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Sample records for amphipoda stages 1-4

  1. Iphimediidae of New Zealand (Crustacea, Amphipoda

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    Charles Oliver Coleman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available New Zealand species of Iphimediidae, Amphipoda, are revised. Based on new material from the Chatham Rise, east of New Zealand, two new species are described in detail: Labriphimedia meikae sp. nov. and Labriphimedia martinae sp. nov. A key to the six species belonging to three genera of New Zealand Iphimediidae is provided.

  2. 1~4期慢性肾脏病患者抑郁情绪现状调查及分析%Depressive emotions investigation and analysis for stage 1-4 chronic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马登艳; 张颖君; 王宇; 刁永书

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore current situation of depressive symptoms and analyze its influencing factors in stage 1-4 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Methods From August 2014 to September 2014, a cross-sectional study was performed, and 214 outpatients chronic kidney disease ( CKD ) were recruited by convenience sampling method to evaluate depressive scores using the Zung self-rating depression scale in a grade A class three hospital of Sichuan province. Using single factor analysis method, a preliminary study was performed to explore the influencing factors of depression symptoms including gender, residence, education and the family income per capita. Results A total of 214 CKD depression scores was (47. 98 ± 10. 38), which was significantly more than that of norm (t=20. 472, P<0. 01). Single factor analysis showed gender, residence, education and the family income per capita all influenced the depressive incidences (χ2 =14. 929, 5. 413, 7. 290, 9. 917;P<0. 05). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed gender, residence, education and the family income per capita all were depression influencing factors (P<0. 05). Conclusions Medical and health institutions should give great importance to depressive symptoms in CKD patients, especially for stage 1-4 CKD patients. Focus on assessment and early intervention can reduce the incidences of the depression and improve the prognosis.%目的:了解1~4期慢性肾脏病( CKD )患者抑郁情绪发生的现状,分析其影响因素。方法于2014年8—9月进行横断面研究设计,选择Zung氏抑郁自评量表,采用方便抽样法对四川省某三级甲等医院CKD随访门诊的214例1~4期CKD患者进行问卷调查。采用单因素分析法初探抑郁症状发生的影响因素,包括性别、居住地、文化程度和家庭人均月收入。结果214例CKD患者抑郁标准分总分为(47.98±10.38)分,高于国内常模,差异有统计学意义(t=20.472,P<0.01)。单因素分析显示,不同性别、

  3. Study on spatial and temporal distribution of planktonic amphipoda in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Mei; WANG Yunlong; YUAN Qi; CHEN Yaqu

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative distribution of planktonic amphipoda in the East China Sea is analyzed and the relation with environmental factors and mackerel and scad fishing grounds is studied. The result shows that the characteristic of biomass is great seasonal and interannual variety during the passing three decades. The distribution of planktonic amphipoda basically reflects the movement, decay and intensification of the different water systems in the survey area.

  4. Food ingestion and assimilation by Hyaie media (Dana, 1853 (Crustacea - Amphipoda

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    Airton Santo Tararam

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available The feeding of Hyale media was analysed under laboratory conditions in winter and summer temperatures. The results showed that assimilation rates increased following food ingestion rates and decreased when egestion rates increased. In winter temperatures no significant differences were found in the assimilation rates among developmental stages and sexes. In summer temperatures assimilation rates for ovigerous and non-ovigerous females were higher than those found for adult and young males. Although not statistically analysed, mean assimilation efficiencies were highest among ovigerous females and adult males, in summer. The quantitative and qualitative variations found in the assimilation efficiency and rates were explained by the differential effect of temperature on the specific growth rate and in the physiological conditions of each growth stage concerned.No presente estudo foram analisados em laboratório, sob temperaturas de inverno e verão, aspectos quantitativos da alimentação de Hyale media (Crustacea-Amphipoda, utilizando-se o método gravimetría, aliado ao conteúdo de carbono dos itens alimentares oferecidos. Nos experimentos com temperatura de inverno não foi encontrado diferença significativa nas taxas de assimilação entre os diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento e sexo. Naqueles com temperatura de verão as taxas de assimilação para fêmeas ovígera e não ovígera foram maiores que aquelas encontradas para machos adulto e jovem. As variações encontradas nas taxa e eficiência de assimilação foram explicadas pelo efeito diferencial da temperatura sobre a taxa de crescimento específico e condições fisiológicas de cada estádio de desenvolvimento.

