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Sample records for ampicillin

  1. Ampicillin and Sulbactam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a class of medications called penicillin-like antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Sulbactam is ... It works by preventing bacteria from destroying ampicillin. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.

  2. Ampicillin radioprotector effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padron, E.; Fernandez-Larrea, O.; Rios, F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of ampicillin during irradiation and recovery of the Bacillus licheniformis RI 75-1 stump with a savage genotype of recovery exposed to ionizing radiations and treated with gamma quantums. Previous research enabled to prove that in Bacillus licheniformis spores suspensions, irradiated of vegetative cells in ampicillin at D-1--0- dose, causes significative lethal increases. In this paper, The irradiation of vegetative cells in presence of 5 mcg/ml of ampicillin increases the viability at doses above 1 kGy. the survival rates was raised when vegetative cells of Bacillus lincheniformis were irradiated at 1.2 kGy and recovered in a nutrient environment during 2 hours (LHR) in presence of ampicillin. Twenty-two stumps of Bacillus licheniformis obtained through different mutagenic treatments were studied in relation to the resistance of ampicillim and at 3 Kgy gamma quantums and a direct correlation between these two was stablished. Previous treatment with ampicillin of the vegetative cells from the Bacillus licheniformis increased the number of resistants to gamma quantums. There was no information about this phenomenom in literature consulted

  3. Ampicillin penetration into the rabbit eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, L.

    1978-01-01

    Distribution of intravenously injected ampicillin of 50 mg/kg was studied in the rabbit eye using radioactive tracer method. Antibiotic concentration regarded as therapeutic in the treatment of gram-negative organisms was obtained in all vascularized ocular structures. Intermediate values were measured from the cornea and aqueous humour. In the vitreous body and lens, ampicillin was unable to approach a concentration that would be effective against the common gram-negative organisms. The low ampicillin concentration in the vitreous body and lens was unchanged by systemically administered probenecid, which in other parts of the eye caused significantly higher ampicillin levels. (author)

  4. Degradation of ampicillin in pig manure slurry and an aqueous ampicillin solution using electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jae-Sung; Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Kang Soo; Hwang, Seon Ah; Cho, Jae Young

    2009-07-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of degradation of antibiotic ampicillin in pig manure slurry and an aqueous ampicillin solution with the use of electron beam irradiation as a function of the absorbed dose. The degradation efficiency of ampicillin was close to 95% at an absorbed dose of 10 kGy. The degradation of ampicillin followed a "first-order" reaction rate with respect to absorbed dose. The results demonstrate that the electron beam irradiation technology is an effective means to remove antibiotics in manure and bodies of water.

  5. Degradation of ampicillin in pig manure slurry and an aqueous ampicillin solution using electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jae-Sung; Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Kang Soo; Hwang, Seon Ah; Cho, Jae Young

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of degradation of antibiotic ampicillin in pig manure slurry and an aqueous ampicillin solution with the use of electron beam irradiation as a function of the absorbed dose. The degradation efficiency of ampicillin was close to 95% at an absorbed dose of 10 kGy. The degradation of ampicillin followed a 'first-order' reaction rate with respect to absorbed dose. The results demonstrate that the electron beam irradiation technology is an effective means to remove antibiotics in manure and bodies of water.

  6. Iodometric determination of ampicillin in proprietary capsules | Ejele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration of ampicillin in ampicillin capsule preparations purchased in Owerri main market, Imo State of Nigeria, was determined using the iodometric titration method. The results showed that the ampicillin concentrations in the capsules contained between 250 and 260 mg/cap of ampicillin trihydrate. Statistical ...

  7. Microbiological assay of ampicillin in serum and aqueous humor of patients given ampicillin-sulbactam injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavan Hajib

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the bacterial growth inhibitory activities of ampicillin in aqueous humor and serum of patients administered ampicillin-sulbactam combination intramuscularly prior to cataract surgery. 43 patients received a combination of both antibiotics intramuscularly at varying periods (60-140 minutes prior to surgery. Aqueous humor and venous blood were collected at the beginning of the surgery. For microbiological assay, spores of Bacillus subtilis were incorporated in the agar. The test sample and the standard solutions (calibrators of ampicillin and ampicillin-sulbactam combination were placed in 3 mm wells in the agar. The diameter zones of growth inhibitory activities of ampicillin of the calibrators and the test samples measured in mm were extrapolated to the standard curve and were recorded as ampicillin activity in (μg/ml. The results of the assay were placed in 5 groups according to the time intervals between injection and collection of serum and aqueous humor (≤70, 75, 80, 90, >90 minutes. Ampicillin activities in sera and aqueous humor of group 5 (>90 minutes were significantly higher than the others (p<0.001. The ratio of ampicillin activities of sera and aqueous humor in group 5 patients was significantly lower indicating higher concentration of ampicillin activity in aqueous humor during this period. Bacterial growth inhibitory activities of ampicillin-sulbactam combination were adequate in aqueous humor of all patients with highest activity being 90 minutes after intramuscular administration indicating the potential usefulness of this antibiotic combination as chemoprophylaxis prior to cataract surgery.

  8. Ampicillin potentials as Corrosion Inhibitor: fukui function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental study was carried out using gravimetric and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy methods of monitoring corrosion while the computational study was carried out using quantum chemical approach via Hyperchem program suit. The results obtained showed that various concentrations of ampicillin ...

  9. Emergence of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in Danish hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lester, Camilla H; Sandvang, Dorthe; Olsen, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates are reported in increasing numbers in many European hospitals. The clonal complex 17 (CC17) characterized by ampicillin resistance has been associated with nosocomial E. faecium outbreaks and infections in five continents. The aim...... in the number of infections caused by enterococci was observed from 2002 through 2006. The increase was mainly caused by E. faecium isolates, which tripled, whereas the number of E. faecalis isolates increased by only 23% during the same period. There was also a significant increase in the number of ampicillin......-resistant E. faecium isolates. MLST showed that 98% of the tested ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates belonged to CC17. PFGE showed eight different clusters and we found indications of clonal spread within the hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates have increased in frequency...

  10. Computational Analysis of Pharmacokinetic Behavior of Ampicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Ďurišová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available orrespondence: Institute of Experimental Pharmacology and Toxicology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovak Republic. Phone + 42-1254775928; Fax +421254775928; E-mail: maria.durisova@savba.sk 84 RESEARCH ARTICLE The objective of this study was to perform a computational analysis of the pharmacokinetic behavior of ampicillin, using data from the literature. A method based on the theory of dynamic systems was used for modeling purposes. The method used has been introduced to pharmacokinetics with the aim to contribute to the knowledge base in pharmacokinetics by including the modeling method which enables researchers to develop mathematical models of various pharmacokinetic processes in an identical way, using identical model structures. A few examples of a successful use of the modeling method considered here in pharmacokinetics can be found in full texts articles available free of charge at the website of the author, and in the example given in the this study. The modeling method employed in this study can be used to develop a mathematical model of the pharmacokinetic behavior of any drug, under the condition that the pharmacokinetic behavior of the drug under study can be at least partially approximated using linear models.

  11. Ampicillin Resistance and Outcome Differences in Acute Antepartum Pyelonephritis

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    Laura G. Greer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To measure the incidence of ampicillin-resistant uropathogens in acute antepartum pyelonephritis and to determine if patients with resistant organisms had different clinical outcomes. Study design. This was a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of pregnant women admitted with pyelonephritis, diagnosed by standard clinical and laboratory criteria. All patients received ampicillin and gentamicin. Results. We identified 440 cases of acute pyelonephritis. Seventy-two percent (316 cases had urine cultures with identification of organism and antibiotic sensitivities. Fifty-one percent of uropathogens were ampicillin resistant. The patients with ampicillin-resistant organisms were more likely to be older and multiparous. There were no significant differences in hospital course (length of stay, days of antibiotics, ECU admission, or readmission. Patients with ampicillin-resistant organisms did not have higher complication rates (anemia, renal dysfunction, respiratory insufficiency, or preterm birth. Conclusion. A majority of uropathogens were ampicillin resistant, but no differences in outcomes were observed in these patients.

  12. Clinical efficacy of ampicillin in treatment of acute odontogenic abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matijević Stevo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Antibiotics choice and the duration of their application in the therapy of acute odontogenic abscess is considered to be controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of ampicillin in treatment of acute odontogenic abscess and to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolated bacteria in early phase of abscess development. Methods. This study included 60 patients with acute odontogenic abscess who were surgically treated (extraction of teeth and/or abscess incision divided into two groups, ampicillin group and surgical group (without antibiotic treatment. Results. In the ampicillin group of patients treatment lasted on the average 4.67 days, while in the surgical group 6.17 days. A total of 78 bacterial strains were isolated from 60 patients. The most often bacteria were found to be Gram-positive facultative anaerobs (68/78. The most common bacteria isolated were Viridans streptococci (43/78. Susceptibility of isolated bacteria to ampicillin were 70.5%. Conclusion. Peroral use of ampicillin, after surgical treatment in an early phase of dentoalveolar abscess development, statistically significantly reduced the time of clinical symptoms of acute odontogenic abscess in comparison to surgical treatment only. The isolated bacterial strains in an early phase of dentoalveolar abscess development showed a high sensitivity to ampicillin.

  13. 21 CFR 520.90a - Ampicillin capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Use of the drug is contraindicated in animals with a history of an allergic reaction to any of the... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ampicillin capsules. 520.90a Section 520.90a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL...

  14. Simple test of synergy between ampicillin and vancomycin for resistant strains of Enterococcus faecium.

    OpenAIRE

    Green, M; Barbadora, K; Wadowsky, R M

    1994-01-01

    The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin kills some but not all strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. We compared a simple test for synergy utilizing a commercially available microdilution susceptibility system with time-kill studies and determined acceptable breakpoints for this test for 20 strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium. The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin was tested for synergy by time-kill, broth macrodilution, and b...

  15. Evaluation of hard gelatin capsules and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose containing ampicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Gonçalves Weigert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop and evaluate formulations containing ampicillin in capsules of gelatin and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC. Two formulations (A and B were developed. The final product quality was evaluated by testing for quality control and the results were in agreement with the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia. The formulations with HPMC capsules showed lower percentages of drug dissolved (99.67%, HPMC-A and 87.70%, HPMC-B than the gelatin (100.18%, GEL-A and 101.16% GEL-B. Because of the delay of the ampicillin release observed in the dissolution profiles, it becomes necessary to evaluate the drugs that can be conditioned in the HPMC capsules.

  16. The Kinetics of Ampicillin Release from Hydroxyapatite for Bones Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanilton Ferreira da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotics are among the most used pharmaceuticals. Their use in veterinary and human medicine is in continuous expansion. There is a growing need for developing bioactive implants. Advantages of implantable drug delivery tools can include high release efficiency, precise dose control, low toxicity, and allow to overcome disadvantages connected with conventional methods. In this respect, hydroxyapatite (HA is an elective material. It enables to produce architectures similar to those of real bones. Here we studied a kinetic model to describe ampicillin release from HA. In the course of adsorption experiment, ampicillin was dissolved, maintained at 30∘C and shaken at 60 strokes/minute. Samples were withdrawn periodically for analysis and then returned to the mixture. Adsorbed amounts were measured by the difference of the concentration of the antibiotics before and after adsorption using UV adsorption at 225 nm. The aim of this work was to evaluate its application as ampicillin delivery carrier.

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Ampicillin and Trimethoprim Sulfamoxole Combination in Gonorrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Chendrayudu

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty men suffering from uncomplicated urethritis were treated either with 1, 280 mg of (TMP and 6,400 mg of (SDMO (Supristol 16 tablets eually divided doses taken at a 12 or with a single dose of 3.5 gm of with 1 gm of probenecid . The cure rate in TMP-SDMO regimen was 79% while that in AMP-PBD regimen was 95.7%. Sensitivity of the organism to penicillin, ampicillin and TMP-SDMO. Toxic effects of the drugs were studied.

  18. Bioavailability of pivampicillin and ampicillin trihydrate administered as an oral paste in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensink, JM; Mol, A; Vulto, AG; Tukker, JJ

    1996-01-01

    Pivampicillin was administered as an oral paste to five healthy adult horses, and an oral paste with ampicillin trihydrate was administered to three horses, Pivampicillin was administered to both starved and fed horses, ampicillin trihydrate was administered to fed horses only, The dose of

  19. Simple test of synergy between ampicillin and vancomycin for resistant strains of Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M; Barbadora, K; Wadowsky, R M

    1994-11-01

    The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin kills some but not all strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. We compared a simple test for synergy utilizing a commercially available microdilution susceptibility system with time-kill studies and determined acceptable breakpoints for this test for 20 strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium. The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin was tested for synergy by time-kill, broth macrodilution, and broth microdilution procedures. Repeat testing of isolates by macro- and microdilution synergy methods yielded MICs that were within one twofold dilution of each other for both intra- and intertest comparisons. Synergy was always detected by time-kill studies when the MIC of ampicillin in the combination synergy screen was 16 micrograms/ml in the combination microdilution synergy screen. The determination of the synergy by the broth microdilution procedure appears to be simple, convenient, and accurate.

  20. Fluorescent ampicillin analogues as multifunctional disguising agents against opsonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotagiri, Nalinikanth; Sakon, Joshua; Han, Haewook; Zharov, Vladimir P.; Kim, Jin-Woo

    2016-06-01

    Cancer nanomedicines are opening new paradigms in cancer management and recent research points to how they can vastly improve imaging and therapy through multimodality and multifunctionality. However, challenges to achieving optimal efficacy are manifold starting from processing materials and evaluating their intended effectiveness on biological tissue, to developing new strategies aimed at improving transport of these materials through the biological milieu to the target tissue. Here, we report a fluorescent derivative of a beta-lactam antibiotic, ampicillin (termed iAmp) and its multifunctional physicobiochemical characteristics and potential as a biocompatible shielding agent and an effective dispersant. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were chosen to demonstrate the efficacy of iAmp. CNTs are known for their versatility and have been used extensively for cancer theranostics as photothermal and photoacoustic agents, but have limited solubility in water and biocompatibility. Traditional dispersants are associated with imaging artifacts and are not fully biocompatible. The chemical structure of iAmp is consistent with a deamination product of ampicillin. Although the four-membered lactam ring is intact, it does not retain the antibiotic properties. The iAmp is an effective dispersant and simultaneously serves as a fluorescent label for single-walled CNTs (SWNTs) with minimal photobleaching. The iAmp also enables bioconjugation of SWNTs to bio-ligands such as antibodies through functional carboxyl groups. Viability tests show that iAmp-coated SWNTs have minimal toxicity. Bio-stability tests under physiological conditions reveal that iAmp coating not only remains stable in a biologically relevant environment with high protein and salt concentrations, but also renders SWNTs transparent against nonspecific protein adsorption, also known as protein corona. Mammalian tissue culture studies with macrophages and opsonins validate that iAmp coating affords immunological resistance

  1. A population-based case-control teratologic study of ampicillin treatment during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This was a study of the association between ampicillin treatment during pregnancy and prevalence of different congenital abnormalities. Study Design: The paired analysis of case patients with congenital abnormalities and matched population control subjects was performed in the populati...

  2. Rapid determination of ampicillin in bovine milk by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, C.Y.W.; Luo, Wenhong [National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for the determination of ampicillin residues in raw bovine milk, processed skim milk, and pasteurized, homogenized whole milk with vitamin D. Milk samples were deproteinized with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and acetonictrile. After centrifugation, the clear supernatant was reacted with formaldehyde and TCA under heat. The major fluorescent derivative of ampicillin was then determined by reversed-phase LC with fluorescence detection. Average recoveries of ampicillin fortified at 5, 10, and 20 ppb (ng/mL) were all >85% with coefficients of variation <10%. Limits of detection ranged from 0.31 to 0.51 ppb and limits of quantitation, from 0.66 to 1.2 ppb. After appropriate validation, this method should be suitable for rapid analysis of milk for ampicillin residues at the tolerance level of 10 ppb. 16 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Klebsiella pneumonia strains moderately resistant to ampicillin and carbenicillin: characterization of a new β-lactamase

    OpenAIRE

    Labia, Roger; Fabre, Christian; Masson, Jean-Michel; Barthelemy, Michel; Heitz, Madeleine; Pitton, Jean-S

    2017-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae strain 11-03, moderately resistant to ampicillin and carbenicillin, produces one constitutive β-lactamase with an isoelectric point of 7.10 and a molecular weight of 20,000±500. The enzymatic activity is directed primarily against the penicillins, ampicillin being the best substrate. Some cephalosporins are also hydrolyzed to some extent but the affinity of the enzyme for these antibiotics is low (high Km values). It has not been possible to determine whether the biogene...

  4. Ampicillin resistance in Haemophilus influenzae from COPD patients in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddi S

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Satyanarayana Maddi,1 Umme Kolsum,1 Sarah Jackson,1 Richard Barraclough,2 Barbara Maschera,3 Karen D Simpson,3 Thierry G Pascal,4 Serge Durviaux,4 Edith M Hessel,3 Dave Singh1 1Division of Infection, Immunity and Respiratory Medicine, Medicines Evaluation Unit, University Hospital of South Manchester Foundation Trust, University of Manchester, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital of South Manchester Foundation Trust, Manchester, 3Refractory Respiratory Inflammation DPU, GlaxoSmithKline Medicines Research Centre, Stevenage, Hertfordshire, UK; 4Clinical Laboratory Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Wavre, Belgium Background: Haemophilus influenzae is commonly isolated from the airways of COPD patients. Antibiotic treatment may cause the emergence of resistant H. influenzae strains, particularly ampicillin-resistant strains, including β-lactamase-negative ampicillin resistance (BLNAR strains. Genetic identification using ftsI sequencing is the optimum method for identifying mutations within BLNAR strains. The prevalence of BLNAR in COPD patients during the stable state has not been reported. We investigated the antibiotic resistance patterns of H. influenzae present in the sputum of stable COPD patients, focusing on ampicillin resistance; the prevalence of enzyme and non-enzyme-mediated ampicillin resistance was determined. A subset of patients was followed up longitudinally to study H. influenzae strain switching and antibiotic sensitivity changes.Patients and methods: Sputum sampling was performed in 61 COPD patients, with 42 samples obtained at baseline; H. influenzae was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 28 samples. In all, 45 patients completed the follow-up for 2 years; 24 H. influenzae isolates were obtained.Results: Disk diffusion showed the highest antibiotic resistance in the penicillin antibiotic group (eg, 67% for ampicillin and macrolides (eg, 46% for erythromycin, whereas all isolates were susceptible to

  5. Enthalpies of solution of ampicillin, amoxycillin and their binary mixtures at 310.15 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, D V; Kashid, N; Kapoor, S; Chadha, R

    2000-05-15

    Enthalpies of solutions of ampicillin, amoxycillin and their binary mixtures have been determined at pH 2, 5, and 7 using C-80 calorimeter. The systems showed endothermic behaviour; molar enthalpies of solutions of ampicillin were determined to be 13.32, 15.89 and 23.21 kJ mol(-1) and amoxycillin were 16.32, 18.45 and 26. 25 kJ mol(-1) at pH 2, 5, and 7, respectively. The excess molar enthalpies of solution have also been calculated to find any interaction between these two drugs.

  6. Effects of ampicillin/sulbactam and enrofloxacin on the blood pressure of isoflurane anesthetized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorer, Jeremiah D; Towle-Millard, Heather A; Gross, Marjorie E; Payton, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    A blinded, prospective, randomized crossover study was performed to determine the effects of ampicillin Na/sulbactam Na and enrofloxacin on the blood pressure (BP) of healthy anesthetized dogs. Eight dogs were anesthetized three different times. They randomly received enrofloxacin, ampicillin Na/sulbactam Na, and saline. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial BPs (SAP, DAP, and MAP, respectively), heart rate (HR), O2 saturation of hemoglobin, end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) concentration, inspired isoflurane concentration, end-tidal isoflurane (ETiso) concentration, respiratory rate, electrocardiogram, and body temperature were measured for 20 min prior to administration of treatment, during administration over 30 min, and for 30 min after administration. There was no significant difference in the SAP or ETiso. There was no significant change in the arterial pressure values over time in the enrofloxacin and ampicillin Na/sulbactam Na groups. The control group's MAP increased over time and was increased compared with the enrofloxacin group at times 25, 35, 45, and 55. The statistical difference between the enrofloxacin and the control groups was due to an increase in the MAP in the control group, not a decrease in the enrofloxacin group's BP. Neither enrofloxacin nor ampicillin Na/sulbactam Na caused hypotension in healthy dogs anesthetized with isoflurane and fentanyl.

  7. Ampicillin-Ester Bonded Branched Polymers: Characterization, Cyto-, Genotoxicity and Controlled Drug-Release Behaviour

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    Ewa Oledzka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The development and characterization of novel macromolecular conjugates of ampicillin using branched biodegradable polymers has been described in this study. The conjugates have been prepared coupling the β-lactam antibiotic with branched polymer matrices based on the natural oligopeptide core. The cyto- and genotoxicity of the synthesized polymers were evaluated with a bacterial luminescence test, two protozoan assays and Salmonella typhimurium TA1535. The presence of a newly formed covalent bond between the drug and the polymer matrices was confirmed by 1H-NMR and FTIR studies. A drug content (15.6 and 10.2 mole % in the macromolecular conjugates has been determined. The obtained macromolecular products have been subjected to further in vitro release studies. The total percentage of ampicillin released after 21 days of incubation was nearly 60% and 14% and this resulted from the different physicochemical properties of the polymeric matrices. This is the first report on the application of branched biodegradable polymeric matrices for the covalent conjugation of ampicillin. The obtained results showed that the synthesized macromolecular drug-conjugates might slowly release the active drug molecule and improve the pharmacokinetics of ampicillin.

  8. Continuous intravenous infusion of ampicillin and gentamicin during parenteral nutrition in 88 newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Møller, S; Andersen, G E

    1982-01-01

    Ampicillin and gentamicin were dissolved once a day in an L-amino acid solution especially prepared for parenteral nutrition of newborn infants and infused continuously to 88 infants in whom septicaemia was suspected or had been proved. The mean dosages were 162 and 5.3 mg/kg per 24 hours...

  9. Administration of gentamicin and ampicillin by continuous intravenous infusion to newborn infants during parenteral nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Andersen, G E

    1982-01-01

    Gentamicin and ampicillin were dissolved in an L-amino acid solution especially prepared for newborn infants and infused intravenously over 24 h in 7 babies with serious neonatal surgical problems. Serum concentrations of the antibiotics were maintained rather constant and well above the minimal ...

  10. Prophylactic ampicillin versus cefazolin for the prevention of post-cesarean infectious morbidity in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mivumbi, Victor N; Little, Sarah E; Rulisa, Stephen; Greenberg, James A

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of ampicillin versus cefazolin as prophylactic antibiotics prior to cesarean delivery in Rwanda. In a prospective, randomized, open-label, single-site study conducted between March and May 2012, the effects of prophylactic ampicillin versus cefazolin were compared among women undergoing cesarean delivery at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Kigali, Rwanda. Postoperatively, participants were evaluated daily for infectious morbidity while in the hospital. Follow-up was done by phone and by appointment at the hospital within 2 weeks of delivery. During the study period, there were 578 total deliveries and 234 cesarean deliveries (40.4%). Overall, 132 women were enrolled in the study and randomized to receive either ampicillin (n=66) or cefazolin (n=66). No women were lost to follow-up. The overall infection rate was 15.9% (21/132). The infection rate in the ampicillin group and the cefazolin group was 25.8% (17/66) and 6.1% (4/66), respectively. Implementing a universal protocol in Rwanda of prophylactic cefazolin prior to cesarean delivery might reduce postoperative febrile morbidity, use of postoperative antibiotics, and number of postoperative days in hospital. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dogs are a reservoir of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium lineages associated with human infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Peter Panduro; Top, Janetta; Hendrickx, Antoni P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Ampicillin resistance is a marker for hospital-associated Enterococcus faecium. Feces from 208 dogs were selectively screened for the occurrence of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium (AREF). AREF was detected in 42 (23%) of 183 dogs screened in a cross-sectional study in the United Kingdom and in 19...

  12. Kinetics and dose calculations of ampicillin and gentamicin given as continuous intravenous infusion during parenteral nutrition in 88 newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Møller, S; Bentzon, M W

    1983-01-01

    Ampicillin and gentamicin were administered continuously intravenously to 88 newborn infants using individually calculated dosages. For infants with a mean value of plasma clearance of the antibiotics, it was calculated that the serum ampicillin and gentamicin concentrations would be between 35-5...

  13. Depletion of long-acting ampicillin in goat milk following intramuscular administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrini, Anna Maria; Trenta, Simona; Mannoni, Veruscka; Rosati, Remo; Coni, Ettore

    2010-12-08

    Although goat milk production represents today a very small percentage of the world milk market, this percentage has been growing continuously during the past 20 years. Goat milk is the basic milk supply in many developing countries and provides tasteful derivative products in developed countries. Goats, as well as all milk-producing animals, can be affected by mastitis, but goats being considered a minor species, few drugs are specifically registered for these animals; most, at least for mastitis treatment, are usually tested and registered for use in cows. This situation leads often to the adoption for goat milk of withdrawal periods defined for cows even if these extrapolations prove almost never valid for goats. In the present study, the elimination of the β-lactam antibacterial agent ampicillin in goat milk was investigated. Ampicillin was chosen because it is one of the most common antibiotics used by goat farmers against mastitis due to the fact that it is well tolerated and has short elimination times in cows. Goats were treated with long-acting ampicillin at 15 mg (kg of body weight)(-1) by double intramuscular injection at 72 h interval. Milk was collected in a 12 h milking scheme. The method used to determine the levels of ampicillin in goat milk was based on a liquid-liquid extraction of this drug from the matrix, successive derivatization with formaldehyde, and final separation by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The results point out a slow depletion of ampicillin and, consequently, a withdrawal period (13 milkings) longer than that extrapolated and authorized for cows and sheep.

  14. Physical size of the donor locus and transmission of Haemophilus influenzae ampicillin resistance genes by deoxyribonucleic acid-mediated transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendler, J.W. III

    1976-01-01

    The properties of donor deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from three clinical isolates and its ability to mediate the transformation of competent Rd strains to ampicillin resistance were examined. A quantitative technique for determining the resistance of individual Haemophilus influenzae cells to ampicillin was developed. When this technique was used, sensitive cells failed to tolerate levels of ampicillin greater than 0.1 to 0.2 μg/ml, whereas three resistant type b β-lactamase-producing strains could form colonies 1- to 3-μg/ml levels of the antibiotic. DNA extracted from the resistant strains elicited transformation of the auxotrophic genes in a multiply auxotrophic Rd strain. For two of the donors, transformation to ampicillin resistance occurred after the uptake of a single DNA molecule approximately 10 4 -fold less frequently than transformation of auxotrophic loci and was not observed to occur at all with the third. The frequency of transformation to ampicillin resistance was two- to fivefold higher in strain BC200 (Okinaka and Barnhart, 1974), which was cured of a defective prophage. All three clinical ampicillin-resistant strains were poor recipients, but the presence of the ampicillin resistant genes in strain BC200 did not reduce its competence

  15. Reversal of Ampicillin Resistance in MRSA via Inhibition of Penicillin-Binding Protein 2a by Acalypha wilkesiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory activity of a semipure fraction from the plant, Acalypha wilkesiana assigned as 9EA-FC-B, alone and in combination with ampicillin, was studied against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. In addition, effects of the combination treatment on PBP2a expression were investigated. Microdilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC. Synergistic effects of 9EA-FC-B with ampicillin were determined using the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC index and kinetic growth curve assay. Western blot experiments were carried out to study the PBP2a expression in treated MRSA cultures. The results showed a synergistic effect between ampicillin and 9EA-FC-B treatment with the lowest FIC index of 0.19 (synergism ≤ 0.5. The presence of 9EA-FC-B reduced the MIC of ampicillin from 50 to 1.56 μg mL−1. When ampicillin and 9EA-FC-B were combined at subinhibitory level, the kinetic growth curves were suppressed. The antibacterial effect of 9EA-FC-B and ampicillin was shown to be synergistic. The synergism is due the ability of 9EA-FC-B to suppress the activity of PBP2a, thus restoring the susceptibility of MRSA to ampicillin. Corilagin was postulated to be the constituent responsible for the synergistic activity showed by 9EA-FC-B.

  16. The molecular changing mechanism of Ampicillin-Sulbactam resistant Staphylococcus aureus towards Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Hemiawati Satari

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the molecular changing of S.aureus, which is resistant to Ampicillin-Sulbactam and then become resistant to Methicillin as a result of improper dosage. The study was conducted by isolating Ampicillin-Sulbactam resistant and Methicillin Resistant S.aureus (MRSA, afterwards an amplification process was performed by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction. to isolate the betalactamase enzyme regulator and PBP 2a genes. The result of this research showed that there were a deletion of few amino acids from the regulator gene, and a suspicion that the DNA sequence had been substituted from PBP 2 gene into PBP 2a (gen mec. This process had formed MRSA.

  17. Intravitreal Ampicillin Sodium for Antibiotic-Resistant Endophthalmitis: Streptococcus uberis First Human Intraocular Infection Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Velez-Montoya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment with intravitreal ampicillin sodium of a postoperative endophthalmitis case due to Streptococcus uberis; an environmental pathogen commonly seen in mastitis cases of lactating cows. Methods. Case Report. A 52-year-old, Hispanic diabetic patient who suddenly developed severe pain and severe loss of vision, following vitrectomy. Results. The patient was diagnosed with postoperative endophthalmitis secondary to a highly resistant strain of Streptococcus uberis that did not respond to intravitreal antibiotics. He was treated with an air-fluid interchange, anterior chamber washout, intravitreal ampicillin sodium (5 mg/0.1 mL, and silicon oil tamponade (5000 ck. The eye was anatomically stabilized, though there was no functional recovery. Conclusion. Streptococcus uberis is an uncommon pathogen to the human eye, which has unique features that help the strain in developing resistance to antibiotics. While treatment with intravitreal ampicillin is feasible, there are still concerns about its possible toxicity.

  18. Synthesis of netlike gold nanoparticles using ampicillin as a stabilizing reagent and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Y.Z.; Zhou, J.F.; Song, Y.; Cheng, Z.P.; Xu, J.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Electrochemical deposition of netlike gold nanoparticles (GNPs) on the surface of glassy carbon electrode and preparation of netlike GNPs in aqueous solution using ampicillin as a stabilizing reagent were proposed. The catalytic properties of netlike gold nanoparticles on the glassy carbon electrode for dopamine were demonstrated. The results indicate that the netlike gold nanoparticle modified electrode has an excellent repeatability and reproducibility. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Synthesis of netlike gold nanoparticles using ampicillin as a stabilizing reagent. ► Excellent repeatability and reproducibility of netlike gold nanoparticle modified glassy carbon electrode. ► The catalytic properties of netlike gold nanoparticle for dopamine. -- Abstract: Electrochemical deposition of netlike gold nanoparticles on the surface of glassy carbon electrode and preparation of netlike GNPs in aqueous solution using ampicillin as a stabilizing reagent were proposed. The netlike gold nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, infrared spectrometer, UV spectrophotometer, powder X-ray diffractometer and electrochemical analyzer. The catalysis of the netlike gold nanoparticles on the glassy carbon electrode for dopamine was demonstrated. The results indicate that the gold nanoparticle modified electrode has an excellent repeatability and reproducibility.

  19. Space-time clustering of ampicillin resistant Escherichia coli isolated from Danish pigs at slaughter between 1997 and 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abatih, E. N.; Ersbøll, A. K.; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo

    2009-01-01

    In Denmark, antimicrobial resistance in bacteria in animals, animal products and humans, is routinely monitored. This study aimed at determining whether the observed variations in the prevalence of ampicillin resistant Escherichia coli isolated from healthy pigs at slaughter were random....... The clusters of ampicillin resistant E coli appeared at the same time as the national consumption of ampicillin in pigs increased, however antimicrobial consumption at the herd level did not appear to have any effects on space-time clustering in this study. The results could serve as a platform to highlight...... or clustered in space and time. Data on E coli isolates between 1997 and 2005 were obtained from the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme (DANMAP) whereas data on the quantity of ampicillin consumed was obtained from the Danish Register of Veterinary Medicines (Vet...

  20. The effects of the antibiotics ampicillin, florfenicol, sulfamethazine, and tylosin on biogas production and their degradation efficiency during anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Shannon M; Ullman, Jeffrey L; Teel, Amy L; Watts, Richard J; Frear, Craig

    2013-12-01

    The impacts of four common animal husbandry antibiotics (ampicillin, florfenicol, sulfamethazine, and tylosin) on anaerobic digestion (AD) treatment efficiency and the potential for antibiotic degradation during digestion were evaluated. Sulfamethazine and ampicillin exhibited no impact on total biogas production up to 280 and 350 mg/L, respectively, although ampicillin inhibited biogas production rates during early stages of AD. Tylosin reduced biogas production by 10-38% between 130 and 913 mg/L. Florfenicol reduced biogas by ≈ 5%, 40% and 75% at 6.4, 36 and 210 mg/L, respectively. These antibiotic concentrations are higher than commonly seen for mixed feedlot manure, so impacts on full scale AD should be minimal. Antibiotic degradation products were found, confirming AD effectively degraded ampicillin, florfenicol, and tylosin, although some products were persistent throughout the process. Contamination of AD solid and liquid effluents with sulfamethazine and antibiotic transformation products from florfenicol and tylosin could present an environmental concern. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Modeling the growth dynamics of multiple Escherichia coli strains in the pig intestine following intramuscular ampicillin treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Amais; Zachariasen, Camilla; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2016-01-01

    using a mathematical model to simulate the competitive growth of E. coli strains in a pig intestine under specified plasma concentration profiles of ampicillin. Results : In vitro growth results demonstrated that the resistant strains did not carry a fitness cost for their resistance, and that the most...... with ampicillin resistance in E. coli. Besides dosing factors, epidemiological factors (such as number of competing strains and bacterial excretion) influenced resistance development and need to be considered further in relation to optimal treatment strategies. The modeling approach used in the study is generic......Background : This study evaluated how dosing regimen for intramuscularly-administered ampicillin, composition of Escherichia coli strains with regard to ampicillin susceptibility, and excretion of bacteria from the intestine affected the level of resistance among Escherichia coli strains...

  2. Identification of the Related Substances in Ampicillin Capsule by Rapid Resolution Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Resolution Liquid Chromatography coupled with Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (RRLC-ESI-MSn was used to separate and identify related substances in ampicillin capsule. The fragmentation behaviors of related substances were used to identify their chemical structures. Finally, a total of 13 related substances in ampicillin capsule were identified, including four identified components for the first time and three groups of isomers on the basis of the exact mass, fragmentation behaviors, retention time, and chemical structures in the literature. This study avoided time-consuming and complex chemosynthesis of related substances of ampicillin and the results could be useful for the quality control of ampicillin capsule to guarantee its safety in clinic. In the meantime, it provided a good example for the rapid identification of chemical structures of related substances of drugs.

  3. Degradation of amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin antibiotics in aqueous solution by the UV/ZnO photocatalytic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmolla, Emad S.; Chaudhuri, Malay

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effect of operating conditions (zinc oxide concentration, pH and irradiation time) of the UV/ZnO photocatalytic process on degradation of amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin in aqueous solution. pH has a great effect on amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin degradation. The optimum operating conditions for complete degradation of antibiotics in an aqueous solution containing 104, 105 and 103 mg/L amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin, respectively were: zinc oxide 0.5 g/L, irradiation time 180 min and pH 11. Under optimum operating conditions, complete degradation of amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin occurred and COD and DOC removal were 23.9 and 9.7%, respectively. The photocatalytic reactions under optimum conditions approximately followed a pseudo-first order kinetics with rate constant (k) 0.018, 0.015 and 0.029 min -1 for amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin, respectively. UV/ZnO photocatalysis can be used for amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin degradation in aqueous solution.

  4. Penicillin-binding proteins of Escherichia coli identified with a 125I-derivative of ampicillin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, U.; Seeger, K.; Wengenmayer, F.; Strecker, H.

    1981-01-01

    Evaluation of the binding of β-lactam antibiotics to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) in the bacterial cell wall by the established method using 14 C-labelled penicillin G has some disadvantages. Due to the small number of PBP molecules and the relatively low specific activity of [ 14 C]penicillin G available, very long exposure times for autoradiography are required. Furthermore, additional radiolabelled derivatives of penicillin with modified binding patterns might reveal PBPs not known so far. The authors describe the synthesis of a 125 I-labelled derivative of ampicillin and the labelling of PBPs with this compound. (Auth.)

  5. Enzymatic Synthesis of Ampicillin: Nonlinear Modeling, Kinetics Estimation, and Adaptive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Roman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the use of advanced control strategies in biotechnology is quite low. A main reason is the lack of quality of the data, and the fact that more sophisticated control strategies must be based on a model of the dynamics of bioprocesses. The nonlinearity of the bioprocesses and the absence of cheap and reliable instrumentation require an enhanced modeling effort and identification strategies for the kinetics. The present work approaches modeling and control strategies for the enzymatic synthesis of ampicillin that is carried out inside a fed-batch bioreactor. First, a nonlinear dynamical model of this bioprocess is obtained by using a novel modeling procedure for biotechnology: the bond graph methodology. Second, a high gain observer is designed for the estimation of the imprecisely known kinetics of the synthesis process. Third, by combining an exact linearizing control law with the on-line estimation kinetics algorithm, a nonlinear adaptive control law is designed. The case study discussed shows that a nonlinear feedback control strategy applied to the ampicillin synthesis bioprocess can cope with disturbances, noisy measurements, and parametric uncertainties. Numerical simulations performed with MATLAB environment are included in order to test the behavior and the performances of the proposed estimation and control strategies.

  6. Studies on chelation properties of ampicillin with trace metal ions and comparison with penicillin complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehmani, F.S.; Hameed, W.

    2003-01-01

    The penicillin is highly effective antibiotic with extremely wide margin of safety. Ampicillin e is the penicillin group of antibiotic in which side chain is phenyl group i.e. D-amino benzyl penicillin. The side chain determines many of anti bacterial and pharmacological characteristics. They inhibit the protein synthesis in bacterial cell wall. The chelating properties of the antibiotic may be used in the metal transport across the membrane. The present investigations are helpful in drug metabolism and their effects on minerals contents of the body. The complex formation between Ampicillin and penicillin with trace metal ions such as Fe(III), Cr(III), Al(III), Mn(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Ca(II), Mg(II), Cu(III) and Zn(II) were studied by potentiometric titrations and spectrophotometric methods. Stoichiometry of these complexes were studied by mole ratio method. It was found that the Fe(III) and Cu(II) ions form most stable complexes near physiological pH and the mole ratio was 1:1. (author)

  7. Effect of Ampicillin, Streptomycin, Penicillin and Tetracycline on Metal Resistant and Non-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Chudobova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an arising and concerning issue in the field of bacterial resistance, which is confirmed by the number of deaths associated with drug-resistant bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus non-resistant strain and strains resistant to cadmium or lead ions. Metal resistant strains were created by the gradual addition of 2 mM solution of metal ions (cadmium or lead to the S. aureus culture. An increasing antimicrobial effect of ampicillin, streptomycin, penicillin and tetracycline (0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 150, 225 and 300 µM on the resistant strains was observed using a method of growth curves. A significant growth inhibition (compared to control of cadmium resistant cells was observed in the presence of all the four different antibiotics. On the other hand, the addition of streptomycin and ampicillin did not inhibit the growth of lead resistant strain. Other antibiotics were still toxic to the bacterial cells. Significant differences in the morphology of cell walls were indicated by changes in the cell shape. Our data show that the presence of metal ions in the urban environment may contribute to the development of bacterial strain resistance to other substances including antibiotics, which would have an impact on public health.

  8. Effect of Ampicillin, Streptomycin, Penicillin and Tetracycline on Metal Resistant and Non-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudobova, Dagmar; Dostalova, Simona; Blazkova, Iva; Michalek, Petr; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Sklenar, Matej; Nejdl, Lukas; Kudr, Jiri; Gumulec, Jaromir; Tmejova, Katerina; Konecna, Marie; Vaculovicova, Marketa; Hynek, David; Masarik, Michal; Kynicky, Jindrich; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech

    2014-01-01

    There is an arising and concerning issue in the field of bacterial resistance, which is confirmed by the number of deaths associated with drug-resistant bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus non-resistant strain and strains resistant to cadmium or lead ions. Metal resistant strains were created by the gradual addition of 2 mM solution of metal ions (cadmium or lead) to the S. aureus culture. An increasing antimicrobial effect of ampicillin, streptomycin, penicillin and tetracycline (0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 150, 225 and 300 µM) on the resistant strains was observed using a method of growth curves. A significant growth inhibition (compared to control) of cadmium resistant cells was observed in the presence of all the four different antibiotics. On the other hand, the addition of streptomycin and ampicillin did not inhibit the growth of lead resistant strain. Other antibiotics were still toxic to the bacterial cells. Significant differences in the morphology of cell walls were indicated by changes in the cell shape. Our data show that the presence of metal ions in the urban environment may contribute to the development of bacterial strain resistance to other substances including antibiotics, which would have an impact on public health. PMID:24651395

  9. Ammonia produced by bacterial colonies promotes growth of ampicillin-sensitive Serratia sp. by means of antibiotic inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepl, Jaroslav; Blahůšková, Anna; Cvrčková, Fatima; Markoš, Anton

    2014-05-01

    Volatiles produced by bacterial cultures are known to induce regulatory and metabolic alterations in nearby con-specific or heterospecific bacteria, resulting in phenotypic changes including acquisition of antibiotic resistance. We observed unhindered growth of ampicillin-sensitive Serratia rubidaea and S. marcescens on ampicillin-containing media, when exposed to volatiles produced by dense bacterial growth. However, this phenomenon appeared to result from pH increase in the medium caused by bacterial volatiles rather than alterations in the properties of the bacterial cultures, as alkalization of ampicillin-containing culture media to pH 8.5 by ammonia or Tris exhibited the same effects, while pretreatment of bacterial cultures under the same conditions prior to antibiotic exposure did not increase ampicillin resistance. Ampicillin was readily inactivated at pH 8.5, suggesting that observed bacterial growth results from metabolic alteration of the medium, rather than an active change in the target bacterial population (i.e. induction of resistance or tolerance). However, even such seemingly simple mechanism may provide a biologically meaningful basis for protection against antibiotics in microbial communities growing on semi-solid media. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ampicillin-Improved Glucose Tolerance in Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6NTac Mice Is Age Dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune, I.; Hansen, C. H. F.; Ellekilde, M.

    2013-01-01

    at different ages or not at all. We found that both diet and Ampicillin significantly changed the gut microbiota composition in the animals. Furthermore, there was a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in Ampicillin-treated, five-week-old mice compared to nontreated mice in the control group. At study...... in high-fat diet mice, and a lower tolerogenic dendritic cell percentage was found both in relation to high-fat diet and late Ampicillin treatment. The results support our hypothesis that a "window" exists early in life in which an alteration of the gut microbiota affects glucose tolerance as well...... as development of gut immunity and that this window may disappear after weaning....

  11. Antimicrobial prophylaxis for major head and neck surgery in cancer patients: sulbactam-ampicillin versus clindamycin-amikacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, M; Van der Auwera, P; Andry, G; Aoun, M; Chantrain, G; Deraemaecker, R; Dor, P; Daneau, D; Ewalenko, P; Meunier, F

    1992-09-01

    A total of 99 patients with head and neck cancer who were to undergo surgery were randomized in a prospective comparative study of sulbactam-ampicillin (1:2 ratio; four doses of 3 g of ampicillin and 1.5 g of sulbactam intravenously [i.v.] every 6 h) versus clindamycin (four doses of 600 mg i.v. every 6 h)-amikacin (two doses of 500 mg i.v. every 12 h) as prophylaxis starting at the induction of anesthesia. The two groups of evaluable patients (43 in the clindamycin-amikacin treatment group and 42 in the sulbactam-ampicillin treatment group) were comparable as far as age (mean, 57 years; range, 21 to 84 years), sex ratio (71 males, 28 females), weight (mean, 66 kg; range, 40 to 69 kg), indication for surgery (first surgery, 48 patients; recurrence, 37 patients), previous anticancer treatment (surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy), type of surgery, and stage of cancer. The overall infection rate (wound, bacteremia, and bronchopneumonia) within 20 days after surgery was 20 patients in each group. Wound infections occurred in 14 (33%) sulbactam-ampicillin-treated patients and 9 (21%) clindamycin-amikacin-treated patients (P = 0.19; not significant). The rates of bacteremia were 2 and 4%, respectively. The rates of bronchopneumonia were 14.3 and 23.2%, respectively (P was not significant). Most infections were polymicrobial, but strict anaerobes were recovered only from patients who received sulbactam-ampicillin. Antimicrobial treatment was required within 20 days after surgery for 42% of the sulbactam-ampicillin-treated patients and 44% of the clindamycin-amikacin-treated patients. By comparison with previous studies, we observed a decreased efficacy of antimicrobial prophylaxis in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing surgery because of the increased proportion of patients who were at very high risk for infection (extensive excision and plastic reconstruction in patients with recurrent stage III and IV cancers) and because of the longer duration of

  12. Antimicrobial prophylaxis for major head and neck surgery in cancer patients: sulbactam-ampicillin versus clindamycin-amikacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Phan, M; Van der Auwera, P; Andry, G; Aoun, M; Chantrain, G; Deraemaecker, R; Dor, P; Daneau, D; Ewalenko, P; Meunier, F

    1992-01-01

    A total of 99 patients with head and neck cancer who were to undergo surgery were randomized in a prospective comparative study of sulbactam-ampicillin (1:2 ratio; four doses of 3 g of ampicillin and 1.5 g of sulbactam intravenously [i.v.] every 6 h) versus clindamycin (four doses of 600 mg i.v. every 6 h)-amikacin (two doses of 500 mg i.v. every 12 h) as prophylaxis starting at the induction of anesthesia. The two groups of evaluable patients (43 in the clindamycin-amikacin treatment group a...

  13. ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS IN BARIATRIC SURGERY: a continuous infusion of cefazolin versus ampicillin/sulbactam and ertapenem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Antônio Bandeira FERRAZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The incidence of surgical site infection in bariatric patients is significant and the current recommendations for antibiotic prophylaxis are sometimes inadequate. Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of three prophylactic antibiotic regimens on the incidence of surgical site infection. Methods A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2009 and January 2013 in which 896 Roux-en-Y gastric bypasses were performed to treat obesity. The study compared three groups of patients according to the perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis administered intravenously and beginning at anesthesia induction: Group I consisting of 194 patients treated with two 3-g doses of ampicillin/sulbactam; Group II with 303 patients treated with a single 1-g dose of ertapenem; and Group III with 399 patients treated with a 2-g dose of cefazolin at anesthesia induction followed by a continuous infusion of cefazolin 1g throughout the surgical procedure. The rate of surgical site infection was analyzed, as well as its association with age, sex, preoperative weight, body mass index and comorbidities. Results The rates of surgical site infection were 4.16% in the group treated prophylactically with ampicillin/sulbactam, 1.98% in the ertapenem group and 1.55% in the continuous cefazolin group. Conclusion The prophylactic use of continuous cefazolin in surgeries for morbid obesity shows very promising results. These findings suggest that some prophylactic regimens need to be reconsidered and even substituted by more effective therapies for the prevention of surgical site infections in bariatric patients.

  14. T.E.A. Study: three-day ertapenem versus three-day Ampicillin-Sulbactam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, Fausto; Vallicelli, Carlo; Ansaloni, Luca; Sartelli, Massimo; Di Saverio, Salomone; Schiavina, Riccardo; Pasqualini, Eddi; Amaduzzi, Annalisa; Coccolini, Federico; Cucchi, Michele; Lazzareschi, Daniel; Baiocchi, Gian Luca; Pinna, Antonio D

    2013-04-30

    Intra-abdominal infections are one of the most common infections encountered by a general surgeon. However, despite this prevalence, standardized guidelines outlining the proper use of antibiotic therapy are poorly defined due to a lack of clinical trials investigating the ideal duration of antibiotic treatment. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of a three-day treatment regimen of Ampicillin-Sulbactam to that of a three-day regimen of Ertapenem in patients with localized peritonitis ranging from mild to moderate severity. This study is a prospective, multi-center, randomized investigation performed in the Department of General, Emergency, and Transplant Surgery of St. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital in Bologna, Italy. Discrete data were analyzed using the Chi-squared and Fisher exact tests. Differences between the two study groups were considered statistically significant for p-values less than 0.05. 71 patients were treated with Ertapenem and 71 patients were treated with Ampicillin-Sulbactam. The two groups were comparable in terms of age and gender as well as the site of abdominal infection. Post-operative infection was identified in 12 patients: 10 with wound infections and 2 with intra-abdominal infections. In the Ertapenem group, 69 of the 71 patients (97%) were treated successfully, while the therapy failed in 2 cases (3%). Therapy failures were more frequent in the Unasyn group, amounting to 10 of 71 cases (p = 0.03). According to these preliminary findings, the authors conclude that a three-day Ertapenem treatment regimen is the most effective antibiotic therapy for patients with localized intra-abdominal infections ranging from mild to moderate severity. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00630513.

  15. Continuous intravenous infusion of ampicillin and gentamicin during parenteral nutrition to 36 newborn infants using a dosage schedule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Møller, S; Andersen, G E

    1984-01-01

    Ampicillin and gentamicin were given continuously i.v. to 36 newborn infants using a dosage schedule and the results were compared with those obtained in an earlier study including 88 infants who received individually calculated dosages. With the dosage schedule the variation in the serum concent...

  16. Stability of ampicillin, piperacillin, cefotaxime, netilmicin and amikacin in an L-amino acid solution prepared for total parenteral nutrition of newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, K; Colding, H; Andersen, G E

    1988-01-01

    The stability of ampicillin, piperacillin and cefotaxime, alone or in combination with either netilmicin or amikacin, was tested by microbiological methods at 29 degrees C (ampicillin, also at 22 degrees C) in an L-amino acid solution specially prepared for newborn infants. In the case of ampicil...

  17. Antibiotic removal from water: Elimination of amoxicillin and ampicillin by microscale and nanoscale iron particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghauch, Antoine; Tuqan, Almuthanna; Assi, Hala Abou

    2009-01-01

    Zerovalent iron powder (ZVI or Fe 0 ) and nanoparticulate ZVI (nZVI or nFe 0 ) are proposed as cost-effective materials for the removal of aqueous antibiotics. Results showed complete removal of Amoxicillin (AMX) and Ampicillin (AMP) upon contact with Fe 0 and nFe 0 . Antibiotics removal was attributed to three different mechanisms: (i) a rapid rupture of the β-lactam ring (reduction), (ii) an adsorption of AMX and AMP onto iron corrosion products and (iii) sequestration of AMX and AMP in the matrix of precipitating iron hydroxides (co-precipitation with iron corrosion products). Kinetic studies demonstrated that AMP and AMX (20 mg L -1 ) undergo first-order decay with half-lives of about 60.3 ± 3.1 and 43.5 ± 2.1 min respectively after contact with ZVI under oxic conditions. In contrast, reactions under anoxic conditions demonstrated better degradation with t 1/2 of about 11.5 ± 0.6 and 11.2 ± 0.6 min for AMP and AMX respectively. NaCl additions accelerated Fe 0 consumption, shortening the service life of Fe 0 treatment systems. - Fe 0 is efficient for the aqueous removal of the β-lactam antibiotics and chlorides enhanced the removal rate by sustaining the process of iron corrosion.

  18. Modulation of release kinetics by plasma polymerization of ampicillin-loaded β -TCP ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labay, C; Buxadera-Palomero, J; Avilés, M; Canal, C; Ginebra, M P

    2016-01-01

    Beta-tricalcium phosphate ( β -TCP) bioceramics are employed in bone repair surgery. Their local implantation in bone defects puts them in the limelight as potential materials for local drug delivery. However, obtaining suitable release patterns fitting the required therapeutics is a challenge. Here, plasma polymerization of ampicillin-loaded β -TCP is studied for the design of a novel antibiotic delivery system. Polyethylene glycol-like (PEG-like) coating of β -TCP by low pressure plasma polymerization was performed using diglyme as precursor, and nanometric PEG-like layers were obtained by simple and double plasma polymerization processes. A significant increase in hydrophobicity, and the presence of plasma polymer was visible on the surface by SEM and quantified by XPS. As a main consequence of the plasma polymerisation, the release kinetics were successfully modified, avoiding burst release, and slowing down the initial rate of release leading to a 4.5 h delay in reaching the same antibiotic release percentage, whilst conservation of the activity of the antibiotic was simultaneously maintained. Thus, plasma polymerisation on the surface of bioceramics may be a good strategy to design controlled drug delivery matrices for local bone therapies. (paper)

  19. Modeling the growth dynamics of multiple Escherichia coli strains in the pig intestine following intramuscular ampicillin treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Amais; Zachariasen, Camilla; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2016-01-01

    using a mathematical model to simulate the competitive growth of E. coli strains in a pig intestine under specified plasma concentration profiles of ampicillin. Results : In vitro growth results demonstrated that the resistant strains did not carry a fitness cost for their resistance, and that the most...... susceptible strains were more affected by increasing concentrations of antibiotics that the rest of the strains. The modeling revealed that short treatment duration resulted in lower levels of resistance and that dosing frequency did not substantially influence the growth of resistant strains. Resistance...... with ampicillin resistance in E. coli. Besides dosing factors, epidemiological factors (such as number of competing strains and bacterial excretion) influenced resistance development and need to be considered further in relation to optimal treatment strategies. The modeling approach used in the study is generic...

  20. Presence of the resistance genes vanC1 and pbp5 in phenotypically vancomycin and ampicillin susceptible Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, Karin; Bauer, Johann; Hörmansdorfer, Stefan; Mölle, Gabriele; Preikschat, Petra; Kämpf, Peter; Bauer-Unkauf, Ilse; Bischoff, Meike; Hölzel, Christina

    2012-08-01

    Ampicillin and vancomycin are important antibiotics for the therapy of Enterococcus faecalis infections. The ampicillin resistance gene pbp5 is intrinsic in Enterococcus faecium. The vanC1 gene confers resistance to vancomycin and serves as a species marker for Enterococcus gallinarum. Both genes are chromosomally located. Resistance to ampicillin and vancomycin was determined in 484 E. faecalis of human and porcine origin by microdilution. Since E. faecalis are highly skilled to acquire resistance genes, all strains were investigated for the presence of pbp5 (and, in positive strains, for the penicillin-binding protein synthesis repressor gene psr) and vanC1 (and, in positive strains, for vanXYc and vanT) by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One porcine and one human isolate were phenotypically resistant to ampicillin; no strain was vancomycin resistant. Four E. faecalis (3/1 of porcine/human origin) carried pbp5 (MIC=1 mg/L), and four porcine strains were vanC1 positive (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC]=1 mg/L). Real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR revealed that the genes were not expressed. The psr gene was absent in the four pbp5-positive strains; the vanXYc gene was absent in the four vanC1-positive strains. However, vanT of the vanC gene cluster was detected in two vanC1-positive strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of pbp5, identical with the "E. faecium pbp5 gene," and of vanC1/vanT in E. faecalis. Even if resistance is not expressed in these strains, this study shows that E. faecalis have a strong ability to acquire resistance genes-and potentially to spread them to other bacteria. Therefore, close monitoring of this species should be continued.

  1. Variational calculus (optimal control applied to the optimization of the enzymatic synthesis of ampicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Perencin de Arruda Ribeiro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, optimal control techniques were used to optimize the feed of reactants during the enzymatic synthesis of ampicillin in a semi-batch reactor. Simulation results showed that a semi-batch integrated reactor (with product crystallization might achieve 88% 6-APA (6-aminepenicillanic acid conversion and 92% of PGME (phenylglycine methyl ester yield, with a productivity between 3.5 and 5.5 mM min-1.A síntese enzimática de ampicilina oferece menor impacto ambiental em relação ao processo utilizado atualmente pela indústria farmacêutica. Mas seu rendimento e produtividade devem ser melhorados para tornar essa rota competitiva. Alguns estudos empíricos para otimizar a rota enzimática de síntese de antibióticos beta-lactâmicos vêm sendo realizados. Entretanto, a utilização sistemática de métodos matemáticos de otimização nesse processo não é encontrada na literatura. Neste trabalho, utilizaram-se técnicas de controle ótimo para otimizar a alimentação de reagentes na síntese enzimática de ampicilina em reator operando em batelada alimentada. Resultados simulados mostram que, em reator integrado (com precipitação dos produtos operado em batelada alimentada, conversões de 6-APA e rendimento de EMFG de 88% a 92% são factíveis, assim como produtividades entre 3,5 e 5,5 mM.min-1.

  2. Radiation sensitivity of Salmonella isolates relative to resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol or gentamicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemira, Brendan A.; Lonczynski, Kelly A.; Sommers, Christopher H.

    2006-09-01

    Antibiotic resistance of inoculated bacteria is a commonly used selective marker. Bacteria resistant to the antibiotic nalidixic acid have been shown to have an increased sensitivity to irradiation. The purpose of this research was to screen a collection of Salmonella isolates for antibiotic resistance and determine the association, if any, of antibiotic resistance with radiation sensitivity. Twenty-four clinical isolates of Salmonella were screened for native resistance to multiple concentrations of ampicillin (Amp), chloramphenicol (Chl), or gentamicin (Gm). Test concentrations were chosen based on established clinical minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels, and isolates were classified as either sensitive or resistant based on their ability to grow at or above the MIC. Salmonella cultures were grown overnight at (37 °C) in antibiotic-amended tryptic soy broth (TSB). Native resistance to Gm was observed with each of the 24 isolates (100%). Eight isolates (33%) were shown to be resistant to Amp, while seven isolates (29%) were shown to be resistant to Chl. In separate experiments, Salmonella cultures were grown overnight (37 °C) in TSB, centrifuged, and the cell pellets were re-suspended in phosphate buffer. The samples were then gamma irradiated at doses up to 1.0 kGy. The D10 values (the ionizing radiation dose required to reduce the viable number of microorganisms by 90%) were determined for the 24 isolates and they ranged from 0.181 to 0.359 kGy. No correlation was found between the D10 value of the isolate and its sensitivity or resistance to each of the three antibiotics. Resistance to Amp or Chl is suggested as appropriate resistance marker for Salmonella test strains to be used in studies of irradiation.

  3. Radiation sensitivity of Salmonella isolates relative to resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol or gentamicin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemira, Brendan A.; Lonczynski, Kelly A.; Sommers, Christopher H.

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance of inoculated bacteria is a commonly used selective marker. Bacteria resistant to the antibiotic nalidixic acid have been shown to have an increased sensitivity to irradiation. The purpose of this research was to screen a collection of Salmonella isolates for antibiotic resistance and determine the association, if any, of antibiotic resistance with radiation sensitivity. Twenty-four clinical isolates of Salmonella were screened for native resistance to multiple concentrations of ampicillin (Amp), chloramphenicol (Chl), or gentamicin (Gm). Test concentrations were chosen based on established clinical minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels, and isolates were classified as either sensitive or resistant based on their ability to grow at or above the MIC. Salmonella cultures were grown overnight at (37 o C) in antibiotic-amended tryptic soy broth (TSB). Native resistance to Gm was observed with each of the 24 isolates (100%). Eight isolates (33%) were shown to be resistant to Amp, while seven isolates (29%) were shown to be resistant to Chl. In separate experiments, Salmonella cultures were grown overnight (37 o C) in TSB, centrifuged, and the cell pellets were re-suspended in phosphate buffer. The samples were then gamma irradiated at doses up to 1.0 kGy. The D 10 values (the ionizing radiation dose required to reduce the viable number of microorganisms by 90%) were determined for the 24 isolates and they ranged from 0.181 to 0.359 kGy. No correlation was found between the D 10 value of the isolate and its sensitivity or resistance to each of the three antibiotics. Resistance to Amp or Chl is suggested as appropriate resistance marker for Salmonella test strains to be used in studies of irradiation

  4. Modeling the growth dynamics of multiple Escherichia coli strains in the pig intestine following intramuscular ampicillin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Amais; Zachariasen, Camilla; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Græsbøll, Kaare; Toft, Nils; Matthews, Louise; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2016-09-06

    This study evaluated how dosing regimen for intramuscularly-administered ampicillin, composition of Escherichia coli strains with regard to ampicillin susceptibility, and excretion of bacteria from the intestine affected the level of resistance among Escherichia coli strains in the intestine of nursery pigs. It also examined the dynamics of the composition of bacterial strains during and after the treatment. The growth responses of strains to ampicillin concentrations were determined using in vitro growth curves. Using these results as input data, growth predictions were generated using a mathematical model to simulate the competitive growth of E. coli strains in a pig intestine under specified plasma concentration profiles of ampicillin. In vitro growth results demonstrated that the resistant strains did not carry a fitness cost for their resistance, and that the most susceptible strains were more affected by increasing concentrations of antibiotics that the rest of the strains. The modeling revealed that short treatment duration resulted in lower levels of resistance and that dosing frequency did not substantially influence the growth of resistant strains. Resistance levels were found to be sensitive to the number of competing strains, and this effect was enhanced by longer duration of treatment. High excretion of bacteria from the intestine favored resistant strains over sensitive strains, but at the same time it resulted in a faster return to pre-treatment levels after the treatment ended. When the duration of high excretion was set to be limited to the treatment time (i.e. the treatment was assumed to result in a cure of diarrhea) resistant strains required longer time to reach the previous level. No fitness cost was found to be associated with ampicillin resistance in E. coli. Besides dosing factors, epidemiological factors (such as number of competing strains and bacterial excretion) influenced resistance development and need to be considered further in

  5. Synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial activity of an ampicillin-conjugated magnetic nanoantibiotic for medical applications

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    Hussein-Al-Ali SH

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Samer Hasan Hussein-Al-Ali,1,2 Mohamed Ezzat El Zowalaty,3,4 Mohd Zobir Hussein,5 Benjamin M Geilich,6 Thomas J Webster6,7 1Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Isra University, Amman, Kingdom of Jordan; 3Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Faculty of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 6Department of Chemical Engineering and Program in Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 7Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Abstract: Because of their magnetic properties, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs have numerous diverse biomedical applications. In addition, because of their ability to penetrate bacteria and biofilms, nanoantimicrobial agents have become increasingly popular for the control of infectious diseases. Here, MNPs were prepared through an iron salt coprecipitation method in an alkaline medium, followed by a chitosan coating step (CS-coated MNPs; finally, the MNPs were loaded with ampicillin (amp to form an amp-CS-MNP nanocomposite. Both the MNPs and amp-CS-MNPs were subsequently characterized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity. X-ray diffraction results showed that the MNPs and nanocomposites were composed of pure magnetite. Fourier transform infrared spectra and thermogravimetric data for the MNPs, CS-coated MNPs, and amp-CS-MNP nanocomposite were compared, which confirmed the CS coating on the MNPs and the amp-loaded nanocomposite. Magnetization curves showed that both the MNPs and the amp-CS-MNP nanocomposites were superparamagnetic, with saturation magnetizations at 80.1 and 26.6 emu g-1, respectively. Amp was loaded at 8

  6. Prevalence of beta-lactamases among ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolated from food animals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Inger; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2004-01-01

    The genetic background for beta-lactamase-mediated resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics was examined by PCR and sequencing in 160 ampicillin-resistant isolates (109 Escherichia coli and 51 Salmonella) obtained from healthy and diseased food animals in Denmark. Sequencing revealed three different...... leading to increased production of the AmpC beta-lactamase were demonstrated in 11 cefoxitin-resistant or intermediate E. coli isolates. Nine of these isolates did not contain any bla(TEM) genes, whereas the remaining two did. No genes encoding SHV or extended-spectrum beta-lactamases were detected. Two...

