WorldWideScience

Sample records for amphisbaenian reptiles based

  1. Phylogenetic relationships among amphisbaenian reptiles based on complete mitochondrial genomic sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macey, J. Robert; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-05-19

    Complete mitochondrial genomic sequences are reported from 12 members in the four families of the reptile group Amphisbaenia. Analysis of 11,946 aligned nucleotide positions (5,797 informative) produces a robust phylogenetic hypothesis. The family Rhineuridae is basal and Bipedidae is the sister taxon to the Amphisbaenidae plus Trogonophidae. Amphisbaenian reptiles are surprisingly old, predating the breakup of Pangaea 200 million years before present, because successive basal taxa (Rhineuridae and Bipedidae) are situated in tectonic regions of Laurasia and nested taxa (Amphisbaenidae and Trogonophidae) are found in Gondwanan regions. Thorough sampling within the Bipedidae shows that it is not tectonic movement of Baja California away from the Mexican mainland that is primary in isolating Bipes species, but rather that primary vicariance occurred between northern and southern groups. Amphisbaenian families show parallel reduction in number of limbs and Bipes species exhibit parallel reduction in number of digits. A measure is developed for comparing the phylogenetic information content of various genes. A synapomorphic trait defining the Bipedidae is a shift from the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement to the derived state of trnE and nad6. In addition, a tandem duplication of trnT and trnP is observed in B. biporus with a pattern of pseudogene formation that varies among populations. The first case of convergent rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome among animals demonstrated by complete genomic sequences is reported. Relative to most vertebrates, the Rhineuridae has the block nad6, trnE switched in order with cob, trnT, trnP, as they are in birds.

  2. Reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Describes some of the characteristics of various reptiles. Contains teaching activities including making reptile number books and identification keys, flip-ups about cobras, puzzles involving graphing, and group presentations. Includes reproducible handouts to be used with some of the activities. (TW)

  3. Reptile Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinheimer, Margaret

    1993-01-01

    Describes an award-winning bulletin board for introducing a unit on reptiles. This interactive bulletin board contains fun facts and counters common misconceptions about reptiles. Twelve true-false statements are hidden behind pull-up flaps. Four pictures ask students to identify the difference between often-confused animals. (PR)

  4. Project Reptile!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffily, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Integrating curriculum is important in helping children make connections within and among areas. Presents a class project for kindergarten children which came out of the students' interests and desire to build a reptile exhibit. (ASK)

  5. Alabama ESI: REPTILES (Reptile Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for threatened/endangered and rare reptiles in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent the...

  6. Reptiles, Amphibians, and Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Reptiles, Amphibians, and Salmonella Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... live. How do people get Salmonella infections from reptiles and amphibians? Reptiles and amphibians might have Salmonella ...

  7. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Marschang, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The ...

  8. The Maryland Amphibian and Reptile Atlas: A Volunteer-Based Distributional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather R. Cunningham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Declines of amphibian and reptile populations are well documented. Yet a lack of understanding of their distribution may hinder conservation planning for these species. The Maryland Amphibian and Reptile Atlas project (MARA was launched in 2010. This five-year, citizen science project will document the distribution of the 93 amphibian and reptile species in Maryland. During the 2010 and 2011 field seasons, 488 registered MARA volunteers collected 13,919 occurrence records that document 85 of Maryland's amphibian and reptile species, including 19 frog, 20 salamander, five lizard, 25 snake, and 16 turtle species. Thirteen of these species are of conservation concern in Maryland. The MARA will establish a baseline by which future changes in the distribution of populations of native herpetofauna can be assessed as well as provide information for immediate management actions for rare and threatened species. As a citizen science project it has the added benefit of educating citizens about native amphibian and reptile diversity and its ecological benefits—an important step in creating an informed society that actively participates in the long-term conservation of Maryland's nature heritage.

  9. Louisiana ESI: REPTILES (Reptile and Amphibian Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reptiles and amphibians in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent reptile and amphibian...

  10. Reptiles in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantert, Robert L.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of using reptiles in biology and elementary school classes, describes demonstration techniques used by the author, and suggests some student activities using reptiles, especially snakes and lizards. (AL)

  11. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Marschang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  12. Checklist of helminths from lizards and amphisbaenians (Reptilia, Squamata of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RW Ávila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive and up to date summary of the literature on the helminth parasites of lizards and amphisbaenians from South America is herein presented. One-hundred eighteen lizard species from twelve countries were reported in the literature harboring a total of 155 helminth species, being none acanthocephalans, 15 cestodes, 20 trematodes and 111 nematodes. Of these, one record was from Chile and French Guiana, three from Colombia, three from Uruguay, eight from Bolivia, nine from Surinam, 13 from Paraguay, 12 from Venezuela, 27 from Ecuador, 17 from Argentina, 39 from Peru and 103 from Brazil. The present list provides host, geographical distribution (with the respective biome, when possible, site of infection and references from the parasites. A systematic parasite-host list is also provided.

  13. An updated and annotated list of Indian lizards (Reptilia: Sauria based on a review of distribution records and checklists of Indian reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. Venugopal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades many checklists of reptiles of India and adjacent countries have been published. These publications have furthered the growth of knowledge on systematics, distribution and biogeography of Indian reptiles, and the field of herpetology in India in general. However, the reporting format of most such checklists of Indian reptiles does not provide a basis for direct verification of the information presented. As a result, mistakes in the inclusion and omission of species have been perpetuated and the exact number of reptile species reported from India still remains unclear. A verification of the current listings based on distributional records and review of published checklists revealed that 199 species of lizards (Reptilia: Sauria are currently validly reported on the basis of distributional records within the boundaries of India. Seventeen other lizard species have erroneously been included in earlier checklists of Indian reptiles. Omissions of species by these checklists have been even more numerous than erroneous inclusions. In this paper, I present a plea to report species lists as annotated checklists which corroborate the inclusion and omission of species by providing valid source references or notes.

  14. Effects of atrazine in fish, amphibians, and reptiles: an analysis based on quantitative weight of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Hosmer, Alan J; Hanson, Mark L; Kloas, Werner; Solomon, Keith R

    2014-12-01

    A quantitative weight of evidence (WoE) approach was developed to evaluate studies used for regulatory purposes, as well as those in the open literature, that report the effects of the herbicide atrazine on fish, amphibians, and reptiles. The methodology for WoE analysis incorporated a detailed assessment of the relevance of the responses observed to apical endpoints directly related to survival, growth, development, and reproduction, as well as the strength and appropriateness of the experimental methods employed. Numerical scores were assigned for strength and relevance. The means of the scores for relevance and strength were then used to summarize and weigh the evidence for atrazine contributing to ecologically significant responses in the organisms of interest. The summary was presented graphically in a two-dimensional graph which showed the distributions of all the reports for a response. Over 1290 individual responses from studies in 31 species of fish, 32 amphibians, and 8 reptiles were evaluated. Overall, the WoE showed that atrazine might affect biomarker-type responses, such as expression of genes and/or associated proteins, concentrations of hormones, and biochemical processes (e.g. induction of detoxification responses), at concentrations sometimes found in the environment. However, these effects were not translated to adverse outcomes in terms of apical endpoints. The WoE approach provided a quantitative, transparent, reproducible, and robust framework that can be used to assist the decision-making process when assessing environmental chemicals. In addition, the process allowed easy identification of uncertainty and inconsistency in observations, and thus clearly identified areas where future investigations can be best directed.

  15. The occurrence of reptiles in Barn Owl diet in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Roulin A.; Dubey S

    2012-01-01

    Capsule We present a review of the propensity to eat reptiles in the Barn Owl Tyto alba in Europe. Based on the analysis of 591 published studies reporting 3.07 million prey items identified in pellets, only 2402 reptiles (0.08%) were found. Reptiles were most often captured in southern parts of the European continent and on islands. A large proportion of the 1304 identified reptiles to the species level were nocturnal Gekkonidae (77.1%).

  16. Maryland ESI: REPTILES (Reptile and Amphibian Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sea turtles, estuarine turtles, and rare reptiles and amphibians in Maryland. Vector polygons in this...

  17. Amphibians and reptiles of Guyana, South America: illustrated keys, annotated species accounts, and a biogeographic synopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Charles J.; Townsend, Carol R.; Reynolds, Robert P.; MacCulloch, Ross D.; Lathrop, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Guyana has a very distinctive herpetofauna. In this first ever detailed modern accounting, based on voucher specimens, we document the presence of 324 species of amphibians and reptiles in the country; 148 amphibians, 176 reptiles. Of these, we present species accounts for 317 species and color photographs of about 62% (Plates 1–40). At the rate that new species are being described and distributional records are being found for the first time, we suspect that at least 350 species will be documented in a few decades. The diverse herpetofauna includes 137 species of frogs and toads, 11 caecilians, 4 crocodylians, 4 amphisbaenians, 56 lizards, 97 snakes, and 15 turtles. Endemic species, which occur nowhere else in the world, comprise 15% of the herpetofauna. Most of the endemics are amphibians, comprising 27% of the amphibian fauna. Type localities (where the type specimens or scientific name-bearers of species were found) are located within Guyana for 24% of the herpetofauna, or 36% of the amphibians. This diverse fauna results from the geographic position of Guyana on the Guiana Shield and the isolated highlands or tepuis of the eastern part of the Pantepui Region, which are surrounded by lowland rainforest and savannas. Consequently, there is a mixture of local endemic species and widespread species characteristic of Amazonia and the Guianan Region. Although the size of this volume may mislead some people into thinking that a lot is known about the fauna of Guyana, the work has just begun. Many of the species are known from fewer than five individuals in scientific collections; for many the life history, distribution, ecology, and behavior remain poorly known; few resources in the country are devoted to developing such knowledge; and as far as we are aware, no other group of animals in the fauna of Guyana has been summarized in a volume such as this to document the biological resources. We briefly discuss aspects of biogeography, as reflected in samples collected

  18. Rainforest: Reptiles and Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Susanna

    2006-01-01

    Rainforest reptiles and amphibians are a vibrantly colored, multimedia art experience. To complete the entire project one may need to dedicate many class periods to production, yet in each aspect of the project a new and important skill, concept, or element is being taught or reinforced. This project incorporates the study of warm and cool color…

  19. Viruses in reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Ellen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself. 1. Introduction 2. Methods for working with reptilian viruses 3. Reptilian viruses described by virus families 3.1. Herpesviridae 3.2. Iridoviridae 3.2.1 Ranavirus 3.2.2 Erythrocytic virus 3.2.3 Iridovirus 3.3. Poxviridae 3.4. Adenoviridae 3.5. Papillomaviridae 3.6. Parvoviridae 3.7. Reoviridae 3.8. Retroviridae and inclusion body disease of Boid snakes 3.9. Arboviruses 3.9.1. Flaviviridae 3

  20. An updated and annotated list of Indian lizards (Reptilia: Sauria) based on a review of distribution records and checklists of Indian reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    P.D. Venugopal

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two decades many checklists of reptiles of India and adjacent countries have been published. These publications have furthered the growth of knowledge on systematics, distribution and biogeography of Indian reptiles, and the field of herpetology in India in general. However, the reporting format of most such checklists of Indian reptiles does not provide a basis for direct verification of the information presented. As a result, mistakes in the inclusion and omission of species h...

  1. The Evolution of Marine Reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Motani, Ryosuke

    2009-01-01

    Reptiles have repeatedly invaded marine environments despite their physiological constraints as air breathers. Marine reptiles were especially successful in the Mesozoic as major predators in the sea. There were more than a dozen groups of marine reptiles in the Mesozoic, of which four had more than 30 genera, namely sauropterygians (including plesiosaurs), ichthyopterygians, mosasaurs, and sea turtles. Medium-sized groups, such as Thalattosauria and Thalattosuchia, had about ten genera, wher...

  2. Approach to Reptile Emergency Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Simon Y

    2016-05-01

    This article summarizes the physiology and anatomy of reptiles, highlighting points relevant for emergency room veterinarians. Other systems, such as the endocrine and immune systems, have not been covered. The many other aspects of reptile species variation are too numerous to be covered. This article provides an overview but encourages clinicians to seek additional species-specific information to better medically diagnose and treat their reptile patients.

  3. Caution: Reptile pets shuttle grasshopper allergy and asthma into homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Pali-Schöll, Isabella; Jensen, Sebastian A F; Robibaro, Bruno; Kinaciyan, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    The numbers of reptiles in homes has at least doubled in the last decade in Europe and the USA. Reptile purchases are increasingly triggered by the attempt to avoid potentially allergenic fur pets like dogs and cats. Consequently, reptiles are today regarded as surrogate pets initiating a closer relationship with the owner than ever previously observed. Reptile pets are mostly fed with insects, especially grasshoppers and/or locusts, which are sources for aggressive airborne allergens, best known from occupational insect breeder allergies. Exposure in homes thus introduces a new form of domestic allergy to grasshoppers and related insects. Accordingly, an 8-year old boy developed severe bronchial hypersensitivity and asthma within 4 months after purchase of a bearded dragon. The reptile was held in the living room and regularly fed with living grasshoppers. In the absence of a serological allergy diagnosis test, an IgE immunoblot on grasshopper extract and prick-to-prick test confirmed specific sensitization to grasshoppers. After 4 years of allergen avoidance, a single respiratory exposure was sufficient to trigger a severe asthma attack again in the patient. Based on literature review and the clinical example we conclude that reptile keeping is associated with introducing potent insect allergens into home environments. Patient interviews during diagnostic procedure should therefore by default include the question about reptile pets in homes. PMID:26322151

  4. Combining phylogenomic and supermatrix approaches, and a time-calibrated phylogeny for squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) based on 52 genes and 4162 species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuchi; Wiens, John J

    2016-01-01

    Two common approaches for estimating phylogenies in species-rich groups are to: (i) sample many loci for few species (e.g. phylogenomic approach), or (ii) sample many species for fewer loci (e.g. supermatrix approach). In theory, these approaches can be combined to simultaneously resolve both higher-level relationships (with many genes) and species-level relationships (with many taxa). However, fundamental questions remain unanswered about this combined approach. First, will higher-level relationships more closely resemble those estimated from many genes or those from many taxa? Second, will branch support increase for higher-level relationships (relative to the estimate from many taxa)? Here, we address these questions in squamate reptiles. We combined two recently published datasets, one based on 44 genes for 161 species, and one based on 12 genes for 4161 species. The likelihood-based tree from the combined matrix (52 genes, 4162 species) shared more higher-level clades with the 44-gene tree (90% vs. 77% shared). Branch support for higher level-relationships was marginally higher than in the 12-gene tree, but lower than in the 44-gene tree. Relationships were apparently not obscured by the abundant missing data (92% overall). We provide a time-calibrated phylogeny based on extensive sampling of genes and taxa as a resource for comparative studies.

  5. Tracking adenovirus infections in reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, Inna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to screen reptiles for the presence of adenovirus (AdV) infection, develop serological tests for the detection of antibodies against AdVs in squamate reptiles and to examine the serological relationships between lizard and snake AdVs, helping to ensure the establishment and maintenance of healthy populations. An additional aim of the project was the establishment of an agamid cell line and isolation of adenoviruses from bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). A...

  6. DNA barcoding amphibians and reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vences, Miguel; Nagy, Zoltán T; Sonet, Gontran; Verheyen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Only a few major research programs are currently targeting COI barcoding of amphibians and reptiles (including chelonians and crocodiles), two major groups of tetrapods. Amphibian and reptile species are typically old, strongly divergent, and contain deep conspecific lineages which might lead to problems in species assignment with incomplete reference databases. As far as known, there is no single pair of COI primers that will guarantee a sufficient rate of success across all amphibian and reptile taxa, or within major subclades of amphibians and reptiles, which means that the PCR amplification strategy needs to be adjusted depending on the specific research question. In general, many more amphibian and reptile taxa have been sequenced for 16S rDNA, which for some purposes may be a suitable complementary marker, at least until a more comprehensive COI reference database becomes available. DNA barcoding has successfully been used to identify amphibian larval stages (tadpoles) in species-rich tropical assemblages. Tissue sampling, DNA extraction, and amplification of COI is straightforward in amphibians and reptiles. Single primer pairs are likely to have a failure rate between 5 and 50% if taxa of a wide taxonomic range are targeted; in such cases the use of primer cocktails or subsequent hierarchical usage of different primer pairs is necessary. If the target group is taxonomically limited, many studies have followed a strategy of designing specific primers which then allow an easy and reliable amplification of all samples.

  7. Preserving reptiles for research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotte, Steve W.; Jacobs, Jeremy F.; Zug, George R.; Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    What are voucher specimens and why do we collect them? Voucher specimens are animals and/or their parts that are deposited in a research museum to document the occurrence of a taxon at a specific location in space and time (Pleijel et al., 2008; Reynolds and McDiarmid, 2012). For field biologists, vouchers are the repeatable element of a field study as they allow other biologists, now and in the future, to confirm the identity of species that were studied. The scientific importance of a voucher specimen or series of specimens is that other people are afforded the opportunity to examine the entire animal and confirm or correct identifications. A photographic record is somewhat useful for recording the occurrence of a species, but such records can be insufficient for reliable confirmation of specific identity. Even if a photo shows diagnostic characters of currently recognized taxa, it may not show characters that separate taxa that may be described in the future. Substantial cryptic biodiversity is being found in even relatively well-known herpetofaunas (Crawford et al., 2010), and specimens allow researchers to retroactively evaluate the true diversity in a study as understanding of taxonomy evolves. They enable biologists to study the systematic relationships of populations by quantifying variation in different traits. Specimens are also a source of biological data such as behaviour, ecology, epidemiology, and reproduction through examination of their anatomy, reproductive and digestive tracts, and parasites (Suarez and Tsutsui, 2004). Preserving reptiles as vouchers is not difficult, although doing it properly requires care, effort, and time. Poorly preserved vouchers can invalidate the results and conclusions of your study because of the inability to confirm the identity of your study animals. Good science requires repeatability of observations, and the absence of vouchers or poorly preserved ones prevents such confirmation. Due to space restrictions, we are

  8. The conservation status of the world’s reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Monika; Reynolds, Robert P.; ,

    2013-01-01

    Effective and targeted conservation action requires detailed information about species, their distribution, systematics and ecology as well as the distribution of threat processes which affect them. Knowledge of reptilian diversity remains surprisingly disparate, and innovative means of gaining rapid insight into the status of reptiles are needed in order to highlight urgent conservation cases and inform environmental policy with appropriate biodiversity information in a timely manner. We present the first ever global analysis of extinction risk in reptiles, based on a random representative sample of 1500 species (16% of all currently known species). To our knowledge, our results provide the first analysis of the global conservation status and distribution patterns of reptiles and the threats affecting them, highlighting conservation priorities and knowledge gaps which need to be addressed urgently to ensure the continued survival of the world’s reptiles. Nearly one in five reptilian species are threatened with extinction, with another one in five species classed as Data Deficient. The proportion of threatened reptile species is highest in freshwater environments, tropical regions and on oceanic islands, while data deficiency was highest in tropical areas, such as Central Africa and Southeast Asia, and among fossorial reptiles. Our results emphasise the need for research attention to be focussed on tropical areas which are experiencing the most dramatic rates of habitat loss, on fossorial reptiles for which there is a chronic lack of data, and on certain taxa such as snakes for which extinction risk may currently be underestimated due to lack of population information. Conservation actions specifically need to mitigate the effects of human-induced habitat loss and harvesting, which are the predominant threats to reptiles.

  9. Ecotoxicology of Amphibians and Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    For many years, ecological research on amphibians and reptiles has lagged behind that of other vertebrates such as fishes, birds, and mammals, despite the known importance of these animals in their environments. The lack of study has been particularly acute in the he area of ecotoxicology where the number of published scientific papers is a fraction of that found for the other vertebrate classes. Recently, scientists have become aware of severe crises among amphibian populations, including unexplained and sudden extinctions, worldwide declines, and hideous malformations. In many of these instances, contaminants have been listed as probable contributors. Data on the effects of contaminants on reptiles are so depauperate that even the most elementary interpretations are difficult. This state-of-the-science review and synthesis of amphibian and reptile ecotoxicology demonstrates the inter-relationships among distribution, ecology, physiology, and contaminant exposure, and interprets these topics as they pertain to comparative toxicity, population declines, malformations, and risk assessment . In this way, the book identifies and serves as a basis for the most pressing research needs in the coming years. The editors have invited 27 other internationally respected experts to examine the state of existing data in specific areas, interpret it in light of current problems, and identify research gaps and needs. Through its emphasis on recent research, extensive reviews and synthesis, Ecotoxicology of Amphibians and Reptiles will remain a definitive reference work well into the new century.

  10. The distribution of Reptiles and amphibians in the Annapurna-Dhaulagiri region (Nepal)

    OpenAIRE

    Nanhoe, L.M.R.; Ouboter, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    The reptiles and amphibians of the Annapurna-Dhaulagiri region in Nepal are keyed and described. Their distribution is recorded, based on both personal observations and literature data. The ecology of the species is discussed. The zoogeography and the altitudinal distribution are analysed. All in all 32 species-group taxa of reptiles and 21 species-group taxa of amphibians are treated.

  11. Effects of environmental contaminants on reptiles: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    The literature relating to the effects of environmental contaminants on reptiles is reviewed and certain generalizations based on studies of other kinds of vertebrates are presented. Reports of reptilian mortality from pesticide applications are numerous enough to establish the sensitivity of reptiles to these materials. Reports of residue analyses demonstrate the ability of reptiles to accumulate various contaminants. but the significance of the residues to reptilian populations is unknown. A few authors have reported the distribution of residues in reptilian tissues; others have investigated uptake or loss rates. Physiological studies have shown that organochlorines may inhibit enzymes involved in active transport and have correlated the activity of potential detoxifying enzymes with residue levels. There is some suggestion that pesticide residues may interfere with reproduction in oviparous snakes. Needs for future research are discussed.

  12. Ecological risk of anthropogenic pollutants to reptiles: Evaluating assumptions of sensitivity and exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large data gap for reptile ecotoxicology still persists; therefore, ecological risk assessments of reptiles usually incorporate the use of surrogate species. This necessitates that (1) the surrogate is at least as sensitive as the target taxon and/or (2) exposures to the surrogate are greater than that of the target taxon. We evaluated these assumptions for the use of birds as surrogates for reptiles. Based on a survey of the literature, birds were more sensitive than reptiles in less than 1/4 of the chemicals investigated. Dietary and dermal exposure modeling indicated that exposure to reptiles was relatively high, particularly when the dermal route was considered. We conclude that caution is warranted in the use of avian receptors as surrogates for reptiles in ecological risk assessment and emphasize the need to better understand the magnitude and mechanism of contaminant exposure in reptiles to improve exposure and risk estimation. - Avian receptors are not universally appropriate surrogates for reptiles in ecological risk assessment.

  13. Ecological risk of anthropogenic pollutants to reptiles: Evaluating assumptions of sensitivity and exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir, Scott M., E-mail: scott.weir@ttu.ed [Texas Tech University, Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX (United States); Suski, Jamie G., E-mail: jamie.suski@ttu.ed [Texas Tech University, Department of Biological Sciences, Box 43131, Lubbock, TX (United States); Salice, Christopher J., E-mail: chris.salice@ttu.ed [Texas Tech University, Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2010-12-15

    A large data gap for reptile ecotoxicology still persists; therefore, ecological risk assessments of reptiles usually incorporate the use of surrogate species. This necessitates that (1) the surrogate is at least as sensitive as the target taxon and/or (2) exposures to the surrogate are greater than that of the target taxon. We evaluated these assumptions for the use of birds as surrogates for reptiles. Based on a survey of the literature, birds were more sensitive than reptiles in less than 1/4 of the chemicals investigated. Dietary and dermal exposure modeling indicated that exposure to reptiles was relatively high, particularly when the dermal route was considered. We conclude that caution is warranted in the use of avian receptors as surrogates for reptiles in ecological risk assessment and emphasize the need to better understand the magnitude and mechanism of contaminant exposure in reptiles to improve exposure and risk estimation. - Avian receptors are not universally appropriate surrogates for reptiles in ecological risk assessment.

  14. Melanophoromas and iridophoromas in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckers, K O; Aupperle, H; Schmidt, V; Pees, M

    2012-01-01

    Chromatophoromas are tumours of pigment-producing cells of the skin and are rarely reported in reptiles. These tumours are subclassified on the basis of the type of pigment. The present study characterizes chromatophoromas arising in 26 reptiles, including six snakes, 19 lizards and a tortoise. These include the first reports of melanophoromas in a yellow anaconda (Eunectes notaeus), pigmy rattlesnake (Sistrurus spp.), southern water snake (Nerodia fasciata), veiled chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus) and leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius); the first reports of benign iridophoromas in a savannah monitor (Varanus exanthematicus), veiled chameleon and bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps); and the first description of a malignant iridophoroma in a bearded dragon. Additionally, in three bearded dragons a 'mucinous' type of melanophoroma is described for the first time. Chromatophoromas generally arose from the skin of the body and head and ranged in size from 0.2 to 2.0cm in diameter. In six cases the animals were humanely destroyed immediately after diagnosis. Three further animals were humanely destroyed following recurrence of their tumour. Six of these nine reptiles had visceral metastases. Grossly, melanophoromas (n=20) were grey or black, while iridophoromas (n=6) were white in colour. Microscopically, most of the tumours were composed of spindle cells with varying pigmentation and 0-2 mitoses per 10 high power fields. Six of the 20 melanophoromas were classified as malignant due to the presence of intravascular tumour cells, visceral metastases, high pleomorphism and/or mitotic figures. Five of the six iridophoromas were classified as benign and the one malignant tumour was defined by the presence of intravascular tumour cells and visceral metastases. Immunohistochemically, melan A and S100 were coexpressed by all of the chromatophoromas. PMID:21864845

  15. Serovars of Salmonella from captive reptiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Lassen-Nielsen, Anne Marie; Nordentoft, Steen;

    2009-01-01

    The distribution on serovars of 60 Salmonella isolates from reptiles kept in captivity in Denmark during the period 1995–2006 was investigated. The isolates were all recovered from clinical specimens submitted to the National Veterinary Institute. A majority of the samples were from reptiles...

  16. Suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, Jennifer M; Bishop, Phillip J

    2009-02-01

    Translocations are important tools in the field of conservation. Despite increased use over the last few decades, the appropriateness of translocations for amphibians and reptiles has been debated widely over the past 20 years. To provide a comprehensive evaluation of the suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation, we reviewed the results of amphibian and reptile translocation projects published between 1991 and 2006. The success rate of amphibian and reptile translocations reported over this period was twice that reported in an earlier review in 1991. Success and failure rates were independent of the taxonomic class (Amphibia or Reptilia) released. Reptile translocations driven by human-wildlife conflict mitigation had a higher failure rate than those motivated by conservation, and more recent projects of reptile translocations had unknown outcomes. The outcomes of amphibian translocations were significantly related to the number of animals released, with projects releasing over 1000 individuals being most successful. The most common reported causes of translocation failure were homing and migration of introduced individuals out of release sites and poor habitat. The increased success of amphibian and reptile translocations reviewed in this study compared with the 1991 review is encouraging for future conservation projects. Nevertheless, more preparation, monitoring, reporting of results, and experimental testing of techniques and reintroduction questions need to occur to improve translocations of amphibians and reptiles as a whole. PMID:19143783

  17. Ticks imported to Europe with exotic reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-09-30

    It is known that traded exotic animals carry with them an immense number of associated symbionts, including parasites. Reptiles are no exception. Most of the imported reptiles originate from tropical countries and their possibility to carry potentially dangerous pathogens is high. According to CITES, Europe is currently the main reptile importer in the world. Despite this, there is no review or analysis available for the risk related to the importation of tick-borne diseases with traded reptile to the EU. The main aim of the manuscript is to provide a review on the available literature on ticks introduced to and exchanged between European countries via the live reptile trade. So far, the published reports of ticks imported on reptiles are limited to few European countries: Italy, Poland, Spain, Netherlands, Belgium, Slovenia and UK. The following species have been reported: Hyalomma aegyptium, Amblyomma dissimile, Amblyomma exornatum, Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma fuscolineatum, Amblyomma latum, Amblyomma quadricavum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Amblyomma nuttalli, Amblyomma sparsum, Amblyomma sphenodonti, Amblyomma transversale and Amblyomma varanense. The majority of species are of African origin, followed by American and Asian species. All groups of reptiles (chelonians, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, tuataras) were involved. However, it seems that certain groups (i.e. tortoises of genus Testudo, monitor lizards of genus Varanus, snakes of genus Python) are more important as host for imported ticks, but this may be related to higher levels of international trade. Even fewer are the reports of tick-borne pathogens associated with imported reptile ticks. Despite the diversity of tick species reported on imported reptiles, the situations of truly invasive species are atypical and are limited in natural environments to maximum two cases where H. aegyptium was involved. Otherwise, the risk associated with reptile trade for introduction of invasive tick to Europe is low

  18. Inventory of amphibians and reptiles at Death Valley National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, Trevor B.; Nowak, Erika M.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring Program in the Mojave Network, we conducted an inventory of amphibians and reptiles at Death Valley National Park in 2002-04. Objectives for this inventory were to: 1) Inventory and document the occurrence of reptile and amphibian species occurring at DEVA, primarily within priority sampling areas, with the goal of documenting at least 90% of the species present; 2) document (through collection or museum specimen and literature review) one voucher specimen for each species identified; 3) provide a GIS-referenced list of sensitive species that are federally or state listed, rare, or worthy of special consideration that occur within priority sampling locations; 4) describe park-wide distribution of federally- or state-listed, rare, or special concern species; 5) enter all species data into the National Park Service NPSpecies database; and 6) provide all deliverables as outlined in the Mojave Network Biological Inventory Study Plan. Methods included daytime and nighttime visual encounter surveys, road driving, and pitfall trapping. Survey effort was concentrated in predetermined priority sampling areas, as well as in areas with a high potential for detecting undocumented species. We recorded 37 species during our surveys, including two species new to the park. During literature review and museum specimen database searches, we recorded three additional species from DEVA, elevating the documented species list to 40 (four amphibians and 36 reptiles). Based on our surveys, as well as literature and museum specimen review, we estimate an overall inventory completeness of 92% for Death Valley and an inventory completeness of 73% for amphibians and 95% for reptiles. Key Words: Amphibians, reptiles, Death Valley National Park, Inyo County, San Bernardino County, Esmeralda County, Nye County, California, Nevada, Mojave Desert, Great Basin Desert, inventory, NPSpecies.

  19. Reptile scale paradigm: Evo-Devo, pattern formation and regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, C.; Wu, P.; Baker, Ruth E.; Maini, P.K.; Alibardi, L.; Chuong, C M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this perspective is to highlight the merit of the reptile integument as an experimental model. Reptiles represent the first amniotes. From stem reptiles, extant reptiles, birds and mammals have evolved. Mammal hairs and feathers evolved from Therapsid and Sauropsid reptiles, respectively. The early reptilian integument had to adapt to the challenges of terrestrial life, developing a multi-layered stratum corneum capable of barrier function and ultraviolet protection. For better...

  20. Tikiguania and the antiquity of squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes)

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchinson, Mark N.; Skinner, Adam; Lee, Michael S. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Tikiguania estesi is widely accepted to be the earliest member of Squamata, the reptile group that includes lizards and snakes. It is based on a lower jaw from the Late Triassic of India, described as a primitive lizard related to agamids and chamaeleons. However, Tikiguania is almost indistinguishable from living agamids; a combined phylogenetic analysis of morphological and molecular data places it with draconines, a prominent component of the modern Asian herpetofauna. It is unlikely that ...

  1. Amphibians and Reptiles of Los Alamos County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teralene S. Foxx; Timothy K. Haarmann; David C. Keller

    1999-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that amphibians and reptiles are good indicators of environmental health. They live in terrestrial and aquatic environments and are often the first animals to be affected by environmental change. This publication provides baseline information about amphibians and reptiles that are present on the Pajarito Plateau. Ten years of data collection and observations by researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the University of New Mexico, the New Mexico Department of Game and Fish, and hobbyists are represented.

  2. New country records of reptiles from Laos

    OpenAIRE

    Vinh Luu; Truong Nguyen; Thomas Calame; Tuoi Hoang; Sisomphone Southichack; Michael Bonkowski; Thomas Ziegler

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Four species of reptiles, of which one is represented by one of its subspecies, are recorded for the first time from Laos: Cyrtodactylus phongnhakebangensis , Lycodon futsingensis , and Lycodon ruhstrati , as Lycodon ruhstrati abditus , from limestone forests in Khammouane Province and Cyrtodactylus pseudoquadrivirgatus from hill evergreen forest in Salavan Province. These discoveries of lizards and snakes bring the total species number of reptiles to 189 in Laos.

  3. New country records of reptiles from Laos

    OpenAIRE

    Luu, Vinh; Nguyen, Truong; Calame, Thomas; Hoang,Tuoi; Southichack,Sisomphone; Bonkowski, Michael; Ziegler, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Four species of reptiles, of which one is represented by one of its subspecies, are recorded for the first time from Laos: Cyrtodactylus phongnhakebangensis, Lycodon futsingensis, and L. ruhstrati, as L. ruhstrati abditus, from limestone forests in Khammouane Province and Cyrtodactylus pseudoquadrivirgatus from hill evergreen forest in Salavan Province. These discoveries of lizards and snakes bring the total species number of reptiles to 189 in Laos.

  4. Salmonellae and salmonellosis in captive reptiles.

    OpenAIRE

    Onderka, D K; Finlayson, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    In a survey of 150 pet reptiles submitted for necropsy, 51% of snakes, 48% of lizards and 7% of turtles were infected with Salmonella. About one third of the positive animals had died due to various manifestations of salmonellosis. Thirty-one Salmonella serotypes were identified including three isolates new to Canada. The public health implications are discussed in view of the restricted popularity of reptiles and their possible infection from domestic agricultural products.

  5. Random Sampling of Squamate Reptiles in Spanish Natural Reserves Reveals the Presence of Novel Adenoviruses in Lacertids (Family Lacertidae) and Worm Lizards (Amphisbaenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirovicza, Leonóra; López, Pilar; Kopena, Renáta; Benkő, Mária; Martín, José; Pénzes, Judit J.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the results of a large-scale PCR survey on the prevalence and diversity of adenoviruses (AdVs) in samples collected randomly from free-living reptiles. On the territories of the Guadarrama Mountains National Park in Central Spain and of the Chafarinas Islands in North Africa, cloacal swabs were taken from 318 specimens of eight native species representing five squamate reptilian families. The healthy-looking animals had been captured temporarily for physiological and ethological examinations, after which they were released. We found 22 AdV-positive samples in representatives of three species, all from Central Spain. Sequence analysis of the PCR products revealed the existence of three hitherto unknown AdVs in 11 Carpetane rock lizards (Iberolacerta cyreni), nine Iberian worm lizards (Blanus cinereus), and two Iberian green lizards (Lacerta schreiberi), respectively. Phylogeny inference showed every novel putative virus to be a member of the genus Atadenovirus. This is the very first description of the occurrence of AdVs in amphisbaenian and lacertid hosts. Unlike all squamate atadenoviruses examined previously, two of the novel putative AdVs had A+T rich DNA, a feature generally deemed to mirror previous host switch events. Our results shed new light on the diversity and evolution of atadenoviruses. PMID:27399970

  6. Random Sampling of Squamate Reptiles in Spanish Natural Reserves Reveals the Presence of Novel Adenoviruses in Lacertids (Family Lacertidae and Worm Lizards (Amphisbaenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonóra Szirovicza

    Full Text Available Here, we report the results of a large-scale PCR survey on the prevalence and diversity of adenoviruses (AdVs in samples collected randomly from free-living reptiles. On the territories of the Guadarrama Mountains National Park in Central Spain and of the Chafarinas Islands in North Africa, cloacal swabs were taken from 318 specimens of eight native species representing five squamate reptilian families. The healthy-looking animals had been captured temporarily for physiological and ethological examinations, after which they were released. We found 22 AdV-positive samples in representatives of three species, all from Central Spain. Sequence analysis of the PCR products revealed the existence of three hitherto unknown AdVs in 11 Carpetane rock lizards (Iberolacerta cyreni, nine Iberian worm lizards (Blanus cinereus, and two Iberian green lizards (Lacerta schreiberi, respectively. Phylogeny inference showed every novel putative virus to be a member of the genus Atadenovirus. This is the very first description of the occurrence of AdVs in amphisbaenian and lacertid hosts. Unlike all squamate atadenoviruses examined previously, two of the novel putative AdVs had A+T rich DNA, a feature generally deemed to mirror previous host switch events. Our results shed new light on the diversity and evolution of atadenoviruses.

  7. Blood parasites in reptiles imported to Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halla, Ursula; Ursula, Halla; Korbel, Rüdiger; Rüdiger, Korbel; Mutschmann, Frank; Frank, Mutschmann; Rinder, Monika; Monika, Rinder

    2014-12-01

    Though international trade is increasing, the significance of imported reptiles as carriers of pathogens with relevance to animal and human health is largely unknown. Reptiles imported to Germany were therefore investigated for blood parasites using light microscopy, and the detected parasites were morphologically characterized. Four hundred ten reptiles belonging to 17 species originating from 11 Asian, South American and African countries were included. Parasites were detected in 117 (29%) of individual reptiles and in 12 species. Haemococcidea (Haemogregarina, Hepatozoon, Schellackia) were found in 84% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus), 20% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Kinyongia fischeri, Gekko gecko) and 50% of turtles (Pelusios castaneus). Infections with Hematozoea (Plasmodium, Sauroplasma) were detected in 14% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Furcifer pardalis, Xenagama batillifera, Acanthosaura capra, Physignathus cocincinus), while those with Kinetoplastea (Trypanosoma) were found in 9% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus) and 25 % of lizards (K. fischeri, Acanthosaura capra, G. gecko). Nematoda including filarial larvae parasitized in 10% of lizards (Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Fu. pardalis, Physignathus cocincinus). Light microscopy mostly allowed diagnosis of the parasites' genus, while species identification was not possible because of limited morphological characteristics available for parasitic developmental stages. The investigation revealed a high percentage of imported reptiles being carriers of parasites while possible vectors and pathogenicity are largely unknown so far. The spreading of haemoparasites thus represents an incalculable risk for pet reptiles, native herpetofauna and even human beings.

  8. Can isotope markers differentiate between wild and captive reptile populations? A case study based on crocodile lizards (Shinisaurus crocodilurus from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona van Schingen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The international wildlife trade in allegedly “captive-bred” specimens has globally increased during recent years, while the legal origin of respective animals frequently remains doubtful. Worldwide, authorities experience strong challenges to effectively control the international trade in CITES-listed species and are struggling to uncover fraudulent claims of “captive-breeding”. Forensic analytical methods are being considered as potential tools to investigate wildlife crime. The present case study is the first of its kind in reptiles that investigates the application of δ13C and δ15N stable isotope ratios to discriminate between captive and wild crocodile lizards from Vietnam. The CITES-listed crocodile lizard Shinisaurus crocodilurus is listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List mainly due to habitat loss and unsustainable exploitation for the international pet trade. Our results revealed significant differences in the composition of the two tested isotope systems between captive and wild individuals. Isotope values of skin samples from captive specimens were significantly enriched in 13C and 15N as compared to specimens from the wild. We also used the weighted k-Nearest Neighbor classifier to assign simulated samples back to their alleged place of origin and demonstrated that captive bred individuals could be distinguished with a high degree of accuracy from specimens that were not born in captivity. We conclude that isotope analysis appears to be highly attractive as a forensic tool to reduce laundering of wild caught lizards via breeding farms, but acknowledge that this potential might be limited to range restricted or ecologically specialist species.

  9. Assessing effects of pesticides on amphibians and reptiles: status and needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.J.; Henry, P.F.P.

    1992-01-01

    Growing concern about the decline of certain amphibian populations and for conservation of amphibians and reptiles has led to renewed awareness of problems from pesticides. Testing amphibians and reptiles as a requirement for chemical registration has been proposed but is difficult because of the phylogenetic diversity of these groups. Information from the literature and research may determine whether amphibians and reptiles are adequately protected by current tests for mammals, birds, and fish. Existing information indicates that amphibians are unpredictably more resistant to certain cholinesterase inhibitors, and more sensitive to two chemicals used in fishery applications than could have been predicted. A single study on one species of lizard suggests that reptiles may be close in sensitivity to mammals and birds. Research on effects of pesticides on amphibians and reptiles should compare responses to currently tested groups and should seek to delineate those taxa and chemicals for which cross-group prediction is not possible. New tests for amphibians and reptiles should rely to the greatest extent possible on existing data bases, and should be designed for maximum economy and minimum harm to test animals. A strategy for developing the needed information is proposed. Good field testing and surveillance of chemicals in use may compensate for failures of predictive evaluations and may ultimately lead to improved tests.

  10. Insights into reptile dermal contaminant exposure: Reptile skin permeability to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Scott M; Talent, Larry G; Anderson, Todd A; Salice, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    There is growing interest in improving ecological risk assessment exposure estimation, specifically by incorporating dermal exposure. At the same time, there is a growing interest in amphibians and reptiles as receptors in ecological risk assessment, despite generally receiving less research than more traditional receptors. Previous research has suggested that dermal exposure may be more important than previously considered for reptiles. We measured reptile skin permeability to four pesticides (thiamethoxam, malathion, tebuthiuron, trifluralin) using ventral skin samples. All four pesticides penetrated the skin but generally had low permeability. There was no apparent relationship between physicochemical properties and permeability coefficients. Malathion had a significantly greater permeability rate at all time points compared to the other pesticides. Tebuthiuron had a greater permeability than thiamethoxam. Reptiles and mammals appear to have similar skin permeability suggesting that dermal exposure estimates for mammals may be representative of reptiles. PMID:27037770

  11. Social learning by imitation in a reptile (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Anna; Huber, Ludwig; Wilkinson, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The ability to learn through imitation is thought to be the basis of cultural transmission and was long considered a distinctive characteristic of humans. There is now evidence that both mammals and birds are capable of imitation. However, nothing is known about these abilities in the third amniotic class-reptiles. Here, we use a bidirectional control procedure to show that a reptile species, the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps), is capable of social learning that cannot be explained by simple mechanisms such as local enhancement or goal emulation. Subjects in the experimental group opened a trap door to the side that had been demonstrated, while subjects in the ghost control group, who observed the door move without the intervention of a conspecific, were unsuccessful. This, together with differences in behaviour between experimental and control groups, provides compelling evidence that reptiles possess cognitive abilities that are comparable to those observed in mammals and birds and suggests that learning by imitation is likely to be based on ancient mechanisms. PMID:25199480

  12. Current extinction rates of reptiles and amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alroy, John

    2015-10-20

    There is broad concern that a mass extinction of amphibians and reptiles is now underway. Here I apply an extremely conservative Bayesian method to estimate the number of recent amphibian and squamate extinctions in nine important tropical and subtropical regions. The data stem from a combination of museum collection databases and published site surveys. The method computes an extinction probability for each species by considering its sighting frequency and last sighting date. It infers hardly any extinction when collection dates are randomized and it provides underestimates when artificial extinction events are imposed. The method also appears to be insensitive to trends in sampling; therefore, the counts it provides are absolute minimums. Extinctions or severe population crashes have accumulated steadily since the 1970s and 1980s, and at least 3.1% of frog species have already disappeared. Based on these data and this conservative method, the best estimate of the global grand total is roughly 200 extinctions. Consistent with previous results, frog losses are heavy in Latin America, which has been greatly affected by the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Extinction rates are now four orders-of-magnitude higher than background, and at least another 6.9% of all frog species may be lost within the next century, even if there is no acceleration in the growth of environmental threats.

  13. Countryside biogeography of Neotropical reptiles and amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Chase D; Frishkoff, Luke O; Santos-Barrera, Georgina; Pacheco, Jesús; Mesfun, Eyobed; Mendoza Quijano, Fernando; Ehrlich, Paul R; Ceballos, Gerardo; Daily, Gretchen C; Pringle, Robert M

    2014-04-01

    The future of biodiversity and ecosystem services depends largely on the capacity of human-dominated ecosystems to support them, yet this capacity remains largely unknown. Using the framework of countryside biogeography, and working in the Las Cruces system of Coto Brus, Costa Rica, we assessed reptile and amphibian assemblages within four habitats that typify much of the Neotropics: sun coffee plantations (12 sites), pasture (12 sites), remnant forest elements (12 sites), and a larger, contiguous protected forest (3 sites in one forest). Through analysis of 1678 captures of 67 species, we draw four primary conclusions. First, we found that the majority of reptile (60%) and amphibian (70%) species in this study used an array of habitat types, including coffee plantations and actively grazed pastures. Second, we found that coffee plantations and pastures hosted rich, albeit different and less dense, reptile and amphibian biodiversity relative to the 326-ha Las Cruces Forest Reserve and neighboring forest elements. Third, we found that the small ribbons of "countryside forest elements" weaving through farmland collectively increased the effective size of a 326-ha local forest reserve 16-fold for reptiles and 14-fold for amphibians within our 236-km2 study area. Therefore, countryside forest elements, often too small for most remote sensing techniques to identify, are contributing -95% of the available habitat for forest-dependent reptiles and amphibians in our largely human-dominated study region. Fourth, we found large and pond-reproducing amphibians to prefer human-made habitats, whereas small, stream-reproducing, and directly developing species are more dependent on forest elements. Our investigation demonstrates that tropical farming landscapes can support substantial reptile and amphibian biodiversity. Our approach provides a framework for estimating the conservation value of the complex working landscapes that constitute roughly half of the global land surface

  14. Caution: Reptile pets shuttle grasshopper allergy and asthma into homes

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Pali-Schöll, Isabella; Jensen, Sebastian A.F.; Robibaro, Bruno; Kinaciyan, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    The numbers of reptiles in homes has at least doubled in the last decade in Europe and the USA. Reptile purchases are increasingly triggered by the attempt to avoid potentially allergenic fur pets like dogs and cats. Consequently, reptiles are today regarded as surrogate pets initiating a closer relationship with the owner than ever previously observed. Reptile pets are mostly fed with insects, especially grasshoppers and/or locusts, which are sources for aggressive airborne allergens, best k...

  15. Biodiversity, ecology, and evolution of Campylobacter in reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Species of the Epsilonproteobacteria genera Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter are frequently isolated from endothermic mammals and birds. However, little information was available about the presence of Epsilonproteobacteria in ectothermic reptiles and no comprehensive studies had been performed in reptiles. Due to their distinct physiology, reptiles might display a unique microbiome which can provide insights in bacterial host association, adaptation, and speciation. In this thesis,...

  16. Science: What Reptiles Are and Aren't

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Gerry S.

    1978-01-01

    Many children have an enormous fascination for reptiles of all kinds--snakes, turtles, tortoises, crocodiles, alligators and lizards. Whatever the reason for their interest, you can channel the enthusiasm of reptile fans and build the interest of curious students with a few simple activities, e.g., getting acquainted with reptile characteristics…

  17. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Status of reptiles in Meghamalai and its environs, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    S. Bhupathy; N. Sathishkumar

    2013-01-01

    We update the reptile fauna of Meghamalai area, Western Ghats based on a literature review and a recent study (2006-2008) by SACON. In all, 90 species of reptiles belonging to 53 genera and 14 families were reported from this area, which include 30 (33.3%) species endemic to the Western Ghats. Reptiles of the area shared distribution with all biogeographic zones of India, barring the Trans-Himalaya. High species richness in Meghamalai is due to its broader elevation width, presence of both wi...

  18. Species Diversity and Distribution of Amphibians and Reptiles in Nature Park "Sinite Kamani" in Stara Planina Mt. (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanimira R. Deleva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents briefly the species composition and distribution of the amphibians and reptiles in the Nature Park "Sinite Kamani" in Stara Planina Mnt. Bulgaria, based on a 2×2 km UTM grid. Between 2012 and 2014, we identified total 20 species (7 amphibians and 13 reptiles. We documented three new amphibian species for the region (Hyla arborea, Rana dalmatina and Rana graeca, which is discovered for the area for the first time and three species of reptiles (Testudo hermanni, Ablepharus kitaibelii and Lacerta trilienata. The contemporary conservation status for each species is presented and conservation threats and problems, specific for the park are discussed.

  19. Skeletal heterochrony is associated with the anatomical specializations of snakes among squamate reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneburg, Ingmar; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2015-01-01

    Snakes possess a derived anatomy, characterized by limb reduction and reorganization of the skull and internal organs. To understand the origin of snakes from an ontogenetic point of view, we conducted comprehensive investigations on the timing of skeletal elements, based on published and new data, and reconstructed the evolution of the ossification sequence among squamates. We included for the first time Varanus, a critical taxon in phylogenetic context. There is comprehensive delay in the onset of ossification of most skeletal elements in snakes when compared to reference developmental events through evolution. We hypothesize that progressing deceleration accompanied limb reduction and reorganization of the snake skull. Molecular and morphological studies have suggested close relationship of snakes to either amphisbaenians, scincids, geckos, iguanids, or varanids. Likewise, alternative hypotheses on habitat for stem snakes have been postulated. Our comprehensive heterochrony analyses detected developmental shifts in ossification for each hypothesis of snake origin. Moreover, we show that reconstruction of ancestral developmental sequences is a valuable tool to understand ontogenetic mechanisms associated with major evolutionary changes and test homology hypotheses. The "supratemporal" of snakes could be homolog to squamosal of other squamates, which starts ossification early to become relatively large in snakes.

  20. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: REPTILES (Reptile and Amphibian Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for threatened/endangered sea turtles, diamondback terrapins, and rare reptiles/amphibians in coastal...

  1. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: North Carolina: REPTILES (Reptile Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sea turtles, estuarine turtles, and rare reptiles in North Carolina. Vector polygons in this data set...

  2. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: REPTILES (Reptile Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for rare amphibians, rare reptiles, and sea turtles in Southern California. Vector polygons in this data...

  3. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: REPTILES (Reptile Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sea turtles and select estuarine/freshwater reptiles for the Florida Panhandle. Vector polygons in...

  4. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: REPTILES (Reptile Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for estuarine reptiles (turtles, terrapins) and amphibians (salamanders, frogs) for the Hudson River....

  5. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: REPTILES (Reptile Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sea turtles, estuarine reptiles, and terrestrial endangered species occurrences for the Upper Coast of...

  6. On a collection of Reptiles from Transvaal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidth de Jeude, van Th.W.

    1895-01-01

    Through the kind offices of my friend Mr. M. Breuning, chief-engineer of the Dutch-South-African Railway-Company, the Leyden Museum was enriched with a small collection of Reptiles. Dr. Helkenberg, who collected these animals at the confluence of the Comati- and the Crocodile-river, about 90 KM. inl

  7. CONTAMINANT-ASSOCIATED ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION IN REPTILES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data presented suggest that contaminants can alter the endocrine and reproductive system of reptiles by mimicking hormones and by various mechanisms other than direct hormonal mimicry. However, these data indicate, as do many other studies using various vertebrates, that a fo...

  8. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    During samplings of reptiles for Epsilonproteobacteria, Campylobacter strains were isolated from lizards and chelonians not belonging to any of the established taxa. Initial AFLP, PCR, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campy...

  9. Responses of riparian reptile communities to damming and urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Stephanie D.; Guzy, Jacquelyn C.; Price, Steven J.; Halstead, Brian J.; Eskew, Evan A.; Dorcas, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Various anthropogenic pressures, including habitat loss, threaten reptile populations worldwide. Riparian zones are critical habitat for many reptile species, but these habitats are also frequently modified by anthropogenic activities. Our study investigated the effects of two riparian habitat modifications-damming and urbanization-on overall and species-specific reptile occupancy patterns. We used time-constrained search techniques to compile encounter histories for 28 reptile species at 21 different sites along the Broad and Pacolet Rivers of South Carolina. Using a hierarchical Bayesian analysis, we modeled reptile occupancy responses to a site's distance upstream from dam, distance downstream from dam, and percent urban land use. The mean occupancy response by the reptile community indicated that reptile occupancy and species richness were maximized when sites were farther upstream from dams. Species-specific occupancy estimates showed a similar trend of lower occupancy immediately upstream from dams. Although the mean occupancy response of the reptile community was positively related to distance downstream from dams, the occupancy response to distance downstream varied among species. Percent urban land use had little effect on the occupancy response of the reptile community or individual species. Our results indicate that the conditions of impoundments and subsequent degradation of the riparian zones upstream from dams may not provide suitable habitat for a number of reptile species.

  10. Book review: Amphibians and reptiles in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.

    2014-01-01

    The photograph of a young boy poised to capture a wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) on page 3 of Amphibians and Reptiles in Minnesota captures perfectly the sense of awe and wonderment that one encounters throughout John Moriarty and Carol Hall’s new book. This is a spirit that most children possess naturally and that is so readily apparent when one of them comes face-to-face with one of the 53 species of frogs, toads, salamanders, turtles, lizards, or snakes that make Minnesota their home. This is a spirit that the authors have maintained in their hearts throughout almost 30 years of chasing, capturing, and studying amphibians and reptiles (a.k.a., herptiles or herps) in Minnesota. It is also the spirit that you will find reawakening in yourself as you turn from one page to the next and encounter the abundant color photos and descriptive text within this book.

  11. Reptiles of Lata Bukit Hijau, Kedah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriza Shahrudin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lata Bukit Hijau is located within the Banjaran Bintang Ranges on the west coast of northern Peninsular Malaysia. The reptile fauna in this pristine area was intensively investigated from 2008 to 2011 on 10 consecutive visits. A total 37 species of reptiles from 31 genera and 10 families were recorded to inhabit this area. Out of this number, 17 species were lizards (13 genera and four families, 17 species were snakes (15 genera and four families and three species were freshwater turtles (three genera and two families. These preliminary data increased the number of lizards, snakes and freshwater turtles reported from Banjaran Bintang from 31 to 41, 30 to 44 and three to five species, respectively

  12. A survey of Blastocystis in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teow, W L; Ng, G C; Chan, P P; Chan, Y C; Yap, E H; Zaman, V; Singh, M

    1992-01-01

    A total of 28 species of reptiles were investigated for Blastocystis using light microscopy and in vitro culture in biphasic egg slant medium. Blastocystis species were detected in 8 (28.6%) of these 28 species in 3 tortoises (Geochelone elephantopus, G. elegans and G. carbonaria), 3 snakes (Boiga dendrophilla, Python reticulatus and Elaphe radiata), 1 crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) and 1 iguana lizard (Cyclura cornuta). The reptilian Blastocystis appeared to be morphologically similar to B. hominis. PMID:1495927

  13. Bent's Old Fort: Amphibians and Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.

    2008-01-01

    Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site sits along the Arkansas River in the semi-desert prairie of southeastern Colorado. The USGS provided assistance in designing surveys to assess the variety of herpetofauna (amphibians and reptiles) resident at this site. This brochure is the results of those efforts and provides visitors with information on what frogs, toads, snakes and salamanders might be seen and heard at Bent's Old Fort.

  14. The development of complex tooth shape in reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Oldrich eZahradnicek; Marcela eBuchtova; Hana eDosedelova; Abigail Saffron Tucker

    2014-01-01

    Reptiles have a diverse array of tooth shapes, from simple unicuspid to complex multicuspid teeth, reflecting functional adaptation to a variety of diets and eating styles. In addition to cusps, often complex longitudinal labial and lingual enamel crests are widespread and contribute to the final shape of reptile teeth. The simplest shaped unicuspid teeth have been found in piscivorous or carnivorous ancestors of recent diapsid reptiles and they are also present in some extant carnivores such...

  15. The Influence of Public Attitudes on Policies for Conserving Reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Clement A. Tisdell

    2010-01-01

    General factors are outlined that may influence the support of members of the public for the conservation of different species of reptiles. Survey results are then summarised of the variations in the likeability of different species of reptiles as well as whether or not their survival is supported by those surveyed. The relationship between these two factors is outlined and its consequences for the survival of reptile species compared to birds and mammals is specified, assuming a decision sit...

  16. The distribution of Reptiles and amphibians in the Annapurna-Dhaulagiri region (Nepal)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanhoe, L.M.R.; Ouboter, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    The reptiles and amphibians of the Annapurna-Dhaulagiri region in Nepal are keyed and described. Their distribution is recorded, based on both personal observations and literature data. The ecology of the species is discussed. The zoogeography and the altitudinal distribution are analysed. All in al

  17. Amazing Reptile Fossils from the Marine Triassic of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun

    2010-01-01

    @@ Known as the"true terrestrial tetrapod,"reptiles mainly live on land.However,some reptile groups made a secondary adaptation to their life in water.Generally called"marine reptiles,"they are mostly extinct,and their fossils are found in Mesozoic marine deposits around the world.Ichthyosaurs and Plesiosaurs are the most famous marine reptiles that lived in the"dinosaur age,"namely the Jurassic and Cretaceous.Many more"sea monsters"were ruling the ocean in the Triassic period,when dinosaurs had just arisen from its archosaur ancestors.

  18. A checklist of reptiles of Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamed Jafer Palot

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of reptiles of Kerala State is presented, along with their Scientific, English and Malayalam names, endemic status, conservation status in the latest IUCN Red List category, different Schedules of Indian Wildlife (Protection Act and the Appendices of CITES.  A total of 173 species under 24 families belonging to three orders are recorded from Kerala.  Of these, 87 species are endemic to the Western Ghats, which include the 10 Kerala endemics.  Of the 173 species, 23 are listed in the various threatened categories of IUCN. 

  19. A checklist of reptiles of Kerala, India

    OpenAIRE

    Muhamed Jafer Palot

    2015-01-01

    A checklist of reptiles of Kerala State is presented, along with their Scientific, English and Malayalam names, endemic status, conservation status in the latest IUCN Red List category, different Schedules of Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act and the Appendices of CITES.  A total of 173 species under 24 families belonging to three orders are recorded from Kerala.  Of these, 87 species are endemic to the Western Ghats, which include the 10 Kerala endemics.  Of the 173 species, 23 are listed in ...

  20. A review on human attitudes towards reptiles in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; Vieira, Kleber Silva; Santana, Gindomar Gomes; Vieira, Washington Luiz Silva; Almeida, Waltécio Oliveira; Souto, Wedson Medeiros Silva; Montenegro, Paulo Fernando Guedes Pereira; Pezzuti, Juarez Carlos Brito

    2012-11-01

    For many millennia humans and reptiles have interacted, but the attitude of humans towards these animals has depended on culture, environment, and personal experience. At least 719 reptile species are known to occur in Brazil and about 11% of this fauna has been exploited for many different purposes, including bushmeat, leather, ornamental and magic/religious uses, and as folk medicines. Brazil can therefore serve as an interesting case study for better understanding reptile use by human societies, and the present paper catalogues some of the reptile species being used in Brazil and discusses implications for their conservation. A literature review indicated that 81 reptile species are culturally important in this country, with 47 (58%) species having multiple uses, 54 being used for medicinal purposes, 38 as food, 28 for ornamental or decorative purposes, 20 used in magic/religious practices, 18 as pets, and 40 are commonly killed when they come into contact with humans. Regarding their conservation status, 30 (37.5%) are included on State's Red List, Brazilian Red List or the IUCN Red List. There are many forms of interaction between reptiles and humans in Brazil-although most of them are quite negative in terms of wildlife conservation-which reinforces the importance of understanding such uses and interactions in the context of protecting reptiles in Brazil. A better understanding of the cultural, social, and traditional roles of these reptiles is fundamental to establishing management plans for their sustainable use.

  1. All about Reptiles. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Dinosaurs may be extinct, but reptiles are distant cousins to the beasts that once walked the earth. From snakes and lizards to iguanas and tuataras, children learn what factors make them different from other animals. In this videotape, students explore the mysterious, often misunderstood, world of reptiles and learn about their characteristics…

  2. Amphibians and Reptiles from Paramakatoi and Kato, Guyana

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCulloch, Ross D.; Reynolds, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    We report the herpetofauna of two neighboring upland locations in west-central Guyana. Twenty amphibian and 24 reptile species were collected. Only 40% of amphibians and 12.5% of reptiles were collected in both locations. This is one of the few collections made at upland (750–800 m) locations in the Guiana Shield.

  3. Inventory of Amphibians and Reptiles at Mojave National Preserve: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, Trevor B.; Nowak, Erika M.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring Program in the Mojave Network, we conducted an inventory of amphibians and reptiles at Mojave National Preserve in 2004-2005. Objectives for this inventory were to use fieldwork, museum collections, and literature review to document the occurrence of reptile and amphibian species occurring at MOJA. Our goals were to document at least 90% of the species present, provide one voucher specimen for each species identified, provide GIS-referenced distribution information for sensitive species, and provide all deliverables, including NPSpecies entries, as outlined in the Mojave Network Biological Inventory Study Plan. Methods included daytime and nighttime visual encounter surveys and nighttime road driving. Survey effort was concentrated in predetermined priority sampling areas, as well as in areas with a high potential for detecting undocumented species. We recorded 31 species during our surveys. During literature review and museum specimen database searches, we found records for seven additional species from MOJA, elevating the documented species list to 38 (two amphibians and 36 reptiles). Based on our surveys, as well as literature and museum specimen review, we estimate an overall inventory completeness of 95% for Mojave National Preserve herpetofauna; 67% for amphibians and 97% for reptiles.