  5. Marine interstitial Amphipoda and Isopoda (Crustacea) from Santiago, Cape Verde Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.; Vonk, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    Three species of Amphipoda are recorded from interstices of a marine beach on the island of Santiago, Cape Verde Archipelago: Cabogidiella littoralis n. gen., n. sp. (Bogidiellidae), Psammogammarus spinosus n. sp. (Melitidae), and Idunella sketi Karaman, 1980 (Liljeborgiidae). The latter, widely dis

  6. The first hypothelminorheic Crustacea (Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae, Hyalella from South America

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    Stella Rodrigues

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of known troglobiotic species occur in caves and subterranean environments from great depths. However, recently more attention has been given to other subterranean environments, such as the hypothelminorheic habitats. It comprises the most superficial among all subterranean habitats. This kind of environment is characterized by the constant presence of wet spots, absence of light and very particular abiotic characteristics, comprising unique species. The first hypothelminorheic Amphipoda from South America is here described, a new species of the genus Hyalella which occurs in a wetland on Southern Brazil. The new species differs from other troglobiotics of the genus by the presence of a curved seta on the inner ramus of uropod 1 and elongation of appendices, as the first pair of antennae and peraeopods 6 and 7. However, human impacts in the area where the new species occurs have changed heavily their habitat, which may have led the species to a critical level of threat or even extinction, demonstrating the fragility of this environment.a

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of Baikalian amphipoda Eulimnogammarus vittatus Dybowsky, 1874.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Elena V; Mikhailov, Kirill V; Logacheva, Maria D; Kamaltynov, Ravil M; Aleoshin, Vladimir V; Sherbakov, Dmitry Yu

    2016-05-01

    A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of amphipoda Eulimnogammarus vittatus Dybowsky, 1874 from Lake Baikal was obtained using next-generation sequencing approach. Mitochondrial DNA with the length of 15,534 bp contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA, 23 transfer RNA and non-coding sequences: a putative control region and 7 intergenic spacers. A brief comparative analysis of mitochondrial genomes of E. vittatus and its sister species Eulimnogammarus verrucosus was performed. PMID:25264843

  8. Ecologia populacional dos Amphipoda (Crustacea dos fitais de Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brasil Population ecolocy of Amphipoda (Crustacea from the phytals of Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brazil

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    Janete Dubiaski-Silva

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Spalial and temporal density distributions of Amphipoda from the phytals of Caiobá are described. Air temperature oscillated from 16ºC (August and May to 23ºC (March, surface water temperature from 17ºC (August to 25ºC (March and the salinity from 29.3‰ (May to 32.8‰ (August. Two samples of 25cm² (for algae less than 5cm long, 100 cm² (for algae between 5-10cm long and whole plants (for algae more than 10cm long were removed with a spatula from the rocky surface at Caiobá Beach, in August/86, November/86, March/87 and May/87. After sorting, the algal substrata were weighted, their adsorption coefficient calculated and the sediment retained among the thallii weighted. The average distance between the branching was measured for all branched algae. The densities were calculated in relation to the weight of the algal substrate in grams. Eight phytals were considered: Ulva fasciata Delile, Padina gymnospora (Kútzing Vickers, Sargassum cymosum Garth, Porphyra atropurpurea (Olivi De Toni, Gelidium sp., Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner Martius, Pterocladia capillacea (Gmelin Bornet &Thurel and Pterosiphonia pennata (Roth Falkenberg, over which nine Amphipoda species live: Ampithoe ramondi Audouin, 1816, Cymadusa filosa Savigny, 1852, Elasmopus pectenicrus Bate, 1857, Hyale media Dana, 1857, Hyale sp.l, Jassa falcata Montagu, 1895 and Sunampithoe pelagica H. Milne-Edwards, 1830 (Gammaridea. Caprella danilevskii Czerniavski, 1861 and Caprella penantis Leach, 1814 (Caprellidea. Amphipoda densities ranged from 0.27 ind.g-1 to 45.68. ind.g-1. The broad-thallii algae Porphyra, Ulva and Padina harbored lower densities of Amphipoda, whereas those finely branched Pterocladia, Pterosiphonia and Gymnogongrus, the highest values and the less branched Sargassum and Gelidium, intermediate values. The high densities found in the finely branched algae had as main contribution the juvenile recruiting of most Amphipoda. The tide level might have influenced