  7. Post-embriononic development of Chrysomya putoria(Diptera: Calliphoridae on a diet containing ampicillin in different concentrations

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    ADRIANA C.P. FERRAZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we evaluate the effects of different concentrations of the antibiotic ampicillin on the growth and development of Chrysomya putoria. Third-generation, first instar larvae (L1 reared on 60 grams of homogenate+agar 65% were treated with ampicillin sodium. The experiment consisted of four replicates (40 larvae/replicate of each antibiotic concentration tested (T1: 466µg/mL ; T2: 81.33 mg/mL and T3: 166.66mg/mL and a T4: control. The body mass of the mature larvae, after they abandoned the diet, were recorded in batches of five. The variation between the mean body mass of larvae and the duration of larval and pupal stages, and overall duration of the development, viability and normal rates were analyzed by ANOVA. There were no significant differences between the four treatments in the following parameters: body mass of larvae that discontinued the diet as well as the duration of larval, pupal, and total development. The sex ratios found in the four treatments did not differ from those expected. Normality rates were 100% for all treatments. There were no significant differences between treatments for larval and overall viability, but pupal viability differed significantly between T1 and the control, T1 and T2, and between the control and T3. The antibiotic did not appear to significantly alter the development of C. putoria.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of berberine alone and in combination with ampicillin or oxacillin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hyeon-Hee; Kim, Kang-Ju; Cha, Jeong-Dan; Kim, Hae-Kyoung; Lee, Young-Eun; Choi, Na-Young; You, Yong-Ouk

    2005-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria have been responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality in hospitals because they usually have multidrug resistance. Some natural products are candidates as new antibiotic substances. In the present study, we investigated the antimicrobial activity of berberine, the main antibacterial substance of Coptidis rhizoma (Coptis chinensis Franch) and Phellodendri cortex (Phellodendron amurense Ruprecht), against clinical isolates of MRSA, and the effects of berberine on the adhesion to MRSA and intracellular invasion into human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Berberine showed antimicrobial activity against all tested strains of MRSA. Minimum inhibition concentrations (MICs) of berberine against MRSA ranged from 32 to 128 microg/mL. Ninety percent inhibition of MRSA was obtained with 64 microg/mL or less of berberine. In the checkerboard dilution test, berberine markedly lowered the MICs of ampicillin and oxacillin against MRSA. An additive effect was found between berberine and ampicillin, and a synergistic effect was found between berberine and oxacillin against MRSA. In the presence of 1-50 microg/mL berberine, MRSA adhesion and intracellular invasion were notably decreased compared with the vehicle-treated control group. These results suggest that berberine may have antimicrobial activity and the potential to restore the effectiveness of beta-lactam antibiotics against MRSA, and inhibit the MRSA adhesion and intracellular invasion in HGFs.

  9. Detection of Ampicillin Resistance Genes (bla in Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli with Polymerase Chain Reaction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiana Milanda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli is a rod negative Gram which could be pathogenic, if its value increases or located in outer gastrointestinal tract. Pathogenic E. coli will produce enterotoxin which will cause diarrhoea or infection in urine tract. Ampicilin was one of particular antibiotics to overcome infection. Ampicilin nowadays is no longer used as primary medicine, because of its resistance case. The aim of this research is to detect the presence of gene which is responsible to ampicilin resistant E. coli. We used isolated midstream urine from cystitis object in Hasan Sadikin Hospital (RSHS as samples. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR method (colony-PCR and DNA-PCR were done to invenstigate the antibiotic resistency. Based on the result of antibiotic susceptibility testing to ampicillin, E. coli samples were resistant to ampicilin. Elektroforegram products of colony-PCR and DNA-PCR showed that the resistance case of ampicilin caused by bla gene (199 bp. Selective and rational antibiotic treatment is required to prevent ampicillin resistance in patients with symptoms

  10. Role of nutrient limitation and stationary-phase existence in Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilm resistance to ampicillin and ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderl, Jeff N; Zahller, Jeff; Roe, Frank; Stewart, Philip S

    2003-04-01

    Biofilms formed by Klebsiella pneumoniae resisted killing during prolonged exposure to ampicillin or ciprofloxacin even though these agents have been shown to penetrate bacterial aggregates. Bacteria dispersed from biofilms into medium quickly regained most of their susceptibility. Experiments with free-floating bacteria showed that stationary-phase bacteria were protected from killing by either antibiotic, especially when the test was performed in medium lacking carbon and nitrogen sources. These results suggested that the antibiotic tolerance of biofilm bacteria could be explained by nutrient limitation in the biofilm leading to stationary-phase existence of at least some of the cells in the biofilm. This mechanism was supported by experimental characterization of nutrient availability and growth status in biofilms. The average specific growth rate of bacteria in biofilms was only 0.032 h(-1) compared to the specific growth rate of planktonic bacteria of 0.59 h(-1) measured in the same medium. Glucose did not penetrate all the way through the biofilm, and oxygen was shown to penetrate only into the upper 100 micro m. The specific catalase activity was elevated in biofilm bacteria to a level similar to that of stationary-phase planktonic cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that bacteria were affected by ampicillin near the periphery of the biofilm but were not affected in the interior. Taken together, these results indicate that K. pneumoniae in this system experience nutrient limitation locally within the biofilm, leading to zones in which the bacteria enter stationary phase and are growing slowly or not at all. In these inactive regions, bacteria are less susceptible to killing by antibiotics.

  11. Characterization of Hospital-Associated Lineages of Ampicillin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium from Clinical Cases in Dogs and Humans

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    Cindy-Love eTremblay

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (ARE has rapidly emerged worldwide and is one of the most important nosocomial pathogens. However, very few reports are available on ARE isolates from canine clinical cases. The objective of this study was to characterize ARE strains of canine clinical origin from a veterinary teaching hospital in Canada and to compare them with human strains. Ten ARE strains from dogs and humans were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm activities, presence of rep-families, CRISPR-cas and putative virulence genes. All ARE strains (n = 10 were resistant to ciprofloxacin and lincomycin. Resistances to tetracycline (n = 6, macrolides (n = 6, and to high concentrations of gentamicin, kanamycin and streptomycin (n = 5 were also observed. Canine ARE isolates were found to be susceptible to vancomycin whereas resistance to this antibiotic was observed in human strains. Ampicillin resistance was linked to PBP5 showing mutations at 25 amino acid positions. Fluoroquinolone resistance was attributable to ParC, GyrA, and GyrB mutations. Data demonstrated that all canine ARE were acm (collagen binding protein-positive and that most harbored the efaAfm gene, encoding for a cell wall adhesin. Biofilm formation was observed in two human strains but not in canine strains. Two to five rep-families were observed per strain but no CRISPR sequences were found. A total of six STs (1, 18, 65, 202, 205, and 803 were found with one belonging to a new ST (ST803. These STs were identical or closely related to human hospital-associated lineages. This report describes for the first time the characterization of canine ARE hospital-associated strains in Canada and also supports the importance of prudent antibiotic use in veterinary medicine to avoid zoonotic spread of canine ARE.

  12. Screening municipal wastewater effluent and surface water used for drinking water production for the presence of ampicillin and vancomycin resistant enterococci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taucer-Kapteijn, M.; Hoogenboezem, Wim; Heiliegers, Laura; de Bolster, Danny; Medema, G.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of clinical enterococcal isolates that are resistant to both ampicillin and vancomycin is a cause of great concern, as therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of infections caused by such organisms are becoming limited. Aquatic environments could play a role in the dissemination

  13. Evaluation of polymorphisms in pbp4 gene and genetic diversity in penicillin-resistant, ampicillin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis from hospitals in different states in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Victor Hugo Pacagnelli; Conceição, Natália; de Oliveira, Adriana Gonçalves; Darini, Ana Lúcia da Costa

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify whether penicillin-resistant, ampicillin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis (PRASEF) occurred in Brazil prior to the beginning of the 21st century, and to verify whether ampicillin susceptibility can predict susceptibility to other β-lactams in E. faecalis with this inconsistent phenotype. The presence of polymorphisms in the pbp4 gene and genetic diversity among the isolates were investigated. Of 21 PRASEF analyzed, 5 (23.8%) and 4 (19.0%) were imipenem and piperacillin resistant simultaneously by disk diffusion and broth dilution respectively, contradicting the current internationally accepted standards of susceptibility testing. Sequencing of pbp4 gene revealed an amino acid substitution (Asp-573→Glu) in all PRASEF isolates but not in the penicillin-susceptible, ampicillin-susceptible E. faecalis. Most PRASEF (90.5%) had related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles, but were different from other PRASEF described to date. Results demonstrate that penicillin-resistant, ampicillin-susceptible phenotype was already a reality in the 1990s in E. faecalis isolates in different Brazilian states, and some of these isolates were also imipenem- and piperacillin-resistant; therefore, internationally accepted susceptibility criteria cannot be applied to these isolates. According to pbp4 gene sequencing, this study suggests that a specific amino acid substitution in pbp4 gene found in all PRASEF analyzed is associated with penicillin resistance. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Rhein 8-O-β-D-Glucopyranoside Elicited the Purgative Action of Daiokanzoto (Da-Huang-Gan-Cao-Tang), Despite Dysbiosis by Ampicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Kento; Tabuchi, Norihiko; Fukunaga, Masahito; Okamura, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sennoside A (SA), the main purgative constituent of Daiokanzoto (da-huang-gan-cao-tang; DKT), is generally regarded as a prodrug that is transformed into an active metabolite by β-glucosidase derived from Bifidobacterium spp. It has been suggested that antibiotics would promote dysbiosis, and thereby inhibit the purgative activity of DKT. In this study, ampicillin was administered to mice for 8 d, and the changes in the SA metabolism of SA alone and of DKT were investigated. The results showed that the SA metabolism of SA singly continued to be inhibited by ampicillin, but that of DKT was activated from day 3 under the same conditions. In order to investigate the mechanism of SA metabolism activated by DKT in the mice administered ampicillin, changes in the SA metabolism were observed in the presence of rhein 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (RG) in rhubarb and liquiritin in glycyrrhiza, both of which accelerated the SA metabolism. In fact, RG achieved an activation of SA metabolism similar to that by DKT. The purgative action of DKT, which was continued treatment of the ampicillin, was significantly greater than that by SA alone, and it was shown that RG was involved in this effect. We also analyzed changes in the intestinal microbiota before and after administration of ampicillin. No Bifidobacteria were detected throughout the treatment, but the population of Bacteroides was significantly increased after 3 d under the same conditions. Taken together, these results strongly suggested that the RG in DKT changed the function of Bacteroides and thereby allowed DKT to metabolize SA.

  15. Outbreak of Ampicillin/Piperacillin-Resistant Klebsiella Pneumoniae in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU: Investigation and Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Farruggia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is a frequent cause of infectious outbreaks in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs. The aim of this paper is to describe an outbreak occurred in a 13-bed NICU and the control measures adopted in order to interrupt the chain of transmission. We described the microbiological investigations, the NICU staff compliance to the infection control measures by means of a specifically designed check-list and the control measures adopted. Six cases of primary bloodstream infections sustained by ampicillin/piperacillin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae were observed over a two-month period. One culture obtained from a 12% saccarose multiple-dose solution allowed the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae. During the inspections performed by the Hospital Infection Control Team, using the check-list for the evaluation of the NICU staff compliance to the infection control measures, several breaches in the infection control policy were identified and control measures were adopted. In our case the definition of a specific check-list led to the adoption of the correct control measures. Further studies would be helpful in order to develop a standard check-list able to identify critical flows in the adhesion to the guidelines. It could be used in different NICUs and allow to obtain reproducible levels of infection control.

  16. Outbreak of ampicillin/piperacillin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU): investigation and control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Giuliana; Panico, Manuela; Dallolio, Laura; Suzzi, Roberta; Ciccia, Matilde; Sandri, Fabrizio; Farruggia, Patrizia

    2013-02-26

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a frequent cause of infectious outbreaks in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). The aim of this paper is to describe an outbreak occurred in a 13-bed NICU and the control measures adopted in order to interrupt the chain of transmission. We described the microbiological investigations, the NICU staff compliance to the infection control measures by means of a specifically designed check-list and the control measures adopted. Six cases of primary bloodstream infections sustained by ampicillin/piperacillin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae were observed over a two-month period. One culture obtained from a 12% saccarose multiple-dose solution allowed the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae. During the inspections performed by the Hospital Infection Control Team, using the check-list for the evaluation of the NICU staff compliance to the infection control measures, several breaches in the infection control policy were identified and control measures were adopted. In our case the definition of a specific check-list led to the adoption of the correct control measures. Further studies would be helpful in order to develop a standard check-list able to identify critical flows in the adhesion to the guidelines. It could be used in different NICUs and allow to obtain reproducible levels of infection control.

  17. Spectrophotometric methods for the determination of ampicillin by potassium permanganate and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene in pharmaceutical preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Aslam Parwaz Khan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Two simple and sensitive kinetic methods for the determination of ampicillin (AMP are described. The first method is based on kinetic investigation of the oxidation reaction of the drug with alkaline potassium permanganate at room temperature for a fixed time of 25 min. The absorbance of the colored manganate ions is measured at 610 nm. The second method is based on the reaction of AMP with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB in the presence of 0.1 mol L−1 sodium bicarbonate. Spectrophotometric measurement was achieved by recording the absorbance at 490 nm for a fixed time of 60 min. All variables affecting the development of the color were investigated and the conditions were optimized. Plots of absorbance against concentration in both procedures were rectilinear over the ranges 5–30 and 50–260 μg mL−1, with mean recoveries 99.80 and 99.91, respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of AMP in bulk powder and in capsule dosage form. The determination of AMP by the fixed concentration method is feasible with the calibration equations obtained, but the fixed time method proves to be more applicable.

  18. Simultaneous delivery of antibiotics neomycin and ampicillin in drinking water inhibits fermentation of resistant starch in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Aldaz, Diana G; Guice, Justin L; Page, Ryan C; Raggio, Anne M; Martin, Roy J; Husseneder, Claudia; Durham, Holiday A; Geaghan, James; Janes, Marlene; Gauthier, Ted; Coulon, Diana; Keenan, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    Antibiotics ampicillin 1 g/L and neomycin 0.5 g/L were added to drinking water before or during feeding of resistant starch (RS) to rats to inhibit fermentation. In a preliminary study, antibiotics and no RS were given prior to rats receiving a transplant of cecal contents via gavage from donor rats fed RS (without antibiotics) or a water gavage before feeding resistant starch to both groups. Antibiotics given prior to feeding RS did not prevent later fermentation of RS regardless of either type of gavage. In the second study, antibiotics were given simultaneously with feeding of RS. This resulted in inhibition of fermentation of RS with cecal contents pH >8 and low amounts of acetate and butyrate. Rats treated with antibiotics had reduced Bifidobacteria spp., but similar Bacteroides spp. to control groups to reduce acetate and butyrate and preserve the production of propionate. Despite reduced fermentation, rats given antibiotics had increased glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and cecum size, measures that are usually associated with fermentation. A simultaneous delivery of antibiotics inhibited fermentation of RS. However, increased GLP-1 and cecum size would be confounding effects in assessing the mechanism for beneficial effects of dietary RS by knocking out fermentation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Comparison between a Direct-Flow SPR Immunosensor for Ampicillin and a Competitive Conventional Amperometric Device: Analytical Features and Possible Applications to Real Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassetti, Mauro; Merola, Giovanni; Martini, Elisabetta; Campanella, Luigi; Sanzò, Gabriella; Favero, Gabriele; Mazzei, Franco

    2017-01-01

    In this research, we developed a direct-flow surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor for ampicillin to perform direct, simple, and fast measurements of this important antibiotic. In order to better evaluate the performance, it was compared with a conventional amperometric immunosensor, working with a competitive format with the aim of finding out experimental real advantages and disadvantages of two respective methods. Results showed that certain analytical features of the new SPR immunodevice, such as the lower limit of detection (LOD) value and the width of the linear range, are poorer than those of a conventional amperometric immunosensor, which adversely affects the application to samples such as natural waters. On the other hand, the SPR immunosensor was more selective to ampicillin, and measurements were more easily and quickly attained compared to those performed with the conventional competitive immunosensor. PMID:28394296

  20. Ampicillin-Resistant Non-β-Lactamase-Producing Haemophilus influenzae in Spain: Recent Emergence of Clonal Isolates with Increased Resistance to Cefotaxime and Cefixime▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cobos, Silvia; Campos, José; Lázaro, Edurne; Román, Federico; Cercenado, Emilia; García-Rey, César; Pérez-Vázquez, María; Oteo, Jesús; de Abajo, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    The sequence of the ftsI gene encoding the transpeptidase domain of penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP 3) was determined for 354 nonconsecutive Haemophilus influenzae isolates from Spain; 17.8% of them were ampicillin susceptible, 56% were β-lactamase nonproducing ampicillin resistant (BLNAR), 15.8% were β-lactamase producers and ampicillin resistant, and 10.4% displayed both resistance mechanisms. The ftsI gene sequences had 28 different mutation patterns and amino acid substitutions at 23 positions. Some 93.2% of the BLNAR strains had amino acid substitutions at the Lys-Thr-Gly (KTG) motif, the two most common being Asn526 to Lys (83.9%) and Arg517 to His (9.3%). Amino acid substitutions at positions 377, 385, and 389, which conferred cefotaxime and cefixime MICs 10 to 60 times higher than those of susceptible strains, were found for the first time in Europe. In 72 isolates for which the repressor acrR gene of the AcrAB efflux pump was sequenced, numerous amino acid substitutions were found. Eight isolates with ampicillin MICs of 0.25 to 2 μg/ml showed changes that predicted the early termination of the acrR reading frame. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that most BLNAR strains were genetically diverse, although clonal dissemination was detected in a group of isolates presenting with increased resistance to cefotaxime and cefixime. Background antibiotic use at the community level revealed a marked trend toward increased amoxicillin-clavulanic acid consumption. BLNAR H. influenzae strains have arisen by vertical and horizontal spread and have evolved to adapt rapidly to the increased selective pressures posed by the use of oral penicillins and cephalosporins. PMID:17470649

  1. Distribution and characterization of ampicillin- and tetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli from feedlot cattle fed subtherapeutic antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanke L Jay

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feedlot cattle in North America are routinely fed subtherapeutic levels of antimicrobials to prevent disease and improve the efficiency of growth. This practice has been shown to promote antimicrobial resistance (AMR in subpopulations of intestinal microflora including Escherichia coli. To date, studies of AMR in feedlot production settings have rarely employed selective isolation, therefore yielding too few AMR isolates to enable characterization of the emergence and nature of AMR in E. coli as an indicator bacterium. E. coli isolates (n = 531 were recovered from 140 cattle that were housed (10 animals/pen in 14 pens and received no dietary antimicrobials (control - 5 pens, CON, or were intermittently administered subtherapeutic levels of chlortetracycline (5 pens-T, chlortetracycline + sulfamethazine (4 pens-TS, or virginiamycin (5 pens-V for two separate periods over a 9-month feeding period. Phenotype and genotype of the isolates were determined by susceptibility testing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis and distribution of characterized isolates among housed cattle reported. It was hypothesized that the feeding of subtherapeutic antibiotics would increase the isolation of distinct genotypes of AMR E. coli from cattle. Results Overall, patterns of antimicrobial resistance expressed by E. coli isolates did not change among diet groups (CON vs. antibiotic treatments, however; isolates obtained on selective plates (i.e., MA,MT, exhibited multi-resistance to sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol more frequently when obtained from TS-fed steers than from other treatments. Antibiograms and PFGE patterns suggested that AMR E. coli were readily transferred among steers within pens. Most MT isolates possessed the tet(B efflux gene (58.2, 53.5, 40.8, and 50.6% of isolates from CON, T, TS, and V steers, respectively whereas among the MA (ampicillin-resistant isolates, the tem1-like determinant was predominant (occurring in 50, 66

  2. Substitutions in PBP3 confer resistance to both ampicillin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins in Haemophilus parainfluenzae as revealed by site-directed mutagenesis and gene recombinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienholtz, Nanna H; Ciechanowski, Aynur Barut; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    using site-directed mutagenesis. Recombinants were also generated using PCR-amplified ftsI from clinical strains encoding multiple amino acid substitutions. MICs of ampicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime and ceftriaxone were determined using Etest ® . Results: Transformation of a susceptible strain with fts...... for recombinants were lower than those for the donor strains. Using site-directed mutagenesis, no single substitution conferred resistance to the tested β-lactams, although V511A increased the MIC of cefuroxime to the intermediate category for intravenous administration. Recombinants encoding N526K...

  3. Efficacy and safety of Sultamicillin (Ampicillin/Sulbactan) and Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections in adults--an open-label, multicentric, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, João Batista; Rapoport, Priscila Bogar; Sakano, Eulália; Kós, Arthur Octávio De Avila; Piltcher, Otávio B; Pignatari, Shirley Shizue Nagata; Pinheiro, Sebastião Diógenes; Mocellin, Marcos

    2006-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections are the most common causes of medical visits in children and adults, demanding massive use of antibiotics. Bacterial resistance caused by beta-lactamase is one of the most serious problems in this matter. Sultamicillin, a double pro-drug of Ampicillin/Sulbactan, is a potent beta-lactamase inhibitor which can face this challenge. Evaluate efficacy, safety and tolerability of Ampicillin/Sulbactan compared to Amoxicillin/Clavulanate in upper respiratory tract infections in adults. 102 patients were enrolled and randomized to receive Ampicillin/Sulbactan or Amoxicillin/Clavulanate during 10 days. They were evaluated 10 and 30 days after treatment to learn about the therapeutic response. There were no differences between the two groups respecting cure at the end of treatment (visit 2) or at the end of the study (visit 3). Cure ratio was 61.7% and 93.2% (visits 2 and 3) in the Amoxicillin/Clavulanate group compared to 64.4% and 97.4%, respectively, in Ampicillin/Sulbactan group. The adverse events ratio for the two groups was the same (p=0.940). The number of patients with diarrhea was greater in the group of patients receiving Amoxicillin/Clavulanate (70.6%) than in the group receiving Ampicillin/Sulbactan (29.4%) (p=0.0164). Ampicillin/Sulbactan is as safe and efficient as Amoxicillin/Clavulanate in the empiric treatment of upper respiratory infections in adults. The low occurrence of diarrhea in the group receiving Ampicillin/Sulbactan needs confirmation in other studies.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility against penicillin, ampicillin and vancomycin of viridans group Streptococcus in oral microbiota of patients at risk of infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süzük, Serap; Kaşkatepe, Banu; Çetin, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    The viridans group Streptococci (VGS) are most abundant in the mouth; in some instances they might emerge as pathogens particularly in infective endocarditis (IE). In this study, we aimed to define and determine the susceptibility against antibiotics of VGS that are members of the oral microbiota of patients exhibiting a risk of developing IE. Forty-nine patients at risk of infective endocarditis were included in the study. Identification of the bacteria was performed using API STREP (bioMérieux, France). Gradient test strips (E-Test, France) were used to determine MIC of the bacteria against penicillin, ampicillin, and vancomycin. The distribution of the isolated VGS groups was determined as follows: Streptococcus mitis 32.6% and anginosus group - 32.6%, S. sanguinis group - 16.3%, S. mutans group - 12.2%, and S. salivarius group - 6.1%. The rates of resistance and reduced sensitivity of the isolates for penicillin and ampicillin were determined at 61.2% and 55.1%, respectively. However, all isolates were found to be susceptible to vancomycin. We conclude that the antimicrobial resistance of VGS should be determined on a regular basis locally, and decisions on therapeutic and prophylactic interventions should be given taking this resistance into consideration.

  5. Effects of ampicillin, cefazolin and cefoperazone treatments on GLT-1 expressions in the mesocorticolimbic system and ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P S S; Goodwani, S; Bell, R L; Wei, Y; Boddu, S H S; Sari, Y

    2015-06-04

    Chronic ethanol consumption is known to downregulate expression of the major glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1), which increases extracellular glutamate concentrations in subregions of the mesocorticolimbic reward pathway. While β-lactam antibiotics were initially identified as potent upregulators of GLT-1 expression, only ceftriaxone has been extensively studied in various drug addiction models. Therefore, in this study, adult male alcohol-preferring (P) rats exposed chronically to ethanol were treated with other β-lactam antibiotics, ampicillin, cefazolin or cefoperazone (100mg/kg) once daily for five consecutive days to assess their effects on ethanol consumption. The results demonstrated that each compound significantly reduced ethanol intake compared to the saline-treated control group. Importantly, each compound significantly upregulated both GLT-1 and pAKT expressions in the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex compared to saline-treated control group. In addition, only cefoperazone significantly inhibited hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 enzyme activity. Moreover, these β-lactams exerted only a transient effect on sucrose drinking, suggesting specificity for chronically inhibiting ethanol reward in adult male P rats. Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of ampicillin, cefazolin or cefoperazone have been confirmed using high-performance liquid chromatography. These findings demonstrate that multiple β-lactam antibiotics demonstrate efficacy in reducing alcohol consumption and appear to be potential therapeutic compounds for treating alcohol abuse and/or dependence. In addition, these results suggest that pAKT may be an important player in this effect, possibly through increased transcription of GLT-1. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antibioticoprofilaxia com ampicilina na rotura prematura das membranas: estudo randomizado e duplo cego Ampicillin prophylaxis in premature rupture of membranes: randomized and double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elias Soares da Rocha

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: avaliar se o uso profilático da ampicilina pode evitar ou reduzir a morbidade infecciosa materna e perinatal decorrente da ruptura prematura das membranas (RPM e prolongar a gestação em pacientes portadoras dessa complicação. Métodos: estudo prospectivo, randomizado e duplo-cego, avaliando 121 gestantes portadoras de RPM, divididas em dois grupos. O grupo tratado (61 gestantes recebeu ampicilina e o grupo controle (60 gestantes recebeu placebo, nas mesmas condições de horário, tempo de uso, embalagem e cor das cápsulas. Como parâmetros de infecção materna considerou-se a morbidade febril materna (índice térmico, presença de corioamnionite e/ou endometrite. Os parâmetros neonatais avaliados foram o índice de Apgar (1° e 5° minutos, colonização bacteriana do conduto auditivo e hemocultura. Para a análise estatística foram utilizados os testes: exato de Fisher, Wilcoxon e o chi². Resultados: o uso da ampicilina não prolongou a gestação, não reduziu a morbidade febril puerperal e nem as taxas de corioamnionite e/ou endometrite. Quanto à morbidade infecciosa perinatal também não foi possível demonstrar nenhuma redução decorrente do uso da ampicilina nem influência sobre as condições de nascimento. Estes dados foram consistentes em casos de RPM com até 72 horas de evolução, pois o limitado número de casos com tempo maior de evolução não permitiu uma análise estatística isenta de erro tipo II. Conclusões: com base nos resultados desse trabalho foi possível concluir que o uso profilático de ampicilina em gestantes com RPM com até 72 horas de evolução não reduz a morbidade infecciosa materna nem perinatal. No entanto, a presença de Streptococcus agalactiae do grupo B em hemocultura de recém-nascido do grupo controle indicou a necessidade imperiosa de antibioticoterapia para as gestantes colonizadas por esse microrganismo.Purpose: to evaluate whether prophylactic use of ampicillin could

  7. Labelling of pneumococcal penicillin-binding proteins with [3H]propionyl-ampicillin. A rapid method for monitoring penicillin-binding activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakenbeck, R.; Kohiyama, M.

    1982-01-01

    Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are membrane components ubiquitous to all bacteria examined so far. Some of them are present in only a few copies per cell. The conventional method of visualizing these proteins consists in binding of radioactive penicillin to the fractions containing PBPs followed by SDS-PAGE and finally fluorography. Although this procedure is laborious, it is necessary for the determination of the identity as well as for the quantification of each PBP. On the other hand, when penicillin-binding conditions are to be examined or binding activity has to be followed through fractionation and purification of PBPs, no fast monitoring device for these proteins has been available. The authors developed a rapid and easy assay for penicillin-binding activity with a filter-binding technique using [ 3 H]propionyl ampicillin ( 3 H-PA) of high specific activity. As little 2μg of crude membranes obtained from the highly penicillin-sensitive, β-lactamase-negative organism Streptococcus pneumoniae, are sufficient to detect binding activity. In this paper they describe optimum conditions for the assay of PBPs and show that this binding activity correlates with the presence of native penicillin-binding proteins. (Auth.)

  8. Relationship between maternal c-reactive protein level and neonatal outcome in patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes treated with Ampicillin and Azithromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdar Kutuk, Mehmet; Bastug, Osman; Ozdemir, Ahmet; Adnan Ozturk, Mehmet; Tuncay Ozgun, Mahmut; Basbug, Mustafa; Gunes, Tamer; Kurtoglu, Selim

    2016-08-01

    This historical cohort study aimed to assess the relationship between antenatal maternal C-reactive protein (CRP) level and neonatal outcome preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). We reviewed the records of 70 singleton pregnancies with PPROM between 24 and 34 weeks. Maternal CRP levels of neonates with respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal sepsis, grade 3-4 intraventricular haemorrhage and stage 2-3 necrotizing enterocolitis, perinatal mortality were compared with those without these complications. Administration of corticosteroid, tocolysis for two days and prophylactic antibiotics (intravenous ampicillin/sulbactam, and oral azithromycin) were the standard management protocol. The mean age at PPROM was 29 weeks 2 days (±3 weeks), the mean age at birth was 30 weeks 5 days (±20 days). CRP levels were not different between groups. Uni/multivariate analysis showed that maternal CRP levels were not related with neonatal outcomes. Neonatal complications in PPROM are related with the degree of prematurity and maternal WBC counts.

  9. The biofilm matrix destabilizers, EDTA and DNaseI, enhance the susceptibility of nontypeable Hemophilus influenzae biofilms to treatment with ampicillin and ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, Rosalia; Ball, Jessica L; Turnbull, Lynne; Whitchurch, Cynthia B

    2014-08-01

    Nontypeable Hemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes chronic biofilm infections of the ears and airways. The biofilm matrix provides structural integrity to the biofilm and protects biofilm cells from antibiotic exposure by reducing penetration of antimicrobial compounds into the biofilm. Extracellular DNA (eDNA) has been found to be a major matrix component of biofilms formed by many species of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including NTHi. Interestingly, the cation chelator ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) has been shown to reduce the matrix strength of biofilms of several bacterial species as well as to have bactericidal activity against various pathogens. EDTA exerts its antimicrobial activity by chelating divalent cations necessary for growth and membrane stability and by destabilizing the matrix thus enhancing the detachment of bacterial cells from the biofilm. In this study, we have explored the role of divalent cations in NTHi biofilm development and stability. We have utilized in vitro static and continuous flow models of biofilm development by NTHi to demonstrate that magnesium cations enhance biofilm formation by NTHi. We found that the divalent cation chelator EDTA is effective at both preventing NTHi biofilm formation and at treating established NTHi biofilms. Furthermore, we found that the matrix destablilizers EDTA and DNaseI increase the susceptibility of NTHi biofilms to ampicillin and ciprofloxacin. Our observations indicate that DNaseI and EDTA enhance the efficacy of antibiotic treatment of NTHi biofilms. These observations may lead to new strategies that will improve the treatment options available to patients with chronic NTHi infections. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A randomized trial of tigecycline versus ampicillin-sulbactam or amoxicillin-clavulanate for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) frequently result in hospitalization with significant morbidity and mortality. Methods In this phase 3b/4 parallel, randomized, open-label, comparative study, 531 subjects with cSSSI received tigecycline (100 mg initial dose, then 50 mg intravenously every 12 hrs) or ampicillin-sulbactam 1.5-3 g IV every 6 hrs or amoxicillin-clavulanate 1.2 g IV every 6-8 hrs. Vancomycin could be added at the discretion of the investigator to the comparator arm if methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was confirmed or suspected within 72 hrs of enrollment. The primary endpoint was clinical response in the clinically evaluable (CE) population at the test-of-cure (TOC) visit. Microbiologic response and safety were also assessed. The modified intent-to-treat (mITT) population comprised 531 subjects (tigecycline, n = 268; comparator, n = 263) and 405 were clinically evaluable (tigecycline, n = 209; comparator, n = 196). Results In the CE population, 162/209 (77.5%) tigecycline-treated subjects and 152/196 (77.6%) comparator-treated subjects were clinically cured (difference 0.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -8.7, 8.6). The eradication rates at the subject level for the microbiologically evaluable (ME) population were 79.2% in the tigecycline treatment group and 76.8% in the comparator treatment group (difference 2.4; 95% CI: -9.6, 14.4) at the TOC assessment. Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea rates were higher in the tigecycline group. Conclusions Tigecycline was generally safe and effective in the treatment of cSSSIs. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00368537 PMID:23145952

  11. Staphylococcus aureus ampicillin-resistant from the odontological clinic environment Staphylococcus aureus resistente à ampicilina em ambiente de Clínica Odontológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Luis de Carvalho Bernardo

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the prevalence of Sthaphylococcus spp. and S. aureus in the odontological clinic environment (air, their production of beta-lactamase and antibacterial susceptibility to the major antibiotics utilized in medical particle. During 12 months of samples collect were isolated 9775 CFU by MSA medium suggesting a high amount of Staphylococcus spp. in the clinic environment which can appear through aerosols. A total of 3149 colonies (32.2% were suggestive of pathogenic staphylococci. Gram coloration, catalase test, colony-mallow growing on chromogenic medium, and coagulase test confirmed the identity of 44 (0.45% S. aureus isolates. Of these, 35 isolates (79.5% showed production of beta-lactamase by CefinaseTM discs and resistance to ampicillin, erythromycin (7 isolates and tetracycline (1 isolate suggesting the existence of multiresistant isolates. The evaluation of the oxacillin MIC by Etest® assays showed susceptibility patterns suggesting the inexistence of the mecA gene in chromosomal DNA. These results point out to the need of a larger knowledge on the contamination means and propagation of this microorganism into the odontological clinic.Foi avaliada a prevalência de Staphylococcus spp. e S. aureus no ambiente clínico odontológico, a produção de beta-lactamase e a susceptibilidade antibacteriana aos principais antibióticos utilizados na prática clínica. Durante 12 meses de coleta de amostras foram isolados 9775 UFC no meio de cultura AMS, demonstrando uma elevada quantidade de Staphylococcus spp. no ambiente clínico, provavelmente em decorrência da propagação de aerossóis. Um total de 3149 colônias (32,2% foi sugestivo de estafilococos patogênicos. Coloração de Gram, teste de catalase, crescimento de colônias-malva sobre meio cromogênico e teste de coagulase confirmaram a identidade de 44 (0,45% isolados de S. aureus. Destes, 35 isolados (79,5% mostraram produção de beta

  12. Isolation and Characterization of a Lytic Bacteriophage (vB_PmiS-TH) and Its Application in Combination with Ampicillin against Planktonic and Biofilm Forms of Proteus mirabilis Isolated from Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Mahsa; Bouzari, Majid; Ghaemi, Ezzat Allah

    2018-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is one of the most common causes of urinary tract infection (UTI), particularly in patients undergoing long-term catheterization. Phage vB_PmiS-TH was isolated from wastewater with high lytic activity against P. mirabilis (TH) isolated from UTI. The phage had rapid adsorption, a large burst size (∼260 PFU per infected cell), and high stability at a wide range of temperatures and pH values. As analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, phage vB_PmiS-TH had an icosahedral head of ∼87 × 62 nm with a noncontractile tail about 137 nm in length and 11 nm in width. It belongs to the family Siphoviridae. Combination of the phage vB_PmiS-TH with ampicillin had a higher removal activity against planktonic cells of P. mirabilis (TH) than the phage or the antibiotic alone. Combination of the phage at a multiplicity of infection of 100 with a high dose of ampicillin (246 µg/mL) showed the highest biofilm removal activity after 24 h. This study demonstrates that using a combination of phage and antibiotic could be significantly more effective against planktonic and biofilm forms of P. mirabilis (TH). © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Use of a standardized JaCVAM in vivo rat comet assay protocol to assess the genotoxicity of three coded test compounds; ampicillin trihydrate, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride, and N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, J P; Bellier, P V

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), our laboratory examined ampicillin trihydrate (AMP), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH), and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDA) using a standard comet assay validation protocol (v14.2) developed by the JaCVAM validation management team (VMT). Coded samples were received by our laboratory along with basic MSDS information. Solubility analysis and range-finding experiments of the coded test compounds were conducted for dose selection. Animal dosing schedules, the comet assay processing and analysis, and statistical analysis were conducted in accordance with the standard protocol. Based upon our blinded evaluation, AMP was not found to exhibit evidence of genotoxicity in either the rat liver or stomach. However, both NDA and DMH were observed to cause a significant increase in % tail DNA in the rat liver at all dose levels tested. While acute hepatoxicity was observed for these compounds in the high dose group, in the investigators opinion there were a sufficient number of consistently damaged/measurable cells at the medium and low dose groups to judge these compounds as genotoxic. There was no evidence of genotoxicity from either NDA or DMH in the rat stomach. In conclusion, our laboratory observed increased DNA damage from two blinded test compounds in rat liver (later identified as genotoxic carcinogens), while no evidence of genotoxicity was observed for the third blinded test compound (later identified as a non-genotoxic, non-carcinogen). This data supports the use of a standardized protocol of the in vivo comet assay as a cost-effective alternative genotoxicity assay for regulatory testing purposes. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A new application of micellar liquid chromatography in the determination of free ampicillin concentration in the drug-human serum albumin standard solution in comparison with the adsorption method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępnik, Katarzyna E; Malinowska, Irena; Maciejewska, Małgorzata

    2016-06-01

    The determination of free drug concentration is a very important issue in the field of pharmacology because only the unbound drug fraction can achieve a pharmacological effect. Due to the ability to solubilize many different compounds in micellar aggregates, micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) can be used for direct determination of free drug concentration. Proteins are not retained on the stationary phase probably due to the formation of protein - surfactant complexes which are excluded from the pores of stationary phase. The micellar method is simple and fast. It does not require any pre-preparation of the tested samples for analysis. The main aim of this paper is to demonstrate a completely new applicability of the analytical use of MLC concerning the determination of free drug concentration in the standard solution of human serum albumin. The well-known adsorption method using RP-HPLC and the spectrophotometric technique was applied as the reference method. The results show that the free drug concentration value obtained in the MLC system (based on the RP-8 stationary phase and CTAB) is similar to that obtained by the adsorption method: both RP-HPLC (95.83μgmL(-1), 79.86% of free form) and spectrophotometry (95.71μgmL(-1), 79.76%). In the MLC the free drug concentration was 93.98μgmL(-1) (78.3%). This indicates that the obtained results are within the analytical range of % of free ampicillin fraction and the MLC with direct sample injection can be treated like a promising method for the determination of free drug concentration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Eficácia e segurança de Sultamicilina (Ampicilina/Sulbactam e Amoxacilina/Clavulanato no tratamento das infecções de via aéreas superiores em adultos: um estudo multicêntrico, aberto e randomizado Efficacy and safety of Sultamicillin (Ampicillin/Sulbactan and Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections in adults: an open-label, multicentric, randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Ferreira

    2006-02-01

    pro-drug of Ampicillin/Sulbactan, is a potent beta-lactamase inhibitor which can face this challenge. AIM: evaluate efficacy, safety and tolerability of Ampicillin/Sulbactan compared to Amoxicillin/Clavulanate in upper respiratory tract infections in adults. METHODS: 102 patients were enrolled and randomized to receive Ampicillin/Sulbactan or Amoxicillin/Clavulanate during 10 days. They were evaluated 10 and 30 days after treatment to learn about the therapeutic response. RESULTS: There were no differences between the two groups respecting cure at the end of treatment (visit 2 or at the end of the study (visit 3. Cure ratio was 61.7% and 93.2% (visits 2 and 3 in the Amoxicillin/Clavulanate group compared to 64.4% and 97.4%, respectively, in Ampicillin/Sulbactan group. The adverse events ratio for the two groups was the same (p=0.940. The number of patients with diarrhea was greater in the group of patients receiving Amoxicillin/Clavulanate (70.6% than in the group receiving Ampicillin/Sulbactan (29.4% (p=0.0164. CONCLUSIONS: Ampicillin/Sulbactan is as safe and efficient as Amoxicillin/Clavulanate in the empiric treatment of upper respiratory infections in adults. The low occurrence of diarrhea in the group receiving Ampicillin/Sulbactan needs confirmation in other studies.

  16. 21 CFR 522.90b - Ampicillin trihydrate for suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... infections, urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal infections, skin infections, soft tissue infections.... Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian. (2) Cats—(i) Amount... tract infections, gastrointestinal infections, skin infections, soft tissue infections, and postsurgical...

  17. 21 CFR 520.90c - Ampicillin trihydrate capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Limitations. The drug may be given as an emergency measure; however, in vitro sensitivity tests on samples... be given as an emergency measure; however, in vitro sensitivity tests on samples collected prior to... penicillinase-producing organisms and for use in animals known to be allergic to any of the penicillins. Not for...

  18. Liver injury from ampicillin-induced intestinal microbiota distresses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. The first ... were collected and used for qualitative determination of gut microbiota ... flora, such as ammonia, ethanol, acetaldehyde, .... Sodium levels were assayed by enzymatic.

  19. Formulation and Evaluation of Chitosan-Based Ampicillin Trihydrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Parameters such as the zeta potential, polydispersity, particle size, entrapment ... variety of materials such as proteins, polysaccharides and ... formation is usually based on electrostatic interaction between the amine group of chitosan and a ...

  20. 21 CFR 520.90b - Ampicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., tonsillitis, and bronchitis due to Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pasteurella spp., urinary tract infections (cystitis) due to Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., E., coli, P. mirabilis, and Enterococcus spp.; gastrointestinal infections due to...

  1. 21 CFR 522.90c - Ampicillin sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... (including S. equi), Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis, and skin and soft tissue infections (abscesses and wounds) due to Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis, when caused by...

  2. 12 Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research Vol. 19, 2014 Ampicillin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6735s

    Department of Applied Chemistry, Federal University Dutsin- ma, Katsina Nigeria. 2. Department ... and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy methods of monitoring corrosion while the ... are organic compounds that contain ..... Engineering.

  3. STUDIES OF Ni(II) & Cu(II) COMPLEXES WITH AMPICILLIN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    akg

    Nigeria Journal of Chemical Research. Vol. 11, 2006. 37 ... b Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, End-Use Division, P.M.B. 1049, Benin. City.Nigeria ... renewable biomaterial of photosynthesis, .... thought that this process accounts for the.

  4. STUDIES OF Ni(II) & Cu(II) COMPLEXES WITH AMPICILLIN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    akg

    dimethyl aniline with some acyl hydrazines. The product yield varied from ... distilled water and both solutions were kept in a preheated water bath at 30 - 50oC ... The para and meta substituted isomer were found to have higher yield than the ortho.

  5. STUDIES OF Ni(II) & Cu(II) COMPLEXES WITH AMPICILLIN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    akg

    ABSTRACT. The Kolo Creek E2.0 reservoir oils from the Nigerian Niger Delta region have been studied for molecular marker by characterisation using full scan GC-MS and GC-MS-MS transition from 412 → 369. An existing molecular marker compound normally found in coals and lignites has been observed in some these ...

  6. STUDIES OF Ni(II) & Cu(II) COMPLEXES WITH AMPICILLIN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    akg

    Acidity measurements of organic compounds have a long history dating back to the end of the 19th century, when the ... is influenced by both the electronic effects of the substituents and the solvent effects of the medium. ... derivatives in water and organic solvent-water mixtures has been published so far [21-23]. There have ...

  7. Ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium : ecology, transmission dynamics and intervention strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Regt, M.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    For years, E. faecium only sporadically caused opportunistic infections in humans and was considered a relatively harmless commensal. In the last two decades, however, a specific polyclonal E. faecium subpopulation has rapidly become a prominent cause of nosocomial infections, which are often

  8. A wide spectrum of fastidious and ampicillin-susceptible bacteria dominate in animal-caused wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavsson, O.; Johansson, A. V.; Monstein, H.-J.; Nilsson, L. E.; Bredberg, A.

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess the actual occurrence of Gram-negative oxidase-positive bacteria (GNOP) in human wounds caused by animals, mostly cat and dog bites and scratches, and with signs of infection. We report a prospective series of 92 wound samples. Routine culturing was combined with a procedure optimised for fastidious GNOP. All GNOP isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing to the species level. We observed a more prominent role of GNOP, including at least 30 s...

  9. 76 FR 17336 - New Animal Drugs; Amikacin Sulfate, Ampicillin Trihydrate, Ceftiofur Hydrochloride, Cephapirin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ..., Ceftiofur Hydrochloride, Cephapirin Benzathine, Chlortetracycline, Fenbendazole, Formalin, Furosemide... (e)(3)(iii) to read as follows: Sec. 520.905a Fenbendazole suspension. * * * * * (e) * * * (2.... 520.905c, revise paragraph (e)(2)(iii) to read as follows: Sec. 520.905c Fenbendazole paste...

  10. Characterization of Lactococcus lactis response to ampicillin and ciprofloxacin using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Panxue; Pang, Shintaro; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Mingtao; He, Lili

    2016-01-01

    Decades of antibiotic use or misuse has resulted in antibiotic resistance in lactic acid bacteria, a group of common culture starters and probiotic microorganisms. This has urged researchers to study how lactic acid bacteria respond to antibiotics, so as to have a better strategy to identify and predict the antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This study aimed to characterize the biochemical profiles of Lactococcus lactis responding to antibiotics using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Lactococcus lactis exposed to antibiotics was mixed with 50-nm gold nanoparticles for subsequent SERS measurements. The SERS spectra analyzed by principal component analysis showed no significant change after 30 min of antibiotic treatment, whereas distinct changes were clearly observed after 60 and 90 min of antibiotic treatment. Different antibiotics induced different spectral changes, and these changes revealed the detailed biochemical information of cellular responses. This study demonstrates that the SERS method developed not only senses the changes in the bacterial cell wall, but also reveals details of the biochemical profiles, which help us to understand how lactic acid bacteria respond to antibiotics, as well as to set a base for the detection of antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria by SERS.

  11. 76 FR 53050 - New Animal Drugs; Ampicillin Trihydrate, Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate, Flunixin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... with the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) and to improve the accuracy and... in 21 CFR Parts 520 and 522 Animal drugs. Therefore, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...) * * * (c) [Reserved] (d) Conditions of use--(1) Dogs--(i) Amount. Administer 2 to 40 mg (up to 120 mg in...

  12. Ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium clonal complex 17 is widespread in healthy dogs: anthropozoonosis or zooanthroponosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Peter Panduro; Williams, Nicola J; Willems, Rob

    2008-01-01

    %) or rifampicin (56%) was frequent. Only few isolates were resistant to gentamicin (5%), linezolid (14%) and quinopristin/dalfopristin (15%) and all were susceptible to vancomycin. Conclusion: This is the first report describing the occurrence of AREfm CC17 in dogs. The results suggest that dogs may contribute...

  13. Outbreak of Ampicillin/Piperacillin-Resistant Klebsiella Pneumoniae in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU): Investigation and Control Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Fabbri, Giuliana; Panico, Manuela; Dallolio, Laura; Suzzi, Roberta; Ciccia, Matilde; Sandri, Fabrizio; Farruggia, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a frequent cause of infectious outbreaks in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). The aim of this paper is to describe an outbreak occurred in a 13-bed NICU and the control measures adopted in order to interrupt the chain of transmission. We described the microbiological investigations, the NICU staff compliance to the infection control measures by means of a specifically designed check-list and the control measures adopted. Six cases of primary bloodstream infection...

  14. Distribution of phylogroups and co-resistance to antimicrobial agents in ampicillin resistant Escherichia coli isolated from healthy humans and from patients with bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, A.; Hammerum, A. M.; Porsbo, Lone Jannok

    inhibitory concentration to antimicrobial agents and examined by PCR to determine their phylogroups. The phylotyping grouped the faecal samples into A (13%), B1 (10%), B2 (42%), D (19%), NT (16%) while the blood isolates grouped into A (16%), B1 (0%), B2 (48%), D (32%) and NT (3%). The frequency...... of resistance in faecal and blood isolates (F/B) was: tetracycline (48%/48%), gentamicin (0%/10%), ciprofloxacin (3%,13%), sulfonamide (68%/77%) and trimethoprim (39%/39%). Conclusion: B2 was the most prevalent phylogroup found both in faecal isolates collected from healthy humans and in blood isolates from...

  15. Drug: D02065 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02065 Mixture ... Drug Ampicillin sodium and sulbactam sodium for injection (JP17); Ampicillin sodium... - sulbactam sodium mixt; Unasyn-S (TN) Ampicillin sodium [DR:D02119], Sulbactam sodium [D

  16. 2018-04-28T16:45:29Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    article/49910 2018-04-28T16:45:29Z ijonas:ART Iodometric determination of ampicillin in proprietary capsules Ejele, A Anyanwu, N Anunuso, C Ampicillin, capsule formulation, iodometric titration, concentration. The concentration of ampicillin in ...

  17. A novel green synthesis and characterization of Ag NPs with its ultra-rapid catalytic reduction of methyl green dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junejo, Y.; Sirajuddin; Baykal, A.; Safdar, M.; Balouch, A.

    2014-01-01

    Ampicillin derived silver nanoparticles were synthesized in an aqueous medium. Particle size and shape were determined by Transmission electron microscopy which showed the monodispersed morphology. The Fourier transform infrared spectra were represented the interaction of Ampicillin with surface of Ampicillin derived silver nanoparticles. X-ray powder diffraction study gave crystalline nature of the Ampicillin derived silver nanoparticles which exhibited exceptional catalytic activity for the reduction of Methylene Green dye. However, complete reduction of dye was accomplished by Ampicillin derived silver nanoparticles within 4 min only. The catalytic performance of these nanoparticles was adsorbed on glass. They were recovered easily from reaction medium and reused with enhanced catalytic potential. Based upon these results it has been concluded that Ampicillin derived silver nanoparticles are novel, rapid and highly economical alternative for environmental safety against pollution by dyes and extendable for control of other reducible contaminants as well.

  18. Comparative study on aptamers as recognition elements for antibiotics in a label-free all-polymer biosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dapra, Johannes; Lauridsen, Lasse Holm; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard

    2013-01-01

    was covalently functionalized with two aptamer probes with affinity to ampicillin or kanamycin A, respectively. Using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) we were able to detect ampicillin in a concentration range from 100pM to 1 μM and kanamycin A from 10nM to 1mM. The obtained EIS spectra were fitted...

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Three In Vitro Techniques in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The study was designed to evaluate the consistency of interpretation of results of interaction between ampicillin and ciprofloxacin against S. aureus and E. coli using three in vitro techniques. Methods: The interaction between ampicillin and ciprofloxacin was studied using three in vitro methods- Checkerboard ...

  20. Genetic Transformation of Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Robert.

    1991-01-01

    An activity in which students transform an ampicillin-sensitive strain of E. coli with a plasmid containing a gene for ampicillin resistance is described. The procedure for the preparation of competent cells and the transformation of competent E. coli is provided. (KR)

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brown, SA. Vol 4, No 2 (2007) - Articles An in vitro evaluation of the combined antimicrobial activity of ampicillin and cloxacillin against ampicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus using checker board technique (CBT) Abstract · Vol 6, No 4 (2009) - Articles Computer - based modeling in extract sciences research -III.

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An in vitro evaluation of the combined antimicrobial activity of ampicillin and cloxacillin against ampicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus using checker board technique (CBT) Abstract · Vol 5, No 2 (2008) - Articles Natural heterocycles as antifertility agents. Abstract · Vol 6, No 3 (2009) - Articles Computer - based modeling ...

  3. [Bactericidal activity of serum and chemotherapy in sensitive and resistant exciter (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, H; Metz, H; Preac-Mursic, V

    1975-11-21

    Comparing examinations with Ampicillin sensitive and resistant bacteria-strains show that the bactericidal activity of serum is dependent on the bacteria-strains, on the Ampicillin sensitivity of the particular exciter and on the number of bacteria/ml (germ count). Bactericide effect could always be obtained with sensitive strains as a result of additional chemotherapy. With several resistant strains a bactericide effect could not be obtained in this case the continuous optimal Ampicillin addition was the decisive factor. Because of the extremely complicated process of the bactericide one should not make general conclusions from the individual experimental results.

  4. Evaluasi Sensitivitas Antibiotik dengan Demam Neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Hamid

    2016-11-01

    Kesimpulan. Bakteri Gram negatif merupakan penyebab utama demam neutropenia. Sensitivitas cefotaxime lebih rendah apabila dibandingkan dengan antibiotik yang lain. Cefpirome, cefepime dan ampicillin-sulbactam direkomendasikan untuk menggantikan cefotaxime sebagai obat yang dikombinasikan dengan gentamicin pada pengobatan demam neutropenia.

  5. Group B Streptococcal Colonization and Bacteremia in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Lembet

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We evaluated the effect of maternal administration of ampicillin/sulbactam on colonization and bacteremia in newborn rabbits after intracervical inoculation of mothers with group B streptococci (GBS.

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Neisseria gonorrhoeae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high levels of bacterial resistance against ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, penicillin and spectinomycin, should be taken into account in developing any new guidelines in the management of the infection. Keywords: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Female infertility Drug Resistance, Ciprofloxacin, Tetracycline, ...

  7. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns Of Salmonella Species In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % susceptible to cefepime and carbapenem, 91% to azithromycin, 82.1% to cefixime and 73% to quinolones. Also susceptibility to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, streptomycin, ampicillin, gentamicin, co-trimoxazole, augmentin and amikacin ...

  8. Organisms cultured and resistance patterns seen in a secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    21% for piperacillin-tazobactam, 2% for ertapenem and. 19% for meropenem). When looking at individual species, it was noted that K. pneumoniae had high resistance to ampicillin (97%), moderate resistance to co-amoxiclav and ciprofloxacin ...

  9. Characterisation of recently emerged multiple antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104 and other multiresistant phage types from Danish pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    1998-01-01

    A total of 670 isolates of Salmonella enterica were isolated from Danish pig herds, phage typed and tested for susceptibility to amoxycillin + clavulanate, ampicillin, colistin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, neomycin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim + sulphadiazine. S...

  10. A simple, low-cost and robust capillary zone electrophoresis Method with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection for the routine determination of four selected penicillins in Money-constrained laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, Prasanta; Sänger-van de Griend, Cari; Adams, Erwin; Van Schepdael, Ann

    2018-01-01

    A simple and robust capillary zone electrophoresis Method was developed and validated for the determination of amoxicillin and clavulanate, ampicillin, phenoxymethyl penicillin (Pen V) as well as flucloxacillin. Capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection was employed as detection Mode

  11. Apical pulmonary abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado Ferrer, Cesar A; Serrano Vasquez, Francisco O

    2004-01-01

    We presented the case of a 54 year-old man with bilateral apical pulmonary abscess who consults due to fever and bronchorrhoea, isolating moraxella catharralis that is managed with ampicillin-sulbactam with an adequate clinical and radiological evolution

  12. Anaerobic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a dental infection or procedure such as a tooth extraction or oral surgery or after trauma to the ... diagnosed, your doctor may treat it with intravenous antibiotics (eg, penicillin, ampicillin) for 4 to 6 weeks, ...

  13. Management of Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are a common occurrence in paediatrics. ... Ceftriaxone, ampicillin, cefotaxime and gentamycin are the recommended parenteral antibiotics, ... and/or oral medication) and hydration status (in the case of.

  14. 166 ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of Phyllanthus amarus extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae,. Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. These effects were compared with those of ampicillin, gentamicin and pefloxacin. Phytochemical analysis showed ...

  15. SPR based hybrid electro-optic biosensor for β-lactam antibiotics determination in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatus, Ramona; Feier, Bogdan; Cristea, Cecilia; Cennamo, Nunzio; Zeni, Luigi

    2017-09-01

    The present work aims to provide a hybrid platform capable of complementary and sensitive detection of β-lactam antibiotics, ampicillin in particular. The use of an aptamer specific to ampicillin assures good selectivity and sensitivity for the detection of ampicillin from different matrice. This new approach is dedicated for a portable, remote sensing platform based on low-cost, small size and low-power consumption solution. The simple experimental hybrid platform integrates the results from the D-shape surface plasmon resonance plastic optical fiber (SPR-POF) and from the electrochemical (bio)sensor, for the analysis of ampicillin, delivering sensitive and reliable results. The SPR-POF already used in many previous applications is embedded in a new experimental setup with fluorescent fibers emitters, for broadband wavelength analysis, low-power consumption and low-heating capabilities of the sensing platform.

  16. Ten years of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella from Danish pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2008-01-01

    to the following antimicrobials were determined: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, colistin, streptomycin, sulphonamide, tetracycline and trimethoprim. Results: No significant development of resistance occurred within the most important serovars, except Salmonella Typhimurium. A major...

  17. 62 original article in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility pattern

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    from nasal swabs of University students in Umuahia, were tested against 10 ... Resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, cloxacillin and tetracycline was 100% among ... Seven (23%) of these isolates were sensitive to Gentamicin and 6 (20%) to ...

  18. Do bacteria, not fish, produce 'fish kairomone'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringelberg, J.; Van Gool, E.

    1998-01-01

    Fish-associated chemicals enhance phototactic downward swimming in Daphnia. If perch were treated with the antibiotic ampicillin, this enhancement was significantly decreased. Therefore, not fish, but bacteria associated with fish, seem to produce this kairomone. [KEYWORDS: Diel vertical migration;

  19. Prognostic Factors and Clinical Features of Non-typhoid Salmonella Bacteremia in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Fong Yen

    2009-08-01

    Conclusion: S. enteritidis was the most frequently isolated serotype. High resistance rates of NTS to some readily available antimicrobials (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, TMP/SMX, fluoroquinolones were found. Patients with the factor of coma or inadequate antibiotic treatment had poor prognosis.

  20. Characterization of 3 Strains of Yersinia Pestis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kournikakis, B

    2000-01-01

    .... Antibiotic sensitivities showed that the 3 strains were sensitive to aminoglycosides, the cephalosporins/ cephams, most of the beta lactams/penicillins (e.g. ampicillin) and quinolones (e.g. ciprofloxacin...

  1. Quality control ranges for testing broth microdilution susceptibility of Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilum to nine antimicrobials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gieseker, Charles M.; Mayer, Tamara D.; Crosby, Tina C.

    2012-01-01

    salmonicida subsp. salmonicida ATCC 33658 against 10 antimicrobials (ampicillin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, flumequine, gentamicin, ormetoprim/sulfadimethoxine, oxolinic acid, oxytetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole) in diluted (4 g l−1) cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth incubated...

  2. Standardization of a broth microdilution susceptibility testing method to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations of aquatic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, R.A.; Walker, R.D.; Carson, J.

    2005-01-01

    (ampicillin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, flumequine, gentamicin, ormetoprim/sulfadimethoxine, oxolinic acid, oxytetracycline and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) QC ranges were determined using dry- and frozen-form 96-well plates and cation-adjusted Mueller...

  3. AEROBIC BACTERIAL ISOLATES FROM INFECTED WOUNDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    most frequently reported as the cause of delay wound healing (6-9, 3). ... All isolates were resistant to Ampicillin, Amoxicillin- clavulanate and .... Ulcer bed infection. Report of a case of enlarging venous leg ulcer colonized by ... Ann. Burns Fire.

  4. Antibacterial activities of the crude ethanol extracts of medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... extract. On the other hand, the antimicrobial activity was mainly a function of their chemical ... determine antibacterial properties of these plants extracts .... vancomycin (30 µg); PEN= penicillin G (10 unit); AMP = ampicillin (5.

