anions (L) in aqueous solution at 20 deg C and ionic strength of 0.1 (KNO 3 ) was studied by pH titration. The NdL and Nd(OH)L complexes are formed in a weak alkaline solution. The distribution curves of neodymium(III) complex species depending on pH were constructed. The formation constants of the complexes were determined [ru

  19. The Kinetics of Ampicillin Release from Hydroxyapatite for Bones Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanilton Ferreira da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotics are among the most used pharmaceuticals. Their use in veterinary and human medicine is in continuous expansion. There is a growing need for developing bioactive implants. Advantages of implantable drug delivery tools can include high release efficiency, precise dose control, low toxicity, and allow to overcome disadvantages connected with conventional methods. In this respect, hydroxyapatite (HA is an elective material. It enables to produce architectures similar to those of real bones. Here we studied a kinetic model to describe ampicillin release from HA. In the course of adsorption experiment, ampicillin was dissolved, maintained at 30∘C and shaken at 60 strokes/minute. Samples were withdrawn periodically for analysis and then returned to the mixture. Adsorbed amounts were measured by the difference of the concentration of the antibiotics before and after adsorption using UV adsorption at 225 nm. The aim of this work was to evaluate its application as ampicillin delivery carrier.

  20. Effect of probenecid on the excretion of ampicillin in human bile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, J.; Lindahl, F.; Mølholm Hansen, J.; Siersbæk-Nielsen, K.

    1973-01-01

    1. Ampicillin concentrations were determined in serum and bile after intravenous injection into patients with T-tube bile drainage of 1 gram ampicillin before and during probenecid medication. The concentrations were followed up to fifteen hours after injection. 2. Probenecid increased the half-life of ampicillin in serum from 74 minutes to 137 minutes. 3. Ampicillin concentrations in bile were higher following probenecid medication and a concentration over 5 μg/ml was obtained for 3 h longer than before probenecid. 4. The ampicillin concentrations in bile were approximately the same as those in serum both before and during probenecid medication suggesting passive transport of ampicillin from blood to bile. 5. A combined treatment of ampicillin and probenecid might be of clinical value in the therapy of cholangitis and typhoid carriers. PMID:4723799

  1. Combination of Ceftriaxone and Ampicillin for the Treatment of Enterococcal Endocarditis: A Qualitative Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Shaylee C; Lau, Tim T Y; Ensom, Mary H H

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to review all human trials assessing the efficacy and safety of ampicillin and ceftriaxone for enterococcal endocarditis and to discuss the clinical implications of the findings. MEDLINE (1946-), EMBASE (1974-), CENTRAL, Google Scholar, and the World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched through January 2017 using the search terms ampicillin, penicillin, ceftriaxone, cephalosporin, enterococ*, and endocarditis. Unpublished studies were eligible for inclusion. Additional references were identified from literature citations. Clinical trials in humans that reported on clinical efficacy or adverse outcomes with ceftriaxone and ampicillin therapy in patients with enterococcal endocarditis were included. Case reports, nonhuman, and non-English studies were excluded. Four observational clinical studies were identified. One examined the effects of ceftriaxone and ampicillin alone, and 3 compared the therapy to the current standard of care, ampicillin and gentamicin. The studies had small sample sizes and were not adequately designed or powered to establish noninferiority or equivalence to the current standard of care. Rates of clinical cure with ampicillin 2 g every 4 hours and ceftriaxone 2 g every 12 hours were similar to those of ampicillin and gentamicin. Ampicillin and ceftriaxone therapy was well tolerated with low rates of renal failure (0%-33%). The evidence to support the use of ampicillin and ceftriaxone for enterococcal endocarditis is not definitive. In the absence of compelling evidence, clinicians may consider ampicillin and ceftriaxone in patients with Enterococcus faecalis infection at high risk for nephrotoxicity or those with aminoglycoside-resistant pathogens.

  2. Clinical Pharmacology of Ampicillin in Neonates and Infants: Effects and Pharmacokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Pacifici

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ampicillin is a bactericidal antibiotic, it penetrates into the bacterial wall better than penicillin G and is active against gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to penicillin G. Ampicillin has a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and is the most widely used antibiotic for treating infections caused by Listeria, β-lactamase-negative Haemophilus, enterococci, Shigella, streptococci, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Neisseria gonorrhea, Neisseria meningitis and many coliform organisms. Ampicillin is excreted unchanged in the urine. In neonates with a gestational and postnatal ages of ≤ 34 weeks and ≤ 7 days, respectively, the half-life, the clearance and the distribution volume of ampicillin are 5.0 hours, 0.055 l/h/kg, and 0.40 l/kg, respectively. The ampicillin half-life decreases and the clearance of ampicillin increases with the neonatal maturation whereas the distribution volume is not affected by the neonatal maturation. Ampicillin may be administered orally. Ampicillin penetrates into the cerebrospinal fluid, especially when the meninges are inflamed. The recommended dose of ampicillin is 50 mg/kg every 12 hours in the first week of life, every 8 hours in neonates 1-3 weeks old, and every 6 hours in neonates 4 or more weeks old. Bacteremia, caused by group B Streptococcus, is treated with 150 to 200 mg/kg/day ampicillin and meningitis is treated with 300 to 400 mg/kg/day ampicillin in divided doses. Some organisms are resistant to ampicillin and a combination of gentamicin and a third-generation cephalosporin is recommended. The aim of this study is to review the effects and pharmacokinetics of ampicillin in neonates and infants.

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Ampicillin and Trimethoprim Sulfamoxole Combination in Gonorrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Chendrayudu

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty men suffering from uncomplicated urethritis were treated either with 1, 280 mg of (TMP and 6,400 mg of (SDMO (Supristol 16 tablets eually divided doses taken at a 12 or with a single dose of 3.5 gm of with 1 gm of probenecid . The cure rate in TMP-SDMO regimen was 79% while that in AMP-PBD regimen was 95.7%. Sensitivity of the organism to penicillin, ampicillin and TMP-SDMO. Toxic effects of the drugs were studied.

  4. Emergence of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in Danish hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lester, Camilla H; Sandvang, Dorthe; Olsen, Stefan S

    2008-01-01

    Background Ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates are reported in increasing numbers in many European hospitals. The clonal complex 17 (CC17) characterized by ampicillin resistance has been associated with nosocomial E. faecium outbreaks and infections in five continents. The aim was ...

  5. R factor-mediated and chromosomal resistance to ampicillin in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roupas, A; Pitton, J S

    1974-02-01

    Sixty-four ampicillin-resistant strains of Escherichia coli were studied. Six characters were examined: (i) resistance to ampicillin, cephalothin, and carbenicillin, (ii) synergy between ampicillin and cloxacillin, (iii) level of beta-lactamase activity after osmotic shock, (iv) transferability of ampicillin resistance, (v) immunological characterization of the enzyme, and (vi) determination of substrate profiles. One class of strains was found in which synthesis of beta-lactamase is inferred to be plasmid mediated; these strains are highly resistant to ampicillin and carbenicillin, sensitive to cephalothin, do not show synergism between ampicillin and cloxacillin, and reveal a high enzymatic activity after osmotic shock. A second class is formed by strains for which beta-lactamase synthesis is inferred to be chromosomal; these strains present a low resistance level to ampicillin, are sensitive to carbenicillin and resistant to cephalothin, show a synergism between ampicillin and cloxacillin, and reveal a very low enzymatic activity after osmotic shock. These characters may be used to differentiate periplasmic and cell-bound beta-lactamases.

  6. Effect of microencapsulated ampicillin on cell-mediated immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, I S; Kopydlowski, K M; Burge, J R; Setterstrom, J A

    1997-11-01

    The effects of free ampicillin, microencapsulated ampicillin anhydrate (MEAA) and antibiotic-free microspheres on the cell-mediated immune response in Balb/c mice were measured by lymphoproliferation assay, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and cytokine production. Injection into mice for seven consecutive days with equivalent subcutaneous doses of ampicillin, MEAA or placebo microspheres did not produce any consistent change in lymphocyte proliferation nor did it affect DTH responses or interleukin-2 production. Although the production of interleukin-4 in mice treated with ampicillin or MEAA increased compared with the control mice, this increase was not statistically significant. These results indicate that ampicillin and MEAA have similar effects on cell-mediated immunity in mice.

  7. Simple test of synergy between ampicillin and vancomycin for resistant strains of Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M; Barbadora, K; Wadowsky, R M

    1994-11-01

    The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin kills some but not all strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. We compared a simple test for synergy utilizing a commercially available microdilution susceptibility system with time-kill studies and determined acceptable breakpoints for this test for 20 strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium. The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin was tested for synergy by time-kill, broth macrodilution, and broth microdilution procedures. Repeat testing of isolates by macro- and microdilution synergy methods yielded MICs that were within one twofold dilution of each other for both intra- and intertest comparisons. Synergy was always detected by time-kill studies when the MIC of ampicillin in the combination synergy screen was 16 micrograms/ml in the combination microdilution synergy screen. The determination of the synergy by the broth microdilution procedure appears to be simple, convenient, and accurate.

  8. Fluorescent ampicillin analogues as multifunctional disguising agents against opsonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotagiri, Nalinikanth; Sakon, Joshua; Han, Haewook; Zharov, Vladimir P.; Kim, Jin-Woo

    2016-06-01

    Cancer nanomedicines are opening new paradigms in cancer management and recent research points to how they can vastly improve imaging and therapy through multimodality and multifunctionality. However, challenges to achieving optimal efficacy are manifold starting from processing materials and evaluating their intended effectiveness on biological tissue, to developing new strategies aimed at improving transport of these materials through the biological milieu to the target tissue. Here, we report a fluorescent derivative of a beta-lactam antibiotic, ampicillin (termed iAmp) and its multifunctional physicobiochemical characteristics and potential as a biocompatible shielding agent and an effective dispersant. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were chosen to demonstrate the efficacy of iAmp. CNTs are known for their versatility and have been used extensively for cancer theranostics as photothermal and photoacoustic agents, but have limited solubility in water and biocompatibility. Traditional dispersants are associated with imaging artifacts and are not fully biocompatible. The chemical structure of iAmp is consistent with a deamination product of ampicillin. Although the four-membered lactam ring is intact, it does not retain the antibiotic properties. The iAmp is an effective dispersant and simultaneously serves as a fluorescent label for single-walled CNTs (SWNTs) with minimal photobleaching. The iAmp also enables bioconjugation of SWNTs to bio-ligands such as antibodies through functional carboxyl groups. Viability tests show that iAmp-coated SWNTs have minimal toxicity. Bio-stability tests under physiological conditions reveal that iAmp coating not only remains stable in a biologically relevant environment with high protein and salt concentrations, but also renders SWNTs transparent against nonspecific protein adsorption, also known as protein corona. Mammalian tissue culture studies with macrophages and opsonins validate that iAmp coating affords immunological resistance

  9. Ampicillin resistance in Haemophilus influenzae from COPD patients in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddi, Satyanarayana; Kolsum, Umme; Jackson, Sarah; Barraclough, Richard; Maschera, Barbara; Simpson, Karen D; Pascal, Thierry G; Durviaux, Serge; Hessel, Edith M; Singh, Dave

    2017-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is commonly isolated from the airways of COPD patients. Antibiotic treatment may cause the emergence of resistant H. influenzae strains, particularly ampicillin-resistant strains, including β-lactamase-negative ampicillin resistance (BLNAR) strains. Genetic identification using ftsI sequencing is the optimum method for identifying mutations within BLNAR strains. The prevalence of BLNAR in COPD patients during the stable state has not been reported. We investigated the antibiotic resistance patterns of H. influenzae present in the sputum of stable COPD patients, focusing on ampicillin resistance; the prevalence of enzyme and non-enzyme-mediated ampicillin resistance was determined. A subset of patients was followed up longitudinally to study H. influenzae strain switching and antibiotic sensitivity changes. Sputum sampling was performed in 61 COPD patients, with 42 samples obtained at baseline; H. influenzae was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 28 samples. In all, 45 patients completed the follow-up for 2 years; 24 H. influenzae isolates were obtained. Disk diffusion showed the highest antibiotic resistance in the penicillin antibiotic group (eg, 67% for ampicillin) and macrolides (eg, 46% for erythromycin), whereas all isolates were susceptible to quinolones. Of the 16 isolates resistant to ampicillin, 9 (56%) were β-lactamase positive. The β-lactamase-negative isolates were further investigated; none of these fulfilled the phenotypic BLNAR classification criteria of ampicillin minimum inhibitory concentration >1 µg/mL, and only one demonstrated an ftsI mutation. Frequent H. influenzae strain switching was confirmed using multilocus sequence typing and was associated with changes in the antibiotic sensitivity pattern. We observed an overidentification of ampicillin resistance by disk diffusion. The majority of ampicillin resistance was due to enzyme production. H. influenzae strain changes during the stable state may be associated

  10. A population-based case-control teratologic study of ampicillin treatment during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This was a study of the association between ampicillin treatment during pregnancy and prevalence of different congenital abnormalities. Study Design: The paired analysis of case patients with congenital abnormalities and matched population control subjects was performed in the population......-based Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities between 1980 and 1996. Of 38,151 pregnant women who had babies without any defects (population control group), 2632 (6.9%) had been treated with ampicillin. Of 22,865 pregnant women who had offspring with congenital abnormalities (case patients......), 1643 (7.2%) had been treated with ampicillin (crude odds ratio, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.2). Of 812 mothers who were delivered of babies affected by Down syndrome (patient control subjects), 61 (7.5%) had ampicillin treatment, and these were also compared with the case group. Results...

  11. Rapid determination of ampicillin in bovine milk by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, C.Y.W.; Luo, Wenhong [National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for the determination of ampicillin residues in raw bovine milk, processed skim milk, and pasteurized, homogenized whole milk with vitamin D. Milk samples were deproteinized with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and acetonictrile. After centrifugation, the clear supernatant was reacted with formaldehyde and TCA under heat. The major fluorescent derivative of ampicillin was then determined by reversed-phase LC with fluorescence detection. Average recoveries of ampicillin fortified at 5, 10, and 20 ppb (ng/mL) were all >85% with coefficients of variation <10%. Limits of detection ranged from 0.31 to 0.51 ppb and limits of quantitation, from 0.66 to 1.2 ppb. After appropriate validation, this method should be suitable for rapid analysis of milk for ampicillin residues at the tolerance level of 10 ppb. 16 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Ampicillin resistance in Haemophilus influenzae from COPD patients in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddi S

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Satyanarayana Maddi,1 Umme Kolsum,1 Sarah Jackson,1 Richard Barraclough,2 Barbara Maschera,3 Karen D Simpson,3 Thierry G Pascal,4 Serge Durviaux,4 Edith M Hessel,3 Dave Singh1 1Division of Infection, Immunity and Respiratory Medicine, Medicines Evaluation Unit, University Hospital of South Manchester Foundation Trust, University of Manchester, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital of South Manchester Foundation Trust, Manchester, 3Refractory Respiratory Inflammation DPU, GlaxoSmithKline Medicines Research Centre, Stevenage, Hertfordshire, UK; 4Clinical Laboratory Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Wavre, Belgium Background: Haemophilus influenzae is commonly isolated from the airways of COPD patients. Antibiotic treatment may cause the emergence of resistant H. influenzae strains, particularly ampicillin-resistant strains, including β-lactamase-negative ampicillin resistance (BLNAR strains. Genetic identification using ftsI sequencing is the optimum method for identifying mutations within BLNAR strains. The prevalence of BLNAR in COPD patients during the stable state has not been reported. We investigated the antibiotic resistance patterns of H. influenzae present in the sputum of stable COPD patients, focusing on ampicillin resistance; the prevalence of enzyme and non-enzyme-mediated ampicillin resistance was determined. A subset of patients was followed up longitudinally to study H. influenzae strain switching and antibiotic sensitivity changes.Patients and methods: Sputum sampling was performed in 61 COPD patients, with 42 samples obtained at baseline; H. influenzae was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 28 samples. In all, 45 patients completed the follow-up for 2 years; 24 H. influenzae isolates were obtained.Results: Disk diffusion showed the highest antibiotic resistance in the penicillin antibiotic group (eg, 67% for ampicillin and macrolides (eg, 46% for erythromycin, whereas all isolates were susceptible to

  13. Influence of the irradiation of rabbit meat on unbound ampicillin and gentamicin contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, A.; Vashin, I.; Lashev, L.; Todorov, B.

    1993-01-01

    A most interesting fact is the tendency toward higher levels of unbound ampicillin in meat after the irradiation, especially at doses of 1 and 1.5 kGy. A probable explanation could be the release of protein-bound ampicillin. Such a release, however, is not a result from protein destruction, because according to data available, it could be achieved only when irradiation doses are above 5 kGy. First, change lipids, but proteins could be degradated when doses are up to 1500 kGy. Another evidence supporting this suggestion, is the fact that when irradiated with 2 kGy, the level of unbound antibiotic is only 1.22 mg/kg. So, with medium doses of irradiation, release of bound ampicillin is probably potentiated. Lower levels of free ampicillin in meat, irradiated with a dose of 2 kGy could be explained with the destruction of active substance at higher doses of radiation. In conclusion, it could be stated that both antibiotics have a different pattern of behaviour when irradiated with gamma rays and when stored at minus temperatures. If there are no gentamicin residues in irradiated and stored for a long time meat, it follows that there is no antibiotic in meat. For ampicillin this statement could be not true. (orig.)

  14. Comparison of blood agar, ampicillin blood agar, MacConkey-ampicillin-Tween agar, and modified cefsulodin-Irgasan-novobiocin agar for isolation of Aeromonas spp. from stool specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M T; Stroh, E M; Jessop, J

    1988-09-01

    The performance of four media for the isolation of Aeromonas strains from stool specimens, the importance of ampicillin-susceptible Aeromonas strains in the selection of culture media, and the usefulness of beta-hemolysis in screening blood-containing media for Aeromonas strains were evaluated in two phases. In the first phase, 36 of 1,672 stool specimens yielded Aeromonas isolates. Ninety-seven percent of the isolates were detected on blood agar containing 20 micrograms of ampicillin per ml (ABA), and 47% were detected on MacConkey agar containing 100 micrograms of ampicillin per ml and 1% Tween 80. In the second phase of the study, 43 of 1,924 stool specimens yielded Aeromonas isolates. Fifty-one percent of the isolates were detected on blood agar and on modified cefsulodin-Irgasan-novobiocin agar, and 84% were detected on ABA. The combination of ABA and modified cefsulodin-Irgasan-novobiocin agar provided 100% recovery of the Aeromonas isolates encountered. All of the Aeromonas isolates detected on blood agar were also detected on ABA, and 89% of the Aeromonas isolates detected on these media were beta-hemolytic. These results suggest that ABA is superior to the other media evaluated for the isolation of Aeromonas strains from stool specimens, but optimal recovery of the organism may require the use of more than one medium. The results also suggest that the occurrence of ampicillin-susceptible strains is not a limitation on the use of ABA, but at least 10% of Aeromonas isolates will be missed if beta-hemolysis is used to screen ABA plates for these organisms.

  15. Genome-Wide Identification of Ampicillin Resistance Determinants in Enterococcus faecium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinglin; Paganelli, Fernanda L.; Bierschenk, Damien; Kuipers, Annemarie; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Willems, Rob J. L.; van Schaik, Willem

    2012-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium has become a nosocomial pathogen of major importance, causing infections that are difficult to treat owing to its multi-drug resistance. In particular, resistance to the β-lactam antibiotic ampicillin has become ubiquitous among clinical isolates. Mutations in the low-affinity penicillin binding protein PBP5 have previously been shown to be important for ampicillin resistance in E. faecium, but the existence of additional resistance determinants has been suggested. Here, we constructed a high-density transposon mutant library in E. faecium and developed a transposon mutant tracking approach termed Microarray-based Transposon Mapping (M-TraM), leading to the identification of a compendium of E. faecium genes that contribute to ampicillin resistance. These genes are part of the core genome of E. faecium, indicating a high potential for E. faecium to evolve towards β-lactam resistance. To validate the M-TraM results, we adapted a Cre-lox recombination system to construct targeted, markerless mutants in E. faecium. We confirmed the role of four genes in ampicillin resistance by the generation of targeted mutants and further characterized these mutants regarding their resistance to lysozyme. The results revealed that ddcP, a gene predicted to encode a low-molecular-weight penicillin binding protein with D-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidase activity, was essential for high-level ampicillin resistance. Furthermore, deletion of ddcP sensitized E. faecium to lysozyme and abolished membrane-associated D,D-carboxypeptidase activity. This study has led to the development of a broadly applicable platform for functional genomic-based studies in E. faecium, and it provides a new perspective on the genetic basis of ampicillin resistance in this organism. PMID:22761597

  16. Enthalpies of solution of ampicillin, amoxycillin and their binary mixtures at 310.15 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, D V; Kashid, N; Kapoor, S; Chadha, R

    2000-05-15

    Enthalpies of solutions of ampicillin, amoxycillin and their binary mixtures have been determined at pH 2, 5, and 7 using C-80 calorimeter. The systems showed endothermic behaviour; molar enthalpies of solutions of ampicillin were determined to be 13.32, 15.89 and 23.21 kJ mol(-1) and amoxycillin were 16.32, 18.45 and 26. 25 kJ mol(-1) at pH 2, 5, and 7, respectively. The excess molar enthalpies of solution have also been calculated to find any interaction between these two drugs.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of an ampicillin-sulbactam combination after intravenous and intramuscular administration to sheep.

    OpenAIRE

    Escudero, E; Espuny, A; Vicente, S; Cárceles, C M

    1999-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of a 2:1 ampicillin-sulbactam combination were studied in 6 sheep, after intravenous and intramuscular injection at a single dose rate of 20 mg/kg body weight (13.33 mg/kg of sodium ampicillin and 6.67 mg/kg of sodium sulbactam). The drugs were distributed according to an open 2-compartment model after intravenous administration and a one-compartment model with first order absorption after intramuscular administration. The apparent volumes of distribution calculated by th...

  18. Administration of gentamicin and ampicillin by continuous intravenous infusion to newborn infants during parenteral nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Andersen, G E

    1982-01-01

    Gentamicin and ampicillin were dissolved in an L-amino acid solution especially prepared for newborn infants and infused intravenously over 24 h in 7 babies with serious neonatal surgical problems. Serum concentrations of the antibiotics were maintained rather constant and well above the minimal...

  19. A study of the in vitro interaction of cotrimoxazole and ampicillin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synergistic interactions were recorded by the antibiotics against Staph. aureus and S. typhi while indifferent interaction occurred with P. aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa however, showed resistance to the two antibiotics when they were used alone. The implication is that cotrimoxazole and ampicillin can be used in combination ...

  20. Continuous intravenous infusion of ampicillin and gentamicin during parenteral nutrition in 88 newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Møller, S; Andersen, G E

    1982-01-01

    Ampicillin and gentamicin were dissolved once a day in an L-amino acid solution especially prepared for parenteral nutrition of newborn infants and infused continuously to 88 infants in whom septicaemia was suspected or had been proved. The mean dosages were 162 and 5.3 mg/kg per 24 hours...

  1. Ampicillin-Ester Bonded Branched Polymers: Characterization, Cyto-, Genotoxicity and Controlled Drug-Release Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Oledzka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The development and characterization of novel macromolecular conjugates of ampicillin using branched biodegradable polymers has been described in this study. The conjugates have been prepared coupling the β-lactam antibiotic with branched polymer matrices based on the natural oligopeptide core. The cyto- and genotoxicity of the synthesized polymers were evaluated with a bacterial luminescence test, two protozoan assays and Salmonella typhimurium TA1535. The presence of a newly formed covalent bond between the drug and the polymer matrices was confirmed by 1H-NMR and FTIR studies. A drug content (15.6 and 10.2 mole % in the macromolecular conjugates has been determined. The obtained macromolecular products have been subjected to further in vitro release studies. The total percentage of ampicillin released after 21 days of incubation was nearly 60% and 14% and this resulted from the different physicochemical properties of the polymeric matrices. This is the first report on the application of branched biodegradable polymeric matrices for the covalent conjugation of ampicillin. The obtained results showed that the synthesized macromolecular drug-conjugates might slowly release the active drug molecule and improve the pharmacokinetics of ampicillin.

  2. A study of the in vitro interaction of cotrimoxazole and ampicillin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-07-03

    Jul 3, 2006 ... In this study, the in vitro interaction of two standard antibiotics – cotrimoxazole and ampicillin trihydrate were studied by the checkerboard technique, using clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa,. Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The organisms were exposed to the individual antibiotics as well as ...

  3. Ampicillin-Improved Glucose Tolerance in Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6NTac Mice Is Age Dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune, I.; Hansen, C. H. F.; Ellekilde, M.

    2013-01-01

    Ampicillin has been shown to improve glucose tolerance in mice. We hypothesized that this effect is present only if treatment is initiated prior to weaning and that it disappears when treatment is terminated. High-fat fed C57BL/6NTac mice were divided into groups that received Ampicillin...... at different ages or not at all. We found that both diet and Ampicillin significantly changed the gut microbiota composition in the animals. Furthermore, there was a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in Ampicillin-treated, five-week-old mice compared to nontreated mice in the control group. At study...... in high-fat diet mice, and a lower tolerogenic dendritic cell percentage was found both in relation to high-fat diet and late Ampicillin treatment. The results support our hypothesis that a "window" exists early in life in which an alteration of the gut microbiota affects glucose tolerance as well...

  4. Reversal of Ampicillin Resistance in MRSA via Inhibition of Penicillin-Binding Protein 2a by Acalypha wilkesiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory activity of a semipure fraction from the plant, Acalypha wilkesiana assigned as 9EA-FC-B, alone and in combination with ampicillin, was studied against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. In addition, effects of the combination treatment on PBP2a expression were investigated. Microdilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC. Synergistic effects of 9EA-FC-B with ampicillin were determined using the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC index and kinetic growth curve assay. Western blot experiments were carried out to study the PBP2a expression in treated MRSA cultures. The results showed a synergistic effect between ampicillin and 9EA-FC-B treatment with the lowest FIC index of 0.19 (synergism ≤ 0.5. The presence of 9EA-FC-B reduced the MIC of ampicillin from 50 to 1.56 μg mL−1. When ampicillin and 9EA-FC-B were combined at subinhibitory level, the kinetic growth curves were suppressed. The antibacterial effect of 9EA-FC-B and ampicillin was shown to be synergistic. The synergism is due the ability of 9EA-FC-B to suppress the activity of PBP2a, thus restoring the susceptibility of MRSA to ampicillin. Corilagin was postulated to be the constituent responsible for the synergistic activity showed by 9EA-FC-B.

  5. Physical size of the donor locus and transmission of Haemophilus influenzae ampicillin resistance genes by deoxyribonucleic acid-mediated transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendler, J.W. III

    1976-01-01

    The properties of donor deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from three clinical isolates and its ability to mediate the transformation of competent Rd strains to ampicillin resistance were examined. A quantitative technique for determining the resistance of individual Haemophilus influenzae cells to ampicillin was developed. When this technique was used, sensitive cells failed to tolerate levels of ampicillin greater than 0.1 to 0.2 μg/ml, whereas three resistant type b β-lactamase-producing strains could form colonies 1- to 3-μg/ml levels of the antibiotic. DNA extracted from the resistant strains elicited transformation of the auxotrophic genes in a multiply auxotrophic Rd strain. For two of the donors, transformation to ampicillin resistance occurred after the uptake of a single DNA molecule approximately 10 4 -fold less frequently than transformation of auxotrophic loci and was not observed to occur at all with the third. The frequency of transformation to ampicillin resistance was two- to fivefold higher in strain BC200 (Okinaka and Barnhart, 1974), which was cured of a defective prophage. All three clinical ampicillin-resistant strains were poor recipients, but the presence of the ampicillin resistant genes in strain BC200 did not reduce its competence

  6. Pharmacodynamics of Ceftaroline plus Ampicillin against Enterococcus faecalis in an In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model of Simulated Endocardial Vegetations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Brian J; Shireman, Laura M

    2017-04-01

    The combination of ampicillin plus ceftaroline has been suggested to be more reliably synergistic against Enterococcus faecalis than ampicillin plus ceftriaxone using time-kill methods. The purpose of this study was to determine if this trend persists in a two-compartment model of simulated endocardial vegetations (SEV) using clinically relevant pharmacokinetic exposures of these antimicrobials. Three clinically derived E. faecalis strains were included in the study. The MICs of study antimicrobials were determined by broth microdilution. Simulations of ampicillin (2 g every 4 h [q4h]; maximum concentration of drug in serum [ C max ], 72.4 mg/liter; half-life [ t 1/2 ], 1.9 h), ceftaroline-fosamil (600 mg q8h; C max , 21.3 mg/liter; t 1/2 , 2.66 h), ceftriaxone ( C max , 257 mg/liter; t 1/2 , 8 h), and ampicillin plus ceftaroline and ampicillin plus ceftriaxone were evaluated against 3 strains of E. faecalis isolated from patients with endocarditis in an in vitro PK/PD SEV model over 72 h, with a starting inoculum of ∼9 log 10 CFU/g. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin (MIC, ≤2 mg/liter). Ceftaroline MICs varied from 2 to 16 mg/liter. All strains had ceftriaxone MICs of 256 mg/liter. W04 and W151 exhibited high-level aminoglycoside resistance but W07 did not. Ampicillin plus ceftaroline resulted in significantly greater reductions in CFU per gram by 72 h than ampicillin for all strains ( P ≤ 0.025) than ampicillin plus ceftriaxone for W04 ( P = 0.019) but not W07 or W151 ( P ≥ 0.15). A 4-fold increase in ampicillin MIC was observed for W07 at 72 h, but this was prevented by the addition of ceftaroline or ceftriaxone. The combination of ampicillin plus ceftaroline appears to be at least as efficacious as ampicillin plus ceftriaxone and may lead to improved activity against some strains of E. faecalis , but these differences may be small and the clinical significance should not be overestimated. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Dogs are a reservoir of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium lineages associated with human infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Peter Panduro; Top, Janetta; Hendrickx, Antoni P.A.

    2009-01-01

    complex 17 (CC17), including those of sequence types ST-78 and ST-192, which are widespread in European and Asian hospitals. Longitudinal screening of 18 healthy humans living in contact with 13 of the dogs under study resulted in the identification of a single, intermittent CC17 carrier. This person...... generally differed from those previously described for clinical human isolates. The results indicate that dogs are frequent carriers of CC17-related lineages and may play a role in the spread of this nosocomial pathogen. The distinctive virulence and antimicrobial resistance profiles observed among canine......Ampicillin resistance is a marker for hospital-associated Enterococcus faecium. Feces from 208 dogs were selectively screened for the occurrence of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium (AREF). AREF was detected in 42 (23%) of 183 dogs screened in a cross-sectional study in the United Kingdom and in 19...

  8. The molecular changing mechanism of Ampicillin-Sulbactam resistant Staphylococcus aureus towards Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Hemiawati Satari

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the molecular changing of S.aureus, which is resistant to Ampicillin-Sulbactam and then become resistant to Methicillin as a result of improper dosage. The study was conducted by isolating Ampicillin-Sulbactam resistant and Methicillin Resistant S.aureus (MRSA, afterwards an amplification process was performed by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction. to isolate the betalactamase enzyme regulator and PBP 2a genes. The result of this research showed that there were a deletion of few amino acids from the regulator gene, and a suspicion that the DNA sequence had been substituted from PBP 2 gene into PBP 2a (gen mec. This process had formed MRSA.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Vancomycin-Susceptible, Ampicillin-Intermediate Enterococcus faecium Strain D344RRF

    OpenAIRE

    Garc?a-Solache, M?nica; Rice, Louis B.

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium is an important nosocomial pathogen, causing a substantial health burden due to high resistance to antibiotics and its ability to colonize the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we present the draft genome of vancomycin-susceptible, ampicillin-intermediate strain D344RRF, a rifampicin/fusidic acid-resistant and commonly used laboratory strain, which is useful in studying the transfer of antibiotic resistance.

  10. Studies of Ni(II) & Cu(II) complexes with ampicillin | Guru | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ni(II) and Cu(II) complex with ampicillin have been synthesized and characterized. On the basis of elemental analysis and molar conductance, formulas Ni(C16H19 N3O4S)MoO4H2O and Cu(C16H19N3O4S)MoO4H2O have been suggested for the complexes under study. The geometries of the complexes have been ...

  11. Intravitreal Ampicillin Sodium for Antibiotic-Resistant Endophthalmitis: Streptococcus uberis First Human Intraocular Infection Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Velez-Montoya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment with intravitreal ampicillin sodium of a postoperative endophthalmitis case due to Streptococcus uberis; an environmental pathogen commonly seen in mastitis cases of lactating cows. Methods. Case Report. A 52-year-old, Hispanic diabetic patient who suddenly developed severe pain and severe loss of vision, following vitrectomy. Results. The patient was diagnosed with postoperative endophthalmitis secondary to a highly resistant strain of Streptococcus uberis that did not respond to intravitreal antibiotics. He was treated with an air-fluid interchange, anterior chamber washout, intravitreal ampicillin sodium (5 mg/0.1 mL, and silicon oil tamponade (5000 ck. The eye was anatomically stabilized, though there was no functional recovery. Conclusion. Streptococcus uberis is an uncommon pathogen to the human eye, which has unique features that help the strain in developing resistance to antibiotics. While treatment with intravitreal ampicillin is feasible, there are still concerns about its possible toxicity.

  12. Comparative study of erythromycin, amoxicillin and ampicillin antimicrobial activity against human respiratory tract pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, R H; Norman, J C; Goldmann, D A

    1979-01-01

    An in vitro test system was used to compare the antimicrobial activity of erythromycin, amoxicillin and ampicillin against respiratory tract pathogens isolated from man. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of fresh clinical isolates of Streptoccus pyogenes, Streptocuccus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae to the macrolide and penicillins ranged between 0.01 and 0.9 microgram/ml. The microbes were exposed to each antibiotic for approximately 3 h at 1x,2x and 5x the relevant MIC. Irreversible surface defects and intracellular lesions were resolved by scanning and transmission electron microscopy in all antibiotic-treated bacterial species, irrespective of the antimicrobial used. In each case, inhibition of growth was recorded by turbometric assay; no significant difference was observed among the declining slopes of post-dosing growth curves for either erythromycin-, amoxicillin- or ampicillin-treated pathogens. The experimental observations show that the onset of antimicrobial activity and the bactericidal effectiveness of equipotent concentrations of erythromycin, amoxicillin and ampicillin were comparable in this study. The results complement previous clinical, bacteriologic and ultrastructure studies in vivo and demonstrate the contribution of the combined in vivo/in vitro study design for better understanding of antimicrobial activity in human respiratory tract infections.

  13. Freeze-drying of ampicillin solid lipid nanoparticles using mannitol as cryoprotectant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Alihosseini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available abstract Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs are interesting colloidal drug-delivery systems, since they have all the advantages of the lipid and polymeric nanoparticles. Freeze-drying is a widely used process for improving the stability of SLNs. Cryoprotectants have been used to decrease SLN aggregations during freeze-drying. In this study Ampicillin was chosen to be loaded in a cholesterol carrier with nano size range. To support the stability of SLNs, freeze-drying was done using mannitol. Particle size, drug release profile and antibacterial effects were studied after freeze-drying in comparison with primary SLNs. Preparations with 5% mannitol showed the least particle size enlargement. The average particle size was 150 and 187 nm before and after freeze-drying, respectively. Freeze-drying did not affect the release profile of drug loaded nanopartilces. Also our study showed that lyophilization did not change the antimicrobial effect of ampicillin SLNs. DSC analysis showed probability of chemical interaction between ampicillin and cholesterol.

  14. Synthesis of netlike gold nanoparticles using ampicillin as a stabilizing reagent and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Y.Z.; Zhou, J.F.; Song, Y.; Cheng, Z.P.; Xu, J.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Electrochemical deposition of netlike gold nanoparticles (GNPs) on the surface of glassy carbon electrode and preparation of netlike GNPs in aqueous solution using ampicillin as a stabilizing reagent were proposed. The catalytic properties of netlike gold nanoparticles on the glassy carbon electrode for dopamine were demonstrated. The results indicate that the netlike gold nanoparticle modified electrode has an excellent repeatability and reproducibility. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Synthesis of netlike gold nanoparticles using ampicillin as a stabilizing reagent. ► Excellent repeatability and reproducibility of netlike gold nanoparticle modified glassy carbon electrode. ► The catalytic properties of netlike gold nanoparticle for dopamine. -- Abstract: Electrochemical deposition of netlike gold nanoparticles on the surface of glassy carbon electrode and preparation of netlike GNPs in aqueous solution using ampicillin as a stabilizing reagent were proposed. The netlike gold nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, infrared spectrometer, UV spectrophotometer, powder X-ray diffractometer and electrochemical analyzer. The catalysis of the netlike gold nanoparticles on the glassy carbon electrode for dopamine was demonstrated. The results indicate that the gold nanoparticle modified electrode has an excellent repeatability and reproducibility.

  15. [In vitro activity of ampicillin-ceftriaxone against Enterococcus faecalis isolates recovered from invasive infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguer Moreira, Noelia; Nastro, Marcela; Vay, Carlos; Famiglietti, Ángela; Rodríguez, Carlos Hernán

    2016-01-01

    In vitro activity of the combination of ampicillin- ceftriaxone against 30 Enterococcus faecalis isolates recovered from invasive infections in patients admitted to Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martin in the city of Buenos Aires was assessed. Ampicillin- ceftriaxone synergies were determined by microdilution in Müeller-Hinton (MH) broth with and without subinhibitory concentrations of ceftriaxone. Synergy was detected in 22/30 isolates. A decrease in both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was observed in 14/30 isolates, whereas in 6/30 isolates the decrease was observed in the MIC value and only in the MBC value in the 2 remaining isolates. The bactericidal activity of the combination showed to be higher at low concentrations of ampicillin (ceftriaxone combination and thus, its efficacy was confirmed in the treatment of severe infections by E. faecalis. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Photoactivatable antisense DNA: suppression of ampicillin resistance in normally resistant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparro, F P; Edelson, R L; O'Malley, M E; Ugent, S J; Wong, H H

    1991-01-01

    Antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotides complementary to a segment of the beta-lactamase gene and containing psoralen monoadducts at specific sites were examined for their ability to make normally resistant bacteria sensitive to ampicillin. Irradiation of oligonucleotides and psoralens with long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (380-400 nm) produced monoadducted antisense molecules. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to purify microgram quantities of photoactivatable antisense DNA. Escherichia coli transformed with a plasmid containing the gene for beta-lactamase were used to test a series of oligonucleotides containing psoralen monoadducts after additional exposure to the photoactivating effects of long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (320-400 nm). Normally resistant bacteria treated with this photoactivatable form of antisense DNA (0.4 microM) were specifically sensitized to ampicillin. The reduction in colony formation ranged from 31 to 79% in comparison to control oligonucleotides which did not contain photoactivatable monoadduct moieties. Bacteria treated in a similar manner but in the presence of tetracycline instead of ampicillin were not affected. The activity of beta-galactosidase, whose gene is located on the same plasmid as beta-lactamase, was not affected.

  17. The effects of the antibiotics ampicillin, florfenicol, sulfamethazine, and tylosin on biogas production and their degradation efficiency during anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Shannon M; Ullman, Jeffrey L; Teel, Amy L; Watts, Richard J; Frear, Craig

    2013-12-01

    The impacts of four common animal husbandry antibiotics (ampicillin, florfenicol, sulfamethazine, and tylosin) on anaerobic digestion (AD) treatment efficiency and the potential for antibiotic degradation during digestion were evaluated. Sulfamethazine and ampicillin exhibited no impact on total biogas production up to 280 and 350 mg/L, respectively, although ampicillin inhibited biogas production rates during early stages of AD. Tylosin reduced biogas production by 10-38% between 130 and 913 mg/L. Florfenicol reduced biogas by ≈ 5%, 40% and 75% at 6.4, 36 and 210 mg/L, respectively. These antibiotic concentrations are higher than commonly seen for mixed feedlot manure, so impacts on full scale AD should be minimal. Antibiotic degradation products were found, confirming AD effectively degraded ampicillin, florfenicol, and tylosin, although some products were persistent throughout the process. Contamination of AD solid and liquid effluents with sulfamethazine and antibiotic transformation products from florfenicol and tylosin could present an environmental concern. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Identification of the Related Substances in Ampicillin Capsule by Rapid Resolution Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Resolution Liquid Chromatography coupled with Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (RRLC-ESI-MSn was used to separate and identify related substances in ampicillin capsule. The fragmentation behaviors of related substances were used to identify their chemical structures. Finally, a total of 13 related substances in ampicillin capsule were identified, including four identified components for the first time and three groups of isomers on the basis of the exact mass, fragmentation behaviors, retention time, and chemical structures in the literature. This study avoided time-consuming and complex chemosynthesis of related substances of ampicillin and the results could be useful for the quality control of ampicillin capsule to guarantee its safety in clinic. In the meantime, it provided a good example for the rapid identification of chemical structures of related substances of drugs.

  19. Space-time clustering of ampicillin resistant Escherichia coli isolated from Danish pigs at slaughter between 1997 and 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abatih, E. N.; Ersbøll, A. K.; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo

    2009-01-01

    In Denmark, antimicrobial resistance in bacteria in animals, animal products and humans, is routinely monitored. This study aimed at determining whether the observed variations in the prevalence of ampicillin resistant Escherichia coli isolated from healthy pigs at slaughter were random....... The clusters of ampicillin resistant E coli appeared at the same time as the national consumption of ampicillin in pigs increased, however antimicrobial consumption at the herd level did not appear to have any effects on space-time clustering in this study. The results could serve as a platform to highlight...... or clustered in space and time. Data on E coli isolates between 1997 and 2005 were obtained from the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme (DANMAP) whereas data on the quantity of ampicillin consumed was obtained from the Danish Register of Veterinary Medicines (Vet...

  20. Modeling the growth dynamics of multiple Escherichia coli strains in the pig intestine following intramuscular ampicillin treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Amais; Zachariasen, Camilla; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2016-01-01

    using a mathematical model to simulate the competitive growth of E. coli strains in a pig intestine under specified plasma concentration profiles of ampicillin. Results : In vitro growth results demonstrated that the resistant strains did not carry a fitness cost for their resistance, and that the most...... with ampicillin resistance in E. coli. Besides dosing factors, epidemiological factors (such as number of competing strains and bacterial excretion) influenced resistance development and need to be considered further in relation to optimal treatment strategies. The modeling approach used in the study is generic......Background : This study evaluated how dosing regimen for intramuscularly-administered ampicillin, composition of Escherichia coli strains with regard to ampicillin susceptibility, and excretion of bacteria from the intestine affected the level of resistance among Escherichia coli strains...

  1. Molecular Epidemiology of Ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae Causing Acute Otitis Media in Japanese Infants and Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuta, Risako; Yano, Hisakazu; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Kanamori, Hajime; Endo, Shiro; Ichimura, Sadahiro; Ogawa, Miho; Shimojima, Masahiro; Ozawa, Daiki; Inomata, Shinya; Tanouchi, Ayako; Kaku, Mitsuo; Katori, Yukio

    2016-05-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is a particularly important cause of acute otitis media (AOM). There is a high prevalence of β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains in Japanese children, which is associated with recurrent AOM and prolonged treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility profile, mechanisms of ampicillin resistance and molecular epidemiology of ampicillin resistance in H. influenzae strains causing AOM in Japanese children. One hundred fifty-seven strains of H. influenzae isolated from the middle ear fluid of pediatric patients (aged 0-3 years) with AOM from various areas of Japan were studied. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile, genes encoding β-lactamase and alterations of penicillin-binding protein 3 were investigated. Genetic relatedness among ampicillin-resistant isolates was examined by multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Of 157 isolates, 108 (68.8%) demonstrated reduced susceptibility to ampicillin, including 95 (60.5%) of β-lactamase-nonproducing isolates and 13 (8.3%) of β-lactamase-producing isolates. All BLNAR (minimum inhibitory concentration of ampicillin ≥ 4 mg/L) isolates had amino acid substitutions related to ampicillin resistance. Multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated genetic diversity although there were 2 clusters of highly resistant isolates with identical STs (sequence types; ST161 and 549). Alterations of penicillin-binding protein 3 represented the most prevalent mechanism of ampicillin resistance among H. influenzae isolates causing AOM in Japanese children. BLNAR isolates from children with AOM demonstrated genetic diversity. This study identified for the first time ST clones associated with BLNAR H. influenzae causing AOM in Japanese children.

  2. Differential Penicillin-Binding Protein 5 (PBP5) Levels in the Enterococcus faecium Clades with Different Levels of Ampicillin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montealegre, Maria Camila; Roh, Jung Hyeob; Rae, Meredith; Davlieva, Milya G; Singh, Kavindra V; Shamoo, Yousif; Murray, Barbara E

    2017-01-01

    Ampicillin resistance in Enterococcus faecium is a serious concern worldwide, complicating the treatment of E. faecium infections. Penicillin-binding protein 5 (PBP5) is considered the main ampicillin resistance determinant in E. faecium The three known E. faecium clades showed sequence variations in the pbp5 gene that are associated with their ampicillin resistance phenotype; however, these changes alone do not explain the array of resistance levels observed among E. faecium clinical strains. We aimed to determine if the levels of PBP5 are differentially regulated between the E. faecium clades, with the hypothesis that variations in PBP5 levels could help account for the spectrum of ampicillin MICs seen in E. faecium We studied pbp5 mRNA levels and PBP5 protein levels as well as the genetic environment upstream of pbp5 in 16 E. faecium strains that belong to the different E. faecium clades and for which the ampicillin MICs covered a wide range. Our results found that pbp5 and PBP5 levels are increased in subclade A1 and A2 ampicillin-resistant strains compared to those in clade B and subclade A2 ampicillin-susceptible strains. Furthermore, we found evidence of major clade-associated rearrangements in the region upstream of pbp5, including large DNA fragment insertions, deletions, and single nucleotide polymorphisms, that may be associated with the differential regulation of PBP5 levels between the E. faecium clades. Overall, these findings highlight the contribution of the clade background to the regulation of PBP5 abundance and point to differences in the region upstream of pbp5 as likely contributors to the differential expression of ampicillin resistance. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Degradation of amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin antibiotics in aqueous solution by the UV/ZnO photocatalytic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmolla, Emad S.; Chaudhuri, Malay

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effect of operating conditions (zinc oxide concentration, pH and irradiation time) of the UV/ZnO photocatalytic process on degradation of amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin in aqueous solution. pH has a great effect on amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin degradation. The optimum operating conditions for complete degradation of antibiotics in an aqueous solution containing 104, 105 and 103 mg/L amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin, respectively were: zinc oxide 0.5 g/L, irradiation time 180 min and pH 11. Under optimum operating conditions, complete degradation of amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin occurred and COD and DOC removal were 23.9 and 9.7%, respectively. The photocatalytic reactions under optimum conditions approximately followed a pseudo-first order kinetics with rate constant (k) 0.018, 0.015 and 0.029 min -1 for amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin, respectively. UV/ZnO photocatalysis can be used for amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin degradation in aqueous solution.

  4. Degradation of amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin antibiotics in aqueous solution by the UV/ZnO photocatalytic process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmolla, Emad S., E-mail: em_civil@yahoo.com [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Chaudhuri, Malay [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2010-01-15

    The study examined the effect of operating conditions (zinc oxide concentration, pH and irradiation time) of the UV/ZnO photocatalytic process on degradation of amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin in aqueous solution. pH has a great effect on amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin degradation. The optimum operating conditions for complete degradation of antibiotics in an aqueous solution containing 104, 105 and 103 mg/L amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin, respectively were: zinc oxide 0.5 g/L, irradiation time 180 min and pH 11. Under optimum operating conditions, complete degradation of amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin occurred and COD and DOC removal were 23.9 and 9.7%, respectively. The photocatalytic reactions under optimum conditions approximately followed a pseudo-first order kinetics with rate constant (k) 0.018, 0.015 and 0.029 min{sup -1} for amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin, respectively. UV/ZnO photocatalysis can be used for amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin degradation in aqueous solution.

  5. Comparison of transcription of beta-lactamase genes specified by various ampicillin transposons.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, T; Yamagata, S; Horii, K; Yamagishi, S

    1982-01-01

    The beta-lactamase gene from four kinds of ampicillin transposons, Tn2601, Tn3, Tn2602 and Tn1, specifying the type I (or TEM type, alternatively) beta-lactamase was cloned onto plasmid pACYC184, and the level of in vivo transcription from each beta-lactamase gene was determined by DNA-RNA hybridization. Type I beta-lactamase is very uniform enzymologically, but heterogeneous in absolute levels of enzyme activity. The results demonstrated that the heterogeneity can be explained by the efficie...

  6. The efficacy of ampicillin compared with ceftriaxone on preventing cesarean surgical site infections: an observational prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisuda Assawapalanggool

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cesarean surgical site infections (SSIs can be prevented by proper preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. Differences in antibiotic selection in clinical practice exist according to obstetricians’ preferences despite clear guidelines on preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of ampicillin and ceftriaxone in preventing cesarean SSIs. Methods The observational prospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Thailand from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2012. Propensity scores for ceftriaxone prophylaxis were calculated from potential influencing confounders. The cesarean SSI rates of the ceftriaxone group vs. those of the ampicillin prophylactic group were estimated by multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regression nested by propensity score. Results Data of 4149 cesarean patients were collected. Among these, 911 patients received ceftriaxone whereas 3238 patients received ampicillin as preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. The incidence of incisional SSIs was (0.1% vs. 1.2%; p = 0.001 and organ space SSIs was (1.2% vs. 2.9%; p = 0.003 in the ceftriaxone group compared with the ampicillin group. After adjusting for confounders, the rate ratios of incisional and organ/space SSIs in the ceftriaxone compared with the ampicillin group did not differ (RR, 0.23; 95% CI 0.03–1.78, and (RR, 1.62; 95% CI 0.83–3.18, respectively. Conclusion These data indicate no difference exists between ampicillin and ceftriaxone to prevent SSIs after cesarean section. Ampicillin may be used as antibiotic prophylaxis in cesarean section.

  7. Extracting Conformational Ensembles of Small Molecules from Molecular Dynamics Simulations: Ampicillin as a Test Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Malloci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate and exhaustive description of the conformational ensemble sampled by small molecules in solution, possibly at different physiological conditions, is of primary interest in many fields of medicinal chemistry and computational biology. Recently, we have built an on-line database of compounds with antimicrobial properties, where we provide all-atom force-field parameters and a set of molecular properties, including representative structures extracted from cluster analysis over μs-long molecular dynamics (MD trajectories. In the present work, we used a medium-sized antibiotic from our sample, namely ampicillin, to assess the quality of the conformational ensemble. To this aim, we compared the conformational landscape extracted from previous unbiased MD simulations to those obtained by means of Replica Exchange MD (REMD and those originating from three freely-available conformer generation tools widely adopted in computer-aided drug-design. In addition, for different charge/protonation states of ampicillin, we made available force-field parameters and static/dynamic properties derived from both Density Functional Theory and MD calculations. For the specific system investigated here, we found that: (i the conformational statistics extracted from plain MD simulations is consistent with that obtained from REMD simulations; (ii overall, our MD-based approach performs slightly better than any of the conformer generator tools if one takes into account both the diversity of the generated conformational set and the ability to reproduce experimentally-determined structures.

  8. Effect of Ampicillin, Streptomycin, Penicillin and Tetracycline on Metal Resistant and Non-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudobova, Dagmar; Dostalova, Simona; Blazkova, Iva; Michalek, Petr; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Sklenar, Matej; Nejdl, Lukas; Kudr, Jiri; Gumulec, Jaromir; Tmejova, Katerina; Konecna, Marie; Vaculovicova, Marketa; Hynek, David; Masarik, Michal; Kynicky, Jindrich; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech

    2014-01-01

    There is an arising and concerning issue in the field of bacterial resistance, which is confirmed by the number of deaths associated with drug-resistant bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus non-resistant strain and strains resistant to cadmium or lead ions. Metal resistant strains were created by the gradual addition of 2 mM solution of metal ions (cadmium or lead) to the S. aureus culture. An increasing antimicrobial effect of ampicillin, streptomycin, penicillin and tetracycline (0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 150, 225 and 300 µM) on the resistant strains was observed using a method of growth curves. A significant growth inhibition (compared to control) of cadmium resistant cells was observed in the presence of all the four different antibiotics. On the other hand, the addition of streptomycin and ampicillin did not inhibit the growth of lead resistant strain. Other antibiotics were still toxic to the bacterial cells. Significant differences in the morphology of cell walls were indicated by changes in the cell shape. Our data show that the presence of metal ions in the urban environment may contribute to the development of bacterial strain resistance to other substances including antibiotics, which would have an impact on public health. PMID:24651395

  9. Aptamer based voltammetric determination of ampicillin using a single-stranded DNA binding protein and DNA functionalized gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Ma, Kui; Yin, Huanshun; Zhou, Yunlei; Ai, Shiyun

    2017-12-20

    An aptamer based method is described for the electrochemical determination of ampicillin. It is based on the use of DNA aptamer, DNA functionalized gold nanoparticles (DNA-AuNPs), and single-stranded DNA binding protein (ssDNA-BP). When the aptamer hybridizes with the target DNA on the AuNPs, the ssDNA-BP is captured on the electrode surface via its specific interaction with ss-DNA. This results in a decreased electrochemical signal of the redox probe Fe(CN) 6 3- which is measured best at a voltage of 0.188 mV (vs. reference electrode). In the presence of ampicillin, the formation of aptamer-ampicillin conjugate blocks the further immobilization of DNA-AuNPs and ssDNA-BP, and this leads to an increased response. The method has a linear reposne that convers the 1 pM to 5 nM ampicillin concentration range, with a 0.38 pM detection limit (at an S/N ratio of 3). The assay is selective, stable and reproducible. It was applied to the determination of ampicillin in spiked milk samples where it gave recoveries ranging from 95.5 to 105.5%. Graphical abstract Schematic of a simple and sensitive electrochemical apta-biosensor for ampicillin detection. It is based on the use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), DNA aptamer, DNA functionalized AuNPs (DNA-AuNPs), and single-strand DNA binding protein (SSBP).