  9. A new species of Elasmopus (Amphipoda: Hadzioidea: Maeridae from Suape Harbor, Northeastern Brazilian coast

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    André R. Senna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A new amphipod species of the genus Elasmopus Costa, 1853 is described based on material collected from intertidal rocky shore, near the Suape Harbor, coast of the Brazilian state of Pernambuco. The new species may be recognized by the propodus of gnathopod 2 suboval, slightly tapering distally, palmar margin not defined by a stout seta, spine, or palmar corner, with a subdistal blunt tubercle, posterior margin covered by a dense fringe of plumose setae, and posterior margin of basis of pereopod 7 castelloserrate. This is the ninety-fifth species of the genus Elasmopus described worldwide, the most diverse genus in the family Maeridae Krapp-Schickel, 2008, and the eighth species recorded from Brazilian waters. An identification key to Brazilian species of Elasmopusis also provided.Uma nova espécie Amphipoda do gênero Elasmopus Costa, 1853 é descrita com base em material coletado da zona entre marés de um costão rochoso, próximo ao Porto de Suape, costado estado brasileiro de Pernambuco. A nova espécie pode ser reconhecida pelo própodo do gnatópo de 2 suboval, estreitando-se de forma suave distalmente, margem palmar não definida por uma cerda grossa, espinho, ou ângulo palmar, comum tubérculo subdistal não agudo, margem posterior coberta por uma franja densa de cerdas plumosas, e margem posterior da base do pereópodo 7 castelosserrado. Esta é a nonagésima quinta espécie do gênero Elasmopus descrita ao redor do mundo, o mais diverso gênero na família Maeridae Krapp-Schickel, 2008, e a oitava espécie registrada para as águas brasileiras. É fornecida também uma chave de identificação para as espécies brasileiras de Elasmopus.

  10. Observation on the Clinical Characteristics of Diabetic Nephropathy from One to Four Stage and the Analysis of Color Doppler Ultrasound Diagnosis%糖尿病肾病1~4期临床特点观察及彩色多普勒超声诊断分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜宇晴; 钱慕周

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical characteristics of diabetic nephropathy and analyze the clinical value of color Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods 100 cases with diabetic nephropathy from one to four stage admitted in our hospital were classified into three groups according to the urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) all day:Group A(300mg/24h).And 30 normal persons were selected as controls (group D). Color Doppler ultrasound was used to detect the kidney size, blood flow velocity and various parameters of hemodynamics of all the patients. Results Compared with group D, the renal size of group A, group B and group C were much larger, the difference was statistically significant (P0.05). From one to four stage of DN, gradual reduction in renal blood flow imaging, group A and D reached 1 level or 2 levels, group B reached 3 levels, group C reached 4 levels. Conclusion Clinical progression in patients with DN is closely related with the level of UAER. Color Doppler ultrasound can show the kidney size of patients with DN, perfusion and renal hemodynamic changes, which has im-portant clinical significance for the diagnosis of patients with DN.%目的:探讨糖尿病肾病的临床特征以及分析彩色多普勒超声检查在糖尿病肾病(DN)诊断中的临床价值。方法选取该院1~4期DN患者100例,按24 h尿蛋白排泄率(UAER)水平分为3组院A组(300 mg/24 h)。另选取30例健康人群作为对照组(D组)。采用彩色多普勒超声检测所有患者的肾脏大小、血流速度及各级动脉血流动力学参数。结果A、B、C组患者肾脏大小与较D组明显增加,差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。 DN从1~4期,肾血流显像逐渐减少,A、D组为1级或2级,B组为3级,C组为4级。结论DN患者的临床进展与UAER的水平密切相关。彩色多普勒超声能反应DN患者肾脏大小、血流灌注和肾血流动力学变化,对DN患者的诊断具有重要的临床意义。