  4. Another reptile translocation to a national park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.R. Branch

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available On 4 May 1988 a sub-adult (50 mm snout-vent length, 42 mm tail Jones' girdled lizard Cordylus tropidosternum jonesi was collected in a pile of wood being off-loaded at the new restcamp in the Karoo National Park, Beaufort West. The wood had been transported by lorry from the Kruger National Park. The specimen is deposited in the herpetological collection of the Port Elizabeth Museum (PEM R 4584. Jones' girdled lizard is a small, arboreal cordylid that shelters under tree bark and in hollow logs. It is common and widely-distributed in the Kruger National Park (Pienaar, Haacke & Jacobsen 1983, The Reptiles of the Kruger National Park, 3rd edition. Pretoria: National Parks Board and adjacent lowveld, being replaced in northern Zimbabwe and East Africa by the nominate race. Hewitt & Power (1913, Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 3: 147-176, 1913 reported a similar translocation of the species to Kimberley in association with timber brought to the diamond mining camps. One of us noted recently the ease and danger of the unwitting spread of commensal reptile species into conservation areas (Branch 1978, Koedoe 30: 165, and this is confirmed by this additional example. We recommend that should similar shipments of wood be considered essential, then they be fumigated to prevent the translocation of other alien organisms that may potentially have more dangerous consequences.

  5. Crocodilians and other reptiles: bioindicators of pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detrimental effects of environmental contamination and pollution (e.g. heavy metals, organochlorines, radionuclides) on wildlife are generally not well known or understood. Research is providing baseline information for various groups of animals, usually because of their sensitivity to changes in their environment (e.g. fish, amphibians), but also where there is a potential conservation threat (e.g. marine mammals). Little research has been directed at reptiles, which may be good bioindicators of their environment. Crocodilians in particular, because of their position in the food chain, aquatic habits and longevity (generally >50 years; Webb and Manolis 1989) may reflect changes in an area over longer periods (Burger et al., 2000). Radioactive contaminants are not generally encountered in crocodilian populations. Radiocesium levels in American alligators living near a reservoir receiving radionuclide-contaminated water from a nuclear reactor were quantified by Brisbin (1989); levels were lower than in various prey items (e.g. fish, waterbirds). This paper provides a brief overview on environmental contamination and reptiles, with particular reference to crocodilians

  6. On the nonexistence of k-reptile tetrahedra

    CERN Document Server

    Matoušek, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    A d-dimensional simplex S is called a k-reptile if it can be tiled without overlaps by simplices S_1,S_2,...,S_k that are all congruent and similar to S. For d=2, k-reptile simplices (triangles) exist for many values of k and they have been completely characterized by Snover, Waiveris, and Williams. On the other hand, for d > 2, only one construction of k-reptile simplices is known, the Hill simplices, and it provides only k of the form m^d, m=2,3,.... We prove that for d=3, k-reptile simplices (tetrahedra) exist only for k=m^3. This partially confirms a conjecture of Hertel, asserting that the only k-reptile tetrahedra are the Hill tetrahedra. Our research has been motivated by the problem of probabilistic packet marking in theoretical computer science, introduced by Adler in 2002.

  7. Partners in amphibian and reptile conservation 2013 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Paulette M.; Weir, Linda A.; Nanjappa, Priya

    2014-01-01

    Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation (PARC) was established in 1999 to address the widespread declines, extinctions, and range reductions of amphibians and reptiles, with a focus on conservation of taxa and habitats in North America. Amphibians and reptiles are affected by a broad range of human activities, both as incidental effects of habitat alteration and direct effect from overexploitation; these animals are also challenged by the perception that amphibians and reptiles are either dangerous or of little environmental or economic value. However, PARC members understand these taxa are important parts of our natural an cultural heritage and they serve important roles in ecosystems throughout the world. With many amphibians and reptiles classified as threatened with extinction, conservation of these animals has never been more important.

  8. Novel Insights into Chromosome Evolution in Birds, Archosaurs, and Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Marta; Narayan, Jitendra; Slavov, Gancho T.; Damas, Joana; Auvil, Loretta; Li, Cai; Jarvis, Erich D.; Burt, David W.; Griffin, Darren K.; Larkin, Denis M.

    2016-01-01

    Homologous synteny blocks (HSBs) and evolutionary breakpoint regions (EBRs) in mammalian chromosomes are enriched for distinct DNA features, contributing to distinct phenotypes. To reveal HSB and EBR roles in avian evolution, we performed a sequence-based comparison of 21 avian and 5 outgroup species using recently sequenced genomes across the avian family tree and a newly-developed algorithm. We identified EBRs and HSBs in ancestral bird, archosaurian (bird, crocodile, and dinosaur), and reptile chromosomes. Genes involved in the regulation of gene expression and biosynthetic processes were preferably located in HSBs, including for example, avian-specific HSBs enriched for genes involved in limb development. Within birds, some lineage-specific EBRs rearranged genes were related to distinct phenotypes, such as forebrain development in parrots. Our findings provide novel evolutionary insights into genome evolution in birds, particularly on how chromosome rearrangements likely contributed to the formation of novel phenotypes. PMID:27401172

  9. Novel Insights into Chromosome Evolution in Birds, Archosaurs, and Reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Marta; Narayan, Jitendra; Slavov, Gancho T; Damas, Joana; Auvil, Loretta; Li, Cai; Jarvis, Erich D; Burt, David W; Griffin, Darren K; Larkin, Denis M

    2016-01-01

    Homologous synteny blocks (HSBs) and evolutionary breakpoint regions (EBRs) in mammalian chromosomes are enriched for distinct DNA features, contributing to distinct phenotypes. To reveal HSB and EBR roles in avian evolution, we performed a sequence-based comparison of 21 avian and 5 outgroup species using recently sequenced genomes across the avian family tree and a newly-developed algorithm. We identified EBRs and HSBs in ancestral bird, archosaurian (bird, crocodile, and dinosaur), and reptile chromosomes. Genes involved in the regulation of gene expression and biosynthetic processes were preferably located in HSBs, including for example, avian-specific HSBs enriched for genes involved in limb development. Within birds, some lineage-specific EBRs rearranged genes were related to distinct phenotypes, such as forebrain development in parrots. Our findings provide novel evolutionary insights into genome evolution in birds, particularly on how chromosome rearrangements likely contributed to the formation of novel phenotypes. PMID:27401172

  10. Noteworthy reptiles records from Guanajuato, Mexico Registros notables de reptiles para Guanajuato, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ismael Campos-Rodríguez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Five new reptile records for the Mexican state of Guanajuato are reported: Lampropeltis triangulum dixoni, Leptodeira annulata cusiliris, Oxybelis aeneus, Tropidodipsas sartorii, and Scincella silvicola caudaequinae. These records are within western versant of the Sierra Gorda at Sierra Gorda de Guanajuato. Evidence is given that supports the idea that the area supports a herpetofaunal assemblage of tropical affinities.Se presentan 5 nuevos registros de reptiles para el estado de Guanajuato; Lampropeltis triangulum dixoni, Leptodeira annulata cusiliris, Oxybelis aeneus, Tropidodipsas sartorii y Scincella silvicola caudaequinae. Todos localizados en la vertiente oeste de la sierra Madre Oriental, en la sierra Gorda de Guanajuato. Se proporciona evidencia de un ensamble herpetofaunístico de afinidad tropical a subtropical presente en la región.

  11. Energetics of free-ranging mammals, reptiles, and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, K A; Girard, I A; Brown, T K

    1999-01-01

    We summarize the recent information on field metabolic rates (FMR) of wild terrestrial vertebrates as determined by the doubly labeled water technique. Allometric (scaling) relationships are calculated for mammals (79 species), reptiles (55 species), and birds (95 species) and for various taxonomic, dietary, and habitat groups within these categories. Exponential equations based on body mass are offered for predicting rates of daily energy expenditure and daily food requirements of free-ranging mammals, reptiles, and birds. Significant scaling differences between various taxa, dietary, and habitat groups (detected by analysis of covariance with P mammals (0.734), which is greater than that for birds (0.681); (b) the slope for eutherian mammals (0.772) is greater than that for marsupial mammals (0.590); (c) among families of birds, slopes do not differ but elevations (intercepts) do, with passerine and procellariid birds having relatively high FMRs and gallinaceous birds having low FMRs; (d) Scleroglossan lizards have a higher slope (0.949) than do Iguanian lizards (0.793); (e) desert mammals have a higher slope (0.785) than do nondesert mammals; (f) marine birds have relatively high FMRs and desert birds have low FMRs; and (g) carnivorous mammals have a relatively high slope and carnivorous, insectivorous, and nectarivorous birds have relatively higher FMRs than do omnivores and granivores. The difference detected between passerine and nonpasserine birds reported in earlier reviews is not evident in the larger data set analyzed here. When the results are adjusted for phylogenetic effects using independent contrasts analysis, the difference between allometric slopes for marsupials and eutherians is no longer significant and the slope difference between Scleroglossan and Iguanian lizards disappears as well, but other taxonomic differences remain significant. Possible causes of the unexplained variations in FMR that could improve our currently inaccurate FMR

  12. [Helminthofauna of reptiles in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimalov, V V

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of original long-term investigation (1980-2006) and literary data on the helminthofauna of reptiles in the Republic of Belarus is carried out. Seven species of reptiles were examined on Southern Belarus, 32 species of helminthes were found with total infestation 72.7%. It is established that the helminthofauna of reptiles in the Republic of Belarus includes 33 species (18 trematodes, two cestodes, 12 nematodes, and one acanthocephalan). The largest number of helminth species (26) was recorded in the common water snake Natrix natrix, and the least number of species (four) was recorded in the turtle Emys orbicularis and snake Coronella austriaca.

  13. Zoonotic diseases associated with reptiles and amphibians: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mark A

    2011-09-01

    Reptiles and amphibians are popular as pets. There are increased concerns among public health officials because of the zoonotic potential associated with these animals. Encounters with reptiles and amphibians are also on the rise in the laboratory setting and with wild animals; in both of these practices, there is also an increased likelihood for exposure to zoonotic pathogens. It is important that veterinarians remain current with the literature as it relates to emerging and reemerging zoonotic diseases attributed to reptiles and amphibians so that they can protect themselves, their staff, and their clients from potential problems.

  14. Marine reptiles from the Late Cretaceous of northern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Z.; Casadio, S.; Fernández, M.; Salgado, L.

    2001-04-01

    During the Campanian-Maastrichtian, Patagonia was flooded by the Atlantic and reduced to an archipelago. Several localities of northern Patagonia have yielded marine reptiles. Analysis of several assemblages suggests that the diversity and abundance of pelagic marine reptiles in northern Patagonia was higher by the end of the Cretaceous than previously thought. Several plesiosaurids, including Aristonectes parvidens and the polycotylid Sulcusuchus, and the first remains of mosasaurinae have been found. The Cretaceous marine reptile record from South America is scanty. Nevertheless, materials described here suggest that Tethyan and Weddelian forms converged in northern Patagonia, as seen with invertebrates.

  15. Fish Springs NWR mammal, fish, amphibian, and reptile list

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following is a species list for mammals, fishes, amphibians, and reptiles found on or adjacent to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge, as of October, 1996.

  16. Biodiversity, ecology, and evolution of Campylobacter in reptiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Species of the Epsilonproteobacteria genera Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter are frequently isolated from endothermic mammals and birds. However, little information was available about the presence of Epsilonproteobacteria in ectothermic reptiles and no comprehensive studies had been perf

  17. Salmonella serotypes in reptiles and humans, French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Noellie; Le Hello, Simon; Weill, François-Xavier; de Thoisy, Benoit; Berger, Franck

    2014-05-14

    In French Guiana, a French overseas territory located in the South American northern coast, nearly 50% of Salmonella serotypes isolated from human infections belong to serotypes rarely encountered in metropolitan France. A reptilian source of contamination has been investigated. Between April and June 2011, in the area around Cayenne, 151 reptiles were collected: 38 lizards, 37 snakes, 32 turtles, 23 green iguanas and 21 caimans. Cloacal swab samples were collected and cultured. Isolated Salmonella strains were identified biochemically and serotyped. The overall carriage frequency of carriage was 23.2% (95% confidence interval: 16.7-30.4) with 23 serotyped strains. The frequency of Salmonella carriage was significantly higher for wild reptiles. Near two-thirds of the Salmonella serotypes isolated from reptiles were also isolated from patients in French Guiana. Our results highlight the risk associated with the handling and consumption of reptiles and their role in the spread of Salmonella in the environment.

  18. Amphibian and reptile diversity of the Lahontan Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is about a survey that was done to assess the amphibian and reptile diversity of the Lahontan Valley in Nevada. The work contained in this summary can...

  19. Amphibian and Reptile Research on Coldwater National Wildlife Refuge, Mississippi

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The management actions in the wildlife ponds on Coldwater National Wildlife Refuge create a highly variable and dynamic environment for amphibians and reptiles....

  20. Invasive and introduced reptiles and amphibians: Chapter 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert N.; Krysko, Kenneth L.; Mader, Douglas R.; Divers, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Why is there a section on introduced amphibians and reptiles in this volume, and why should veterinarians care about this issue? Globally, invasive species are a major threat to the stability of native ecosystems,1,2 and amphibians and reptiles are attracting increased attention as potential invaders. Some introduced amphibians and reptiles have had a major impact (e.g., Brown Tree Snakes [Boiga irregularis] wiping out the native birds of Guam3 or Cane Toads [Rhinella marina] poisoning native Australian predators).4 For the vast majority of species, however, the ecological, economic, and sociopolitical effects of introduced amphibians and reptiles are generally poorly quantified, largely because of a lack of focused research effort rather than because such effects are nonexistent. This trend is alarming given that rates of introduction have increased exponentially in recent decades.

  1. Update of reptile and amphibian lists Kern NWR complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document includes a list of reptiles and amphibians found at Kern NWR, and lists brief species accounts for rare sightings/species. Attached are updated lists...

  2. Terrestrial reptiles from San Lorenzo Island, Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pérez Z.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We report four species of terrestrial reptiles, a geckonid (Phyllodactlus cf. microphyllus, two lizards (Microlophus peruvianus and M. tigris and one snake (Pseudalsophis elegans from San Lorenzo island, Departament of Lima, Peru. Herein, we report the first record of “Loma’s lizard” M. tigris and the snake P. elegans in Peruvian islands. The presence of Lomas herbaceous and the considerable extent of San Lorenzo island can explain the relatively high species richness of terrestrial reptiles on the island.

  3. Extinction risks and the conservation of Madagascar's reptiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K B Jenkins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An understanding of the conservation status of Madagascar's endemic reptile species is needed to underpin conservation planning and priority setting in this global biodiversity hotspot, and to complement existing information on the island's mammals, birds and amphibians. We report here on the first systematic assessment of the extinction risk of endemic and native non-marine Malagasy snakes, lizards, turtles and tortoises. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Species range maps from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species were analysed to determine patterns in the distribution of threatened reptile species. These data, in addition to information on threats, were used to identify priority areas and actions for conservation. Thirty-nine percent of the data-sufficient Malagasy reptiles in our analyses are threatened with extinction. Areas in the north, west and south-east were identified as having more threatened species than expected and are therefore conservation priorities. Habitat degradation caused by wood harvesting and non-timber crops was the most pervasive threat. The direct removal of reptiles for international trade and human consumption threatened relatively few species, but were the primary threats for tortoises. Nine threatened reptile species are endemic to recently created protected areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: With a few alarming exceptions, the threatened endemic reptiles of Madagascar occur within the national network of protected areas, including some taxa that are only found in new protected areas. Threats to these species, however, operate inside and outside protected area boundaries. This analysis has identified priority sites for reptile conservation and completes the conservation assessment of terrestrial vertebrates in Madagascar which will facilitate conservation planning, monitoring and wise-decision making. In sharp contrast with the amphibians, there is significant reptile diversity and regional endemism in

  4. Commented distributional list of the Reptiles of Mauritania (West Africa)

    OpenAIRE

    Padial, J M

    2006-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive review of the reptiles of Mauritania. It includes distributional information and comments. Mauritania harbors 86 species of reptiles belonging to 21 families. Among these families, Colubridae and Lacertidae are the most diverse, with 14 and 13 species respectively. Other families, such as Agamidae, Gekkonidae, Scincidae or Viperidae are also well represented. Among the 80 continental species, 47.5% are Saharan, 33.8% Afrotropical, 16.2% Sahelian and 2.5% Medite...

  5. Les Reptiles Marins du toarcien (Jurassique inferieur) Belgo-Luxembougeois

    OpenAIRE

    Godefroit, P.

    1994-01-01

    Toarcian (Lower Jurassic) outcrops have yielded many marine reptiles Ichthyosauria, Thalattosuchia and Plesiosauria in Belgium and, principally, in Grand Duchy of Luxemburg. Their preservation allows a determination at a specific level as also the description of badly known anatomical characters. The study of ichthyosaurs required a systematic revision of the genus Stenoplerygius. A palaeogeographical synthesis of Toarcian marine reptiles is proposed. Important quantitative differences can be...

  6. Amphibian and reptile distribution in forests adjacent to watercourses

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide amphibians and reptiles are declining with habitat fragmentation and destruction as the primary cause. Riparian areas are important for the herpetofauna, but as land is converted to agriculture or harvested for timber the areas are diminishing. The aim of this study was to examine amphibian and reptile abundance in relation to distance from water and in relation to habitat characteristics, foremost per cent deciduous trees. The survey was conducted during spring at six different loc...

  7. PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA IN CAPTIVE REPTILES FROM CROATIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-06-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes belonging to private owners or housed at the Zagreb Zoo, Croatia. Salmonella was detected in a total of 13% of the animals, among them 48.4% lizards, 8.9% snakes, and 3.8% turtles. Representatives of five of the six Salmonella enterica subspecies were identified with the following proportions in the total number of isolates: Salmonella enterica enterica 34.6%, Salmonella enterica houtenae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica arizonae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica diarizonae 15.4%, and Salmonella enterica salamae 3.8%. The 14 different serovars isolated included several rarely occurring serovars such as Salmonella Apapa, Salmonella Halle, Salmonella Kisarawe, and Salmonella Potengi. These findings confirm that the prevalence of Salmonella is considerable in captive reptiles in Croatia, indicating that these animals may harbor serovars not commonly seen in veterinary or human microbiologic practice. This should be addressed in the prevention and diagnostics of human reptile-transmitted infections.

  8. Contributions to the knowledge of amphibians and reptiles from Volta Grande do Xingu, northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Silva, W; Oliveira, R M; Gonzaga, A F N; Pinto, K C; Poli, F C; Bilce, T M; Penhacek, M; Wronski, L; Martins, J X; Junqueira, T G; Cesca, L C C; Guimarães, V Y; Pinheiro, R D

    2015-08-01

    The region of Volta Grande do Xingu River, in the state of Pará, presents several kinds of land use ranging from extensive cattle farming to agroforestry, and deforestation. Currently, the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Power Plant affects the region. We present a checklist of amphibians and reptiles of the region and discuss information regarding the spatial distribution of the assemblies based on results of Environmental Programmes conducted in the area. We listed 109 amphibian (Anura, Caudata, and Gymnophiona) and 150 reptile (Squamata, Testudines, and Crocodylia) species. The regional species richness is still considered underestimated, considering the taxonomic uncertainty, complexity and cryptic diversity of various species, as observed in other regions of the Amazon biome. Efforts for scientific collection and studies related to integrative taxonomy are needed to elucidate uncertainties and increase levels of knowledge of the local diversity.

  9. Contributions to the knowledge of amphibians and reptiles from Volta Grande do Xingu, northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Silva, W; Oliveira, R M; Gonzaga, A F N; Pinto, K C; Poli, F C; Bilce, T M; Penhacek, M; Wronski, L; Martins, J X; Junqueira, T G; Cesca, L C C; Guimarães, V Y; Pinheiro, R D

    2015-08-01

    The region of Volta Grande do Xingu River, in the state of Pará, presents several kinds of land use ranging from extensive cattle farming to agroforestry, and deforestation. Currently, the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Power Plant affects the region. We present a checklist of amphibians and reptiles of the region and discuss information regarding the spatial distribution of the assemblies based on results of Environmental Programmes conducted in the area. We listed 109 amphibian (Anura, Caudata, and Gymnophiona) and 150 reptile (Squamata, Testudines, and Crocodylia) species. The regional species richness is still considered underestimated, considering the taxonomic uncertainty, complexity and cryptic diversity of various species, as observed in other regions of the Amazon biome. Efforts for scientific collection and studies related to integrative taxonomy are needed to elucidate uncertainties and increase levels of knowledge of the local diversity. PMID:26691094

  10. A predictive framework and review of the ecological impacts of exotic plant invasions on reptiles and amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Leigh J; Murray, Brad R

    2011-05-01

    The invasive spread of exotic plants in native vegetation can pose serious threats to native faunal assemblages. This is of particular concern for reptiles and amphibians because they form a significant component of the world's vertebrate fauna, play a pivotal role in ecosystem functioning and are often neglected in biodiversity research. A framework to predict how exotic plant invasion will affect reptile and amphibian assemblages is imperative for conservation, management and the identification of research priorities. Here, we present a new predictive framework that integrates three mechanistic models. These models are based on exotic plant invasion altering: (1) habitat structure; (2) herbivory and predator-prey interactions; (3) the reproductive success of reptile and amphibian species and assemblages. We present a series of testable predictions from these models that arise from the interplay over time among three exotic plant traits (growth form, area of coverage, taxonomic distinctiveness) and six traits of reptiles and amphibians (body size, lifespan, home range size, habitat specialisation, diet, reproductive strategy). A literature review provided robust empirical evidence of exotic plant impacts on reptiles and amphibians from each of the three model mechanisms. Evidence relating to the role of body size and diet was less clear-cut, indicating the need for further research. The literature provided limited empirical support for many of the other model predictions. This was not, however, because findings contradicted our model predictions but because research in this area is sparse. In particular, the small number of studies specifically examining the effects of exotic plants on amphibians highlights the pressing need for quantitative research in this area. There is enormous scope for detailed empirical investigation of interactions between exotic plants and reptile and amphibian species and assemblages. The framework presented here and further testing of

  11. Sleep in amphibians and reptiles: a review and a preliminary analysis of evolutionary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Herrel, Anthony

    2016-08-01

    Despite the ubiquitous nature of sleep, its functions remain a mystery. In an attempt to address this, many researchers have studied behavioural and electrophysiological phenomena associated with sleep in a diversity of animals. The great majority of vertebrates and invertebrates display a phase of immobility that could be considered as a sort of sleep. Terrestrial mammals and birds, both homeotherms, show two sleep states with distinct behavioural and electrophysiological features. However, whether these features have evolved independently in each clade or were inherited from a common ancestor remains unknown. Unfortunately, amphibians and reptiles, key taxa in understanding the evolution of sleep given their position at the base of the tetrapod and amniote tree, respectively, remain poorly studied in the context of sleep. This review presents an overview of what is known about sleep in amphibians and reptiles and uses the existing data to provide a preliminary analysis of the evolution of behavioural and electrophysiological features of sleep in amphibians and reptiles. We also discuss the problems associated with analysing existing data, as well as the difficulty in inferring homologies of sleep stages based on limited data in the context of an essentially mammalian-centric definition of sleep. Finally, we highlight the importance of developing comparative approaches to sleep research that may benefit from the great diversity of species with different ecologies and morphologies in order to understand the evolution and functions of sleep. PMID:26031314

  12. Inventory of Amphibians and Reptiles at Manzanar National Historic Site, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, Trevor B.; Nowak, Erika M.; Hillard, Scott

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a baseline inventory for amphibians and reptiles at Manzanar National Historic Site (MANZ), Inyo County, California, in 2002-3. Objectives for this inventory were to: 1) inventory and document the occurrence of reptile and amphibian species at MANZ, with the goal of documenting at least 90% of the species present; 2) provide one voucher specimen for each species identified; 3) provide a GIS-referenced list of sensitive species that are known to be federally- or state-listed, rare, or worthy of special consideration that occur at MANZ; 4) describe park-wide distribution of federally- or state-listed, rare, or special concern species; 5) enter all species data into the National Park Service NPSpecies database; and 6) provide all deliverables as outlined in the Mojave Network Biological Inventory Study Plan. Survey methods included time-area constrained searches, lizard line transects, general surveys, nighttime road driving, and pitfall trapping. We documented the occurrence of ten reptile species (seven lizards and three snakes), but found no amphibians. Based on our findings, as well as literature review and searches for museum specimen records, we estimate inventory completeness for Manzanar to be 50%. Although the distribution and relative abundance of common lizard species is now known well enough to begin development of a monitoring protocol for that group, additional inventory work is needed in order to establish a baseline of species occurrence of amphibians and snakes at Manzanar. Key Words: amphibians, reptiles, Manzanar National Historic Site, Inyo County, California, Owens Valley, Mojave Desert, Great Basin Desert, inventory.

  13. A Study on the Bio-mimetic Motion of Reptiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hochelo; Kim, Changhoi; Eom, Heungseop; Jeong, Kyungmin; Jung, Seungjo

    2013-10-15

    After investigating the locomotion based on the biological characteristics about the from a literature search about the reptile, the locomotion of lizards is captured with marker based motion capture system. Tested lizards are Cuban anole, bearded dragon, domestic lizards such as a white-striped grass lizard and a leopard lizard, After analyzing the motion of the lizards with the measured data, a 25 DOF kinematics model of a lizard was proposed. A periodic gait of the lizard was modeled by defining gait parameters. The body structure of the lizard was analyzed with a bone specimen for the kinematics modeling. Dynamics parameters such as a mass and a inertia of a link are obtained by measuring the weight and the volume of each link. The crawl and the trot gait were simulated with the dynamics model. To control the poly-morphic motion of snake robot, various locomotions of snakes and the motion algorithm of snake robots were investigated. A test model of snake robot and a control system were developed to analyzed the motion and energy efficiency according to the gaits and to realize the poly-morphic motion control.

  14. Plasticity and genetic adaptation mediate amphibian and reptile responses to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Mark C; Richardson, Jonathan L; Freidenfelds, Nicole A

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity and genetic adaptation are predicted to mitigate some of the negative biotic consequences of climate change. Here, we evaluate evidence for plastic and evolutionary responses to climate variation in amphibians and reptiles via a literature review and meta-analysis. We included studies that either document phenotypic changes through time or space. Plasticity had a clear and ubiquitous role in promoting phenotypic changes in response to climate variation. For adaptive evolution, we found no direct evidence for evolution of amphibians or reptiles in response to climate change over time. However, we found many studies that documented adaptive responses to climate along spatial gradients. Plasticity provided a mixture of adaptive and maladaptive responses to climate change, highlighting that plasticity frequently, but not always, could ameliorate climate change. Based on our review, we advocate for more experiments that survey genetic changes through time in response to climate change. Overall, plastic and genetic variation in amphibians and reptiles could buffer some of the formidable threats from climate change, but large uncertainties remain owing to limited data.

  15. Spatial Biodiversity Patterns of Madagascar's Amphibians and Reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jason L; Sillero, Neftali; Glaw, Frank; Bora, Parfait; Vieites, David R; Vences, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Madagascar has become a model region for testing hypotheses of species diversification and biogeography, and many studies have focused on its diverse and highly endemic herpetofauna. Here we combine species distribution models of a near-complete set of species of reptiles and amphibians known from the island with body size data and a tabulation of herpetofaunal communities from field surveys, compiled up to 2008. Though taxonomic revisions and novel distributional records arose since compilation, we are confident that the data are appropriate for inferring and comparing biogeographic patterns among these groups of organisms. We observed species richness of both amphibians and reptiles was highest in the humid rainforest biome of eastern Madagascar, but reptiles also show areas of high richness in the dry and subarid western biomes. In several amphibian subclades, especially within the Mantellidae, species richness peaks in the central eastern geographic regions while in reptiles different subclades differ distinctly in their richness centers. A high proportion of clades and subclades of both amphibians and reptiles have a peak of local endemism in the topographically and bioclimatically diverse northern geographic regions. This northern area is roughly delimited by a diagonal spanning from 15.5°S on the east coast to ca. 15.0°S on the west coast. Amphibian diversity is highest at altitudes between 800-1200 m above sea-level whereas reptiles have their highest richness at low elevations, probably reflecting the comparatively large number of species specialized to the extended low-elevation areas in the dry and subarid biomes. We found that the range sizes of both amphibians and reptiles strongly correlated with body size, and differences between the two groups are explained by the larger body sizes of reptiles. However, snakes have larger range sizes than lizards which cannot be readily explained by their larger body sizes alone. Range filling, i.e., the amount of

  16. Immunohistochemical study on gastrointestinal endocrine cells of four reptiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-Gen Huang; Xiao-Bing Wu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To darify the types, regional distributions and distribution densities as well as morphological features of gastrointestinal (GI) endocrine cells in various parts of the gastrointestinal track (GIT) of four reptiles, Gekko japonicus, Eumeces chinensis, Sphenomorphus indicus and Eumeces elegans.METHODS: Paraffin-embedded sections (5 μm) of seven parts (cardia, fundus, pylorus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum,rectum) of GIT dissected from the four reptiles were prepared. GI endocrine cells were revealed by using immunohistochemical techniques of streptavidin-peroxidase (S-P) method. Seven types of antisera against 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), somatostatin (SS), gastrin (GAS),glucagon (GLU), substance P (SP), insulin and pancreatic polypeptide were identified and then GI endocrine cells were photomicrographed and counted.RESULTS: The GI endocrine system of four reptiles was a complex structure containing many endocrine cell types similar in morphology to those found in higher vertebrates.Five types of GI endocrine cells, namely 5-HT, SS, GAS,SP and GLU immunoreactive (IR) cells were identified in the GIT of G. japonicus, E. chinensis and S. indicus, while in the GIT of E. elegans only the former three types of endocrine cells were observed. No PP- and INS- IR cells were found in all four reptiles. 5-HT-IR cells, which were most commonly found in the pylorus or duodenum, distributed throughout the whole GIT of four reptiles. However, their distribution patterns varied from each other. SS-IR cells,which were mainly found in the stomach especially in the pylorus and/or fundus, were demonstrated in the whole GIT of E. chinensis, only showed restricted distribution in the other three species. GAS-IR cells, with a much restricted distribution, were mainly demonstrated in the pylorus and/or the proximal small intestine of four reptiles. GLU-IR cells exhibited a limited and species-dependent variant distribution in the GIT of four reptiles. SP-IR cells were found throughout the

  17. Spatial Biodiversity Patterns of Madagascar's Amphibians and Reptiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason L Brown

    Full Text Available Madagascar has become a model region for testing hypotheses of species diversification and biogeography, and many studies have focused on its diverse and highly endemic herpetofauna. Here we combine species distribution models of a near-complete set of species of reptiles and amphibians known from the island with body size data and a tabulation of herpetofaunal communities from field surveys, compiled up to 2008. Though taxonomic revisions and novel distributional records arose since compilation, we are confident that the data are appropriate for inferring and comparing biogeographic patterns among these groups of organisms. We observed species richness of both amphibians and reptiles was highest in the humid rainforest biome of eastern Madagascar, but reptiles also show areas of high richness in the dry and subarid western biomes. In several amphibian subclades, especially within the Mantellidae, species richness peaks in the central eastern geographic regions while in reptiles different subclades differ distinctly in their richness centers. A high proportion of clades and subclades of both amphibians and reptiles have a peak of local endemism in the topographically and bioclimatically diverse northern geographic regions. This northern area is roughly delimited by a diagonal spanning from 15.5°S on the east coast to ca. 15.0°S on the west coast. Amphibian diversity is highest at altitudes between 800-1200 m above sea-level whereas reptiles have their highest richness at low elevations, probably reflecting the comparatively large number of species specialized to the extended low-elevation areas in the dry and subarid biomes. We found that the range sizes of both amphibians and reptiles strongly correlated with body size, and differences between the two groups are explained by the larger body sizes of reptiles. However, snakes have larger range sizes than lizards which cannot be readily explained by their larger body sizes alone. Range filling

  18. Control of respiration in fish, amphibians and reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, E W; Leite, C A C; McKenzie, D J; Wang, T

    2010-05-01

    Fish and amphibians utilise a suction/force pump to ventilate gills or lungs, with the respiratory muscles innervated by cranial nerves, while reptiles have a thoracic, aspiratory pump innervated by spinal nerves. However, fish can recruit a hypobranchial pump for active jaw occlusion during hypoxia, using feeding muscles innervated by anterior spinal nerves. This same pump is used to ventilate the air-breathing organ in air-breathing fishes. Some reptiles retain a buccal force pump for use during hypoxia or exercise. All vertebrates have respiratory rhythm generators (RRG) located in the brainstem. In cyclostomes and possibly jawed fishes, this may comprise elements of the trigeminal nucleus, though in the latter group RRG neurons have been located in the reticular formation. In air-breathing fishes and amphibians, there may be separate RRG for gill and lung ventilation. There is some evidence for multiple RRG in reptiles. Both amphibians and reptiles show episodic breathing patterns that may be centrally generated, though they do respond to changes in oxygen supply. Fish and larval amphibians have chemoreceptors sensitive to oxygen partial pressure located on the gills. Hypoxia induces increased ventilation and a reflex bradycardia and may trigger aquatic surface respiration or air-breathing, though these latter activities also respond to behavioural cues. Adult amphibians and reptiles have peripheral chemoreceptors located on the carotid arteries and central chemoreceptors sensitive to blood carbon dioxide levels. Lung perfusion may be regulated by cardiac shunting and lung ventilation stimulates lung stretch receptors.

  19. Control of respiration in fish, amphibians and reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.W. Taylor

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Fish and amphibians utilise a suction/force pump to ventilate gills or lungs, with the respiratory muscles innervated by cranial nerves, while reptiles have a thoracic, aspiratory pump innervated by spinal nerves. However, fish can recruit a hypobranchial pump for active jaw occlusion during hypoxia, using feeding muscles innervated by anterior spinal nerves. This same pump is used to ventilate the air-breathing organ in air-breathing fishes. Some reptiles retain a buccal force pump for use during hypoxia or exercise. All vertebrates have respiratory rhythm generators (RRG located in the brainstem. In cyclostomes and possibly jawed fishes, this may comprise elements of the trigeminal nucleus, though in the latter group RRG neurons have been located in the reticular formation. In air-breathing fishes and amphibians, there may be separate RRG for gill and lung ventilation. There is some evidence for multiple RRG in reptiles. Both amphibians and reptiles show episodic breathing patterns that may be centrally generated, though they do respond to changes in oxygen supply. Fish and larval amphibians have chemoreceptors sensitive to oxygen partial pressure located on the gills. Hypoxia induces increased ventilation and a reflex bradycardia and may trigger aquatic surface respiration or air-breathing, though these latter activities also respond to behavioural cues. Adult amphibians and reptiles have peripheral chemoreceptors located on the carotid arteries and central chemoreceptors sensitive to blood carbon dioxide levels. Lung perfusion may be regulated by cardiac shunting and lung ventilation stimulates lung stretch receptors.

  20. Occurrence and abundance of ants, reptiles, and mammals: Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.)- associated wildlife are threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation and by impacts associated with anthropogenic disturbances, including energy development. Understanding how species of concern as well as other wildlife including insects, reptiles, and mammals respond to type and spatial scale of disturbance is critical to managing future land uses and identifying sites that are important for conservation. We developed statistical models to describe species occurrence or abundance, based on area searches in 7.29-ha survey blocks, across the Wyoming Basins Ecoregional Assessment (WBEA) area for six shrub steppe-associated species: harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex spp.), thatch ant (Formica spp.), short-horned lizard (Phrynosoma hernandesi), white-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus townsendii), cottontail (Sylvilagus spp.) and least chipmunk (Tamius minimus). We modeled patterns in occupancy or abundance relative to multi-scale measures of vegetation type and pattern, abiotic site characteristics, and anthropogenic disturbance factors. Sagebrush habitat was a strong predictor of occurrence for shorthorned lizards and white-tailed jackrabbits, but weak for the other four species. Vegetation and abiotic characteristics were strong determinants of species occurrence, although the scale of response was not consistent among species. All species, with the exception of the short-horned lizard, responded to anthropogenic disturbance, although responses again varied as a function of scale and direction (negative and positive influences). Our results improve our understanding of how environmental and anthropogenic factors affect species distributions across the WBEA area and facilitate a multi-species approach to management of this sagebrush ecosystem.

  1. Integrating developmental biology and the fossil record of reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skawiński, Tomasz; Tałanda, Mateusz

    2014-01-01

    Numerous new discoveries and new research techniques have influenced our understanding of reptile development from a palaeontological perspective. They suggest for example that transition from mineralized to leathery eggshells and from oviparity to viviparity appeared much more often in the evolution of reptiles than was previously thought. Most marine reptiles evolved from viviparous terrestrial ancestors and had probably genetic sex determination. Fossil forms often display developmental traits absent or rare among modern ones such as polydactyly, hyperphalangy, the presence of ribcage armour, reduction of head ornamentation during ontogeny, extreme modifications of vertebral count or a wide range of feather-like structures. Thus, they provide an empirical background for many morphogenetic considerations. PMID:26154335

  2. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Status of reptiles in Meghamalai and its environs, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhupathy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We update the reptile fauna of Meghamalai area, Western Ghats based on a literature review and a recent study (2006-2008 by SACON. In all, 90 species of reptiles belonging to 53 genera and 14 families were reported from this area, which include 30 (33.3% species endemic to the Western Ghats. Reptiles of the area shared distribution with all biogeographic zones of India, barring the Trans-Himalaya. High species richness in Meghamalai is due to its broader elevation width, presence of both windward and leeward zones and a variety of forest types. Studies conducted after 2006 added several species to the faunal list of the area, but could not record 16 species reported earlier including Hutton’s Pit Viper Tropidolaemus huttoni and the Blue-bellied Tree Skink Dasia subcaeruleum from the area since 1949. Numerically, several species are currently rare, and changes in land use and land cover could have led to reduction in their abundance and local extinction. It is hoped that the recently declared Meghamalai Wildlife Sanctuary would reduce further degradation of habitats and help conserve biodiversity. Further studies are needed for understanding the ecology of the several species of reptiles found in this and the nearby areas of the Western Ghats.

  3. Le squelette et sa pathologie chez les reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Depas, Céline

    2012-01-01

    Les affections squelettiques sont de nature variée chez les reptiles. Elles nécessitent pour les individus une prise en charge adaptée et pour le clinicien une connaissance des particularités de leur squelette. Ce travail est une étude bibliographique divisée en trois parties. Dans un premier temps seront abordées la classification, l’anatomie et la physiologie osseuse des reptiles. Puis sera décrite la conduite à suivre lors d’une consultation, de l’anamnèse aux examens complémentaires. L’an...

  4. Use of Tricaine Methanesulfonate (MS222) for Euthanasia of Reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Conroy, CJ; Papenfuss, T; Parker, J; Hahn, NE

    2009-01-01

    Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) injected into the intracoelomic cavity of reptiles was evaluated as a chemical euthanasia method. Three western fence lizards, 2 desert iguanas, 4 garter snakes, and 6 geckos were euthanized by intracoelomic injection of 250 to 500 mg/kg of 0.7% to 1% sodium-bicarbonate–buffered MS222 solution followed by intracoelomic injection of 0.1 to 1.0 ml unbuffered 50% (v/v) MS222 solution. A simple 2-stage protocol for euthanasia of reptiles by using MS222 is outline...

  5. Diversidad de anfibios y reptiles de la Reserva de la Biosfera Barranca de Metztitlán, Hidalgo, México Diversity of amphibians and reptiles from the Barranca de Metztitlán Biosphera Reserve in Hidalgo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor D. Vite-Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available La Reserva de la Biosfera Barranca de Metztitlán (RBBM es una extensa área protegida (96 042.94 ha de la zona centro del estado de Hidalgo, México. La reserva es bien conocida por su flora endémica, pero existe poca información disponible sobre su herpetofauna. En este estudio se examina la biodiversidad de la comunidad de anfibios y reptiles que habitan en cada uno de los 4 tipos de vegetación de la reserva: bosque de pino-encino, bosque tropical caducifolio, matorral submontano y matorral xerófilo. El trabajo de campo se llevó a cabo entre junio de 2006 y agosto de 2007, periodo de estación de lluvias y secas. En total, se registran 7 especies de anfibios y 31 de reptiles para la RBBM, distribuidas en 14 familias y 29 géneros. En todos los tipos de vegetación, la riqueza de especies de reptiles fue mayor en la estación de lluvias, mientras que la de especies de anfibios fue mayor en la de secas. Entre los tipos de vegetación, el bosque tropical caducifolio exhibió la diversidad y riqueza de especies más grande de anfibios y reptiles. El bosque de pino-encino presentó la mayor equidad y diversidad de especies que los otros tipos de vegetación. El matorral xerófilo y matorral submontano fueron los más similares entre sí en diversidad de especies. Este trabajo representa una aportación significativa al conocimiento de la herpetofauna de la RBBM, y una base para estudios futuros sobre historia natural de los anfibios y reptiles de esta reserva.The Barranca de Metztitlán Biosphere Reserve (BMBR is an extensive protected area (96 042.94 ha in Hidalgo state of central Mexico. The reserve is well known for its globally significant endemic flora, but relatively little information is available regarding its herpetofauna. We examined reptile and amphibian community biodiversity occurring in each of 4 vegetation types characteristic of the reserve: pine-oak forest, tropical deciduous forest, sub-montane shrubland, and arid tropical

  6. 50 CFR 16.15 - Importation of live reptiles or their eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Importation of live reptiles or their eggs... live reptiles or their eggs. (a) The importation, transportation, or acquisition is prohibited of any... of live reptiles or their eggs may be imported, transported, and possessed in captivity, without...

  7. Three little known reptile species from the Araku Valley, Eastern Ghats with notes on their distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Chettri

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Reptile surveys were conducted in the Araku Valley, Visakhapatnam District in Andhra Pradesh during 3-10 December 2006 and 16-19 February 2007. Sixteen species of reptiles (10 lizards and 6 snakes were observed. Distribution data for three little known species of reptiles, Hemiphyllodactylus aurantiacus, Calodactylodes aureus and Uropeltis ellioti are provided.

  8. Los géneros de anfibios y reptiles de colombia, ii. segunda parte: reptiles, orden de los saurios

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Emmett Reid

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo es una relación de nuestros conocimientos actuales acerca de los Reptiles Saurios de Colombia. Lo que sabemos hasta la fecha respecto de la fauna reptil de este país deja mucho que desear por cuanto no existen publicaciones referentes a las especies que habitan en los extensos territorios del Sur y del oriente de Colombia ni se dispone de ejemplares de aquellas regiones.  Al publicar este trabajo espero que sirva a manera de núcleo alrededor del cual se acumulen datos y ob...

  9. The development of complex tooth shape in reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldrich eZahradnicek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Reptiles have a diverse array of tooth shapes, from simple unicuspid to complex multicuspid teeth, reflecting functional adaptation to a variety of diets and eating styles. In addition to cusps, often complex longitudinal labial and lingual enamel crests are widespread and contribute to the final shape of reptile teeth. The simplest shaped unicuspid teeth have been found in piscivorous or carnivorous ancestors of recent diapsid reptiles and they are also present in some extant carnivores such as crocodiles and snakes. However, the ancestral tooth shape for squamate reptiles is thought to be bicuspid, indicating an insectivorous diet. The development of bicuspid teeth in lizards has recently been published, indicating that the mechanisms used to create cusps and crests are very distinct from those that shape cusps in mammals. Here, we introduce the large variety of tooth shapes found in lizards and compare the morphology and development of bicuspid, tricuspid and pentacuspid teeth, with the aim of understanding how such tooth shapes are generated. Next, we discuss whether the processes used to form such morphologies are conserved between divergent lizards and whether the underlying mechanisms share similarities with those of mammals. In particular, we will focus on the complex teeth of the chameleon, gecko, varanus and anole lizards using SEM and histology to compare the tooth crown morphology and embryonic development.

  10. Using Reptile and Amphibian Activities in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasek, Terry; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2008-01-01

    Reptiles and amphibians are a diverse and interesting group of organisms. The four activities described in this article take students' curiosity into the realm of scientific understanding. The activities involve the concepts of species identification; animal adaptations, communication, and habitat; and conservation. (Contains 1 table and 2…

  11. Preliminary checklist of amphibians and reptiles from Baramita, Guyana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R.P.; MacCulloch, R.D.

    2012-01-01

    We provide an initial checklist of the herpetofauna of Baramita, a lowland rainforest site in the Northwest Region of Guyana. Twenty-five amphibian and 28 reptile species were collected during two separate dry-season visits. New country records for two species of snakes are documented, contributing to the knowledge on the incompletely known herpetofauna of Guyana.

  12. Quaternary climate changes explain diversity among reptiles and amphibians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastos Araujo, Miguel; Nogués-Bravo, David; Diniz-Filho, Alexandre F.;

    2008-01-01

    debated without reaching consensus. Here, we test the proposition that European species richness of reptiles and amphibians is driven by climate changes in the Quaternary. We find that climate stability between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the present day is a better predictor of species richness...

  13. Salmonella Infections Caused by Reptiles and Amphibians in Childcare Centers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-07

    Dr. Neil Vora, an EIS Officer at CDC, discusses his article about Salmonella infections in childcare centers caused by reptiles and amphibians.  Created: 2/7/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/7/2013.

  14. Reptiles of Sardinia: updating the knowledge on their distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Salvi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sardinia shows a clear lack of herpetological data due to an evident paucity of herpetological surveys. This gap of knowledge is worthy of attention, since Sardinia hosts a rich herpetofauna with a large proportion of endemic species, and distribution data are crucial for targeting conservation efforts. In this paper we provide new distribution data for Sardinian reptiles, with the aim of updating our knowledge on their specific distribution. Data were opportunistically recorded during ten years of field research in Sardinia, carried out in more than twenty campaigns from April 1999 to June 2009. All the eighteen reptile species belonging to the Sardinian fauna were recorded. A total amount of 293 faunistic data were collected from 178 different localities covering the entire study area. Within this dataset, 137 faunistic data fall outside known species’ ranges as reported in the Atlas of Italian amphibians and reptiles. In conclusion, data presented here produced a remarkable increase of knowledge on Sardinian reptiles distribution compare to that reported in the last available syntheses. Nevertheless, it should be evidenced that, notwithstanding the present updating, the knowledge of Sardinian reptiles’ distribution is probably still far from being exhaustive. Thus, further investigations are strongly required for obtaining a complete picture and identifying conservation priorities in terms of isolated species/populations and areas of high diversity and endemicity.

  15. The development of complex tooth shape in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahradnicek, Oldrich; Buchtova, Marcela; Dosedelova, Hana; Tucker, Abigail S

    2014-01-01

    Reptiles have a diverse array of tooth shapes, from simple unicuspid to complex multicuspid teeth, reflecting functional adaptation to a variety of diets and eating styles. In addition to cusps, often complex longitudinal labial and lingual enamel crests are widespread and contribute to the final shape of reptile teeth. The simplest shaped unicuspid teeth have been found in piscivorous or carnivorous ancestors of recent diapsid reptiles and they are also present in some extant carnivores such as crocodiles and snakes. However, the ancestral tooth shape for squamate reptiles is thought to be bicuspid, indicating an insectivorous diet. The development of bicuspid teeth in lizards has recently been published, indicating that the mechanisms used to create cusps and crests are very distinct from those that shape cusps in mammals. Here, we introduce the large variety of tooth shapes found in lizards and compare the morphology and development of bicuspid, tricuspid, and pentacuspid teeth, with the aim of understanding how such tooth shapes are generated. Next, we discuss whether the processes used to form such morphologies are conserved between divergent lizards and whether the underlying mechanisms share similarities with those of mammals. In particular, we will focus on the complex teeth of the chameleon, gecko, varanus, and anole lizards using SEM and histology to compare the tooth crown morphology and embryonic development. PMID:24611053

  16. Mitigating reptile road mortality: fence failures compromise ecopassage effectiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H Baxter-Gilbert

    Full Text Available Roadways pose serious threats to animal populations. The installation of roadway mitigation measures is becoming increasingly common, yet studies that rigorously evaluate the effectiveness of these conservation tools remain rare. A highway expansion project in Ontario, Canada included exclusion fencing and ecopassages as mitigation measures designed to offset detrimental effects to one of the most imperial groups of vertebrates, reptiles. Taking a multispecies approach, we used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design to compare reptile abundance on the highway before and after mitigation at an Impact site and a Control site from 1 May to 31 August in 2012 and 2013. During this time, radio telemetry, wildlife cameras, and an automated PIT-tag reading system were used to monitor reptile movements and use of ecopassages. Additionally, a willingness to utilize experiment was conducted to quantify turtle behavioral responses to ecopassages. We found no difference in abundance of turtles on the road between the un-mitigated and mitigated highways, and an increase in the percentage of both snakes and turtles detected dead on the road post-mitigation, suggesting that the fencing was not effective. Although ecopassages were used by reptiles, the number of crossings through ecopassages was lower than road-surface crossings. Furthermore, turtle willingness to use ecopassages was lower than that reported in previous arena studies, suggesting that effectiveness of ecopassages may be compromised when alternative crossing options are available (e.g., through holes in exclusion structures. Our rigorous evaluation of reptile roadway mitigation demonstrated that when exclusion structures fail, the effectiveness of population connectivity structures is compromised. Our project emphasizes the need to design mitigation measures with the biology and behavior of the target species in mind, to implement mitigation designs in a rigorous fashion, and quantitatively

  17. Diversidad de reptiles en tres tipos de vegetación del estado de Hidalgo, México Diversity of reptiles in three vegetation types of the Hidalgo state, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raciel Cruz-Elizalde

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La zona sureste del estado de Hidalgo presenta diversos tipos de vegetación, como el bosque mesófilo de montaña, bosque de pino-encino y bosque de pino, con alta riqueza de reptiles. En este estudio, se analizó la diversidad alfa y beta de los reptiles en los 3 tipos de vegetación presentes en la zona sureste. Durante el periodo de recolección, de junio 2008 a agosto del 2009, se realizaron 12 salidas, 1 por mes, con duración de 3 días cada una. La diversidad de reptiles está compuesta por 25 especies, incluyendo un registro nuevo para el estado, la culebra Thamnophis scaliger. El bosque mesófilo de montaña (BMM presentó la mayor riqueza, con 15 especies, seguido del bosque de pino (BP, con 13, y el bosque de pino-encino (BPE, con 12. Las asociaciones realizadas entre el BMM-BP y BMM-BPE presentaron la más alta disimilitud en especies, y el menor valor fue para el BPE-BP. Este estudio muestra la riqueza y distribución de las especies de los reptiles en los diferentes tipos de vegetación del sureste del estado y presenta nuevos registros de especies para la entidad. El conocimiento de la riqueza de especies por tipos de vegetación de este estudio sienta las bases sobre la biodiversidad, lo que ayuda a plantear estudios dirigidos a la conservación de este grupo.The southeast of Hidalgo in Mexico includes various vegetation types, such as cloud forest, pine-oak forest and pine forest, all harbouring a high species richness of reptiles. In this study we analyzed the alpha and beta diversity of reptiles in 3 vegetation types in the southeast of the state. The field work period was from June 2008 to August 2009, comprising 12 sampling periods of 3 days, 1 per month. The diversity of reptiles is composed of 25 species, reporting the snake Thamnophis scaliger as a new record for the state. The cloud forest (CF has the highest richness, with 15 species, followed by pine forest (PF, with 13, and finally, the pine-oak forest (POF, with 12

  18. Diversidad de los reptiles de la Orinoquía colombiana: análisis de los patrones de distribución y relaciones ambientales

    OpenAIRE

    TrujilloPérez, Germán Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Se presenta el catálogo de las especies de reptiles con registros de localidades de la Orinoquia colombiana. La información primaria provino de la base de datos del programa Inventario de la biodiversidad de Colombia (grupo de investigación Biodiversidad y Conservación del Instituto de Ciencias Naturales), que se enriqueció con la revisión de las colecciones de reptiles del Instituto de Ciencias de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, del Instituto Alexander von Humboldt y los catálogos de la...

  19. Reptile assemblages across agricultural landscapes: where does biodiversity hide?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biaggini, M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The transition from traditional to intensive farming, aimed at large–scale production, has rapidly altered agricultural landscapes, leading to the reduction and fragmentation of natural habitats and to the consequent loss of biodiversity. Herpetofauna is seriously threatened by agriculture intensification worldwide, but less is known about its distribution in agro–ecosystems, especially at field scale. We analysed reptile abundance and diversity in eight agricultural and semi–natural land uses, and inside vegetated buffer strips interspersed among fields. Interestingly, most reptiles were recorded in the buffer strips while intensive crops and pastures hosted just one lizard species. Richness of individuals and species increased when strips were connected to semi–natural areas, independently of their width and vegetation structure. In view of our results, that highlight the role of minor landscape features for the presence of vertebrates in intensive agro–ecosystems, we recommend the implementation of buffer strips among the measures for vertebrate conservation in agricultural landscapes.

  20. Reptiles de zonas bajas de Yacopí (Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Arias Rafael Ángel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un inventario de reptiles que ocurren por debajo de 1.000 m en el municipio de Yacopí, Cundinamarca, Colombia. Se registraron 47 especies (26 Sauria, 19 Serpentes, un Amphisbaenia y un Testudinata, la familia y género más ricos fueron Colubridae y Anolis. La riqueza entre Sauria y  Serpentes fue diferente a la que se encuentra en el país. La fauna se agrupó según su distribución en dos tipos:  Trasandino (al oeste de la cordillera Oriental y Amplio (tanto al este como al oeste de la misma cordillera, los Saurios fueron más numerosos en el primero y las Serpentes en el segundo. Se encontró que la mayoría de reptiles se distribuye entre 0 y 2.000 m.

  1. Discrets et méconnus...les reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Graitson, Eric

    2011-01-01

    "En Wallonie, sept espèces de reptiles composent le « petit peuple des broussailles ». Discrets et silencieux, ils passent bien souvent inaperçus. Ils sont pourtant bien là sous une pierre, tapis dans la végétation dense, à l’intérieur des fissures d’un muret ou sous un tas de compost, cherchant la température idéale a leur survie ou simplement un abri pour fuir leurs prédateurs." Après une présentation des différentes espèces de reptiles indigènes présentes en Wallonie, le livre aborde les c...

  2. Conservation genetics and genomics of amphibians and reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, H Bradley; Gidiş, Müge; McCartney-Melstad, Evan; Neal, Kevin M; Oyamaguchi, Hilton M; Tellez, Marisa; Toffelmier, Erin M

    2015-01-01

    Amphibians and reptiles as a group are often secretive, reach their greatest diversity often in remote tropical regions, and contain some of the most endangered groups of organisms on earth. Particularly in the past decade, genetics and genomics have been instrumental in the conservation biology of these cryptic vertebrates, enabling work ranging from the identification of populations subject to trade and exploitation, to the identification of cryptic lineages harboring critical genetic variation, to the analysis of genes controlling key life history traits. In this review, we highlight some of the most important ways that genetic analyses have brought new insights to the conservation of amphibians and reptiles. Although genomics has only recently emerged as part of this conservation tool kit, several large-scale data sources, including full genomes, expressed sequence tags, and transcriptomes, are providing new opportunities to identify key genes, quantify landscape effects, and manage captive breeding stocks of at-risk species.

  3. Evolution of viviparous reproduction in Paleozoic and Mesozoic reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Daniel G; Sidor, Christian A

    2014-01-01

    Although viviparity (live-bearing reproduction) is widely distributed among lizards and snakes, it is entirely absent from other extant Reptilia and many extinct forms. However, paleontological evidence reveals that viviparity was present in at least nine nominal groups of pre-Cenozoic reptiles, representing a minimum of six separate evolutionary origins of this reproductive mode. Two viviparous clades (sauropterygians and ichthyopterygians) lasted more than 155 million years, a figure that rivals the duration of mammalian viviparity. Circumstantial evidence indicates that extinct viviparous reptiles had internal fertilization, amniotic fetal membranes, and placentas that sustained developing embryos via provision of respiratory gases, water, calcium, and possibly organic nutrients. Production of offspring via viviparity facilitated the invasion of marine habitats in at least five reptilian lineages. Thus, this pattern of embryonic development and reproduction was central to the ecology and evolution of these ancient animals, much as it is to numerous extant species of vertebrates. PMID:26154334

  4. The earliest herbivorous marine reptile and its remarkable jaw apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Li; Rieppel, Olivier; Long, Cheng; Fraser, Nicholas C

    2016-05-01

    Newly discovered fossils of the Middle Triassic reptile Atopodentatus unicus call for a radical reassessment of its feeding behavior. The skull displays a pronounced hammerhead shape that was hitherto unknown. The long, straight anterior edges of both upper and lower jaws were lined with batteries of chisel-shaped teeth, whereas the remaining parts of the jaw rami supported densely packed needle-shaped teeth forming a mesh. The evidence indicates a novel feeding mechanism wherein the chisel-shaped teeth were used to scrape algae off the substrate, and the plant matter that was loosened was filtered from the water column through the more posteriorly positioned tooth mesh. This is the oldest record of herbivory within marine reptiles. PMID:27386529

  5. Reptiles and amphibians of the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taxonomic, distributional, and ecological information on the reptiles and amphibians of the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is provided. The purpose of such a presentation is to give a professional biologist an initial familiarity with herpetology on the SRP, and to provide sufficient comprehensive information to an ecologist, regardless of his experience in herpetology, to permit him to undertake studies that in some manner incorporate the herpetofauna of the SRP

  6. Mesozoic marine reptile palaeobiogeography in response to drifting plates

    OpenAIRE

    Bardet, Nathalie; Falconnet, Jocelyn; Fischer, Valentin; Houssaye, Alexandra; Jouve, Stéphane; Pereda-Superbiola, Xavier; Perez-García, Adan; Rage, Jean-Claude; Vincent, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    During the Mesozoic, various groups of reptiles underwent a spectacular return to an aquatic life, colonizing most marine environments. They were highly diversified both systematically and ecologically, and most were the largest top-predators of the marine ecosystems of their time. The main groups were Ichthyosauria, Sauropterygia, Thalattosauria, and several lineages of Testudinata, Crocodyliformes, Rhynchocephalia and Squamata. Here we show that the palaeobiogeographical distribution of the...

  7. Extinction Risks and the Conservation of Madagascar's Reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Richard K. B. Jenkins; Marcelo F Tognelli; Philip Bowles; Neil Cox; Jason L Brown; Lauren Chan; Franco Andreone; Alain Andriamazava; Raphali R Andriantsimanarilafy; Mirana Anjeriniaina; Parfait Bora; Brady, Lee D.; Hantalalaina, Elisoa F.; Frank Glaw; Richard A Griffiths

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An understanding of the conservation status of Madagascar's endemic reptile species is needed to underpin conservation planning and priority setting in this global biodiversity hotspot, and to complement existing information on the island's mammals, birds and amphibians. We report here on the first systematic assessment of the extinction risk of endemic and native non-marine Malagasy snakes, lizards, turtles and tortoises. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Species range maps from Th...

  8. Reptile assemblages across agricultural landscapes: where does biodiversity hide?

    OpenAIRE

    Biaggini, M.; C. Corti

    2015-01-01

    The transition from traditional to intensive farming, aimed at large–scale production, has rapidly altered agricultural landscapes, leading to the reduction and fragmentation of natural habitats and to the consequent loss of biodiversity. Herpetofauna is seriously threatened by agriculture intensification worldwide, but less is known about its distribution in agro–ecosystems, especially at field scale. We analysed reptile abundance and diversity in eight agricultural and semi–natural land use...

  9. Reptiles and amphibians of the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, J.W.; Patterson, K.K.

    1978-11-01

    Taxonomic, distributional, and ecological information on the reptiles and amphibians of the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is provided. The purpose of such a presentation is to give a professional biologist an initial familiarity with herpetology on the SRP, and to provide sufficient comprehensive information to an ecologist, regardless of his experience in herpetology, to permit him to undertake studies that in some manner incorporate the herpetofauna of the SRP. (ERB)

  10. Cretaceous choristoderan reptiles gave birth to live young

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qiang; Wu, Xiao-Chun; Cheng, Yen-Nien

    2010-04-01

    Viviparity (giving birth to live young) in fossil reptiles has been known only in a few marine groups: ichthyosaurs, pachypleurosaurs, and mosasaurs. Here, we report a pregnant specimen of the Early Cretaceous Hyphalosaurus baitaigouensis, a species of Choristodera, a diapsid group known from unequivocal fossil remains from the Middle Jurassic to the early Miocene (about 165 to 20 million years ago). This specimen provides the first evidence of viviparity in choristoderan reptiles and is also the sole record of viviparity in fossil reptiles which lived in freshwater ecosystems. This exquisitely preserved specimen contains up to 18 embryos arranged in pairs. Size comparison with small free-living individuals and the straight posture of the posterior-most pair suggest that those embryos were at term and had probably reached parturition. The posterior-most embryo on the left side has the head positioned toward the rear, contrary to normal position, suggesting a complication that may have contributed to the mother’s death. Viviparity would certainly have freed species of Hyphalosaurus from the need to return to land to deposit eggs; taking this advantage, they would have avoided intense competition with contemporaneous terrestrial carnivores such as dinosaurs.