  10. Degradation of ampicillin antibiotic in aqueous solution by ZnO/polyaniline nanocomposite as photocatalyst under sunlight irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrati, Rahimeh; Olad, Ali; Maramifar, Roya

    2012-07-01

    ZnO/polyaniline nanocomposite in core-shell structure was prepared by the synthesis and adsorption of polyaniline chains on the structure of ZnO nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction patterns, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the composition and structure of the nanocomposite. The nanocomposite was used as an active photocatalyst for photodegradation and removal of ampicillin in aqueous solution. UV-Vis spectroscopy studies showed that ZnO/polyaniline nanocomposite absorbs visible light irradiation as well as ultraviolet spectrum, and therefore, it can be photoactivated under visible and ultraviolet lights. The photocatalytic activity of ZnO/polyaniline nanocomposite in degradation of ampicillin molecules in aqueous solution under natural sunlight irradiation was evaluated and compared with that of ZnO nanoparticles and pristine polyaniline. The ZnO/polyaniline core-shell nanocomposite exhibited higher photocatalytic activity compared to ZnO nanoparticles and pristine polyaniline. The effect of operating conditions (pH, ZnO/polyaniline nanocomposite dosage, and ampicillin concentration) in the photocatalytic degradation of ampicillin using ZnO/polyaniline nanocomposite was investigated. The optimum conditions for maximum efficiency of ampicillin degradation under 120 min sunlight irradiation were found as 10 mg L(-1) dosage of ZnO/polyaniline nanocomposite, ampicillin concentration of 4.5 mg L(-1), and solution pH = 5. Under optimum operating conditions, degradation efficiency was reached to 41% after 120 min of exposure to the sunlight irradiation.

  11. Meningitis Due to Ampicillin-and Chloramphenicol-Resistant Haemophilus influenzae Type B in Canada. Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Kabani

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The first report of a case of ampicillin- and chloramphenicol-resistant Haemophilus influenzae type b invasive infection in Canada is described in a four-month-old male with meningitis. He was treated with cefotaxime 200 mg/kg/day divided every 6 h and dexamethasone 0.6 mg/kg/day divided every 6 h, eventually recovering after a complicated course. Follow-up at 21 months showed mild to moderate global developmental delay. While chloramphenicol resistance is rare in North America, a case of meningitis initially unresponsive to ampicillin and chloramphenicol must be considered suspect for resistance. Third generation cephalosporins should be used for resistant cases.

  12. Ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium clonal complex 17 is widespread in healthy dogs: anthropozoonosis or zooanthroponosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Peter Panduro; Williams, Nicola J; Willems, Rob

    2008-01-01

    to the spread of this AREfm genetic lineage in the human population. The unexpected and widespread occurrence of hospital-adapted clones in dogs raises an important question concerning the evolution of this clonal complex: does CC17 originate from humans (anthropozoonosis) or from dogs (zooanthroponosis......). In this study, we investigated the occurrence of AREfm CC17 in faecal samples collected from healthy dogs in Denmark and in England. Methods: 210 healthy dogs were screened for the occurrence of AREfm using a selective isolation procedure, i.e. plating on Slanetz Bartley agar containing 32 µg/ml ampicillin....... Presumptive AREfm were confirmed by a species-specific PCR and their resistance patterns were determined according to CLSI guidelines. The purK gene was sequenced in all isolates and a subset of 15 isolates was further analysed by MLST analysis. Results: AREfm was detected in 59 (28%) dogs. Based on MLST...

  13. Ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium clonal complex 17 is widespread in healthy dogs: anthropozoonosis or zooanthroponosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Peter Panduro; Williams, Nicola J; Willems, Rob

    2008-01-01

    -locus variant ST192 are among the most common STs in European hospitals. ST78 was isolated from a dog and 10-year old boy living in the same household, suggesting possible transmission between dogs and humans living in close contact. Resistance to erythromycin (97%), ciprofloxacin (95%), tetracycline (83...... to the spread of this AREfm genetic lineage in the human population. The unexpected and widespread occurrence of hospital-adapted clones in dogs raises an important question concerning the evolution of this clonal complex: does CC17 originate from humans (anthropozoonosis) or from dogs (zooanthroponosis......). In this study, we investigated the occurrence of AREfm CC17 in faecal samples collected from healthy dogs in Denmark and in England. Methods: 210 healthy dogs were screened for the occurrence of AREfm using a selective isolation procedure, i.e. plating on Slanetz Bartley agar containing 32 µg/ml ampicillin...

  14. ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS IN BARIATRIC SURGERY: a continuous infusion of cefazolin versus ampicillin/sulbactam and ertapenem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Antônio Bandeira FERRAZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The incidence of surgical site infection in bariatric patients is significant and the current recommendations for antibiotic prophylaxis are sometimes inadequate. Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of three prophylactic antibiotic regimens on the incidence of surgical site infection. Methods A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2009 and January 2013 in which 896 Roux-en-Y gastric bypasses were performed to treat obesity. The study compared three groups of patients according to the perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis administered intravenously and beginning at anesthesia induction: Group I consisting of 194 patients treated with two 3-g doses of ampicillin/sulbactam; Group II with 303 patients treated with a single 1-g dose of ertapenem; and Group III with 399 patients treated with a 2-g dose of cefazolin at anesthesia induction followed by a continuous infusion of cefazolin 1g throughout the surgical procedure. The rate of surgical site infection was analyzed, as well as its association with age, sex, preoperative weight, body mass index and comorbidities. Results The rates of surgical site infection were 4.16% in the group treated prophylactically with ampicillin/sulbactam, 1.98% in the ertapenem group and 1.55% in the continuous cefazolin group. Conclusion The prophylactic use of continuous cefazolin in surgeries for morbid obesity shows very promising results. These findings suggest that some prophylactic regimens need to be reconsidered and even substituted by more effective therapies for the prevention of surgical site infections in bariatric patients.

  15. Immune haemolytic anaemia associated with ampicillin dependent warm antibodies and high titre cold agglutinins in a patient with Mycoplasma pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Sørensen, P G

    1984-01-01

    A case of severe immune haemolytic anaemia in a 54-year-old man suffering from Mycoplasma pneumonia is presented. A strongly positive direct Coombs test with erythrocyte bound IgG, C3d and C4 was demonstrated during the haemolytic process. Further, serologic investigations revealed ampicillin-dep...

  16. Substitutions in PBP3 confer resistance to both ampicillin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins in Haemophilus parainfluenzae as revealed by site-directed mutagenesis and gene recombinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienholtz, Nanna H; Ciechanowski, Aynur Barut; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    I from clinical strains encoding four substitutions in the transpeptidase region of PBP3 conferred resistance to ampicillin, but not to cephalosporins. Introduction of ftsI from a clinical strain encoding eight substitutions conferred resistance to ampicillin, cefotaxime and ceftriaxone. MICs....../H/S in combination with V511A were resistant to ampicillin. Substitution S385T increased the MICs of third-generation cephalosporins if V511A was also present. Conclusions: Substitutions in PBP3 are sufficient to confer resistance to both ampicillin and third-generation cephalosporins in H. parainfluenzae...... . A combination of substitutions at positions Val-511 and Asn-526 confers resistance to ampicillin. Resistance to third-generation cephalosporins probably requires more than four substitutions in PBP3....

  17. Gut microbiota modulation with norfloxacin and ampicillin enhances glucose tolerance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membrez, Mathieu; Blancher, Florence; Jaquet, Muriel; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Cani, Patrice D; Burcelin, Rémy G; Corthesy, Irène; Macé, Katherine; Chou, Chieh Jason

    2008-07-01

    Recent data suggest that the gut microbiota plays a significant role in fat accumulation. However, it is not clear whether gut microbiota is involved in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. To assess this issue, we modulated gut microbiota via antibiotics administration in two different mouse models with insulin resistance. Results from dose-determination studies showed that a combination of norfloxacin and ampicillin, at a dose of 1 g/L, maximally suppressed the numbers of cecal aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in ob/ob mice. After a 2-wk intervention with the antibiotic combination, both ob/ob and diet-induced obese and insulin-resistant mice showed a significant improvement in fasting glycemia and oral glucose tolerance. The improved glycemic control was independent of food intake or adiposity because pair-fed ob/ob mice were as glucose intolerant as the control ob/ob mice. Reduced liver triglycerides and increased liver glycogen correlated with improved glucose tolerance in the treated mice. Concomitant reduction of plasma lipopolysaccharides and increase of adiponectin further supported the antidiabetic effects of the antibiotic treatment in ob/ob mice. In summary, modulation of gut microbiota ameliorated glucose tolerance of mice by altering the expression of hepatic and intestinal genes involved in inflammation and metabolism, and by changing the hormonal, inflammatory, and metabolic status of the host.

  18. Analysis of Three Penicillin Antibiotics (Ampicillin, Amoxicillin and Cloxacillin of Several Iranian Pharmaceutical Companies by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ashnagar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Penicillin has been the most widely used antibiotic for many gram-positive bacterial infections. In this research the purity of the standard active ingredients of the various dosage forms of three penicillins (Amoxicillin, Cloxacillin and Ampicillin imported and the purity percentage of the active ingredients in each of the various dosage forms of these drugs manufactured by several pharmaceutical companies of Iran (Kosar, Farabi and Jaber Ibn Hayan were investigated and determined by HPLC technique. The analyses were made by using a Knauer (Germany Spherimage-80, ODS, 2-5 μm C18 column with 30 cm length, and i.d. 4.5 mm. A 20 μL solution from each individual sample and the standard solution were injected separately onto the column of an HPLC instrument which was equipped with ECW 2000 software of Knauer, Germany. The results obtained in this research have shown that the purity percentage of the active ingredients of the standard powder and the various dosage forms of all the drugs used, were 100%.

  19. Free radicals properties of gamma-irradiated penicillin-derived antibiotics: piperacillin, ampicillin, and crystalline penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczyński, Sławomir; Pilawa, Barbara; Koprowski, Robert; Wróbel, Zygmunt; Ptaszkiewicz, Marta; Swakoń, Jan; Olko, Paweł

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the concentrations and properties of free radicals in piperacillin, ampicillin, and crystalline penicillin after gamma irradiation. The radicals were studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy using an X-band spectrometer (9.3 GHz). Gamma irradiation was performed at a dose of 25 kGy. One- and two-exponential functions were fitted to the experimental data, in order to assess the influence of the antibiotics' storage time on the measured EPR lines. After gamma irradiation, complex EPR lines were recorded confirming the presence of a large number of free radicals formed during the irradiation. For all tested antibiotics, concentrations of free radicals and parameters of EPR spectra changed with storage time. The results obtained demonstrate that concentration of free radicals and other spectroscopic parameters can be used to select the optimal parameters of radiation sterilization of β-lactam antibiotics. The most important parameters are the constants τ (τ (1(A),(I)) and τ (2(A),(I))) and K (K (0(A),(I)), K (1(A),(I)), K (2(A),(I))) of the exponential functions that describe free radicals decay during samples storage.

  20. Preseptal and orbital cellulitis: 15-year experience with sulbactam ampicillin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devrim, Ilker; Kanra, Güler; Kara, Ateş; Cengiz, A Bülent; Orhan, Mehmet; Ceyhan, Mehmet; Seçmeer, Gülten

    2008-01-01

    The infection of the orbita and ocular tissues can result in severe local and systemic complications. We aimed to determine the predisposing factors for preseptal and orbital cellulitis, the clinical and routine laboratory differences between orbital and preseptal cellulitis, and the change in the spectrum of the pathogens and the antibiotics used in the last 10 years. One hundred thirty-nine patients, hospitalized in Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine Children's Hospital between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2003 with diagnosis ofperiorbital or orbital cellulitis, were reviewed retrospectively. Ten of the patients (7%) had orbital and 129 (93%) had preseptal cellulitis. The male/female ratio was 1.7:1. The average age (mean+/-standard deviation) was 5.7+/-4 years. The seasonal distribution was most marked in spring and fall periods. When compared with preseptal cellulitis, the mean blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels were significantly higher in patients with orbital cellulitis. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 13 (41.9% of total microbiologically confirmed cases), coagulase-negative staphylococcus in 8 (25.8%), and H. influenza type b in 2 patients (6%). Thirty out of 77 clinical sample cultures (39%) were positive. In clinical studies, etiological agents of orbital and preseptal cellulitis could be identified in only 20-30% of cases, so in clinical practice treatment is usually empiric. We observed that sulbactam-ampicillin was a safe and effective choice of treatment in orbital and preseptal cellulitis in our cases.

  1. Positive impact of biofilm on reducing the permeation of ampicillin through membrane for membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liang; Yuan, Xia; Shen, Weihuang; He, Ning; Wang, Yuanpeng; Lu, Haoliang; Lu, Yinghua

    2014-02-01

    The membrane bioreactor (MBR) has recently been the focus of research for the treatment of emerging contaminants such as antibiotics in wastewater. Although the biofilm on membrane in an MBR has been considered a cause of "membrane biofouling", its positive impact on removing pollutants has not been well-studied. This study was designed to investigate the retention effect on the permeation of ampicillin (AMP) by the biofilm coated on cellulose acetate (CA) membrane (commonly used for MBRs) utilizing a novel method based on microbial sensitivity test. The bioflim layer (thickness of 12-16μm) increased the resistance of the membrane for AMP permeation by 3-28%. Diffusion appeared to be the main driving force for the mass transfer of AMP across the membrane. Besides, the biofilm increased the retention of AMP by 23% but exhibited similar adsorption capacity with comparison of the suspended activated sludge, which indicates that the compact structure of the biofilm was the major contributor for the added retention effect on AMP by the biofilm-coated CA membrane. This study suggests that biofilm (biofouling) in MBRs increases the retention of small-molecule constituents such as antibiotics. A delicate tradeoff between reduced wastewater throughput and increased retention of contaminants should be obtained when an MBR is designed and operated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antibiotic removal from water: Elimination of amoxicillin and ampicillin by microscale and nanoscale iron particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghauch, Antoine, E-mail: antoine.ghauch@aub.edu.l [American University of Beirut, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, 1107-2020 Beirut (Lebanon); Tuqan, Almuthanna; Assi, Hala Abou [American University of Beirut, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, 1107-2020 Beirut (Lebanon)

    2009-05-15

    Zerovalent iron powder (ZVI or Fe{sup 0}) and nanoparticulate ZVI (nZVI or nFe{sup 0}) are proposed as cost-effective materials for the removal of aqueous antibiotics. Results showed complete removal of Amoxicillin (AMX) and Ampicillin (AMP) upon contact with Fe{sup 0} and nFe{sup 0}. Antibiotics removal was attributed to three different mechanisms: (i) a rapid rupture of the beta-lactam ring (reduction), (ii) an adsorption of AMX and AMP onto iron corrosion products and (iii) sequestration of AMX and AMP in the matrix of precipitating iron hydroxides (co-precipitation with iron corrosion products). Kinetic studies demonstrated that AMP and AMX (20 mg L{sup -1}) undergo first-order decay with half-lives of about 60.3 +- 3.1 and 43.5 +- 2.1 min respectively after contact with ZVI under oxic conditions. In contrast, reactions under anoxic conditions demonstrated better degradation with t{sub 1/2} of about 11.5 +- 0.6 and 11.2 +- 0.6 min for AMP and AMX respectively. NaCl additions accelerated Fe{sup 0} consumption, shortening the service life of Fe{sup 0} treatment systems. - Fe{sup 0} is efficient for the aqueous removal of the beta-lactam antibiotics and chlorides enhanced the removal rate by sustaining the process of iron corrosion.

  3. Antibiotic removal from water: Elimination of amoxicillin and ampicillin by microscale and nanoscale iron particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghauch, Antoine; Tuqan, Almuthanna; Assi, Hala Abou

    2009-01-01

    Zerovalent iron powder (ZVI or Fe 0 ) and nanoparticulate ZVI (nZVI or nFe 0 ) are proposed as cost-effective materials for the removal of aqueous antibiotics. Results showed complete removal of Amoxicillin (AMX) and Ampicillin (AMP) upon contact with Fe 0 and nFe 0 . Antibiotics removal was attributed to three different mechanisms: (i) a rapid rupture of the β-lactam ring (reduction), (ii) an adsorption of AMX and AMP onto iron corrosion products and (iii) sequestration of AMX and AMP in the matrix of precipitating iron hydroxides (co-precipitation with iron corrosion products). Kinetic studies demonstrated that AMP and AMX (20 mg L -1 ) undergo first-order decay with half-lives of about 60.3 ± 3.1 and 43.5 ± 2.1 min respectively after contact with ZVI under oxic conditions. In contrast, reactions under anoxic conditions demonstrated better degradation with t 1/2 of about 11.5 ± 0.6 and 11.2 ± 0.6 min for AMP and AMX respectively. NaCl additions accelerated Fe 0 consumption, shortening the service life of Fe 0 treatment systems. - Fe 0 is efficient for the aqueous removal of the β-lactam antibiotics and chlorides enhanced the removal rate by sustaining the process of iron corrosion.

  4. Adhesion of Enterococcus faecalis 1131 grown under subinhibitory concentrations of ampicillin and vancomycin to a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic substratum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Moreno, A M; van der Mei, H C; Busscher, H J; González-Martín, M L; Bruque, J M; Pérez-Giraldo, C

    2001-09-11

    The effect of two subinhibitory antibiotic concentrations of ampicillin and vancomycin during growth on the adhesion of Enterococcus faecalis 1131 to glass and silicone rubber was studied in a parallel plate flow chamber. Initial deposition rates and numbers of adhering bacteria after 4 h were higher on hydrophilic glass than on hydrophobic silicone rubber, regardless of growth conditions. The presence of 1/4 minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ampicillin during growth reduced enterococcal adhesion to both substrata, but growth in the presence of 1/4 MIC vancomycin did not affect the adhesion of E. faecalis. Moreover, enterococcal adhesion increased after growth in the presence of 1/8 MIC vancomycin. The increased adhesion after growth in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of vancomycin may have strong implications for patients living with implanted biomaterials, as they may suffer adverse effects from use of this antibiotic, especially since bacteria once adhered are less sensitive to antibiotics.

  5. A forward mutation assay using ampicillin-resistance in Escherichia coli designed for investigating the mutagenicity of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, D; Crofton-Sleigh, C; Venitt, S

    1987-11-01

    The development of a bacterial mutation assay using forward mutation to ampicillin-resistance is described. It is a technically simple assay using Escherichia coli D494uvrB transformed with a multi-copy mutator plasmid pGW1700. Mutation is detected by an increase in the frequency of ampicillin-resistant colonies following treatment of bacteria with the test material during logarithmic growth. The determination of viable counts allows a correction factor to be applied to compensate for the effects of sample-induced growth enhancement or toxicity on the bacterial population. The assay has been tested with a range of reference mutagens. It is particularly sensitive to base-pair substitution mutagens, detecting these at doses equal to or less than those detected in the Salmonella/microsome assay or the SOS Chromotest. The assay also detects frameshift mutagens but with lower sensitivity than the Salmonella/microsome assay.

  6. Presence of the resistance genes vanC1 and pbp5 in phenotypically vancomycin and ampicillin susceptible Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, Karin; Bauer, Johann; Hörmansdorfer, Stefan; Mölle, Gabriele; Preikschat, Petra; Kämpf, Peter; Bauer-Unkauf, Ilse; Bischoff, Meike; Hölzel, Christina

    2012-08-01

    Ampicillin and vancomycin are important antibiotics for the therapy of Enterococcus faecalis infections. The ampicillin resistance gene pbp5 is intrinsic in Enterococcus faecium. The vanC1 gene confers resistance to vancomycin and serves as a species marker for Enterococcus gallinarum. Both genes are chromosomally located. Resistance to ampicillin and vancomycin was determined in 484 E. faecalis of human and porcine origin by microdilution. Since E. faecalis are highly skilled to acquire resistance genes, all strains were investigated for the presence of pbp5 (and, in positive strains, for the penicillin-binding protein synthesis repressor gene psr) and vanC1 (and, in positive strains, for vanXYc and vanT) by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One porcine and one human isolate were phenotypically resistant to ampicillin; no strain was vancomycin resistant. Four E. faecalis (3/1 of porcine/human origin) carried pbp5 (MIC=1 mg/L), and four porcine strains were vanC1 positive (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC]=1 mg/L). Real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR revealed that the genes were not expressed. The psr gene was absent in the four pbp5-positive strains; the vanXYc gene was absent in the four vanC1-positive strains. However, vanT of the vanC gene cluster was detected in two vanC1-positive strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of pbp5, identical with the "E. faecium pbp5 gene," and of vanC1/vanT in E. faecalis. Even if resistance is not expressed in these strains, this study shows that E. faecalis have a strong ability to acquire resistance genes-and potentially to spread them to other bacteria. Therefore, close monitoring of this species should be continued.

  7. Sources of Variation in the Ampicillin-Resistant Escherichia coli Concentration in the Feces of Organic Broiler Chickens▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleydell, E. J.; Brown, P. E.; Woodward, M. J.; Davies, R. H.; French, N. P.

    2007-01-01

    Currently, there are limited published data for the population dynamics of antimicrobial-resistant commensal bacteria. This study was designed to evaluate both the proportions of the Escherichia coli populations that are resistant to ampicillin at the level of the individual chicken on commercial broiler farms and the feasibility of obtaining repeated measures of fecal E. coli concentrations. Short-term temporal variation in the concentration of fecal E. coli was investigated, and a preliminary assessment was made of potential factors involved in the shedding of high numbers of ampicillin-resistant E. coli by growing birds in the absence of the use of antimicrobial drugs. Multilevel linear regression modeling revealed that the largest component of random variation in log-transformed fecal E. coli concentrations was seen between sampling occasions for individual birds. The incorporation of fixed effects into the model demonstrated that the older, heavier birds in the study were significantly more likely (P = 0.0003) to shed higher numbers of ampicillin-resistant E. coli. This association between increasing weight and high shedding was not seen for the total fecal E. coli population (P = 0.71). This implies that, in the absence of the administration of antimicrobial drugs, the proportion of fecal E. coli that was resistant to ampicillin increased as the birds grew. This study has shown that it is possible to collect quantitative microbiological data on broiler farms and that such data could make valuable contributions to risk assessments concerning the transfer of resistant bacteria between animal and human populations. PMID:17085693

  8. Sources of Variation in the Ampicillin-Resistant Escherichia coli Concentration in the Feces of Organic Broiler Chickens▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pleydell, E. J.; Brown, P. E.; Woodward, M. J.; Davies, R. H.; French, N. P.

    2006-01-01

    Currently, there are limited published data for the population dynamics of antimicrobial-resistant commensal bacteria. This study was designed to evaluate both the proportions of the Escherichia coli populations that are resistant to ampicillin at the level of the individual chicken on commercial broiler farms and the feasibility of obtaining repeated measures of fecal E. coli concentrations. Short-term temporal variation in the concentration of fecal E. coli was investigated, and a prelimina...

  9. Sources of variation in the ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli concentration in the feces of organic broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleydell, E J; Brown, P E; Woodward, M J; Davies, R H; French, N P

    2007-01-01

    Currently, there are limited published data for the population dynamics of antimicrobial-resistant commensal bacteria. This study was designed to evaluate both the proportions of the Escherichia coli populations that are resistant to ampicillin at the level of the individual chicken on commercial broiler farms and the feasibility of obtaining repeated measures of fecal E. coli concentrations. Short-term temporal variation in the concentration of fecal E. coli was investigated, and a preliminary assessment was made of potential factors involved in the shedding of high numbers of ampicillin-resistant E. coli by growing birds in the absence of the use of antimicrobial drugs. Multilevel linear regression modeling revealed that the largest component of random variation in log-transformed fecal E. coli concentrations was seen between sampling occasions for individual birds. The incorporation of fixed effects into the model demonstrated that the older, heavier birds in the study were significantly more likely (P = 0.0003) to shed higher numbers of ampicillin-resistant E. coli. This association between increasing weight and high shedding was not seen for the total fecal E. coli population (P = 0.71). This implies that, in the absence of the administration of antimicrobial drugs, the proportion of fecal E. coli that was resistant to ampicillin increased as the birds grew. This study has shown that it is possible to collect quantitative microbiological data on broiler farms and that such data could make valuable contributions to risk assessments concerning the transfer of resistant bacteria between animal and human populations.

  10. Radiation sensitivity of Salmonella isolates relative to resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol or gentamicin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemira, Brendan A.; Lonczynski, Kelly A.; Sommers, Christopher H.

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance of inoculated bacteria is a commonly used selective marker. Bacteria resistant to the antibiotic nalidixic acid have been shown to have an increased sensitivity to irradiation. The purpose of this research was to screen a collection of Salmonella isolates for antibiotic resistance and determine the association, if any, of antibiotic resistance with radiation sensitivity. Twenty-four clinical isolates of Salmonella were screened for native resistance to multiple concentrations of ampicillin (Amp), chloramphenicol (Chl), or gentamicin (Gm). Test concentrations were chosen based on established clinical minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels, and isolates were classified as either sensitive or resistant based on their ability to grow at or above the MIC. Salmonella cultures were grown overnight at (37 o C) in antibiotic-amended tryptic soy broth (TSB). Native resistance to Gm was observed with each of the 24 isolates (100%). Eight isolates (33%) were shown to be resistant to Amp, while seven isolates (29%) were shown to be resistant to Chl. In separate experiments, Salmonella cultures were grown overnight (37 o C) in TSB, centrifuged, and the cell pellets were re-suspended in phosphate buffer. The samples were then gamma irradiated at doses up to 1.0 kGy. The D 10 values (the ionizing radiation dose required to reduce the viable number of microorganisms by 90%) were determined for the 24 isolates and they ranged from 0.181 to 0.359 kGy. No correlation was found between the D 10 value of the isolate and its sensitivity or resistance to each of the three antibiotics. Resistance to Amp or Chl is suggested as appropriate resistance marker for Salmonella test strains to be used in studies of irradiation

  11. Radiation sensitivity of Salmonella isolates relative to resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol or gentamicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemira, Brendan A.; Lonczynski, Kelly A.; Sommers, Christopher H.

    2006-09-01

    Antibiotic resistance of inoculated bacteria is a commonly used selective marker. Bacteria resistant to the antibiotic nalidixic acid have been shown to have an increased sensitivity to irradiation. The purpose of this research was to screen a collection of Salmonella isolates for antibiotic resistance and determine the association, if any, of antibiotic resistance with radiation sensitivity. Twenty-four clinical isolates of Salmonella were screened for native resistance to multiple concentrations of ampicillin (Amp), chloramphenicol (Chl), or gentamicin (Gm). Test concentrations were chosen based on established clinical minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels, and isolates were classified as either sensitive or resistant based on their ability to grow at or above the MIC. Salmonella cultures were grown overnight at (37 °C) in antibiotic-amended tryptic soy broth (TSB). Native resistance to Gm was observed with each of the 24 isolates (100%). Eight isolates (33%) were shown to be resistant to Amp, while seven isolates (29%) were shown to be resistant to Chl. In separate experiments, Salmonella cultures were grown overnight (37 °C) in TSB, centrifuged, and the cell pellets were re-suspended in phosphate buffer. The samples were then gamma irradiated at doses up to 1.0 kGy. The D10 values (the ionizing radiation dose required to reduce the viable number of microorganisms by 90%) were determined for the 24 isolates and they ranged from 0.181 to 0.359 kGy. No correlation was found between the D10 value of the isolate and its sensitivity or resistance to each of the three antibiotics. Resistance to Amp or Chl is suggested as appropriate resistance marker for Salmonella test strains to be used in studies of irradiation.

  12. Synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial activity of an ampicillin-conjugated magnetic nanoantibiotic for medical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein-Al-Ali SH

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Samer Hasan Hussein-Al-Ali,1,2 Mohamed Ezzat El Zowalaty,3,4 Mohd Zobir Hussein,5 Benjamin M Geilich,6 Thomas J Webster6,7 1Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Isra University, Amman, Kingdom of Jordan; 3Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Faculty of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 6Department of Chemical Engineering and Program in Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 7Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Abstract: Because of their magnetic properties, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs have numerous diverse biomedical applications. In addition, because of their ability to penetrate bacteria and biofilms, nanoantimicrobial agents have become increasingly popular for the control of infectious diseases. Here, MNPs were prepared through an iron salt coprecipitation method in an alkaline medium, followed by a chitosan coating step (CS-coated MNPs; finally, the MNPs were loaded with ampicillin (amp to form an amp-CS-MNP nanocomposite. Both the MNPs and amp-CS-MNPs were subsequently characterized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity. X-ray diffraction results showed that the MNPs and nanocomposites were composed of pure magnetite. Fourier transform infrared spectra and thermogravimetric data for the MNPs, CS-coated MNPs, and amp-CS-MNP nanocomposite were compared, which confirmed the CS coating on the MNPs and the amp-loaded nanocomposite. Magnetization curves showed that both the MNPs and the amp-CS-MNP nanocomposites were superparamagnetic, with saturation magnetizations at 80.1 and 26.6 emu g-1, respectively. Amp was loaded at 8

  13. The influence of different peritoneal dialysis fluids on the in vitro activity of ampicillin, daptomycin, and linezolid against Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussmann, M; Schuster, L; Zeitlinger, M; Pichler, P; Reznicek, G; Wiesholzer, M; Burgmann, H; Poeppl, W

    2015-11-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of antibiotics is recommended for the treatment of peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis. However, little data are available on a possible interference between peritoneal dialysis fluids and the activity of antimicrobial agents. Thus, the present in vitro study set out to investigate the influence of different peritoneal dialysis fluids on the antimicrobial activity of ampicillin, linezolid, and daptomycin against Enterococcus faecalis. Time-kill curves in four different peritoneal dialysis fluids were performed over 24 h with four different concentrations (1 × MIC, 4 × MIC, 8 × MIC, 30 × MIC) of each antibiotic evaluated. Cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth was used as the comparator solution. All four peritoneal dialysis fluids evaluated had a bacteriostatic effect on the growth of Enterococcus faecalis. Compared to the cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth comparator solution, the antimicrobial activity of all antibiotics tested was reduced. For ampicillin and linezolid, no activity was found in any peritoneal dialysis fluid, regardless of the concentration. Daptomycin demonstrated dose-dependent activity in all peritoneal dialysis fluids. Bactericidal activity was observed at the highest concentrations evaluated in Dianeal® PDG4 and Extraneal®, but not in concentrations lower than 30 × MIC and not in Nutrineal® PD4 and Physioneal® 40. The antimicrobial activity of ampicillin and linezolid is limited in peritoneal dialysis fluids in vitro. Daptomycin is highly effective in peritoneal dialysis fluids and might, thus, serve as an important treatment option in peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical impact of the present findings.

  14. Potentiometric, UV and 1H NMR study on the interaction of Cu2+ with ampicillin and amoxicillin in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiano, Paola; Crea, Francesco; Foti, Claudia; Giuffrè, Ottavia; Sammartano, Silvio

    2017-05-01

    A potentiometric, UV and 1 H NMR study on Cu 2+ -ampicillin [(2S,5R,6R)-6-([(2R)-2-amino-2-phenylacetyl]amino)-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid] and -amoxicillin [(2S,5R,6R)-6-{[(2R)-2-amino-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-acetyl]amino}-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-24-carboxylic acid] systems in NaCl aqueous solution at I=0.15molL -1 and t=25°C is reported. On the basis of potentiometric results two speciation models were proposed for each system. It was found that spectrophotometric and 1 H NMR measurements are essential for selecting the most reliable speciation models. They included ML, MLOH and ML(OH) 2 species in both systems and, only for Cu 2+ -ampicillin, also MLH species. The stability constants obtained by UV and 1 H NMR titrations were comparable to the ones calculated by potentiometry. The sequestering ability of the ligands under study towards Cu 2+ by pL 0.5 empiric parameter (ligand concentration required to sequester 50% of the metal cation present in traces) at several pH values was calculated as well. For ampicillin and amoxicillin, pL 0.5 =7.19 and 6.67, respectively, at physiological pH, I=0.15molL -1 and t=25°C were obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Post-embriononic development of Chrysomya putoria(Diptera: Calliphoridae on a diet containing ampicillin in different concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA C.P. FERRAZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we evaluate the effects of different concentrations of the antibiotic ampicillin on the growth and development of Chrysomya putoria. Third-generation, first instar larvae (L1 reared on 60 grams of homogenate+agar 65% were treated with ampicillin sodium. The experiment consisted of four replicates (40 larvae/replicate of each antibiotic concentration tested (T1: 466µg/mL ; T2: 81.33 mg/mL and T3: 166.66mg/mL and a T4: control. The body mass of the mature larvae, after they abandoned the diet, were recorded in batches of five. The variation between the mean body mass of larvae and the duration of larval and pupal stages, and overall duration of the development, viability and normal rates were analyzed by ANOVA. There were no significant differences between the four treatments in the following parameters: body mass of larvae that discontinued the diet as well as the duration of larval, pupal, and total development. The sex ratios found in the four treatments did not differ from those expected. Normality rates were 100% for all treatments. There were no significant differences between treatments for larval and overall viability, but pupal viability differed significantly between T1 and the control, T1 and T2, and between the control and T3. The antibiotic did not appear to significantly alter the development of C. putoria.

  16. Efficacy of ampicillin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus restored through synergy with branched poly(ethylenimine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxley, Melissa A; Friedline, Anthony W; Jensen, Jessica M; Nimmo, Susan L; Scull, Erin M; King, Jarrod B; Strange, Stoffel; Xiao, Min T; Smith, Benjamin E; Thomas Iii, Kieth J; Glatzhofer, Daniel T; Cichewicz, Robert H; Rice, Charles V

    2016-12-01

    β-Lactam antibiotics kill Staphylococcus aureus bacteria by inhibiting the function of cell wall penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) 1 and 3. However, β-lactams are ineffective against PBP2a, used by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) to perform essential cell wall crosslinking functions. PBP2a requires teichoic acid to properly locate and orient the enzyme, and thus MRSA is susceptible to antibiotics that prevent teichoic acid synthesis in the bacterial cytoplasm. As an alternative, we have used branched poly(ethylenimine), BPEI, to target teichoic acid in the bacterial cell wall. The result is restoration of MRSA susceptibility to the β-lactam antibiotic ampicillin with a MIC of 1 μg ml -1 , superior to that of vancomycin (MIC=3.7 μg ml -1 ). A checkerboard assay shows synergy of BPEI and ampicillin. NMR data show that BPEI alters the teichoic acid chemical environment. Laser scanning confocal microscopy images show BPEI residing on the bacterial cell wall, where teichoic acids and PBPs are located.

  17. Detection of Ampicillin Resistance Genes (bla in Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli with Polymerase Chain Reaction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiana Milanda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli is a rod negative Gram which could be pathogenic, if its value increases or located in outer gastrointestinal tract. Pathogenic E. coli will produce enterotoxin which will cause diarrhoea or infection in urine tract. Ampicilin was one of particular antibiotics to overcome infection. Ampicilin nowadays is no longer used as primary medicine, because of its resistance case. The aim of this research is to detect the presence of gene which is responsible to ampicilin resistant E. coli. We used isolated midstream urine from cystitis object in Hasan Sadikin Hospital (RSHS as samples. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR method (colony-PCR and DNA-PCR were done to invenstigate the antibiotic resistency. Based on the result of antibiotic susceptibility testing to ampicillin, E. coli samples were resistant to ampicilin. Elektroforegram products of colony-PCR and DNA-PCR showed that the resistance case of ampicilin caused by bla gene (199 bp. Selective and rational antibiotic treatment is required to prevent ampicillin resistance in patients with symptoms

  18. LC-MS/MS measurement of ampicillin residue in swine tissues at 5 days after in-feed administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Kouko; Mizuno, Yasuharu

    2015-11-01

    We assessed ampicillin (ABPC) concentrations of kidney, muscle and intestine after a 5-day withdrawal period in 2 male and a female young Large White pigs fed the diet containing ABPC (ABPC medicated feed, 24 mg/kg/day) for a week. The ABPC residues were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and the mean recoveries and quantitation limits ranged from 91.8 to 97.2% and from 0.1 to 0.12 ng/g, respectively. The residual ABPC concentrations were ≤1.18 ng/g for the muscle, ≤0.53 ng/g for the kidney and ≤1.93 ng/g for the intestine, suggesting below the Japanese provisional maximum residue limits. These results reveal that the analytical method is developed for residual ABPC and that the withdrawal period is appropriate.

  19. LC-MS/MS measurement of ampicillin residue in chicken tissues at 2 days after in-feed administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Kouko; Mizuno, Yasuharu

    2017-03-18

    We assessed ampicillin (ABPC) concentrations of liver, kidney and skin at a 2-day withdrawal period in ten male and ten female White Leghorn chickens fed the diet containing ABPC (ABPC medicated feed 40 mg/kg body weight/day) for a week. The ABPC residues were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and the mean recoveries and quantitation limits ranged from 93.0% to 102.7% and from 0.1 to 1.4 ng/g, respectively. The residual ABPC concentrations were ≤7.82 ng/g for the skin and ≤0.64 ng/g for the kidney, suggesting below the Japanese provisional maximum residue limits. These results revealed that the analytical method is developed for residue ABPC and that the withdrawal period is appropriate.

  20. Role of nutrient limitation and stationary-phase existence in Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilm resistance to ampicillin and ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderl, Jeff N; Zahller, Jeff; Roe, Frank; Stewart, Philip S

    2003-04-01

    Biofilms formed by Klebsiella pneumoniae resisted killing during prolonged exposure to ampicillin or ciprofloxacin even though these agents have been shown to penetrate bacterial aggregates. Bacteria dispersed from biofilms into medium quickly regained most of their susceptibility. Experiments with free-floating bacteria showed that stationary-phase bacteria were protected from killing by either antibiotic, especially when the test was performed in medium lacking carbon and nitrogen sources. These results suggested that the antibiotic tolerance of biofilm bacteria could be explained by nutrient limitation in the biofilm leading to stationary-phase existence of at least some of the cells in the biofilm. This mechanism was supported by experimental characterization of nutrient availability and growth status in biofilms. The average specific growth rate of bacteria in biofilms was only 0.032 h(-1) compared to the specific growth rate of planktonic bacteria of 0.59 h(-1) measured in the same medium. Glucose did not penetrate all the way through the biofilm, and oxygen was shown to penetrate only into the upper 100 micro m. The specific catalase activity was elevated in biofilm bacteria to a level similar to that of stationary-phase planktonic cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that bacteria were affected by ampicillin near the periphery of the biofilm but were not affected in the interior. Taken together, these results indicate that K. pneumoniae in this system experience nutrient limitation locally within the biofilm, leading to zones in which the bacteria enter stationary phase and are growing slowly or not at all. In these inactive regions, bacteria are less susceptible to killing by antibiotics.

  1. Screening municipal wastewater effluent and surface water used for drinking water production for the presence of ampicillin and vancomycin resistant enterococci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taucer-Kapteijn, M.; Hoogenboezem, Wim; Heiliegers, Laura; de Bolster, Danny; Medema, G.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of clinical enterococcal isolates that are resistant to both ampicillin and vancomycin is a cause of great concern, as therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of infections caused by such organisms are becoming limited. Aquatic environments could play a role in the dissemination

  2. In vitro potentiation of ampicillin, oxacillin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and vancomycin by sanguinarine against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiang-Obounou, Brice Wilfried; Kang, Ok-Hwa; Choi, Jang-Gi; Keum, Joon-Ho; Kim, Sung-Bae; Mun, Su-Hyun; Shin, Dong-Won; Park, Chung-Berm; Kim, Young-Guk; Han, Sin-Hee; Lee, John-Hwa; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

    2011-08-01

    Few new drugs are available against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), because MRSA has the ability to acquire resistance to most antibiotics, which consequently increases the cost of medication. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potentiation of sanguinarine (SN) with selected antibiotics (ampicillin [AC], oxacillin [OX], norfloxacin [NR], ciprofloxacin [CP], and vancomycin [VC]) against MRSA. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by using the broth microdilution method and the synergistic effect of AC, OX, NR, CP, and VC in combination with SN was examined by the checkerboard dilution test. The results of the checkerboard test suggested that all combinations exhibited some synergy, partial synergy, or additivity. None of the combinations showed an antagonism effect. The combination of SN plus CP exhibited maximum synergistic effect in 11/13 strains, followed by SN plus NR in 9/13 strains, and AC and OX in 7/13 strains each. The combination of SN with VC, however, mostly showed partial synergy in 11/13 strains. The time-kill assay showed that SN in combination with other antibiotics reduced the bacterial count by 10(2)-10(3) colony forming units after 4 h and to less than the lowest detectable limit after 24 h. Although in vivo synergy and clinical efficacy of SN cannot be predicted, it can be concluded that SN has the potential to restore the effectiveness of the selected antibiotics, and it can be considered in an alternative MRSA treatment.

  3. Simultaneous delivery of antibiotics neomycin and ampicillin in drinking water inhibits fermentation of resistant starch in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Aldaz, Diana G; Guice, Justin L; Page, Ryan C; Raggio, Anne M; Martin, Roy J; Husseneder, Claudia; Durham, Holiday A; Geaghan, James; Janes, Marlene; Gauthier, Ted; Coulon, Diana; Keenan, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    Antibiotics ampicillin 1 g/L and neomycin 0.5 g/L were added to drinking water before or during feeding of resistant starch (RS) to rats to inhibit fermentation. In a preliminary study, antibiotics and no RS were given prior to rats receiving a transplant of cecal contents via gavage from donor rats fed RS (without antibiotics) or a water gavage before feeding resistant starch to both groups. Antibiotics given prior to feeding RS did not prevent later fermentation of RS regardless of either type of gavage. In the second study, antibiotics were given simultaneously with feeding of RS. This resulted in inhibition of fermentation of RS with cecal contents pH >8 and low amounts of acetate and butyrate. Rats treated with antibiotics had reduced Bifidobacteria spp., but similar Bacteroides spp. to control groups to reduce acetate and butyrate and preserve the production of propionate. Despite reduced fermentation, rats given antibiotics had increased glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and cecum size, measures that are usually associated with fermentation. A simultaneous delivery of antibiotics inhibited fermentation of RS. However, increased GLP-1 and cecum size would be confounding effects in assessing the mechanism for beneficial effects of dietary RS by knocking out fermentation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Outbreak of Ampicillin/Piperacillin-Resistant Klebsiella Pneumoniae in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU: Investigation and Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Farruggia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is a frequent cause of infectious outbreaks in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs. The aim of this paper is to describe an outbreak occurred in a 13-bed NICU and the control measures adopted in order to interrupt the chain of transmission. We described the microbiological investigations, the NICU staff compliance to the infection control measures by means of a specifically designed check-list and the control measures adopted. Six cases of primary bloodstream infections sustained by ampicillin/piperacillin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae were observed over a two-month period. One culture obtained from a 12% saccarose multiple-dose solution allowed the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae. During the inspections performed by the Hospital Infection Control Team, using the check-list for the evaluation of the NICU staff compliance to the infection control measures, several breaches in the infection control policy were identified and control measures were adopted. In our case the definition of a specific check-list led to the adoption of the correct control measures. Further studies would be helpful in order to develop a standard check-list able to identify critical flows in the adhesion to the guidelines. It could be used in different NICUs and allow to obtain reproducible levels of infection control.

  5. Outbreak of ampicillin/piperacillin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU): investigation and control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Giuliana; Panico, Manuela; Dallolio, Laura; Suzzi, Roberta; Ciccia, Matilde; Sandri, Fabrizio; Farruggia, Patrizia

    2013-02-26

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a frequent cause of infectious outbreaks in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). The aim of this paper is to describe an outbreak occurred in a 13-bed NICU and the control measures adopted in order to interrupt the chain of transmission. We described the microbiological investigations, the NICU staff compliance to the infection control measures by means of a specifically designed check-list and the control measures adopted. Six cases of primary bloodstream infections sustained by ampicillin/piperacillin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae were observed over a two-month period. One culture obtained from a 12% saccarose multiple-dose solution allowed the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae. During the inspections performed by the Hospital Infection Control Team, using the check-list for the evaluation of the NICU staff compliance to the infection control measures, several breaches in the infection control policy were identified and control measures were adopted. In our case the definition of a specific check-list led to the adoption of the correct control measures. Further studies would be helpful in order to develop a standard check-list able to identify critical flows in the adhesion to the guidelines. It could be used in different NICUs and allow to obtain reproducible levels of infection control.

  6. Outbreak of Ampicillin/Piperacillin-Resistant Klebsiella Pneumoniae in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU): Investigation and Control Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Giuliana; Panico, Manuela; Dallolio, Laura; Suzzi, Roberta; Ciccia, Matilde; Sandri, Fabrizio; Farruggia, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a frequent cause of infectious outbreaks in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). The aim of this paper is to describe an outbreak occurred in a 13-bed NICU and the control measures adopted in order to interrupt the chain of transmission. We described the microbiological investigations, the NICU staff compliance to the infection control measures by means of a specifically designed check-list and the control measures adopted. Six cases of primary bloodstream infections sustained by ampicillin/piperacillin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae were observed over a two-month period. One culture obtained from a 12% saccarose multiple-dose solution allowed the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae. During the inspections performed by the Hospital Infection Control Team, using the check-list for the evaluation of the NICU staff compliance to the infection control measures, several breaches in the infection control policy were identified and control measures were adopted. In our case the definition of a specific check-list led to the adoption of the correct control measures. Further studies would be helpful in order to develop a standard check-list able to identify critical flows in the adhesion to the guidelines. It could be used in different NICUs and allow to obtain reproducible levels of infection control. PMID:23442560

  7. Gas Chromatographic Method: Tool for Rapid and Sensitive Analysis of Residual Solvents in Amoxicillin and Ampicillin Tablets

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    Sk Manirul Haque

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple and sensitive static head space gas chromatographic (SH-GC method equipped with FID has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of residual solvents e.g.,  methanol, dichloromethane and toluene in two therapeutic drugs such as amoxicillin  and ampicillin. The separation was achieved with 30 m long Elite - 5 fused silica capillary column and 0.32 mm inner diameter. The developed SH-GC method offered symmetric peak shape, good resolution and reasonable retention time for all the solvents. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration ranges 100 – 1200, 50 – 1000 and 50 – 500 ppm for methanol, dichloromethane and toluene, respectively. The method was validated according to international conference on harmonization (ICH guidelines in terms of specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, robustness and solution stability. The degrees of linearity of the calibration curves, the percent recoveries, relative standard deviation for the method were also determined. All the validation parameters were within the acceptable range. The developed SH-GC method could, therefore, be suitable for simple and rapid detection of trace levels residual solvents in other pharmaceutical products and thereby it could be used for routine analysis in any analytical laboratory.

  8. Antibacterial Activity of Alkaloid Fractions from Berberis microphylla G. Forst and Study of Synergism with Ampicillin and Cephalothin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosalva, Loreto; Mutis, Ana; Urzúa, Alejandro; Fajardo, Victor; Quiroz, Andrés

    2016-01-11

    Berberis microphylla is a native plant that grows in Patagonia and is commonly used by aboriginal ethnic groups in traditional medicine as an antiseptic for different diseases. The present study evaluated the antibacterial and synergistic activity of alkaloid extracts of B. microphylla leaves, stems and roots used either individually or in combination with antibiotics against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The in vitro antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root alkaloid extracts had significant activity only against Gram-positive bacteria. Disc diffusion tests demonstrated that the root extract showed similar activity against B. cereus and S. epidermidis compared to commercial antibiotics, namely ampicillin and cephalothin, and pure berberine, the principal component of the alkaloid extracts, was found to be active only against S. aureus and S. epidermidis with similar activity to that of the root extract. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the alkaloid extracts ranged from 333 to 83 μg/mL, whereas minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) varied from 717 to 167 μg/mL. In addition, synergistic or indifferent effects between the alkaloid extracts and antibiotics against bacterial strains were confirmed.

  9. Spectrophotometric methods for the determination of ampicillin by potassium permanganate and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene in pharmaceutical preparations

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    Aftab Aslam Parwaz Khan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Two simple and sensitive kinetic methods for the determination of ampicillin (AMP are described. The first method is based on kinetic investigation of the oxidation reaction of the drug with alkaline potassium permanganate at room temperature for a fixed time of 25 min. The absorbance of the colored manganate ions is measured at 610 nm. The second method is based on the reaction of AMP with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB in the presence of 0.1 mol L−1 sodium bicarbonate. Spectrophotometric measurement was achieved by recording the absorbance at 490 nm for a fixed time of 60 min. All variables affecting the development of the color were investigated and the conditions were optimized. Plots of absorbance against concentration in both procedures were rectilinear over the ranges 5–30 and 50–260 μg mL−1, with mean recoveries 99.80 and 99.91, respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of AMP in bulk powder and in capsule dosage form. The determination of AMP by the fixed concentration method is feasible with the calibration equations obtained, but the fixed time method proves to be more applicable.

  10. Measurement of ampicillin residue levels in chicken eggs during and after medicated feed administration by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Kouko; Akama, Ryoko; Mizuno, Yasuharu

    2015-01-01

    A simple and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of ampicillin (ABPC) in chicken eggs. Residues were extracted by reverse-phase solid-phase extraction. Chromatographic separation was performed using a reverse-phase column with an elution gradient. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.01 and 0.1 ng g(-1), respectively. For the 0.1-50 ng g(-1) concentration range, mean recovery and accuracy values were 93.9-98.5% and 100.2-118.0%, respectively. ABPC residue concentrations in eggs before, during and after 7 days of medicated feeding of maximum dosage (40 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1)) of ABPC were determined with the LC-MS/MS method. The maximum concentration of ABPC in eggs was 3.6 ± 1.7 ng g(-1) (mean ± SD) on the last day of the administration period. Residue concentrations of ABPC in eggs during and after ABPC administration were not over the Japanese maximum residue limit of 0.01 mg kg(-1).

  11. Mechanism of decreased susceptibility for Gram-negative bacteria and synergistic effect with ampicillin of indole-3-carbinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Woo Sang; Lee, Dong Gun

    2008-09-01

    Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is a natural compound found in a wide variety of plant food substances including members of the family Cruciferae with antioxidant and potential chemopreventive properties. In a previous study, I3C exhibited broad spectrum antibacterial activities. Particularly, it showed a more potent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria. To elucidate this disparity of antibacterial activity between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, we investigated the actions of the efflux pumps and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) barrier of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The results showed that the antibacterial activity of I3C was affected by the barrier action of LPS in the outer membrane rather than by the efflux pumps. To assess its potential for combination therapy in treating bacterial infections, we investigated its synergy effects in combination with conventional antibiotics. The results demonstrated that I3C showed considerable synergistic activity in combination with ampicillin against drug-resistant isolates.

  12. Prevalence of beta-lactamases among ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolated from food animals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Inger; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2004-01-01

    The genetic background for beta-lactamase-mediated resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics was examined by PCR and sequencing in 160 ampicillin-resistant isolates (109 Escherichia coli and 51 Salmonella) obtained from healthy and diseased food animals in Denmark. Sequencing revealed three different...... variants of bla(TEM-1), of which bla(TEM-1b) was the most frequently detected (80 E. coli and 47 Salmonella), followed by bla(TEM-1a) (eight E. coli, one Salmonella) and bla(TEM-1c) (seven E. coli). A few isolates were found to express OXA, TEM-30, or PSE beta-lactamases. Mutations in the ampC promoter...... leading to increased production of the AmpC beta-lactamase were demonstrated in 11 cefoxitin-resistant or intermediate E. coli isolates. Nine of these isolates did not contain any bla(TEM) genes, whereas the remaining two did. No genes encoding SHV or extended-spectrum beta-lactamases were detected. Two...

  13. Prevalence of beta-lactamases among ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolated from food animals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Inger; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2004-01-01

    leading to increased production of the AmpC beta-lactamase were demonstrated in 11 cefoxitin-resistant or intermediate E. coli isolates. Nine of these isolates did not contain any bla(TEM) genes, whereas the remaining two did. No genes encoding SHV or extended-spectrum beta-lactamases were detected. Two......The genetic background for beta-lactamase-mediated resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics was examined by PCR and sequencing in 160 ampicillin-resistant isolates (109 Escherichia coli and 51 Salmonella) obtained from healthy and diseased food animals in Denmark. Sequencing revealed three different...... variants of bla(TEM-1), of which bla(TEM-1b) was the most frequently detected (80 E. coli and 47 Salmonella), followed by bla(TEM-1a) (eight E. coli, one Salmonella) and bla(TEM-1c) (seven E. coli). A few isolates were found to express OXA, TEM-30, or PSE beta-lactamases. Mutations in the ampC promoter...

  14. Ampicillin-Resistant Non-β-Lactamase-Producing Haemophilus influenzae in Spain: Recent Emergence of Clonal Isolates with Increased Resistance to Cefotaxime and Cefixime▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cobos, Silvia; Campos, José; Lázaro, Edurne; Román, Federico; Cercenado, Emilia; García-Rey, César; Pérez-Vázquez, María; Oteo, Jesús; de Abajo, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    The sequence of the ftsI gene encoding the transpeptidase domain of penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP 3) was determined for 354 nonconsecutive Haemophilus influenzae isolates from Spain; 17.8% of them were ampicillin susceptible, 56% were β-lactamase nonproducing ampicillin resistant (BLNAR), 15.8% were β-lactamase producers and ampicillin resistant, and 10.4% displayed both resistance mechanisms. The ftsI gene sequences had 28 different mutation patterns and amino acid substitutions at 23 positions. Some 93.2% of the BLNAR strains had amino acid substitutions at the Lys-Thr-Gly (KTG) motif, the two most common being Asn526 to Lys (83.9%) and Arg517 to His (9.3%). Amino acid substitutions at positions 377, 385, and 389, which conferred cefotaxime and cefixime MICs 10 to 60 times higher than those of susceptible strains, were found for the first time in Europe. In 72 isolates for which the repressor acrR gene of the AcrAB efflux pump was sequenced, numerous amino acid substitutions were found. Eight isolates with ampicillin MICs of 0.25 to 2 μg/ml showed changes that predicted the early termination of the acrR reading frame. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that most BLNAR strains were genetically diverse, although clonal dissemination was detected in a group of isolates presenting with increased resistance to cefotaxime and cefixime. Background antibiotic use at the community level revealed a marked trend toward increased amoxicillin-clavulanic acid consumption. BLNAR H. influenzae strains have arisen by vertical and horizontal spread and have evolved to adapt rapidly to the increased selective pressures posed by the use of oral penicillins and cephalosporins. PMID:17470649

  15. A bacterial sensitivity test to determine the effectiveness of minocycline HCI (Minocin), erythromycin (Erythrocin) and ampicillin (Ampicin) on the predominant microorganisms present in a diseased periodontium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles, B L; Book, D R; Go, K G; Lim, D J; Uy, H G

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the three antimicrobials--Minocycline HCI, Erythromycin and Ampicillin based on the percentage reduction of bacteria present in subgingival microflora and in vitro assessment of antibiotic susceptibility of cultured strains of predominant microorganisms present in a diseased periodontium. Twelve volunteers 18 to 65 years of age, with moderate to severe periodontal disease, were randomly divided into Group A and Group B of 6 members each. Oral lavage procedure was performed to Group A and Group B received systemic administration of antibiotic for five days. Patients 1 & 2, 3 & 4 and 5 & 6 received minocycline HCI, Erythromycin and Ampicillin respectively. Microbiologic samples in the subgingival crevicular area in selected tooth exhibiting clinical periodontal breakdown were obtained from all the subjects prior to and after the oral lavage procedure and systemic drug administration. Streptococcus viridans is the most predominant aerobic microorganism obtained from 83% of samples. However no anaerobic microorganism has been isolated. Bacterial sensitivity testing showed 60% of samples with positive growth of microorganisms (S. viridans) were also equally sensitive to Minocycline HCI, Erythromycin and Ampicillin. Oral lavage proved to be ineffective in reducing the number of bacteria. However, systemic drug administration revealed that there was a reduction in bacterial count after taking such antibiotics for five days which is more favorable to Minocycline HCI.