  11. Molecular and ultrastructural characterization of Dictyocoela diporeiae n. sp. (Microsporidia, a parasite of Diporeia spp. (Amphipoda, Gammaridea

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    Winters Andrew David

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dictyocoela diporeiae n. sp. is described from Diporeia spp. (Amphipoda, Gammaridea collected from Lake Superior (USA, and its morphology and taxonomic affiliation are discussed. In hematoxylin- and eosin-stained sections of infected amphipods, the microsporidian was observed to infect muscle tissue surrounding the ovaries. Melanized hemocytic encapsulations were often observed in or near masses of microsporidians. The microsporidians appeared as spores measuring 1.99 ± 0.09 μm long by 1.19 ± 0.05 μm wide. Each spore contained eight coils of isofilar polar filaments that were arranged in single ranks. Polar filaments measured 71 ± 3 nm in diameter. A prominent lamellar polaroplast composed of ordered concentric membranes was found at the apical end of the spore surrounding the polar filament. A distinct posterior vacuole was observed at the distal end of the spore. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16s RNA sequences showed that the microsporidian belongs to the genus Dictyocoela, and is most similar to D. berillonum, yet distinctly different. The species is new, based on its morphology, genetic sequence, host, and location within the host.

  12. 24 CFR 1.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

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    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1.4... DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to...

  13. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

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    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue....4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3... the standard deduction provided by section 141. (b) Election under section 3 and election of...

  14. Trichloro(1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane)chromium(III)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Søren Kegnaes; Magnussen, Magnus

    2005-01-01

    The 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (tmtacn) ligand has become one of the classic ligands in coordination chemistry (Wieghardt et al., 1982 [Wieghardt, K., Chaudhuri, P., Nuber, B. & Weiss, J. (1982). Inorg. Chem. 21, 3086-3090.] ). In recent years, tmtacn-metal complexes ......The 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (tmtacn) ligand has become one of the classic ligands in coordination chemistry (Wieghardt et al., 1982 [Wieghardt, K., Chaudhuri, P., Nuber, B. & Weiss, J. (1982). Inorg. Chem. 21, 3086-3090.] ). In recent years, tmtacn-metal complexes ...

  15. Food ingestion and assimilation by Hyaie media (Dana, 1853) (Crustacea - Amphipoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Airton Santo Tararam; Hilda de Souza Lima Mesquita; Yoko Wakabara; Clóvis A. Peres

    1990-01-01

    The feeding of Hyale media was analysed under laboratory conditions in winter and summer temperatures. The results showed that assimilation rates increased following food ingestion rates and decreased when egestion rates increased. In winter temperatures no significant differences were found in the assimilation rates among developmental stages and sexes. In summer temperatures assimilation rates for ovigerous and non-ovigerous females were higher than those found for adult and young males. Al...

  16. PORPHYRINS WITH 1,4-BENZODIAZEPINE SUBSTITUENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovskaya, T. V.; Ishkov, Yu. V.; Mazepa, A. V.; Pavlovsky, V. І.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of the derivatives of meso-substituted porphyrins with Взаємодією похідних лезо-заміщених порфіринів з гідразидом 7-bromo-2-oxo-5-phenyl-2,3-dihydrobenzo[e][1, 4]diazepin-1-yl)-acetic acid hydrazide lead to range of new compounds - potential antitumor agents.