  5. Study of antagonistic effects of Lactobacillus strains as probiotics on multi drug resistant (MDR bacteria isolated from urinary tract infections (UTIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiyeh Naderi

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Treatment of E. coli with probiotic suspension was not effective on inhibition of the plasmid carrying hypothetical ampicillin resistant gene. Moreover, the plasmid profiles obtained from probiotic-treated isolates were identical to untreated isolates.

  6. Tobramycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... WARNING section and any of the following: other antibiotics such as amoxicillin (Amoxil, Larotid, Moxatag, in Augmentin, in Prevpac), ampicillin, or penicillin; dimenhydrinate (Dramamine); meclizine (Bonine); or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as indomethacin (Indocin, Tivorbex). Your doctor ...

  7. Amikacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... WARNING section and any of the following: other antibiotics such as amoxicillin (Amoxil, Larotid, Moxatag, in Augmentin, in Prevpac), ampicillin, or penicillin; dimenhydrinate (Dramamine); meclizine (Bonine); or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as indomethacin (Indocin, Tivorbex). Your doctor ...

  8. Gentamicin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... WARNING section and any of the following: other antibiotics such as amoxicillin (Amoxil, Larotid, Moxatag, in Augmentin, in Prevpac), ampicillin, or penicillin; dimenhydrate (Dramamine); meclizine (Bonine); or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as indomethacin (Indocin, Tivorbex). Your doctor ...

  9. Comparison of the Etest and the routine multi-disc agar diffusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: On the Etest strips, Staph aureus was 83.5% sensitive to ciprofloxacin, 52.6% to gentamicin, 48.5% to ampicillin and 8.2% to chloramphenicol while on the multi-disc agar diffusion plates 80.4% of Staph aureus were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, 49.5% to gentamicin, 39.2% to ampicillin and 12.4% to chloramphenicol.

  10. Genotypic Characterization of Egypt Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Isolates Expressing Coli Surface Antigen 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    with either CS4 or CS5 (n = 10, 48%). SXT resistance was Table 2. Antibiotic resistance of CS6 isolates Ampicillin (AMP) Ampicillin...treatment of diarrhoea with antimicrobial agents is generally restricted to severe cases or the immunocompromised , at least one travel clinic has...A, Kirby WM, Sherris JC, Turck M (1966) Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. Am J Clin Pathol 45: 493-496. 26

  11. Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria Colonization of Healthy US Military Personnel in the US and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    Afghanistan. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of MDR-GNB across multiple anatomic sites in geographically distinct...Gentamicin Imipenem Levofloxacin Meropenem Moxifloxacin Nitrofurantoin Piperacillin- Tazobactam Tobramycin Trimethoprim - Sulfamethoxazole 6 US MDR S...susceptibilities to ampicillin (72% vs. 49%, pɘ.01), ampicillin-sulbactam (73% vs. 54%, pɘ.01), ciprofloxacin (97% vs. 88%, p=0.05), and trimethoprim

  12. Uji Kepekaan Bakteri Escherichia Coli Hasil Isolasi Dari Urin Pasien Rumah Sakit Dr. Sardjito Terhadap Antibiotik Golongan P-Laktam

    OpenAIRE

    Harnanik, Sri; Mulyaningsih, Sri; Triastuti, Asih

    2005-01-01

    Uncontrolled use of antibiotic caused the emergence of bacteria strain resistant toward of antibiotic. The sensitivity assay of E. coli toward p-lactam antibiotic has been done. The sensitivity assay was started with isolated bacteria from patients urine at Dr. Sardjito hospital followed by count total of colony/number of germ which growth and identified the bacteria. The Kirby Bauer method was performed. Antibiotic impregnated disk (ampicillin 30 ng, sulbactam/ampicillin 20 ng, cefotaxim 30 ...

  13. Uji Kepekaan Bakteri Escherichia Coli Hasil Isolasi Dari Urin Pasien Rumah Sakit Dr. Sardjito Terhadap Antibiotik Golongan -Laktam

    OpenAIRE

    harnanik, Sri; Mulyaningsih, Sri; Triastuti, Asih

    2005-01-01

    Uncontrolled use of antibiotic caused the emergence of bacteria strain resistant toward of antibiotic. The sensitivity assay of E. coli toward -lactam antibiotic has been done. The sensitivity assay was started with isolated bacteria from patients urine at Dr. Sardjito hospital followed by count total of colony/number of germ which growth and identified the bacteria. The Kirby Bauer method was performed. Antibiotic impregnated disk (ampicillin 30 g, sulbactam/ampicillin 20 g, cefotaxim 30 ...

  14. Neonatal Escherichia coli Bloodstream Infections: Clinical Outcomes and Impact of Initial Antibiotic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, Stephen P; Thaden, Joshua T; Ericson, Jessica E; Cross, Heather; Messina, Julia; Clark, Reese H; Fowler, Vance G; Benjamin, Daniel K; Hornik, Christoph P; Smith, P Brian

    2015-09-01

    Escherichia coli is a common cause of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in infants and is associated with high mortality and morbidity among survivors. The clinical significance of antibiotic resistance and timing of appropriate antimicrobial therapy in this population is poorly understood. We identified all infants with E. coli BSIs discharged from 77 neonatal intensive care units managed by the Pediatrix Medical Group in 2012. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the association between 30-day mortality and ampicillin-resistant E. coli BSI, as well as the number of active empiric antimicrobial agents administered, controlling for gestational age, small-for-gestational age status, early-onset versus late-onset BSI, oxygen requirement, ventilator support and inotropic support on the day of the first positive blood culture. We identified 258 episodes of E. coli BSI, including 123 (48%) ampicillin-resistant isolates. Unadjusted 30-day mortality did not significantly differ between infants with ampicillin-resistant versus ampicillin-susceptible E. coli BSI [11 of 123 (9%) vs. 7 of 135 (5%); P = 0.33; adjusted odds ratio = 1.37 (95% confidence interval: 0.39, 4.77)]. Among ampicillin-resistant E. coli BSIs, 30-day mortality was not significantly lower for infants treated with at least one empiric antimicrobial active against ampicillin-resistant E. coli versus infants receiving no active empiric agent [adjusted odds ratio = 1.50 (0.07, 33.6)]. In this population of infants with E. coli BSI, ampicillin resistance was not associated with significantly increased mortality. Among the subset of infants with ampicillin-resistant E. coli, appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy was not associated with lower mortality.

  15. Multidrug Resistance in Infants and Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Pacifici

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections may cause disease and death. Infants and children are often subject to bacterial infections. Antimicrobials kill bacteria protecting the infected patients andreducing the risk of morbidity and mortality caused by bacteria. The antibiotics may lose their antibacterial activity when they become resistant to a bacteria. The resistance to different antibiotics in a bacteria is named multidrug-resistance. Gram-negative bacilli, especially Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, and Haemophilus influenzae type b, may become resistant. Amikacin ampicillin, amoxicillin, amoxiclav, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefoperazone tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin may cause bacterial-resistance. Resistance to bacteria for several pathogens makes complications in the treatment of infections caused by them. Salmonella strains may become resistant to ampicillin, cephalotin, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, amikacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. Shigella strains may become resistant to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin. Multidrug-resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae may be due to β-lactams, macrolides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Multidrug-resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa may become resistant to β-lactams, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. The antibacterial activity against Haemophilus strains may occur with ampicillin, sulbactam-ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin. Multidrug-resistance of the Klebsiella species may be due with ampicillin, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, co-amxilav, mezlocillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and ceftazidime. Multidrug-resistance of Escherichia coli may be caused by ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, and ceftazidime. Vibrio

  16. Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Muenchen from Pigs and Humans and Potential Interserovar Transfer of Antimicrobial Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Thakur, Siddhartha

    2005-01-01

    Salmonella serovars are important reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance. Recently, we reported on multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains among pigs with resistance to ampicillin, kanamycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (resistance [R] type AKSSuT) and resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (R type AxACSSuT). In the present study, 67 isolates (39 from humans...

  17. ORF Alignment: NC_003384 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [Zymomonas mobilis] gb|AAQ67239.1| ... Bla [Transposon delivery vector pUT-miniTn5-gfp-tet] ... ... ... 3.5.2.6) precursor - Escherichia coli plasmids ... gb|AAC79082.1| beta lactamase [Transposon delivery...AG47772.1| beta-lactamase ... TEM-1 [Klebsiella pneumoniae] gb|AAG37887.1| ampicillin ... resistance [Tn10 delivery... vector pHV1249] gb|AAG37882.1| ... ampicillin resistance [Tn10 delivery

  18. Antibacterial compounds of Canadian honeys target bacterial cell wall inducing phenotype changes, growth inhibition and cell lysis that resemble action of β-lactam antibiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Brudzynski

    Full Text Available Honeys show a desirable broad spectrum activity against Gram-positive and negative bacteria making antibacterial activity an intrinsic property of honey and a desirable source for new drug development. The cellular targets and underlying mechanism of action of honey antibacterial compounds remain largely unknown. To facilitate the target discovery, we employed a method of phenotypic profiling by directly comparing morphological changes in Escherichia coli induced by honeys to that of ampicillin, the cell wall-active β-lactam of known mechanism of action. Firstly, we demonstrated the purity of tested honeys from potential β-lactam contaminations using quantitative LC-ESI-MS. Exposure of log-phase E. coli to honey or ampicillin resulted in time- and concentration-dependent changes in bacterial cell shape with the appearance of filamentous phenotypes at sub-inhibitory concentrations and spheroplasts at the MBC. Cell wall destruction by both agents, clearly visible on microscopic micrographs, was accompanied by increased permeability of the lipopolysaccharide outer membrane as indicated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. More than 90% E. coli exposed to honey or ampicillin became permeable to propidium iodide. Consistently with the FACS results, both honey-treated and ampicillin-treated E. coli cells released lipopolysaccharide endotoxins at comparable levels, which were significantly higher than controls (p<0.0001. E. coli cells transformed with the ampicillin-resistance gene (β-lactamase remained sensitive to honey, displayed the same level of cytotoxicity, cell shape changes and endotoxin release as ampicillin-sensitive cells. As expected, β-lactamase protected the host cell from antibacterial action of ampicillin. Thus, both honey and ampicillin induced similar structural changes to the cell wall and LPS and that this ability underlies antibacterial activities of both agents. Since the cell wall is critical for cell growth and

  19. [Comparison of techniques for coliform bacteria extraction from sediment of Xochimilco Lake, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rendón, Carlos L; Barrera-Escorcia, Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    The need to separate bacteria from sediment in order to appropriately count them has led to test the efficacy of different techniques. In this research, traditional techniques such as manual shaking, homogenization, ultrasonication, and surfactant are compared. Moreover, the possibility of using a set of enzymes (pancreatine) and an antibiotic (ampicillin) for sediment coliform extraction is proposed. Samples were obtained from Xochimilco Lake in Mexico City. The most probable number of coliform bacteria was determined after applying the appropriate separation procedure. Most of the techniques tested led to numbers similar to those of the control (manual shaking). Only with the use of ampicillin, a greater total coliform concentration was observed (Mann-Whitney, z = 2.09; p = 0.03). It is possible to propose the use of ampicillin as a technique for total coliform extraction; however, it is necessary to consider sensitivity of bacteria to the antibiotic.

  20. Simple molecular model for the binding of antibiotic molecules to bacterial ion channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafé, Salvador; Ramírez, Patricio; Alcaraz, Antonio

    2003-10-01

    A molecular model aimed at explaining recent experimental data by Nestorovich et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 9789 (2002)] on the interaction of ampicillin molecules with the constriction zone in a channel of the general bacterial porin, OmpF (outer membrane protein F), is presented. The model extends T. L. Hill's theory for intermolecular interactions in a pair of binding sites [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 78, 3330 (1956)] by incorporating two binding ions and two pairs of interacting sites. The results provide new physical insights on the role of the complementary pattern of the charge distributions in the ampicillin molecule and the narrowest part of the channel pore. Charge matching of interacting sites facilitates drug binding. The dependence of the number of ampicillin binding events per second with the solution pH and salt concentration is explained qualitatively using a reduced number of fundamental concepts.

  1. The effects of tertiary wastewater treatment on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, L.; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Dalsgaard, A.

    2002-01-01

    and anaerobically digested sludge by bacteriological counts on media selective for coliforms (MacConkey agar) and Acinetobacter spp. (Baumann agar). In addition, the level of antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disc-diffusion method in 442 Acinetobacter isolates identified by colony hybridisation......-resistant presumptive coliforms and Acinetobacter spp. in treated sewage and digested sludge were not significantly higher compared with raw sewage. On the contrary at one plant, statistically significant decreases were observed in the prevalence of ampicillin-resistant presumptive Acinetobacter spp. (p = 0.......0188) following sewage treatment, and in the prevalence of either ampicillin-resistant presumptive Acinetobacter spp. (p = 0.0013) or ampicillin- and gentamicin-resistant presumptive coliforms (p = 0.0273 and p = 0.0186) following sludge treatment. The results obtained by bacteriological counts were confirmed...

  2. CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PATTERN OF PATHOGENS IN PEDIATRIC URINARY TRACT INFECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amornchaicharoensuk, Yupaporn

    2016-09-01

    Medical records of children less than 15-years of age admitted to hospital for urinary tract infection (UTI) from January 2010 to December 2014 were reviewed. Among 100 children (59% males and 41% females) with upper UTI, the most common pathogen (88%) was Escherichia coli, of which 69% were nonextended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and 19 % ESBL producers. Resistance to ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was 90% and 60%, respectively. All ESBL-producing E. coli were resistant to ampicillin and third generation cephalosporins (cefotaxime and ceftriaxone), while 87% and 1.5% of non ESBL-producing E. coli were resistant to ampicillin and the two third generation cephalosporins, respectively. These data highlight the high prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in pediatric UTI and the potential problem in treating such infections.

  3. In vitro interaction between Agrimonia eupatoria L.: Extracts and antibiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muruzović Mirjana Ž.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Synergistic activity between water, acetone, ethanol and diethyl ether extract of Agrimonia eupatoria L. and commonly used antibiotic (ampicillin were evaluated. Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used. Interaction between plant extracts and antibiotic were tested by checkerboard method and expressed as fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC index showed indifferent, additive and synergistic effects. Synergism was observed against E. coli for every combination of agents. FICI values were ranged from 0.03 to 0.29. Inhibitory concentration (IC50 was evaluated for every combination of tested extracts and antibiotic and the best combinations for every tested bacteria were combination of diethyl ether extract + ampicillin and combination of acetone extract + ampicillin.

  4. Risk of resistance related to antibiotic use before admission in patients with community-acquired bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gitte; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Steffensen, Flemming Hald

    1999-01-01

    %), Streptococcus pneumoniae (23%) Staphylococcus aureus (10%). Of the 575 isolates of E. coli, 425 (74%), 432 (75%) and 518 (90%) were susceptible to ampicillin, sulphonamides and trimethoprim, respectively. Previous antibiotic prescriptions were strongly associated with resistance to ampicillin, sulphonamides...... and trimethoprim in E. coli. The association was less pronounced for S. aureus and enteric rods other than E. coli. Antibiotic prescriptions within the last 3 months predicted antibiotic resistance, and this should be taken into account when selecting empirical antibiotic therapy of severe community...... admission and to 37% during the 6 months. The most frequently prescribed antibiotics within 30 days were ampicillin (28%), penicillin G (27%), sulphonamides and/or trimethoprim (16%) and macrolides (14%). The most frequent blood isolates were Escherichia coli (33%), other Enterobacteriaceae 8...

  5. Zero-magnetic field effect in pathogen bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creanga, D.E. E-mail: Dorina.Creanga@email.romdor@uaic.ro; Poiata, A.; Morariu, V.V. E-mail: vvm@140.itim-cj.ro; Tupu, P

    2004-05-01

    Two lots of Gram-negative bacterial strains were tested for antibiotic drug resistance after exposure to zero-magnetic field. We found that the magneto-sensitive strains represent half of the analyzed samples (three Pseudomonas and five Enterobacter strains), some of them presenting two-three times modified resistance to antibiotic, while others revealed eight or 16 times changed resistance. Pseudomonas strain magnetic sensitivity is revealed better by ampicillin and tetracycline, while Enterobacter strain magnetic sensitivity is revealed better by ampicillin, kanamycin and ofloxacin.

  6. Zero-magnetic field effect in pathogen bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creanga, D.E.; Poiata, A.; Morariu, V.V.; Tupu, P.

    2004-01-01

    Two lots of Gram-negative bacterial strains were tested for antibiotic drug resistance after exposure to zero-magnetic field. We found that the magneto-sensitive strains represent half of the analyzed samples (three Pseudomonas and five Enterobacter strains), some of them presenting two-three times modified resistance to antibiotic, while others revealed eight or 16 times changed resistance. Pseudomonas strain magnetic sensitivity is revealed better by ampicillin and tetracycline, while Enterobacter strain magnetic sensitivity is revealed better by ampicillin, kanamycin and ofloxacin

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus saprophyticus and urethral staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrie, T J; Kwan, C

    1982-01-01

    The activity of eight antimicrobial agents was determined against 115 isolates of Staphylococcus saprophyticus. All were susceptible to ampicillin, cephalexin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and resistant to nalidixic acid and novobiocin. A bimodal pattern of susceptibility to erythromycin was observed: 80% were inhibited by 0.25 microgram/ml, whereas 13% required greater than or equal to 128 micrograms/ml. The following urethral staphylococci were susceptible to ampicillin, cephalexin, and nitrofurantoin but resistant to nalidixic acid: S. epidermidis, S. hominis, S. haemolyticus, S. warneri, S. simulans, and S. cohnii. PMID:6982679

  8. Treatment for infections complications of experimental acute radiation sickness with sulacillin, a combined antibiotic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertkov, K.S.; Revskaya, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    The therapeutic efficiency of sulacillin (combination of ampicillin antibiotic with beta-lactamase sulbactam inhibitor) used for prevention and treatment of infections complications of the acute radiation disease (ARD) is considered. It is shown that sulacillin antiinfections effect essentially exceeds the activity of ampicillin by treatment of irradiated mice infected with a beta-lactamase-producing strain of Kl pneumoniae. Inclusion of the sulacillin as a principal antibiotic into the ARD therapeutic scheme provides for the 66.6 % survival of dogs at LD 90/45 [ru

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility and serotypes of Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae recovered from Missouri swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fales, W H; Morehouse, L G; Mittal, K R; Bean-Knudsen, C; Nelson, S L; Kintner, L D; Turk, J R; Turk, M A; Brown, T P; Shaw, D P

    1989-01-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility of 73 Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae isolates from swine in Missouri was determined with a microdilution minimal inhibitory concentration test system. Serotyping was accomplished by means of co-agglutination. Serotype 1 (39/73) and serotype 5 (30/73) were commonly found, whereas serotype 7 (4/73) was infrequently encountered. Most isolates (MIC90) were found susceptible to ampicillin (amoxicillin), cephalothin, penicillin, erythromycin, gentamicin, and kanamycin. Marked resistance was found with oxytetracycline, tylosin, and sulfadimethoxine. The data indicate that use of ampicillin (amoxicillin) or penicillin may correlate well with the favorable outcome of treatment.

  10. Haemophilus segnis endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Tvede, M; Skinhøj, P

    1988-01-01

    Haemophilus segnis is a rarely recognised commensal in the oropharynx. We wish to report the first published case of endocarditis caused by H. segnis. The patient, a 76-year-old female did not recover until after 2 courses of ampicillin given for a total of 57 days. In the second course of treatm......Haemophilus segnis is a rarely recognised commensal in the oropharynx. We wish to report the first published case of endocarditis caused by H. segnis. The patient, a 76-year-old female did not recover until after 2 courses of ampicillin given for a total of 57 days. In the second course...

  11. Neonatal bloodstream infections in a Ghanaian Tertiary Hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labi, Appiah-Korang; Obeng-Nkrumah, Noah; Bjerrrum, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    submitted to the microbiology department of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital was conducted from January 2010 through December 2013. We assessed the prevalence of bacteria and fungi involved in BSI and the susceptibility coverage of recommended empiric antibiotics by Ghana Standard Treatment guidelines...... and the WHO recommendations for managing neonatal sepsis. The national and WHO treatment guidelines recommend either ampicillin plus gentamicin or ampicillin plus cefotaxime for empiric treatment of neonatal BSI. The WHO recommendations also include cloxacillin plus gentamicin. We described the resistance...

  12. UJI KEPEKAAN BAKTERI Escherichia coli HASIL ISOLASI DARI URIN PASIEN RUMAH SAKIT Dr. Sardjito TERHADAP ANTIBIOTIK GOLONGAN -LAKTAM

    OpenAIRE

    harnanik, Sri; Mulyaningsih, Sri; Triastuti, Asih

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACTUncontrolled use of antibiotic caused the emergence of bacteria strain resistant toward of antibiotic. The sensitivity assay of E. coli toward -lactam antibiotic has been done. The sensitivity assay was started with isolated bacteria from patients urine at Dr. Sardjito hospital followed by count total of colony/number of germ which growth and identified the bacteria. The Kirby Bauer method was performed. Antibiotic impregnated disk (ampicillin 30 g, sulbactam/ampicillin 20 g, cefot...

  13. Temperature sensitivity of the penicillin-induced autolysis mechanism in nongrowing cultures of Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Kusser, W; Ishiguro, E E

    1987-01-01

    The effect of incubation temperature on the ampicillin-induced autolysis of nongrowing Escherichia coli was determined. The autolysis mechanisms in amino acid-deprived relA mutant cells treated with chloramphenicol were temperature sensitive. This temperature-sensitive autolysis was demonstrated in three independent ways: turbidimetric determinations, viable cell counts, and solubilization of radiolabeled peptidoglycan.

  14. Antibiotikavalg ved purulent meningitis uden bakteriologisk diagnose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, H B

    1989-01-01

    A case of meningitis in a 16 month old boy caused by Hemophilus influenzae resistant to ampicillin is presented. The question is raised whether a third generation cephalosporin such as cefotaxime should be the drug of choice in the treatment of bacterial meningitis with unknown etiology...

  15. High-density fecal Enterococcus faecium colonization in hospitalized patients is associated with the presence of the polyclonal subcluster CC17

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Garbajosa, P.; de Regt, M.; Bonten, M.; Baquero, F.; Coque, T. M.; Canton, R.; Harmsen, H. J. M.; Willems, Rob J. L.

    Enterococcus faecium belonging to the polyclonal subcluster CC17, with a typical ampicillin-resistant E. faecium (AREfm) phenotype, have become prevalent among nosocomial infections around the world. High-density intestinal AREfm colonization could be one of the factors contributing to the

  16. 1865-IJBCS-Article -Caroline Nywira

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    should be no tolerable limit for pathogens in the water intended for ... limits the number of effective drugs available and a good example is ..... antimicrobial susceptibility test, Salmonella isolates were highly resistant to ampicillin and Kanamycin with 100% of the isolates showing resistance. (Table 3). Similar findings were ...

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zaria with urethritis and cervicitis were screened for their susceptibility pattems against eight antibiotics, using the agar diffusion plate method. Antibiotic susceptibility testing. Pure Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates were screened against eight antibiotics made up of: penicillin G. (2.4meg), ampicillin (10 meg), tetracycline (10.

  18. Deciphering the bacterial microbiome of citrus plants in response to ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’-infection and antibiotic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), the most devastating citrus disease worldwide, is vectored by phloem-feeding insects, and the pathogen in the USA is Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las). The bacterial microbiome of citrus after Las-infection and treatments with ampicillin (Amp) and gentamicin (Gm) was chara...

  19. Vom work Book Journal, 2011 2nd Edition Victor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    SUMMARY. Various anaesthetic agents have been used to relieve pain during surgical procedures and are normally followed by antibiotic cover to guard against secondary bacterial infection. This study was aimed at determining the effect of thiopentone anaesthesia on plasma disposition of ampicillin sodium in rabbits.

  20. Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Urinary Tract Pathogens in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    Antimicrobial drugs such as tetracycline, sulphonamides and ampicillin which are often used in the treatment of disorders such as gastrointestinal, wound and minor respiratory infections are also the most commonly used drugs in the treatment of urinary infections. Bacteria generally implicated in. UTI commonly originate in ...

  1. Production of amylase enzyme from mangrove fungal isolates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    2014-11-12

    Nov 12, 2014 ... Article Number: E08AE0648573. ISSN 1684-5315 ... spread plate method with the addition of 100 mg/L of ampicillin to avoid unwanted growth .... Sequence similarity search was made for the 18S rDNA sequence of the fungal ...

  2. Antimicrobial resistance profile of Enterococcus spp isolated from food in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboldi, Gustavo Pelicioli; Frazzon, Jeverson; d’Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-six Enterococcus spp. strains were isolated from foods in Southern Brazil, confirmed by PCR and classified as Enterococcus faecalis (27), Enterococcus faecium (23) and Enterococcus spp (6). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed resistance phenotypes to a range of antibiotics widely administrated in humans such as gentamycin, streptomycin, ampicillin and vancomycin. PMID:24031330

  3. Occurrence of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli from wastewater in the United States: A retrospective analysis of isolates from 2005 (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. coli isolates from primary and secondary effluents collected from seven WWTPs between 2003 and 2004 were recovered and then screened using one of four antibiotics (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim). We now report on the testing of a sub...

  4. Occurrence of Carbapenem-Resistant Escherichia Coli from Wastewater in the United States: a Retrospective Analysis of Isolates from 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. coli isolates from primary and secondary effluents collected from seven WWTPs between 2003 and 2004 were recovered and then screened using one of four antibiotics (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim). We now report on the testing of a sub...

  5. Perceived Barriers and Opportunities to the Linkage of Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown User

    treatment for many urinary tract infections, antibiotic-resistant strains of bacterial species commonly ... isolates were resistant to aminopenicillins (ampicillin and amoxicillin) and to trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole ...... study was an indication that carbapenems resistance is yet to be fully established in species of the family of ...

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of selected bacteraemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extended-spectrum 13-lactamase (ESBL) production was determined in selected species of Enterobacteriaceae irrespective of source. Results. The overall prevalence of ampicillin resistance in blood culture isolates of E. coli (N = 471) was 84%, and 20% were resistant to the fluoroquinolones. Considerable geographical ...

  7. Sero-epidemiological evaluation of clonal diversity and antimicrobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing further stratified the W135 isolates as members of the ET-37 complex. Five (15.2%), 6 (18.2%) and 7 (21.2%) of the 33 culture–positive isolates displayed resistance to ampicillin and chlorampehnicol and intermediate resistance to penicillin. Resistance pattern characterization ...

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus hyicus Isolated from exudative epidermitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Watts, J.L.; Salmon, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    for their activities against 100 S. hyicus strains isolated from pigs with exudative epidermitis. Novobiocin was the most active compound tested, with an MIC for 90% of the strains tested (MIC(90)) of less than or equal to 0.06 mu g/ml. Enrofloxacin, ampicillin, and ceftiofur were the next most active compounds...

  9. Serological characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis isolates from diagnostic samples in Denmark during 1995 and 1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind; Jensen, N. E.

    1998-01-01

    , ampicillin, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, penicillin, spectinomycin, tiamulin and trimethoprim + sulphadiazine. A high frequency (> 30%) of resistance to tetracydine was observed. Among isolates of serotype 2, 9.7% were resistant to lincomycin and 12.9% to spiramycin. Among other serotypes 56.5% were resistant...

  10. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJP

    2015-03-17

    Mar 17, 2015 ... antibiotics is high such that ampicillin is no longer recommended as an empiric treatment. Ciprofloxacin ... contaminated food and water.[1,2,4,5] .... and death. It also shortens the duration of symptoms and course of illness. Antibiotics also speed up the elimination of shigella from the body.[21]. The choice of ...

  11. Subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics affect stress and virulence gene expression in Listeria monocytogenes and cause enhanced stress sensitivity but do not affect Caco‐2 cell invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gitte Maegaard; Holch, Anne; Gram, Lone

    2012-01-01

    with promoter fusions, 14 of 16 antibiotics induced or repressed expression of one or more stress and/or virulence genes. Despite ampicillin‐induced up‐regulation of PinlA‐lacZ expression, Caco‐2 cell invasion was not affected. Subinhibitory concentrations of ampicillin and tetracycline caused up‐ and down...

  12. Elimination of high-refined-sugar diet as treatment strategy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the potency of ampicillin in altering gut flora in the presence of a high-sucrose diet in rat pups, and to determine its effect on selected neurotransmitters and a cytokine as markers of the persistent autistic features repeatedly induced in orally administered propionic acid rat pups.. Methods: ...

  13. Surveillance for vancomycin resistant enterococci in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three were resistant to Ampicillin and nine to Ciprofloxacin but all were susceptible to Linezolid. High-level resistance to Gentamicin was found in four VRE isolates. Conclusion: There is a low prevalence of VRE in Lagos University Teaching Hospital which may be spreading among patients in affected wards. Keywords: ...

  14. 154 ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    teicoplanin, gentamicin, streptomycin, linezolid, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, doxycycline, nitrofurantoin, erythromycin and rifampin. More than 50% of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin, rifampin and doxycycline. E-test. M.I.C confirmed 12 out of 34 strains to be intermediately resistant to vancomycin.

  15. Carriage, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and genetic diversity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All isolates were susceptible to nitrofurantoin and linezolid and resistant in high numbers (194, 81.9%) to ampicillin. Resistances to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole were below 20%. The overall prevalence of MRSA among ...

  16. Group B streptococcal carriage, antimicrobial susceptibility, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    None of the carriers had rectal colonization alone. All isolates (100%) were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefepime, vancomycin, and linezolid. On the other hand, 43.4%, 28.3%, 22.6%, and 15% of isolates were resistant to levofloxacin, azithromycin, erythromycin, and clindamycin respectively.

  17. 21 CFR 520.1130 - Hetacillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... ampicillin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000010 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in dogs and cats—(1) Amount—(i) Dogs. Administer 5 mg per pound (/lb) of body weight orally, twice daily. In severe...

  18. Antifungal and antibacterial effects of some acrocarpic mosses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the number of microorganism affected. Tortella tortuosa (Hedw.) Limpr. only has effect on Candida albicans ATCC 16231 strain. All the results were compared with standard antibiotic discs, ketoconazole (50 ìg), ampicillin (10 ìg), eritromycin (15 ìg) and vancomycin (30 ìg). Key words: Moss, acrocarpous, antimicrobial ...

  19. Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research 29 Vol. 15, 2010 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp

    Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research. 29. Vol. 15, 2010. Antibacterial & Antifungal Studies On Some Coordination Compound Of Metals. With Ampicillin. Pranay Guru. Department of Engineering Chemistry, People's College of Research & Technology, Bhopal. (M. P.) India, email:pranayguru@rediffmail.com. ABSTRACT.

  20. The amino-terminal domain of human signal transducers and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    transferase (GST) moiety was cloned into the expression vector pGEX-2T ... containing 100 µg/ml of ampicillin to mid log phase as indicated by the .... equipped with pulsed field gradients. ... ferent algorithms like hidden Markov model (HMM).

  1. [Bacteremia associated with mycotic aneurysm of the transversal aortic arch and myocarditis caused by Salmonella enteritidis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, L; Mesa, E; Rodríguez, J E; Sánchez, M P; Ugarte, J; Algora Weber, A; Dámaso, D; Daza, R M; Mendaza, P

    1989-02-01

    A 60-year-old male with diabetes mellitus had Salmonella enteritidis bacteremia associated with mycotic aneurysm of the transverse aortic arc and myocarditis. Antibiotic therapy with ampicillin and chloramphenicol was ineffective despite the fact that the microorganism was sensitive in vitro to those antimicrobials, and the patient had a progressive clinical deterioration which culminated in death.

  2. The use of near infrared spectroscopy in the quality control laboratory of the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plugge, W; van der Vlies, C

    1992-01-01

    The suitability of NIR spectroscopy as an alternative to several compendial test methods is discussed. Using ampicillin trihydrate as an example it is demonstrated that eight quality criteria are controlled by recording the NIR spectrum of a batch sample and calculating its Conformity Index.

  3. Antibiotic resistant enterococci—Tales of a drug resistance gene trafficker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Guido; Coque, Teresa M.; Franz, Charles M.A.P.

    2013-01-01

    Enterococci have been recognized as important hospital-acquired pathogens in recent years, and isolates of E. faecalis and E. faecium are the third- to fourth-most prevalent nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Acquired resistances, especially against penicilin/ampicillin, aminoglycosides (high-level) ...

  4. 12038_2016_9643_Article_print 577..588

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-10-14

    Oct 14, 2016 ... evaluated by half-life, ΔG inactivation (ΔGi) and structural studies (fluorescence and far-UV CD analysis). Data analysis ... naturally decreases with temperature increase, and therefore, ... 2.1 Chemicals, bacterial strains, plasmids and media ... ampicillin; then 1 mL of each culture and 1 mM ZnCl2 (to.

  5. Epidemic shigella dysentery in children in northern KwaZulu-Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sex, clinical features, complications and outcome. Results. Between February and December 1995, 158 cases of bloody diarrhoea were admitted, compared with. 6 the previous year. Shigella dysenteriae type I, resistant to ampicillin, tetraCYCline, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole, but susceptible to ...

  6. Annual Surveillance Summary: Escherichia coli (E. coli) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Inpatient Data Record (SIDR) to determine healthcare-associated exposures, Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) rosters to determine burden among...Department of Defense (DOD) active duty (AD) service members, and the DMDC Contingency Tracking System (CTS) to determine Department of the Navy (DON...antibiotics included amoxicillin/clavulanate, ampicillin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim /sulfamethoxazole. Table 5. Antibiogram of Escherichia

  7. R-plasmic transfer from Serratia liquefaciens to Escherichia coli in vitro and in vivo in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice associated with human fecal flora.

    OpenAIRE

    Duval-Iflah, Y; Raibaud, P; Tancrede, C; Rousseau, M

    1980-01-01

    It was shown that a strain of Serratia liquefaciens harbors a conjugative R-plasmid responsible for reistance to the following 14 antibiotics: ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, butirosin, neomycin, paramomycin, kanamycin, lividomycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, sulfonamide, and chloramphenicol, which belong to five families, the beta-lactamines, the aminoglycosides, the tetracyclines, the sulfonamides, and the phenicols. Resistance to th 14 antibiotics was cotra...

  8. Metabolic complications in the small intestine syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Rafael; Orozco, Reynaldo

    2000-01-01

    Metabolic complications in the syndrome of small intestine is presented in a patient of masculine sex, 27 years old, who consulted for a square of inflammation gingival, migraine, fever, anorexia and adinamia for three days, followed by maculopapular-eritematose eruption for 8 days, coincident with the ampicillin ingestion, and later on severe abdominal pain and diarrhea

  9. Functional analysis of a gene encoding homoserine kinase from rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    1Faculty of Biotechnology, Jeju National University, Jeju, 690-756, Korea. 2Department of Agronomy, Hajee .... was purified from a pellet harvested from a liquid culture containing ampicillin (Amp), the ORF of OsHSK was .... and genomic approches to improve the value of plant foods and feeds. Critical Rev. Plant Sci.

  10. The precision and robustness of published protocols for disc diffusion assays of antimicrobial agent susceptibility: an inter-laboratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabhainn, S.N.; Bergh, Ø.; Dixon, B.

    2004-01-01

    for each agent being 11.1%. Significant influences on zone size were detected for all three parameters of the protocol. Media source effects were particularly notable with respect to oxytetracycline and oxolinic acid discs, disc source effects with respect to ampicillin and sulphamethoxazole...

  11. Epidemiological cut-off values for Flavobacterium psychrophilum MIC data generated by a standard test protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, P.; Endris, R.; Kronvall, G.

    2016-01-01

    -1 for florfenicol, ≤0.025 mg L-1 for oxolinic acid (OXO), ≤0.125 mg L-1 for oxytetracycline and ≤20 (1/19) mg L-1 for trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. For ampicillin and amoxicillin, the majority of putative wild-type observations were 'off scale', and therefore, statistically valid cut-off values...

  12. Elimination of high-refined-sugar diet as treatment strategy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3Autism Research and Treatment Center, 4Shaik Al-Amodi Autism Research Chair, ... Purpose: To investigate the potency of ampicillin in altering gut flora in the ... rat pups (norepinephrine by 32.49 and 14.58 %, dopamine by 31.45 and.

  13. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of sulfonamide derivatives at C-8 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    showed higher antibacterial activity compared with standard drug ampicillin. Keywords. Synthesis ... factor-kB regulated gene products leading to potenti- ation of ... constituent of CNSL natural source to evaluate their biological activity by ... Analytical thin layer ..... cially available CNSL by a reported method.26 Accord-.

  14. Biochemical characterization of a cefotaxime- hydrolysing β ... - AJOL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... in 2005, the Enterobacter cloacae BW 1150 strain was isolated from a stool culture. This strain was ... concentrations values showed that this strain was resistant to the β-lactams such as ampicillin and the extended ..... Outbreak of Infection Caused by Enterobacter cloacae Producing the. Novel VEB-3 ...

  15. Shigella Vulvovaginitis in Childhood: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Solomon; Narayanaswamy, Geetha; Laude, Teresita Awa

    1979-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis due to Shigella sonnei is reported in a four-year-old child. Shigella sonnei as a rare primary pathogen causing vulvovaginitis, the prolonged nature of the clinical course, and the therapeutic implications of increasing resistance to ampicillin by the organism are discussed. PMID:395325

  16. Bacteriological quality of some pharmaceutical products marketed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriological quality of some pharmaceutical products purchased from open markets, buses and drug stores in Uyo metropolis was studied in order to determine the level of contamination of the drugs. The drug samples examined were Tetracycline capsules, Paracetamol tablets, Ampicillin capsules, Chloroquine tablets, ...

  17. A prospective study on Aeromonas in outpatients with diarrhea in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline de Campos Prediger

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas spp. were identified in five (2,7% of 182 diarrheal stool cultures, A. caviae was predominant, resistant mainly to ampicillin and cephalotin. This is the first study showing the presence of Aeromonas spp. in diarrheal stools of outpatients in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

  18. To tilfaelde af neonatal meningitis efter indførelse af nyt gentamicinregime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Anne Sofie; Fenger-Grøn, Jesper; Møller, Jens Kjølseth

    2016-01-01

    , but both deteriorated again before the second dose. In both infants ampicillin-resistant but gentamicin-sensitive Escherichia coli was found. In one of the infants a resistant/less sensitive E. coli strain was also found in the cerebrospinal fluid. The rationale for the new dosing guidelines is discussed....

  19. Subinhibitory concentrations of cell wall synthesis inhibitors promote biofilm formation of Enterococcus faecalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen; Hallinen, Kelsey; Wood, Kevin

    Enterococcus faecalis are commonly associated with hospital acquired infections, because they readily form biofilms on instruments and medical devices. Biofilms are inherently more resistant to killing by antibiotics compared to planktonic bacteria, in part because of their heterogeneous spatial structure. Surprisingly, however, subminimal inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of some antibiotics can actually promote biofilm formation. Unfortunately, much is still unknown about how low drug doses affect the composition and spatial structure of the biofilm. In this work, we investigate the effects of sub-MICs of ampicillin on the formation of E. faecalis biofilms. First, we quantified biofilm mass using crystal violet staining in polystyrene microtiter plates. We found that total biofilm mass is increased over a narrow range of ampicillin concentrations before ultimately declining at higher concentrations. Second, we show that sub-MICs of ampicillin can increase mass of E. faecalis biofilms while simultaneously increasing extracellular DNA/RNA and changing total number of viable cells under confocal microscopy. Further, we use RNA-seq to identify genes differentially expressed under sub-MICs of ampicillin. Finally, we show a mathematical model to explain this phenomenon. This work was funded by The Hartwell Foundation Individual Biomedical Research Award and NSF CAREER 1553208 to KBW.

  20. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-07-14

    Jul 14, 2013 ... 5Division of Animal Medicine, Animal Technology Institute Taiwan, Chunan, Miaoli, Taiwan ... Static broth culture favours the production of fimbriae, while solid agar .... study. Antibiotics (100 μg ampicillin/mL and 50 μg kana-.

  1. Molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- DT193 ASSuT strains from two outbreaks in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barco, Lisa; Ramon, Elena; Cortini, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- DT193 is recognized as an emerging monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium in many European countries. Resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides, and tetracycline (R-type ASSuT) is described as one of the most comm...

  2. In vitro activity of a new 'higher-Iactam' antibacterial agent LY 193239

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-03-16

    Mar 16, 1991 ... penicillin. Antimicrobial agents. Solutions of LY 193239 (supplied by Eli Lilly) and tetracycline were freshly prepared in sterile distilled water. Rifampicin was dissolved in dimethyl sul- phoxide and diluted in water. Ampicillin and penicillin were prepared in 0,05M phosphate buffer with final pH 7,0. MICs.

  3. Antibiotic sensitivities of common bacterial pathogens in urinary tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the total isolates 71.5% were Gram negatives. Sensitivity tested against ten antibiotics showed that resistance was common, and the effectiveness of tetracycline, ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol and penicillin was under 50.0%. The resistance rate was 71.5%, 62.2%, and 62.2%, 54.7% and 40.8%, respectively ...

  4. Antibiotic Multiresistance Analysis of Mesophilic and Psychrotrophic Pseudomonas spp. Isolated from Goat and Lamb Slaughterhouse Surfaces throughout the Meat Production Process

    OpenAIRE

    Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Benomar, Nabil; Casado Muñoz, María del Carmen; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance profiles of pseudomonads isolated from surfaces of a goat and lamb slaughterhouse, which were representative of areas that are possible sources of meat contamination. Mesophilic (85 isolates) and psychrotrophic (37 isolates) pseudomonads identified at the species level generally were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, rifampin, and cefta...

  5. Antibiotic resistance and resistance genes in Escherichia coli from poultry farms, southwest Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelowo, Olawale O.; Fagade, Obasola E.; Agersø, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    %, ampicillin 36%, spectinomycin 28%, nalidixic acid 25%, chloramphenicol 22%, neomycin 14%, gentamicin 8%, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, colistin, florfenicol and apramycin 0%. Resistance genes found among the isolates include bla-TEM (85%), sul2 (67%), sul3 (17%), aadA (65%), strA (70%), str...

  6. Stability of antibiotics and amino acids in two synthetic L-amino acid solutions commonly used for total parenteral nutrition in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Andersen, G E

    1978-01-01

    The stability and interaction at 29 degrees C of ampicillin, carbenicillin, gentamicin, and polymyxin B were examined in a common electrolyte solution, invertose darrow, and in two synthetic l-amino acid solutions, one commercial (vamin with fructose; Vitrum) and the other a neonatal preparation ...

  7. US Army Institute of Dental Research Annual Progress Report FY80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    Resorption; Carbon Dioxide Laser; Carbon Dioxide Snow; Casting Accuracy; Cement Kiln Dust; Ceramic Powder; Ceramigold II; (cont) 20. ABSTRACT (Continue...excess, will inhibit anticipated parathyroid hormone~ and steoclast activating factor (OAF) stimulated release of calcium from bony explants. it as...hind legs of rats. Each wound was immediately packed with ampicillin microcapsules . Microbiologic assays were performed at timed intervals to

  8. A Carbenicillin R Factor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of 64 carbenicillin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains 40 transferred this resistance to Escherichia coli. R factor RP-638 isolated from Ps. aeruginosa strain 638 conferred resistance to ampicillin, carbenicillin, kanamycin, neomycin and tetracycline. This R factor was transferred at frequencies 01 10-7 to 10-4 between ...

  9. Treatment of shigella infections: why sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and one (1.3%) were Yersinia enterocolitica. Shigella isolates had high resistance to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (97%), tetracycline (83.6%) ampicillin (58.2%) and chloramphenicol (20.9%). The isolates showed low resistance to nalidixic (4.5%) and ciprofloxacin (3.0%) while there was no resistance to ceftriaxone.

  10. A novel Listeria monocytogenes-based DNA delivery system for cancer gene therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    van Pijkeren, Jan Peter

    2012-01-31

    Bacteria-mediated transfer of plasmid DNA to mammalian cells (bactofection) has been shown to have significant potential as an approach to express heterologous proteins in various cell types. This is achieved through entry of the entire bacterium into cells, followed by release of plasmid DNA. In a murine model, we show that Listeria monocytogenes can invade and spread in tumors, and establish the use of Listeria to deliver genes to tumors in vivo. A novel approach to vector lysis and release of plasmid DNA through antibiotic administration was developed. Ampicillin administration facilitated both plasmid transfer and safety control of vector. To further improve on the gene delivery system, we selected a Listeria monocytogenes derivative that is more sensitive to ampicillin, and less pathogenic than the wild-type strain. Incorporation of a eukaryotic-transcribed lysin cassette in the plasmid further increased bacterial lysis. Successful gene delivery of firefly luciferase to growing tumors in murine models and to patient breast tumor samples ex vivo was achieved. The model described encompasses a three-phase treatment regimen, involving (1) intratumoral administration of vector followed by a period of vector spread, (2) systemic ampicillin administration to induce vector lysis and plasmid transfer, and (3) systemic administration of combined moxifloxacin and ampicillin to eliminate systemic vector. For the first time, our results reveal the potential of Listeria monocytogenes for in vivo gene delivery.

  11. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT STRAINS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND ENTEROCOCCUS SPP. IN ROE DEER (CAPREOLUS CAPREOLUS AND RED DEER (CERVUS ELAPHUS AT THE PARCO NAZIONALE DEI MONTI SIBILLINI, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pisano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A case control study was performed in the Parco Nazionale dei Monti Sibillini, Italy, to find out whether roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and red deer (Cervus elaphus were more likely to harbour antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in their faeces, compared to Enterococcus spp. Ten areas were selected and samples were collected during a fourmonths (May to August, 2008 sampling period. Samples of water (n=12 and feces (n=59, collected at 10 different sites, were cultured for E. coli and Enterococcus spp. The resulting colonies were screened for tetracycline, ampicillin and kanamycin resistance using the Lederberg Replica Plating method (breakpoint 4 μg/ml. All resistant isolates were then selected, and subjected to the CLSI antimicrobial plate susceptibility test (7. Among the water specimens contaminated by E. coli, 80% were found to be resistant to ampicillin, 80% to tetracycline and 40% to kanamycin. Among the water specimens contaminated by Enterococcus spp., 14.29% were found to be resistant to ampicillin, 14.29% to tetracycline and 71.3% to kanamycin. Among the 39 strains of E. coli isolated from red deer feces, 12 were resistant to ampicillin (30.77%, 5 to tetracycline (12,82% and 3 to kanamycin (7.69%. Among the 19 strains of Enterococcus spp. isolated from red deer feces, 0 were resistant to ampicillin (0%, 1 to tetracycline (5.26% and 19 to kanamycin (100. These are significant findings, indicating that antibiotic resistance can be found in naïve animal populations and that red deer and fallow deer could act as sentinels for antimicrobial resistance. Key words Antibiotic-resistance, red deer, fallow deer, Escherichia

  12. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of 1,3,5-triazine aminobenzoic acid derivatives for their antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zaydi, Khadijah M; Khalil, Hosam H; El-Faham, Ayman; Khattab, Sherine N

    2017-05-10

    Replacement of chloride ions in cyanuric chloride give several variants of 1,3,5-triazine derivatives which were investigated as biologically active small molecules. These compounds exhibit antimalarial, antimicrobial, anti-cancer and anti-viral activities, among other beneficial properties. On the other hand, treatment of bacterial infections remains a challenging therapeutic problem because of the emerging infectious diseases and the increasing number of multidrug-resistant microbial pathogens. As multidrug-resistant bacterial strains proliferate, the necessity for effective therapy has stimulated research into the design and synthesis of novel antimicrobial molecules. 1,3,5-Triazine 4-aminobenzoic acid derivatives were prepared by conventional method or by using microwave irradiation. Using microwave irradiation gave the desired products in less time, good yield and higher purity. Esterification of the 4-aminobenzoic acid moiety afforded methyl ester analogues. The s-triazine derivatives and their methyl ester analogues were fully characterized by FT-IR, NMR ( 1 H-NMR and 13 C-NMR), mass spectra and elemental analysis. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Some tested compounds showed promising activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Three series of mono-, di- and trisubstituted s-triazine derivatives and their methyl ester analogues were synthesized and fully characterized. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Compounds (10), (16), (25) and (30) have antimicrobial activity against S. aureus comparable to that of ampicillin, while the activity of compound (13) is about 50% of that of ampicillin. Compounds (13) and (14) have antimicrobial activity against E. coli comparable to that of ampicillin, while the activity of compounds (9-12) and (15) is about 50% of that of ampicillin. Furthermore, minimum inhibitory concentrations values for clinical isolates of

  13. Evaluation of Eight Different Cephalosporins for Detection of Cephalosporin Resistance in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hasman, Henrik; Veldman, K

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of eight different cephalosporins for detection of cephalosporin resistance mediated by extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC beta-lactamases in Salmonella and Escherichia coli. A total of 138 E. coli and 86 Salmonella isolates with known beta......-resistant but cephalosporin-susceptible, 56 ESBL isolates and 19 isolates with plasmidic AmpC, as well as 10 ampC hyper-producing E. coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration distributions and zone inhibitions varied with the tested compound. Ampicillin-resistant isolates showed reduced susceptibility to the cephalosporins...... compared to ampicillin-susceptible isolates. Cefoperazone, cefquinome, and cefuroxime were not useful in detecting isolates with ESBL or plasmidic AmpC. The best substances for detection were cefotaxime, cefpodoxime, and ceftriaxone, whereas ceftazidime and ceftiofur were not as efficient. Ceftriaxone may...

  14. A randomised controlled trial of prophylaxis of post-abortal infection: ceftriaxone versus placebo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriques, C U; Wilken-Jensen, C; Thorsen, P

    1994-01-01

    days postoperatively, underwent pelvic examination. Clinical endpoints were noted. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Post-operative pelvic inflammatory disease in women applying for legal first trimester abortion. RESULTS: Seven hundred and eighty-six women fulfilled the criteria for evaluation. A tendency toward...... for legal first trimester abortion, treated peroperatively with ceftriaxone. No significant difference was demonstrated between high risk patients treated with ceftriaxone or ampicillin/pivampicillin and metronidazole. Udgivelsesdato: 1994-Jul......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of post-operative infection after first trimester abortion in women treated with a long-acting cephalosporin (ceftriaxone) compared with low risk patients receiving no treatment and with high risk patients receiving our standard treatment of ampicillin...

  15. Mercury and antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae: an experimental study on pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laub-Kupersztejn, R; Thomas, J; Pohl, P

    1974-01-01

    Tests on faeces from 5 different groups of pigs, showed that 47.2% of the coliforms present were resistant to mercury ions. None of the 3127 bacteria examined were resistant to cadmium ions. The resistance of these strains to mercury was mainly associated with resistance to one or more antibiotics (98%). Feeding the animals with ampicillin (20 ppm) led to modification of the Escherichia coli in the alimentary tract, with ampicillin and mercury resistant strains emerging in great number. These resistance characters could be wholly, or partially, transferred to a sensitive strain of E. coli, thus suggesting that they were mediated by R-factors. The existence of a plasmid resistant only to mercury ions was demonstrated. 9 references, 4 tables.

  16. Prevalence and persistence of potentially pathogenic and antibiotic resistant bacteria during anaerobic digestion treatment of cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Juliana Alves; Silva, Vânia Lúcia; de Oliveira, Tamara Lopes Rocha; de Oliveira Fortunato, Samuel; da Costa Carneiro, Jailton; Otenio, Marcelo Henrique; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo

    2014-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion figures as a sustainable alternative to avoid discharge of cattle manure in the environment, which results in biogas and biofertilizer. Persistence of potentially pathogenic and drug-resistant bacteria during anaerobic digestion of cattle manure was evaluated. Selective cultures were performed for enterobacteria (ENT), non-fermenting Gram-negative rods (NFR) and Gram-positive cocci (GPC). Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined and a decay of all bacterial groups was observed after 60days. Multidrug-resistant bacteria were detected both the influent and effluent. GPC, the most prevalent group was highly resistant against penicillin and levofloxacin, whereas resistance to ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam and chloramphenicol was frequently observed in the ENT and NFR groups. The data point out the need of discussions to better address management of biodigesters and the implementation of sanitary and microbiological safe treatments of animal manures to avoid consequences to human, animal and environmental health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Analysis of antibiotic susceptibility of foodborne Listeria monocytogenes in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Fu, Ping; Guo, Yunchang; Liu, Xiurmei

    2008-03-01

    To study the antibiotic susceptibility of foodborne Listeria monocytogenes in China. The susceptibilities of 476 strains of foodborne Listeria monocytogenes to antibiotics were determined in Broth Microdilution Susceptibility Testing in Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The antibiotics of gentamicin, ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline, doxycycline, imipenem, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, cephalothin, rifampin, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin-sulbactam were used. The rates of antibiotic resistance in 467 is olates were 4.5%. Tetracycline resistance was most prevalent, accouting for 4.07% . The foods that the rates of antibiotic resistance were highest were vegetable (10%). Among 14 provinces, Jilin, Hubei and Hebei were the third top, the rate of which were 19.6% and 9.1% and 8%, respectively. It was suggested that antibiotic resistance exists in foodborne Listeria monocytogenes to a certain extent in China. It should pay more attention to the use of drugs in prevention and clinic treatment to reduce the antibiotic resistant strains.

  18. Factors determining the passage of drugs from blood into saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, K W; McCrossan, J; Mackenzie, D; Macfarlane, C B; Speirs, C F

    1980-01-01

    1. Following single oral dosing of ampicillin, cephalexin, tetracycline, erythromycin estolate, clindamycin and rifampicin to six normal volunteers, antibacterial activity was measured at 1, 3 and 6 h in serum, gingival fluid and minor gland saliva from all subjects and in parotid and submandiabular saliva from three. 2. pH values of all gingival fluid and saliva specimens were noted. 3. Partition coefficients between n-octanol and water were measured for erythromycin, clindamycin and rifampicin. Published data were used for ampicillin, cephalexin and tetracycline. 4. All antibiotics, but particularly rifampicin, were detected in gingival fluid. Only rifampicin and to a lesser degree, clindamycin were present in the other salivary constituents. 5. In studies of secretion of drugs in saliva, both the physico-chemical characteristics of the drugs and the physiological differences between individual salivary components should be considered. 6. Parotid saliva samples are likely to be of greatest value. PMID:7356893

  19. Methods for the evaluation of antibiotic resistance in Lactobacillus isolated from fermented sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Lethycia Wolupeck

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to assess the antibiotic resistance in 54 indigenous Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from artisanal fermented sausages. The confirmation of the strain species was performed by multiplex-PCR assay. Antibiotic resistance was assessed by disk diffusion (DD and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC methods. Of 54 L. plantarum, 44 strains were genotypically confirmed as L. plantarum and 3 as Lactobacillus pentosus. The highest resistance rates were to ampicillin and streptomycin. The highest susceptibility rates were shown to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and penicillin G. None of the strains showed multidrug resistance. Resistance rates by DD and MIC were not different (P>0.05 for ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin and penicillin G. Future research should assess the genetic mechanisms underlying the phenotypic resistance in Lactobacillus strains to screen the potential probiotic strains for the development of functional meat products.

  20. Listeria monocytogenes following orthotopic liver transplantation: Central nervous system involvement and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Listeria monocytogene is a well-recognized cause of bacteremia in immunocompromised individuals, including solid organ transplant recipients, but has been rarely reported following orthotopic liver transplantation. We describe a case of listeria meningitis that occurred within a week after liver transplantation. The patient developed a severe headache that mimicked tacrolimus encephalopathy, and was subsequently diagnosed with listeria meningitis by cerebrospinal fluid culture. The infection was successfully treated with three-week course of intravenous ampicillin. Recurrent hepatitis C followed and was successfully treated with interferon alfa and ribavirin. Fourteen cases of listeriosis after orthotopic liver transplantation have been reported in the English literature. Most reported cases were successfully treated with intravenous ampicillin. There were four cases of listeria meningitis, and the mortality of them was 50%.Early detection and treatment of listeria meningitis are the key to obtaining a better prognosis.

  1. Computational Dehydration of Crystalline Hydrates Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Støttrup; Rantanen, Jukka; Johansson, Kristoffer E

    2017-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have evolved to an increasingly reliable and accessible technique and are today implemented in many areas of biomedical sciences. We present a generally applicable method to study dehydration of hydrates based on MD simulations and apply this approach...... to the dehydration of ampicillin trihydrate. The crystallographic unit cell of the trihydrate is used to construct the simulation cell containing 216 ampicillin and 648 water molecules. This system is dehydrated by removing water molecules during a 2200 ps simulation, and depending on the computational dehydration....... The structural changes could be followed in real time, and in addition, an intermediate amorphous phase was identified. The computationally identified dehydrated structure (anhydrate) was slightly different from the experimentally known anhydrate structure suggesting that the simulated computational structure...

  2. Considering Respiratory Tract Infections and Antimicrobial Sensitivity: An Exploratory Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin, R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to observe the sensitivity and resistance of status of antibiotics for respiratory tract infection (RTI. Throat swab culture and sensitivity report of 383 patients revealed sensitivity profiles were observed with amoxycillin (7.9%, penicillin (33.7%, ampicillin (36.6%, co-trimoxazole (46.5%, azithromycin (53.5%, erythromycin (57.4%, cephalexin (69.3%, gentamycin (78.2%, ciprofloxacin (80.2%, cephradine (81.2%, ceftazidime (93.1%, ceftriaxone (93.1%. Sensitivity to cefuroxime was reported 93.1% cases. Resistance was found with amoxycillin (90.1%, ampicillin (64.1%, penicillin (61.4%, co-trimoxazole (43.6%, erythromycin (39.6%, and azithromycin (34.7%. Cefuroxime demonstrates high level of sensitivity than other antibiotics and supports its consideration with patients with upper RTI.

  3. The use of Listeria monocytogenes as a DNA delivery vector for cancer gene therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tangney, Mark

    2012-01-31

    Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular pathogen that lyses the phagosomal vacuole of infected cells, proliferates in the host cell cytoplasm and can actively enter adjacent cells. The pathogen is therefore well suited to exploitation as a vector for the delivery of DNA to target cells as the lifecycle favors cellular targeting with vector amplification and the potential for cell-to-cell spread. We have recently demonstrated DNA transfer by L. monocytogenes in growing tumors in murine models. Our approach exploited an ampicillin sensitive stain of L. monocytogenes which can be lysed through systemic administration of ampicillin to facilitate release of plasmid DNA for expression by infected mammalian cells. Here, we discuss the implications of this technology and the potential for future improvements of the system.

  4. Removal of veterinary antibiotics from wastewater by electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Wojciech; Adamek, Ewa; Jajko, Marcin; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of veterinary antibiotic removal from wastewater using an electrocoagulation method. The removal efficiency of ampicillin, doxycycline, sulfathiazole and tylosin; the antibiotic degradation degree after electrolysis; and the toxicity and qualitative composition of antibiotic solutions after electrocoagulation were determined in the experiments. HPLC-QTOF was used for quantitative and qualitative determination. The eco-toxicity was assessed using the MARA ® assay. After electrocoagulation, the concentration of ampicillin, doxycycline, sulfathiazole and tylosin in wastewater decreased 3.6 ± 3.2%, ∼100%, 3.3 ± 0.4% and 3.1 ± 0.3%, respectively. Doxycycline was the only antibiotic effectively removed from wastewater during electrocoagulation. Simultaneously, part of this antibiotic underwent oxidative degradation. As a result of this process, the eco-toxicity in the reaction environment decreased. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Antibiotic Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Goats with Subclinical Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Virdis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance patterns and gene coding for methicillin resistance (mecA were determined in 25 S. aureus and 75 Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS strains isolates from half-udder milk samples collected from goats with subclinical mastitis. Fourteen (56.0% S. aureus and thirty-one (41.3% CNS isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. S. aureus showed the highest resistance rate against kanamycin (28.0%, oxytetracycline (16.0%, and ampicillin (12.0%. The CNS tested were more frequently resistant to ampicillin (36.0% and kanamycin (6.7%. Multiple antimicrobial resistance was observed in eight isolates, and one Staphylococcus epidermidis was found to be resistant to six antibiotics. The mecA gene was not found in any of the tested isolates. Single resistance against β-lactamics or aminoglicosides is the most common trait observed while multiresistance is less frequent.

  6. [Prevalence and antimicrobial behavior of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in children with diarrhea in Loja city, Ecuador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simaluiza, Rosa; Toledo, Zorayda; Fernández, Heriberto

    2018-04-01

    Campylobacter is an important agent of diarrhea in humans. In Ecuador, the information on Campylobacter is scarce and there are not antecedents about antimicrobial susceptibility. To describe Campylobacter prevalence in children with diarrhea and their behavior against five antimicrobials in vitro. We studied 253 children with diarrhea aging 7 months to 9 years who consulted for diarrhea in two hospitals in the city of Loja. Fecal samples were cultured and identification by tests by phenotypic tests and multiplex PCR. Susceptibility to 5 antibiotics was determined by the disc-diffusion method. Campylobacter was found in 16 (6.3%) children, being C. jejuni the most frequent one (5.1%), followed by C. coli (1.2%). All strains were susceptible to gentamicin and ampicillin/clavulanic acid, being found low resistance to ampicillin and erythromycin and high resistance to ciprofloxacin.