  16. Self-transmissible antibiotic resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, and tetracyclin found in Escherichia coli isolates from contaminated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Satish K; Kaiser, Alan; Parkash, Mohinder; Chaudhry, G Rasul

    2004-01-01

    Presence and survival of cultivable bacteria in drinking water can act as a vehicle to disseminate virulence genes (adherence, enterotoxigenic and antibiotic resistance) to other bacteria. This can result in high morbidity and mortality, and the failure of the treatment of life threatening bacterial infections in humans and animals. In this study, antibiotic resistance (ABR) patterns and transferability of the ABR markers was investigated in Escherichia coli isolates obtained from drinking water and human urine samples. The ABR in E. coli isolates was determined against 15 antibiotics commonly used in human and veterinary medicine. A high frequency of ABR to carbenicillin (56%), tetracycline (53%) and streptomycin (49%) and a low frequency of cefizoxime (5%), amikacin (8%), cefazidine, (5%), chloramphenicol (9%), and kanamycin (18%) was found in the tested E. coli isolates. ABR to kanamycin (0% vs. 35%) and moxalactam (4% vs. 30%) was higher in drinking water isolates whereas resistance to streptomycin (92% vs. 15%), ampicillin (24% vs. 10%), and nalidixic acid (12% vs. 0%) was higher in human urine isolates. A large number of E. coli isolates (93%) exhibited resistance to two or more antibiotics. Two of E. coli isolates from drinking water showed resistances to six (Cb Cm Cx Ip Mx Tc and An Cb Km Mx Sm Tc) and one was resistant to seven antibiotics (Am An Cb Km Mx Sm Tc). A majority of the multiple antibiotic resistant E. coli isolates contained one or more plasmids (size ranged approximately 1.4 Kb to approximately 40 Kb). The ABR traits (Am and Tc) were transferable to other bacteria via conjugation. These data raise an important question about the impact of E. coli containing self-transmissible R-plasmids as a potential reservoir of virulence genes in drinking water.

  17. Conjugation of ampicillin and enrofloxacin residues with bovine serum albumin and raising of polyclonal antibodies against them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sampath Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to test the potency of bovine serum albumin (BSA conjugated ampicillin (AMP and enrofloxacin (ENR antigens in eliciting an immune response in rats using indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA. Materials and Methods: AMP and ENR antibiotics were conjugated with BSA by carbodiimide reaction using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide (EDC as a cross-linker. The successful conjugation was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Sprague-Dawley rats were immunized with the conjugates and blood samples were collected serially at 15 days time interval after first immunization plus first booster, second booster, third booster, and the fourth sampling was done 1½ month after the third booster. The antibody titres in the antisera of each antibiotic in all the four immunization cycles (ICs were determined by an icELISA at various serum dilutions ranging from 1/100 to 1/6400. Results: Analysis of antibiotic-BSA conjugates by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and coomassie blue staining revealed high molecular weight bands of 85 kDa and 74 kDa for AMP-BSA and ENR-BSA respectively when compared to 68 kDa band of BSA. Both the antibiotic conjugates elicited a good immune response in rats but comparatively the response was more with AMP-BSA conjugate than ENR-BSA conjugate. Maximum optical density 450 value of 2.577 was recorded for AMP-BSA antisera, and 1.723 was recorded for ENR-BSA antisera at 1/100th antiserum dilution in third IC. Conclusion: AMP and ENR antibiotics proved to be good immunogens when conjugated to BSA by carbodiimide reaction with EDC as crosslinker. The polyclonal antibodies produced can be employed for detecting AMP and ENR residues in milk and urine samples.

  18. Inhibition of penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) in methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by combination of ampicillin and a bioactive fraction from Duabanga grandiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Carolina; Pang, Ee Leen; Lim, Kuan-Hon; Loh, Hwei-San; Ting, Kang Nee

    2015-06-10

    The inhibition of penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) is a promising solution in overcoming resistance of methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A potential approach in achieving this is by combining natural product with currently available antibiotics to restore the activity as well as to amplify the therapeutic ability of the drugs. We studied inhibition effects of a bioactive fraction, F-10 (isolated from the leaves of Duabanga grandiflora) alone and in combination with a beta-lactam drug, ampicillin on MRSA growth and expression of PBP2a. Additionally, phytochemical analysis was conducted on F-10 to identify the classes of phytochemicals present. Fractionation of the ethyl acetate leaf extract was achieved by successive column chromatography which eventually led to isolation of an active fraction, F-10. Both extract and F-10 were analyzed for the presence of major classes of phytochemicals in addition to obtaining a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profile to reveal the complexity of the fraction F-10. Broth microdilution method was employed to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract and fractions against MRSA. Evaluation of synergistic activity of the active fraction with ampicillin was determined using checkerboard methodand kinetic growth experiments. Effect of combination treatments on expression of PBP2a, a protein that confers resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, was elucidated with the Western blot assay. MIC of F-10 against MRSA was 750 mg/L which showed an improved activity by 4-fold compared to its crude extract (MIC = 3000 mg/L). Phytochemical analysis revealed occurrence of tannins, saponin, flavonoids, sterols, and glycosides in F10 fraction. In FIC index interpretation, the most synergistic activity was achieved for combinations of 1/64 × MIC ampicillin + 1/4 × MIC F-10. The combination also evidently inhibited MRSA growth in kinetic growth curve assay. As a result of this synergistic

  19. Fate of classical faecal bacterial markers and ampicillin-resistant bacteria in agricultural soils under Mediterranean climate after urban sludge amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim-Porto, Clarissa; Platero, Leticia; Nadal, Ignacio; Navarro-García, Federico

    2016-09-15

    The use of sewage sludge or biosolids as agricultural amendments may pose environmental and human health risks related to pathogen or antibiotic-resistant microorganism transmission from soils to vegetables or to water through runoff. Since the survival of those microorganisms in amended soils has been poorly studied under Mediterranean climatic conditions, we followed the variation of soil fecal bacterial markers and ampicillin-resistant bacteria for two years with samplings every four months in a split block design with three replica in a crop soil where two different types of biosolids (aerobically or anaerobically digested) at three doses (low, 40; intermediate, 80; and high, 160Mg·ha(-1)) were applied. Low amounts of biosolids produced similar decay rates of coliform populations than in control soil (-0.19 and -0.27log10CFUs·g(-1)drysoilmonth(-1) versus -0.22) while in the case of intermediate and high doses were close to zero and their populations remained 24months later in the range of 4-5log10CFUs·g(-1)ds. Enterococci populations decayed at different rates when using aerobic than anaerobic biosolids although high doses had higher rates than control (-0.09 and -0.13log10CFUs·g(-1)dsmonth(-1) for aerobic and anaerobic, respectively, vs -0.07). At the end of the experiment, counts in high aerobic and low and intermediate anaerobic plots were 1 log10 higher than in control (4.21, 4.03, 4.2 and 3.11log10CFUs·g(-1) ds, respectively). Biosolid application increased the number of Clostridium spores in all plots at least 1 log10 with respect to control with a different dynamic of decay for low and intermediate doses of aerobic and anaerobic sludge. Ampicillin-resistant bacteria increased in amended soils 4months after amendment and remained at least 1 log10 higher 24months later, especially in aerobic and low and intermediate anaerobic plots due to small rates of decay (in the range of -0.001 to -0.008log10CFUs·g(-1)dsmonth(-1) vs -0.016 for control). Aerobic

  20. The efficacy of ampicillin and Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus in the active management of preterm premature rupture of membranes remote from term

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    Kavak SB

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Salih Burcin Kavak,1 Ebru Kavak,2 Rasit Ilhan,1 Remzi Atilgan,1 Ozgur Arat,1 Ugur Deveci,3 Ekrem Sapmaz1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Firat Medical Center, School of Medicine, Firat University, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Special Medical Park Hospital, 3Department of Pediatrics, Firat Medical Center, School of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey Background: We aimed to investigate the treatment efficacy of ampicillin prophylaxis accompanied by Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus over the latency period following preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM. Methods: Records of 40 patients who presented with PPROM between 230/7–316/7 weeks were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (n=20, treated with ampicillin; and group 2 (n=20, treated with ampicillin plus L. casei rhamnosus. Clinical and laboratory parameters were compared. Delta (∆ values of each laboratory parameter were calculated by subtracting the value at delivery from the values at admission to the clinic. Results: Gestational weeks at delivery (28.1±0.3 weeks versus 31.5±0.4 weeks, latency periods (12.3±1.5 days versus 41.4±4.4 days, 5-minute APGAR scores (6.8±0.1 versus 7.8±0.1, and birth weights (1,320±98 g versus 1,947±128 g were significantly higher in group 2. White blood cell (WBC (12,820±353/mm3 versus 11,107±298/mm3, and neutrophil counts (10.7±0.5×103/L versus 8.2±0.5×103/L were significantly lower in group 2 at delivery. The ∆WBC (2,295±74/mm3 versus -798±-406/mm3, ∆C-reactive protein (5±0.04 mg/L versus 1.6±0.2 mg/L, and ∆neutrophil (3±0.2×103/L versus 0.2±-0.1×103/L were significantly lower in group 2. Conclusion: It seems that addition of L. casei rhamnosus to ampicillin prolongs the latency period in patients with PPROM remote from term. Keywords: probiotic, antibiotic, latency period

  1. Ampicillin, gentamicin and teicoplanin as antimicrobial therapy for recurrent Streptococcus agalactiae and Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis in an intravenous drug abuser with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calza, Leonardo; Manfredi, Roberto; Marinacci, Ginevra; Fortunato, Lorenza; Chiodo, Francesco

    2003-07-01

    Infective endocarditis associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection occurs almost exclusively in intravenous (i.v.) drug users and usually involves the tricuspid valve, with an increased mortality rate among patients with a severe degree of immunosuppression. The first reported case of recurrent tricuspid endocarditis sustained by Streptococcus agalactiae and Enterococcus faecalis in an i.v. drug addict during HIV infection is presented. Antimicrobial therapy with i.v. ampicillin, gentamicin and teicoplanin led to complete clinical and echocardiographical recovery. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility against penicillin, ampicillin and vancomycin of viridans group Streptococcus in oral microbiota of patients at risk of infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süzük, Serap; Kaşkatepe, Banu; Çetin, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    The viridans group Streptococci (VGS) are most abundant in the mouth; in some instances they might emerge as pathogens particularly in infective endocarditis (IE). In this study, we aimed to define and determine the susceptibility against antibiotics of VGS that are members of the oral microbiota of patients exhibiting a risk of developing IE. Forty-nine patients at risk of infective endocarditis were included in the study. Identification of the bacteria was performed using API STREP (bioMérieux, France). Gradient test strips (E-Test, France) were used to determine MIC of the bacteria against penicillin, ampicillin, and vancomycin. The distribution of the isolated VGS groups was determined as follows: Streptococcus mitis 32.6% and anginosus group - 32.6%, S. sanguinis group - 16.3%, S. mutans group - 12.2%, and S. salivarius group - 6.1%. The rates of resistance and reduced sensitivity of the isolates for penicillin and ampicillin were determined at 61.2% and 55.1%, respectively. However, all isolates were found to be susceptible to vancomycin. We conclude that the antimicrobial resistance of VGS should be determined on a regular basis locally, and decisions on therapeutic and prophylactic interventions should be given taking this resistance into consideration.

  3. The molecular phenomena of the blaZ genes forming betalactamase enzymes structure in Staphylococcus aureus resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Satari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, infectious disease still an important problem. One of the bacteria causing infectious diseases is Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. In the effort to deal with infections caused by S. aureus, beta-lactam antibiotics, such as ampicillin, are used. In fact, it is unfortunately known that many of S. aureus bacteria are resistant to this group of antibiotics. Because of nucleotide base changes in the structure of the genes blaZ which encode beta-lactamase enzymes in S. aureus. Purpose: The objective of this study was to analyze the nucleotide base changes in the structure of the genes blaZ forming beta-lactamase enzymes in S. aureus resistant to ampicillin based on molecular point of view. Methods: Molecular examinations was conducted by isolating the genes, forming beta-lactamase enzyme, which length was 845bp, from 7 isolates of S. aureus resistant to ampicillin by using PCR technique. The results of blaZ amplification were then subjected to homology by using Tn 552 of S. aureus obtained from bank of genes. Results: Based on the result of the homology, it was found that there was a change in purine base TG, which was a pyrimidine base at the -37 position of the initial codon of blaZ. This change, however, did not affect the strength of the promoter since the number of A and T is still more than the number of G and C. In the structure of the blaZ gene there was even no mutation or deletion or nucleotide base substitution found, so it would not affect the effectiveness of beta-lactamase enzyme. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the resistance of S. aureus towards ampicillin was not caused by nucleotide base deletion/substation. It is suspected that there were other causes leading to the resistance, including the overproduction of beta-lactamase enzyme of the blaZ gene, causing the degradation of beta-lactam antibiotics.Latar belakang: Penyakit infeksi sampai saat ini masih merupakan masalah. Salah satu bakteri penyebab

  4. Comparative study of class 1 integron, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline (ACSSuT) and fluoroquinolone resistance in various Salmonella serovars from humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yuan-Man; Tang, Chiu-Ying; Lin, Hsuan; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Yu-Lin; Su, Yu-Heng; Chen, Daniel S; Lin, Jiunn-Horng; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2013-01-01

    A total of 499 Salmonella isolates including 9 serovars from humans and various animal hosts were collected to compare prevalence of integron and antimicrobial resistance. The integron and gene cassette were detected by PCR, and then the gene cassette type was further determined by sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The antimicrobial susceptibility test was conducted by disk diffusion method. The positivity percentage of class 1 integron and the diversity of gene cassettes carried by integron were quite different in various Salmonella serovars, especially comparing those from animals to humans. After sequencing and RFLP analysis, it was identified eight gene cassette types. The gene cassette type D carrying ampicillin/streptomycin resistance genes was the most common one (42.2%) in the integron-positive isolates. More diversity of gene cassette types was identified in humans comparing to that in animals. Several gene cassette types were identified for the first time in some Salmonella serovars. In this study, 31.5% (157/499) of the isolates were multi-resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (ACSSuT). S. Choleraesuis isolates with the cassette type A1, but S. Typhimurium isolates with the cassette type E1, were frequently associated with ACSSuT-resistant (80.6% and 72.7%, respectively). There was a significant association between the presence of class 1 integron and quinolone resistance in S. Choleraesuis isolates, but not in S. Typhimurium. Our findings imply that transmission efficiency of various gene cassettes through the integron could be different in various Salmonella serovars. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A prospective, multi centre, randomized clinical study to compare the efficacy and safety of Ertapenem 3 days versus Ampicillin - Sulbactam 3 days in the treatment of localized community acquired intra-abdominal infection. (T.E.A. Study: Three days Ertapenem vs three days Ampicillin-sulbactam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazzotti Filippo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recommendations outlined in the latest guidelines published by the Surgical Infection Society (SIS and the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA regarding the proper duration of antibiotic therapy in patients with intra-abdominal infections are limited and non-specific. This ambiguity is due mainly to the lack of clinical trials on the topic of optimal duration of therapy. It is well known that the overuse of antibiotics has several important consequences such as increased treatment costs, reduced clinical efficacy, and above all, the increased emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Ampicillin-Sulbactam is a commonly used "first line" antibiotic for intra-abdominal infections. Ertapenem and Ampicillin-sulbactam are recommended as primary treatment agents for localized peritonitis by both the SIS and IDSA guidelines. Methods/Design This study is a prospective multi-center randomized investigation. The study will be performed in the Departments of General, Emergency, and Transplant Surgery of Sant'Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital in Bologna, Italy, in the General Surgery Department of the Ospedali Riuniti of Bergamo, Italy, and in the Trauma and Emergency Surgery Department of Maggiore Hospital in Bologna, Italy, and will be conducted by all surgeons willing to participate in the study. The inclusion period of the study will take approximately two years before the planned number of 142 enrolled patients is reached. Discussion Ertapenem and Ampicillin-sulbactam are recommended both as primary treatment agents for localized peritonitis by both the SIS and IDSA guidelines. As one of the discussed topic is the optimal duration of the antibiotic therapy and this ambiguity is due mainly to the lack of clinical trials on the topic, the present study aims for obtain precise data. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00630513

  6. Antibioticoprofilaxia com ampicilina na rotura prematura das membranas: estudo randomizado e duplo cego Ampicillin prophylaxis in premature rupture of membranes: randomized and double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elias Soares da Rocha

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: avaliar se o uso profilático da ampicilina pode evitar ou reduzir a morbidade infecciosa materna e perinatal decorrente da ruptura prematura das membranas (RPM e prolongar a gestação em pacientes portadoras dessa complicação. Métodos: estudo prospectivo, randomizado e duplo-cego, avaliando 121 gestantes portadoras de RPM, divididas em dois grupos. O grupo tratado (61 gestantes recebeu ampicilina e o grupo controle (60 gestantes recebeu placebo, nas mesmas condições de horário, tempo de uso, embalagem e cor das cápsulas. Como parâmetros de infecção materna considerou-se a morbidade febril materna (índice térmico, presença de corioamnionite e/ou endometrite. Os parâmetros neonatais avaliados foram o índice de Apgar (1° e 5° minutos, colonização bacteriana do conduto auditivo e hemocultura. Para a análise estatística foram utilizados os testes: exato de Fisher, Wilcoxon e o chi². Resultados: o uso da ampicilina não prolongou a gestação, não reduziu a morbidade febril puerperal e nem as taxas de corioamnionite e/ou endometrite. Quanto à morbidade infecciosa perinatal também não foi possível demonstrar nenhuma redução decorrente do uso da ampicilina nem influência sobre as condições de nascimento. Estes dados foram consistentes em casos de RPM com até 72 horas de evolução, pois o limitado número de casos com tempo maior de evolução não permitiu uma análise estatística isenta de erro tipo II. Conclusões: com base nos resultados desse trabalho foi possível concluir que o uso profilático de ampicilina em gestantes com RPM com até 72 horas de evolução não reduz a morbidade infecciosa materna nem perinatal. No entanto, a presença de Streptococcus agalactiae do grupo B em hemocultura de recém-nascido do grupo controle indicou a necessidade imperiosa de antibioticoterapia para as gestantes colonizadas por esse microrganismo.Purpose: to evaluate whether prophylactic use of ampicillin could

  7. Quantitative analysis of amoxicillin, its major metabolites and ampicillin in eggs by liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lirui; Jia, Longfei; Xie, Xing; Xie, Kaizhou; Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jianyu; Cui, Lulu; Zhang, Genxi; Dai, Guojun; Wang, Jinyu

    2016-02-01

    In this present study, we developed a simple, rapid and specific method for the quantitative analysis of the contents of amoxicillin (AMO), AMO metabolites and ampicillin (AMP) in eggs. This method uses a simple liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The optimized method has been validated according to requirements defined by the European Union and Food and Drug Administration. Extraction recoveries of the target compounds from the egg at 5, 10 and 25 μg/kg were all higher than 80%, with relative standard deviations not exceeding 10.00%. The limits of quantification in eggs were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs). The decision limits (CCα) ranged between 11.1 and 11.5 μg/kg, while detection capabilities (CCβ) from 12.1 to 13.0 μg/kg. These values were very close to the corresponding MRLs. Finally, the new approach was successfully verified for the quantitative determination of these analytes in 40 commercial eggs from local supermarkets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship between maternal c-reactive protein level and neonatal outcome in patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes treated with Ampicillin and Azithromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdar Kutuk, Mehmet; Bastug, Osman; Ozdemir, Ahmet; Adnan Ozturk, Mehmet; Tuncay Ozgun, Mahmut; Basbug, Mustafa; Gunes, Tamer; Kurtoglu, Selim

    2016-08-01

    This historical cohort study aimed to assess the relationship between antenatal maternal C-reactive protein (CRP) level and neonatal outcome preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). We reviewed the records of 70 singleton pregnancies with PPROM between 24 and 34 weeks. Maternal CRP levels of neonates with respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal sepsis, grade 3-4 intraventricular haemorrhage and stage 2-3 necrotizing enterocolitis, perinatal mortality were compared with those without these complications. Administration of corticosteroid, tocolysis for two days and prophylactic antibiotics (intravenous ampicillin/sulbactam, and oral azithromycin) were the standard management protocol. The mean age at PPROM was 29 weeks 2 days (±3 weeks), the mean age at birth was 30 weeks 5 days (±20 days). CRP levels were not different between groups. Uni/multivariate analysis showed that maternal CRP levels were not related with neonatal outcomes. Neonatal complications in PPROM are related with the degree of prematurity and maternal WBC counts.

  9. Labelling of pneumococcal penicillin-binding proteins with [3H]propionyl-ampicillin. A rapid method for monitoring penicillin-binding activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakenbeck, R.; Kohiyama, M.

    1982-01-01

    Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are membrane components ubiquitous to all bacteria examined so far. Some of them are present in only a few copies per cell. The conventional method of visualizing these proteins consists in binding of radioactive penicillin to the fractions containing PBPs followed by SDS-PAGE and finally fluorography. Although this procedure is laborious, it is necessary for the determination of the identity as well as for the quantification of each PBP. On the other hand, when penicillin-binding conditions are to be examined or binding activity has to be followed through fractionation and purification of PBPs, no fast monitoring device for these proteins has been available. The authors developed a rapid and easy assay for penicillin-binding activity with a filter-binding technique using [ 3 H]propionyl ampicillin ( 3 H-PA) of high specific activity. As little 2μg of crude membranes obtained from the highly penicillin-sensitive, β-lactamase-negative organism Streptococcus pneumoniae, are sufficient to detect binding activity. In this paper they describe optimum conditions for the assay of PBPs and show that this binding activity correlates with the presence of native penicillin-binding proteins. (Auth.)

  10. The effects of amoxicillin treatment of newborn piglets on the prevalence of hernias and abscesses, growth and ampicillin resistance of intestinal coliform bacteria in weaned pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jinhyeon; Olkkola, Satu; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Oliviero, Claudio; Heinonen, Mari

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a single amoxicillin treatment of newborn piglets on the prevalence of hernias and abscesses until the age of nine weeks. We also studied whether the treatment was associated with growth and mortality, the need for treatment of other diseases, the proportions of ampicillin resistant coliforms and antimicrobial resistance patterns of intestinal Escherichia coli (E. coli). A total of 7156 piglets, from approximately 480 litters, were divided into two treatment groups: ANT (N = 3661) and CON (N = 3495), where piglets were treated with or without a single intramuscular injection of 75 mg amoxicillin one day after birth, respectively. The umbilical and inguinal areas of weaned pigs were palpated at four and nine weeks of age. At the same time, altogether 124 pigs with hernias or abscesses and 820 non-defective pigs from three pens per batch were weighed individually. Mortality and the need to treat piglets for other diseases were recorded. Piglet faecal samples were collected from three areas of the floors of each pen at four weeks of age. The prevalence of umbilical hernias or abscesses did not differ between the groups at four weeks of age, but it was higher in the CON group than in the ANT group at nine weeks of age (2.3% vs. 0.7%, P coliform bacteria and the resistance patterns of the E. coli isolates were not different between the ANT and CON groups. In conclusion, our results showed that the amoxicillin treatment of new-born piglets produced statistically significant effect in some of the parameters studied. However, as these effects were only minor, we did not find grounds to recommend preventive antibiotic treatment. Further, continuous antimicrobial treatment of newborn piglets could negatively influence the development of the normal microbiota of the piglet and promote selection of antimicrobial resistance genes in herds. Therefore we suggest rejection of the use of routine administration of antimicrobial agents at birth

  11. A randomized trial of tigecycline versus ampicillin-sulbactam or amoxicillin-clavulanate for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Peter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs frequently result in hospitalization with significant morbidity and mortality. Methods In this phase 3b/4 parallel, randomized, open-label, comparative study, 531 subjects with cSSSI received tigecycline (100 mg initial dose, then 50 mg intravenously every 12 hrs or ampicillin-sulbactam 1.5-3 g IV every 6 hrs or amoxicillin-clavulanate 1.2 g IV every 6-8 hrs. Vancomycin could be added at the discretion of the investigator to the comparator arm if methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA was confirmed or suspected within 72 hrs of enrollment. The primary endpoint was clinical response in the clinically evaluable (CE population at the test-of-cure (TOC visit. Microbiologic response and safety were also assessed. The modified intent-to-treat (mITT population comprised 531 subjects (tigecycline, n = 268; comparator, n = 263 and 405 were clinically evaluable (tigecycline, n = 209; comparator, n = 196. Results In the CE population, 162/209 (77.5% tigecycline-treated subjects and 152/196 (77.6% comparator-treated subjects were clinically cured (difference 0.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -8.7, 8.6. The eradication rates at the subject level for the microbiologically evaluable (ME population were 79.2% in the tigecycline treatment group and 76.8% in the comparator treatment group (difference 2.4; 95% CI: -9.6, 14.4 at the TOC assessment. Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea rates were higher in the tigecycline group. Conclusions Tigecycline was generally safe and effective in the treatment of cSSSIs. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00368537

  12. The effects of amoxicillin treatment of newborn piglets on the prevalence of hernias and abscesses, growth and ampicillin resistance of intestinal coliform bacteria in weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jinhyeon; Olkkola, Satu; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Oliviero, Claudio; Heinonen, Mari

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a single amoxicillin treatment of newborn piglets on the prevalence of hernias and abscesses until the age of nine weeks. We also studied whether the treatment was associated with growth and mortality, the need for treatment of other diseases, the proportions of ampicillin resistant coliforms and antimicrobial resistance patterns of intestinal Escherichia coli (E. coli). A total of 7156 piglets, from approximately 480 litters, were divided into two treatment groups: ANT (N = 3661) and CON (N = 3495), where piglets were treated with or without a single intramuscular injection of 75 mg amoxicillin one day after birth, respectively. The umbilical and inguinal areas of weaned pigs were palpated at four and nine weeks of age. At the same time, altogether 124 pigs with hernias or abscesses and 820 non-defective pigs from three pens per batch were weighed individually. Mortality and the need to treat piglets for other diseases were recorded. Piglet faecal samples were collected from three areas of the floors of each pen at four weeks of age. The prevalence of umbilical hernias or abscesses did not differ between the groups at four weeks of age, but it was higher in the CON group than in the ANT group at nine weeks of age (2.3% vs. 0.7%, P resistant intestinal coliform bacteria and the resistance patterns of the E. coli isolates were not different between the ANT and CON groups. In conclusion, our results showed that the amoxicillin treatment of new-born piglets produced statistically significant effect in some of the parameters studied. However, as these effects were only minor, we did not find grounds to recommend preventive antibiotic treatment. Further, continuous antimicrobial treatment of newborn piglets could negatively influence the development of the normal microbiota of the piglet and promote selection of antimicrobial resistance genes in herds. Therefore we suggest rejection of the use of routine administration of

  13. Retrospective investigation of the clinical effects of tazobactam/piperacillin and sulbactam/ampicillin on aspiration pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Hiroki; Sakai, Kunihiko; Cho, Hiromi; Kimura, Yuka; Tetsuka, Takafumi; Nakajima, Haruhiko; Ito, Kazuhiko

    2012-10-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important causative bacterium of aspiration pneumonia in many elderly patients. We retrospectively investigated the clinical effects of the early treatment of aspiration pneumonia and background factors in 24 patients from whom Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated. Sulbactam/ampicillin (SBT/ABPC) was selected for early treatment in 12 of the 24 patients diagnosed with aspiration pneumonia, and tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC) was selected for the other patients. The effective rates and success rates of early treatment were significantly higher in the TAZ/PIPC group than in the SBT/ABPC group (p = 0.003 and 0.027, respectively). Although no significant difference was noted because of the limited number of cases, the survival rates after 30 days were 91.7 and 58.3 % in the TAZ/PIPC and SBT/ABPC groups, respectively. Several bacteria isolated with Klebsiella pneumoniae were resistant bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and no anaerobe or extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated. Thirteen and 11 of the 24 cases were classified as healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), respectively, with no case classified as community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). As population aging progresses, the frequency of aspiration pneumonia classified as HCAP will increase. To cover anaerobes, it is necessary to select antibacterial drugs, such as TAZ/PIPC, for early treatment in consideration of resistant gram-negative bacteria to improve the outcome, and not drugs with weak activity against these bacteria.

  14. The rise of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium high-risk clones as a frequent intestinal colonizer in oncohaematological neutropenic patients on levofloxacin prophylaxis: a risk for bacteraemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Díaz, A M; Cuartero, C; Rodríguez, J D; Lozano, S; Alonso, J M; Rodríguez-Domínguez, M; Tedim, A P; Del Campo, R; López, J; Cantón, R; Ruiz-Garbajosa, P

    2016-01-01

    Levofloxacin extended prophylaxis (LEP), recommended in oncohaematological neutropenic patients to reduce infections, might select resistant bacteria in the intestine acting as a source of endogenous infection. In a prospective observational study we evaluated intestinal emergence and persistence of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (AREfm), a marker of hospital adapted high-risk clones. AREfm was recovered from the faeces of 52 patients with prolonged neutropenia after chemotherapy, at admission (Basal), during LEP, and twice weekly until discharge (Pos-LEP). Antibiotic susceptibility, virulence traits and population structure (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing) were determined and compared with bacteraemic isolates. Gut enterococcal population was monitored using a quantitative PCR quantification approach. AREfm colonized 61.4% of patients (194/482 faecal samples). Sequential AREfm acquisition (25% Basal, 36.5% LEP, 50% Pos-LEP) and high persistent colonization rates (76.9-89.5%) associated with a decrease in clonal diversity were demonstrated. Isolates were clustered into 24 PFGE-patterns within 13 sequence types, 95.8% of them belonging to hospital-associated Bayesian analysis of population structure subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a. Levofloxacin resistance and high-level streptomycin resistance were a common trait of these high-risk clones. AREfm-ST117, the most persistent clone, was dominant (60.0% isolates, 32.6% patients). It presented esp gene and caused 18.2% of all bacteraemia episodes in 21% of patients previously colonized by this clone. In AREfm-colonized patients, intestinal enrichment in the E. faecium population with a decline in total bacterial load was observed. AREfm intestinal colonization increases during hospital stay and coincides with enterococci population enrichment in the gut. Dominance and intestinal persistence of the ST117 clone might increase the risk of bacteraemia. Copyright © 2015 European Society of

  15. Staphylococcus aureus ampicillin-resistant from the odontological clinic environment Staphylococcus aureus resistente à ampicilina em ambiente de Clínica Odontológica

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    Wagner Luis de Carvalho Bernardo

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the prevalence of Sthaphylococcus spp. and S. aureus in the odontological clinic environment (air, their production of beta-lactamase and antibacterial susceptibility to the major antibiotics utilized in medical particle. During 12 months of samples collect were isolated 9775 CFU by MSA medium suggesting a high amount of Staphylococcus spp. in the clinic environment which can appear through aerosols. A total of 3149 colonies (32.2% were suggestive of pathogenic staphylococci. Gram coloration, catalase test, colony-mallow growing on chromogenic medium, and coagulase test confirmed the identity of 44 (0.45% S. aureus isolates. Of these, 35 isolates (79.5% showed production of beta-lactamase by CefinaseTM discs and resistance to ampicillin, erythromycin (7 isolates and tetracycline (1 isolate suggesting the existence of multiresistant isolates. The evaluation of the oxacillin MIC by Etest® assays showed susceptibility patterns suggesting the inexistence of the mecA gene in chromosomal DNA. These results point out to the need of a larger knowledge on the contamination means and propagation of this microorganism into the odontological clinic.Foi avaliada a prevalência de Staphylococcus spp. e S. aureus no ambiente clínico odontológico, a produção de beta-lactamase e a susceptibilidade antibacteriana aos principais antibióticos utilizados na prática clínica. Durante 12 meses de coleta de amostras foram isolados 9775 UFC no meio de cultura AMS, demonstrando uma elevada quantidade de Staphylococcus spp. no ambiente clínico, provavelmente em decorrência da propagação de aerossóis. Um total de 3149 colônias (32,2% foi sugestivo de estafilococos patogênicos. Coloração de Gram, teste de catalase, crescimento de colônias-malva sobre meio cromogênico e teste de coagulase confirmaram a identidade de 44 (0,45% isolados de S. aureus. Destes, 35 isolados (79,5% mostraram produção de beta

  16. Pharmacokinetic properties and bioequivalence of two compound formulations of 1500 mg ampicillin (1167 mg)/probenecid (333 mg): a randomized-sequence, single-dose, open-label, two-period crossover study in healthy Chinese male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huizhe; Liu, Mingyan; Wang, Shuang; Feng, Wanyu; Yao, Weifan; Zhao, Haishan; Wei, Minjie

    2010-03-01

    Ampicillin/probenecid is an antimicrobial formulation indicated for the treatment of respiratory, urinary tract, and gastrointestinal infections. Ampicillin sodium is the active antimicrobial ingredient that can act on the phase of bacterial breeding and inhibit the biosynthesis of bacterial mucopeptide in the cell wall. Probenecid acts synergistically by competitively inhibiting an organic anion transporter in renal tubules, increasing the plasma concentrations, and thus extending the plasma elimination t(1/2). The aim of this study was to assess and compare the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, bioavailability, and bioequivalence of a newly developed dispersible tablet formulation (test) of ampicillin/ probenecid with those of an established branded capsule formulation (reference) in healthy Chinese male volunteers. A randomized-sequence, single-dose, open-label, 2-period crossover study was conducted in fasted healthy Chinese male volunteers. Eligible participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive 6 dispersible tablets (test) or branded capsules (reference) (1500 mg total; 250 mg each containing ampicillin 194.5 mg and probenecid 55.5 mg), followed by a 7-day washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. Plasma samples were collected over a 24-hour period following administration and analyzed for ampicillin and probenecid content by HPLC. PK parameters such as C(max), AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-infinity) were also determined. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the geometric mean ratios of the log-transformed C(max) and AUC values were within the equivalence range (80%-125%) predetermined by the State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) of the People's Republic of China. Tolerability was based on the observation of adverse events (AEs), monitoring of vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, temperature, electrocardiography) and laboratory tests (hematology, blood biochemistry, hepatic function, urinalysis), and subject

  17. [In vitro induction of transmissive resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and ampicillin chloramphenicol in Vibrio cholera non-O1/non-O139 serogroups isolated within 1990-2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selianskaia, N A; Ryzhko, I V; Verkina, L M; Trishina, A V; Mironova, A V

    2011-01-01

    Inducible character of resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and ampicillin was investigated in 20 strains of Vibrio cholera non-O1/non-O139 serogroups isolated from inhabitants of Uzbekistan in 1990 (10 strains, ctx+) and in 2001 (5 strains, ctx-) and from inhabitants of Kalmykiya within 2003-2005 (5 strains, ctx-). Eight of the 20 isolates showed not only capacity for induction of the antibiotic resistance, but also its possible self transfer to Escherichia coli and reverse crosses in El Tor V. cholerae P-5879. It was shown that the effect of the antibacterial on the isolates phenotypic susceptibility could increase the resistance markers expression, when the genomes contained sites responsible for their expression, that required constant bacteriological control of the treatment efficacy and the use of the isolates antibioticograms for early replace of the inefficient drug by the efficient one. The prevalence of V. cholerae O1 and non-O1/non-O13 serogroups with multiple resistance to the antibacterial and the genetic potency for the antibiotic resistance development in the pathogen made difficult the choice of efficient drugs for prophylaxis and treatment of diseases caused by V. cholerae.

  18. Risk factors for colonization with ampicillin and high-level aminoglycoside-resistant enterococci during hospitalization in the ICU and the impact of prior antimicrobial exposure definition: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srovin, Tina Plankar; Seme, Katja; Blagus, Rok; Tomazin, Rok; Cižman, Milan

    2014-02-01

    The aim of our prospective cohort study was to determine the incidence, genetic relatedness and risk factors for colonization with ampicillin and high-level aminoglycoside-resistant enterococci (ARHLARE) among patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit. During 15-month period, we included 105 patients. The only independent risk factor for ARHLARE colonization was days of cefotaxime/ceftriaxone therapy [odds ratio (OR): 1.13; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.27; P  =  0.045]. Patients with higher total use of antibiotics, patients on prolonged mechanical ventilation, and patients with urinary tract infection (UTI), were also found to be at increased risk to become colonized with ARHLARE. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis suggested multifocal origin of the majority of the colonizing strains. Our results show that an increase in total antibiotic consumption for 10 defined daily doses (DDD)/patient increased the odds of colonization with ARHLARE for 36%. Further efforts to optimize antimicrobial use in high risk patients are proposed.

  19. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production among ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli strains from chicken in Enugu State, Nigeria Produção de beta-lactamase de espectro expandido por cepas de Escherichia coli resistentes a ampicilina isoladas de frango em Enugu State, Nigéria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.F. Chah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and seventy-two ampicillin-resistant E. coli strains isolated from commercial chickens in Enugu State, Nigeria, were screened for beta-lactamase production using the broth method with nitrocefin® as the chromogenic cephalosporin to detect enzyme production. Beta-lactamase producing strains were further examined for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL production using the Oxoid combination discs method. One hundred and seventy (98.8% of the 172 ampicillin-resistant E. coli strains produced beta-lactamase enzyme. Sixteen (9.4% beta-lactamase producers were phenotypically confirmed to produce ESBLs. Six of the ESBL producing strains were only detected with ceftazidime versus ceftazidime/clavulanate combination while ten of the ESBL producers were detected with cefotaxime versus cefotaxime/clavulanate combination. Chicken may serve as a reservoir of ESBL-producing E. coli strains which could be transferred to man and other animals.Cento e setenta e duas cepas de Escherichia coli resistentes a ampicilina isoladas de frangos em Enugu State, Nigéria, foram avaliadas quanto à produção de beta-lactamase através do uso de método em caldo com nitrocefin® como indicador cromogênico da produção da enzima. Em seguida, as cepas produtoras de beta-lactamase foram examinadas quanto à produção de beta-lactamase de espectro expandido (ESBL através do método de discos combinados Oxoid. Entre as cepas de Escherichia coli resistentes a ampicilina, cento e setenta (98,8% produziram beta-lactamase. Testes fenotípicos indicaram que dezesseis (9,4% das cepas produtoras de beta-lactamase produziram ESBL. Seis cepas produtoras de ESBL foram detectadas apenas com a combinação ceftazidima versus cefotaxime/clavulanato, enquanto dez cepas produtoras de ESBL foram detectadas com a combinação cefotaxime versus cefotaxime/clavulanato. Frangos podem ser reservatório de cepas de E.coli produtoras de ESBL, que podem ser transferidos para o homem

  20. 12 Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research Vol. 19, 2014 Ampicillin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6735s

    aggressive medium such as acid, alkaline and salt solutions. 2 . In view of the problems created by mild steel corrosion, several researches on the methods of inhibition of its corrosion have been reported and it has been established that the use of inhibitors is one of the best methods of the prevention of the corrosion of mild ...

  1. 21 CFR 520.90a - Ampicillin capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Proteus spp. In infections associated with abscesses, lacerations, and wounds due to Staphylococcus spp... production. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian. (2) Cats—(i..., hemolytic positive staphylococci, E. coli, and Proteus spp. In infections associated with abscesses...

  2. 21 CFR 520.90c - Ampicillin trihydrate capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... infections (septicemia) associated with abscesses, lacerations, and wounds; and bacterial dermatitis. (iii... of a licensed veterinarian. (2) Cats—(i) Amount. 10 to 30 milligrams per pound of body weight or... infections (septicemia) associated with abscesses, lacerations, and wounds. (iii) Limitations. The drug may...

  3. 21 CFR 522.90a - Ampicillin trihydrate sterile suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....; generalized infections (septicemia) associated with abscesses, lacerations, and wounds due to Staphylococcus.... Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian. (iii) Cats. (A... abscesses, lacerations, and wounds due to Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Pasteurella spp. (C...

  4. Formulation and Evaluation of Chitosan-Based Ampicillin Trihydrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    encapsulated, adsorbed or chemically attached [3]. They may be prepared from a variety of materials such ... amongst others, antibiotics in infections caused by bacteria. Generally, encapsulation of antibiotics in ..... 37. 8. Bodmeier R, Chen HG, Paeratakul O. A novel approach to the oral delivery of micro- or nano- particles.

  5. STUDIES OF Ni(II) & Cu(II) COMPLEXES WITH AMPICILLIN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    akg

    dimethyl aniline with some acyl hydrazines. The product yield varied from ... distilled water and both solutions were kept in a preheated water bath at 30 - 50oC ... The para and meta substituted isomer were found to have higher yield than the ortho.

  6. STUDIES OF Ni(II) & Cu(II) COMPLEXES WITH AMPICILLIN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    akg

    A potentiometric method was used and the calculation was carried out using the PKAS computer program. The corresponding pKa .... equilibrium constants of the A- + H+ ↔ AH , where AH show 4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-. 5-ones ..... 8. Organic Reactions, Ed.; Moscow-. Tartu, (1985). 3. Izutsu K., Acid-base Dissociation.

  7. STUDIES OF Ni(II) & Cu(II) COMPLEXES WITH AMPICILLIN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    akg

    ABSTRACT. Graft copolymers of Acrylonitrile and ethyl methcrylate on dextrin were prepared by the use of ceric ion initiator in aqueous medium at 290C. The molecular weight of grafted poly(ethyl methacrylate) chains were higher than for polyacrylonitrile grafts; but the latter were more frequently grafted on the backbone ...

  8. 21 CFR 520.90d - Ampicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... infections (septicemia) associated with abscesses, lacerations, and wounds, due to Staphylococcus spp. and... veterinarian. (2) Cats—(i) Amount. 10 to 30 milligrams per pound of body weight orally, 2 or 3 times daily, 1... Corynebacterium spp.; generalized infections (septicemia) associated with abscesses, lacerations, and wounds, due...

  9. STUDIES OF Ni(II) & Cu(II) COMPLEXES WITH AMPICILLIN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    akg

    ABSTRACT. The Kolo Creek E2.0 reservoir oils from the Nigerian Niger Delta region have been studied for molecular marker by characterisation using full scan GC-MS and GC-MS-MS transition from 412 → 369. An existing molecular marker compound normally found in coals and lignites has been observed in some these ...

  10. STUDIES ON THE USE OF AMPICILLIN-DEXTRIN AGAR ASAS AEROMONAS RECOVERY MEDIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) includes the unregulated chemical and microbiological contaminants the EPA has identified as possibly posing a significant public risk to consumers if present in drinking water (1). There are three bacterial species listed in the CCL (Aeromon...

  11. Treatment of serious urological infections with cefotaxime compared to ampicillin plus netilmicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, D; Bremmelgaard, A; Rasmussen, F

    1986-01-01

    of cefotaxime against the isolates from blood were low for all bacterial strains except one (Streptococcus faecalis). Time to normalisation of temperature was significantly shorter in the cefotaxime group. The results suggest that cefotaxime is an effective and well-tolerated agent in the treatment of serious...

  12. Administration of gentamicin and ampicillin by continuous intravenous infusion to newborn infants during parenteral nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Andersen, G E

    1982-01-01

    inhibitory concentration for most bacterial strains. One very sick newborn infant died with overwhelming Klebsiella pneumoniae septicemia. No signs of renal toxicity or ototoxicity were found. The serum amino acids remained within the normal range, except in 1 child with cytomegalovirus infection and liver...

  13. Characterization of Lactococcus lactis response to ampicillin and ciprofloxacin using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Panxue; Pang, Shintaro; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Mingtao; He, Lili

    2016-01-01

    Decades of antibiotic use or misuse has resulted in antibiotic resistance in lactic acid bacteria, a group of common culture starters and probiotic microorganisms. This has urged researchers to study how lactic acid bacteria respond to antibiotics, so as to have a better strategy to identify and predict the antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This study aimed to characterize the biochemical profiles of Lactococcus lactis responding to antibiotics using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Lactococcus lactis exposed to antibiotics was mixed with 50-nm gold nanoparticles for subsequent SERS measurements. The SERS spectra analyzed by principal component analysis showed no significant change after 30 min of antibiotic treatment, whereas distinct changes were clearly observed after 60 and 90 min of antibiotic treatment. Different antibiotics induced different spectral changes, and these changes revealed the detailed biochemical information of cellular responses. This study demonstrates that the SERS method developed not only senses the changes in the bacterial cell wall, but also reveals details of the biochemical profiles, which help us to understand how lactic acid bacteria respond to antibiotics, as well as to set a base for the detection of antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria by SERS.

  14. 76 FR 17336 - New Animal Drugs; Amikacin Sulfate, Ampicillin Trihydrate, Ceftiofur Hydrochloride, Cephapirin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ..., Ceftiofur Hydrochloride, Cephapirin Benzathine, Chlortetracycline, Fenbendazole, Formalin, Furosemide...) Specifications. The product is distributed in packets each of which contains the following ingredients: Sodium...: Sec. 520.1422 Metoserpate hydrochloride. * * * * * (b) Sponsor. See No. 053501 in Sec. 510.600(c) of...

  15. STUDIES OF Ni(II) & Cu(II) COMPLEXES WITH AMPICILLIN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    akg

    Acidity measurements of organic compounds have a long history dating back to the end of the 19th century .... performed in an 80 mL jacketed titration cell thermostated at 25.0 ± 0.1 oC and under nitrogen atmosphere ... During each titration the ionic strength was maintained at. 0.1 M NaCl and a potential reading was taken.

  16. Continuous intravenous infusion of ampicillin and gentamicin during parenteral nutrition in 88 newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Møller, S; Andersen, G E

    1982-01-01

    respectively, and the 95% limits for the serum concentrations were 11-133 and 1.3-7.4 micrograms/ml. The treatment results were at least as good as with intermittent intramuscular or intravenous administration. This new mode of giving antibiotics is less painful to the babies and easier for the nurses....

  17. 76 FR 53050 - New Animal Drugs; Ampicillin Trihydrate, Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate, Flunixin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... trihydrate. * * * * * (d) * * * (2) * * * (iii) Limitations. Do not treat cattle for more than 7 days. Milk... last treatment. Cattle must not be slaughtered for food during treatment and for 144 hours (6 days... exceed a total of 5 consecutive days. * * * * * (3) Limitations. Withdraw medication from cattle 10 days...

  18. Outbreak of Ampicillin/Piperacillin-Resistant Klebsiella Pneumoniae in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU): Investigation and Control Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Fabbri, Giuliana; Panico, Manuela; Dallolio, Laura; Suzzi, Roberta; Ciccia, Matilde; Sandri, Fabrizio; Farruggia, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a frequent cause of infectious outbreaks in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). The aim of this paper is to describe an outbreak occurred in a 13-bed NICU and the control measures adopted in order to interrupt the chain of transmission. We described the microbiological investigations, the NICU staff compliance to the infection control measures by means of a specifically designed check-list and the control measures adopted. Six cases of primary bloodstream infection...

  19. New insights in the production of aerosol antibiotics. Evaluation of the optimal aerosol production system for ampicillin-sulbactam, meropenem, ceftazidime, cefepime and piperacillin-tazobactam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Kioumis, Ioannis; Ritzoulis, Christos; Petridis, Dimitris; Darwiche, Kaid; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Spyratos, Dionysis; Parrish, Scott; Browning, Robert; Li, Qiang; Turner, J Francis; Freitag, Lutz; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2013-10-15

    Several aerosol antibiotics are on the market and several others are currently being evaluated. Aim of the study was to evaluate the aerosol droplet size of five different antibiotics for future evaluation as an aerosol administration. The nebulizers Sunmist(®), Maxineb(®) and Invacare(®) were used in combination with four different "small <6 ml" residual cups and two "large <10 ml" with different loadings 2-4-6-8 ml (8 ml only for large residual cups) with five different antibiotic drugs (ampicilln-sulbactam, meropenem, ceftazidime, cefepime and piperacillin-tazobactam). The Mastersizer 2000 (Malvern) was used to evaluate the produced droplet size from each combination Significant effect on the droplet size produced the different antibiotic (F=96.657, p<0.001) and the residual cup design (F=68.535, p<0.001) but not the different loading amount (p=0.127) and the nebulizer (p=0.715). Interactions effects were found significant only between antibiotic and residual cup (F=16.736, p<0.001). No second order interactions were found statistically significant. Our results firstly indicate us indirectly that the chemical formulation of the drug is the main factor affecting the produced droplet size and secondly but closely the residual cup design. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Distribution of phylogroups and co-resistance to antimicrobial agents in ampicillin resistant Escherichia coli isolated from healthy humans and from patients with bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, A.; Hammerum, A. M.; Porsbo, Lone Jannok

    inhibitory concentration to antimicrobial agents and examined by PCR to determine their phylogroups. The phylotyping grouped the faecal samples into A (13%), B1 (10%), B2 (42%), D (19%), NT (16%) while the blood isolates grouped into A (16%), B1 (0%), B2 (48%), D (32%) and NT (3%). The frequency...

  1. Drug: D02065 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02065 Mixture ... Drug Ampicillin sodium and sulbactam sodium for injection (JP17); Ampicillin sodium... - sulbactam sodium mixt; Unasyn-S (TN) Ampicillin sodium [DR:D02119], Sulbactam sodium [D

  2. 2018-04-28T16:45:29Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    article/49910 2018-04-28T16:45:29Z ijonas:ART Iodometric determination of ampicillin in proprietary capsules Ejele, A Anyanwu, N Anunuso, C Ampicillin, capsule formulation, iodometric titration, concentration. The concentration of ampicillin in ...

  3. A novel green synthesis and characterization of Ag NPs with its ultra-rapid catalytic reduction of methyl green dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junejo, Y.; Sirajuddin; Baykal, A.; Safdar, M.; Balouch, A.

    2014-01-01

    Ampicillin derived silver nanoparticles were synthesized in an aqueous medium. Particle size and shape were determined by Transmission electron microscopy which showed the monodispersed morphology. The Fourier transform infrared spectra were represented the interaction of Ampicillin with surface of Ampicillin derived silver nanoparticles. X-ray powder diffraction study gave crystalline nature of the Ampicillin derived silver nanoparticles which exhibited exceptional catalytic activity for the reduction of Methylene Green dye. However, complete reduction of dye was accomplished by Ampicillin derived silver nanoparticles within 4 min only. The catalytic performance of these nanoparticles was adsorbed on glass. They were recovered easily from reaction medium and reused with enhanced catalytic potential. Based upon these results it has been concluded that Ampicillin derived silver nanoparticles are novel, rapid and highly economical alternative for environmental safety against pollution by dyes and extendable for control of other reducible contaminants as well.

  4. Clavulanic Acid and Amoxycillin in Uncomplicated Gonorrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Kumar

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmentin (Amoxycillin 3 . gm combined with 250 mg clavulanic acid and ampicillin 3.5 gin and I gm probenecid orally were evaluated in 50 patients for treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhoea. Success rates of 80% and 100% were obtained with augmentin and ampicillin with probenecid respectively in non-PPNG strains. None of 4 PPNG strains responded to ampicillin-probnecid. Augmentin in single oral dose cannot be recommended for the treatment of non-PPNG strains in India.

  5. Isolation of Dermatophilus congolensis from a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, O; Kirkan, S; Unal, B

    2000-03-01

    Dermatophilus congolensis was isolated from a cat with dermatitis. The isolate was sensitive to oxytetracyclin, streptomycin and penicillin but resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamycin and cefoperazone.

  6. Cholestasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Serious infections that have spread through the bloodstream (sepsis) Tuberculosis Viral hepatitis Certain medicines can also cause cholestasis, including: Antibiotics such as ampicillin and other ...

  7. A Carbenicillin R Factor from Pseudomonas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in relative resistance to car- benicillin and ampicillin. Ps. aeruginosa 638 was equally resistant to both antibiotics, but in E. coli J53 resistance to carbenicillin was about ten times higher than to ampicillin. Superinfection Immunity. Electron Microscopy of R Factor DNA. Labelled cultures were harvested at 4°C and washed.

  8. Comparative Evaluation of Three In Vitro Techniques in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The study was designed to evaluate the consistency of interpretation of results of interaction between ampicillin and ciprofloxacin against S. aureus and E. coli using three in vitro techniques. Methods: The interaction between ampicillin and ciprofloxacin was studied using three in vitro methods- Checkerboard ...

  9. Genetic Transformation of Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Robert.

    1991-01-01

    An activity in which students transform an ampicillin-sensitive strain of E. coli with a plasmid containing a gene for ampicillin resistance is described. The procedure for the preparation of competent cells and the transformation of competent E. coli is provided. (KR)

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An in vitro evaluation of the combined antimicrobial activity of ampicillin and cloxacillin against ampicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus using checker board technique (CBT) Abstract · Vol 5, No 2 (2008) - Articles Determination of hydrophile-lipophile balance (hlb) of bovine mucin for possible emulsifying properties

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brown, SA. Vol 4, No 2 (2007) - Articles An in vitro evaluation of the combined antimicrobial activity of ampicillin and cloxacillin against ampicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus using checker board technique (CBT) Abstract · Vol 6, No 4 (2009) - Articles Computer - based modeling in extract sciences research -III.