  11. Molecular Characterization of Reptile Pathogens Currently Known as Members of the Chrysosporium Anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii Complex and Relationship with Some Human-Associated Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambleton, Sarah; Paré, Jean A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV), Chrysosporium guarroi, Chrysosporium ophiodiicola, and Chrysosporium species have been reported as the causes of dermal or deep lesions in reptiles. These infections are contagious and often fatal and affect both captive and wild animals. Forty-nine CANV isolates from reptiles and six isolates from human sources were compared with N. vriesii based on their cultural characteristics and DNA sequence data. Analyses of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer and small subunit of the nuclear ribosomal gene revealed that the reptile pathogens and human isolates belong in well-supported clades corresponding to three lineages that are distinct from all other taxa within the family Onygenaceae of the order Onygenales. One lineage represents the genus Nannizziopsis and comprises N. vriesii, N. guarroi, and six additional species encompassing isolates from chameleons and geckos, crocodiles, agamid and iguanid lizards, and humans. Two other lineages comprise the genus Ophidiomyces, with the species Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola occurring only in snakes, and Paranannizziopsis gen. nov., with three new species infecting squamates and tuataras. The newly described species are Nannizziopsis dermatitidis, Nannizziopsis crocodili, Nannizziopsis barbata, Nannizziopsis infrequens, Nannizziopsis hominis, Nannizziopsis obscura, Paranannizziopsis australasiensis, Paranannizziopsis californiensis, and Paranannizziopsis crustacea. Chrysosporium longisporum has been reclassified as Paranannizziopsis longispora. N. guarroi causes yellow fungus disease, a common infection in bearded dragons and green iguanas, and O. ophiodiicola is an emerging pathogen of captive and wild snakes. Human-associated species were not recovered from reptiles, and reptile-associated species were recovered only from reptiles, thereby mitigating concerns related to zoonosis. PMID:23926168

  12. A Quantitative Climate-Match Score for Risk-Assessment Screening of Reptile and Amphibian Introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wilgen, Nicola J.; Roura-Pascual, Núria; Richardson, David M.

    2009-09-01

    Assessing climatic suitability provides a good preliminary estimate of the invasive potential of a species to inform risk assessment. We examined two approaches for bioclimatic modeling for 67 reptile and amphibian species introduced to California and Florida. First, we modeled the worldwide distribution of the biomes found in the introduced range to highlight similar areas worldwide from which invaders might arise. Second, we modeled potentially suitable environments for species based on climatic factors in their native ranges, using three sources of distribution data. Performance of the three datasets and both approaches were compared for each species. Climate match was positively correlated with species establishment success (maximum predicted suitability in the introduced range was more strongly correlated with establishment success than mean suitability). Data assembled from the Global Amphibian Assessment through NatureServe provided the most accurate models for amphibians, while ecoregion data compiled by the World Wide Fund for Nature yielded models which described reptile climatic suitability better than available point-locality data. We present three methods of assigning a climate-match score for use in risk assessment using both the mean and maximum climatic suitabilities. Managers may choose to use different methods depending on the stringency of the assessment and the available data, facilitating higher resolution and accuracy for herpetofaunal risk assessment. Climate-matching has inherent limitations and other factors pertaining to ecological interactions and life-history traits must also be considered for thorough risk assessment.

  13. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLVII. Ticks of tortoises and other reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Horak, I G; McKay, I.J.; B.T. Henen; Heloise Heyne; Margaretha D. Hofmeyer; A.L. De Villiers

    2006-01-01

    A total of 586 reptiles, belonging to 35 species and five subspecies, were examined in surveys aimed at determining the species spectrum and geographic distribution of ticks that infest them. Of these reptiles 509 were tortoises, 28 monitor or other lizards, and 49 snakes. Nine ixodid tick species, of which seven belonged to the genus Amblyomma, and one argasid tick, Ornithodoros compactus were recovered. Seven of the ten tick species are parasites of reptiles. Amongst these seven speci...

  14. Terrestrial Origin of Viviparity in Mesozoic Marine Reptiles Indicated by Early Triassic Embryonic Fossils

    OpenAIRE

    Ryosuke Motani; Da-yong Jiang; Andrea Tintori; Olivier Rieppel; Guan-bao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Viviparity in Mesozoic marine reptiles has traditionally been considered an aquatic adaptation. We report a new fossil specimen that strongly contradicts this traditional interpretation. The new specimen contains the oldest fossil embryos of Mesozoic marine reptile that are about 10 million years older than previous such records. The fossil belongs to Chaohusaurus (Reptilia, Ichthyopterygia), which is the oldest of Mesozoic marine reptiles (ca. 248 million years ago, Early Triassic). This exc...

  15. A zoological catalogue of hunted reptiles in the semiarid region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega Alves, Rômulo Romeu; Pereira Filho, Gentil Alves; Silva Vieira, Kleber; Silva Souto, Wedson Medeiros; Mendonça, Lívia Emanuelle Tavares; Montenegro, Paulofernandoguedespereira; Almeida, Waltécio de Oliveira; Silva Vieira, Washington Luiz

    2012-07-30

    The variety of interactions between human cultures and herpetofauna is the subject matter of Ethnoherpetology, a subdivision of Ethnozoology. In the semi-arid region of Brazil, many reptiles interact with human communities because of their utility or because of the risks they represent. These interactions have obvious implications for the conservation of reptiles from this region. In this context, ethnoherpetology studies are crucial because they serve as subsidies for guiding strategies for the handling and conservation of reptiles. This paper presents ethnozoological and taxonomic informations of hunted reptiles in the semiarid region of Brazil and analyse the implications on conservation that are related to the interactions between people and reptiles in this region. Taxonomic keys to identifying recorded reptiles are provided. Records of humans interacting with 38 reptile species that belong to 31 genuses and 16 families have been found. The groups with the largest numbers of recorded species were snakes (18 species), and this group was followed in number by lizards (13), chelonians (4), and crocodilians (3). The reptiles that were recorded may be used for the following purposes: medicinal purposes (24 species), food (13 species), ornamental or decorative purposes (11 species), in magical/religious practices (10 species), and as pets (10 species). Some species (n = 16) may have multiple uses. Furthermore, more than half of the species (n = 19) are commonly killed because they are considered potentially dangerous. Strategies for conserving the reptiles of the Brazilian semi-arid region must reconcile and integrate human and conservation needs.

  16. Using operant conditioning and desensitization to facilitate veterinary care with captive reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmuth, Heidi; Augustine, Lauren; Watkins, Barbara; Hope, Katharine

    2012-09-01

    In addition to being a large component of most zoological collections, reptile species are becoming more popular as family pets. Reptiles have the cognitive ability to be trained to facilitate daily husbandry and veterinary care. Desensitization and operant conditioning can alleviate some of the behavioral and physiological challenges of treating these species. A survey of reptile training programs at zoos in the United States and worldwide reveals that there are many successful training programs to facilitate veterinary care and minimize stress to the animal. Many of the techniques being used to train reptiles in zoological settings are transferable to the exotic pet clinician. PMID:22998960

  17. The Middle Triassic marine reptile biodiversity in the Germanic Basin, in the centre of the Pangaean world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus

    2012-03-01

    The Middle Triassic fossil reptile localities near Bayreuth (Bavaria, southern Germany) consist of shallow marine autochthonous glauconitic marls and terebratulid-rich tempestite carbonates of the newly defined Bindlach and Hegnabrunn formations. Single bones and incomplete skeletons of marine reptiles have been recorded in bone beds within in the Illyrian and Fassanian stages. These include the remains of the sauropterygians Neusticosaurus sp., Lariosaurus cf. buzzii [1], Nothosaurus mirabilis [2], Paranothosaurus giganteus [2], Placodus gigas [3], Cyamodus rostratus [4], Cyamodus münsteri [5], Pistosaurus longaevus [6], and ichthyosaursOmphalosaurus sp., and Shastasaurus sp. or proterosaur Tanystrophaeus conspicuus [7]. New skeletal reconstructions are based on the osteological analysis of three dimensionally preserved bones and skeletal remains. The large number of marine endemic placodont macroalgae feeders (P. gigas) in the Bayreuth sites coincides with the presence of invertebrate palaeocommunities that are characteristic of macroalgae meadow paleoenvironments. Most of the reptile species and genera from the Bayreuth localities also occur in beds of similar ages from the Monte San Giorgio (Switzerland/Italy) or Perledo (Italy) lagoonal areas. Ichthyosaurs and pistosaurs were adapted for open marine conditions, and may have migrated from the Panthalassa Oceans into the shallow marine Germanic Basin to reproduce, whereas placodonts and many other sauropterygians seem to have lived permanently in those shallow marine habitats, with large squamates and thecodont or smaller archosaurs in coastal areas.

  18. Social learning in a non-social reptile (Geochelone carbonaria)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Anna; Kuenstner, Karin; Mueller, Julia; Huber, Ludwig

    2010-01-01

    The ability to learn from the actions of another is adaptive, as it is a shortcut for acquiring new information. However, the evolutionary origins of this trait are still unclear. There is evidence that group-living mammals, birds, fishes and insects can learn through observation, but this has never been investigated in reptiles. Here, we show that the non-social red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria) can learn from the actions of a conspecific in a detour task; non-observer animals (wit...

  19. Commented distributional list of the Reptiles of Mauritania (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padial, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first comprehensive review of the reptiles of Mauritania. It includes distributional information and comments. Mauritania harbors 86 species of reptiles belonging to 21 families. Among these families, Colubridae and Lacertidae are the most diverse, with 14 and 13 species respectively. Other families, such as Agamidae, Gekkonidae, Scincidae or Viperidae are also well represented. Among the 80 continental species, 47.5% are Saharan, 33.8% Afrotropical, 16.2% Sahelian and 2.5% Mediterranean. The marine turtles form another important group, with six species. Eight species are excluded from the country list because of old identification errors, there is not enough evidence of their presence or due to changes in political borders. Among the species expected to occur in Mauritania, at least nine may occur in Saharan environments, 13 in the Sahel savannah and two may have been introduced.

    Esta es la primera lista de reptiles comentada con datos de distribución para la República Islámica de Mauritania. La fauna de reptiles de Mauritania se compone de 86 especies pertenecientes a 21 familias. Entres ellas, Colubridae y Lacertidae son las más diversas, con 14 y 13 especies respectivamente. Otras familias como Agamidae, Gekkonidae, Scincidae y Viperidae también son representativas. Entre las 80 especies continentales el 47.5% son de distribución sahariana, el 33.8% afrotropical, el 16.2% sahelianas y el 2.5% mediterráneas. Las tortugas marinas, con seis especies, es otro grupo importante. Ocho especies no han sido incluidas en la lista debido a que se trataba de viejos errores de identificación, por carecer de suficiente evidencia o debido a la redistribución de las viejas fronteras políticas. Entre las especies potencialmente presentes, al menos nueve de ellas se esperan para las zonas saharianas, trece para las sabanas del Sahel, y dos podrían haber sido introducidas.

  20. Baseline Inventory of amphibians and reptiles of Kurupukari, Guyana

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCulloch, Ross D.; Reynolds, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    The habitat in the vicinity of Kurupukari, on the Essequibo River in central Guyana, is tall evergreen lowland forest. The area has suffered some human disturbance from agriculture, road construction and ferry activity. The area was sampled for 10 days in 1990 and 12 days in 1997; seven days in rainy season and 15 in dry season. During this sampling 23 anuran and 17 reptile species were collected. Some differences exist between species collected on either side of the river. Comparisons are made with collections from other locations in Guyana.

  1. Evolution of Fish-Shaped Reptiles (reptilia: Ichthyopterygia) in Their Physical Environments and Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motani, Ryosuke

    2005-01-01

    Ichthyosaurs were a group of Mesozoic marine reptiles that evolved fish-shaped body outlines. They are unique in several anatomical characters, including the possession of enormous eyeballs sometimes exceeding 25 cm and an enlarged manus with sometimes up to 20 bones in a single digit, or 10 digits per manus. They are also unique in that their biology has been studied from the perspective of physical constraints, which allowed estimation of such characteristics as optimal cruising speed, visual sensitivity, and even possible basal metabolic rate ranges. These functional inferences, although based on physical principles, obviously contain errors arising from the limitations of fossilized data, but are necessarily stronger than the commonly made inferences based on superficial correlations among quantities without mechanical or optical explanations for why such correlations exist.

  2. Distribution pattern of reptiles along an eastern Himalayan elevation gradient, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chettri, Basundhara; Bhupathy, Subramanian; Acharya, Bhoj Kumar

    2010-01-01

    We examined the spatial distribution pattern of reptiles in an eastern Himalayan elevation gradient. The factors governing the distribution have been assessed with emphasis on the mid-domain effect. We surveyed reptiles along the elevation gradient (300-4800 m) of the Teesta valley in Sikkim, Eastern Himalaya, India using time constrained visual encounter survey. A total of 42 species of reptiles were observed during the study, and the species richness peaked at 500-1000 m with no species beyond 3000 m. The observed pattern was consistent with estimated richness, both showing significant negative relation with elevation. Lizards showed a linear decline with elevation, whereas snakes followed a non-linear relation with peak at 500-1000 m. Observed species richness deviated significantly from that predicted by a mid-domain null model. The regression between empirical and simulated richness was not significant for total reptiles as well as lizards and snakes separately. Most species distributed in the high elevation extended towards lower elevation, but low elevation species (around 50%) were restricted below 1000 m. Deviation of empirical from predicted richness indicates that the distributions of reptile species were least governed by geographic hard boundaries. Climatic factors especially temperature explained much variation of reptiles along the Himalayan elevation gradient. Most reptiles were narrowly distributed, especially those found in low elevation indicating the importance of tropical low-land forests in the conservation of reptiles in Eastern Himalayas.

  3. What's Slithering around on Your School Grounds? Transforming Student Awareness of Reptile & Amphibian Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasek, Terry M.; Matthews, Catherine E.; Hall, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    The protocols used in a research project on amphibian and reptile diversity at Cool Springs Environmental Education Center near New Bern, North Carolina is described. An increasing or stable number of amphibians and reptiles would indicate that the forest has a balance of invertebrates, leaf litter, moisture, pH, debris, burrows and habitat…

  4. Salmonella prevalence among reptiles in a Zoo education setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hydeskov, H. B.; Guardabassi, Luca; Aalbæk, Bent;

    2013-01-01

    Clinically healthy reptiles may shed Salmonella and therefore act as a potential zoonotic threat. Most people in Northern European countries are rarely exposed to reptiles, but many zoos have education departments where children have direct contact with this group of animals. The objectives...

  5. Autonomic control of cardiorespiratory interactions in fish, amphibians and reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, E W; Leite, C A C; Skovgaard, N

    2010-07-01

    Control of the heart rate and cardiorespiratory interactions (CRI) is predominantly parasympathetic in all jawed vertebrates, with the sympathetic nervous system having some influence in tetrapods. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has been described as a solely mammalian phenomenon but respiration-related beat-to-beat control of the heart has been described in fish and reptiles. Though they are both important, the relative roles of feed-forward central control and peripheral reflexes in generating CRI vary between groups of fishes and probably between other vertebrates. CRI may relate to two locations for the vagal preganglionic neurons (VPN) and in particular cardiac VPN in the brainstem. This has been described in representatives from all vertebrate groups, though the proportion in each location is variable. Air-breathing fishes, amphibians and reptiles breathe discontinuously and the onset of a bout of breathing is characteristically accompanied by an immediate increase in heart rate plus, in the latter two groups, a left-right shunting of blood through the pulmonary circuit. Both the increase in heart rate and opening of a sphincter on the pulmonary artery are due to withdrawal of vagal tone. An increase in heart rate following a meal in snakes is related to withdrawal of vagal tone plus a non-adrenergic-non-cholinergic effect that may be due to humoral factors released by the gut. Histamine is one candidate for this role.

  6. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Coahuila, Mexico, with comparison with adjoining states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos-Espinal, Julio A.; Smith, Geoffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We compiled a checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of the state of Coahuila, Mexico. The list comprises 133 species (24 amphibians, 109 reptiles), representing 27 families (9 amphibians, 18 reptiles) and 65 genera (16 amphibians, 49 reptiles). Coahuila has a high richness of lizards in the genus Sceloporus. Coahuila has relatively few state endemics, but has several regional endemics. Overlap in the herpetofauna of Coahuila and bordering states is fairly extensive. Of the 132 species of native amphibians and reptiles, eight are listed as Vulnerable, six as Near Threatened, and six as Endangered in the IUCN Red List. In the SEMARNAT listing, 19 species are Subject to Special Protection, 26 are Threatened, and three are in Danger of Extinction. Coahuila is home to several species of conservation concern, especially lizards and turtles. Coahuila is an important state for the conservation of the native regional fauna. PMID:27408554

  7. Introduction effort, climate matching and species traits as predictors of global establishment success in non-native reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Mahoney, Peter J; Beard, Karen H.; Durso, Andrew M.; Tallian, Aimee G.; Long, A. Lexine; Kindermann, Ryan J.; Nolan, Nicole E.; Kinka, Daniel; Mohn, Harrison E.

    2015-01-01

    Non-native reptiles are often detrimental to native communities and ecosystems and can be extremely difficult to manage once established. Thus, there is considerable interest in predicting the likelihood of establishment of nonnative reptiles. We assessed three hypotheses describing possible factors contributing to the successful establishment of introduced reptiles in an effort to better identify potential invaders.

  8. A necessarily complex model to explain the biogeography of the amphibians and reptiles of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jason L; Cameron, Alison; Yoder, Anne D; Vences, Miguel

    2014-10-09

    Pattern and process are inextricably linked in biogeographic analyses, though we can observe pattern, we must infer process. Inferences of process are often based on ad hoc comparisons using a single spatial predictor. Here, we present an alternative approach that uses mixed-spatial models to measure the predictive potential of combinations of hypotheses. Biodiversity patterns are estimated from 8,362 occurrence records from 745 species of Malagasy amphibians and reptiles. By incorporating 18 spatially explicit predictions of 12 major biogeographic hypotheses, we show that mixed models greatly improve our ability to explain the observed biodiversity patterns. We conclude that patterns are influenced by a combination of diversification processes rather than by a single predominant mechanism. A 'one-size-fits-all' model does not exist. By developing a novel method for examining and synthesizing spatial parameters such as species richness, endemism and community similarity, we demonstrate the potential of these analyses for understanding the diversification history of Madagascar's biota.

  9. Risk of pesticide exposure for reptile species in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingo, Valentin; Lötters, Stefan; Wagner, Norman

    2016-08-01

    Environmental pollution has an especially high impact on wildlife. This is especially the case in industrialized countries. Although, many species within the European Union benefit from protection by the Habitats Directive, no special consideration is given to possible detrimental effects of pesticides. This is in particular remarkable as negative effects, which may lead to a regional diversity loss, have already been identified in laboratory and mesocosm studies. We conducted a pesticide exposure risk evaluation for all European reptile species with sufficient literature data on the considered biological and ecological aspects and occurrence data within agricultural areas with regular pesticide applications (102 out of 141). By using three evaluation factors - (i) pesticide exposure, (ii) physiology and (iii) life history - a taxon-specific pesticide exposure risk factor (ERF) was created. The results suggest that about half of all evaluated species, and thus at least 1/3 of all European species exhibited a high exposure risk. At the same time, two of them (Mauremys leprosa and Testudo graeca) are globally classified as threatened with extinction in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Variation regarding species occurrence in exposed landscapes between pesticide admission zones within the EU is rather large. This variation is mainly caused by differing land use and species abundances between zones. At the taxonomic level, significant differences in exposure risk can be observed between threatened and non-threatened species, which can be explained by the formers remote distribution areas. Lizards display the highest sensitivity toward pesticides, although no differences in overall ERFs can be observed between taxonomic groups. By identifying species at above-average risk to pesticide exposure, species-based risk evaluations can improve conservation actions for reptiles from cultivated landscapes. PMID:27182977

  10. Inventory of Amphibians and Reptiles in Southern Colorado Plateau National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, Trevor B.; Nowak, Erika M.

    2006-01-01

    In fiscal year 2000, the National Park Service (NPS) initiated a nationwide program to inventory vertebrates andvascular plants within the National Parks, and an inventory plan was developed for the 19 park units in the Southern Colorado Plateau Inventory & Monitoring Network. We surveyed 12 parks in this network for reptiles and amphibians between 2001 and 2003. The overall goals of our herpetofaunal inventories were to document 90% of the species present, identify park-specific species of special concern, and, based on the inventory results, make recommendations for the development of an effective monitoring program. We used the following standardized herpetological methods to complete the inventories: time-area constrained searches, visual encounter ('general') surveys, and nighttime road cruising. We also recorded incidental species sightings and surveyed existing literature and museum specimen databases. We found 50 amphibian and reptile species during fieldwork. These included 1 salamander, 11 anurans, 21 lizards, and 17 snakes. Literature reviews, museum specimen data records, and personal communications with NPS staff added an additional eight species, including one salamander, one turtle, one lizard, and five snakes. It was necessary to use a variety of methods to detect all species in each park. Randomly-generated 1-ha time-area constrained searches and night drives produced the fewest species and individuals of all the methods, while general surveys and randomly-generated 10-ha time-areas constrained searches produced the most. Inventory completeness was likely compromised by a severe drought across the region during our surveys. In most parks we did not come close to the goal of detecting 90% of the expected species present; however, we did document several species range extensions. Effective monitoring programs for herpetofauna on the Colorado Plateau should use a variety of methods to detect species, and focus on taxa-specific methods. Randomly

  11. Does ecophysiology mediate reptile responses to fire regimes? Evidence from Iberian lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Catarina C.; Santos, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Background. Reptiles are sensitive to habitat disturbance induced by wildfires but species frequently show opposing responses. Functional causes of such variability have been scarcely explored. In the northernmost limit of the Mediterranean bioregion, lizard species of Mediterranean affinity (Psammodromus algirus and Podarcis guadarramae) increase in abundance in burnt areas whereas Atlantic species (Lacerta schreiberi and Podarcis bocagei) decrease. Timon lepidus, the largest Mediterranean lizard in the region, shows mixed responses depending on the locality and fire history. We tested whether such interspecific differences are of a functional nature, namely, if ecophysiological traits may determine lizard response to fire. Based on the variation in habitat structure between burnt and unburnt sites, we hypothesise that Mediterranean species, which increase density in open habitats promoted by frequent fire regimes, should be more thermophile and suffer lower water losses than Atlantic species. Methods. We submitted 6–10 adult males of the five species to standard experiments for assessing preferred body temperatures (Tp) and evaporativewater loss rates (EWL), and examined the variation among species and along time by means of repeated-measures AN(C)OVAs. Results. Results only partially supported our initial expectations, since the medium-sized P. algirus clearly attained higher Tp and lower EWL. The two small wall lizards (P. bocagei and P. guadarramae) displayed low Tp and high EWL while the two large green lizards (T. lepidus and L. schreiberi) displayed intermediate values for both parameters. Discussion. The predicted differences according to the biogeographic affinities within each pair were not fully confirmed. We conclude that ecophysiology may help to understand functional reptile responses to fire but other biological traits are also to be considered. PMID:27330864

  12. Ancient sea reptile found at Syncrude formally described

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-05-15

    This article provided details of an ancient reptile that once swam in ancient seas near the present location of Alberta's oil sands region. The plesiosaur has now been named after a curator at the Royal Tyrrell Museum who was also a renowned paleontologist. The nearly complete remains of one of the oldest plesiosaur fossils were recovered at a Syncrude Canada mine near Fort McMurray in 1994. Paleontologists from the University of Calgary have recently published a paper on the prehistoric aquatic predator in a German research journal. A plaster cast of the plesiosaur found at the Syncrude site is now on display at the Oil Sands Discovery Centre in Fort McMurray. 1 fig.

  13. Social learning in a non-social reptile (Geochelone carbonaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Anna; Kuenstner, Karin; Mueller, Julia; Huber, Ludwig

    2010-10-23

    The ability to learn from the actions of another is adaptive, as it is a shortcut for acquiring new information. However, the evolutionary origins of this trait are still unclear. There is evidence that group-living mammals, birds, fishes and insects can learn through observation, but this has never been investigated in reptiles. Here, we show that the non-social red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria) can learn from the actions of a conspecific in a detour task; non-observer animals (without a conspecific demonstrator) failed. This result provides the first evidence that a non-social species can use social cues to solve a task that it cannot solve through individual learning, challenging the idea that social learning is an adaptation for social living. PMID:20356886

  14. Dynamics of radionuclide accumulation at amphibians and reptiles in the Poles'e state radioecological reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was studied the peculiarity of the radionuclide intake to organism of amphibians and reptiles in the Poles'e radioecological reserve in 1997. The radioactive contamination level of investigated area was from 15 to 40 Ci/km2. It was measured 38 samples (26 for amphibians and 12 for reptiles) from points with background gamma-irradiation from 35 to 800 micro R/h. For the last eleven years of investigation it was revealed the total tendency to reduction of level of gamma-radioactive accumulation in 18,8-42,6 times for amphibians and in 2,8-52,5 times for reptiles

  15. Rickettsial infections in ticks from reptiles, birds and humans in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakova, Marketa; Literak, Ivan; Chevez, Luis; Martins, Thiago F; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-09-01

    Ticks were collected from captive reptiles, wild birds, and incidentally from humans at two locations in Honduras and part of these were tested for the presence of Rickettsia using polymerase chain reaction. The following species of ticks were found: Amblyomma dissimile on Iguanidae reptiles, Amblyomma longirostre and Amblyomma nodosum on birds, and Amblyomma mixtum (Amblyomma cajennense complex) on humans. A. dissimile was infected with Rickettsia sp. strain Colombianensi. Both A. longirostre and A. mixtum were infected with Candidatus 'Rickettsia amblyommii'. This study provides the first report of rickettsial infections in ticks from reptiles, birds and humans in Honduras. New host - Amblyomma tick associations are documented.

  16. Amphibians and Reptiles of the state of Nuevo León, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos-Espinal,Julio; Smith, Geoffrey; Cruz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We compiled a check list of the herpetofauna of Nuevo León. We documented 132 species (23 amphibians, 109 reptiles), representing 30 families (11 amphibians, 19 reptiles) and 73 genera (17 amphibians, 56 reptiles). Only two species are endemic to Nuevo León. Nuevo León contains a relatively high richness of lizards in the genus Sceloporus. Overlap in the herpetofauna of Nuevo León and states it borders is fairly extensive. Of 130 native species, 102 are considered ...

  17. The enigmatic marine reptile nanchangosaurus from the lower triassic of Hubei, China and the phylogenetic affinities of Hupehsuchia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-hong Chen

    Full Text Available The study of the holotype and of a new specimen of Nanchangosaurus suni (Reptilia; Diapsida; Hupehsuchia revealed a suite of hitherto unrecognized characters. For example, Nanchangosaurus has bipartite neural spines and its vertebral count is nearly identical to that of Hupehsuchus. It differs from the latter in having poorly developed forelimbs despite the advanced ossification in the rest of the skeleton. Other differences all pertain to hupehsuchian plesiomorphies retained in Nanchangosaurus, such as low neural spines. The relationship of Hupehsuchia within Diapsida was analyzed based on a data matrix containing 41 taxa coded for 213 characters, of which 18 were identified as aquatic adaptations from functional inferences. These aquatic adaptations may be vulnerable to the argumentation of character homology because expectation for homoplasy is high. There is an apparent incongruence between phylogenetic signals from aquatic adaptations and the rest of the data, with aquatic adaptations favoring all marine reptiles but Helveticosaurus to form a super-clade. However, this super-clade does not obtain when aquatic adaptations were deleted, whereas individual marine reptile clades are all derived without them. We examined all possible combinations of the 18 aquatic adaptations (n = 262143 and found that four lineages of marine reptiles are recognized almost regardless of which of these features were included in the analysis: Hupehsuchia-Ichthyopterygia clade, Sauropterygia-Saurosphargidae clade, Thalattosauria, and Helveticosaurus. The interrelationships among these four depended on the combination of aquatic adaptations to be included, i.e., assumed to be homologous a priori by bypassing character argumentation. Hupehsuchia always appeared as the sister taxon of Ichthyopterygia.

  18. The enigmatic marine reptile nanchangosaurus from the lower triassic of Hubei, China and the phylogenetic affinities of Hupehsuchia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-hong; Motani, Ryosuke; Cheng, Long; Jiang, Da-yong; Rieppel, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The study of the holotype and of a new specimen of Nanchangosaurus suni (Reptilia; Diapsida; Hupehsuchia) revealed a suite of hitherto unrecognized characters. For example, Nanchangosaurus has bipartite neural spines and its vertebral count is nearly identical to that of Hupehsuchus. It differs from the latter in having poorly developed forelimbs despite the advanced ossification in the rest of the skeleton. Other differences all pertain to hupehsuchian plesiomorphies retained in Nanchangosaurus, such as low neural spines. The relationship of Hupehsuchia within Diapsida was analyzed based on a data matrix containing 41 taxa coded for 213 characters, of which 18 were identified as aquatic adaptations from functional inferences. These aquatic adaptations may be vulnerable to the argumentation of character homology because expectation for homoplasy is high. There is an apparent incongruence between phylogenetic signals from aquatic adaptations and the rest of the data, with aquatic adaptations favoring all marine reptiles but Helveticosaurus to form a super-clade. However, this super-clade does not obtain when aquatic adaptations were deleted, whereas individual marine reptile clades are all derived without them. We examined all possible combinations of the 18 aquatic adaptations (n = 262143) and found that four lineages of marine reptiles are recognized almost regardless of which of these features were included in the analysis: Hupehsuchia-Ichthyopterygia clade, Sauropterygia-Saurosphargidae clade, Thalattosauria, and Helveticosaurus. The interrelationships among these four depended on the combination of aquatic adaptations to be included, i.e., assumed to be homologous a priori by bypassing character argumentation. Hupehsuchia always appeared as the sister taxon of Ichthyopterygia. PMID:25014493

  19. Cannibalism in a semi-aquatic reptile from the Early Cretaceous of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaolin; MIAO Desui; ZHANG Yuguang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Cannibalism or intraspecific predation is a particular form of feeding behavior that is far more common in lower vertebrates and invertebrates than in higher vertebrates such as reptiles, birds and mammals[1,2].

  20. On a collection of Reptiles and Fishes from the West-Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidth de Jeude, van Th.W.

    1887-01-01

    During the Dutch Expedition to the West-Indies the following reptiles and fishes were collected by Mr. J. R. H. Neervoort van de Poll, the Zoologist of the Expedition, who afterwards presented them to the Leyden Museum.

  1. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: REPTPT (Reptile Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for threatened and endangered reptiles/amphibians for the Florida Panhandle. Vector points in this data...

  2. Lista propuesta de anfibios y reptiles amenazados de extinción

    OpenAIRE

    Bertonatti, Claudio

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary list on endangered amphibians and reptiles of Argentina is presented. On the basis of published and unpublished information, and following the UICN criteria, 123 of 370 herp species were categorized.

  3. Survey of reptiles and amphibians of North Platte National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal is for surveying reptiles and amphibians of North Platte National Wildlife Refuge for the specific goals of generating a species list, species...

  4. Summary of amphibian and reptile surveys 2001 - North Mississippi Refuges Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report details surveys for amphibians and reptiles on Dahomey, Coldwater River, and Dahomey NWRs in 2001. Sampling methods and protocols are also included.

  5. Lista propuesta de anfibios y reptiles amenazados de extinción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertonatti, Claudio

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary list on endangered amphibians and reptiles of Argentina is presented. On the basis of published and unpublished information, and following the UICN criteria, 123 of 370 herp species were categorized.

  6. Species List of Alaskan Birds, Mammals, Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, and Invertebrates. Alaska Region Report Number 82.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tamra Faris

    This publication contains a detailed list of the birds, mammals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates found in Alaska. Part I lists the species by geographical regions. Part II lists the species by the ecological regions of the state. (CO)

  7. [Nested species subsets of amphibians and reptiles in Thousand Island Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Wang, Yan-Ping; Ding, Ping

    2012-10-01

    Habitat fragmentation is a main cause for the loss of biological diversity. Combining line-transect methods to survey the amphibians and reptiles on 23 islands on Thousand Island Lake in Zhejiang province, along with survey data on nearby plant species and habitat variables collected by GIS, we used the"BINMATNEST (binary matrix nestedness temperature calculator)" software and the Spearman rank correlation to examine whether amphibians and reptiles followed nested subsets and their influencing factors. The results showed that amphibians and reptiles were significantly nested, and that the island area and habitat type were significantly associated with their nested ranks. Therefore, to effectively protect amphibians and reptiles in the Thousand Islands Lake area we should pay prior attention to islands with larger areas and more habitat types.

  8. The amphibians and reptiles of the Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge Chesterfield County, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports the results of a survey of the amphibians and reptiles occurring in the Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge, Chesterfield County, South...

  9. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: REPTILEL (Reptile and Amphibian Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for amphibians and reptiles in Central California. Vector lines in this data set represent general stream...

  10. A taphonomic study of marine reptiles from the Upper Jurassic of Svalbard

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this study the taphonomy of a collection of 25 marine reptiles from the Slottsmøya member, (Agardhfjellet Formation) Svalbard was investigated. The marine reptiles which include ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs and pliosaurs were excavated during seven field seasons (2004- 2011). The specimens are divided into three preservation categories: articulated specimens, partly articulated specimens and disarticulated specimens. The specimens are discussed in relation to possible causes of death, the pos...

  11. The aggressive invasion of exotic reptiles in Florida with a focus on prominent species: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Richard ENGEMAN, Elliott JACOBSON, Michael L. AVERY

    2011-01-01

    Florida, along with Hawaii, has among the two worst invasive species problems in the USA, and the state is especially susceptible to establishment by alien reptiles. Besides the large numbers of established non-native reptile species in Florida, many of these species present novel difficulties for management, or have other characteristics making effective management extremely challenging. Moreover, initiation of management action requires more than recognition by experts that a potentially ha...

  12. Phylogenomic investigation of CR1 LINE diversity in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlock, Andrew M

    2006-12-01

    It is unlikely that taxonomically diverse phylogenetic studies will be completed rapidly in the near future for nonmodel organisms on a whole-genome basis. However, one approach to advancing the field of "phylogenomics" is to estimate the structure of poorly known genomes by mining libraries of clones from suites of taxa, rather than from single species. The present analysis adopts this approach by taking advantage of megabase-scale end-sequence scanning of reptilian genomic clones to characterize diversity of CR1-like LINEs, the dominant family of transposable elements (TEs) in the sister group of mammals. As such, it helps close an important gap in the literature on the molecular systematics and evolution of retroelements in nonavian reptiles. Results from aligning more than 14 Mb of sequence from the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), painted turtle (Chrysemys picta), Bahamian green anole (Anolis smaragdinus), Tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus), Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), and Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) against a comprehensive library approximately 3000 TE-encoding peptides reflect an increasing abundance of LINE and non-long-terminal-repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposon repeat types with the age of common ancestry among exemplar reptilian clades. The hypothesis that repeat diversity is correlated with basal metabolic rate was tested using comparative methods and a significant nonlinear relationship was indicated. This analysis suggests that the age of divergence between an exemplary clade and its sister group as well as metabolic correlates should be considered in addition to genome size in explaining patterns of retroelement diversity. The first phylogenetic analysis of the largely unexplored chicken repeat 1 (CR1) 3' reverse transcriptase (RT) conserved domains 8 and 9 in nonavian reptiles reveals a pattern of multiple lineages with variable branch lengths, suggesting presence of both old and young elements and the existence of several

  13. Contribuciones al estudiode los anfibios y reptiles de Méxicodurante el siglo XVIII y la Ilustración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Casas Andreu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las bases de la herpetología moderna en general se establecieron en el siglo XVIII,particularmente durante la Ilustración y quienes hicieron la mayor contribución fueronfundamentalmente los naturalistas franceses. No obstante, en México se hicieron varias publicacionesde cierto relieve, en especial por los misioneros jesuitas y otros estudiosos de la Nueva España. Esinteresante mencionar que aun con la trascendencia de Linneo para la biología moderna, algunoshistoriadores de los anfibios y los reptiles señalan que por lo menos para la herpetofauna de Méxicoexistió una importante regresión, ya que era mucho mayor el conocimiento que había dejadoFrancisco Hernández en el siglo XVI. Las contribuciones de los autores de la escuela francesa comoBuffon y quienes lo sucedieron como Lacepéde y Daudin, fueron los grandes pilares de laherpetología o estudios de los anfibios y los reptiles de la manera en que la conocemos en laactualidad. Las bases establecidas en el siglo XVIII sirvieron para que con la apertura de México almundo a partir de su independencia, se entrara en una de las etapas de mayor relevancia para laherpetología del país.

  14. Gonadal differentiation in reptiles exhibiting environmental sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Satomi; Parrott, Benjamin B; Yatsu, Ryohei; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Moore, Brandon C; Iguchi, Taisen; Guillette, Louis

    2014-01-01

    As temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) and homozygote or heterozygote genetic sex determination (GSD) exist in multiple reptilian taxa, they represent sex determination systems that have emerged de novo. Current investigations have revealed that the genetic mechanisms used by various reptilian species are similar to those used by other vertebrates. However, the recent completion or near completion of various reptilian genome projects suggests that new studies examining related species with and without TSD could begin to provide additional insight into the evolution of TSD and GSD in vertebrate ancestors. Major questions still remain concerning germ cell migration and specification, the differentiation of gonadal accessory cells, such as the Sertoli cells and granulosa cells of the developing testis and ovary, respectively, and the mechanisms by which gene expression is regulated during TSD events. Further, reptilian sentinels and their mechanisms of gonadogenesis will likely remain important indicator species for environmental health. Thus, ongoing and new investigations need to tie molecular information to gonadal morphogenesis and function in reptiles. Such data will not only provide important information for an understanding of the evolution of these phenomena in vertebrates, but could also provide an important understanding of the health of the environment around us. PMID:24642710

  15. Cryptosporidium parvum is not transmissible to fish, amphibians, or reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, T K; Fayer, R; Cranfield, M R

    1996-10-01

    A recent report suggested that an isolate of Cryptosporidium parvum had established infections in fish, amphibians, and reptiles and raises concern that animals other than mammals might be a potential source of waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts. To test this possibility, viable C. parvum oocysts, infectious for neonatal BALB/c mice, were delivered by gastric intubation to bluegill sunfish, poison-dart frogs, African clawed frogs, bearded dragon lizards, and corn snakes. Histological sections of the stomach, jejunum, ileum, and cloaca prepared from tissues collected on days 7 and 14 postinoculation (PI) were negative for Cryptosporidium developmental stages. However, inoculum-derived oocysts were detectable by fluorescein-labeled monoclonal antibody in feces of inoculated animals from day 1 to day 12 PI in fish and frogs, and up to day 14 PI in lizards. Snakes did not defecate for 14 days PI. Impression smears taken at necropsy on days 7 and 14 PI revealed C. parvum oocysts in the lumen of the cloaca of 2 fish and 1 lizard on day 7 PI only. Because tissue stages of the pathogen were not found, it appears that C. parvum was not heterologously transmitted to lower vertebrates. Under certain circumstances, however, such as after the ingestion of C. parvum-infected prey, lower vertebrates may disseminate C. parvum oocysts in the environment. PMID:8885883

  16. Genotypic sex determination enabled adaptive radiations of extinct marine reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, Chris L; Janes, Daniel E; Meade, Andrew; Pagel, Mark

    2009-09-17

    Adaptive radiations often follow the evolution of key traits, such as the origin of the amniotic egg and the subsequent radiation of terrestrial vertebrates. The mechanism by which a species determines the sex of its offspring has been linked to critical ecological and life-history traits but not to major adaptive radiations, in part because sex-determining mechanisms do not fossilize. Here we establish a previously unknown coevolutionary relationship in 94 amniote species between sex-determining mechanism and whether a species bears live young or lays eggs. We use that relationship to predict the sex-determining mechanism in three independent lineages of extinct Mesozoic marine reptiles (mosasaurs, sauropterygians and ichthyosaurs), each of which is known from fossils to have evolved live birth. Our results indicate that each lineage evolved genotypic sex determination before acquiring live birth. This enabled their pelagic radiations, where the relatively stable temperatures of the open ocean constrain temperature-dependent sex determination in amniote species. Freed from the need to move and nest on land, extreme physical adaptations to a pelagic lifestyle evolved in each group, such as the fluked tails, dorsal fins and wing-shaped limbs of ichthyosaurs. With the inclusion of ichthyosaurs, mosasaurs and sauropterygians, genotypic sex determination is present in all known fully pelagic amniote groups (sea snakes, sirenians and cetaceans), suggesting that this mode of sex determination and the subsequent evolution of live birth are key traits required for marine adaptive radiations in amniote lineages. PMID:19759619

  17. Short-term responses of reptile assemblages to fire in native and weedy tropical savannah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rickard Abom

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fire is frequently used as a management tool to reduce the cover of weeds, to reduce the amount of fuel available for future fires, and to create succession mosaics that may enhance biodiversity. We determined the influence of fire on wildlife, by quantifying reptile assemblage composition in response to fire in a weedy environment characterised by very short-term fire return intervals (<2 years. We used reptiles because they are often understudied, and are only moderately vagile compared to other vertebrates, and they respond strongly to changes in vegetation structure. We repeatedly sampled 24 replicate sampling sites after they had been unburned for two years, just prior to burning (pre-burnt, just after burning (post-burnt, and up to 15 months after burning (revegetated and monitored vegetation structure and reptile richness, abundance and assemblage composition. Our sites were not spatially auto-correlated, and were covered by native kangaroo grass (Themeda triandra, black spear grass (Heteropogon contortus, or an invasive weed (grader grass, Themeda quadrivalvis. Reptile abundance and richness were highest when sites had been unburned for 2 years, and greatly reduced in all areas post burning. The lowest reptile abundances occurred in sites dominated by the weed. Reptile abundance and richness had recovered in all grass types 15 months after burning, but assemblage composition changed. Some species were present only in before our focus fire in native grass, and their populations did not recover even 15 months post-burning. Even in fire-prone, often-burnt habitats such as our study sites, in which faunal richness and abundance were not strongly influenced by fire, reptile assemblage composition was altered. To maintain faunal biodiversity in fire-prone systems, we suggest reducing the frequency of prescribed fires, and (if possible excluding fire from weedy invasions if it allows native grasses to return.

  18. Catálogo de los Reptiles procedentes de la Comunidad de Madrid (España que se conservan en el Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Fernández, J. E.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A complete catalogue of reptiles found in Comunidad de Madrid (Spain is provided in this paper. The catalogue is taxonomically indexed and listed in alphabetical order including all basic data. It includes all information available in card files and old collection books of the MNCN. We have confirmed which reptiles in the current collection appear as being collected in Madrid, in old records, catalogue books and collection cards in the collection of amphibians and reptiles of the MNCN. The information of these old databases has been verified and mistakes corrected. As a consequence of this revision, the existence of 2237 specimens of reptiles originating in the above-indicated area and exisincluded in 1039 computer records, has been confirmed as of 30 November 2005. Among the oldest specimens included in the collection are some collected by the founding father of Spanish herpetology (Eduardo Boscá y Casanoves or by a member of the Pacific Scientific Commission (Francisco de P. Martínez y Sáez and deposited in the MNCN more than 140 years ago. These specimens and their data are preserved at the MNCN as part of our common National Heritage, for future generations of researchers as witnesses of the past and present biodiversity. Distribution areas for several species have been extended.

    En el presente trabajo, se proporciona un catálogo actualizado de los reptiles de la Comunidad de Madrid (España elaborado gracias a la información disponible en los ficheros y libros de colección del MNCN. Se han confirmado los datos que figuraban en los antiguos libros de registro, catálogo y fichas de colección referentes a los reptiles procedentes de Madrid existentes en la colección de anfibios y reptiles del MNCN, comprobándose que ejemplares se conservan en la actualidad. También se ha actualizado y comprobado que la información disponible en las bases de datos del MNCN era correcta y acorde con los datos existentes en los ejemplares. Los

  19. Telomeres, age and reproduction in a long-lived reptile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Plot

    Full Text Available A major interest has recently emerged in understanding how telomere shortening, mechanism triggering cell senescence, is linked to organism ageing and life history traits in wild species. However, the links between telomere length and key history traits such as reproductive performances have received little attention and remain unclear to date. The leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea is a long-lived species showing rapid growth at early stages of life, one of the highest reproductive outputs observed in vertebrates and a dichotomised reproductive pattern related to migrations lasting 2 or 3 years, supposedly associated with different environmental conditions. Here we tested the prediction of blood telomere shortening with age in this species and investigated the relationship between blood telomere length and reproductive performances in leatherback turtles nesting in French Guiana. We found that blood telomere length did not differ between hatchlings and adults. The absence of blood telomere shortening with age may be related to an early high telomerase activity. This telomere-restoring enzyme was formerly suggested to be involved in preventing early telomere attrition in early fast-growing and long-lived species, including squamate reptiles. We found that within one nesting cycle, adult females having performed shorter migrations prior to the considered nesting season had shorter blood telomeres and lower reproductive output. We propose that shorter blood telomeres may result from higher oxidative stress in individuals breeding more frequently (i.e., higher costs of reproduction and/or restoring more quickly their body reserves in cooler feeding areas during preceding migration (i.e., higher foraging costs. This first study on telomeres in the giant leatherback turtle suggests that blood telomere length predicts not only survival chances, but also reproductive performances. Telomeres may therefore be a promising new tool to evaluate

  20. Terrestrial origin of viviparity in mesozoic marine reptiles indicated by early triassic embryonic fossils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Motani

    Full Text Available Viviparity in Mesozoic marine reptiles has traditionally been considered an aquatic adaptation. We report a new fossil specimen that strongly contradicts this traditional interpretation. The new specimen contains the oldest fossil embryos of Mesozoic marine reptile that are about 10 million years older than previous such records. The fossil belongs to Chaohusaurus (Reptilia, Ichthyopterygia, which is the oldest of Mesozoic marine reptiles (ca. 248 million years ago, Early Triassic. This exceptional specimen captures an articulated embryo in birth position, with its skull just emerged from the maternal pelvis. Its headfirst birth posture, which is unlikely to be a breech condition, strongly indicates a terrestrial origin of viviparity, in contrast to the traditional view. The tail-first birth posture in derived ichthyopterygians, convergent with the conditions in whales and sea cows, therefore is a secondary feature. The unequivocally marine origin of viviparity is so far not known among amniotes, a subset of vertebrate animals comprising mammals and reptiles, including birds. Therefore, obligate marine amniotes appear to have evolved almost exclusively from viviparous land ancestors. Viviparous land reptiles most likely appeared much earlier than currently thought, at least as early as the recovery phase from the end-Permian mass extinction.

  1. Terrestrial origin of viviparity in mesozoic marine reptiles indicated by early triassic embryonic fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motani, Ryosuke; Jiang, Da-yong; Tintori, Andrea; Rieppel, Olivier; Chen, Guan-bao

    2014-01-01

    Viviparity in Mesozoic marine reptiles has traditionally been considered an aquatic adaptation. We report a new fossil specimen that strongly contradicts this traditional interpretation. The new specimen contains the oldest fossil embryos of Mesozoic marine reptile that are about 10 million years older than previous such records. The fossil belongs to Chaohusaurus (Reptilia, Ichthyopterygia), which is the oldest of Mesozoic marine reptiles (ca. 248 million years ago, Early Triassic). This exceptional specimen captures an articulated embryo in birth position, with its skull just emerged from the maternal pelvis. Its headfirst birth posture, which is unlikely to be a breech condition, strongly indicates a terrestrial origin of viviparity, in contrast to the traditional view. The tail-first birth posture in derived ichthyopterygians, convergent with the conditions in whales and sea cows, therefore is a secondary feature. The unequivocally marine origin of viviparity is so far not known among amniotes, a subset of vertebrate animals comprising mammals and reptiles, including birds. Therefore, obligate marine amniotes appear to have evolved almost exclusively from viviparous land ancestors. Viviparous land reptiles most likely appeared much earlier than currently thought, at least as early as the recovery phase from the end-Permian mass extinction. PMID:24533127

  2. Skin pigmentation provides evidence of convergent melanism in extinct marine reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Johan; Sjövall, Peter; Carney, Ryan M; Uvdal, Per; Gren, Johan A; Dyke, Gareth; Schultz, Bo Pagh; Shawkey, Matthew D; Barnes, Kenneth R; Polcyn, Michael J

    2014-02-27

    Throughout the animal kingdom, adaptive colouration serves critical functions ranging from inconspicuous camouflage to ostentatious sexual display, and can provide important information about the environment and biology of a particular organism. The most ubiquitous and abundant pigment, melanin, also has a diverse range of non-visual roles, including thermoregulation in ectotherms. However, little is known about the functional evolution of this important biochrome through deep time, owing to our limited ability to unambiguously identify traces of it in the fossil record. Here we present direct chemical evidence of pigmentation in fossilized skin, from three distantly related marine reptiles: a leatherback turtle, a mosasaur and an ichthyosaur. We demonstrate that dark traces of soft tissue in these fossils are dominated by molecularly preserved eumelanin, in intimate association with fossilized melanosomes. In addition, we suggest that contrary to the countershading of many pelagic animals, at least some ichthyosaurs were uniformly dark-coloured in life. Our analyses expand current knowledge of pigmentation in fossil integument beyond that of feathers, allowing for the reconstruction of colour over much greater ranges of extinct taxa and anatomy. In turn, our results provide evidence of convergent melanism in three disparate lineages of secondarily aquatic tetrapods. Based on extant marine analogues, we propose that the benefits of thermoregulation and/or crypsis are likely to have contributed to this melanisation, with the former having implications for the ability of each group to exploit cold environments. PMID:24402224

  3. Reliable DNA barcoding performance proved for species and island populations of comoran squamate reptiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Hawlitschek

    Full Text Available In the past decade, DNA barcoding became increasingly common as a method for species identification in biodiversity inventories and related studies. However, mainly due to technical obstacles, squamate reptiles have been the target of few barcoding studies. In this article, we present the results of a DNA barcoding study of squamates of the Comoros archipelago, a poorly studied group of oceanic islands close to and mostly colonized from Madagascar. The barcoding dataset presented here includes 27 of the 29 currently recognized squamate species of the Comoros, including 17 of the 18 endemic species. Some species considered endemic to the Comoros according to current taxonomy were found to cluster with non-Comoran lineages, probably due to poorly resolved taxonomy. All other species for which more than one barcode was obtained corresponded to distinct clusters useful for species identification by barcoding. In most species, even island populations could be distinguished using barcoding. Two cryptic species were identified using the DNA barcoding approach. The obtained barcoding topology, a Bayesian tree based on COI sequences of 5 genera, was compared with available multigene topologies, and in 3 cases, major incongruences between the two topologies became evident. Three of the multigene studies were initiated after initial screening of a preliminary version of the barcoding dataset presented here. We conclude that in the case of the squamates of the Comoros Islands, DNA barcoding has proven a very useful and efficient way of detecting isolated populations and promising starting points for subsequent research.

  4. Anfibios y reptiles del valle del Mezquital, Hidalgo, México Amphibians and reptiles from the Valle del Mezquital, Hidalgo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Fernández-Badillo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El valle del Mezquital, Hidalgo, México, es un área de gran riqueza biológica; sin embargo, se desconoce mucho sobre su herpetofauna, por lo que se realizó una lista de anfibios y reptiles de 3 zonas del valle. Se analizó su distribución por tipo de vegetación, se registraron los microhábitats utilizados, así como la abundancia relativa. Se llevaron a cabo 12 salidas mensuales durante 1 año, con 108 días de muestreo. Se realizaron recorridos sobre transectos, en 9 tipos de vegetación. La herpetofauna del área de estudio está integrada por 37 especies (7 anfibios y 30 reptiles, de las cuales 8 se registran por primera vez para el valle del Mezquital. La mayoría de las especies se presentaron en las zonas de cultivo (26, 14 especies en los de la zona templada y 13 en los de la zona de riego. La herpetofauna del valle del Mezquital utiliza un total de 27 tipos de microhábitats, siendo "bajo roca" donde se registró el mayor número de especies (22. La mayoría de las especies tanto de anfibios como de reptiles fueron consideradas raras.Valle del Mezquital Hidalgo, Mexico is known for its high biological richness, but little is known about its herpetofauna. A study to list the amphibians and reptiles of 3 different zones at the Valle del Mezquital was carried out. We analyzed their distribution in different types of vegetation, their microhabitat and relative abundance in 12 monthly trips during 1 year for a total of 108 days. We sampled transects over 9 types of vegetation. Thirty species have been reported for this area (7 amphibians, 30 reptiles, 8 reported for the first time from Valle del Mezquital. Most of the species were present within crops (26, 14 within the temperate zone and 13 within the irrigation zone. The herpetofauna at Valle del Mezquital uses 27 different microhabitat, being "under rock" the most used by 22 species. Most of the species, both amphibians and reptiles were considered rare.

  5. Challenges in evaluating the impact of the trade in amphibians and reptiles on wild populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, Martin A.; Hoover, Craig; Dodd, C. Kenneth, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Amphibians and reptiles are taken from the wild and sold commercially as food, pets, and traditional medicines. The overcollecting of some species highlights the need to assess the trade and ensure that it is not contributing to declines in wild populations. Unlike most countries, the United States tracks the imports and exports of all amphibians and reptiles. Records from 1998 to 2002 reveal a US trade of several million wild-caught amphibians and reptiles each year, although many shipments are not recorded at the species level. The magnitude and content of the global commercial trade carries even greater unknowns. The absence of accurate trade and biological information for most species makes it difficult to establish whether current take levels are sustainable. The void of information also implies that population declines due to overcollecting could be going undetected. Policy changes to acquire baseline biological information and ensure a sustainable trade are urgently needed.

  6. Climate warming and the decline of amphibians and reptiles in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araújo, Miguel B.; Thuiller, W.; Pearson, R. G.

    2006-01-01

    Aim We explore the relationship between current European distributions of amphibian and reptile species and observed climate, and project species potential distributions into the future. Potential impacts of climate warming are assessed by quantifying the magnitude and direction of modelled...... distributional shifts for every species. In particular we ask, first, what proportion of amphibian and reptile species are projected to lose and gain suitable climate space in the future? Secondly, do species projections vary according to taxonomic, spatial or environmental properties? And thirdly, what climate...... of forecasts is then used to group linearly covarying projections into clusters with reduced inter-model variability. Results We show that a great proportion of amphibian and reptile species are projected to expand distributions if dispersal is unlimited. This is because warming in the cooler northern ranges...

  7. Biodiversity and Sequence of the Middle Triassic Panxian Marine Reptile Fauna,Guizhou Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Dayong; Ryosuke MOTANI; HAO Weicheng; Olivier RIEPPEL; SUN Yuanlin; Andrea TINTORI; SUN Zuoyu; Lars SCHMITZ

    2009-01-01

    The Middle Triassic Panxian fauna is a physical marker and representative record of the rapid recovery of the Triassic marine ecosystem following the Early Triassic stagnant stage after the end-Permian nlass extinction.Ten marine reptile taxa have been found from the 1.82-2.10 m-thick fossiliferous level in the Upper Member of the Guanling Formation,which can be subdivided into three marine reptile beds through the analysis on the stratigraphic distributions of fossil reptiles.The Lower Reptile Bed yields the sauropterygians Placodus inexpectatus Jiang et al.,2008 and Lariosaurus hongguoensis Jiang et al.,2006,the ichthyopterygians Xinminosaurus catactes Jiang et al.,2008 and Phalarodon cf.Phalarodon fraasi Merriam,1910,associated with Mixosaurus panxmnensis Jiang et al.,2006,representing a stage of predominance of durophagous taxa.In this bed,the large complete skeletons may reach up to 2.3 m in length,and lithofacies and chemostratigraphic analyses indicate a relatively deep carbonate platform with an oxic water environment near the bottom,as well as a rising sea level.The Middle Reptile Bed yields the sauropterygian Nothosaurus yangjuanensis Jiang et al.,2006 and the archosaur Qianosuchus mixtus Li et al.,2006,associated with Mixosaurus panxmnensisJiang et al..2006.The fossils in this bed are characterized by its pincering dentition and Iarge overall body size,with the largest possibly exceeding 3 m in length.This bed might represent a time of deepest basin with relatively anoxic condition near the bottom.The Upper Reptile Bed yields the sauropterygians Wumengosaurus delicatomandibularis Jiang et al.,2008,Keichousaurus sp.,the protorosaur Dinocephalosaurus orientalis Li,2003,and the iehthyopterygian Mixosaurus panxlanensis Jiang et al.,2006.In this bed,reptilian taxa characterized by suction feeding appeared,and most are less than 1 m long.This bed corresponds to a period of decreasing water depth.

  8. L'anesthésie générale des reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Sébastien

    2003-01-01

    La médicalisation des reptiles, nouveaux animaux de compagnie, va croissante. La prise en charge de tels patients suppose l'adaptation des connaissances des vétérinaires tant dans les domaines de la médecine que de la chirurgie. L'anesthésie générale des reptiles devient alors un enjeu important pour la bonne réalisation des actes chirurgicaux, mais aussi des examens cliniques des animaux les plus rétifs ou dangereux. Ce travail bibliographique aborde, dans une première partie, les particular...

  9. Apuntes sobre el Abordamiento Terapéutico Antimicrobiano en Reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Rojas-Santos

    2012-01-01

    Los reptiles, por sus características fisiológicas, anatómicas y biológicas, son pacientes de especial atención al momento de iniciar un tratamiento farmacológico. La forma como se aloja  el animal y el tipo de producto farmacéutico elegido son definitivos para el éxito de una terapia. Aunque los estudios en la efectividad de antimicrobianos en reptiles son escasos, se presentan aquí notas de la literatura disponible y algunos estudios sobre el tema.

  10. Reptiles in municipality of Duque de Caxias, Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Oliveira Lula Salles

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Duque de Caxias municipality is located in the Fluminense lowland, Rio de Janeiro state, in the Ombrophilous Atlantic Rain Forest domain. The local herpetofauna was widely studied in the 40’s, but a general list of the species for the municipality was never made. From August 2006 to October 2009, we carried out field expeditions, searching for and collecting reptiles mainly at night time. Besides the visual active search method, we also verified records of species in scientific literature and of specimens housed in zoological collections. Altogether, 53 species of reptiles of the Orders Crododylia, Squamata and Testudines occur within the borders of Duque de Caxias municipality.

  11. Salmonella causada por reptiles y anfibios en guarderías (Salmonella Infections Caused by Reptiles and Amphibians in Childcare Centers)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-07

    Traducción al español de la entrevista con el Dr. Neil Vora, funcionario del EIS de los CDC, sobre su artículo acerca de las infecciones por Salmonella causadas por reptiles y anfibios en guarderías.  Created: 2/7/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/26/2013.

  12. Conservation status assessment of the amphibians and reptiles of Uruguay Evaluación del estado de conservación de los anfibios y reptiles del Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Canavero

    Full Text Available The native species of amphibians and reptiles of Uruguay were categorized according to the IUCN Red List criteria. Out of 47 amphibian species, seven are listed as Critically Endangered (CR, five as Endangered (EN, one as Vulnerable (VU, three as Near Threatened (NT, and two as Data Deficient (DD; the remaining species are considered to be Least Concern (LC. Among the 64 species of reptiles evaluated, one is listed as Critically Endangered (CR, seven as Endangered (EN, two as Vulnerable (VU, one as Near Threatened (NT and seven as Data Deficient (DD; the rest are considered to be Least Concern (LC. The use of these results as an additional criterion in the definition of protected areas in Uruguay will contribute towards the conservation of the aforementioned threatened species and their associated ecosystems.Las especies nativas de anfibios y reptiles de Uruguay fueron categorizadas de acuerdo a los criterios de la Lista Roja de UICN. De las 47 especies de anfibios, siete se encuentran En Peligro Crítico (CR, cinco En Peligro (EN, una Vulnerable (VU, tres Casi Amenazadas (NT, y dos con Datos Deficientes (DD; las especies restantes son consideradas como Preocupación Menor (LC. Entre las 64 especies de reptiles evaluados, una se encuentra en Peligro Crítico (CR, siete En Peligro (EN, dos como Vulnerables (VU, una Casi Amenazadas (NT y siete con Datos Deficientes (DD; las especies restantes son consideradas como Preocupación Menor (LC. El uso de estos resultados como un criterio adicional en la definición de áreas protegidas en Uruguay contribuirá hacia la conservación de dichas especies amenazadas y sus ecosistemas asociados.

  13. Alternative Conceptions in Animal Classification Focusing on Amphibians and Reptiles: A Cross-Age Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chiung-Fen; Yao, Tsung-Wei; Chiu, Yu-Chih

    2004-01-01

    This study examined students' alternative conceptions of reptiles and amphibians and the extent to which these conceptions remain intact through the elementary (grades 4 and 6), junior, and senior high school years. We administered multiple-choice and free-response instruments to a total of 513 students and interviewed at least 20 students at each…

  14. ROLE OF AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES IN CREATION OF AN ECOLOGICAL BUFFER AGAINST TECHNOGENIC POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    V. L. Bulakhov; V. Y. Gasso

    2008-01-01

    It has shown that fossorial activity of common spadefoot Pelobates fuscus (Laurenti, 1768) under conditions of heavy metals pollution of soils is able to reduce the level of the metals in soil. Tropho-metabolic activity (faeces excretion) of amphibians ( P. fuscus ) and reptiles (sand lizard Lacerta agilis Linnaeus, 1758) decreases the content of heavy metals in soils.