  7. Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Surface Water in Bassaseachic Falls National Park, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Gardea, Ma Carmen E; Tamez-Guerra, Patricia; Gomez-Flores, Ricardo; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Francisco Javier; Eroza-de la Vega, Gilberto; Nevárez-Moorillón, Guadalupe Virginia; Pérez-Recoder, María Concepción; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; González-Horta, María Del Carmen; Infante-Ramírez, Rocío

    2016-06-16

    Bacterial pathogens are a leading cause of waterborne disease, and may result in gastrointestinal outbreaks worldwide. Inhabitants of the Bassaseachic Falls National Park in Chihuahua, Mexico show seasonal gastroenteritis problems. This aim of this study was to detect enteropathogenic microorganisms responsible for diarrheal outbreaks in this area. In 2013, 49 surface water samples from 13 selected sampling sites along the Basaseachi waterfall and its main rivers, were collected during the spring, summer, autumn, and winter seasons. Fecal and total coliform counts were determined using standard methods; the AutoScan-4 system was used for identification of isolates and the antibiotic resistance profile by challenging each organism using 21 antibiotics. Significant differences among seasons were detected, where autumn samples resulted in the highest total (p water-borne microorganisms exhibited resistance to cefazoline, cefuroxime, ampicillin, and ampicillin-sulbactam. The presence of these microorganisms near rural settlements suggests that wastewater is the contamination source, providing one possible transmission mechanism for diarrheal outbreaks.

  8. Mass flows and removal of antibiotics in two municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong

    2011-05-01

    The mass flows and removal of 20 antibiotics of seven classes in two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of Hong Kong were investigated in different seasons of a whole year, using bihourly 24h flow proportional composite samples. Antibiotics were detected at concentrations of 3.2-1718, 1.3-1176 and 1.1-233ngL(-1) in influents, secondary and disinfection effluents. Total daily discharges of all the detected antibiotics from effluents of Shatin and Stanley WWTPs were 470-710 and 3.0-5.2gd(-1), respectively. Ampicillin, cefalexin, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, chlortetracycline and vancomycin were effectively (52-100%) eliminated by activated sludge process while ampicillin and cefalexin were effectively (91-99%) eliminated by disinfection. Bihourly variation analysis showed that concentrations of the major antibiotics in influents varied more significantly in Stanley WWTP which served small communities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterisation of recently emerged multiple antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104 and other multiresistant phage types from Danish pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    1998-01-01

    electrophoresis (PFGE) using the restriction enzyme Xba I, Overall, 66 per cent of the 670 isolates were sensitive to all the antimicrobial agents tested. Eleven isolates of S typhimurium were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline and also resistant to other antibiotics in different resistance...... patterns. Seven different multiresistant clones were identified, The most common clones were four isolates of DT104 and three isolates of DT193, TWO Of the three S typhimurium DT104 from 1994 and 1995 were sensitive to all the antimicrobials tested whereas the remaining isolate from 1994 was resistant......A total of 670 isolates of Salmonella enterica were isolated from Danish pig herds, phage typed and tested for susceptibility to amoxycillin + clavulanate, ampicillin, colistin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, neomycin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim + sulphadiazine. S...

  10. Quantitative assessment of faecal shedding of β-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli and enterococci in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Shah, Syed Qaswar Ali; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative data on faecal shedding of antimicrobial resistant bacteria are crucial to assess the risk of transmission from dogs to other animals as well as humans. In this study we investigated prevalence and concentrations of β-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli and enterococci in the faeces...... of 108 dogs presenting at a veterinary hospital in Denmark. The dogs had not been treated with antimicrobials for 4 weeks prior to the study. Total E. coli and enterococci were quantified by counts on MacConkey and Slanetz-Bartley, respectively. Resistant E. coli and enterococci were counted on the same...... media containing relevant antibiotic concentrations, followed by species identification using MALDI-TOF. Ampicillin- and cefotaxime-resistant E. coli were detected in 40% and 8% of the dogs, respectively, whereas approximately 15% carried ampicillin-resistant enterococci, mainly Enterococcus faecium...

  11. Vaginitis. Reducing the number of refractory cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josey, W E

    1977-09-01

    Therapeutic failure in vaginitis can be minimized if all cases are properly diagnosed and specific therapy is given. Use of wet mounts combined with liberal use of cultures, especially for Corynebacterium vaginale, should result in an accurate diagnosis in over 90% of cases. Treatment of choice for candidiasis is nystatin or miconazole nitrate applied topically. For trichomoniasis, metronidazole should be given orally to both sexual partners. Ampicillin, cephalexin, or cephradine are recommended for C vaginale infection.

  12. An evaluation of E. coli in urinary tract infection in emergency department at KAMC in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Menyfah Q; Alqahtani, Fulwah Y; Aleanizy, Fadilah S

    2018-02-09

    Urinary tract infection (UTIS) is a common infectious disease in which level of antimicrobial resistance are alarming worldwide. Therefore, this study aims to describe the prevalence and the resistance pattern of the main bacteria responsible for UTIS Escherichia coli (E. coli). Retrospective chart review for patients admitted to emergency department and diagnosed with UTIS at KAMC, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January to March 2008 was performed. Antimicrobial susceptibility to ampicillin, augmentin (amoxicillin/clavulanate), cefazolin, co-trimoxazole (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim), ciprofloxacin, and nitrofurantoin, and cefpodoxime was determined for 101 E. coli urinary isolates. Escherichia coli was the most prevalent pathogen contributing to UTIS representing 93.55, 60.24, and 45.83% of all pathogen isolated from urine culture of pediatric, adult, and elderly, respectively. High rates of resistance to ampicillin (82.76, 58, and 63.64%) and co-trimoxazole (51.72, 42, and 59.09%), among E. coli isolated from pediatric, adult and elderly respectively. Nitrofurantoin was the most active agent, followed by ciprofloxacin, augmentin and cefazolin. 22.77% of E. coli isolates exhibited multiple drug resistance (MDR). Among 66 and 49 isolates resistant to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole, respectively, 34.84 and 42.85% were MDR. In contrast, all isolates resistant to augmentin and nitrofurantoin were MRD, while 72.7 and 82.4% of isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin and cefazolin were MDR. High resistance was observed to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole which commonly used as empirical treatments for UTIS, limiting their clinical use. This necessitates continuous surveillance for resistance pattern of uropathogens against antibiotics.

  13. DNA Assembly in 3D Printed Fluidics (Open Access, Publisher’s Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-30

    millifluidics to mix linear double stranded DNA with enzymes to assemble plasmids via Golden Gate biochemistry . The assembly reac- tions occurred at...used, a constitutively expressed yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) reporter, and a plasmid backbone containing an ampicillin selection marker ( AMP ) and...proof-of- principle that 3D printed devices can adequately mix the Golden Gate enzymes and DNA and that the Golden Gate biochemistry proceeds

  14. Overcoming resistance to beta-lactamase inhibitors: comparing sulbactam to novel inhibitors against clavulanate resistant SHV enzymes with substitutions at Ambler position 244.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Jodi M; Distler, Anne M; Bonomo, Robert A

    2007-10-09

    Amino acid changes at Ambler position R244 in class A TEM and SHV beta-lactamases confer resistance to ampicillin/clavulanate, a beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combination used to treat serious infections. To gain a deeper understanding of this resistance phenotype, we investigated the activities of sulbactam and two novel penem beta-lactamase inhibitors with sp2 hybridized C3 carboxylates and bicyclic R1 side chains against a library of SHV beta-lactamase variants at the 244 position. Compared to SHV-1 expressed in Escherichia coli, all 19 R244 variants exhibited increased susceptibility to ampicillin/sulbactam, an important difference compared to ampicillin/clavulanate. Kinetic analyses of SHV-1 and three SHV R244 (-S, -Q, and -L) variants revealed the Ki for sulbactam was significantly elevated for the R244 variants, but the partition ratios, kcat/kinact, were markedly reduced (13 000 --> ampicillin susceptibility in vitro. Compared to that of sulbactam, the kcat/kinact values of penems for SHV-1 and R244S were low (

  15. A Novel Prokaryotic Green Fluorescent Protein Expression System for Testing Gene Editing Tools Activity Like Zinc Finger Nuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzehei, Faezeh; Kouhpayeh, Shirin; Dastjerdeh, Mansoureh Shahbazi; Khanahmad, Hossein; Salehi, Rasoul; Naderi, Shamsi; Taghizadeh, Razieh; Rabiei, Parisa; Hejazi, Zahra; Shariati, Laleh

    2017-01-01

    Gene editing technology has created a revolution in the field of genome editing. The three of the most famous tools in gene editing technology are zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), and CRISPR-associated systems. As their predictable nature, it is necessary to assess their efficiency. There are some methods for this purpose, but most of them are time labor and complicated. Here, we introduce a new prokaryotic reporter system, which makes it possible to evaluate the efficiency of gene editing tools faster, cheaper, and simpler than previous methods. At first, the target sites of a custom ZFN, which is designed against a segment of ampicillin resistance gene, were cloned on both sides of green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene to construct pPRO-GFP. Then pPRO-GFP was transformed into Escherichia coli TOP10F' that contains pZFN (contains expression cassette of a ZFN against ampicillin resistant gene), or p15A-KanaR as a negative control. The transformed bacteria were cultured on three separate media that contained ampicillin, kanamycin, and ampicillin + kanamycin; then the resulted colonies were assessed by flow cytometry. The results of flow cytometry showed a significant difference between the case (bacteria contain pZFN) and control (bacteria contain p15A, KanaR) in MFI (Mean Fluorescence Intensity) ( P < 0.0001). According to ZFN efficiency, it can bind and cut the target sites, the bilateral cutting can affect the intensity of GFP fluorescence. Our flow cytometry results showed that this ZFN could reduce the intensity of GFP color and colony count of bacteria in media containing amp + kana versus control sample.

  16. Novel carbapenem antibiotics for parenteral and oral applications: in vitro and in vivo activities of 2-aryl carbapenems and their pharmacokinetics in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Koichi; Takemoto, Koji; Hatano, Kazuo; Nakai, Toru; Terashita, Shigeyuki; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Eriguchi, Yoshiro; Eguchi, Ken; Shimizudani, Takeshi; Sato, Kimihiko; Kanazawa, Katsunori; Sunagawa, Makoto; Ueda, Yutaka

    2013-02-01

    SM-295291 and SM-369926 are new parenteral 2-aryl carbapenems with strong activity against major causative pathogens of community-acquired infections such as methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae (including penicillin-resistant strains), Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae (including β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant strains), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (including ciprofloxacin-resistant strains), with MIC(90)s of ≤ 1 μg/ml. Unlike tebipenem (MIC(50), 8 μg/ml), SM-295291 and SM-369926 had no activity against hospital pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC(50), ≥ 128 μg/ml). The bactericidal activities of SM-295291 and SM-369926 against penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae were equal or superior to that of tebipenem and greater than that of cefditoren. The therapeutic efficacies of intravenous administrations of SM-295291 and SM-369926 against experimentally induced infections in mice caused by penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae were equal or superior to that of tebipenem and greater than that of cefditoren, respectively, reflecting their in vitro activities. SM-295291 and SM-369926 showed intravenous pharmacokinetics similar to those of meropenem in terms of half-life in monkeys (0.4 h) and were stable against human dehydropeptidase I. SM-368589 and SM-375769, which are medoxomil esters of SM-295291 and SM-369926, respectively, showed good oral bioavailability in rats, dogs, and monkeys (4.2 to 62.3%). Thus, 2-aryl carbapenems are promising candidates that show an ideal broad spectrum for the treatment of community-acquired infections, including infections caused by penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae, have low selective pressure on antipseudomonal

  17. Inhibition of bacterial multidrug resistance by celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalle, Arunasree M; Rizvi, Arshad

    2011-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major problem in the treatment of infectious diseases and cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-specific inhibitor celecoxib would not only inhibit COX-2 but also help in the reversal of drug resistance in cancers by inhibiting the MDR1 efflux pump. Here, we demonstrate that celecoxib increases the sensitivity of bacteria to the antibiotics ampicillin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin by accumulating the drugs inside the cell, thus reversing MDR in bacteria.

  18. Phytochemical analysis and In-vitro Biochemical Characterization of aqueous and methanolic extract of Triphala, a conventional herbal remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Parveen

    2018-03-01

    Results revealed the presence of valuable bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, etc which might be responsible for biochemical activities. Extracts exhibited satisfactory radical-scavenging activity comparable with ascorbic acid. Methanolic extracts demonstrated higher antioxidant activity compared to aqueous extract. Extracts showed promising antibacterial potential against tested strain comparable to ampicillin. Hence, it can be concluded that triphala may be a promising candidate in pharmaceuticals and future medicine.

  19. Dental Caries in Rats Associated with Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Klinke, Thomas; Guggenheim, Bernhard; Klimm, Wolfgang; Thurnheer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In addition to occasional opportunistic colonization of the oral mucosa, Candida albicans is frequently found in carious dentin. The yeast’s potential to induce dental caries as a consequence of its pronounced ability to produce and tolerate acids was investigated. Eighty caries-active Osborne-Mendel rats were raised on an ampicillin-supplemented diet and exposed to C. albicans and/or Streptococcus mutans, except for controls. Throughout the 28-day test period, the animals were offered the mo...

  20. Factors determining the passage of drugs from blood into saliva.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen, K W; McCrossan, J; Mackenzie, D; Macfarlane, C B; Speirs, C F

    1980-01-01

    1. Following single oral dosing of ampicillin, cephalexin, tetracycline, erythromycin estolate, clindamycin and rifampicin to six normal volunteers, antibacterial activity was measured at 1, 3 and 6 h in serum, gingival fluid and minor gland saliva from all subjects and in parotid and submandiabular saliva from three. 2. pH values of all gingival fluid and saliva specimens were noted. 3. Partition coefficients between n-octanol and water were measured for erythromycin, clindamycin and rifampi...

  1. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of Streptococcus suis capsular type 2 strains isolated from pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, B; Kelneric, Z; Hajsig, D; Madic, J; Naglic, T

    1996-03-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for thirty-three epidemiologicaly unrelated clinical isolates of Streptococcus suis capsular type 2 were determined in relation to ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, amoxicillin, clavulanate-amoxicillin, penicillin G, cephalexin, gentamicin, streptomycin, erythromycin, tylosin and doxycycline, using the microtitre broth dilution procedure described by the U.S. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Gentamicin was the most active compound tested, with an MIC for 90% of the strains tested (MIC(90)) of 0.4 mg/L. Overall, 70% of strains were resistant to doxycycline (MIC(90) > or = 100.0 mg/L), followed by penicillin G (51% of strains) (MIC(90) + or = 100.0 mg/L). Resistance to amoxicillin and ampicillin was 36.4% (MIC(90) 12.5 mg/L) and 33.3% (MIC(90) 50.0 mg/L), respectively. 15.2% of S. suis strains were resistant to streptomycin, tylosin and cephalexin with MIC90 values of 25.0 mg/L, 12.5 mg/L and 25.0 mg/L, respectively. A combination of ampicillin and sulbactam (MIC(90) 6.3 mg/L) and a combination of amoxicillin and clavulanate (MIC(90) 3.1 mg/L) as well as erythromycin (1.6 mg/L) were of the same efficacy, with a total of 9.1% resistant S. suis strains. This high percentage of resistance to doxycycline and penicillin G precludes the use of these antibiotics as empiric therapy of swine diseases.

  2. A Proposed Formulary Based on the Identification of Medications Determined by Diagnoses/Problems in a Troop Medical Clinic During Calendar Year 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    Fascitis , Leg (1) Tolectin (1) 28. Fascitis , Plantar (1) Motrin (1) 29. Fracture, Stress (Toe) (1) Indocin (1) 30. Ganglion, Wrist (1) ASA (1) 31...AVC Cream Vibramycin G.E. Tylenol Tigan Herpes Genitalis Zovirax 17. WS N.V. 18. GH N.V. 19. AT Ankle Sprain ASA Plantar Fascitis Motrin 20. RT N.V. 1...Loz. 103. JT URI Actifed Blisters, Foot Bacitracin 104. SB Bronchitis E-Mycin Fascitis , Leg Tolectin Sinusitis Ampicillin URI Robitussin Entex Acute

  3. New insights into virulence mechanisms of rice pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 following exposure to ?-lactam antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Bin; Ge, Mengyu; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Li; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Wang, Yanli; Sun, Guochang; Chen, Gongyou

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown that pathogen virulence can be altered by exposure to antibiotics, even when the growth rate is unaffected. Investigating this phenomenon provides new insights into understanding the virulence mechanisms of bacterial pathogens. This study investigates the phenotypic and transcriptomic responses of the rice pathogenic bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) strain RS-1 to ?-lactam antibiotics especially Ampicillin (Amp). Our results indicate that exposure to A...

  4. Occurrence and Distribution of Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria and Transfer of Resistance Genes in Lake Taihu

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Qian; Yue, Dongmei; Peng, Yuke; Liu, Ying; Xiao, Lin

    2013-01-01

    The overuse of antibiotics has accelerated antibiotic resistance in the natural environment, especially fresh water, generating a potential risk for public health around the world. In this study, antibiotic resistance in Lake Taihu was investigated and this was the first thorough data obtained through culture-dependent methods. High percentages of resistance to streptomycin and ampicillin among bacterial isolates were detected, followed by tetracycline and chloramphenicol. Especially high lev...

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira spp. isolated from commercial laying hens and free-living wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Désirée S; Pringle, Märit

    2011-08-01

    In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility to tylosin, valnemulin, tiamulin, doxycycline, lincomycin and ampicillin was investigated by broth dilution in 48 Brachyspira spp. isolates from commercial laying hens (n=30) and free-living wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) (n=18). Presumed pathogens (Brachyspira alvinipulli, Brachyspira intermedia, Brachyspira pilosicoli), commensals (Brachyspira murdochii, Brachyspira innocens, "Brachyspira pulli"), and isolates of undetermined species affiliation were included. The laying hens had not been exposed to therapeutic levels of antimicrobials for at least 50 weeks before sampling, and low levels of environmental antimicrobial exposure were presumed in mallards. No isolates with decreased susceptibility to tylosin, valnemulin, tiamulin or doxycycline were found. Decreased susceptibility to lincomycin (minimum inhibitory concentration 16 µg/ml) was detected in two isolates (Brachyspira sp.) from laying hens. Five isolates showed decreased susceptibility to ampicillin (minimum inhibitory concentration 16 to >32 µg/ml), including two "B. pulli" and one B. alvinipulli from laying hens, and isolates of B. pilosicoli and "B. pulli" from mallards. Decreased susceptibility to ampicillin was associated with β-lactamase activity in four isolates. A new variant of a class D β-lactamase gene designated bla (oxa-192) was identified in a B. pilosicoli isolate of mallard origin. This is the first time the genetic basis for antimicrobial resistance is described in Brachyspira spp. from a free-living wild bird. Isolates displaying decreased susceptibility to ampicillin were accompanied by fully susceptible isolates of the same species or other genotypes within three laying hen flocks. This underlines the need for performing antimicrobial susceptibility tests on single clones/genotypes, and to analyse multiple isolates from the same flock.

  6. Combined effects of extremely high frequency electromagnetic field and antibiotics on Enterococcus Hirae growth and survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohanyan, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    Combined effects of extremely high frequency electromagnetic field and antibiotics on Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790 bacterial growth and survival were investigated using 51.8 GHz and 53 GHz frequencies in combination with two commonly used antibiotics: ampicillin and dalacin. Results revealed that, despite bacterial type and membrane structure and properties, the combined effect, especially with 53 GHz and dalacin, suppresses bacterial growth and decreases their survival

  7. Electron spin resonance studies of some irradiated pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibella, M.; Crucq, A-S.; Tilquin, B.; Stocker, P.; Lesgards, G.; Raffi, J.

    2000-01-01

    Five antibiotics belonging to the cephalosporins and penicillins groups have been irradiated: anhydrous ampicilline acid, amoxicilline acid trihydrate, cefuroxime sodium salt, cloxacilline sodium salt monohydrate and ceftazidime pentahydrate. ESR studies have been carried out, showing the influence of irradiation and storage parameters on the nature and concentration of the free radicals trapped. These results may be used to detect an irradiation treatment on such pharmaceuticals. (author)

  8. Paraquat poisoning in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    Recovery from paraquat poisoning in the dog is rare. This is a report of a case of recovery from confirmed paraquat poisoning in a clinical setting. The dog exhibited the usual signs of paraquat poisoning. The diagnosis was confirmed on toxicological analysis of urine using an ion exchange technique. The dog was treated with frusemide, nicotinamide, corticosteroids, α-tocopherol, vitamin A, etamiphylline camsylate and ampicillin. He recovered after seven weeks of intensive therapy. Alternative treatments are discussed

  9. Antimicrobial activity of beta-lactams against multiresistant micro-organisms from the family Enterobacteriaceae, and genus Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebla, A; González, I; Vallín, C

    1994-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of twenty beta-lactams was determined against multiresistant micro-organisms from the Enterobacteriaceae family (450) and the genus Pseudomonas (90). The antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed by the disk diffusion method. The most effective antibiotics were cephalosporins of the second and third generation, and non-classical beta-lactams (imipenem and moxalactam). A pronounced resistance was found to carbenicillin, ampicillin, cephalotin and cefazolin. These resistance patterns corresponded to a high consumption of these antibiotics.

  10. [Dynamics of the population structure of the Escherichia coli recombinant strain during continuous culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, L Iu; Lutskaia, N I; Bogucharov, A A; Bril'kov, A V; Pechurkin, N S

    1992-01-01

    The populational structure of the Escherichia coli strain Z905 containing the recombinant plasmid with the phenotype AprLux+ was studied in chemostat. It was shown that the stability of the ratio of plasmid containing cells and cells without plasmids depends in the first place on the presence of the selective factor (ampicillin) in the medium and on the sources of carbon and energy limiting growth.

  11. Multidrug resistance in pediatric urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspari, Romolo J; Dickson, Eric; Karlowsky, James; Doern, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent a common infection in the pediatric population. Escherichia coli is the most common uropathogen in children, and antimicrobial resistance in this species complicates the treatment of pediatric UTIs. Despite the impact of resistance on empiric antibiotic choice, there is little data on multidrug resistance in pediatric patients. In this paper, we describe characteristics of multidrug-resistant E. coli in pediatric patients using a large national database of uropathogens antimicrobial sensitivities. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns to commonly prescribed antibiotics were performed on uropathogens isolated from children presenting to participating hospitals between 1999 and 2001. Data were analyzed separately for four pediatric age groups. Single and multidrug resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefazolin, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) were performed on all specimens. There were a total of 11,341 E. coli urine cultures from 343 infants (0-4 weeks), 1,801 toddlers (5 weeks-24 months), 6,742 preteens (2-12 years), and 2,455 teens (13-17 years). E. coli resistance to ampicillin peaked in toddlers (52.8%) but was high in preteens (52.1%), infants (50.4%), and teens (40.6%). Resistance to two or more antibiotics varied across age groups, with toddlers (27%) leading preteens (23.1%), infants (21%), and teens (15.9%). Resistance to three or more antibiotics was low in all age groups (range 3.1-5.2%). The most common co-resistance in all age groups was ampicillin/TMP-SMZ. In conclusion, less than half of all pediatric UTIs are susceptible to all commonly used antibiotics. In some age groups, there is a significant percentage of co-resistance between the two most commonly used antibiotics (ampicillin and TMP-SMZ).

  12. Two Cases of Vulvovaginitis Caused by Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei: a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bayramoğlu, Gülçin; Aydın, Faruk; Karagüzel, Gülay; İmamoğlu, Mustafa; Ökten, Ayşenur

    2014-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis caused by Shigella species (Shigella spp.) has rarely been reported. This paper describes two cases of prepubertal vulvovaginitis, presenting with a bloody and purulent vaginal discharge, separately caused by ampicillin-resistant Shigella flexneri and trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazoleresistant Shigella sonnei. Our conclusions are that Shigella spp. is the potential cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls in developing countries where these pathogens are endemic, and identifica...

  13. Co-diversification of Enterococcus faecium core genomes and PBP5: evidences of pbp5 horizontal transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Novais

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ampicillin resistance has greatly contributed to the recent dramatic increase of a cluster of human adapted Enterococcus faecium lineages (ST17, ST18 and ST78 in hospital-based infections. Changes in the chromosomal pbp5 gene have been associated with different levels of ampicillin susceptibility, leading to protein variants (designated as PBP5 C-types to keep the nomenclature used in previous works with diverse degrees of reduction in penicillin affinity. Our goal was to use a comparative genomics approach to evaluate the relationship between the diversity of PBP5 among E. faecium isolates of different phylogenomic groups as well as to assess the pbp5 transferability among isolates of disparate clonal lineages. The analyses of 78 selected E. faecium strains as well as published E. faecium genomes, suggested that the diversity of pbp5 mirrors the phylogenomic diversification of E. faecium. The presence of identical PBP5 C-types as well as similar pbp5 genetic environments in different E. faecium lineages and clones from quite different geographical and environmental origin was also documented and would indicate their horizontal gene transfer among E. faecium populations. This was supported by experimental assays showing transfer of large (≈180-280 kb chromosomal genetic platforms containing pbp5 alleles, ponA (transglycosilase and other metabolic and adaptive features, from E. faecium donor isolates to suitable E. faecium recipient strains. Mutation profile analysis of PBP5 from available genomes and strains from this study suggests that the spread of PBP5 C-types might have occurred even in the absence of a significant ampicillin resistance phenotype. In summary, genetic platforms containing pbp5 sequences were stably maintained in particular E. faecium lineages, but were also able to be transferred among E. faecium clones of different origins, emphasizing the growing risk of further spread of ampicillin resistance in this nosocomial pathogen.

  14. Two Cases of Vulvovaginitis Caused by Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei: a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bayramoğlu, Gülçin; Aydın, Faruk; Karagüzel, Gülay; İmamoğlu, Mustafa; Ökten, Ayşenur

    2012-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis caused by Shigella species (Shigella spp.) has rarely been reported. This paper describes two cases of prepubertal vulvovaginitis, presenting with a bloody and purulent vaginal discharge, separately caused by ampicillin-resistant Shigella flexneri and trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazoleresistant Shigella sonnei. Our conclusions are that Shigella spp. is the potential cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls in developing countries where these pathogens are endemic, and identifica...

  15. Antibiotic resistant bacteria in urban sewage: Role of full-scale wastewater treatment plants on environmental spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turolla, A; Cattaneo, M; Marazzi, F; Mezzanotte, V; Antonelli, M

    2018-01-01

    The presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) in wastewater was investigated and the role of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in promoting or limiting antibiotic resistance was assessed. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline was monitored in three WWTPs located in Milan urban area (Italy), differing among them for the operating parameters of biological process, for the disinfection processes (based on sodium hypochlorite, UV radiation, peracetic acid) and for the discharge limits to be met. Wastewater was collected from three sampling points along the treatment sequence (WWTP influent, effluent from sand filtration, WWTP effluent). Antibiotic resistance to ampicillin was observed both for E. coli and for THB. Ampicillin resistant bacteria in the WWTP influents were 20-47% of E. coli and 16-25% of THB counts. A limited resistance to chloramphenicol was observed only for E. coli, while neither for E. coli nor for THB tetracycline resistance was observed. The biological treatment and sand filtration led to a decrease in the maximum percentage of ampicillin-resistant bacteria (20-29% for E. coli, 11-21% for THB). However, the conventionally adopted parameters did not seem adequate to support an interpretation of WWTP role in ARB spread. Peracetic acid was effective in selectively acting on antibiotic resistant THB, unlike UV radiation and sodium hypochlorite. The low counts of E. coli in WWTP final effluents in case of agricultural reuse did not allow to compare the effect of the different disinfection processes on antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Agents of urinary tract infections in children and their antibiotic susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resul Yilmaz

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: Over the years, the resistance to ampicillin and TMP + SMX has increased. By unnecessary, improper and irregular drug use, the development of antimicrobial resistance for different antibiotics can be expected. Choosing appropriate antibiotic with taking into consideration of offers that were in common guidelines with the regional antibiotic resistance, development of resistance to different antibiotics can be prevented. [J Contemp Med 2012; 2(1.000: 17-21

  17. Molecular Characterization of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhimurium Isolates from Swine

    OpenAIRE

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen Abebe; Altier, Craig

    2002-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal study of antimicrobial resistance among salmonellae isolated from swine, we studied 484 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (including serovar Typhimurium var. Copenhagen) isolates. We found two common pentaresistant phenotypes. The first was resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (the AmCmStSuTe phenotype; 36.2% of all isolates), mainly of the definitive type 104 (DT104) phage type (180 of 187 ...

  18. Excipient-mediated alteration in drug bioavailability in the rat depends on the sex of the animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Yang; Afonso-Pereira, Francisco; Murdan, Sudaxshina; Basit, Abdul W

    2017-09-30

    The pharmaceutical excipient, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400), unexpectedly alters the bioavailability of the BCS class III drug ranitidine in a sex-dependent manner. As ranitidine is a substrate for the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), we hypothesized that the sex-related influence could be due to interactions between PEG 400 and P-gp. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by: i) measuring the influence of PEG 400 on the oral bioavailability of another P-gp substrate (ampicillin) and of a non-P-gp substrate (metformin); and ii) measuring the effect of PEG 400 on drug bioavailability in the presence of a P-gp inhibitor (cyclosporine A) in male and female rats. We found that PEG 400 significantly increased (pbioavailability of ampicillin (the P-gp substrate) in male rats, but not in female ones. In contrast, PEG 400 had no influence on the bioavailability of the non-P-gp substrate, metformin in male or female rats. Inhibition of P-gp by oral pre-treatment with cyclosporine A increased the bioavailability of the P-gp substrates (ampicillin and ranitidine) in males and females (pbioavailability of metformin in either male or female rats. These results prove the hypothesis that the sex-specific effect of PEG 400 on the bioavailability of certain drugs is due to the interaction of PEG 400 with the efflux transporter P-gp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ceftiofur sodium, a broad-spectrum cephalosporin: evaluation in vitro and in vivo in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, R J; Kinney, M L; Roberts, B J; Goodenough, K R; Hamel, J C; Ford, C W

    1987-07-01

    Ceftiofur sodium, a broad-spectrum beta-lactamase-resistant cephalosporin, was evaluated in vitro and in vivo in mice. Ceftiofur is the sodium salt of (6R, 7R)-7[( 2-amino-4-thiazolyl)-Z- (methoxyimino)acetyl]amino)-3-[( (2-furanylcarbonyl)thio]methyl)-8-oxo-5- thia-1-azabicyclo-[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylate. Minimal inhibitory concentration values were obtained with 264 strains representing 9 genera and 17 species of bacterial pathogens from cattle, swine, sheep, horses, poultry, dogs, cats, and human beings. Ceftiofur was more active than was ampicillin against all strains tested including beta-lactamase-producing organisms. In mice with systemic infections, ceftiofur was more active than or equivalent to ampicillin, cephalothin, cefamandole, cloxacillin, cefoperazone, or pirlimycin. These protection tests included infections with Escherichia coli, Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae, H somnus, Pasteurella haemolytica, P multocida, Salmonella typhimurium, or Staphylococcus aureus. In infant mice with E coli-induced lethal diarrhea and in mice with S aureus and E coli-induced mastitis, ceftiofur was comparable or more active than was ampicillin.

  20. Poly (vinyl alcohol-alginate physically crosslinked hydrogel membranes for wound dressing applications: Characterization and bio-evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbadawy A. Kamoun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available PVA-sodium alginate (SA hydrogel membranes containing sodium ampicillin as a topical antibiotic were developed using the freeze–thawing method for wound dressing application. Aqueous solution of sodium alginate has been blended in a certain ratio with PVA, followed by the crosslinking method has been conducted by freeze–thawing method as physical crosslinking instead of the use of traditional chemical crosslinking to avoid riskiness of chemical reagents and crosslinkers. The physicochemical properties of PVA-SA membranes e.g. gel fraction and water uptake % have been performed. Increased SA content with PVA decreased gel fraction, elasticity, and elongation to break of PVA-SA membranes. However, it resulted in an increase in swelling degree, protein adsorption, and roughness of membrane surface. High SA content in PVA membranes had apparently an impact on surface morphology structure of hydrogel membranes. Pore size and pore area distribution have been observed with addition of high SA concentration. However, high SA content had an insignificant effect on the release of ampicillin. The hydrolytic degradation of PVA-SA membranes has prominently increased with increasing SA content. Furthermore, hemolysis (% and in vitro inhibition (% for both Gram positive and negative bacteria have been sharply affected by addition of SA into PVA, indicating the improved blood hemocompatibility. Thus, PVA-SA hydrogel membrane based wound dressing system containing ampicillin could be a good polymeric membrane candidate in wound care.

  1. Modeling cooperating micro-organisms in antibiotic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Gilad; Ingham, Colin; Ariel, Gil

    2017-01-01

    Recent experiments with the bacteria Paenibacillus vortex reveal a remarkable strategy enabling it to cope with antibiotics by cooperating with a different bacterium-Escherichia coli. While P. vortex is a highly effective swarmer, it is sensitive to the antibiotic ampicillin. On the other hand, E. coli can degrade ampicillin but is non-motile when grown on high agar percentages. The two bacterial species form a shared colony in which E. coli is transported by P. vortex and E. coli detoxifies the ampicillin. The paper presents a simplified model, consisting of coupled reaction-diffusion equations, describing the development of ring patterns in the shared colony. Our results demonstrate some of the possible cooperative movement strategies bacteria utilize in order to survive harsh conditions. In addition, we explore the behavior of mixed colonies under new conditions such as antibiotic gradients, synchronization between colonies and possible dynamics of a 3-species system including P. vortex, E. coli and a carbon producing algae that provides nutrients under illuminated, nutrient poor conditions. The derived model was able to simulate an asymmetric relationship between two or three micro-organisms where cooperation is required for survival. Computationally, in order to avoid numerical artifacts due to symmetries within the discretizing grid, the model was solved using a second order Vectorizable Random Lattices method, which is developed as a finite volume scheme on a random grid.

  2. Modeling cooperating micro-organisms in antibiotic environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad Book

    Full Text Available Recent experiments with the bacteria Paenibacillus vortex reveal a remarkable strategy enabling it to cope with antibiotics by cooperating with a different bacterium-Escherichia coli. While P. vortex is a highly effective swarmer, it is sensitive to the antibiotic ampicillin. On the other hand, E. coli can degrade ampicillin but is non-motile when grown on high agar percentages. The two bacterial species form a shared colony in which E. coli is transported by P. vortex and E. coli detoxifies the ampicillin. The paper presents a simplified model, consisting of coupled reaction-diffusion equations, describing the development of ring patterns in the shared colony. Our results demonstrate some of the possible cooperative movement strategies bacteria utilize in order to survive harsh conditions. In addition, we explore the behavior of mixed colonies under new conditions such as antibiotic gradients, synchronization between colonies and possible dynamics of a 3-species system including P. vortex, E. coli and a carbon producing algae that provides nutrients under illuminated, nutrient poor conditions. The derived model was able to simulate an asymmetric relationship between two or three micro-organisms where cooperation is required for survival. Computationally, in order to avoid numerical artifacts due to symmetries within the discretizing grid, the model was solved using a second order Vectorizable Random Lattices method, which is developed as a finite volume scheme on a random grid.

  3. Celecoxib sensitizes Staphylococcus aureus to antibiotics in macrophages by modulating SIRT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamanedi, Madhavi; Kalle, Arunasree M

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that celecoxib in combination with an antibiotic, increase the bacterial sensitivity to antibiotics. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remained elusive. Efficacy of the combinatorial treatment of celecoxib and ampicillin in vitro was evaluated on macrophage-phagocytosed S. aureus. To elucidate the mechanism, signaling pathway of infection and inflammation involving TLR2, JNK, SIRT1 and NF-κB was studied by FACS, Western blot, ELISA and activity assays. Combinatorial treatment of ampicillin and celecoxib reduced the bacterial load in the macrophages. Further studies clearly suggested the activation of the master regulator of oxidative stress and inflammation SIRT1, by celecoxib when used alone and/or in combination with ampicillin. Also, the results indicated that celecoxib inhibited JNK phosphorylation thereby stabilizing and activating SIRT1 protein that inhibited the COX-2 gene transcription with a significant decrease in the levels of protein inflammatory cytokines like IL-6, MIP-1α and IL-1β via inhibition of NF-κB. SIRT1 activation by celecoxib also resulted in increase of catalase and peroxidase activity with a decrease in Nitric oxide levels. In conclusion, we demonstrate a novel role of celecoxib in controlling inflammation as an enhancer of antibiotic activity against bacteria by modulating SIRT1.

  4. Incidence of rash after amoxicillin treatment in children with infectious mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chovel-Sella, Aluma; Ben Tov, Amir; Lahav, Einat; Mor, Orna; Rudich, Hagit; Paret, Gideon; Reif, Shimon

    2013-05-01

    "Ampicillin rash," a phenomenon unique to patients with Epstein-Barr virus acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM) treated with ampicillin, was first reported in the 1960s. The incidence was estimated as being between 80% and 100%, and the figures have not been reviewed since those first accounts. We sought to establish the current incidence of rash associated with antibiotic treatment among children with AIM. A retrospective study of all hospitalized children diagnosed as having AIM based upon positive Epstein-Barr virus serology in 2 pediatric tertiary medical centers in Israel. Of the 238 children who met the study entry criteria during the study period, 173 were treated with antibiotics. Fifty-seven (32.9%) of the subjects treated with antibiotics had a rash during their illness compared with 15 (23.1%) in untreated patients (P = .156; not significant). Amoxicillin was associated with the highest incidence of antibiotic-induced rash occurrence (29.5%, 95% confidence interval: 18.52-42.57), but significantly lower than the 90% rate reported for ampicillin in past studies. Age, gender, ethnicity, and atopic or allergic history were not associated with the development of rash after antibiotic exposure. Among the laboratory data, only increased white blood cell counts were more prevalent among subjects who did not develop an antibiotic-induced rash. The incidence of rash in pediatric patients with AIM after treatment with the current oral aminopenicillin (amoxicillin) is much lower than originally reported.

  5. Multivariable Analysis of the Association Between Antimicrobial Use and Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolated from Apparently Healthy Pigs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita, Kohei; Goto, Masaki; Ozawa, Manao; Kawanishi, Michiko; Koike, Ryoji; Asai, Tetsuo; Tamura, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between antimicrobial agent use and antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from healthy pigs using data from 2004 to 2007 in the Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (JVARM). Fecal E. coli isolates from 250 pigs (one isolate each from a pig per farm) were examined for antimicrobial resistance. Information on the use of antimicrobials within preceding 6 months and types of farms recorded in JVARM was collected and statistically analyzed against the resistance patterns. In the univariate analysis, associations between both therapeutic and feed additive use of antimicrobials, and resistance to dihydrostreptomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, ampicillin, cefazolin, ceftiofur, oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, nalidixic acid, enrofloxacin, colistin, and bicozamycin, and husbandry factors were investigated. In multivariable analysis, generalized estimating equations were used to control geographical intraclass correlation. Confounding for structurally unrelated associations was tested using generalized linear models. The results suggested direct and cross selections in the associations between use of aminoglycosides in reproduction farms and resistance to kanamycin, use of tetracyclines in larger farms and resistance to oxytetracycline, use of beta-lactams and resistance to ampicillin, use of phenicols and resistance to chloramphenicol, and use of fluoroquinolones and resistance to nalidixic acid and enrofloxacin. Coselection was suggested in the use of tetracyclines and chloramphenicol resistance. The associations between use of beta-lactams and dihydrostreptomycin resistance, use of macrolides and ampicillin and oxytetracycline resistance, and use of colistin and kanamycin resistance were significant, but were confounded by the simultaneous use of homologous antimicrobials.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance in community and nosocomial Escherichia coli urinary tract isolates, London 2005 – 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wareham David W

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli is the commonest cause of community and nosocomial urinary tract infection (UTI. Antibiotic treatment is usually empirical relying on susceptibility data from local surveillance studies. We therefore set out to determine levels of resistance to 8 commonly used antimicrobial agents amongst all urinary isolates obtained over a 12 month period. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefalexin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim and cefpodoxime was determined for 11,865 E. coli urinary isolates obtained from community and hospitalised patients in East London. Results Nitrofurantoin was the most active agent (94% susceptible, followed by gentamicin and cefpodoxime. High rates of resistance to ampicillin (55% and trimethoprim (40%, often in combination were observed in both sets of isolates. Although isolates exhibiting resistance to multiple drug classes were rare, resistance to cefpodoxime, indicative of Extended spectrum β-lactamase production, was observed in 5.7% of community and 21.6% of nosocomial isolates. Conclusion With the exception of nitrofurantoin, resistance to agents commonly used as empirical oral treatments for UTI was extremely high. Levels of resistance to trimethoprim and ampicillin render them unsuitable for empirical use. Continued surveillance and investigation of other oral agents for treatment of UTI in the community is required.

  7. Metabolomic approach to optimizing and evaluating antibiotic treatment in the axenic culture of cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pei-pei; Jia, Shi-ru; Sun, Ying; Tan, Zhi-lei; Zhong, Cheng; Dai, Yu-jie; Tan, Ning; Shen, Shi-gang

    2014-09-01

    The application of antibiotic treatment with assistance of metabolomic approach in axenic isolation of cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme was investigated. Seven antibiotics were tested at 1-100 mg L(-1), and order of tolerance of N. flagelliforme cells was obtained as kanamycin > ampicillin, tetracycline > chloromycetin, gentamicin > spectinomycin > streptomycin. Four antibiotics were selected based on differences in antibiotic sensitivity of N. flagelliforme and associated bacteria, and their effects on N. flagelliforme cells including the changes of metabolic activity with antibiotics and the metabolic recovery after removal were assessed by a metabolomic approach based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with multivariate analysis. The results showed that antibiotic treatment had affected cell metabolism as antibiotics treated cells were metabolically distinct from control cells, but the metabolic activity would be recovered via eliminating antibiotics and the sequence of metabolic recovery time needed was spectinomycin, gentamicin > ampicillin > kanamycin. The procedures of antibiotic treatment have been accordingly optimized as a consecutive treatment starting with spectinomycin, then gentamicin, ampicillin and lastly kanamycin, and proved to be highly effective in eliminating the bacteria as examined by agar plating method and light microscope examination. Our work presented a strategy to obtain axenic culture of N. flagelliforme and provided a method for evaluating and optimizing cyanobacteria purification process through diagnosing target species cellular state.

  8. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of urine isolates from asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, A.M.; Khan, H.U.; Mashud, I.U.; Ashiq, B.; Shah, S.H.

    2006-01-01

    Screening women for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) on the first antenatal visit is a part of standard obstetric care. Treating women with ASB decreases the chances of maternal and foetal complications. This study was conducted to find out the spectrum of urine pathogens and their drug susceptibility pattern for ASB during pregnancy. The study was conducted in the Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre Karachi, from September 2001 to March 2002. Two hundred and ninety women, apparently normal with confirmed pregnancy, were registered. A voided midstream urine specimen was collected and cultured. A significant growth i.e. >105 organisms/ml was identified with Analytical Profile Index 20 tests for identification of Enterobacteriaceae (API-20-E) and for Gram positive cocci by other standard methods. The prevalence of ASB was found 6.2%. Antimicrobial sensitivity was determined by disc diffusion Kirby Bauyer method after matching the turbidity with 0.5 McFarland's standard. Most of the recommended drugs were found to have encouraging results, however, Escherichia coli showed 66.67% resistance to ampicillins and sulphonamides. Enterobacters showed 100% resistance to ampicillins, cephalosporins and nitrofurantoin. Staphylococcus saprophyticus showed 66.67% resistance to ampicillins and sulphonamides. It was concluded that detection of ASB during pregnancy and appropriate use of antimicrobials is only possible after culture of urine. Empirical anti-microbial therapy cannot be relied upon because of possible risk of resistance. (author)

  9. Characterization of integron mediated antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella isolated from diseased swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David G.; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick F.; Ayers, Sherry; Friedman, Sharon; Sherwood, Julie; Breider-Foley, Missy; Nolan, Lisa K.

    2003-01-01

    Forty-two Salmonella isolates obtained from diseased swine were genetically characterized for the presence of specific antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. Twenty of these isolates were characterized as S. Typhimurium DT104 strains. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to determine genetic relatedness and revealed 20 distinct genetic patterns among the 42 isolates. However, all DT104 isolates fell within 2 closely related genetic clusters. Other Salmonella isolates were genetically grouped together according to serotype. All DT104 isolates displayed the penta-resistance phenotype to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. Resistance to sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, streptomycin, kanamycin, and ampicillin was most common among the non-DT104 Salmonella isolates. All DT104 strains contained 2 chromosomal integrons of 1000 and 1200 base pairs. The DNA sequencing revealed that the 2 integrons contained genes encoding a resistance to streptomycin and ampicillin, respectively. None of the non-DT104 strains showed the same pattern, although several strains possessed integrons of 1000 base pairs or larger. However, the majority of non-DT104 Salmonella strains did not possess any integrons. Two Salmonella isolates displayed tolerance to the organic solvent cyclohexane, indicating the possibility that they are overexpressing chromosomal regulatory genes marA or soxS or the associated multidrug efflux pump, acrAB. This research suggests that integrons contribute to antimicrobial resistance among specific swine Salmonella serotypes; however, they are not as widely disseminated among non-Typhimurium swine Salmonella serotypes as previously thought. PMID:12528827

  10. Thermo-and pH-sensitive hydrogel membranes composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-hyaluronan for biomedical applications: Influence of hyaluronan incorporation on the membrane properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoun, Elbadawy A; Fahmy, Alaa; Taha, Tarek H; El-Fakharany, Esmail M; Makram, Mohamed; Soliman, Hesham M A; Shehata, Hassan

    2018-01-01

    Interpenetrating hydrogel membranes consisting of pH-sensitive hyaluronan (HA) and thermo-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAM) were synthesized using redox polymerization, followed by N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS) and epichlorohydrin (EPI) were added as chemical crosslinkers. The interaction between membrane compositions has been characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and discussed intensively. The result indicates that HA incorporation in membranes increase the gel fraction, swelling uptake, and the flexibility/elasticity of crosslinked membranes, however it reduced oppositely the mechanical elongation of membranes. PNIPAAm-HA hydrogels responded to both temperature and pH changes and the stimuli-responsiveness was reversible. However, in vitro bioevaluation results revealed that the released ampicillin during the burst release time was sharply influenced and increased with increasing HA contents in membranes; afterwards it became sustainable. Whereas, high HA contents in hydrogels unexpectedly impacted negatively on the cells viability, owing to the viscosity of cell culture media changed. A big resistance was observed against microbial growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and Candida albicans in case of pure PNIPAAm hydrogel membranes without HA or ampicillin. However, HA incorporation or the loaded ampicillin in membranes showed unexpected easily microbial growth. The fast release performance with dual pH-thermo-sensitive hydrogels were suggested as promising materials for quick drug carrier in the biomedical field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcus intermedius isolates from clinical cases of canine pyoderma in South Africa

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    Catherine A. Blunt

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Successful treatment of canine pyoderma has become compromised owing to the development of antimicrobial resistance with accompanying recurrence of infection. Canine skin samples submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory for microbiological culture and sensitivity between January 2007 and June 2010, from which Staphylococcus intermedius was isolated, were selected for this investigation. Antimicrobial resistance of S. intermedius was most prevalent with reference to ampicillin followed by resistance to tetracycline and then potentiated sulphonamides. In general, antimicrobial resistance was low and very few methicillin-resistant isolates were detected. Temporal trends were not noted, except for ampicillin, with isolates becoming more susceptible, and potentiated sulphonamides (co-trimoxazole, with isolates becoming more resistant. In general, both the Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion and broth dilution minimum inhibitory concentration tests yielded similar results for the antimicrobial agents tested. The main difference was evident in the over-estimation of resistance by the Kirby–Bauer test for ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, penicillin and doxycycline. Knowledge of trends in bacterial resistance is important for veterinarians when presented with canine pyoderma. Analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of S. intermedius isolated from canine pyodermas will guide veterinarians’ use of the most appropriate agent and encourage prudent use of antimicrobials in companion animals.

  12. Piezoelectric immunosensors for the detection of individual antibiotics and the total content of penicillin antibiotics in foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaseva, N A; Ermolaeva, T N

    2014-03-01

    Piezoelectric immunosensors on the basis of homologous and group-specificantibodies have been developed for detecting penicillin G, ampicillin, and the total content of penicillin antibiotics. The receptor coating of the sensor was obtained by the immobilization of penicillin G or ampicillin hapten-protein conjugates on the polypyrrole film obtained by electropolymerization and activated by glutaraldehyde. The affinity constants and the cross reactivity coefficients have been calculated. This made it possible to estimate the affinity and specificity of the polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies used. The calibration curves are linear in the range of concentrations 2.5-250.0 ng ml(-1) (penicillin G), 2.5-500.0 ng ml(-1) (ampicillin), and 1-500 ng ml(-1) (group of penicillin). The limits of detection are 0.8 ng ml(-1), 3.9 ng ml(-1), which are lower than MRL, established for penicillin antibiotics. The sensors were tested in detecting penicillins in milk, pork, beef, liver. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from seafoods in Lagos Lagoon Nigeria

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    Chigozie Oramadike

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a total of 90 seafood samples; croaker fish (Pseudotolithus senegalensis, shrimps (Penaeus notialis and blue crab (Callinectes sapidus collected from landing sites along the Lagos Lagoon in Nigeria were examined for the prevalence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus using both biochemical and molecular methods. Biochemical identification of the isolates was confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. The presence of the virulence-associated tdh (thermostable direct haemolysin, trh1 (thermostable-related haemolysin and trh2 genes in the V. parahaemolyticus isolates was also detected by the PCR method. PCR products from the V.16S primers were sequenced. Antibiotics susceptibility of the isolates was also determined. About, eight isolates were presumptively identified as V. parahaemolyticus, PCR identified five and none of the isolates were positive for the genes tdh or trh. The five isolates sequenced were identified as different strains of V. parahaemolyticus. V. parahaemolyticus_RIMD_2210633 = 2MKSHa remained resistant to all antimicrobials tested. However, only V. parahaemolyticus_MP-2_AY911391 = TBSHy showed strong sensitivity to all the antimicrobials with ampicillin (minimum inhibitory concentration-4 μg/ml. In addition, the other three isolates showed sensitivity for Tetracycline, Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin and Ceftazidime. Ampicillin resistance in most of the isolates suggests low efficiency of ampicillin in management of V. parahaemolyticus infection.

  14. SEM Analysis of Surface Impact on Biofilm Antibiotic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Luciana Calheiros; Mergulhão, Filipe José

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to investigate the effect of ampicillin treatment on Escherichia coli biofilms formed on two surface materials with different properties, silicone (SIL) and glass (GLA). Epifluorescence microscopy (EM) was initially used to assess biofilm formation and killing efficiency on both surfaces. This technique showed that higher bacterial colonization was obtained in the hydrophobic SIL than in the hydrophilic GLA. It has also shown that higher biofilm inactivation was attained for GLA after the antibiotic treatment (7-log reduction versus 1-log reduction for SIL). Due to its high resolution and magnification, SEM enabled a more detailed analysis of the antibiotic effect on biofilm cells, complementing the killing efficiency information obtained by EM. SEM micrographs revealed that ampicillin-treated cells have an elongated form when compared to untreated cells. Additionally, it has shown that different materials induced different levels of elongation on cells exposed to antibiotic. Biofilms formed on GLA showed a 37% higher elongation than those formed on SIL. Importantly, cell elongation was related to viability since ampicillin had a higher bactericidal effect on GLA-formed biofilms. These findings raise the possibility of using SEM for understanding the efficacy of antimicrobial treatments by observation of biofilm morphology.

  15. Synergism of Plant Compound With Traditional Antimicrobials Against Streptococcus spp. Isolated From Bovine Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha L. Maia

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland that causes major losses in the dairy industry. Streptococcus spp. are among the main agents of this disease. Increased resistance to antibiotics is one of the causes of therapeutic failure. Plants, due to their broad chemodiversity, are an interesting source of new molecules with antibacterial activity. Using these compounds along with traditional antibiotics is a possible method for reversing resistance. The objective of this work was to determine the interactions between the activities of guttiferone-A and 7-epiclusianone, two active substances isolated from the fruits of Garcinia brasiliensis, and traditional antibiotics against Streptococcus spp. isolated from bovine mastitis and known to be resistant to them. First, the MIC for the antibiotics and bioactive compounds was determined, followed by their activities, alone and in combination. Then, their cytotoxicity was measured in bovine mammary epithelial cells. Finally, molecular docking simulations were performed to elucidate molecular details of the interactions between β-lactamase and the compounds binding to it (clavulanic acid, ampicillin, 7-epiclusianone, and guttiferone-A. The bacterial isolates were resistant to ampicillin and gentamicin. Both antibiotics showed predominantly synergistic antibacterial activities in combination with guttiferone-A or 7-epiclusianone. These two active substances were not cytotoxic at synergistic concentrations and both showed strong binding to β-lactamase, which may explain the reversal of ampicillin resistance. These substances are promising for the treatment of bovine mastitis.

  16. Assessment of antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolates and screening of Salmonella spp. in wild ungulates from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Diana; Torres, Rita T; Kronvall, Göran; Fonseca, Carlos; Mendo, Sónia; Caetano, Tânia

    2015-09-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an emerging global problem. Wild animals are rarely exposed to antibiotics and therefore low levels of antibiotic resistance are expected. However, the growing interactions of these animals with humans and livestock may have a huge impact on their bacterial flora. This study aimed to assess the levels of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from widespread wild ungulates in Portugal. The interpretation of inhibition zone diameters was performed according to clinical breakpoints and epidemiological cut-offs, determined with the normalized resistance interpretation (NRI) method. For clinical breakpoints, 16% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, including ampicillin (10%), tetracycline (9%), streptomycin (5%) co-trimoxazole (4%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (1%) and cefoxitin (1%). The levels of resistance detected in E. coli strains isolated from wild boar were statistically different for ampicillin and co-trimoxasol. According to NRI cut-offs, 10% of the population showed a non-wild-type phenotype against at least one antibiotic, also including tetracycline (9%), co-trimoxazole (6%), streptomycin (4%), ampicillin (2%) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (1%). Considering this parameter of comparison, no statistically different levels of resistance were identified between E. coli recovered from the three wild ungulates. Screening of Salmonella spp., which can be potentially pathogenic, was also performed, revealing that its prevalence was very low (1.5%). The study demonstrated that wild ungulates from Portugal are also reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. First-Line Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Escherichia coli in Children With Urinary Tract Infection in Emergency Department and Primary Care Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M Nadeem; Vannoy, Debby; Frederick, Ann; Chang, Sandy; Lawler, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    To identify risk factors for antibiotic resistance to Escherichia coli (E. coli) in children with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in emergency room and primary care clinics. This is a cross-sectional study of children 0 to 18 years of age reported to have E coli-positive UTIs whose medical and laboratory records were systematically reviewed. Compared with girls, boys were 2.29 times (confidence interval [CI] = 1.30-4.02) more likely to have E coli isolates resistant to ampicillin and 2 times more likely (CI = 1.13-3.62) to have isolates resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX). Patients with genitourinary abnormalities were 1.57 times more likely to be resistant to ampicillin (CI = 1.03-2.41) and 1.86 times to TMP/SMX (CI = 1.18-2.94). Higher rates of ampicillin and TMP/SMX resistant urinary E coli isolates were observed among boys and children with a history of genitourinary abnormality. Age and recent antibiotic prescription are also potential risk factors for resistance. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Antibiotic resistance in children with complicated urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiz, B.; Kural, N.; Yarar, C.; Ak, I.; Akcar, N.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to determine the resistance of antibiotics for complicated urinary tract infection (UTI), including urinary tract anomaly (UTA), for empirical antibiotic therapy of complicated UTI. Four hundred and twenty two urine isolates were obtained from 113 patients with recurrent UTI, who used prophylactic antibiotics between February 1999 and November 2004 in the Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey. Reflux was found to be most important predisposing factor for recurrent UTI (31.9%). Renal scar was detected more in patients with UTA than without UTA (59.2% versus 12.4%, p<0.05). Gram-negative organisms were dominant in patients with and without UTA (91.5% and 79.2%). Enterococci and Candida spp. were more prevalent in children with UTA than without UTA (p<0.001). Isolates were significantly more resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amikacin, co-amoxiclav, ticarcillin-clvalanate and piperacillin-tazobactam in patients with UTA than without UTA. We found low resistance to ciprofloxacin and nitrofurantoin in UTI with and without UTA. Enterococci spp. was highly resistance to ampicillin and amikacin in patients with UTA. Aztreonam, meropenem and ciprofloxacin seemed to be the best choice for treatment of UTI with UTA due to Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. Nitrofurantoin and nalidixic acid may be first choice antibiotics for prophylaxis in UTI with and without UTA. The UTI with UTA caused by Enterococci spp. might not benefit from a combination of amikacin and ampicillin, it could be treated with glycopeptides. (author)

  19. Zinc Finger Nuclease: A New Approach to Overcome Beta-Lactam Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi Dastjerdeh, Mansoureh; Kouhpayeh, Shirin; Sabzehei, Faezeh; Khanahmad, Hossein; Salehi, Mansour; Mohammadi, Zahra; Shariati, Laleh; Hejazi, Zahra; Rabiei, Parisa; Manian, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Background: The evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) has been accelerated recently by the indiscriminate application of antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance has challenged the success of medical interventions and therefore is considered a hazardous threat to human health. Objectives: The present study aimed to describe the use of zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology to target and disrupt a plasmid-encoded β-lactamase, which prevents horizontal gene transfer-mediated evolution of ARBs. Materials and Methods: An engineered ZFN was designed to target a specific sequence in the ampicillin resistance gene (ampR) of the pTZ57R plasmid. The Escherichia coli bacteria already contained the pZFN kanamycin-resistant (kanaR) plasmid as the case or the pP15A, kanaR empty vector as the control, were transformed with the pTZ57R; the ability of the designed ZFN to disrupt the β-lactamase gene was evaluated with the subsequent disturbed ability of the bacteria to grow on ampicillin (amp) and ampicillin-kanamycin (amp-kana)-containing media. The effect of mild hypothermia on the ZFN gene targeting efficiency was also evaluated. Results: The growth of bacteria in the case group on the amp and amp-kana-containing media was significantly lower compared with the control group at 37°C (P < 0.001). Despite being more efficient in hypothermic conditions at 30°C (P < 0.001), there were no significant associations between the incubation temperature and the ZFN gene targeting efficiency. Conclusions: Our findings revealed that the ZFN technology could be employed to overcome ampicillin resistance by the targeted disruption of the ampicillin resistance gene, which leads to inactivation of β-lactam synthesis. Therefore, ZFN technology could be engaged to decrease the antibiotic resistance issue with the construction of a ZFN archive against different ARGs. To tackle the resistance issue at the environmental level, recombinant phages

  20. Herd-level association between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in bovine mastitis Staphylococcus aureus isolates on Canadian dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, V; McClure, J T; Scholl, D T; DeVries, T J; Barkema, H W

    2012-04-01

    Surveillance of antimicrobial use and resistance is needed to manage antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. In this study, data were collected on antimicrobial use and resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (n=562), isolated from intramammary infections and (sub)clinical mastitis cases on 89 dairy farms in 4 regions of Canada [Alberta, Ontario, Québec, and the Maritime Provinces (Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick)]. Dairy producers were asked to deposit empty drug containers into specially provided receptacles, and antimicrobial drug use rate was calculated to quantify antimicrobial use. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the Sensititer bovine mastitis plate system (TREK Diagnostic Systems Inc., Cleveland, OH), containing antimicrobials commonly used for mastitis treatment and control. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to determine herd-level risk factors of penicillin, ampicillin, pirlimycin, penicillin-novobiocin combination, tetracycline and sulfadimethoxine resistance in Staph. aureus isolates. Intramammary administration of the penicillin-novobiocin combination for dry cow therapy was associated with penicillin and ampicillin resistance [odds ratio (OR): 2.17 and 3.10, respectively]. Systemic administration of penicillin was associated with penicillin resistance (OR: 1.63). Intramammary administration of pirlimycin for lactating cow mastitis treatment was associated with pirlimycin resistance as well (OR: 2.07). Average herd parity was associated with ampicillin and tetracycline resistance (OR: 3.88 and 0.02, respectively). Average herd size was also associated with tetracycline resistance (OR: 1.02). Dairy herds in the Maritime region had higher odds of penicillin and lower odds of ampicillin resistance than dairy herds in Québec (OR: 2.18 and 0.19, respectively). Alberta dairy herds had lower odds of ampicillin and sulfadimethoxine resistance than dairy herds in Québec (OR: 0.04 and 0.08, respectively

  1. Indagine epidemiologica locale dell’eziologia delle infezioni delle vie urinarie (IVU nosocomiali e comunitarie e dell’antibiotico-sensibilità degli uropatogeni.