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An in vitro evaluation of the combined antimicrobial activity of ampicillin and cloxacillin against ampicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus using checker board technique (CBT) Abstract · Vol 5, No 2 (2008) - Articles Natural heterocycles as antifertility agents. Abstract · Vol 6, No 3 (2009) - Articles Computer - based modeling ...

  13. An Enterobacter Plasmid as a New Genetic Background for the Transposon Tn1331

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    presence of ampicillin - and kanamycin- resistant bacteria by antibiotic-selective agar method. One of the resistant colonies was subjected to 16S... bacteria from complex wounds, an Enterobacter species was isolated that harbors antibiotic- resistant plasmids conferring resistance to Escherichia...TOP10 cells (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The transformed cells were selected on kanamycin- and ampicillin

  14. Antibacterial compounds of Canadian honeys target bacterial cell wall inducing phenotype changes, growth inhibition and cell lysis that resemble action of β-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudzynski, Katrina; Sjaarda, Calvin

    2014-01-01

    Honeys show a desirable broad spectrum activity against Gram-positive and negative bacteria making antibacterial activity an intrinsic property of honey and a desirable source for new drug development. The cellular targets and underlying mechanism of action of honey antibacterial compounds remain largely unknown. To facilitate the target discovery, we employed a method of phenotypic profiling by directly comparing morphological changes in Escherichia coli induced by honeys to that of ampicillin, the cell wall-active β-lactam of known mechanism of action. Firstly, we demonstrated the purity of tested honeys from potential β-lactam contaminations using quantitative LC-ESI-MS. Exposure of log-phase E. coli to honey or ampicillin resulted in time- and concentration-dependent changes in bacterial cell shape with the appearance of filamentous phenotypes at sub-inhibitory concentrations and spheroplasts at the MBC. Cell wall destruction by both agents, clearly visible on microscopic micrographs, was accompanied by increased permeability of the lipopolysaccharide outer membrane as indicated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). More than 90% E. coli exposed to honey or ampicillin became permeable to propidium iodide. Consistently with the FACS results, both honey-treated and ampicillin-treated E. coli cells released lipopolysaccharide endotoxins at comparable levels, which were significantly higher than controls (ptransformed with the ampicillin-resistance gene (β-lactamase) remained sensitive to honey, displayed the same level of cytotoxicity, cell shape changes and endotoxin release as ampicillin-sensitive cells. As expected, β-lactamase protected the host cell from antibacterial action of ampicillin. Thus, both honey and ampicillin induced similar structural changes to the cell wall and LPS and that this ability underlies antibacterial activities of both agents. Since the cell wall is critical for cell growth and survival, honey active compounds would be

  15. (Jack) Merr. (Commelinales: Hanguana

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Promega), and plated on agar containing ampicillin, IPTG and X-gal. Plasmids from recombinant colonies were amplified using TempliPhi (GE Healthcare,. Buckinghamshire, UK). After blue–white screening, 61 pos- itive clones were sequenced.

  16. 166 ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of Phyllanthus amarus extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae,. Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. These effects were compared with those of ampicillin, gentamicin and pefloxacin. Phytochemical analysis showed ...

  17. Group B Streptococcal Colonization and Bacteremia in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Lembet

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We evaluated the effect of maternal administration of ampicillin/sulbactam on colonization and bacteremia in newborn rabbits after intracervical inoculation of mothers with group B streptococci (GBS.

  18. Population dynamics of transgenic strain Escherichia coli Z905/pPHL7 in freshwater and saline lake water microcosms with differing microbial community structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, L. Yu; Kargatova, T. V.; Ganusova, E. E.; Lobova, T. I.; Boyandin, A. N.; Mogilnaya, O. A.; Pechurkin, N. S.

    2005-01-01

    Populations of Escherichia coli Z905/pPHL7, a transgenic microorganism, were heterogenic in the expression of plasmid genes when adapting to the conditions of water microcosms of various mineralization levels and structure of microbial community. This TM has formed two subpopulations (ampicillin-resistant and ampicillin-sensitive) in every microcosm. Irrespective of mineralization level of a microcosm, when E. coli Z905/pPHL7 alone was introduced, the ampicillin-resistant subpopulation prevailed, while introduction of the TM together with indigenous bacteria led to the dominance of the ampicillin-sensitive subpopulation. A high level of lux gene expression maintained longer in the freshwater microcosms than in sterile saline lake water microcosms. A horizontal gene transfer has been revealed between the jointly introduced TM and Micrococcus sp. 9/pSH1 in microcosms with the Lake Shira sterile water. c2005 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of 3 Strains of Yersinia Pestis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kournikakis, B

    2000-01-01

    .... Antibiotic sensitivities showed that the 3 strains were sensitive to aminoglycosides, the cephalosporins/ cephams, most of the beta lactams/penicillins (e.g. ampicillin) and quinolones (e.g. ciprofloxacin...

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Neisseria gonorrhoeae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high levels of bacterial resistance against ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, penicillin and spectinomycin, should be taken into account in developing any new guidelines in the management of the infection. Keywords: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Female infertility Drug Resistance, Ciprofloxacin, Tetracycline, ...

  1. microbial spectrum of pelvic inflamatory diseases in nguru, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    observed with ofloxacin, gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, pefloxacin, rifampicin, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, erythromycin and streptomycin, and less than 50 in trimethoprim- sulthamethoxazole, tetracycline, ampicillin, and augmentime. ... influenced by variation in case definition. (particularly between different clinical settings),.

  2. An efficient synthesis of 3 -indolyl substituted pyrido[1,2-a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    antioxidant activity have been found to posses anti- cancer, anticardiovascular, antiinflammatory and many ..... nutrition. Ampicillin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol were used as standard antibacterial drugs, whereas griseofulvin and nystatin were used as standard antifungal drugs. DMSO was used as dilu-.

  3. NEONATAL SEPTICAEMIA IN LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANTS AT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-03-03

    Mar 3, 2005 ... Antibiotic sensitivity revealed high resistance to ampicillin and good sensitivity to aminoglycosides, third generation cephalosporins, clavulanic acid potentiated amoxycillin ... Antibiotic sensitivity shows adequate sensitivity to aminoglycosides and third .... generation cephalosporins as a first line (routine).

  4. Prognostic Factors and Clinical Features of Non-typhoid Salmonella Bacteremia in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Fong Yen

    2009-08-01

    Conclusion: S. enteritidis was the most frequently isolated serotype. High resistance rates of NTS to some readily available antimicrobials (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, TMP/SMX, fluoroquinolones were found. Patients with the factor of coma or inadequate antibiotic treatment had poor prognosis.

  5. Anaerobic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a dental infection or procedure such as a tooth extraction or oral surgery or after trauma to the ... diagnosed, your doctor may treat it with intravenous antibiotics (eg, penicillin, ampicillin) for 4 to 6 weeks, ...

  6. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns Of Salmonella Species In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % susceptible to cefepime and carbapenem, 91% to azithromycin, 82.1% to cefixime and 73% to quinolones. Also susceptibility to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, streptomycin, ampicillin, gentamicin, co-trimoxazole, augmentin and amikacin ...

  7. Organisms cultured and resistance patterns seen in a secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    21% for piperacillin-tazobactam, 2% for ertapenem and. 19% for meropenem). When looking at individual species, it was noted that K. pneumoniae had high resistance to ampicillin (97%), moderate resistance to co-amoxiclav and ciprofloxacin ...

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Europe and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Oliveira, A. P.; Watts, J. L.; Salmon, S. A.

    2000-01-01

    (123), Switzerland (69), United States (53), and Zimbabwe (6). The antimicrobial agents tested were penicillin, ampicillin, oxacillin, cephalothin, ceftiofur, amoxicillin + clavulanate, penicillin + novobiocin, enrofloxacin, premafloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, lincomycin, pirlimycin, neomycin...

  9. Development and validation of a quantitative confirmatory method for 30 β-lactam antibiotics in bovine muscle using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocco, Di M.; Moloney, M.; O'Beirne, T.; Earley, S.; Berendsen, B.; Furey, A.; Danaher, M.

    2017-01-01

    A method was developed for the confirmatory and quantitative analysis of 30 β-lactam antibiotic residues in bovine muscle. The method includes 12 penicillins (amoxicillin, ampicillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, mecillinam, methicillin, nafcillin, oxacillin, penicillin G, penicillin V,

  10. 77 FR 35691 - Notice of Withdrawal of Certain Unapproved Abbreviated New Drug Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... name 60881 Tetracycline hydrochloride. 60913 Dicloxacillin sodium. 60919 Neomycin sulfate; bacitracin... sodium succinate. 61433 Chloramphenicol sodium succinate. 61440 Tetracycline hydrochloride. 61442.... 61604 Ampicillin sodium. 61608 Tetracycline hydrochloride. 61629 Penicillin g benzathine. 61630...

  11. Persistence and Biofilm Assessment of Campylobacter Jujeni in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficiency index ratio (≈/>1) observed in all tested drugs suggests their effectiveness in campylobacteriosis management. Decreasing drug sensitivity pedigree was observed with streptomycin> erythromycin & gentamincin > tetracycline & neomycin > penicillin> riphapicin & ampicillin > norflaxicin & cephalexin.

  12. Do bacteria, not fish, produce 'fish kairomone'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringelberg, J.; Van Gool, E.

    1998-01-01

    Fish-associated chemicals enhance phototactic downward swimming in Daphnia. If perch were treated with the antibiotic ampicillin, this enhancement was significantly decreased. Therefore, not fish, but bacteria associated with fish, seem to produce this kairomone. [KEYWORDS: Diel vertical migration;

  13. A simple, low-cost and robust capillary zone electrophoresis Method with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection for the routine determination of four selected penicillins in Money-constrained laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, Prasanta; Sänger-van de Griend, Cari; Adams, Erwin; Van Schepdael, Ann

    2018-01-01

    A simple and robust capillary zone electrophoresis Method was developed and validated for the determination of amoxicillin and clavulanate, ampicillin, phenoxymethyl penicillin (Pen V) as well as flucloxacillin. Capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection was employed as detection Mode

  14. Multidrug Resistance in Infants and Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Pacifici

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections may cause disease and death. Infants and children are often subject to bacterial infections. Antimicrobials kill bacteria protecting the infected patients andreducing the risk of morbidity and mortality caused by bacteria. The antibiotics may lose their antibacterial activity when they become resistant to a bacteria. The resistance to different antibiotics in a bacteria is named multidrug-resistance. Gram-negative bacilli, especially Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, and Haemophilus influenzae type b, may become resistant. Amikacin ampicillin, amoxicillin, amoxiclav, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefoperazone tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin may cause bacterial-resistance. Resistance to bacteria for several pathogens makes complications in the treatment of infections caused by them. Salmonella strains may become resistant to ampicillin, cephalotin, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, amikacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. Shigella strains may become resistant to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin. Multidrug-resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae may be due to β-lactams, macrolides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Multidrug-resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa may become resistant to β-lactams, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. The antibacterial activity against Haemophilus strains may occur with ampicillin, sulbactam-ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin. Multidrug-resistance of the Klebsiella species may be due with ampicillin, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, co-amxilav, mezlocillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and ceftazidime. Multidrug-resistance of Escherichia coli may be caused by ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, and ceftazidime. Vibrio

  15. Comparison of the Etest and the routine multi-disc agar diffusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: On the Etest strips, Staph aureus was 83.5% sensitive to ciprofloxacin, 52.6% to gentamicin, 48.5% to ampicillin and 8.2% to chloramphenicol while on the multi-disc agar diffusion plates 80.4% of Staph aureus were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, 49.5% to gentamicin, 39.2% to ampicillin and 12.4% to chloramphenicol.

  16. Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Peruvian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Antibiotic resistance , mainly to common antibiotics such as ampicillin (72%) and co-trimoxazole (60% ), was widespread among the ETEC strains in the...strains were most frequently resistant to ampicillin (71%) and co-trimoxazole (61%). ETEC was thus found to be more prevalent in older infants. LT was the...adhesion, ETEC elabo- rates one or both of two enterotoxins: heat-labile toxin (LT), a protein multimer which shares many features with cholera toxin

  17. Subacute bacterial endocarditis due to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Report of a case with a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandepitte, J; De Geest, H; Jousten, P

    1977-09-01

    A case of subacute bacterial endocarditis due to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is reported. The patient was successfully treated first by a combination of gentamicin and ampicillin and then, because of severe allergic reactions, ampicillin was replaced by co-trimoxazole; symptoms did not recur and blood cultures remained sterile. A synoptic table is presented of 19 reported cases of infection caused by A. actinomycetemcomitans not connected with actinomycosis, with particular regard to their clinical features, treatment, and outcome.

  18. Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Muenchen from Pigs and Humans and Potential Interserovar Transfer of Antimicrobial Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Thakur, Siddhartha

    2005-01-01

    Salmonella serovars are important reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance. Recently, we reported on multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains among pigs with resistance to ampicillin, kanamycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (resistance [R] type AKSSuT) and resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (R type AxACSSuT). In the present study, 67 isolates (39 from humans...

  19. ORF Alignment: NC_003384 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [Zymomonas mobilis] gb|AAQ67239.1| ... Bla [Transposon delivery vector pUT-miniTn5-gfp-tet] ... ... ... 3.5.2.6) precursor - Escherichia coli plasmids ... gb|AAC79082.1| beta lactamase [Transposon delivery...AG47772.1| beta-lactamase ... TEM-1 [Klebsiella pneumoniae] gb|AAG37887.1| ampicillin ... resistance [Tn10 delivery... vector pHV1249] gb|AAG37882.1| ... ampicillin resistance [Tn10 delivery

  20. Uji Kepekaan Bakteri Escherichia Coli Hasil Isolasi Dari Urin Pasien Rumah Sakit Dr. Sardjito Terhadap Antibiotik Golongan P-Laktam

    OpenAIRE

    Harnanik, Sri; Mulyaningsih, Sri; Triastuti, Asih

    2005-01-01

    Uncontrolled use of antibiotic caused the emergence of bacteria strain resistant toward of antibiotic. The sensitivity assay of E. coli toward p-lactam antibiotic has been done. The sensitivity assay was started with isolated bacteria from patients urine at Dr. Sardjito hospital followed by count total of colony/number of germ which growth and identified the bacteria. The Kirby Bauer method was performed. Antibiotic impregnated disk (ampicillin 30 ng, sulbactam/ampicillin 20 ng, cefotaxim 30 ...

  1. Uji Kepekaan Bakteri Escherichia Coli Hasil Isolasi Dari Urin Pasien Rumah Sakit Dr. Sardjito Terhadap Antibiotik Golongan -Laktam

    OpenAIRE

    harnanik, Sri; Mulyaningsih, Sri; Triastuti, Asih

    2005-01-01

    Uncontrolled use of antibiotic caused the emergence of bacteria strain resistant toward of antibiotic. The sensitivity assay of E. coli toward -lactam antibiotic has been done. The sensitivity assay was started with isolated bacteria from patients urine at Dr. Sardjito hospital followed by count total of colony/number of germ which growth and identified the bacteria. The Kirby Bauer method was performed. Antibiotic impregnated disk (ampicillin 30 g, sulbactam/ampicillin 20 g, cefotaxim 30 ...

  2. Neonatal Escherichia coli Bloodstream Infections: Clinical Outcomes and Impact of Initial Antibiotic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, Stephen P; Thaden, Joshua T; Ericson, Jessica E; Cross, Heather; Messina, Julia; Clark, Reese H; Fowler, Vance G; Benjamin, Daniel K; Hornik, Christoph P; Smith, P Brian

    2015-09-01

    Escherichia coli is a common cause of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in infants and is associated with high mortality and morbidity among survivors. The clinical significance of antibiotic resistance and timing of appropriate antimicrobial therapy in this population is poorly understood. We identified all infants with E. coli BSIs discharged from 77 neonatal intensive care units managed by the Pediatrix Medical Group in 2012. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the association between 30-day mortality and ampicillin-resistant E. coli BSI, as well as the number of active empiric antimicrobial agents administered, controlling for gestational age, small-for-gestational age status, early-onset versus late-onset BSI, oxygen requirement, ventilator support and inotropic support on the day of the first positive blood culture. We identified 258 episodes of E. coli BSI, including 123 (48%) ampicillin-resistant isolates. Unadjusted 30-day mortality did not significantly differ between infants with ampicillin-resistant versus ampicillin-susceptible E. coli BSI [11 of 123 (9%) vs. 7 of 135 (5%); P = 0.33; adjusted odds ratio = 1.37 (95% confidence interval: 0.39, 4.77)]. Among ampicillin-resistant E. coli BSIs, 30-day mortality was not significantly lower for infants treated with at least one empiric antimicrobial active against ampicillin-resistant E. coli versus infants receiving no active empiric agent [adjusted odds ratio = 1.50 (0.07, 33.6)]. In this population of infants with E. coli BSI, ampicillin resistance was not associated with significantly increased mortality. Among the subset of infants with ampicillin-resistant E. coli, appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy was not associated with lower mortality.

  3. Elucidation of the Mechanisms and Environmental Relevance of cis-Dichloroethene and Vinyl Chloride Biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    synthesized cDCE-epoxide (Chan, Wong et al. 2010). The gene was cloned into ampicillin - resistant p15TV-L, and the plasmid was transformed into E. coli...cells. Both pJMG6566 and pJMG6364 were co- transformed into E. coli BL21 Star™ (DE3) cells, carrying ampicillin and kanamycin resistance genes...discovery of a variety of anaerobic bacteria and genes capable of reductive dechlorination of chloroethenes. The major transformations of PCE by

  4. R plasmid with carbadox resistance from Escherichia coli of porcine origin.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohmae, K; Yonezawa, S; Terakado, N

    1981-01-01

    Escherichia coli isolates of porcine fecal origin from a farm where the antibacterial agent carbadox was used were examined for resistance to carbadox (Cdxr). Of 72 strains examined, 24 showed resistance to this drug. All 24 Cdxr strains, except one, were also resistant to tetracycline (Tcr), streptomycin (Smr), spectinomycin (Spcr), sulfadimethoxine (Sur), kanamycin (Kmr), ampicillin (Apcr), or a combination of tetracycline, streptomycin, spectinomycin, sulfadimethoxine, and ampicillin. The ...

  5. Antibacterial compounds of Canadian honeys target bacterial cell wall inducing phenotype changes, growth inhibition and cell lysis that resemble action of β-lactam antibiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Brudzynski

    Full Text Available Honeys show a desirable broad spectrum activity against Gram-positive and negative bacteria making antibacterial activity an intrinsic property of honey and a desirable source for new drug development. The cellular targets and underlying mechanism of action of honey antibacterial compounds remain largely unknown. To facilitate the target discovery, we employed a method of phenotypic profiling by directly comparing morphological changes in Escherichia coli induced by honeys to that of ampicillin, the cell wall-active β-lactam of known mechanism of action. Firstly, we demonstrated the purity of tested honeys from potential β-lactam contaminations using quantitative LC-ESI-MS. Exposure of log-phase E. coli to honey or ampicillin resulted in time- and concentration-dependent changes in bacterial cell shape with the appearance of filamentous phenotypes at sub-inhibitory concentrations and spheroplasts at the MBC. Cell wall destruction by both agents, clearly visible on microscopic micrographs, was accompanied by increased permeability of the lipopolysaccharide outer membrane as indicated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. More than 90% E. coli exposed to honey or ampicillin became permeable to propidium iodide. Consistently with the FACS results, both honey-treated and ampicillin-treated E. coli cells released lipopolysaccharide endotoxins at comparable levels, which were significantly higher than controls (p<0.0001. E. coli cells transformed with the ampicillin-resistance gene (β-lactamase remained sensitive to honey, displayed the same level of cytotoxicity, cell shape changes and endotoxin release as ampicillin-sensitive cells. As expected, β-lactamase protected the host cell from antibacterial action of ampicillin. Thus, both honey and ampicillin induced similar structural changes to the cell wall and LPS and that this ability underlies antibacterial activities of both agents. Since the cell wall is critical for cell growth and

  6. Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedebou, Messele; Tassew, Alebachew

    1980-01-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin for 500 gonococcal strains were studied for product-moment coefficient correlations. The strains were isolated from male patients with acute gonococcal urethritis attending the Venereal Disease Clinic in Addis Ababa. The MICs of all pairs except the ampicillin/streptomycin pair were positively correlated, with r = 0.20-0.53, Pstreptomycin pair was not correlated, r = 0.06, P>0.05. Despite the significant correlation between the susceptibilities of strains to penicillin and tetracycline, 85% of the penicillin-resistant strains were sensitive to tetracycline. However, 75.6% of tetracycline-resistant strains were also resistant to penicillin. Similar differences in percentages of resistance and susceptibility of strains also occurred between tetracycline and ampicillin as well as between tetracycline and streptomycin pairs, while pair correlations were also noted. No chloramphenicol-resistant strain was isolated. But correlations were found between the MIC values of chloramphenicol and those of the other 4 antibiotics. Forty-seven percent of the 500 strains were resistant to 2 or more antibiotics. One hundred and twenty-six strains (25.2%) were resistant to 2 antibiotics, about half of which were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin. Resistance to 3 antibiotics was shown in 18.6% of strains, the majority being resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, and streptomycin. Eighteen strains (3.6%) were resistant to 4 antibiotics, while no strain was found resistant to all 5 antibiotics. PMID:6769600

  7. Linezolid in prophylaxis against experimental aortic valve endocarditis due to Streptococcus oralis or Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassopoulos, George; Pefanis, Angelos; Sakka, Vissaria; Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Perrea, Despina; Giamarellou, Helen

    2006-02-01

    There are no experimental studies regarding the prophylactic efficacy of linezolid against infective endocarditis. Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis of the aortic valve was induced in rabbits by the insertion of a polyethylene catheter. Twenty-four hours later, animals were randomly assigned to a control group, and groups receiving either ampicillin (two doses of 40 mg/kg of body weight each, given intravenously, 2 h apart) or linezolid (a single per os dose of 75 mg/kg). The first dose of ampicillin and the single dose of linezolid were administered 0.5 and 1 h, respectively, prior to the intravenous inoculation of approximately 10(7) CFU of Streptococcus oralis or Enterococcus faecalis. Linezolid peak levels in rabbit serum were similar to the peak serum levels in humans following a 600-mg oral dose of linezolid. Linezolid prevented endocarditis in 87% of S. oralis-challenged rabbits (P faecalis, linezolid prevented endocarditis in 73% (P = 0.003 versus controls; P = 0.049 versus ampicillin). Ampicillin prevented endocarditis due to S. oralis or due to E. faecalis in 47% (P = 0.005 versus controls) and in 30% (P = not significant versus controls) of the challenged animals, respectively. In conclusion, linezolid was effective as prophylaxis against endocarditis caused by a strain of S. oralis and to a lesser degree against that caused by a strain of E. faecalis. Its prophylactic efficacy was superior to that of ampicillin.

  8. High levels of multiple antibiotic resistance among 938 Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis isolates from Cuba (1990-2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamargo, Isis; Fuentes, Kiomy; Llop, Alina; Oteo, Jesús; Campos, José

    2003-10-01

    A national surveillance study to determine antimicrobial susceptibility in Haemophilus influenzae type b isolated from cerebrospinal fluid was carried out in Cuba from 1990 to 2002. Susceptibility to ampicillin, co-amoxiclav, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, co-trimoxazole, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and rifampicin was tested by the microdilution method according to the NCCLS guidelines. The 34 participating laboratories recovered 938 consecutive, non-identical isolates. All the isolates were retrieved from children aged pre-vaccination era (1990-1998) was 93; after vaccination, 57 isolates were reported in 1999, 31 in 2000, four in 2001 and five in 2002. Resistance to ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, tetracycline and chloramphenicol was 46.3% (all beta-lactamase-positive), 51.3%, 33.2% and 44.0%, respectively. Ampicillin-resistant beta-lactamase-negative strains were not detected. All strains were susceptible to co-amoxiclav, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and rifampicin. Ampicillin resistance was strongly associated with resistance to tetracycline, co-trimoxazole and chloramphenicol (Pantibiotics was observed from 1990 to 2000 in the range 40.7%-54.8% for ampicillin, 40.1%-51.6% for chloramphenicol, 45.4%-58.1% for co-trimoxazole and 23%-45.2% for tetracycline. In Cuba, the widespread vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b prevented a large number of meningitis cases in children caused by strains resistant to multiple antibiotics.

  9. The Heterogeneity of Mutational Tolerance in a Protein is Dependent on the Strength of Selective Pressure Correlating with Sectors of Co-evolving Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffler, Michael; Ranganathan, Rama

    2011-03-01

    Proteins are capable of tolerating mutations at many positions while still maintaining fold and function. Previous studies have failed to consider how tolerance to random mutagenesis might depend on the strength of selective pressure. To examine this, we measured the fitness of every single point mutation of TEM-1 beta-lactamase across a range of ampicillin concentrations utilizing a novel application of deep-sequencing. We found that the relative mutational robustness between positions varied considerably with respect to ampicillin concentration: at a low ampicillin concentration only a few positions are intolerant of mutations, while at a higher ampicillin concentration many additional positions are as equally intolerant of mutations. Using an analytic method termed statistical coupling analysis (SCA) to measure the co-variation between all positions in a sequence alignment of beta-lactamases revealed sectors of co-evolving positions associated with groups of residues having increased sensitivity to mutagenesis at either low or high ampicillin concentrations. Our findings suggest that nature has ``designed'' proteins to be robust to random mutagenesis by loading the constraints for fitness on discrete networks of co-evolving positions depending on the strength of selective pressure.

  10. Is Ceftizoxime an Appropriate Surrogate for Amikacin in Neonatal Sepsis Treatment? A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Salamati

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal sepsis, a life-threatening condition, presents with non-specific clinical manifestations and needs immediate empirical antimicrobial therapy. Choosing an appropriate antibiotic regimen covering the most probable pathogens is an important issue. In this study we compared the effectiveness of ceftizoxime and amikacin in the treatment of neonatal sepsis both in combination with ampicillin. In a randomized clinical trial, all term neonates with suspected sepsis referred to Bahrami hospital during March 2008 to March 2010 were evaluated. Patients were randomly recruited into two groups; one group receiving ampicillin and amikacin and the other ampicillin and ceftizoxime. Blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid cultures, leukocyte count and C-reactive protein level were measured in all neonates. A total of 135 neonates were evaluated, 65 in amikacin group and 70 in ceftizoxime group. 60 neonates (85.7% in ceftizoxime group and 54 neonates (83.1% in amikacin group responded to the treatment (P= 0.673 and χ2 = 0.178. Only 24 (18% blood samples had a report of positive blood culture. The most frequent pathogen was coagulase negative staphylococcus with the frequency of 58.32% of all positive blood samples. Ceftizoxime in combination with ampicillin is an appropriate antimicrobial regimen for surrogating the combination of ampicillin and amikacin to prevent bacterial resistance against them.

  11. Simple molecular model for the binding of antibiotic molecules to bacterial ion channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafé, Salvador; Ramírez, Patricio; Alcaraz, Antonio

    2003-10-01

    A molecular model aimed at explaining recent experimental data by Nestorovich et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 9789 (2002)] on the interaction of ampicillin molecules with the constriction zone in a channel of the general bacterial porin, OmpF (outer membrane protein F), is presented. The model extends T. L. Hill's theory for intermolecular interactions in a pair of binding sites [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 78, 3330 (1956)] by incorporating two binding ions and two pairs of interacting sites. The results provide new physical insights on the role of the complementary pattern of the charge distributions in the ampicillin molecule and the narrowest part of the channel pore. Charge matching of interacting sites facilitates drug binding. The dependence of the number of ampicillin binding events per second with the solution pH and salt concentration is explained qualitatively using a reduced number of fundamental concepts.

  12. Characterisation of recently emerged multiple antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104 and other multiresistant phage types from Danish pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    1998-01-01

    electrophoresis (PFGE) using the restriction enzyme Xba I, Overall, 66 per cent of the 670 isolates were sensitive to all the antimicrobial agents tested. Eleven isolates of S typhimurium were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline and also resistant to other antibiotics in different resistance......A total of 670 isolates of Salmonella enterica were isolated from Danish pig herds, phage typed and tested for susceptibility to amoxycillin + clavulanate, ampicillin, colistin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, neomycin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim + sulphadiazine. S...... enterica serovar typhimurium (S typhimurium) isolates resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline and three isolates of S typhimurium DT104, two from 1994 and one from 1995, were further tested for resistance against chloramphenicol and sulphonamide and analysed by pulsed-field gel...

  13. Detection and Characterization of β-Lactam Resistance in Bacillus cereus PTCC 1015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Behravan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, detection, isolation, and characterization of β-lactamases from Bacillus cereus PTCC 1015 were investigated. B. cereus was inoculated in nutrient broth containing ampicillin (50 μg.ml−1 for 24 h (35°C, 200 rpm. Activity measurements were carried out against ampicillin (0.1 mg.ml−1 and cephalexin (0.08 mg.ml−1 by a spectrophotometric method at different conditions (pH 6–10, temperatures 25–45°C.Maximum penicillinase and cephalosporinase activity was observed at pH 7. The optimized temperatures for penicillinase and cephalosporinase activity were 30 and 40°C, respectively. At the above conditions, maximum enzymatic activity was calculated as 0.89 ± 0.014 and 0.037 ± 0.001 units against ampicillin and cephalexin.

  14. The effects of tertiary wastewater treatment on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, L.; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Dalsgaard, A.

    2002-01-01

    and anaerobically digested sludge by bacteriological counts on media selective for coliforms (MacConkey agar) and Acinetobacter spp. (Baumann agar). In addition, the level of antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disc-diffusion method in 442 Acinetobacter isolates identified by colony hybridisation......-resistant presumptive coliforms and Acinetobacter spp. in treated sewage and digested sludge were not significantly higher compared with raw sewage. On the contrary at one plant, statistically significant decreases were observed in the prevalence of ampicillin-resistant presumptive Acinetobacter spp. (p = 0.......0188) following sewage treatment, and in the prevalence of either ampicillin-resistant presumptive Acinetobacter spp. (p = 0.0013) or ampicillin- and gentamicin-resistant presumptive coliforms (p = 0.0273 and p = 0.0186) following sludge treatment. The results obtained by bacteriological counts were confirmed...

  15. In vitro interaction between Agrimonia eupatoria L.: Extracts and antibiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muruzović Mirjana Ž.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Synergistic activity between water, acetone, ethanol and diethyl ether extract of Agrimonia eupatoria L. and commonly used antibiotic (ampicillin were evaluated. Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used. Interaction between plant extracts and antibiotic were tested by checkerboard method and expressed as fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC index showed indifferent, additive and synergistic effects. Synergism was observed against E. coli for every combination of agents. FICI values were ranged from 0.03 to 0.29. Inhibitory concentration (IC50 was evaluated for every combination of tested extracts and antibiotic and the best combinations for every tested bacteria were combination of diethyl ether extract + ampicillin and combination of acetone extract + ampicillin.

  16. Risk of resistance related to antibiotic use before admission in patients with community-acquired bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gitte; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Steffensen, Flemming Hald

    1999-01-01

    %), Streptococcus pneumoniae (23%) Staphylococcus aureus (10%). Of the 575 isolates of E. coli, 425 (74%), 432 (75%) and 518 (90%) were susceptible to ampicillin, sulphonamides and trimethoprim, respectively. Previous antibiotic prescriptions were strongly associated with resistance to ampicillin, sulphonamides...... and trimethoprim in E. coli. The association was less pronounced for S. aureus and enteric rods other than E. coli. Antibiotic prescriptions within the last 3 months predicted antibiotic resistance, and this should be taken into account when selecting empirical antibiotic therapy of severe community...... admission and to 37% during the 6 months. The most frequently prescribed antibiotics within 30 days were ampicillin (28%), penicillin G (27%), sulphonamides and/or trimethoprim (16%) and macrolides (14%). The most frequent blood isolates were Escherichia coli (33%), other Enterobacteriaceae 8...

  17. Neonatal Urinary Tract Infection: Clinical Response to Empirical Therapy Versus In Vitro Susceptibility at Bahrami Children’s Hospital- Neonatal Ward: 2001-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behdad Navabi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is a neonatal life threatening infection which is usually treated with ampicillin plus an aminoglycoside or a third-generation cephalosporin. Recently, growing number of Escherchia coli species resistant to ampicillin and aminoglycosides have raised concerns regarding the necessity to change the empirical therapy. This motivates us to determine neonatal UTI clinical response to the used empirical antibiotics. This study was designed as a Case Series. All neonates admitted to Bahrami Children Hospital, Tehran, Iran, during 2001- 2010 with a diagnosis of UTI surveyed by simple non-random sampling. Totally, 97 cases (including 83 (85.6% term, 8 (8.2% post-term and 6 (6.2% preterm neonates with a mean age of 15.85 ± 7.05 days at admission ,average weight of 3195.57 ± 553g at birth and 3276.29 ± 599.182 g at admission were studied. Ampicillin resistance in 93 cases (95.9%, gentamicin resistance in 51 cases (52.6% and trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole resistance in 44 cases (45.4% were the leading resistances in this study. Escherichia coli was the dominant organism in 76.3% (74 patients of study population which was resistant to ampicillin in 95.9% (71 cases. Despite the observed resistant to initial empirical regimen antibiotics (especially ampicillin, 81.4% of patients responded to empirical therapy. However, we believe till conductance of more detailed studies regarding the relationship between empirical therapy and antibiogram concordance, physicians take ampicillin-resistant E coli infection issue into accounts from the first steps of management of critically ill neonates.

  18. Antibiotikavalg ved purulent meningitis uden bakteriologisk diagnose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, H B

    1989-01-01

    A case of meningitis in a 16 month old boy caused by Hemophilus influenzae resistant to ampicillin is presented. The question is raised whether a third generation cephalosporin such as cefotaxime should be the drug of choice in the treatment of bacterial meningitis with unknown etiology. Udgivels......A case of meningitis in a 16 month old boy caused by Hemophilus influenzae resistant to ampicillin is presented. The question is raised whether a third generation cephalosporin such as cefotaxime should be the drug of choice in the treatment of bacterial meningitis with unknown etiology...

  19. Haemophilus segnis endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Tvede, M; Skinhøj, P

    1988-01-01

    Haemophilus segnis is a rarely recognised commensal in the oropharynx. We wish to report the first published case of endocarditis caused by H. segnis. The patient, a 76-year-old female did not recover until after 2 courses of ampicillin given for a total of 57 days. In the second course of treatm......Haemophilus segnis is a rarely recognised commensal in the oropharynx. We wish to report the first published case of endocarditis caused by H. segnis. The patient, a 76-year-old female did not recover until after 2 courses of ampicillin given for a total of 57 days. In the second course...

  20. Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella among humans in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andoh, Linda Aurelia; Ahmed, Shabana; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2017-01-01

    .6%), ampicillin (57.1%), sulfamethoxazole (46.4%), chloramphenicol (33.9%), and ciprofloxacin (25.0%). The most common resistance pattern of multi-resistant serovars was to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, sulphonamide, and trimethoprim. S. Enteritidis (18/43) strains reacted with typing phages but did not conform...... to any phage type with PT14B and PT4 as predominant definitive phage types. Six S. Typhimurium strains reacted but did not conform to any recognized phage type while seven were non-typable. The predominant definitive phage types were DT1 and DT22. PFGE patterns of human S. Enteritidis were closely...

  1. [In vitro activity of 16 antimicrobial agents against Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, J A; García-García, M I; García-Sánchez, E; García-Sánchez, J E; Muñoz Bellido, J L

    1989-12-01

    Campylobacter pylori has been associated with the etiology of gastritis and duodenal ulcer. It has been shown that several drugs, among them a variety of antimicrobials, eliminate C. pylori from gastric mucosa at least for a time, resulting in an improvement of the patients' symptoms. The activity of 16 antimicrobials (ampicillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, imipenem, aztreonam, tigemonam, erythromycin, vancomycin, nalidixic acid, colistin , norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, difloxacin, ofloxacin and perfloxacin) was tested against 30 clinical isolates of C. pylori. The antimicrobials showing the highest activity were ampicillin, imipenem and ciprofloxacin, followed by cefazolin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, aztreonam, tigemonam, erythromycin and difloxacin. Nalidixic acid, colistin and vancomycin were virtually ineffective against C. pylori.

  2. [Comparison of antimicrobial resistance pattern of selected respiratory tract pathogens isolated from different animal species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettstein, K; Frey, J

    2004-09-01

    The antibiotic resistance pattern of respiratory tract pathogens isolated of different animal species suffering from respiratory tract diseases has been investigated by antibiograms performed by agar diffusion test. The results show that the resistance situation in Switzerland is favourable compared with studies from other countries. However, high resistance rates were found in certain species: 61% of Streptococcus spp. were resistant to erythromycin and 44% to tetracycline, 59% of Bordetella bronchiseptica were resistant to ampicillin and 50% of Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica were multiresistant to tetracycline, ampicillin and streptomycine. The gram negative isolates were widely resistant to streptomycine.

  3. Effect of electron irradiation and packaging atmosphere on the survival of Aeromonas hydrophila in minced poultry meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecchini, M.L.; Sarais, I.; Del Torre, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti, Udine (Italy); Fuochi, P.G. [Istituto FRAE-CNR, Bologna (Italy)

    1995-10-01

    Resistance to electron irradiation of Aeromonas hydrophila inoculated in minced poultry meat packed in presence of air or under vacuum was examined. Surviving bacteria were counted on starch ampicillin agar containing 100 {mu}g/ml of ampicillin. Radiation resistance, expressed as D{sub 10} values, was calculated from the survival curves and found to be 0.12 and 0.14 kGy in poultry meat packed in air or under vacuum respectively. Storage at 2{sup o}C of meat samples irradiated at 0.5 kGy further reduced the number of A. hydrophila. (Author).

  4. Zero-magnetic field effect in pathogen bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creanga, D.E.; Poiata, A.; Morariu, V.V.; Tupu, P.

    2004-01-01

    Two lots of Gram-negative bacterial strains were tested for antibiotic drug resistance after exposure to zero-magnetic field. We found that the magneto-sensitive strains represent half of the analyzed samples (three Pseudomonas and five Enterobacter strains), some of them presenting two-three times modified resistance to antibiotic, while others revealed eight or 16 times changed resistance. Pseudomonas strain magnetic sensitivity is revealed better by ampicillin and tetracycline, while Enterobacter strain magnetic sensitivity is revealed better by ampicillin, kanamycin and ofloxacin

  5. Zero-magnetic field effect in pathogen bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creanga, D. E.; Poiata, A.; Morariu, V. V.; Tupu, P.

    2004-05-01

    Two lots of Gram-negative bacterial strains were tested for antibiotic drug resistance after exposure to zero-magnetic field. We found that the magneto-sensitive strains represent half of the analyzed samples (three Pseudomonas and five Enterobacter strains), some of them presenting two-three times modified resistance to antibiotic, while others revealed eight or 16 times changed resistance. Pseudomonas strain magnetic sensitivity is revealed better by ampicillin and tetracycline, while Enterobacter strain magnetic sensitivity is revealed better by ampicillin, kanamycin and ofloxacin.

  6. UJI KEPEKAAN BAKTERI Escherichia coli HASIL ISOLASI DARI URIN PASIEN RUMAH SAKIT Dr. Sardjito TERHADAP ANTIBIOTIK GOLONGAN -LAKTAM

    OpenAIRE

    harnanik, Sri; Mulyaningsih, Sri; Triastuti, Asih

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACTUncontrolled use of antibiotic caused the emergence of bacteria strain resistant toward of antibiotic. The sensitivity assay of E. coli toward -lactam antibiotic has been done. The sensitivity assay was started with isolated bacteria from patients urine at Dr. Sardjito hospital followed by count total of colony/number of germ which growth and identified the bacteria. The Kirby Bauer method was performed. Antibiotic impregnated disk (ampicillin 30 g, sulbactam/ampicillin 20 g, cefot...

  7. Effect of electron irradiation and packaging atmosphere on the survival of Aeromonas hydrophila in minced poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecchini, M.L.; Sarais, I.; Del Torre, M.; Fuochi, P.G.

    1995-01-01

    Resistance to electron irradiation of Aeromonas hydrophila inoculated in minced poultry meat packed in presence of air or under vacuum was examined. Surviving bacteria were counted on starch ampicillin agar containing 100 μg/ml of ampicillin. Radiation resistance, expressed as D 10 values, was calculated from the survival curves and found to be 0.12 and 0.14 kGy in poultry meat packed in air or under vacuum respectively. Storage at 2 o C of meat samples irradiated at 0.5 kGy further reduced the number of A. hydrophila. (Author)

  8. Effect of electron irradiation and packaging atmosphere on the survival of aeromonas hydrophila in minced poultry meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecchini, M. L.; Sarais, I.; Del Torre, M.; Fuochi, P. G.

    1995-02-01

    Resistance to electron irradiation of Aeromonas hydrophila inoculated in minced poultry meat packed in presence of air or under vacuum was examined. Surviving bacteria were counted on starch ampicillin agar containing 100 μg/ml of ampicillin. Radiation resistance, expressed as D 10 values, was calculated from the survival curves and found to be 0.12 and 0.12 kGy in poultry meat packed in air or under vacuum respectively. Storage at 2°C of meat samples irradiated at 0.5 kGy further reduced the number of A. hydrophila.

  9. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IV fluids 16 6.4. Others” 13 5.2. Total 251 100. Others**: antihelimenths, CVS drugs and Bronchodilators. Crystalline penicillin, gentamicine and ampicilline were the most commonly used antibiotics. Fursemide VitaminA were frequently used diuretics and vitamins respectively (Table 4). #TTN= Crystalline peniciſm * Percent.

  10. ISSN 2073 ISSN 2073 9990 East Cent. Afr. J. s 9990 East Cent. Afr.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp 630 Dual Core

    received tetanus prophylaxis and oral antibiotics. The antibiotic prescribed was either. Ampiclox or Ampicillin. Table 2. Treatment Given at KNH for Patients who ..... Short Practice of Surgery, 22nd Edition page 24 25, published by Arnold. 15. Malcolm W. Marks, Charles Marks : Fundamentals of Plastic Surgery, W.B..

  11. 154 ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    teicoplanin, gentamicin, streptomycin, linezolid, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, doxycycline, nitrofurantoin, erythromycin and rifampin. More than 50% of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin, rifampin and doxycycline. E-test. M.I.C confirmed 12 out of 34 strains to be intermediately resistant to vancomycin.

  12. Carriage, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and genetic diversity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All isolates were susceptible to nitrofurantoin and linezolid and resistant in high numbers (194, 81.9%) to ampicillin. Resistances to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole were below 20%. The overall prevalence of MRSA among ...

  13. To tilfaelde af neonatal meningitis efter indførelse af nyt gentamicinregime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Anne Sofie; Fenger-Grøn, Jesper; Møller, Jens Kjølseth

    2016-01-01

    Neonates with suspected or proven sepsis are treated with ampicillin and until recently with 5 mg gentamicin/kg every 24 h. New guidelines recommend the same gentamicin dose, but with longer intervals depending on gestational age. Two neonates receiving gentamicin every 48 h improved initially, b...

  14. Comparative Study on The Potency of Antibiotic Discs With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our results showed that antibiotics disc was more effective than the commercially sold antibiotics and that both organisms were resistant to Ampicillin but susceptible to Gentamicin and. Ciprofloxacin. Keywords: Potency, Antibiotics, Disc Isolates, Urinary tract. INTRODUCTION. The urinary system is structured in a way that.

  15. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of the gene encoding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    Jun 7, 2010 ... synthase (crtB), phytoene desaturase (crtL) and lycopene cyclase. (crtY). It also retains a chloramphenicol resistance gene. Cells of E. coli containing this plasmid produce and accumulate β-carotene, resulting in yellow colonies. The plasmid, pTrc-ATIPI, retains an ampicillin resistance gene and an IPI gene ...

  16. Occurrence of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes, and distribution of enterococcal clonal complex 17 from animals and human beings in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ka Hee; Hwang, Sun Young; Moon, Bo Youn; Park, Young Kyung; Shin, Sook; Hwang, Cheol-Yong; Park, Yong Ho

    2012-09-01

    Enterococci are major zoonotic bacteria that cause opportunistic infections in human beings and animals. Moreover, pathogenic strains can be disseminated between human beings and animals, particularly companion animals that come into frequent contact with people. Recently, Enterococcus faecium clonal complex 17 (CC17) has emerged as a pandemic clone. Most CC17 strains are ampicillin resistant and possess virulence genes such as esp and hyl. Despite the possible dissemination of CC17 between human beings and animals, prevalence data about CC17 in animals is limited. In the present study, the phenotypes and genotypes of antimicrobial resistance were compared, as well as virulence gene profiles from 184 enterococci strains isolated from chickens, pigs, companion animals, and human patients in Korea. Ampicillin-resistant E. faecium (AREF) strains were selected, and multilocus sequence typing was performed to investigate the dispersion of CC17 among animals and human beings. The companion animal and human isolates showed high resistance rates to ampicillin and ciprofloxacin, whereas food animal isolates showed high tetracycline and erythromycin resistance rates. Ampicillin-resistant E. faecium was only detected in human (21/21 E. faecium, 100%) and companion animal (3/5 E. faecium, 60%) isolates, and all human AREF strains and 1 canine AREF strain were confirmed as CC17. In conclusion, the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes, and the distribution of enterococcal CC17 in companion animal enterococcal strains were similar to those of human strains rather than to those of food animal strains.

  17. Multi-antibiotics-resistance plasmid profile of enteric pathogens in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Klebsiella pneumoniae 100% sensitive to peflacine and Enterococcus faecalis 100% sensitive to ciprofloxacin and augmentin. Most of the isolates were least sensitive to cotrimoxazole, ampicillin, erythromycin gentamicin, streptomycin and chloramphenicol. The resistance plasmids to the various isolates were very diverse ...

  18. Yersinia enterocolitica in the Western Cape*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both our Yersinia strains were sensitive to ampicillin, strep- tomycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, erythromycin, kanamycin, neomycin, furazolidone, gentamicin, cephalo- sporin and trimethoprimjsulphamethoxazole, but resistant to novobiocin 30 Jig when tested with the disc technique. As was found by other workers, both ...

  19. Antibiotic resistance profiles and relatedness of enteric bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-04-16

    Apr 16, 2007 ... Antibiotic resistance profiles and the correlation of enteric bacterial pathogens from HIV positive indivi- duals with and ... from the various study cohorts showed multiple antibiotic resistance to penicillin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin .... chose to work closely with support groups, NGOs and HIV care-.

  20. Novel genic microsatellite markers from Cajanus scarabaeoides and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ligation mix was used to transform chemically compe- tent XL1-Blue Escherichia coli cells (Stratagene, La Jolla,. USA). The transformants were spread on LB agar plates con- taining 100 mg/mL ampicillin and 30 mg/mL tetracycline for direct picking. Ovenight-grown white colonies (recombinant clones) were picked up ...

  1. Molecular flexibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ribosome ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-11-06

    -G,. E. coli LJ14 (frrts) cells were transformed with pTrcMtEF-G and pACDHMtRRF mutants. Independent colonies were grown to saturation at 30°C, streaked out on LB agar plates containing either ampicillin (100 μg/mL) and ...

  2. Multiple antibiotic resistance indices of Aeromonas hydrophila ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth, isolation and characterization of Aeromonas hydrophila was accomplished using Rimler-Shotts agar medium which had been infused with ampicillin supplement for 24 hours and incubated at 37oC and appropriate biochemical tests. Ten positive isolates (AH1-AH10) were subjected to culture and sensitivity test ...

  3. In vitro interaction between caffeine and some penicillin antibiotics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vitro interaction of some penicillins (amoxicillin, ampicillin and benzylpenicillin) and caffeine against Staphylococcus aureus. Method: The interaction between the penicillins and caffeine was studied using the Overlay Inoculum Susceptibility Disc (OLISD) method. Minimum ...

  4. Dissemination and genetic support of broad-spectrum beta-lactam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (100 μg/ml). Transformation experiments were carried out by using E. coli DH5α as the recipient as previously described31,36. Transformants were selected on Luria-Bertani medium agar plates supplemented with ampicillin (100 mg/ml). Transformants were subjected to DDST to confirm the presence of ESBL genes and ...

  5. The use of near infrared spectroscopy in the quality control laboratory of the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plugge, W; van der Vlies, C

    1992-01-01

    The suitability of NIR spectroscopy as an alternative to several compendial test methods is discussed. Using ampicillin trihydrate as an example it is demonstrated that eight quality criteria are controlled by recording the NIR spectrum of a batch sample and calculating its Conformity Index.

  6. Antibiograms of Bacillus cereus isolates from some Nigerian Foods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    resistance to penicillin G (82%), cefotaxime (56.7%), ceftriaxone (53.3%) and ampicillin (44%) were most frequent, whereas isolates were least resistance to tetracycline (6.7%) nalidixic acid (3%) and gentamicin (1%). The predominant antimicrobial resistance patterns irrespective of food source were cefotaxime, penicillin, ...

  7. CONGENITAL SYPHILIS IN AN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-12-12

    Dec 12, 2003 ... for its control with the wide-spread use of penicillin was initiated in the early 1950s, it still remains a serious ... during pregnancy of copious yellowish, foul smelling discharge per vaginum and genital ulcers ... grew non-haemolytic streptococcus; sensitive to penicillin, tetracycline, ampicillin, gentamycin and.

  8. Prevalence of group B Streptococcus colonization among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Group B Strepthococcus (GNS), risk factors, Antibiotic susceptibility, Ethiopia 39. Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2012;26(1). The susceptibility pattern of 29 GBS isolated from pregnant women against 10 antimicrobial agents is presented in Table 3. All strains were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin and gentamicin.

  9. the prevalence and resistivity pattern of staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uwaifoh

    2012-12-31

    Dec 31, 2012 ... saline, human plasma, crystal violet, lugol's iodine, acetone, neutral red, Bunsen burner, sensitivity discs. (Methicillin, Tetracycline, Ciprofloxacin and Ampicillin). Nasal and ear swabs were collected from 50 males (25 ear and 25 nasal swabs) and 50 females (25 ear and 25 nasal swabs) and examined.

  10. NJP Vol 39 no 3

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2012-02-17

    Feb 17, 2012 ... Shigella species, and Proteus vul- garis. Aeromonas spp was not iso- lated. Pathogenic E. coli was more prevalent among pupils aged 11 to. 15 years. The susceptibility of E. coli to commonly used antibiotics. (such as tetracycline and ampicillin) was 70% for. Augmentin, ofloxacin and ...

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgamb, E. Vol 93, No 8 (2016) - Articles Treatment of shigella infections: why sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, tetracyclines and ampicillin should no longer be used. Abstract. ISSN: 0012-835X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Shigella isolates in Awassa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High rate of resistance was particularly documented against the following antibiotics: ampicillin (93%), erythromycin (90%), and tetracycline (90%). Fifty-six percent of Shigella flexneri Group B isolates were found to be resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, which is one of the drugs of choice for treating shigellosis is ...

  13. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of methicillin-resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk and soft cheese (wara) sold in Abeokuta, Nigeria. ... (100%), ampicillin 16 (94.1%), doxycycline 11 (64.7%), tetracycline 17 (100%), oxacillin 15 (88.2%), augmentin 17 (100%), gentamycin 15 (88.2%), colistin 15 (88.2%), ...

  14. An Outbreak of Bacteremic Campylobacter jejuni Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    hospitalized for suspect appendi- their family members, regarding exposures; (c) citis. None received antimicrobial therapy. Kirby-Bauer (1) antibiotic ...the 2 isolates to the including sensitivity to ampicillin, colistin , chlor- bactericidal activity of human serum A, 5); and amphenicol, kanamycin...confer transmission. Consumers typically do not cook serum resistance . Such strains are more likely to this food after purchase, and refrigeration should

  15. Vom work Book Journal, 2011 2nd Edition Victor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    SUMMARY. Various anaesthetic agents have been used to relieve pain during surgical procedures and are normally followed by antibiotic cover to guard against secondary bacterial infection. This study was aimed at determining the effect of thiopentone anaesthesia on plasma disposition of ampicillin sodium in rabbits.

  16. Comparative in vitro activity of piperacillinl tazobactam against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the agents, with the exception of ampicillin (MIC90 4 mg/l) and chloramphenicol (MIC90 4 mg/l), were highly active against the Haemophilus influenzae isolates tested. All Bacteroides fragilis strains were susceptible to piperacillinllazobaclam (MIC90 8/4 mgll), as well as 10 co-amoxiclav (MIC90 4/2 mg/I), biapenem and ...

  17. Epidemiological and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of infectious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... These pathogens had 100% resistance to amoxicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline and cotrimoxazole. No difference existed in isolation rates among different age groups, educational status, gender, water drank, use of chlorine, toilet use, exposure at home to diarrhoea patient, hand washing with soap and ...

  18. A novel Listeria monocytogenes-based DNA delivery system for cancer gene therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    van Pijkeren, Jan Peter

    2012-01-31

    Bacteria-mediated transfer of plasmid DNA to mammalian cells (bactofection) has been shown to have significant potential as an approach to express heterologous proteins in various cell types. This is achieved through entry of the entire bacterium into cells, followed by release of plasmid DNA. In a murine model, we show that Listeria monocytogenes can invade and spread in tumors, and establish the use of Listeria to deliver genes to tumors in vivo. A novel approach to vector lysis and release of plasmid DNA through antibiotic administration was developed. Ampicillin administration facilitated both plasmid transfer and safety control of vector. To further improve on the gene delivery system, we selected a Listeria monocytogenes derivative that is more sensitive to ampicillin, and less pathogenic than the wild-type strain. Incorporation of a eukaryotic-transcribed lysin cassette in the plasmid further increased bacterial lysis. Successful gene delivery of firefly luciferase to growing tumors in murine models and to patient breast tumor samples ex vivo was achieved. The model described encompasses a three-phase treatment regimen, involving (1) intratumoral administration of vector followed by a period of vector spread, (2) systemic ampicillin administration to induce vector lysis and plasmid transfer, and (3) systemic administration of combined moxifloxacin and ampicillin to eliminate systemic vector. For the first time, our results reveal the potential of Listeria monocytogenes for in vivo gene delivery.

  19. Isolation rates and antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The annual proportions of E. coli isolates that were susceptible to. Ampicillin, Teracycline and Streptomycin were generally average and showed a general decline over the years though this was not obviously consistent. The annual proportions of Streptococci isolates were moderately sensitive to all the antimicrobials ...