  17. Butallylonal 1,4-dioxane hemisolvate

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    Ulrich J. Griesser

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound [systematic name: 5-(1-bromoprop-2-en-1-yl-5-sec-butylpyrimidine-2,4,6-trione 1,4-dioxane hemisolvate], C11H15BrN2O3·0.5C4H8O2, contains one half-molecule of 1,4-dioxane and one molecule of butallylonal, with an almost planar barbiturate ring [largest deviation from the mean plane = 0.049 (5 Å]. The centrosymmetric dioxane molecule adopts a nearly ideal chair conformation. The barbiturate molecules are linked together by an N—H...O hydrogen bond, giving a single-stranded chain. Additionally, each dioxane molecule acts as a bridge between two antiparallel strands of hydrogen-bonded barbiturate molecules via two hydrogen bonds, N—H...O(dioxaneO...H—N. Thus, a ladder structure is obtained, with the connected barbiturate molecules forming the `stiles' and the bridging dioxane molecules the `rungs'.

  18. SAS 3 observations of GX 1 + 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, J. P.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Hoffman, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    GX 1 + 4 is one of the brightest celestial sources of high-energy X-rays. It is a pulsar with a period of approximately 2 min (perhaps a multiple of 2 min), decreasing at a variable rate which, since 1971, has averaged approximately 2% per year, but which can be larger than 5% per year. This is the largest rate of decrease observed for any pulsar. The rate of decrease appears to be correlated with the luminosity, in support of the idea that the period decrease is produced by accretion torques acting upon a neutron star. No evidence is seen for a Doppler shift due to motion of the pulsar in a binary orbit; this is consistent with the results of optical observations which suggest that any orbital period is fairly long (months to years). The spectrum of GX 1 + 4 is measured as a function of pulse phase, as well as the phase-averaged total spectrum, and the average spectrum of the pulses alone. The shape of the average pulsed spectrum suggests that the pulsations may be produced by 'hot spots' which are a few hundred meters in extent, with temperatures of approximately 10 to the 8th K (kT being approximately equal to 8 keV).

  19. 1,4-Dihydro-1,4-diphosphinine fused with two tetrathiafulvalenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avarvari, Narcis; Fourmigué, Marc

    2004-12-21

    Electrochemical and theoretical investigations demonstrate through-bond interactions between two TTF moieties fused to a 1,4-dihydro-1,4-diphosphinine, for which the single crystal X-ray structure of the cis isomer is described together with that of a mixed-valent, charge-localized, radical cation salt with Mo6O19(2-), obtained upon electrocrystallization of the same cis isomer. PMID:15599410

  20. 1-Methylpiperazine-1,4-diium dipicrate

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    Grzegorz Dutkiewicz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound [systematic name: 1-methylpiperazine-1,4-diium bis(2,4,6-trinitrophenolate], C5H14N22+·2C6H2N3O7−, the ionic components are connected by relatively strong N—H...O hydrogen bonds into centrosymmetric six-membered conglomerates, which comprise two dications and four anions. Besides Coulombic interactions, only weak C—H...O interactions and some stacking between picrates (separation between the planes of ca. 3.4 Å but only a small overlapping can be identified between these `building blocks' of the crystal structure. The piperazine ring adopts a chair conformation with the methyl substituent in the equatorial position. In the picrate anions, the twist angles of the nitro groups depend on their positions relative to the phenolate O atom: it is much smaller for the NO2 groups para to the C—O− group [15.23 (9and 3.92 (14°] than for the groups in the ortho positions [28.76 (13–39.84 (11°].