  15. Reptile and arboreal marsupial response to replanted vegetation in agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Ross B; Lindenmayer, David B; Crane, Mason; Michael, Damian; MacGregor, Christopher

    2007-03-01

    We report reptile and arboreal marsupial responses to vegetation planting and remnant native vegetation in agricultural landscapes in southeastern Australia. We used a hierarchical survey to select 23 landscapes that varied in the amounts of remnant native vegetation and planted native vegetation. We selected two farms within each landscape. In landscapes with plantings, we selected one farm with and one farm without plantings. We surveyed arboreal marsupials and reptiles on four sites on each farm that encompassed four vegetation types (plantings 7-20 years old, old-growth woodland, naturally occurring seedling regrowth woodland, and coppice [i.e., multistemmed] regrowth woodland). Reptiles and arboreal marsupials were less likely to occur on farms and in landscapes with comparatively large areas of plantings. Such farms and landscapes had less native vegetation, fewer paddock trees, and less woody debris within those areas of natural vegetation. The relatively large area of planting on these farms was insufficient to overcome the lack of these key structural attributes. Old-growth woodland, coppice regrowth, seedling regrowth, and planted areas had different habitat values for different reptiles and arboreal marsupials. We conclude that, although plantings may improve habitat conditions for some taxa, they may not effectively offset the negative effects of native vegetation clearing for all species, especially those reliant on old-growth woodland. Restoring suitable habitat for such species may take decades to centuries.

  16. The protection of amphibians and reptiles in the Russian Far East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Maslova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Data on the distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the Russian Far East in the reserves and national parks of federal importance are presented, as well as the information on the representation of these groups of animals in regional Red Data Books and the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation is provided.

  17. Reptile Toll-like receptor 5 unveils adaptive evolution of bacterial flagellin recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogdt, Carlos G.P.; Bouwman, Lieneke I.; Kik, Marja J.L.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Putten, Van Jos P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are ancient innate immune receptors crucial for immune homeostasis and protection against infection. TLRs are present in mammals, birds, amphibians and fish but have not been functionally characterized in reptiles despite the central position of this animal class in vert

  18. USE OF REPTILES BETWEEN YOREMES AND YORIS IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF EL FUERTE, SINALOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Pascual-Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to an ethnozoological study about the use of wild vertebrate in 11 indigenous communities of the municipality of El Fuerte, Sinaloa, México, the reptiles were the third group the of local wildlife most used after birds and mammals. The purpose of this study was to characterize and describe the use of wild reptiles that are hunted both indigenous (called Yoremes and mestizo people (called Yoris. 58% of hunters belonged to the May-Yoreme ethnicity, and the rest were mestizos. Nine species of reptiles, of which 44% are in a risk category, were recorded. The hunters said they hunted between one and three species, which were recorded for up to five uses, of which the most common were food, medicinal and handcrafts. The most important species were the rattlesnake, green and black iguanas, although evidence for food use Turtle River, and to a lesser extent, the olive ridley turtle is endangered found. Knowledge of the hunted species of reptiles and their uses will take another step towards managing cultural and subsistence harvesting in indigenous communities in northern Sinaloa.

  19. Considering native and exotic terrestrial reptiles in island invasive species eradication programmes in the Tropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Richard N.

    2010-01-01

    Most island restoration projects with reptiles, either as direct beneficiaries of conservation or as indicators of recovery responses, have been on temperate or xeric islands. There have been decades of research, particularly on temperate islands in New Zealand, on the responses of native reptiles to mammal eradications but very few studies in tropical insular systems. Recent increases in restoration projects involving feral mammal eradications in the tropical Pacific have led to several specific challenges related to native and invasive reptiles. This paper reviews these challenges and discusses some potential solutions to them. The first challenge is that the tropical Pacific herpetofauna is still being discovered, described and understood. There is thus incomplete knowledge of how eradication activities may affect these faunas and the potential risks facing critical populations of these species from these eradication actions. The long term benefit of the removal of invasives is beneficial, but the possible short term impacts to small populations on small islands might be significant. The second challenge is that protocols for monitoring the responses of these species are not well documented but are often different from those used in temperate or xeric habitats. Lizard monitoring techniques used in the tropical Pacific are discussed. The third challenge involves invasive reptiles already in the tropical Pacific, some of which could easily spread accidentally through eradication and monitoring operations. The species posing the greatest threats in this respect are reviewed, and recommendations for biosecurity concerning these taxa are made.

  20. A new marine reptile from the Triassic of China, with a highly specialized feeding adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Long; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Shang, Qing-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Chun

    2014-03-01

    The Luoping fauna (Anisian, Middle Triassic) is probably the oldest of Triassic faunas in Guizhou-Yunnan area, China. The reptilian assemblage is comprised of ichthyosaurs, a number of sauropterygians (pachypleurosaur-like forms), saurosphargids, protorosaurs, and archosauriforms. Here, we report on a peculiar reptile, newly found in this fauna. Its dentition is fence or comb-like and bears more than 175 pleurodont teeth in each ramus of the upper and lower jaws, tooth crown is needle-like distally and blade-shaped proximally; its rostrum strongly bends downward and the anterior end of its mandible expands both dorsally and ventrally to form a shovel-headed structure; and its ungual phalanges are hoof-shaped. The specializations of the jaws and dentition indicate that the reptile may have been adapted to a way of bottom-filter feeding in water. It is obvious that such delicate teeth are not strong enough to catch prey, but were probably used as a barrier to filter microorganisms or benthic invertebrates such as sea worms. These were collected by the specialized jaws, which may have functioned as a shovel or pushdozer (the mandible) and a grasper or scratcher (the rostrum). Our preliminary analysis suggests that the new reptile might be more closely related to the Sauropterygia than to other marine reptiles.

  1. The aggressive invasion of exotic reptiles in Florida with a focus on prominent species: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard ENGEMAN, Elliott JACOBSON, Michael L. AVERY

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Florida, along with Hawaii, has among the two worst invasive species problems in the USA, and the state is especially susceptible to establishment by alien reptiles. Besides the large numbers of established non-native reptile species in Florida, many of these species present novel difficulties for management, or have other characteristics making effective management extremely challenging. Moreover, initiation of management action requires more than recognition by experts that a potentially harmful species has become established. It also requires the political will along with concomitant resources and appropriate personnel to develop effective methods and apply them. We review the situation in Florida, including assessment of risk for establishment, and we use a subset of prominent species to illustrate in more detail the array of invasive reptile species circumstances in Florida, including routes of introduction, impacts, and potential and implemented management actions. These examples not only highlight the severity of the invasive reptile problems in the state, but they also show the diversity in resolve and response towards them and the motivating factors [Current Zoology 57 (5: 599–612, 2011].

  2. Framework for assessment and monitoring of amphibians and reptiles in the Lower Urubamba region, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icochea, Javier; Quispitupac, Eliana; Portilla, Alfredo; Ponce, Elias

    2002-05-01

    Populations of amphibians and reptiles are experiencing new or increasing threats to their survival. Many of these threats are directly attributable to human activity and resource development. This presents the increasing need for worldwide amphibian and reptile assessments and effective, standardized monitoring protocols. Adaptive management techniques can assist managers in identifying and mitigating threats to amphibian and reptile populations. In 1996, Shell Prospecting and Development, Peru initiated a natural gas exploration project in the rainforest of southeastern Peru. The Smithsonian Institution's Monitoring and Assessment of Biodiversity Program worked closely with Shell engineers and managers to establish an adaptive management program to protect the region's biodiversity. In this manuscript, we discuss the steps we took to establish an adaptive management program for amphibian and reptile communities in the region. We define and outline the conceptual issues involved in establishing an assessment and monitoring program, including setting objectives, evaluating the results and making appropriate decisions. We also provide results from the assessment and discuss the appropriateness and effectiveness of protocols and criteria used for selecting species to monitor. PMID:12125750

  3. Evaluation of the infectivity of Trichinella spp. for reptiles (Caiman sclerops)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C.M.O.; Webster, P.; Bjørn, H.;

    1998-01-01

    Experimental inoculation with nine well-characterised Trichinella isolates was performed on caimans (Caiman sclerops) to determine their infectivity for reptiles belonging to the family Crocodilidae. As controls, the same larval batches of Trichinella isolates were inoculated into mice and guinea...... recent report on infections in farmed crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus)....

  4. Description of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov., isolated from humans and reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of 13 Campylobacter fetus-like isolates from humans (n=8) and reptiles (n=5). Phenotypic characterization, Genusgenus-specific and sap insertion-PCR initially identified all human isolates as type A Campylobacter fetus. Phylogenet...

  5. Reptiles. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. The ancestors of reptiles date back to the dinosaurs. After the dinosaurs died out, it was one of the best-adapted species that survived and…

  6. The aggressive invasion of exotic reptiles in Florida with a focus on prominent species: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard ENGEMAN; Elliott JACOBSON; Michael L. AVERY; Walter E. MESHAKA

    2011-01-01

    Florida,along with Hawaii,has among the two worst invasive species problems in the USA,and the state is especially susceptible to establishment by alien reptiles.Besides the large numbers of established non-native reptile species in Florida,many of these species present novel difficulties for management,or have other characteristics making effective management extremely challenging.Moreover,initiation of management action requires more than recognition by experts that a potentially harmful species has become established.It also requires the political will along with concomitant resources and appropriate personnel to develop effective methods and apply them.We review the situation in Florida,including assessment of risk for establishment,and we use a subset of prominent species to illustrate in more detail the array of invasive reptile species circumstances in Florida,including routes of introduction,impacts,and potential and implemented management actions.These examples not only highlight the severity of the invasive reptile problems in the state,but they also show the diversity in resolve and response towards them and the motivating factors [Current Zoology 57 (5):599-612,2011].

  7. Microscopic and molecular characterization of Hepatozoon domerguei (Apicomplexa and Foleyella furcata (Nematoda in wild endemic reptiles from Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia João P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Madagascar is one of the world’s top twelve “megadiversity” hot spots hosting unique and threatened flora and fauna. Parasites are a major component of biodiversity but remain largely uncharacterized in wildlife. In this study we combine microscopic and molecular assessment of hemoparasites in endemic reptile species from Madagascar. We detected three distinct parasites: the apicomplexans Hepatozoon and Sarcocystis, and filarial nematodes. The prevalence and intensity of these apicomplexans were low overall, while microfilarial infections in chameleons were relatively high. We detected mixed infections of two Hepatozoon haplotypes in Madagascarophis colubrinus, and of Hepatozoon and microfilariae in a Furcifer sp. Phylogenetic analyses of Hepatozoon showed evidence of prey-predator transmission, with identical sequences found in the snakes M. colubrinus and Ithycyphus oursi, and their prey Furcifer sp. Based on previous studies regarding the life cycle of Hepatozoon domerguei Landau, Chabaud, Michel, and Brygoo, 1970 in these hosts and due to their morphological similarity, we propose that this Hepatozoon haplotype is Hepatozoon domerguei. Future studies, including the examination of invertebrate hosts, are needed to verify this preliminary taxonomic identification. A distinct hemogregarine haplotype was found in Oplurus sp., which displayed morphologically different gametocytes, some of which were apparently inside leukocytes. The Sarcocystis identified from Tracheloptychus petersi was identical to that reported in a North African snake, indicating that the same lineage is found in geographically distinct regions. By combining morphological and genetic information, Foleyella furcata (Linstow, 1899 filarial nematodes were identified in several Furcifer chameleons. This study provides insights into the distribution, diversity and host-parasite interactions of hemoparasites in wild reptile populations from Madagascar.

  8. Climatic Inferences from Extant and Fossil Reptiles: Toward a Metabolic Paleothermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    The fossil record of Cenozoic reptiles represents an underutilized dataset for estimating paleoclimate. Maximum body sizes in poikilothermic taxa are ultimately limited by a critical minimum ambient temperature below which metabolism cannot be maintained for a given mass-specific metabolic rate, and the relationship between environmental temperature and body size in extant reptiles provides a model for inferring paleotemperatures from sizes of fossil taxa. Body size changes with latitude in modern reptiles, consistent with a model that predicts proportionality of size with temperature. The model is derived to calculate past temperatures by comparing body sizes in fossil reptiles with maximum sizes in extant reptiles at a given Mean Annual Temperatures (MAT), assuming similar ecologies and appropriate mass-specific metabolic rates for both modern and fossil taxa. Phylogenetic constraint minimizes such assumptions, and multi-taxon sampling increases the robustness of estimates for a given ecology or depositional environment. This metabolic paleothermometer was used to estimate past temperatures through the Cenozoic by comparing maximum body sizes of extant turtles, crocodilians, and snakes from aquatic environments at known mass- specific metabolic rates for modern MATs with Paleogene and Neogene herpetofaunas from North American and equatorial South America. Maximum body sizes of Paleogene equatorial snakes and turtles demonstrate high Neotropical MATs, and stratigraphic histories of sizes change in North American trionychid turtles reflect MAT changes during the Paleogene Thermal Maximum. Multi-taxon temperature estimates of the Neotropics during the late Miocene indicate high MATs equivalent to Paleogene values, and suggest that hot equatorial climates persisted during the beginning of the late Neogene global cooling event.

  9. Reptiles as potential vectors and hosts of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Vanessa L; Ibáñez, Roberto; Green, David M

    2011-12-01

    Chytridiomycosis, the disease caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, is considered to be a disease exclusively of amphibians. However, B. dendrobatidis may also be capable of persisting in the environment, and non-amphibian vectors or hosts may contribute to disease transmission. Reptiles living in close proximity to amphibians and sharing similar ecological traits could serve as vectors or reservoir hosts for B. dendrobatidis, harbouring the organism on their skin without succumbing to disease. We surveyed for the presence of B. dendrobatidis DNA among 211 lizards and 8 snakes at 8 sites at varying elevations in Panama where the syntopic amphibians were at pre-epizootic, epizootic or post-epizootic stages of chytridiomycosis. Detection of B. dendrobatidis DNA was done using qPCR analysis. Evidence of the amphibian pathogen was present at varying intensities in 29 of 79 examined Anolis humilis lizards (32%) and 9 of 101 A. lionotus lizards (9%), and in one individual each of the snakes Pliocercus euryzonus, Imantodes cenchoa, and Nothopsis rugosus. In general, B. dendrobatidis DNA prevalence among reptiles was positively correlated with the infection prevalence among co-occurring anuran amphibians at any particular site (r = 0.88, p = 0.004). These reptiles, therefore, may likely be vectors or reservoir hosts for B. dendrobatidis and could serve as disease transmission agents. Although there is no evidence of B. dendrobatidis disease-induced declines in reptiles, cases of coincidence of reptile and amphibian declines suggest this potentiality. Our study is the first to provide evidence of non-amphibian carriers for B. dendrobatidis in a natural Neotropical environment.

  10. A survey of amphibians and reptiles in Chu Mom Ray National Park, Vietnam, with implications for herpetofaunal conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jestrzemski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A herpetological survey was conducted in spring 2012 in the eastern part of Chu Mom Ray National Park, Kon Tum Province, southern Vietnam, to create a first inventory list of amphibians and reptiles and record threats to the local herpetocommunity. We also evaluated the efficiency of two faunistic inventory methods, drift fences and transect visual encounter surveys, in detecting reptiles and amphibians under the given circumstances. Five drift fence arrays with pitfalls and double-ended funnel traps were set up in lowland evergreen forest at elevations from 777 to 846 m a.s.l. and monitored over 40 nights. Additionally, 22 night excursions were conducted along an adjacent forest stream transect. A total of 62 species of amphibians and reptiles were recorded, comprising 24 anurans, one caecilian, 20 lizards, 16 snakes and one freshwater turtle. Because all specimens were released after capture in the field, proper identification and taxonomic revision are required for at least ten recorded amphibian and six reptile species. Four species are listed in the Vietnam Red Data Book (2007 and two species are listed in the Governmental Decree No32/2006/ND-CP (2006. In terms of distribution patterns, old-growth forest habitat harbored the highest number of recorded reptiles and amphibians (41 species, followed by open land (18 species and secondary forest (14 species. Most species were captured opportunistically (34, followed by the drift fences (29 and transect night surveys (18. Opportunistic encounters provided for most reptiles (22, while most amphibians were recorded at the drift fence arrays (15. Poaching of wildlife proved to be the major threat to the local herpetofauna, in particular large reptiles. In the study area, reptiles and amphibians are also at risk from habitat loss and degradation. Recommendations for reptile and amphibian conservation are provided.

  11. Eaten out of house and home: impacts of grazing on ground-dwelling reptiles in Australian grasslands and grassy woodlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Howland

    Full Text Available Large mammalian grazers can alter the biotic and abiotic features of their environment through their impacts on vegetation. Grazing at moderate intensity has been recommended for biodiversity conservation. Few studies, however, have empirically tested the benefits of moderate grazing intensity in systems dominated by native grazers. Here we investigated the relationship between (1 density of native eastern grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, and grass structure, and (2 grass structure and reptiles (i.e. abundance, richness, diversity and occurrence across 18 grassland and grassy Eucalyptus woodland properties in south-eastern Australia. There was a strong negative relationship between kangaroo density and grass structure after controlling for tree canopy cover. We therefore used grass structure as a surrogate for grazing intensity. Changes in grazing intensity (i.e. grass structure significantly affected reptile abundance, reptile species richness, reptile species diversity, and the occurrence of several ground-dwelling reptiles. Reptile abundance, species richness and diversity were highest where grazing intensity was low. Importantly, no species of reptile was more likely to occur at high grazing intensities. Legless lizards (Delma impar, D. inornata were more likely to be detected in areas subject to moderate grazing intensity, whereas one species (Hemiergis talbingoensis was less likely to be detected in areas subject to intense grazing and three species (Menetia greyii, Morethia boulengeri, and Lampropholis delicata did not appear to be affected by grazing intensity. Our data indicate that to maximize reptile abundance, species richness, species diversity, and occurrence of several individual species of reptile, managers will need to subject different areas of the landscape to moderate and low grazing intensities and limit the occurrence and extent of high grazing.

  12. Eaten out of house and home: impacts of grazing on ground-dwelling reptiles in Australian grasslands and grassy woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Brett; Stojanovic, Dejan; Gordon, Iain J; Manning, Adrian D; Fletcher, Don; Lindenmayer, David B

    2014-01-01

    Large mammalian grazers can alter the biotic and abiotic features of their environment through their impacts on vegetation. Grazing at moderate intensity has been recommended for biodiversity conservation. Few studies, however, have empirically tested the benefits of moderate grazing intensity in systems dominated by native grazers. Here we investigated the relationship between (1) density of native eastern grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, and grass structure, and (2) grass structure and reptiles (i.e. abundance, richness, diversity and occurrence) across 18 grassland and grassy Eucalyptus woodland properties in south-eastern Australia. There was a strong negative relationship between kangaroo density and grass structure after controlling for tree canopy cover. We therefore used grass structure as a surrogate for grazing intensity. Changes in grazing intensity (i.e. grass structure) significantly affected reptile abundance, reptile species richness, reptile species diversity, and the occurrence of several ground-dwelling reptiles. Reptile abundance, species richness and diversity were highest where grazing intensity was low. Importantly, no species of reptile was more likely to occur at high grazing intensities. Legless lizards (Delma impar, D. inornata) were more likely to be detected in areas subject to moderate grazing intensity, whereas one species (Hemiergis talbingoensis) was less likely to be detected in areas subject to intense grazing and three species (Menetia greyii, Morethia boulengeri, and Lampropholis delicata) did not appear to be affected by grazing intensity. Our data indicate that to maximize reptile abundance, species richness, species diversity, and occurrence of several individual species of reptile, managers will need to subject different areas of the landscape to moderate and low grazing intensities and limit the occurrence and extent of high grazing. PMID:25501680

  13. Evaluating spatial patterns of dioxins in sediments to aid determination of potential implications for marine reptiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanussen, S.; Gaus, C. [National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, Brisbane (Australia); Limpus, C.J. [Queensland Environmental Protection Agency, Brisbane (Australia); Paepke, O. [ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg (Germany); Blanshard, W. [Sea World, Gold Coast (Australia); Connell, D. [School of Public Health, Griffith Univ., Brisbane (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    Recent investigations have identified elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (dioxins) in marine sediments and wildlife of Queensland, Australia. While it has been demonstrated that the contamination is widespread and predominantly land-based, limited information exists on the pathways and fate of these compounds within the near-shore marine system. This environment supports unique and threatened species including green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). Adult green turtles are predominantly herbivorous, feeding on seagrass and algae. Apart from initial migration to feeding grounds (at {proportional_to}10 years of age) and intermittent migrations to breeding grounds (at {proportional_to}30-50 years and thereafter), green turtles remain and feed within relatively small home ranges. Long life-span (50 years or more), near-shore feeding grounds and highly specialized food requirements render green turtles potentially vulnerable to contaminant exposure. Recent studies have shown a relationship between PCDD/F concentrations found in herbivorous marine wildlife and concentrations in sediments of their habitats. Hence, the spatial evaluation of sediment PCDD/F distribution may assist the assessment of green turtle exposure and its potential implications. The present study provides baseline information on green turtle PCDD/F concentrations in Queensland, Australia and investigates exposure pathways. In addition, spatial distribution of PCDD/Fs in sediments from known green turtle feeding regions is assessed using geographic information systems. This represents the first stage of a large scale investigation into the exposure and sensitivity of marine reptiles to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and to evaluate whether poor health status observed in some populations may be related to contaminant exposure.

  14. El Weald de Igea (Cameros - La Rioja. Sedimentología, Bioestratigrafía y Paleoicnología de grandes reptiles (Dinosaurios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUIRREZABALA, L.M., TORRES, J.A., VIERA, L.I.

    1985-01-01

    Caracterizamos el medio, para esta Formación, en base al estudio bioestratigráfico de la macro y microfauna aquí presente, precisando, así mismo, las edades de los diferentes tramos. Se aporta un nuevo estudio paleoicnológico de grandes reptiles (Dinosaurios. El conjunto queda relacionado con los yacimientos de Munilla y Enciso, de los que es una clara continuación. Se acompaña una serie de planos de los yacimientos icniológicos.

  15. Identifying bird and reptile vulnerabilities to climate change in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, James R.; Giermakowski, J. Tomasz; Holmes, Jennifer A.; Nowak, Erika M.; Johnson, Matthew J.; Ironside, Kirsten E.; Van Riper, Charles; Peters, Michael; Truettner, Charles; Cole, Kenneth L.

    2016-07-06

    Current and future breeding ranges of 15 bird and 16 reptile species were modeled in the Southwestern United States. Rather than taking a broad-scale, vulnerability-assessment approach, we created a species distribution model (SDM) for each focal species incorporating climatic, landscape, and plant variables. Baseline climate (1940–2009) was characterized with Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) data and future climate with global-circulation-model data under an A1B emission scenario. Climatic variables included monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation; landscape variables included terrain ruggedness, soil type, and insolation; and plant variables included trees and shrubs commonly associated with a focal species. Not all species-distribution models contained a plant, but if they did, we included a built-in annual migration rate for more accurate plant-range projections in 2039 or 2099. We conducted a group meta-analysis to (1) determine how influential each variable class was when averaged across all species distribution models (birds or reptiles), and (2) identify the correlation among contemporary (2009) habitat fragmentation and biological attributes and future range projections (2039 or 2099). Projected changes in bird and reptile ranges varied widely among species, with one-third of the ranges predicted to expand and two-thirds predicted to contract. A group meta-analysis indicated that climatic variables were the most influential variable class when averaged across all models for both groups, followed by landscape and plant variables (birds), or plant and landscape variables (reptiles), respectively. The second part of the meta-analysis indicated that numerous contemporary habitat-fragmentation (for example, patch isolation) and biological-attribute (for example, clutch size, longevity) variables were significantly correlated with the magnitude of projected range changes for birds and reptiles. Patch isolation was

  16. Identifying bird and reptile vulnerabilities to climate change in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, James R.; Giermakowski, J. Tomasz; Holmes, Jennifer A.; Nowak, Erika M.; Johnson, Matthew J.; Ironside, Kirsten E.; Van Riper, Charles, III; Peters, Michael; Truettner, Charles; Cole, Kenneth L.

    2016-01-01

    Current and future breeding ranges of 15 bird and 16 reptile species were modeled in the Southwestern United States. Rather than taking a broad-scale, vulnerability-assessment approach, we created a species distribution model (SDM) for each focal species incorporating climatic, landscape, and plant variables. Baseline climate (1940–2009) was characterized with Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) data and future climate with global-circulation-model data under an A1B emission scenario. Climatic variables included monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation; landscape variables included terrain ruggedness, soil type, and insolation; and plant variables included trees and shrubs commonly associated with a focal species. Not all species-distribution models contained a plant, but if they did, we included a built-in annual migration rate for more accurate plant-range projections in 2039 or 2099. We conducted a group meta-analysis to (1) determine how influential each variable class was when averaged across all species distribution models (birds or reptiles), and (2) identify the correlation among contemporary (2009) habitat fragmentation and biological attributes and future range projections (2039 or 2099). Projected changes in bird and reptile ranges varied widely among species, with one-third of the ranges predicted to expand and two-thirds predicted to contract. A group meta-analysis indicated that climatic variables were the most influential variable class when averaged across all models for both groups, followed by landscape and plant variables (birds), or plant and landscape variables (reptiles), respectively. The second part of the meta-analysis indicated that numerous contemporary habitat-fragmentation (for example, patch isolation) and biological-attribute (for example, clutch size, longevity) variables were significantly correlated with the magnitude of projected range changes for birds and reptiles. Patch isolation was

  17. Reptile Distribution and Habitat, Published in 1997, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, Off.of Admin - ITSD.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Reptile Distribution and Habitat dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1997. Data by this...

  18. An inventory of mammals, birds and reptiles along a section of the river and banks of upper Ganges, India

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir, T; S. K. Behera; A. Khan; Gautam, P

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess faunal diversity along a 165-km stretch of the upper Ganges River between Bijnor and Narora cities, Uttar Pradesh, from January to June 2007. Both river and bank species diversity of reptiles, birds and mammals using a combination of boat surveys, linear walks and random searches were inventoried. Presence of 18 species of mammals, 55 species of birds and 13 species of reptiles were recorded from the river stretch including 16 species of global conservation s...

  19. Reptiles escamosos (Squamata) del Pleistoceno Medio del Norte de la ciudad de Mar del Plata (provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Brizuela; Marcos M. Cenizo; Daniel A. Tassara

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we describe two fossil remains of squamate reptiles found in Middle Pleistocene outcrops at the northern marine cliffs of the city of Mar del Plata (Buenos Aires province). The specimens were found forming a taphocenosis with remains of other microvertebrates (amphibians, mammals and birds). The reptiles recognized in the association are represented by remains of an undetermined colubrid, and the anguid Ophiodes sp. This latter finding represents the first fossil record for th...

  20. Osteomyelitis in a Paleozoic reptile: ancient evidence for bacterial infection and its evolutionary significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisz, Robert R.; Scott, Diane M.; Pynn, Bruce R.; Modesto, Sean P.

    2011-06-01

    We report on dental and mandibular pathology in Labidosaurus hamatus, a 275 million-year-old terrestrial reptile from North America and associate it with bacterial infection in an organism that is characterized by reduced tooth replacement. Analysis of the surface and internal mandibular structure using mechanical and CT-scanning techniques permits the reconstruction of events that led to the pathology and the possible death of the individual. The infection probably occurred as a result of prolonged exposure of the dental pulp cavity to oral bacteria, and this exposure was caused by injury to the tooth in an animal that is characterized by reduced tooth replacement cycles. In these early reptiles, the reduction in tooth replacement is an evolutionary innovation associated with strong implantation and increased oral processing. The dental abscess observed in L. hamatus, the oldest known infection in a terrestrial vertebrate, provides clear evidence of the ancient association between terrestrial vertebrates and their oral bacteria.

  1. Hematología y citología sanguínea en reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Silvestre, A.; Cuenca Valera, Rafaela

    2011-01-01

    Los reptiles son un grupo de animales cada vez más comunes en la consulta veterinaria. En estas especies, muchas herramientas diagnósticas están en fases descriptivas, entre ellas el diagnóstico hematológico y la citología sanguínea. Este artículo analiza las células sanguíneas descritas en reptiles: eritrocito, heterófilo, eosinófilo, basófilo, monocito, azurófilos y trombocito. También se expone la utilización de valores hematológicos como el hematocrito, recuentos totales, hemoglobina e ín...

  2. Diets and abundances of aquatic and semi-aquatic reptiles in the Alligator Rivers Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mining and milling of uranium in the Alligator River Region in the Northern Territory has raised the possibility that heavy metals and radionuclides might escape into the aquatic system and be accumulated by the reptilian fauna. Aquatic and semi-aquatic reptiles are regularly eaten by Aboriginal people of the region, and data on diets and reproduction of these species, as well as on their dispersion and abundance, are essential before the possibility that reptiles might act as pathways for these contaminants to Aboriginals can be assessed. The objectives of this study were to provide quantitative data on the diets of filesnakes, sand goannas and water goannas, to provide information on seasonal changes in their abundance and distribution within the Magela Creek system; and to describe their reproductive cycles

  3. amphibians and reptiles of luzon island, philippines, Ⅵ:the herpetofauna of the subic bay area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    we present detailed species accounts for 55 species of amphibians and reptiles (14 species of frogs,24 snakes,16 lizards,one turtle) from 24 localities in the vicinity of subic bay,southern zambales province,luzon island,philippines.although we note numerous species that are conspicuously absent in subic bay (and which we expect will eventually be recorded in the region),our many new records plus a summary of the available historical museum specimen data depict a diverse subset of species diversity known from the southern zambales mountains of southwestern luzon.we compare our data to several other recent herpetofunal surveys from luzon,discuss biogeographic regionalism of this complex island,and report on numerous new natural history observations for many included species.with the absence of any protected areas in the entire province,the amphibians and reptiles of zambales should be a particularly important future conservation priority.

  4. FOSSIL REPTILES FROM THE PLEISTOCENE HOMO-BEARING LOCALITY OF BUIA (ERITREA, NORTHERN DANAKIL DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MASSIMO DELFINO

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The early to early-Middle Pleistocene fossil assemblage form the Buia area (Northern Danakil Depression, Eritrea hosts, along with Homo and several other large mammal taxa, the following reptiles: Nile Crocodile, Crocodylus niloticus, Serrated Hinged Terrapin, Pelusios cf. P. sinuatus, Nile Monitor, Varanus niloticus and African Rock Python, Python gr. sebae. All the identified taxa belong to living species. At present, these taxa do not occur in the Northern Danakil depression since it is an arid area. P. sinuatus is not a member of the Eritrean herpetofauna. Although the marked preponderance of the crocodile remains is probably connected to the taphonomy of the sites and the collecting methods used, the ecological value of the reptile fauna corroborates that of the mammals, in indicating a lacustrine or fluvio-deltaic palaeoenvironment and a tropical/subtropical or even sub-Sahelic climate. The Buia remains represent the first reported Eritrean palaeoherpetofauna. 

  5. Mine Spoil Prairies Expand Critical Habitat for Endangered and Threatened Amphibian and Reptile Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan J. Engbrecht

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Coal extraction has been occurring in the Midwestern United States for over a century. Despite the pre-mining history of the landscape as woodlands, spent surface coalfields are often reclaimed to grasslands. We assessed amphibian and reptile species on a large tract of coal spoil prairie and found 13 species of amphibians (nine frog and four salamander species and 19 species of reptiles (one lizard, five turtle, and 13 snake species. Two state-endangered and three state species of special concern were documented. The amphibian diversity at our study site was comparable to the diversity found at a large restored prairie situated 175 km north, within the historic prairie peninsula.

  6. European origin of placodont marine reptiles and the evolution of crushing dentition in Placodontia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neenan, James M; Klein, Nicole; Scheyer, Torsten M

    2013-01-01

    Sauropterygia was the most successful marine reptile radiation in history, spanning almost the entire Mesozoic and exploiting a wide range of habitats and ecological niches. Here we report a new, exceptionally preserved skull of a juvenile stem placodont from the early Middle Triassic of the Netherlands, thus indicating a western Tethyan (European) origin for Placodontia, the most basal group of sauropterygians. A single row of teeth on an enlarged palatine supports this close relationship, although these are small and pointed instead of broad and flat, as is the case in placodonts, which demonstrate the strongest adaptation to a durophagous diet known in any reptile. Peg-like, slightly procumbent premaxillary teeth and an 'L-shaped' jugal also confirm a close relationship to basal placodonts. The new taxon provides insight into the evolution of placodont dentition, representing a transitional morphology between the plesiomorphic diapsid condition of palatal denticles and the specialized crushing teeth of placodonts. PMID:23535642

  7. Minimal volume regulation after shrinkage of red blood cells from five species of reptiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Karina; Berenbrink, Michael; Koldkjær, Pia;

    2008-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) from most vertebrates restore volume upon hypertonic shrinkage and the mechanisms underlying this regulatory volume increase (RVI) have been studied extensively in these cells. Despite the phylogenetically interesting position of reptiles, very little is known about their red...... cell function. The present study demonstrates that oxygenated RBCs in all major groups of reptiles exhibit no or a very reduced RVI upon ~ 25% calculated hyperosmotic shrinkage. Thus, RBCs from the snakes Crotalus durissus and Python regius, the turtle Trachemys scripta and the alligator Alligator...... mississippiensis showed no statistically significant RVI within 120 min after shrinkage, while the lizard Tupinambis merianae showed 22% volume recovery after 120 min. Amiloride (10- 4 M) and bumetanide (10- 5 M) had no effect on the RVI in T. merianae, indicating no involvement of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) or...

  8. In situ cardiac perfusion reveals interspecific variation of intraventricular flow separation in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, William; Axelsson, Michael; Altimiras, Jordi; Wang, Tobias

    2016-07-15

    The ventricles of non-crocodilian reptiles are incompletely divided and provide an opportunity for mixing of oxygen-poor blood and oxygen-rich blood (intracardiac shunting). However, both cardiac morphology and in vivo shunting patterns exhibit considerable interspecific variation within reptiles. In the present study, we develop an in situ double-perfused heart approach to characterise the propensity and capacity for shunting in five reptile species: the turtle Trachemys scripta, the rock python Python sebae, the yellow anaconda Eunectes notaeus, the varanid lizard Varanus exanthematicus and the bearded dragon Pogona vitticeps To simulate changes in vascular bed resistance, pulmonary and systemic afterloads were independently manipulated and changes in blood flow distribution amongst the central outflow tracts were monitored. As previously demonstrated in Burmese pythons, rock pythons and varanid lizards exhibited pronounced intraventricular flow separation. As pulmonary or systemic afterload was raised, flow in the respective circulation decreased. However, flow in the other circulation, where afterload was constant, remained stable. This correlates with the convergent evolution of intraventricular pressure separation and the large intraventricular muscular ridge, which compartmentalises the ventricle, in these species. Conversely, in the three other species, the pulmonary and systemic flows were strongly mutually dependent, such that the decrease in pulmonary flow in response to elevated pulmonary afterload resulted in redistribution of perfusate to the systemic circuit (and vice versa). Thus, in these species, the muscular ridge appeared labile and blood could readily transverse the intraventricular cava. We conclude that relatively minor structural differences between non-crocodilian reptiles result in the fundamental changes in cardiac function. Further, our study emphasises that functionally similar intracardiac flow separation evolved independently in

  9. In situ cardiac perfusion reveals interspecific variation of intraventricular flow separation in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, William; Axelsson, Michael; Altimiras, Jordi; Wang, Tobias

    2016-07-15

    The ventricles of non-crocodilian reptiles are incompletely divided and provide an opportunity for mixing of oxygen-poor blood and oxygen-rich blood (intracardiac shunting). However, both cardiac morphology and in vivo shunting patterns exhibit considerable interspecific variation within reptiles. In the present study, we develop an in situ double-perfused heart approach to characterise the propensity and capacity for shunting in five reptile species: the turtle Trachemys scripta, the rock python Python sebae, the yellow anaconda Eunectes notaeus, the varanid lizard Varanus exanthematicus and the bearded dragon Pogona vitticeps To simulate changes in vascular bed resistance, pulmonary and systemic afterloads were independently manipulated and changes in blood flow distribution amongst the central outflow tracts were monitored. As previously demonstrated in Burmese pythons, rock pythons and varanid lizards exhibited pronounced intraventricular flow separation. As pulmonary or systemic afterload was raised, flow in the respective circulation decreased. However, flow in the other circulation, where afterload was constant, remained stable. This correlates with the convergent evolution of intraventricular pressure separation and the large intraventricular muscular ridge, which compartmentalises the ventricle, in these species. Conversely, in the three other species, the pulmonary and systemic flows were strongly mutually dependent, such that the decrease in pulmonary flow in response to elevated pulmonary afterload resulted in redistribution of perfusate to the systemic circuit (and vice versa). Thus, in these species, the muscular ridge appeared labile and blood could readily transverse the intraventricular cava. We conclude that relatively minor structural differences between non-crocodilian reptiles result in the fundamental changes in cardiac function. Further, our study emphasises that functionally similar intracardiac flow separation evolved independently in

  10. [Neonatal infection with Salmonella apapa after contact with a reptile in the home].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, R; Beier, T; Bernstädt, M; Merkel, N; Bartnicki, J

    2011-04-01

    Salmonella apapa is transmitted by reptiles, e.g., bearded dragons. To date only few cases of S. apapa-related human infections have been reported. Because the bacteria are transmitted through the feces of animals or direct contact with low infection doses, infection in early infancy is possible. We report an 18-day-old newborn with sepsis caused by Salmonella apapa. Salmonella apapa was isolated from the feces of a bearded dragon living along with the family. PMID:21541908

  11. Lunge feeding in early marine reptiles and fast evolution of marine tetrapod feeding guilds

    OpenAIRE

    Motani, R; Chen, XH; Jiang, DY; Cheng, L.; Tintori, A; O. Rieppel

    2015-01-01

    Traditional wisdom holds that biotic recovery from the end-Permian extinction was slow and gradual, and was not complete until the Middle Triassic. Here, we report that the evolution of marine predator feeding guilds, and their trophic structure, proceeded faster. Marine reptile lineages with unique feeding adaptations emerged during the Early Triassic (about 248 million years ago), including the enigmatic Hupehsuchus that possessed an unusually slender mandible. A new specimen of this genus ...

  12. Skin of the Cretaceous mosasaur Plotosaurus: implications for aquatic adaptations in giant marine reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, Johan; Alwmark, Carl; Caldwell, Michael W.; Anthony R Fiorillo

    2009-01-01

    The physical nature of water and the environment it presents to an organism have long been recognized as important constraints on aquatic adaptation and evolution. Little is known about the dermal cover of mosasauroids (a group of secondarily aquatic reptiles that occupied a wide array of predatory niches in the Cretaceous marine ecosystems 92–65 Myr ago), a lack of information that has hindered inferences about the nature and level of their aquatic adaptations. A newly discovered Plotosaurus...

  13. Large predatory marine reptiles from the Albian–Cenomanian of Annopol, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Bardet, Nathalie; Fischer, Valentin; Machalski, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    During the Early–Late Cretaceous transition, marine ecosystems in Eurasia hosted a diverse set of large predatory reptiles that occupied various niches. However, most of our current knowledge of these animals is restricted to a small number of bonebed-like deposits. Little is known of the geographical and temporal extent of such associations. The middle Albian – middle Cenomanian phosphorite-bearing succession exposed at Annopol, Poland produces numerous ichthyosaurian and plesiosaurian fossi...

  14. The Slottsmoya marine reptile Lagersta tte: depositional environments, taphonomy and diagenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Delsett, Lene L.; Novis, Linn K.; Roberts, Aubrey J.; Koevoets, Maayke J.; Hammer, Oyvind; Patrick S. Druckenmiller; Hurum, Jorn H.

    2015-01-01

    The Late Jurassic Slottsmøya Member Lagerstätte on Spitsbergen offers a unique opportunity to study the relationships between vertebrate fossil preservation, invertebrate occurrences and depositional environment. In this study, 21 plesiosaurian and 17 ichthyosaur specimens are described with respect to articulation, landing mode, preservation, and possible predation and scavenging. The stratigraphic distribution of marine reptiles in the Slottsmøya Member is analysed, and a correlation betwee...

  15. Infrared mapping resolves soft tissue preservation in 50 million year-old reptile skin

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, N. P.; Barden, H. E.; B. E. van Dongen; Manning, P. L.; Larson, P. L.; Bergmann, U; Sellers, W. I.; Wogelius, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) mapping of Eocene aged fossil reptile skin shows that biological control on the distribution of endogenous organic components within fossilized soft tissue can be resolved. Mapped organic functional units within this approximately 50 Myr old specimen from the Green River Formation (USA) include amide and sulphur compounds. These compounds are most probably derived from the original beta keratin present in the skin because fossil leaf- and othe...

  16. Hepatic cholesteryl ester metabolism in reptiles. A comparative study of three species of Brazilian lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, M P; Maia, M M

    1984-01-01

    Cholesterol esterase (CEase) and acylcoenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACATase) activities were identified in liver cytoplasmatic extracts from Tropidurus torquatos (Iguanidae), Ameiva ameiva (Teiidae) and Hemidactylus mabouia (Gekkonidae). Optimum conditions were established to measure the hydrolytic activity of CEase and esterifying activities of CEase and ACATase. The activities of both enzymes were generally similar in all three species of reptiles, and did not differ greatly from values reported for a variety of mammalian species. PMID:6518764

  17. SEATURTLE: Sustained Engagement Autonomous Tracking of Underwater RepTiLEs

    OpenAIRE

    Budd, Johnathan

    2015-01-01

    While oceans cover the majority of our planet, these vast expanses remain relatively unexplored. Among the most interesting parts of the ocean are the shallow reef systems, which contain a huge amount of the planet’s biodiversity. The Sustained Engagement Autonomous Tracking of Underwater RepTiLEs or SEATURTLE is a low cost Autonomous Underwater Vehicle designed to carry out missions in these shallow environments. Its small displacement and precise movement make it ideal for navigating tight ...

  18. Reptiles in municipality of Duque de Caxias, Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo de Oliveira Lula Salles; Thiago Silva-Soares

    2010-01-01

    Duque de Caxias municipality is located in the Fluminense lowland, Rio de Janeiro state, in the Ombrophilous Atlantic Rain Forest domain. The local herpetofauna was widely studied in the 40’s, but a general list of the species for the municipality was never made. From August 2006 to October 2009, we carried out field expeditions, searching for and collecting reptiles mainly at night time. Besides the visual active search method, we also verified records of species in scientific literature and...

  19. Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil Carrapatos infestando anfíbios e répteis em Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Dantas-Torres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in the State of Pernambuco are reviewed, based on the current literature and new collections recently carried out by the authors. To date, three tick species have been found on amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco. Amblyomma fuscum appears to be exclusively associated with Boa constrictor, its type host. Amblyomma rotundatum has a relatively low host-specificity, being found on toads, snakes, and iguana. Amblyomma dissimile has been found on a lizard and also small mammals (i.e., rodents and marsupials. New tick-host associations and locality records are given.Os carrapatos encontrados infestando anfíbios e répteis no Estado de Pernambuco são revisados com base na literatura atual e em novas coletas realizadas recentemente pelos autores. Até o momento, três espécies de carrapatos foram encontradas sobre anfíbios e répteis em Pernambuco. Amblyomma fuscum parece estar exclusivamente associado à Boa constrictor, seu hospedeiro-tipo. Amblyomma rotundatum tem uma especificidade parasitária relativamente baixa, sendo encontrado em sapos, serpentes e iguana. Amblyomma dissimile já foi encontrado sobre um lagarto e também sobre pequenos mamíferos (isto é, roedores e marsupiais. Novas associações carrapato-hospedeiro e novos registros de localidades são apresentados.

  20. A new simplified allometric approach for predicting the biological half-life of radionuclides in reptiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major source of uncertainty in the estimation of radiation dose to wildlife is the prediction of internal radionuclide activity concentrations. Allometric (mass-dependent) relationships describing biological half-life (T1/2b) of radionuclides in organisms can be used to predict organism activity concentrations. The establishment of allometric expressions requires experimental data which are often lacking. An approach to predict the T1/2b in homeothermic vertebrates has recently been proposed. In this paper we have adapted this to be applicable to reptiles. For Cs, Ra and Sr, over a mass range of 0.02–1.5 kg, resultant predictions were generally within a factor of 6 of reported values demonstrating that the approach can be used when measured T1/2b data are lacking. However, the effect of mass on reptilian radionuclide T1/2b is minimal. If sufficient measured data are available for a given radionuclide then it is likely that these would give a reasonable estimate of T1/2b in any reptile species. - Highlights: • An allometric approach to predict radionuclide T1/2b values in reptiles is derived. • Predictions are generally within a factor of six of measured values. • Radionuclide biological half-life is in-effect mass independent

  1. Amphibians and Reptiles of the state of Nuevo León, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos-Espinal, Julio A.; Smith, Geoffrey R.; Cruz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We compiled a check list of the herpetofauna of Nuevo León. We documented 132 species (23 amphibians, 109 reptiles), representing 30 families (11 amphibians, 19 reptiles) and 73 genera (17 amphibians, 56 reptiles). Only two species are endemic to Nuevo León. Nuevo León contains a relatively high richness of lizards in the genus Sceloporus. Overlap in the herpetofauna of Nuevo León and states it borders is fairly extensive. Of 130 native species, 102 are considered species of Least Concern in the IUCN red list, four are listed as Vulnerable, five are listed as Near Threatened, and four are listed as Endangered. According to SEMARNAT, 78 species are not of conservation concern, 25 are subject to Special Protection, 27 are Threatened, and none are listed as in Danger of Extinction. Given current threats to the herpetofauna, additional efforts to understand the ecology and status of populations in Nuevo León are needed. PMID:27408562

  2. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLVII. Ticks of tortoises and other reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Horak

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 586 reptiles, belonging to 35 species and five subspecies, were examined in surveys aimed at determining the species spectrum and geographic distribution of ticks that infest them. Of these reptiles 509 were tortoises, 28 monitor or other lizards, and 49 snakes. Nine ixodid tick species, of which seven belonged to the genus Amblyomma, and one argasid tick, Ornithodoros compactus were recovered. Seven of the ten tick species are parasites of reptiles. Amongst these seven species Amblyomma marmoreum was most prevalent and numerous on leopard tortoises, Geochelone pardalis; Amblyomma nuttalli was present only on Bell's hinged tortoises, Kinixys belliana; and most Amblyomma sylvaticum were collected from angulate tortoises, Chersina angulata. Amblyomma exornatum (formerly Aponomma exornatum was only recovered from monitor lizards, Varanus spp.; most Amblyomma latum (formerly Aponomma latum were from snakes; and a single nymph of Amblyomma transversale (formerly Aponomma transversale was collected from a southern African python, Python natalensis. All 30 Namaqualand speckled padloper tortoises, Homopus signatus signatus, examined were infested with O. compactus. The seasonal occurrence of A. sylvaticum and the geographic distribution of this tick and of A. marmoreum, A. nuttalli, A. exornatum, A. latum and O. compactus are illustrated.

  3. Amphibians and Reptiles of the state of Nuevo León, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos-Espinal, Julio A; Smith, Geoffrey R; Cruz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We compiled a check list of the herpetofauna of Nuevo León. We documented 132 species (23 amphibians, 109 reptiles), representing 30 families (11 amphibians, 19 reptiles) and 73 genera (17 amphibians, 56 reptiles). Only two species are endemic to Nuevo León. Nuevo León contains a relatively high richness of lizards in the genus Sceloporus. Overlap in the herpetofauna of Nuevo León and states it borders is fairly extensive. Of 130 native species, 102 are considered species of Least Concern in the IUCN red list, four are listed as Vulnerable, five are listed as Near Threatened, and four are listed as Endangered. According to SEMARNAT, 78 species are not of conservation concern, 25 are subject to Special Protection, 27 are Threatened, and none are listed as in Danger of Extinction. Given current threats to the herpetofauna, additional efforts to understand the ecology and status of populations in Nuevo León are needed. PMID:27408562

  4. Reptile Embryos Lack the Opportunity to Thermoregulate by Moving within the Egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telemeco, Rory S; Gangloff, Eric J; Cordero, Gerardo A; Mitchell, Timothy S; Bodensteiner, Brooke L; Holden, Kaitlyn G; Mitchell, Sarah M; Polich, Rebecca L; Janzen, Fredric J

    2016-07-01

    Historically, egg-bound reptile embryos were thought to passively thermoconform to the nest environment. However, recent observations of thermal taxis by embryos of multiple reptile species have led to the widely discussed hypothesis that embryos behaviorally thermoregulate. Because temperature affects development, such thermoregulation could allow embryos to control their fate far more than historically assumed. We assessed the opportunity for embryos to behaviorally thermoregulate in nature by examining thermal gradients within natural nests and eggs of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina; which displays embryonic thermal taxis) and by simulating thermal gradients within nests across a range of nest depths, egg sizes, and soil types. We observed little spatial thermal variation within nests, and thermal gradients were poorly transferred to eggs. Furthermore, thermal gradients sufficiently large and constant for behavioral thermoregulation were not predicted to occur in our simulations. Gradients of biologically relevant magnitude have limited global occurrence and reverse direction twice daily when they do exist, which is substantially faster than embryos can shift position within the egg. Our results imply that reptile embryos will rarely, if ever, have the opportunity to behaviorally thermoregulate by moving within the egg. We suggest that embryonic thermal taxis instead represents a play behavior, which may be adaptive or selectively neutral, and results from the mechanisms for behavioral thermoregulation in free-living stages coming online prior to hatching. PMID:27322129

  5. Activity of Tabanids (Insecta: Diptera: Tabanidae Attacking the Reptiles Caiman crocodilus (Linn. (Alligatoridae and Eunectes murinus (Linn. (Boidae, in the Central Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Ruth LM

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Tabanid females are better known as hematophagous on man and other mammals, and linked to mechanical transmission of parasites. The association between tabanids and reptiles is poorly known, but has been gaining more corroboration through experiments and occasional observation in the tropics. The present study was conducted at a military base (CIGS/BI-2, situated 54 km from Manaus, Amazonas, in a small stream in a clearing (02°45'33"S; 59°51'03"W. Observations were made monthly, from April 1997 to March 1998, during two consecutive days. At the same time, other vertebrate animals were offered, including humans. However in this paper only data obtained on a common caiman, Caiman crocodilus (Linn., and an anaconda, Eunectes murinus (Linn., in diurnal observations from 05:30 a.m. to 18:30 p.m., will be discussed. A total of 254 tabanid specimens were collected, 40 from the anaconda and 214 from the caiman. Four tabanid species were recorded on these two reptiles: Stenotabanus cretatus Fairchild, S. bequaerti Rafael et al., Phaeotabanus nigriflavus (Kröber and Tabanus occidentalis Linn. Diurnal activities showed species-specific patterns. The first three species occurred only in the dry season. T. occidentalis occurred during the whole observation period, and with increased frequency at the end of the dry season. We observed preferences for body area and related behavior of the host. Observations on the attack of tabanids on one dead caiman are also presented.

  6. Catálogo de los Reptiles procedentes de la Comunidad de Madrid (España) que se conservan en el Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales

    OpenAIRE

    González Fernández, J. E.

    2006-01-01

    A complete catalogue of reptiles found in Comunidad de Madrid (Spain) is provided in this paper. The catalogue is taxonomically indexed and listed in alphabetical order including all basic data. It includes all information available in card files and old collection books of the MNCN. We have confirmed which reptiles in the current collection appear as being collected in Madrid, in old records, catalogue books and collection cards in the collection of amphibians and reptiles of the MNCN. The i...

  7. Increase in reptile-associated human salmonellosis and shift toward adulthood in the age groups at risk, the Netherlands, 1985 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Heck, Max; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2016-08-25

    While the contribution of the main food-related sources to human salmonellosis is well documented, knowledge on the contribution of reptiles is limited. We quantified and examined trends in reptile-associated salmonellosis in the Netherlands during a 30-year period, from 1985 to 2014. Using source attribution analysis, we estimated that 2% (95% confidence interval: 1.3-2.8) of all sporadic/domestic human salmonellosis cases reported in the Netherlands during the study period (n = 63,718) originated from reptiles. The estimated annual fraction of reptile-associated salmonellosis cases ranged from a minimum of 0.3% (corresponding to 11 cases) in 1988 to a maximum of 9.3% (93 cases) in 2013. There was a significant increasing trend in reptile-associated salmonellosis cases (+ 19% annually) and a shift towards adulthood in the age groups at highest risk, while the proportion of reptile-associated salmonellosis cases among those up to four years-old decreased by 4% annually and the proportion of cases aged 45 to 74 years increased by 20% annually. We hypothesise that these findings may be the effect of the increased number and variety of reptiles that are kept as pets, calling for further attention to the issue of safe reptile-human interaction and for reinforced hygiene recommendations for reptile owners. PMID:27589037

  8. Amphibian and Reptile Resources in Tiantangshan Nature Reserve%广西天堂山自然保护区两栖爬行动物资源调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮桂文; 贝永建

    2014-01-01

    2011及2012年的6~8月,对广西天堂山自然保护区的两栖和爬行动物资源进行了调查研究。结果表明,天堂山保护区分布有两栖爬行动物共82种。其中有两栖类动物25种,隶属3目7科16属;爬行动物57种,隶属3目12科38属。根据其资源特点,提出了对天堂山自然保护区两栖爬行动物进行保护的对策与建议。%During June and August of 2011and 2012, the amphibians and reptiles in Tiantangshan Nature Reserve, Guangxi Province, were investigated. The results showed that there were 25 species of amphibians belonging to 16 genera, 7 families and 3 orders and 57 species of reptiles belonging to 38 genera, 12 families and 3 orders. Based on the characteristics of these resources, advices for protecting the amphibians and reptiles in Tiantangsan nature reserve were provided.

  9. The evolution of oviparity in squamate reptiles: An adaptationist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Phylogenetically based analyses can suggest directions of evolutionary transitions, based on parsimony, but can never provide unambiguous answers. To clarify the relative frequency of phylogenetic shifts from oviparity to viviparity versus the reverse, we need additional sources of evidence. Adaptationist thinking (i.e., consideration of selective forces) has revealed a great deal about the transition from oviparity to viviparity, but has rarely been employed to consider the reverse transition. An evaluation of costs and benefits identifies major obstacles to the re-evolution of oviparity. For example, even a modest decrease in the degree of embryogenesis completed in utero (i.e., a shift from viviparity back toward "normal" oviparity) requires the mother to find a suitable nest-site (often, a risky endeavor), and a minor decrease in the duration of uterine retention of eggs may not substantially reduce maternal costs (because many of those costs are minimized by maternal behavioral adaptations to pregnancy). In many climates, a small decrease in the duration of uterine retention of eggs would not allow the female to produce a second clutch within the same season; and thus, would not reduce the fecundity disadvantage of viviparity. Life-history theory thus suggests an asymmetry in the fitness consequences of the intermediate stages between oviparity and viviparity. That asymmetry facilitates the "forward" transition (based on thermally driven benefits to offspring viability) but opposes the "reverse" transition (based on lower fitness of heavily burdened females that need to seek nest-sites). These factors should constrain the re-evolution of oviparity to specific conditions (e.g., where abundant nest-sites are available within a female's usual home range, rather than requiring extensive migration). PMID:26036339

  10. Combined effects of climatic gradient and domestic livestock grazing on reptile community structure in a heterogeneous agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotem, Guy; Gavish, Yoni; Shacham, Boaz; Giladi, Itamar; Bouskila, Amos; Ziv, Yaron

    2016-01-01

    Grazing plays an important role in shaping ecological communities in human-related ecosystems. Although myriad studies have explored the joint effect of grazing and climate on plant communities, this interactive effect has rarely been studied in animals. We hypothesized that the effect of grazing on the reptile community varies along a climatic gradient in relation to the effect of grazing on habitat characteristics, and that grazing differentially affects reptiles of different biogeographic regions. We tested our hypotheses by collecting data on environmental characteristics and by trapping reptiles in four heterogeneous landscapes experiencing differing grazing intensities and distributed along a sharp climatic gradient. We found that while reptile diversity increased with grazing intensity at the mesic end of the gradient, it decreased with grazing intensity at the arid end. Moreover, the proportion of reptile species of differing biogeographic origins varied with the interactive effect of climate and grazing. The representation of species originating in arid biogeographic zones was highest at the arid end of the climatic gradient, and representation increased with grazing intensity within this area. Regardless of the climatic context, increased grazing pressure results in a reduction in vegetation cover and thus in changes in habitat characteristics. By reducing vegetation cover, grazing increased habitat heterogeneity in the dense mesic sites and decreased habitat heterogeneity in the arid sites. Thus, our results suggest that the same direction of habitat alteration caused by grazing may have opposite effects on biodiversity and community composition in different climatic contexts.

  11. Projecting climate effects on birds and reptiles of the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riper, Charles; Hatten, James R.; Giermakowski, J. Tomasz; Mattson, David; Holmes, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Matthew J.; Nowak, Erika M.; Ironside, Kirsten; Peters, Michael; Heinrich, Paul; Cole, K.L.; Truettner, C.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.

    2014-01-01

    We modeled the current and future breeding ranges of seven bird and five reptile species in the Southwestern United States with sets of landscape, biotic (plant), and climatic global circulation model (GCM) variables. For modeling purposes, we used PRISM data to characterize the climate of the Western United States between 1980 and 2009 (baseline for birds) and between 1940 and 2009 (baseline for reptiles). In contrast, we used a pre-selected set of GCMs that are known to be good predictors of southwestern climate (five individual and one ensemble GCM), for the A1B emission scenario, to characterize future climatic conditions in three time periods (2010–39; 2040–69; and, 2070–99). Our modeling approach relied on conceptual models for each target species to inform selection of candidate explanatory variables and to interpret the ecological meaning of developed probabilistic distribution models. We employed logistic regression and maximum entropy modeling techniques to create a set of probabilistic models for each target species. We considered climatic, landscape, and plant variables when developing and testing our probabilistic models. Climatic variables included the maximum and minimum mean monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation for three time periods. Landscape features included terrain ruggedness and insolation. We also considered plant species distributions as candidate explanatory variables where prior ecological knowledge implicated a strong association between a plant and animal species. Projected changes in range varied widely among species, from major losses to major gains. Breeding bird ranges exhibited greater expansions and contractions than did reptile species. We project range losses for Williamson’s sapsucker and pygmy nuthatch of a magnitude that could move these two species close to extinction within the next century. Although both species currently have a relatively limited distribution, they can be locally common, and neither

  12. Recent cryptic extinction of squamate reptiles on Yoronjima Island of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, inferred from garbage dump remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Nakamura

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We report recent skeletal remains of squamate reptiles screened from an old garbage dump deposit found on Yoronjima Island, a small island of the Ryukyu Archipelago, in the subtropical northwestern Pacific. Identified remains include at least three species of terrestrial snakes, one sea snake, and seven species of lizards. Among these, the Ryukyu Short-legged Skink, Ateuchosaurus pellopleurus; Kuroiwa’s Leopard Gecko, Goniurosaurus kuroiwae; and one unidentified Gekko species constitute entirely new findings. For a further two snake species and one lizard species, the evidence presented here is the first specimen-based documentation that these species existed on this island, where they are now evidently absent. The present absence of these species on Yoronjima is mainly attributable to predation by the Japanese Weasel, Mustela itatsi, introduced in the mid-1950s. Our results demonstrate a prominent case of recent, sizable deterioration of insular herpetofaunal diversity, which has never been documented with certainty in the Ryukyu Archipelago, and suggest that human influence should be taken into account in biodiversity research in this area.

  13. Cryptic vicariance in Gulf of California fishes parallels vicariant patterns found in Baja California mammals and reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riginos, Cynthia

    2005-12-01

    Comparisons across multiple taxa can often clarify the histories of biogeographic regions. In particular, historic barriers to movement should have affected multiple species and, thus, result in a pattern of concordant intraspecific genetic divisions among species. A striking example of such comparative phylogeography is the recent observation that populations of many small mammals and reptiles living on the Baja California peninsula have a large genetic break between northern and southern peninsular populations. In the present study, I demonstrate that five species of near-shore fishes living on the Baja coastline of the Gulf of California share this genetic pattern. The simplest explanation for this concordant genetic division within both terrestrial and marine vertebrates is that the Baja Peninsula was fragmented by a Plio-Pleistocene marine seaway and that this seaway posed a substantial barrier to movement for near-shore fishes. For some fish species, the signal of this vicariance in mtDNA has been eroded by gene flow and is not evident with classic, equilibrium measures of population structure. Yet, significant divisions are apparent in coalescent analyses that jointly estimate divergence with gene flow. The genetic divisions within Gulf of California fishes also coincide with recognized biogeographic regions based on fish community composition and several environmental factors. It is likely that adaptation to regional environments and present-day oceanographic circulation limit gene exchange between biogeographic regions and help maintain evidence of past vicariance. PMID:16526514

  14. Special Issue: Viruses Infecting Fish, Amphibians, and Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gregory Chinchar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Although viruses infecting and affecting humans are the focus of considerable research effort, viruses that target other animal species, including cold-blooded vertebrates, are receiving increased attention. In part this reflects the interests of comparative virologists, but increasingly it is based on the impact that many viruses have on ecologically and commercially important animals. Frogs and other amphibians are sentinels of environmental health and their disappearance following viral or fungal (chytrid infection is a cause for alarm. Likewise, because aquaculture and mariculture are providing an increasingly large percentage of the “seafood” consumed by humans, viral agents that adversely impact the harvest of cultured fish and amphibians are of equal concern. [...