  20. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the bacterial isolates, resistance to anti- biotics differed markedly. For instance, 52.0% of E. coli were resistant to ampicllin, whereas. 10.0% were resistant to gentamicin, 70.7% of. Enterobacter sp. were resistant to ampicillin, followed by streptomycin (63.4%), tetracycline. (56.1%) and the least resistance was to cefo-.

  1. Antibiotic Resistance in Salmonella sp and Escherichia coli Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strains of Salmonella sp and E. coli isolated were significantly resistant to gentamicin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, streptomycin, cefixine and ampicillin. Resistance to gentamicin was the least with 33-71% in Salmonella sp and 25-80% in E. coli. The level of drug resistance in these organisms is ascribed to ...

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility and occurrence of resistance genes among Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden from different countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Lertworapreecha, M.; Evans, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    and gentamicin. All nine ampicillin-resistant isolates contained a sequence similar to the bla(TEM-1b) gene, one of the eight chloramphenicol-resistant isolates a sequence similar to the catA1 gene, all three neomycin-resistant isolates a sequence similar to the aphA-2 gene, 16 (73%) of the 22 streptomycin...

  3. Specific mutation of transglutaminase gene from Streptomyces ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wenjie Wan

    2017-09-20

    Sep 20, 2017 ... mobaraenis has been widely used in the food industry to improve the functional properties of food products ... other non-food applications (Zhu and Tramper 2008; Heck et al. 2013). Several attempts have been .... liliters of this culture were added to 100 mL of LB medium containing 100 lg/mL ampicillin and ...

  4. Accelerated Stability Studies of Three Local Drug Products Prone to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three locally manufactured drug products, Aspirin 300 mg tablets, Chloramphenicol 250 mg capsules and Ampicillin Trihydrate 500 mg capsules, obtained from three production batches, were exposed to storageconditions maintained at 40 °C and 75% relative humidity (RH) in a stability chamber. The products were ...

  5. Functional analysis of a gene encoding homoserine kinase from rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    1Faculty of Biotechnology, Jeju National University, Jeju, 690-756, Korea. 2Department of Agronomy, Hajee .... was purified from a pellet harvested from a liquid culture containing ampicillin (Amp), the ORF of OsHSK was .... and genomic approches to improve the value of plant foods and feeds. Critical Rev. Plant Sci.

  6. Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, North West

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    METHODS: This laboratory based retrospective study of wound swabs was conducted in the microbiology department at Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory from September 2003 to June 2008. Wound swabs were collected using ... Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. (NCCLS) (10) against Ampicillin ...

  7. Isolation, identification and antimicrobial suscep- tibility profiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (HIMEDIA M111A, India), Methyl red-Voges-Proskauer (HIMEDIA M070, In- dia) broth and then incubated for 24 to 48 hrs at ... of eleven antimicrobials. amoxicillin (AML). (25 μg), ampicillin (AMP) (10 μg), cefoxitin (FOX) (30 μg), chloramphenicol (C) ..... Evolution of host adaptation in. Salmonella enterica. Infect. Immun., 66 ...

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zaria with urethritis and cervicitis were screened for their susceptibility pattems against eight antibiotics, using the agar diffusion plate method. Antibiotic susceptibility testing. Pure Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates were screened against eight antibiotics made up of: penicillin G. (2.4meg), ampicillin (10 meg), tetracycline (10.

  9. Evaluation of Microbial Contaminants and Antibiogram of Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Susceptibility studies revealed that Staphylococcus and Streptococcus isolates were all resistant to all the six antimicrobial agents used; while Bacillus species and E. coli were susceptible to tetracycline and penicillin but were resistant to Ampicillin, Streptomycin, Gentamicin and Erythromycin. The Clostridium species were ...

  10. [Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans endocarditis. A case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansky, G; Russi, E

    1981-07-25

    A case of subacute endocarditis caused by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is reported. After successful treatment with ampicillin and tobramycin, the destroyed aortic valve was replaced and a communication between an aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva and the right atrium was closed. A further 23 well documented cases from the literature are reviewed.

  11. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJP

    2015-03-17

    Mar 17, 2015 ... Resistance to commonly used antibiotics is high such that ampicillin is no longer recommended as an empiric treatment. Ciprofloxacin or the third generation cephalosporins are now the drug of choice. Key words: Shigellosis, shigellaemia, immunosuppression, enteric symptoms, blood culture, empiric ...

  12. Study of Shigella Vaccines in Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-15

    Guatemala, 1969. J. Infect. Dis. 122:170, 1970. 5. Gangarosa, E.J., Perera, D.R., Mata , L.J., eta t : Epidemic Shiga bacillus Dysentery in Central... Salvador . Am. j. Trap. Med. and Hyg. 20:934, 1971. 8. Rahcman, M.M., Hucj, I., Dey, C.R., ot a!: Ampicillin-Res;stant Shiga bacillus in Bangladesh

  13. Elimination of high-refined-sugar diet as treatment strategy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the potency of ampicillin in altering gut flora in the presence of a high-sucrose diet in rat pups, and to determine its effect on selected neurotransmitters and a cytokine as markers of the persistent autistic features repeatedly induced in orally administered propionic acid rat pups.. Methods: ...

  14. Evaluation of eight different cephalosporins for detection of cephalosporin resistance in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarestrup, Frank M; Hasman, Henrik; Veldman, Kees; Mevius, Dik

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of eight different cephalosporins for detection of cephalosporin resistance mediated by extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC beta-lactamases in Salmonella and Escherichia coli. A total of 138 E. coli and 86 Salmonella isolates with known beta-lactamase genes were tested for susceptibility toward cefoperazone, cefotaxime, cefpodoxime, cefquinome, ceftazidime, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, and cefuroxime using minimum inhibitory concentration determinations and disc diffusion. The collection consisted of 84 ampicillin-susceptible, 57 ampicillin-resistant but cephalosporin-susceptible, 56 ESBL isolates and 19 isolates with plasmidic AmpC, as well as 10 ampC hyper-producing E. coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration distributions and zone inhibitions varied with the tested compound. Ampicillin-resistant isolates showed reduced susceptibility to the cephalosporins compared to ampicillin-susceptible isolates. Cefoperazone, cefquinome, and cefuroxime were not useful in detecting isolates with ESBL or plasmidic AmpC. The best substances for detection were cefotaxime, cefpodoxime, and ceftriaxone, whereas ceftazidime and ceftiofur were not as efficient. Ceftriaxone may be the recommended substance for monitoring because of some ability in separating ampC hyper-producing E. coli from ESBL and plasmidic AmpC isolates.

  15. To tilfaelde af neonatal meningitis efter indførelse af nyt gentamicinregime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Anne Sofie; Fenger-Grøn, Jesper; Møller, Jens Kjølseth

    2016-01-01

    , but both deteriorated again before the second dose. In both infants ampicillin-resistant but gentamicin-sensitive Escherichia coli was found. In one of the infants a resistant/less sensitive E. coli strain was also found in the cerebrospinal fluid. The rationale for the new dosing guidelines is discussed....

  16. Bacteriological quality of some pharmaceutical products marketed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriological quality of some pharmaceutical products purchased from open markets, buses and drug stores in Uyo metropolis was studied in order to determine the level of contamination of the drugs. The drug samples examined were Tetracycline capsules, Paracetamol tablets, Ampicillin capsules, Chloroquine tablets, ...

  17. A prospective study on Aeromonas in outpatients with diarrhea in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline de Campos Prediger

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas spp. were identified in five (2,7% of 182 diarrheal stool cultures, A. caviae was predominant, resistant mainly to ampicillin and cephalotin. This is the first study showing the presence of Aeromonas spp. in diarrheal stools of outpatients in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

  18. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility of Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo isolated from cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, J F; Nicholson, V M

    1988-01-01

    The susceptibility to commonly used drugs of 18 isolates of Leptospira hardjo from the kidneys of feedlot cattle from different sources was determined quantitatively. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin G, ampicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin and streptomycin. Susceptibility to sulphamethazine was ambiguous. No drug resistance was detected and the results were similar to those described for other serovars. PMID:3370565

  19. The baboon syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hjorth, N; Menné, T

    1984-01-01

    The catchword "baboon syndrome" is used to denote a characteristic distribution pattern of systemic allergic contact dermatitis. Diffuse erythema of the buttocks, upper inner surface of the thighs, and axillae are characteristic features. We describe 3 cases provoked by ampicillin, nickel...

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility to azithromycin among Salmonella enterica isolated from the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to emerging resistance to traditional antimicrobial agents such as ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol, azithromycin is increasingly used for the treatment of invasive Salmonella infections. In the present study, 696 isolates of non-Typhi Salmonella collected from human...

  1. Bacterial isolates of tonsillitis and pharyngitis in a paediatric casualty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BHS and S. aureus showed 100% sensitivity to cefuroxine, azithromycin, ceftazidine and genticin. All the isolates had little or no sensitivity to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. BHS is a significant cause of pharyngitis and tonsillitis in our environment and therefore poses a potential danger of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart ...

  2. EDITORIAL Listeriosis outbreak in South Africa: Are we winning the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    outbreak has topped the charts as the largest outbreak in history. The first reported case of the current outbreak of listeriosis was in January. 2017. On 27 Feb 2018, the ... in the processed meat sections of food retailers and butcheries, should be ... antibiotics, primarily ampicillin and gentamicin, to which the organism is ...

  3. Bacteriology of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pre-school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faecalis) while the remaining 3 specimens yielded Proteus species (6%), staphylococcus pyogenes (6%) and Micrococcus (6%) respectively. There was 100% resistance of the E. Coli, staphylococcus pyogenes (staph. Pyogenes) and proteus species to Ampicillin, while there was 100% sensitivity of all the organisms to ...

  4. GLOBAL JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCES VOL 15, NO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    Ps.aeruginosa was susceptible to gentamicin and colistin and resistant to streptomycin, ampicillin, nalidixic acid, cotrimoxazole and nitrofuratoin. These true and opportunistic pathogens may pose a health risk to the immuno- comprised patients visiting the dental clinic for surgery and other dental procedures. KEY WORDS: ...

  5. High-density fecal Enterococcus faecium colonization in hospitalized patients is associated with the presence of the polyclonal subcluster CC17

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Garbajosa, P.; de Regt, M.; Bonten, M.; Baquero, F.; Coque, T. M.; Canton, R.; Harmsen, H. J. M.; Willems, Rob J. L.

    Enterococcus faecium belonging to the polyclonal subcluster CC17, with a typical ampicillin-resistant E. faecium (AREfm) phenotype, have become prevalent among nosocomial infections around the world. High-density intestinal AREfm colonization could be one of the factors contributing to the

  6. Neonatal septicaemia in low birth weight infants at Kenyatta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The common organisms isolated were gram negative organisms 60 (66.6%), while gram positive organisms were 30 (33.4%). Antibiotic sensitivity revealed high resistance to ampicillin and good sensitivity to aminoglycosides, third generation cephalosporins, clavulanic acid potentiated amoxycillin and chloramphenicol.

  7. Comparative in vitro susceptibilities of eight Enterobacter species, with special reference to Enterobacter sakazakii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muytjens, H L; van der Ros-van de Repe, J

    1986-01-01

    An agar dilution method was used to measure the MICs of 29 antimicrobial agents against Enterobacter sakazakii, E. cloacae, E. aerogenes, E. agglomerans, E. amnigenus, E. gergoviae, E. intermedium, and E. taylorae (formerly Enteric Group 19). E. sakazakii was the most susceptible species. Results showing resistance to ampicillin are likely to exclude E. sakazakii. PMID:3636109

  8. Etiology of Acute, Non-Malaria, Febrile Illnesses in Jayapura, Northeastern Papua, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    resistance and unnecessary mor- bidity and mortality. There are limited data on the epidemiology of other febrile illnesses in Papua. Scrub typhus...to commonly prescribed, first-line antibiotics in Indonesia, e.g., chloramphenicol, ampicillin, amoxicillin , and cotrimoxazole. 21 All S...aureus isolates were methicillin sensitive. No multidrug- resistant E . coli and K . pneumoniae were isolated. All patients were treated with

  9. Prevalence of Asymptomatic Genital Infection among Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the isolates except Streptococcus faecalis were resistant to ampicillin. These results show a high rate of asymptomatic genital tract infections among pregnant women in Benin City, which have implications for adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. (Afr J Reprod Health 2002; 6[3]: 93-97) Résumé Prévalence de ...

  10. A Survey of Antibiotic Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Strains from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains from clinical specimens was carried out. A total of 100 different clinical specimens were investigated with a yield of 48 Staphylococcus aureus isolates. A high resistance of 95.8% to penicillin, 89.6% to ampicillin, 87.5% to tetracycline, and 75.0% to ...

  11. Antimicrobial sensitivity and resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from natural samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavarao Thirtham

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To test the sensitivity of S. Enteritidis for selected antibiotics. Materials and Methods: S. Enteritidis isolates obtained from different samples of chicken, mutton, turkey meat, faecal and cloacal samples of poultry and turkey, eggs, water and feed were subjected for sensitivity and resistance to selected antibiotics like- Chloramphenicol (30μg, Gentamicin (10 μg, Nalidixic Acid (30 μg, Tetracycline (30 μg, Ciprofloxacin (5 μg, Amikacin (30 μg, Amoxicillin (25 μg, Ampicillin (10 μg, Streptomycin (10 μg and Sulfonamide (30 μg. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was established by the disk diffusion assay with MH (Muller-Hinton agar in accordance with French National Antibiogram Committee Guidelines. Results: The sensitivity of S. Enteritidis was 100% for ciprofloxacin followed by chloramphenicol and amikacin (96%, gentamycin (90%, amoxicillin (82%, streptomycin (80%, tetracycline (76%, nalidixic acid (68%, ampicillin (58% and sulfonamide (10%. The resistance was highest for sulfonamide (76% followed by ampicillin (32%, nalidixic acid (30% and 6-20% for gentamycin, amoxicillin and tetracycline. Conclusion: S. Enteritidis isolates were more sensitive to ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, amikacin, gentamycin, streptomycin,amoxicillin and tetracyclines and less sensitive to sulfonamides. Higher resistance was observed with sulfonamide followed by ampicillin and nalidixic acid. [Vet World 2013; 6(4.000: 185-188

  12. Temperature sensitivity of the penicillin-induced autolysis mechanism in nongrowing cultures of Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Kusser, W; Ishiguro, E E

    1987-01-01

    The effect of incubation temperature on the ampicillin-induced autolysis of nongrowing Escherichia coli was determined. The autolysis mechanisms in amino acid-deprived relA mutant cells treated with chloramphenicol were temperature sensitive. This temperature-sensitive autolysis was demonstrated in three independent ways: turbidimetric determinations, viable cell counts, and solubilization of radiolabeled peptidoglycan.

  13. Antimicrobial Activity of the Leaves of Endemic Stachys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selected antibacterial agents (penicillin, tobramycin and ampicillin) and antifungal agents (nystatin, clotrimazole and ketoconazole) antibiotics were used as positive reference standards in the tests. Results: The extracts showed strong antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus ATCC 7064, with an inhibition zone of 25.0 ...

  14. Antifungal and antibacterial effects of some acrocarpic mosses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the number of microorganism affected. Tortella tortuosa (Hedw.) Limpr. only has effect on Candida albicans ATCC 16231 strain. All the results were compared with standard antibiotic discs, ketoconazole (50 ìg), ampicillin (10 ìg), eritromycin (15 ìg) and vancomycin (30 ìg). Key words: Moss, acrocarpous, antimicrobial ...

  15. Occurrence of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli from wastewater in the United States: A retrospective analysis of isolates from 2005 (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. coli isolates from primary and secondary effluents collected from seven WWTPs between 2003 and 2004 were recovered and then screened using one of four antibiotics (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim). We now report on the testing of a sub...

  16. Occurrence of Carbapenem-Resistant Escherichia Coli from Wastewater in the United States: a Retrospective Analysis of Isolates from 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. coli isolates from primary and secondary effluents collected from seven WWTPs between 2003 and 2004 were recovered and then screened using one of four antibiotics (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim). We now report on the testing of a sub...

  17. Perceived Barriers and Opportunities to the Linkage of Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown User

    treatment for many urinary tract infections, antibiotic-resistant strains of bacterial species commonly ... isolates were resistant to aminopenicillins (ampicillin and amoxicillin) and to trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole ...... study was an indication that carbapenems resistance is yet to be fully established in species of the family of ...

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of selected bacteraemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extended-spectrum 13-lactamase (ESBL) production was determined in selected species of Enterobacteriaceae irrespective of source. Results. The overall prevalence of ampicillin resistance in blood culture isolates of E. coli (N = 471) was 84%, and 20% were resistant to the fluoroquinolones. Considerable geographical ...

  19. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence determinants in European Salmonella genomic island 1-positive Salmonella enterica isolates from different origins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beutlich, J.; Jahn, S.; Malorny, B.; Hauser, E.; Hühn, S.; Schroeter, A.; Rosario Rodicio, M.; Appel, B.; Thelfall, J.; Mevius, D.J.; Helmuth, R.; Guerra, B.

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) contains a multidrug resistance region conferring the ampicillin-chloramphenicol-streptomycin-sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline resistance phenotype encoded by bla(PSE-1), floR, aadA2, sul1, and tet(G). Its increasing spread via interbacterial transfer and the

  20. Demonstrating Effectiveness of Antibiotics Against Known Bacteria Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Lois M.

    1977-01-01

    Procedures are described for showing the effectiveness of antibiotics (penicillin, ampicillin, and tetracycline) against a nonpathogenic bacteria strain (Bacillus cereus). Methods are outlined for preparing nutrient agar, sterilizing tubes, pouring agar plates, preparing antibiotic discs, and transferring antibiotic discs to agar plates. (CS)

  1. Kinetics of enzyme acylation and deacylation in the penicillin acylase-catalyzed synthesis of beta-lactam antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkema, WBL; de Vries, E; Floris, R; Janssen, DB

    Penicillin acylase catalyses the hydrolysis and synthesis of semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotics via formation of a covalent acyl-enzyme intermediate. The kinetic and mechanistic aspects of these reactions were studied. Stopped-flow experiments with the penicillin and ampicillin analogues

  2. Synthesis of 2-amino-4H-chromene derivatives under microwave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    teria and antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger,. Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizopus. Nutrient agar and potato dextrose were used to culture the bacteria and fungus, respectively. The compounds were tested at. 1000 ppm in Dimethylformamide (DMF) solution. Ciprofloxacin, Ampicillin and Griseofulvin were used.

  3. Epidemiological and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of infectious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These pathogens had 100% resistance to amoxicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline and cotrimoxazole. No difference existed in isolation rates among different age groups, educational status, gender, water drank, use of chlorine, toilet use, exposure at home to diarrhoea patient, hand washing with soap and location of residence.

  4. Characterization of copper resistant ciliates: Potential candidates for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-17

    Aug 17, 2011 ... water and soil pollution. Accumulation of these metals in wastewater depends on ... saccharides (Scott and Palmer, 1988), biosynthesis of metallothioneins and other proteins (Robinson et al., .... Three antibiotics viz., ampicillin (25 µg/ml), chloramphenicol. (35 µg/ml), and gentamycin (25 µg/ml) were added ...

  5. Preliminary in vitro and in vivo characterizations of a sol–gel derived ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    SEM of the implanted site after 24 weeks revealed good osteointegration of the material with the newly formed bone and host ... allografts have the high risk of transmission of infections, fracture and non-union, high cost and .... 2.4c Post operative care: The wound was dressed with neosporin and ampicillin and cloxicillin 50 ...

  6. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was no statistical correlation between the incidence of C. jejuni in diarrheic faeces and non-diarrheic faeces. Rate of resistance of C. jejuni and C. coli to six regularly used antibiotics in human and veterinary campylobacteriosis; ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, ampicillin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid and erythromycin were ...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1130 - Hetacillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... ampicillin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000010 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in dogs and cats—(1) Amount—(i) Dogs. Administer 5 mg per pound (/lb) of body weight orally, twice daily. In severe...

  8. Evaluation of the MicroScan MICroSTREP plus antimicrobial panel for testing β-hemolytic streptococci and viridans group streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Ju; Uh, Young; Jang, In Ho; Lee, Kwan Soo; Park, Soon Deok; Yoon, Kap Jun

    2011-07-01

    In order to determine the clinical usefulness of the MicroScan (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, USA) MICroSTREP plus antimicrobial panel (MICroSTREP) for testing antimicrobial susceptibility of β-hemolytic streptococci (BHS) and viridans group streptococci (VGS), we compared the accuracy of MICroSTREP with that of the CLSI reference method. Seventy-five BHS and 59 VGS isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility to ampicillin, penicillin, cefotaxime, meropenem, erythromycin, clindamycin, levofloxacin, and vancomycin by using MICroSTREP and the CLSI agar dilution method. The overall essential agreement with regard to minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (within ±1 double dilution) between MICroSTREP and the CLSI reference method was 98.2%, and categorical agreement (CA) was 96.9%. For the BHS isolates, the CA for erythromycin was 96.0%, whereas that for cefotaxime, meropenem, levofloxacin, and vancomycin (for ampicillin, penicillin, and clindamycin; 98.7%) was 100%. For the VGS isolates, the CA for penicillin was 84.7% and that for erythromycin, clindamycin, and vancomycin (for meropenem, 86.5%; for ampicillin, 88.1%; and for cefotaxime and levofloxacin, 96.6%) was 100%. All categorical errors of penicillin and ampicillin in the VGS isolates were minor. The accuracy of MICroSTREP is comparable to that of the CLSI reference method, suggesting that this panel can be effective for testing antimicrobial susceptibility of BHS and VGS.

  9. ISSN 2073-9990 East Cent. Afr. J. s 9990 East Cent. Afr. J. s

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Kakande

    undocumented APGAR scores. Following birth she was diagnosed with Meconium Aspiration Syndrome after meconium was sucked out of her oropharynx after delivery and had respiratory distress. She was put on IV. Ampicillin and Gentamycin and was later referred to Black Lion Hospital neonatal intensive care unit when.

  10. Manipulation of the gut microbiota in C57BL/6 mice changes glucose tolerancewithout affecting weight development and gut mucosal immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gunilla Veslemöy; Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis; Hufeldt, Majbritt Ravn

    2012-01-01

    glucose intolerance reminiscent of human T2D. We hypothesized that antibiotic treatment in C57BL/6 mice would have an impact on glucose tolerance without affecting weight and gut immunology. When compared to mice treated with erythromycin or the controls, treatment for five weeks with ampicillin improved...

  11. Afican Health Sciences Vol 9 No 3.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    All Campylobacter isolates were sensitive to erythromycin, and 20% had intermediate resistance to Ampicillin. Conclusion: Campylobacter spp are prevalent among children with acute diarrhea in Kampala- Uganda. A large multicenter study should be undertaken so that the extent of campylobacter infection in our setting ...

  12. Subinhibitory concentrations of cell wall synthesis inhibitors promote biofilm formation of Enterococcus faecalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen; Hallinen, Kelsey; Wood, Kevin

    Enterococcus faecalis are commonly associated with hospital acquired infections, because they readily form biofilms on instruments and medical devices. Biofilms are inherently more resistant to killing by antibiotics compared to planktonic bacteria, in part because of their heterogeneous spatial structure. Surprisingly, however, subminimal inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of some antibiotics can actually promote biofilm formation. Unfortunately, much is still unknown about how low drug doses affect the composition and spatial structure of the biofilm. In this work, we investigate the effects of sub-MICs of ampicillin on the formation of E. faecalis biofilms. First, we quantified biofilm mass using crystal violet staining in polystyrene microtiter plates. We found that total biofilm mass is increased over a narrow range of ampicillin concentrations before ultimately declining at higher concentrations. Second, we show that sub-MICs of ampicillin can increase mass of E. faecalis biofilms while simultaneously increasing extracellular DNA/RNA and changing total number of viable cells under confocal microscopy. Further, we use RNA-seq to identify genes differentially expressed under sub-MICs of ampicillin. Finally, we show a mathematical model to explain this phenomenon. This work was funded by The Hartwell Foundation Individual Biomedical Research Award and NSF CAREER 1553208 to KBW.

  13. Ecological replacement of Enterococcus faecalis by multiresistant clonal complex 17 Enterococcus faecium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Top, J.; Willems, R.; Blok, H.; de Regt, M.; Jalink, K.; Troelstra, A.; Goorhuis, B.; Bonten, M.

    2007-01-01

    The proportion of enterococcal infections caused by ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (AREfm) in a European hospital increased from 2% in 1994 to 32% in 2005, with prevalence rates of AREfm endemicity of up to 35% in at least six hospital wards. Diabetes mellitus, three or more admissions in

  14. Metabolic complications in the small intestine syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Rafael; Orozco, Reynaldo

    2000-01-01

    Metabolic complications in the syndrome of small intestine is presented in a patient of masculine sex, 27 years old, who consulted for a square of inflammation gingival, migraine, fever, anorexia and adinamia for three days, followed by maculopapular-eritematose eruption for 8 days, coincident with the ampicillin ingestion, and later on severe abdominal pain and diarrhea

  15. A Carbenicillin R Factor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of 64 carbenicillin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains 40 transferred this resistance to Escherichia coli. R factor RP-638 isolated from Ps. aeruginosa strain 638 conferred resistance to ampicillin, carbenicillin, kanamycin, neomycin and tetracycline. This R factor was transferred at frequencies 01 10-7 to 10-4 between ...

  16. Transmission Electron Microscopic Study of Antibiotic Action on Klebsiella pneumoniae Biofilm

    OpenAIRE

    Zahller, Jeff; Stewart, Philip S.

    2002-01-01

    The penetration of ampicillin and ciprofloxacin through biofilms formed by Klebsiella pneumoniae was confirmed by transmission electron microscopic observation of antibiotic-affected cells at the distal edge of the biofilm. Because the bacteria nevertheless survived antibiotic treatment, some protective mechanism other than inadequate penetration must have been at work in the biofilm.

  17. Obstetric and neonatal outcomes after preterm premature rupture of membranes among women carrying group B streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganor-Paz, Yael; Kailer, David; Shechter-Maor, Gil; Regev, Rivka; Fejgin, Moshe D; Biron-Shental, Tal

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate whether carriers of group B streptococcus (GBS) have adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes when preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) occurs. In a retrospective study, data were reviewed for women with a singleton pregnancy and PPROM before 34 weeks who attended the Meir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Israel, between 2005 and 2012. All women received roxithromycin for 1 week, and ampicillin until GBS culture results were available. Ampicillin was continued to 1 week if the GBS culture was positive. The primary study outcome measure was the latency period (time from rupture of membranes to active/induced labor). Among 116 eligible patients, 21 (18.1%) were GBS carriers and 95 (81.9%) noncarriers. The latency period was 11.2 ± 18.1 days for GBS carriers versus 7.5 ± 9.6 days for noncarriers (P=0.93). However, there was a correlation between the length of ampicillin treatment and the latency period (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.7; Poutcomes. GBS carriers with PPROM did not have adverse outcomes. Longer treatment with ampicillin among GBS carriers prolonged the latency period. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Elimination of high-refined-sugar diet as treatment strategy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As gastrointestinal conditions and eating problems are common in autism, diet might represent a link between environmental and neurobiological factors and thus may play a role in the pathways leading to the etiology of this disorder. The impact of PPA, ampicillin treatment and a high-sucrose diet on the alteration of brain.

  19. Adsorptive property of kaolin in some drug formulations | Onyekweli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of kaolin on the physical properties of the tablets were examined and compared with those of standard lubricants like magnesium stearate and talc. Chloroquine and chlorpheniramine tablets and powders of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid oral powder and ampicillin/cloxacillin injection were also mixed with and ...

  20. Biochemical characterization of a cefotaxime- hydrolysing β ... - AJOL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... in 2005, the Enterobacter cloacae BW 1150 strain was isolated from a stool culture. This strain was ... concentrations values showed that this strain was resistant to the β-lactams such as ampicillin and the extended ..... Outbreak of Infection Caused by Enterobacter cloacae Producing the. Novel VEB-3 ...

  1. The current pollution status of the new Calabar river in the Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    nickel, lead, mercury and iron. Antibiogram of bacterial isolates from the water samples were sought using the disk diffusion method. Results showed multiple antibiotic resistance patterns among the bacterial isolates. The levels of resistance exhibited by the isolates to specific antibiotics were: Ampicillin 66.7%, Rifampicin ...

  2. Subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics affect stress and virulence gene expression in Listeria monocytogenes and cause enhanced stress sensitivity but do not affect Caco‐2 cell invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gitte Maegaard; Holch, Anne; Gram, Lone

    2012-01-01

    with promoter fusions, 14 of 16 antibiotics induced or repressed expression of one or more stress and/or virulence genes. Despite ampicillin‐induced up‐regulation of PinlA‐lacZ expression, Caco‐2 cell invasion was not affected. Subinhibitory concentrations of ampicillin and tetracycline caused up‐ and down...

  3. Antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The resistance pattern of the 55 S. aureus isolates showed that all the isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Multidrug resistance was detected in 96.4% of the isolates. All the S. aureus were resistant to penicillin 55 (100.0%) rates of resistance to ampicillin (90.9%; n=50), tetracycline (81.8%; n=45) and ...

  4. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) colonization was 9% and it was only isolated from clinical students and HCWs. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that 90.5% of the 63 strains isolated from all volunteers were ampicillin resistant. Three multi-resistant strains to three antibiotics or more were identified; two from ...

  5. Antimicrobial resistance among invasive Haemophilus influenzae strains: results of a Brazilian study carried out from 1996 through 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casagrande S.T.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1712 strains of Haemophilus influenzae isolated from patients with invasive diseases were obtained from ten Brazilian states from 1996 to 2000. ß-Lactamase production was assessed and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone and rifampin were determined using a method for broth microdilution of Haemophilus test medium. The prevalence of strains producing ß-lactamase ranged from 6.6 to 57.7%, with an overall prevalence of 18.4%. High frequency of ß-lactamase-mediated ampicillin resistance was observed in Distrito Federal (25%, São Paulo (21.7% and Paraná (18.5%. Of the 1712 strains analyzed, none was ß-lactamase negative, ampicillin resistant. A total of 16.8% of the strains were resistant to chloramphenicol, and 13.8% of these also presented resistance to ampicillin, and only 3.0% were resistant to chloramphenicol alone. All strains were susceptible to ceftriaxone and rifampin and the MIC90 were 0.015 µg/ml and 0.25 µg/ml, respectively. Ceftriaxone is the drug of choice for empirical treatment of bacterial meningitis in pediatric patients who have not been screened for drug susceptibility. The emergence of drug resistance is a serious challenge for the management of invasive H. influenzae disease, which emphasizes the fundamental role of laboratory-based surveillance for antimicrobial resistance.

  6. On the natural and laboratory evolution of an antibiotic resistance gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, M.L.M.

    2008-01-01

    TEM-1 ß-lactamase is one of the most notorious antibiotic resistance enzymes around. It exists at high frequencies in antibiotic-resistant bacteria around the world and confers resistance to ß-lactam antibiotics, including penicillins (e.g. ampicillin) and cephalosporins. The enzyme displays a

  7. Single-dose compared with multiple day antibiotic prophylaxis for cesarean section in low-resource settings, a randomized controlled, noninferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westen, Esther H M N; Kolk, Pascal R; van Velzen, Christine L; Unkels, Regine; Mmuni, Nicholaus S; Hamisi, Alex D; Nakua, Ritha E; Vlek, Anne L M; van Beekhuizen, Heleen J

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of a single prophylactic dose of ampicillin combined with metronidazole to prevent postcesarean section infections compared with a multiple day regimen in low-resource settings. An evaluator-blinded randomized, controlled, noninferiority trial. Two rural hospitals in Tanzania. Of 181 enrolled eligible women with an indication for cesarean section, information on 176 was analyzed by intention-to-treat. The women were randomly assigned to either the intervention group who received a single dose of ampicillin and metronidazole, or to the control group who received a multiple-day regimen of ampicillin/amoxicillin and metronidazole. The primary outcome was maternal postcesarean infection. Secondary outcomes were severity of these infections, other maternal complications, and the duration of hospital stay. In the intervention group (n = 89), six women (6.7%) developed a wound infection compared with nine (10.3%) in the control group (n = 87) (difference 3.60; 95% CI -4.65 to 11.85) (p = 0.40). A single dose of prophylactic ampicillin and metronidazole is equally effective as a multiple-day regimen in preventing postcesarean wound infections in low-resource settings, therefore it can be considered as a good strategy in low-resource settings. The reduced quantity of prophylactic antibiotics will reduce costs without increasing the risk of maternal infection. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. associated with keratitis.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-02-23

    Feb 23, 2004 ... ampicillin (25.0 lug) and tetracycline (50.0 pig). The plates were then incubated for 24 hours at 35 °C. The zones of inhibition indicating the susceptibility of the organisms to the antibiotics were then observed and measured. Olajuyigbe and Awoniyi: Antibiotic susceptibility of keratitis bacteria. Results.

  9. Construction and analysis of a suppression subtractive hybridization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... PCR amplification was performed using Taq DNA polymerase (TaKaRa, Dalian, China) and 5 µl ... mixture was then, transformed into Escherichia coli DH5a cells and cultured on LB media containing ampicillin and ..... He XQ, Tian ZH (2008). Analysis on terminal enzyme and atpase activities between cms ...

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 301 - 350 of 498 ... Vol 34, No 2 (2013), Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Pasteurella Multocida Isolated from Dead Poultry in Jos, Plateau State, Abstract PDF ... Vol 32, No 2 (2011), Plasma Disposition of Ampicillin following Thiopentone Sodium Anaesthesia in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculi), Abstract PDF.

  11. 842-IJBCS-Article-Victor Olugbue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    High resistance was recorded for caftazidime, ceftizoxime, nalidixic acid, ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ... respiratory tract. Respiratory tract infection is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ... has been reported little change in mortality for more than five decades (Mizgerd, 2008). Respiratory ...

  12. Treatment of shigella infections: why sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and one (1.3%) were Yersinia enterocolitica. Shigella isolates had high resistance to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (97%), tetracycline (83.6%) ampicillin (58.2%) and chloramphenicol (20.9%). The isolates showed low resistance to nalidixic (4.5%) and ciprofloxacin (3.0%) while there was no resistance to ceftriaxone.

  13. Antibiotic sensitivities of common bacterial pathogens in urinary tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the total isolates 71.5% were Gram negatives. Sensitivity tested against ten antibiotics showed that resistance was common, and the effectiveness of tetracycline, ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol and penicillin was under 50.0%. The resistance rate was 71.5%, 62.2%, and 62.2%, 54.7% and 40.8%, respectively ...

  14. Candidatus phytoplasma asteris

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... bacteria (Moko disease), causing serious economic losses. Amongst them, the banana bunchy top .... Following transformation of. Escherichia coli strain DH5α cells, the white colonies on LB plate containing appropriate amount of ampicillin antibiotic, X-gal (5- bromo 4-chloro-3 indolyl-β-D-galactoside) and ...

  15. Fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) promoter as a candidate for genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-26

    Dec 26, 2011 ... Seeds harvested from the transformed plants were treated with 70% ethanol for 60 s, then with 1% Sodium ... (MS) medium containing 100 mg·L-1 kanamycin, 50 mg·L-1 ampicillin, and the resistant plants were obtained. Bacterial strain, plasmid, and Agrobacterium infection. The specific primers for FAE1 ...

  16. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transformed into macrophages that phagocytize debris as well as .... wound penetrators are ampicillin, penicillin, the cephalosporins, .... Wound infection has three main constituents: (l) bacterial inoculum, (2) bacterial nutrition, and (3) impaired host resistance. The risk of wound infection varies according to the following.

  17. Overexpression and characterization of a thermophilic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-06-08

    Jun 8, 2012 ... Vibrio vulnificus is a Gram negative marine bacterium that is pathogenic to both human and marine ... broth and ampicillin (100 µg/ml) was added when it was necessary. Cloning of the PLase gene. The PLase gene of V. ... transformed into E. coli MC1061. Putative PLase clones were isolated based on ...

  18. Download

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yakoub@AHMED

    Two ampicillin/vancomycin resistant A. hydrophila isolates oř .... particular antibiotic was used to inoculate each concentration and growth oř bacteria was .... original and transformed isolates. Aeromonas Isolates. Plasmid Size ( Kbp ) Conc.( g/mL). /Purity. MIC. Mother Cell. ( g/mL). Transformed E.coli. A. +ydrophila 25. 32.

  19. Quantitative Recovery of Aeromonas hydrophila from Nsukka Sewage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. hydrophila had a recovery rate of 35.3%, 44.4%, 10.7% and 9.6% on starchampicillin agar, sheep blood-ampicillin agar, trypticase soy agar and thiosulphate citrate bile-sucrose agar respectively. Seasonal variations in temperature affected the rate of isolation of Aeromonas hydrophila from the sewage with higher ...

  20. Multiresistant Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- in Europe: a new pandemic strain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopkins, K.L.; Kirchner, M.; Guerra, B.; Granier, A.; Lucarelli, C.; Porrero, M.C.; Jakubczak, A.; Threlfall, J.; Mevius, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    A marked increase in the prevalence of S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- with resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines (R-type ASSuT) has been noted in food-borne infections and in pigs/pig meat in several European countries in the last ten years. One hundred and

  1. Engineering Complex Microbial Phenotypes with Continuous Genetic Integration and Plasmid Based Multi-gene Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-09

    damage in Afur mutants. The Fur protein regulates iron uptake and Superoxide dismutase...stress tolerance over published studies Improvement of tolerant platform strains for production strain development Aggregate Fully Folded Protein f Unfolded Peptide ^ CIpB Partially Folded/ Misfolded Protein ...Ampicillin. Objective la: Screen genomic libraries for resistance to oxidative stress Owing to their high toxicity and associated DNA damage ,

  2. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT STRAINS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND ENTEROCOCCUS SPP. IN ROE DEER (CAPREOLUS CAPREOLUS AND RED DEER (CERVUS ELAPHUS AT THE PARCO NAZIONALE DEI MONTI SIBILLINI, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pisano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A case control study was performed in the Parco Nazionale dei Monti Sibillini, Italy, to find out whether roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and red deer (Cervus elaphus were more likely to harbour antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in their faeces, compared to Enterococcus spp. Ten areas were selected and samples were collected during a fourmonths (May to August, 2008 sampling period. Samples of water (n=12 and feces (n=59, collected at 10 different sites, were cultured for E. coli and Enterococcus spp. The resulting colonies were screened for tetracycline, ampicillin and kanamycin resistance using the Lederberg Replica Plating method (breakpoint 4 μg/ml. All resistant isolates were then selected, and subjected to the CLSI antimicrobial plate susceptibility test (7. Among the water specimens contaminated by E. coli, 80% were found to be resistant to ampicillin, 80% to tetracycline and 40% to kanamycin. Among the water specimens contaminated by Enterococcus spp., 14.29% were found to be resistant to ampicillin, 14.29% to tetracycline and 71.3% to kanamycin. Among the 39 strains of E. coli isolated from red deer feces, 12 were resistant to ampicillin (30.77%, 5 to tetracycline (12,82% and 3 to kanamycin (7.69%. Among the 19 strains of Enterococcus spp. isolated from red deer feces, 0 were resistant to ampicillin (0%, 1 to tetracycline (5.26% and 19 to kanamycin (100. These are significant findings, indicating that antibiotic resistance can be found in naïve animal populations and that red deer and fallow deer could act as sentinels for antimicrobial resistance. Key words Antibiotic-resistance, red deer, fallow deer, Escherichia

  3. Antibiotic Choice for Children Hospitalized With Pneumonia and Adherence to National Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Derek J; Edwards, Kathryn M; Self, Wesley H; Zhu, Yuwei; Ampofo, Krow; Pavia, Andrew T; Hersh, Adam L; Arnold, Sandra R; McCullers, Jonathan A; Hicks, Lauri A; Bramley, Anna M; Jain, Seema; Grijalva, Carlos G

    2015-07-01

    The 2011 national guidelines for the management of childhood community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) recommended narrow-spectrum antibiotics (eg, ampicillin) for most children hospitalized with CAP. We assessed the impact of these guidelines on antibiotic prescribing at 3 children's hospitals. Children hospitalized with clinical and radiographic CAP were enrolled from January 1, 2010, through June 30, 2012, at 3 hospitals in Tennessee and Utah as part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community study. Antibiotic selection was determined by the treating provider. The impact of the guidelines and hospital-level implementation efforts was determined by assessing the monthly percentage of enrolled children receiving third-generation cephalosporins or penicillin/ampicillin. Segmented linear regression was used to compare observed antibiotic selection in the postguideline period with expected antibiotic use projected from preguideline months. Overall, 2121 children were included. During the preguideline period, 52.8% (interquartile range 47.8-56.6) of children with CAP received third-generation cephalosporins, whereas 2.7% (2.1, 7.0) received penicillin/ampicillin. By 9 months postguidelines, third-generation cephalosporin use declined (absolute difference -12.4% [95% confidence interval -19.8% to -5.1%]), whereas penicillin/ampicillin use increased (absolute difference 11.3% [4.3%-18.3%]). The most substantial changes were noted at those institutions that implemented guideline-related dissemination activities. After publication of national guidelines, third-generation cephalosporin use declined and penicillin/ampicillin use increased among children hospitalized with CAP. Changes were more apparent among those institutions that proactively disseminated the guidelines, suggesting that targeted, hospital-based efforts are important for timely implementation of guideline recommendations. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of

  4. Zinc Finger Nuclease: A New Approach to Overcome Beta-Lactam Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi Dastjerdeh, Mansoureh; Kouhpayeh, Shirin; Sabzehei, Faezeh; Khanahmad, Hossein; Salehi, Mansour; Mohammadi, Zahra; Shariati, Laleh; Hejazi, Zahra; Rabiei, Parisa; Manian, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) has been accelerated recently by the indiscriminate application of antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance has challenged the success of medical interventions and therefore is considered a hazardous threat to human health. The present study aimed to describe the use of zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology to target and disrupt a plasmid-encoded β-lactamase, which prevents horizontal gene transfer-mediated evolution of ARBs. An engineered ZFN was designed to target a specific sequence in the ampicillin resistance gene (amp(R)) of the pTZ57R plasmid. The Escherichia coli bacteria already contained the pZFN kanamycin-resistant (kana(R)) plasmid as the case or the pP15A, kana(R) empty vector as the control, were transformed with the pTZ57R; the ability of the designed ZFN to disrupt the β-lactamase gene was evaluated with the subsequent disturbed ability of the bacteria to grow on ampicillin (amp) and ampicillin-kanamycin (amp-kana)-containing media. The effect of mild hypothermia on the ZFN gene targeting efficiency was also evaluated. The growth of bacteria in the case group on the amp and amp-kana-containing media was significantly lower compared with the control group at 37°C (P ampicillin resistance by the targeted disruption of the ampicillin resistance gene, which leads to inactivation of β-lactam synthesis. Therefore, ZFN technology could be engaged to decrease the antibiotic resistance issue with the construction of a ZFN archive against different ARGs. To tackle the resistance issue at the environmental level, recombinant phages expressing ZFNs against different ARGs could be constructed and released into both hospital and urban wastewater systems.

  5. Neonatal bloodstream infections in a Ghanaian Tertiary Hospital: Are the current antibiotic recommendations adequate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appiah-Korang Labi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis of bloodstream infections (BSI in neonates is usually difficult due to minimal symptoms at presentation; thus early empirical therapy guided by local antibiotic susceptibility profile is necessary to improve therapeutic outcomes. Methods A review of neonatal blood cultures submitted to the microbiology department of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital was conducted from January 2010 through December 2013. We assessed the prevalence of bacteria and fungi involved in BSI and the susceptibility coverage of recommended empiric antibiotics by Ghana Standard Treatment guidelines and the WHO recommendations for managing neonatal sepsis. The national and WHO treatment guidelines recommend either ampicillin plus gentamicin or ampicillin plus cefotaxime for empiric treatment of neonatal BSI. The WHO recommendations also include cloxacillin plus gentamicin. We described the resistance profile over a 28-day neonatal period using multivariable logistic regression analysis with linear or restricted cubic splines. Results A total of 8,025 neonatal blood culture reports were reviewed over the four-year period. Total blood culture positivity was 21.9 %. Gram positive organisms accounted for most positive cultures, with coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS being the most frequently isolated pathogen in early onset infections (EOS (59.1 % and late onset infections (LOS (52.8 %. Susceptibility coverage of early onset bacterial isolates were 20.7 % to ampicillin plus cefotaxime, 32.2 % to the combination of ampicillin and gentamicin, and 71.7 % to cloxacillin plus gentamicin. For LOS, coverage was 24.6 % to ampicillin plus cefotaxime, 36.2 % to the combination ampicillin and gentamicin and 63.6 % to cloxacillin plus gentamicin. Cloxacillin plus gentamicin remained the most active regimen for EOS and LOS after exclusion of BSI caused by CoNS. For this regimen, the adjusted odds of resistance decreased between 12-34 % per day from

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Riemerella anatipestifer strains isolated from geese and ducks in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuris, Éva; Wehmann, Enikő; Czeibert, Katalin; Magyar, Tibor

    2017-06-01

    Riemerella anatipestifer causes anatipestifer disease in many avian species. A total of 185 R. anatipestifer strains isolated in Hungary between 2000 and 2014 from geese and ducks were tested against 13 antibiotics (ampicillin, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, flumequine, gentamicin, penicillin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim, sulphonamide compounds, and tetracycline) by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The majority of the strains were susceptible to florfenicol (97.9%), ampicillin (95.1%), penicillin (93%), sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (92.4%), and spectinomycin (86.5%). The highest resistance rates were observed for flumequine, tetracycline, erythromycin and streptomycin (94%, 91.4%, 75.1% and 71.4% resistance, respectively). The resistance patterns showed some variation depending on the geographical origin of the strains. The average rate of extensive drug resistance was 30.3%, and its proportion tended to increase in the period examined.

  7. Effect of a combination of antimicrobial agents for the treatment of respiratory disease in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, T; Sakai, J; Ogata, Y; Urushiyama, Y

    1996-08-01

    Clinical effect of the administration of thiamphenicol (TP) and tylosin (TS) on bovine respiratory disease was investigated. Group I (n = 64) were administered TP (10 mg/kg) and TS (4 mg/kg), group II (n = 26) were given TP (5 mg/kg) and TS (2 mg/kg). For the control, TP group (n = 25) were given 20 mg/kg of TP and ampicillin group (n = 23) were given 10 mg/kg of ampicillin. As a result, improvement of clinical findings was more rapid and the cure rate was significantly higher in group I compared to those in the other 3 groups. These results showed that a combination therapy with minimal basic doses of TP and TS is very effective for some respiratory diseases in cattle.

  8. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance patterns and class 1 integrons in Escherichia coli O26 isolated from humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Velusamy; Gillespie, Barbara E; Nguyen, Lien T; Headrick, Susan I; Murinda, Shelton E; Oliver, Stephen P

    2007-03-01

    Antimicrobial resistance patterns and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance genes and class 1 integrons in 35 Escherichia coli O26 isolated from humans and food-producing animals were evaluated. All isolates were resistant to cefaclor, cefalothin and sulfonamide and were susceptible to amikacin, gentamicin, cefmetazole, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and trimethoprim. Most isolates were resistant to aztreonam, ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin and kanamycin. All ampicillin- and streptomycin-resistant E. coli O26 carried ampC and strA-strB gene sequences, respectively. Florfenicol- and chloramphenicol-resistant isolates carried floR but not cmlA. Class1 integrons were identified in 14% of E. coli O26 isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the presence of multiple antimicrobial resistance genes in E. coli O26 isolated from human and animal origins.

  9. Factors determining the passage of drugs from blood into saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, K W; McCrossan, J; Mackenzie, D; Macfarlane, C B; Speirs, C F

    1980-01-01

    1. Following single oral dosing of ampicillin, cephalexin, tetracycline, erythromycin estolate, clindamycin and rifampicin to six normal volunteers, antibacterial activity was measured at 1, 3 and 6 h in serum, gingival fluid and minor gland saliva from all subjects and in parotid and submandiabular saliva from three. 2. pH values of all gingival fluid and saliva specimens were noted. 3. Partition coefficients between n-octanol and water were measured for erythromycin, clindamycin and rifampicin. Published data were used for ampicillin, cephalexin and tetracycline. 4. All antibiotics, but particularly rifampicin, were detected in gingival fluid. Only rifampicin and to a lesser degree, clindamycin were present in the other salivary constituents. 5. In studies of secretion of drugs in saliva, both the physico-chemical characteristics of the drugs and the physiological differences between individual salivary components should be considered. 6. Parotid saliva samples are likely to be of greatest value. PMID:7356893

  10. Considering Respiratory Tract Infections and Antimicrobial Sensitivity: An Exploratory Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin, R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to observe the sensitivity and resistance of status of antibiotics for respiratory tract infection (RTI. Throat swab culture and sensitivity report of 383 patients revealed sensitivity profiles were observed with amoxycillin (7.9%, penicillin (33.7%, ampicillin (36.6%, co-trimoxazole (46.5%, azithromycin (53.5%, erythromycin (57.4%, cephalexin (69.3%, gentamycin (78.2%, ciprofloxacin (80.2%, cephradine (81.2%, ceftazidime (93.1%, ceftriaxone (93.1%. Sensitivity to cefuroxime was reported 93.1% cases. Resistance was found with amoxycillin (90.1%, ampicillin (64.1%, penicillin (61.4%, co-trimoxazole (43.6%, erythromycin (39.6%, and azithromycin (34.7%. Cefuroxime demonstrates high level of sensitivity than other antibiotics and supports its consideration with patients with upper RTI.

  11. The use of Listeria monocytogenes as a DNA delivery vector for cancer gene therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tangney, Mark

    2012-01-31

    Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular pathogen that lyses the phagosomal vacuole of infected cells, proliferates in the host cell cytoplasm and can actively enter adjacent cells. The pathogen is therefore well suited to exploitation as a vector for the delivery of DNA to target cells as the lifecycle favors cellular targeting with vector amplification and the potential for cell-to-cell spread. We have recently demonstrated DNA transfer by L. monocytogenes in growing tumors in murine models. Our approach exploited an ampicillin sensitive stain of L. monocytogenes which can be lysed through systemic administration of ampicillin to facilitate release of plasmid DNA for expression by infected mammalian cells. Here, we discuss the implications of this technology and the potential for future improvements of the system.

  12. Stability of antibiotics and amino acids in two synthetic L-amino acid solutions commonly used for total parenteral nutrition in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Andersen, G E

    1978-01-01

    The stability and interaction at 29 degrees C of ampicillin, carbenicillin, gentamicin, and polymyxin B were examined in a common electrolyte solution, invertose darrow, and in two synthetic l-amino acid solutions, one commercial (vamin with fructose; Vitrum) and the other a neonatal preparation...... modified for use in newborn infants. The concentration of amino acids was measured before and after the addition of these antibiotics. The concentration of antibiotics was measured over a 24-h period with a microbiological method. The concentration of ampicillin in invertose darrow fell 52%, and in vamin...... of the penicillins. The concentration of gentamicin and polymyxin B was unchanged in all solutions over a 24-h period. With the exception of cystine, the concentration of all amino acids remained constant after 24 h in the neonatal preparation with and without the different combinations of antibiotics. For cystine...

  13. Increasing incidence of resistance to antimicrobials in Sidamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belihu, A; Lindtjorn, B

    1999-07-01

    This study compares the prevailing sensitivity of bacterial isolates to common antimicrobials during the two-year 1985-87, 1990-92 and 1996-97 periods at Yirga Alem Hospital in southern Ethiopia. All specimens were from patients attending the hospital. We studied 1371 specimens, 337,671 and 363 specimens from the periods 1985-87, 1990-92 and 1996-97, respectively. The study confirms earlier observations of widespread resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Significant increases in the rate of resistance during this thirteen-year period were observed for Neisseria gonorrhoea against erythromycin, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and tetracyclines, for Escherichia coli against ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and for Proteus species against ampicillin. We observed a decrease in the prevalence of resistance for Klebsiella and Proteus species against chloramphenicol.

  14. The resistance to chemotherapeutic agents of Escherichia coli from domestic dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, S; Frost, A J

    1984-03-01

    The prevalence of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in the rectal flora of 168 healthy dogs and 93 cats in the Brisbane area was investigated. Rectal swabs were plated on MacConkey agar with and without antibiotics, and 690 isolates confirmed as faecal E. coli were tested for resistance to tetracycline, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, neomycin, furazolidone and sulphanilamide. Resistant isolates were obtained from 101 (60%) of the dogs and 24 (26%) of the cats sampled. A high percentage of the isolates was resistant to tetracycline, streptomycin, ampicillin and sulphanilamide. Multiple resistance to 3 or more of the drugs was exhibited by the majority of isolates and a total of 31 different multiple resistance patterns was demonstrated. Of the 50 strains tested for transfer of resistance, 30 (60%) transferred some or all of their resistance determinants to an E. coli K12F - recipient.

  15. [Susceptibility to antibiotics of bacteria from genera Micrococcus, Kocuria, Nesterenkonia, Kytococcus and Dermacoccus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczerba, Izabela

    2003-01-01

    Two hundred and nineteen strains from genera Micrococcus, Kocuria, Nesterenkonia, Kytococcus and Dermacoccus isolated from different sources, such as saliva, skin of palm and forearm and from vestibule of nose were tested. The susceptibility to doxycycline, cetriaxone, cefuroxyme, amikacyne, amoksycillin with clavulanic acid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, penicillin and erythromycin were estimated. In general, bacteria from these genera are sensitive to most of selected antibiotics. Most of the strains showed resistance to ampicillin and erythromycin. None of these strains produced beta-lactamases. In infectious caused by bacteria from genera Micrococcus, Kocuria, Nesterenkonia, Kytococcus and Dermacoccus in clinical treatment should be used amoksycillin with clavulanic acid, doxycycline, cetriaxone, cefuroxyme, or amikacine because, with one's own range of activity embrace highest percentage of investigated strains.