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    Agostina Ronca

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are common infectious diseases that can be associated with substantial morbidity. During the last decade, resistance to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole has increased in Escherichia coli, the most common uropathogen, and recent reports have shown increasing resistance even to fluoroquinolones. The aim of this local surveillance study was to determine the distribution of bacterial strains isolated from outpatients and inpatients with UTIs and antibiotic susceptibility patterns to antimicrobial agents currently used in the treatment of pathogens causing these infections. Materials and methods: Between January and March 2006 a total of 1596 urine specimens, 968 from outpatients and 628 from inpatients, respectively, were recovered. Urinary pathogens isolated were 235, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed by Vitek II.The following antimicrobial agents were tested: ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftazidime, imipenem, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and nitrofurantoin. E test® method were used to study the production of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL. Results:The most frequent pathogen found was Escherichia coli (68.5%, followed by Klebsiella spp. (8.5%, Proteus mirabilis (7.6%, and Enterococcus spp. (6%. E. coli resistance rates less than 10% was observed for ceftazidime, imipenem and nitrofurantoin. In strains isolated from outpatients resistance to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was 37% and 19%, respectively, and resistance to fluoroquinolones was about 20%. Resistance rates of E. coli was significantly higher in complicated nosocomial-acquired infection: ampicillin 53.6%, cotrimossazole 35.7% and ciprofloxacin 33.9%. ESBL producer strains were 7 E.coli (4.3% and 6 Proteus spp. (33%. Conclusions: This study confirmed that E. coli and other Enterobacteriaceae are the predominant bacterial pathogens envolved in UTIs. Currently, the

  2. Resistance to antimicrobial agents among Salmonella isolates recovered from layer farms and eggs in the Caribbean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesiyun, Abiodun; Webb, Lloyd; Musai, Lisa; Louison, Bowen; Joseph, George; Stewart-Johnson, Alva; Samlal, Sannandan; Rodrigo, Shelly

    2014-12-01

    This investigation determined the frequency of resistance of 84 isolates of Salmonella comprising 14 serotypes recovered from layer farms in three Caribbean countries (Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, and St. Lucia) to eight antimicrobial agents, using the disc diffusion method. Resistance among isolates of Salmonella was related to the country of recovery, type of sample, size of layer farms, and isolate serotype. Overall, all (100.0%) of the isolates exhibited resistance to one or more of seven antimicrobial agents tested, and all were susceptible to chloramphenicol. The resistance detected ranged from 11.9% to sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT) to 100.0% to erythromycin. The difference was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.23). Across countries, for types of samples that yielded Salmonella, significant differences in frequency of resistance were detected only to SXT (P = 0.002) in Trinidad and Tobago and to gentamycin (P = 0.027) in St. Lucia. For the three countries, the frequency of resistance to antimicrobial agents was significantly different for ampicillin (P = 0.001) and SXT (P = 0.032). A total of 83 (98.8%) of the 84 isolates exhibited 39 multidrug resistance patterns. Farm size significantly (P = 0.032) affected the frequency of resistance to kanamycin across the countries. Overall, among the 14 serotypes of Salmonella tested, significant (P resistance were detected to kanamycin, ampicillin, and SXT. Results suggest that the relatively high frequency of resistance to six of the antimicrobial agents (erythromycin, streptomycin, gentamycin, kanamycin, ampicillin, and tetracycline) tested and the multidrug resistance detected may pose prophylactic and therapeutic concerns for chicken layer farms in the three countries studied.

  3. Vaginal versus Obstetric Infection Escherichia coli Isolates among Pregnant Women: Antimicrobial Resistance and Genetic Virulence Profile.

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    Emma Sáez-López

    Full Text Available Vaginal Escherichia coli colonization is related to obstetric infections and the consequent development of infections in newborns. Ampicillin resistance among E. coli strains is increasing, which is the main choice for treating empirically many obstetric and neonatal infections. Vaginal E. coli strains are very similar to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli with regards to the virulence factors and the belonging to phylogroup B2. We studied the antimicrobial resistance and the genetic virulence profile of 82 E. coli isolates from 638 vaginal samples and 63 isolated from endometrial aspirate, placental and amniotic fluid samples from pregnant women with obstetric infections. The prevalence of E. coli in the vaginal samples was 13%, which was significant among women with associated risk factors during pregnancy, especially premature preterm rupture of membranes (p<0.0001. Sixty-five percent of the strains were ampicillin-resistant. The E. coli isolates causing obstetric infections showed higher resistance levels than vaginal isolates, particularly for gentamicin (p = 0.001. The most prevalent virulence factor genes were those related to the iron uptake systems revealing clear targets for interventions. More than 50% of the isolates belonged to the virulent B2 group possessing the highest number of virulence factor genes. The ampicillin-resistant isolates had high number of virulence factors primarily related to pathogenicity islands, and the remarkable gentamicin resistance in E. coli isolates from women presenting obstetric infections, the choice of the most appropriate empiric treatment and clinical management of pregnant women and neonates should be carefully made. Taking into account host-susceptibility, the heterogeneity of E. coli due to evolution over time and the geographical area, characterization of E. coli isolates colonizing the vagina and causing obstetric infections in different regions may help to develop interventions and avoid the

  4. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Satureja Khuzestanica J. Essential Oil against Standard and Isolated Strains of Listeria monocytogenes

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    Sheida Akbari-Shahabi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to determine antibacterial activity of essential oil of Satureja khuzestanica against Listeria monocytogenes (PTCC1295 and strains isolated from breast milk show that. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, Essence of leave’s plant was extracted and identified its compounds and then carvacrol was isolated. Antibacterial activities were examined by agar dilution method against L. monocytogenes. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bacterial concentration (MBC were carried out by micro dilution method. Then bacterial suspension injected the BALB/c mice. Forty-eight h after seeing the listeriosis disease signs were started the treatment. Ampicillin (10 μg/disc and trimethoprim (5 g were used as controls. Results: The results showed that the inhibitory zone diameter standard and essential oils for strains isolated species were respectively 59 and 50 mm. This amount was determined by carvacrol, respectively, 60 and 48 mm. Inhibition zone diameter measurements for standard strains of ampicillin and trimethoprim tedious strains, respectively, 21, 40, 18 and 33 mm, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration of essential oils, carvacrol and ampicillin than standard strains, respectively 1.56, 1.56 and 155×10˗8 μg/mL and MBC 3.125, 3.125 and 125×10-7 μg/mL was determined by the ratio of the strain 3.125, 3.125 and 0.0062 μg/mL and MBC was 6.25, 6.25 and 0.025 μg/mL. Conclusion: This study showed that bacterial cleansing properties of essential oil of this plant have a strong and effective combination that is carvacrol.

  5. [Asymptomatic bacteruiria frequency in pregnant women and uropathogen in vitro antimicrobial sensitivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Blas, Fernanda; López Carmona, Juan Manuel; Rodríguez Moctezuma, José Raymundo; Peralta Pedrero, María Luisa; Rodríguez Gutiérrez, Román Salvador; Ortiz Aguirre, Alma Rosa

    2007-06-01

    To estimate the frequency of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attended in Family Medicine Units of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social and to determine the in vitro sensitivity rate of the microorganisms to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nitrofurantoin and amikacin. We carried out an observational, prospective and transversal study at Family Medicine Units 62 and 64 of the Mexico State Delegation, located in the urban area of Mexico City. Women with lesser than 32 weeks of pregnancy without urinary tract symptoms were included. Urine culture of a midstream urine specimen with > or = 10(5) colony forming units/mL urine of an only germen was used as the gold standard. The in vitro antimicrobial sensitivity was established according to the Bauer Kirby technique. 874 pregnant women were included and 73 had a positive urine culture, with a frequency of 8.4%, IC 95% = 6.6 - 10.2%, of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Escherichia coil was the most frequent isolated agent (77%). In vitro sensitivity to ampicillin of the microorganisms isolated was of 27%, IC 95% = 16 - 38%; to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole of 40%, IC95% = 29 - 51%; to amikacin of 68%, IC 95% = 57 - 79%, and to nitrofurantoin of 79%, IC 95% = 70 - 88%. The frequency of asymptomatic bacteriuria in the studied population is similar to the reported by the literature. The in vitro sensitivity rates of E. coil to ampicillin and to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are very low. The best sensitivity corresponded to the nitrofurantoin. The treatment of the asymptomatic bacteriuria must be based on the local patterns of antimicrobial sensitivity and resistance.

  6. High prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of urinary tract infection isolates in febrile young children without localizing signs in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Teng; Lee, Hao-Yuan; Chen, Chyi-Liang; Tuan, Pao-Lan; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun

    2016-04-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility and prevalence of pediatric urinary tract infection (UTI) is very useful for pediatricians in selecting effective antibiotics in time to improve outcomes in patients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence rate, bacterial distribution, and antimicrobial susceptibility of UTI in febrile young children at a teaching hospital in northern Taiwan. From January 2011 to December 2011, all urinary isolates from suspected cases of UTI in febrile young children aged from 1 day to 36 months visiting the Pediatric Emergency Room of Chang Gung Children's Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan were identified by conventional methods. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. A total of 5470 (78%) from 7009 eligible children were enrolled in the study, and 619 (11.3%) had a diagnosis of UTI. The most prevalent bacterium was Escherichia coli (68%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.1%) and Proteus mirabilis (6.8%). Ampicillin, piperacillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) showed a higher resistance rate in the three predominant bacteria. All tested bacteria showed higher resistance to ampicillin (79.3%) and TMP-SMX (44.1%), and lower resistance to cefazolin (17.7%) and gentamicin (13.0%). Fourteen percent of the isolates produced extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), among which 93.33% were E. coli isolates. The overall prevalence of UTI in this study was higher than previously reported in febrile children. Higher antimicrobial resistance was found in ampicillin and TMP-SMX. Among commonly used antibiotics, cefazolin and gentamicin are recommended to treat UTI in febrile children aged < 3 years without localizing signs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Antibacterial activity of four Gracilaria species of red seaweeds collected from Mandapam Coast, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, India

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    Sethu Rameshkumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the antibacterial activities of diethyl ether, toluene, ethanol and methanol extracts of red seaweeds such as Gracilaria crassa (G. crassa, Gracilaria folifera (G. folifera, Gracilaria debilis (G. debilis and Gracilaria corticata. Methods: The crude extracts were tested against different types of Gram-positive and -negative bacterial strains and all the seaweed extracts were tested a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. Antibacterial activity was made using paper disc diffusion method. Four organic solvents (diethyl ether, toluene, methanol and ethanol were used separately in a Soxhlet apparatus for seven bacterial strains. Antibacterial activity of the known antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, streptomycin, kanamycin and ampicillin was determined by testing them against different test organisms. Results: The high antibacterial activity was noted in the extracts of G. crassa, G. folifera and G. debilis. However, G. crassa and G. debilis have good antibacterial activity. Pathogens like Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli were less susceptible to the methanol and diethyl ether extracts of G. folifera. The comparative study on the antibacterial activity was also made by using 200 μg concentration of solvent extracts (diethyl ether, ethanol, toluene and methanoland different five antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, streptomycin, kanamycin, amoxicillin and ampicillin. The bacterial strains tested were more sensitive to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, kanamycin, and ampicillin when compared to algal extracts. Conclusions: The present study proved that the extracts of G. crassa, G. folifera and G. debilis have high antibacterial activity. Although G. crassa and G. debilis showed good antibacterial activity, many known antibiotics are active against a few organisms individually. Hence, the extracts of seaweeds were active against all test organisms used and the activities were comparable to that of antibiotics and the

  8. Child morbidity of salmonellosis and the level of resistance of clinical isolates of salmonella to antibacterial preparations in saint Petersburg

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    N. V. Gonchar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to study the dynamics of the incidence of salmonellosis children in St. Petersburg and phenotypic resistance of clinical isolates of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium to antibiotics in recent years. Materials and methods. The incidence of salmonellosis children studied according to the report for the first nine months of Rospotrebnadzor in 2013–2014. Incidence of salmonellosis in the structure of bacterial intestinal infections caused by pathogens in children hospitalized in the Department of intestinal infections in 2013–2014, studied according to annual reports. Antibiotic sensitivity was studied 86 Salmonella isolates (S. Enteritidis strain 64 and strain 22 S. Typhimurium, isolated from patients in children 2010–2014. Used the method of serial microdilution broth. Salmonella isolates were divided into sensitive, resistant, intermediate sensitivity to antibiotics. The Results. Analysis of the incidence of salmonellosis children of St. Petersburg has revealed its decline in 2014 (109.2 compared to 2013 (123,9 but relatively long-term average level was an increase in incidence (107,6. In the structure of salmonellosis in children prevailed salmonellosis Group D. In hospitalized children in the structure of bacterial intestinal infections detected Excess of share of salmonellosis in 2014 (36,9±3,4% compared to 2013 (24,5±2,4%; p <0,01. A reduction in the frequency sensitivity of S. Enteritidis to ampicillin, cefepime, ceftazidime and chloramphenicol. Compared to S. Enteritidis S. Typhimurium isolates were more resistant to ceftazidime and ampicillin, but more sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Conclusion. Morbidity of salmonellosis in recent years characterized by a relatively long-term average increase of the level. In the structure of salmonellosis in children prevailed salmonellosis Group D. There was a reduction of sensitivity S. Enteritidis isolates to cephalosporins new generations, and S. Typhimurium isolates

  9. Phenotypic and genotypic profiling of antimicrobial resistance in enteric Escherichia coli communities isolated from finisher pigs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M G; Jordan, D; Gibson, J S; Cobbold, R N; Chapman, T A; Abraham, S; Trott, D J

    2016-10-01

    To assess herd-to-herd variation in antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and associated antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in faecal commensal Escherichia coli communities isolated from Australian slaughter-age pigs. Hydrophobic grid-membrane filtration (HGMF) was used to screen populations of E. coli isolated from faecal samples obtained from pigs prior to or at slaughter. Multiplex PCRs were applied to the pooled DNA extracted from the samples to identify specific ARGs. Pooled faecal samples from 30 finishers, from 72 different Australian pig farms, produced 5003 isolates for screening. HGMF techniques and image analysis were used to confirm E. coli resistance phenotypes to four antimicrobial agents (ampicillin, gentamicin, florfenicol and ceftiofur) using selective agars. Multiplex PCRs were performed on DNA from pooled samples for 35 ARGs associated with seven chemical classes. The prevalence of E. coli isolates showing no resistance to any of the drugs was 50.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 41.8-58.6%). Ceftiofur resistance was very low (1.8%; CI 0.8-3.9%) and no ARGs associated with 3rd-generation cephalosporin resistance were detected. By contrast, ampicillin (29.4%, CI 22.8-37.0%), florfenicol (24.3%, CI 17.8-32.3%) and gentamicin (CI 17.5%, 10.7-27.2%) resistance prevalence varied greatly between farms and associated ARGs were common. The most common combined resistance phenotype was ampicillin-florfenicol. The use of registered antimicrobials in Australian pigs leads to the enteric commensal populations acquiring associated ARGs. However, despite a high intensity of sampling, ARGs imparting resistance to the critically important 3rd-generation cephalosporins were not detected. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  10. Association between antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from food animals and blood stream isolates from humans in Europe: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Antonio R; Collignon, Peter; Aarestrup, Frank M; McEwen, Scott A; Hendriksen, Rene S; Hald, Tine; Wegener, Henrik C

    2011-12-01

    In addition to medical antimicrobial usage, the use of antimicrobials in food animals contributes to the occurrence of resistance among some bacterial species isolated from infections in humans. Recently, several studies have indicated that a large proportion of Escherichia coli causing infections in humans, especially those resistant to antimicrobials, have an animal origin. We analyzed the correlation between the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolates from blood stream infections in humans and in E. coli isolates from poultry, pigs, and cattle between 2005 and 2008 for 11 countries, using available surveillance data. We also assessed the correlation between human antimicrobial usage and the occurrence of resistance in E. coli isolates from blood stream infections. Strong and significant correlations between prevalences of resistance to ampicillin (r=0.94), aminoglycosides (r=0.72), third-generation cephalosporins (r=0.76), and fluoroquinolones (r=0.68) were observed for human and poultry E. coli isolates. Similar significant correlations were observed for ampicillin (r=0.91), aminoglycosides (r=0.73), and fluoroquinolone resistance (r=0.74) in pig and human isolates. In cattle isolates, only ampicillin resistance (r=0.72) was significantly correlated to human isolates. When usage of antimicrobials in humans was analyzed with antimicrobial resistance among human isolates, only correlations between fluoroquinolones (r=0.90) and third-generation cephalosporins (r=0.75) were significant. Resistance in E. coli isolates from food animals (especially poultry and pigs) was highly correlated with resistance in isolates from humans. This supports the hypothesis that a large proportion of resistant E. coli isolates causing blood stream infections in people may be derived from food sources.

  11. Antibacterial agents and heavy metal resistance in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from seawater, shrimp and sediment in Iskenderun Bay, Turkey

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    Matyar, Fatih [Cukurova University, Faculty of Education, Department of Science and Technology Education, 01330 Balcali, Adana (Turkey)], E-mail: fmatyar@cu.edu.tr; Kaya, Aysenur; Dincer, Sadik [Cukurova University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Biology, 01330 Balcali, Adana (Turkey)

    2008-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine the level of antibiotic resistance patterns and distribution of heavy metal resistance of bacterial isolates from seawater, sediment and shrimps, and to determine if there is a relationship between antibiotic and heavy metal resistance. We undertook studies in 2007 in the industrially polluted Iskenderun Bay, on the south coast of Turkey. The resistance of 236 Gram-negative bacterial isolates (49 from seawater, 90 from sediment and 97 from shrimp) to 16 different antibiotics, and to 5 heavy metals, was investigated by agar diffusion and agar dilution methods, respectively. A total of 31 species of bacteria were isolated: the most common strains isolated from all samples were Escherichia coli (11.4%), Aeromonas hydrophila (9.7%) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (9.3%). There was a high incidence of resistance to ampicillin (93.2%), streptomycin (90.2%) and cefazolin (81.3%), and a low incidence of resistance to imipenem (16.5%), meropenem (13.9%) and cefepime (8.0%). Some 56.8% of all bacteria isolated from seawater, sediment and shrimp were resistant to 7 or more antibiotics. Most isolates showed tolerance to different concentrations of heavy metals, and minimal inhibition concentrations ranged from 12.5 {mu}g/ml to > 3200 {mu}g/ml. The bacteria from seawater, sediment and shrimp showed high resistance to cadmium of 69.4%, 88.9%, and 81.1% respectively, and low resistance to manganese of 2%, 6.7% and 11.3% respectively. The seawater and sediment isolates which were metal resistant also showed a high resistance to three antibiotics: streptomycin, ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. In contrast, the shrimp isolates which were metal resistant were resistant to four antibiotics: cefazolin, nitrofurantoin, cefuroxime and ampicillin. Our results show that Iskenderun Bay has a significant proportion of antibiotic and heavy metal resistant Gram-negative bacteria, and these bacteria constitute a potential risk for

  12. Antibacterial Activity and Antibiotic-Enhancing Effects of Honeybee Venom against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

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    Sang Mi Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, along with other antibiotic resistant bacteria, has become a significant social and clinical problem. There is thus an urgent need to develop naturally bioactive compounds as alternatives to the few antibiotics that remain effective. Here we assessed the in vitro activities of bee venom (BV, alone or in combination with ampicillin, penicillin, gentamicin or vancomycin, on growth of MRSA strains. The antimicrobial activity of BV against MRSA strains was investigated using minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC, minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC and a time-kill assay. Expression of atl which encodes murein hydrolase, a peptidoglycan-degrading enzyme involved in cell separation, was measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The MICs of BV were 0.085 µg/mL and 0.11 µg/mL against MRSA CCARM 3366 and MRSA CCARM 3708, respectively. The MBC of BV against MRSA 3366 was 0.106 µg/mL and that against MRSA 3708 was 0.14 µg/mL. The bactericidal activity of BV corresponded to a decrease of at least 3 log CFU/g cells. The combination of BV with ampicillin or penicillin yielded an inhibitory concentration index ranging from 0.631 to 1.002, indicating a partial and indifferent synergistic effect. Compared to ampicillin or penicillin, both MRSA strains were more susceptible to the combination of BV with gentamicin or vancomycin. The expression of atl gene was increased in MRSA 3366 treated with BV. These results suggest that BV exhibited antibacterial activity and antibiotic-enhancing effects against MRSA strains. The atl gene was increased in MRSA exposed to BV, suggesting that cell division was interrupted. BV warrants further investigation as a natural antimicrobial agent and synergist of antibiotic activity.

  13. Antibacterial agents and heavy metal resistance in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from seawater, shrimp and sediment in Iskenderun Bay, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyar, Fatih; Kaya, Aysenur; Dincer, Sadik

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the level of antibiotic resistance patterns and distribution of heavy metal resistance of bacterial isolates from seawater, sediment and shrimps, and to determine if there is a relationship between antibiotic and heavy metal resistance. We undertook studies in 2007 in the industrially polluted Iskenderun Bay, on the south coast of Turkey. The resistance of 236 Gram-negative bacterial isolates (49 from seawater, 90 from sediment and 97 from shrimp) to 16 different antibiotics, and to 5 heavy metals, was investigated by agar diffusion and agar dilution methods, respectively. A total of 31 species of bacteria were isolated: the most common strains isolated from all samples were Escherichia coli (11.4%), Aeromonas hydrophila (9.7%) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (9.3%). There was a high incidence of resistance to ampicillin (93.2%), streptomycin (90.2%) and cefazolin (81.3%), and a low incidence of resistance to imipenem (16.5%), meropenem (13.9%) and cefepime (8.0%). Some 56.8% of all bacteria isolated from seawater, sediment and shrimp were resistant to 7 or more antibiotics. Most isolates showed tolerance to different concentrations of heavy metals, and minimal inhibition concentrations ranged from 12.5 μg/ml to > 3200 μg/ml. The bacteria from seawater, sediment and shrimp showed high resistance to cadmium of 69.4%, 88.9%, and 81.1% respectively, and low resistance to manganese of 2%, 6.7% and 11.3% respectively. The seawater and sediment isolates which were metal resistant also showed a high resistance to three antibiotics: streptomycin, ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. In contrast, the shrimp isolates which were metal resistant were resistant to four antibiotics: cefazolin, nitrofurantoin, cefuroxime and ampicillin. Our results show that Iskenderun Bay has a significant proportion of antibiotic and heavy metal resistant Gram-negative bacteria, and these bacteria constitute a potential risk for public

  14. Effect of gamma rays on antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokier, H. A.; EI-Adly, A.A.; Hussein, H.; Shabon, M. H.; EI-Shanshoury, I.H.

    2010-01-01

    Seventy one samples were randomly collected from patients suffering from different bacterial skin infections. Forty isolates could not grow on the artificial media after second subculture while 31 isolates were able to survive. Twenty six of them were identified as Staphylococcus aureus and 5 were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The isolated strains were tested for their susceptibilities to gentamycin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin antibiotics .Up to 88.4% of S. aureus and of 80% of P.aeruginosa isolates were found to be resistant to ampicillin. On the other. hand, about 30.7% of S. aureus and 20% of P. aeruginosa were resistant to ciprofloxacin reveals the lowest antibiotic resistance . The antibiotic sensitivity was retested for the most resistant bacterial isolates after irradiated by different doses of gamma radiation (0.5,1, 2 Gy). The previous doses increased S .aureus inhibition zone to gentamycin, from 7.5 mm for unirradiated cells to 25 mm for irradiated one. While ciprofloxacin inhibition zone increased from 1.5 cm to 3 cm in doses of 0.5 to 2.0 Gy. S. aureus sensitivity to amoxicillin increased from 0.0 to 1.0 cm inhibition zone with increase in dose from 0.5 to 2.0 Gy.While the previous doses had no effect on ampicillin resistance. The same doses increased P. aeruginosa isolate resistance. Very low doses of gamma irradiation increased S.aureus and P. aeruginosa capsule production, also increased the release rate of capsule content in both types of bacteria.

  15. [Results of two treatment regimens for pyelonephritis during pregnancy and correlation with pregnancy outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegari, Saron Souza; Konopka, Cristine Kolling; Balestrin, Bruna; Hoffmann, Maurício Scopel; de Souza, Floriano Soeiro; Resener, Elaine Verena

    2012-08-01

    To determine the epidemiological profile of women admitted for urinary tract infection as well as to verify the most prevalent agents and response to antibiotic therapy. A retrospective study of 106 pregnant women admitted to a university hospital for urinary tract infection treatment during the period between January 2007 to December 2010. The evaluation was based on analysis of the medical records of these pregnant women, with the observation of hospitalization and pregnancy data, as well as its outcome. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Science, version 15.0. The bilateral Fisher exact test and Student's t test were used for data analysis, as well as descriptive statistical methods. Positive urine cultures were observed in 60.5% of pregnant women admitted due to urinary tract infection. The most frequent infectious agent was Escherichia coli and no difference in resistance, recurrence or complications was observed between the most frequent etiologic agents. Pregnant women with previous UTI had a higher recurrence risk (OR=10.8; p<0.05). The antibiotics most commonly used during hospitalization were ampicillin and cefazolin. Change of therapeutic agent due to bacterial resistance occurred in 11.9% of patients who took cefazolin and in 20% of patients who took ampicillin (OR=5.5; p<0.05). The rate of gestational complications was the same for both treatments. There was no difference in mean number of days of hospitalization between the treatments. In the studied population ampicillin showed a higher rate of bacterial resistance than cefazolin, requiring a larger number of treatment regimen exchanges, without resulting in differences in clinical outcome or time of hospitalization.

  16. Antibacterial effects of ellagitannins from Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort.: surface morphology analysis with environmental scanning electron microscopy and synergy with antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Wardah Mustafa; Jin, Khoo Teng; Ramli, Ramliza; Khaithir, Tzar Mohd Nizam; Wiart, Christophe

    2013-09-01

    The present study served to gain further insight into the bactericidal effects of ellagitannins from Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. against pathogenic bacteria. Ellagitannins from the aerial parts of A. wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. (EAW) inhibited the growth of Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 11632) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical strain with inhibition zones equal to 11.01 ± 1.53 mm, 16.63 ± 0.11 mm, 11.40 ± 1.10 mm and 8.22 ± 0.19 mm, respectively. The minimal inhibition concentration and the minimal bactericidal concentration of ellagitannins from A. wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. (EAW) against MRSA were 750 µg/mL and 3000 µg/mL, respectively. We then examined the synergistic effect of EAW with three antibiotics, i.e. ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline, via the checkerboard assay and time-kill assay and observed that EAW is synergistic with ampicillin against S. aureus (ATCC 11632). Environmental electron scanning microscopy analysis showed cell lysis against S. aureus (ATCC 11632) upon treatment with the ellagitannin fraction. The ellagitannin fraction from A. wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. is bactericidal against gram-positive bacteria tested and works synergistically with ampicillin against S. aureus. Morphology analysis of the cell suggests that the bactericidal property of the ellagitannin fraction mechanism involves lysis of the cell wall. In summary, our studies demonstrate that A. wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. produces bactericidal ellagitannins of clinical and/or cosmetological value. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Empiric Antibiotic Use and Susceptibility in Infants With Bacterial Infections: A Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Elana A; McCulloh, Russell J; Myers, Angela L; Aronson, Paul L; Neuman, Mark I; Bradford, Miranda C; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Balamuth, Frances; Blackstone, Mercedes M; Browning, Whitney L; Hayes, Katie; Korman, Rosalynne; Leazer, Rianna C; Nigrovic, Lise E; Marble, Richard; Roben, Emily; Williams, Derek J; Tieder, Joel S

    2017-07-20

    To assess hospital differences in empirical antibiotic use, bacterial epidemiology, and antimicrobial susceptibility for common antibiotic regimens among young infants with urinary tract infection (UTI), bacteremia, or bacterial meningitis. We reviewed medical records from infants <90 days old presenting to 8 US children's hospitals with UTI, bacteremia, or meningitis. We used the Pediatric Health Information System database to identify cases and empirical antibiotic use and medical record review to determine infection, pathogen, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. We compared hospital-level differences in antimicrobial use, pathogen, infection site, and antimicrobial susceptibility. We identified 470 infants with bacterial infections: 362 (77%) with UTI alone and 108 (23%) with meningitis or bacteremia. Infection type did not differ across hospitals ( P = .85). Empirical antibiotic use varied across hospitals ( P < .01), although antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for common empirical regimens were similar. A third-generation cephalosporin would have empirically treated 90% of all ages, 89% in 7- to 28-day-olds, and 91% in 29- to 89-day-olds. The addition of ampicillin would have improved coverage in only 4 cases of bacteremia and meningitis. Ampicillin plus gentamicin would have treated 95%, 89%, and 97% in these age groups, respectively. Empirical antibiotic use differed across regionally diverse US children's hospitals in infants <90 days old with UTI, bacteremia, or meningitis. Antimicrobial susceptibility to common antibiotic regimens was similar across hospitals, and adding ampicillin to a third-generation cephalosporin minimally improves coverage. Our findings support incorporating empirical antibiotic recommendations into national guidelines for infants with suspected bacterial infection. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Occurrence of Salmonella in ruminants and camel meat in Maiduguri, Nigeria and their antibiotic resistant pattern

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    Zakaria Musa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of Salmonella in various meat products (beef from cattle, chevon from goats, mutton from sheep and jaziir from camel, by screening the various selling points which includes; meat retailers in abattoir, markets and shops in Maiduguri and its environs. Materials and methods: A total of 120 samples of fresh meat from cattle, sheep, goats and camels sampled from ten meat retailers in abattoir, markets and shops in the Maiduguri metropolis, using simple random sampling technique. All samples were processed and examined according to standard bacteriological protocols. Results: Percentage occurrence of Salmonella species had the highest value of 15 (50.1% from the market, found in sheep, while the lowest occurrence of Salmonella species was associated with 3(10.0% in goats sampled from shop meat.. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species from cattle meat revealed high resistant to Erythromycin (52%. In sheep, the higher percentage of resistance occurred against Ampicillin (33.3% and less resistant to Amoxicillin (4% was obtained. The isolates from camel meat recorded 25% resistant against Ampicillin, Gentamycin and 12.5% to Streptomycin. A total of 28.4% of the isolates were resistant to Ampicillin, Gentamycin and 23.1% to Ofloxacin. Conclusion: The study has shown that Salmonella species are present in fresh meat sold in abattoir, retail markets and shops. We recommend strict hygienic measures in places where fresh meat are sold in Maiduguri metropolis, Nigeria to ensure consumers right to have safe food. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(3.000: 227-233

  19. Aquaculture can promote the presence and spread of antibiotic-resistant Enterococci in marine sediments.

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    Andrea Di Cesare

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is an expanding activity worldwide. However its rapid growth can affect the aquatic environment through release of large amounts of chemicals, including antibiotics. Moreover, the presence of organic matter and bacteria of different origin can favor gene transfer and recombination. Whereas the consequences of such activities on environmental microbiota are well explored, little is known of their effects on allochthonous and potentially pathogenic bacteria, such as enterococci. Sediments from three sampling stations (two inside and one outside collected in a fish farm in the Adriatic Sea were examined for enterococcal abundance and antibiotic resistance traits using the membrane filter technique and an improved quantitative PCR. Strains were tested for susceptibility to tetracycline, erythromycin, ampicillin and gentamicin; samples were directly screened for selected tetracycline [tet(M, tet(L, tet(O] and macrolide [erm(A, erm(B and mef] resistance genes by newly-developed multiplex PCRs. The abundance of benthic enterococci was higher inside than outside the farm. All isolates were susceptible to the four antimicrobials tested, although direct PCR evidenced tet(M and tet(L in sediment samples from all stations. Direct multiplex PCR of sediment samples cultured in rich broth supplemented with antibiotic (tetracycline, erythromycin, ampicillin or gentamicin highlighted changes in resistance gene profiles, with amplification of previously undetected tet(O, erm(B and mef genes and an increase in benthic enterococcal abundance after incubation in the presence of ampicillin and gentamicin. Despite being limited to a single farm, these data indicate that aquaculture may influence the abundance and spread of benthic enterococci and that farm sediments can be reservoirs of dormant antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including enterococci, which can rapidly revive in presence of new inputs of organic matter. This reservoir may constitute an

  20. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Monitoring of Bacterial Pathogens Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections in Dogs and Cats Across Europe: ComPath Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyaert, Hilde; Morrissey, Ian; de Jong, Anno; El Garch, Farid; Klein, Ulrich; Ludwig, Carolin; Thiry, Julien; Youala, Myriam

    2017-04-01

    ComPath is a pan-European antimicrobial surveillance program collecting bacterial pathogens from dogs and cats not recently exposed to antimicrobials. We present minimum inhibitory concentration data obtained using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methodology for 616 urinary tract infection (UTI) isolates collected between 2008 and 2010. In both dogs and cats, the most common pathogen was Escherichia coli (59.8% and 46.7%, respectively). Antimicrobial activity against E. coli in dogs and cats was similar with fluoroquinolone and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole susceptibility >90%. Ampicillin susceptibility was ∼80%. Staphylococcus intermedius Group isolates from dogs (67/437, 15.3%) had high antimicrobial susceptibility (>90%) toward beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Four canine isolates (6%) were oxacillin resistant, and harbored mecA. Proteus mirabilis from dogs (48/437, 11.0%) had high antimicrobial susceptibility (∼90%) to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, enrofloxacin, and marbofloxacin and slightly lower susceptibility (∼80-85%) to ampicillin and orbifloxacin. Streptococcus canis isolates (35/437, 8.0%) from dogs were all susceptible to ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and >90% susceptible to marbofloxacin. Although resistance was not observed, high intermediate susceptibility was seen for both enrofloxacin (28.6%) and orbifloxacin (85.7%). Overall, antimicrobial in vitro activity appears to be high in UTI pathogens from dogs and cats with low multidrug resistance, although a lack of specific dog and cat breakpoints for important antimicrobials such as cefovecin, cephalexin, and ibafloxacin prevents analysis of susceptibility for these agents.

  1. Purification and synergistic antibacterial activity of arginine derived cyclic dipeptides, from Achromobacter sp. associated with a rhabditid entomopathogenic nematode against major clinically relevant biofilm forming wound bacteria

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    NISHANTH KUMAR S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Skin and chronic wound infections caused by various pathogenic bacteria are an increasing and urgent health problem worldwide. In the present study ethyl acetate cell-free culture filtrate of an Achromobacter sp. associated with a Rhabditis entomopathogenic nematode (EPN, displayed promising antibacterial property and was further purified by silica gel column chromatography to get three different cyclic dipeptides (CDPs. Based on the spectral data and Marfey’s analyses, the CDPs were identified as cyclo(D-Leu-D-Arg (1, cyclo(L-Trp-L-Arg (2, and cyclo(D-Trp-D-Arg (3, respectively. Three CDPs were active against all the ten wound associated bacteria tested. The significant antibacterial activity was recorded by CDP 3, and highest activity of 0.5 µg/ml was recorded against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The synergistic antibacterial activities of CDPs and ampicillin were assessed using the checkerboard microdilution method. The results of the current study recorded that the combined effects of CDPs and ampicillin principally recorded synergistic activity. Interestingly, the combination of CDPs and ampicillin also recorded enhanced inhibited biofilm formation by bacteria. Moreover, CDPs significantly stimulate the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-4 by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells but are without significant effect on the production of TNF-α, a pro-inflammatory cytokines. The three CDPs have been examined for their activities against intracellular S. aureus in murine macrophages (J774 using 24 h exposure to 1X and 2X MIC concentrations. Significance decrease in intracellular S. aureus burden was recorded by CDPs. CDPs also recorded no cytotoxicity towards FS normal fibroblast, VERO and L231 normal lung epithelial cell lines. Antimicrobial activity of the arginine containing CDPs against the wound associated bacteria is reported here for the first. Moreover, this is also the report on the

  2. Evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of fungal-derived silver nanoparticles against Enterococcus faecalis

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    Kiran Rahul Halkai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main objective of endodontic therapy is complete elimination and prevention of bacteria from the root canal system; however, it is difficult due to anatomical ramifications of root canal system and growing resistant microbes to available disinfectants. Therefore, to overcome this problem, newer antimicrobial agents have to be developed. Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of fungal-derived biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs against Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: Freshly prepared silver nanoparticles using the endophytic fungi Fusarium semitectum, characterized by different techniques were used to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy against E. faecalis by agar well diffusion method measuring the zone of inhibition using different concentrations of nanoparticles (AgNPs (A [20 μl], B [40 μl], C [60 μl], D [80 μl], and E [100 μl], F (0.2% chlorhexidine [CHX], G (2% CHX, H (ampicillin, and I (distilled water were used as control groups. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way ANOVA followed by post hoc Tukey multiple comparison test was done. Results: AgNPs (100 ml showed highest zone of inhibition 19.5 mm against E. faecalis. CHX (0.2% 14.52 mm, CHX (2% 20.02 mm, and ampicillin showed highest mean zone of inhibition 20.5 mm and distilled water showed no zone of inhibition. Results indicate no significant difference between E (100 μl, G (2% CHX, and H (ampicillin (P < 0.0001. Conclusions: Biosynthesized AgNPs exhibit efficient antibacterial activity against E. faecalis and therefore can be used as root canal irrigant or intracanal medicament for root canal disinfection.

  3. Risk factors associated with the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis

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    Daniele C. Beuron

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate herd management practices and mastitis treatment procedures as risk factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial resistance. For this study, 13 herds were selected to participate in the study to evaluate the association between their management practices and mastitis treatment procedures and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 1069 composite milk samples were collected aseptically from the selected cows in four different periods over two years. The samples were used for microbiological culturing of S. aureus isolates and evaluation of their antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 756 samples (70.7% were culture-positive, and S. aureus comprised 27.77% (n=210 of the isolates. The S. aureus isolates were tested using the disk-diffusion susceptibility assay with the following antimicrobials: ampicillin 10mg; clindamycin 2μg; penicillin 1mg; ceftiofur 30μg; gentamicin 10mg; sulfa-trimethoprim 25μg; enrofloxacin 5μg; sulfonamide 300μg; tetracycline 30μg; oxacillin 1mg; cephalothin 30μg and erythromycin 5μg. The variables that were significantly associated with S. aureus resistance were as follows: the treatment of clinical mastitis for ampicillin (OR=2.18, dry cow treatment for enrofloxacin (OR=2.11 and not sending milk samples for microbiological culture and susceptibility tests, for ampicillin (OR=2.57 and penicillin (OR=4.69. In conclusion, the identification of risk factors for S. aureus resistance against various mastitis antimicrobials is an important information that may help in practical recommendations for prudent use of antimicrobial in milk production.

  4. Changes in bacterial resistance patterns in children with urinary tract infections on antimicrobial prophylaxis at University Hospital in Split

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Tanja; Gračan, Sanda; Arapović, Adela; Čapkun, Vesna; Šubat-Dežulović, Mirna; Saraga, Marijan

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background We assessed prevalence and resistance of uropathogens on antimicrobial agents (AA) from urine cultures (UC) in children hospitalized with urinary tract infections (UTI) at University Hospital in Split. Material/Methods During the 7-year period, children hospitalized only once with UTI alone were compared to those repeatedly hospitalized, and who received long-term antimicrobial prophylaxis (LTAP), as well as those with associated anomalies of the urinary system (US). Results E. coli was the most frequent isolate (67.7%) with resistance to ampicillin by 69.5%, amoxicillin/clavulonic acid by 3.5%, cephalexin by 6.6%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) by 27.5%, and nitrofurantoin by 0.4%. For other uropathogens, AA resistance rates were the following: 64.3%, 5.8%, 10.5%, 21.3%, and 7.9%. The high or increasing resistance to TMP-SMX is characterized by all uropathogens. Patients with anomalies of US showed a lower prevalence of E. coli and Enterococcus sp., but a higher prevalence of Pseudomonas sp., ESBL-producing E. coli and Klebsiella sp. than those without US anomalies. Repeatedly hospitalized patients showed a lower prevalence of E. coli, but a higher prevalence of Pseudomonas sp. and Klebsiella sp. than patients hospitalized only once. Both groups displayed significantly less resistance of Enterococcus sp. In patients receiving LTAP before hospitalization, E. coli was significantly more resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulonic acid and TMP/SMX than in those without LTAP. Conclusions Based on our results, we recommend excluding ampicillin altogether, and reconsideration of further use of TMP-SMX, as well as use of nitrofurantoin, cephalexin and amoxicillin/clavulonic acid for LTAP in our region. PMID:21709628

  5. MASTER: a model to improve and standardize clinical breakpoints for antimicrobial susceptibility testing using forecast probabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöchliger, Nicolas; Keller, Peter M; Böttger, Erik C; Hombach, Michael

    2017-09-01

    The procedure for setting clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for antimicrobial susceptibility has been poorly standardized with respect to population data, pharmacokinetic parameters and clinical outcome. Tools to standardize CBP setting could result in improved antibiogram forecast probabilities. We propose a model to estimate probabilities for methodological categorization errors and defined zones of methodological uncertainty (ZMUs), i.e. ranges of zone diameters that cannot reliably be classified. The impact of ZMUs on methodological error rates was used for CBP optimization. The model distinguishes theoretical true inhibition zone diameters from observed diameters, which suffer from methodological variation. True diameter distributions are described with a normal mixture model. The model was fitted to observed inhibition zone diameters of clinical Escherichia coli strains. Repeated measurements for a quality control strain were used to quantify methodological variation. For 9 of 13 antibiotics analysed, our model predicted error rates of  0.1% for ampicillin, cefoxitin, cefuroxime and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Increasing the susceptible CBP (cefoxitin) and introducing ZMUs (ampicillin, cefuroxime, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid) decreased error rates to < 0.1%. ZMUs contained low numbers of isolates for ampicillin and cefuroxime (3% and 6%), whereas the ZMU for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid contained 41% of all isolates and was considered not practical. We demonstrate that CBPs can be improved and standardized by minimizing methodological categorization error rates. ZMUs may be introduced if an intermediate zone is not appropriate for pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic or drug dosing reasons. Optimized CBPs will provide a standardized antibiotic susceptibility testing interpretation at a defined level of probability. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For

  6. Antibiotic treatment attenuates behavioral and neurochemical changes induced by exposure of rats to group a streptococcal antigen.

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    Dafna Lotan

    Full Text Available Post-streptococcal A (GAS sequelae including movement and neuropsychiatric disorders have been associated with improvement in response to antibiotic therapy. Besides eradication of infection, the underlying basis of attenuation of neuropsychiatric symptoms following antibiotic treatment is not known. The aim of the present study was to test the efficacy of antibiotic treatment in a rat model of GAS-related neuropsychiatric disorders. In the model, rats were not infected but were exposed to GAS-antigen or to adjuvants only (Control rats and treated continuously with the antibiotic ampicillin in their drinking water from the first day of GAS-antigen exposure. Two additional groups of rats (GAS and Control did not receive ampicillin in their drinking water. Behavior of the four groups was assessed in the forced swim, marble burying and food manipulation assays. We assessed levels of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors and tyrosine hydroxylase in the prefrontal cortex and striatum, and IgG deposition in the prefrontal cortex, striatum and thalamus. Ampicillin treatment prevented emergence of the motor and some of the behavioral alterations induced by GAS-antigen exposure, reduced IgG deposition in the thalamus of GAS-exposed rats, and tended to attenuate the increase in the level of TH and D1 and D2 receptors in their striatum, without concomitantly reducing the level of sera anti-GAS antibodies. Our results reinforce the link between exposure to GAS antigen, dysfunction of central dopaminergic pathways and motor and behavioral alterations. Our data further show that some of these deleterious effects can be attenuated by antibiotic treatment, and supports the latter's possible efficacy as a prophylactic treatment in GAS-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolated from feces of wild cranes migrating to Kagoshima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Noriyuki; Obi, Takeshi; Yamashita, Shogo; Murase, Toshiyuki; Takase, Kozo

    2012-03-01

    Susceptibility to 13 antimicrobial agents was examined for 138 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from 192 fecal samples of wild cranes that migrated for wintering to the Izumi plain, Kagoshima prefecture in Japan. The numbers of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobials used in this study are as follows: oxytetracycline (OTC), 22 isolates; minocycline, 7 isolates; ampicillin (ABPC), 4 isolates; nalidixic acid, 4 isolates; enrofloxacin, 2 isolates; kanamycin, one isolate. Multidrug resistant isolates exhibiting 2-4 drug resistances were obtained. All of the OTC-resistant isolates carried either the tet (A) or tet(B) gene. The bla(TEM) gene was found in all of the ABPC-resistant isolates.

  8. Clonal relationship among Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains isolated in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrascia, Maria; Pugliese, Nicola; Maimone, Francesco; Mohamud, Kadigia A; Grimont, Patrick A D; Materu, Sadiki F; Pazzani, Carlo

    2009-03-01

    One hundred and three Vibrio cholerae O1 strains, selected to represent the cholera outbreaks which occurred in Somalia in 1998-1999, were characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns, ribotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility. All strains showed a unique amplified DNA pattern and 2 closely related ribotypes (B5a and B8a), among which B5a was the more frequently identified. Ninety-one strains were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, spectinomycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim, conferred, except for spectinomycin, by a conjugative plasmid IncC. These findings indicated that the group of strains active in Somalia in the late 1990s had a clonal origin.

  9. Survival rate of Saccharomyces boulardii adapted to a functional freeze-dried yoghurt, related to processing, storage and digestion by experimental Wistar rats

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    Eunice Tranquilino-Rodriguez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Saccharomycesboulardiiis a probiotic clinically effective inthe prevention and treatment of antibiotic induced diarrheain both children and adults, Clostridium difficile infections, inflammatory bowel disease, and other gastrointestinal disorders. However, the microorganisms need to survive the gastrointestinal transit and arrive to their action site alive in order to exert their beneficial effects. Microencapsulation is an alternative to improve the viability of probiotic in foods which can also survive in the gastrointestinal conditions. Freeze--drying is a method of dehydration that does not affect nutrients and bioactive compounds,such as probiotics contained in foods.All of them will increase the survival rate of S.boulardii.Purpose of this study:This study focused on formulae freeze-dried yogurt containing inulin, vegetable palm oil,and S.boulardii, both asfree cells and in microencapsulated form.Also,the effect of ampicillin associated S.boulardii. Methods. Yogurts were given to an “in vivo” digestion process, using male Wistar rats.The survival of S. boulardiiwas subsequently evaluated in colon and feces.For this study, six treatmentsof four of rats were used:i control rats ii rats fed with yogurt containing S. boulardiias free cells, iii rats fed with yogurt containing S. boulardiiinmicro-encapsulated form, iv control rats fed with penicillin,v rats fed with ampicillin plus yogurtcontaining S. boulardiias free cells, and vi rats fed with penicillin plus yogurt containing S. boulardiiin micro-encapsulated form. Results:The study demonstrated it was feasible to freeze-drythe S. boulardiiand incorporate it into a yogurtmade with skim milk,inulin, and unsaturated vegetable oil.The freeze-drying process not affected thesurvival of the S. boulardii(p<0.05. Microencapsulation increased the survival of S. boulardii on 1.77-Log CFU/g, and the presence of S. boulardii was only detected in colon and fecesof those rats which

  10. Quinolone- and ß-lactam-resistance in Escherichia coli from Danish and Italian broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolaia, Valeria; Guardabassi, Luca; Bisgaard, Magne

    /ml), ampicillin (32 µg/ml), cefotaxime (2 µg/ml) or ceftiofur (8 µg/ml). The ß-glucuronidase test was performed for verification of presumptive E. coli. The same methods were used to analyse sock samples collected from six Italian broiler flocks. PCR with primers for the CTX-M-type ESBLs was performed...... usage and none of the flocks was positive for cephalosporin-resistant E. coli. In Italy, resistance to ciprofloxacin was detected in all flocks and resistances to ceftiofur and cefotaxime were detected in five flocks. Primers specific for the CTX-M-type ESBLs generated PCR amplicons from isolates from...

  11. Antimicrobial screening of some derivatives of methyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul, K.M.S.; Kawsar, S.M.S.; Rehman, S.

    2009-01-01

    In vitro antimicrobial functionality test of methyl 4,6-O-cyclohexylidene-alpha-D-glucopyranoside and its twelve acylated derivatives against ten human pathogenic bacteria and six phytopathogenic fungi comparative to Ampicillin and Nystatin revealed the tested chemicals to possess moderate to good antibacterial and antifungal activity and to be more effective against fungal phytopathogens. Many of these chemicals exhibited better antimicrobial activity than the standard antibiotics. Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) of methyl 4,6-O-cyclohexylidene-2-O-myristoyl- 3-O-palmitoyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside against Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus was 25, 12.5 and 25 macro g/disc, respectively. (author)

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility of coagulase-positive and coagulase-variable Staphylococci from various indications of swine, dogs and cats as determined in the BfT-GermVet monitoring program 2004-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Stefan; Alesík, Eva; Werckenthin, Christiane; Grobbel, Mirjam; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Wieler, Lothar H; Wallmann, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    A total of 248 coagulase-positive and coagulase-variable staphylococci from two indications of swine (infections of the urinary/genital tract including strains from the mastitis metritis agalactia syndrome as well as infections of the skin) as well as two indications of dogs/cats (respiratory tract infections and infections of skin/ear/mouth) were investigated for their susceptibility to numerous antimicrobial agents. Regardless of the animal origin and indication, the most frequently detected resistance properties were resistances against penicillin G (53-77%) and ampicillin (42-75%), tetracycline (33-52%) as well as erythromycin (13-27%). Oxacillin-resistant staphylococci were rarely detected.

  13. Effects of antibiotic treatment on the lactobacillus composition of vaginal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkumyan, A R; Priputnevich, T V; Ankirskaya, A S; Murav'eva, V V; Lubasovskaya, L A

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed sensitivity of 123 vaginal lactobacillus strains to antibacterial substances. All lactobacillus strains were sensitive to ampicillin, cefazolin, cefotaxime, and vancomycin, and insensitive to metronidazole, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and levofloxacin. Lactobacillus strains demonstrated different sensitivity to gentamycin, clindamycin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline. The phenomenon of preferential selective influence of antibacterial drugs on the composition of lactobacilli of the vaginal microbiota, in which some lactobacilli survive as part of the vaginal microbiota and have a selective advantage over other types of lactobacilli, should be taken into account during treatment of vaginal infections and dysbiosis.

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility and occurrence of resistance genes among Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden from different countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Lertworapreecha, M.; Evans, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    and gentamicin. All nine ampicillin-resistant isolates contained a sequence similar to the bla(TEM-1b) gene, one of the eight chloramphenicol-resistant isolates a sequence similar to the catA1 gene, all three neomycin-resistant isolates a sequence similar to the aphA-2 gene, 16 (73%) of the 22 streptomycin...... isolates were examined for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, and resistant isolates were examined for the presence of selected resistance genes by PCR. Results: Only 48 (9.5%) of the isolates were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobial agents tested. A low frequency of resistance was found...

  15. Lung abscess caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuhei; Toyoshima, Hirokazu; Suzuki, Takehiro; Iwamoto, Keisuke; Sasano, Hajime; Itani, Hidetoshi; Kondo, Shigeto; Tanigawa, Motoaki

    2018-01-01

    Lung abscess has been considered to be a rare complication of pneumococcal infection, and most cases are reported to be Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3. A 67-year-old man presented with fever and was diagnosed to have lung abscess caused by S. pneumoniae serotype 6B. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of penicillin for the isolate was 1 μg/mL. He was treated with high-dose intravenous sulbactam/ampicillin as definitive therapy based on susceptibility testing for S. pneumoniae and recovered successfully without surgical intervention. S. pneumoniae serotype 6B can cause lung abscess.

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species isolated from bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, A A; Gillespie, B E; Oliver, S P

    2009-02-16

    Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) isolates (n=168) obtained from milk from heifers and dairy cows were screened for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to antimicrobials used commonly for mastitis therapy. Of the 10 CNS species included in the study, the predominant species were Staphylococcus chromogenes (n=61), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=37), Staphylococcus hyicus (n=37), and Staphylococcus simulans (n=16). The majority of CNS was susceptible to ampicillin, oxacillin, cephalothin, and ceftiofur. Erythromycin and pirlimycin were also very effective in vitro inhibitors of CNS. The only exception was observed with S. epidermidis. Of 37 S. epidermidis evaluated, 13 (35%) exhibited efflux-based resistance to erythromycin (> or =16 microg/ml) encoded by msrA and one isolate carried ermC encoding ribosomal methylase-based resistance to both erythromycin (> or =64 microg/ml) and pirlimycin (> or =64 microg/ml). A total of 17 S. epidermidis, 11 S. chromogenes, and one S. hyicus exhibited phenotypic resistance to ampicillin (> or =0.5 microg/ml). Constitutive beta-lactamase production was observed in all ampicillin resistant isolates except 4 S. epidermidis that exhibited inducible beta-lactamase production. Induced beta-lactamase production was also observed in 13 S. epidermidis that were phenotypically susceptible to the entire MIC panel. All isolates that produced beta-lactamase either constitutively or by induction carried blaZ. S. epidermidis (n=12, 32%) that were resistant to methicillin (oxacillin > or =0.5 microg/ml) carried low affinity penicillin-binding protein encoded by mecA. Most multi-drug resistant (MDR) S. epidermidis (> or =2 resistance genes) were resistant to ampicillin, erythromycin and methicillin. All except one MDR S. epidermidis had icaAB, which encodes for polysaccharide intercellular adhesion. Based on pulsed field gel electrophoresis, MDR S. epidermidis were closely related genotypically, and were isolated from different cows on the

  17. Identification of Mycobacterial Genes Involved in Antibiotic Sensitivity: Implications for the Treatment of Tuberculosis with β-Lactam-Containing Regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Gopinath; Yadav, Sangya

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In a Mycobacterium smegmatis mutant library screen, transposon mutants with insertions in fhaA, dprE2, rpsT, and parA displayed hypersusceptibility to antibiotics, including the β-lactams meropenem, ampicillin, amoxicillin, and cefotaxime. Sub-MIC levels of octoclothepin, a psychotic drug inhibiting ParA, phenocopied the parA insertion and enhanced the bactericidal activity of meropenem against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in combination with clavulanate. Our study identifies novel factors associated with antibiotic resistance, with implications in repurposing β-lactams for tuberculosis treatment. PMID:28438925

  18. Actividad “in vitro” de 10 antimicrobianos frente a bacterias anaerobias: Estudio multicéntrico, 1999-2002 “In vitro” activity of ten antimicrobial agents against anaerobic bacteria. A collaborative study, 1999-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Litterio

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la actividad de ampicilina, ampicilina-sulbactama, cefoxitina, ceftriaxona, imipenem, piperacilina, piperacilina-tazobactama, clindamicina, metronidazol y azitromicina frente a 166 cepas de bacterias anaerobias aisladas en 8 hospitales de Buenos Aires. Se estudiaron: Bacteroides grupo fragilis (65, Fusobacterium spp. (26, Prevotella spp. (21, Porphyromonas spp. (10, Clostridium difficile (10, otros clostridios (12 y cocos gram-positivos (22. Las CIMs se determinaron usando el método patrón de dilución en agar recomendado por el NCCLS, documento M11-A5. Los antibióticos más activos fueron metronidazol y piperacilina-tazobactama que exhibieron valores de CIM90£ 2 µg/ml y £ 4 µg/ml frente a los microorganismos gram-negativos y £ 2 µg/ml y £ 8 µg/ml frente a los microorganismos gram-positivos, respectivamente. Entre los b-lactámicos el orden de actividad frente a bacilos gram-negativos fue: imipenem > piperacilina > cefoxitina > ceftriaxona > ampicilina. En gram-positivos la actividad decreciente fue: piperacilina> imipenem > cefoxitina > ceftriaxona > ampicilina. La mayoría de las especies estudiadas mostraron distintos niveles de resistencia con clindamicina y azitromicina. Sin embargo, el 90% de las cepas de Fusobacterium nucleatum y Por-phyromonas spp. fue inhibido por una concentración de 0,125 µg/ml de clindamicina y azitromicina, respectivamente.The antimicrobial activity of ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, imipenem, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, clindamycin, metronidazole, and azitromycin was assesed against 166 strains of anaerobic bacteria recovered from eight hospitals in Buenos Aires. The strains studied were Bacteroidesfragilis group (65, Fusobacterium spp. (26, Prevotella spp. (21, Porphyromonas spp. (10, Clostridium difficile (10, other clostridia (12, and gram-positive cocci (22. The MICs were determined by the agar dilution method according to NCCLS document M11-A5

  19. Formation of target-specific binding sites in enzymes: solid-phase molecular imprinting of HRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czulak, J.; Guerreiro, A.; Metran, K.; Canfarotta, F.; Goddard, A.; Cowan, R. H.; Trochimczuk, A. W.; Piletsky, S.

    2016-05-01

    Here we introduce a new concept for synthesising molecularly imprinted nanoparticles by using proteins as macro-functional monomers. For a proof-of-concept, a model enzyme (HRP) was cross-linked using glutaraldehyde in the presence of glass beads (solid-phase) bearing immobilized templates such as vancomycin and ampicillin. The cross-linking process links together proteins and protein chains, which in the presence of templates leads to the formation of permanent target-specific recognition sites without adverse effects on the enzymatic activity. Unlike complex protein engineering approaches commonly employed to generate affinity proteins, the method proposed can be used to produce protein-based ligands in a short time period using native protein molecules. These affinity materials are potentially useful tools especially for assays since they combine the catalytic properties of enzymes (for signaling) and molecular recognition properties of antibodies. We demonstrate this concept in an ELISA-format assay where HRP imprinted with vancomycin and ampicillin replaced traditional enzyme-antibody conjugates for selective detection of templates at micromolar concentrations. This approach can potentially provide a fast alternative to raising antibodies for targets that do not require high assay sensitivities; it can also find uses as a biochemical research tool, as a possible replacement for immunoperoxidase-conjugates.Here we introduce a new concept for synthesising molecularly imprinted nanoparticles by using proteins as macro-functional monomers. For a proof-of-concept, a model enzyme (HRP) was cross-linked using glutaraldehyde in the presence of glass beads (solid-phase) bearing immobilized templates such as vancomycin and ampicillin. The cross-linking process links together proteins and protein chains, which in the presence of templates leads to the formation of permanent target-specific recognition sites without adverse effects on the enzymatic activity. Unlike

  20. Comparison of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolated from rectal and floor samples in pens with diarrhoeic nursery pigs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Nicolai Rosager; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The prudent use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine necessitates the selection of antibiotic compounds with narrow-spectrums targeted against the specific pathogens involved. The same pathotype of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) was recently found both in diarrhoeic pigs...... was observed in the sampled ETEC isolates. In addition, there was generally good or excellent agreement when comparing resistance profiles from isolates from the same pen (pen floor and pig samples), and perfect agreement (Kappa = 1.000, SE = 0.316) was observed for ampicillin, apramycin, gentamycin...

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility and serovars of Salmonella from chickens and humans in Ibadan, Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fashae, K; Ogunsola, F; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study determines the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella serovars from humans and chickens in Ibadan, Nigeria, in 2004-2007. METHODOLOGY: A total of 991 blood samples were collected from patients in 2004 to 2005 and 641 fecal samples were collected from poultry farms......% were (S. Typhi). The majority of serovars from humans were S. Enteritidis (33%), S. Dublin (18%), and S. Typhimurium (18%). Resistance to chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and ampicillin ranged from 36% to 59% for the human isolates. Eight different serovars were obtained from chickens...

  2. Prevalence and characterization of plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes among Escherichia coli from pigs, pig carcasses and human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuyu, Wu; Dalsgaard, A.; Hammerum, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    isolates. Fifty-seven sulfonamide-resistant E. coli were selected based on presence of sul resistance genes and subjected to conjugation and/or transformation experiments. S1 nuclease digestion followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to visualize and determine the size of plasmids. Plasmids...... and humans) were 65%, 45% and 12% for sul2, sul1, and sul3, respectively. Transfer of resistance through conjugation was observed in 42/57 isolates. Resistances to streptomycin, ampicillin and trimethoprim were co-transferred in most strains. Class 1 integrons were present in 80% of sul1-carrying plasmids...

  3. Persistence of Escherichia coli clones and phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance in recurrent urinary tract infections in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kõljalg, Siiri; Truusalu, Kai; Vainumäe, Inga

    2009-01-01

    . Altogether, 78 urinary E. coli isolates from 27 children, who experienced recurrences during a 1-year follow-up after the first attack of acute pyelonephritis, were investigated. The MICs of sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), ampicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and gentamicin...... and the presence or absence of the intI gene for class 1 integrons and the sulfamethoxazole resistance-encoding genes sul1, sul2, and sul3 were determined. All E. coli strains were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. There were no significant differences in the prevalences of resistance to beta...

  4. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella serovars isolated from poultry in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andoh, Linda A.; Dalsgaard, Anders; Obiri-Danso, K.

    2016-01-01

    Poultry are possible sources of non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars which may cause foodborne human disease. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of Salmonella serovars in egg-laying hens and broilers at the farm level and their susceptibility to antimicrobials commonly...... of antimicrobials). Of the resistant strains (n = 57), the most significant were to nalidixic acid (89·5%), tetracycline (80·7%), ciprofloxacin (64·9%), sulfamethazole (42·1%), trimethoprim (29·8%) and ampicillin (26·3%). All S. Kentucky strains were resistant to more than two antimicrobials and shared common...

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Haemophilus parasuis and Histophilus somni from pigs and cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Angen, Øystein

    2004-01-01

    A total of 52 Haemophilus parasuis and 80 Histophilus somni isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by MIC-determinations. None of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin, ceftiofur, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, florphenicol, penicillin, spectinomycin, tetracycline, tiamulin......, or tilmicosin. Two H. parasuis isolates were resistant to trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole. Six H. parasuis isolates had reduced susceptibility (0.06-0.5 mug/ml) to ciprofloxacin and 10 reduced susceptibility to TMP + sulfamethoxazole (1-2 mug/ml). This study showed that Danish isolates of H. parasuis and H...

  6. Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli from Pigs in Organic and Conventional Farming in Four European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Österberg, Julia; Wingstrand, Anne; Jensen, Annette Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    content and/or faeces from individual pigs was determined. In all four countries the percentage resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides or trimethoprim was significantly lower in E. coli from organic pigs. In France and Italy, the percentage of isolates resistant to chloramphenicol...... in organic slaughter pigs in Denmark, France, Italy and Sweden. Samples were taken from the colon content and/or faeces and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of ten antibiotics were determined in isolates of Escherichia coli. In addition, the proportion of tetracycline (TET) resistant E. coli in colon...

  7. Characterisation of commensal Escherichia coli isolated from apparently healthy cattle and their attendants in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madoshi, Balichene; Kudirkiene, Egle; Mtambo, Madundo

    2016-01-01

    attendants on cattle farms in Tanzania were investigated. Seventeen E. coli genomes representing different ERIC-PCR types of commensal E. coli were sequenced in order to determine their possible importance as a reservoir for both antimicrobial resistance genes and virulence factors. Both human and cattle...... isolates were highly resistant to tetracycline (40.8% and 33.1%), sulphamethazole-trimethoprim (49.0% and 8.8%) and ampicillin (44.9% and 21.3%). However, higher proportion of resistant E. coli and higher frequency of resistance to more than two antimicrobials was found in isolates from cattle attendants...