  15. Reptile and amphibian responses to large-scale wildfires in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochester, C.J.; Brehme, C.S.; Clark, D.R.; Stokes, D.C.; Hathaway, S.A.; Fisher, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    In 2003, southern California experienced several large fires that burned thousands of hectares of wildlife habitats and conserved lands. To investigate the effects of these fires on the reptile and amphibian communities, we compared the results from prefire herpetofauna and vegetation sampling to two years of postfire sampling across 38 burned and 17 unburned plots. The sampling plots were spread over four vegetation types and four open space areas within San Diego County. Our capture results indicated that burned chaparral and coastal sage scrub plots lost herpetofaunal species diversity after the fires and displayed a significant shift in overall community structure. Shrub and tree cover at the burned plots, averaged across the second and third postfire years, had decreased by 53 in chaparral and 75 in coastal sage scrub. Additionally, postfire herpetofauna community structure at burned plots was more similar to that found in unburned grasslands. In grassland and woodland/riparian vegetation plots, where shrub and tree cover was not significantly affected by fires, we found no differences in the herpetofaunal species diversity or community composition. At the individual species level, Sceloporus occidentalis was the most abundant reptile in these areas both before and after the fires. We saw increases in the net capture rates for several lizard species, including Aspidoscelis tigris, Phrynosoma coronatum, and Uta stansburiana in burned chaparral plots and Aspidoscelis hyperythra and U. stansburiana in burned coastal sage scrub plots. The toad, Bufo boreas, was detected at significantly fewer burned plots in chaparral after the fires. Additionally, we documented decreases in the number of plots occupied by lizards (Elgaria multicarinata), salamanders (Batrachoseps major), and snakes (Coluber constrictor, Lampropeltis getula, Pituophis catenifer, and Masticophis lateralis) in coastal sage scrub and chaparral after the fires. We discuss the individual species

  16. Geochemical Methods of Inference the Thermoregulatory Strategies in Middle Triassic Marine Reptiles - A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmik, Dawid; Pelc, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The oxygen stable isotopes investigation to elucidate thermoregulatory strategies in Middle Triassic basal sauropterygians is currently ongoing at University of Silesia and University of Maria Curie-Skłodowska. The results of similar studies on Late Mesozoic marine reptiles indicate that some of fully aquatic reptiles like plesiosaurs or ichthyosaurs could be warm-blooded animals. Our investigation is an important part of the aim of the research project "The Marine and Terrestrial reptiles in the Middle Triassic environmental background of Southern Poland" to solve the thermoregulation issue in basal marine reptiles and show how, and when did homoiothermy evolve in Sauropterygia.. Homeothermy and gigantothermy were important physiological adaptations which allowed sauropterygian ancestors to leave the shores and conquer the open seas and oceans. Badania nad paleofizjologią kopalnych kręgowców ostatnimi laty stały się niezwykle modne. Polegają one na kompilacji danych uzyskanych wieloma komplementarnymi metodami z zakresu fizjologii (badania współczesnych form, zgodnie z zasadą aktualizmu) i geochemii izotopowej. Szczególnie interesujące stały się kwestie gospodarki termicznej u gadów kopalnych, które silnie dyskutowane są w kręgach badaczy dinozaurów (Reid, 1997; Ruben i in., 1996). Badania na izotopach stabilnych tlenu szkliwa zębowego przeprowadzone na obligatoryjnie morskich gadach okresu jurajskiego i kredowego (Bernard i in., 2010; zob. także Motani, 2010) wskazują, że ichtiozaury i plezjozaury późniejszego mezozoiku mogły być zwierzętami stałocieplnymi. Brak obecnie jednoznacznych danych dotyczących gospodarki termicznej bazalnych przedstawicieli gadów morskich z triasu, choć przyjmuje się, że te zamieszkujące nadbrzeżne i marginalne strefy mórz zwierzęta były gadami zmiennocieplnymi (pojkilotermicznymi), podobnie jak współczesny legwan morski, czy też smok z Komodo. Czy przejście z pojkilo- do homojotermii by

  17. Hazards Caused by Some Wild Animals, Reptiles, Insects in the Polish Territorial Area

    OpenAIRE

    Wieteska, Stanisław

    2012-01-01

    We meet a lot of wild animals, reptiles and insects on Polish territory, which pose a threat to people and livestock. The attacks of wild animals directly to humans are becoming more common. By this reason, we are exposed to different type of bites, which entails the cost of treatment. In this article we present the scale of threats by such animals as wolves, beavers, otters, snakes, bears. Also it is discussed the diseases: rabies, bird flu and other spread by ticks, wasps, be...

  18. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated with ectothermic reptiles. Both C. fetus subsp. testudinum and C. fetus subsp. fetus have been associated with severe infections, often with a systemic component, in immunocompromised humans. To study the genetic factors associated with the distinct host dichotomy in C. fetus, whole-genome sequencing and comparison of mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus was performed. The genomes of C fetus subsp. testudinum isolated from either reptiles or humans were compared with elucidate the genetic factors associated with pathogenicity in humans. Genomic comparisons showed conservation of gene content and organization among C fetus subspecies, but a clear distinction between mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus was observed. Several genomic regions appeared to be subspecies specific, including a putative tricarballylate catabolism pathway, exclusively present in C fetus subsp. testudinum strains. Within C fetus subsp. testudinum, sapA, sapB, and sapAB type strains were observed. The recombinant locus iamABC (mlaFED) was exclusively associated with invasive C fetus subsp. testudinum strains isolated from humans. A phylogenetic reconstruction was consistent with divergent evolution in host-associated strains and the existence of a barrier to lateral gene transfer between mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus Overall, this study shows that reptile-associated C fetus subsp. testudinum is genetically divergent from mammal-associated C fetus subspecies. PMID:27333878

  19. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J.; Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L.; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J.; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C. fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated with ectothermic reptiles. Both C. fetus subsp. testudinum and C. fetus subsp. fetus have been associated with severe infections, often with a systemic component, in immunocompromised humans. To study the genetic factors associated with the distinct host dichotomy in C. fetus, whole-genome sequencing and comparison of mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus was performed. The genomes of C. fetus subsp. testudinum isolated from either reptiles or humans were compared with elucidate the genetic factors associated with pathogenicity in humans. Genomic comparisons showed conservation of gene content and organization among C. fetus subspecies, but a clear distinction between mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus was observed. Several genomic regions appeared to be subspecies specific, including a putative tricarballylate catabolism pathway, exclusively present in C. fetus subsp. testudinum strains. Within C. fetus subsp. testudinum, sapA, sapB, and sapAB type strains were observed. The recombinant locus iamABC (mlaFED) was exclusively associated with invasive C. fetus subsp. testudinum strains isolated from humans. A phylogenetic reconstruction was consistent with divergent evolution in host-associated strains and the existence of a barrier to lateral gene transfer between mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus. Overall, this study shows that reptile-associated C. fetus subsp. testudinum is genetically divergent from mammal-associated C. fetus subspecies. PMID:27333878

  20. A conservation assessment of the amphibians and reptiles of the Forêt d’Ambre Special Reserve, north Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Franzen; Jörn Köhler; Neil D‘Cruze; Frank Glaw

    2008-01-01

    We surveyed the lowland rainforest of the Forêt d’Ambre Special Reserve in north Madagascar for amphibians and reptiles. We recorded a total of 20 amphibian and 39 reptile species via opportunistic searching and pitfall trapping in the first published survey to focus on this area. Consequently most of the species found were new records for the area. Approximately half of the species (51 %) were only found in relatively undisturbed areas of forest and 61 % appear to be restricted to lowland ra...

  1. Biodiversity and Ecology of Amphibians and Reptiles of the Kennedy Space Center: 1998 Close-Out Report to NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigel, Richard A.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1992, there have been researchers have been studying the population ecology and conservation biology of the amphibians and reptiles of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) This research is an outgrowth of my Master's work in the late 1970's under Lew Ehrhart at UCF. The primary emphasis of our studies are (1) examination of long-term changes in the abundance of amphibians and reptile populations, (2) occurrence and effects of Upper Respiratory Tract Disease (URTD) in gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus), and (3) ecological studies of selected species.

  2. Reptiles escamosos (Squamata del Pleistoceno Medio del Norte de la ciudad de Mar del Plata (provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Brizuela

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we describe two fossil remains of squamate reptiles found in Middle Pleistocene outcrops at the northern marine cliffs of the city of Mar del Plata (Buenos Aires province. The specimens were found forming a taphocenosis with remains of other microvertebrates (amphibians, mammals and birds. The reptiles recognized in the association are represented by remains of an undetermined colubrid, and the anguid Ophiodes sp. This latter finding represents the first fossil record for the family Anguidae exhumed in Argentina.

  3. Patterns and biases in climate change research on amphibians and reptiles: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Climate change probably has severe impacts on animal populations, but demonstrating a causal link can be difficult because of potential influences by additional factors. Assessing global impacts of climate change effects may also be hampered by narrow taxonomic and geographical research foci. We review studies on the effects of climate change on populations of amphibians and reptiles to assess climate change effects and potential biases associated with the body of work that has been conducted within the last decade. We use data from 104 studies regarding the effect of climate on 313 species, from 464 species–study combinations. Climate change effects were reported in 65% of studies. Climate change was identified as causing population declines or range restrictions in half of the cases. The probability of identifying an effect of climate change varied among regions, taxa and research methods. Climatic effects were equally prevalent in studies exclusively investigating climate factors (more than 50% of studies) and in studies including additional factors, thus bolstering confidence in the results of studies exclusively examining effects of climate change. Our analyses reveal biases with respect to geography, taxonomy and research question, making global conclusions impossible. Additional research should focus on under-represented regions, taxa and questions. Conservation and climate policy should consider the documented harm climate change causes reptiles and amphibians.

  4. Grassland Fire and Cattle Grazing Regulate Reptile and Amphibian Assembly Among Patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Danelle M.

    2014-12-01

    Fire and grazing are common management schemes of grasslands globally and are potential drivers of reptilian and amphibian (herpetofauna) metacommunity dynamics. Few studies have assessed the impacts of fire and cattle grazing on herpetofauna assemblages in grasslands. A patch-burn grazing study at Osage Prairie, MO, USA in 2011-2012 created landscape patches with treatments of grazing, fire, and such legacies. Response variables were measured before and after the application of treatments, and I used robust-design occupancy modeling to estimate patch occupancy and detection rate within patches, and recolonization and extinction (i.e., dispersal) across patches. I conducted redundancy analysis and a permuted multivariate analysis of variance to determine if patch type and the associated environmental factors explained herpetofauna assemblage. Estimates for reptiles indicate that occupancy was seasonally constant in Control patches ( ψ ~ 0.5), but declined to ψ ~ 0.15 in patches following the applications of fire and grazing. Local extinctions for reptiles were higher in patches with fire or light grazing ( ɛ ~ 0.7) compared to the controls. For the riparian herpetofaunal community, patch type and grass height were important predictors of abundance; further, the turtles, lizards, snakes, and adult amphibians used different patch types. The aquatic amphibian community was predicted by watershed and in-stream characteristics, irrespective of fire or grazing. The varying responses from taxonomic groups demonstrate habitat partitioning across multiple patch types undergoing fire, cattle grazing, and legacy effects. Prairies will need an array of patch types to accommodate multiple herpetofauna species.

  5. Amphibian and reptile declines over 35 years at La Selva, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Steven M; Bell, Kristen E; Philippi, Thomas; Sasa, Mahmood; Bolaños, Federico; Chaves, Gerardo; Savage, Jay M; Donnelly, Maureen A

    2007-05-15

    Amphibians stand at the forefront of a global biodiversity crisis. More than one-third of amphibian species are globally threatened, and over 120 species have likely suffered global extinction since 1980. Most alarmingly, many rapid declines and extinctions are occurring in pristine sites lacking obvious adverse effects of human activities. The causes of these "enigmatic" declines remain highly contested. Still, lack of long-term data on amphibian populations severely limits our understanding of the distribution of amphibian declines, and therefore the ultimate causes of these declines. Here, we identify a systematic community-wide decline in populations of terrestrial amphibians at La Selva Biological Station, a protected old-growth lowland rainforest in lower Central America. We use data collected over 35 years to show that population density of all species of terrestrial amphibians has declined by approximately 75% since 1970, and we show identical trends for all species of common reptiles. The trends we identify are neither consistent with recent emergence of chytridiomycosis nor the climate-linked epidemic hypothesis, two leading putative causes of enigmatic amphibian declines. Instead, our data suggest that declines are due to climate-driven reductions in the quantity of standing leaf litter, a critical microhabitat for amphibians and reptiles in this assemblage. Our results raise further concerns about the global persistence of amphibian populations by identifying widespread declines in species and habitats that are not currently recognized as susceptible to such risks.

  6. Current Status of Mammals and Reptiles at Hub Dam Area, Sindh / Balochistan, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeda Begum

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the present study in 2012, a total of twenty four mammalian species were recorded belonging to 5 orders and 10 families; out of these, 8 species are less common, 2 species are rare, while 14 species are common in Hub Dam area. Twenty five reptilian species belonging to 3 orders and 12 families were also recorded from the area. Three species of mammalian Urial (Ovis vignei, Chinkara/Indian Gazelle (Gazella bennettii and Jungle Cat (Felis chaus, one reptilian species Common Krait (Bungarus caeruleus were recorded as rare from the study area during 2012. During the present study, nine mammalian species Wild Goat/Sindh Ibex (Capra aegagrus, Urial (Ovis vignei, Chinkara/Indian Gazelle (Gazella bennettii, Indian Hedgehog (Paraechinus micropus, Cape Hare (Lepus capensis, Little Indian Field Mouse (Mus booduga, House Shrew (Sorex thibetanus, Balochistan Gerbil (Gerbillus nanus and Indian Gerbil (Tatera indica and two reptilian Warty Rock Gecko (Cyrtodactylus kachhensis kachhensis and Banded Dwarf Gecko (Tropiocolotes helenae were recorded from the area. As regards threats to mammals and reptiles, these are affected by disturbance. Efforts are being made to conserve the important mammals and reptiles particularly in the protected area especially at Hub Dam.

  7. Patterns and biases in climate change research on amphibians and reptiles: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Climate change probably has severe impacts on animal populations, but demonstrating a causal link can be difficult because of potential influences by additional factors. Assessing global impacts of climate change effects may also be hampered by narrow taxonomic and geographical research foci. We review studies on the effects of climate change on populations of amphibians and reptiles to assess climate change effects and potential biases associated with the body of work that has been conducted within the last decade. We use data from 104 studies regarding the effect of climate on 313 species, from 464 species–study combinations. Climate change effects were reported in 65% of studies. Climate change was identified as causing population declines or range restrictions in half of the cases. The probability of identifying an effect of climate change varied among regions, taxa and research methods. Climatic effects were equally prevalent in studies exclusively investigating climate factors (more than 50% of studies) and in studies including additional factors, thus bolstering confidence in the results of studies exclusively examining effects of climate change. Our analyses reveal biases with respect to geography, taxonomy and research question, making global conclusions impossible. Additional research should focus on under-represented regions, taxa and questions. Conservation and climate policy should consider the documented harm climate change causes reptiles and amphibians. PMID:27703684

  8. Molecular clocks in reptiles: life history influences rate of molecular evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromham, Lindell

    2002-03-01

    Life history has been implicated as a determinant of variation in rate of molecular evolution amongst vertebrate species because of a negative correlation between body size and substitution rate for many molecular data sets. Both the generality and the cause of the negative body size trend have been debated, and the validity of key studies has been questioned (particularly concerning the failure to account for phylogenetic bias). In this study, a comparative method has been used to test for an association between a range of life-history variables-such as body size, age at maturity, and clutch size-and DNA substitution rate for three genes (NADH4, cytochrome b, and c-mos). A negative relationship between body size and rate of molecular evolution was found for phylogenetically independent pairs of reptile species spanning turtles, lizards, snakes, crocodile, and tuatara. Although this study was limited by the number of comparisons for which both sequence and life-history data were available, the results suggest that a negative body size trend in rate of molecular evolution may be a general feature of reptile molecular evolution, consistent with similar studies of mammals and birds. This observation has important implications for uncovering the mechanisms of molecular evolution and warns against assuming that related lineages will share the same substitution rate (a local molecular clock) in order to date evolutionary divergences from DNA sequences. PMID:11861889

  9. Balancing Biography and Institutional History: Eric Worrell’s Australian Reptile Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Cushing

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available When a young naturalist opened his new wildlife park at Wyoming on the NSW Central Coast in the late 1950s, he gave it his own name: Eric Worrell’s Australian Reptile Park. Through the park, Worrell made a significant contribution to environmental education, the development of knowledge of captive animal care and display and the provision of antivenoms for the bites of a range of dangerous creatures. More than this, it was the geographic and emotional centre of Worrell’s world: the fulfilment of a childhood dream, a home for his family and a site for forming new personal and professional relationships. In preparation for the jubilee of the park, its history is being written by two academics from the University of Newcastle. An attractive means of creating the necessary narrative structure and human interest to ensure the wide appeal of this history is to follow Worrell’s lead and place his life at the centre of this institutional history. This is the direction suggested by the written sources on the park and it is accentuated by many of our oral informants who organise their memories of the park around Worrell. To what extent can an institutional history be a biography of the person at the heart of that institution? Is it possible to disentangle the life from the institution? This article offers some preliminary answers to these questions through a case study of the writing of a history of Eric Worrell’s Australian Reptile Park.

  10. Reptile-associated ticks from Dominica and the Bahamas with notes on hyperparasitic erythraeid mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durden, Lance A; Knapp, Charles R; Beati, Lorenza; Dold, Stephanie

    2015-02-01

    Ticks were collected or recorded from 522 individual reptiles on Dominica and from 658 reptiles from the Bahamas. Two species of ticks were collected on Dominica: Amblyomma antillorum and Amblyomma rotundatum. Similarly, 2 species were collected in the Bahamas: Amblyomma albopictum and Amblyomma torrei. On Dominica, A. antillorum was recorded from 517 Lesser Antillean iguanas (Iguana delicatissima), 2 boa constrictors (Boa nebulosa), 1 Antilles snake (Alsophis sibonius), and 1 Dominican ground lizard (Ameiva fuscata), whereas A. rotundatum was recorded from 1 Lesser Antillean skink (Mabuya mabouya). In the Bahamas, A. albopictum was recorded from 131 Andros iguanas (Cyclura cychlura cychlura), 271 Exuma Island iguanas (Cyclura cychlura figginsi), and 1 Andros curlytail lizard (Leiocephalus carinatus coryi), whereas A. torrei was recorded from 255 Exuma Island iguanas. In the Bahamas, A. albopictum parasitized iguanas on Andros Island and the central Exuma Islands, and A. torrei parasitized iguanas in the southern Exumas. An exception to this trend was that A. torrei was collected from iguanas on Pasture Cay in the central Exumas, an anomaly that is explained by the fact that iguanas (with attached ticks) on Pasture Cay were introduced by humans in the past from islands further south. External hyperparasitic larval erythraeid mites ( Leptus sp.) were recorded from A. torrei in the Bahamas. PMID:25274575

  11. Smart moves: effects of relative brain size on establishment success of invasive amphibians and reptiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J Amiel

    Full Text Available Brain size relative to body size varies considerably among animals, but the ecological consequences of that variation remain poorly understood. Plausibly, larger brains confer increased behavioural flexibility, and an ability to respond to novel challenges. In keeping with that hypothesis, successful invasive species of birds and mammals that flourish after translocation to a new area tend to have larger brains than do unsuccessful invaders. We found the same pattern in ectothermic terrestrial vertebrates. Brain size relative to body size was larger in species of amphibians and reptiles reported to be successful invaders, compared to species that failed to thrive after translocation to new sites. This pattern was found in six of seven global biogeographic realms; the exception (where relatively larger brains did not facilitate invasion success was Australasia. Establishment success was also higher in amphibian and reptile families with larger relative brain sizes. Future work could usefully explore whether invasion success is differentially associated with enlargement of specific parts of the brain (as predicted by the functional role of the forebrain in promoting behavioural flexibility, or with a general size increase (suggesting that invasion success is facilitated by enhanced perceptual and motor skills, as well as cognitive ability.

  12. Climate change and elevated extinction rates of reptiles from Mediterranean Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foufopoulos, Johannes; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Ives, Anthony R

    2011-01-01

    Recent climate change has caused the distributions of many species to shift poleward, yet few empirical studies have addressed which species will be vulnerable to longer-term climate changes. To investigate past consequences of climate change, we calculated the population extinction rates of 35 reptile species from 87 Greek land-bridge islands in the Mediterranean that occurred over the past 16,000 years. Population extinction rates were higher for those species that today have more northern distributions. We further found that northern species requiring cool, mesic habitats had less available suitable habitat among islands, implicating loss of suitable habitat in their elevated extinction rates. These extinctions occurred in the context of increasing habitat fragmentation, with islands shrinking and separating as sea levels rose. Thus, the circumstances faced by reptiles on the islands are similar to challenges for numerous species today that must cope with a changing climate while living in an increasingly human-fragmented landscape. Our island-biogeographical approach to investigating historical population extinctions gives insight into the long-term patterns of species responses to climate change. PMID:21091198

  13. The life cycle of the reptile-inhabiting nematode Abbreviata hastaspicula (Spirurida: Physalopteridae: Physalopterinae) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, C; Jones, H I

    2016-12-01

    This study elucidates the life-cycle of the reptile inhabiting nematode Abbreviata hastaspicula (Spirurida: Physalopteridae: Physalopterinae) in Australia. Eight Varanus gouldii (Lacertilia: Varanidae), and two Christinus marmoratus (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) lizards were captured in the wild. Two V. gouldii were used as controls and no experimental procedures were carried out on them. Another six V. gouldii (final host) and the two C. marmoratus (paratenic host) were treated with oral anthelmintics to remove all parasitic worms and were fed with infected live arthropods containing third stage larvae of Abbreviata hastaspicula. Faeces of V. gouldii were examined under the microscope weekly to determine whether the third stage larvae had developed into adults. Two months later, a total of 30 larvae and adults of A. hastaspicula were found in the stomachs of four experimentally-infected V. gouldii lizards. No cysts or larva were found in the C. marmoratus. This is the first study to demonstrate the life-cycle of this genus of nematode in their definitive reptile hosts. PMID:27668177

  14. Radiation exposure of the radiological staff caused by radiography of small mammals, reptiles and birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiography is often used as an advanced examination to ensure a diagnosis in avian, reptiles and small mammal's medicine. The aims of this thesis were: 1. To measure the radiation exposure of radiological staff caused by radiography of small mammals, reptiles and birds. The exposure of relevant body regions were measured during clinical routine. 2. To examine the differences of radiation exposures caused by radiography of different animal species and to determine the influence of dose-dependent parameters. 3. To present the radiation protection measures of the clinic and to discuss possible improvements. 4. To weigh the anaesthetic risk for small mammals, reptiles and birds against the radiation exposure of the radiological staff. The measurements took place during clinical routine of the Clinic for Exotic Pets, Reptiles, Pet and Feral Birds, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation. The radiation exposure of the radiological staff was measured. The radiological staff included veterinarians, veterinary-medical technical assistants, doctoral candidates and students during their practical year. Furthermore, the radiation exposure was measured at ten representative body regions using thermoluminescence dosimetry. The measuring positions included the eye-lenses, thyroid, thoracic region under the protective clothes, thoracic region above the protective clothes, gonads, fingers and the left foot. Except for one position that was measured under the protective clothes all positions measured above the protective clothes. Moreover at each examination the focus-film-distance, the kV-number, the mAs-product and the weight of the patient was recorded. Additionally the size of the examiner and the examiner's position regarding to the X-ray table were recorded as variable, dose-influencing parameters. Altogether, measurements were taken from 366 individual examiners. In all three divisions 792 X-ray images were made and 3660 dose values recorded. The

  15. Virginia ESI: REPTILES (Reptile Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sea turtles and estuarine turtles in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data set represent turtle...

  16. Comparing Methods for Prioritising Protected Areas for Investment: A Case Study Using Madagascar’s Dry Forest Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Charlie J.; Raxworthy, Christopher J.; Metcalfe, Kristian; Raselimanana, Achille P.; Smith, Robert J.; Davies, Zoe G.

    2015-01-01

    There are insufficient resources available to manage the world’s existing protected area portfolio effectively, so the most important sites should be prioritised in investment decision-making. Sophisticated conservation planning and assessment tools developed to identify locations for new protected areas can provide an evidence base for such prioritisations, yet decision-makers in many countries lack the institutional support and necessary capacity to use the associated software. As such, simple heuristic approaches such as species richness or number of threatened species are generally adopted to inform prioritisation decisions. However, their performance has never been tested. Using the reptile fauna of Madagascar’s dry forests as a case study, we evaluate the performance of four site prioritisation protocols used to rank the conservation value of 22 established and candidate protected areas. We compare the results to a benchmark produced by the widely-used systematic conservation planning software Zonation. The four indices scored sites on the basis of: i) species richness; ii) an index based on species’ Red List status; iii) irreplaceability (a key metric in systematic conservation planning); and, iv) a novel Conservation Value Index (CVI), which incorporates species-level information on endemism, representation in the protected area system, tolerance of habitat degradation and hunting/collection pressure. Rankings produced by the four protocols were positively correlated to the results of Zonation, particularly amongst high-scoring sites, but CVI and Irreplaceability performed better than Species Richness and the Red List Index. Given the technological capacity constraints experienced by decision-makers in the developing world, our findings suggest that heuristic metrics can represent a useful alternative to more sophisticated analyses, especially when they integrate species-specific information related to extinction risk. However, this can require access

  17. Effects of land-use change on community composition of tropical amphibians and reptiles in Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanger, Thomas C; Iskandar, Djoko T; Motzke, Iris; Brook, Barry W; Sodhi, Navjot S; Clough, Yann; Tscharntke, Teja

    2010-06-01

    Little is known about the effects of anthropogenic land-use change on the amphibians and reptiles of the biodiverse tropical forests of Southeast Asia. We studied a land-use modification gradient stretching from primary forest, secondary forest, natural-shade cacao agroforest, planted-shade cacao agroforest to open areas in central Sulawesi, Indonesia. We determined species richness, abundance, turnover, and community composition in all habitat types and related these to environmental correlates, such as canopy heterogeneity and thickness of leaf litter. Amphibian species richness decreased systematically along the land-use modification gradient, but reptile richness and abundance peaked in natural-shade cacao agroforests. Species richness and abundance patterns across the disturbance gradient were best explained by canopy cover and leaf-litter thickness in amphibians and by canopy heterogeneity and cover in reptiles. Amphibians were more severely affected by forest disturbance in Sulawesi than reptiles. Heterogeneous canopy cover and thick leaf litter should be maintained in cacao plantations to facilitate the conservation value for both groups. For long-term and sustainable use of plantations, pruned shade trees should be permanently kept to allow rejuvenation of cacao and, thus, to prevent repeated forest encroachment. PMID:20151989

  18. Exploring the Genetic Basis of Adaptation to High Elevations in Reptiles: A Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Two Toad-Headed Agamas (Genus Phrynocephalus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weizhao; Qi, Yin; Fu, Jinzhong

    2014-01-01

    High elevation adaptation offers an excellent study system to understand the genetic basis of adaptive evolution. We acquired transcriptome sequences of two closely related lizards, Phrynocephalus przewalskii from low elevations and P. vlangalii from high elevations. Within a phylogenetic framework, we compared their genomic data along with green anole, chicken and Chinese softshell turtle, and identified candidate genes and functional categories that are potentially linked to adaptation to high elevation environments. More than 100 million sequence reads were generated for each species via Illumina sequencing. A de novo assembly produced 70,919 and 62,118 transcripts for P. przewalskii and P. vlangalii, respectively. Based on a well-established reptile phylogeny, we detected 143 positively selected genes (PSGs) along the P. vlangalii lineage from the 7,012 putative orthologs using a branch-site model. Furthermore, ten GO categories and one KEGG pathway that are over-represented by PSGs were recognized. In addition, 58 GO categories were revealed to have elevated evolutionary rates along the P. vlangalii lineage relative to P. przewalskii. These functional analyses further filter out PSGs that are most likely involved in the adaptation process to high elevations. Among them, ADAM17, MD, and HSP90B1 likely contributed to response to hypoxia, and POLK likely contributed to DNA repair. Many other candidate genes involved in gene expression and metabolism were also identified. Genome-wide scan for candidate genes may serve as the first step to explore the genetic basis of high elevation adaptation. Detailed comparative study and functional verification are needed to solidify any conclusions. High elevation adaptation requires coordinated changes in multiple genes that involve various physiological and biochemical pathways; we hope that our genetic studies will provide useful directions for future physiological or molecular studies in reptiles as well as other

  19. [Amphibians and reptiles in the swamps dominated by the palm Raphia taedigera (Arecaceae) in northeastern Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Murillo, Fabian; Beneyto, Davinia; Sasa, Mahmood

    2013-09-01

    The herpetofauna that inhabits Caribbean Costa Rica has received considerable attention in the last two decades. This assemblage includes a total of 141 species of reptiles and 95 amphibians mostly distributed in tropical wet and moist lowland forests. While most information available came from primary and secondary forest sites, little is known about the amphibians and reptiles that inhabit more open habitats, such as wetlands and swamps. For instances, swaps dominated by the yolillo palm Raphia taedigera extend through much of the northeastern Caribbean coast of Costa Rica and eastern Nicaragua, but information about the herpetological community that uses such environments remains practically unknown. This situation reflects the little research conducted in such inhospitable environments. Here, we report the results of an intensive survey conducted to assess the herpetological community that inhabit R. taedigera palm-swamps. A total of 14 species of amphibians and 17 of reptiles have been recorded from these swamps. Amphibians and reptiles that inhabit yolillo swamps have wide distributions along much of Middle America and are considered common species throughout their range. In general, yolillo swamps are poor environments for herpetofauna: richness of reptiles and amphibians is almost two times higher in the adjacent forest than in the palm dominated swamps. Furthermore, most species observed in this swamps can be considered habitat generalists that are well adapted to the extreme conditions imposed by the changes in hydroperiods, reduce understory cover, low tree diversity and simple forest architecture of these environments. Despite similarities in the herpetofauna, it is clear that not all forest species use yolillo habitat, a characteristic that is discussed in terms of physical stress driven by the prolonged hydroperiod and reduced leaflitter in the ground, as these features drive habitat structure and herpetofaunal complexity. Our list of species using

  20. Alfredo Dugès' type specimens of amphibians and reptiles revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Villela, Oscar; Ríos-Muñoz, César A; Magaña-Cota, Gloria E; Quezadas-Tapia, Néstor L

    2016-03-14

    The type specimens of amphibians and reptiles of the Museo de Historia Natural Alfredo Dugès, at the University of Guanajuato (MADUG) were reviewed following Smith & Necker's (1943) summary. Owing to this collection's eventful history and its historical importance as the oldest herpetological collection in Mexico, a review of its conservation status was needed. After many years, the collection has received proper recognition at the University of Guanajuato with a portion of the herpetological types considered "Precious Assets" of the university. We found 34 type specimens pertaining to 18 taxa; six are additional specimens to those previously reported; six herpetological types are missing, including the body of the type of Adelophis copei. All specimens are in good to reasonable condition except for the type of Rhinocheilus antonii, which has dried out completely. All specimens are illustrated to show their condition.

  1. Management of riparian habitat for mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. Appendix C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, M.G.; Ribic, C.

    1999-01-01

    Melinda Knutson (USGS Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center) and Christine Ribic (USGS Wisconsin Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit) contributed to a recent report published by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. The report summarizes a workshop held 8 December 1999 in Chicago, IL. Highlights of the report include resources and land management recommendations for riparian zones in the Midwest. The full report will soon be available at the USDA NRCS Wildlife Habitat Management Institute website: http://www.ms.nrcs.usda.gov/whmi/habitat.htm Knutson, M., and C. Ribic. 2000. Management of riparian habitat for mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. Pages 22-24, Appendix C in W. Hohman, ed. NRCS Management and Restoration of Midwestern Riparian Systems Workshop Report. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Chicago, IL.

  2. Competition and constraint drove Cope's rule in the evolution of giant flying reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Roger B J; Frigot, Rachel A; Goswami, Anjali; Andres, Brian; Butler, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    The pterosaurs, Mesozoic flying reptiles, attained wingspans of more than 10 m that greatly exceed the largest birds and challenge our understanding of size limits in flying animals. Pterosaurs have been used to illustrate Cope's rule, the influential generalization that evolutionary lineages trend to increasingly large body sizes. However, unambiguous examples of Cope's rule operating on extended timescales in large clades remain elusive, and the phylogenetic pattern and possible drivers of pterosaur gigantism are uncertain. Here we show 70 million years of highly constrained early evolution, followed by almost 80 million years of sustained, multi-lineage body size increases in pterosaurs. These results are supported by maximum-likelihood modelling of a comprehensive new pterosaur data set. The transition between these macroevolutionary regimes is coincident with the Early Cretaceous adaptive radiation of birds, supporting controversial hypotheses of bird-pterosaur competition, and suggesting that evolutionary competition can act as a macroevolutionary driver on extended geological timescales. PMID:24694584

  3. [Reptiles from Cerro Colorado and its surroundings, Cumana, Sucre State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, O; Prieto, A; Comejo, P

    2000-01-01

    An inventory of the reptiles that inhabit in Cerro Colorado and its surroundings, was performed from March, 1994 to March, 1995. There were reported 8 species of snakes and 7 of lizards enclosed in 4 and 5 families repectively. Aspects observed were ecolology as habitat, activity, reproduction and relative abundance. The more abundant species of lizards were: Cnemidophorus femniscatus, Ameiva bifrontata, (Teiidae), Tropidurus hispidus (Tropiduridae), Gonatodes vittatus and Hemidactylus mabouia (Gekkonidae) and the ophidians: Leptodeira annulata and Mastigodryas amarali (Colubridae). It is believed that the changes occurred in the zone influenced the increase of the relative abundance of the species Leptotyphlops goudotii (Leptotyphlopidae) arid Gymnophthalmus speciosus(Gymnophthalmidae) and perhaps in the disappearance of others that have been reported at the xerophitic or semixerophitic zones of the Sucre State of Venezuela. PMID:11220219

  4. Alfredo Dugès' type specimens of amphibians and reptiles revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Villela, Oscar; Ríos-Muñoz, César A; Magaña-Cota, Gloria E; Quezadas-Tapia, Néstor L

    2016-01-01

    The type specimens of amphibians and reptiles of the Museo de Historia Natural Alfredo Dugès, at the University of Guanajuato (MADUG) were reviewed following Smith & Necker's (1943) summary. Owing to this collection's eventful history and its historical importance as the oldest herpetological collection in Mexico, a review of its conservation status was needed. After many years, the collection has received proper recognition at the University of Guanajuato with a portion of the herpetological types considered "Precious Assets" of the university. We found 34 type specimens pertaining to 18 taxa; six are additional specimens to those previously reported; six herpetological types are missing, including the body of the type of Adelophis copei. All specimens are in good to reasonable condition except for the type of Rhinocheilus antonii, which has dried out completely. All specimens are illustrated to show their condition. PMID:27394365

  5. The reptile type specimens preserved in the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC) of Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Díez, Teresa; González-Fernández, José E

    2013-01-01

    A first complete list of the reptile type specimens preserved in the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC) of Madrid (updated until 15 July 2012) is provided. The collection houses a total of 319 type specimens representing 24 taxa belonging to 6 families and 12 genera. There are 22 taxa represented by primary types (19 holotypes, 2 neotypes and 1lectotype) and at least one paratype, and only two taxa are exclusively represented by one secondary type (paratype). The collection is specially rich in Spanish endemisms. Special attention is deserved by the type series of many subspecies of Podarcis lilfordi described by A. Salvador and V. Pdéez-Mellado. All type specimens are housed in the Herpetological collection except Blanus mariae and Psaimodroims occidentalis type series and Psammodroims hispanicus (neotype) which are preserved in the DNA/Tissues Collection.

  6. Rivaling the world's smallest reptiles: discovery of miniaturized and microendemic new species of leaf chameleons (Brookesia from northern Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Glaw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One clade of Malagasy leaf chameleons, the Brookesia minima group, is known to contain species that rank among the smallest amniotes in the world. We report on a previously unrecognized radiation of these miniaturized lizards comprising four new species described herein. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The newly discovered species appear to be restricted to single, mostly karstic, localities in extreme northern Madagascar: Brookesia confidens sp. n. from Ankarana, B. desperata sp. n. from Forêt d'Ambre, B. micra sp. n. from the islet Nosy Hara, and B. tristis sp. n. from Montagne des Français. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes of all nominal species in the B. minima group congruently support that the four new species, together with B. tuberculata from Montagne d'Ambre in northern Madagascar, form a strongly supported clade. This suggests that these species have diversified in geographical proximity in this small area. All species of the B. minima group, including the four newly described ones, are characterized by very deep genetic divergences of 18-32% in the ND2 gene and >6% in the 16S rRNA gene. Despite superficial similarities among all species of this group, their status as separate evolutionary lineages is also supported by moderate to strong differences in external morphology, and by clear differences in hemipenis structure. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The newly discovered dwarf chameleon species represent striking cases of miniaturization and microendemism and suggest the possibility of a range size-body size relationship in Malagasy reptiles. The newly described Brookesia micra reaches a maximum snout-vent length in males of 16 mm, and its total length in both sexes is less than 30 mm, ranking it among the smallest amniote vertebrates in the world. With a distribution limited to a very small islet, this species may represent an extreme case of island dwarfism.

  7. Effect of species rarity on the accuracy of species distribution models for reptiles and amphibians in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, J.; Wejnert, K.E.; Hathaway, S.A.; Rochester, C.J.; Fisher, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Several studies have found that more accurate predictive models of species' occurrences can be developed for rarer species; however, one recent study found the relationship between range size and model performance to be an artefact of sample prevalence, that is, the proportion of presence versus absence observations in the data used to train the model. We examined the effect of model type, species rarity class, species' survey frequency, detectability and manipulated sample prevalence on the accuracy of distribution models developed for 30 reptile and amphibian species. Location: Coastal southern California, USA. Methods: Classification trees, generalized additive models and generalized linear models were developed using species presence and absence data from 420 locations. Model performance was measured using sensitivity, specificity and the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) plot based on twofold cross-validation, or on bootstrapping. Predictors included climate, terrain, soil and vegetation variables. Species were assigned to rarity classes by experts. The data were sampled to generate subsets with varying ratios of presences and absences to test for the effect of sample prevalence. Join count statistics were used to characterize spatial dependence in the prediction errors. Results: Species in classes with higher rarity were more accurately predicted than common species, and this effect was independent of sample prevalence. Although positive spatial autocorrelation remained in the prediction errors, it was weaker than was observed in the species occurrence data. The differences in accuracy among model types were slight. Main conclusions: Using a variety of modelling methods, more accurate species distribution models were developed for rarer than for more common species. This was presumably because it is difficult to discriminate suitable from unsuitable habitat for habitat generalists, and not as an artefact of the

  8. Carriage of antibiotic-resistant enteric bacteria varies among sites in Galapagos reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Emily; Hong, Pei-Ying; Bedon, Lenin Cruz; Mackie, Roderick I

    2012-01-01

    Increased overlap between humans and wildlife populations has increased the risk for novel disease emergence. Detecting contacts with a high risk for transmission of pathogens requires the identification of dependable measures of microbial exchange. We evaluated antibiotic resistance as a molecular marker for the intensity of human-wildlife microbial connectivity in the Galápagos Islands. We isolated Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica from the feces of land iguanas (Conolophus sp.), marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), giant tortoises (Geochelone nigra), and seawater, and tested these bacteria with the use of the disk diffusion method for resistance to 10 antibiotics. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were found in reptile feces from two tourism sites (Isla Plaza Sur and La Galapaguera on Isla San Cristóbal) and from seawater close to a public use beach near Puerto Baquerizo Moreno on Isla San Cristóbal. No resistance was detected at two protected beaches on more isolated islands (El Miedo on Isla Santa Fe and Cape Douglas on Isla Fernandina) and at a coastal tourism site (La Lobería on Isla San Cristóbal). Eighteen E. coli isolates from three locations, all sites relatively proximate to a port town, were resistant to ampicillin, doxycycline, tetracycline, and trimethoprin/sulfamethoxazole. In contrast, only five S. enterica isolates showed a mild decrease in susceptibility to doxycycline and tetracycline from these same sites (i.e., an intermediate resistance phenotype), but no clinical resistance was detected in this bacterial species. These findings suggest that reptiles living in closer proximity to humans potentially have higher exposure to bacteria of human origin; however, it is not clear from this study to what extent this potential exposure translates to ongoing exchange of bacterial strains or genetic traits. Resistance patterns and bacterial exchange in this system warrant further investigation to understand better how human associations

  9. Hibernation metabolism of mammalia (marmota menzeri kaschk) and reptiles (testudo horsfieldi gray)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been revealed that, upon hypnosis resulting from the winter hibernation, the content of glucose in the blood of mammals (Marmota menzberi Kaschk.) and reptiles( Testudo horsfieldi Gray) has decreased whereas the components of the lipid exchange and the activity of the enzyme alanin and aspartate transaminase have increased, the changes observed being more pronounced in the tortoise than in marmote. On a level of the intact organism in vitro, over the 30 fold and 100 fold decrease of gas oxygen exchange takes place in marmots and tortoises, respectively upon the body temperature decreases as low as 4-5 degree Celsius as a result of winter hibernation. At a mitochondrial level, a decrease in the bio energetic parameters by 4-6 times with a prevailing inhibition of succinate oxidation was recorded in marmots and by 3 times in tortoises in the state of hypo biosis, which witnesses deep restructuring of the enzymatic metabolic characteristics of the tissue energetics under these conditions. More significant inhibition of the respiratory activity in the mitochondria of the liver, kidney and heart against the other organs was reported in ground squirrel when in the state of natural winter sleeping. Upon the temperature drop in vitro by 37,25,16 degree Celsius the respiratory activity of the liver mitochondria of active rodents was recorded to decrease to a significantly smaller degrees ( by 4 times ) than in those of the reptiles ( by 12 times ), thus witnessing a smaller temperature dependence of the subcellular energetics of the warm blooded animals and the necessity of functioning of special mechanism decreasing mitochondrial respiration in this group as compared with the cold blooded animals while in hypo biosis

  10. Estudio de las huellas de reptil, del icnogenero Brachychiroterium, encontradas en el Trias Subbetico de Cambil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez López, A.

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the first tracks of vertebrate found in the Subbetic Zone are described and studied. The detrital materials in which these tracks are printed belong to the Triassic outcroping at ESE of Cambil (Jaén. It is the trackway of a quadruped, formed by several pentadactyl footprints corresponding to the pes and manus impressions of a reptile. After the study of their ichnologic characteristics, it is thought that the tracks belong to the Brachychiroterium ichnogenera, possibly Brachychiroterium cf. gallicum. This footprints are on coastal materials or near to a river. In the sandtones which these tracks are printed, there are skin marks and ledges. The sediment had much water and it was plastic. At the end of the work it is discussed the possible pertainence of these materials to middle Triassic.En este trabajo se describen y estudian las primeras huellas de vertebrado que se han encontrado en la Zona Subbética. Los materiales detríticos que contienen estas huellas son del Trías que aflora al ESE de Cambil (Jaén. Se trata del rastro o pista de un cuadrúpedo, formado por varias huellas pentadáctilas que corresponden a las pisadas de los miembros anteriores y posteriores de un reptil. Después de un estudio de las características icnológicas, se piensa que las huellas pertenecen al icnogénero Brachychiroterium, posiblemente Brachychiroterium cf. gallicum. Estas huellas se sitúan en materiales depositados en zonas litorales o en zonas muy cercanas al cauce de un río. En las areniscas, donde se preservan, se observan marcas dérmicas y rebordes, que se han relacionado con un sedimento con un alto contenido en agua aunque variable de un punto a otro. Al final, se discute la posible atribución de estos materiales al Trías medio.

  11. Carriage of antibiotic-resistant enteric bacteria varies among sites in Galapagos reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Emily; Hong, Pei-Ying; Bedon, Lenin Cruz; Mackie, Roderick I

    2012-01-01

    Increased overlap between humans and wildlife populations has increased the risk for novel disease emergence. Detecting contacts with a high risk for transmission of pathogens requires the identification of dependable measures of microbial exchange. We evaluated antibiotic resistance as a molecular marker for the intensity of human-wildlife microbial connectivity in the Galápagos Islands. We isolated Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica from the feces of land iguanas (Conolophus sp.), marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), giant tortoises (Geochelone nigra), and seawater, and tested these bacteria with the use of the disk diffusion method for resistance to 10 antibiotics. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were found in reptile feces from two tourism sites (Isla Plaza Sur and La Galapaguera on Isla San Cristóbal) and from seawater close to a public use beach near Puerto Baquerizo Moreno on Isla San Cristóbal. No resistance was detected at two protected beaches on more isolated islands (El Miedo on Isla Santa Fe and Cape Douglas on Isla Fernandina) and at a coastal tourism site (La Lobería on Isla San Cristóbal). Eighteen E. coli isolates from three locations, all sites relatively proximate to a port town, were resistant to ampicillin, doxycycline, tetracycline, and trimethoprin/sulfamethoxazole. In contrast, only five S. enterica isolates showed a mild decrease in susceptibility to doxycycline and tetracycline from these same sites (i.e., an intermediate resistance phenotype), but no clinical resistance was detected in this bacterial species. These findings suggest that reptiles living in closer proximity to humans potentially have higher exposure to bacteria of human origin; however, it is not clear from this study to what extent this potential exposure translates to ongoing exchange of bacterial strains or genetic traits. Resistance patterns and bacterial exchange in this system warrant further investigation to understand better how human associations

  12. Identification and comparative analysis of the protocadherin cluster in a reptile, the green anole lizard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Juan Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The vertebrate protocadherins are a subfamily of cell adhesion molecules that are predominantly expressed in the nervous system and are believed to play an important role in establishing the complex neural network during animal development. Genes encoding these molecules are organized into a cluster in the genome. Comparative analysis of the protocadherin subcluster organization and gene arrangements in different vertebrates has provided interesting insights into the history of vertebrate genome evolution. Among tetrapods, protocadherin clusters have been fully characterized only in mammals. In this study, we report the identification and comparative analysis of the protocadherin cluster in a reptile, the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that the anole protocadherin cluster spans over a megabase and encodes a total of 71 genes. The number of genes in the anole protocadherin cluster is significantly higher than that in the coelacanth (49 genes and mammalian (54-59 genes clusters. The anole protocadherin genes are organized into four subclusters: the delta, alpha, beta and gamma. This subcluster organization is identical to that of the coelacanth protocadherin cluster, but differs from the mammalian clusters which lack the delta subcluster. The gene number expansion in the anole protocadherin cluster is largely due to the extensive gene duplication in the gammab subgroup. Similar to coelacanth and elephant shark protocadherin genes, the anole protocadherin genes have experienced a low frequency of gene conversion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that similar to the protocadherin clusters in other vertebrates, the evolution of anole protocadherin cluster is driven mainly by lineage-specific gene duplications and degeneration. Our analysis also shows that loss of the protocadherin delta subcluster in the mammalian lineage occurred after the divergence of mammals and reptiles

  13. Molecular characterization of insulin from squamate reptiles reveals sequence diversity and possible adaptive evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Genki; Yoshida, Ayaka; Kobayashi, Aya; Park, Min Kyun

    2016-01-01

    The Squamata are the most adaptive and prosperous group among ectothermic amniotes, reptiles, due to their species-richness and geographically wide habitat. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying their prosperity remain largely unknown, unique features have been reported from hormones that regulate energy metabolism. Insulin, a central anabolic hormone, is one such hormone, as its roles and effectiveness in regulation of blood glucose levels remain to be examined in squamates. In the present study, cDNAs coding for insulin were isolated from multiple species that represent various groups of squamates. The deduced amino acid sequences showed a high degree of divergence, with four lineages showing obviously higher number of amino acid substitutions than most of vertebrates, from teleosts to mammals. Among 18 sites presented to comprise the two receptor binding surfaces (one with 12 sites and the other with 6 sites), substitutions were observed in 13 sites. Among them was the substitution of HisB10, which results in the loss of the ability to hexamerize. Furthermore, three of these substitutions were reported to increase mitogenicity in human analogues. These substitutions were also reported from insulin of hystricomorph rodents and agnathan fishes, whose mitogenic potency have been shown to be increased. The estimated value of the non-synonymous-to-synonymous substitution ratio (ω) for the Squamata clade was larger than those of the other reptiles and aves. Even higher values were estimated for several lineages among squamates. These results, together with the regulatory mechanisms of digestion and nutrient assimilation in squamates, suggested a possible adaptive process through the molecular evolution of squamate INS. Further studies on the roles of insulin, in relation to the physiological and ecological traits of squamate species, will provide an insight into the molecular mechanisms that have led to the adaptivity and prosperity of squamates.

  14. Distribution and Current Status of the Reptiles of Khirthar Protected Area Complex (KPAC and Adjoining Areas in Districts Karachi, Jamshoro and Thatta, Sindh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ali Ghalib

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, surveys were undertaken during 2008 – 2013, to record the distribution and status of reptiles of the area, during the study 41 species of reptiles were recorded. Twenty two important habitats for reptiles in the area were identified and listed. Indian Spiny-tailed Lizard (Saara hardwickii was found to be under threat in its localized habitat in Jhimpir Wind Corridor block in Thatta district and Indian Fat–tail Gecko (Eublepharis macularius was noted to have been almost disappeared from most of the area due to large scale capture of the species for sale in the local markets.

  15. Survey of amphibians and reptiles of U.S. Fish & Widlife Refuges Starr 750 and Starr 320 in Quitman County, Mississippi Plus Comments on Observed Mammals

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a survey of the amphibians and reptiles of two Quitman Couny, Mississippi US. Fish and Wildlife Refuges designated as FSA Starr 750 and Starr 320. The field...

  16. Survey of amphibians and reptiles of Whaley 437 U.S. Fish an Wildlife Refuge in Marshall County, MS Plus Comments on Observed Mammals

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a survey of the amphibians and reptiles of a Marshall County, Mississippi U.S. Fish and Wildlife Refuge designated as Whaley 437. The field studies began on...

  17. 豆沙溪两栖爬行动物的组成及水电规划的影响及其保护%Investigation on Amphibians and Reptiles in Doushaxi, Effects of Hydroelectric Station and Conservation Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海涛

    2012-01-01

    采用样线法,结合使用归纳法和访问法,于2011年3~7月对已获国家批准进行水电规划的四川省雷波县豆沙溪流域内的两栖爬行动物作了专项调查.结果表明,该流域两栖爬行动物共有3目11科23种,其中两栖动物有2目7科12种,爬行动物1目4科11种;该流域内两栖爬行动物均为东洋界种类,无古北界种类,分布类型以喜马拉雅—横断山区型为主.根据流域两栖类栖息的生态特点,其生态环境划分为流水、静水、陆地(含陆地—流水、陆地—静水),分布的种类较为均衡;爬行类栖息的生态环境划分为林地、灌草丛、田地,其中灌草丛生态类型是该流域爬行类主要的分布区域.预测分析了该流域水电规划对两栖爬行动物的影响,并提出了相应的环保对策.%A field investigation using line transect method combining induction and questioning survey on amphibians and reptiles was carried out in Doushaxi area, Sichuan province from March to July in 2006, before the construction of hydroelectric station. 12 amphibians belonging to 7 families 2 orders and 11 reptiles belonging to 4 families 1 order, a total of 23 species belonging to 11 families, 3 orders were identified. The amphibian and reptile species in this area were all Oriental species, and mainly Himalayan-Hengduan Mountain type. The eco-system of habitat for amphibian could be divided as flowing water, static water and land (including land-flowing water, land static water); and the distribution of species was balance. Meanwhile the eco-system of habitat for reptiles could be divided as forest, shrub-grassland and field, among which shrub-grassland was the main distribution area for reptiles. The potential effects of hydropower programming on amphibians and reptiles along this area were predicted, based on which conservation countermeasures were put forward.

  18. Noteworthy records of reptiles from natural open vegetation areas in plateau and coastal areas of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr.; Tobias Saraiva Kunz; Jorge José Cherem; Renato Silveira Bérnils

    2009-01-01

    The composition and geographic distribution of reptiles in Santa Catarina are little known, particularly in the open areas of its plateau (covered with ombrophylous steppe) and Atlantic littoral (coastal dunes with thin, low, and predominant herbaceous vegetation known as restinga). Aiming to contribute to the knowledge of reptiles that inhabit these areas, this paper presents sixteen records of previously unknown or uncommon species in Santa Catarina: Acanthochelys spixii, Anops kingii, Cnem...

  19. Habitat relationships of reptiles in pine beetle disturbed forests of Alabama, U.S.A. with guidelines for a modified drift-fence sampling method

    OpenAIRE

    W. B. SUTTON, Y. WANG, C. J. SCHWEITZER

    2010-01-01

    Understanding vertebrate habitat relationships is important to promote management strategies for the longterm conservation of many species. Using a modified drift fence method, we sampled reptiles and compared habitat variables within the William B. Bankhead National Forest (BNF) in Alabama, U.S.A from April 2005 to June 2006. We captured 226 individual reptiles representing 19 species during 564 total trap nights. We used canonical correspondence analysis to examine habitat associations for ...

  20. Community- and landscape-level responses of reptiles and small mammals to feral-horse grazing in the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, Erik A.; Brussard, P.F.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated species- and community-level responses of squamate reptiles and granivorous small mammals to feral-horse grazing in two elevational strata across nine mountain ranges of the western Great Basin, USA. Although mammal species richness did not differ between horse-occupied and horse-removed sites, occupied sites possessed less community completeness (biotic integrity) and 1.1–7.4 times greater deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) than removed sites. In opposite fashion, horse-removed sites possessed greater reptile species richness and tended towards greater abundance for seven of nine species, yet unequal species pools across sites dictated that community completeness did not differ statistically between horse-removed and -occupied sites.

  1. An inventory of mammals, birds and reptiles along a section of the river and banks of upper Ganges, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bashir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess faunal diversity along a 165-km stretch of the upper Ganges River between Bijnor and Narora cities, Uttar Pradesh, from January to June 2007. Both river and bank species diversity of reptiles, birds and mammals using a combination of boat surveys, linear walks and random searches were inventoried. Presence of 18 species of mammals, 55 species of birds and 13 species of reptiles were recorded from the river stretch including 16 species of global conservation significance. Maximum encounter rate was observed for little cormorant (3.160 plus or minus 0.290, macaque (2.385 plus or minus 0.442 and brown roofed turtle (1.009 plus or minus 0.107. Our study is an attempt towards generating baseline information on the faunal diversity of the upper Ganges and we recommend exhaustive surveys and regular monitoring of this river stretch through indicator species approach.

  2. Studies of Annual and Seasonal Variations in Four Species of Reptiles and Amphibians at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, D.C.; Nelson, E.I.; Mullen, M.A.; Foxx, T.S.; Haarmann, T.K.

    1998-07-01

    Baseline studies of reptiles and amphibians of the Pajarito wetlands at Los Alamos National Laboratory have been conducted by the Ecology group since 1990. With the data gathered from 1990-1997 (excluding 1992), we examined the annual and seasonal population changes of four species of reptiles and amphibians over the past seven years. The four species studied are the Woodhouse toad (Bufo woodhousii), the western chorus frog (Pseudacris triseriata), the many-lined skink (Eunzeces nudtivirgatus), and the plateau striped whiptail lizard (Cnemidophorus velox). Statistical analyses indicate a significant change on a seasonal basis for the western chorus frog and the many-lined skink. Results indicate a significant difference in the annual population of the Woodhouse toad.

  3. Studies of annual and seasonal variations in four species of reptiles and amphibians at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.I.; Haarmann, T.; Keller, D.C.; Foxx, T.

    1998-11-01

    Baseline studies of reptiles and amphibians of the Pajarito wetlands at Los Alamos National Laboratory have been conducted by the Ecology group since 1990. With the gathered data from 1990--1997 (excluding 1992), they plan to determine if patterns can be found in the annual and seasonal population changes of four species of reptiles and amphibians over the past seven years. The four species studied are the Woodhouse toad, the western chorus frog, the many-linked skink, and the plateau striped whiptail lizard. Statistical analysis results show that significant changes occurred on a seasonal basis for the western chorus frog and the many-lined skink. Results indicate a significant difference in the annual population of the Woodhouse toad.

  4. A new captorhinid reptile from the Lower Permian of Oklahoma showing remarkable dental and mandibular convergence with microsaurian tetrapods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisz, R. R.; LeBlanc, Aaron R. H.; Sidor, Christian A.; Scott, Diane; May, William

    2015-10-01

    The Lower Permian fossiliferous infills of the Dolese Brothers Limestone Quarry, near Richards Spur, Oklahoma, have preserved the most diverse assemblage of Paleozoic terrestrial vertebrates, including small-bodied reptiles and lepospondyl anamniotes. Many of these taxa were previously known only from fragmentary remains, predominantly dentigerous jaw elements and numerous isolated skeletal elements. The recent discovery of articulated skulls and skeletons of small reptiles permits the recognition that dentigerous elements, previously assigned at this locality to the anamniote lepospondyl Euryodus primus, belong to a new captorhinid eureptile, Opisthodontosaurus carrolli gen. et sp. nov. This mistaken identity points to a dramatic level of convergence in mandibular and dental anatomy in two distantly related and disparate clades of terrestrial tetrapods and sheds light on the earliest instance of durophagy in eureptiles.

  5. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume 16. Amphibians and reptiles of the Lake Michigan drainage basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentecost, E.D.; Vogt, R.C.

    1976-07-01

    The focus of this report is on regional distribution of the herpetofauna of the Lake Michigan Drainage Basin. The introduction includes a brief discussion of plant communities and their associated herpetofauna, and the importance of hibernacula and migration routes. Some aspects of the status, distribution, habitat, and life history of the amphibians and reptiles of the Basin are described in an annotated checklist. Special attention is given to uncommon and endangered species. Species range is shown on distribution maps.

  6. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume 16. Amphibians and reptiles of the Lake Michigan drainage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of this report is on regional distribution of the herpetofauna of the Lake Michigan Drainage Basin. The introduction includes a brief discussion of plant communities and their associated herpetofauna, and the importance of hibernacula and migration routes. Some aspects of the status, distribution, habitat, and life history of the amphibians and reptiles of the Basin are described in an annotated checklist. Special attention is given to uncommon and endangered species. Species range is shown on distribution maps

  7. FIRST RECORD OF THE RARE MARINE REPTILE THOLODUS SCHMIDI FROM THE MIDDLE TRIASSIC OF THE SOUTHERN ALPS

    OpenAIRE

    FABIO MARCO DALLA VECCHIA

    2004-01-01

    Tholodus schmidi, a rare marine reptile of debated affinity and with a peculiar durophagous dentition, is for the first time recorded outside the Muschelkalk Basin of Central Europe. Parts of a mandibular ramus and a maxilla, both bearing teeth and nearly uncrushed, have been found in the upper Anisian (Balatonicus Subzone) of northeastern Italy. The tooth implantation is relatively complex, with both "alveolate" and "ankylosed" teeth. Disarticulated postcranial bones of an ichthyosaur have b...