  16. Survey of 82 cases of meningitis in infants under 2 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatehi I

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we review 82 infants under two months with bacterial meningitis admitted in Tehran University's hospitals during a 14 year period. Male to female ratio was 1.4 to 1. The patterns of predominance among bacterial pathogens changed during the period of study. During the first six years the most common pathogens were Salmonella-SP., but during the later years E.coli became the predominant pathogen, and also meningitis caused by GBS and Staph. epidermidis was observed. The case fatality rate was 37.8 percent. The antibiogram revealed that E.coli were hundred percent resistant to ampicillin and 50% resistant to gentamicin, 40% of all bacteria isolated were resistant to ampicillin and gentamicin. These findings provide guidelines for the selection of empiric antimicrobial agents in our country

  17. Treatment with Antibiotics that Interfere with Peptidoglycan Biosynthesis Inhibits Chloroplast Division in the Desmid Closterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hiroko; Takechi, Katsuaki; Sato, Hiroshi; Takio, Susumu; Takano, Hiroyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Charophytes is a green algal group closely related to land plants. We investigated the effects of antibiotics that interfere with peptidoglycan biosynthesis on chloroplast division in the desmid Closterium peracerosum–strigosum–littorale complex. To detect cells just after division, we used colchicine, which inhibits Closterium cell elongation after division. Although normal Closterium cells had two chloroplasts before and after cell division, cells treated with ampicillin, D-cycloserine, or fosfomycin had only one chloroplast after cell division, suggesting that the cells divided without chloroplast division. The antibiotics bacitracin and vancomycin showed no obvious effect. Electron microscopic observation showed that irregular-shaped chloroplasts existed in ampicillin-treated Closterium cells. Because antibiotic treatments resulted in the appearance of long cells with irregular chloroplasts and cell death, we counted cell types in the culture. The results suggested that cells with one chloroplast appeared first and then a huge chloroplast was generated that inhibited cell division, causing elongation followed by cell death. PMID:22815801

  18. Agarose gel electrophoretic detection of six beta-lactam antibiotic residues in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, J H; Kiessling, W M; Bond, F L; McCarron, J E; Kreuzer, K S; Hurlbut, J A; Sofos, J N

    1995-01-01

    An electrophoretic method coupled with bioautography was developed for detection and identification of penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxicillin, cloxacillin, cephapirin, and ceftiofur residues in milk. The method uses a 2% agarose gel for electrophoresis, an overlay of PM indicator agar seeded with Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis, and incubation at 55 degrees C for 16-18 h. The new method separated and detected residues in milk at the levels of concern for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for penicillin G (5 ppb), cephapirin (20 ppb), and ceftiofur (50 ppb). The method also detected ampicillin, amoxicillin, and cloxacillin at 20, 30, and 30 ppb, respectively, but these levels are above those of concern for FDA (10 ppb).

  19. A randomised controlled trial of prophylaxis of post-abortal infection: ceftriaxone versus placebo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriques, C U; Wilken-Jensen, C; Thorsen, P

    1994-01-01

    days postoperatively, underwent pelvic examination. Clinical endpoints were noted. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Post-operative pelvic inflammatory disease in women applying for legal first trimester abortion. RESULTS: Seven hundred and eighty-six women fulfilled the criteria for evaluation. A tendency toward...... for legal first trimester abortion, treated peroperatively with ceftriaxone. No significant difference was demonstrated between high risk patients treated with ceftriaxone or ampicillin/pivampicillin and metronidazole. Udgivelsesdato: 1994-Jul......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of post-operative infection after first trimester abortion in women treated with a long-acting cephalosporin (ceftriaxone) compared with low risk patients receiving no treatment and with high risk patients receiving our standard treatment of ampicillin...

  20. Characterisation of recently emerged multiple antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104 and other multiresistant phage types from Danish pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    1998-01-01

    electrophoresis (PFGE) using the restriction enzyme Xba I, Overall, 66 per cent of the 670 isolates were sensitive to all the antimicrobial agents tested. Eleven isolates of S typhimurium were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline and also resistant to other antibiotics in different resistance...... enterica serovar typhimurium (S typhimurium) isolates resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline and three isolates of S typhimurium DT104, two from 1994 and one from 1995, were further tested for resistance against chloramphenicol and sulphonamide and analysed by pulsed-field gel...... patterns. Seven different multiresistant clones were identified, The most common clones were four isolates of DT104 and three isolates of DT193, TWO Of the three S typhimurium DT104 from 1994 and 1995 were sensitive to all the antimicrobials tested whereas the remaining isolate from 1994 was resistant...

  1. Bioactivity of some chemotherapeutic agents in selected polyethylene glycol ointment bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, A; Béla, S; Géza, R; Mohamed, S; Abdei Hadi, I

    1989-03-01

    Six different chemotherapeutic agents were individually incorporated in each of fourteen selected polyethylene glycol ointment bases, and their bioactivities were assessed using different diffusion techniques. The prepared medicated ointments were evaluated for drug release using the standard microbiological agar cup diffusion, the long period method and the short period method, as well as dialysis through artificial kidney membrane. On the basis of consistency, stability and diffusion results, formulation 11 was the most suitable base for ampicillin, formulation 14 for oxytetracycline HCl, formulation 10 and 9 for neomycin sulphate, and preparation 10 for chloramphenicol. On the basis of the results of drug release, it was evident that formulation 3 was the best for ampicillin and chloramphenicol, formulation 2 for erythromycin, formulation 4 for neomycin sulphate, formulation 12 for sulphadimidine, and formulation 14 for oxytetracycline HCl.

  2. Antibiotic Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Goats with Subclinical Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Virdis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance patterns and gene coding for methicillin resistance (mecA were determined in 25 S. aureus and 75 Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS strains isolates from half-udder milk samples collected from goats with subclinical mastitis. Fourteen (56.0% S. aureus and thirty-one (41.3% CNS isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. S. aureus showed the highest resistance rate against kanamycin (28.0%, oxytetracycline (16.0%, and ampicillin (12.0%. The CNS tested were more frequently resistant to ampicillin (36.0% and kanamycin (6.7%. Multiple antimicrobial resistance was observed in eight isolates, and one Staphylococcus epidermidis was found to be resistant to six antibiotics. The mecA gene was not found in any of the tested isolates. Single resistance against β-lactamics or aminoglicosides is the most common trait observed while multiresistance is less frequent.

  3. Characterisation of recently emerged multiple antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104 and other multiresistant phage types from Danish pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    1998-01-01

    electrophoresis (PFGE) using the restriction enzyme Xba I, Overall, 66 per cent of the 670 isolates were sensitive to all the antimicrobial agents tested. Eleven isolates of S typhimurium were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline and also resistant to other antibiotics in different resistance...... patterns. Seven different multiresistant clones were identified, The most common clones were four isolates of DT104 and three isolates of DT193, TWO Of the three S typhimurium DT104 from 1994 and 1995 were sensitive to all the antimicrobials tested whereas the remaining isolate from 1994 was resistant......A total of 670 isolates of Salmonella enterica were isolated from Danish pig herds, phage typed and tested for susceptibility to amoxycillin + clavulanate, ampicillin, colistin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, neomycin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim + sulphadiazine. S...

  4. Prevalence and persistence of potentially pathogenic and antibiotic resistant bacteria during anaerobic digestion treatment of cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Juliana Alves; Silva, Vânia Lúcia; de Oliveira, Tamara Lopes Rocha; de Oliveira Fortunato, Samuel; da Costa Carneiro, Jailton; Otenio, Marcelo Henrique; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo

    2014-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion figures as a sustainable alternative to avoid discharge of cattle manure in the environment, which results in biogas and biofertilizer. Persistence of potentially pathogenic and drug-resistant bacteria during anaerobic digestion of cattle manure was evaluated. Selective cultures were performed for enterobacteria (ENT), non-fermenting Gram-negative rods (NFR) and Gram-positive cocci (GPC). Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined and a decay of all bacterial groups was observed after 60days. Multidrug-resistant bacteria were detected both the influent and effluent. GPC, the most prevalent group was highly resistant against penicillin and levofloxacin, whereas resistance to ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam and chloramphenicol was frequently observed in the ENT and NFR groups. The data point out the need of discussions to better address management of biodigesters and the implementation of sanitary and microbiological safe treatments of animal manures to avoid consequences to human, animal and environmental health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium from humans and production animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; FrimodtMoller, N.

    1997-01-01

    infections contracted outside Denmark, most often in southern Europe or south-east Asia. Resistance in human strains was most common against tetracycline (13%), ampicillin (12%), sulphonamide (12%), streptomycin (10%) and chloramphenicol (8%). The resistance pattern differed somewhat in animal isolates......: Poultry strains were usually resistant only to ampicillin, white pig and cattle isolates were most often resistant to sulphonamide, tetracycline and streptomycin. Typing of the strains showed that some animal strains and human strains were indistinguishable. In conclusion, while antimicrobial resistance......We have studied the frequency of antimicrobial resistance and epidemiological relatedness among 473 isolates of Salmonella enterica subsp, enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) from human and veterinary sources. The human strains were clinical isolates from patients with diarrhoea sent...

  6. US Army Institute of Surgical Research Annual Research Progress Report for Fiscal Year 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    followed by ketamine (15.37%), halothane (8.54%), and isoflurane (5.61%). Due to the nature and combinations of procedures now performed, regional...polymers, and combinations of these have been marketed with fervor in recent years. A great deal of interest has been generated comparing the properties...Azlocillin a 18 Ampicillin 19. Trimeth and Sulfa 19. Norfloxacin 19. Imipenem-Cilastatinb 20. Nalidixic Acid 20. Aztreonam 20. Clindamycina 21

  7. The Reaction of Cyanoacetic Acid Hydrazide with 2-Acetylfuran: Synthesis of Coumarin, Pyridine, Thiophene and Thiazole Derivatives with Potential Antimicrobial Activities

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAREB, Rafat; EL-ARAB, Elham Ezz; EL-SHARKAWY, Karam

    2009-01-01

    The hydrazide-hydrazone derivative 1 was formed through the reaction of cyanoacetic acid hydrazide with 2-acetylfuran. Compound 1 underwent a series of hetrocyclization reactions through its reaction with different chemical reagents to produce arylidene, coumarin, aryl hydrazone, pyridine, thiophene and thiazole derivatives 2–10. The MIC values for the newly synthesized products were tested against E. coli, B. cereus, B. subtilis and C. albicans compared with ampicilline and cycloheximide as ...

  8. Phytochemical analysis and In-vitro Biochemical Characterization of aqueous and methanolic extract of Triphala, a conventional herbal remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Parveen

    2018-03-01

    Results revealed the presence of valuable bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, etc which might be responsible for biochemical activities. Extracts exhibited satisfactory radical-scavenging activity comparable with ascorbic acid. Methanolic extracts demonstrated higher antioxidant activity compared to aqueous extract. Extracts showed promising antibacterial potential against tested strain comparable to ampicillin. Hence, it can be concluded that triphala may be a promising candidate in pharmaceuticals and future medicine.

  9. Pathogenesis and Management of Gonorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    failure outbreaks traced to chromosomally mediated resistance had been reported in North Carolina, Tennessee, New Mexico , and Oregon (6). These mutations...strains but the rapid increase in spectinomycin resistance is troublesome. Ampicillin 3.5 gm or Amoxicillin 3.0 gm given orally with 1 gm of...active adults, the propensity of gonorrhea to remain asymptomatic, the unique epidemiology of the disease and increased antibiotic resistance have all

  10. Studies to Control Endemic Typhoid Fever in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-14

    typhoid fever have been caused by antibiotic resistant S. typi•,-such as in Mexico in the early 1970’s (58) and currently in Peru (59), these organisms...for Chronic Carriers Amoxicillin is an analogue of ampicillin that is extremely well absorbed following oral dosage and is concentrated in the bile...characteristics that make it theoretically ideal for treatment of carriers. We undertook an evaluation of oral amoxicillin (2.0 gm three times daily

  11. Screening of extracts of algae from Baja California Sur, Mexico as reversers of the antibiotic resistance of some pathogenic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Riosmena Rodríguez, Rafael; Martínez Díaz, Sergio Francisco; Zermeño Cervantes, Lina Angélica; Murillo-Álvarez, Jesús Iván; Muñoz Ochoa, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    Sixty ethanol extracts of marine flora of Baja California Sur (Mexico) were screened to evaluate the reversing effect of the bacterial resistance to antibiotics in combination with a sublethal concentration of ampicillin or erythromycin. The activity was assayed by using a modification of the classical agar-diffusion method against 3 resistant, pathogenic bacteria; Escherichia coli (ATCC BAA196), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC BAA42), and Streptococcus pyogenes (ATCC BAA946). From the 60 ethanol...

  12. New insights into virulence mechanisms of rice pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 following exposure to ?-lactam antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Bin; Ge, Mengyu; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Li; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Wang, Yanli; Sun, Guochang; Chen, Gongyou

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown that pathogen virulence can be altered by exposure to antibiotics, even when the growth rate is unaffected. Investigating this phenomenon provides new insights into understanding the virulence mechanisms of bacterial pathogens. This study investigates the phenotypic and transcriptomic responses of the rice pathogenic bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) strain RS-1 to ?-lactam antibiotics especially Ampicillin (Amp). Our results indicate that exposure to A...

  13. Lethal Neonatal Meningoencephalitis Caused by Multi-Drug Resistant, Highly Virulent Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Junaid; Dufendach, Kevin R.; Wellons, John C.; Kuba, Maria G.; Nickols, Hilary H.; G��mez-Duarte, Oscar G.; Wynn, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal meningitis is a rare but devastating condition. Multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria represent a substantial global health risk. We report on an aggressive case of lethal neonatal meningitis due to a MDR Escherichia coli (serotype O75:H5:K1). Serotyping, MDR pattern, and phylogenetic typing revealed that this strain is an emergent and highly virulent neonatal meningitis E. coli isolate. The isolate was resistant to both ampicillin and gentamicin; antibiotics currently used for empiric...

  14. DNA as Genetic Material: Revisiting Classical Experiments through an Easy, Practical Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Malagó

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1928, Frederick Griffith demonstrated a process of transmission of genetic information by transforming  Pneumococcus. In 1944, Oswald Avery, Colin Munro MacLeod and Maclyn McCarty showed that Griffith´stransformation principle  is DNA. Here, we intend to revisit these classicalexperiments by reproducing them in easier adapted forms, for a practical class given to undergraduate students. The Griffith experiment was reproduced by mixing heat-killed, ampicillin - resistant  E. coliwith live ampicillin -susceptible  E. coli, followed by plating samples in the presence or absence of the antibiotic. Cells were also plated separately as control. Avery’s work was reproduced by pre-treating a purified plasmid harboring the ampicillin resistan ce gene with Dnase I. Treated and untreated plasmids were then used to transform  E. colicells, which were plated in culture media containing ampicillin. The students received a class guide with brief theoretical explanations and protocols to perform the experiments. The original papers by Griffith and Avery  et al. were also provided, along with a list of questions to encourage a discussion on the experimental approach and results obtained. The adapted experiments were successful completed and all expected results were obtained in class. Thus the students effectively revisited the classical experiments which revealed that DNA is the genetic material. Also, the class was very well accepted, as indicated by students’ evaluations. Thus, we presented an inexpens ive, quick class involving important concepts, which can be easily reproduced in any laboratory withminor resources.

  15. Factors determining the passage of drugs from blood into saliva.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen, K W; McCrossan, J; Mackenzie, D; Macfarlane, C B; Speirs, C F

    1980-01-01

    1. Following single oral dosing of ampicillin, cephalexin, tetracycline, erythromycin estolate, clindamycin and rifampicin to six normal volunteers, antibacterial activity was measured at 1, 3 and 6 h in serum, gingival fluid and minor gland saliva from all subjects and in parotid and submandiabular saliva from three. 2. pH values of all gingival fluid and saliva specimens were noted. 3. Partition coefficients between n-octanol and water were measured for erythromycin, clindamycin and rifampi...

  16. Two Cases of Vulvovaginitis Caused by Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei: a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bayramoğlu, Gülçin; Aydın, Faruk; Karagüzel, Gülay; İmamoğlu, Mustafa; Ökten, Ayşenur

    2014-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis caused by Shigella species (Shigella spp.) has rarely been reported. This paper describes two cases of prepubertal vulvovaginitis, presenting with a bloody and purulent vaginal discharge, separately caused by ampicillin-resistant Shigella flexneri and trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazoleresistant Shigella sonnei. Our conclusions are that Shigella spp. is the potential cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls in developing countries where these pathogens are endemic, and identifica...

  17. Lysogeny and Bacteriocinogeny in Salmonella, Shigella, Bacillus Pyocyaneus and Neisseria meningitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    dakarem "Blaoterial Species in Septic Abortion in Relation to the Blood Coagulation". 12. Dr. mustapha Pawi Rabie "Study of Antibiotic Resistance in S...Salmonella havana culture showed that it is multiple resistant to: Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol, Streptomycin, Ampicillin, and Sulphanomide. and, sensitive...to: Ka .&mycin, Nalidixic acid, G&Lran’ycin, Cephalothin, Neo- mycin, Colistine sulphate, Polynixin, and Trimethroprino Futner study of thne

  18. Gaining a better understanding of the factors that influence the quality of harvested rainwater in South Africa – a review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malema, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available risk to households using roof-harvested rainwater. Chidamba and Korsten [28] further studied antibiotic resistance in E. coli isolates from rooftop rainwater harvesting tanks and pigeon faeces as pigeons were likely to be the source of faecal..., in all samples, bacterial resistance to ampicillin (22.8%), gentamicin (23.6%), amikacin (24%), tetracycline (17.4%) and amoxicillin (16.9%) were the most frequently encountered forms of antibiotic resistance. A relatively higher proportion...

  19. Bacterial Isolation and their antibiogram from non-specific infection in poultry of Marathwada region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.Siddiqui

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 103 samples of poultry of different age groups of non specific infections were tested. The cultural examination revealed presence of the organisms in descending order E. coli, Staphylococci, Enterobactor, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Streptococci and Klebsiella. Antibiogram of these samples showed Chloramphenicol, Gentamicin and Ampicillin as most effective antibiotics while Doxycycline, Streptomycin and Oxytetracycline are moderately effective. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(2.000: 52-53

  20. Modulating the Gut Microbiota Improves Glucose Tolerance, Lipoprotein Profile and Atherosclerotic Plaque Development in ApoE-Deficient Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Rune

    Full Text Available The importance of the gut microbiota (GM in disease development has recently received increased attention, and numerous approaches have been made to better understand this important interplay. For example, metabolites derived from the GM have been shown to promote atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD, and to increase CVD risk factors. Popular interest in the role of the intestine in a variety of disease states has now resulted in a significant proportion of individuals without coeliac disease switching to gluten-free diets. The effect of gluten-free diets on atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors is largely unknown. We therefore investigated the effect of a gluten-free high-fat cholesterol-rich diet, as compared to the same diet in which the gluten peptide gliadin had been added back, on atherosclerosis and several cardiovascular risk factors in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/- mice. The gluten-free diet transiently altered GM composition in these mice, as compared to the gliadin-supplemented diet, but did not alter body weights, glucose tolerance, insulin levels, plasma lipids, or atherosclerosis. In parallel, other Apoe-/- mice fed the same diets were treated with ampicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic known to affect GM composition. Ampicillin-treatment had a marked and sustained effect on GM composition, as expected. Furthermore, although ampicillin-treated mice were slightly heavier than controls, ampicillin-treatment transiently improved glucose tolerance both in the absence or presence of gliadin, reduced plasma LDL and VLDL cholesterol levels, and reduced aortic atherosclerotic lesion area. These results demonstrate that a gluten-free diet does not seem to have beneficial effects on atherosclerosis or several CVD risk factors in this mouse model, but that sustained alteration of GM composition with a broad-spectrum antibiotic has beneficial effects on CVD risk factors and atherosclerosis

  1. Hepatosplenic Abscesses and Osteomyelitis of the Spine in an Immunocompetent Adult with Cat Scratch Disease

    OpenAIRE

    D. Knafl; F. Lötsch; H. Burgmann; G. Goliasch; W. Poeppl; M. Ramharter; F. Thalhammer; C. Schuster

    2015-01-01

    We present an 18-year-old, immunocompetent Austrian military conscript with cervical lymphadenopathy, fever, back-pain, and persistent inflammation markers despite two weeks of antimicrobial therapy with ampicillin/sulbactam. All specific laboratory investigations for identification of a specific etiology, including blood cultures and autoantibodies, were inconspicuous. Abdominal computed tomography showed multiple hypodense hepatosplenic lesions and osteomyelitis of the thoracic and lumbar s...

  2. Cloning and characterization of the 5' flanking region of microRNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... down-regulation by targeting mRNAs to induce RNA degradation and/or interfering with translation and thus, play key roles in regulating a wide array ... serum, plus 100 u/ml ampicillin and 100 u/ml streptomycin at 37°C with 5% CO2. Within 24 h of passage, cells with more than 70 to. 80% confluence were ...

  3. Differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis

    OpenAIRE

    Maboni,Grazieli; Gressler,Leticia T.; Espindola,Julia P.; Schwab,Marcelo; Tasca,Caiane; Potter,Luciana; Vargas,Agueda Castagna de

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis. Thirty-two strains of Moraxella spp. isolated from cattle and sheep with infectious keratoconjunctivitis were tested via broth microdilution method to determine their susceptibility to ampicillin, cefoperazone, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, oxytetracycline and penicillin. The results demonstrated that Moraxe...

  4. Dental plaque bacteria with reduced susceptibility to chlorhexidine are multidrug resistant

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem, Hafiz Ghulam Murtaza; Seers, Christine Ann; Sabri, Anjum Nasim; Reynolds, Eric Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background Chlorhexidine (CHX) is used in oral care products to help control dental plaque. In this study dental plaque bacteria were grown on media containing 2??g/ml chlorhexidine gluconate to screen for bacteria with reduced CHX susceptibility. The isolates were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and antibiotic resistance profiles were determined using the disc diffusion method. Results The isolates were variably resistant to multiple drugs including ampicillin, kanamycin, gentamici...

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica isolated from food-producing animals, animal feed and food products of animal origin, in Portugal - Genetic analysis of isolates with reduced susceptibility/resistance to third generation cephalosporins and cephamycins

    OpenAIRE

    Clemente, Lurdes; Manageiro, Vera; Jones-Dias, Daniela; Ferreira, Eugénia; Correia, Ivone; Themudo, Patrícia; Albuquerque, Teresa; Caniça, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella is a widely distributed foodborne pathogen and one of the most common causes of bacterial foodborne illnesses in humans. An epidemiologic study was conducted on 1600 Salmonella spp isolates recovered from poultry, swine, other animal species, animal feed and food products of animal origin, over the period of 2009-2013, to determine their serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility to a panel of ten antimicrobials (ampicillin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, trimethopri...

  6. Molecular characterization, spread and evolution of multidrug resistance in Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104

    OpenAIRE

    Cloeckaert, Axel; Schwarz, Stefan

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage type DT104 has emerged during the last decade as a global health problem because of its involvement in diseases in animals and humans. Multidrug-resistant DT104 strains are mostly resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides and tetracyclines (ACSSuT resistance type). The genes coding for such resistances are clustered on the chromosome. This paper reviews new developments in the ...

  7. A Novel Prokaryotic Green Fluorescent Protein Expression System for Testing Gene Editing Tools Activity Like Zinc Finger Nuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzehei, Faezeh; Kouhpayeh, Shirin; Dastjerdeh, Mansoureh Shahbazi; Khanahmad, Hossein; Salehi, Rasoul; Naderi, Shamsi; Taghizadeh, Razieh; Rabiei, Parisa; Hejazi, Zahra; Shariati, Laleh

    2017-01-01

    Gene editing technology has created a revolution in the field of genome editing. The three of the most famous tools in gene editing technology are zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), and CRISPR-associated systems. As their predictable nature, it is necessary to assess their efficiency. There are some methods for this purpose, but most of them are time labor and complicated. Here, we introduce a new prokaryotic reporter system, which makes it possible to evaluate the efficiency of gene editing tools faster, cheaper, and simpler than previous methods. At first, the target sites of a custom ZFN, which is designed against a segment of ampicillin resistance gene, were cloned on both sides of green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene to construct pPRO-GFP. Then pPRO-GFP was transformed into Escherichia coli TOP10F' that contains pZFN (contains expression cassette of a ZFN against ampicillin resistant gene), or p15A-KanaR as a negative control. The transformed bacteria were cultured on three separate media that contained ampicillin, kanamycin, and ampicillin + kanamycin; then the resulted colonies were assessed by flow cytometry. The results of flow cytometry showed a significant difference between the case (bacteria contain pZFN) and control (bacteria contain p15A, KanaR) in MFI (Mean Fluorescence Intensity) ( P fluorescence. Our flow cytometry results showed that this ZFN could reduce the intensity of GFP color and colony count of bacteria in media containing amp + kana versus control sample.

  8. Class 1 Integron-Borne, Multiple-Antibiotic Resistance Encoded by a 150-Kilobase Conjugative Plasmid in Epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1 Strains Isolated in Guinea-Bissau

    OpenAIRE

    Dalsgaard, Anders; Forslund, Anita; Petersen, Andreas; Brown, Derek J.; Dias, Francisco; Monteiro, Serifo; Mølbak, Kåre; Aaby, Peter; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Sandström, Anita

    2000-01-01

    In the 1996–1997 cholera epidemic in Guinea-Bissau, surveillance for antimicrobial resistance showed the emergence of a multidrug-resistant strain of Vibrio cholerae O1 during the course of the epidemic. The strain was resistant to ampicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, furazolidone, aminoglycosides, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole. Concomitant with the emergence of this strain, we observed a resurgence in the number of registered cholera cases as well as an increase in the case fatality ...

  9. Transfer of gut microbiota from lean and obese mice to antibiotic-treated mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Merete; Selfjord, Ellika; Larsen, Christian S.

    2014-01-01

    an antibiotic treatment approach could be used instead. C57BL/6 mice were treated with ampicillin prior to inoculation at weaning or eight weeks of age with gut microbiota from lean or obese donors. The gut microbiota and clinical parameters of the recipients was characterized one and six weeks after...... to conventional antibiotic-treated mice was possible at least for a time period during which the microbiota may permanently modulate important host functions....

  10. 62 original article in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility pattern

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    chloramphénicol (54,2%), à la gentamicine (43,4), à la streptomycine (31,3%) et à la tétracycline (51,8%). L'ampicilline n'a produit aucune zone d'inhibition contre 29 (96,7%) souches provenant d'échantillons cliniques et seulement légèrement inhibées avec une zone d'inhibition de 8mm. Dix-neuf souches ont manifesté ...

  11. Impact of environmental stress desiccation, acidity, alkalinity, heat or cold on antibiotic susceptibility of Cronobacter sakazakii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Osaili, Tareq M; Elabedeen, Noor A Zain; Jaradat, Ziad W; Shaker, Reyad R; Kheirallah, Khalid A; Tarazi, Yaser H; Holley, Richard A

    2011-03-30

    Cronobacter sakazakii is an emerging foodborne pathogen that has been implicated in severe forms of meningitis, septicemia or necrotizing colitis in pre-term neonates. Although illness outbreaks (primarily associated with powdered infant formula, PIF) caused by this pathogen are rare, the case-fatality rate may reach 50%. Successful treatment of C. sakazakii infection is reliant upon clinical use of antibiotics (AB) such as ampicillin. Recent reports showed increased resistance of C. sakazakii to broad-spectrum antibiotics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extreme pH (3.5 for 30 min or 11.25 for 5 min), cold (4°C for 24h), heat (55°C for 5 min), and desiccation (cells were dried at 40°C for 2h and held at 21°C for 4 d) stresses on susceptibility of five isolated strains of C. sakazakii to streptomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, tetracycline, doxycycline, tilmicosin, florfenicol, ampicillin, amoxicillin, vancomycin, ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin. All unstressed strains of C. sakazakii were sensitive to streptomycin, gentamycin, kanamycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, ampicillin and amoxicillin, but were moderately resistant or resistant to the rest. Exposing cells to alkaline or acidic stress did not change their sensitivity toward streptomycin, gentamycin, kanamycin or ciprofloxacin, but their resistance toward the other AB was increased. Cells stressed by desiccation showed increased sensitivity toward streptomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, ampicillin and doxycycline, but showed resistance toward the others. Cold-stressed cells were more sensitive to streptomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, and ciprofloxacin compared with heat-stressed cells, but both heat and cold-stressed cells showed increased resistance toward all the other AB. Results obtained will help in understanding the effect of environmental stresses during processing on C. sakazakii susceptibility to AB. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All

  12. Electron spin resonance studies of some irradiated pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibella, M.; Crucq, A-S.; Tilquin, B.; Stocker, P.; Lesgards, G.; Raffi, J.

    2000-01-01

    Five antibiotics belonging to the cephalosporins and penicillins groups have been irradiated: anhydrous ampicilline acid, amoxicilline acid trihydrate, cefuroxime sodium salt, cloxacilline sodium salt monohydrate and ceftazidime pentahydrate. ESR studies have been carried out, showing the influence of irradiation and storage parameters on the nature and concentration of the free radicals trapped. These results may be used to detect an irradiation treatment on such pharmaceuticals. (author)

  13. The Role of Shipyard Pollutants in Structuring Coral Reef Microbial Communities: Monitoring Environmental Change and the Potential Causes of Coral Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Circle Grow medium (BiolO0) supplemented with ampicillin (100 p.m/mI). Plas- dant clones in the seawater libraries represented the -y-pro- mid...Identification of saliva-regulated in bacteria but no clear link with the mechanism of pathogen- genes of Streptococcus gordoni DLI by differential display...Environ. Microbiol. 67:5444-5452. anaerobically induced genes in Enterococcus faecalis by random arbitrarily 48. Webber, A. N., and W. Lubitz. 2001

  14. Novel carbapenem antibiotics for parenteral and oral applications: in vitro and in vivo activities of 2-aryl carbapenems and their pharmacokinetics in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Koichi; Takemoto, Koji; Hatano, Kazuo; Nakai, Toru; Terashita, Shigeyuki; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Eriguchi, Yoshiro; Eguchi, Ken; Shimizudani, Takeshi; Sato, Kimihiko; Kanazawa, Katsunori; Sunagawa, Makoto; Ueda, Yutaka

    2013-02-01

    SM-295291 and SM-369926 are new parenteral 2-aryl carbapenems with strong activity against major causative pathogens of community-acquired infections such as methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae (including penicillin-resistant strains), Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae (including β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant strains), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (including ciprofloxacin-resistant strains), with MIC(90)s of ≤ 1 μg/ml. Unlike tebipenem (MIC(50), 8 μg/ml), SM-295291 and SM-369926 had no activity against hospital pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC(50), ≥ 128 μg/ml). The bactericidal activities of SM-295291 and SM-369926 against penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae were equal or superior to that of tebipenem and greater than that of cefditoren. The therapeutic efficacies of intravenous administrations of SM-295291 and SM-369926 against experimentally induced infections in mice caused by penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae were equal or superior to that of tebipenem and greater than that of cefditoren, respectively, reflecting their in vitro activities. SM-295291 and SM-369926 showed intravenous pharmacokinetics similar to those of meropenem in terms of half-life in monkeys (0.4 h) and were stable against human dehydropeptidase I. SM-368589 and SM-375769, which are medoxomil esters of SM-295291 and SM-369926, respectively, showed good oral bioavailability in rats, dogs, and monkeys (4.2 to 62.3%). Thus, 2-aryl carbapenems are promising candidates that show an ideal broad spectrum for the treatment of community-acquired infections, including infections caused by penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae, have low selective pressure on antipseudomonal

  15. UJI KLINIK PENGGUNAAN BACTESYN DIBANDING LINCOMYCIN PADA PENDERITA YANG DILAKUKAN ODONTEKTOMI DI RUMAH SAKIT ATMA JAYA

    OpenAIRE

    FX. Srie Rahayu Kustini

    2015-01-01

    Bactecyn is an antibiotic that contains sultamicillin. This antibiotic is a complex of combination between ampicillin and sulbactam is double ester bond. Whis makes Bactesyn become an antibiotic with broader spectrum. Lincomycin is an antibiotic, which is ideal enough to treat dentoalveolar infections. This antibiotic is well known among the fellow dentist in Atma Jaya Hospital. It is obvious that these two medicines are very effective to deal with infections arising after operations of impac...

  16. Paraquat poisoning in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    Recovery from paraquat poisoning in the dog is rare. This is a report of a case of recovery from confirmed paraquat poisoning in a clinical setting. The dog exhibited the usual signs of paraquat poisoning. The diagnosis was confirmed on toxicological analysis of urine using an ion exchange technique. The dog was treated with frusemide, nicotinamide, corticosteroids, α-tocopherol, vitamin A, etamiphylline camsylate and ampicillin. He recovered after seven weeks of intensive therapy. Alternative treatments are discussed

  17. Combined effects of extremely high frequency electromagnetic field and antibiotics on Enterococcus Hirae growth and survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohanyan, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    Combined effects of extremely high frequency electromagnetic field and antibiotics on Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790 bacterial growth and survival were investigated using 51.8 GHz and 53 GHz frequencies in combination with two commonly used antibiotics: ampicillin and dalacin. Results revealed that, despite bacterial type and membrane structure and properties, the combined effect, especially with 53 GHz and dalacin, suppresses bacterial growth and decreases their survival

  18. A Novel Prokaryotic Green Fluorescent Protein Expression System for Testing Gene Editing Tools Activity Like Zinc Finger Nuclease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Sabzehei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gene editing technology has created a revolution in the field of genome editing. The three of the most famous tools in gene editing technology are zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR, and CRISPR-associated systems. As their predictable nature, it is necessary to assess their efficiency. There are some methods for this purpose, but most of them are time labor and complicated. Here, we introduce a new prokaryotic reporter system, which makes it possible to evaluate the efficiency of gene editing tools faster, cheaper, and simpler than previous methods. Materials and Methods: At first, the target sites of a custom ZFN, which is designed against a segment of ampicillin resistance gene, were cloned on both sides of green fluorescent protein (GFP gene to construct pPRO-GFP. Then pPRO-GFP was transformed into Escherichia coli TOP10F' that contains pZFN (contains expression cassette of a ZFN against ampicillin resistant gene, or p15A-KanaR as a negative control. The transformed bacteria were cultured on three separate media that contained ampicillin, kanamycin, and ampicillin + kanamycin; then the resulted colonies were assessed by flow cytometry. Results: The results of flow cytometry showed a significant difference between the case (bacteria contain pZFN and control (bacteria contain p15A, KanaR in MFI (Mean Fluorescence Intensity (P < 0.0001. Conclusion: According to ZFN efficiency, it can bind and cut the target sites, the bilateral cutting can affect the intensity of GFP fluorescence. Our flow cytometry results showed that this ZFN could reduce the intensity of GFP color and colony count of bacteria in media containing amp + kana versus control sample.

  19. Molecular Characterization of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhimurium Isolates from Swine

    OpenAIRE

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen Abebe; Altier, Craig

    2002-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal study of antimicrobial resistance among salmonellae isolated from swine, we studied 484 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (including serovar Typhimurium var. Copenhagen) isolates. We found two common pentaresistant phenotypes. The first was resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (the AmCmStSuTe phenotype; 36.2% of all isolates), mainly of the definitive type 104 (DT104) phage type (180 of 187 ...

  20. Spectrophotometric determination of bromhexine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, M I; dos Santos, M M; Magalhães, J F

    1984-01-01

    The presence of an aromatic primary amino group in bromhexine HCl enables the use of diazotization-coupling, according to the classic Bratton-Marshall method, for its analysis in pharmaceutical preparations. Spectrophotometric parameters were established for standardization of the method, including statistical analysis of data. Substances such as potassium guaiacolsulfonate, ampicillin, cephalexin, oxytetracycline HCl, amoxycillin, and erythromycin ethylsuccinate do not interfere with the determination. The precision of the method is about 2.0%.

  1. Co-diversification ofEnterococcus faeciumCore Genomes and PBP5: Evidences ofpbp5Horizontal Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Carla; Tedim, Ana P; Lanza, Val F; Freitas, Ana R; Silveira, Eduarda; Escada, Ricardo; Roberts, Adam P; Al-Haroni, Mohammed; Baquero, Fernando; Peixe, Luísa; Coque, Teresa M

    2016-01-01

    Ampicillin resistance has greatly contributed to the recent dramatic increase of a cluster of human adapted Enterococcus faecium lineages (ST17, ST18, and ST78) in hospital-based infections. Changes in the chromosomal pbp5 gene have been associated with different levels of ampicillin susceptibility, leading to protein variants (designated as PBP5 C-types to keep the nomenclature used in previous works) with diverse degrees of reduction in penicillin affinity. Our goal was to use a comparative genomics approach to evaluate the relationship between the diversity of PBP5 among E. faecium isolates of different phylogenomic groups as well as to assess the pbp5 transferability among isolates of disparate clonal lineages. The analyses of 78 selected E. faecium strains as well as published E. faecium genomes, suggested that the diversity of pbp5 mirrors the phylogenomic diversification of E. faecium . The presence of identical PBP5 C-types as well as similar pbp5 genetic environments in different E. faecium lineages and clones from quite different geographical and environmental origin was also documented and would indicate their horizontal gene transfer among E. faecium populations. This was supported by experimental assays showing transfer of large (≈180-280 kb) chromosomal genetic platforms containing pbp5 alleles, ponA (transglycosilase) and other metabolic and adaptive features, from E. faecium donor isolates to suitable E. faecium recipient strains. Mutation profile analysis of PBP5 from available genomes and strains from this study suggests that the spread of PBP5 C-types might have occurred even in the absence of a significant ampicillin resistance phenotype. In summary, genetic platforms containing pbp5 sequences were stably maintained in particular E. faecium lineages, but were also able to be transferred among E. faecium clones of different origins, emphasizing the growing risk of further spread of ampicillin resistance in this nosocomial pathogen.

  2. Co-diversification of Enterococcus faecium Core Genomes and PBP5: Evidences of pbp5 Horizontal Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Carla; Tedim, Ana P.; Lanza, Val F.; Freitas, Ana R.; Silveira, Eduarda; Escada, Ricardo; Roberts, Adam P.; Al-Haroni, Mohammed; Baquero, Fernando; Peixe, Luísa; Coque, Teresa M.

    2016-01-01

    Ampicillin resistance has greatly contributed to the recent dramatic increase of a cluster of human adapted Enterococcus faecium lineages (ST17, ST18, and ST78) in hospital-based infections. Changes in the chromosomal pbp5 gene have been associated with different levels of ampicillin susceptibility, leading to protein variants (designated as PBP5 C-types to keep the nomenclature used in previous works) with diverse degrees of reduction in penicillin affinity. Our goal was to use a comparative genomics approach to evaluate the relationship between the diversity of PBP5 among E. faecium isolates of different phylogenomic groups as well as to assess the pbp5 transferability among isolates of disparate clonal lineages. The analyses of 78 selected E. faecium strains as well as published E. faecium genomes, suggested that the diversity of pbp5 mirrors the phylogenomic diversification of E. faecium. The presence of identical PBP5 C-types as well as similar pbp5 genetic environments in different E. faecium lineages and clones from quite different geographical and environmental origin was also documented and would indicate their horizontal gene transfer among E. faecium populations. This was supported by experimental assays showing transfer of large (≈180–280 kb) chromosomal genetic platforms containing pbp5 alleles, ponA (transglycosilase) and other metabolic and adaptive features, from E. faecium donor isolates to suitable E. faecium recipient strains. Mutation profile analysis of PBP5 from available genomes and strains from this study suggests that the spread of PBP5 C-types might have occurred even in the absence of a significant ampicillin resistance phenotype. In summary, genetic platforms containing pbp5 sequences were stably maintained in particular E. faecium lineages, but were also able to be transferred among E. faecium clones of different origins, emphasizing the growing risk of further spread of ampicillin resistance in this nosocomial pathogen. PMID

  3. Co-diversification of Enterococcus faecium core genomes and PBP5: evidences of pbp5 horizontal transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Novais

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ampicillin resistance has greatly contributed to the recent dramatic increase of a cluster of human adapted Enterococcus faecium lineages (ST17, ST18 and ST78 in hospital-based infections. Changes in the chromosomal pbp5 gene have been associated with different levels of ampicillin susceptibility, leading to protein variants (designated as PBP5 C-types to keep the nomenclature used in previous works with diverse degrees of reduction in penicillin affinity. Our goal was to use a comparative genomics approach to evaluate the relationship between the diversity of PBP5 among E. faecium isolates of different phylogenomic groups as well as to assess the pbp5 transferability among isolates of disparate clonal lineages. The analyses of 78 selected E. faecium strains as well as published E. faecium genomes, suggested that the diversity of pbp5 mirrors the phylogenomic diversification of E. faecium. The presence of identical PBP5 C-types as well as similar pbp5 genetic environments in different E. faecium lineages and clones from quite different geographical and environmental origin was also documented and would indicate their horizontal gene transfer among E. faecium populations. This was supported by experimental assays showing transfer of large (≈180-280 kb chromosomal genetic platforms containing pbp5 alleles, ponA (transglycosilase and other metabolic and adaptive features, from E. faecium donor isolates to suitable E. faecium recipient strains. Mutation profile analysis of PBP5 from available genomes and strains from this study suggests that the spread of PBP5 C-types might have occurred even in the absence of a significant ampicillin resistance phenotype. In summary, genetic platforms containing pbp5 sequences were stably maintained in particular E. faecium lineages, but were also able to be transferred among E. faecium clones of different origins, emphasizing the growing risk of further spread of ampicillin resistance in this nosocomial pathogen.

  4. An evaluation of E. coli in urinary tract infection in emergency department at KAMC in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Menyfah Q; Alqahtani, Fulwah Y; Aleanizy, Fadilah S

    2018-02-09

    Urinary tract infection (UTIS) is a common infectious disease in which level of antimicrobial resistance are alarming worldwide. Therefore, this study aims to describe the prevalence and the resistance pattern of the main bacteria responsible for UTIS Escherichia coli (E. coli). Retrospective chart review for patients admitted to emergency department and diagnosed with UTIS at KAMC, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January to March 2008 was performed. Antimicrobial susceptibility to ampicillin, augmentin (amoxicillin/clavulanate), cefazolin, co-trimoxazole (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim), ciprofloxacin, and nitrofurantoin, and cefpodoxime was determined for 101 E. coli urinary isolates. Escherichia coli was the most prevalent pathogen contributing to UTIS representing 93.55, 60.24, and 45.83% of all pathogen isolated from urine culture of pediatric, adult, and elderly, respectively. High rates of resistance to ampicillin (82.76, 58, and 63.64%) and co-trimoxazole (51.72, 42, and 59.09%), among E. coli isolated from pediatric, adult and elderly respectively. Nitrofurantoin was the most active agent, followed by ciprofloxacin, augmentin and cefazolin. 22.77% of E. coli isolates exhibited multiple drug resistance (MDR). Among 66 and 49 isolates resistant to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole, respectively, 34.84 and 42.85% were MDR. In contrast, all isolates resistant to augmentin and nitrofurantoin were MRD, while 72.7 and 82.4% of isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin and cefazolin were MDR. High resistance was observed to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole which commonly used as empirical treatments for UTIS, limiting their clinical use. This necessitates continuous surveillance for resistance pattern of uropathogens against antibiotics.

  5. Antibiotic resistant bacteria in urban sewage: Role of full-scale wastewater treatment plants on environmental spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turolla, A; Cattaneo, M; Marazzi, F; Mezzanotte, V; Antonelli, M

    2018-01-01

    The presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) in wastewater was investigated and the role of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in promoting or limiting antibiotic resistance was assessed. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline was monitored in three WWTPs located in Milan urban area (Italy), differing among them for the operating parameters of biological process, for the disinfection processes (based on sodium hypochlorite, UV radiation, peracetic acid) and for the discharge limits to be met. Wastewater was collected from three sampling points along the treatment sequence (WWTP influent, effluent from sand filtration, WWTP effluent). Antibiotic resistance to ampicillin was observed both for E. coli and for THB. Ampicillin resistant bacteria in the WWTP influents were 20-47% of E. coli and 16-25% of THB counts. A limited resistance to chloramphenicol was observed only for E. coli, while neither for E. coli nor for THB tetracycline resistance was observed. The biological treatment and sand filtration led to a decrease in the maximum percentage of ampicillin-resistant bacteria (20-29% for E. coli, 11-21% for THB). However, the conventionally adopted parameters did not seem adequate to support an interpretation of WWTP role in ARB spread. Peracetic acid was effective in selectively acting on antibiotic resistant THB, unlike UV radiation and sodium hypochlorite. The low counts of E. coli in WWTP final effluents in case of agricultural reuse did not allow to compare the effect of the different disinfection processes on antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Aetiology of shigellosis in northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Khalil; Shakoori, Farah R; Shakoori, A R

    2003-03-01

    People of northern Pakistan face health hazards because of poor sanitation practices. Bacterial gastrointestinal infections are very common, and sometimes outbreaks occur. The present study was aimed at evaluating and analyzing infestation of Shigella spp. in patients with suspected gastroenteritis and ascertaining the status of antibiotic therapy. Five hundred and eighty-five faecal samples of patients with suspected gastroenteritis, referred to the District Headquarter Hospital Gilgit, were investigated for common enteropathogenic bacteria from July 1997 to September 1999. Seventy-seven (13.2%) of the faecal specimens were infected with different strains of Shigella spp., 61% of which were Shigella dysenteriae, 15.6% were S. flexneri, and 23.4% were Shigella sp. All Shigella strains were sensitive to ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, and enoxacin. Sixty-one percent of the strains were resistant to both ampicillin and chloramphenicol, and 3.9% to ampicillin and nalidixic acid, while 10.4% were resistant to ampicillin alone and 14.3% to chloramphenicol only. Only 10.4% of the strains were sensitive to all the antibiotics tested. Sixty strains of Shigella spp. were processed for isolation of plasmids, and 58 (97%) of these antibiotic-resistant bacteria harboured at least one plasmid. The number of plasmids varied from 1 to 9. Escherichia coli C600 were transformed with the isolated plasmids. Transformants, containing 23-kb plasmid, resisted growth in media containing antibiotics, thereby indicating that antibiotic resistance is plasmid-borne. Based on the findings of the study, it is concluded that the infestation of Shigella spp. is high in northern Pakistan, the aetiological agents are highly resistant to chloramphenicol and ampicillin, and the antibiotic resistance is mediated by the 23-kb plasmid.

  7. Isolation of Antimicrobial Compounds using Marine Bacteria from Nagapattinam Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Thiyagarajamoorthy Dhinesh Kumar; Murugaiah Santhosh Gokul

    2017-01-01

    At present situation in the pharma field, only some numbers of effective drugs are exist. The emergence of multidrug resistant pathogens must be necessary of novel antibiotics. Currently opportunistic pathogens like V.cholerae, S.typhi were resistant against vancomycin, ampicillin, methicillin, tetracycline etc. Marine resources are hopeful environment for new drug discoveries. Especially, marine microbes are played main role on discovery of antibiotics. In this study, marine sediment samples...

  8. Expression of Deinococcus geothermalis trehalose synthase gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KTUZ

    2012-08-21

    Aug 21, 2012 ... Bacterial cells were cultivated aerobically on a rotary shaker (Forma Orbital, Thermo. Fisher Scientific Inc, Marietta, OH, US) at 45°C (pH 7.2) in a modified medium ... for 10 min. The pJET (resistant to ampicillin) (Fermentas UAB, ... CaCl2 were transformed by the ligation mixture for 1 h at 8°C and after heat ...

  9. Agents of urinary tract infections in children and their antibiotic susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resul Yilmaz

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: Over the years, the resistance to ampicillin and TMP + SMX has increased. By unnecessary, improper and irregular drug use, the development of antimicrobial resistance for different antibiotics can be expected. Choosing appropriate antibiotic with taking into consideration of offers that were in common guidelines with the regional antibiotic resistance, development of resistance to different antibiotics can be prevented. [J Contemp Med 2012; 2(1.000: 17-21

  10. Resistance to tetracycline and multidrug resistance in resident E. coli, risk for the public health

    OpenAIRE

    Urumova, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    The most important resistant profiles in indicator E. coli isolated from swine are resistance to sulfonamides/tetracycline, ampicillin/streptomycin/sulfonamides/tetracycline. The selection pressure of tetracycline, beta-lactams and streptomycin in farm animals especially in pig farms induced co-selection to other chemotherapeutic agents and horizontal transfer of resistance is a serious risk for the dissemination of resistant genes in E. coli isolated from farm animals. The common genes li...

  11. cDNA clone for the alpha-chain of human beta-hexosaminidase: deficiency of alpha-chain mRNA in Ashkenazi Tay-Sachs fibroblasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Myerowitz, R; Proia, R L

    1984-01-01

    We have isolated a cDNA clone containing sequences complementary to mRNA encoding the alpha-chain of the lysosomal enzyme beta-hexosaminidase. RNA from a human lung fibroblast strain, IMR90, was enriched for beta-hexosaminidase messenger by polysome immunoselection with antiserum against beta-hexosaminidase A. This preparation was used to construct cDNA recombinant plasmids by the Okayama-Berg vector primer procedure. After transformation of Escherichia coli, 385 ampicillin-resistant colonies...

  12. Ceftiofur sodium, a broad-spectrum cephalosporin: evaluation in vitro and in vivo in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, R J; Kinney, M L; Roberts, B J; Goodenough, K R; Hamel, J C; Ford, C W

    1987-07-01

    Ceftiofur sodium, a broad-spectrum beta-lactamase-resistant cephalosporin, was evaluated in vitro and in vivo in mice. Ceftiofur is the sodium salt of (6R, 7R)-7[( 2-amino-4-thiazolyl)-Z- (methoxyimino)acetyl]amino)-3-[( (2-furanylcarbonyl)thio]methyl)-8-oxo-5- thia-1-azabicyclo-[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylate. Minimal inhibitory concentration values were obtained with 264 strains representing 9 genera and 17 species of bacterial pathogens from cattle, swine, sheep, horses, poultry, dogs, cats, and human beings. Ceftiofur was more active than was ampicillin against all strains tested including beta-lactamase-producing organisms. In mice with systemic infections, ceftiofur was more active than or equivalent to ampicillin, cephalothin, cefamandole, cloxacillin, cefoperazone, or pirlimycin. These protection tests included infections with Escherichia coli, Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae, H somnus, Pasteurella haemolytica, P multocida, Salmonella typhimurium, or Staphylococcus aureus. In infant mice with E coli-induced lethal diarrhea and in mice with S aureus and E coli-induced mastitis, ceftiofur was comparable or more active than was ampicillin.

  13. Epidemiology of Antimicrobial Resistance among Escherichia coli Strains in Trans-Nzoia County, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Kibenei Kipkorir, Philip Bett, Patrick O. Onyango

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility profile and the genetic basis to antimicrobial resistance, targeting blaTEM gene expression of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli among patients suffering from gastroenteritis in Kitale County Referral Hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was adopted. A total of 103 fecal specimens were collected from participants ranging in age from two weeks to 82 years. E. coli was isolated and identified based on phenotypic and biochemical properties. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the presence of blaTEM gene. Results: The prevalence of E. coli was 90.2% and age of the patient explained 53% of variation in prevalence. Isolates of diarrheagenic E. coli showed varied degree of susceptibility with sulfamethoxazole at 97%, co-trimoxazole 96%, ampicillin 84%, chloramphenicol 27%, tetracycline 16%, kanamycin 10% and streptomycin 9%. However, E. coli was highly sensitive to gentamicin at 96.8%. Approximately 42.2% of E. coli isolates were multidrug resistant to sulfamethoxazole, co-trimoxazole, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, kanamycin and streptomycin. All isolates that were resistant to ampicillin harbored blaTEM gene suggesting genetic mediation. Conclusion: The observed pattern of resistance to antibiotics points to the need to regulate their use and arrest buildup of resistant genes within the population. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(3: 107-112

  14. Occurrence of quinolone- and beta-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli in danish broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolaia, Valeria; Guardabassi, Luca; Bisgaard, Magne

    An increased concern for the possible transfer of resistant bacteria or mobile resistance elements from food animals to humans has resulted in rigorous legislation preventing i.e. practical use of fluoroquinolones in the Danish broiler industry (Olesen et al., 2004; Petersen et al., 2006). In Den......An increased concern for the possible transfer of resistant bacteria or mobile resistance elements from food animals to humans has resulted in rigorous legislation preventing i.e. practical use of fluoroquinolones in the Danish broiler industry (Olesen et al., 2004; Petersen et al., 2006....../ml), ampicillin (32 µg/ml), cefotaxime (2 µg/ml) or ceftiofur (8 µg/ml). Repeated sampling was performed: five plates for each type of antibiotic were used for each sample in order to increase precision of the method. The ß-glucuronidase test was used for verification of presumptive E. coli. Ampicillin...... of resistance towards ceftiofur or cefotaxime might reflect the restricted use of antimicrobials in Danish poultry production. Further investigations are in progress to assess the epidemiological relationship of the isolates resistant to ampicillin and nalidixic acid as well as to characterize the genes...

  15. Poly (vinyl alcohol-alginate physically crosslinked hydrogel membranes for wound dressing applications: Characterization and bio-evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbadawy A. Kamoun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available PVA-sodium alginate (SA hydrogel membranes containing sodium ampicillin as a topical antibiotic were developed using the freeze–thawing method for wound dressing application. Aqueous solution of sodium alginate has been blended in a certain ratio with PVA, followed by the crosslinking method has been conducted by freeze–thawing method as physical crosslinking instead of the use of traditional chemical crosslinking to avoid riskiness of chemical reagents and crosslinkers. The physicochemical properties of PVA-SA membranes e.g. gel fraction and water uptake % have been performed. Increased SA content with PVA decreased gel fraction, elasticity, and elongation to break of PVA-SA membranes. However, it resulted in an increase in swelling degree, protein adsorption, and roughness of membrane surface. High SA content in PVA membranes had apparently an impact on surface morphology structure of hydrogel membranes. Pore size and pore area distribution have been observed with addition of high SA concentration. However, high SA content had an insignificant effect on the release of ampicillin. The hydrolytic degradation of PVA-SA membranes has prominently increased with increasing SA content. Furthermore, hemolysis (% and in vitro inhibition (% for both Gram positive and negative bacteria have been sharply affected by addition of SA into PVA, indicating the improved blood hemocompatibility. Thus, PVA-SA hydrogel membrane based wound dressing system containing ampicillin could be a good polymeric membrane candidate in wound care.