  8. Antibacterial Susceptibilities of Escherichia coli from Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections in the Faroe Islands, Associations with Antibacterial Sales, and Comparison with Iceland and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Marita Debess; Gislason, Hannes; Gaini, Shahin

    2018-01-01

    , and compare with Iceland and Denmark. From 2009 to 2010 and in 2012, 12 general practitioners from the Faroe Islands were recruited to provide urine samples from patients. Antibacterial susceptibilities were determined by disc diffusion testing according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute...... methods and criteria. Logistic regression (quasibinomial) of the antibacterial resistance proportions versus mean sales during the period of 2008-2011 was used to determine association. Nonsusceptibility to at least 1 of the 14 antibacterial drugs investigated was found in 54% of the E. coli isolates...... and was most common to ampicillin (46%), followed by sulfamethoxazole (39%), trimethoprim (27%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (27%), and

  9. The soil microbiota harbors a diversity of carbapenem-hydrolyzing β-lactamases of potential clinical relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudeta, Dereje Dadi; Bortolaia, Valeria; Amos, Greg

    2016-01-01

    to identification of seven new MBLs in presumptive Pedobacter roseus (PEDO-1), Pedobacter borealis (PEDO-2), Pedobacter kyungheensis (PEDO-3), Chryseobacterium piscium (CPS-1), Epilithonimonas tenax (ESP-1), Massilia oculi (MSI-1), and Sphingomonas sp. (SPG-1). Carbapenemase production was likely an intrinsic...... (PEDO-1), an unusual amino acid residue at a key position for MBL structure and catalysis (CPS-1), and overlap with a putative OXA β-lactamase (MSI-1). Heterologous expression of PEDO-1, CPS-1, and ESP-1in E. coli significantly increased the MICs of ampicillin, ceftazidime, cefpodoxime, cefoxitin...

  10. Mastite subclínica por Staphylococcus coagulase negativa em ovinos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Tejada

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms that cause mastitis were isolated in a herd of sheep and their sensitivity to antimicrobials was tested. Twenty-one sheep had their mammary glands monitored during lactation. Eighty-eight milk sample from CMT-positive sheep were analyzed in order to isolate the etiologic agent of mastitis. Coagulase negative Staphylococcus were isolated from 29.5% of samples. Ampicillin and penicillin were the antimicrobials with higher number of resistant strains. The importance of coagulase negative staphylococci has been demonstrated, especially S. lentus and S. sciuri as a cause of ovine mastitis.

  11. Characterization of the microbial community structure in ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’-infected citrus plants treated with antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, M.; Powell, Charles A.; Chuan, Yu; Duan, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    The updated PhyloChip TM G3 were used to explore the differences in the relative abundance and phylogenetic diversity of the bacterial communities associated with HLB-affected citrus plants in the field over a growing season and those treated with antibiotic combinations of AG (Ampicillin at 1000 mg/L and Gentamicin at 100 mg/L) and PS (Penicillin at 1000 mg/L and Streptomycin at 100 mg/L). Both antibiotic treatments resulted in significantly lower Las bacterial ti...

  12. Effect of ionizing radition on conjugative R plasmid in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kmetova, M.; Puzova, H.; Rexa, R.

    1986-01-01

    Five-fold cyclic gamma irradiation of E. coli strain No. 214 with conjugative R plasmid with doses of 150 Gy, with the exception of chloramphenicol, did not essentially affect the expression of the examined determinants of resistance to antimicrobial substances (tetracycline, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, canamycin, ampicillin, sulfamethoxidine). The dose of 150 Gy from the first irradiation of the strain reduced the transfer frequency of the R plasmid approximately hundred-fold. After the second up to the fourth irradiation of the strain the transfer frequency went back to approximately its original value. (author)

  13. Haemophilus paragallinarum in chickens in Indonesia: III. Antimicrobial drug sensitivity test ofHaemophilus paragallinarum from chickens suffering of coryza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Poernomo

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available An agar disc diffusion method was used to examine the sensitivity of 27 Haemophilus paragallinarum (Hpg isolates consisted of 23 local isolates, 4 standard isolates (serotype A and Escherichia coli ATCC 24922 as a control to eight antimicrobial drugs (ampicillin, erythromycin, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, neomycin, streptomycin, colistine and sulphanlethoxazole-trimethoprim . Twenty one out of 23 local isolates of Hpg were sensitive to doxycycline, 19 isolates to ampsllin, 18 isolates to oxytetracycline, 17 isolates to sulphametoxazole-trimethoprim, 16 isolates to erythromycin, and 13 isolates to neomycin, while 13 isolates were resistance to colistine and 11 isolates were also resistance to streptomycin .

  14. Two Cases of Vulvovaginitis Caused by Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülçin Bayramoğlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Vulvovaginitis caused by Shigella species (Shigella spp. has rarely been reported. This paper describes two cases of prepubertal vulvovaginitis, presenting with a bloody and purulent vaginal discharge, separately caused by ampicillin-resistant Shigella flexneri and trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazole-resistant Shigella sonnei. Our conclusions are that Shigella spp. is the potential cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls in developing countries where these pathogens are endemic, and identification of the bacteria and making antibiotic susceptibility testing in these cases should not be overlooked.

  15. Sublethal Triclosan Exposure Decreases Susceptibility to Gentamicin and Other Aminoglycosides in Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Gram, Lone; Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt

    2011-01-01

    (containing quaternary ammonium compound) in four consecutive cultures did not alter the frequency of antibiotic-tolerant isolates, as determined by plating on 2x the MIC for a range of antibiotics. Exposure of eight strains of L. monocytogenes to 1 and 4 µg/ml triclosan did not alter triclosan sensitivity...... resistance remained at a high level also after five subcultures without triclosan or gentamicin. Aminoglycoside resistance can be caused by mutations in the target site, the 16S rRNA gene. However, such mutations were not detected in the N53-1-resistant isolates. A combination of gentamicin and ampicillin...

  16. [Etiology and antimicrobial resistance profile of urinary tract infection in children, Valdivia 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carolina; Navarro, Diego; Täger, Marlis

    2014-12-01

    Since initial antibiotic treatment in patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) is empiric, is very important to know the local epidemiology to make the correct therapeutical decisions. Determinate local features of antimicrobial resistance in pediatric patients with UTI. Retrospective review of urine culture tests of children under 15 years old, obtained in a pediatric emergency department in Valdivia, between february and december 2012. Escherichia coli showed high percentage of resistance to ampicillin (44,8%) and first generation cephalosporin (36%). A well understanding of local antimicrobial resistance profile is useful to a correct empiric treatment.

  17. Hematogenous osteomyelitis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rud, B; Halken, S; Damholt, V

    1986-01-01

    approach. At follow-up after 5 (1-12) years, 3 neonates had developed severe growth disturbances despite optimal initial treatment. Acceptable results were obtained with antibiotic therapy for 6 weeks or more. We recommend ampicillin and a penicillinase-resistant penicillin, unless bacterial resistance......In a 10-year period, 31 children, including 9 infants, were treated for hematogenous osteomyelitis. Fifteen children were treated closed and 16 open. Thirteen of 14 positive cultures were Staphylococcus aureus. Three recurrences could possibly have been prevented by a more aggressive primary...

  18. Differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maboni, Grazieli; Gressler, Leticia T.; Espindola, Julia P.; Schwab, Marcelo; Tasca, Caiane; Potter, Luciana; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis. Thirty-two strains of Moraxella spp. isolated from cattle and sheep with infectious keratoconjunctivitis were tested via broth microdilution method to determine their susceptibility to ampicillin, cefoperazone, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, oxytetracycline and penicillin. The results demonstrated that Moraxella spp. strains could be considered sensitive for most of the antimicrobials tested in this study, but differences between the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of these three Moraxella species were found. M. bovis might differ from other species due to the higher MIC and MBC values it presented. PMID:26273272

  19. An Ineffective Differential Diagnosis of Infective Endocarditis and Rheumatic Heart Disease after Streptococcal Skin and Soft Tissue Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tetsuya; Mawatari, Momoko; Iizuka, Toshihiko; Amano, Tatsuya; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Ohmagari, Norio

    2017-09-01

    We herein report the case of a 68-year-old woman with a skin and soft tissue infection at her extremities. The blood culture results were positive for Streptococcus pyogenes, and we started treatment using ampicillin and clindamycin, although subsequent auscultation revealed a new-onset heart murmur. We therefore suspected rheumatic heart disease and infective endocarditis. The case met both the Jones criteria and the modified Duke criteria. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed vegetation on the aortic valve, although the pathological findings were also compatible with both rheumatic heart disease and infective endocarditis. The present findings suggest that these two diseases can coexist in some cases.

  20. Simultaneous isolation of anaerobic bacteria from udder abscesses and mastitic milk in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeff, A S; du Preez, J H

    1985-12-01

    A variety of non-sporulating anaerobic bacterial species were isolated from udder abscesses in 10 lactating dairy cows. Fifty percent of the abscesses yielded multiple anaerobic species and the other 50% only 1 species. The anaerobic bacteria, however, were always accompanied by classical facultative anaerobic mastitogenic bacteria. In four of the five cows also afflicted with mastitis in the quarters with abscesses, the anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria were identical. Peptococcus indolicus was the most commonly isolated organism followed by Eubacterium and Bacteroides spp. Bacteroides fragilis was resistant to penicillin, ampicillin and tetracycline.

  1. A synergistic effect of artocarpanone from Artocarpus heterophyllus L. (Moraceae) on the antibacterial activity of selected antibiotics and cell membrane permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septama, Abdi Wira; Xiao, Jianbo; Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom

    2017-01-01

    Artocarpanone isolated from Artocarpus heterophyllus L. (Moraceae) exhibits antibacterial activity. The present study investigated synergistic activity between artocarpanone and tetracycline, ampicillin, and norfloxacin, respectively, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Escherichia coli . A broth microdilution method was used for evaluating antibacterial susceptibility. Synergistic effects were identified using a checkerboard method, and a bacterial cell membrane disruption was investigated by assay of released 260 nm absorbing materials following bacteriolysis. Artocarpanone exhibited weak antibacterial activity against MRSA and P. aeruginosa with minimum inhibitory concentrations values of 125 and 500 μg/mL, respectively. However, the compound showed strong antibacterial activity against E. coli (7.8 μg/mL). The interaction between artocarpanone and all tested antibiotics revealed indifference and additive effects against P. aeruginosa and E. coli (fractional inhibitory concentration index [FICI] values of 0.75-1.25). The combination of artocarpanone (31.2 μg/mL) and norfloxacin (3.9 μg/mL) resulted in synergistic antibacterial activity against MRSA, with an FICI of 0.28, while the interaction between artocarpanone and tetracycline, and ampicillin showed an additive effect, with an FICI value of 0.5. A time-kill assay also indicated that artocarpanone had a synergistic effect on the antibacterial activity of norfloxacin. In addition, the combination of artocarpanone and norfloxacin altered the membrane permeability of MRSA. These findings suggest that artocarpanone may be used to enhance the antibacterial activity of norfloxacin against MRSA.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance 1979-2009 at Karolinska hospital, Sweden: normalized resistance interpretation during a 30-year follow-up on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli resistance development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronvall, Göran

    2010-09-01

    To utilize a material of inhibition zone diameter measurements from disc diffusion susceptibility tests between 1979 and 2009, an objective setting of epidemiological breakpoints was necessary because of methodological changes. Normalized resistance interpretation (NRI) met this need and was applied to zone diameter histograms for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli isolates. The results confirmed a slow resistance development as seen in Northern countries. The S. aureus resistance levels for erythromycin, clindamycin and fusidic acid in 2009 were 3.2%, 1.8% and 1.4% with denominator correction. A rise in resistance to four antimicrobials in 1983 was probably because of a spread of resistant Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus Aureus (MSSA). For E. coli, the denominator-corrected resistance levels in 2009 were 27% for ampicillin, around 3% for third-generation cephalosporins, 0.1% for imipenem, 2.5% for gentamicin, 19% for trimethoprim, 4.5% for co-trimoxazole, 1.2% for nitrofurantoin and 9% for ciprofloxacin. The temporal trends showed a rise in fluoroquinolone resistance from 1993, a parallel increase in gentamicin resistance, a substantial increase in trimethoprim and sulphonamide resistance in spite of decreased consumption, and a steady rise in ampicillin resistance from a constant level before 1989. A short review of global resistance surveillance studies is included.

  3. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of N-Alkoxyphenyl-3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxanilides

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    Tomas Gonec

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of fifteen new N-alkoxyphenylanilides of 3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxylic acid was prepared and characterized. Primary in vitro screening of the synthesized compounds was performed against Staphylococcus aureus, three methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Some of the tested compounds showed antibacterial and antimycobacterial activity against the tested strains comparable with or higher than that of the standards ampicillin or rifampicin. 3-Hydroxy-N-(2-propoxyphenylnaphthalene-2-carboxamide and N-[2-(but-2-yloxy-phenyl]-3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamide had MIC = 12 µM against all methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains; thus their activity is 4-fold higher than that of ampicillin. The second mentioned compound as well as 3-hydroxy-N-[3-(prop-2-yloxyphenyl]-naphthalene-2-carboxamide had MICs = 23 µM and 24 µM against M. tuberculosis respectively. N-[2-(But-2-yloxyphenyl]-3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamide demonstrated higher activity against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis than rifampicin. Screening of the cytotoxicity of the most effective antimycobacterial compounds was performed using THP-1 cells, and no significant lethal effect was observed for the most potent compounds. The compounds were additionally tested for their activity related to inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport (PET in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. chloroplasts. N-(3-Ethoxyphenyl-3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamide (IC50 = 4.5 µM was the most active PET inhibitor. The structure-activity relationships are discussed.

  4. A probabilistic approach to assess antibiotic resistance development risks in environmental compartments and its application to an intensive aquaculture production scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Andreu; Jacobs, Rianne; Van den Brink, Paul J; Tello, Alfredo

    2017-12-01

    Estimating antibiotic pollution and antibiotic resistance development risks in environmental compartments is important to design management strategies that advance our stewardship of antibiotics. In this study we propose a modelling approach to estimate the risk of antibiotic resistance development in environmental compartments and demonstrate its application in aquaculture production systems. We modelled exposure concentrations for 12 antibiotics used in Vietnamese Pangasius catfish production using the ERA-AQUA model. Minimum selective concentration (MSC) distributions that characterize the selective pressure of antibiotics on bacterial communities were derived from the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) Minimum Inhibitory Concentration dataset. The antibiotic resistance development risk (RDR) for each antibiotic was calculated as the probability that the antibiotic exposure distribution exceeds the MSC distribution representing the bacterial community. RDRs in pond sediments were nearly 100% for all antibiotics. Median RDR values in pond water were high for the majority of the antibiotics, with rifampicin, levofloxacin and ampicillin having highest values. In the effluent mixing area, RDRs were low for most antibiotics, with the exception of amoxicillin, ampicillin and trimethoprim, which presented moderate risks, and rifampicin and levofloxacin, which presented high risks. The RDR provides an efficient means to benchmark multiple antibiotics and treatment regimes in the initial phase of a risk assessment with regards to their potential to develop resistance in different environmental compartments, and can be used to derive resistance threshold concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation of some bacteria isolated from sediment, water and fish farms in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faja, Orooba Meteab; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2018-04-01

    A total of 90 isolates of bacteria were isolated, from sediment (10) samples, water (10) samples and fish (12) samples (Sea bass, Snapper, Grouper and Tilapia). These include 22 isolates of bacteria from sediment, 28 isolates from water and 40 isolates from fish. All the isolates were tested for sensitivity to 13 antibiotics using disc diffusion method. The isolates showed high resistance to some antibiotics based on samples source. Isolates from sediment showed highest resistance toward novobiocin, kanamycin, ampicillin and streptomycin while isolates from water showed highest resistance against vancomycin, penicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline, in contrast, in fish sample showed highest resistance toward vancomycin, ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline. Most of the isolates showed biofilm formation ability with different degrees. Out of 22 bacteria isolates from water, two isolates were weak biofilm formers, six isolates moderate biofilm formers and fourteen isolates strong biofilm formers. While, out of 28 bacteria isolates from water one isolate was weak biofilm former, five isolates moderate biofilm formers and 22 strong biofilm formers Fish isolate showed three isolates (8%) moderate biofilm formers and 27 isolates strong biofilm formers. Biofilm formation was one of the factors that lead to antibiotic resistance of the bacterial isolates from these samples.

  6. Application of Nanoparticle Technology to Reduce the Anti-Microbial Resistance through β-Lactam Antibiotic-Polymer Inclusion Nano-Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, Constain H; Yarce, Cristhian J; Roman, Yony; Davalos, Andrés F; Rivera, Gustavo R

    2018-02-10

    Biocompatible polymeric materials with potential to form functional structures in association with different therapeutic molecules have a high potential for biological, medical and pharmaceutical applications. Therefore, the capability of the inclusion of nano-Complex formed between the sodium salt of poly(maleic acid- alt -octadecene) and a β-lactam drug (ampicillin trihydrate) to avoid the chemical and enzymatic degradation and enhance the biological activity were evaluated. PAM-18Na was produced and characterized, as reported previously. The formation of polymeric hydrophobic aggregates in aqueous solution was determined, using pyrene as a fluorescent probe. Furthermore, the formation of polymer-drug nano-complexes was characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimetry-DSC, viscometric, ultrafiltration/centrifugation assays, zeta potential and size measurements were determined by dynamic light scattering-DLS. The PAM-18Na capacity to avoid the chemical degradation was studied through stress stability tests. The enzymatic degradation was evaluated from a pure β-lactamase, while the biological degradation was determined by different β-lactamase producing Staphylococcus aureus strains. When ampicillin was associated with PAM-18Na, the half-life time in acidic conditions increased, whereas both the enzymatic degradation and the minimum inhibitory concentration decreased to a 90 and 75%, respectively. These results suggest a promissory capability of this polymer to protect the β-lactam drugs against chemical, enzymatic and biological degradation.

  7. Changes in gram negative microorganisms’ resistance pattern during 4 years period in a referral teaching hospital; a surveillance study

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    Khalili Hossein

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Surveillance studies evaluating antimicrobial susceptibilities are of great value in preventing the spread of resistant pathogens by elucidating the trend of resistance in commonly used antibiotics and as a consequence providing information for prescribing the most appropriate agent. This study is a longitudinal antimicrobial resistance surveillance study designed to evaluate the trend in antimicrobial resistance to gram negative microorganisms from 2007 to 2010. Method During a four-year period (2007–2010 isolates derived from all patients admitted to infectious diseases ward of Imam Khomeini Hospital, the major referral center for infectious disease in Iran with the highest admission rates, were evaluated. Based on disk diffusion method and zone of inhibition size, the microorganism was regarded as to be sensitive, resistant or has intermediate susceptibility to the antimicrobial agents. Results The widest spread Gram-negative microorganism in all of isolates taken together in our study was E.coli (30% followed by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in 28.6% and Enterobacter spp. in 11.9%, respectively. The susceptibility to amikacin, imipenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, and nitrofurantoin was equal or above 50% for all microorganisms over four years. However, the susceptibility to ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefotaxim, and ceftriaxone was less than 50% in derived isolates during the study period. Conclusion In conclusion, the finding of the present study revealed that resistance rate to common antimicrobial agents in Iran is growing and isolates were susceptible mostly to broad-spectrum antibiotics including imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam.

  8. [Clinical efficacy of flomoxef in neonatal bacterial infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, H; Hirano, Y; Maruyama, S

    1993-03-01

    One hundred and seventy one neonates were treated with flomoxef (FMOX) and the clinical efficacy and safety were evaluated. The ages of the patients ranged from 0 to 28 days, and their body weights from 450 to 4300 g. Dose levels were 12.4 to 24.9 mg/kg every 8 or 12 hours for 1 to 10 days. Fifty two patients who responded to the FMOX treatment included 5 neonates with sepsis, 17 with suspected sepsis, 9 with urinary tract infections, 12 with pneumonia, 8 with intrauterine infections, and 1 with omphalitis. The other neonates could not be retrospectively diagnosed as bacterial infections. Of 52 patients, clinical results were excellent in 15, good in 34, fair in 1, and poor in 2. And the FMOX treatment was effective in 13 out of 14 patients in which causative bacteria were identified. The drug was well tolerated, but 6 neonates out of 33 over 5 days old had diarrhea. From these results, empiric treatment with FMOX against neonatal bacterial infection was as clinically useful as that of combination with ampicillin and gentamicin or cefotaxime and ampicillin in our neonatal intensive care unit. But, as this study did not include neonate with meningitis, efficacy to meningitis was not evaluated.

  9. Isolation and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Bacillus thuringinesis Strain From Dump Soil

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    Sarker, D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis (or Bt is a commonly used as a pesticide. B. thuringiensis is a naturally-occurring soil bacterium, also occurs naturally in the gut of caterpillars of various types of moths and butterflies, as well as on the dark surface of plants. The xylanase producing bacterial strains were isolated from dump soil. The strains were isolated on xylan agar media and screening was carried out by xylanolysis method. To test the sensitivity of the isolates, ten different antibiotics were used. The strains were tested for resistance to doxycyclin, erythromycin, chloramphenical, cephallaxin, kanamycin, ampicillin, steptomycin, vancomycin, amoxycillin and neomycin. The strains showed sensitive to doxycyclin, erythromycin, chloramphenical, cephallaxin, kanamycin, ampicillin, steptomycin and vancomycin and also showed resistance to amoxycillin and neomycin, when tested by disc diffusion method on nutrient agar plate confirmed by antibiotic spread plate method. The inhibitory effect of B. thuringiensis strains against the test bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina lutca, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei and Pseudomonus aeruginosa examined. It was found that, B. thuringiensis S1, B. thuringiensis S2 and B. thuringiensis S3 strains showed an inhibitory effect on all of the test bacteria.

  10. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Environmental Enterobacteriaceae Isolates From Karun River, Iran

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    Neda Nazarzadeh Zaree

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antibiotic resistance among bacteria is a worldwide problem. Enterobacteriaceae resistance to third-generation cephalosporins is typically caused by the production of β-lactamases. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial susceptibility of environmental Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Karun River in Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 600 water samples were collected from nine stations along Karun River in Iran, during spring and summer of 2012. In this research, different waterborne bacterial pathogens were isolated and identified using the membrane filtration technique and analytical profile index system for Enterobacteriaceae (API 20E. Then, disk diffusion method (CLSI, 2010; M2-A9 was used for testing the antibiotic resistance susceptibility. Enterobacteriaceae genera were tested against sixteen antibiotics: ampicillin, carbencillin, methicillin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, vancomycin, amikacin, ofloxacin, kanamycin, tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, norfloxacin, nitrofurantoin, chloramphenicol, and amoxycillin. Results: The results of this study suggested that the level of fecal contamination in Karun water was very high. Among the isolated Enterobacteriaceae, there were 287 strains of (65% Escherichia coli, 162 (27% Enterobacter aeogenes, 73 (12.16% Citrobacter freundii, 58 (9.66% Proteus vulgaris, and 20 (3.3% Salmonella typhi. All Enterobacteriaceae isolates showed 100% resistance to ampicillin, carbenicillin, methicillin, vancomycin, erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracycline. They failed to exhibit resistance to norfloxacin and ofloxacin. Other antibiotics showed intermediate activity, and some isolates were resistant. Conclusions: Detection of fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli in more than 75% of water samples indicates the possible presence of other bacteria causing infectious diseases.

  11. Gut microbiota of Tenebrio molitor and their response to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaejoon; Heo, Aram; Park, Yong Woo; Kim, Ye Ji; Koh, Hyelim; Park, Woojun

    2014-07-01

    A bacterial community analysis of the gut of Tenebrio molitor larvae was performed using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. A predominance of genus Spiroplasma species in phylum Tenericutes was observed in the gut samples, but there was variation found in the community composition between T. molitor individuals. The gut bacteria community structure was not significantly affected by the presence of antibiotics or by the exposure of T. molitor larvae to a highly diverse soil bacteria community. A negative relationship was identified between bacterial diversity and ampicillin concentration; however, no negative relationship was identified with the addition of kanamycin. Ampicillin treatment resulted in a reduction in the bacterial community size, estimated using the 16S rRNA gene copy number. A detailed phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Spiroplasma-associated sequences originating from the T. molitor larvae were distinct from previously identified Spiroplasma type species, implying the presence of novel Spiroplasma species. Some Spiroplasma species are known to be insect pathogens; however, the T. molitor larvae did not experience any harmful effects arising from the presence of Spiroplasma species, indicating that Spiroplasma in the gut of T. molitor larvae do not act as a pathogen to the host. A comparison with the bacterial communities found in other insects (Apis and Solenopsis) showed that the Spiroplasma species found in this study were specific to T. molitor.

  12. Effects of prophylactic antibiotics on endometrial flora in women with postcesarean endometritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, E R; Wallace, P A

    1998-08-01

    To determine the effect of prophylactic antibiotics on endometrial and endocervical microflora upon diagnosis of postcesarean endometritis. The medical records of patients enrolled in open-label comparative trials of therapeutic antibiotics for postpartum endometritis between 1989 and 1994 were reviewed (n = 682). Endometritis was diagnosed by a standard definition that included fever and localizing signs. Endometrial cultures were obtained by a sheathed injection/aspiration technique. Aerobes and anaerobes were isolated by standard microbiologic techniques. The primary outcome, endometrial and endocervical microflora, was compared in women who received intravenous ampicillin (2 g every 6 hours for 1-3 doses), cephalosporin (2 g every 6 hours for 1-3 doses), or no prophylaxis. Secondary outcomes included the cure of endometritis and the prevalence of wound infection in the three groups. Four hundred sixty-five of 682 patients (67%) had a cesarean delivery. One hundred fifty-one patients received ampicillin prophylaxis, 100 patients received cefazolin prophylaxis, 18 patients received extended-spectrum antibiotics, and 196 patients received no prophylaxis. Patients who received cefazolin prophylaxis had a significant increase in enterococcus (P women who develop endometritis. Whereas these changes had no effect on endometritis cure rate (power > 80%), the association between cefazolin prophylaxis followed by an extended-spectrum cephalosporin and wound infection may warrant caution against the use of the combination.

  13. Molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheal cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslani, Mehdi M.; Salmanzadeh-Ahrabi, S.; Jafari, F.; Zali, Reza M.; Mani, M.; Alikhani, Yousef M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to identify and classify Iranian isolates of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) on the basis of presence of virulence genes and to determine antibiotic susceptibility of isolated strains. The current cross-sectional study was conducted in 2005 at the Pasteur Institute, Tehran, Iran. One hundred and ninety-three diarrheagenic E. coli isolated from diarrheal patients in different regions of Iran were included in current study. Virulence factors genees for diarrheagenic E. coli were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Of the 193 diarrheagenic E. coli detected by PCR, 86(44.5%) were Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), 74 (38.4%) enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), 19 (9.8%) enteroaggregative E. coli and 14 (7.3%) enterotoxigenic E. coli isolates. Susceptibility to 12 clinically important antimicrobial agents was determined for 193 strains of diarrhheagenic E. coli. A high incidence of resistance to tetracycline (63%), ampicillin (62%), streptomycin (56%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (44.5%), trimetoprim/sulphamethoxazole (39.5%) and cephalothin (37%) was observed. The STEC and EPEC strains with high resistance to tetracycline and ampicillin but highly susceptible to quinolones are among the most important causative agent of diarrhea in Iran. This study suggests that antimicrobial resistance is wide spread among E. coli strains colonizing Iranian patients. Guidelines for appropriate use of antibiotics in developing countries require updating. (author)

  14. Detection of antibiotic resistance and tetracycline resistance genes in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from the Pearl rivers in South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Ran; Ying Guangguo; Su Haochang; Zhou Hongwei; Sidhu, Jatinder P.S.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated antibiotic resistance profiles and tetracycline resistance genes in Enterobacteriaceae family isolates from the Pearl rivers. The Enterobacteriaceae isolates were tested for susceptibility to seven antibiotics ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, tetracycline and trimethoprim. In Liuxi reservoir, with an exception to ampicillin resistant strains (11%) no other antibiotic resistance bacterial strains were detected. However, multiple drug resistance in bacterial isolates from the other sites of Pearl rivers was observed which is possibly due to sewage discharge and input from other anthropogenic sources along the rivers. Four tetracycline resistance genes tet A, tet B, tet C and tet D were detected in the isolates from the rivers. The genes tet A and tet B were widely detected with the detection frequencies of 43% and 40% respectively. Ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin resistant enteric bacteria were also isolated from the pig and duck manures which suggest a wider distribution of human specific drugs in the environment. This investigation provided a baseline data on antibiotic resistance profiles and tetracycline resistance genes in the Pearl rivers delta. - High rates of antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae from river water are attributed to wastewater contamination.

  15. ENTRAPMENT OF FLUORESCENT E. COLI CELLS IN ALGINATE GEL

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    T. VINTILA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available By this experiment we will demonstrate the possibility to obtain genetically modified microbial strains that can be used as markers in different studies. The trait transferred in this study is the fluorescence in UV light expressed by a gene isolated from jellyfish. This gene was insered into a plasmid carrying ampiciline resistance and in the operon for arabinose fermentation. The plasmid was called pGLO. E coli HB101 K-12, ampicillin resistant colonies has been obtained. The colonies on the LB/amp/ara plate fluoresce green under UV light and the transformed colonies can grow on ampicillin. Transformation efficiency = 362 transformed colonies/ μg DNA. The cells where immobilized by entrapment in alginate gel to study the phenomenon involved in cells immobilization. After immobilization in alginate gel, 5x104 cells of E. coli pGLO / capsule and 1,4 x 105 cells of E. coli HB101/capsule has been found. Fluorescent microscopy revealed the presence of pGLO carrying cells into the capsules. After cultivation of alginate capsules containing E. coli in LB broth, and fluorescent microscopy of the capsule sections, several observations of the phenomenon involved in continuous fermentation using biocatalysts in has been made. These cells grow and migrate to the cortical part of the matrix where they are immobilized.

  16. Anti-Microbial Resistance Profiles Of E. Coli Isolated From Free Range Chickens In Urban And Rural Environments Of Imo State, Nigeria

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    Okoli IC

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Information on the resistance profiles of normal intestinal flora of extensively reared chickens that hardly receive antibiotics in the developing countries can serve as important means of understanding the human/animal pathogens drug resistance interactions in the zone. Three hundred and fifty E. coli isolates, comprising 133 from urban and 217 from rural sites in Imo state, Nigeria, were screened for anti-microbial resistance profile against 10 antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. Overall percentage anti-microbial resistance of the isolates against cotrimoxazole, ampicillin, nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol and nitrofurantoin (72–92% were very high. The organisms were highly sensitive to other antibiotics, especially gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. The 59.5% overall mean percentage resistance recorded at the urban area was significantly higher than the 46.8% recorded at the rural area (p<0.05. With the exception of the figures for cotrimoxazole and ampicillin, resistance values obtained against the other antibiotics at the urban sites were statistically higher than those obtained at the rural sites (p<0.05. Zero resistance was recorded against the fluoroquinolones, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin at all the rural sites except at Enyiogwugwu where a 28.6% resistance was obtained against norfloxacin. Since free-range chickens rarely receive antibiotic medication, it is concluded that the highly resistant E. coli organisms isolated from them may be reflecting consequences of human drug use in the study areas.

  17. Frequency of resistance in obligate anaerobic bacteria isolated from dogs, cats, and horses to antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawhon, S D; Taylor, A; Fajt, V R

    2013-11-01

    Clinical specimens from dogs, cats, and horses were examined for the presence of obligate anaerobic bacteria. Of 4,018 specimens cultured, 368 yielded 606 isolates of obligate anaerobic bacteria (248 from dogs, 50 from cats, and 308 from horses). There were 100 specimens from 94 animals from which only anaerobes were isolated (25 dogs, 8 cats, and 61 horses). The most common sites tested were abdominal fluid (dogs and cats) and intestinal contents (horses). The most common microorganism isolated from dogs, cats, and horses was Clostridium perfringens (75, 13, and101 isolates, respectively). The MICs of amoxicillin with clavulanate, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, metronidazole, and penicillin were determined using a gradient endpoint method for anaerobes. Isolates collected at necropsy were not tested for antimicrobial susceptibility unless so requested by the clinician. There were 1/145 isolates tested that were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate (resistance breakpoint ≥ 16/8 μg/ml), 7/77 isolates tested were resistant to ampicillin (resistance breakpoint ≥ 2 μg/ml), 4/242 isolates tested were resistant to chloramphenicol (resistance breakpoint ≥ 32 μg/ml), 12/158 isolates tested were resistant to clindamycin (resistance breakpoint ≥ 8 μg/ml), 10/247 isolates tested were resistant to metronidazole (resistance breakpoint ≥ 32 μg/ml), and 54/243 isolates tested were resistant to penicillin (resistance breakpoint ≥ 2 μg/ml). These data suggest that anaerobes are generally susceptible to antimicrobial drugs in vitro.

  18. Isolation, antibiogram and pathogenicity of Salmonella spp. Recovered from slaughtered food animals in Nagpur region of Central India

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    D. G. Kalambhe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the prevalence, antibiogram and pathogenicity of Salmonella spp. in the common food animals slaughtered for consumption purpose at government approved slaughter houses located in and around Nagpur region during a period of 2010-2012. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 samples comprising 50 each of blood and meat from each slaughtered male cattle, buffaloes, pigs and goats were collected. Isolation was done by pre-enrichment in buffered peptone water and enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth with subsequent selective plating onto xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Presumptive Salmonella colonies were biochemically confirmed and analyzed for pathogenicity by hemolysin production and Congo red dye binding assay (CRDA. An antibiotic sensitivity test was performed to assess the antibiotic resistance pattern of the isolates. Results: A total of 10 isolates of Salmonella spp. from meat (3 from cattle, 1 from buffaloes and 6 from pigs with an overall prevalence of 5% among food animals was recorded. No isolation was reported from any blood samples. Pathogenicity assays revealed 100% and 80% positivity for CRDA and hemolytic activity, respectively. Antimicrobial sensitivity test showed multi-drug resistance. The overall resistance of 50% was noted for trimethoprim followed by ampicillin (20%. A maximum sensitivity (80% was reported to gentamycin followed by 40% each to ampicillin and trimethoprim, 30% to amikacin and 10% to kanamycin. Conclusion: The presence of multidrug resistant and potentially pathogenic Salmonella spp. in slaughtered food animals in Nagpur region can be a matter of concern for public health.

  19. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of microflora colonizing feral pig (Sus scrofa of Brazilian Pantanal

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    SS Lessa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is a worldwide problem affecting wild life by living with resistant bacteria in the environment. This study presents a discussion of outside factors environment on microflora of feral pigs (Sus scrofa from Brazilian Pantanal. Animals had samples collected from six different body sites coming from two separated geographic areas, Nhecolandia and Rio Negro regions. With routine biochemical tests and commercial kits 516 bacteria were identified, with 240 Gram-positive, predominantly staphylococci (36 and enterococci (186 strains. Among Gram-negative (GN bacteria the predominant specimens of Enterobacteriaceae (247 mainly represented by Serratia spp. (105, Escherichia coli (50, and Enterobacter spp. (40 and specimens not identified (7. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against 17 drugs by agar diffusion method. Staphylococci were negative to production of enterotoxins and TSST-1, with all strains sensitive towards four drugs and highest resistance toward ampicillin (17%. Enterococci presented the highest sensitivity against vancomycin (98%, ampicillin (94% and tetracycline (90%, and highest resistance pattern toward oxacillin (99%, clindamycin (83%, and cotrimoxazole (54%. In GN the highest resistance was observed with Serratia marcescens against CFL (98%, AMC (66% and AMP (60% and all drugs was most effective against E. coli SUT, TET (100%, AMP, TOB (98%, GEN, CLO (95%, CFO, CIP (93%. The results show a new profile of oxacillin-resistant enterococci from Brazilian feral pigs and suggest a limited residue and spreading of antimicrobials in the environment, possibly because of low anthropogenic impact reflected by the drug susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated.

  20. Utility of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for elucidation and simultaneous determination of some penicillins and penicilloic acid using hydroxylamine silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zahry, Marwa R; Refaat, Ibrahim H; Mohamed, Horria A; Rosenberg, Erwin; Lendl, Bernhard

    2015-11-01

    Elucidation and quantitative determination of some of commonly used penicillins (ampicillin, penicillin G and carbenicillin) in the presence of their main degradation product (penicilloic acid) were developed. Forced acidic and basic degradation processes were applied at different time intervals. The formed degradation products were elucidated and quantified using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) prepared by reduction of silver nitrate using hydroxylamine-HCl in alkaline medium were used as SERS substrate. The results obtained in SERS were confirmed by the application of LC/MS method. The concentration range was 100-600 ng/ml in case of the studied penicillins and 100-700 ng/ml in case of penicilloic acid. An excellent correlation coefficient was found in case of ampicillin (r=0.9993) and in the case of penicilloic acid (r=0.9997). Validation procedures were carried out including precision, robustness and accuracy by comparing F- and t-values of both the proposed and reported methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Lipopeptide biosurfactants from Paenibacillus polymyxa inhibit single and mixed species biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gerry A; Maloy, Aaron P; McClean, Stephen; Carney, Brian; Slater, John W

    2012-01-01

    Although biofilms are recognised as important in microbial colonisation, solutions to their inhibition are predominantly based on planktonic assays. These solutions have limited efficacy against biofilms. Here, a series of biofilm-orientated tests were used to identify anti-biofilm compounds from marine micro-flora. This led to the isolation of a complex of anti-biofilm compounds from an extract of Paenibacillus polymyxa (PPE). A combination of rpHPLC and mass spectrometry identified the principle components of PPE as fusaricidin B (LI-FO4b) and polymyxin D1, with minor contributions from surfactins. This complex (PPE) reduced the biofilm biomass of Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus bovis. In contrast, ampicillin was only effective against S. aureus. PPE also inhibited a self-assembling marine biofilm (SAMB) in co-incubation assays by 99.3% ± 1.9 and disrupted established SAMB by 72.4% ± 4.4, while ampicillin showed no significant reduction. The effectiveness of this complex of lipopeptides against single and multispecies biofilms suggests a future role in biofilm prevention strategies.

  2. Discovery and Function of a General Core Hormetic Stress Response in E. coli Induced by Sublethal Concentrations of Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Aurélie; Fleurier, Sébastien; Frénoy, Antoine; Dairou, Julien; Bredeche, Marie-Florence; Sanchez-Vizuete, Pilar; Song, Xiaohu; Matic, Ivan

    2016-09-27

    A better understanding of the impact of antibiotics on bacteria is required to increase the efficiency of antibiotic treatments and to slow the emergence of resistance. Using Escherichia coli, we examined how bacteria exposed to sublethal concentrations of ampicillin adjust gene expression patterns and metabolism to simultaneously deal with the antibiotic-induced damage and maintain rapid growth. We found that the treated cells increased energy production, as well as translation and macromolecular repair and protection. These responses are adaptive, because they confer increased survival not only to lethal ampicillin treatment but also to non-antibiotic lethal stresses. This robustness is modulated by nutrient availability. Because different antibiotics and other stressors induce the same set of responses, we propose that it constitutes a general core hormetic stress response. It is plausible that this response plays an important role in the robustness of bacteria exposed to antibiotic treatments and constant environmental fluctuations in natural environments. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Several hPepT1-transported drugs are substrates of the Escherichia coli proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter YdgR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhala, Bala K; Aduri, Nanda G; Iqbal, Mazhar; Rahman, Moazur; Gajhede, Michael; Hansen, Paul R; Mirza, Osman

    2017-06-01

    Proton-dependent oligopeptide transporters (POTs) are secondary active transporters found in all kingdoms of life. POTs utilize the proton electrochemical gradient for the uptake of nutrient dipeptides and tripeptides. The human POT hPepT1 is known to transport a number of drugs. As part of ongoing studies on substrate specificities of POTs from Escherichia coli, our aim in this study was to investigate whether bacterial POTs could also transport these drugs. For this, we selected the common orally administered drugs sulpiride, bestatin, valacyclovir, ampicillin and oseltamivir, that are all transported by hPepT1. The transport of these drugs was evaluated using the prototypical POT YdgR from E. coli. The transport studies were pursued through combining cell-based assays with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analysis. These investigations revealed that YdgR from E. coli is able to transport five (sulpiride, bestatin, valacyclovir, ampicillin and oseltamivir) drugs. Furthermore, cells not overexpressing YdgR were also able to transport these drugs in a POT-like manner. Orthologues of YdgR are found in several species in the gut microbiome; hence, our findings could have implications for further understanding about the interaction between gut microbes and orally administered drugs. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of urinary tract infection among children with cerebral palsy, Moshi, Tanzania

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    Ryakitimbo, Amon; Philemon, Rune; Mazuguni, Festo; Msuya, Levina

    2018-01-01

    Background Urinary tract infection (UTI) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is a challenging yet common clinical condition. Children with CP bare the greatest risk of contracting UTI because of their difficulties in neuromotor control which lead to delay of bladder control, causing incomplete bladder emptying and urine retention. Method This was an analytical cross-sectional study that was conducted from September 2016 to March 2017 at Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation in Tanzania – Moshi and Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre Neurological Pediatrics Outpatient Clinic. All children who met the inclusion criteria were studied. Urine samples were collected at one point by catheterization, and urine dipstick and urine culture were done. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results A total of 99 children were enrolled in the study. The median age was 4 years (3–8 years); 53.5% were aged between 2 and 4 years. More than half were male. UTI was detected in 13.1% (n=13) of the children. Five causative agents of UTI were isolated, namely Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. The two most common organisms, E. coli and P. mirabilis, both had low sensitivity to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole while they were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Conclusion UTI is a common finding among children with CP. E. coli and P. mirabilis are the commonest causative agents and are sensitive to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone but have low sensitivity to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole. PMID:29774893

  5. Validation of the BetaStar® Advanced for Beta-lactams Test Kit for the Screening of Bulk Tank and Tanker Truck Milks for the Presence of Beta-lactam Drug Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denhartigh, Andrew; Reynolds, Lindsay; Palmer, Katherine; Klein, Frank; Rice, Jennifer; Rejman, John J

    2018-05-18

    A validation study was conducted for an immunochromatographic method (BetaStar ® Advanced for Beta-lactams) for the detection of beta-lactam residues in raw, commingled bovine milk. The assay detected amoxicillin, ampicillin, cloxacillin, penicillin, cephapirin, and ceftiofur below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration tolerance levels but above the maximum sensitivity thresholds established by the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments. The results of internal and independent laboratory dose-response studies employing spiked samples were in agreement. The test detected all six drugs at the approximate 90/95% sensitivity levels in milk from cows treated with each drug. Selectivity of the assay was 100%, as no false-positive results were obtained in testing 1148 control milk samples. Testing the estimated 90/95% sensitivity level for amoxicillin (8.5 ppb), ampicillin (6.9 ppb), cloxacillin (8.9 ppb), penicillin (4.2 ppb), and cephapirin (17.6 ppb), and at 100 ppb for each antibiotic, resulted in 94-100% positive tests for each of the beta-lactam drugs. The results of ruggedness experiments established the operating parameter tolerances for the assay. Cross-reactivity testing established that the assay detects other certain beta-lactam drugs, but it does not cross-react with any of 30 drugs belonging to seven different drug classes. Abnormally high bacterial or somatic cell counts in raw milk produced no assay interference.

  6. Neonatal bacteriemia isolates and their antibiotic resistance pattern in neonatal insensitive care unit (NICU at Beasat Hospital, Sanandaj, Iran.

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    Parvin Mohammadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacteremia continues to result in significant morbidity and mortality, particularly among neonates. There is scarce data on neonatal bacteremia in among Iranian neonates. In this study, we determined neonatal bacteremia isolates and their antibiotic resistance pattern in neonatal insensitive care unit at Beasat hospital, Sanandaj, Iran. During one year, all neonates admitted to the NICU were evaluated. Staphylococcal isolates were subjected to determine the prevalence of MRS and mecA gene. A total of 355 blood cultures from suspected cases of sepsis were processed, of which 27 (7.6% were positive for bacterial growth. Of the 27 isolates, 20 (74% were Staphylococcus spp as the leading cause of bacteremia. The incidence of Gram negative bacteria was 04 (14.8%. The isolated bacteria were resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Maximum resistance among Staphylococcus spp was against Penicillin, and Ampicillin. In our study, the isolated bacteria were 7.5 % Vancomycin and Ciprofloxacin sensitive. Oxacillin disk diffusion and PCR screened 35% and 30% mec a positive Staphylococcus spp. The spectrum of neonatal bacteremia as seen in NICU at Beasat hospital confirmed the importance of pathogens such as Staphylococcus spp. Penicillin, Ampicillin and Cotrimoxazol resistance was high in theses isolates with high mecA gene carriage, probably due to antibiotic selection.

  7. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from carriers

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    Dayamí García

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available When it is necessary to determine the susceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis (Nm strains to antimicrobial drugs, it is important to consider that it should be analyzed in a double context. One of them related to the use of drugs in a specific medical treatment; and the other; to chemoprophylatic drugs, both with the same purpose: the accurate selection of the “in vivo” antimicrobial agent. This requires the study of the sensitivity and resistance of strains isolated in both carriers and patients. With the aim of further studying the behavior of the strains that currently circulate in Cuba, an antimicrobial drug susceptibility study was conducted in 90 strains isolated from carriers during the first half of 1998. The agar dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs to: penicillin, ampicillin, rifampin, sulfadiazine, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime. The study of the three latter drugs was done for the first time in our country. The search for β- lactamase-producer strains was also performed. There was a predominance of penicillin sensitive strains (82,2% with an intermediate sensitivity to ampicillin (57,8%, while 70% of the strains were sensitive to sulfadiazine. Regarding the rest of the antimicrobial drugs, 100% of the strains were sensitive. The paper shows the MICs for each drug as well as the phenotypic characteristics of the strains with the penicillin and sulfadiazine sensitivity and resistance patterns. No β-lactamase-producer strains were found.

  8. Celecoxib Enhances the Efficacy of Low-Dose Antibiotic Treatment against Polymicrobial Sepsis in Mice and Clinical Isolates of ESKAPE Pathogens.

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    Annamanedi, Madhavi; Varma, Gajapati Y N; Anuradha, K; Kalle, Arunasree M

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of multidrug resistant bacterial infections has been a great challenge globally. Previous studies including our study have highlighted the use of celecoxib, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in combination with antibiotic has decreased the minimal inhibitory concentration to limit Staphylococcus aureus infection. However, the efficacy of this combinatorial treatment against various pathogenic bacteria is not determined. Therefore, we have evaluated the potential use of celecoxib in combination with low doses of antibiotic in limiting Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in vivo in murine polymicrobial sepsis developed by cecum ligation and puncture (CLP) method and against clinically isolated human ESKAPE pathogens ( Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Enterobacter species). The in vivo results clearly demonstrated a significant reduction in the bacterial load in different organs and in the inflammatory markers such as COX-2 and NF-κB via activation of SIRT1 in mice treated with imipenem, a choice of antibiotic for polymicrobial sepsis treatment. Combinatorial treatment of ampicillin and celecoxib was effective on clinical isolates of ESKAPE pathogens, 45% of tested clinical isolates showed more than 50% reduction in the colony forming units when compared to ampicillin alone. In conclusion, this non-traditional treatment strategy might be effective in clinic to reduce the dose of antibiotic to treat drug-resistant bacterial infections.

  9. Emerging organic contaminants in coastal waters: anthropogenic impact, environmental release and ecological risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jheng-Jie; Lee, Chon-Lin; Fang, Meng-Der

    2014-08-30

    This study provides a first estimate of the sources, distribution, and risk presented by emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) in coastal waters off southwestern Taiwan. Ten illicit drugs, seven nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), five antibiotics, two blood lipid regulators, two antiepileptic drugs, two UV filters, caffeine, atenolol, and omeprazole were analyzed by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS). Thirteen EOCs were detected in coastal waters, including four NSAIDs (acetaminophen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and codeine), three antibiotics (ampicillin, erythromycin, and cefalexin), three illicit drugs (ketamine, pseudoephedrine, and MDMA), caffeine, carbamazepine, and gemfibrozil. The median concentrations for the 13 EOCs ranged from 1.47 ng/L to 156 ng/L. Spatial variation in concentration of the 13 EOCs suggests discharge into coastal waters via ocean outfall pipes and rivers. Codeine and ampicillin have significant pollution risk quotients (RQ>1), indicating potentially high risk to aquatic organisms in coastal waters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of inoculum size on the antibiotic susceptibilities of β-lactamase positive isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis

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    J. Vraneš

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that bacteria producing β-lactamases in general show marked inoculum effect in susceptibility testing. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of inoculum size on the susceptibility of β-lactamase positive strains of M. catarrhalis to oral β-lactam and non β-lactam antibiotics. MICs of antibiotics were determined by a twofold microdilution technique with two different inoculum sizes were tested: 5x 105 CFU/ml -standard inoculum and 5 x107 CFU/ml -high inoculum. The highest increase (4-fold was observed with penicillins alone (amoxycillin and ampicillin or combined with inhibitor and ceftibuten, followed by older cephalosporins, erithromycine and chloramphenicol ( 2-fold. Tetracycline did not show a significant increase in MIC when a higher inoculum size was applied. In spite of the increase in MIC with high inoculum all strains were still susceptible to amoxycillin combined with clavulanate. MICs of cephalosporins were also below the resistance breakpoint for most of the strains at the higher inoculum. Based on that, we can conclude that therapeutic implications of the inoculum effect were not significant.These data suggest that high inocula should be used to determine MICs of ampicillin and amoxycillin for M. catarrhalis but that this precaution is unnecessary with the cephalosporins tested or with amoxycillin/clavulanate

  11. Regulation by commensal bacteria of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone of adult mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Naoki; Kotani, Takenori; Konno, Tasuku; Setiawan, Jajar; Nishigaito, Yuka; Saito, Yasuyuki; Murata, Yoji; Nibu, Ken-Ichi; Matozaki, Takashi

    2018-04-15

    In the mouse olfactory bulb (OB), interneurons such as granule cells and periglomerular cells are continuously replaced by adult-born neurons, which are generated in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the brain. We have now investigated the role of commensal bacteria in regulation of such neuronal cell turnover in the adult mouse brain. Administration of mixture of antibiotics to specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice markedly attenuated the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) into the SVZ cells. The treatment with antibiotics also reduced newly generated BrdU-positive neurons in the mouse OB. In addition, the incorporation of BrdU into the SVZ cells of germ-free (GF) mice was markedly reduced compared to that apparent for SPF mice. In contrast, the reduced incorporation of BrdU into the SVZ cells of GF mice was recovered by their co-housing with SPF mice, suggesting that commensal bacteria promote the incorporation of BrdU into the SVZ cells. Finally, we found that administration of ampicillin markedly attenuated the incorporation of BrdU into the SVZ cells of SPF mice. Our results thus suggest that ampicillin-sensitive commensal bacteria regulate the neurogenesis in the SVZ of adult mouse brain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Clustering of antibiotic resistance of E. coli in couples: suggestion for a major role of conjugal transmission

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    von Baum Heike

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spread of antibiotic resistance in hospitals is a well-known problem, but studies investigating the importance of factors potentially related to the spread of resistant bacteria in outpatients are sparse. Methods Stool samples were obtained from 206 healthy couples in a community setting in Southern Germany in 2002–2003. E. coli was cultured and minimal inhibition concentrations were tested. Prevalences of E. coli resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics according to potential risk factors were ascertained. Results Prevalences of ampicillin resistance were 15.7% and 19.4% for women and men, respectively. About ten percent and 15% of all isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole and doxycycline, respectively. A partner carrying resistance was the main risk factor for being colonized with resistant E. coli. Odds ratios (95% CI for ampicillin and cotrimoxazole resistance given carriage of resistant isolates by the partner were 6.9 (3.1–15.5 and 3.3 (1.5–18.0, respectively. Conclusion Our data suggest that conjugal transmission may be more important for the spread of antibiotic resistance in the community setting than commonly suspected risk factors such as previous antibiotic intake or hospital contacts.

  13. Dichromatic and monochromatic laser radiation effects on antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation, and division rate of Pantoea agglomerans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomé, A. M. C.; Souza, B. P.; Mendes, J. P. M.; Cardoso, A. F. R.; Soares, L. C.; Trajano, E. T. L.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2018-06-01

    Since infection is a common cause of delayed wound healing, it is important to understand the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in bacterial mechanisms. In this study we evaluated the effects of LLLT on antibiotic resistance, division rate, and biofilm formation of Pantoea agglomerans. P. agglomerans samples were isolated from human pressure injuries in humans and cultures were exposed to low-level monochromatic and simultaneous dichromatic laser radiation to study the susceptibility of an antimicrobial to ampicillin and piperacillin  +  tazobactam, quantification of areas of bacterial colonies, and biofilm formation of bacterial cells. Fluence, wavelength, and emission mode were used in the therapeutic protocols for wound healing. The data showed no changes in the areas of the colonies, but dichromatic laser radiation decreased biofilm formation, while a monochromatic red laser at low dose increased biofilm formation and infrared at high dose decreased antibiotic resistance to ampicillin. LLLT modulates antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation of P. agglomerans, but these depend on the laser irradiation parameters, since dichromatic laser radiation induces biological effects that differ from those induced by monochromatic laser radiation. Thus, simultaneous dichromatic low-level red and infrared lasers could be a new option for the treatment of infected wounds, reducing biofilm formation, without altering antibiotic resistance and the division rate of P. agglomerans cultures.

  14. Potential enterotoxicity and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Aeromonas species isolated from pet turtles and their environment.

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    Wimalasena, S H M P; Shin, Gee-Wook; Hossain, Sabrina; Heo, Gang-Joon

    2017-05-23

    To investigate the potential enterotoxicity and antimicrobial resistance of aeromonads from pet turtles as a risk for human infection, one hundred and two Aeromonas spp. were isolated from the feces, skin and rearing environments of pet turtles and identified by biochemical and gyrB sequence analyses. Aeromonas enteropelogenes was the predominant species among the isolates (52.9%) followed by A. hydrophila (32.4%), A. dharkensis (5.9%), A. veronii (4.9%) and A. caviae (3.9%). Their potential enterotoxicities were evaluated by PCR assays for detecting genes encoding cytotoxic enterotoxin (act) and two cytotonic enterotoxins (alt and ast). 75.8% of A. hydrophila isolates exhibited the act + /alt + /ast + genotype, whereas 94.4% of A. enteropelogenes isolates were determined to be act - /alt - /ast - . In an antimicrobial susceptibility test, most isolates were susceptible to all tested antibiotics except amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Non-susceptible isolates to penicillins (ampicillin and amoxicillin) and fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin) were frequently observed among the A. enteropelogenes isolates. Few isolates were resistant to imipenem, amikacin, ceftriaxone and cefotaxime. Collectively, these results suggest that pet turtles may pose a public health risk of infection by enterotoxigenic and antimicrobial resistant Aeromonas strains.

  15. Activity of siderophores against drug-resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

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    Gokarn K

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Karuna Gokarn,1,2 Ramprasad B Pal1 1Department of Microbiology, Sir Hurkisondas Nurrotumdas Medical Research Society, 2Caius Research Laboratory, St Xavier’s College, Mumbai, India Abstract: Infections by drug-resistant bacteria are life-threatening. As iron is a vital element for the growth of bacteria, iron-chelating agents (siderophores can be used to arrest their multiplication. Exogenous siderophores – exochelin-MS and deferoxamine-B – were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and metallo-β-lactamase producers – Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii – by disc diffusion, micro-broth dilution, and turbidimetric growth assays. The drug-resistant isolates were inhibited by the synergistic activity of siderophores and antibiotics. Minimum inhibitory concentration of exochelin-MS+ampicillin for different isolates was between 0.05 and 0.5 mg/mL. Minimum inhibitory concentration of deferoxamine-B+ampicillin was 1.0 mg/mL and greater. Iron-chelation therapy could provide a complementary approach to overcome drug resistance in pathogenic bacteria. Keywords: iron-chelation, xenosiderophores, exochelin MS, deferoxamine B

  16. spa typing and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus from healthy humans, pigs and dogs in Tanzania.

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    Katakweba, Abdul Sekemani; Muhairwa, Amandus Pachificus; Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Guardabassi, Luca; Mtambo, Madundo M A; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2016-02-28

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen causing infections in humans and animals. Here we report for the first time the prevalence of nasal carriage, spa typing and antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus in a Tanzanian livestock community. Nasal swabs were taken from 100 humans, 100 pigs and 100 dogs in Morogoro Municipal. Each swab was enriched in Mueller Hinton broth with 6.5% NaCl and subcultured on chromogenic agar for S. aureus detection. Presumptive S. aureus colonies were confirmed to the species level by nuc PCR and analysed by spa typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined by disc diffusion method. S. aureus was isolated from 22% of humans, 4% of pigs and 11% of dogs. A total of 21 spa types were identified: 13, 7 and 1 in human, dogs, and pigs, respectively. Three spa types (t314, t223 and t084) were shared between humans and dogs. A novel spa type (t10779) was identified in an isolate recovered from a colonized human. Antimicrobials tested revealed resistance to ampicillin in all isolates, moderate resistances to other antimicrobials with tetracycline resistance being the most frequent. S. aureus carrier frequencies in dogs and humans were within the expected range and low in pigs. The S. aureus spa types circulating in the community were generally not shared by different hosts and majority of types belonged to known clones. Besides ampicillin resistance, moderate levels of antimicrobial resistance were observed irrespective of the host species from which the strains were isolated.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of acinetobacter species-one year experience in a tertiary care setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Z.A.; Abbasi, S.A.; Mirza, I.A.; Malik, N.; Sattar, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To find out antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species isolated from 1 January 2009 through 31 December 2009 at Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Rawalpindi. Materials and Methods: A total of 276 isolates of Acinetobacter spp yielded from various clinical specimens during the study period were included Routine conventional methods were used to identify various species of Acinetobacter and modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used for susceptibility testing. Out of total 276 isolates, 176 (63.8%) turned out to be Acinetobacter baumannii and 100 (36.2%) were Acinetobacter johnsonii. Overall sensitivity of Acinetobacter spp against piperacillin/sulbactam, tigecycline, sulbactam/cefoperazone, piperacillin/tazobactam, imipenem, doxycycline, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim /sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, gentamycin, ceftriaxone, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ampicillin were 64%,63%, 48%, 47%, 41%,39%,35%, 34%, 32%, 31 %, 29%, 19%, 18% and 5% respectively. Out of 276 isolates, 181 (66 %) were multidrug resistant while 33 (18 %) isolates were pan-drug resistant. (author)

  18. Prevalence and bacterial susceptibility of hospital acquired urinary tract infection

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    Dias Neto José Anastácio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Urinary tract infection is the most common nosocomially acquired infection. It is important to know the etiology and antibiotic susceptibility infectious agents to guide the initial empirical treatment. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bacterial strains and their antibiotic susceptibility in nosocomially acquired urinary tract infection in a university hospital between January and June 2003. METHODS: We analyzed the data of 188 patients with positive urine culture (= 10(5 colony-forming units/mL following a period of 48 hours after admission. RESULTS: Half of patients were male. Mean age was 50.26 ± 22.7 (SD, range 3 months to 88 years. Gram-negative bacteria were the agent in approximately 80% of cases. The most common pathogens were E. coli (26%, Klebsiella sp. (15%, P. aeruginosa (15% and Enterococcus sp. (11%. The overall bacteria susceptibility showed that the pathogens were more sensible to imipenem (83%, second or third generation cephalosporin and aminoglycosides; and were highly resistant to ampicillin (27% and cefalothin (30%. It is important to note the low susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (42% and norfloxacin (43%. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that if one can not wait the results of urine culture, the best choices to begin empiric treatment are imipenem, second or third generation cephalosporin and aminoglycosides. Cefalothin and ampicillin are quite ineffective to treat these infections.

  19. Changes in Gram Negative Microorganisms' Resistance Pattern During 4 Years Period in a Referral Teaching Hospital; a Surveillance Study

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    Hossein Khalili

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose Surveillance studies evaluating antimicrobial susceptibilities are of great value in preventing the spread of resistant pathogens by elucidating the trend of resistance in commonly used antibiotics and as a consequence providing information for prescribing the most appropriate agent. This study is a longitudinal antimicrobial resistance surveillance study designed to evaluate the trend in antimicrobial resistance to gram negative microorganisms from 2007 to 2010. Method:During a four-year period (2007-2010 isolates derived from all patients admitted to infectious diseases ward of Imam Khomeini Hospital, the major referral center for infectious disease in Iran with the highest admission rates, were evaluated. Based on disk diffusion method and zone of inhibition size, the microorganism was regarded as to be sensitive, resistant or has intermediate susceptibility to the antimicrobial agents. Results:The widest spread Gram-negative microorganism in all of isolates taken together in our study was E.coli (30% followed by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in 28.6% and Enterobacter spp. in 11.9%, respectively. The susceptibility to amikacin, imipenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, and nitrofurantoin was equal or above 50% for all microorganisms over four years. However, the susceptibility to ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefotaxim, and ceftriaxone was less than 50% in derived isolates during the study period.Conclusion:In conclusion, the finding of the present study revealed that resistance rate to common antimicrobial agents in Iran is growing and isolates were susceptible mostly to broadspectrum antibiotics including imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam

  20. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Enterococci Isolated From Patients in Tehran

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    Horieh Saderi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterococci are one of the most common nosocomial pathogens and the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains has been increasing. Objectives: We studied the antimicrobial susceptibility of enterococci isolated from different clinical specimens of patients in Tehran. Materials and Methods: From the beginning of April 2013 to the end of June 2013, a total of 146 enterococci were isolated from the Pars General Hospital in Tehran. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates against ampicillin, clindamaycin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, levofloxacin, linezolid, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, and vancomycin was determined using the disk diffusion method according to the guidelines of clinical laboratory standards institute (CLSI. Results: The rates of resistance were high to clindamycin, tetracycline, and erythromycin (97.2%, 89%, and 74.5%, respectively; moderate to ciprofloxacilin and levofloxacilin (40.6% and 36.4%, respectively; and low to ampicillin and nitrofurantoin (13.8% and 3.5%, respectively. All isolates were linezolid sensitive. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE accounted for 9.6% of the isolates. Conclusions: VRE and a high rate of resistance to some of antimicrobial agents were found among the enterococci isolated from patients in Tehran. These findings highlight the importance of regular supervision of antimicrobial susceptibilities.