  8. Evolutionary diversity of bile salts in reptiles and mammals, including analysis of ancient human and extinct giant ground sloth coprolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmann Alan F

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bile salts are the major end-metabolites of cholesterol and are also important in lipid and protein digestion and in influencing the intestinal microflora. We greatly extend prior surveys of bile salt diversity in both reptiles and mammals, including analysis of 8,000 year old human coprolites and coprolites from the extinct Shasta ground sloth (Nothrotherium shastense. Results While there is significant variation of bile salts across species, bile salt profiles are generally stable within families and often within orders of reptiles and mammals, and do not directly correlate with differences in diet. The variation of bile salts generally accords with current molecular phylogenies of reptiles and mammals, including more recent groupings of squamate reptiles. For mammals, the most unusual finding was that the Paenungulates (elephants, manatees, and the rock hyrax have a very different bile salt profile from the Rufous sengi and South American aardvark, two other mammals classified with Paenungulates in the cohort Afrotheria in molecular phylogenies. Analyses of the approximately 8,000 year old human coprolites yielded a bile salt profile very similar to that found in modern human feces. Analysis of the Shasta ground sloth coprolites (approximately 12,000 years old showed the predominant presence of glycine-conjugated bile acids, similar to analyses of bile and feces of living sloths, in addition to a complex mixture of plant sterols and stanols expected from an herbivorous diet. Conclusions The bile salt synthetic pathway has become longer and more complex throughout vertebrate evolution, with some bile salt modifications only found within single groups such as marsupials. Analysis of the evolution of bile salt structures in different species provides a potentially rich model system for the evolution of a complex biochemical pathway in vertebrates. Our results also demonstrate the stability of bile salts in coprolites

  9. Moving into protected areas? Setting conservation priorities for Romanian reptiles and amphibians at risk from climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Viorel D; Rozylowicz, Laurenţiu; Cogălniceanu, Dan; Niculae, Iulian Mihăiţă; Cucu, Adina Livia

    2013-01-01

    Rapid climate change represents one of the top threats to biodiversity, causing declines and extinctions of many species. Range shifts are a key response, but in many cases are incompatible with the current extent of protected areas. In this study we used ensemble species distribution models to identify range changes for 21 reptile and 16 amphibian species in Romania for the 2020s and 2050s time horizons under three emission scenarios (A1B = integrated world, rapid economic growth, A2A = divided world, rapid economic growth [realistic scenario], B2A = regional development, environmentally-friendly scenario) and no- and limited-dispersal assumptions. We then used irreplaceability analysis to test the efficacy of the Natura 2000 network to meet conservation targets. Under all scenarios and time horizons, 90% of the species suffered range contractions (greatest loses under scenarios B2A for 2020s, and A1B for 2050s), and four reptile species expanded their ranges. Two reptile and two amphibian species are predicted to completely lose climate space by 2050s. Currently, 35 species do not meet conservation targets (>40% representation in protected areas), but the target is predicted to be met for 4 - 14 species under future climate conditions, with higher representation under the limited-dispersal scenario. The Alpine and Steppic-Black Sea biogeographic regions have the highest irreplaceability value, and act as climate refugia for many reptiles and amphibians. The Natura 2000 network performs better for achieving herpetofauna conservation goals in the future, owing to the interaction between drastic range contractions, and range shifts towards existing protected areas. Thus, conservation actions for herpetofauna in Romania need to focus on: (1) building institutional capacity of protected areas in the Alpine and Steppic-Black Sea biogeographic regions, and (2) facilitating natural range shifts by improving the conservation status of herpetofauna outside protected areas

  10. Moving into protected areas? Setting conservation priorities for Romanian reptiles and amphibians at risk from climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel D Popescu

    Full Text Available Rapid climate change represents one of the top threats to biodiversity, causing declines and extinctions of many species. Range shifts are a key response, but in many cases are incompatible with the current extent of protected areas. In this study we used ensemble species distribution models to identify range changes for 21 reptile and 16 amphibian species in Romania for the 2020s and 2050s time horizons under three emission scenarios (A1B = integrated world, rapid economic growth, A2A = divided world, rapid economic growth [realistic scenario], B2A = regional development, environmentally-friendly scenario and no- and limited-dispersal assumptions. We then used irreplaceability analysis to test the efficacy of the Natura 2000 network to meet conservation targets. Under all scenarios and time horizons, 90% of the species suffered range contractions (greatest loses under scenarios B2A for 2020s, and A1B for 2050s, and four reptile species expanded their ranges. Two reptile and two amphibian species are predicted to completely lose climate space by 2050s. Currently, 35 species do not meet conservation targets (>40% representation in protected areas, but the target is predicted to be met for 4 - 14 species under future climate conditions, with higher representation under the limited-dispersal scenario. The Alpine and Steppic-Black Sea biogeographic regions have the highest irreplaceability value, and act as climate refugia for many reptiles and amphibians. The Natura 2000 network performs better for achieving herpetofauna conservation goals in the future, owing to the interaction between drastic range contractions, and range shifts towards existing protected areas. Thus, conservation actions for herpetofauna in Romania need to focus on: (1 building institutional capacity of protected areas in the Alpine and Steppic-Black Sea biogeographic regions, and (2 facilitating natural range shifts by improving the conservation status of herpetofauna outside

  11. Amphibians and Reptiles of Cebu, Philippines:The Poorly Understood Herpetofauna of an Island with Very Little Remaining Natural Habitat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian E SUPSUP; Neil Aldrin D MALLARI; Nevong M PUNA; Augusto A ASIS; Bernard R REDOBLADO; Maria Fatima G PANAGUINIT; Faith M GUINTO; Edmund B RICO; Arvin C DIESMOS; Rafe M BROWN

    2016-01-01

    Despite its proximity to other well studied islands, Cebu has received little attention from herpetologists, most likely because of early deforestation and the perception very little natural habitat remains for amphibians and reptiles. In this study, we present a preliminary assessment of island’s herpetofauna, focusing our ifeld work on Cebu’s last remaining forest fragments and synthesizing all available historical museum distribution data. We surveyed amphibians and reptile populations using standardized methods to allow for comparisons between sites and assess sufifciency of sampling effort. Fieldwork resulted in a total of 27 species recorded from ifve study sites, complementing the 58 species previously known from the island. Together, our data and historical museum records increase the known number of Cebu’s resident species to 13 amphibians (frogs) and 63 reptiles (lizards, snakes, turtle, crocodile). We recorded the continued persistence Cebu’s rare and endemic lizard (Brachymeles cebuensis)and secretive snakes such asMalayotyphlops hypogius, andRamphotyhlops cumingii, which persist despite Cebu’s long history of widespread and continuous habitat degradation. Most species encountered, including common and widespread taxa, appeared to persist at low population abundances. To facilitate the immediate recovery of the remaining forest fragments, and resident herpetofauna, conservation effort must be sustained. However, prior to any conservation interventions, ecological baselines must be established to inform the process of recovery.

  12. Variation in testosterone and corticosterone in amphibians and reptiles: relationships with latitude, elevation, and breeding season length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenaar, Cas; Husak, Jerry; Escallón, Camilo; Moore, Ignacio T

    2012-11-01

    Latitudinal variation in life-history traits has been the focus of numerous investigations, but underlying hormonal mechanisms have received much less attention. Steroid hormones play a central role in vertebrate reproduction and may be associated with life-history trade-offs. Consequently, circulating concentrations of these hormones vary tremendously across vertebrates, yet interspecific geographic variation in male hormone concentrations has been studied in detail only in birds. We here report on such variation in amphibians and reptiles, confirming patterns observed in birds. Using phylogenetic comparative analyses, we found that in amphibians, but not in reptiles, testosterone and baseline corticosterone were positively related to latitude. Baseline corticosterone was negatively related to elevation in amphibians but not in reptiles. For both groups, testosterone concentrations were negatively related to breeding-season length. In addition, testosterone concentrations were positively correlated with baseline corticosterone in both groups. Our findings may best be explained by the hypothesis that shorter breeding seasons increase male-male competition, which may favor increased testosterone concentrations that modulate secondary sexual traits. Elevated energetic demands resulting from greater reproductive intensity may require higher baseline corticosterone. Thus, the positive relationship between testosterone and corticosterone in both groups suggests an energetic demand for testosterone-regulated behavior that is met with increased baseline glucocorticoid concentrations.

  13. Opposing resonses to ecological gradients structure amphibian and reptile communities across a temperate grassland-savanna-forest landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundel, Ralph; Beamer, David; Glowacki, Gary A.; Frohnapple, Krystal; Pavlovic, Noel B.

    2014-01-01

    Temperate savannas are threatened across the globe. If we prioritize savanna restoration, we should ask how savanna animal communities differ from communities in related open habitats and forests. We documented distribution of amphibian and reptile species across an open-savanna–forest gradient in the Midwest U.S. to determine how fire history and habitat structure affected herpetofaunal community composition. The transition from open habitats to forests was a transition from higher reptile abundance to higher amphibian abundance and the intermediate savanna landscape supported the most species overall. These differences warn against assuming that amphibian and reptile communities will have similar ecological responses to habitat structure. Richness and abundance also often responded in opposite directions to some habitat characteristics, such as cover of bare ground or litter. Herpetofaunal community species composition changed along a fire gradient from infrequent and recent fires to frequent but less recent fires. Nearby (200-m) wetland cover was relatively unimportant in predicting overall herpetofaunal community composition while fire history and fire-related canopy and ground cover were more important predictors of composition, diversity, and abundance. Increased developed cover was negatively related to richness and abundance. This indicates the importance of fire history and fire related landscape characteristics, and the negative effects of development, in shaping the upland herpetofaunal community along the native grassland–forest continuum.

  14. Environmental contaminants in Texas, USA, wetland reptiles: Evaluation using blood samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Bickham, J.W.; Baker, D.L.; Cowman, D.F.

    2000-01-01

    Four species of reptiles (diamondback water snake [Nerodia rhombifer], blotched water snake [N. erythrogaster], cottonmouth [Agkistrodon piscivorus], and red-eared slider [Trachemys scripta]) were collected at two contaminated and three reference sites in Texas, USA. Old River Slough has received intensive applications of agricultural chemicals since the 1950s. Municipal Lake received industrial arsenic wastes continuously from 1940 to 1993. Blood samples were analyzed for organochlorines, potentially toxic elements, genetic damage, and plasma cholinesterase (ChE). Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) concentrations reached as high as 3.0 ppm (wet weight) in whole blood of a diamondback water snake at Old River Slough, a level probably roughly equivalent to the maximum concentration found in plasma of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) in 1978 to 1979 when DDE peaked in this sensitive species. Possible impacts on diamondback water snakes are unknown, but at least one diamondback water snake was gravid when captured, indicating active reproduction. Arsenic was not found in red-eared sliders (only species sampled) from Municipal Lake. Red-eared sliders of both sexes at Old River Slough showed declining levels of ChE with increasing mass, suggesting a life-long decrease of ChE levels. Possible negative population consequences are unknown, but no evidence was found in body condition (mass relative to carapace length) that red-eared sliders at either contaminated site were harmed.

  15. Pilot Inventory of Mammals, Reptiles, and Amphibians, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, California, 1990-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenoff-Irving, Marcia; Howell, Judd A.

    2005-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey Golden Gate Field Station conducted a baseline inventory of terrestrial vertebrates within the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA), Marin, San Francisco, and San Mateo Counties, California between 1990 and 1997. We established 456 permanent study plots in 6 major park habitats, including grassland, coastal scrub, riparian woodland, coastal wetland, broad-leaved evergreen forest, and needle-leaved evergreen forest. We tested multiple inventory methods, including live traps, track plate stations, and artificial cover boards, across all years and habitats. In most years, sampling occurred in 3-4 primary sampling sessions between July and September. In 1994, additional sampling occurred in February and May in conjunction with an assessment of Hantavirus exposure in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Overall, we detected 32 mammal, 14 reptile, and 6 amphibian species during 25,222 trap-nights of effort. The deer mouse-the most abundant species detected--accounted for 67% of total captures. We detected the Federal Endangered salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris) at one coastal wetland plot in 1992. This project represents the first phase in the development of a comprehensive terrestrial vertebrate inventory and monitoring program for GGNRA. This report summarizes data on relative abundance, frequency of occurrence, distribution across habitat types, and trap success for terrestrial vertebrates detected during this 7-year effort. It includes comprehensive descriptions of the inventory methods and sampling strategies employed during this survey and is intended to help guide the park in the implementation of future longterm ecological monitoring programs.

  16. Salmonella infection in healthy pet reptiles: Bacteriological isolation and study of some pathogenic characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Chemaly, Marianne; Cerri, Domenico; Gall, Françoise Le; Ebani, Valentina Virginia

    2016-06-01

    The fecal samples from 213 captive reptiles were examined, and 29 (13.61%) Salmonella enterica isolates were detected: 14/62 (22.58%) from chelonians, 14/135 (10.37%) from saurians, and 1/16 (6.25%) from ophidians. The isolates were distributed among 14 different serotypes: Miami, Ebrie, Hermannsweder, Tiergarten, Tornov, Pomona, Poona, Goteborg, Abaetetube, Nyanza, Kumasi, Typhimurium, 50:b:z6, 9,12:z29:1,5, and a non-motile serotype with antigenic formula 1,4,[5],12:-:-. Salmonella typhimurium and 50:b:z6 isolates showed the spv plasmid virulence genes, responsible of the capability to induce extra-intestinal infections. In some cases, pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed different profiles for the strains of the same serotypes, showing different origins, whereas a common source of infection was supposed when one pulsotype had been observed for isolates of a serovar. Twenty-seven (93.10%) isolates showed resistance to one or more antibiotics. Ceftazidime was active to all the tested isolates, whereas the highest percentages of strains were no susceptible to tigecycline (93.10%), streptomycin (89.66%), and sulfonamide (86.21%). PMID:27352973

  17. Reptiles and amphibians of a poorly known region in southwest Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Gustavo Rodrigues França

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon is the largest tropical forest of the world and it is extremely rich in biodiversity. However, some portions of the biome are still poorly known. This work presents an inventory of the herpetofauna of Boca do Acre municipality, a still preserved region located in southwest Amazonas state. The inventory was carried out in two periods, a sampling during the middle of the rainy season and another one at the end of the rains. Diverse survey methods were employed, such as pitfall traps, diurnal and nocturnal visual searches, car searches on the BR 317 highway, and opportunistic registrations. We recorded 56 amphibians and 53 reptiles during the field work. We captured 27 species in pitfall traps, and 38 were found along the BR 317, alive or dead on the road, being snakes principally affected by road-kills. The species accumulation curves did not reach stability, indicating that the inventory was not complete. Our results show the high species richness of this region, its importance for the Amazonian biodiversity, and the urgency of its preservation.

  18. Bone-eating Osedax worms lived on Mesozoic marine reptile deadfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danise, Silvia; Higgs, Nicholas D

    2015-04-01

    We report fossil traces of Osedax, a genus of siboglinid annelids that consume the skeletons of sunken vertebrates on the ocean floor, from early-Late Cretaceous (approx. 100 Myr) plesiosaur and sea turtle bones. Although plesiosaurs went extinct at the end-Cretaceous mass extinction (66 Myr), chelonioids survived the event and diversified, and thus provided sustenance for Osedax in the 20 Myr gap preceding the radiation of cetaceans, their main modern food source. This finding shows that marine reptile carcasses, before whales, played a key role in the evolution and dispersal of Osedax and confirms that its generalist ability of colonizing different vertebrate substrates, like fishes and marine birds, besides whale bones, is an ancestral trait. A Cretaceous age for unequivocal Osedax trace fossils also dates back to the Mesozoic the origin of the entire siboglinid family, which includes chemosynthetic tubeworms living at hydrothermal vents and seeps, contrary to phylogenetic estimations of a Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic origin (approx. 50-100 Myr). PMID:25878047

  19. Lunge feeding in early marine reptiles and fast evolution of marine tetrapod feeding guilds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motani, Ryosuke; Chen, Xiao-hong; Jiang, Da-yong; Cheng, Long; Tintori, Andrea; Rieppel, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Traditional wisdom holds that biotic recovery from the end-Permian extinction was slow and gradual, and was not complete until the Middle Triassic. Here, we report that the evolution of marine predator feeding guilds, and their trophic structure, proceeded faster. Marine reptile lineages with unique feeding adaptations emerged during the Early Triassic (about 248 million years ago), including the enigmatic Hupehsuchus that possessed an unusually slender mandible. A new specimen of this genus reveals a well-preserved palate and mandible, which suggest that it was a rare lunge feeder as also occurs in rorqual whales and pelicans. The diversity of feeding strategies among Triassic marine tetrapods reached their peak in the Early Triassic, soon after their first appearance in the fossil record. The diet of these early marine tetrapods most likely included soft-bodied animals that are not preserved as fossils. Early marine tetrapods most likely introduced a new trophic mechanism to redistribute nutrients to the top 10 m of the sea, where the primary productivity is highest. Therefore, a simple recovery to a Permian-like trophic structure does not explain the biotic changes seen after the Early Triassic. PMID:25754468

  20. Spectroscopic Studies on Organic Matter from Triassic Reptile Bones, Upper Silesia, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmik, Dawid; Boczarowski, Andrzej; Balin, Katarzyna; Dulski, Mateusz; Szade, Jacek; Kremer, Barbara; Pawlicki, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Fossil biomolecules from an endogenous source were previously identified in Cretaceous to Pleistocene fossilized bones, the evidence coming from molecular analyses. These findings, however, were called into question and an alternative hypothesis of the invasion of the bone by bacterial biofilm was proposed. Herewith we report a new finding of morphologically preserved blood-vessel-like structures enclosing organic molecules preserved in iron-oxide-mineralized vessel walls from the cortical region of nothosaurid and tanystropheid (aquatic and terrestrial diapsid reptiles) bones. These findings are from the Early/Middle Triassic boundary (Upper Roetian/Lowermost Muschelkalk) strata of Upper Silesia, Poland. Multiple spectroscopic analyses (FTIR, ToF-SIMS, and XPS) of the extracted "blood vessels" showed the presence of organic compounds, including fragments of various amino acids such as hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine as well as amides, that may suggest the presence of collagen protein residues. Because these amino acids are absent from most proteins other than collagen, we infer that the proteinaceous molecules may originate from endogenous collagen. The preservation of molecular signals of proteins within the "blood vessels" was most likely made possible through the process of early diagenetic iron oxide mineralization. This discovery provides the oldest evidence of in situ preservation of complex organic molecules in vertebrate remains in a marine environment. PMID:26977600

  1. Spectroscopic Studies on Organic Matter from Triassic Reptile Bones, Upper Silesia, Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Surmik

    Full Text Available Fossil biomolecules from an endogenous source were previously identified in Cretaceous to Pleistocene fossilized bones, the evidence coming from molecular analyses. These findings, however, were called into question and an alternative hypothesis of the invasion of the bone by bacterial biofilm was proposed. Herewith we report a new finding of morphologically preserved blood-vessel-like structures enclosing organic molecules preserved in iron-oxide-mineralized vessel walls from the cortical region of nothosaurid and tanystropheid (aquatic and terrestrial diapsid reptiles bones. These findings are from the Early/Middle Triassic boundary (Upper Roetian/Lowermost Muschelkalk strata of Upper Silesia, Poland. Multiple spectroscopic analyses (FTIR, ToF-SIMS, and XPS of the extracted "blood vessels" showed the presence of organic compounds, including fragments of various amino acids such as hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine as well as amides, that may suggest the presence of collagen protein residues. Because these amino acids are absent from most proteins other than collagen, we infer that the proteinaceous molecules may originate from endogenous collagen. The preservation of molecular signals of proteins within the "blood vessels" was most likely made possible through the process of early diagenetic iron oxide mineralization. This discovery provides the oldest evidence of in situ preservation of complex organic molecules in vertebrate remains in a marine environment.

  2. Skin of the Cretaceous mosasaur Plotosaurus: implications for aquatic adaptations in giant marine reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Johan; Alwmark, Carl; Caldwell, Michael W; Fiorillo, Anthony R

    2009-08-23

    The physical nature of water and the environment it presents to an organism have long been recognized as important constraints on aquatic adaptation and evolution. Little is known about the dermal cover of mosasauroids (a group of secondarily aquatic reptiles that occupied a wide array of predatory niches in the Cretaceous marine ecosystems 92-65 Myr ago), a lack of information that has hindered inferences about the nature and level of their aquatic adaptations. A newly discovered Plotosaurus skeleton with integument preserved in three dimensions represents not only the first documented squamation in a mosasaurine mosasaur but also the first record of skin in an advanced member of the Mosasauroidea. The dermal cover comprises keeled and possibly osteoderm-reinforced scales that presumably contributed to an anterior-posterior channelling of the water flow and a reduction of microturbulent burst activities along the surface of the skin. Thus, hydrodynamic requirements of life in the water might have influenced the evolution of multiple-keeled body scales in advanced mosasauroids. PMID:19364713

  3. Is “cooling then freezing” a humane way to kill amphibians and reptiles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Shine

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available What is the most humane way to kill amphibians and small reptiles that are used in research? Historically, such animals were often killed by cooling followed by freezing, but this method was outlawed by ethics committees because of concerns that ice-crystals may form in peripheral tissues while the animal is still conscious, putatively causing intense pain. This argument relies on assumptions about the capacity of such animals to feel pain, the thermal thresholds for tissue freezing, the temperature-dependence of nerve-impulse transmission and brain activity, and the magnitude of thermal differentials within the bodies of rapidly-cooling animals. A review of published studies casts doubt on those assumptions, and our laboratory experiments on cane toads (Rhinella marina show that brain activity declines smoothly during freezing, with no indication of pain perception. Thus, cooling followed by freezing can offer a humane method of killing cane toads, and may be widely applicable to other ectotherms (especially, small species that are rarely active at low body temperatures. More generally, many animal-ethics regulations have little empirical basis, and research on this topic is urgently required in order to reduce animal suffering.

  4. Lunge feeding in early marine reptiles and fast evolution of marine tetrapod feeding guilds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motani, Ryosuke; Chen, Xiao-hong; Jiang, Da-yong; Cheng, Long; Tintori, Andrea; Rieppel, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Traditional wisdom holds that biotic recovery from the end-Permian extinction was slow and gradual, and was not complete until the Middle Triassic. Here, we report that the evolution of marine predator feeding guilds, and their trophic structure, proceeded faster. Marine reptile lineages with unique feeding adaptations emerged during the Early Triassic (about 248 million years ago), including the enigmatic Hupehsuchus that possessed an unusually slender mandible. A new specimen of this genus reveals a well-preserved palate and mandible, which suggest that it was a rare lunge feeder as also occurs in rorqual whales and pelicans. The diversity of feeding strategies among Triassic marine tetrapods reached their peak in the Early Triassic, soon after their first appearance in the fossil record. The diet of these early marine tetrapods most likely included soft-bodied animals that are not preserved as fossils. Early marine tetrapods most likely introduced a new trophic mechanism to redistribute nutrients to the top 10 m of the sea, where the primary productivity is highest. Therefore, a simple recovery to a Permian-like trophic structure does not explain the biotic changes seen after the Early Triassic.

  5. Detection of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia spp. in Ticks Associated with Exotic Reptiles and Amphibians Imported into Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Masako; Sakata, Akiko; Takano, Ai; Kawabata, Hiroki; Fujita, Hiromi; Une, Yumi; Goka, Koichi; Kishimoto, Toshio; Ando, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    One of the major routes of transmission of rickettsial and ehrlichial diseases is via ticks that infest numerous host species, including humans. Besides mammals, reptiles and amphibians also carry ticks that may harbor Rickettsia and Ehrlichia strains that are pathogenic to humans. Furthermore, reptiles and amphibians are exempt from quarantine in Japan, thus facilitating the entry of parasites and pathogens to the country through import. Accordingly, in the current study, we examined the presence of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia spp. genes in ticks associated with reptiles and amphibians originating from outside Japan. Ninety-three ticks representing nine tick species (genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma) were isolated from at least 28 animals spanning 10 species and originating from 12 countries (Ghana, Jordan, Madagascar, Panama, Russia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Togo, Uzbekistan, and Zambia). None of the nine tick species are indigenous in Japan. The genes encoding the common rickettsial 17-kDa antigen, citrate synthase (gltA), and outer membrane protein A (ompA) were positively detected in 45.2% (42/93), 40.9% (38/93), and 23.7% (22/93) of the ticks, respectively, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genes encoding ehrlichial heat shock protein (groEL) and major outer membrane protein (omp-1) were PCR-positive in 7.5% (7/93) and 2.2% (2/93) of the ticks, respectively. The p44 gene, which encodes the Anaplasma outer membrane protein, was not detected. Phylogenetic analysis showed that several of the rickettsial and ehrlichial sequences isolated in this study were highly similar to human pathogen genes, including agents not previously detected in Japan. These data demonstrate the global transportation of pathogenic Rickettsia and Ehrlichia through reptile- and amphibian-associated ticks. These imported animals have potential to transfer pathogens into human life. These results highlight the need to control the international transportation of known and

  6. Relaciones espaciales y alimenticias del ensamblaje de reptiles del complejo cenagoso de Zapatosa, departamento del Cesar (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Fabian Medina-Rangel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Para conocer los factores ambientales que favorece la riqueza y abundancia de especies y grupos de reptiles, su preferencia por microhábitats, dieta de especies y diferencias entre hábitats en parámetros como tamaño de individuos, grado de detección y proporción de depredación, se realizaron salidas en áreas circundantes al complejo cenagoso de Zapatosa, entre noviembre de 2006 y octubre de 2007, abarcando la época de lluvias y la época seca en cinco tipos hábitats. Los hábitats con diferencias significativas entre variables ambientales y estructurales fueron: bosque de ribera, palmar, sabanas arboladas y bosque casmófito; el bosque de ribera y bosque seco no resultaron diferentes. La inclinación del terreno y el grado de intervención antrópica fueron las variables más relacionadas con la abundancia de las especies. Al aumentar la pendiente y la intervención antrópica disminuyó la riqueza y abundancia de reptiles en general y de serpientes y lagartos; con el aumento de la temperatura media ambiental la abundancia de reptiles disminuyó. Con el aumento de la cobertura herbácea y la disminución del diámetro de los árboles, disminuyó la riqueza de lagartos y serpientes. El tamaño corporal de los reptiles no fue diferente entre hábitats, aunque las tallas pequeñas predominaron en todos. Las serpientes presentaron menores valores de detección que los lagartos. El bosque de ribera presentó los valores más altos de detección. Un quinto de todas las lagartijas presentó algún signo de depredación y fue más alta en el palmar. Los reptiles terrestres fueron los más ricos y abundantes en el estudio. Los lagartos presentaron la mayor amplitud en el uso de hábitat y microhábitat, mientras que las serpientes Helicops danieli y Leptodeira septentrionalis y los lagartos Anolis gaigei, Gonatodes albogularis y Cnemidophorus lemniscatus en el uso de alimento. Los lagartos exhibieron mayor solapamiento en el uso de los recursos.

  7. Patterns of reptile and amphibian species richness along elevational gradients in Mt. Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malonza, Patrick Kinyatta

    2015-11-18

    Faunal species richness is traditionally assumed to decrease with increasing elevation and decreasing primary productivity. Species richness is reported to peak at mid-elevation. This survey examines the herpetofaunal diversity and distribution in Mt. Kenya (central Kenya) by testing the hypothesis that changes in species richness with elevation relate to elevation-dependent changes in climate. Sampling along transects from an elevation of approximately 1 700 m in Chogoria forest block (wind-ward side) and approximately 2 600 m in Sirimon block (rain shadow zone) upwards in March 2009. This starts from the forest to montane alpine zones. Sampling of reptiles and amphibians uses pitfall traps associated with drift fences, time-limited searches and visual encounter surveys. The results show that herpetofaunal richness differs among three vegetation zones along the elevation gradient. Chogoria has higher biodiversity than Sirimon. More species occur at low and middle elevations and few exist at high elevations. The trends are consistent with expected optimum water and energy variables. The lower alpine montane zone has high species richness but low diversity due to dominance of some high elevations species. Unambiguous data do not support a mid-domain effect (mid-elevation peak) because the observed trend better fits a model in which climatic variables (rainfall and temperature) control species richness, which indirectly measures productivity. It is important to continue protection of all indigenous forests, especially at low to mid elevations. These areas are vulnerable to human destruction yet are home to some endemic species. Firebreaks can limit the spread of the perennial wildfires, especially on the moorlands. PMID:26646571

  8. Thermal niche predicts tolerance to habitat conversion in tropical amphibians and reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frishkoff, Luke O; Hadly, Elizabeth A; Daily, Gretchen C

    2015-11-01

    Habitat conversion is a major driver of the biodiversity crisis, yet why some species undergo local extinction while others thrive under novel conditions remains unclear. We suggest that focusing on species' niches, rather than traits, may provide the predictive power needed to forecast biodiversity change. We first examine two Neotropical frog congeners with drastically different affinities to deforestation and document how thermal niche explains deforestation tolerance. The more deforestation-tolerant species is associated with warmer macroclimates across Costa Rica, and warmer microclimates within landscapes. Further, in laboratory experiments, the more deforestation-tolerant species has critical thermal limits, and a jumping performance optimum, shifted ~2 °C warmer than those of the more forest-affiliated species, corresponding to the ~3 °C difference in daytime maximum temperature that these species experience between habitats. Crucially, neither species strictly specializes on either habitat - instead habitat use is governed by regional environmental temperature. Both species track temperature along an elevational gradient, and shift their habitat use from cooler forest at lower elevations to warmer deforested pastures upslope. To generalize these conclusions, we expand our analysis to the entire mid-elevational herpetological community of southern Costa Rica. We assess the climatological affinities of 33 amphibian and reptile species, showing that across both taxonomic classes, thermal niche predicts presence in deforested habitat as well as or better than many commonly used traits. These data suggest that warm-adapted species carry a significant survival advantage amidst the synergistic impacts of land-use conversion and climate change.

  9. Patterns of reptile and amphibian species richness along elevational gradients in Mt. Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malonza, Patrick Kinyatta

    2015-11-18

    Faunal species richness is traditionally assumed to decrease with increasing elevation and decreasing primary productivity. Species richness is reported to peak at mid-elevation. This survey examines the herpetofaunal diversity and distribution in Mt. Kenya (central Kenya) by testing the hypothesis that changes in species richness with elevation relate to elevation-dependent changes in climate. Sampling along transects from an elevation of approximately 1 700 m in Chogoria forest block (wind-ward side) and approximately 2 600 m in Sirimon block (rain shadow zone) upwards in March 2009. This starts from the forest to montane alpine zones. Sampling of reptiles and amphibians uses pitfall traps associated with drift fences, time-limited searches and visual encounter surveys. The results show that herpetofaunal richness differs among three vegetation zones along the elevation gradient. Chogoria has higher biodiversity than Sirimon. More species occur at low and middle elevations and few exist at high elevations. The trends are consistent with expected optimum water and energy variables. The lower alpine montane zone has high species richness but low diversity due to dominance of some high elevations species. Unambiguous data do not support a mid-domain effect (mid-elevation peak) because the observed trend better fits a model in which climatic variables (rainfall and temperature) control species richness, which indirectly measures productivity. It is important to continue protection of all indigenous forests, especially at low to mid elevations. These areas are vulnerable to human destruction yet are home to some endemic species. Firebreaks can limit the spread of the perennial wildfires, especially on the moorlands.

  10. Seasonal and spatial dynamics of ectoparasite infestation of a threatened reptile, the tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, S S; Bull, C M; Nelson, N J

    2008-12-01

    The conservation of threatened vertebrate species and their threatened parasites requires an understanding of the factors influencing their distribution and dynamics. This is particularly important for species maintained in conservation reserves at high densities, where increased contact among hosts could lead to increased rates of parasitism. The tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus) (Reptilia: Sphenodontia) is a threatened reptile that persists at high densities in forests (approximately 2700 tuatara/ha) and lower densities in pastures and shrubland (ectoparasites (the tuatara tick, Amblyomma sphenodonti, and trombiculid mites, Neotrombicula sp.) in a mark-recapture study in three forest study plots from November 2004 to March 2007, and compared infestation levels among habitat types in March 2006. Tick loads were lowest over summer and peaked from late autumn (May) until early spring (September). Mating and engorgement of female ticks was highest over spring, and larval tick loads subsequently increased in early autumn (March). Nymphal tick loads increased in September, and adult tick loads increased in May. Our findings suggest the tuatara tick has a 2- or 3-year lifecycle. Mite loads were highest over summer and autumn, and peaked in March. Prevalences (proportion of hosts infected) and densities (estimated number of parasites per hectare) of ticks were similar among habitats, but tick loads (parasites per host) were higher in pastures than in forests and shrub. The prevalence and density of mites was higher in forests than in pasture or shrub, but mite loads were similar among habitats. We suggest that a higher density of tuatara in forests may reduce the ectoparasite loads of individuals through a dilution effect. Understanding host-parasite dynamics will help in the conservation management of both the host and its parasites. PMID:19120965

  11. Determination of antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance profiles of some bacteria isolated from aquatic amphibian and reptile species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacioglu, Nurcihan; Tosunoglu, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the level of antibiotic resistance patterns and distribution of heavy metal resistance of bacterial isolates from aquatic animals (Lissotriton vulgaris, Pelophylax ridibundus, Emys orbicularis, Mauremys rivulata, and Natrix natrix) in Turkey (Kavak Delta). A total of 153 bacteria have been successfully isolated from cloaca and oral samples of the aquatic amphibians and reptilians which were found, namely, Aeromonas sp. (n = 29), Plesiomonas sp. (n = 7), Vibrio sp. (n = 12), Citrobacter sp. (n = 12), Enterobacter sp. (n = 11), Escherichia sp. (n = 22), Klebsiella sp. (n = 22), Edwardsiella sp. (n = 6), Hafnia sp. (n = 1), Proteus sp. (n = 19), Providencia sp. (n = 8), and Pseudomonas sp. (n = 4). In terms of antibiotic and heavy metal susceptibility testing, each isolate was tested against 12 antibiotics and 4 metals. There was a high incidence of resistance to cefoxitin (46.40 %), ampicillin (44.44 %), erythromycin (35.29 %), and a low incidence of resistance to gentamicin (6.53 %), kanamycin (8.49 %), chloramphenicol (9.15 %), and cefotaxime (10.45 %). The multiple antibiotic resistance index of each bacterial species indicated that bacteria from raised amphibians and reptiles have been exposed to tested antibiotics, with results ranging from 0 to 0.58. Most isolates showed tolerance to different concentrations of heavy metals, and minimal inhibition concentrations ranged from100 to >3,200 μg/mL. According to these results, a significant occurrence of bacteria in the internal organs of reptiles and amphibians, with a high incidence of resistance against antibiotics and heavy metals, may risk aquatic animals and the public health. These data appoint the importance of epidemiological surveillance and microbiological monitoring and reinforce the need to implement environment protection programs for amphibian and reptile species.

  12. Globin gene structure in a reptile supports the transpositional model for amniote α- and β-globin gene evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vidushi S; Ezaz, Tariq; Deakin, Janine E; Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

    2010-12-01

    The haemoglobin protein, required for oxygen transportation in the body, is encoded by α- and β-globin genes that are arranged in clusters. The transpositional model for the evolution of distinct α-globin and β-globin clusters in amniotes is much simpler than the previously proposed whole genome duplication model. According to this model, all jawed vertebrates share one ancient region containing α- and β-globin genes and several flanking genes in the order MPG-C16orf35-(α-β)-GBY-LUC7L that has been conserved for more than 410 million years, whereas amniotes evolved a distinct β-globin cluster by insertion of a transposed β-globin gene from this ancient region into a cluster of olfactory receptors flanked by CCKBR and RRM1. It could not be determined whether this organisation is conserved in all amniotes because of the paucity of information from non-avian reptiles. To fill in this gap, we examined globin gene organisation in a squamate reptile, the Australian bearded dragon lizard, Pogona vitticeps (Agamidae). We report here that the α-globin cluster (HBK, HBA) is flanked by C16orf35 and GBY and is located on a pair of microchromosomes, whereas the β-globin cluster is flanked by RRM1 on the 3' end and is located on the long arm of chromosome 3. However, the CCKBR gene that flanks the β-globin cluster on the 5' end in other amniotes is located on the short arm of chromosome 5 in P. vitticeps, indicating that a chromosomal break between the β-globin cluster and CCKBR occurred at least in the agamid lineage. Our data from a reptile species provide further evidence to support the transpositional model for the evolution of β-globin gene cluster in amniotes. PMID:21116705

  13. A carapace-like bony 'body tube' in an early triassic marine reptile and the onset of marine tetrapod predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-hong Chen

    Full Text Available Parahupehsuchus longus is a new species of marine reptile from the Lower Triassic of Yuan'an County, Hubei Province, China. It is unique among vertebrates for having a body wall that is completely surrounded by a bony tube, about 50 cm long and 6.5 cm deep, comprising overlapping ribs and gastralia. This tube and bony ossicles on the back are best interpreted as anti-predatory features, suggesting that there was predation pressure upon marine tetrapods in the Early Triassic. There is at least one sauropterygian that is sufficiently large to feed on Parahupehsuchus in the Nanzhang-Yuan'an fauna, together with six more species of potential prey marine reptiles with various degrees of body protection. Modern predators of marine tetrapods belong to the highest trophic levels in the marine ecosystem but such predators did not always exist through geologic time. The indication of marine-tetrapod feeding in the Nanzhang-Yuan'an fauna suggests that such a trophic level emerged for the first time in the Early Triassic. The recovery from the end-Permian extinction probably proceeded faster than traditionally thought for marine predators. Parahupehsuchus has superficially turtle-like features, namely expanded ribs without intercostal space, very short transverse processes, and a dorsal outgrowth from the neural spine. However, these features are structurally different from their turtle counterparts. Phylogeny suggests that they are convergent with the condition in turtles, which has a fundamentally different body plan that involves the folding of the body wall. Expanded ribs without intercostal space evolved at least twice and probably even more among reptiles.

  14. Lizard\\'s fauna of the Sabzevar with particular emphasis on the syntopic lizard and presentation of a framework for reptile distribution of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Yousefi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sabzevar is one of the most biologically diverse regions in northeast Iran, with the area of 19500 km2 and an elevational of 950-2977 m. During a long term study of lizards in this area which lasted 3 years, 21 species and subspecies of lizards belonging to 13 genera and 5 families were collected, recognized and reported. The families Anguidae, Eublepharidae and Uromastycidae were not represented in the area. The genus Eremias with 6 species was the most diverse genus in Sabzevar district. More emphasis was given to the syntopic reptiles. This showed that Trapelus agailis with having 18 syntopic species and Cyrtopodion caspium with no syntopic species were in the extreme sides. Due to our little knowledge on the distribution of reptiles in Iran, we designed a framework for providing a reptile's distribution map in Iran.

  15. A Single Residue in Ebola Virus Receptor NPC1 Influences Cellular Host Range in Reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndungo, Esther; Herbert, Andrew S; Raaben, Matthijs; Obernosterer, Gregor; Biswas, Rohan; Miller, Emily Happy; Wirchnianski, Ariel S; Carette, Jan E; Brummelkamp, Thijn R; Whelan, Sean P; Dye, John M; Chandran, Kartik

    2016-01-01

    Filoviruses are the causative agents of an increasing number of disease outbreaks in human populations, including the current unprecedented Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in western Africa. One obstacle to controlling these epidemics is our poor understanding of the host range of filoviruses and their natural reservoirs. Here, we investigated the role of the intracellular filovirus receptor, Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) as a molecular determinant of Ebola virus (EBOV) host range at the cellular level. Whereas human cells can be infected by EBOV, a cell line derived from a Russell's viper (Daboia russellii) (VH-2) is resistant to infection in an NPC1-dependent manner. We found that VH-2 cells are resistant to EBOV infection because the Russell's viper NPC1 ortholog bound poorly to the EBOV spike glycoprotein (GP). Analysis of panels of viper-human NPC1 chimeras and point mutants allowed us to identify a single amino acid residue in NPC1, at position 503, that bidirectionally influenced both its binding to EBOV GP and its viral receptor activity in cells. Significantly, this single residue change perturbed neither NPC1's endosomal localization nor its housekeeping role in cellular cholesterol trafficking. Together with other recent work, these findings identify sequences in NPC1 that are important for viral receptor activity by virtue of their direct interaction with EBOV GP and suggest that they may influence filovirus host range in nature. Broader surveys of NPC1 orthologs from vertebrates may delineate additional sequence polymorphisms in this gene that control susceptibility to filovirus infection. IMPORTANCE Identifying cellular factors that determine susceptibility to infection can help us understand how Ebola virus is transmitted. We asked if the EBOV receptor Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) could explain why reptiles are resistant to EBOV infection. We demonstrate that cells derived from the Russell's viper are not susceptible to infection because EBOV cannot bind to

  16. [Rudimentary stages of the extremities of Scelotes gronovii (Daudin) embryos, a South African Scincidea reptile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, A; Van den Elzen, P

    1976-01-01

    The development of the limbs has been studied in 15 embryos of Scelotes gronovii, found in 8 ovoviviparous females collected at Saldanha Bay, in South Africa, Cape Province. This study leads to the following constatations: In all the young embryos of this species, their appears anlagen of anterior and of posterior limb-buds. The primordia of forelimb-buds retrogress early and disappear, whereas the primordia of hind limb-buds transform into rudimentary limbs which persist in adult. Histological study of the anlagen of fore limb buds establish that 7 somites (S6 to S12, S1 being the first post-otic somite) send ventral processes in the mesoblast of the anlage. These processes follow a sinuous pathway in the limb-bud, and are bent towards the basal cell layer of the somatopleural mesoderm. On the apical part of the limb-bud lie a wholly rudimentary epiblastic ridge, which disappears early. On the apical part of the hind limb-bud an ectodermic ridge is present, well differentiated which transforms soon in an apical fold; and the anlage of the hind limb produced a short conical appendage with short femur, tibia and fibula and one terminal finger. A comparison was made of the main steps of the development of the limbs in three species of Scelotes with rudimentary limbs. Scelotes inornatus, Scelotes brevipes and Scelotes gronovii. In these three species the ectodermal apical ridge of the fore limb-buds is rudimentary or incompletely differentiated; it never transforms into an ectodermal fold and its retrogresses rapidly; and in these species an early arrest of development and an involution of the primordia of the limb-buds occurs. These fact corroborate the anterior observations made on embryos of Anguis fragilis and of Ophisaurus apodus and they strengthen the interpretation postulating that the spontaneous retrogression of the apical ridge is an essential factor in the morphogenetic events involved in the arrest of development of the limb bud in the snake-like Reptiles.

  17. A Single Residue in Ebola Virus Receptor NPC1 Influences Cellular Host Range in Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndungo, Esther; Herbert, Andrew S.; Raaben, Matthijs; Obernosterer, Gregor; Biswas, Rohan; Miller, Emily Happy; Wirchnianski, Ariel S.; Carette, Jan E.; Brummelkamp, Thijn R.; Whelan, Sean P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Filoviruses are the causative agents of an increasing number of disease outbreaks in human populations, including the current unprecedented Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in western Africa. One obstacle to controlling these epidemics is our poor understanding of the host range of filoviruses and their natural reservoirs. Here, we investigated the role of the intracellular filovirus receptor, Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) as a molecular determinant of Ebola virus (EBOV) host range at the cellular level. Whereas human cells can be infected by EBOV, a cell line derived from a Russell’s viper (Daboia russellii) (VH-2) is resistant to infection in an NPC1-dependent manner. We found that VH-2 cells are resistant to EBOV infection because the Russell’s viper NPC1 ortholog bound poorly to the EBOV spike glycoprotein (GP). Analysis of panels of viper-human NPC1 chimeras and point mutants allowed us to identify a single amino acid residue in NPC1, at position 503, that bidirectionally influenced both its binding to EBOV GP and its viral receptor activity in cells. Significantly, this single residue change perturbed neither NPC1’s endosomal localization nor its housekeeping role in cellular cholesterol trafficking. Together with other recent work, these findings identify sequences in NPC1 that are important for viral receptor activity by virtue of their direct interaction with EBOV GP and suggest that they may influence filovirus host range in nature. Broader surveys of NPC1 orthologs from vertebrates may delineate additional sequence polymorphisms in this gene that control susceptibility to filovirus infection. IMPORTANCE Identifying cellular factors that determine susceptibility to infection can help us understand how Ebola virus is transmitted. We asked if the EBOV receptor Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) could explain why reptiles are resistant to EBOV infection. We demonstrate that cells derived from the Russell’s viper are not susceptible to infection because EBOV

  18. Comparative phylogeography of woodland reptiles in California: repeated patterns of cladogenesis and population expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Chris R; Spicer, Greg S

    2006-07-01

    The ultimate goal of comparative phylogeographical analyses is to infer processes of diversification from contemporary geographical patterns of genetic diversity. When such studies are employed across diverse groups in an array of communities, it may be difficult to discover common evolutionary and ecological processes associated with diversification. In order to identify taxa that have responded in a similar fashion to historical events, we conducted comparative phylogeographical analyses on a phylogenetically and ecologically limited set of taxa. Here, we focus on a group of squamate reptiles (snakes and lizards) that share similar ecological requirements and generally occupy the same communities in the western USA. At a gross level, deep genetic division in Contia tenuis, Diadophis punctatus, Elgaria multicarinata, the Charina bottae complex, and Lampropeltis zonata are often concordant in the Transverse Ranges, the Monterey Bay and Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta region, and the southern Sierra Nevada in California. Molecular clock estimates suggest that major phyletic breaks within many of these taxa roughly coincide temporally, and may correspond to important geological events. Furthermore, significant congruence between the phylogeographies of E. multicarinata and L. zonata suggests that the succession of vicariance and dispersal events in these species progressed in concert. Such congruence suggests that E. multicarinata and L. zonata have occupied the same communities through time. However, across our entire multi-taxon data set, the sequence of branching events rarely match between sympatric taxa, indicating the importance of subtle differences in life history features as well as random processes in creating unique genetic patterns. Lastly, coalescent and noncoalescent estimates of population expansion suggest that populations in the more southerly distributed clades of C. tenuis, D. punctatus, E. multicarinata, and L. zonata have been stable, while

  19. A Single Residue in Ebola Virus Receptor NPC1 Influences Cellular Host Range in Reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndungo, Esther; Herbert, Andrew S; Raaben, Matthijs; Obernosterer, Gregor; Biswas, Rohan; Miller, Emily Happy; Wirchnianski, Ariel S; Carette, Jan E; Brummelkamp, Thijn R; Whelan, Sean P; Dye, John M; Chandran, Kartik

    2016-01-01

    Filoviruses are the causative agents of an increasing number of disease outbreaks in human populations, including the current unprecedented Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in western Africa. One obstacle to controlling these epidemics is our poor understanding of the host range of filoviruses and their natural reservoirs. Here, we investigated the role of the intracellular filovirus receptor, Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) as a molecular determinant of Ebola virus (EBOV) host range at the cellular level. Whereas human cells can be infected by EBOV, a cell line derived from a Russell's viper (Daboia russellii) (VH-2) is resistant to infection in an NPC1-dependent manner. We found that VH-2 cells are resistant to EBOV infection because the Russell's viper NPC1 ortholog bound poorly to the EBOV spike glycoprotein (GP). Analysis of panels of viper-human NPC1 chimeras and point mutants allowed us to identify a single amino acid residue in NPC1, at position 503, that bidirectionally influenced both its binding to EBOV GP and its viral receptor activity in cells. Significantly, this single residue change perturbed neither NPC1's endosomal localization nor its housekeeping role in cellular cholesterol trafficking. Together with other recent work, these findings identify sequences in NPC1 that are important for viral receptor activity by virtue of their direct interaction with EBOV GP and suggest that they may influence filovirus host range in nature. Broader surveys of NPC1 orthologs from vertebrates may delineate additional sequence polymorphisms in this gene that control susceptibility to filovirus infection. IMPORTANCE Identifying cellular factors that determine susceptibility to infection can help us understand how Ebola virus is transmitted. We asked if the EBOV receptor Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) could explain why reptiles are resistant to EBOV infection. We demonstrate that cells derived from the Russell's viper are not susceptible to infection because EBOV cannot bind to

  20. Nematóides do Brasil. Parte III: nematóides de répteis Brazilian nematodes. Part III: nematodes of reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Júlio Vicente

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of nematode species parasizing Brazilian reptiles is presented, with data enough to provide their specific identification. The first section refers to the catalogation of the species, related to 127 superfamilies, 23 families, 55 genera and 121 species that are figured and included in measurement tables. The second section is concerned to the catalogue of host reptiles, with 16 families, and 90 species and their respective parasite nematodes. The identification of these helminths is achieved by means of keys to the superfamilies, families and genera. Specific determination is induced through the figures and tables as above mentioned.

  1. Climate change is predicted to negatively influence Moroccan endemic reptile richness. Implications for conservation in protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Freiría, Fernando; Argaz, Hamida; Fahd, Soumía; Brito, José C.

    2013-09-01

    The identification of species-rich areas and their prognosticated turnover under climate change are crucial for the conservation of endemic taxa. This study aims to identify areas of reptile endemicity richness in a global biodiversity hot spot (Morocco) under current and future climatic conditions and to investigate the role of protected areas in biodiversity conservation under climate change. Species distribution models (SDM) were performed over the distribution of 21 endemic reptiles, combined to estimate current species richness at 1 × 1 km resolution and projected to years 2050 and 2080 according to distinct story lines and ensemble global circulation models, assuming unlimited and null dispersion ability. Generalized additive models were performed between species richness and geographic characteristics of 43 protected areas. SDM found precipitation as the most important factor related to current species distributions. Important reductions in future suitable areas were predicted for 50 % of species, and four species were identified as highly vulnerable to extinction. Drastic reductions in species-rich areas were predicted for the future, with considerable variability between years and dispersal scenarios. High turnover rates of species composition were predicted for eastern Morocco, whereas low values were forecasted for the Northern Atlantic coast and mountains. Species richness for current and future conditions was significantly related to the altitude and latitude of protected areas. Protected areas located in mountains and/or in the Northern Atlantic coast were identified as refugia, where population monitoring and conservation management is needed.

  2. Use of the NatureServe Climate Change Vulnerability Index as an Assessment Tool for Reptiles and Amphibians: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberville, Tracey D.; Andrews, Kimberly M.; Sperry, Jinelle H.; Grosse, Andrew M.

    2015-10-01

    Climate change threatens biodiversity globally, yet it can be challenging to predict which species may be most vulnerable. Given the scope of the problem, it is imperative to rapidly assess vulnerability and identify actions to decrease risk. Although a variety of tools have been developed to assess climate change vulnerability, few have been evaluated with regard to their suitability for certain taxonomic groups. Due to their ectothermic physiology, low vagility, and strong association with temporary wetlands, reptiles and amphibians may be particularly vulnerable relative to other groups. Here, we evaluate use of the NatureServe Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI) to assess a large suite of herpetofauna from the Sand Hills Ecoregion of the southeastern United States. Although data were frequently lacking for certain variables (e.g., phenological response to climate change, genetic variation), sufficient data were available to evaluate all 117 species. Sensitivity analyses indicated that results were highly dependent on size of assessment area and climate scenario selection. In addition, several ecological traits common in, but relatively unique to, herpetofauna are likely to contribute to their vulnerability and need special consideration during the scoring process. Despite some limitations, the NatureServe CCVI was a useful tool for screening large numbers of reptile and amphibian species. We provide general recommendations as to how the CCVI tool's application to herpetofauna can be improved through more specific guidance to the user regarding how to incorporate unique physiological and behavioral traits into scoring existing sensitivity factors and through modification to the assessment tool itself.

  3. Correlation between the habitats productivity and species richness (amphibians and reptiles) in Portugal through remote sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, A. C.; Sillero, N.; Alves, S.; Duarte, L.

    2013-10-01

    Several biogeographic theories propose that the species richness depends on the structure and ecosystems diversity. The habitat productivity, a surrogate for these variables, can be evaluated through satellite imagery, namely using vegetation indexes (e.g. NDVI). We analyzed the correlation between species richness (from the Portuguese Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles) and NDVI (from Landsat, MODIS, and Vegetation images). The species richness database contains more than 80000 records, collected from bibliographic sources (at 1 or 10 km of spatial resolution) and fieldwork sampling stations (recorded with GPS devices). Several study areas were chosen for Landsat images (three subsets), and all Portugal for MODIS and Vegetation images. The Landsat subareas had different climatic and habitat characteristics, located in the north, center and south of Portugal. Different species richness datasets were used depending on the image spatial resolution: data with metric resolution were used for Landsat, and with 1 km resolution, for MODIS and Vegetation images. The NDVI indexes and all the images were calculated/processed in an open source software (Quantum GIS). Several plug-ins were applied in order to automatize several procedures. We did not find any correlation between the species richness of amphibians and reptiles (not even after separating both groups by species of Atlantic and Mediterranean affinity) and the NDVI calculated with Landsat, MODIS and Vegetation images. Our results may fail to find a relationship because as the species richness is not correlated with only one variable (NDVI), and thus other environmental variables must be considered.

  4. Global comparisons of beta diversity among mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians across spatial scales and taxonomic ranks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong QIAN

    2009-01-01

    Beta diversity is the change in species composition among areas in a geographic region. The proportion of species shared between two areas often decreases when the distance separating them increases, leading to an increase in beta diversity. This study compares beta diversity among four classes of terrestrial vertebrates (mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians) at both regional (biogeographic realm) and global extents, using the same sets of faunal sample units for all four groups in each comparison. Beta diversity is lower for the two endothermic taxa (birds and mammals) than for the two ectothermic taxa (reptiles and amphibians) in all six biogeographic realms examined. When the four taxa in the six biogeographic realms are combined, beta diversity at the species rank is higher than that of the genus rank by a factor of 1.24, and is higher than that of the family rank by a factor of 1.85. The ratio of beta diversity at the genus rank to that at the family rank is 1.50. Beta diversity is slightly higher for ecoregious of 5000-99,999 km2 than for ecoregions of 100,000-5,000,000 km2.

  5. Categorización del estado de conservación de los Anfibios y Reptiles de Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motte, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de la categorización de la herpetofauna de la República del Paraguay, utilizando las categorías propuestas por la Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (UICN. El 10,9% de las 82 especies de anfibios analizados y el 14,9% de las 161 especies de reptiles, se encuentra en alguna de las categorías de riesgo de extinción propuestas por UICN. Esto indica que es necesario encarar acciones de conservación a corto y largo plazo para evitar y/o disminuir la pérdida de espécies. We present an arrangement of the herpetofauna from Paraguay according to the categories of threat proposed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN. The 10.9% of the 82 species of amphibians and 14.9% of the 161 species of reptiles analyzed here were in some category of threat of extinction. This means that both short and long term conservation actions are needed to avoid loss of species.

  6. The structure of the nasal chemosensory system in squamate reptiles. 2. Lubricatory capacity of the vomeronasal organ

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Susan J Rehorek; Bruce T Firth; Mark N Hutchinson

    2000-06-01

    The vomeronasal organ is a poorly understood accessory olfactory organ, present in many tetrapods. In mammals, amphibians and lepidosaurian reptiles, it is an encapsulated structure with a central, fluid-filled lumen. The morphology of the lubricatory system of the vomeronasal organ (the source of this fluid) varies among classes, being either intrinsic (mammalian and caecilian amphibian vomeronasal glands) or extrinsic (anuran and urodele nasal glands). In the few squamate reptiles thus far examined, there are no submucosal vomeronasal glands. In this study, we examined the vomeronasal organs of several species of Australian squamates using histological, histochemical and ultrastructural techniques, with the goal of determining the morphology of the lubricatory system in the vomeronasal organ. Histochemically, the fluid within the vomeronasal organ of all squamates is mucoserous, though it is uncertain whether mucous and serous constituents constitute separate components. The vomeronasal organ produces few secretory granules intrinsically, implying an extrinsic source for the luminal fluid. Of three possible candidates, the Harderian gland is the most likely extrinsic source of this secretion.

  7. A checklist of the reptiles and amphibians found in protected areas along the South African Wild Coast, with notes on conservation implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A. Venter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed six protected areas along the Wild Coast of the Eastern Cape, South Africa, to determine general herpetofaunal diversity as well as the representation of species of special conservation concern. Visual encounter survey methods and standard Y-shape trap arrays were used to conduct surveys from 2011 to 2013. A total of 59 species (22 amphibians and 37 reptiles were recorded. A number of previously unknown populations of threatened species and one potential novel species were discovered in these protected areas, and the known ranges of several other species were extended. A total of 243 quarter-degree grid-cell unit records were documented, of which 90 (23% amphibians and 50% reptiles represented the first records for the area. Amphibian and reptile diversity increased along the coast and a number of species of conservation concern were well represented in current protected areas. Our study provides a comprehensive amphibian and reptile checklist for an under-sampled region and highlights the importance of baseline data for improving conservation management.Conservation implications: Small protected areas play an important role in conserving a number of threatened herpetofaunal species along the Wild Coast. The region is currently under significant and increasing pressure from anthropogenic-induced environmental degradation, which affects biodiversity and subsequently the local inhabitants. The information presented here represents an important baseline for future conservation management.

  8. Revised catalogue of the type specimens of Recent Amphibians and Reptiles in the “Zoölogisch Museum” University of Amsterdam the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijl, van L.

    1995-01-01

    This is a revision of the catalogue issued in 1966 (Daan & Hillenius) of type specimens of amphibians and reptiles in the collections of the ”Zoologisch Museum Amsterdam” (ZMA), also named: Institute for Systematics and Population Biology, of the University of Amsterdam.These include 51 holotypes, 1

  9. Diversity of pulsed field gel electrophoresis pulsotypes, serovars and antibiotic resistance among Salmonella isolates from wild amphibians and reptiles in the California central coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of cold-blooded vertebrates and associated surface waters in a produce-growing region on the Central California Coast was done between May and September, 2011 to determine the diversity of Salmonella strains in these habitats and individuals. Samples from 460 amphibians and reptiles and 119...

  10. Habitat relationships of reptiles in pine beetle disturbed forests of Alabama, U.S.A. with guidelines for a modified drift-fence sampling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. SUTTON, Y. WANG, C. J. SCHWEITZER

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding vertebrate habitat relationships is important to promote management strategies for the longterm conservation of many species. Using a modified drift fence method, we sampled reptiles and compared habitat variables within the William B. Bankhead National Forest (BNF in Alabama, U.S.A from April 2005 to June 2006. We captured 226 individual reptiles representing 19 species during 564 total trap nights. We used canonical correspondence analysis to examine habitat associations for the reptiles sampled and we detected a distinct habitat gradient ranging from sites with greater litter depth and percent canopy cover to more open sites with greater woody, herbaceous, and coarse woody debris (CWD coverage, and CWD volume. Little brown skinks Scincella lateralis and eastern worm snakes Carphophis a. amoenus were associated with sites with greater litter depth and canopy cover, whereas eastern fence lizards Sceloporus undulatus, copperheads Agkistrodon contortrix, and gray ratsnakes Pantherophis spiloides were associated with sites possessing greater CWD coverage and volume. We found that disturbances due to the southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis were likely important for influencing reptile distributions through the creation of canopy gaps and fallen coarse woody debris. Compared to other studies, our modified drift-fence trap technique was successful for sampling larger snake species (66 snakes in 564 trap nights. We have also provided detailed schematics for constructing drift fence array and box traps used in this study [Current Zoology 56 (4: 411–420, 2010].

  11. FIRST RECORD OF THE RARE MARINE REPTILE THOLODUS SCHMIDI FROM THE MIDDLE TRIASSIC OF THE SOUTHERN ALPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABIO MARCO DALLA VECCHIA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Tholodus schmidi, a rare marine reptile of debated affinity and with a peculiar durophagous dentition, is for the first time recorded outside the Muschelkalk Basin of Central Europe. Parts of a mandibular ramus and a maxilla, both bearing teeth and nearly uncrushed, have been found in the upper Anisian (Balatonicus Subzone of northeastern Italy. The tooth implantation is relatively complex, with both "alveolate" and "ankylosed" teeth. Disarticulated postcranial bones of an ichthyosaur have been found close to, but not in articular association with, the dentigerous bones of Tholodus. The humerus resembles that of immature individuals of the Chinese genus Chaohusaurus. This association, and some features of teeth and dentigerous bones, suggests that Tholodus might be a grippiid ichthyosaur. 