  16. [Uropathogen pattern and antimicrobial susceptibility in positive urinary cultures isolates from paediatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya-Dionisio, V; Díaz-Zabala, M; Ibáñez-Fernández, A; Suárez-Leiva, P; Martínez-Suárez, V; Ordóñez-Álvarez, F A; Santos-Rodríguez, F

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of urophatogens and antibiotic susceptibility should be used to assist with empirical urinary tract infection treatment. We retrospectively analysed local bacterial pattern and antimicrobial susceptibility in positive urinary isolates from paediatric patients collected in the period 2009-2013. Results were compared with a previous study carried out in the same sanitary area between 1995 and 1999. We identified 2,762 urinary isolates. Escherichia coli was the most common uropathogen (58.9%), followed by Enterococcus sp. (11.6%) and Proteus mirabilis (10.9%). More than 95% of non extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli were susceptible to nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin, cefotaxime and aminoglycosides. However, 56%, 49%, and 22% of the E. coli isolates were resistant to ampicillin, oral first-generation cephalosporins, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, respectively. Ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate were the most effective antibiotics to treat Enterococcus sp. and P. mirabilis, respectively. Not significant modifications were found compared to results published at the same area in the 90´s. E. coli was the mostly isolated uropathogen, with a high percentage of resistance to ampicillin, oral first-generation cephalosporins, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. These urinary isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were similar to those reported in other paediatric studies and did not show significant changes compared to local previously published results. Thus, it can be considered that the current recommendations about empiric antibiotic therapy in paediatric urinary tract infections remain applicable nowadays.

  17. Modeling cooperating micro-organisms in antibiotic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Gilad; Ingham, Colin; Ariel, Gil

    2017-01-01

    Recent experiments with the bacteria Paenibacillus vortex reveal a remarkable strategy enabling it to cope with antibiotics by cooperating with a different bacterium-Escherichia coli. While P. vortex is a highly effective swarmer, it is sensitive to the antibiotic ampicillin. On the other hand, E. coli can degrade ampicillin but is non-motile when grown on high agar percentages. The two bacterial species form a shared colony in which E. coli is transported by P. vortex and E. coli detoxifies the ampicillin. The paper presents a simplified model, consisting of coupled reaction-diffusion equations, describing the development of ring patterns in the shared colony. Our results demonstrate some of the possible cooperative movement strategies bacteria utilize in order to survive harsh conditions. In addition, we explore the behavior of mixed colonies under new conditions such as antibiotic gradients, synchronization between colonies and possible dynamics of a 3-species system including P. vortex, E. coli and a carbon producing algae that provides nutrients under illuminated, nutrient poor conditions. The derived model was able to simulate an asymmetric relationship between two or three micro-organisms where cooperation is required for survival. Computationally, in order to avoid numerical artifacts due to symmetries within the discretizing grid, the model was solved using a second order Vectorizable Random Lattices method, which is developed as a finite volume scheme on a random grid.

  18. Antibiotic resistance in children with complicated urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiz, B.; Kural, N.; Yarar, C.; Ak, I.; Akcar, N.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to determine the resistance of antibiotics for complicated urinary tract infection (UTI), including urinary tract anomaly (UTA), for empirical antibiotic therapy of complicated UTI. Four hundred and twenty two urine isolates were obtained from 113 patients with recurrent UTI, who used prophylactic antibiotics between February 1999 and November 2004 in the Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey. Reflux was found to be most important predisposing factor for recurrent UTI (31.9%). Renal scar was detected more in patients with UTA than without UTA (59.2% versus 12.4%, p<0.05). Gram-negative organisms were dominant in patients with and without UTA (91.5% and 79.2%). Enterococci and Candida spp. were more prevalent in children with UTA than without UTA (p<0.001). Isolates were significantly more resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amikacin, co-amoxiclav, ticarcillin-clvalanate and piperacillin-tazobactam in patients with UTA than without UTA. We found low resistance to ciprofloxacin and nitrofurantoin in UTI with and without UTA. Enterococci spp. was highly resistance to ampicillin and amikacin in patients with UTA. Aztreonam, meropenem and ciprofloxacin seemed to be the best choice for treatment of UTI with UTA due to Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. Nitrofurantoin and nalidixic acid may be first choice antibiotics for prophylaxis in UTI with and without UTA. The UTI with UTA caused by Enterococci spp. might not benefit from a combination of amikacin and ampicillin, it could be treated with glycopeptides. (author)

  19. [Results of a national survey on the antibiotic therapy of neonatal bacterial infection due to materno-fetal contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrillon, A; Laik, P

    1986-03-01

    The aim of the study was to overview the antibiotic treatments usually prescribed in the different neonatal units and NICU's for neonatal primary bacterial infections. Maternal or neonatal fever, shock, respiratory distress, leuconeutropenia, hyperfibrinemia as well as an increased level in C-Reactive Protein appeared to be the best clinical diagnosis criteria. Before isolation of the bacteria, the most frequently prescribed treatment was a combination of ampicillin and gentamicin. When no bacteria grew up, the treatment was usually discontinued after a few days. When a presumably pathogenic bacteria was found either in blood, or CSF or urine or peripheral cultures, the treatment lasted around 10 days. However, in proved meningitis, the treatment lasted around 20 days. In case of Streptococcus type B and Listeria monocytogenes, ampicillin (100-200 mg/kg/day) was often used in combination with gentamicin (3-4 mg/kg/day), in spite of the recent availability of new aminoglycosides. When the isolated E. coli was ampicillin-resistant, Cefotaxime was frequently used in combination.

  20. SEM Analysis of Surface Impact on Biofilm Antibiotic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Luciana Calheiros; Mergulhão, Filipe José

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to investigate the effect of ampicillin treatment on Escherichia coli biofilms formed on two surface materials with different properties, silicone (SIL) and glass (GLA). Epifluorescence microscopy (EM) was initially used to assess biofilm formation and killing efficiency on both surfaces. This technique showed that higher bacterial colonization was obtained in the hydrophobic SIL than in the hydrophilic GLA. It has also shown that higher biofilm inactivation was attained for GLA after the antibiotic treatment (7-log reduction versus 1-log reduction for SIL). Due to its high resolution and magnification, SEM enabled a more detailed analysis of the antibiotic effect on biofilm cells, complementing the killing efficiency information obtained by EM. SEM micrographs revealed that ampicillin-treated cells have an elongated form when compared to untreated cells. Additionally, it has shown that different materials induced different levels of elongation on cells exposed to antibiotic. Biofilms formed on GLA showed a 37% higher elongation than those formed on SIL. Importantly, cell elongation was related to viability since ampicillin had a higher bactericidal effect on GLA-formed biofilms. These findings raise the possibility of using SEM for understanding the efficacy of antimicrobial treatments by observation of biofilm morphology.

  1. Characteristics of pyogenic odontogenic infection in patients attending Mulago Hospital, Uganda: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kityamuwesi, Richard; Muwaz, Louis; Kasangaki, Arabat; Kajumbula, Henry; Rwenyonyi, Charles Mugisha

    2015-02-25

    Predisposing factors of pyogenic odontogenic infection include dental caries, pericoronitis, periodontitis, trauma to the dentition and the supporting structures or complications of dental procedures. The infections are usually polymicrobial involving normal endogenous flora. We characterised pyogenic odontogenic infection in patients attending Mulago Hospital, Uganda. Of the 130 patients, 62 (47.7%) were female. The most frequently involved fascial spaces were: the buccal, 52 (25.4%); submasseteric, 46 (22.4%) and the submandibular space, 36 (17.5%). Dental caries was the most prevalent predisposing factor, particularly of the lower third molar teeth. Viridans Streptococci Group and Staphylococcus aureus were the most frequent bacterial isolates: 23.5% and 19.4%, respectively. All Viridans Streptococci isolates were resistant to penicillin G, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (cotrimoxazole), ampicillin and tetracycline, but susceptible to vancomycin. All Staphylococcus aureus strains were resistant to cotrimoxazole and ampicillin while retaining susceptibility to vancomycin, cefotaxime, linezolid, moxifloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanate. Thirty five (26.9%) patients were HIV infected and the HIV status did not significantly influence the pattern of odontogenic infection. Dental caries was the most prevalent predisposing factor for pyogenic odontogenic infection. High prevalence of bacterial resistance to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole suggests the need for regular antibiotic susceptibility tests of isolates and rational use of antibiotics in the management of these infections. Prevention requires strengthening of oral health in the community.

  2. Multivariable Analysis of the Association Between Antimicrobial Use and Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolated from Apparently Healthy Pigs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita, Kohei; Goto, Masaki; Ozawa, Manao; Kawanishi, Michiko; Koike, Ryoji; Asai, Tetsuo; Tamura, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between antimicrobial agent use and antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from healthy pigs using data from 2004 to 2007 in the Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (JVARM). Fecal E. coli isolates from 250 pigs (one isolate each from a pig per farm) were examined for antimicrobial resistance. Information on the use of antimicrobials within preceding 6 months and types of farms recorded in JVARM was collected and statistically analyzed against the resistance patterns. In the univariate analysis, associations between both therapeutic and feed additive use of antimicrobials, and resistance to dihydrostreptomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, ampicillin, cefazolin, ceftiofur, oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, nalidixic acid, enrofloxacin, colistin, and bicozamycin, and husbandry factors were investigated. In multivariable analysis, generalized estimating equations were used to control geographical intraclass correlation. Confounding for structurally unrelated associations was tested using generalized linear models. The results suggested direct and cross selections in the associations between use of aminoglycosides in reproduction farms and resistance to kanamycin, use of tetracyclines in larger farms and resistance to oxytetracycline, use of beta-lactams and resistance to ampicillin, use of phenicols and resistance to chloramphenicol, and use of fluoroquinolones and resistance to nalidixic acid and enrofloxacin. Coselection was suggested in the use of tetracyclines and chloramphenicol resistance. The associations between use of beta-lactams and dihydrostreptomycin resistance, use of macrolides and ampicillin and oxytetracycline resistance, and use of colistin and kanamycin resistance were significant, but were confounded by the simultaneous use of homologous antimicrobials.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance in community and nosocomial Escherichia coli urinary tract isolates, London 2005 – 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wareham David W

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli is the commonest cause of community and nosocomial urinary tract infection (UTI. Antibiotic treatment is usually empirical relying on susceptibility data from local surveillance studies. We therefore set out to determine levels of resistance to 8 commonly used antimicrobial agents amongst all urinary isolates obtained over a 12 month period. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefalexin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim and cefpodoxime was determined for 11,865 E. coli urinary isolates obtained from community and hospitalised patients in East London. Results Nitrofurantoin was the most active agent (94% susceptible, followed by gentamicin and cefpodoxime. High rates of resistance to ampicillin (55% and trimethoprim (40%, often in combination were observed in both sets of isolates. Although isolates exhibiting resistance to multiple drug classes were rare, resistance to cefpodoxime, indicative of Extended spectrum β-lactamase production, was observed in 5.7% of community and 21.6% of nosocomial isolates. Conclusion With the exception of nitrofurantoin, resistance to agents commonly used as empirical oral treatments for UTI was extremely high. Levels of resistance to trimethoprim and ampicillin render them unsuitable for empirical use. Continued surveillance and investigation of other oral agents for treatment of UTI in the community is required.

  4. Assessment of antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolates and screening of Salmonella spp. in wild ungulates from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Diana; Torres, Rita T; Kronvall, Göran; Fonseca, Carlos; Mendo, Sónia; Caetano, Tânia

    2015-09-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an emerging global problem. Wild animals are rarely exposed to antibiotics and therefore low levels of antibiotic resistance are expected. However, the growing interactions of these animals with humans and livestock may have a huge impact on their bacterial flora. This study aimed to assess the levels of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from widespread wild ungulates in Portugal. The interpretation of inhibition zone diameters was performed according to clinical breakpoints and epidemiological cut-offs, determined with the normalized resistance interpretation (NRI) method. For clinical breakpoints, 16% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, including ampicillin (10%), tetracycline (9%), streptomycin (5%) co-trimoxazole (4%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (1%) and cefoxitin (1%). The levels of resistance detected in E. coli strains isolated from wild boar were statistically different for ampicillin and co-trimoxasol. According to NRI cut-offs, 10% of the population showed a non-wild-type phenotype against at least one antibiotic, also including tetracycline (9%), co-trimoxazole (6%), streptomycin (4%), ampicillin (2%) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (1%). Considering this parameter of comparison, no statistically different levels of resistance were identified between E. coli recovered from the three wild ungulates. Screening of Salmonella spp., which can be potentially pathogenic, was also performed, revealing that its prevalence was very low (1.5%). The study demonstrated that wild ungulates from Portugal are also reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantitative assessment of faecal shedding of β-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli and enterococci in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Shah, Syed Qaswar Ali; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem

    2015-01-01

    media containing relevant antibiotic concentrations, followed by species identification using MALDI-TOF. Ampicillin- and cefotaxime-resistant E. coli were detected in 40% and 8% of the dogs, respectively, whereas approximately 15% carried ampicillin-resistant enterococci, mainly Enterococcus faecium...... of 108 dogs presenting at a veterinary hospital in Denmark. The dogs had not been treated with antimicrobials for 4 weeks prior to the study. Total E. coli and enterococci were quantified by counts on MacConkey and Slanetz-Bartley, respectively. Resistant E. coli and enterococci were counted on the same....... In the faeces of the carriers, the proportion of resistant strains in the total bacterial species population was on average 15% for both ampicillin-resistant E. coli (median faecal load 3.2×10(4)cfu/g) and E. faecium (5.8×10(2)cfu/g), and 4.6% for cefotaxime-resistant E. coli (8.6×10(3) cfu/g). Cefotaxime...

  6. Confirmation of translocated gastrointestinal bacteria in a neonatal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, J; Lee, D J; Harmon, C M; Drongowski, R A; Coran, A G

    1999-11-01

    The hypothesis that enteric bacteria translocate from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to extraintestinal sites has been extensively studied. However, definitive evidence that spontaneous bacterial translocation and dissemination from the GI tract to extraintestinal sites occur in a neonatal model has been lacking. The aim of this study was to confirm this phenomenon by tracking enterally administered, plasmid-labeled bacteria to extraintestinal sites. Escherichia coli 07:K1 (E. coli K1) with and without a nontransferable, ampicillin resistance plasmid (pGEM-7) were used in this study. Newborn New Zealand white rabbit pups were separated into three treatment groups: transformed E. coli K1 (E. coli K1 + pGEM-7, n = 20), nontransformed E. coli K1 (n = 12), and control pups (no bacteria, n = 7). Pups were enterally fed 10% Formulac solution supplemented with a suspension of bacteria respective to their group. After the pups fed twice daily for 2 days, representative tissue specimens from the small bowel (SB), mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), spleen (SPL), and liver (LIV) were aseptically harvested and tested for culture growth in ampicillin-supplemented medium. Positive growths of plasmid-induced ampicillin-resistant bacteria were detected in tissue specimens harvested from rabbits fed transformed E. coli K1, but were not detected in the other groups. This experiment demonstrated conclusively that transformed E. coli K1 fed to healthy rabbit pups spontaneously translocated from the intestinal lumen and subsequently disseminated to the mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  7. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of urine isolates from asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, A.M.; Khan, H.U.; Mashud, I.U.; Ashiq, B.; Shah, S.H.

    2006-01-01

    Screening women for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) on the first antenatal visit is a part of standard obstetric care. Treating women with ASB decreases the chances of maternal and foetal complications. This study was conducted to find out the spectrum of urine pathogens and their drug susceptibility pattern for ASB during pregnancy. The study was conducted in the Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre Karachi, from September 2001 to March 2002. Two hundred and ninety women, apparently normal with confirmed pregnancy, were registered. A voided midstream urine specimen was collected and cultured. A significant growth i.e. >105 organisms/ml was identified with Analytical Profile Index 20 tests for identification of Enterobacteriaceae (API-20-E) and for Gram positive cocci by other standard methods. The prevalence of ASB was found 6.2%. Antimicrobial sensitivity was determined by disc diffusion Kirby Bauyer method after matching the turbidity with 0.5 McFarland's standard. Most of the recommended drugs were found to have encouraging results, however, Escherichia coli showed 66.67% resistance to ampicillins and sulphonamides. Enterobacters showed 100% resistance to ampicillins, cephalosporins and nitrofurantoin. Staphylococcus saprophyticus showed 66.67% resistance to ampicillins and sulphonamides. It was concluded that detection of ASB during pregnancy and appropriate use of antimicrobials is only possible after culture of urine. Empirical anti-microbial therapy cannot be relied upon because of possible risk of resistance. (author)

  8. The resistance of Salmonella spp. isolates from Alabio duck against several antibiotics

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    Istiana

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 172 isolates of Salmonella spp. consisted of S. typhimurium (70, S. Radar (52, S. senftenberg (25, S. Virchow (14, and S. amsterdam (11 from Alabio duck hatcheries in the District of Hulu Sungai Utara, South Kalimantan, were examined their resistencies against seven kinds of antibiotics, consisted of chloramphenicol, neomycin, trimethoprim, streptomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, and polymixin B, by using agar disc diffusion method. The results showed that 70 isolates of S. typhimurium were resistant against six kinds of antibiotics with various percentages, that is chlorampenicol 5 .7%, neomycin 12 .8%, trimethoprim 7.1 %, streptomycin 8 .6%, tetracycline 11 .4%, and the highest against ampicillin 30 %. Ofthe 52 S. hadar isolates showed that all ofthem were resistent against 6 kinds of antibiotics, that is chloramphenicol 1 .9%, neomycin 7.7%, trimethoprim 5.8%, streptomycin 48 .0%, tetracycline 48.0%, and polymixin B 3.8%. Futhermore S. senftenberg (25 isolates were resistent against three kinds of antibiotics, that is neomycin 12%, streptomycin 20%, and tetracyclines 16%. Meanwhile S. virchow (14 isolates, were resistant against two kinds of antibiotics namely streptomycin 7.1% and tetracylines 14.3%. Whereas S. amsterdam (11 isolates were resistant against four kinds of antibiotics, that is neomycin 45 .5%, streptomycin 18 .2%, tetracycline 18 .2%, and ampicillin 9.10%.

  9. Tetracycline and penicillin resistant Clostridium perfringens isolated from the fangs and venom glands of Loxosceles laeta: its implications in loxoscelism treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, A; Espoz, M C; Cortés, W; Sagua, H; González, J; Araya, J E

    2010-11-01

    The venom of Loxosceles spiders produces severe dermonecrotic damage, intravascular hemolysis, systemic alterations and risk of death. Clostridium perfringens is present in the microbial flora of the fangs and venom glands of Loxosceles intermedia. Its inoculation with the venom may infect the wound site and exacerbate the dermonecrotic damage. This anaerobic bacterium is widely distributed in nature and capable of damage with similar characteristics and severity to the spider venom. In this study we isolated and characterized species of Clostridium from the fangs and venom glands of Loxosceles laeta, including C. perfringens. The sensitivity patterns of different isolates of C. perfringens were evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration against penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin and tetracycline, under anaerobic conditions, using the method of microdilution in broth. Strain C. perfringens H28 showed resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol. Resistance to penicillin and ampicillin was mediated by beta-lactamase. In vivo evaluation of dermonecrosis in rabbits using L. laeta venom co-inoculated with isolate C. perfringens H28 produced an increase in the area of dermonecrotic lesions in the presence of penicillin and tetracycline, but not with gentamicin. Antibiotic therapy Loxosceles poisoning should be re-evaluated, considering the existence of multi-resistant strains of C. perfringens. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Beta-lactam antibiotic resistance in aerobic commensal fecal flora of newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Murat; Abacioglu, Hakan; Karaman, Meral; Duman, Nuray; Ozkan, Hasan

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to prospectively determine the rate of beta-lactam antibiotic resistance in commensal fecal flora of newborns and the risk factors leading to this colonization. One hundred and eighteen newborns in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) group (n = 38), the neonatal ward group (n = 36), and the control group (n = 44) were enrolled. Three or four stool samples were obtained from each infant, 15 days apart. Bacterial growth in Eozin Methylene Blue (EMB) agar + 10 microg ampicillin/mL was considered to be ampicillin-resistant bacteria, and antibiotic susceptibility and extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) production was investigated in those bacteria. Colonization with ampicillin-resistant commensal fecal flora microorganisms was determined in 75.2% of 367 stool samples. Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli were identified in 59% and 41% of the samples, respectively. The lowest rate of ampicillin-resistant bacterial colonization was determined in the NICU group. Microorganisms producing ESBL were identified in 33.7% of 367 stool samples. Fifty-one and 73 of ampicillin-resistant E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates were determined to produce ESBL, respectively. There was no difference with respect to colonization with ESBL-producing microorganisms between the three groups. When risk factors related to colonization with ESBL-producing microorganisms in stool samples were evaluated through the whole study period, very low birthweight, vaginal delivery, infant antibiotic usage, maternal antibiotic usage, male sex and premature rupture of membranes were determined as risk factors, while feeding with nasogastric tube was identified as a protective factor. When the risk factors related to colonization with ESBL-producing bacteria in stool samples after discharge from the hospital were evaluated, failure to feed breast milk was determined as the only risk factor. To decrease mortality and morbidity due to infection caused by resistant

  11. Bactericidal activities of parenteral antibiotics and genotype of penicillin-binding protein in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolated from children's blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Hiroshi

    2006-10-01

    A total of 16 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and 18 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae were obtained from the blood of children admitted to the pediatric wards of hospitals in Hokkaido Kamikawa subprefecture between January 2003 and December 2005. The ages of the patients with S. pneumoniae or H. influenzae infection ranged from 2 months to 9 years and from 1 month to 4 years, respectively. The diagnoses of S. pneumoniae infection were as follows: pneumonia in 8 patients, occult bacteremia in 5 patients, and meningitis in 3 patients. The diagnoses of H. influenzae were: meningitis in 6 patients, pneumonia in 4 patients, occult bacteremia in 4 patients, epiglotitis in 2 patients, and facial cellulitis in 2 patients. Out of 16 S. pneumoniae isolates, penicillin-resistant strains with a mutation of 3 genes were observed in 7 children, and penicillin intermediate-resistant strains with a mutation of 1 or 2 genes were observed in 8 children. Out of 18 H. influenzae isolates, the beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant strain with a substitution of 2 points in the ftsI gene was revealed in 2 children, the beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant strain with a substitution of 1 point in the ftsI gene was observed in 4 children, the beta-lactamase-positive amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-resistant strain with blaTEM-1 and ftsI with 2 substitutions in the ftsI gene was observed in 3 children, and the beta-lactamase-positive ampicillin-resistant strain with blaTEM-1was not observed. The MBC90s of ampicillin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, meropenem, panipenem, and vancomycin against S. pneumoniae were 8 microg/ml, 1 microg/ml, 1 microg/ml 1 microg/ml, 0.25 microg/ml, and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively. Those of ampicillin, piperacillin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, meropenem, and panipenem against H. influenzae were >128 microg/ml, >128 microg/ml, 0.25 microg/mL, 1 microg/ml, 0.12 microg/ml, and 0.5 g/ml, respectively. It is suggest that the minimum bactricidal concentration

  12. Herd-level association between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in bovine mastitis Staphylococcus aureus isolates on Canadian dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, V; McClure, J T; Scholl, D T; DeVries, T J; Barkema, H W

    2012-04-01

    Surveillance of antimicrobial use and resistance is needed to manage antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. In this study, data were collected on antimicrobial use and resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (n=562), isolated from intramammary infections and (sub)clinical mastitis cases on 89 dairy farms in 4 regions of Canada [Alberta, Ontario, Québec, and the Maritime Provinces (Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick)]. Dairy producers were asked to deposit empty drug containers into specially provided receptacles, and antimicrobial drug use rate was calculated to quantify antimicrobial use. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the Sensititer bovine mastitis plate system (TREK Diagnostic Systems Inc., Cleveland, OH), containing antimicrobials commonly used for mastitis treatment and control. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to determine herd-level risk factors of penicillin, ampicillin, pirlimycin, penicillin-novobiocin combination, tetracycline and sulfadimethoxine resistance in Staph. aureus isolates. Intramammary administration of the penicillin-novobiocin combination for dry cow therapy was associated with penicillin and ampicillin resistance [odds ratio (OR): 2.17 and 3.10, respectively]. Systemic administration of penicillin was associated with penicillin resistance (OR: 1.63). Intramammary administration of pirlimycin for lactating cow mastitis treatment was associated with pirlimycin resistance as well (OR: 2.07). Average herd parity was associated with ampicillin and tetracycline resistance (OR: 3.88 and 0.02, respectively). Average herd size was also associated with tetracycline resistance (OR: 1.02). Dairy herds in the Maritime region had higher odds of penicillin and lower odds of ampicillin resistance than dairy herds in Québec (OR: 2.18 and 0.19, respectively). Alberta dairy herds had lower odds of ampicillin and sulfadimethoxine resistance than dairy herds in Québec (OR: 0.04 and 0.08, respectively

  13. Indagine epidemiologica locale dell’eziologia delle infezioni delle vie urinarie (IVU nosocomiali e comunitarie e dell’antibiotico-sensibilità degli uropatogeni.

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    Agostina Ronca

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are common infectious diseases that can be associated with substantial morbidity. During the last decade, resistance to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole has increased in Escherichia coli, the most common uropathogen, and recent reports have shown increasing resistance even to fluoroquinolones. The aim of this local surveillance study was to determine the distribution of bacterial strains isolated from outpatients and inpatients with UTIs and antibiotic susceptibility patterns to antimicrobial agents currently used in the treatment of pathogens causing these infections. Materials and methods: Between January and March 2006 a total of 1596 urine specimens, 968 from outpatients and 628 from inpatients, respectively, were recovered. Urinary pathogens isolated were 235, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed by Vitek II.The following antimicrobial agents were tested: ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftazidime, imipenem, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and nitrofurantoin. E test® method were used to study the production of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL. Results:The most frequent pathogen found was Escherichia coli (68.5%, followed by Klebsiella spp. (8.5%, Proteus mirabilis (7.6%, and Enterococcus spp. (6%. E. coli resistance rates less than 10% was observed for ceftazidime, imipenem and nitrofurantoin. In strains isolated from outpatients resistance to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was 37% and 19%, respectively, and resistance to fluoroquinolones was about 20%. Resistance rates of E. coli was significantly higher in complicated nosocomial-acquired infection: ampicillin 53.6%, cotrimossazole 35.7% and ciprofloxacin 33.9%. ESBL producer strains were 7 E.coli (4.3% and 6 Proteus spp. (33%. Conclusions: This study confirmed that E. coli and other Enterobacteriaceae are the predominant bacterial pathogens envolved in UTIs. Currently, the

  14. Antibacterial Activity and Antibiotic-Enhancing Effects of Honeybee Venom against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Mi; Kim, Joung Min; Hong, In Pyo; Woo, Soon Ok; Kim, Se Gun; Jang, He Rye; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2016-01-12

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), along with other antibiotic resistant bacteria, has become a significant social and clinical problem. There is thus an urgent need to develop naturally bioactive compounds as alternatives to the few antibiotics that remain effective. Here we assessed the in vitro activities of bee venom (BV), alone or in combination with ampicillin, penicillin, gentamicin or vancomycin, on growth of MRSA strains. The antimicrobial activity of BV against MRSA strains was investigated using minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) and a time-kill assay. Expression of atl which encodes murein hydrolase, a peptidoglycan-degrading enzyme involved in cell separation, was measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The MICs of BV were 0.085 µg/mL and 0.11 µg/mL against MRSA CCARM 3366 and MRSA CCARM 3708, respectively. The MBC of BV against MRSA 3366 was 0.106 µg/mL and that against MRSA 3708 was 0.14 µg/mL. The bactericidal activity of BV corresponded to a decrease of at least 3 log CFU/g cells. The combination of BV with ampicillin or penicillin yielded an inhibitory concentration index ranging from 0.631 to 1.002, indicating a partial and indifferent synergistic effect. Compared to ampicillin or penicillin, both MRSA strains were more susceptible to the combination of BV with gentamicin or vancomycin. The expression of atl gene was increased in MRSA 3366 treated with BV. These results suggest that BV exhibited antibacterial activity and antibiotic-enhancing effects against MRSA strains. The atl gene was increased in MRSA exposed to BV, suggesting that cell division was interrupted. BV warrants further investigation as a natural antimicrobial agent and synergist of antibiotic activity.

  15. Epidemiological Features and Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Haemophilus influenzae Originating from Respiratory Tract and Vaginal Specimens in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Ping; Hua, Chun-Zhen; Sun, Li-Ying; Wang, Hong-Jiao; Chen, Zhi-Min; Shang, Shi-Qiang

    2017-12-01

    Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) is a common pathogen of respiratory tract infections in children, however, as a possible cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, its epidemiological features, antibiotic-resistance patterns, and treatment are seldom noted. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Specimens obtained from patients were inoculated on Haemophilus selective medium; and drug-sensitivities tests were determined using the disk diffusion method. A cefinase disk was used to detect β-lactamase. A total of 610 H. influenzae strains, 81.6% (498/610) from the respiratory tract and 18.0% (110/610) from the vagina, were identified in the Children's Hospital in 2015. The age of the children with respiratory tract strains were significantly younger than those with vaginal strains (P influenzae isolation rate in May was the highest. The β-lactamase positive rate was 51.5% (314/610), and 52.5% (320/610) were resistant to ampicillin. The susceptibilities rates to cefuroxime, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefotaxime, clarithromycin, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were 72.1% (440/610), 95.9%, 96.4% (588/610), 81.8% (499/610), and 36.4% (222/610), respectively. Higher resistance to ampicillin, cefuroxime, clarithromycin, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were found in respiratory tract strains, compared with vaginal strains (P influenzae in the respiratory tract were cured with oral or intravenous β-lactam antibiotics. Of all patients with vaginal strains, 50% (55/110) were cured with topical ofloxacin gel, and 44.5% (49/110) were cured with oral β-lactam antibiotics. The drug-resistance rates of H. influenzae isolated from vagina were lower than those from the respiratory tract. Topical ofloxacin gel or oral β-lactam antibiotics are effective treatments to eliminate the H. influenza causing infection in the vagina. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  16. Phenotypic antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli and E. coli O157 isolated from water, sediment and biofilms in an agricultural watershed in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maal-Bared, Rasha; Bartlett, Karen H; Bowie, William R; Hall, Eric R

    2013-01-15

    This study examined the distribution of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli and E. coli O157 isolated from water, sediment and biofilms in an intensive agricultural watershed (Elk Creek, British Columbia) between 2005 and 2007. It also examined physical and chemical water parameters associated with antibiotic resistance. Broth microdilution techniques were used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for E. coli (n=214) and E. coli O157 (n=27) recovered isolates for ampicillin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin and tetracycline. Both E. coli and E. coli O157 isolates showed highest frequency of resistance to tetracycline, ampicillin, streptomycin and nalidixic acid; respectively. For E. coli, the highest frequency of resistance was observed at the most agriculturally-impacted site, while the lowest frequency of resistance was found at the headwaters. Sediment and river rock biofilms were the most likely to be associated with resistant E. coli, while water was the least likely. While seasonality (wet versus dry) had no relationship with resistance frequency, length of biofilm colonization of the substratum in the aquatic environment only affected resistance frequency to nalidixic acid and tetracycline. Multivariate logistic regressions showed that water depth, nutrient concentrations, temperature, dissolved oxygen and salinity had statistically significant associations with frequency of E. coli resistance to nalidixic acid, streptomycin, ampicillin and tetracycline. The results indicate that antibiotic resistant E. coli and E. coli O157 were prevalent in an agricultural stream. Since E. coli is adept at horizontal gene transfer and prevalent in biofilms and sediment, where ample opportunities for genetic exchange with potential environmental pathogens present themselves, resistant isolates may present a risk to ecosystem, wildlife and public health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence and Antibiogram of Generic Extended-Spectrum β-Lactam-Resistant Enterobacteria in Healthy Dogs

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    Madubuike U. ANYANWU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to isolate generic extended-spectrum β-lactam-resistant enterobacteria from household dogs in Nigeria, and to determine the antibacterial resistance profile of the isolates. Rectal swabs were collected from 100, randomly selected, apparently healthy household dogs. Isolation of ESBL-resistant enterobacteria was done using Mac Conkey agar supplemented with 4 µg/ml of ceftazidime. Phenotypic characterization of the isolates to generic level was done following standard biochemical methods. Phenotypic resistance of the isolates to antibacterial agents was determined using the disc diffusion method. Out of 27 ESBL-resistant enterobacterial isolates, 40.7% were Escherichia coli, 37% were Klebsiella species, 18.5% were Salmonella species, while 3.7% was Proteus species. Resistance of the E. coli isolates was 81.8% to ampicillin, 27.2% to streptomycin, 54.5% to ciprofloxacin and tetracycline, 45.4% to enrofloxacin, 90.9% to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, 9.1% to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and 0% resistant to gentamicin. Resistance of the Klebsiella isolates was 80% to ampicillin, 20% to streptomycin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, 30% to ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin, 60% to tetracycline, 90% to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim and 10% to gentamicin. Resistance of the Salmonella isolates was 100% to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, 80% to gentamicin and ampicillin, 60% to streptomycin and tetracycline, 20% to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and 0% to ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin. The Proteus isolate was resistant to streptomycin and gentamycin. All the isolates were resistant to ceftazidime and cefotaxime. Resistance of the isolates to more than 3 classes of antibacterial agents tested was 81.8% for E. coli, 70% for Klebsiella and 100% for Salmonella, respectively. This study has shown that household dogs in Nigeria, are colonized by ESBL-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and are potential reservoirs and disseminators of these

  18. Regional, seasonal, and temporal variations in the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from pigs at slaughter in Denmark (1997-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abatih, E N; Emborg, H D; Jensen, V F; Lo Fo Wong, D M A; Ersbøll, A K

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and discuss regional, seasonal, and temporal trends in the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from pigs at slaughter in Denmark between 1997 and 2005. Data on antimicrobial-resistant E. coli were obtained from the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme database. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to detect the presence and evaluate the significance of regional, seasonal, and annual trends in the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli for four drugs. Associations between resistance and explanatory variables region, season, and the year of isolate sampling were analyzed using a logistic regression model. The Cochran-Armitage test provided evidence of significant temporal trends for ampicillin-resistant E. coli (an increasing trend, p streptomycin-resistant E. coli (a decreasing trend, p E. coli increased over time for all seasons (p E. coli were captured over time. On the other hand, a significant decreasing trend in prevalence of streptomycin-resistant E. coli was observed for the spring, summer, and winter months (p 0.05). The prevalence of ampicillin-resistant E. coli was observed to increase over time for the various regions, whereas that for streptomycin-resistant E. coli presented an overall significant decrease over time. The estimated odds ratios from the logistic regression model indicated varying risks for the occurrence of resistance by season and by region. The winter months were associated with an increased risk for the occurrence of resistant E. coli as compared to the other seasons of the year. Our study provides evidence of statistically significant regional, seasonal, and temporal variations for ampicillin- and streptomycin-resistant E. coli isolated from pigs at slaughter in Denmark between 1997 and 2005.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance genes in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Pasteurella multocida isolated from Australian pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayao, Dae; Gibson, J S; Blackall, P J; Turni, C

    2016-07-01

    To identify genes associated with the observed antimicrobial resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Pasteurella multocida isolated from Australian pigs. Isolates with known phenotypic resistance to β-lactams, macrolides and tetracycline were screened for the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes. A total of 68 A. pleuropneumoniae, 62 H. parasuis and 20 P. multocida isolates exhibiting phenotypic antimicrobial resistance (A. pleuropneumoniae and P. multocida) or elevated minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (H. parasuis) to any of the following antimicrobial agents - ampicillin, erythromycin, penicillin, tetracycline, tilmicosin and tulathromycin - were screened for a total of 19 associated antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) by PCR. The gene bla ROB-1 was found in all ampicillin- and penicillin-resistant isolates, but none harboured the bla TEM-1 gene. The tetB gene was found in 76% (74/97) of tetracycline-resistant isolates, 49/53 A. pleuropneumoniae, 17/30 H. parasuis and 8/14 P. multocida. One A. pleuropneumoniae isolate harboured the tetH gene, but none of the 97 isolates had tetA, tetC, tetD, tetE, tetL, tetM or tetO. A total of 92 isolates were screened for the presence of macrolide resistance genes. None was found to have ermA, ermB, ermC, erm42, mphE, mefA, msrA or msrE. The current study has provided a genetic explanation for the resistance or elevated MIC of the majority of isolates of Australian porcine respiratory pathogens to ampicillin, penicillin and tetracycline. However, the macrolide resistance observed by phenotypic testing remains genetically unexplained and further studies are required. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  20. Evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of fungal-derived silver nanoparticles against Enterococcus faecalis

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    Kiran Rahul Halkai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main objective of endodontic therapy is complete elimination and prevention of bacteria from the root canal system; however, it is difficult due to anatomical ramifications of root canal system and growing resistant microbes to available disinfectants. Therefore, to overcome this problem, newer antimicrobial agents have to be developed. Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of fungal-derived biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs against Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: Freshly prepared silver nanoparticles using the endophytic fungi Fusarium semitectum, characterized by different techniques were used to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy against E. faecalis by agar well diffusion method measuring the zone of inhibition using different concentrations of nanoparticles (AgNPs (A [20 μl], B [40 μl], C [60 μl], D [80 μl], and E [100 μl], F (0.2% chlorhexidine [CHX], G (2% CHX, H (ampicillin, and I (distilled water were used as control groups. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way ANOVA followed by post hoc Tukey multiple comparison test was done. Results: AgNPs (100 ml showed highest zone of inhibition 19.5 mm against E. faecalis. CHX (0.2% 14.52 mm, CHX (2% 20.02 mm, and ampicillin showed highest mean zone of inhibition 20.5 mm and distilled water showed no zone of inhibition. Results indicate no significant difference between E (100 μl, G (2% CHX, and H (ampicillin (P < 0.0001. Conclusions: Biosynthesized AgNPs exhibit efficient antibacterial activity against E. faecalis and therefore can be used as root canal irrigant or intracanal medicament for root canal disinfection.

  1. Aquaculture can promote the presence and spread of antibiotic-resistant Enterococci in marine sediments.

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    Andrea Di Cesare

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is an expanding activity worldwide. However its rapid growth can affect the aquatic environment through release of large amounts of chemicals, including antibiotics. Moreover, the presence of organic matter and bacteria of different origin can favor gene transfer and recombination. Whereas the consequences of such activities on environmental microbiota are well explored, little is known of their effects on allochthonous and potentially pathogenic bacteria, such as enterococci. Sediments from three sampling stations (two inside and one outside collected in a fish farm in the Adriatic Sea were examined for enterococcal abundance and antibiotic resistance traits using the membrane filter technique and an improved quantitative PCR. Strains were tested for susceptibility to tetracycline, erythromycin, ampicillin and gentamicin; samples were directly screened for selected tetracycline [tet(M, tet(L, tet(O] and macrolide [erm(A, erm(B and mef] resistance genes by newly-developed multiplex PCRs. The abundance of benthic enterococci was higher inside than outside the farm. All isolates were susceptible to the four antimicrobials tested, although direct PCR evidenced tet(M and tet(L in sediment samples from all stations. Direct multiplex PCR of sediment samples cultured in rich broth supplemented with antibiotic (tetracycline, erythromycin, ampicillin or gentamicin highlighted changes in resistance gene profiles, with amplification of previously undetected tet(O, erm(B and mef genes and an increase in benthic enterococcal abundance after incubation in the presence of ampicillin and gentamicin. Despite being limited to a single farm, these data indicate that aquaculture may influence the abundance and spread of benthic enterococci and that farm sediments can be reservoirs of dormant antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including enterococci, which can rapidly revive in presence of new inputs of organic matter. This reservoir may constitute an

  2. Absence of phosphatidylcholine in bacterial membranes facilitates translocation of Sec-dependent β-lactamase AmpC from cytoplasm to periplasm in two Pseudomonas strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Sun, Yufang; Cao, Fang; Xiong, Min; Yang, Sheng; Li, Yang; Yu, Xuejing; Li, Yadong; Wang, Xingguo

    2017-05-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a rare membrane lipid in bacteria but crucial for virulence of various plant and animal pathogens. The pcs- mutant lacking PC in bacterial membranes of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae van Hall 1336 displayed more ampicillin resistance. Ampicillin susceptibility tests gave an IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) of 52 mg/ml for Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae van Hall 1336, 53 mg/ml for the complemented strain 1336 RM (pcs-/+) and 90 mg/ml for the 1336 pcs- mutant. Activity assay of β-lactamase in periplasmic extracts gave 0.050 U/mg for the 1336 wild type, 0.052 U/mg for the 1336RM (pcs-/+), 0.086 U/mg for the 1336 pcs- mutant. Analysis by western blotting showed that the content of AmpC enzyme was markedly different in periplasmic extracts between the wild-type and pcs- mutant strains. Reverse transcriptase PCR also showed that the presence or absence of PC in bacterial membranes did not affect the transcription of ampC gene. The phenotype of the pcs- mutant was able to be recovered to the wild type by introducing a wild-type pcs gene into the pcs- mutant. Similar results were also obtained from the soil-dwelling bacterium Pseudomonas sp. 593. Our results demonstrate that the absence of PC in bacterial membranes facilitates the translocation of Sec-dependent β-lactamase AmpC from cytoplasm to periplasm, and the enhanced ampicillin-resistance in the pcs- strains mainly comes from effective translocation of AmpC via Sec-pathway. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Antibiotic treatment attenuates behavioral and neurochemical changes induced by exposure of rats to group a streptococcal antigen.

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    Dafna Lotan

    Full Text Available Post-streptococcal A (GAS sequelae including movement and neuropsychiatric disorders have been associated with improvement in response to antibiotic therapy. Besides eradication of infection, the underlying basis of attenuation of neuropsychiatric symptoms following antibiotic treatment is not known. The aim of the present study was to test the efficacy of antibiotic treatment in a rat model of GAS-related neuropsychiatric disorders. In the model, rats were not infected but were exposed to GAS-antigen or to adjuvants only (Control rats and treated continuously with the antibiotic ampicillin in their drinking water from the first day of GAS-antigen exposure. Two additional groups of rats (GAS and Control did not receive ampicillin in their drinking water. Behavior of the four groups was assessed in the forced swim, marble burying and food manipulation assays. We assessed levels of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors and tyrosine hydroxylase in the prefrontal cortex and striatum, and IgG deposition in the prefrontal cortex, striatum and thalamus. Ampicillin treatment prevented emergence of the motor and some of the behavioral alterations induced by GAS-antigen exposure, reduced IgG deposition in the thalamus of GAS-exposed rats, and tended to attenuate the increase in the level of TH and D1 and D2 receptors in their striatum, without concomitantly reducing the level of sera anti-GAS antibodies. Our results reinforce the link between exposure to GAS antigen, dysfunction of central dopaminergic pathways and motor and behavioral alterations. Our data further show that some of these deleterious effects can be attenuated by antibiotic treatment, and supports the latter's possible efficacy as a prophylactic treatment in GAS-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  4. Antibacterial activity of four Gracilaria species of red seaweeds collected from Mandapam Coast, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, India

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    Sethu Rameshkumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the antibacterial activities of diethyl ether, toluene, ethanol and methanol extracts of red seaweeds such as Gracilaria crassa (G. crassa, Gracilaria folifera (G. folifera, Gracilaria debilis (G. debilis and Gracilaria corticata. Methods: The crude extracts were tested against different types of Gram-positive and -negative bacterial strains and all the seaweed extracts were tested a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. Antibacterial activity was made using paper disc diffusion method. Four organic solvents (diethyl ether, toluene, methanol and ethanol were used separately in a Soxhlet apparatus for seven bacterial strains. Antibacterial activity of the known antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, streptomycin, kanamycin and ampicillin was determined by testing them against different test organisms. Results: The high antibacterial activity was noted in the extracts of G. crassa, G. folifera and G. debilis. However, G. crassa and G. debilis have good antibacterial activity. Pathogens like Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli were less susceptible to the methanol and diethyl ether extracts of G. folifera. The comparative study on the antibacterial activity was also made by using 200 μg concentration of solvent extracts (diethyl ether, ethanol, toluene and methanoland different five antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, streptomycin, kanamycin, amoxicillin and ampicillin. The bacterial strains tested were more sensitive to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, kanamycin, and ampicillin when compared to algal extracts. Conclusions: The present study proved that the extracts of G. crassa, G. folifera and G. debilis have high antibacterial activity. Although G. crassa and G. debilis showed good antibacterial activity, many known antibiotics are active against a few organisms individually. Hence, the extracts of seaweeds were active against all test organisms used and the activities were comparable to that of antibiotics and the

  5. Genetic and structural characterization of an L201P global suppressor substitution in TEM-1 beta-lactamase.

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    Marciano, David C; Pennington, Jeanine M; Wang, Xiaohu; Wang, Jian; Chen, Yu; Thomas, Veena L; Shoichet, Brian K; Palzkill, Timothy

    2008-12-05

    TEM-1 beta-lactamase confers bacterial resistance to penicillin antibiotics and has acquired mutations that permit the enzyme to hydrolyze extended-spectrum cephalosporins or to avoid inactivation by beta-lactamase inhibitors. However, many of these substitutions have been shown to reduce activity against penicillin antibiotics and/or result in loss of stability for the enzyme. In order to gain more information concerning the tradeoffs associated with active site substitutions, a genetic selection was used to find second site mutations that partially restore ampicillin resistance levels conferred by an R244A active site TEM-1 beta-lactamase mutant. An L201P substitution distant from the active site that enhanced ampicillin resistance levels and increased protein expression levels of the R244A TEM-1 mutant was identified. The L201P substitution also increases the ampicillin resistance levels and restores expression levels of a poorly expressed TEM-1 mutant with a core-disrupting substitution. In vitro thermal denaturation of purified protein indicated that the L201P mutation increases the T(m) value of the TEM-1 enzyme. The X-ray structure of the L201P TEM-1 mutant was determined to gain insight into the increase in enzyme stability. The proline substitution occurs at the N-terminus of an alpha-helix and may stabilize the enzyme by reducing the helix dipole, as well as by lowering the conformational entropy cost of folding due to the reduced number of conformations available in the unfolded state. Collectively, the data suggest that L201P promotes tolerance of some deleterious TEM-1 mutations by enhancing the protein stability of these mutants.

  6. Antibacterial agents and heavy metal resistance in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from seawater, shrimp and sediment in Iskenderun Bay, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyar, Fatih [Cukurova University, Faculty of Education, Department of Science and Technology Education, 01330 Balcali, Adana (Turkey)], E-mail: fmatyar@cu.edu.tr; Kaya, Aysenur; Dincer, Sadik [Cukurova University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Biology, 01330 Balcali, Adana (Turkey)

    2008-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine the level of antibiotic resistance patterns and distribution of heavy metal resistance of bacterial isolates from seawater, sediment and shrimps, and to determine if there is a relationship between antibiotic and heavy metal resistance. We undertook studies in 2007 in the industrially polluted Iskenderun Bay, on the south coast of Turkey. The resistance of 236 Gram-negative bacterial isolates (49 from seawater, 90 from sediment and 97 from shrimp) to 16 different antibiotics, and to 5 heavy metals, was investigated by agar diffusion and agar dilution methods, respectively. A total of 31 species of bacteria were isolated: the most common strains isolated from all samples were Escherichia coli (11.4%), Aeromonas hydrophila (9.7%) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (9.3%). There was a high incidence of resistance to ampicillin (93.2%), streptomycin (90.2%) and cefazolin (81.3%), and a low incidence of resistance to imipenem (16.5%), meropenem (13.9%) and cefepime (8.0%). Some 56.8% of all bacteria isolated from seawater, sediment and shrimp were resistant to 7 or more antibiotics. Most isolates showed tolerance to different concentrations of heavy metals, and minimal inhibition concentrations ranged from 12.5 {mu}g/ml to > 3200 {mu}g/ml. The bacteria from seawater, sediment and shrimp showed high resistance to cadmium of 69.4%, 88.9%, and 81.1% respectively, and low resistance to manganese of 2%, 6.7% and 11.3% respectively. The seawater and sediment isolates which were metal resistant also showed a high resistance to three antibiotics: streptomycin, ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. In contrast, the shrimp isolates which were metal resistant were resistant to four antibiotics: cefazolin, nitrofurantoin, cefuroxime and ampicillin. Our results show that Iskenderun Bay has a significant proportion of antibiotic and heavy metal resistant Gram-negative bacteria, and these bacteria constitute a potential risk for

  7. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of bacterial pathogens isolated from childhood diarrhoea in four provinces of Kenya.

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    Sang, Willie Kipkemboi; Oundo, Valerie; Schnabel, David

    2012-07-23

    Diarrhoea is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality among children in sub-Saharan Africa, and one of the main causes of hospital admissions in rural areas of Kenya. In Kenya, antimicrobial resistance surveillance has been conducted only at the institutional levels, with limited sharing of information and analysis of data. As a result, the actual scale of regional or national antimicrobial drug resistance is not well defined. Stool samples were collected between 1 October 2007 and 30 September 2008 from a total of 651 outpatients with diarrhoea who were under five years of age in four provinces of Kenya.  Conventional, biochemical methods, multiplex PCR and antimicrobial susceptibility were conducted to identify the bacterial causes and virulence factors in the isolates, respectively.  Of the 651 patients screened, we identified the causes of 115 cases (17.7%) as follows: Pathogenic E. coli (11.2%) [enteroaggregative (8.9%), enterotoxigenic (1.2%), enteroinvasive (0.6%), shigatoxigenic (0.5%)], Salmonella (3.5%), Shigella (2%) and Vibrio cholera O1 (0.7%). The highest levels of resistance among the E. coli isolates were observed in ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole each at 95% followed by tetracycline at 81%. Shigella isolate levels of resistance ranged from 80% to 100% for ampicillin, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. The highest prevalence of antimicrobial resistance was to ampicillin followed by trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole and tetracycline. Though still at low levels, the major concern from our findings is the emerging resistance of enteric pathogens that was observed to quinolones (ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin) and gentamycin.

  8. Vaginal versus Obstetric Infection Escherichia coli Isolates among Pregnant Women: Antimicrobial Resistance and Genetic Virulence Profile.

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    Emma Sáez-López

    Full Text Available Vaginal Escherichia coli colonization is related to obstetric infections and the consequent development of infections in newborns. Ampicillin resistance among E. coli strains is increasing, which is the main choice for treating empirically many obstetric and neonatal infections. Vaginal E. coli strains are very similar to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli with regards to the virulence factors and the belonging to phylogroup B2. We studied the antimicrobial resistance and the genetic virulence profile of 82 E. coli isolates from 638 vaginal samples and 63 isolated from endometrial aspirate, placental and amniotic fluid samples from pregnant women with obstetric infections. The prevalence of E. coli in the vaginal samples was 13%, which was significant among women with associated risk factors during pregnancy, especially premature preterm rupture of membranes (p<0.0001. Sixty-five percent of the strains were ampicillin-resistant. The E. coli isolates causing obstetric infections showed higher resistance levels than vaginal isolates, particularly for gentamicin (p = 0.001. The most prevalent virulence factor genes were those related to the iron uptake systems revealing clear targets for interventions. More than 50% of the isolates belonged to the virulent B2 group possessing the highest number of virulence factor genes. The ampicillin-resistant isolates had high number of virulence factors primarily related to pathogenicity islands, and the remarkable gentamicin resistance in E. coli isolates from women presenting obstetric infections, the choice of the most appropriate empiric treatment and clinical management of pregnant women and neonates should be carefully made. Taking into account host-susceptibility, the heterogeneity of E. coli due to evolution over time and the geographical area, characterization of E. coli isolates colonizing the vagina and causing obstetric infections in different regions may help to develop interventions and avoid the

  9. Effect of gamma rays on antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokier, H. A.; EI-Adly, A.A.; Hussein, H.; Shabon, M. H.; EI-Shanshoury, I.H.

    2010-01-01

    Seventy one samples were randomly collected from patients suffering from different bacterial skin infections. Forty isolates could not grow on the artificial media after second subculture while 31 isolates were able to survive. Twenty six of them were identified as Staphylococcus aureus and 5 were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The isolated strains were tested for their susceptibilities to gentamycin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin antibiotics .Up to 88.4% of S. aureus and of 80% of P.aeruginosa isolates were found to be resistant to ampicillin. On the other. hand, about 30.7% of S. aureus and 20% of P. aeruginosa were resistant to ciprofloxacin reveals the lowest antibiotic resistance . The antibiotic sensitivity was retested for the most resistant bacterial isolates after irradiated by different doses of gamma radiation (0.5,1, 2 Gy). The previous doses increased S .aureus inhibition zone to gentamycin, from 7.5 mm for unirradiated cells to 25 mm for irradiated one. While ciprofloxacin inhibition zone increased from 1.5 cm to 3 cm in doses of 0.5 to 2.0 Gy. S. aureus sensitivity to amoxicillin increased from 0.0 to 1.0 cm inhibition zone with increase in dose from 0.5 to 2.0 Gy.While the previous doses had no effect on ampicillin resistance. The same doses increased P. aeruginosa isolate resistance. Very low doses of gamma irradiation increased S.aureus and P. aeruginosa capsule production, also increased the release rate of capsule content in both types of bacteria.

  10. Risk factors associated with the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis

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    Daniele C. Beuron

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate herd management practices and mastitis treatment procedures as risk factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial resistance. For this study, 13 herds were selected to participate in the study to evaluate the association between their management practices and mastitis treatment procedures and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 1069 composite milk samples were collected aseptically from the selected cows in four different periods over two years. The samples were used for microbiological culturing of S. aureus isolates and evaluation of their antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 756 samples (70.7% were culture-positive, and S. aureus comprised 27.77% (n=210 of the isolates. The S. aureus isolates were tested using the disk-diffusion susceptibility assay with the following antimicrobials: ampicillin 10mg; clindamycin 2μg; penicillin 1mg; ceftiofur 30μg; gentamicin 10mg; sulfa-trimethoprim 25μg; enrofloxacin 5μg; sulfonamide 300μg; tetracycline 30μg; oxacillin 1mg; cephalothin 30μg and erythromycin 5μg. The variables that were significantly associated with S. aureus resistance were as follows: the treatment of clinical mastitis for ampicillin (OR=2.18, dry cow treatment for enrofloxacin (OR=2.11 and not sending milk samples for microbiological culture and susceptibility tests, for ampicillin (OR=2.57 and penicillin (OR=4.69. In conclusion, the identification of risk factors for S. aureus resistance against various mastitis antimicrobials is an important information that may help in practical recommendations for prudent use of antimicrobial in milk production.