  1. Study of Sensibility and Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolated from Urinary Tract Infection in Tabriz City

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    Hamed Molaabaszadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  Background & Objective: Urinary infection is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases, and Escherichia coli is the most important cause of urinary infections. This study was done with the aim of surveying the amount of susceptibility and resistance among the strains of Escherichia coli isolated from those who referred to the private laboratories in the Iranian city of Tabriz.   Materials & Methods: This survey was done periodically during the first 6 months of the year 2010. Samples were obtained in a sterile manner and were subjected to all necessary pathological tests. Evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility was conducted with disk diffusion standard method, and the results were analyzed.   Results: Totally, 5701 Escherichia coli strains were identified. The highest sensitivity to Imipenem was 90.95%, Nitrofurantoin 85.97%, and Cefotaxime 71.02% and the highest resistance to Ampicillin was 83.95%, Tetracycline 80.97%, and Co-trimoxazole 63.92%.   Conclusion: Our results suggest that the cause of the high resistance of Escherichia coli strains to Ampicillin and Tetracycline could be the consumption of these antibiotics. Therefore, abstaining from overuse of unnecessary antibiotics and production of new-generation and cost-effective antibiotics are recommend. 

  2. Antibiotic Resistance of Vibrio cholerae Isolates from Kashan, Iran

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    Afzali H.MD,

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease that can lead to severe dehydration and death. Antibiotic resistance is a big challenge in infective disease like Cholera. The present study aimed to understand the characteristics and trends of antibiotic resistance of V. cholerae isolations in and around Kashan, Iran. Instrument & Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, samples were gathered using census method from 1998 to 2013 in Kashan, Iran. 1132 fecal samples of patients with acute diarrhea and 237 samples of suspected water samples were taken. The serotypes and biotypes were determined by an enzymatic method. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by using Disk Diffusion Method. Data were analyzed using SPSS 23 software. Fisher-exact and Chi-square tests were used to compare the statistical parameters. Findings: 96 fecal samples (8.5% and 18 water samples (7.6% were positive for Vibrio cholerae. Non-agglutinating (Nag isolates (75.4% were more common than serotype Inaba (13.2% and Ogawa (11.4%. Nag serotypes were mostly resistant to cefixime (44% and ampicillin (33%. In contaminated water samples also the most frequent cases were Nag serotype (50%. Nag serotype showed 22.2% of resistance to ampicillin and nitrofurantoin. Conclusion: Vibrio cholerae isolates in Kashan, Iran, are highly resistant to antibiotics, especially Nag serotypes.

  3. Multidrug-Resistance and Toxic Metal Tolerance of Medically Important Bacteria Isolated from an Aquaculture System

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    Resende, Juliana Alves; Silva, Vânia L.; Fontes, Cláudia Oliveira; Souza-Filho, Job Alves; de Oliveira, Tamara Lopes Rocha; Coelho, Cíntia Marques; César, Dionéia Evangelista; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo

    2012-01-01

    The use of antimicrobials and toxic metals should be considered carefully in aquaculture and surrounding environments. We aimed to evaluate medically relevant bacteria in an aquaculture system and their susceptibility to antimicrobials and toxic metals. Selective cultures for enterobacteria (ENT), non-fermenting Gram-negative rods (NFR) and Gram-positive cocci (GPC) were obtained from water samples collected in two different year seasons. The isolated bacteria were biochemically identified and antimicrobial and toxic metal susceptibility patterns were determined. Overall, 407 representative strains were recovered. In general, bacteria isolated from fish ponds showed higher multiple antibiotic resistance indices when compared to those isolated from a water-fed canal. Resistance to penicillin and azithromycin was observed more frequently in the GPC group, whereas resistance to ampicillin and ampicillin/sulbactam or gentamicin was observed more frequently in the ENT and NFR groups, respectively. All the isolated bacteria were tolerant to nickel, zinc, chromium and copper at high levels (≥1,024 μg mL−1), whereas tolerance to cadmium and mercury varied among the isolated bacteria (2–1,024 μg mL−1). Multidrug-resistant bacteria were more frequent and diverse in fish ponds than in the water-fed canal. A positive correlation was observed between antimicrobial resistance and metal tolerance. The data point out the need for water treatment associated with the aquaculture system. PMID:22972388

  4. Distribution, detection of enterotoxigenic strains and antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns of Bacteroides fragilis group in diarrheic and non-diarrheic feces from Brazilian infants

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    Débora Paula Ferreira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of gastrointestinal diseases and their global distribution, affecting millions of individuals around the world, the role and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of anaerobic bacteria such as those in the Bacteroides fragilis group (BFG are still unclear in young children. This study investigated the occurrence and distribution of species in the BFG and enterotoxigenic strains in the fecal microbiota of children and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Diarrheic (n=110 and non-diarrheic (n=65 fecal samples from children aged 0-5 years old were evaluated. BFG strains were isolated and identified by conventional biochemical, physiological and molecular approaches. Alternatively, bacteria and enterotoxigenic strains were detected directly from feces by molecular biology. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns were determined by the agar dilution method according to the guidelines for isolated bacteria. BFG was detected in 64.3% of the fecal samples (55% diarrheic and 80.4% non-diarrheic, and 4.6% were enterotoxigenic. Antimicrobial resistance was observed against ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, meropenem, ceftriaxone, clindamycin and chloramphenicol. The data show that these bacteria are prevalent in fecal microbiota at higher levels in healthy children. The molecular methodology was more effective in identifying the B. fragilis group when compared to the biochemical and physiological techniques. The observation of high resistance levels stimulates thoughts about the indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs in early infancy. Further quantitative studies are needed to gain a better understanding of the role of these bacteria in acute diarrhea in children.

  5. Catalytic Characteristics of New Antibacterials Based on Hexahistidine-Containing Organophosphorus Hydrolase

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    Olga Maslova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic characteristics of hexahistidine-containing organophosphorus hydrolase (His6-OPH and its enzyme-polyelectrolyte complexes with poly-l-glutamic acid or poly-l-aspartic acid (His6-OPH/PLD50, hydrolyzing organophosphorous compounds, and N-acyl homoserine lactones were studied in the presence of various antibiotics (ampicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, and rifampicin. The antibiotics at concentrations below 1 g·L−1 had a negligible inhibiting effect on the His6-OPH activity. Mixed inhibition of His6-OPH was established for higher antibiotic concentrations, and rifampicin was the most potent inhibitor. Stabilization of the His6-OPH activity was observed in the presence of antibiotics at a concentration of 0.2 g·L−1 during exposure at 25–41 °C. Molecular docking of antibiotics to the surface of His6-OPH dimer revealed the antibiotics binding both to the area near active centers of the enzyme subunits and to the region of contact between subunits of the dimer. Such interactions between antibiotics and His6-OPH were verified with Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Considering all the results of the study, the combination of His6-OPH/PLD50 with β-lactam antibiotic ampicillin was established as the optimal one in terms of exhibition and persistence of maximal lactonase activity of the enzyme.

  6. Detection of antibiotic resistance and tetracycline resistance genes in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from the Pearl rivers in South China

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    Tao Ran [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 511 Kehua Street, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ying Guangguo, E-mail: guangguo.ying@gmail.co [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 511 Kehua Street, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Su Haochang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 511 Kehua Street, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhou Hongwei [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Southern Medical University, 1838 North Guangzhou Street, Baiyun District, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Sidhu, Jatinder P.S. [CSIRO Land and Water, Queensland Bioscience Precinct, 306 Carmody Road, St Lucia QLD 4067 (Australia)

    2010-06-15

    This study investigated antibiotic resistance profiles and tetracycline resistance genes in Enterobacteriaceae family isolates from the Pearl rivers. The Enterobacteriaceae isolates were tested for susceptibility to seven antibiotics ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, tetracycline and trimethoprim. In Liuxi reservoir, with an exception to ampicillin resistant strains (11%) no other antibiotic resistance bacterial strains were detected. However, multiple drug resistance in bacterial isolates from the other sites of Pearl rivers was observed which is possibly due to sewage discharge and input from other anthropogenic sources along the rivers. Four tetracycline resistance genes tet A, tet B, tet C and tet D were detected in the isolates from the rivers. The genes tet A and tet B were widely detected with the detection frequencies of 43% and 40% respectively. Ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin resistant enteric bacteria were also isolated from the pig and duck manures which suggest a wider distribution of human specific drugs in the environment. This investigation provided a baseline data on antibiotic resistance profiles and tetracycline resistance genes in the Pearl rivers delta. - High rates of antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae from river water are attributed to wastewater contamination.

  7. The In Vitro Antibiotic Susceptibility of Malaysian Isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei

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    Norazah Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute melioidosis may present as localised or septicaemic infections and can be fatal if left untreated. Burkholderia pseudomallei resistant to antibiotics used for the treatment of melioidosis had been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Burkholderia pseudomallei isolated in Malaysia to a panel of antibiotics used for the treatment of melioidosis and also to potential alternative antibiotics such as tigecycline, ampicillin/sulbactam, and piperacillin/tazobactam. A total of 170 Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates were subjected to minimum inhibitory concentration determination using E-test method to eleven antibiotics. All isolates were sensitive to meropenem and piperacillin/tazobactam. For ceftazidime, imipenem, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and doxycycline resistance was observed in 1 isolate (0.6% for each of the antibiotics. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance was observed in 17 (10% isolates. For other antibiotics, ampicillin/sulbactam, chloramphenicol, tigecycline, and ciprofloxacin resistance were observed in 1 (0.6%, 6 (3.5%, 60 (35.3% and 98 (57.7% isolates respectively. One isolate B170/06 exhibited resistance to 4 antibiotics, namely, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and tigecycline. In conclusion, the Malaysian isolates were highly susceptible to the current antibiotics used in the treatment of melioidosis in Malaysia. Multiple resistances to the antibiotics used in the maintenance therapy are the cause for a concern.

  8. Current antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of typhoidal salmonellae in a referral diagnostic centre

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    Umer Shujat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infections caused by typhoidal salmonellae are an important public health concern in Pakistan. Inappropriate and injudicious use of fluoroquinolones has reduced their efficacy due to development of high level resistance. Aim: To ascertain the current susceptibility pattern of typhoidal salmonellae thus guiding the physicians for better management of typhoid patients.Materials and Methods: A study was conducted at our institution from January 2012 through December 2013 to investigate current susceptibility pattern of typhoidal salmonellae. Results: Out of 200 isolates, 107 (53.5% were identified as Salmonella Typhi and 93 (46.5% as Salmonella Paratyphi A. Sensitivities of Salmonella Typhi were as follows: ampicillin (48.6%, chloramphenicol (45.8%, co-trimoxazole (40.1%, ciprofloxacin (11.2%. Sensitivities of Salmonella Paratyphi A were: ampicillin (80.6%, chloramphenicol (89.2%, co-trimoxazole (90.3%, and ciprofloxacin (16.1%. No resistance was detected against third generation cephalosporins. Conclusions: Typhoidal salmonellae are still entirely susceptible to third generation cephalosporins in our setting. Marked rise in resistance to fluoroquinolones has reduced their empirical usage. Sensitivity of Salmonella Paratyphi A to conventional antityphoid drugs was encouraging.

  9. Nationwide surveillance of bacterial respiratory pathogens conducted by the surveillance committee of Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases, and the Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology in 2012: General view of the pathogens' antibacterial susceptibility.

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    Yanagihara, Katsunori; Watanabe, Akira; Aoki, Nobuki; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Masaki; Sato, Junko; Wakamura, Tomotaro; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Kadota, Junichi; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Iwata, Satoshi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Hanaki, Hideaki; Ohsaki, Yoshinobu; Fujiuchi, Satoru; Takahashi, Manabu; Takeuchi, Kenichi; Takeda, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Hideki; Miki, Makoto; Nakanowatari, Susumu; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Utagawa, Mutsuko; Nishiya, Hajime; Kawakami, Sayoko; Morino, Eriko; Takasaki, Jin; Mezaki, Kazuhisa; Chonabayashi, Naohiko; Tanaka, Chie; Sugiura, Hideko; Goto, Hajime; Saraya, Takeshi; Kurai, Daisuke; Katono, Yasuhiro; Inose, Rika; Niki, Yoshihito; Takuma, Takahiro; Kudo, Makoto; Ehara, Shigeru; Sato, Yoshimi; Tsukada, Hiroki; Watabe, Nobuei; Honma, Yasuo; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Yamagishi, Yuka; Nakamura, Atsushi; Ohashi, Minoru; Seki, Masafumi; Hamaguchi, Shigeto; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Fujikawa, Yasunori; Mitsuno, Noriko; Ukimura, Akira; Miyara, Takayuki; Nakamura, Takahito; Mikasa, Keiichi; Kasahara, Kei; Ui, Koji; Fukuda, Saori; Nakamura, Akihiro; Morimura, Mika; Yamashita, Mikio; Takesue, Yoshio; Wada, Yasunao; Sugimoto, Keisuke; Kusano, Nobuchika; Nose, Motoko; Mihara, Eiichirou; Kuwabara, Masao; Doi, Masao; Watanabe, Yaeko; Tokuyasu, Hirokazu; Hino, Satoshi; Negayama, Kiyoshi; Mukae, Hiroshi; Kawanami, Toshinori; Ota, Toshiyuki; Fujita, Masaki; Honda, Junichi; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Aoki, Yosuke; Fukuoka, Mami; Magarifuchi, Hiroki; Nagasawa, Zenzo; Kaku, Norihito; Fujita, Jiro; Higa, Futoshi; Tateyama, Masao

    2017-09-01

    The nationwide surveillance on antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens from the patients in Japan was conducted by Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, Japanese association for infectious diseases and Japanese society for Clinical Microbiology in 2012. The isolates were collected from clinical specimens obtained from well-diagnosed adult patients with respiratory tract infections during the period between January and December in 2012 by three societies. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted at the central reference laboratory according to the method recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institutes. Susceptibility testing was evaluated in 1236 strains (232 Staphylococcus aureus, 225 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 16 Streptococcus pyogenes, 231 Haemophilus influenzae, 147 Moraxella catarrhalis, 167 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 218 Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Ratio of methicillin-resistant S. aureus was 51.3%, and those of penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae was 0.4%. Among H. influenzae, 5.6% of them were found to be β-lactamase-producing ampicillin-resistant strains, and 37.2% to be β-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin-resistant strains. Extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae and multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa with metallo β-lactamase were 4.2% and 3.2%, respectively. Continuous national surveillance is important to determine the actual situation of the resistance shown by bacterial respiratory pathogens to antimicrobial agents. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns in Women with Positive Urine Culture: Does Menopausal Status Make a Significant Difference?

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    Pawel Miotla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Urinary tract infection (UTI is considered one of the most common bacterial infections in women. The aim of this study was to investigate the types of uropathogens present, as well as the degree of antimicrobial drug resistance seen among premenopausal (n=2748 and postmenopausal (n=1705 women with uncomplicated UTI. Methods. Urinary samples (n=4453 collected from women with UTI were analyzed in terms of uropathogens present. These were considered as positive if bacterial growth was ≥105 colony forming units (CFUs/mL. Susceptibility and resistance testing for commonly used antibiotics was subsequently assessed. Results. The most common uropathogens cultured from urine samples were Escherichia coli (65.5%, followed by Enterococcus faecalis (12.2%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (4.7%, and Proteus mirabilis (4.2%. The resistance to ampicillin exceeded 40%, independently of menopausal status. Of note, resistance to ciprofloxacin exceeded 25% among postmenopausal patients. Moreover, resistance of all uropathogens to commonly used antimicrobials was significantly higher in postmenopausal women. Conclusion. Due to the high resistance rate, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and the trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole combination should be avoided in treating postmenopausal women affected by UTI without being indicated by initial urine culture report. Finally, cephalexin and cefuroxime are promising alternatives as initial treatment in postmenopausal women.

  11. Occurrence and Distribution of Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria and Transfer of Resistance Genes in Lake Taihu

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    Yin, Qian; Yue, Dongmei; Peng, Yuke; Liu, Ying; Xiao, Lin

    2013-01-01

    The overuse of antibiotics has accelerated antibiotic resistance in the natural environment, especially fresh water, generating a potential risk for public health around the world. In this study, antibiotic resistance in Lake Taihu was investigated and this was the first thorough data obtained through culture-dependent methods. High percentages of resistance to streptomycin and ampicillin among bacterial isolates were detected, followed by tetracycline and chloramphenicol. Especially high levels of ampicillin resistance in the western and northern regions were illustrated. Bacterial identification of the isolates selected for further study indicated the prevalence of some opportunistic pathogens and 62.0% of the 78 isolates exhibited multiple antibiotic resistance. The presence of ESBLs genes was in the following sequence: blaTEM > blaSHV > blaCTMX and 38.5% of the isolates had a class I integrase gene. Of all tested strains, 80.8% were able to transfer antibiotic resistance through conjugation. We also concluded that some new families of human-associated ESBLs and AmpC genes can be found in natural environmental isolates. The prevalence of antibiotic resistance and the dissemination of transferable antibiotic resistance in bacterial isolates (especially in opportunistic pathogens) was alarming and clearly indicated the urgency of realizing the health risks of antibiotic resistance to human and animal populations who are dependent on Lake Taihu for water consumption. PMID:24240317

  12. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A multicentre study.

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    Rajaduraipandi K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important nosocomial pathogen. We report the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of MRSA in major southern districts of Tamilnadu. Methods: A total of 7172 clinical specimens and 1725 carrier screening samples were collected from different centers and subjected to MRSA screening using conventional microbiological methods. Subsequently the antibiotic sensitivity test was performed for the confirmed MRSA isolates. Results: Out of 906 strains of S. aureus isolated from clinical and carrier samples, 250 (31.1% and 39 (37.9% were found to be methicillin resistant respectively. Almost all clinical MRSA strains (99.6% were resistant to penicillin, 93.6% to ampicillin, and 63.2% towards gentamicin, co-trimoxazole, cephalexin, erythromycin, and cephotaxime. All MRSA strains (100% of carrier screening samples had resistance to penicillin and about 71.8% and 35.9% were resistant to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole respectively. Multidrug resistance was observed among 63.6% of clinical and 23% of carrier MRSA isolates. However, all strains of clinical and carrier subjects were sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion: The determination of prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of MRSA will help the treating clinicians for first line treatment in referral hospitals.

  13. Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Shrimp Farming Freshwater Environment in Northeast Region of Brazil

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    Fátima C. T. Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the presence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. in a shrimp farming environment in Northeast Region of Brazil. Samples of water and sediments from two farms rearing freshwater-acclimated Litopenaeus vannamei were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Afterwards, Salmonella isolates were serotyped, the antimicrobial resistance was determined by a disk diffusion method, and the plasmid curing was performed for resistant isolates. A total of 30 (16.12% of the 186 isolates were confirmed to be Salmonella spp., belonging to five serovars: S. serovar Saintpaul, S. serovar Infantis, S. serovar Panama, S. serovar Madelia, and S. serovar Braenderup, along with 2 subspecies: S. enterica serovar houtenae and S. enterica serovar enterica. About twenty-three percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and twenty percent were resistant to at least two antibiotics. Three strains isolated from water samples (pond and inlet canal exhibited multiresistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and nitrofurantoin. One of them had a plasmid with genes conferring resistance to nitrofurantoin and ampicillin. The incidence of bacteria pathogenic to humans in a shrimp farming environment, as well as their drug-resistance pattern revealed in this study, emphasizes the need for a more rigorous attention to this area.

  14. Sequential acquisition of R-plasmids in vivo by Salmonella typhimurium.

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    Platt, D J; Sommerville, J S; Gribben, J

    1984-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium, resistant only to trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole, was isolated from the faeces and blood of a chronic alcoholic patient in acute renal failure. The isolates harboured an 18 Md non-conjugative plasmid. He was dialysed peritoneally and treated with ampicillin; four days later there was no clinical improvement and his peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF) had become infected. Salm. typhimurium was isolated from faeces and PDF. Both isolates were additionally resistant to ampicillin and contained two plasmids (55 Md and 18 Md). Therapy was changed to chloramphenicol and gentamicin was added to the PDF. Two weeks later Salm. typhimurium was again isolated from PDF and faeces. The PDF isolate was unchanged but 4% of the colonies isolated from this faecal specimen were resistant to chloramphenicol and had acquired an additional 62 Md plasmid. From all PDF and faecal specimens two different strains of Escherichia coli and one strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated which contained plasmids indistinguishable, on the basis of molecular weight and transferable resistance markers, from those acquired by Salm. typhimurium. The transferability of these plasmids in vitro to E. coli K12 and to the patient's initial Salm. typhimurium was studied and the results discussed.

  15. In vitro sensitivity of Hungarian Actinobaculum suis strains to selected antimicrobials.

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    Biksi, I; Major, Andrea; Fodor, L; Szenci, O; Vetési, F

    2003-01-01

    In vitro antimicrobial sensitivity of 12 Hungarian isolates and the type strain ATCC 33144 of Actinobaculum suis to different antimicrobial compounds was determined both by the agar dilution and by the disc diffusion method. By agar dilution, MIC50 values in the range of 0.05-3.125 micrograms/ml were determined for penicillin, ampicillin, ceftiofur, doxycycline, tylosin, pleuromutilins, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, enrofloxacin and lincomycin. The MIC50 value of oxytetracycline and spectinomycin was 6.25 and 12.5 micrograms/ml, respectively. For ofloxacin, flumequine, neomycin, streptomycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, nitrofurantoin and sulphamethoxazole + trimethoprim MIC50 values were in the range of 25-100 micrograms/ml. With the disc diffusion method, all strains were sensitive to penicillin, cephalosporins examined, chloramphenicol and florfenicol, tetracyclines examined, pleuromutilins, lincomycin and tylosin. Variable sensitivity was observed for fluoroquinolones (flumequine, enrofloxacin, ofloxacin), most of the strains were susceptible to marbofloxacin. Almost all strains were resistant to aminoglycosides but most of them were sensitive to spectinomycin. A strong correlation was determined for disc diffusion and MIC results (Spearman's rho 0.789, p < 0001). MIC values of the type strain and MIC50 values of other tested strains did not differ significantly. Few strains showed a partially distinct resistance pattern for erythromycin, lincomycin and ampicillin in both methods.

  16. The detection limits of antimicrobial agents in cow's milk by a simple Yoghurt Culture Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenzadeh, M; Bahrainipour, A

    2008-09-15

    The aim of this study was to study performance of Yoghurt Culture Test (YCT) in the detection of antimicrobial residues in milk. For this purpose, the sensitivity of YCT for 15 antibiotics were determined. For each drug, 8 concentrations were tested. The detection limits of YCT at 2.5 h and 4 h incubation were determined (microg kg(-1)): 15 and 37.5, penicillin G; 4 and 5, ampicillin; 5 and 7.5, amoxycillin; 100 and 200, cephalexin; 80 and 100, cefazoline; 100 and 200, oxytetracycline; 500 and 100, chlortetracycline; 100 and 200, tetracycline; 150 and 200, doxycycline; 200 and 400, sulphadimidine; 500 and 1000, gentamycin; 1000 and 1500, spectinomycin; 400 and 500, erythromycin; 50 and 100, tylosin; 5000 and 10000, chloramphenicol. The YCT detection limits at 2.5 h incubation for ampicillin, cephalexin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline and tylosin are similar to those obtained as Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) according to Regulation 2377/90 EEC as set out by the European Union. In addition the detection limits of YCT for some antibiotics were lower than some of microbial inhibitor test.

  17. A prospective study on evaluation of pathogenesis, biofilm formation, antibiotic susceptibility of microbial community in urinary catheter

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    Younis, Khansa Mohammed; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2015-09-01

    This study is aimed to isolate, detect biofilm formation ability and antibiotic susceptibility of urinary catheter adherent microorganisms from elderly hospitalized patient at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center. Microorganisms were isolated from three samples of urinary catheters (UC) surface; one of the acute vascular rejection patient (UCB) and two from benign prostate hyperplasia patients (UCC and UCD). A total of 100 isolates was isolated with 35 from UCB, 38 (UCC) and 28 (UCD). Ninety six were identified as Gram-negative bacilli, one Gram-positive bacilli and three yeasts. Results of biofilm forming on sterile foley catheter showed that all the isolates can form biofilm at different degrees; strong biofilm forming: 32% from the 35 isolates (UCB), 25% out of 38 isolates (UCC), 26% out of 28 isolates (UCD). As for moderate biofilm forming; 3% from UCB, 10% from UCC and 2% from UCD. Weak biofilm forming in UCC (3%). The antibiotic susceptibility for (UCB) isolates showed highly resistant to ampicillin, novobiocin and penicillin 100 (%), kanamycin (97%), tetracycline (94%), chloramphenicol (91%), streptomycin (77%) and showed low level of resistance to gentamycin (17%), while all the isolates from (UCC-D) showed high resistant towards ampicillin and penicillin, novobiocin (94%), tetracycline (61%), streptomycin (53%), gentamycin (50%) and low level of resistance to kanamycin (48%), chloramphenicol (47%). The findings indicate that these isolates can spread within the community on urinary catheters surface and produce strong biofilm, therefore, monitoring antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria isolated in the aggregation is recommended.

  18. Cloning of the nptII gene of Escherichia coli and construction of a recombinant strain harboring functional recA and nptII antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, S

    2011-01-01

    In an attempt to clone the ORF of the nptII gene of Escherichia coli K12 (ATCC 10798), two degenerate primers were designed based on the nptII sequence of its Tn5 transposon. The nptII ORF was placed under the control of the E. coli hybrid trc promoter, in the pKK388-1 vector, transformed into E. coli DH5α ΔrecA (recombinant, deficient strain). Transferred cells were tested for ampicillin, tetracycline, kanamycin, neomycin, geneticin, paromomycin, penicillin, and UV resistance. The neomycin phosphotransferase gene of E. coli was cloned successfully and conferred kanamycin, neomycin, geneticin, and paromomycin resistance to recombinant DH5α; this did not inhibit insertion of additional antibiotic resistance against ampicillin and tetracycline, meaning the trc promoter can express two different genes carried by two different plasmids harbored in the same cell. This resistance conferral process could be considered as an emulation of horizontal gene transfer occurring in nature and would be a useful tool for understanding mechanisms of evolution of multidrug-resistant strains.

  19. Investigation and Treatment of Fusidic Acid Resistance Among Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcal Isolates from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelfetouh, Alaa; Kassem, Mervat; Naguib, Marwa; El-Nakeeb, Moustafa

    2017-01-01

    Methicillin resistance among staphylococci isolated from patients in northern Egypt has escalated alarmingly in the past decade. Data about the prevalence of fusidic acid (FA) resistance in Egyptian clinical isolates are limited. This work investigates the prevalence and mechanism of FA resistance among 81 methicillin-resistant staphylococcal isolates from major hospitals of Alexandria, Egypt. Some combinations for treating infections due to resistant isolates were studied. Twenty-six isolates (32.1%) were FA resistant (minimum inhibitory concentrations [MICs] = 2-1,024 μg/ml), and fusB and fusC genes coding for FA resistance were detected in 30.77% and 34.62% of the FA-resistant strains, respectively. One highly resistant isolate, S502 (MIC = 1,024 μg/ml), possessed both genes. Plasmid curing resulted in fusB loss and MIC decrease by 16-64 folds. Conjugation caused acquisition of FA resistance among susceptible isolates. Serial passages in subinhibitory FA concentrations produced mutants with increased MIC by 4-32 folds. The combination of FA with rifampin, gentamicin, or ampicillin/sulbactam, in a subinhibitory concentration, was synergistic against the isolates, including serial passage mutants, decreasing number of survivors by an average of 2-4 logs. A relatively moderate rate of FA resistance was detected in Alexandria hospitals. Combination therapy with gentamicin, rifampin, or ampicillin/sulbactam is crucial to preserve the effectiveness of FA.

  20. In vitro safety assessments and antimicrobial activities of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains isolated from a fermented mare's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryantini, Ni Putu Desy; Yamasaki, Eiki; Kurazono, Hisao; Sujaya, I Nengah; Urashima, Tadasu; Fukuda, Kenji

    2017-03-01

    Safety and probiotic characteristics such as antimicrobial activities of three Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains, FSMM15, FSMM22 and FSMM26, previously isolated as potential probiotics from fermented mare's milk were investigated. The three FSMM strains were susceptible to ampicillin, gentamycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, whereas they were resistant to erythromycin (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 4-8 µg/mL) and clindamycin (MIC = 4 µg/mL); bioconversion of bile salts, hemolytic activity and mucin degradation activity were negative; enzymatic activities of α-chymotrypsin and β-glucosidase were detected, but those of α-galactosidase, β-glucuronidase and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, were undetectable. Among the strains, strain FSMM15 was chosen as a safer probiotic candidate due mainly to the lack of plasminogen binding ability. Despite lower acid production of strain FSMM15 than others, its cell-free culture supernatant inhibited growths of Salmonella Typhimurium LT-2, Shigella sonnei, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157 with comparable levels of ampicillin, suggesting a favorable aspect of strain FSMM15 as a probiotic strain. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Evaluation of different conditions and culture media for the recovery of Aeromonas spp. from water and shellfish samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif-Eugenín, F; Beaz-Hidalgo, R; Figueras, M J

    2016-09-01

    To perform a comparative study for determining the optimum culture method (direct plating or enrichment) and medium (ampicillin dextrin agar (ADA), starch ampicillin agar (SAA), bile salts irgasan brilliant green modified (BIBG-m)) for recovering Aeromonas species from water and shellfish samples. By direct culture, Aeromonas was detected in 65% (13/20) of the water samples and in 54·5% (6/11) of the shellfish samples. However, when a pre-enrichment step was included, the number of positive water samples increased to 75% (15/20) and the ones of shellfish to 90·1% (10/11). The enriched culture significantly favoured (P culture medium for detecting Aeromonas from water was ADA. However, no differences were observed in the case of shellfish samples (P > 0·05). Isolation of Aeromonas media from water was favoured (P culture method and medium used influenced the recovery of some Aeromonas species from water and shellfish samples. This fact should be considered in future prevalence studies to avoid overestimating the above mentioned Aeromonas species. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Study of antagonistic effects of Lactobacillus strains as probiotics on multi drug resistant (MDR) bacteria isolated from urinary tract infections (UTIs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Atiyeh; Kasra-Kermanshahi, Roha; Gharavi, Sara; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, Meghdad; Saffarian, Parvaneh

    2014-03-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by bacteria is one of the most frequent infections in human population. Inappropriate use of antibiotics, often leads to appearance of drug resistance in bacteria. However, use of probiotic bacteria has been suggested as a partial replacement. This study was aimed to assess the antagonistic effects of Lactobacillus standard strains against bacteria isolated from UTI infections. Among 600 samples; those with ≥10,000 cfu/ml were selected as UTI positive samples. Enterococcus sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter sp., and Escherichia coli were found the most prevalent UTI causative agents. All isolates were screened for multi drug resistance and subjected to the antimicrobial effects of three Lactobacillus strains by using microplate technique and the MICs amounts were determined. In order to verify the origin of antibiotic resistance of isolates, plasmid curing using ethidium bromide and acridine orange was carried out. No antagonistic activity in Lactobacilli suspension was detected against test on Enterococcus and Enterobacter strains and K. pneumoniae, which were resistant to most antibiotics. However, an inhibitory effect was observed for E. coli which were resistant to 8-9 antibiotics. In addition, L. casei was determined to be the most effective probiotic. RESULTS from replica plating suggested one of the plasmids could be related to the gene responsible for ampicillin resistance. Treatment of E. coli with probiotic suspension was not effective on inhibition of the plasmid carrying hypothetical ampicillin resistant gene. Moreover, the plasmid profiles obtained from probiotic-treated isolates were identical to untreated isolates.

  3. Microbiology of urinary tract infections in Gaborone, Botswana.

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    Andrew J Renuart

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The microbiology and epidemiology of UTI pathogens are largely unknown in Botswana, a high prevalence HIV setting. Using laboratory data from the largest referral hospital and a private hospital, we describe the major pathogens causing UTI and their antimicrobial resistance patterns. METHODS: This retrospective study examined antimicrobial susceptibility data for urine samples collected at Princess Marina Hospital (PMH, Bokamoso Private Hospital (BPH, or one of their affiliated outpatient clinics. A urine sample was included in our dataset if it demonstrated pure growth of a single organism and accompanying antimicrobial susceptibility and subject demographic data were available. RESULTS: A total of 744 samples were included. Greater than 10% resistance was observed for amoxicillin, co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and ciprofloxacin. Resistance of E. coli isolates to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole was greater than 60% in all settings. HIV status did not significantly impact the microbiology of UTIs, but did impact antimicrobial resistance to co-trimoxazole. CONCLUSIONS: Data suggests that antimicrobial resistance has already emerged to most oral antibiotics, making empiric management of outpatient UTIs challenging. Ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, and ciprofloxacin should not be used as empiric treatment for UTI in this context. Nitrofurantoin could be used for simple cystitis; aminoglycosides for uncomplicated UTI in inpatients.

  4. Gold nanostructure-integrated silica-on-silicon waveguide for the detection of antibiotics in milk and milk products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhikandathil, Jayan; Badilescu, Simona; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran

    2012-10-01

    Antibiotics are extensively used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases. The use of antibiotics for the treatment of animals used for food production raised the concern of the public and a rapid screening method became necessary. A novel approach of detection of antibiotics in milk is reported in this work by using an immunoassay format and the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance property of gold. An antibiotic from the penicillin family that is, ampicillin is used for testing. Gold nanostructures deposited on a glass substrate by a novel convective assembly method were heat-treated to form a nanoisland morphology. The Au nanostructures were functionalized and the corresponding antibody was absorbed from a solution. Solutions with known concentrations of antigen (antibiotics) were subsequently added and the spectral changes were monitored step by step. The Au LSPR band corresponding to the nano-island structure was found to be suitable for the detection of the antibody antigen interaction. The detection of the ampicillin was successfully demonstrated with the gold nano-islands deposited on glass substrate. This process was subsequently adapted for the integration of gold nanostructures on the silica-on-silicon waveguide for the purpose of detecting antibiotics.

  5. Quinacrine non-surgical female sterilization in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, S N; Begum, R

    2001-11-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of transcervical applications of quinacrine along with other adjuvants, such as ampicillin and ibuprofen, for sterilization. The cohort consisted of 750 normal women who requested sterilization and volunteered for this method at the family planning clinic of a tertiary hospital and community clinics in Chittagong, Bangladesh. Several different protocols were followed from October 1989 to April 1999. Each woman received one or two insertions of 180 mg or 252 mg quinacrine with or without adjuvants including 55.5 mg ibuprofen or 125 mg ampicillin. Supplementary contraception was given in the form of combined oral contraceptive pills, barrier methods, or injection of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate for 3 months. Details of each protocol are described in the text. The gross pregnancy failure rate for insertion of 180 mg in 590 women was 3.9% compared to 1.9% for the 160 who received 252 mg. There were no serious complications, and side effects were transient. We conclude that quinacrine non-surgical sterilization is a safe, acceptably effective method when two insertions of 252 mg quinacrine with medroxyprogesterone injection as a supplement is used.

  6. Treatment of Enterococcal Peritonitis in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients by Oral Amoxicillin or Intra-Peritoneal Vancomcyin: a Retrospective Study

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    Cheuk Chun Szeto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Enterococcal peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients is associated with a high complication rate. The optimal treatment regimen of PD-related enterococcal peritonitis is controversial. The latest international guideline recommends intra-peritoneal (IP vancomycin. Although ampicillin is often effective for systemic enterococcal infections, they have little in vitro activity when added to common PD solutions. Since oral amoxicillin achieves therapeutic drug level in the peritoneal cavity, we explore the efficacy of oral amoxicillin for enterococcal peritonitis. Methods: We studied 105 episodes of enterococcal peritonitis over 20 years in our unit; 43 (41.0% were treated with oral amoxicillin, and 62 (59.0% with IP vancomycin. Their clinical outcome was reviewed. Result: The overall primary response rate to oral amoxicillin and IP vancomycin was 76.4% and 85.5%, respectively (p = 0.3. The complete cure rate of oral amoxicillin and IP vancomycin was 55.8% and 54.8%, respectively (p = 0.8. When the 5 episodes of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus episodes were excluded, the primary response rate and complete cure rate of oral amoxicillin were 86.8% and 63.2%, respectively. Conclusion: Oral amoxicillin has an excellent primary response rate and complete cure rate for PD-related peritonitis episodes caused by Enterococcus species, indicating that oral amoxicillin is a valid and convenient therapeutic option for enterococcal peritonitis episodes.

  7. Prophylactic antibiotics versus post- operative antibiotics in herniorraphy

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    Abedulla Khan Kayamkani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative surgical site infections are a major source of illness.  Infection results in longer hospital stay and higher costs.  Uses of preoperative antibiotics have been standardized and are being used routinely in most clinical surgeries and include controversial areas like breast surgery and herniorraphy. Objective of the study is to find out the benefit of prophylactic use of antibiotics in the management of herniorraphy.This project was carried out in a multispeciality tertiary care teaching hospital from 1st-30th April in 2002. Group 1 patients were treated prophylactically half an hour before surgery with single dose of I.V. antibiotics (injection.  Ampicillin 1gm + injection.  Gentamicin 80mg. Group 2 patients were treated post surgery with capsule. Ampicillin 500mg 4 times a day for 7 days and injection. Gentamicin twice a day for first 4 days. In case of group 1 patients only one out of 20 patients (5% was infected.  Whereas in-group 2 patients 5 out of 20 patients (25% were infected. The cost of prophylactic antibiotic treatment was Rs. 25.56 per patient.  The postoperative antibiotic treatment cost was Rs. 220.4 per patient.  That means postoperative treatment is around 8.62 times costlier than prophylactic treatment.             From this study it is evident that prophylactic (preoperative treatment is better than postoperative treatment with antibiotics.

  8. Characterization of Shigella Strains by Plasmid Profile Analysis and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns in a Pediatric Hospital in Ahvaz

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    Amin Sakhaei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: High incidences of dysentery and diarrhea were reported in a pediatric hospital in Ahvaz, Iran during March to April, 2013. Objectives: A cross-sectional study was therefore undertaken to identify the causative agents. Patients and Methods: A total of 230 diarrhea samples were collected from the patients and analyzed by routine bacteriological methods. Bacterial identification, serological assay, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs screening and plasmid profile analysis were performed according to the standard guidelines. Results: A total of 70 Shigella strains including %70 (n = 49 S. sonnei and 30% (n = 21 S. flexneri were isolated from diarrhea samples. Most of the Shigella isolates showed high degrees of resistance to ampicillin, ulafamethoxazole- trimethoprime and cefexim. Concurrent resistance to sulafametoxazole- trimethoprime and ampicillin was the most common resistance pattern. Overall, 11.4% of Shigella isolates showed the ESBL producer criteria. The plasmid profile patterns of all the strains were determined by a modified alkaline lysis method. By plasmid profile analysis 23 genotypes were identified among all the isolates, 14 and 9 genotypes among the S. sonnei and S. Flexneri respectively. S. sonnei and S. flexneri isolates demonstrated unique plasmid profiles. Conclusions: These data demonstrated that S. sonnei strains are the main cause of shigellosis as the prevalent Shigella serotype in Iran. We also found that the antibiotic resistance rates are increasing among Shigella strains. Plasmid profile analysis is more reliable than antibiotic susceptibility patterns in epidemiologic studies.

  9. Antimicrobial resistance in Shigella spp. causing traveller's diarrhoea (1995-2010): a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, M J; Gomes, C; Martínez-Puchol, S; Ruiz, L; Mensa, L; Vila, J; Gascón, J; Ruiz, J

    2013-01-01

    Shigellosis is a global human health problem causing an important morbidity among travellers returning from tropical areas. This study was aimed to describe the evolution of antimicrobial resistance profile in Shigella spp. isolated between the years 1995-2010 in patients with traveller's diarrhoea (TD) returning from tropical areas. The levels of antimicrobial resistance were tested in a total of 191 Shigella spp. isolated during the period from 1995 to 2010. A decrease of cases of diarrhoea caused by Shigella has been observed in recent years. A wide spectrum of antibiotic resistance was observed among Shigella spp. These isolates showed high levels of resistance to tetracycline (84%), co-trimoxazole (75.5%), and ampicillin (45.5%). The resistance was low to ciprofloxacin (2.1%), azithromycin (3.9%) and furazolidone (8.4%). According to the period, in the case of ampicillin, amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, chloramphenicol, values of resistance were significantly decreasing from 1995-2000 to 2001-2010, (62.5% vs. 28.4%, 19.8% vs. 6.6%, 23.4 vs. 10.4%, respectively). Meanwhile in nalidixic acid and tetracycline the evolution of resistance has increased over time. A decrease in the isolation number of Shigella spp. causing TD has been observed. Differential trends in the evolution of the levels of resistance to the tested antibacterial agents have been observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Changes of resistant phenotype and CRISPR/Cas system of four Shigella strains passaged for 90 times without antibiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B; Hong, L J; Duan, G C; Liang, W J; Yang, H Y; Xi, Y L

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To explore the stability of resistant phenotypes and changes of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) gene system on four Shigella strains in the absence of antibiotics. Methods: Four clinical isolated Shigella strains that resistant to different antibiotics were consecutive passaged for 90 times without antibiotics. Agar dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of Shigella strains. After sequence analysis with PCR, CRISPR Finder and Clustal X 2.1 were applied to identify the changes of CRISPR loci in the Shigella strains. Results: After the consecutive transfer of 90 generations, sensitivity to certain antibiotics of four Shigella strains with different drug resistant spectrums increased. Mel-sf1998024/zz resistance to ampicillin, cephalexin, cefotaxime, chloramphenicol decreased, mel-s2014026/sx resistance to norfloxacin, trimethoprim decreased, mel-sf2004004/sx drug resistance to ampicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim decreased and mel-sf2013004/bj resistance to chloramphenicol decreased. The spacer of which matched gene codes Cas and its upstream repeat in 3'end of CRISPR3 got lost in mel-sf1998024/zz and mel-sf2013004/bj. Conclusions: Shigella strains could reduce or lose their resistance to some antibiotics after consecutive transfers, without the interference of antibiotics. CRISPR3 locus had dynamic spacers in Shigella strains while CRISPR3 locus and cas genes might have been co-evolved.

  11. Association of Pattern of Bacteria Sensitivity During the Empirical Antibiotics Use to the Achievement of Clinical Outcome in Pediatric Patients with Pneumonia

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    Vesara A. Gatera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonia is one of infectious diseases that require a comprehensive and effective effort in its treatment, including in the use of empirical antibiotics. The use of empirical antibiotics should be based on patterns of sensitivity toward bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of antibiotics based on the sensitivity patterns by clinical outcomes as the goal of treatment. This study was conducted in Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung in October–December 2013 using a retrospective cross-sectional study design. Secondary data were obtained from medical records during January 2011–December 2012. This study consisted of 24 patients with positive culture test and received antibiotic prescription. The results showed the percentage of the use of cefotaxime-ampicillin (37.5%, cefotaxime (33.3%, ceftriaxone (20.8%, and Ampicillin (8.4%. The most influential antibiotics for achieving clinical outcome using 95% confidence level is combination of cefotaxime-ampiciline (P=0.044 with 77.7% sensitivity level. This study suggested that the pattern of antibiotic sensitivity affected the clinical outcomes of pediatric patients with pneumonia.

  12. Induction of transposon TN1 translocation under the action of different mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubanejshvili, M.G.; Smirnov, S.P.; Tarasov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Migration of ampicillin transposon Tn1 under normal conditions in Escherichia coli cells proceeds with low frequency (10 -4 transpositions for cell). The low transposition frequency is conditioned by the transposition repression, realized by the gene-repressor in transposon structure and, probably, by other regulating genes of the bacterium-host. E. coli cell treatment by physical and chemical mutagens resulted in induction of translocation of ampicillin transposon Tn1 from plasmid RP4 into other replicons. Mitomycin C and ultraviolet radiation produced stronger inducing effect as compared to nitroso-guanidine (NG). The effect of the given mutagens on transposition Tn1 correlated with their activating capacity with respect to inducible SOS-functions of E coli. The mutation of rec A didn't influence on spontaneous Tn1 transposition, but blocked completely the induction of transposition process under mutagen effect. The relationship of inducible transposition with SOS-functions in E. coli cells, controlled by recA and lexA genes, as well as the possible role of the process in genetic microorganism variability are discussed in the paper

  13. Antibiotic sensitivity of escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infection referred to Kermanshah central laboratory

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    Parviz Mohajeri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Escherichia coli (Ecoli has been considered as the most common agent of urinary tract infection in all regions. Recently, increased drug resistance has been lead to some problems in treatment related diseases. So, evaluation of resistance patterns of bacteria in each region could be a valuable guide for empirical treatment.Methods: All referred urine sample to Kermanshah Central Laboratory during 1998 that was reported positive to Ecoli were assessed. Susceptibility pattern to 19 antimicrobial agents was evaluated using Kirby Bauer method according to CLSI standards.Results: A total of 834 Ecoli isolated from 19,208 positive urine cultures. 84% of subjects were females and 16% males. Sensitivity rate for nitrofurantoin (84%, ceftizoxime (72%, norfloxacin (70%, cefotaxime (69%, Amikacin (66%, ciprofloxacin (65%, ceftriaxone (64%, ceftazidim (55% was higher than 50%. Sensitivity to nalidixic acid, cefexime, gentamicin, co-trimoxazole, ticarcillin, caphalexin, cephalotin, tetracycline, amoxicillin, amoxicillin clavulanate and ampicillin were determined less than 50%.Conclusion: Nitrofurantoin and ceftizoxime are currently effective against Ecoli, although an indiscriminate use of antibiotics should be avoided because of drug resistance probable. It seems that ampicillin could be excluded from routine sensitivity testing.

  14. Flow cytometric evaluation of antibiotic effects on viability and mitochondrial function of refrigerated spermatozoa of Nile tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, M.; Jenkins, J.A.; Paniagua-Chavez, C.; Tiersch, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Improved techniques for storage and evaluation of fish sperm would enhance breeding programs around the world. The goal of this study was to test the effect of antibiotics on refrigerated sperm from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by use of flow cytometry with 2 dual-staining protocols for objective assessment of sperm quality. Concentrations of 1 x 109 sperm/mL were suspended in Ringer's buffer at 318 mOsmol/kg (pH 8.0). The fluorescent stains Sybr 14 (10 ??M), propidium iodide (2.4 mM), and rhodamine 123 (0.13 ??M) were used to assess cell viability and mitochondrial function. Three concentrations of ampicillin, gentamicin, and an antibiotic/antimycotic solution were added to fresh spermatozoa. Motility estimates and flow cytometry measurements were made daily during 7 d of refrigerated storage (4 ??C). The highest concentrations of gentamicin and antibiotic/antimycotic and all 3 concentrations of ampicillin significantly reduced sperm viability. The highest of each of the 3 antibiotic concentrations significantly reduced mitochondrial function. This study demonstrates that objective sperm quality assessments can be made using flow cytometry and that addition of antibiotics at appropriate concentrations can lengthen refrigerated storage time for tilapia spermatozoa. With minor modifications, these protocols can be adapted for use with sperm from other species and with other tissue types.

  15. Antibacterial Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Punica granatum Linn. Petal on Common Oral Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajifattahi, Farnaz; Moravej-Salehi, Elham; Taheri, Maryam; Mahboubi, Arash; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to assess the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum Linn. (P. granatum) petal on Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods. In this in vitro study, P. granatum extract was prepared using powdered petals and water-ethanol solvent. Antibacterial effect of the extract, chlorhexidine (CHX), and ampicillin was evaluated on brain heart infusion agar (BHIA) using the cup-plate method. By assessing the diameter of the growth inhibition zone, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extract were determined for the above-mentioned bacteria. Results. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum petal had inhibitory effects on the proliferation of all five bacterial strains with maximum effect on S. mutans with MIC and MBC of 3.9 mg/mL. The largest growth inhibition zone diameter belonged to S. sanguinis and the smallest to E. faecalis. Ampicillin and CHX had the greatest inhibitory effect on S. sanguinis. Conclusions. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum had a significant antibacterial effect on common oral bacterial pathogens with maximum effect on S. mutans, which is the main microorganism responsible for dental plaque and caries.

  16. [Microbiological characterization of non-O1 Vibrio cholerae isolated in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo Fariñas, Laura; Fernández, Anabel; Ramírez, María M; Llop, Alina; Martínez, Gerardo; Hernández, Raquel I; Cabrera, Luis E; Morier, Luis; Fraga, Jorge; Núñez, Fidel A; Aguila, Adalberto

    2007-01-01

    The study of 422 non-01 Vibrio cholerae strains from nine provinces, 9 of them isolated from a water-borne disease outbreak, was performed. All the strains exhibited antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence factors. The nine strains from the outbreak were subjected to a DNA macrorestriction study based on the pulsed field electrophoresis technique. For the first time in Cuba and the Caribbean. The circulation of atypical non-01 V cholerae strains (resistent to vibriostatic compound 0129 and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole). The behavior of antimicrobial susceptibility evinced for the first time the circulation of two different resistence patterns in Cuba (ampicilline, trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole, sulfonamide and tetracycline, trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole, sulfonamide). The frequency of trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole-resistent strains was similar during the whole period of study. However, resistance to ampicilline decreased whereas resistance to tetracycline increased. The main found virulence factors were gelatinase, hemolysine, elastase and adherence to Hep-2 cells. On the other hand, the outbreak strains showed higher percentages than the others due to the presence of heat-liable toxin and fimbriae. The results of the molecular and epidemiological studies allowed giving a speedy and accurate response that explained the etiology of the first food-borne disease outbreak.

  17. Oral antibiotics enhance antibody responses to keyhole limpet hemocyanin in orally but not muscularly immunized chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Atsushi; Kitahara, Kazuki; Okumura, Shouta; Kobayashi, Misato; Horio, Fumihiko

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies have emphasized the crucial role of gut microbiota in triggering and modulating immune response. We aimed to determine whether the modification of gut microbiota by oral co-administration of two antibiotics, ampicillin and neomycin, would lead to changes in the antibody response to antigens in chickens. Neonatal chickens were given or not given ampicillin and neomycin (0.25 and 0.5 g/L, respectively) in drinking water. At 2 weeks of age, the chicks were muscularly or orally immunized with antigenic keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), and then serum anti-KLH antibody levels were examined by ELISA. In orally immunized chicks, oral antibiotics treatment enhanced antibody responses (IgM, IgA, IgY) by 2-3-fold compared with the antibiotics-free control, while the antibiotics did not enhance antibody responses in the muscularly immunized chicks. Concomitant with their enhancement of antibody responses, the oral antibiotics also lowered the Lactobacillus species in feces. Low doses of antibiotics (10-fold and 100-fold lower than the initial trial), which failed to change the fecal Lactobacillus population, did not modify any antibody responses when chicks were orally immunized with KLH. In conclusion, oral antibiotics treatment enhanced the antibody response to orally exposed antigens in chickens. This enhancement of antibody response was associated with a modification of the fecal Lactobacillus content, suggesting a possible link between gut microbiota and antibody response in chickens. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Case report: Infective endocarditis caused by Brevundimonas vesicularis

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    Chen Tun-Chieh

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few reports in the literature of invasive infection caused by Brevundimonas vesicularis in patients without immunosuppression or other predisposing factors. The choice of antimicrobial therapy for bacteremia caused by the pathogen requires more case experience to be determined. Case presentation The case of a 40-year-old previously healthy man with subacute endocarditis proposed to be contributed from an occult dental abscess is described. The infection was found to be caused by B. vesicularis on blood culture results. The patient recovered without sequelae after treatment with ceftriaxone followed by subsequent ciprofloxacin therapy owing to an allergic reaction to ceftriaxone and treatment failure with ampicillin/sulbactam. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of B. vesicularis as a cause of infective endocarditis. According to an overview of the literature and our experience, we suggest that third-generation cephalosporins, piperacillin/tazobactam, and ciprofloxacin are effective in treating invasive B. vesicularis infections, while the efficacy of ampicillin-sulbactam needs further evaluation.

  19. Prebiotics Modulate the Effects of Antibiotics on Gut Microbial Diversity and Functioning in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laura P; Walton, Gemma E; Psichas, Arianna; Frost, Gary S; Gibson, Glenn R; Barraclough, Timothy G

    2015-06-04

    Intestinal bacteria carry out many fundamental roles, such as the fermentation of non-digestible dietary carbohydrates to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which can affect host energy levels and gut hormone regulation. Understanding how to manage this ecosystem to improve human health is an important but challenging goal. Antibiotics are the front line of defence against pathogens, but in turn they have adverse effects on indigenous microbial diversity and function. Here, we have investigated whether dietary supplementation--another method used to modulate gut composition and function--could be used to ameliorate the side effects of antibiotics. We perturbed gut bacterial communities with gentamicin and ampicillin in anaerobic batch cultures in vitro. Cultures were supplemented with either pectin (a non-fermentable fibre), inulin (a commonly used prebiotic that promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria) or neither. Although antibiotics often negated the beneficial effects of dietary supplementation, in some treatment combinations, notably ampicillin and inulin, dietary supplementation ameliorated the effects of antibiotics. There is therefore potential for using supplements to lessen the adverse effects of antibiotics. Further knowledge of such mechanisms could lead to better therapeutic manipulation of the human gut microbiota.

  20. Prebiotics Modulate the Effects of Antibiotics on Gut Microbial Diversity and Functioning in Vitro

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    Laura P. Johnson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal bacteria carry out many fundamental roles, such as the fermentation of non-digestible dietary carbohydrates to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs, which can affect host energy levels and gut hormone regulation. Understanding how to manage this ecosystem to improve human health is an important but challenging goal. Antibiotics are the front line of defence against pathogens, but in turn they have adverse effects on indigenous microbial diversity and function. Here, we have investigated whether dietary supplementation—another method used to modulate gut composition and function—could be used to ameliorate the side effects of antibiotics. We perturbed gut bacterial communities with gentamicin and ampicillin in anaerobic batch cultures in vitro. Cultures were supplemented with either pectin (a non-fermentable fibre, inulin (a commonly used prebiotic that promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria or neither. Although antibiotics often negated the beneficial effects of dietary supplementation, in some treatment combinations, notably ampicillin and inulin, dietary supplementation ameliorated the effects of antibiotics. There is therefore potential for using supplements to lessen the adverse effects of antibiotics. Further knowledge of such mechanisms could lead to better therapeutic manipulation of the human gut microbiota.

  1. Efflux pump-deficient mutants as a platform to search for microbes that produce antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Santiago, Carlos; Udaondo, Zulema; Daddaoua, Abdelali; Roca, Amalia; Martín, Jesús; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Reyes, Fernando; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2015-07-01

    Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E-18 is a strain deficient in the major antibiotic efflux pump (TtgABC) that exhibits an overall increased susceptibility to a wide range of drugs when compared with the wild-type strain. We used this strain as a platform to search for microbes able to produce antibiotics that inhibit growth. A collection of 2400 isolates from soil, sediments and water was generated and a drop assay developed to identify, via growth inhibition halos, strains that prevent the growth of DOT-T1E-18 on solid Luria-Bertani plates. In this study, 35 different isolates that produced known and unknown antibiotics were identified. The most potent inhibitor of DOT-T1E-18 growth was an isolate named 250J that, through multi-locus sequence analysis, was identified as a Pseudomonas sp. strain. Culture supernatants of 250J contain four different xantholysins that prevent growth of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative and fungi. Two of the xantholysins were produced in higher concentrations and purified. Xantholysin A was effective against Bacillus, Lysinibacillus and Rhodococcus strains, and the effect against these microbes was enhanced when used in combination with other antibiotics such as ampicillin, gentamicin and kanamycin. Xantholysin C was also efficient against Gram-positive bacteria and showed an interesting antimicrobial effect against Pseudomonas strains, and a synergistic inhibitory effect with ampicillin, chloramphenicol and gentamicin. © 2015 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Sponge microbiota are a reservoir of functional antibiotic resistance genes

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    Dennis Versluis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wide application of antibiotics has contributed to the evolution of multi-drug resistant human pathogens, resulting in poorer treatment outcomes for infections. In the marine environment, seawater samples have been investigated as a resistance reservoir; however, no studies have methodically examined sponges as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance. Sponges could be important in this respect because they often contain diverse microbial communities that have the capacity to produce bioactive metabolites. Here, we applied functional metagenomics to study the presence and diversity of functional resistance genes in the sponges Aplysina aerophoba, Petrosia ficiformis and Corticium candelabrum. We obtained 37 insert sequences facilitating resistance to D-cycloserine (n=6, gentamicin (n=1, amikacin (n=7, trimethoprim (n=17, chloramphenicol (n=1, rifampicin (n=2 and ampicillin (n=3. Fifteen of 37 inserts harboured resistance genes that shared <90% amino acid identity with known gene products, whereas on 13 inserts no resistance gene could be identified with high confidence, in which case we predicted resistance to be mainly mediated by antibiotic efflux. One marine-specific ampicillin-resistance-conferring β-lactamase was identified in the genus Pseudovibrio with 41% global amino acid identity to the closest β-lactamase with demonstrated functionality, and subsequently classified into a new family termed PSV. Taken together, our results show that sponge microbiota host diverse and novel resistance genes that may be harnessed by phylogenetically distinct bacteria.

  3. Performance evaluation of reverse osmosis technology for selected antibiotics removal from synthetic pharmaceutical wastewater

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    Gholami Mitra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study addresses the possibility for low pressure reverse osmosis membrane (RE 2521, CSM process to serve as an alternative to remove selected antibiotics (ampicillin and amoxicillin from synthetic wastewater by changing operating conditions such as pH = 3, 6.5 and 10; Pressure = 9, 11 and13 (bar; antibiotic concentration = 10, 255 and 500(mg/L, and temperature = 20, 30 and 40°C. The experiment was designed based on Box-benken, which is a Response Surface methodology design (RSM, using Design Expert software. The concentration of antibiotics was measured by applying a UV-spectrophotometer (Cecil, at the wavelength of 254 nm. Results showed a range of rejection percentage from 73.52% to 99.36% and 75.1% to 98.8%, for amoxicillin and ampicillin, respectively. Considering the solute rejections and the membrane porosity show that the prevailing rejection mechanism of the examined antibiotics by the membrane was the size exclusion effect. The permeate flux for both of the antibiotics was 12–18.73 L/m2.h. Although the permeate flux and antibiotic rejection are influenced by operating pressure, pH, and temperature individually, the interaction between operating parameters did not have noticeable effects. According to the results obtained in this study, the application of RO membrane is recommended for the selected antibiotics to be removed to a considerable degree (up to 95%.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from different parts of the digestive tract of sheep

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    E. Afshari-Safavi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate differences in resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolated from different parts of sheep digestive tract, the intestinal tracts of 24 sheep were sampled at various locations (duode-num, jejunum, caecum, colon and rectum after slaughter. Samples were cultured on MacConkey agar and obtained colonies were confirmed as E. coli based on the biochemical tests results. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial agent susceptibility to 10 antibiotics (colistin, gentamicin, oxytetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, enrofloxacin, ampicillin, cephotaxime, neomycin and florfenicol, using disc diffusion method. The tested E. coli resistant to colistin, ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were isolated more frequently from large intestine (rectum than from small intestine (duodenum (P<0.05. In conclusion, antimicrobial resistance pattern of generic E. coli inhabiting the intestinal tract of sheep depends on sampling location, which should be considered in interpreting the results of antimicrobial resistance tests of E. coli isolated from the faecal samples and generalising results to bacteria colonised in other parts of the digestive tract

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Pasteurella multocida and Haemophilus parasuis isolates associated with porcine pneumonia

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    Kateřina Nedbalcová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida and Haemophilus parasuis pig isolates obtained in the Czech Republic were tested for their susceptibility against selected antimicrobial agents by broth microdilution method between 2008 and 2011. A low degree of resistance was observed for ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, tulathromycin, tilmicosin, florfenicol and enrofloxacin in 20 (6.0%, 15 (4.5 %, 2 (0.6%, 8 (2.4%, 13 (3.9%, 5 (1.5% and 5 (1.5% P. multocida isolates as well as for tiamulin, gentamicin, tulathromycin, tilmicosin and ampicillin in 2 (2.4%, 2 (2.4%, 3 (3.6%, 3 (3.6% and 6 (7.2% H. parasuis isolates. In addition, moderate level of resistance to tiamulin was found in 60 (18.1% P. multocida isolates and high level of resistance for tetracycline was detected in 107 (32.2 % P. multocida isolates and in 23 (27.7 % H. parasuis isolates. Differences between resistance rates of P. multocida and H. parasuis were significant (P ≤ 0.5 only for tiamulin. These data confirmed that antimicrobial resistance is not very widespread among current porcine P. multocida and H. parasuis isolates in the Czech Republic.