  12. The roles of climate, phylogenetic relatedness, introduction effort, and reproductive traits in the establishment of non-native reptiles and amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wilgen, Nicola J; Richardson, David M

    2012-04-01

    We developed a method to predict the potential of non-native reptiles and amphibians (herpetofauna) to establish populations. This method may inform efforts to prevent the introduction of invasive non-native species. We used boosted regression trees to determine whether nine variables influence establishment success of introduced herpetofauna in California and Florida. We used an independent data set to assess model performance. Propagule pressure was the variable most strongly associated with establishment success. Species with short juvenile periods and species with phylogenetically more distant relatives in regional biotas were more likely to establish than species that start breeding later and those that have close relatives. Average climate match (the similarity of climate between native and non-native range) and life form were also important. Frogs and lizards were the taxonomic groups most likely to establish, whereas a much lower proportion of snakes and turtles established. We used results from our best model to compile a spreadsheet-based model for easy use and interpretation. Probability scores obtained from the spreadsheet model were strongly correlated with establishment success as were probabilities predicted for independent data by the boosted regression tree model. However, the error rate for predictions made with independent data was much higher than with cross validation using training data. This difference in predictive power does not preclude use of the model to assess the probability of establishment of herpetofauna because (1) the independent data had no information for two variables (meaning the full predictive capacity of the model could not be realized) and (2) the model structure is consistent with the recent literature on the primary determinants of establishment success for herpetofauna. It may still be difficult to predict the establishment probability of poorly studied taxa, but it is clear that non-native species (especially lizards

  13. A conservation assessment of the amphibians and reptiles of the Forêt d’Ambre Special Reserve, north Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Franzen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed the lowland rainforest of the Forêt d’Ambre Special Reserve in north Madagascar for amphibians and reptiles. We recorded a total of 20 amphibian and 39 reptile species via opportunistic searching and pitfall trapping in the first published survey to focus on this area. Consequently most of the species found were new records for the area. Approximately half of the species (51 % were only found in relatively undisturbed areas of forest and 61 % appear to be restricted to lowland rainforest below 900 m elevation. The most vulnerable elements of this herpetofauna are the three species that appear to be locally endemic to Forêt d’Ambre (according to the current knowledge: Boophis baetkei, Brookesia sp. nov., and Rhombophryne sp. nov. An additional 25 species are considered regional endemics, 14 species are threatened according to the 2007 Red List of Threatened Species and 15 species are listed on the CITES appendices. This paper contributes to the current understanding of Malagasy patterns of biodiversity by documenting the composition, geographical and ecological distribution of the herpetofauna found at this site. Despite its protected status, currently the Reserve is not being managed sufficiently as it is subject to numerous human - induced environmental problems resulting in habitat destruction and should therefore be considered a high conservation management priority. Herein, we provide conservation and development recommendations for this highly diverse site of herpetological importance. Furthermore, we provide an updated and revised species list of the amphibians and reptiles of Montagne d’Ambre National Park and a species list for the private Fontenay Nature Park. RÉSUMÉ. Lors d’un inventaire des espèces d’amphibiens et de reptiles de la Réserve Spéciale de la Forêt d’Ambre au nord de Madagascar, nous avons recensés un total de 20 espèces d’amphibiens et de 39 espèces de reptiles par le biais d

  14. The development of the Middle Triassic tectonical controlled Germanic Basin of Central Europe and the palaeoenvironmental related distribution of marine and terrestrial reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    Nine Middle Triassic paleogeographical maps comprising the uppermost Upper Bunter, Lower to Middle Muschelkalk and Upper Muschelkalk to Lower Keuper time frame (Diedrich 2008b) show the marine ingression and regression cycle of the Middle Triassic Germanic Basin (Diedrich 2010c). For bathymetrical and palaeoenvironmental interpretations especially reptiles and their footprints are used. This Germanic Basin as analogon for the Arabian Gulf (Knaust 1997), north of the Tethys, was under marine and finally terrestrial influenced sediments in a time frame (after Kozur and Bachmann 2008) between 247.2 My (Myophoria Fm, Aegean, Lower Anisian) to 237.9 My (Grabfeld Fm, Longobardian, Lower Ladinian). In a duration of 9.3 My the Germanic Basin was filled up mainly with marine carbonates and at the end by siliciclastics influenced by the northern Tethys through the Silesian, Carpathian and later the Burgundian Gates which connected the Germanic Basin to the Northern Tethys. With the marine ingression from the East via the Silesian Gate (Poland) a ten to hundred kilometers extended intertidal flat to sabkha facies belt surrounded first only the central and then the Western Germanic Basin (Winterswijk, Netherlands). Those intertidal zones were used mainly by two different small reptiles as their primary habitat. Hereby they left Millions of the small tom medium sized footprints of the ichnogenera Rhynchosauroides and Procolophonichnium (Diedrich 2005, 2008a). Larger terrestrial and beach and sabkha adapted reptiles were Tanystrophaeus antiquus and unknown archosaurs, which are recorded only by their footprints. At the beginning of the ingression at the uppermost Bunter a shallow marine invertebrate fauna and coastal reptiles appeared in the Germanic Basin which must have originated mainly from the Northern Tethys. Especially all marine reptiles immigrated from the Tethys which is proven not only by assamblaged Tethyan cephalopod Ceratite species (cf. Diedrich 2008a). The

  15. Noteworthy records of reptiles from natural open vegetation areas in plateau and coastal areas of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The composition and geographic distribution of reptiles in Santa Catarina are little known, particularly in the open areas of its plateau (covered with ombrophylous steppe and Atlantic littoral (coastal dunes with thin, low, and predominant herbaceous vegetation known as restinga. Aiming to contribute to the knowledge of reptiles that inhabit these areas, this paper presents sixteen records of previously unknown or uncommon species in Santa Catarina: Acanthochelys spixii, Anops kingii, Cnemidophorus lacertoides, C. vacariensis, Leptotyphlops munoai, Mastigodryas b. bifossatus, Tantilla aff. melanocephala, Atractus reticulatus, Gomesophis brasiliensis, Lygophis flavifrenatus, Oxyrhopus r. rhombifer, Phalotris reticulatus, Philodryas agassizii, Xenodon dorbignyi, Micrurus altirostris and Bothrops pubescens. Aspects of the distribution and conservation of these species are discussed briefly.

  16. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range

    OpenAIRE

    Rafe Brown; Cameron Siler; Carl Oliveros; Luke Welton; Ashley Rock; John Swab; Merlijn Van Weerd; Jonah van Beijnen; Dominic Rodriguez; Edmund Jose; Arvin Diesmos

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historica...

  17. Unraveling the relative importance of oral and dermal contaminant exposure in reptiles: insights from studies using the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M Weir

    Full Text Available Despite widespread recognition of significant data deficiencies, reptiles remain a relatively understudied taxon in ecotoxicology. To conduct ecological risk assessments on reptiles frequently requires using surrogate taxa such as birds, but recent research suggests that reptiles have significantly different exposure profiles and toxicant sensitivity. We exposed western fence lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis, to the same quantities of three model chemicals via oral (gavage and dermal (ventral skin application exposure for either 24 or 48 hours. Three phthalate esters (di-methyl phthalate [DMP], di-iso-butyl phthalate [DIBP], and di-n-octyl phthalate [DNOP] were chosen as model chemicals because they represent a gradient of lipophilicity but are otherwise structurally similar. Overall, the more lipophilic phthalates (DIBP and DNOP were found to have higher concentrations in tissues than the less lipophilic DMP. Significant differences in tissue concentrations between DIBP and DNOP were tissue-dependent, suggesting that delivery to a site of action following exposure is not only a simple function of lipophilicity. In dermal treatments, DMP usually had fewer detections (except in ventral skin samples, suggesting that lipophilicity (log Kow>2 is a requirement for uptake across the skin. In general, tissue residues were greater in oral treatments than dermal treatments (significant in adipose and liver tissue, but differences were driven strongly by differences in DMP which did not appear to be absorbed well across skin. When differences in tissue residue concentrations between oral and dermal exposure did occur, the difference was not drastic. Taken together these results suggest that dermal exposure should be considered in risk assessments for reptilian receptors. Dermal exposure may be an especially important route for reptiles as their ectothermic physiology translates to lower energetic demands and dietary exposure compared to birds and mammals.

  18. Brief History of Herpetology in the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, Berkeley, with a List of Type Specimens of Recent Amphibians and Reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Robles, Javier A; Good, David A; Wake, David B

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the herpetological program of the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ), University of California, Berkeley, is presented. The history of herpetological activities in the MVZ and more generally at Berkeley is summarized. Although the MVZ has existed since 1908, until 1945 there was no formal curator for the collection of amphibians and nonavian reptiles. Since that time Robert C. Stebbins, David B. Wake, Harry W. Greene, Javier A. Rodríguez-Robles (in an interim capacity), and Cra...

  19. Reptile and rodent parasites in raptor pellets in an archaeological context: the case of Epullán Chica (northwestern Patagonia, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, María Ornela; Fernández, Fernando Julián; Sardella, Norma Haydeé

    2015-07-01

    Paleoparasitology is the study of parasite remains from archaeological and paleontological sites. Raptor pellets can be used as source for paleoparasitological information in archaeological sites. However, this zooarchaeological material has been scarcely studied. Epullán Chica (ECh) is an archaeological site in northwestern Patagonia. This cave yielded remains from more than 2000 years before present. The aim of this paper was to study the parasite remains found in owl pellets from the archaeological site ECh, and to discuss the paleoparasitological findings in an archaeological context. Twenty two raptor pellets were examined for parasites. The pellets were whole processed by rehydration in a 0.5% water solution of trisodium phosphate, followed by homogenization, filtered and processed by spontaneous sedimentation. Eight out of 22 bird pellets examined were positive for parasites from reptiles and rodents. Representatives of 12 parasite taxa were recorded; nine of this parasitic species were reported for the first time from ancient samples from Patagonia. This is the first time that pellets give evidences of ancient reptile parasites from archaeological contexts. It is noteworthy that Late Holocene hunter-gatherers of the upper Limay River basin, could have been exposed to some of these zoonotic parasites. Future paleoparasitological studies on owl pellets may reflect even more the parasitological diversity of all micromammal and reptile species presents in ancient times.

  20. Hawaii ESI: REPTILES (Reptile and Amphibian Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for threatened/endangered sea turtles in coastal Hawaii. Vector polygons in this data set represent sea...

  1. Comparative Phylogeography Reveals Cryptic Diversity and Repeated Patterns of Cladogenesis for Amphibians and Reptiles in Northwestern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyron, R. Alexander; Peñafiel, Nicolás; Romero-Barreto, Paulina; Culebras, Jaime; Bustamante, Lucas; Yánez-Muñoz, Mario H.; Guayasamin, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography allow us to understand how shared historical circumstances have shaped the formation of lineages, by examining a broad spectrum of co-distributed populations of different taxa. However, these types of studies are scarce in the Neotropics, a region that is characterized by high diversity, complex geology, and poorly understood biogeography. Here, we investigate the diversification patterns of five lineages of amphibians and reptiles, co-distributed across the Choco and Andes ecoregions in northwestern Ecuador. Mitochondrial DNA and occurrence records were used to determine the degree of geographic genetic divergence within species. Our results highlight congruent patterns of parapatric speciation and common geographical barriers for distantly related taxa. These comparisons indicate similar biological and demographic characteristics for the included clades, and reveal the existence of two new species of Pristimantis previously subsumed under P. walkeri, which we describe herein. Our data supports the hypothesis that widely distributed Chocoan taxa may generally experience their greatest opportunities for isolation and parapatric speciation across thermal elevational gradients. Finally, our study provides critical information to predict which unstudied lineages may harbor cryptic diversity, and how geology and climate are likely to have shaped their evolutionary history. PMID:27120100

  2. Comparative Phylogeography Reveals Cryptic Diversity and Repeated Patterns of Cladogenesis for Amphibians and Reptiles in Northwestern Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Arteaga

    Full Text Available Comparative phylogeography allow us to understand how shared historical circumstances have shaped the formation of lineages, by examining a broad spectrum of co-distributed populations of different taxa. However, these types of studies are scarce in the Neotropics, a region that is characterized by high diversity, complex geology, and poorly understood biogeography. Here, we investigate the diversification patterns of five lineages of amphibians and reptiles, co-distributed across the Choco and Andes ecoregions in northwestern Ecuador. Mitochondrial DNA and occurrence records were used to determine the degree of geographic genetic divergence within species. Our results highlight congruent patterns of parapatric speciation and common geographical barriers for distantly related taxa. These comparisons indicate similar biological and demographic characteristics for the included clades, and reveal the existence of two new species of Pristimantis previously subsumed under P. walkeri, which we describe herein. Our data supports the hypothesis that widely distributed Chocoan taxa may generally experience their greatest opportunities for isolation and parapatric speciation across thermal elevational gradients. Finally, our study provides critical information to predict which unstudied lineages may harbor cryptic diversity, and how geology and climate are likely to have shaped their evolutionary history.

  3. [Inventory of reptiles in 2 semi-arid zones from Northeastern of the Peninsula de Araya, Sucre State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablo Cornejo, E; Antulio Prieto, A

    2001-01-01

    The fauna of reptiles in two localities from Northeastern Peninsula de Araya (Guayacán and El Morahal), Sucre State, Venezuela, was evaluated. Both zones are characterized by a vegetation of thorny tropical mount type, and semiarid climate of scarce precipitations (less than 700 mm). Field trips were made between june 1997 and june 1998. The samples were collected both during day and night, with the aid of conventional accessories. The information was complemented with visual registrations and bibliography revision. A total of 21 species were captured and/or observed, distributed in 10 families belonging to 2 of the 3 orders present in Venezuela. The most important families from the point of view of the diversity of species, were the Gekkonidae (2.00 bits/species) for the lizards and the Colubridae (2.33 bits/species) among the snakes. It was also reported one species of tortoises and three of cinegetic interest, being Cnemidophorus lemniscatus, Ameiva bifrontata y Tropidurus hispidus the only species of constant presence during the study. PMID:11915444

  4. The pattern of dermal-vertebral correlation in snakes and amphisbaenians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander, A.A.; Gans, C.

    1966-01-01

    INTRODUCTION It has long been known that the arrangement of external scales retains a constant relation to the primary pattern of mesodermal segmentation. The ratio of the number of dermal scale rows or annuli to the number of vertebrae has, therefore, been considered to be of fundamental importance

  5. Palaeogeographic evolution of the marine Middle Triassic marine Germanic Basin changements - With emphasis on the carbonate tidal flat and shallow marine habitats of reptiles in Central Pangaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2009-01-01

    More than seventy-five vertebrate track-sites have been found in Central Europe in 243-246.5 m.y. old Triassic coastal intertidal to sabkha carbonates. In the western part of the very flat Triassic intracontinental Germanic Basin, the carbonate strata contain at least 22 laterally extensive track horizons (called megatracksites). In contrast, in the eastern part of the basin only six megatracksites extended to near the centre of the Basin during marine low stands. Marine ingression and the development of extensive coastal marine environments began during the Aegean (Anisian) stage. This incursion began in the region of the eastern Carpathian and Silesian gates and spread westward due to the development of a tectonically controlled intracratonic basin. The tectonic origin of this basin made it susceptible to tsunamis and submarine earthquakes, which constituted very dangerous hazards for coastal terrestrial and even marine reptiles. The shallow sea that spread across the Germanic Basin produced extensive tidal flats that at times formed extensive inter-peninsular bridges between the Rhenish and Bohemian Massifs. The presence of these inter-peninsular bridges explains the observed distribution and movement of reptiles along coastal Europe and the northern Tethys Seaway during the Middle Triassic epoch. Two small reptiles, probably Macrocnemus and Hescherleria, left millions of tracks and trackways known as Rhynchosauroides and Procolophonichnium in the Middle Triassic coastal intertidal zone. The great abundance of their tracks indicates that their trackmakers Macrocnemus and Hescherleria were permanent inhabitants of this environment. In sharp contrast, tracks of other large terrestrial reptiles are quite rare along the coastal margins of the Germanic Basin, for example the recently discovered archaeosaur tracks and trackways referable to Isochirotherium, which most probably were made by the carnivore Ticinosuchus. Smaller medium-sized predatory thecodont reptiles

  6. Ontogenetic allometry constrains cranial shape of the head-first burrowing worm lizard Cynisca leucura (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipsley, Christy A; Rentinck, Marc-Nicolas; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Müller, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Amphisbaenians are fossorial, predominantly limbless squamate reptiles with distinct cranial shapes corresponding to specific burrowing behaviors. Due to their cryptic lifestyles and the scarcity of museum specimens, little is known of their intraspecific variation, particularly regarding cranial osteology. This represents a critical lack of information, because the majority of morphological investigations of squamate relationships are based on cranial characters. We investigated cranial variation in the West African Coast Worm Lizard Cynisca leucura, a round-headed member of the Amphisbaenidae. Using geometric morphometric analyses of three-dimensional computed tomographic scans, we found that cranial osteology of C. leucura is highly conserved, with the majority of shape changes occurring during growth as the cranium becomes more slender and elongate, accompanied by increasing interdigitation among the dermal roofing bones. Elements of the ventral portion of the cranium remain loosely connected in adults, possibly as a protective mechanism against repeated compression and torsion during burrow excavation. Intraspecific variation was strongly correlated with size change from juveniles to adults, indicating a dominant role of ontogenetic allometry in determining cranial shape. We found no evidence of sexual dimorphism, either during growth or among adults. Given the fossorial habits of C. leucura, we hypothesize that cranial allometry is under strong stabilizing selection to maintain adequate proportions for head-first digging, thereby constraining the ability of individuals to respond to differing selection pressures, including sexual selection and variation in diet or microhabitat. For species in which digging imposes less mechanical stress (e.g., in softer sand), allometric associations during growth may be weakened, allowing changes to the ontogenetic trajectory and subsequent morphological traits. Such developmental dissociation between size and shape, known

  7. Mining-caused changes to habitat structure affect amphibian and reptile population ecology more than metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kiyoshi; Lesbarrères, David; Watson, Glen; Litzgus, Jacqueline

    2015-12-01

    Emissions from smelting not only contaminate water and soil with metals, but also induce extensive forest dieback and changes in resource availability and microclimate. The relative effects of such co-occurring stressors are often unknown, but this information is imperative in developing targeted restoration strategies. We assessed the role and relative effects of structural alterations of terrestrial habitat and metal pollution caused by century-long smelting operations on amphibian and reptile communities by collecting environmental and time- and area-standardized multivariate abundance data along three spatially replicated impact gradients. Overall, species richness, diversity, and abundance declined progressively with increasing levels of metals (As, Cu, and Ni) and soil temperature (T(s)) and decreasing canopy cover, amount of coarse woody debris (CWD), and relative humidity (RH). The composite habitat variable (which included canopy cover, CWD, T(s), and RH) was more strongly associated with most response metrics than the composite metal variable (As, Cu, and Ni), and canopy cover alone explained 19-74% of the variance. Moreover, species that use terrestrial habitat for specific behaviors (e.g., hibernation, dispersal), especially forest-dependent species, were more severely affected than largely aquatic species. These results suggest that structural alterations of terrestrial habitat and concomitant changes in the resource availability and microclimate have stronger effects than metal pollution per se. Furthermore, much of the variation in response metrics was explained by the joint action of several environmental variables, implying synergistic effects (e.g., exacerbation of metal toxicity by elevated temperatures in sites with reduced canopy cover). We thus argue that the restoration of terrestrial habitat conditions is a key to successful recovery of herpetofauna communities in smelting-altered landscapes. PMID:26910952

  8. REPTILES DEL BOSQUE SECO ESTACIONAL EN EL CARIBE COLOMBIANO: DISTRIBUCIÓN DE LOS HÁBITATS Y DEL RECURSO ALIMENTARIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Rojas Murcia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de caracterizar la distribución horizontal (repartición de los hábitats y la utilización del recurso alimentario (tipo y tamaño de las presas del ensamblaje de reptiles del bosque seco estacional al norte de la región Caribe de Colombia, en el departamento del Cesar, se realizaron cinco salidas de campo con una duración de doce días cada una. Los muestreos se realizaron en jornadas diurnas y nocturnas, en un diseño de transectos replicados a lo largo de diferentes hábitats que incluyeron: pastizales, bordes e interiores de bosque. Se realizaron análisis descriptivos de uso de hábitat en un perfil de vegetación por cada época climática y análisis de amplitud y sobreposición de nicho. Se registraron 38 especies de 14 familias del orden Squamata. Las especies se distribuyeron de manera homogénea entre zonas abiertas y boscosas. Se encontraron registros de 31 categorías de presa en 109 estómagos de seis especies de serpientes (61 estómagos y siete de lagartos (48 estómagos con un porcentaje de estómagos vacíos de 38 %. Las presas de mayor importancia para los lagartos fueron Coleoptera y Araneae, y para las serpientes fueron los anfibios. La mayoría de las especies presentaron un amplio espectro de dieta y entre especies similares, como entre Anolis auratus y A. gaigei, se presentó uso de recursos similares. En síntesis, el ensamblaje de reptiles presentó una distribución homogénea en los hábitats evaluados (áreas abiertas y boscosas y el recurso alimentario fue variado entre las diferentes especies; la estacionalidad de la zona presenta un papel fundamental en la estructura del ensamblaje de reptiles, presentándose menos abundancia durante la época seca, tanto en las áreas abiertas como en las boscosas.Reptiles from the Seasonal Dry Forest the Caribbean Region: Distribution of Habitat and use of Food ResourceABSTRACTWe assessed the horizontal distribution and use of the food resource of the reptile

  9. Ubiquiter circovirus sequences raise challenges in laboratory diagnosis: the case of honey bee and bee mite, reptiles, and free living amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Szilvia; Ihász, Katalin; Lengyel, György; Farkas, Szilvia L; Dán, Ádám; Paulus, Petra; Bányai, Krisztián; Fehér, Enikő

    2015-03-01

    Circoviruses of pigs and birds are established pathogens, however, the exact role of other, recently described circoviruses and circovirus-like viruses remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was the detection of circoviruses in neglected host species, including honey bees, exotic reptiles and free-living amoebae by widely used broad-spectrum polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays specific for the replication initiation protein coding gene of these viruses. The majority of sequences obtained from honey bees were highly similar to canine and porcine circoviruses, or, were distantly related to dragonfly cycloviruses. Other rep sequences detected in some honey bees, reptiles and amoebae showed similarities to various rep sequences deposited in the GenBank. Back-to-back PCR primers designed for the amplification of whole viral genomes failed to work that suggested the existence of integrated rep-like elements in many samples. Rolling circle amplification and exonuclease treatment confirmed the absence of small circular DNA genomes in the specimens analysed. In case of honey bees Varroa mite DNA contamination might be a source of the identified endogenous rep-like elements. The reptile and amoebae rep-like sequences were nearly identical with each other and with sequences detected in chimpanzee feces raising the possibility that detection of novel or unusual rep-like elements in some host species might originate from the microbial community of the host. Our results indicate that attention is needed when broad-spectrum rep gene specific polymerase chain reaction is chosen for laboratory diagnosis of circovirus infections.

  10. Ubiquiter circovirus sequences raise challenges in laboratory diagnosis: the case of honey bee and bee mite, reptiles, and free living amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Szilvia; Ihász, Katalin; Lengyel, György; Farkas, Szilvia L; Dán, Ádám; Paulus, Petra; Bányai, Krisztián; Fehér, Enikő

    2015-03-01

    Circoviruses of pigs and birds are established pathogens, however, the exact role of other, recently described circoviruses and circovirus-like viruses remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was the detection of circoviruses in neglected host species, including honey bees, exotic reptiles and free-living amoebae by widely used broad-spectrum polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays specific for the replication initiation protein coding gene of these viruses. The majority of sequences obtained from honey bees were highly similar to canine and porcine circoviruses, or, were distantly related to dragonfly cycloviruses. Other rep sequences detected in some honey bees, reptiles and amoebae showed similarities to various rep sequences deposited in the GenBank. Back-to-back PCR primers designed for the amplification of whole viral genomes failed to work that suggested the existence of integrated rep-like elements in many samples. Rolling circle amplification and exonuclease treatment confirmed the absence of small circular DNA genomes in the specimens analysed. In case of honey bees Varroa mite DNA contamination might be a source of the identified endogenous rep-like elements. The reptile and amoebae rep-like sequences were nearly identical with each other and with sequences detected in chimpanzee feces raising the possibility that detection of novel or unusual rep-like elements in some host species might originate from the microbial community of the host. Our results indicate that attention is needed when broad-spectrum rep gene specific polymerase chain reaction is chosen for laboratory diagnosis of circovirus infections. PMID:25823454

  11. First Record of Protorosaurid Reptile (Order Protorosauria) from the Middle Triassic of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun

    2003-01-01

    A new genus and species of the family Tanystropheidae, Dinocephalosaurus orientalis gen. et sp. nov., isdescribed based on a nearly complete skull. This is the first record of the order Protorosauria from China. It also representsthe only known occurrence of Tanystropheidae outside Europe, the Middle East and North America. Dinocephalosaurus isquite similar to Tanystropheus from Monte San Giorgio, Switzerland. Primarily it is distinguished from Tanystropheus inthe shape of the premaxilla, maxilla, jugal and parietal. Although the family Tanystropheidae is now referred to the orderProtorosauria, the new material from China indicates that the archosauromorph affinities of tanystropheids need furtherinvestigation. The discovery of Dinocephalosaurus provides new clues for the study of the evolution and radiation ofProtorosauria and Tanystropheidae. It is also important for the study of the eastern Tethyan Fauna and thepaleobiogeographical relationship between Europe and southern China in the Triassic.

  12. A Carapace-Like Bony ‘Body Tube’ in an Early Triassic Marine Reptile and the Onset of Marine Tetrapod Predation

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-hong Chen; Ryosuke Motani; Long Cheng; Da-yong Jiang; Olivier Rieppel

    2014-01-01

    Parahupehsuchus longus is a new species of marine reptile from the Lower Triassic of Yuan'an County, Hubei Province, China. It is unique among vertebrates for having a body wall that is completely surrounded by a bony tube, about 50 cm long and 6.5 cm deep, comprising overlapping ribs and gastralia. This tube and bony ossicles on the back are best interpreted as anti-predatory features, suggesting that there was predation pressure upon marine tetrapods in the Early Triassic. There is at least...

  13. Nuevas interpretaciones y adiciones a los anfibios y reptiles en la obra del naturalista Francisco Hernández (1517-1584

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Casas Andreu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Aunque se ha escrito abundantemente acerca del naturalista Francisco Hernández, quien viajó a la Nueva España en el siglo XVI, consideramos que no se ha dado el crédito suficiente a su obra como naturalista y su impacto en la zoología de México y del mundo. Después de reinterpretar su información referente a anfibios y reptiles, se ha actualizado y se han agregado 15 especies a las 71 indicadas por autores anteriores, se confirmaron tres y corrigieron tres nuevas especies de las listas previas.

  14. Neural and endocranial anatomy of Triassic phytosaurian reptiles and convergence with fossil and modern crocodylians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, Stephan; Butler, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Phytosaurs are a clade of large, carnivorous pseudosuchian archosaurs from the Late Triassic with a near cosmopolitan distribution. Their superficial resemblance to longirostrine (long-snouted) crocodylians, such as gharials, has often been used in the past to infer ecological and behavioural convergence between the two groups. Although more than thirty species of phytosaur are currently recognised, little is known about the endocranial anatomy of this clade. Here, we describe the endocranial anatomy (including the brain, inner ear, neurovascular structures and sinus systems) of the two non-mystriosuchine phytosaurs Parasuchus angustifrons (="Paleorhinus angustifrons") and Ebrachosuchus neukami from the Late Triassic of Germany based on digital reconstructions. Results show that the endocasts of both taxa are very similar to each other in their rostrocaudally elongate morphology, with long olfactory tracts, weakly demarcated cerebral regions and dorsoventrally short endosseous labyrinths. In addition, several sinuses, including large antorbital sinuses and prominent dural venous sinuses, were reconstructed. Comparisons with the endocranial anatomy of derived phytosaurs indicate that Phytosauria is united by the presence of elongate olfactory tracts and longitudinally arranged brain architecture-characters which are also shared with Crocodyliformes. However, a substantial morphological variability is observed in the cephalic and pontine flexure and the presence of a pineal organ across the different phytosaur species. These results suggest that the endocranial anatomy in Phytosauria generally follows a plesiomorphic pattern, with moderate variation within the clade likely resulting from divergent sensory and behavioural adaptations. PMID:27547557

  15. Testing the snake-detection hypothesis: larger early posterior negativity in humans to pictures of snakes than to pictures of other reptiles, spiders and slugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Jan W; Franken, Ingmar H A; Huijding, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    According to the snake detection hypothesis (Isbell, 2006), fear specifically of snakes may have pushed evolutionary changes in the primate visual system allowing pre-attentional visual detection of fearful stimuli. A previous study demonstrated that snake pictures, when compared to spiders or bird pictures, draw more early attention as reflected by larger early posterior negativity (EPN). Here we report two studies that further tested the snake detection hypothesis. In Study 1, we tested whether the enlarged EPN is specific for snakes or also generalizes to other reptiles. Twenty-four healthy, non-phobic women watched the random rapid serial presentation of snake, crocodile, and turtle pictures. The EPN was scored as the mean activity at occipital electrodes (PO3, O1, Oz, PO4, O2) in the 225-300 ms time window after picture onset. The EPN was significantly larger for snake pictures than for pictures of the other reptiles. In Study 2, we tested whether disgust plays a role in the modulation of the EPN and whether preferential processing of snakes also can be found in men. 12 men and 12 women watched snake, spider, and slug pictures. Both men and women exhibited the largest EPN amplitudes to snake pictures, intermediate amplitudes to spider pictures and the smallest amplitudes to slug pictures. Disgust ratings were not associated with EPN amplitudes. The results replicate previous findings and suggest that ancestral priorities modulate the early capture of visual attention.

  16. Morphological and molecular differentiation of two new species of Pseudoacanthocephalus Petrochenko, 1958 (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae) from amphibians and reptiles in the Philippines, with identification key for the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkach, Vasyl V; Lisitsyna, Olga I; Crossley, Janna L; Binh, Tran Thi; Bush, Sarah E

    2013-05-01

    The genus Pseudoacanthocephalus Petrochenko, 1958 currently includes 14 species of acanthocephalans parasitic in amphibians and reptiles worldwide. This work describes two new species of Pseudoacanthocephalus from amphibians and reptiles collected in several localities on Luzon Island, Philippines. Pseudoacanthocephalus nickoli n. sp. was found in two species of frogs, Rana luzonensis Boulenger and Rana similis (Günther), and Pseudoacanthocephalus smalesi n. sp. was found in a scincid lizard, Sphenomorphus abdictus Brown & Alcala. Differential diagnoses of the two new species of Pseudoacanthocephalus from their congeners are provided. Comparative analysis of nuclear ribosomal rRNA sequences encompassing the 3' end of 18S nuclear rDNA gene, internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1+5.8S+ITS2), and 5' end of the 28S gene strongly corroborated the morphological evidence and demonstrated significant differences between the two new species as well as between these species and closely related species from continental China and Vietnam. No intraspecific sequence variability was detected among different individuals representing each of the examined species. This is the first report of Pseudoacanthocephalus in the Philippines. A key to known species of Pseudoacanthocephalus is provided.

  17. Using maximum entropy to predict the distribution of a critically endangered reptile species (Eryx jaculus, Reptilia: Boidae at its Northern range limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Gherghel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The sand boa (Eryx jaculus is one of the least known and rarest reptile species in Europe. InRomania, the sand boa is the rarest reptile species with only four locality records being known; atCernavodă, Cărpiniş-Giuvegea, Cochirleni and Mahmudia (Kirițescu 1903; Fuhn & Vancea 1961; Zinke &Hielscher 1990. To estimate the predictors and the probability distribution of the target species (Eryxjaculus we used MaxEnt 3.3. The potential distribution model of E. jaculus in Romania have a very goodscore performance (AUC = 0.959. The most important variables for the model are BIO13 (92.5% ofcontribution, BIO9 (3.2% of contribution, BIO17 (3% of contribution and BIO6 (1.3% of contribution.A previously mentioned hypothesis regarding the extinction of the sand boa from Romania hold theconstruction of the Danube River – Black Sea canal as the main responsable factor, this constructionhaving destroyed most of the natural habitats in which the species has been recorded (Krecsak & Iftime2006. We also support this hypothesis as the generated model indicates a suitable niche for the speciesalong the current canal area.

  18. Ratios between number of neuroglial cells and number and volume of nerve cells in the spinal ganglia of two species of reptiles and three species of mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledda, M; De Palo, S; Pannese, E

    2004-02-01

    We studied the ratios between number of neuroglial (=satellite) cells and number and volume of neurons with which they are associated in the spinal ganglia of two species of reptiles (lizard and gecko) and three species of mammals (mouse, rat, and rabbit). In all five species, we found that the number of satellite cells associated with a nerve cell body increased with increasing volume of the latter. This result shows that there is a quantitative balance between neuroglia and nerve tissue in spinal ganglia. This balance seems to be maintained by a tight regulation of the number of satellite cells. We also found that the mean volume of nerve cell body corresponding to a satellite cell was lower for small neurons than for large ones. Since satellite cells metabolically support spinal ganglion neurons, the metabolic needs of small neurons are better satisfied than those of large ones. For a nerve cell body of a given size, the number of associated satellite cells did not differ between the lizard and gecko, nor between the mouse, rat, and rabbit. However, this number was significantly smaller in the reptiles than in the mammals. This result could be explained by the lower metabolic rate in the nervous system of poikilotherms than mammals, or could have a phylogenetic significance. These two interpretations are not mutually exclusive. PMID:14729453

  19. Testing the snake-detection hypothesis: Larger early posterior negativity in humans to pictures of snakes than to pictures of other reptiles, spiders and slugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan W. Van Strien

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the snake detection hypothesis (Isbell, 2006, fear specifically of snakes may have pushed evolutionary changes in the primate visual system allowing pre-attentional visual detection of fearful stimuli. A previous study demonstrated that snake pictures, when compared to spiders or bird pictures, draw more early attention as reflected by larger early posterior negativity (EPN. Here we report two studies that further tested the snake detection hypothesis. In Study, 1 we tested whether the enlarged EPN is specific for snakes or also generalizes to other reptiles. Twenty-four healthy, non-phobic women watched the random rapid serial presentation of snake, crocodile, and turtle pictures. The EPN was scored as the mean activity at occipital electrodes (PO3, O1, Oz, PO4, O2 in the 225–300 ms time window after picture onset. The EPN was significantly larger for snake pictures than for pictures of the other reptiles. In study 2, we tested whether disgust plays a role in the modulation of the EPN and whether preferential processing of snakes also can be found in men. Twelve men and twelve women watched snake, spider, and slug pictures. Both men and women exhibited the largest EPN amplitudes to snake pictures, intermediate amplitudes to spider pictures and the smallest amplitudes to slug pictures. Disgust ratings were not associated with EPN amplitudes. The results replicate previous findings and suggest that ancestral priorities modulate the early capture of visual attention.

  20. The structure of the nasal chemosensory system in squamate reptiles. 1. The olfactory organ, with special reference to olfaction in geckos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Susan J Rehorek; Bruce T Firth; Mark N Hutchinson

    2000-06-01

    The luminal surface of the chemosensory epithelia of the main olfactory organ of terrestrial vertebrates is covered by a layer of fluid. The source of this fluid layer varies among vertebrates. Little is known regarding the relative development of the sources of fluid (sustentacular cells and Bowman’s glands) in reptiles, especially in gekkotan lizards (despite recent assertions of olfactory speciality). This study examined the extent and morphology of the main olfactory organ in several Australian squamate reptiles, including three species of gekkotans, two species of skinks and one snake species. The olfactory mucosa of two gekkotan species (Christinus marmoratus and Strophurus intermedius) is spread over a large area of the nasal cavity. Additionally, the sustentacular cells of all three gekkotan species contained a comparatively reduced number of secretory granules, in relation to the skinks or snake examined. These observations imply that the gekkotan olfactory system may function differently from that of either skinks or snakes. Similar variation in secretory granule abundance was previously noted between mammalian and non-mammalian olfactory sustentacular cells. The observations in gekkotans suggests that the secretory capacity of the non-mammalian olfactory sustentacular cells show far more variation than initially thought.

  1. New Progress in the Study of Marine Reptiles from the Luoping Biota of Middle Triassic Anisian Period%中三叠世安尼期罗平生物群海生爬行类研究新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文芠; 张启跃; 刘俊; 胡世学; 周长勇; 黄金元; 谢韬

    2015-01-01

    have been recovered, which include marine reptiles, fishes, arthropods, echinoderms, ammonites, bivalves, gastropods, lingulid brachiopods, foraminifers, and plants. The Luoping Biota is one of the most diverse Triassic marine fossil Lagerstätten records in the world. The age of the Luoping biota is assigned to the Pelsonian Substage of the Middle Triassic Anisian Stage based on the index conodontNicoraella Kockeli. Well-preserved, diverse marine reptiles are one of the highlights of the Luoping biota, including ichthyosaurs, sauropterygians, protorosaurs and archosauromorphs. Mesozoic is remarkable for marine reptiles, whose swimming modes, however, remain a topic of much controversy because of the absence of their tracks. Hundreds of seabed tracks found in Luoping Biota, which were assigned toDikoposichnus luopingensis, provide new materials for the study of their locomotive mode. Besides, the macropredator Nothosaurus zhangireported from Luoping Biota also supports the existence of the makers ofDikoposichnus luopingensis. The skull ofNothosaurus zhangi is the largest sauropterygian ever reported in Triassic. The occurrence of a different assemblage of marine reptiles as top predators in the food web indicates a well developed marine ecosystem, showing full rebuilding of the marine ecosystem after the mass extinction that happened about 250 million years ago.

  2. Reptiles Resources in Fanjing Mountain National Nature Reserve%梵净山国家自然保护区爬行动物资源调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷; 冉辉; 梁琍; 沈正雄

    2011-01-01

    According to survey of reptiles resource in Fanjing Mountain National Nature Reserve in recent thirty years, this study showed that the reptiles in the reserve are 43 species belonging to 28 genera, 10 families, 3 suborders, 2 orders, accounting for 40.19% of the total number in Guizhou province. Among them, Zaocys nigromarginatus and Japalura szechwanensis are new records to Fanjing Mountain National Nature Reserve. The 38 species of Oriental Realm and 22 common species of both Central China and South China appear dominant over other species in this fauna. The total of 43 reptiles species in the reserve belong to the species of terrestrial wildlife which are protected by China and are beneficial or of important economic and scientific research value. In these species, 14 species are included in China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals, and 2 species are ranked in CITES Appendix II, 1 species is put into CITES Appendix III. Among the 43 species, 3 species are dominant, 5 species are common, and others are rare species. Considering the reserve condition and reptiles resource status, the endangered factors and protect suggestion for the reptiles resource in the reserve are discussed.%基于近三十年来铜仁学院生物科学与化学系对梵净山国家自然保护区爬行动物资源的调查,本文报道了该保护区现已记录爬行类隶属2目3亚目10科28属43种,占贵州省爬行类种数的40.19%,其中发现2个梵净山国家自然保护区爬行类新纪录,即黑线乌梢蛇和四川攀蜥。其动物区系组成以38种东洋界种类为主,并以22种东洋界华中区与华南区共有种占明显优势。保护区内43种爬行类均属“国家保护的有益的或者有重要经济、科学研究价值的陆生野生动物”;14种被列入“中国濒危动物红皮书”;有2种被列入CITES附录Ⅱ,1种被列入CITES附录Ⅲ;有3种为优势种,5种为常见种,其余35种为稀少种。结合该区实际

  3. CWHR - Reptiles [ds526

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data set is an intersection of all 694 vector polygon ranges in the California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR) System with a statewide grid of 25 square...

  4. Bilan des introductions récentes d'amphibiens et de reptiles dans les milieux aquatiques continentaux de France métropolitaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAFFNER P.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available En France métropolitaine, on dénombre actuellement 36 amphibiens et 33 reptiles se reproduisant régulièrement. A deux exceptions près, les amphibiens de la faune française sont aquatiques. En revanche, seules quatre espèces de reptiles (2 tortues et 2 serpents fréquentent très régulièrement ou exclusivement les milieux aquatiques. Les introductions en milieux aquatiques effectuées depuis le début du siècle ne concernent qu'une vingtaine d'espèces d'amphibiens ou de reptiles. Le discoglosse peint (Discoglossus pictus et la grenouille taureau (Rana catesbeiana sont les deux seules espèces étrangères dont l'introduction a conduit à une naturalisation. La tortue de «Floride» (Trachemys scripta elegans pourrait bien suivre prochainement la même voie. Certaines espèces françaises ont, par contre, été introduites avec succès en métropole, hors de leurs aires d'indigénat. Les causes connues de ces introductions sont liées à des opérations à but économique (commerce, à caractère socioculturel (loisirs ou à fondement scientifique (expériences. Ces opérations n'ont cependant généralement pas pour but l'introduction volontaire d'une espèce dans le milieu naturel, celle-ci résultant plutôt de négligences. Certaines introductions involontaires ont pu aussi avoir pour origine un transport passif (par exemple, par voie maritime. Des conséquences négatives de ces introductions sont suspectées, mais ne sont généralement pas démontrées. Elles peuvent s'inscrire dans les catégories suivantes : compétition avec une espèce autochtone, prédation excessive sur une ou plusieurs espèces autochtones, pollution génétique, introduction de maladies ou de parasites.

  5. Genome evolution in Reptilia: in silico chicken mapping of 12,000 BAC-end sequences from two reptiles and a basal bird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Scott V

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the publication of the draft chicken genome and the recent production of several BAC clone libraries from non-avian reptiles and birds, it is now possible to undertake more detailed comparative genomic studies in Reptilia. Of interest in particular are the genomic events that transformed the large, repeat-rich genomes of mammals and non-avian reptiles into the minimalist chicken genome. We have used paired BAC end sequences (BESs from the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis, painted turtle (Chrysemys picta and emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae to investigate patterns of sequence divergence, gene and retroelement content, and microsynteny between these species and chicken. Results From a total of 11,967 curated BESs, we successfully mapped 725, 773 and 2597 sequences in alligator, turtle, and emu, respectively, to sites in the draft chicken genome using a stringent BLAST protocol. Most commonly, sequences mapped to a single site in the chicken genome. Of 1675, 1828 and 2936 paired BESs obtained for alligator, turtle, and emu, respectively, a total of 34 (alligator, 2%, 24 (turtle, 1.3% and 479 (emu, 16.3% pairs were found to map with high confidence and in the correct orientation and with BAC-sized intermarker distances to single chicken chromosomes, including 25 such paired hits in emu mapping to the chicken Z chromosome. By determining the insert sizes of a subset of BAC clones from these three species, we also found a significant correlation between the intermarker distance in alligator and turtle and in chicken, with slopes as expected on the basis of the ratio of the genome sizes. Conclusion Our results suggest that a large number of small-scale chromosomal rearrangements and deletions in the lineage leading to chicken have drastically reduced the number of detected syntenies observed between the chicken and alligator, turtle, and emu genomes and imply that small deletions occurring widely throughout the

  6. A conodont-based Middle Triassic age assignment for the Luoping Biota of Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Luoping Biota consists of abundant and well-preserved marine fishes, reptiles, invertebrates, and plants. It occurs in the Middle Triassic Guanling Formation in Daaozi Village of Luoping County, Yun-nan Province, China. Based on conodonts, the Luoping Biota is determined to lie within the Nicoraella kockeli Zone, which is assigned to the Pelsonian substage of the Anisian.

  7. A conodont-based Middle Triassic age assignment for the Luoping Biota of Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG QiYue; ZHOU ChangYong; LU Tao; XIE Tao; LOU XiongYing; LIU Wei; SUN YuanYuan; HUANG JinYuan; ZHAO LaiShi

    2009-01-01

    The Luoping Biota consists of abundant and well-preserved marine fishes, reptiles, Invertebrates, and plants. It occurs in the Middle Triassic Guanling Formation in Daaozi Village of Luoping County, Yun-nan Province, China. Based on conodonts, the Luoping Biota is determined to lie within the Nicoraella kockeli Zone, which is assigned to the Pelsonian substage of the Anisian.

  8. Evolution of energy metabolism. Proton permeability of the inner membrane of liver mitochondria is greater in a mammal than in a reptile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, M D; Couture, P; Else, P L; Withers, K W; Hulbert, A J

    1991-04-01

    Standard metabolic rate is 7-fold greater in the rat (a typical mammal) than in the bearded dragon, Amphibolurus vitticeps (a reptile with the same body mass and temperature). Rat hepatocytes respire 4-fold faster than do hepatocytes from the lizard. The inner membrane of isolated rat liver mitochondrial has a proton permeability that is 4-5-fold greater than the proton permeability of the lizard liver mitochondrial membrane per mg of mitochondrial protein. The greater permeability of rat mitochondria is not caused by differences in the surface area of the mitochondrial inner membrane, but differences in the fatty acid composition of the mitochondrial phospholipids may be involved in the permeability differences. Greater proton permeability of the mitochondrial inner membrane may contribute to the greater standard metabolic rate of mammals. PMID:1850242

  9. Análisis espacial y conservación de los anfibios y reptiles del Estado de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xóchitl Aguilar Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se calculó la riqueza y diversidad alfa y beta de los anfibios y reptiles del Estado de México, para identificar las regiones de mayor importancia para su estudio y conservación. Se analizaron 10 992 registros. Se calculó la riqueza de especies y los índices de Simpson y Whittaker, mediante diva 5.0. Se digitalizaron las áreas con mayor valor de diversidad alfa, diversidad beta y riqueza de especies, traslapándolas para identificar las de mayor valor para conservación. Se obtuvieron valores altos de diversidad alfa en muchas partes del estado, mientras que la diversidad beta muestra una situación intermedia. Las tres zonas de mayor valor para la conservación se ubican en el centro-sur, suroeste y oriente, por su mayor número de criterios de conservación.

  10. Learning Achievement and Motivation in an Out-of-School Setting—Visiting Amphibians and Reptiles in a Zoo Is More Effective than a Lesson at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünschmann, Stephanie; Wüst-Ackermann, Peter; Randler, Christoph; Vollmer, Christian; Itzek-Greulich, Heike

    2016-04-01

    Interventions in out-of-school settings have been shown in previous studies to be effectively increase students' science knowledge and motivation, with mixed results on whether they are more effective than teaching at school. In this study, we compared an out-of-school setting in a reptile and amphibian zoo (Landau, Germany) with a sequence of classroom teaching and a control group without teaching on the topic. We compared learning at school (School) and out-of-school learning (Reptilium), which were tested in a randomized field setting with a focus on knowledge and motivation. Sixty-five elementary students participated in either the School group, Reptilium group or control group. We measured knowledge on the topics reptiles and amphibians with a newly developed two-factorial test, calibrated with item response theory, before the intervention, immediately afterwards (posttest) and 2 weeks later (follow-up). Motivation was measured immediately after the intervention. Data analyses were performed using SPSS and Mplus. We conclude that the two interventions appeared highly superior to the control group and that the out-of-school setting in the Reptilium was more effective than the school-only program. Concerning motivation, perception of choice was higher in the Reptilium than in the School group. There were gender-by-treatment interaction effects for knowledge in the posttest and follow-up, for perceived competence and for pressure/tension. Concerning knowledge, boys performed better in the School group than girls but this gender gap was not significant in the Reptilium group. Boys perceived themselves as more competent in the School group while girls reported less pressure/tension in the Reptilium group. In conclusion, encountering living animals in a formal zoo learning arrangement is encouraged in primary school since it supports self-determination (free choice), leads to higher achievement and closes gender disparities in achievement.

  11. Nested species subsets of amphibians and reptiles in Thousand Island Lake%千岛湖两栖爬行类动物群落结构嵌套分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王熙; 王彦平; 丁平

    2012-01-01

    生境片段化是导致生物多样性降低的主要原因之一.该文采用样线法对千岛湖23个岛屿的两栖爬行类进行了调查,并结合植物种类调查数据和GIS技术提取的栖息地景观参数,使用“BINMATNEST”软件和Spearman相关性分析等方法,对这些岛屿上的两栖爬行类群落的分布格局及其影响因素进行分析.结果表明,千岛湖两栖爬行类群落整体上呈现嵌套分布格局;嵌套格局与岛屿面积和生境类型相关显著.因此,在制定千岛湖地区两栖爬行动物保护措施时,应优先考虑面积较大和生境类型多的岛屿.%Habitat fragmentation is a main cause for the loss of biological diversity. Combining line-transect methods to survey the amphibians and reptiles on 23 islands on Thousand Island Lake in Zhejiang province, along with survey data on nearby plant species and habitat variables collected by GIS, we used the "BINMATNEST (binary matrix nestedness temperature calculator)" software and the Spearman rank correlation to examine whether amphibians and reptiles followed nested subsets and their influencing factors. The results showed that amphibians and reptiles were significantly nested, and that the island area and habitat type were significantly associated with their nested ranks. Therefore, to effectively protect amphibians and reptiles in the Thousand Islands Lake area we should pay prior attention to islands with larger areas and more habitat types.

  12. Rectificaciones y comentarios nomenclaturales al capítulo sobre reptiles, excepto ofidios, de Biodiversidad de la Provincia de Córdoba. Fauna. Volumen 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera, Mario R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available El programa de Relevamiento de la Biodiversidad de la Provincia de Córdoba (PRO-BIO es un esfuerzo interdisciplinario conjunto entre las universidades nacionales de Río Cuarto y Córdoba. Entre sus objetivos está el de difundir el estado actual del conocimiento de la biota de la provincia en lo que respecta a su inventario y conservación. Como primer aporte el PRO-BIO reunió en un volumen información sobre el elenco, distribución y status de conservación de grupos selectos de invertebrados y vertebrados (Di Tada & Bucher, 1996. En el capítulo referido a reptiles excepto ofidios (Cabrera, 1996 algunos nombres científicos resultan desactualizados, en su mayor Parte porque las nuevas denominaciones se hallaban en publicación o distribución al momento de haberse entregado el manuscrito con la última revisión.

  13. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafe Brown

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces, northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province, as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province, combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%. The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning. This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study.

  14. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M; Siler, Cameron D; Oliveros, Carl H; Welton, Luke J; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study.

  15. 北仑河口国家级自然保护区两栖爬行动物调查%Survey of Amphibians and Reptiles in Beilunhekou National Nature Reserve of Guangxi,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张良建; 庾太林; 韩增超; 刘晓辉; 苏博

    2013-01-01

    2011年10月和2012年4-5月,对北仑河口国家级自然保护区进行两栖爬行动物调查:保护区内共有两栖动物1目4科14种,爬行动物2目7科18种.两栖爬行动物分布型主要以东洋型为主,分布区主要以华南区与华中区共有物种为主.爬行动物的F指数、G指数、G-F指数(3.471、2.553、0.264)均高于两栖动物(1.830、1.946、-0.063),表示爬行动物的科属多样性与两栖动物相比处在一个较高的水平.保护区内草丛生境中的两栖动物物种数最多,灌丛生境中的爬行动物物种数最多.%Survey of amphibians and reptiles was conducted in Beilunhekou National Nature Reserve in October 2011 and from April to May 2012. 14 species of amphibians were recorded,belonging to 4 families and 1 orders. And 18 species of reptiles belonging to 7 families and 2 orders were recorded. Oriental Realm species and species in both central and south China region were dominant. F index,G index and G-F index of reptiles (3. 471,2. 553,0. 264) were higher than amphibians' (1. 830,1. 946,-0. 063),which indicateds that the diversity in families of reptiles was higher than that of amphibians'. The species of amphibian was the most in the grass habitat,and species of reptile was the most in the bush habitat.

  16. Composition and Distribution of Amphibians and Reptiles in Foping Nature Reserve%佛坪自然保护区两栖爬行动物的组成与分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩会生; 曾治高; 宋团谱; 郑晓燕; 蔡晓丽; 付沛

    2012-01-01

    Foping Nature Reserve is located on the southern slope of the middle range of the Qinling Mountains in China, and a rich resource of amphibians and reptiles. Currently, 16 amphibians and 28 reptiles occurred in the reserve. Among them, 10 amphibians and 7 reptiles belong to the endemic species of China. Giant salamander (Andriasdavidianus) belongs to the second-class key species under state-protection, and is a critically endangered species. Besides this species, another 11 species in the reserve are also listed as endangered or vulnerable species in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. No obvious characters of ecological distribution along the altitudinal gradient were found for the amphibians and reptiles. However, more species and populations were distributed in the area below 1 500 m a. s. 1. Foping Nature Reserve is a key region for the diversity conservation of amphibians and reptiles in the Qinling Mountains. Some suggestions were put forward to protect and manage these species.%地处秦岭中段南坡的佛坪自然保护区具有半富的两栖爬行动物资源.当前该保护区分布有16种两栖动物和28种爬行动物,其中的10种两栖类和7种爬行类为中国特有种.分析这些两栖爬行动物的保护状态发现,除大鲵为国家Ⅱ级重点保护的、处于极危状态的物种外,还有11种为处于濒危或易危状态的物种.区内两栖爬行动物的垂直分布特征并不明显,但在海拔1500 m以下的区域分布的种类较多、数量较大.表明佛坪自然保护区是秦岭两栖爬行动物多样性保护的关键区域.针对该区城两栖爬行动物的保护与管理提出了一些建议.

  17. Development of the cloaca, hemipenes, and hemiclitores in the green anole, Anolis carolinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredler, Marissa L; Sanger, Thomas J; Cohn, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    In most amniotes, the intromittent organ is a single phallus; however, squamates (lizards, snakes, and amphisbaenians) have paired hemiphalluses. All amniotes studied to date initiate external genital development with the formation of paired genital swellings. In mammals, archosaurs, and turtles, these swellings merge to form a single genital tubercle, the precursor of the penis and clitoris; however, in squamates, the paired genital buds remain separate, giving rise to the hemiphalluses (hemipenes in males and hemiclitores in females). Although the molecular genetics and sexual differentiation of the genital tubercle have been investigated in mammals and birds, little is known about hemiphallus development. Here we describe development of the cloaca and hemiphallus in the green anole, Anolis carolinensis. Each hemiphallus originates as a protuberance that emerges at the ventral base of the hindlimb bud. Development of the hemipenes resembles penis development; however, differences exist in their tissue composition, morphogenesis, and gene expression patterns. These findings reveal aspects of phallus development that appear to be evolutionarily labile, both within squamates and more broadly among reptiles, and identify features that are conserved across amniotes. Our results, together with parallel studies in other reptilian taxa, suggest potential mechanisms for the diversification of external genital form. PMID:24960313

  18. Diversity of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pulsotypes, serovars, and antibiotic resistance among Salmonella isolates from wild amphibians and reptiles in the California Central Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Lisa; Jay-Russell, Michele T; Liang, Anita S; Walker, Samarpita; Bengson, Yingjia; Govoni, Jessica; Mandrell, Robert E

    2013-06-01

    A survey of cold-blooded vertebrates and associated surface waters in a produce-growing region on the Central California Coast was done between May and September 2011 to determine the diversity of Salmonella. Samples from 460 amphibians and reptiles and 119 water samples were collected and cultured for Salmonella. Animals sampled were frogs (n=331), lizards (n=59), newts (n=5), salamanders (n=6), snakes (n=39), and toads (n=20). Salmonella was isolated from 37 individual animals, including frogs, lizards, snakes, and toads. Snakes were the most likely to contain Salmonella, with 59% testing positive followed by 15.3% of lizards, 5% of toads, and 1.2% of frogs. Fifteen water samples (12.6%) were positive. Twenty-two different serovars were identified, and the majority of isolates were S. enterica subsp. IIIb, with subsp. I, II, and IIIa also found. The serovar isolated most frequently was S. enterica subsp. IIIb 16:z₁₀:e,n,x,z₁₅, from snakes and frogs in five different locations. S. enterica subsp. I serovar Typhimurium and the monophasic I 6,8:d:- were isolated from water, and subspecies I Duisburg and its variants were found in animals and water. Some samples contained more than one type of Salmonella. Analysis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pulsotypes indicated that some strains persisted in animals and water collected from the same location. Sixty-six isolates displayed antibiotic resistance, with 27 isolates resistant to more than one antibiotic, including a subspecies IIIb isolate from snake having resistance to five different antibiotics. Twenty-three isolates were resistant to more than one class of antibiotic, and six isolates were resistant to three classes. While these subspecies of IIIa and IIIb cause fewer instances of human illness, they may serve as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance, determinants in the environment, and be sources of contamination of leafy greens associated with product recalls.

  19. Reconstructing Carotenoid-Based and Structural Coloration in Fossil Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E; Orr, Patrick J; Kearns, Stuart L; Alcalá, Luis; Anadón, Pere; Peñalver, Enrique

    2016-04-25

    Evidence of original coloration in fossils provides insights into the visual communication strategies used by ancient animals and the functional evolution of coloration over time [1-7]. Hitherto, all reconstructions of the colors of reptile integument and the plumage of fossil birds and feathered dinosaurs have been of melanin-based coloration [1-6]. Extant animals also use other mechanisms for producing color [8], but these have not been identified in fossils. Here we report the first examples of carotenoid-based coloration in the fossil record, and of structural coloration in fossil integument. The fossil skin, from a 10 million-year-old colubrid snake from the Late Miocene Libros Lagerstätte (Teruel, Spain) [9, 10], preserves dermal pigment cells (chromatophores)-xanthophores, iridophores, and melanophores-in calcium phosphate. Comparison with chromatophore abundance and position in extant reptiles [11-15] indicates that the fossil snake was pale-colored in ventral regions; dorsal and lateral regions were green with brown-black and yellow-green transverse blotches. Such coloration most likely functioned in substrate matching and intraspecific signaling. Skin replicated in authigenic minerals is not uncommon in exceptionally preserved fossils [16, 17], and dermal pigment cells generate coloration in numerous reptile, amphibian, and fish taxa today [18]. Our discovery thus represents a new means by which to reconstruct the original coloration of exceptionally preserved fossil vertebrates.

  20. La aplicación de datos faunísticos para el diseño de redes de reservas: el caso de los anfibios y reptiles de la Península Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobo, J. M.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Real-world reserve selection decisions are still performed without use of available reserve selection tools that maximise conservation benefit for a minimum cost. In this paper we investigate the consequences of using different reserve selection strategies (richness hotspots, rarity hotspots and maximum covering solutions to represent amphibian and reptiles species diversity in the Iberian Peninsula. We compare results with that observed in current reserve networks and that expected by chance. We found that current reserves conserve fewer amphibian and reptiles species than expected by chance and that great improvements could be achieved if maximum covering solutions were used to support reserve selection decisions. We recommend that conservation planners and other decision makers use available knowledge and technology for the selecting of important areas for biodiversity. Otherwise, there is a risk that limited resources are invested in such a way as to provide poor conservation return.

    A pesar de que disponemos de herramientas de selección de reservas que permiten maximizar la representación de las especies con un mínimo coste, las decisiones sobre la ubicación de nuestra red de espacios protegidos siguen realizándose todavía sin el concurso de estas técnicas. En este trabajo se estudian y comparan los resultados de estrategias distintas de selección de reservas (puntos de máxima riqueza, puntos de máxima rareza y solución de máxima cobertura, estimando su efectividad a la hora de representar la diversidad de anfibios y reptiles ibéricos. Los resultados obtenidos han sido comparados, tanto con una selección al azar, como con una selección que considera la ubicación actual de las reservas. Los espacios naturales protegidos no permiten representar la diversidad de anfibios y reptiles ibéricos mejor de lo que lo haría una selección de reservas al azar, mientras que la solución de máxima cobertura permite obtener

  1. BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION OF AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES IN LINNAN NATURE RESERVE,ANHUI PROVINCE%安徽岭南自然保护区两栖爬行动物多样性及保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐鑫生; 方德安; 黄晓根

    2001-01-01

    Research on amphibian and reptile was made in the Linan Nature Reserve from July 1998 to October 2000. There were 19 species of amphibian (belonging to 7 families,9 genera) and 32 species of reptile (belonging to 9 families,23 genera). They amounted to 48.6% of the total amphibian and reptile in Anhui Province. However,they only occupied 0.021% of the area of the province. 16 species of them have been listed in the "China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals". Faunal specification showed that 76% of the whole were Oriental Realm elements; 24 % were cosmopolitan species; and no Palaearctic Realm elements were found (not including one unidentified species). Unfortunately,these amphibians and reptiles were facing great danger due to illegal hunting. Thus,the authors suggested a research on the sustainable use of natural resources be carried out,together with making more efforts on its conservation and strict control of illegal hunting.%1998年7月至2000年10月,对岭南自然保护区进行了两栖爬行动物调查,发现有两栖动物19种(隶属7科9属),爬行动物32种(隶属9科23属),占安徽省两栖爬行动物种数的48.6%,而面积仅为全省的0.021%,被列入中国濒危动物红皮书的有16种之多。区系特点:东洋界成分占76%,东洋界古北界广布种占24%,无古北界成分(未定种一种不算在内)。非法捕捉已使这里的两栖爬行动物生存面临极大的威胁,建议在加大保护的宣传力度和严厉打击不法分子的同时,积极开展资源可持续利用的研究。

  2. Novel parvoviruses in reptiles and genome sequence of a lizard parvovirus shed light on Dependoparvovirus genus evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pénzes, Judit J; Pham, Hanh T; Benkö, Mária; Tijssen, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Here, we report the detection and partial genome characterization of two novel reptilian parvoviruses derived from a short-tailed pygmy chameleon (Rampholeon brevicaudatus) and a corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) along with the complete genome analysis of the first lizard parvovirus, obtained from four bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). Both homology searches and phylogenetic tree reconstructions demonstrated that all are members of the genus Dependoparvovirus. Even though most dependoparvoviruses replicate efficiently only in co-infections with large DNA viruses, no such agents could be detected in one of the bearded dragon samples, hence the possibility of autonomous replication was explored. The alternative ORF encoding the full assembly activating protein (AAP), typical for the genus, could be obtained from reptilian parvoviruses for the first time, with a structure that appears to be more ancient than that of avian and mammalian parvoviruses. All three viruses were found to harbour short introns as previously observed for snake adeno-associated virus, shorter than that of any non-reptilian dependoparvovirus. According to the phylogenetic calculations based on full non-structural protein (Rep) and AAP sequences, the monophyletic cluster of reptilian parvoviruses seems to be the most basal out of all lineages of genus Dependoparvovirus. The suspected ability for autonomous replication, results of phylogenetic tree reconstruction, intron lengths and the structure of the AAP suggested that a single Squamata origin instead of the earlier assumed diapsid (common avian-reptilian) origin is more likely for the genus Dependoparvovirus of the family Parvoviridae.