  11. Resistance to antimicrobial agents among Salmonella isolates recovered from layer farms and eggs in the Caribbean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesiyun, Abiodun; Webb, Lloyd; Musai, Lisa; Louison, Bowen; Joseph, George; Stewart-Johnson, Alva; Samlal, Sannandan; Rodrigo, Shelly

    2014-12-01

    This investigation determined the frequency of resistance of 84 isolates of Salmonella comprising 14 serotypes recovered from layer farms in three Caribbean countries (Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, and St. Lucia) to eight antimicrobial agents, using the disc diffusion method. Resistance among isolates of Salmonella was related to the country of recovery, type of sample, size of layer farms, and isolate serotype. Overall, all (100.0%) of the isolates exhibited resistance to one or more of seven antimicrobial agents tested, and all were susceptible to chloramphenicol. The resistance detected ranged from 11.9% to sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT) to 100.0% to erythromycin. The difference was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.23). Across countries, for types of samples that yielded Salmonella, significant differences in frequency of resistance were detected only to SXT (P = 0.002) in Trinidad and Tobago and to gentamycin (P = 0.027) in St. Lucia. For the three countries, the frequency of resistance to antimicrobial agents was significantly different for ampicillin (P = 0.001) and SXT (P = 0.032). A total of 83 (98.8%) of the 84 isolates exhibited 39 multidrug resistance patterns. Farm size significantly (P = 0.032) affected the frequency of resistance to kanamycin across the countries. Overall, among the 14 serotypes of Salmonella tested, significant (P resistance were detected to kanamycin, ampicillin, and SXT. Results suggest that the relatively high frequency of resistance to six of the antimicrobial agents (erythromycin, streptomycin, gentamycin, kanamycin, ampicillin, and tetracycline) tested and the multidrug resistance detected may pose prophylactic and therapeutic concerns for chicken layer farms in the three countries studied.

  12. Antibacterial Activity and Antibiotic-Enhancing Effects of Honeybee Venom against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

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    Sang Mi Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, along with other antibiotic resistant bacteria, has become a significant social and clinical problem. There is thus an urgent need to develop naturally bioactive compounds as alternatives to the few antibiotics that remain effective. Here we assessed the in vitro activities of bee venom (BV, alone or in combination with ampicillin, penicillin, gentamicin or vancomycin, on growth of MRSA strains. The antimicrobial activity of BV against MRSA strains was investigated using minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC, minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC and a time-kill assay. Expression of atl which encodes murein hydrolase, a peptidoglycan-degrading enzyme involved in cell separation, was measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The MICs of BV were 0.085 µg/mL and 0.11 µg/mL against MRSA CCARM 3366 and MRSA CCARM 3708, respectively. The MBC of BV against MRSA 3366 was 0.106 µg/mL and that against MRSA 3708 was 0.14 µg/mL. The bactericidal activity of BV corresponded to a decrease of at least 3 log CFU/g cells. The combination of BV with ampicillin or penicillin yielded an inhibitory concentration index ranging from 0.631 to 1.002, indicating a partial and indifferent synergistic effect. Compared to ampicillin or penicillin, both MRSA strains were more susceptible to the combination of BV with gentamicin or vancomycin. The expression of atl gene was increased in MRSA 3366 treated with BV. These results suggest that BV exhibited antibacterial activity and antibiotic-enhancing effects against MRSA strains. The atl gene was increased in MRSA exposed to BV, suggesting that cell division was interrupted. BV warrants further investigation as a natural antimicrobial agent and synergist of antibiotic activity.

  13. Antibacterial agents and heavy metal resistance in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from seawater, shrimp and sediment in Iskenderun Bay, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyar, Fatih; Kaya, Aysenur; Dincer, Sadik

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the level of antibiotic resistance patterns and distribution of heavy metal resistance of bacterial isolates from seawater, sediment and shrimps, and to determine if there is a relationship between antibiotic and heavy metal resistance. We undertook studies in 2007 in the industrially polluted Iskenderun Bay, on the south coast of Turkey. The resistance of 236 Gram-negative bacterial isolates (49 from seawater, 90 from sediment and 97 from shrimp) to 16 different antibiotics, and to 5 heavy metals, was investigated by agar diffusion and agar dilution methods, respectively. A total of 31 species of bacteria were isolated: the most common strains isolated from all samples were Escherichia coli (11.4%), Aeromonas hydrophila (9.7%) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (9.3%). There was a high incidence of resistance to ampicillin (93.2%), streptomycin (90.2%) and cefazolin (81.3%), and a low incidence of resistance to imipenem (16.5%), meropenem (13.9%) and cefepime (8.0%). Some 56.8% of all bacteria isolated from seawater, sediment and shrimp were resistant to 7 or more antibiotics. Most isolates showed tolerance to different concentrations of heavy metals, and minimal inhibition concentrations ranged from 12.5 μg/ml to > 3200 μg/ml. The bacteria from seawater, sediment and shrimp showed high resistance to cadmium of 69.4%, 88.9%, and 81.1% respectively, and low resistance to manganese of 2%, 6.7% and 11.3% respectively. The seawater and sediment isolates which were metal resistant also showed a high resistance to three antibiotics: streptomycin, ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. In contrast, the shrimp isolates which were metal resistant were resistant to four antibiotics: cefazolin, nitrofurantoin, cefuroxime and ampicillin. Our results show that Iskenderun Bay has a significant proportion of antibiotic and heavy metal resistant Gram-negative bacteria, and these bacteria constitute a potential risk for public

  14. Structural and Biochemical Evidence That a TEM-1 [beta]-Lactamase N170G Active Site Mutant Acts via Substrate-assisted Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Nicholas G.; Shanker, Sreejesh; Prasad, B.V. Venkataram; Palzkill, Timothy; (Baylor)

    2010-03-12

    TEM-1 {beta}-lactamase is the most common plasmid-encoded {beta}-lactamase in Gram-negative bacteria and is a model class A enzyme. The active site of class A {beta}-lactamases share several conserved residues including Ser{sup 70}, Glu{sup 166}, and Asn{sub 170} that coordinate a hydrolytic water involved in deacylation. Unlike Ser{sup 70} and Glu{sup 166}, the functional significance of residue Asn{sup 170} is not well understood even though it forms hydrogen bonds with both Glu{sup 166} and the hydrolytic water. The goal of this study was to examine the importance of Asn{sup 170} for catalysis and substrate specificity of {beta}-lactam antibiotic hydrolysis. The codon for position 170 was randomized to create a library containing all 20 possible amino acids. The random library was introduced into Escherichia coli, and functional clones were selected on agar plates containing ampicillin. DNA sequencing of the functional clones revealed that only asparagine (wild type) and glycine at this position are consistent with wild-type function. The determination of kinetic parameters for several substrates revealed that the N170G mutant is very efficient at hydrolyzing substrates that contain a primary amine in the antibiotic R-group that would be close to the Asn{sup 170} side chain in the acyl-intermediate. In addition, the x-ray structure of the N170G enzyme indicated that the position of an active site water important for deacylation is altered compared with the wild-type enzyme. Taken together, the results suggest the N170G TEM-1 enzyme hydrolyzes ampicillin efficiently because of substrate-assisted catalysis where the primary amine of the ampicillin R-group positions the hydrolytic water and allows for efficient deacylation.

  15. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Monitoring of Bacterial Pathogens Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections in Dogs and Cats Across Europe: ComPath Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyaert, Hilde; Morrissey, Ian; de Jong, Anno; El Garch, Farid; Klein, Ulrich; Ludwig, Carolin; Thiry, Julien; Youala, Myriam

    2017-04-01

    ComPath is a pan-European antimicrobial surveillance program collecting bacterial pathogens from dogs and cats not recently exposed to antimicrobials. We present minimum inhibitory concentration data obtained using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methodology for 616 urinary tract infection (UTI) isolates collected between 2008 and 2010. In both dogs and cats, the most common pathogen was Escherichia coli (59.8% and 46.7%, respectively). Antimicrobial activity against E. coli in dogs and cats was similar with fluoroquinolone and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole susceptibility >90%. Ampicillin susceptibility was ∼80%. Staphylococcus intermedius Group isolates from dogs (67/437, 15.3%) had high antimicrobial susceptibility (>90%) toward beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Four canine isolates (6%) were oxacillin resistant, and harbored mecA. Proteus mirabilis from dogs (48/437, 11.0%) had high antimicrobial susceptibility (∼90%) to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, enrofloxacin, and marbofloxacin and slightly lower susceptibility (∼80-85%) to ampicillin and orbifloxacin. Streptococcus canis isolates (35/437, 8.0%) from dogs were all susceptible to ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and >90% susceptible to marbofloxacin. Although resistance was not observed, high intermediate susceptibility was seen for both enrofloxacin (28.6%) and orbifloxacin (85.7%). Overall, antimicrobial in vitro activity appears to be high in UTI pathogens from dogs and cats with low multidrug resistance, although a lack of specific dog and cat breakpoints for important antimicrobials such as cefovecin, cephalexin, and ibafloxacin prevents analysis of susceptibility for these agents.

  16. Antibacterial effects of ellagitannins from Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort.: surface morphology analysis with environmental scanning electron microscopy and synergy with antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Wardah Mustafa; Jin, Khoo Teng; Ramli, Ramliza; Khaithir, Tzar Mohd Nizam; Wiart, Christophe

    2013-09-01

    The present study served to gain further insight into the bactericidal effects of ellagitannins from Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. against pathogenic bacteria. Ellagitannins from the aerial parts of A. wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. (EAW) inhibited the growth of Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 11632) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical strain with inhibition zones equal to 11.01 ± 1.53 mm, 16.63 ± 0.11 mm, 11.40 ± 1.10 mm and 8.22 ± 0.19 mm, respectively. The minimal inhibition concentration and the minimal bactericidal concentration of ellagitannins from A. wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. (EAW) against MRSA were 750 µg/mL and 3000 µg/mL, respectively. We then examined the synergistic effect of EAW with three antibiotics, i.e. ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline, via the checkerboard assay and time-kill assay and observed that EAW is synergistic with ampicillin against S. aureus (ATCC 11632). Environmental electron scanning microscopy analysis showed cell lysis against S. aureus (ATCC 11632) upon treatment with the ellagitannin fraction. The ellagitannin fraction from A. wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. is bactericidal against gram-positive bacteria tested and works synergistically with ampicillin against S. aureus. Morphology analysis of the cell suggests that the bactericidal property of the ellagitannin fraction mechanism involves lysis of the cell wall. In summary, our studies demonstrate that A. wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. produces bactericidal ellagitannins of clinical and/or cosmetological value. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Satureja Khuzestanica J. Essential Oil against Standard and Isolated Strains of Listeria monocytogenes

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    Sheida Akbari-Shahabi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to determine antibacterial activity of essential oil of Satureja khuzestanica against Listeria monocytogenes (PTCC1295 and strains isolated from breast milk show that. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, Essence of leave’s plant was extracted and identified its compounds and then carvacrol was isolated. Antibacterial activities were examined by agar dilution method against L. monocytogenes. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bacterial concentration (MBC were carried out by micro dilution method. Then bacterial suspension injected the BALB/c mice. Forty-eight h after seeing the listeriosis disease signs were started the treatment. Ampicillin (10 μg/disc and trimethoprim (5 g were used as controls. Results: The results showed that the inhibitory zone diameter standard and essential oils for strains isolated species were respectively 59 and 50 mm. This amount was determined by carvacrol, respectively, 60 and 48 mm. Inhibition zone diameter measurements for standard strains of ampicillin and trimethoprim tedious strains, respectively, 21, 40, 18 and 33 mm, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration of essential oils, carvacrol and ampicillin than standard strains, respectively 1.56, 1.56 and 155×10˗8 μg/mL and MBC 3.125, 3.125 and 125×10-7 μg/mL was determined by the ratio of the strain 3.125, 3.125 and 0.0062 μg/mL and MBC was 6.25, 6.25 and 0.025 μg/mL. Conclusion: This study showed that bacterial cleansing properties of essential oil of this plant have a strong and effective combination that is carvacrol.

  18. Child morbidity of salmonellosis and the level of resistance of clinical isolates of salmonella to antibacterial preparations in saint Petersburg

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    N. V. Gonchar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to study the dynamics of the incidence of salmonellosis children in St. Petersburg and phenotypic resistance of clinical isolates of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium to antibiotics in recent years. Materials and methods. The incidence of salmonellosis children studied according to the report for the first nine months of Rospotrebnadzor in 2013–2014. Incidence of salmonellosis in the structure of bacterial intestinal infections caused by pathogens in children hospitalized in the Department of intestinal infections in 2013–2014, studied according to annual reports. Antibiotic sensitivity was studied 86 Salmonella isolates (S. Enteritidis strain 64 and strain 22 S. Typhimurium, isolated from patients in children 2010–2014. Used the method of serial microdilution broth. Salmonella isolates were divided into sensitive, resistant, intermediate sensitivity to antibiotics. The Results. Analysis of the incidence of salmonellosis children of St. Petersburg has revealed its decline in 2014 (109.2 compared to 2013 (123,9 but relatively long-term average level was an increase in incidence (107,6. In the structure of salmonellosis in children prevailed salmonellosis Group D. In hospitalized children in the structure of bacterial intestinal infections detected Excess of share of salmonellosis in 2014 (36,9±3,4% compared to 2013 (24,5±2,4%; p <0,01. A reduction in the frequency sensitivity of S. Enteritidis to ampicillin, cefepime, ceftazidime and chloramphenicol. Compared to S. Enteritidis S. Typhimurium isolates were more resistant to ceftazidime and ampicillin, but more sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Conclusion. Morbidity of salmonellosis in recent years characterized by a relatively long-term average increase of the level. In the structure of salmonellosis in children prevailed salmonellosis Group D. There was a reduction of sensitivity S. Enteritidis isolates to cephalosporins new generations, and S. Typhimurium isolates

  19. Streptococcus bovis Bacteremia in Neonates in a Predominantly Hispanic Population

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    YI eJIA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Streptococcus bovis bacteremia has been associated with gastrointestinal diseases, especially colon cancer, neoplastic colon polyps and other malignancies of the GI tract in adults. Sporadic cases of S. bovis disease have also been reported in neonates and young infants. Although uncommon, S. bovis infection can cause fulminant neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Objectives: We report a series of pediatric patients with S. bovis bacteremia in a county hospital in a United States - Mexico border city in order to examine the demographic and clinical associations. Methods: We characterized the demographic and clinical features in all pediatric patients with blood cultures positive for S. bovis at University Medical Center in El Paso, Texas between January 2000 and December 2010. Hospital records were systematically reviewed by using a standardized protocol.Results: A total of 7 episodes of S. bovis bacteremia were documented in 7 pediatric patients (4 female and 3 male. Mean age was 1.2 days (range 1-3 days, all were Hispanic, average birth weight (3.25 kg. Mode of delivery was spontaneous vaginal delivery (5 and Caesarian section (2. All of our patients developed early (< 1 week onset disease and presented with signs of respiratory distress. Five out of 7 babies presented with abdominal distention and diarrhea. Six had clinical evidence of sepsis at presentation. Respiratory distress was the most common manifestation of sepsis (7. Aspiration pneumonia was diagnosed in 2 of them. Most patients were treated with a combination of antibiotics (6, either ampicillin and gentamicin or ampicillin and cefotaxime, and one with ampicillin alone. None of the pediatric patients had endoscopy and none of them died.Conclusions: S. bovis is considered an uncommon pathogen in the newborn, but can be associated with substantial morbidity and mortality if not identified and treated early. Physicians should be alert to the less common presentation of neonatal

  20. Phenotypic and genotypic profiling of antimicrobial resistance in enteric Escherichia coli communities isolated from finisher pigs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M G; Jordan, D; Gibson, J S; Cobbold, R N; Chapman, T A; Abraham, S; Trott, D J

    2016-10-01

    To assess herd-to-herd variation in antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and associated antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in faecal commensal Escherichia coli communities isolated from Australian slaughter-age pigs. Hydrophobic grid-membrane filtration (HGMF) was used to screen populations of E. coli isolated from faecal samples obtained from pigs prior to or at slaughter. Multiplex PCRs were applied to the pooled DNA extracted from the samples to identify specific ARGs. Pooled faecal samples from 30 finishers, from 72 different Australian pig farms, produced 5003 isolates for screening. HGMF techniques and image analysis were used to confirm E. coli resistance phenotypes to four antimicrobial agents (ampicillin, gentamicin, florfenicol and ceftiofur) using selective agars. Multiplex PCRs were performed on DNA from pooled samples for 35 ARGs associated with seven chemical classes. The prevalence of E. coli isolates showing no resistance to any of the drugs was 50.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 41.8-58.6%). Ceftiofur resistance was very low (1.8%; CI 0.8-3.9%) and no ARGs associated with 3rd-generation cephalosporin resistance were detected. By contrast, ampicillin (29.4%, CI 22.8-37.0%), florfenicol (24.3%, CI 17.8-32.3%) and gentamicin (CI 17.5%, 10.7-27.2%) resistance prevalence varied greatly between farms and associated ARGs were common. The most common combined resistance phenotype was ampicillin-florfenicol. The use of registered antimicrobials in Australian pigs leads to the enteric commensal populations acquiring associated ARGs. However, despite a high intensity of sampling, ARGs imparting resistance to the critically important 3rd-generation cephalosporins were not detected. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  1. Association between antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from food animals and blood stream isolates from humans in Europe: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Antonio R; Collignon, Peter; Aarestrup, Frank M; McEwen, Scott A; Hendriksen, Rene S; Hald, Tine; Wegener, Henrik C

    2011-12-01

    In addition to medical antimicrobial usage, the use of antimicrobials in food animals contributes to the occurrence of resistance among some bacterial species isolated from infections in humans. Recently, several studies have indicated that a large proportion of Escherichia coli causing infections in humans, especially those resistant to antimicrobials, have an animal origin. We analyzed the correlation between the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolates from blood stream infections in humans and in E. coli isolates from poultry, pigs, and cattle between 2005 and 2008 for 11 countries, using available surveillance data. We also assessed the correlation between human antimicrobial usage and the occurrence of resistance in E. coli isolates from blood stream infections. Strong and significant correlations between prevalences of resistance to ampicillin (r=0.94), aminoglycosides (r=0.72), third-generation cephalosporins (r=0.76), and fluoroquinolones (r=0.68) were observed for human and poultry E. coli isolates. Similar significant correlations were observed for ampicillin (r=0.91), aminoglycosides (r=0.73), and fluoroquinolone resistance (r=0.74) in pig and human isolates. In cattle isolates, only ampicillin resistance (r=0.72) was significantly correlated to human isolates. When usage of antimicrobials in humans was analyzed with antimicrobial resistance among human isolates, only correlations between fluoroquinolones (r=0.90) and third-generation cephalosporins (r=0.75) were significant. Resistance in E. coli isolates from food animals (especially poultry and pigs) was highly correlated with resistance in isolates from humans. This supports the hypothesis that a large proportion of resistant E. coli isolates causing blood stream infections in people may be derived from food sources.

  2. Analysis of essential gene dynamics under antibiotic stress in Streptococcus sanguinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rami, Fadi; Kong, Xiangzhen; Parikh, Hardik; Zhu, Bin; Stone, Victoria; Kitten, Todd; Xu, Ping

    2018-02-01

    The paradoxical response of Streptococcus sanguinis to drugs prescribed for dental and clinical practices has complicated treatment guidelines and raised the need for further investigation. We conducted a high throughput study on concomitant transcriptome and proteome dynamics in a time course to assess S. sanguinis behaviour under a sub-inhibitory concentration of ampicillin. Temporal changes at the transcriptome and proteome level were monitored to cover essential genes and proteins over a physiological map of intricate pathways. Our findings revealed that translation was the functional category in S. sanguinis that was most enriched in essential proteins. Moreover, essential proteins in this category demonstrated the greatest conservation across 2774 bacterial proteomes, in comparison to other essential functional categories like cell wall biosynthesis and energy production. In comparison to non-essential proteins, essential proteins were less likely to contain 'degradation-prone' amino acids at their N-terminal position, suggesting a longer half-life. Despite the ampicillin-induced stress, the transcriptional up-regulation of amino acid-tRNA synthetases and proteomic elevation of amino acid biosynthesis enzymes favoured the enriched components of essential proteins revealing 'proteomic signatures' that can be used to bridge the genotype-phenotype gap of S. sanguinis under ampicillin stress. Furthermore, we identified a significant correlation between the levels of mRNA and protein for essential genes and detected essential protein-enriched pathways differentially regulated through a persistent stress response pattern at late time points. We propose that the current findings will help characterize a bacterial model to study the dynamics of essential genes and proteins under clinically relevant stress conditions.

  3. Changes in bacterial resistance patterns in children with urinary tract infections on antimicrobial prophylaxis at University Hospital in Split

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Tanja; Gračan, Sanda; Arapović, Adela; Čapkun, Vesna; Šubat-Dežulović, Mirna; Saraga, Marijan

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background We assessed prevalence and resistance of uropathogens on antimicrobial agents (AA) from urine cultures (UC) in children hospitalized with urinary tract infections (UTI) at University Hospital in Split. Material/Methods During the 7-year period, children hospitalized only once with UTI alone were compared to those repeatedly hospitalized, and who received long-term antimicrobial prophylaxis (LTAP), as well as those with associated anomalies of the urinary system (US). Results E. coli was the most frequent isolate (67.7%) with resistance to ampicillin by 69.5%, amoxicillin/clavulonic acid by 3.5%, cephalexin by 6.6%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) by 27.5%, and nitrofurantoin by 0.4%. For other uropathogens, AA resistance rates were the following: 64.3%, 5.8%, 10.5%, 21.3%, and 7.9%. The high or increasing resistance to TMP-SMX is characterized by all uropathogens. Patients with anomalies of US showed a lower prevalence of E. coli and Enterococcus sp., but a higher prevalence of Pseudomonas sp., ESBL-producing E. coli and Klebsiella sp. than those without US anomalies. Repeatedly hospitalized patients showed a lower prevalence of E. coli, but a higher prevalence of Pseudomonas sp. and Klebsiella sp. than patients hospitalized only once. Both groups displayed significantly less resistance of Enterococcus sp. In patients receiving LTAP before hospitalization, E. coli was significantly more resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulonic acid and TMP/SMX than in those without LTAP. Conclusions Based on our results, we recommend excluding ampicillin altogether, and reconsideration of further use of TMP-SMX, as well as use of nitrofurantoin, cephalexin and amoxicillin/clavulonic acid for LTAP in our region. PMID:21709628

  4. Hydrazide-hydrazones of 3-methoxybenzoic acid and 4-tert-butylbenzoic acid with promising antibacterial activity against Bacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiołek, Łukasz; Biernasiuk, Anna

    2016-01-01

    A series of 28 hydrazide-hydrazones of 3-methoxybenzoic and 4-tert-butylbenzoic acid were synthesized and screened in vitro against the panel of reference strains of bacteria and fungi with the use of the broth microdilution method according to EUCAST and CLSI guidelines. Five of the synthesized compounds were found to exhibit high bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of compounds 13, 14, and 16 against Bacillus spp. was higher than that of commonly used antibiotics, like cefuroxime or ampicillin.

  5. O resistoma de Aeromonas salmonicida revelado por proteómica

    OpenAIRE

    Osório, Nádia Isabel Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Understand the β-lactam response and resistance mechanisms in bacteria is of great value. The increasing failure to treat bacterial infections is maily due to the expression of resistance mechanisms. The aim of this study was to assess the response of Aeromonas salmonicida to β-lactams, mainly ampicillin. We focused on induced and chromosomally located β-lactamases, as well as on the general metabolic changes induced by the presence of the antibiotic, in an attempt to unveil some of the myste...

  6. Gardnerella vaginalis bacteremia in a premature neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Rene A; Al-Dossary, Fahad; Demmler, Gail J

    2002-01-01

    Gardnerella vaginalis is a normal component of the human vaginal flora and commonly associated with bacterial vaginosis. Invasive infection in obstetrical patients due to G. vaginalis has also been reported. In the pediatric age range, infection due to G. vaginalis is extremely rare and limited to neonates. We describe a 23-week premature infant with G. vaginalis bacteremia and review the characteristics of neonatal G. vaginalis infection reported in the literature. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of G. vaginalis isolates has shown that penicillin, ampicillin, erthromycin, clindamycin, and vancomycin are effective in vitro.

  7. Resistance of uropathogenic bacteria to first-line antibiotics in mexico city: A multicenter susceptibility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo-García, José Luis; Soriano-Becerril, Diana; Solórzano-Santos, Fortino; Arbo-Sosa, Antonio; Coria-Jiménez, Rafael; Arzate-Barbosa, Patricia

    2007-03-01

    Abstract. Growing antibiotic resistance demands the constant reassessment of antimicrobial efficacy, particularly in countries with wide antibiotic abuse, where higher resistance prevalence is often found. Knowledge of resistance trends is particularly important when prescribing antibiotics empirically, as is usually the case for urinary tract infections (UTIs). Currently, in Mexico City, ampicillin, cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole), and ciprofloxacin are used as "first-line" antibiotic treatment for UTI. The aim of this study was to analyze the resistance of bacterial isolates to antibiotics, with a focus on first-line antibiotics, in Mexican pediatric patients and sexually active or pregnant female outpatients. In this multicenter susceptibility analysis, bacterial isolates from urine samples collected from pediatric patients and sexually-active or pregnant female outpatients presenting with acute, uncomplicated UTIs in Mexico City from January 2006 through June 2006, were included in the study. Samples were tested for susceptibility to 10 antibiotics by the disk-diffusion method. Four-hundred and seventeen bacterial isolates were derived from sexually active or pregnant female outpatients (324 Escherichia coli) and pediatric patients (93 Klebsiella pneumoniae). We found a high prevalence of resistance towards the drugs used as "first-line" when treating UTIs: ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, and ciprofloxacin (79%, 60%, and 24% resistance, respectively). Ninety-eight percent of K pneumoniae isolates were resistant to ampicillin, whereas 66% of the E coli isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole. Resistance towards third-generation cephalosporins was also high (6%-8% of E coli and 10%-28% of K pneumoniae). This was possibly caused by chromosomal β-lactamases, as 30% of all isolates were also resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanate. In contrast, 98% of the E coli isolates and 84% of the K pneumoniae strains (96% of all isolates) were found to be susceptible

  8. [Antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli from community-acquired urinary tract infections. What antimicrobial to use?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo-Lara, Claudia Elena; González-Martínez, Pedro Mario; Ayala-Gaytán, Juan Jacobo

    2009-01-01

    Determine antibiotic resistance of community-acquired uropathogen Escherichia coli and infer therapeutic options. E. coli strains isolated from urine during a one-year period were studied. Identification and susceptibility tests were performed. A total of 652 isolates were included from patients in two institutions, a healthcare clinic 303 (46.5%) and a hospital 349 ( 53.5%). The antimicrobials with higher resistance rates were ampicillin 67.2%, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole 59.2%, cefazolin 35.6% and ciprofloxacin 24.7%. Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin used for empiric treatment in community urinary infections is high, and there are few available treatment options.

  9. Susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos de bactérias isoladas de otite externa em cães Antimicrobial sensitivity of bacteria from otitis externa in dogs

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    L.C. Oliveira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of canine externa otitis in Fortaleza-Ceará is reported. About 91.5% of the animals with clinical signs were positive to bacterial culture. Among all infections, 49.5% were mixed infections and the most common pathogens were Staphylococcus spp coagulase negative or positive and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The most effective antimicrobials for Staphylococcus coagulase negative were: the quinolones, the aminoglicoside netilmycin and the beta-lactams, excepted ampicillin, penicillin and oxacilin; for Staphylococcus coagulase positive were: cefotoxin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, imipenem, netilmycin and cephatoxin; for Pseudomonas aeruginosa were: ciprofloxacin, tobramycin and imipenem.

  10. In vitro studies of Dermatophilus congolensis antimicrobial susceptibility by determining minimal inhibitory and bacteriocidal concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermoso de Mendoza, J; Arenas, A; Rey, J; Alonso, J M; Gil, M C; Naranjo, G; Hermoso de Mendoza, M

    1994-01-01

    The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimal Bacteriocidal Concentration (MBC) of 19 antimicrobials on 16 isolates of D. congolensis were determined. The potential field efficacy of the agents was evaluated by comparing the results with serum levels of drug unbound to proteins and the in vitro and in vivo findings of other authors. A modified standard microtechnique was used for serial dilution-antimicrobial sensitivity and found to be easy and reproducible. Erythromycin, spiramycin, penicillin G, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, the streptomycin, amoxicillin, the tetracyclines and novobiocin had high serum concentrations in comparison with their MBCs and were shown to have potential use for the treatment of dermatophilosis.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species isolated from bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, A A; Gillespie, B E; Oliver, S P

    2009-02-16

    Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) isolates (n=168) obtained from milk from heifers and dairy cows were screened for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to antimicrobials used commonly for mastitis therapy. Of the 10 CNS species included in the study, the predominant species were Staphylococcus chromogenes (n=61), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=37), Staphylococcus hyicus (n=37), and Staphylococcus simulans (n=16). The majority of CNS was susceptible to ampicillin, oxacillin, cephalothin, and ceftiofur. Erythromycin and pirlimycin were also very effective in vitro inhibitors of CNS. The only exception was observed with S. epidermidis. Of 37 S. epidermidis evaluated, 13 (35%) exhibited efflux-based resistance to erythromycin (> or =16 microg/ml) encoded by msrA and one isolate carried ermC encoding ribosomal methylase-based resistance to both erythromycin (> or =64 microg/ml) and pirlimycin (> or =64 microg/ml). A total of 17 S. epidermidis, 11 S. chromogenes, and one S. hyicus exhibited phenotypic resistance to ampicillin (> or =0.5 microg/ml). Constitutive beta-lactamase production was observed in all ampicillin resistant isolates except 4 S. epidermidis that exhibited inducible beta-lactamase production. Induced beta-lactamase production was also observed in 13 S. epidermidis that were phenotypically susceptible to the entire MIC panel. All isolates that produced beta-lactamase either constitutively or by induction carried blaZ. S. epidermidis (n=12, 32%) that were resistant to methicillin (oxacillin > or =0.5 microg/ml) carried low affinity penicillin-binding protein encoded by mecA. Most multi-drug resistant (MDR) S. epidermidis (> or =2 resistance genes) were resistant to ampicillin, erythromycin and methicillin. All except one MDR S. epidermidis had icaAB, which encodes for polysaccharide intercellular adhesion. Based on pulsed field gel electrophoresis, MDR S. epidermidis were closely related genotypically, and were isolated from different cows on the

  12. A bacterial study of pyoderma in Belgaum

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    Nagmoti Jyothi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred children with primary pyoderma and 50 healthy children were included in the study. The swabs collected from the lesions were cultured on various media. The colonies were identified by conventional methods. Commonest isolate was Staph. aureus (45%, followed by Strep. pyogens (35%, E. coli (5%, Citrobacter (1% and Staph. and Strept. together (14%. Staphylococci showed highest resistance to ampicillin (85%, followed by penicillin (78%, tetracycline (40% and ciprofloxacin (15%. Streptococci and other Gram-negative isolates were sensitive to most of the drugs. Most strains of staphylococci were nontypable (42.2% suggesting the possible emergence of new strains. Among typable ones, phage group-1 was commonest.

  13. Salmonella serotypes isolated in geckos kept in seven collections in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, T P; Varriale, L; Borrelli, L; Pace, A; Latronico, M; Menna, L F; Fioretti, A; Dipineto, L

    2018-01-09

    Reptiles are considered an important reservoir of Salmonella species. This study evaluated the prevalence of Salmonella species in different species of gecko kept as pets in Italy. Faecal swab samples were collected from 70 clinically healthy geckos and examined for Salmonella species by culture that were then serotyped. Salmonella species were isolated from 24 of 70 (34·3%) samples. Eighteen isolates expressed resistance to ceftazidime and four isolates to ampicillin. Salmonella spp. can be isolated from apparently healthy captive gecko which should be considered as a potential source of infection for humans and other companion animals. © 2018 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  14. Infektioner relateret til centralt venekateter hos børn med maligne lidelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handrup, Mette Møller; Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Schrøder, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Central venous catheters (CVC) are an essential part of the treatment of children with haematological and oncological diseases. Unfortunately, CVC also represent a major risk factor of bloodstream infections. Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) in children are often diagnosed based...... on blood cultures from the CVC only. Most CRBSI can be treated without catheter removal. On suspicion of CRBSI empirical antibiotic treatment with piperacillin-tazobactam, meropenem or ampicillin in combination with gentamicin is recommended. The systemic treatment can be combined with catheter...

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility of coagulase-positive and coagulase-variable Staphylococci from various indications of swine, dogs and cats as determined in the BfT-GermVet monitoring program 2004-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Stefan; Alesík, Eva; Werckenthin, Christiane; Grobbel, Mirjam; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Wieler, Lothar H; Wallmann, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    A total of 248 coagulase-positive and coagulase-variable staphylococci from two indications of swine (infections of the urinary/genital tract including strains from the mastitis metritis agalactia syndrome as well as infections of the skin) as well as two indications of dogs/cats (respiratory tract infections and infections of skin/ear/mouth) were investigated for their susceptibility to numerous antimicrobial agents. Regardless of the animal origin and indication, the most frequently detected resistance properties were resistances against penicillin G (53-77%) and ampicillin (42-75%), tetracycline (33-52%) as well as erythromycin (13-27%). Oxacillin-resistant staphylococci were rarely detected.

  16. Translocation of integron-associated resistance in a natural system: Acquisition of resistance determinants by Inc P and Inc W Plasmids from Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvang, Dorthe; Diggle, M.; Platt, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    and tetracycline). A range of natural plasmids was used as targets for the translocation of resistance. Plasmids that acquired resistance from the DT104 chromosome were segregated by conjugation into Escherichia coli K12. Plasmids R751, R388, and RP4::Tn7 acquired several combinations of resistance determinant....... Sequencing of the R751 transconjugants confirmed these findings and showed that the translocation of streptomycin and ampicillin cassettes was associated with the precise excision of dhfrIIc and orfD cassettes. Furthermore, the translocation of multiple determinants occurred by at least two mechanisms, one...

  17. Forekomst af resistente bakterier og forbrug af antibiotika til hunde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Pedersen, Kristina; Jensen, Helene

    2007-01-01

    penicillin, 30,2% overfor fucidin og 27,9% overfor macrolider. E. coli isolaterne var mest resistente overfor ampicillin, sulphonamider, trimethoprim, tetracykliner og streptomycin, og anhæmolytiske isolater var oftere resistente overfor tetracykliner, trimethoprim og chloramphenikol end hæmolytiske isolater......), Pasteurella multocida (n=25), Bordetella bronchiseptica (n=14), Proteus spp. (n=29), og E. coli (n=449). I undersøgelsen anvendtes data fra VetStat databasen. Størstedelen af de antibiotika, der bruges til hunde er bredspektrede. Penicilliner med udvidet spektrum, cephalosporiner samt sulphonamider...

  18. [Prophylactic antibiotic therapy in induced abortion. A cost benefit analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne-Holm, S; Heisterberg, L; Hebjørn, S; Dyring-Andersen, K; Andersen, J T; Hejl, B L

    1981-03-30

    The Danish national social expense/annum of 25,000 terminations of pregnancy was calculated to equal 135 million Danish crowns in 1979 (11 million pounds). If prophylactic penicillin/ampicillin treatment is introduced in the treatment of women who had previously had genital infections, 7 million Danish crowns could be saved annually (approximately 580,000 pounds) based on a clinically controlled investigation of the effect of prophylactic antibiotic therapy. To this must be added the savings in expenses for treating secondary infertility and other sequelae of postabortion infection. These calculations are associated with considerable uncertainty because of poorly defined information on the basic economy. (author's)

  19. A case of wound infection caused by Shewanella algae in the south of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taherzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shewanella algae was isolated from the purulent discharge in the navel area of a young male with a history of swimming in the Persian Gulf. A routine laboratory diagnosis procedure, followed by 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, was used to avoid misidentification with other species of Shewanella. The bacterium was suscetible to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, nitrophorantion, amikacin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, gentamicin and co-trimoxazole but was resistant to amoxicillin, vancomycin, doxycycline, cephalexin, ampicillin, tetracycline, cephalothin and ceftizoxime. The patient successfully recovered after treatment with antibiotics.

  20. Survival rate of Saccharomyces boulardii adapted to a functional freeze-dried yoghurt, related to processing, storage and digestion by experimental Wistar rats

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    Eunice Tranquilino-Rodriguez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Saccharomycesboulardiiis a probiotic clinically effective inthe prevention and treatment of antibiotic induced diarrheain both children and adults, Clostridium difficile infections, inflammatory bowel disease, and other gastrointestinal disorders. However, the microorganisms need to survive the gastrointestinal transit and arrive to their action site alive in order to exert their beneficial effects. Microencapsulation is an alternative to improve the viability of probiotic in foods which can also survive in the gastrointestinal conditions. Freeze--drying is a method of dehydration that does not affect nutrients and bioactive compounds,such as probiotics contained in foods.All of them will increase the survival rate of S.boulardii.Purpose of this study:This study focused on formulae freeze-dried yogurt containing inulin, vegetable palm oil,and S.boulardii, both asfree cells and in microencapsulated form.Also,the effect of ampicillin associated S.boulardii. Methods. Yogurts were given to an “in vivo” digestion process, using male Wistar rats.The survival of S. boulardiiwas subsequently evaluated in colon and feces.For this study, six treatmentsof four of rats were used:i control rats ii rats fed with yogurt containing S. boulardiias free cells, iii rats fed with yogurt containing S. boulardiiinmicro-encapsulated form, iv control rats fed with penicillin,v rats fed with ampicillin plus yogurtcontaining S. boulardiias free cells, and vi rats fed with penicillin plus yogurt containing S. boulardiiin micro-encapsulated form. Results:The study demonstrated it was feasible to freeze-drythe S. boulardiiand incorporate it into a yogurtmade with skim milk,inulin, and unsaturated vegetable oil.The freeze-drying process not affected thesurvival of the S. boulardii(p<0.05. Microencapsulation increased the survival of S. boulardii on 1.77-Log CFU/g, and the presence of S. boulardii was only detected in colon and fecesof those rats which

  1. UJI KLINIK PENGGUNAAN BACTESYN DIBANDING LINCOMYCIN PADA PENDERITA YANG DILAKUKAN ODONTEKTOMI DI RUMAH SAKIT ATMA JAYA

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    FX. Srie Rahayu Kustini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bactecyn is an antibiotic that contains sultamicillin. This antibiotic is a complex of combination between ampicillin and sulbactam is double ester bond. Whis makes Bactesyn become an antibiotic with broader spectrum. Lincomycin is an antibiotic, which is ideal enough to treat dentoalveolar infections. This antibiotic is well known among the fellow dentist in Atma Jaya Hospital. It is obvious that these two medicines are very effective to deal with infections arising after operations of impacted teeth. The dose of Bactesyn is 375 mg, given twice a day, whereas, Lincomycin is 500 mg, given three times daily.

  2. Actividad “in vitro” de 10 antimicrobianos frente a bacterias anaerobias: Estudio multicéntrico, 1999-2002 “In vitro” activity of ten antimicrobial agents against anaerobic bacteria. A collaborative study, 1999-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Litterio

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la actividad de ampicilina, ampicilina-sulbactama, cefoxitina, ceftriaxona, imipenem, piperacilina, piperacilina-tazobactama, clindamicina, metronidazol y azitromicina frente a 166 cepas de bacterias anaerobias aisladas en 8 hospitales de Buenos Aires. Se estudiaron: Bacteroides grupo fragilis (65, Fusobacterium spp. (26, Prevotella spp. (21, Porphyromonas spp. (10, Clostridium difficile (10, otros clostridios (12 y cocos gram-positivos (22. Las CIMs se determinaron usando el método patrón de dilución en agar recomendado por el NCCLS, documento M11-A5. Los antibióticos más activos fueron metronidazol y piperacilina-tazobactama que exhibieron valores de CIM90£ 2 µg/ml y £ 4 µg/ml frente a los microorganismos gram-negativos y £ 2 µg/ml y £ 8 µg/ml frente a los microorganismos gram-positivos, respectivamente. Entre los b-lactámicos el orden de actividad frente a bacilos gram-negativos fue: imipenem > piperacilina > cefoxitina > ceftriaxona > ampicilina. En gram-positivos la actividad decreciente fue: piperacilina> imipenem > cefoxitina > ceftriaxona > ampicilina. La mayoría de las especies estudiadas mostraron distintos niveles de resistencia con clindamicina y azitromicina. Sin embargo, el 90% de las cepas de Fusobacterium nucleatum y Por-phyromonas spp. fue inhibido por una concentración de 0,125 µg/ml de clindamicina y azitromicina, respectivamente.The antimicrobial activity of ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, imipenem, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, clindamycin, metronidazole, and azitromycin was assesed against 166 strains of anaerobic bacteria recovered from eight hospitals in Buenos Aires. The strains studied were Bacteroidesfragilis group (65, Fusobacterium spp. (26, Prevotella spp. (21, Porphyromonas spp. (10, Clostridium difficile (10, other clostridia (12, and gram-positive cocci (22. The MICs were determined by the agar dilution method according to NCCLS document M11-A5

  3. Differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maboni, Grazieli; Gressler, Leticia T; Espindola, Julia P; Schwab, Marcelo; Tasca, Caiane; Potter, Luciana; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis. Thirty-two strains of Moraxella spp. isolated from cattle and sheep with infectious keratoconjunctivitis were tested via broth microdilution method to determine their susceptibility to ampicillin, cefoperazone, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, oxytetracycline and penicillin. The results demonstrated that Moraxella spp. strains could be considered sensitive for most of the antimicrobials tested in this study, but differences between the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of these three Moraxella species were found. M. bovis might differ from other species due to the higher MIC and MBC values it presented.

  4. Immobilization of Organophosphorus Acid Anhydrolase Mutant Y212F on Silica Nanospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Director, ECBC, ATTN: RDCB-DRB-C, APG , MD 21010-5424 nanoComposix; 4878 Ronson Court, Suite K; San Diego, CA 92111-1806 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...ampicillin and 0.1 mM MnCl2 at 25 °C to the late log or early stationary phase. Cells were separated using a centrifuge at 14,000 × g for 15 min. Cells...Express purification system (GE Healthcare Life Sciences; Uppsala, Sweden) with a Q-sepharose column (HiPrep Q FF 16/10; GE Healthcare Life Sciences

  5. The Shiga and Shiga-Like Cytotoxins: Gene Regulation and Functional Analysis of the Binding Subunits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-05

    colonies, respectively, on MacConkey lactose agar containing ampicillin and kanamycin. To identify insertion mutants in which SLT-I synthesis was...were noted on MacConkey lactose agar and compared with the orientation of the inserts (Figure 9). The lactose phenotypes . were confirmed by...galactosidase (subunit) MacConkey (avg ± 2SEM) a a ar I "’i M8820(Mu Qts) 20 ± 22 • ’J, 1r ··: M8820(Mu £tS) harboring plasmid: ,,, I ’ : pJN25

  6. Neonatal sepsis at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; aetiology, antimicrobial sensitivity pattern and clinical outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhada Tumaini V

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal sepsis contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality among young infants. The aetiological agents as well as their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents are dynamic. This study determined aetiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and clinical outcome of neonatal sepsis at Muhimbili National Hospital. Methods Three hundred and thirty neonates admitted at the Muhimbili National Hospital neonatal ward between October, 2009 and January, 2010 were recruited. Standardized questionnaires were used to obtain demographic and clinical information. Blood and pus samples were cultured on MacConkey, blood and chocolate agars and bacteria were identified based on characteristic morphology, gram stain appearance and standard commercially prepared biochemical tests. Antimicrobial sensitivity testing was performed for ampicillin, cloxacillin, gentamicin, amikacin, cefuroxime and ceftriaxone on Mueller Hinton agar using the Kirby Bauer diffusion method. Results Culture proven sepsis was noted in 24% (74/330 of the study participants. Isolated bacterial pathogens were predominantly Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella spp and Escherichia coli. Klebsiella spp 32.7% (17/52 was the predominant blood culture isolate in neonates aged below seven days while Staphylococcus aureus 54.5% (12/22 was commonest among those aged above seven days. Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant pus swabs isolate for both neonates aged 0–6 days 42.2% (98/232 and 7–28 days 52.3% (34/65. Resistance of blood culture isolates was high to ampicillin 81.1% (60/74 and cloxacillin 78.4% (58/74, moderate to ceftriaxone 14.9% (11/74 and cefuroxime 18.9% (14/74, and low to amikacin 1.3% (1/74. Isolates from swabs had high resistance to ampicillin 89.9% (267/297 and cloxacillin 85.2 (253/297, moderate resistance to ceftriaxone 38.0% (113/297 and cefuroxime 36.0% (107/297, and low resistance to amikacin 4.7% (14/297. Sepsis was higher in neonates with fever and

  7. Résistance aux antibiotiques de Yersinia pestis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    2001 : séquençage du génome de Yersinia pestis2004 : séquençage du génome de Rattus norvegicus. Une des préoccupations majeures du Programme national de lutte contre la peste (PNLP) à Madagascar est la surveillance de la sensibilité des souches de Y. pestis aux antibiotiques classiquement utilisables dans le traitement de cette maladie (streptomycine, tétracycline, chloramphénicol, gentamycine, sulfaméthoxazole-triméthoprime, ampicilline). Le PNLP recommande la chimioprophylaxie des sujets co...

  8. Effect of ionizing radition on conjugative R plasmid in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kmetova, M.; Puzova, H.; Rexa, R.

    1986-01-01

    Five-fold cyclic gamma irradiation of E. coli strain No. 214 with conjugative R plasmid with doses of 150 Gy, with the exception of chloramphenicol, did not essentially affect the expression of the examined determinants of resistance to antimicrobial substances (tetracycline, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, canamycin, ampicillin, sulfamethoxidine). The dose of 150 Gy from the first irradiation of the strain reduced the transfer frequency of the R plasmid approximately hundred-fold. After the second up to the fourth irradiation of the strain the transfer frequency went back to approximately its original value. (author)

  9. Phage type conversion in Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis caused by the introduction of a resistance plasmid of incompatibility group X (IncX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, D. J.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Platt, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    The plasmid pOG670, a 54 kb, conjugative plasmid that specifies resistance to ampicillin and kanamycin and belonging to the incompatibility group X (IncX), was transferred into 10 isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis belonging to 10 different phage types (PT1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 9b, 10......, 6 and 13a respectively. The results indicate a different route for phage type conversion Enteritidis from others reported in the literature and, although IncX plasmids are not normally present in PT8 or PT13a, may suggest a possible mechanism/link connecting these phage types....

  10. DNA transformation via local heat shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Meadow Anderson, L.; Yang, Jui-Ming; Lin, Liwei; Yang, Haw

    2007-07-01

    This work describes transformation of foreign DNA into bacterial host cells by local heat shock using a microfluidic system with on-chip, built-in platinum heaters. Plasmid DNA encoding ampicillin resistance and a fluorescent protein can be effectively transformed into the DH5α chemically competent E. coli using this device. Results further demonstrate that only one-thousandth of volume is required to obtain transformation efficiencies as good as or better than conventional practices. As such, this work complements other lab-on-a-chip technologies for potential gene cloning/therapy and protein expression applications.

  11. Synthesis, cloning, and identification of DNA sequences complementary to mRNAs for alpha and beta subunits of thyrotropin.

    OpenAIRE

    Vamvakopoulos, N C; Monahan, J J; Kourides, I A

    1980-01-01

    Double-stranded cDNA sequences were synthesized, by using as templates mRNA for alpha and beta subunits of thyrotropin purified from mouse thyrotrophic pituitary tumours and cloned in Escherichia coli RR1 by insertion in the Pst I site of the bacterial plasmid pBR322 by use of poly(dA) x poly(dT) homopolymeric extensions. Plasmids containing inserted cDNA sequences were selected by resistance to tetracycline and sensitivity to ampicillin; those containing thyrotropin cDNA sequences were ident...

  12. Hematogenous osteomyelitis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rud, B; Halken, S; Damholt, V

    1986-01-01

    In a 10-year period, 31 children, including 9 infants, were treated for hematogenous osteomyelitis. Fifteen children were treated closed and 16 open. Thirteen of 14 positive cultures were Staphylococcus aureus. Three recurrences could possibly have been prevented by a more aggressive primary...... approach. At follow-up after 5 (1-12) years, 3 neonates had developed severe growth disturbances despite optimal initial treatment. Acceptable results were obtained with antibiotic therapy for 6 weeks or more. We recommend ampicillin and a penicillinase-resistant penicillin, unless bacterial resistance...

  13. Development of in vitro transposon assisted signal sequence trapping and its use in screening Bacillus halodurans C125 and Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 gene libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, F.; Schnorr, K.; Wilting, R.

    2004-01-01

    minitransposon enabling translational fusions between 'bla and target genes. Fusion of TnSig in the correct reading frame to a protein carrying transmembrane domains or signal peptides resulted in ampicillin resistance of the corresponding clone. Prokaryotic gene libraries from the alkaliphilic bacterium...... in the cell. Genes for secreted proteins, transmembrane proteins and lipoproteins were successfully identified by this method. In contrast to previous transposon based identification strategies, the method described here is fast and versatile and essentially enables any selectable marker compatible library...... to be tagged. It is suited for identifying genes encoding extracytosolic proteins in gene libraries of a wide range of prokaryotic organisms....

  14. Antibiotic resistance of urinary pathogens isolated from patients attending the Toronto Hospital between 1986 and 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, C A; Bruce, A W; Reid, G

    1992-10-01

    A study was carried out on 1523 urinary isolates obtained at The Toronto Hospital, Canada's largest tertiary care establishment, over three 1-month periods in 1986, 1987 and 1990. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated organism, with Enterococcus spp. the second most common isolate in 1986 and 1987, and Streptococcus spp. in 1990. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were found to be resistant to many of the antimicrobial agents tested. Resistance patterns were found to commonly prescribed ampicillin, co-trimoxazole and, to some extent, the new fluoroquinolones, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. These results are relevant to the treatment and management of urinary tract infections in patients attending a tertiary care hospital.

  15. Persistence of Escherichia coli clones and phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance in recurrent urinary tract infections in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kõljalg, Siiri; Truusalu, Kai; Vainumäe, Inga

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the clonality of consecutive Escherichia coli isolates during the course of recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) in childhood in order to compare clonality with phenotypic antibiotic resistance patterns, the presence of integrons, and the presence of the sul1, sul2, and sul3 genes....... Altogether, 78 urinary E. coli isolates from 27 children, who experienced recurrences during a 1-year follow-up after the first attack of acute pyelonephritis, were investigated. The MICs of sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), ampicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and gentamicin...

  16. Multidrug resistance among different serotypes of clinical Salmonella isolates in Taiwan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauderdale, T. L.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Chen, P. C.

    2006-01-01

    Of the 798 clinical Salmonella isolates collected from multiple hospitals in Taiwan, resistance to ampicillin (48.5%), chloramphenicol (55.3%), streptomycin (59.0%), sulfamethoxazole (68.0%), and tetracycline (67.8%) was high, whereas resistance to all 5 antimicrobials (ACSSuT R-type) comprised 327...... multiresistant to other antimicrobials. Studies are needed to determine the sources of different multidrug-resistant serotypes. Continued national surveillance is underway to monitor changes in resistance trends and to detect further emergence of resistant Salmonella serotypes in Taiwan. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc...

  17. Gut microbiota regulates NKG2D ligand expression on intestinal epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis; Holm, Thomas L.; Krych, Lukasz

    2013-01-01

    expression on small IECs. Germ-free and ampicillin-treated mice were shown to have a significant increase in NKG2D ligand expression. Interestingly, vancomycin treatment, which propagated the bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila and reduced the level of IFN-¿ and IL-15 in the intestine, decreased the NKG2D...... that the constitutive levels of NKG2D ligand expression on IECs are regulated by microbial signaling in the gut and further disfavor the intuitive notion that IEC NKG2D ligand expression is caused by low-grade immune reaction against commensal bacteria. It is more likely that constitutively high IEC NKG2D ligand...

  18. Lemierre's Syndrome Associated with Periodontal Injury-derived Odontogenic Infection that Did Not Respond to Meropenem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Morihiko; Tanimoto, Takao; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Hakozaki, Yukiya

    2015-01-01

    A 33-year-old previously healthy man injured his gums and subsequently developed dyspnea and fever. A chest X-ray showed nodules and infiltrates in both lungs, and the patient was initially diagnosed with pneumonia and administered meropenem hydrate, although his symptoms did not improve. A blood culture identified Fusobacterium necrophorum, and thrombophlebitis in the internal jugular vein of the neck was observed on computed tomography and ultrasound scans. We replaced the meropenem with clindamycin, sulbactam/ampicillin and metronidazole, and the patient's symptoms improved.

  19. Six cases of Aerococcus sanguinicola infection: Clinical relevance and bacterial identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibler, K.; Jensen, K.T.; Ostergaard, C.

    2008-01-01

    were associated with infective endocarditis. Most patients were elderly (median age 70 y) and had underlying neurological disorders including dementia, cerebral degeneration, and myelomeningocele. The primary focus of infection was the urinary tract in 3 cases and the gallbladder in 1; no focus...... was detected in 2 cases. Long-term prognosis was poor reflecting the frailty of the patients. All strains were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, cefuroxime, vancomycin, erythromycin, and rifampicin. The optimal treatment of infection with A. sanguinicola has yet to be determined Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  20. Salmonella in California wildlife species: prevalence in rehabilitation centers and characterization of isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Woutrina A; Mazet, Jonna A K; Hirsh, Dwight C

    2002-09-01

    Fecal samples from 212 selected marine mammals, marine birds, and raptors were cultured for Salmonella spp. on arrival at rehabilitation centers in California from May 1999 through July 2000. Salmonella spp. were cultured from nine (4%) animals, and seven serotypes were isolated: Johannesberg, Montevideo, Newport, Ohio, Saint Paul, Enteritidis Group D, and 4,5,12:1 Monophasic. One western gull (Larus occidentalis) had two serotypes. Antibiotic susceptibilities and chromosomal fingerprints were evaluated for Salmonella isolates. Some isolates were resistant to gentamicin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and ampicillin. Chromosomal fingerprints with XbaI and XhoI restriction enzymes differed between serotypes but not between individuals carrying the same serotype of Salmonella.