  1. Towards Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture: Lessons from Caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachero-Cruzado, Ismael; González-Romero, Pablo; Jiménez-Prada, Pablo; Cassell, Christopher; Ros, Macarena

    2016-01-01

    The search for alternative live feed organisms and the progression of Integrative Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) are currently being highly prioritised in EU strategies. Caprellids could potentially be an important exploitable resource in aquaculture due to their high levels of beneficial polyunsaturated fatty acids, fast growing nature and widespread distribution. Furthermore, since they are mainly detritivorous, they could be excellent candidates for integration into IMTA systems, potentially benefitting from uneaten feed pellets and faeces released by cultured fish in fish farms and sea-cage structures. Despite this, there is a lack of experimental studies to: (i) test inexpensive diets for caprellids, such as detritus, (ii) develop sustainable caprellid culture techniques and (iii) include caprellids in IMTA systems. The main aim of this study was to determine whether detritus (D) in the form of fish faeces provided an adequate diet for caprellids in comparison to other traditional diets, such as Artemia nauplii (A) or phytoplankton (P). Adult survival rate was shown to be significantly higher for caprellids fed with D. Conversely, hatchlings had the highest survival rate with A, although the juvenile growth rate and number of moults was similar in the three diets. With regard to lipid composition, caprellids fed with A had higher concentrations of Triacylglycerols (TAG) and Phosphatidylcholine (PC) while those fed with P or D were richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially 22:6(n-3) (DHA). Interestingly, caprellids fed with D were also a rich source of 18:2(n-6) (LA), considered to be an essential fatty acid in vertebrates. It was found that detritus based mainly on fish faeces and uneaten feed pellets can be considered an adequate feed for adult caprellids, providing a source of both omega-3 (DHA) and omega-6 (LA) fatty acids. Hatchlings however seem to require an additional input of TAG and PC during juvenile stages to properly grow. PMID:27124465

  2. On the presence of the Mediterranean endemic Microdeutopus sporadhi Myers, 1969 (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Aoridae in the Gulf of Naples (Italy with a review on its distribution and ecology

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    M. B. SCIPIONE

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The species Microdeutopus sporadhi (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Aoridae, endemic of the Mediterranean Sea, was described by Myers in 1969 on material collected from the Aegean Sea in a sheltered environment with high sedimentation rates. A check on the distribution and ecology of M. sporadhi showed that: — although not mentioned in the checklist of amphipods of the Italian seas, it was already found in the central Tyrrhenian Sea in 1983-84 and in the northern Adriatic Sea in 2002-03; — it was rarely found in the Mediterranean Sea, one of the most studied basins as concerns amphipod fauna; but notwithstanding the few records available, the wide ecological spectrum of this species was pointed out. The present study, conducted off the Island of Ischia (Gulf of Naples, Italy, showed the presence of rich and well established populations through time, but only in a peculiar substratum (artificial collectors and environment (low pH values. The species seems to be able to withstand harsh environmental conditions and probably to conceal itself through a cryptic behaviour, escaping traditional sampling methods. The role of rare or hidden species in bio-assessment should be re-evaluated.

  3. OSp(1,4)-superfields in chiral representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of OSp(1.4)-superfields in splitting (chiral)parametrization of the superspace of OSp(1.4)/O(1.3) are studied. The connection is found between the real and chiral bases in superspace and construct covariant derivatives and invariant integration measures in chiral bases. The group structure of chiral representations of OSp(1.4) is studied in detail. The simplest linear OSp(1.4)-invariant models are presented: the OSp(1.4)-analog of the Wess-Zumino model and OSp(1.4)-extension of the Yang-Mills theory. The relation of the described formalism to supergravity is also discussed

  4. 5 CFR 1.4 - Extent of the excepted service.

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    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extent of the excepted service. 1.4 Section 1.4 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES COVERAGE AND DEFINITIONS (RULE I) § 1.4 Extent of the excepted service. (a) The excepted service shall include all...