  6. Antimicrobial Resistant Pattern of Escherichia Coli Strains Isolated from Pediatric Patients in Jordan

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    Mohammad Alshara

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial resistant pattern of Escherichia coli (E. coli strains isolated from clinical specimens of Jordanian pediatric patients during the period from January to December 2008. A total of 444 E. coli strains were isolated from clinical specimens and tested for their susceptibility to different antimicrobial drugs. Overall, high resistance rate was observed for ampicillin (84%, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (74.3%, cotrimoxazole (71%, nalidixic acid (47.3%, cephalothin (41%. Lower resistance rates were observed for amikacin (0% followed by Cefotaxime (11%, Ceftriaxone (11.7%, ciprofloxacin (14.5%, Norfloxacin (16.5%, gentamicin (17.3% cephalexin (20.9%, Ceftazidime (22.5%, cefixime (29.6%, and cefaclor (32.8%. Ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cotrimoxazole were found to be ineffective at in vitro inhibition of the E. coli of pediatric origin. Amikacin was highly effective for E. coli with susceptibility rate of 100%. The majority of E. coli strains were susceptible to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones.

  7. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of genital tract bacteria in pregnant women with preterm premature rupture of membranes in a resource-limited setting.

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    Eleje, George U; Adinma, Joseph I; Ghasi, Samuel; Ikechebelu, Joseph I; Igwegbe, Anthony O; Okonkwo, John E; Okafor, Charles I; Ezeama, Chukwuemeka O; Ezebialu, Ifeanyichukwu U; Ogbuagu, Chukwuanugo N

    2014-10-01

    To identify microbes prevalent in the genital tract of pregnant women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and to assess the susceptibility of the microbial isolates to a range of antibiotics to determine appropriate antibiotics for treating cases of PPROM in resource-limited settings. A prospective cross-sectional study was undertaken involving women with (n=105) and without (n=105) a confirmed diagnosis of PPROM admitted to Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, southeast Nigeria, between January 1, 2011, and April 30, 2013. Endocervical swabs were collected from all participants and examined microbiologically. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was performed using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion. Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli were significantly more prevalent among women with PPROM than among those without PPROM (P<0.01). Among the antibiotics considered safe to use during pregnancy, the bacteria were most sensitive to ampicillin-sulbactam, cefixime, cefuroxime, and erythromycin. For the first 48hours, women with PPROM should receive an intravenous dose combining ampicillin-sulbactam, cefixime, cefuroxime, or erythromycin with metronidazole followed by oral administration of the chosen antibiotic combination to complete a 7-day course. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antibiotic resistance profiling and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from aquatic sources

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    Olumide A. Odeyemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate antibiotics resistance pattern and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from different aquatic sources in Melaka, Malaysia. A total of 53 Aeromonas species were isolated from the following sources: sediment (n = 13, bivalve (n = 10, sea cucumber (n = 16 and sea water (n = 14 and resistance to 12 antibiotics – Tetracycline (30 μg, Kanamycin (30 μg, Oxytetracycline (30 μg, Ampicillin (10 μg, Streptomycin (10 μg, Gentamicin (10 μg, Sulphamethoxazole (25 μg, Nalixidic acid (30 μg, Trimethoprim (1.25 μg, Novobiocin (5 μg, Penicilin (10 μg and Chloramphenicol (10 μg was tested. The results obtained from this study reveal multi drug resistance pattern among the isolates. All the isolates were completely resistant to Ampicillin, Novobiocin, Sulphamethoxazole and Trimethoprim, respectively but susceptible to Tetracycline (100%, Kanamycin (5.7%, Gentamicin (5.7% and Oxytetracycline (24.5%. Antibiotics phenotyping of the bacteria revealed 21 different phenotypes among the isolates.

  9. Resistance pattern of clinical isolates of staphylococcus aureus against five groups of antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farzana, K.; Hameed, A.

    2006-01-01

    Among the samples received in pathology laboratory, Pakistan institute of Medical Science, Islamabad, 5069 samples had bacterial growth, among these 2580 (51%) samples were Gram-positive cocci and 1688 were Staphylococcus aureus during a period of two years. Out of these Gram-positive cocci 56% were resistant to penicillin group, 27% were resistant to cephalosporin group, 22% were resistant to aminoglycoside group 15% were resistant to quinolone group and 31% were resistant to other antibiotics (cotrimaxazole, erythromycin, aztreonam, vancomycin, nitrofurantion and meropenam). Antibio-grams of Gram-positive cocci were determined against various antibiotics by disc diffusion method. The rate of resistance to most of the antibiotics such as ampicillin, piperacillin, carbenicillin, penicillin, cephradine, cefotaxime, erythromycin, ceclor, ofloxacin, pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, cotrimexazole (septran), gentamicin, meropenem, ceftazidime, erythromycin, tobramycin, enoxacin was higher when tested against the isolates collected from pus as compared to those from blood and urine. Antibiotic resistant strains were more prevalent in pus samples than other clinical isolates (blood and urine). The randomly selected 155 strains of Staphylococcus aureus when tested against five groups of antibiotics showed resistance rate against ampicillin (92%), cephradine (92%), cephradine (60%), and gentamicin (58%). However intermediate resistance was found in case of vancomicin (38%), in hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients. (author)

  10. Astrobiology as a framework for investigating antibiotic susceptibility: a study of Halomonas hydrothermalis.

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    Harrison, Jesse P; Angel, Roey; Cockell, Charles S

    2017-01-01

    Physical and chemical boundaries for microbial multiplication on Earth are strongly influenced by interactions between environmental extremes. However, little is known about how interactions between multiple stress parameters affect the sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics. Here, we assessed how 12 distinct permutations of salinity, availability of an essential nutrient (iron) and atmospheric composition (aerobic or microaerobic) affect the susceptibility of a polyextremotolerant bacterium, Halomonas hydrothermalis, to ampicillin, kanamycin and ofloxacin. While salinity had a significant impact on sensitivity to all three antibiotics (as shown by turbidimetric analyses), the nature of this impact was modified by iron availability and the ambient gas composition, with differing effects observed for each compound. These two parameters were found to be of particular importance when considered in combination and, in the case of ampicillin, had a stronger combined influence on antibiotic tolerance than salinity. Our data show how investigating microbial responses to multiple extremes, which are more representative of natural habitats than single extremes, can improve our understanding of the effects of antimicrobial compounds and suggest how studies of habitability, motivated by the desire to map the limits of life, can be used to systematically assess the effectiveness of antibiotics. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Inhibition of Bacterial Adhesion by Subinhibitory Concentrations of Antibiotics

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    Vidya K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs due to Escherichia coli is one of the most common diseases encountered in clinical practice. Most common recognised pathogenic factor in E.coli is adhesion. There is accumulating evidence that through subinhibitory concentrations (sub - MICs of many antibiotics do not kill bacteria, they are able to interfere with some important aspects of bacterial cell function. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted to investigate the effect of sub MICs (1/2-1/8 MIC of ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, gentamicin, ampicillin and co - trimoxazole on E. coli adhesiveness to human vaginal epithelial cells using three strains ATCC 25922, MTCC 729 and U 105. Results: The 1/2 MIC of all the antibiotics tested produced the greatest inhibition of bacterial adhesion. Morphological changes were observed with ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime and ampicillin at 1/2 MIC and to a lesser extent at 1/4 and 1/8 MIC. Co-trimoxazole caused the greatest suppression of adhesion at 1/2 MIC of E. coli strain MTCC 729 when compared with the controls, followed by ceftazidime. Conclusion: These results suggest that co - trimoxazole is the most effective antibiotic in the treatment of urinary tract infections caused by uropathogenic E. coli.

  12. Physically crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol-hydroxyethyl starch blend hydrogel membranes: Synthesis and characterization for biomedical applications

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    El-Refaie Kenawy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinyl alcohol, PVA is a polymer of great importance because of its many appealing characteristics specifically for various pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Physically crosslinked hydrogel membranes composed of different amounts of hydroxyethyl starch (HES in (PVA and ampicillin were prepared by applying freeze–thawing method. This freezing–thawing cycle was repeated for three consecutive cycles. Physicochemical properties of PVA–HES membrane gel such as gel fraction, swelling, morphology, elongation, tensile strength, and protein adsorption were investigated. Introducing HES into freeze–thawed PVA structure affected crystal size distribution of PVA; and hence physicochemical properties and morphological structure have been affected. Increased HES concentration decreased the gel fraction %, maximum strength and break elongation. Indeed it resulted into a significant incrementing of the swelling ability, amount of protein adsorption, broader pore size, and pore distribution of membrane morphological structure. Furthermore, an increase in HES concentration resulted in better and still lower thermal stability compared to virgin PVA and freeze–thawed PVA. The maximum weight loss of PVA–HES hydrogel membranes ranged between 18% and 60% according to HES content, after two days of degradation in phosphate buffer saline (PBS, which indicates they are biodegradable. Thus, PVA–HES hydrogel membranes containing ampicillin could be a novel approach for biomedical application e.g. wound dressing purposes.

  13. Antibacterial resistances in uncomplicated urinary tract infections in women: ECO·SENS II data from primary health care in Austria

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    Kamenski Gustav

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI are a frequent reason for consultation of women in primary health care. To avoid therapy failure and development of resistances, the choice of an antibiotic should be based on the knowledge of recent local resistance data but these data are scarce for the Austrian primary health care sector. Within the context of the ECO·SENS II study it was the aim to obtain appropriate and relevant local resistance data and describe the changes in the resistance pattern in comparison to the ECO·SENS study. Methods 23 GPs from different parts of Austria participated in the study between July 2007 and November 2008. According to the defined inclusion- and exclusion criteria female patients with symptoms of an uncomplicated UTI were included and a midstream urine sample was collected. In case of significant bacteriuria susceptibility testing of E. coli against 14 antibiotics was performed. Descriptive statistical methods were used. Results In 313 patients included in the study, a total of 147 E. coli isolates (47% were detected and tested. The resistance rates were in %: Mecillinam (0.0, nitrofurantoin (0.7, fosfomycin trometamol (0.7, gentamycin (1.4, cefotaxime (2.7, ceftazidime (2.7, Cephadroxil (4.1 and ciprofloxacin (4.1. Higher resistance rates were found in amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (8.9, nalidixic acid (9.6, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (14.4, trimethoprim (15.8, sulphamethoxazole (21.2 and ampicillin (28.8. Additionally, the comparison of these results with the results of the ECO·SENS study demonstrated an increase in resistance rates of ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Conclusions The resistance data for E. coli in uncomplicated UTIs in women gained by this study are the most recent data for this disease in Austria at the moment. The increased resistance rates of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid should be

  14. Eradication of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a female patient with total hip arthroplasty, with debridement and retention: a case report

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    Beieler Alison M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has become a significant cause of healthcare-associated infections, but few reports have addressed Acinetobacter baumannii infections associated with orthopedic devices. The current recommended treatment for complicated infections due to orthopedic devices, including resistant gram-negative rods, consists of antimicrobial therapy with debridement and removal of implants. Case presentation The patient, a 47-year-old woman, had previously had a prior total hip arthroplasty at 16 years of age for a complex femoral neck fracture, and multiple subsequent revisions. This time, she underwent a fifth revision secondary to pain. Surgery was complicated by hypotension resulting in transfer to the intensive care unit and prolonged respiratory failure. She received peri-operative cefazolin but postoperatively developed surgical wound drainage requiring debridement of a hematoma. Cultures of this grew ampicillin-sensitive Enterococcus and Acinetobacter baumannii (sensitive only to amikacin and imipenem. The patient was started on imipenem. Removal of the total hip arthroplasty was not recommended because of the recent surgical complications, and the patient was eventually discharged home. She was seen weekly for laboratory tests and examinations and, after 4 months of therapy, the imipenem was discontinued. She did well clinically for 7 months before recurrent pain led to removal of the total hip arthroplasty. Intra-operative cultures grew ampicillin-sensitive Enterococcus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus but no multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. The patient received ampicillin for 8 weeks and had not had recurrent infection at the time of writing, 37 months after discontinuing imipenem. Conclusion We describe the successful treatment of an acute infection from multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii with debridement and retention of the total hip arthroplasty, using

  15. Short communication: Pharmacokinetics of intramammary hetacillin in dairy cattle milked 3 times per day.

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    Lindquist, Danielle A; Baynes, Ronald E; Smith, Geof W

    2015-03-01

    Mastitis remains a critical disease in the dairy industry and the use of intramammary antibiotics plays a critical role in mastitis treatment. Hetacillin is currently approved as an intramammary antibiotic that is used to treat mastitis in dairy cows. It is approved for once a day administration and can be used for a total of 3 d. An increasing number of dairy farms are milking 3 times per day (instead of the traditional 2 times per day) and very little pharmacokinetic data exists on the use of intramammary drugs in a 3×system. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if once a day intramammary infusion of hetacillin is sufficient to maintain therapeutic drug concentrations in cattle milked 3 times per day. Eight Holstein cattle milked 3 times per day were used in this study. After collecting a baseline milk sample, each cow received intramammary infusions of hetacillin in the left front and right rear quarters once a day for 3 d. Milk samples from each of the treated quarters were collected at each milking and frozen until analysis. Milk samples were analyzed for ampicillin concentrations using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography method. All treated quarters had antibiotic concentrations well above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for gram-positive mastitis pathogens at 8 and 16 h postinfusion. Milk concentrations had fallen well below the MIC by the 24-h period (before the next infusion). All 8 cows in this study consistently had individual quarter milk ampicillin concentrations below the FDA tolerance of 0.01 μg/mL (10 ppb) within 48 h of the last infusion. Based on this study, milk ampicillin concentrations exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit the growth of 90% of organisms (MIC90) for at least 65% of the dosing interval, which is sufficient for once-daily dosing with most cases of gram-positive mastitis. Therefore, intramammary hetacillin should be an effective treatment for the vast majority of gram

  16. Cefepime shows good efficacy and no antibiotic resistance in pneumonia caused by Serratia marcescens and Proteus mirabilis - an observational study.

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    Yayan, Josef; Ghebremedhin, Beniam; Rasche, Kurt

    2016-03-23

    Many antibiotics have no effect on Gram-positive and Gram-negative microbes, which necessitates the prescription of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents that can lead to increased risk of antibiotic resistance. These pathogens constitute a further threat because they are also resistant to numerous beta-lactam antibiotics, as well as other antibiotic groups. This study retrospectively investigates antimicrobial resistance in hospitalized patients suffering from pneumonia triggered by Gram-negative Serratia marcescens or Proteus mirabilis. The demographic and clinical data analyzed in this study were obtained from the clinical databank of the HELIOS Clinic, Witten/Herdecke University, Wuppertal, Germany, for inpatients presenting with pneumonia triggered by S. marcescens or P. mirabilis from 2004 to 2014. An antibiogram was conducted for the antibiotics utilized as part of the management of patients with pneumonia triggered by these two pathogens. Pneumonia was caused by Gram-negative bacteria in 115 patients during the study period from January 1, 2004, to August 12, 2014. Of these, 43 (37.4 %) hospitalized patients [26 males (60.5 %, 95 % CI 45.9 %-75.1 %) and 17 females (39.5 %, 95 % CI 24.9 %-54.1 %)] with mean age of 66.2 ± 13.4 years had pneumonia triggered by S. marcescens, while 20 (17.4 %) patients [14 males (70 %, 95 % CI 49.9 %-90.1 %) and 6 females (30 %, 95 % CI 9.9 %-50.1 %)] with a mean age of 64.6 ± 12.8 years had pneumonia caused by P. mirabilis. S. marcescens showed an increased antibiotic resistance to ampicillin (100 %), ampicillin-sulbactam (100 %), and cefuroxime (100 %). P. mirabilis had a high resistance to tetracycline (100 %) and ampicillin (55 %). S. marcescens (P < 0.0001) and P. mirabilis (P = 0.0003) demonstrated no resistance to cefepime in these patients with pneumonia. S. marcescens and P. mirabilis were resistant to several commonly used antimicrobial agents, but showed no resistance to

  17. Management of listeriosis.

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    Hof, H; Nichterlein, T; Kretschmar, M

    1997-01-01

    Determination of the MIC in vitro is often used as the basis for predicting the clinical efficacy of antibiotics. Listeriae are uniformly susceptible in vitro to most common antibiotics except cephalosporins and fosfomycin. However, the clinical outcome is poor. This is partially because listeriae are refractory to the bactericidal mechanisms of many antibiotics, especially to ampicillin-amoxicillin, which still is regarded as the drug of choice. A true synergism can be achieved by adding gentamicin. Another point is that listeriae are able to reside and multiply within host cells, e.g., macrophages, hepatocytes, and neurons, where they are protected from antibiotics in the extracellular fluid. Only a few agents penetrate, accumulate, and reach the cytosol of host cells, where the listeriae are found. Furthermore, certain host cells may exclude antibiotics from any intracellular compartment. Thus, determination of the antibacterial efficacy of a drug against listeriae in cell cultures may be a better approximation of potential therapeutic value. Certain host cells may have acquired the property of excluding certain antibiotics, for example macrolides, from intracellular spaces, which might explain therapeutic failures of antibiotic therapy in spite of low MICs. Animal models do not completely imitate human listeriosis, which is characterized by meningitis, encephalitis, soft tissue and parenchymal infections, and bacteremia. Meningitis produced in rabbits is a hyperacute disease, whereby most listeriae lie extracellularly, fairly accessible to antibiotics that can cross the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In the murine model of systemic infection, Listeria monocytogenes is located mainly within macrophages and parenchymal cells of the spleen and liver, hardly accessible to certain drugs, such as ampicillin and gentimicin. The therapeutic efficacy of drugs clearly depends on the model used. Thus, for example, the combination of ampicillin with gentamicin acts

  18. A STUDY OF LABORATORY PROFILE OF NEONATAL SEPSIS AT NICU (SNCU, WARANGAL

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    Sudhakar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Of the 130 million babies born worldwide each year, 26 million are born in India alone. Four million babies die with in first 30 days of birth and another four million are stillborn. Newborn mortality represents 40% of all deaths of children less than five years of age. Of the four million deaths each year, nearly 98% occur in developing countries. Globally major causes of neonatal deaths are due to preterm births (28%, sepsis or pneumonia (26% and birth asphyxia (23%. Neonatal sepsis is one of the commonest causes of neonatal deaths in the developing world accounting to 30-50% of all neonatal deaths per year. The present study is intended to help the practising paediatrician to accurately diagnose the sepsis early using the specific laboratory tests and avert the progression of the disease. METHODS It is an observational cross-sectional study in NICU, Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Hospital. The study was conducted in the period November 2013 to October 2014. After admission, detailed history and thorough clinical examination was done. Required data was entered in a pre-set proforma and statistical analysis was done. Blood culture was sent. Bacterial culture and sensitivity was checked. RESULTS In proven sepsis, 50.25% were Gram-positive, 43.65% were Gram-negative and 6.09% were fungal sepsis Candida. Klebsiella (32.48% was the most common organism followed by Coagulase positive Staphylococcus (25.38% and CONS (20.81%. In this study, Gram-negative sepsis was more common in preterm and Gram-positive sepsis was more common in term neonates. Early onset sepsis was the common presentation of proven sepsis, Klebsiella was common organism causing EOS. Whereas CONS was commonest causing late onset sepsis. Among Gram-negative organisms, 58.1% and 27.9% were resistant to cefotaxime and ampicillin+sulbactam respectively. Among Gram-positive isolates, 35% and 22% were resistant to cefotaxime and ampicillin+sulbactam respectively. Klebsiella, most

  19. Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial enteropathogens isolated from stools in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrianirina, Frederique; Ratsima, Elisoa Hariniana; Ramparany, Lova; Randremanana, Rindra; Rakotonirina, Hanitra Clara; Andriamanantena, Tahiry; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Rajatonirina, Soatiana; Richard, Vincent; Talarmin, Antoine

    2014-02-25

    Diarrheal diseases are a major public health problem in developing countries, and are one of the main causes of hospital admissions in Madagascar. The Pasteur Institute of Madagascar undertook a study to determine the prevalence and the pathogenicity of bacterial, viral and protozoal enteropathogens in diarrheal and non-diarrheal stools of children aged less than 5 years in Madagascar. We present here the results of the analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility of the bacteria isolated during this study. The study was conducted in the community setting in 14 districts of Madagascar from October 2008 to May 2009. Conventional methods and PCR were used to identify the bacteria; antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using an agar diffusion method for enterobacteriaceae and MICs were measured by an agar dilution method for Campylobacter sp. In addition to the strains isolated during this study, Salmonella sp and Shigella sp isolated at the Pasteur Institute of Madagascar from 2005 to 2009 were included in the analysis to increase the power of the study. Twenty-nine strains of Salmonella sp, 35 strains of Shigella sp, 195 strains of diarrheagenic E. coli, 203 strains of C. jejuni and 71 strains of C. coli isolated in the community setting were tested for antibiotic resistance. Fifty-five strains of Salmonella sp and 129 strains of Shigella sp isolated from patients referred to the Pasteur Institute of Madagascar were also included in the study. Many E. coli and Shigella isolates (around 80%) but fewer Salmonella isolates were resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. A small proportion of strains of each species were resistant to ciprofloxacin and only 3% of E. coli strains presented a resistance to third generation cephalosporins due to the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. The resistance of Campylobacter sp to ampicillin was the most prevalent, whereas less than 5% of isolates were resistant to each of the other antibiotics. The

  20. Comprehensive Evaluation of the MBT STAR-BL Module for Simultaneous Bacterial Identification and β-Lactamase-Mediated Resistance Detection in Gram-Negative Rods from Cultured Isolates and Positive Blood Cultures

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    Annie W. T. Lee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the capability of a MALDI Biotyper system equipped with the newly introduced MBT STAR-BL module to simultaneously perform species identification and β-lactamase-mediated resistance detection in bacteremia -causing bacteria isolated from cultured isolates and patient-derived blood cultures (BCs.Methods: Two hundred retrospective cultured isolates and 153 prospective BCs containing Gram-negative rods (GNR were collected and subjected to direct bacterial identification, followed by the measurement of β-lactamase activities against ampicillin, piperacillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and meropenem using the MBT STAR-BL module. The results and turnaround times were compared with those of routine microbiological processing. All strains were also characterized by beta-lactamase PCR and sequencing.Results: Using the saponin-based extraction method, MALDI-TOF MS correctly identified bacteria in 116/134 (86.6% monomicrobial BCs. The detection sensitivities for β-lactamase activities against ampicillin, piperacillin, third-generation cephalosporin and meropenem were 91.3, 100, 97.9, and 100% for cultured isolates, and 80.4, 100, 68.8, and 40% for monomicrobial BCs (n = 134 respectively. The overall specificities ranged from 91.5 to 100%. Furthermore, the MBT STAR-BL and conventional drug susceptibility test results were concordant in 14/19 (73.7% polymicrobial cultures. Reducing the logRQ cut-off value from 0.4 to 0.2 increased the direct detection sensitivities for β-lactamase activities against ampicillin, cefotaxime and meropenem in BCs to 85.7, 87.5, and 100% respectively. The MBT STAR-BL test enabled the reporting of β-lactamase-producing GNR at 14.16 and 47.64 h before the interim and final reports of routine BCs processing, respectively, were available.Conclusion: The MALDI Biotyper system equipped with the MBT STAR-BL module enables the simultaneous rapid identification of bacterial species and

  1. Epidemic and virulence characteristic of Shigella spp. with extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance in Xiaoshan District, Hangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Shigellae have become increasingly resistant to the extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC) worldwide and pose a great challenge to anti-infection treatment options. The purpose of this study was to determine the resistance, cephalosporin resistance mechanisms, virulence characteristic and genotype of ESC-resistant Shigella. Methods From 2008 to 2012, Shigella isolates collected from diarrhea patients were detected for antibiotics sensitivity by disk diffusion, cephalosporin resistance determinants and virulence genes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyping through enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (ERIC-PCR). Results A total of 356 Shigella isolates were gathered, and 198 (55.6%, 58 S. flexneri and 140 S. sonnei) were resistant to ESC. All ESC-resistant isolates were susceptible to imipenem, and only 0.5% isolate was resistant to piperacillin/tazobactam. ESC-resistant S. flexneri showed high degrees of resistance to ampicillin (100%), ampicillin/sulbactam (96.6%), piperacillin (100%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (74.1%), ciprofloxacin (74.1%), levofloxacin (53.4%), ceftazidime (58.6%) and cefepime (58.6%). ESC-resistant S. sonnei exhibited high resistance rates to ampicillin (100%), piperacillin (100%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (96.4%). Cephalosporin resistance genes were confirmed in 184 ESC-resistant isolates. blaCTX-M types (91.8%, mainly blaCTX-M-14, blaCTX-M-15 and blaCTX-M-57) were most prevalent, followed by blaOXA-30 (26.3%). Over 99.0% ESC-resistant isolates harbored virulence genes ial, ipaH, virA and sen. However, set1 were more prevalent in ESC-resistant S. flexneri isolates than in S. sonnei isolates. ERIC-PCR results showed that 2 and 3 main genotypes were detected in ESC-resistant S. flexneri and S. sonnei, respectively. Conclusion Our findings indicated that a high prevalence of ESC-resistant Shigella mediated mainly by blaCTX-M with stronger resistance and virulence, and the existence

  2. Comprehensive Evaluation of the MBT STAR-BL Module for Simultaneous Bacterial Identification and β-Lactamase-Mediated Resistance Detection in Gram-Negative Rods from Cultured Isolates and Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Annie W T; Lam, Johnson K S; Lam, Ricky K W; Ng, Wan H; Lee, Ella N L; Lee, Vicky T Y; Sze, Po P; Rajwani, Rahim; Fung, Kitty S C; To, Wing K; Lee, Rodney A; Tsang, Dominic N C; Siu, Gilman K H

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the capability of a MALDI Biotyper system equipped with the newly introduced MBT STAR-BL module to simultaneously perform species identification and β-lactamase-mediated resistance detection in bacteremia -causing bacteria isolated from cultured isolates and patient-derived blood cultures (BCs). Methods: Two hundred retrospective cultured isolates and 153 prospective BCs containing Gram-negative rods (GNR) were collected and subjected to direct bacterial identification, followed by the measurement of β-lactamase activities against ampicillin, piperacillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and meropenem using the MBT STAR-BL module. The results and turnaround times were compared with those of routine microbiological processing. All strains were also characterized by beta-lactamase PCR and sequencing. Results: Using the saponin-based extraction method, MALDI-TOF MS correctly identified bacteria in 116/134 (86.6%) monomicrobial BCs. The detection sensitivities for β-lactamase activities against ampicillin, piperacillin, third-generation cephalosporin and meropenem were 91.3, 100, 97.9, and 100% for cultured isolates, and 80.4, 100, 68.8, and 40% for monomicrobial BCs ( n = 134) respectively. The overall specificities ranged from 91.5 to 100%. Furthermore, the MBT STAR-BL and conventional drug susceptibility test results were concordant in 14/19 (73.7%) polymicrobial cultures. Reducing the logRQ cut-off value from 0.4 to 0.2 increased the direct detection sensitivities for β-lactamase activities against ampicillin, cefotaxime and meropenem in BCs to 85.7, 87.5, and 100% respectively. The MBT STAR-BL test enabled the reporting of β-lactamase-producing GNR at 14.16 and 47.64 h before the interim and final reports of routine BCs processing, respectively, were available. Conclusion: The MALDI Biotyper system equipped with the MBT STAR-BL module enables the simultaneous rapid identification of bacterial species and

  3. Characterization of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104 Isolated from Denmark and Comparison with Isolates from Europe and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Sandvang, D.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2000-01-01

    A total of 136 isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 from Denmark (n = 93), Germany (n = 10), Italy (n = 4), Spain (n = 5), and the United Kingdom (n = 9) were characterized by antimicrobial resistance analysis, plasmid profiling, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE......) with the restriction enzymes XbaI and BlnI, and analysis for the presence of integrons and antibiotic resistance genes. The isolates from Denmark were from nine pig herds, while the isolates from other countries were both of animal and of human origin. All but 10 isolates were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol......, spectinomycin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline. Five isolates from the United Kingdom and Spain were sensitive to all antibiotics examined, whereas four isolates from the United Kingdom and the United States were also resistant to one or more of the antibiotics, namely, gentamicin, neomycin...

  4. [Impact of regulatory measures in the trends of community consumption of antibiotics in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavestrello, Luis; Cabello, Angela; Casanova, Dunny

    2002-11-01

    The indiscriminate use of antibiotics increases the appearance of bacterial resistance and forces the use of more expensive alternatives. The Chilean Ministry of Health is regulating the consumption of antibiotics since September 1999. These regulatory measures restricted the sale of antibiotics only when these were prescribed by an MD or an DS. To study the impact of these regulatory measures on antibiotics sales in pharmacies. A retrospective analysis of antibiotics sales in pharmacies from 1996 to 2000. The information was obtained from the International Marketing System (IMS Health), an auditing system of pharmacy sales. The consumption unit used was the Defined Daily Dose per 1000 inhabitants/day (DDD). There was an important reduction in DDD, after the introduction of regulatory measures, for amoxicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, trimethoprim/sulpha, chroramphenicol, cloxacillin and phenoxymethylpenicillin. There was also a important fall in sales, expressed in dollars. The regulatory measures of the Ministry of Health, had an immediate and great impact on antibiotics sales in Chile.

  5. Microbiological and biochemical studies on certain antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from certain clinical specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, H.M.AL.M.

    2008-01-01

    . Determination of B-lactamase and AmpC-B-lactamase enzyme production were carried out by two methods. Cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefoperazone, cefoxitin and aztreonam were used with and without amoxycillin clavulanic acid to detect the presence of extended-spectrum B-lactamase (ESBL) harbouring isolates by using double-disk diffusion synergy test (DDST). Combined disk method was used also to detect the presence of ESBL harbouring isolates by using cefoperazone (CFP) and cefoperazone sulbactam (SCF) among the tested strains. Agar dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ampicillin sulbactam, cefoperazone, gentamycin and levofloxacin alone and in combination (Ampicillin sulbactam with both of gentamycin and levofloxacin) and (cefoperazone with both of gentamycin and levofloxacin). Fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) for the combined antibiotics were calculated according to checkerboard method and synergistic effect were determined. Some resistant isolates were subjected to molecular studies including plasmid profile (Kleb.52 Morg.60 and Ps.72 ) by using a high pure plasmid isolation kit and protein pattern of Ps.72 before and after irradiation in the presence of different antibiotics alone (cefoperazone, gentamycin and ampicillin sulbactam) or in combined (cefoperazone with gentamycin and ampicillin sulbactam with gentamycin)The result of the present investigation showed that, 9 multi-drug resistant isolates were identified as; 2 isolates Escherichia coli, 2 isolates Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 1 isolate Citrobacter freundii, 1 isolate Morganella morganii all were isolated from urine samples

  6. Isolation and identification of Legionella pneumophila from drinking water in Basra governorate, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sulami, A A; Al-Taee, A M R; Yehyazarian, A A

    2013-11-01

    This study in Iraq investigated the occurrence of Legionella. pneumophila in different drinking-water sources in Basra governorate as well as the susceptibility of isolates to several antibiotics. A total of 222 water samples were collected in 2008-2009: 49 samples from water purification plants (at entry points, from precipitation tanks, from filtration tanks and at exit points), 127 samples of tap water; and 46 samples from tankers and plants supplying water by reverse osmosis. The findings confirmed the presence of L. pneumophila in sources of crude water, in general drinking water supplies and drinking water tankers. Of 258 isolates 77.1% were serotype 1 and 22.9% serotypes 2-15. All examined isolates displayed drug resistance, particularly to ampicillin, but were 100% susceptible to doxycycline. The prevalence of L. pneumophila, especially serogroup 1, is a strong indicator of unsuitability of drinking water and requires appropriate action.

  7. Antibiotic Resistant Salmonella and Vibrio Associated with Farmed Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella and Vibrio species were isolated and identified from Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in shrimp farms. Shrimp samples showed occurrence of 3.3% of Salmonella and 48.3% of Vibrio. The isolates were also screened for antibiotic resistance to oxolinic acid, sulphonamides, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, norfloxacin, ampicillin, doxycycline hydrochloride, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and nitrofurantoin. Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis isolated from shrimp showed individual and multiple antibiotic resistance patterns. Five Vibrio species having individual and multiple antibiotic resistance were also identified. They were Vibrio cholerae (18.3%, V. mimicus (16.7%, V. parahaemolyticus (10%, V. vulnificus (6.7%, and V. alginolyticus (1.7%. Farm owners should be concerned about the presence of these pathogenic bacteria which also contributes to human health risk and should adopt best management practices for responsible aquaculture to ensure the quality of shrimp.

  8. Salmonella isolated from the feces of migrating cranes at the Izumi Plain (2002-2008): serotype, antibiotic sensitivity and PFGE type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Noriyuki; Ninomiya, Naoko; Murase, Toshiyuki; Obi, Takeshi; Takase, Kozo

    2010-07-01

    From November 2002 to February 2008, 2,251 crane feces were collected at the Izumi Plain in Kagoshima Prefecture. Salmonella enterica was isolated from 359 feces (15.9%), of which 332 (92.5%) were Salmonella Typhimurium (ST), 9 were S. Hvittingfoss/II, 4 were S. Abaetetuba, 3 were S. Enteritidis, 2 were S. Konstanz, 1 was S. Pakistan and 8 were untyped isolates, respectively. Against 12 antimicrobial agents, no resistant strains were found in 154 isolates examined, but one was found to be resistant to ampicillin. By pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), all but one of the 68 ST isolates tested showed indistinguishable banding patterns; one had a different pattern. The results suggest that ST strains from the same origin would spread in crane flocks during their stay at Izumi Plain every winter.

  9. Sponge Microbiota are a Reservoir of Functional Antibiotic Resistance Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versluis, Dennis; de Evgrafov, Mari Cristina Rodriguez; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander

    2016-01-01

    examined sponges as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance. Sponges could be important in this respect because they often contain diverse microbial communities that have the capacity to produce bioactive metabolites. Here, we applied functional metagenomics to study the presence and diversity of functional...... resistance genes in the sponges Aplysina aerophoba, Petrosia ficiformis, and Corticium candelabrum. We obtained 37 insert sequences facilitating resistance to D-cycloserine (n = 6), gentamicin (n = 1), amikacin (n = 7), trimethoprim (n = 17), chloramphenicol (n = 1), rifampicin (n = 2) and ampicillin (n = 3......-resistance-conferring β-lactamase was identified in the genus Pseudovibrio with 41% global amino acid identity to the closest β-lactamase with demonstrated functionality, and subsequently classified into a new family termed PSV. Taken together, our results show that sponge microbiota host diverse and novel resistance...

  10. Application of fuzzy logic in multicomponent analysis by optodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenweber, M; Polster, J; Becker, T; Schmidt, H L

    1997-01-01

    Fuzzy logic can be a useful tool for the determination of substrate concentrations applying optode arrays in combination with flow injection analysis, UV-VIS spectroscopy and kinetics. The transient diffuse reflectance spectra in the visible wavelength region from four optodes were evaluated to carry out the simultaneous determination of artificial mixtures of ampicillin and penicillin. The discrimination of the samples was achieved by changing the composition of the receptor gel and working pH. Different algorithms of pre-processing were applied on the data to reduce the spectral information to a few analytic-specific variables. These variables were used to develop the fuzzy model. After calibration the model was validated by an independent test data set.

  11. Case of pacemaker pocket infection caused by Finegoldia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Dehkordi, Seyed Hamed; Osorio, Georgina

    2017-10-01

    Finegoldia magna (formerly called Peptostreptococcus magnus) is a Gram-positive anaerobic coccus which is increasingly recognized as an opportunistic pathogen. We present a case of F. magna associated non-valvular cardiovascular device-related infection in an 83 year-old male who received a permanent pacemaker for sick sinus syndrome seven weeks prior to his presentation. Five weeks after the implantation, the pacemaker and leads were explanted because of clinical evidence of pacemaker pocket infection. He was initially treated with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim based on the Gram stain results from the removed pacemaker. However, two weeks later, he was readmitted with sepsis and was successfully treated with ampicillin-sulbactam. Culture results from the pacemaker and pocket as well as blood cultures grew F. magna. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of F. magna infection when initial gram stain results show "gram positive cocci". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antibiogram of escherichia coli isolated from urine samples at a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudary, Z.A.; Hasan, A.; Alizai, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    To determine prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the E. coli isolated from urine in our setup, especially in low income group of population. Methodology: The study was carried out from July 2010 to June 2011 at surgical and urological units of a hospital in Islamabad. E.coli were isolated from urine specimens by following standard microbiological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion techniques according to CLSI guidelines. Results: The prevalence of E. coli isolated from urine samples was 28.22%. Highest resistance was seen against ampicillin (80.3%). Imipenem was found out to be highly effective. Conclusion: Imipenem, ciprofloxacin and sparfloxacin can be reliably used against E. coli causing urinary tract infections. Gentamicin and moxifloxacin also showed satisfactory results. (author)

  13. Parenteral Antibiotics Reduce Bifidobacteria Colonization and Diversity in Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séamus Hussey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of parenteral antibiotic treatment in the early neonatal period on the evolution of bifidobacteria in the newborn. Nine babies treated with intravenous ampicillin/gentamicin in the first week of life and nine controls (no antibiotic treatment were studied. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to investigate the composition of Bifidobacterium in stool samples taken at four and eight weeks. Bifidobacteria were detected in all control infants at both four and eight weeks, while only six of nine antibiotic-treated infants had detectable bifidobacteria at four weeks and eight of nine at eight weeks. Moreover, stool samples of controls showed greater diversity of Bifidobacterium spp. compared with antibiotic-treated infants. In conclusion, short-term parenteral antibiotic treatment of neonates causes a disturbance in the expected colonization pattern of bifidobacteria in the first months of life. Further studies are required to probiotic determine if supplementation is necessary in this patient group.

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli from swine, horses, dogs and cats as determined in the BfT-GermVet monitoring program 2004-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobbel, Mirjam; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Alesík, Eva; Schwarz, Stefan; Wallmann, Jürgen; Werckenthin, Christiane; Wieler, Lothar H

    2007-01-01

    A total of 417 isolates of Escherichia coli collected from five animal species/organ system combinations from swine [urinary/genital tract (UGT) incl. mastitis metritis agalactia syndrome], horses [genital tract (GT)] and dogs/cats [respiratory tract (RT), UGT and gastrointestinal tract (GIT)] were analysed quantitatively for their susceptibility against different antimicrobial agents by determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations. Regardless of which animal species the strains originated from, resistance appeared most frequently against sulfamethoxazole (18-59%), tetracycline (14-54 %), and ampicillin (14-39%). High percentages of intermediate isolates were observed for cephalothin (39-46 %). In general, low prevalences of resistance were detected for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (1-4%), gentamicin (1-9%), and cefazolin (0-11%). Generally speaking, the antimicrobial resistance situation among E. coli isolates from horses and small animals is relatively good.

  15. Asymptomatic significant bacteriuria in the non-pregnant woman. II. Response to treatment and follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asscher, A W; Sussman, M; Waters, W E; Evans, J A; Campbell, H; Evans, K T; Williams, J E

    1969-03-29

    Short courses of nitrofurantoin and ampicillin produced an immediate cure in 80% of adult non-pregnant bacteriuric women. Of the subjects so treated, 55% remained cured at the end of one year. Over the same follow-up period 36% of untreated bacteriuric women developed a spontaneous remission of bacteriuria. Treatment failed to prevent the development of symptomatic infection, and the reinfections which followed successful treatment were more commonly associated with the development of symptoms than the persistent or relapsing infections in untreated or unsuccessfully treated subjects.It is concluded that a search for bacteriuria in non-pregnant women is unlikely to be of value as a preventive measure, since in many instances it fails to detect urinary tract infection at an early stage and since treatment by methods suitable for large-scale use is ineffective.

  16. Prodigiosin - A Multifaceted Escherichia coli Antimicrobial Agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Danevčič

    Full Text Available Despite a considerable interest in prodigiosin, the mechanism of its antibacterial activity is still poorly understood. In this work, Escherichia coli cells were treated with prodigiosin to determine its antimicrobial effect on bacterial physiology. The effect of prodigiosin was concentration dependent. In prodigiosin treated cells above MIC value no significant DNA damage or cytoplasmic membrane disintegration was observed. The outer membrane, however, becomes leaky. Cells had severely decreased respiration activity. In prodigiosin treated cells protein and RNA synthesis were inhibited, cells were elongated but could not divide. Pre-treatment with prodigiosin improved E. coli survival rate in media containing ampicillin, kanamycin and erythromycin but not phleomycin. The results suggest that prodigiosin acts as a bacteriostatic agent in E. coli cells. If prodigiosin was diluted, cells resumed growth. The results indicate that prodigiosin has distinct mode of antibacterial action in different bacteria.

  17. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella spp. recovered from patients admitted to six different hospitals in Tehran, Iran from 2007 to 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tajbakhsh, Mercedeh; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Nochi, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    were screened for the presence of Salmonella, serotyped, tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using disk diffusion and examined for the presence of relevant resistance genes and integrons by PCR. A total of 1,120 patients were screened for the presence of Salmonella. Out of 71 Salmonella isolates...... recovered, the following serovars were identified: 17 Typhi, 14 Paratyphi C, 13 Enteritidis, 11 Paratyphi B, 10 Paratyphi A and six Infantis. Most resistance was observed towards sulfamethoxazole (30%), tetracyclines (25%), nalidixic acid (22%), spectinomycin (17%), trimethoprim (15%), ampicillin (14......%) and kanamycin (14%). The tetracycline resistance genes tet(A), tet(B), and tet(G) were found in 28%, 14% and 6% of the tetracycline resistant isolates, respectively. The genes aadA, aadB, strA, strB and aphA1-Iab were present in 83%, 55%, 34%, 1% and 17% of the aminoglycoside resistant isolates, respectively...

  18. Association Between Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolates from Food Animals and Blood Stream Isolates from Humans in Europe: An Ecological Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieira, Antonio; Collignon, Peter; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2011-01-01

    Background: In addition to medical antimicrobial usage, the use of antimicrobials in food animals contributes to the occurrence of resistance among some bacterial species isolated from infections in humans. Recently, several studies have indicated that a large proportion of Escherichia coli causing...... infections in humans, especially those resistant to antimicrobials, have an animal origin.Methods: We analyzed the correlation between the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolates from blood stream infections in humans and in E. coli isolates from poultry, pigs, and cattle between 2005...... and 2008 for 11 countries, using available surveillance data. We also assessed the correlation between human antimicrobial usage and the occurrence of resistance in E. coli isolates from blood stream infections.Results: Strong and significant correlations between prevalences of resistance to ampicillin (r...

  19. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium from humans and production animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; FrimodtMoller, N.

    1997-01-01

    : Poultry strains were usually resistant only to ampicillin, white pig and cattle isolates were most often resistant to sulphonamide, tetracycline and streptomycin. Typing of the strains showed that some animal strains and human strains were indistinguishable. In conclusion, while antimicrobial resistance......We have studied the frequency of antimicrobial resistance and epidemiological relatedness among 473 isolates of Salmonella enterica subsp, enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) from human and veterinary sources. The human strains were clinical isolates from patients with diarrhoea sent...... to the State Serum Institute during August 1993 (228 isolates). The animal strains were isolated from clinical or subclinical infections in cattle (48 isolates), pigs (99 isolates) or poultry (98 isolates), all from 1993. All strains were tested against 22 different antimicrobial agents used in both human...

  20. Enteropathogens and antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torralba, Ana; García-Esteban, Coral; Alós, Juan-Ignacio

    2018-01-01

    Infectious gastroenteritis remains a public health problem. The most severe cases are of bacterial origin. In Spain, Campylobacter and Salmonella are the most prevalent bacterial genus, while Yersinia and Shigella are much less frequent. Most cases are usually self-limiting and antibiotic therapy is not generally indicated, unless patients have risk factors for severe infection and shigellosis. Ciprofloxacin, third generation cephalosporins, azithromycin, ampicillin, cotrimoxazole and doxycycline are the most recommended drugs. The susceptibility pattern of the different bacteria determines the choice of the most appropriate treatment. The aim of this review is to analyse the current situation, developments, and evolution of resistance and multidrug resistance in these 4 enteric pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  1. Neonatal sepsis in rural India: timing, microbiology and antibiotic resistance in a population-based prospective study in the community setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, P; Chandel, D S; Hansen, N I; Sharma, N; Kandefer, S; Parida, S; Satpathy, R; Pradhan, L; Mohapatra, A; Mohapatra, S S; Misra, P R; Banaji, N; Johnson, J A; Morris, J G; Gewolb, I H; Chaudhry, R

    2017-08-01

    To examine the timing and microbiology of neonatal sepsis in a population-based surveillance in the Indian community setting. All live born infants in 223 villages of Odisha state were followed at home for 60 days. Suspect sepsis cases were referred to study hospitals for further evaluation including blood culture. Of 12 622 births, 842 were admitted with suspected sepsis of whom 95% were 4 to 60 days old. Culture-confirmed incidence of sepsis was 6.7/1000 births with 51% Gram negatives (Klebsiella predominating) and 26% Gram positives (mostly Staphylococcus aureus). A very high level of resistance to penicillin and ampicillin, moderate resistance to cephalosporins and extremely low resistance to Gentamicin and Amikacin was observed. The bacterial burden of sepsis in the Indian community is not high. Judicious choice of empiric antibiotics, antibiotic stewardship and alternate modalities should be considered for the management or prevention of neonatal sepsis in India.

  2. Prevalence and characterization of Vibrio cholerae isolated from shrimp products imported into Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, A.; Bjergskov, T.; Jeppesen, V.F.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 3,555 metric tonnes of warm water shrimp were imported into Denmark from December 1994 to July 1995. V. cholerae O1 was not detected in any of the 748 samples analyzed. Non-Ol V. cholerae was found in a single (0.1%) cooked frozen shrimp product and in five (0.7%) raw frozen products......, all originating from shrimp produced in aquaculture. Six isolated strains agglutinated in polyvalent O antisera, but did not agglutinate in Ogawa or Inaba antisera. The six strains were resistant to colistin and sulfisoxazole; three strains also showed resistance to ampicillin. None of the strains...... contained plasmids or genes encoding cholera toxin (CT) or heat-stable enterotoxin (NAG-ST), The absence of V. cholerae O1 and the low number of samples containing CT and NAG-ST negative non-Ol strains in imported shrimp suggest that I! cholerae in such products may not constitute a public health problem....

  3. Caso de miiasis orbitaria severa humana por Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae asociada con carcinoma espinocelular en el estado Falcón, Venezuela | A case of human severe orbital myiasis by Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae associated with spinocellular carcinoma in Falcón state, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Tortolero Low

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is the parasitism of organs and tissues due to fly larvae of the order Diptera. A report is made of a case in a 70 years old man from La Vela, Falcon State, Venezuela, with severe orbital myiasis associated to a spinocellular carcinoma. The patient attended the emergency room of the Universitary Hospital of Coro, Falcon State, with a cavitary tumor with perforations in the right eyeball with suppurative and foul-smelly discharge. 160 larvae instars II and III were collected, and identified as Cochliomyia hominivorax (“screwworm” (Diptera: Calliphoridae. The patient was treated with debridement and intravenous antibiotic therapy (Ampicillin/Sulbactam; Clindamycin. Myiasis should be considered potentially when the patient has open extensive lesions such as malignant wounds.

  4. A 1.5 hour procedure for identification of Enterococcus Species directly from blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Margie A; Marlowe, Elizabeth; Novak-Weekly, Susan; Miller, J M; Painter, T M; Salimnia, Hossein; Crystal, Benjamin

    2011-02-10

    Enterococci are a common cause of bacteremia with E. faecalis being the predominant species followed by E. faecium. Because resistance to ampicillin and vancomycin in E. faecalis is still uncommon compared to resistance in E. faecium, the development of rapid tests allowing differentiation between enterococcal species is important for appropriate therapy and resistance surveillance. The E. faecalis OE PNA FISH assay (AdvanDx, Woburn, MA) uses species-specific peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes in a fluorescence in situ hybridization format and offers a time to results of 1.5 hours and the potential of providing important information for species-specific treatment. Multicenter studies were performed to assess the performance of the 1.5 hour E. faecalis/OE PNA FISH procedure compared to the original 2.5 hour assay procedure and to standard bacteriology methods for the identification of enterococci directly from a positive blood culture bottle.

  5. Urinary tract infections in the infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Mehreen; Seed, Patrick C

    2015-03-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) in an infant may be the first indication of an underlying renal disorder. Early recognition and initiation of adequate therapy for UTI is important to reduce the risk of long-term renal scarring. Ampicillin and gentamicin are traditionally the empiric treatment of choice; however, local antibiotic resistance patterns should be considered. Maternal antibiotics during pregnancy also increase the risk of resistant pathogens during neonatal UTI. Long-term management after the first UTI in infants remains controversial because of lack of specific studies in this age group and the risk-benefit issues for antibiotic prophylaxis between reduced recurrent disease and emergent antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Structural Biology and Protein Engineering Approach to the Engineering Highly Proficient Catalytic Bioscavengers for In Vivo Detoxification of a Broad Spectrum of Nerve Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    MBP-4E11 plasm ids. The cultures, supplemented with 1 OO!Jg/ml ampicillin , were grown overnight at 3rC. 1% inoculums of these cultures were used... electron density seen in the 0.1 M HEPES, pH active site cannot be easily 7.5 interpreted. PTE_A53_Apo 1 OOmM Tris, pH 1.77 1 P41212 Extra electron ...density within the 7 1 7.5 active site, but it is not S04- 2 Apoenzyme 1.5M (NH4)zS04 17% glycerol PTE_A53_0X 1 OOmM Tris, pH 2.0 1 P43212 Electron

  7. Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of novel 1,4-benzothiazine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay V. Dabholkar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of 2H,4H-2-[3,5-dimethyl-4-(substituted phenyl azo pyrazol-1-yl] carbonyl methyl-3-oxo-1,4-benzothiazine derivatives have been synthesized by the reaction of 2H,4H-2-hydrazino carbonyl methyl-3-oxo-1,4-benzothiazine with acetyl acetone derivatives using ultrasound in lesser time with higher yields. All the synthesized compounds were investigated for their antibacterial activities. The result indicated that the compounds show convincing activities against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus lactis when compared with standard drug (ampicillin trihydrate. These compounds were also synthesized by conventional method and their structures have been elucidated on the basis of spectral analyses and chemical reactions.

  8. Antibiotic of resistence profile of Salmonella spp. serotypes isolated from retail beef in Mexico City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nova Nayarit-Ballesteros

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the serotype and antibiotic resistance profile of Salmonella spp. isolated from retail ground beef in Mexico City. Materials and methods. A total of 100 samples of ground beef were analyzed. The pathogen was isolated by conventional methods and confirmed by PCR (invA gene, 284 bp. The antibiotic resistance profile was determined by the Kirby-Bauer method while serotyping was performed according to the Kauffman-White scheme. Results. We isolated a total of 19 strains of Lomita (6, Derby (4, Senftenberg (2, Javiana and Cannsttat (1 and undeter- mined (5 serotypes. The strains showed a high resistance rate to ampicillin (18/19, carbenicillin (16/19, tetracyclin (13/19, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (13/19. Multidrug resistance was observed in 14 isolates. Conclusions. Several Salmonella spp. serotypes of public health significance are circulating in ground beef sold in the major Mexican city. Some of these strains are multi-drug resistance.

  9. Prevalence and Characteristics of Streptococcus canis Strains Isolated from Dogs and Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lysková

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of Streptococcus canis in dogs and cats, a total of 926 swabs were examined bacteriologically in the period from 2003 to 2005. Eighty-six isolates obtained from various anatomical locations were further characterized for their phenotypic properties. The most frequently isolated biotype produced phosphatase, leucine amidopeptidase, arginine dihydrolase, alpha-D- and beta-D-galactosidase and fermented lactose and ribose. Additional identification by species-specific amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region was consistent with S. canis. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin G and ampicillin. The least effective antimicrobial agent was found to be tetracycline (only 33.8% of susceptible strains.

  10. [Antibiotic resistance pattern of 24, 526 strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 isolated in Mexico from 1991 to 1993].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giono-Cerezo, S; Zárate, A; Gutiérrez, L; Valdespino, J L

    1994-01-01

    Profile of antimicrobial resistance by Kirby-Bauer method was performed on 24526 Vibrio cholerae O1 strains isolated in México (1991-1993) from fecal swabs in cholera cases and from asymptomatic carriers. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests for tetracycline (Te) and doxycycline (D) were done on selected strains. Single antibiotic discs were used at concentrations of: Te, 30 micrograms; D, 30 micrograms; erythromycin (E), 15 micrograms; chloramphenicol (CM), 30 micrograms; ampicillin (AM), 10 micrograms; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) 1.25 micrograms/23.75 micrograms. Strains whose halos were of a smaller diameter than the intermediate value were considered resistant. It is important to maintain surveillance on antimicrobial susceptibility as epidemiological marker on geographical selected areas in order to detect changes of resistant patterns.

  11. Outbreak of Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor strain--La Huasteca Region, Mexico, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Quiñonez, Alberto; Hernández-Monroy, Irma; Montes-Colima, Norma; Moreno-Pérez, Asunción; Galicia-Nicolás, Adriana; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Carmona-Ramos, Concepción; Sánchez-Mendoza, Miroslava; Rodríguez-Martínez, José Cruz; Suárez-Idueta, Lorena; Jiménez-Corona, María Eugenia; Ruiz-Matus, Cuitláhuac; Kuri-Morales, Pablo

    2014-06-27

    On September 2 and 6, 2013, Mexico's National System of Epidemiological Surveillance identified two cases of cholera in Mexico City. Rectal swab cultures from both patients were confirmed as toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and virulence gene amplification (ctxA, ctxB, zot, and ace) demonstrated that the strains were identical to one another but different from strains circulating in Mexico previously. The strains were indistinguishable from the strain that has caused outbreaks in Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Cuba. The strain was susceptible to doxycycline, had intermediate susceptibility to ampicillin and chloramphenicol, was less than fully susceptible to ciprofloxacin, and was resistant to furazolidone and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. An investigation failed to identify a common source of infection, additional cases, or any epidemiologic link between the cases. Both patients were treated with a single, 300-mg dose of doxycycline, and their symptoms resolved.

  12. Lung abscess caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6B

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    Yuhei Ito

    Full Text Available Lung abscess has been considered to be a rare complication of pneumococcal infection, and most cases are reported to be Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3. A 67-year-old man presented with fever and was diagnosed to have lung abscess caused by S. pneumoniae serotype 6B. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of penicillin for the isolate was 1 μg/mL. He was treated with high-dose intravenous sulbactam/ampicillin as definitive therapy based on susceptibility testing for S. pneumoniae and recovered successfully without surgical intervention. S. pneumoniae serotype 6B can cause lung abscess. Keywords: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Lung abscess, Serotype 6B, Penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae

  13. Multistrain models predict sequential multidrug treatment strategies to result in less antimicrobial resistance than combination treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Amais; Zachariasen, Camilla; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2016-01-01

    generated by a mathematical model of the competitive growth of multiple strains of Escherichia coli.Results: Simulation studies showed that sequential use of tetracycline and ampicillin reduced the level of double resistance, when compared to the combination treatment. The effect of the cycling frequency...... frequency did not play a role in suppressing the growth of resistant strains, but the specific order of the two antimicrobials did. Predictions made from the study could be used to redesign multidrug treatment strategies not only for intramuscular treatment in pigs, but also for other dosing routes.......Background: Combination treatment is increasingly used to fight infections caused by bacteria resistant to two or more antimicrobials. While multiple studies have evaluated treatment strategies to minimize the emergence of resistant strains for single antimicrobial treatment, fewer studies have...

  14. Multi-objective optimization of an industrial penicillin V bioreactor train using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fook Choon; Rangaiah, Gade Pandu; Ray, Ajay Kumar

    2007-10-15

    Bulk of the penicillin produced is used as raw material for semi-synthetic penicillin (such as amoxicillin and ampicillin) and semi-synthetic cephalosporins (such as cephalexin and cefadroxil). In the present paper, an industrial penicillin V bioreactor train is optimized for multiple objectives simultaneously. An industrial train, comprising a bank of identical bioreactors, is run semi-continuously in a synchronous fashion. The fermentation taking place in a bioreactor is modeled using a morphologically structured mechanism. For multi-objective optimization for two and three objectives, the elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is chosen. Instead of a single optimum as in the traditional optimization, a wide range of optimal design and operating conditions depicting trade-offs of key performance indicators such as batch cycle time, yield, profit and penicillin concentration, is successfully obtained. The effects of design and operating variables on the optimal solutions are discussed in detail. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Wild-type minimal inhibitory concentration distributions in bacteria of animal origin in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia L Pantozzi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profiles of indicator bacteria isolated from domestic animal feces. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by agar dilution. Interpretative criteria on the basis of wild-type MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values (ECOFF or ECV were used according to the 'European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing' (EUCAST data. Results from 237 isolates of Escherichia coli showed reduced susceptibility for ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline, the antimicrobials commonly used in intensive breeding of pigs and hens. Regarding all the species of the genus Enterococcus spp., there are only ECOFF or ECV for vancomycin. Of the 173 Enterococcus spp. isolated, only one showed reduced susceptibility to vancomycin and was classified as 'non-wild-type' (NWT population. This is the first report in Argentina showing data of epidemiological cutoff values in animal bacteria.

  16. Regional, Seasonal, and Temporal Variations in the Prevalence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolated from Pigs at Slaughter in Denmark (1997-2005)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abatih, E. N.; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and discuss regional, seasonal, and temporal trends in the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from pigs at slaughter in Denmark between 1997 and 2005. Data on antimicrobial-resistant E. coli were obtained from the Danish Integrated...... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme database. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to detect the presence and evaluate the significance of regional, seasonal, and annual trends in the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli for four drugs. Associations between resistance...... of resistant E. coli as compared to the other seasons of the year. Our study provides evidence of statistically significant regional, seasonal, and temporal variations for ampicillin- and streptomycin-resistant E. coli isolated from pigs at slaughter in Denmark between 1997 and 2005....

  17. Characterisation of some Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale strains and examination of their transmission via eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, J; Fodor, L; Makrai, L

    2001-01-01

    The biochemical characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of 12 Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale strains isolated from chickens and turkeys suffering from respiratory clinical signs and the survival of some isolates on egg-shell and within chicken eggs during hatching were examined. All O. rhinotracheale strains showed typical biochemical characteristics. Among the 16 drugs examined, penicillin G, ampicillin (MICs ranging from tiamulin (MICs varied from colistin) or not at all (apramycin, spectinomycin, polymyxin B). At 37 degrees C, O. rhinotracheale did not survive on egg-shell for more than 24 hours, while upon inoculation into embryonated chicken eggs it killed embryos by the ninth day, and from the 14th day post-inoculation no O. rhinotracheale could be cultured from the eggs at all. These results suggest that O. rhinotracheale is not transmitted via eggs during hatching.

  18. Susceptibility of Haemophilus equigenitalis, the causal agent of contagious equine metritis, to 31 antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, C; Isayama, Y; Kashiwazaki, M; Mitani, K

    1981-01-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations of 31 antimicrobial agents were determined for 99 isolates of Haemophilus equigenitalis by the agar dilution method. All the isolates showed good susceptibility to 26 antimicrobial agents tests, minimal inhibitory concentrations of which were less than 3.13 micrograms/ml for more than 90% of the isolates. Of these agents, 4 macrolides (erythromycin, oleandomycin, kitasamycin, tylosin), 3 tetracyclines (tetracycline, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline), 1 peptide (colistin), 1 penicillin (ampicillin) and 1 pleuromutilin (tiamulin) were the most active agents, showing a minimal inhibitory concentration of less than 0.39 micrograms/ml for more than 90% of the isolates. The growth of more than 90% of the isolates was not inhibited by 800 micrograms/ml of streptomycin.

  19. Shigella flexneri-induced vaginitis in a prepubertal children: description of a case

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    Antonella Restelli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In prepuberal girls vulvo-vaginitis are caused by germs of intestinal origin,mycetes, Gardnerella vaginalis, protozoa. Shigella is an uncommon agent able to induce valvovaginitis in children. We report the case of a 7-year-old girl with chronic vulvo-vaginitis caused by S. flexneri. Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing revealed that S. flexnery was sensible to cefotaxime, amoxicillin, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, but resistant to amikacin, cefazolin, gentamycin, ampicillin and tetracycline. A treatment with ciprofloxacin brought to a rapid resolution of all symptoms. At the follows up at 3 and 6 months the patient did not report symptoms of infection or articular cartilage abnormality; microbiological evaluations were also negative. Even if it is a single case report and other clinical trial may be performed in order to validate this hypothesis,we speculate that in patient with vulvo-vaginal infection living in environment with low hygiene care, a carefully microbiological evaluation of uncommon agents may be performed.

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Eschericia coli isolates from Arieş river (Romania

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    Andreea BODOCZI FLOREA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AR and multiple antimicrobial resistances (MAR among the faecal bacteria found in the Arieş river (Romania affected by strong anthropogenic pressures. Isolation and identification of E. coli were done by using enrichment media, selective media, and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by the disk diffusion method was conducted for 12 antimicrobial agents: ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, streptomycin, ceftazidin, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, ticarcycline, ampicillin, nalidixic acid, nitrofurantoin, erythromycin, and norfloxacin. The data of the antimicrobial susceptibility reviled that all the studied E. coli strains were resistant to most of the tested antibiotics. The analysis of antibiotic resistance frequencies has showed an incidence of 46.66% strains resistant to more than 4 different antibiotics. Moreover, a high incidence of multiple antibiotic resistances was detected in each of the studied samples.