  3. Novel parvoviruses in reptiles and genome sequence of a lizard parvovirus shed light on Dependoparvovirus genus evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pénzes, Judit J; Pham, Hanh T; Benkö, Mária; Tijssen, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Here, we report the detection and partial genome characterization of two novel reptilian parvoviruses derived from a short-tailed pygmy chameleon (Rampholeon brevicaudatus) and a corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) along with the complete genome analysis of the first lizard parvovirus, obtained from four bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). Both homology searches and phylogenetic tree reconstructions demonstrated that all are members of the genus Dependoparvovirus. Even though most dependoparvoviruses replicate efficiently only in co-infections with large DNA viruses, no such agents could be detected in one of the bearded dragon samples, hence the possibility of autonomous replication was explored. The alternative ORF encoding the full assembly activating protein (AAP), typical for the genus, could be obtained from reptilian parvoviruses for the first time, with a structure that appears to be more ancient than that of avian and mammalian parvoviruses. All three viruses were found to harbour short introns as previously observed for snake adeno-associated virus, shorter than that of any non-reptilian dependoparvovirus. According to the phylogenetic calculations based on full non-structural protein (Rep) and AAP sequences, the monophyletic cluster of reptilian parvoviruses seems to be the most basal out of all lineages of genus Dependoparvovirus. The suspected ability for autonomous replication, results of phylogenetic tree reconstruction, intron lengths and the structure of the AAP suggested that a single Squamata origin instead of the earlier assumed diapsid (common avian-reptilian) origin is more likely for the genus Dependoparvovirus of the family Parvoviridae. PMID:26067293

  4. Latitudinal concordance between biogeographic regionalization, community structure, and richness patterns: a study on the reptiles of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Youhua; Srivastava, Diane S.

    2015-02-01

    Latitudinal patterns in species richness may be affected by both continuous variations in macroecological factors as well as discrete change between biogeographic regions. We examined whether latitudinal reptilian richness and community structure in China were best explained by three macroecological patterns (mid-domain effects, Rapoport's rule effects, or environmental correlates) within or across the ranges of biogeographic realms. The results showed that (1) there was a weak mid-domain effect within the Oriental Realm. However, the mid-domain effect was detected neither at the overall regional scale nor in the Palaearctic Realm. (2) Rapoport's rule was only weakly supported for reptilian fauna in China at lower latitudinal areas. (3) Environmental variables were more strongly correlated with species' latitudinal community structure and richness patterns at the scale of biogeographic realms. Based on the faunal similarity of reptilian community across latitudinal bands, we proposed a latitudinal delineation scheme at 34° N for dividing East Asia into Oriental and Palaearctic biogeographic realms. At last, at the functional group level, we also evaluated the relevant ecological patterns for lizard and snake species across different latitudinal bins, showing that the distributions of lizards presented strong mid-domain effects at the latitudinal ranges within the Oriental Realm and over the whole range but did not support Rapoport's rule. In comparison, snake species supported Rapoport's rule at low latitudinal zones but did not present any remarkable mid-domain effects at any spatial extents. In conclusion, biogeographic realms are an appropriate scale for studying macroecological patterns. Reptilian latitudinal richness patterns of China were explained by a combination of environmental factors and geometric constraints, while the latitudinal community structure patterns were greatly affected by environmental gradients. Functional guilds present differentiated

  5. American Samoa ESI: REPTILES (Reptile and Amphibian Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sea turtles in American Samoa. Vector polygons in this data set represent sea turtle nesting and...

  6. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: REPTILES (Reptile Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sea turtles in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  7. Columbia River ESI: REPTILES (Reptile and Amphibian Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for western pond turtles and western painted turtles in Columbia River. Vector polygons in this data set...

  8. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: REPTILES (Reptiles and Amphibians)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  9. Radiation exposure of the radiological staff caused by radiography of small mammals, reptiles and birds; Untersuchungen zur Strahlenexposition des radiologisch taetigen Personals bei der Radiographie von Heimtieren, Reptilien sowie Zier- und Wildvoegeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, Yvonne

    2015-05-27

    Radiography is often used as an advanced examination to ensure a diagnosis in avian, reptiles and small mammal's medicine. The aims of this thesis were: 1. To measure the radiation exposure of radiological staff caused by radiography of small mammals, reptiles and birds. The exposure of relevant body regions were measured during clinical routine. 2. To examine the differences of radiation exposures caused by radiography of different animal species and to determine the influence of dose-dependent parameters. 3. To present the radiation protection measures of the clinic and to discuss possible improvements. 4. To weigh the anaesthetic risk for small mammals, reptiles and birds against the radiation exposure of the radiological staff. The measurements took place during clinical routine of the Clinic for Exotic Pets, Reptiles, Pet and Feral Birds, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation. The radiation exposure of the radiological staff was measured. The radiological staff included veterinarians, veterinary-medical technical assistants, doctoral candidates and students during their practical year. Furthermore, the radiation exposure was measured at ten representative body regions using thermoluminescence dosimetry. The measuring positions included the eye-lenses, thyroid, thoracic region under the protective clothes, thoracic region above the protective clothes, gonads, fingers and the left foot. Except for one position that was measured under the protective clothes all positions measured above the protective clothes. Moreover at each examination the focus-film-distance, the kV-number, the mAs-product and the weight of the patient was recorded. Additionally the size of the examiner and the examiner's position regarding to the X-ray table were recorded as variable, dose-influencing parameters. Altogether, measurements were taken from 366 individual examiners. In all three divisions 792 X-ray images were made and 3660 dose values recorded. The

  10. Virginia ESI: REPTPT (Reptile Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sea turtles in Virginia. Vector points in this data set represent nesting sites. Species-specific...

  11. Histology of the Skin of Three Limbless Squamates Dwelling in Mesic and Arid Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ahmed A; Daza, Juan D; Abo-Eleneen, Rasha E

    2016-07-01

    The skin of limbless squamates has an increased contact with the substrate compared with limbed counterparts. Comparatively, the contact with the substrate is intensified in fossorial species, where the whole circumference of the body interacts with the soil during underground locomotion. Although fossoriality in Squamata, specifically lizards and snakes, has been studied ecologically and morphologically (e.g., osteological changes), not enough detail is yet available regarding changes in organs critical for underground lifestyle such as the skin. Here we used histological and microscopical techniques (scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy) to uncover the structural detail of the epidermis and dermis in three limbless reptiles, the amphisbaenian Diplometopon zarudnyi, and two snakes, Indotyphlops braminus (Typhlopidae) and Cerastes cerastes (Viperidae). The skin of these taxa shows pronounced morphological diversity, which is likely associated to different environmental and functional demands upon these reptiles. Anat Rec, 299:979-989, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27111253

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of the fecal microbial community in herbivorous land and marine iguanas of the Galápagos Islands using 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Pei-Ying; Wheeler, Emily; Cann, Isaac K. O.; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2011-01-01

    Herbivorous reptiles depend on complex gut microbial communities to effectively degrade dietary polysaccharides. The composition of these fermentative communities may vary based on dietary differences. To explore the role of diet in shaping gut microbial communities, we evaluated the fecal samples from two related host species—the algae-consuming marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) and land iguanas (LI) (genus Conolophus) that consume terrestrial vegetation. Marine and LI fecal samples we...

  13. Preliminary Investigation and Faunal Analysis of Amphibians and Reptiles in Catchment Areas of Lancang River from Simao Port to Jinghong Hydropower Dam%澜沧江流域景洪电站至思茅港水库蓄水区两栖爬行动物资源初步调查与区系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王巧燕; 杨正斌; 董永华; 张培松; 曹亚康

    2011-01-01

    为了解景洪电站蓄水区两栖爬行动物资源现状,于2010年3月、10月、11月和12月对澜沧江流域景洪电站大坝至思茅港海拔800m以下区域内的两栖爬行动物进行野外调查.结果表明,调查区域共有两栖爬行类51种,其中两栖类有22种,隶属于2目6科,爬行动物有29种,隶属于2目10科.对它们的物种组成、地理区系特征和保护等级进行了分析,并提出了保护建议.%From March to December 2010, an investigation has been conducted on the Amphibians an reptiles in areas around the Jinghong Hydropower Station Reservoir from Simao Port to Jinghong Dam a-long Lancang River below the elevation of 800m above sea level. The result shows that there are 51 species of amphibians and reptiles in the study area: 22 species of amphibians, referred to 6 families and 2 orders; 29 species of reptiles, referred to 10 families and 2 orders. The species composition, type of geographical distribution and protective grade of amphibians and reptiles in the nature reserve were studied. Countermeasures for protection of the wild amphibian and reptilian resources were prodosed.

  14. Faecal microbiota of domestic cats fed raw whole chicks v. an extruded chicken-based diet*

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, K. R.; Dowd, S. E.; Swanson, K. S.

    2014-01-01

    Extruded cat foods differ greatly in macronutrient distribution compared with wild-type diets (i.e. small mammals, reptiles, birds and insects). Based on the literature, this variability likely impacts faecal microbial populations. A completely randomised design was utilised to test the impacts of two dietary treatments on faecal microbial populations: (1) chicken-based extruded diet (EXT; n 3 cats) and (2) raw 1–3-d-old chicks (CHI; n 5 cats). Cats were adapted to diets for 10 d. Bacterial D...

  15. Herpetofauna of Núcleo Experimental de Iguaba Grande, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, A R; Bruno, S F; Navegantes, A Q

    2012-08-01

    The Atlantic Rain forest, which is considered the second largest pluvial forest in the American continent, has had an estimated 93% of its original area destroyed. Although studies concerning the herpetofaunal diversity in this biome have been intensified in the past years, its diversity is still underestimated. The Nucleo Experimental de Iguaba Grande (NEIG) is included in an Environmental Protection Area (APA de Sapeatiba) in the Iguaba Grande municipality, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil (22º 51' S and 42º 10' W). The goal of this study was to conduct an inventory of the reptile and amphibian species that occur in this area between July 2008 and December 2009. We recorded 19 species of amphibians (18 anurans and one caecilian) and 15 species of reptiles (three lizards, 11 snakes and one amphisbaenian). Leptodactylus latrans and L. mystacinus had the highest capture rates among amphibians captured, and among reptiles, Ameiva ameiva, Hemidactylus mabouia and Mabuya agilis had the highest capture rates. Rarefaction curves for both amphibians and reptiles did not reach the asymptote, indicating that the species richness in the NEIG is still underestimated. PMID:22990826

  16. Linking Eco-Energetics and Eco-Hydrology to Select Sites for the Assisted Colonization of Australia’s Rarest Reptile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Mitchell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Assisted colonization—the deliberate translocation of species from unsuitable to suitable regions—is a controversial management tool that aims to prevent the extinction of populations that are unable to migrate in response to climate change or to survive in situ. The identification of suitable translocation sites is therefore a pressing issue. Correlative species distribution models, which are based on occurrence data, are of limited use for site selection for species with historically restricted distributions. In contrast, mechanistic species distribution models hold considerable promise in selecting translocation sites. Here we integrate ecoenergetic and hydrological models to assess the longer-term suitability of the current habitat of one of the world’s rarest chelonians, the Critically Endangered Western Swamp Tortoise (Psuedemydura umbrina. Our coupled model allows us to understand the interaction between thermal and hydric constraints on the foraging window of tortoises, based on hydrological projections of its current habitat. The process can then be repeated across a range of future climates to identify regions that would fall within the tortoise’s thermodynamic niche. The predictions indicate that climate change will result in reduced hydroperiods for the tortoises. However, under some climate change scenarios, habitat suitability may remain stable or even improve due to increases in the heat budget. We discuss how our predictions can be integrated with energy budget models that can capture the consequences of these biophysical constraints on growth, reproduction and body condition.

  17. A new hypothesis of squamate evolutionary relationships from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Ted M.; Larson, Allan; Louis, Edward; Macey, J. Robert

    2004-05-19

    Squamate reptiles serve as model systems for evolutionary studies of a variety of morphological and behavioral traits, and phylogeny is crucial to many generalizations derived from such studies. Specifically, the traditional dichotomy between Iguania and Scleroglossa has been correlated with major evolutionary shifts within Squamata. We present a molecular phylogenetic study of squamates using DNA sequence data from the nuclear genes RAG-1 and c-mos and the mitochondrial ND2 region, sampling all major clades and most major subclades. Monophyly of Iguania, Anguimorpha, and almost all currently recognized squamate families is strongly supported. However, monophyly is rejected for Scleroglossa, Varanoidea, and several other higher taxa, and Iguania is highly nested within Squamata. Limblessness evolved independently in snakes, dibamids, and amphisbaenians, suggesting widespread morphological convergence or parallelism in limbless, burrowing forms. Amphisbaenians are the sister group of lacertids, and snakes are grouped with iguanians and anguimorphs. Dibamids diverged early in squamate evolutionary history. Xantusiidae is the sister taxon of Cordylidae. Studies of functional tongue morphology and feeding mode have found significant differences between Scleroglossa and Iguania, and our finding of a nonmonophyletic Scleroglossa and a highly nested Iguania suggest that similar states evolved separately in Sphenodon and Iguania, and that jaw prehension is the ancestral feeding mode in squamates.

  18. Base

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte; Johansson, Christer

    2004-01-01

    BASE - Engelsk basisgrammatik er resultatet af Lise-Lotte Hjulmands grundige bearbejdning og omfattende revidering af Christer Johanssons Engelska basgrammatik. Grammatikken adskiller sig fra det svenske forlæg på en lang række punkter. Den er bl.a. tilpasset til et dansk publikum og det danske...

  19. Herpetofauna of the Quaternary sand dunes of the Middle Rio São Francisco, Bahia, Brazil. VIII. Amphisbaena arda sp. nov., a fulliginosa-like checkered patterned Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphisbaena arda sp. nov. is described based on a specimen obtained at Mocambo do Vento, on the left bank of the São Francisco river, Bahia state, Brazil. A. arda is a medium size amphisbaenian with a checkered black and white color pattern similar to the one present in the fuliginosa group but differing from that by having a lighter pigmentation, an uniformly white ventral surface, and by several other important morphological characters. A. arda is similar to Amphisbaena vermicularis in meristic characters currently used to assist amphisbaenian identification but can be separated from it by its color pattern, its flatter cephalic shields, and by the more ventral position of the nostril.

  20. [Reptiles of the Sand Hills of Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is three proposals from the Miami University in Oxford, Ohio. These research studies each involve work at the Valentine National Wildlife Refuge and...

  1. Methodological limitations of counting total leukocytes and thrombocytes in reptiles (Amazon turtle, Podocnemis expansa: an analysis and discussion Limitações metodológicas de contagens de leucócitos e trombócitos totais em répteis (tartaruga da Amazônia, Podocnemis expansa: uma análise e discussão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare three different methods for counting white blood cells [WBC] (Natt and Herrick method, estimation with 1,000 and 2,000 erythrocytes and three methods for counting total thrombocytes [TT] (Wojtaszek method, estimation with 1,000 and 2,000 erythrocytes in a South American freshwater turtle species, Podocnemis expansa, Schweigger 1812 (Reptilia, Pelomedusidae. Direct WBC counts using the Natt and Herrick method showed limitations, which are discussed here. The WBC and TT counts using 1,000 erythrocytes from blood smears are not recommended for Amazon turtles nor other reptilian species, since wide variation in counts can be observed. Estimation methods for determining WBC and TT based on 2,000 erythrocytes of blood smears were most acceptable because they allow a differentiation between leukocytes and thrombocytes and also had a smaller variation. The methods investigated here for the Amazon turtle, which have been widely used in other reptile species, provided evidence that the most acceptable method is not that of using diluted stains and a hemocytometer.O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar três diferentes métodos para contar leucócitos totais [LT] (método de Natt & Herrick, de estimação em 1000 e 2000 eritrócitos e três métodos para contar trombócitos totais [TT] ( método de Wojtaszek, de estimação em 1000 e 2000 eritrócitos em uma espécie de tartaruga de água doce da América do Sul, Podocnemis expansa, Schweigger 1812 (Reptilia, Pelomedusidae. As contagens diretas de LT usando o método de Natt & Herrick mostraram limitações que são aqui discutidas. As contagens de LT e TT usando estimativa em 1000 eritrócitos na extensão sanguínea não são recomendadas para tartaruga-da-Amazônia nem para outras espécies de répteis, pois houve ampla variação nestas contagens. Os métodos para determinar LT e TT baseados em 2000 eritrócitos nas extensões sanguíneas foram mais aceitáveis porque

  2. 水电规划对四川宁南俱乐河流域两栖爬行动物的影响及对策%On Influence of Hydropower Planning on Amphibians and Reptiles in Ningnan County of Sichuan Jule River and its and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海涛

    2012-01-01

    A survey of amphibians and reptiles of Jule River in Ningnan County, Sichuaaa Province, owing to the recently State - approved hydropower planning, by using the line statistics and data on the basis of statistics and analy- sis, has been conducted. The results show, there exist 3 sections, 14 branches, and 26 species of amphibians and rep- tiles in this area, among which amphibians are 2 sections, 9 branches, and 14 species, and reptiles 1 section, 5branches, and 12 species, with the distribution of Indomalaya and its pattern of Himalaya - Hengduan Mountains. As to the eco - characteristics of amphibians, their distribution is balanced by classifying the eco - environments as run- ning water, still water, and lands including land - running water, land -still water) ; and forest land, shrubs, grasses and farmland for reptiles, and shrubs and grasses are the major. This paper forecasts the effects of hydropower planning to amphibians and reptiles in this area. outs forward relevant countermeasures.%四川宁南县俱乐河流域近期被国家批准进行水电规划,为此我们对该流域的两栖爬行动物作了专项调查。采用线路统计法,统计与分析采集的数据。结果表明,该流域共发现两栖爬行动物3目14科26种,其中两栖类动物有2目9科14种,爬行类动物1目5科12种;该流城内两栖爬行动物均为东洋界种类的分布,分布类型以喜马拉雅一横断山区型为主。根据流域两栖类栖息的生态特点,其生态环境划分为流水、静水、陆地(含陆地一流水、陆地一静水)等,分布的种类较为均衡;爬行类栖息的生态环境划分为林地、灌草丛、田地等,其中灌草丛生态类型是该流域爬行类主要的分布区域。该文预测分析了该流域水电规划对两栖爬行动物的影响,提出了相应的保护对策。

  3. U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands ESI: REPTILES (Reptiles and Amphibians)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  4. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: REPTILES (Reptile Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sea turtles, estuarine turtles, and gopher tortoise in Mississippi. Vector polygons in this data set...

  5. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: New Hampshire: REPTILES (Reptile Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for estuarine turtles in New Hampshire. Vector polygons in this data set represent turtle distribution....

  6. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: REPTILES (Reptile Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sea turtles, crocodiles, mangrove terrapins, and other rare species in [for] South Florida. Vector...

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northern California: REPTILES (Reptile and Amphibian Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sea turtles and estuarine frogs and turtles in Northern California. Vector polygons in this data set...

  8. Golfo de Fonseca ESI; Honduras and Nicaragua: REPTILES (Reptiles and Amphibians)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Golfo de Fonseca. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  9. Trends in evolution of 5S rRNA of deuterostomes: bases and homogeneous clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Rodrigues Subacius

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of metazoan 5S rRNA sequences was analyzed through base composition and types, location and frequency of clustered bases. Characters from sequences of protostomes did not show regular trends as compared with paleontology dating or organism complexity. Trends of increasing G and C, stronger in G clusters, and decreasing A and U, were detected in deuterostomes, in parallel with evolution of complexity. The multifunctional domain 71-104 was highlighted among conserved stretches. Clusters of C were typical of helices. Those of G were longer, extending from helices into loops or related to bulges, which is suggestive of functional significance. Deuterostomian trends were installed early in the lineage and reached full development in aquatic organisms, not increasing further after reptiles. It can be suggested that ribosomal RNA structures participated in deuterostomian high regulatory complexity, either specifically or as part of the widespread processes of chromosomal regionalization.

  10. Developmental genetic bases behind the independent origin of the tympanic membrane in mammals and diapsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Taro; Takechi, Masaki; Hirasawa, Tatsuya; Adachi, Noritaka; Narboux-Nême, Nicolas; Kume, Hideaki; Maeda, Kazuhiro; Hirai, Tamami; Miyagawa-Tomita, Sachiko; Kurihara, Yukiko; Hitomi, Jiro; Levi, Giovanni; Kuratani, Shigeru; Kurihara, Hiroki

    2015-04-22

    The amniote middle ear is a classical example of the evolutionary novelty. Although paleontological evidence supports the view that mammals and diapsids (modern reptiles and birds) independently acquired the middle ear after divergence from their common ancestor, the developmental bases of these transformations remain unknown. Here we show that lower-to-upper jaw transformation induced by inactivation of the Endothelin1-Dlx5/6 cascade involving Goosecoid results in loss of the tympanic membrane in mouse, but causes duplication of the tympanic membrane in chicken. Detailed anatomical analysis indicates that the relative positions of the primary jaw joint and first pharyngeal pouch led to the coupling of tympanic membrane formation with the lower jaw in mammals, but with the upper jaw in diapsids. We propose that differences in connection and release by various pharyngeal skeletal elements resulted in structural diversity, leading to the acquisition of the tympanic membrane in two distinct manners during amniote evolution.

  11. Some comments upon acid-base balance in teleost fishes and its relationship to environmental temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houston, A.H.

    1971-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that acid-base regulation in mammalian species is directed toward stabilization of body fluid pH, whereas among the poikilotherms control centers upon the maintenance of relative alkalinity. Consequently, given the known relationship between temperature and the dissociation constant of water reductions in mammalian body temperature should be accompanied by decreases in the OH/sup -//H/sup +/ ratio while, under similar circumstances, the pH of the poikilothermic tetrapods, extension of the concept of relative alkalinity regulation to teleost fishes is not wholly consistent with the data presently available. Recorded blood and plasma pH values for teleost fishes are generally below those reported for amphibians and reptiles, tending to fall within or below the levels observed in mammals under comparable thermal conditions. Moreover, they seemingly display little tendency to vary in an inverse fashion wth temperature.

  12. Chov a rozmnožování plazů chráněných úmluvou CITES na území České republiky

    OpenAIRE

    TRINHOVÁ, Leona

    2013-01-01

    Czech Republic considerably participated on European terraristic history with breeding of many reptiles and amphibians.This thesis covers breeding of reptiles protected on Czech Republic territory by CITES agreement. Based on mapping performed by zoological gardens, other specialized facilities and private breeders, percentage graphs were created for both reptiles not bred in Czech Republic, those bred by terrarists so far without successful reproduction and also for reptiles successfully rep...

  13. Prevalence of salmonella in captive reptiles from Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-01-01

    arizonae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica diarizonae 15.4%, and Salmonella enterica salamae 3.8%. The 14 different serovars isolated included several rarely occurring serovars such as Salmonella Apapa, Salmonella Halle, Salmonella Kisarawe, and Salmonella Potengi. These findings confirm that the prevalence...

  14. Prevalence of Salmonella serovars from captive reptiles from Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-01-01

    arizonae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica diarizonae 15.4%, and Salmonella enterica salamae 3.8%. The 14 different serovars isolated included several rarely occurring serovars such as Salmonella Apapa, Salmonella Halle, Salmonella Kisarawe, and Salmonella Potengi. These findings confirm that the prevalence...

  15. Biological risks associated with consumption of reptile products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnino, S.; Colin, P.; Dei-Cas, E.;

    2009-01-01

    as intoxications by biotoxins. For crocodiles, Salmonella spp. constitute a significant public health risk due to the high intestinal carrier rate which is reflected in an equally high contamination rate in their fresh and frozen meat. There is a lack of information about the presence of Salmonella spp. in meat...... and Trichinella in crocodile meat, while the effectiveness of freezing of other reptilian meat is unknown. Biotoxins that accumulate in the flesh of sea turtles may cause chelonitoxism, a type of food poisoning with a high mortality rate in humans. Infections by fungi. including yeasts, and viruses widely occur...

  16. The fractal structure of the ventral scales in legless reptiles

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Aal, Hisham A

    2015-01-01

    Surface constructs in snakes reflect desirable design traits for technical surface engineering. Their micro-textural patterns, however, do not lend themselves easily to unified analysis due to species-specific variations in surface geometry and topology. Fractal description is useful in this context since it accentuates the correspondence between patterns especially when responding to tribological phenomena. In this work we examine the surface construction of 14 snake species, representing five families, and evaluate the fractal dimension for each of the skins (both the dorsal and ventral sides) using three different computational algorithms. Our results indicate first that all of the examined species share a common fractal dimension (with a very small variation between species in the order 4-5%). This finding implies that despite the different micro-geometry of texture among species, the skin as a unit responds in a similar manner to many interfacial influences.

  17. 50 CFR 17.42 - Special rules-reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the species Alligator mississippiensis, whether alive or dead, including any skin, part, product, egg... normal course of business, reproducible in the English language, and retained for 5 years from the date... 50 CFR 227.72(e). (vi) The prohibition against taking within the United States or the territorial...

  18. New records of reptiles and amphibians from Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.T. Wangyal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen new species of anurans that include six dicroglossids (Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis, Fejervarya pierrei, F. teraiensis and F. nepalensis, from Samdrup Jongkhar, Nanorana conaensis and N. pleskei from Haa, three megophryids (Xenophrys major and X. glandulosa from Trashiyangtse, and X. minor from Mongar and four ranids (Amolops mantzorum from Trashiyangtse, Hylarana taipehensis and Sylvirana leptoglossa from Samdrup Jongkhar and S. cf. guentheri from Mongar and one testudine a geoemydid (Melanochelys trijuga from Sarpang, one sauria an anguid (Ophisaurus gracilis from Zhemgang and two colubrids (Amphiesma platyceps and Dinodon gammiei both from Paro are reported for the first time from Bhutan. Discussions have been restricted to their presence and the distribution in and outside Bhutan. As such, this paper provides the geographic locations, morphometric measurements (in some cases, time when they were seen in their habitat and information on who have collected the data of the species reported. The quality of the data is highly variable being collected opportunistically by various individuals from various places over the last six years.

  19. The Origin, Early History and Diversification of Lepidosauromorph Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Susan E.; Jones, Marc E. H.

    The reptilian group Lepidosauria diversified through the Mesozoic, survived the end-Cretaceous extinction relatively unscathed, and has more than 7,000 living species. Although originally constituted as a "waste-bin" for non-archosaurian diapsids, modern definitions limit Lepidosauria to its two constituent groups, Rhynchocephalia and Squamata, and their most recent common ancestor. To date, the earliest known lepidosaurs are from the Late Triassic (Carnian) of Europe and India, but their derived morphology provides indirect evidence of a longer, unrecorded, history. Rhynchocephalians and squamates probably diverged in the Early-Middle Triassic, and new material from the Early Triassic of Poland sheds some light on their common ancestor. The roots of Lepidosauria may extend into the Palaeozoic, but there are critical gaps in the fossil record.

  20. Invasive reptiles and amphibians: global perspectives and local solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R.N.; Kraus, F.

    2010-01-01

    In the annals of invasive species biology, higher taxa such asmammals, plants and insects have received the lion’s shareof research attention, largely because many of these invadershave demonstrated a remarkable ability to degrade ecosys-tems and cause economic harm. Interest in invasive reptilesand amphibians (collectively ‘herpetofauna’, colloquially‘herps’) has historically lagged but is now garnering in-creased scrutiny as a result of their escalating pace ofinvasion. A few herpetofaunal invaders have received con-siderable attention in scientific and popular accounts, in-cluding the brown treesnakeBoiga irregularison Guam,Burmese pythonPython molurusin Florida, Coqu´ıEleutherodactylus coquiin Hawaii and cane toadBufomarinusin Australia. However, relatively few are aware ofmany emerging and potentially injurious herpetofaunalinvaders, such as Nile monitorsVaranus niloticusin Flor-ida, common kingsnakesLampropeltis getulain the CanaryIslands, boa constrictorsBoa constrictoron Aruba andCozumel, or a variety of giant constrictor snakes in PuertoRico. For the vast majority of the most commonlyintroduced species, real or potential impacts to nativeecosystems or human economic interests are poorly under-stood and incompletely explored; major pathways of intro-duction have only recently been elucidated, and effectivemanagement interventions have been limited (Kraus, 2009).

  1. Monitoring cryptic amphibians and reptiles in a Florida state park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeman, Richard M; Meshaka, Walter E; Severson, Robert; Severson, Mary Ann; Kaufman, Greg; Groninger, N Paige; Smith, Henry T

    2016-04-01

    We monitored cryptic herpetofauna at Savannas Preserve State Park, Florida, by combining artificial cover counts with a quantitative paradigm for constructing and calculating population indices. Weekly indices were calculated from two consecutive days of data collection each week for 7 months from mid-winter to mid-summer in three habitats. Seventeen species were observed at least once, and time trends using index values were followed for six species. Among these, abundance and seasonal pattern information were obtained for an exotic species (greenhouse frog) and a species identified by the Florida Committee on Rare and Endangered Plants and Animals as threatened (Florida scrub lizard). We identified winter as the optimal time in this area to monitor populations for conducting annual assessments. This combined observation and indexing approach could provide managers or researchers with an economical means to quantitatively index population trends for multiple cryptic herpetofauna species simultaneously. Using artificial cover to sample within a population indexing design can be generalized beyond monitoring herpetofauna. Other forms of artificial cover that can be used as observation stations include aquatic artificial substrates, artificial tree cavities, artificial reefs, and other artificial aquatic structures and artificial sea grass units, among many others, and a wide range of taxa are suitable for population monitoring using artificial cover as observation stations in the approach we present, including insects, soil invertebrates, micro and macro aquatic invertebrates, fish, crustaceans, and small mammals.

  2. Emerging contaminants and their potential effects on amphibians and reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serious threats to the health and sustainability of global amphibian populations have been well documented over the last few decades. Encroachment upon and destruction of primary habitat is the most critical threat, but some species have disappeared while their habitat remains. Additional stressor...

  3. Using Amphibians and Reptiles to Learn the Process of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Janice Schnake; Greene, Brian D.

    2005-01-01

    Although every student must take some science courses to graduate, understanding the process of science is important, and some students never seem to really grasp science. The National Science Education Standards stress process as a major component in science instruction. The standards state that scientific inquiry is basic to science education…

  4. Checklist of marine tetrapods (reptiles, seabirds, and mammals) of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Güçlüsoy, Harun; KARAUZ, Emine Sühendan; KIRAÇ, Cem Orkun; BİLECENOĞLU, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of a total of 61 marine tetrapod species is presented in this paper, including 3 sea turtles, 43 sea birds, and 15 marine mammals. Distribution of each reported species along the Black Sea, Sea of Marmara, Aegean, and Levantine coasts of Turkey is mentioned, associated with key references.

  5. Monitoring cryptic amphibians and reptiles in a Florida state park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeman, Richard M; Meshaka, Walter E; Severson, Robert; Severson, Mary Ann; Kaufman, Greg; Groninger, N Paige; Smith, Henry T

    2016-04-01

    We monitored cryptic herpetofauna at Savannas Preserve State Park, Florida, by combining artificial cover counts with a quantitative paradigm for constructing and calculating population indices. Weekly indices were calculated from two consecutive days of data collection each week for 7 months from mid-winter to mid-summer in three habitats. Seventeen species were observed at least once, and time trends using index values were followed for six species. Among these, abundance and seasonal pattern information were obtained for an exotic species (greenhouse frog) and a species identified by the Florida Committee on Rare and Endangered Plants and Animals as threatened (Florida scrub lizard). We identified winter as the optimal time in this area to monitor populations for conducting annual assessments. This combined observation and indexing approach could provide managers or researchers with an economical means to quantitatively index population trends for multiple cryptic herpetofauna species simultaneously. Using artificial cover to sample within a population indexing design can be generalized beyond monitoring herpetofauna. Other forms of artificial cover that can be used as observation stations include aquatic artificial substrates, artificial tree cavities, artificial reefs, and other artificial aquatic structures and artificial sea grass units, among many others, and a wide range of taxa are suitable for population monitoring using artificial cover as observation stations in the approach we present, including insects, soil invertebrates, micro and macro aquatic invertebrates, fish, crustaceans, and small mammals. PMID:26739988

  6. Hormonal control of metabolic substrate use by birds and reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The differential use of metabolic substrates by birds is not well understood. Therefore, to clarify which substrates are preferentially utilized, studies were conducted on birds with divergent dietary habits and on a close non-avian relative of birds, alligators. Fasting plasma substrate and hormone...

  7. Faecal microbiota of domestic cats fed raw whole chicks v. an extruded chicken-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, K R; Dowd, S E; Swanson, K S

    2014-01-01

    Extruded cat foods differ greatly in macronutrient distribution compared with wild-type diets (i.e. small mammals, reptiles, birds and insects). Based on the literature, this variability likely impacts faecal microbial populations. A completely randomised design was utilised to test the impacts of two dietary treatments on faecal microbial populations: (1) chicken-based extruded diet (EXT; n 3 cats) and (2) raw 1-3-d-old chicks (CHI; n 5 cats). Cats were adapted to diets for 10 d. Bacterial DNA was isolated from faecal samples and amplicons of the 16S rRNA V4-V6 region were generated and analysed by 454 pyrosequencing. Faeces of cats fed CHI had greater (P samples (two to three out of three) from cats fed EXT, but were not detected in the samples (zero of five) for cats fed CHI. These shifts in faecal bacterial populations compared with feeding a whole-prey diet may impact the functional capacities of the microbiota and its interaction with the host. Further research is warranted to determine the impacts of these shifts on long-term health of domestic cats. PMID:26101591

  8. 应用GIS制作Coringa红树林物种分布图%Application of GIS in the Preparation of Species Distributional Maps for Coringa Mangroves Based on Ground Truth Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Satyanarayana; A.V.Raman; 张秀英; 冯学智; F.Dehairs

    2004-01-01

    Coringa野生保护区是印度东海岸第二大红树林保护区.采用PCQM(Point Centered Quarter Meth-od)方法获取了该区红树林树木底面积数据Arcinfo 8.1制作物种密度分布图,结果显示,该区红树林植物有15种,分属8个科10个属,动物则包括7个门(Arthropda,Mollusca,Pisces,Amphibia,Reptiles,Aves andMammals).在15种红树林植物中,Avicennia marina,A.officinalis和Excoecaria agallocha是保护区中分布最广泛的种类,他们的分布密度随盐度的变化而变化,Rhizophora apiculata和R.mucronata则被限制在该区沿海边缘地带.%Coringa wildlife sanctuary is the second largest mangrove formation on the east coast of India with its rich floral and faunal biodiversity.The total number of floral species is composed of 15(8 families and 10 genera)conile fauna represented by 7 diverse groups such as Arthropoda,Mollusca,Pisces,Amphibia,Reptiles,Aves and Mammals.Out of 15 mangrove plant species,Avicennia marina ,A.o fficinalis and Excoecaria agallocha are the most widely distributed species within the sanctuary representing their wide tolerance capacity towards varying salinity ranges.Rhizophora apiculata and R.mucronata are mostly confined to the seaward fringes in this region.During present study,an attempt was made to prepare the species level distributional maps for the above said plant communities with the help of Arc Map 8.1 based on basal area(m2 per 0.1 hm2)estimations derived from PCQM(Point Cen-tered Quarter Method).

  9. The biological mechanisms and behavioral functions of opsin-based light detection by the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Kelley

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Light detection not only forms the basis of vision (via visual retinal photoreceptors, but can also occur in other parts of the body, including many non-rod/non-cone ocular cells, the pineal complex, the deep brain, and the skin. Indeed, many of the photopigments (an opsin linked to a light-sensitive 11-cis retinal chromophore that mediate color vision in the eyes of vertebrates are also present in the skin of animals such as reptiles, amphibians, crustaceans and fishes (with related photoreceptive molecules present in cephalopods, providing a localized mechanism for light detection across the surface of the body. This form of non-visual photosensitivity may be particularly important for animals that can change their coloration by altering the dispersion of pigments within the chromatophores (pigment containing cells of the skin. Thus, skin coloration may be directly color matched or tuned to both the luminance and spectral properties of the local background environment, thereby facilitating behavioral functions such as camouflage, thermoregulation, and social signaling. This review examines the diversity and sensitivity of opsin-based photopigments present in the skin and considers their putative functional roles in mediating animal behavior. Furthermore, it discusses the potential underlying biochemical and molecular pathways that link shifts in environmental light to both photopigment expression and chromatophore photoresponses. Although photoreception that occurs independently of image formation remains poorly understood, this review highlights the important role of non-visual light detection in facilitating the multiple functions of animal coloration.

  10. Visual and response-based navigation in the tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Anna; Coward, Sacha; Hall, Geoffrey

    2009-11-01

    Much research has investigated spatial cognition in mammals and birds. Evidence suggests that the hippocampus plays a critical role in this; however, reptiles do not possess a hippocampus. It has been proposed that the reptilian medial cortex plays a similar role, yet little behavioral research has directly investigated this. Consequently, this study examined the role of extramaze cues in spatial navigation by the red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria) using an eight-arm radial maze. In Experiment 1 the maze was surrounded by a black curtain on which geometrical shapes were attached. After the tortoise reached above-chance performance we introduced test sessions in which the cues were removed. Performance was unaffected by cue removal. The tortoise appeared to have developed a "turn-by-one-arm" strategy. In a second experiment the curtain was removed and the tortoise was allowed access to a rich-cue environment. The use of the turn-by-one-arm strategy was significantly reduced and the tortoise appeared to be using the extramaze cues to navigate around the apparatus. This type of response-based strategy, and the specific contexts in which it was used, has not been observed in mammals and birds, suggesting that the mechanisms served by the reptilian medial cortex do not parallel exactly those of the hippocampus. PMID:19466467

  11. Acid-base balance in the developing marsupial: from ectotherm to endotherm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrewartha, Sarah J; Cummings, Kevin J; Frappell, Peter B

    2014-05-01

    Marsupial joeys are born ectothermic and develop endothermy within their mother's thermally stable pouch. We hypothesized that Tammar wallaby joeys would switch from α-stat to pH-stat regulation during the transition from ectothermy to endothermy. To address this, we compared ventilation (Ve), metabolic rate (Vo2), and variables relevant to blood gas and acid-base regulation and oxygen transport including the ventilatory requirements (Ve/Vo2 and Ve/Vco2), partial pressures of oxygen (PaO2), carbon dioxide (PaCO2), pHa, and oxygen content (CaO2) during progressive hypothermia in ecto- and endothermic Tammar wallabies. We also measured the same variables in the well-studied endotherm, the Sprague-Dawley rat. Hypothermia was induced in unrestrained, unanesthetized joeys and rats by progressively dropping the ambient temperature (Ta). Rats were additionally exposed to helox (80% helium, 20% oxygen) to facilitate heat loss. Respiratory, metabolic, and blood-gas variables were measured over a large body temperature (Tb) range (∼15-16°C in both species). Ectothermic joeys displayed limited thermogenic ability during cooling: after an initial plateau, Vo2 decreased with the progressive drop in Tb. The Tb of endothermic joeys and rats fell despite Vo2 nearly doubling with the initiation of cold stress. In all three groups the changes in Vo2 were met by changes in Ve, resulting in constant Ve/Vo2 and Ve/Vco2, blood gases, and pHa. Thus, although thermogenic capability was nearly absent in ectothermic joeys, blood acid-base regulation was similar to endothermic joeys and rats. This suggests that unlike some reptiles, unanesthetized mammals protect arterial blood pH with changing Tb, irrespective of their thermogenic ability and/or stage of development. PMID:24627357

  12. Trichinella in wildlife and pork production : evaluation of risk-based monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, F.F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Nematodes of the genus Trichinella are parasites of mammals, birds and reptiles. Twelve taxa are recognised in this genus. Humans may develop trichinellosis through consumption of undercooked meat from Trichinella-infected wildlife and domestic animals. The severity of the disease depends on the dos

  13. LESSONS FROM A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF A 5-YR PERIOD OF PRESHIPMENT TESTING AT SAN DIEGO ZOO: A RISK-BASED APPROACH TO PRESHIPMENT TESTING MAY BENEFIT ANIMAL WELFARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkovich, Matt; Wallace, Chelsea; Morris, Pat J; Rideout, Bruce; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2016-03-01

    The preshipment examination, with associated transmissible disease testing, has become standard practice in the movement of animals between zoos. An alternative disease risk-based approach, based on a comprehensive surveillance program including necropsy and preventive medicine examination testing and data, has been in practice since 2006 between the San Diego Zoo and San Diego Zoo Safari Park. A retrospective analysis, evaluating comprehensive necropsy data and preshipment testing over a 5-yr study period, was performed to determine the viability of this model for use with sending animals to other institutions. Animals (607 birds, 704 reptiles and amphibians, and 341 mammals) were shipped to 116 Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA)-accredited and 29 non-AZA-accredited institutions. The evaluation showed no evidence of the specific transmissible diseases tested for during the preshipment exam being present within the San Diego Zoo collection. We suggest that a risk-based animal and institution-specific approach to transmissible disease preshipment testing is more cost effective and is in the better interest of animal welfare than the current industry standard of dogmatic preshipment testing.

  14. LESSONS FROM A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF A 5-YR PERIOD OF PRESHIPMENT TESTING AT SAN DIEGO ZOO: A RISK-BASED APPROACH TO PRESHIPMENT TESTING MAY BENEFIT ANIMAL WELFARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkovich, Matt; Wallace, Chelsea; Morris, Pat J; Rideout, Bruce; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2016-03-01

    The preshipment examination, with associated transmissible disease testing, has become standard practice in the movement of animals between zoos. An alternative disease risk-based approach, based on a comprehensive surveillance program including necropsy and preventive medicine examination testing and data, has been in practice since 2006 between the San Diego Zoo and San Diego Zoo Safari Park. A retrospective analysis, evaluating comprehensive necropsy data and preshipment testing over a 5-yr study period, was performed to determine the viability of this model for use with sending animals to other institutions. Animals (607 birds, 704 reptiles and amphibians, and 341 mammals) were shipped to 116 Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA)-accredited and 29 non-AZA-accredited institutions. The evaluation showed no evidence of the specific transmissible diseases tested for during the preshipment exam being present within the San Diego Zoo collection. We suggest that a risk-based animal and institution-specific approach to transmissible disease preshipment testing is more cost effective and is in the better interest of animal welfare than the current industry standard of dogmatic preshipment testing. PMID:27010291

  15. Touch BASE

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In a recent Nature article (see here), the BASE collaboration reported the most precise comparison of the charge-to-mass ratio of the proton to its antimatter equivalent, the antiproton. This result is just the beginning and many more challenges lie ahead.   CERN's AD Hall, where the BASE experiment is set-up. The Baryon Antibaryon Symmetry Experiment (BASE) was approved in June 2013 and was ready to take data in August 2014. During these 14 months, the BASE collaboration worked hard to set up its four cryogenic Penning traps, which are the heart of the whole experiment. As their name indicates, these magnetic devices are used to trap antiparticles – antiprotons coming from the Antiproton Decelerator – and particles of matter – negative hydrogen ions produced in the system by interaction with a degrader that slows the antiprotons down, allowing scientists to perform their measurements. “We had very little time to set up the wh...

  16. Modeling population response to anthropogenic threats for a long-lived reptile, the desert tortoise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods The decline in desert tortoise population densities and abundances since the 1970s has been attributed to numerous threats, leading scientists, land managers, and conservationists to describe the plight of the species as a “death by a thousand cuts.” ...

  17. Occurrence of an invertebrate iridescent-like virus (Iridoviridae) in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, F; Essbauer, S; Ahne, W; Blahak, S

    2001-11-01

    Viral isolates were obtained in 1998, 1999 and 2000 from the lung, liver and intestine of two bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) and a chameleon (Chamaeleo quadricornis) and from the skin of a frill-necked lizard (Chamydosaurus kingii) by using viper heart cells (VH2) at 28 degrees C. Electron microscopic examination of infected VH2 cells revealed the assembly of icosahedral iridovirus-like particles measuring 139 nm (side to side) and 151 nm (apex to apex). Negatively stained virus particles had dimensions of 149 nm (side to side) and 170 nm (apex to apex). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of purified viral DNA with primers corresponding to the partial gene encoding the major capsid protein (MCP) of Frog viris-3 (FV-3), the type species of the genus Ranavirus, was unsuccessful. In contrast, primers corresponding to the partial MCP gene of Chilo iridescent virus (CIV; genus Iridovirus) amplified 500-bp products with 97% identity to the nucleotide sequence of CIV and 100% identity to the nucleotide sequence of Gryllus bimaculatus iridescent virus (GbIV), an invertebrate iridescent virus. Virus protein profiles analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and restriction fragment length profiles of purified viral DNA treated with the endonucleases EcoRI, HindIII and HpaII were identical to those of GbIV.

  18. Liposomes from mammalian liver mitochondria are more polyunsaturated and leakier to protons than those from reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, M D; Couture, P; Hulbert, A J

    1994-06-01

    Liposomes were prepared from phospholipids extracted from liver mitochondria of the rat (Rattus norvegicus) and an agamid lizard, the bearded dragon (Amphibolurus vitticeps) and liposome proton conductance was measured at an imposed membrane potential of 160 mV as well as the fatty acid composition of the liposomes. Despite presumed changes in fatty acid composition during liposome preparation, the mammalian liposomes had a significantly lower content of the monounsaturated oleic acid and a significantly greater content of the omega-3 polyunsaturated docosahexaenoic acid. There were significant direct correlations between the liposome arachidonic and docosahexanoic acid content and bilayer proton flux and a significant inverse correlation between liposome oleic acid content and bilayer proton flux. "Apparent valinomycin-catalysed proton flux" was significantly directly correlated with liposome docosahexaenoic acid content and inversely correlated with oleic acid content. It is suggested that the high content of long-chain polyunsaturates in the mammalian mitochondrial membrane is responsible for an increased proton leak across the mitochondrial inner membrane and thus partly responsible for the high metabolic rate in endothermic mammals compared to their ectothermic reptilian predecessors. PMID:8055185

  19. Evolutionary conservation ofDmrt gene family in amphibi-ans, reptiles and birds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Sex determining gene Mab-3 of C. elegans and doublesex of Drosophila contain a common DNA binding motif called a DM domain, both of which regulate similar aspects of sexual development. Human doublesex-related gene DMRT1 has been identified, which also contains the conserved DM-related DNA-binding domain and plays an essential role in gonadal differentiation. We present the amplification of a broad spectrum of DM domain sequences from phylogenetic diverse vertebrates (Cynops orientalis, Chrysemys scripta elegans and Coturnix coturnix) using degenerate PCR. Our results further reveal the unexpected complexity and the evolutionary conservation of the DM domain gene family.

  20. The Seasonal Acclimatisation of Locomotion in a Terrestrial Reptile, Plestiodon chinensis (Scincidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baojun Sun; Wenqi Tang; Zhigao Zeng; Weiguo Du

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the seasonal acclimatisation of behavioural and physiological processes usually focus on aquatic or semi-aquatic ectotherms and focus less effort on terrestrial ectotherms that experience more thermally heterogeneous environments. We conducted comparative studies and thermal acclimation experiments on the locomotion of the Chinese skink (Plestiodon chinensis) to test whether seasonal acclimatisation in locomotion exists in these terrestrial ectothermic vertebrates, and whether seasonal acclimatisation is predominantly induced by thermal environments. In natural populations, skinks ran faster during the summer season than during the spring season at high-test temperatures ranging from 27°C to 36°C but not at low-test temperatures ranging from 18°C to 24°C. In contrast, the thermal acclimation experiments showed that the cold-acclimated skinks ran faster than the warm-acclimated skinks at the low-test temperatures but not at high-test temperatures. Therefore, the seasonal acclimatisation occurs to P. chinensis, and may be induced by temperature as well as other factors like food availability, as indicated by the seasonal variation in the thermal dependence of locomotion, and the discrepancy between seasonal acclimatisation and thermal acclimation on locomotion.

  1. Habitat alteration increases invasive fire ant abundance to the detriment of amphibians and reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, B.D.; Rothermel, B.B.; Reed, R.N.; Luhring, T.M.; Schlatter, K.; Trenkamp, L.; Gibbons, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Altered habitats have been suggested to facilitate red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) colonization and dispersal, possibly compounding effects of habitat alteration on native wildlife. In this study, we compared colonization intensity of wood cover boards by S. invicta among four forest management treatments in South Carolina, USA: an unharvested control (>30 years old); a partially thinned stand; a clearcut with coarse woody debris retained; and a clearcut with coarse woody debris removed. Additionally, we compared dehydration rates and survival of recently metamorphosed salamanders (marbled salamanders, Ambystoma opacum, and mole salamanders, A. talpoideum) among treatments. We found that the number of wood cover boards colonized by S. invicta differed significantly among treatments, being lowest in the unharvested forest treatments and increasing with the degree of habitat alteration. Salamanders that were maintained in experimental field enclosures to study water loss were unexpectedly subjected to high levels of S. invicta predation that differed among forest treatments. All known predation by S. invicta was restricted to salamanders in clearcuts. The amount of vegetative ground cover was inversely related to the likelihood of S. invicta predation of salamanders. Our results show that S. invicta abundance increases with habitat disturbance and that this increased abundance has negative consequences for amphibians that remain in altered habitats. Our findings also suggest that the presence of invasive S. invicta may compromise the utility of cover boards and other techniques commonly used in herpetological studies in the Southeast. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  2. Progress report on amphibians, reptiles and mammals at the Los Medanos site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseline amphibian, reptilian and mammalian studies have been conducted by Dr. A.L. Gennaro of Eastern New Mexico University at the Los Medanos site since August 1975. These studies include habitat preferences of amphibians; weekly captures of lizards for stomach content analysis; densities of lizards on a 1 ha study grid; collections of lagomorphs (rabbits and hares) and small mammals from 1/4 section areas for reproduction and feeding ecology studies; densities of rodents on a 90 m by 90 m grid; movements and home range studies of rodents on a 20 ha grid; and densities of lagomorphs. Monthly samples of lagomorphs and rodents were collected during a six-month period in 1979-1980 for reproduction and feeding ecology studies. Additionally, terrestrial vertebrate species were noted at the site during a 12-month period and their numbers and habitats recorded. A total of 3104 mammalian specimens and several plant specimens was obtained during the course of these studies. The entire specimen collection was curated and systematically organized by Eastern New Mexico University's Natural History Museum

  3. Pamelaria dolichotrachela, a new prolacertid reptile from the Middle Triassic of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Kasturi

    2003-03-01

    A new genus and species Pamelaria dolichotrachela, belonging to the family Prolacertidae is reported for the first time from the Middle Triassic of India. The material consisting of associated skeletons and isolated bones has been excavated from the red mudstone of Yerrapalli Formation of Pranhita-Godavari Basin, South India. The nature of disposition of bones strongly suggests a catastrophic death and quick burial. The reconstructed skeleton of P. dolichotrachela strongly suggests that it was a quadrupedal sprawler. A detailed description of the new taxon and its comparison with other better known prolacertids of the world reveals a very close resemblance with Prolacerta broomi [Ann. Mag. Nat. History 16 (1935) 197], the type genus and species of the family. A number of characters like a relatively large skeleton; confluent nostril, lower jaw with a prominent coronoid and accessory neural spines in the posteriorcaudals with a sudden shift of neural spine position establish its distinctiveness.

  4. List of Reptiles and Amphibians brought from British India by Mr. Francis Day

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubrecht, A.A.W.

    1882-01-01

    In addition to the extensive collection of fishes which Mr. F. Day has brought home from India and which has furnished the material for his important and well-known standard works on the ichthyology of the Indian continent ¹) — the able counterparts of Bleeker’s Atlas of the Fishes from the Archipel

  5. Spectroscopic Studies on Organic Matter from Triassic Reptile Bones, Upper Silesia, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Surmik, Dawid; Boczarowski, Andrzej; Balin, Katarzyna; Dulski, Mateusz; Szade, Jacek; Kremer, Barbara; Pawlicki, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Fossil biomolecules from an endogenous source were previously identified in Cretaceous to Pleistocene fossilized bones, the evidence coming from molecular analyses. These findings, however, were called into question and an alternative hypothesis of the invasion of the bone by bacterial biofilm was proposed. Herewith we report a new finding of morphologically preserved blood-vessel-like structures enclosing organic molecules preserved in iron-oxide-mineralized vessel walls from the cortical re...

  6. EnviroAtlas - Total reptile species by 12-digit HUC for the conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset was produced by a joint effort of New Mexico State University, US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA,) and the U.S. Geological Survey...

  7. Agriculture-Induced Aquatic Contamination and Disease Dynamics in Reptile Populations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Investigation involved the surveillance for ranavirus in 6 freshwater turtles species at Wapanocca NWR, Turrell, Arkansas and potential influences associated with...

  8. Auditory Brain Stem Processing in Reptiles and Amphibians: Roles of Coupled Ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willis, Katie L.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Carr, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Comparative approaches to the auditory system have yielded great insight into the evolution of sound localization circuits, particularly within the nonmammalian tetrapods. The fossil record demonstrates multiple appearances of tympanic hearing, and examination of the auditory brain stem of variou...

  9. 19 CFR 12.26 - Importations of wild animals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, and crustaceans; prohibited...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... restricted importation may be published from time to time in 50 CFR part 13—Importation of Wildlife or Eggs... of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for disposition as appropriate pursuant to 50 CFR part 17. (2... certification of a qualified fish pathologist in substantially the form as prescribed in 50 CFR 13.7....

  10. Effects of conservation practices on fishes, amphibians, and reptiles within agricultural streams and wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation practices have been traditionally used to manage soil and water resources to improve agricultural production, and now include methods to reduce the environmental impacts of agriculture on streams and wetlands. These practices have been regularly implemented within agricultural watershed...

  11. Patterns of hypothalamic regionalization in amphibians and reptiles: common traits revealed by a genoarchitectonic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eDominguez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Most studies in mammals and birds have demonstrated common patterns of hypothalamic development highlighted by the combination of developmental regulatory genes (genoarchitecture, supporting the notion of the hypothalamus as a component of the secondary prosencephalon, topologically rostral to the diencephalon. In our comparative analysis we have summarized the data on the expression patterns of different transcription factors and neuroactive substances, used as anatomical markers, in the developing hypothalamus of the amphibian Xenopus laevis and the juvenile turtle Pseudemys scripta. This analysis served to highlight the organization of the hypothalamus in the anamniote/amniotic transition. We have identified supraoptoparaventricular and the suprachiasmatic regions in the alar part of the hypothalamus, and tuberal and mammillary regions in the basal hypothalamus. Shared features in the two species are: 1 The supraoptoparaventricular region is defined by the expression of Otp and the lack of Nkx2.1/Isl1. It is subdivided into rostral, rich in Otp and Nkx2.2, and caudal, only Otp-positive, portions. 2 The suprachiasmatic area contains catecholaminergic cell groups and lacks Otp, and can be further divided into rostral (rich in Nkx2.1 and Nkx2.2 and a caudal (rich in Isl1 and devoid of Nkx2.1 portions. 3 Expression of Nkx2.1 and Isl1 define the tuberal hypothalamus and only the rostral portion expresses Otp. 4 Its caudal boundary is evident by the lack of Isl1 in the adjacent mammillary region, which expresses Nkx2.1 and Otp. Differences in the anamnio-amniote transition were noted since in the turtle, like in other amniotes, the boundary between the alar hypothalamus and the telencephalic preoptic area shows distinct Nkx2.2 and Otp expressions but not in the amphibian (anamniote, and the alar supraoptoparaventricular region is defined by the expression of Otp/Pax6, whereas in Xenopus only Otp is expressed.

  12. Contrasted Evolution of the Vomeronasal Receptor Repertoires in Mammals and Squamate Reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Brykczynska, Urszula; Tzika, Athanasia C.; Rodriguez, Ivan; Milinkovitch, Michel C

    2013-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is an olfactory structure that detects pheromones and environmental cues. It consists of sensory neurons that express evolutionary unrelated groups of transmembrane chemoreceptors. The predominant V1R and V2R receptor repertoires are believed to detect airborne and water-soluble molecules, respectively. It has been suggested that the shift in habitat of early tetrapods from water to land is reflected by an increase in the ratio of V1R/V2R genes. Snakes, which have ...

  13. The marine squamates (reptiles) from the Cenomanian-Turonian of the Tethys: a noteworthy radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Bardet, Nathalie; Houssaye, Alexandra; Pereda Suberbiola, Xabier; Rage, Jean-Claude

    2007-01-01

    International audience The Cenomanian-Turonian interval is a key period in the evolution of squamates. They display a spectacular radiation in the marine realm, in particular on the northern and southern margins of the Mediterranean Tethys, though some taxa reached the Interior Sea of North America. Snakes probably originated in the Mediterranean Tethys from this assemblage, but that is the issue of a current debate among paleontologists. In the span of time comprising the Cenomanian-Turon...

  14. Extinction of fish-shaped marine reptiles associated with reduced evolutionary rates and global environmental volatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Valentin; Bardet, Nathalie; Benson, Roger B J; Arkhangelsky, Maxim S; Friedman, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Despite their profound adaptations to the aquatic realm and their apparent success throughout the Triassic and the Jurassic, ichthyosaurs became extinct roughly 30 million years before the end-Cretaceous mass extinction. Current hypotheses for this early demise involve relatively minor biotic events, but are at odds with recent understanding of the ichthyosaur fossil record. Here, we show that ichthyosaurs maintained high but diminishing richness and disparity throughout the Early Cretaceous. The last ichthyosaurs are characterized by reduced rates of origination and phenotypic evolution and their elevated extinction rates correlate with increased environmental volatility. In addition, we find that ichthyosaurs suffered from a profound Early Cenomanian extinction that reduced their ecological diversity, likely contributing to their final extinction at the end of the Cenomanian. Our results support a growing body of evidence revealing that global environmental change resulted in a major, temporally staggered turnover event that profoundly reorganized marine ecosystems during the Cenomanian. PMID:26953824

  15. Resetting the evolution of marine reptiles at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary

    OpenAIRE

    Thorne, Philippa M.; Ruta, Marcello; Benton, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Ichthyosaurs were important marine predators in the Early Jurassic, and an abundant and diverse component of Mesozoic marine ecosystems. Despite their ecological importance, however, the Early Jurassic species represent a reduced remnant of their former significance in the Triassic. Ichthyosaurs passed through an evolutionary bottleneck at, or close to, the Triassic-Jurassic boundary, which reduced their diversity to as few as three or four lineages. Diversity bounced back to some extent in t...

  16. Extinction of fish-shaped marine reptiles associated with reduced evolutionary rates and global environmental volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Valentin; Bardet, Nathalie; Benson, Roger; Arkhangelsky, Maxim; Friedman, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Despite their profound adaptations to the aquatic realm and their apparent success throughout the Triassic and the Jurassic, ichthyosaurs became extinct roughly 30 million years before the end-Cretaceous mass extinction. Current hypotheses for this early demise involve relatively minor biotic events, but are at odds with recent understanding of the ichthyosaur fossil record. Here, we show that ichthyosaurs maintained high but diminishing richness and disparity throughout the Early Cretaceous....

  17. State of Biodiversity: Western Cape Province, South Africa. Amphibians and Reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Baard, E.H.W; de Villiers, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The six floristic biomes in the Western Cape Province (W.C.P.), namely the Fynbos, Afromontane Forest, Thicket, Grassland, Nama and Succulent Karoo Biomes (Low and Rebelo, 1996), are not only diverse with regard to the variety of plant species and communities occurring there, but also contain a wide diversity of animal species, biogeographical zones, landscapes and natural features, both within the terrestrial and aquatic (freshwater and marine) context. In addition to...

  18. Identification of a novel splicing form of amelogenin gene in a reptile, Ctenosaura similis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinping Wang

    Full Text Available Amelogenin, the major enamel matrix protein in tooth development, has been demonstrated to play a significant role in tooth enamel formation. Previous studies have identified the alternative splicing of amelogenin in many mammalian vertebrates as one mechanism for amelogenin heterogeneous expression in teeth. While amelogenin and its splicing forms in mammalian vertebrates have been cloned and sequenced, the amelogenin gene, especially its splicing forms in non-mammalian species, remains largely unknown. To better understand the mechanism underlying amelogenin evolution, we previously cloned and characterized an amelogenin gene sequence from a squamate, the green iguana. In this study, we employed RT-PCR to amplify the amelogenin gene from the black spiny-tailed iguana Ctenosaura similis teeth, and discovered a novel splicing form of the amelogenin gene. The transcript of the newly identified iguana amelogenin gene (named C. Similis-T2L is 873 nucleotides long encoding an expected polypeptide of 206 amino acids. The C. Similis-T2L contains a unique exon denominated exon X, which is located between exon 5 and exon 6. The C. Similis-T2L contains 7 exons including exon 1, 2, 3, 5, X, 6, and 7. Analysis of the secondary and tertiary structures of T2L amelogenin protein demonstrated that exon X has a dramatic effect on the amelogenin structures. This is the first report to provide definitive evidence for the amelogenin alternative splicing in non-mammalian vertebrates, revealing a unique exon X and the splicing form of the amelogenin gene transcript in Ctenosaura similis.

  19. Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) Apache Young and Perkins (Diptera: Psychodidae) feeds on reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of bacteria, parasites, and viruses. In the western USA a sand fly, Lutzomyia apache Young and Perkins, was initially associated with epizootics of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), because sand flies were trapped at sites of an outbreak. Additional studies indica...

  20. Inventory Reptile and Amphibians of Southern Oregon Islands National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This inventory is part of a larger effort to assess the occupancy of breeding burrow-nesting seabirds (e.g., Leach’s storm-petrels) that are being monitored to...