  5. 8,8-Diethyl-1,4,5,8-tetrahydronaphthalene-1,4,5-trione

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    Ramiro Araya-Maturana

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The title molecule, C14H14O3, contains two fused six-membered carbon rings with keto groups at positions 1, 4 and 5 and a gem-diethyl group at position 8. The molecule is close to planar (maximum deviation = 0.044 Å, with one ethyl group at each side of the molecular plane, with exception of the keto group at position 1 which is slightly deviated from the plane and disordered over two positions one on each side of it (occupancies 0.80/0.20. The packing of the molecule shows weak bonded chains along a through C—H...O contacts and two intramolecular C—H...O interactions are also present.

  6. Cessation of X-ray pulsation of GX 1+4

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, W.; Smith, B

    2004-01-01

    We report results from our weekly monitoring campaign on the X-ray pulsar GX 1+4 with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer satellite. The spin-down trend of GX 1+4 was continuing, with the pulsar being at its longest period ever measured (about 138.7 s). At the late stage of the campaign, the source entered an extended faint state, during which its X-ray (2-60 keV) flux decreased significantly, to an average level of similar to3 x 10(-10) ergs cm(-2) s(-1). It was highly variable in the faint stat...

  7. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    lived as people are “staging themselves” (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between “being staged” (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the “mobile staging” of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging Mobilities is about the fact that...

  8. Solid-Liquid Equilibria for the Binary Mixtures 1,4-Xylene + Ethylbenzene and 1,4-Xylene + Toluene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huyghe, Raphaël; Rasmussen, Peter; Thomsen, Kaj

    2004-01-01

    Solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) data for the binary mixtures 1,4-xylene + ethylbenzene, and 1,4-xylene + toluene have been measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in the temperature range from 133.15 K to 293.15 K.......Solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) data for the binary mixtures 1,4-xylene + ethylbenzene, and 1,4-xylene + toluene have been measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in the temperature range from 133.15 K to 293.15 K....

  9. 27 CFR 1.4 - Delegations of the Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Delegation of the Administrator's Authorities in 27 CFR Part 1, Basic Permit Requirements Under the Federal... Administrator. 1.4 Section 1.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Delegations of the Administrator. Most of the regulatory authorities of the Administrator contained in...

  10. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim;

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  11. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF cis-1,4- POLYBUTADIENE CONTAINING A FRACTION OF trans- 1,4-POLYBUTADIENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhenya; LI Shuquan; LIN Yunqing

    1984-01-01

    Polymerization of butadiene catalysed first with V(acac)3-Al(i-Bu)2Cl, then with Co(acac)3-H2O-Al(i-Bu)2Cl has been studied. The polymer obtained was identified to be a new variety of cis-1,4-polybutadiene which contained a fraction of trans-1,4-polybutadiene chemically bonded to the cis-1,4-polybutadiene chains. Its molecular weight and trans-1,4 content can be regulated by varying the catalyst composition and concentration as well as other polymerization conditions. The trans-1,4fraction, although it presents only in 9-16%, forms a crystalline phase in the matrix at room temperature and facilitates the crystallization of the polymer.

  12. Regioselectivity of conjugate additions to monoalkyl-1,4-benzoquinones

    OpenAIRE

    SNEZANA TRIFUNOVIC; MIROSLAV J. GASIC; MARIO ZLATOVIC; IRENA NOVAKOVIC; DUSAN SLADIC; TATJANA BOZIC

    2002-01-01

    The regioselectivity of the reaction of conjugate addition of thiols, amines, methanol and hydrogen chloride with the monoalkyl-1,4-benzoquinones avarone and 2-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone was investigated. It was shown that the regioselectivity of the reaction is influenced by the electrophilicity of position 5 in unprotonated 2-alkylquinones, the increased electrophilicity of position 6 in acidic medium, and by the acidity of the intermediate hydroquinones.

  13. Regioselectivity of conjugate additions to monoalkyl-1,4-benzoquinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SNEZANA TRIFUNOVIC

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The regioselectivity of the reaction of conjugate addition of thiols, amines, methanol and hydrogen chloride with the monoalkyl-1,4-benzoquinones avarone and 2-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone was investigated. It was shown that the regioselectivity of the reaction is influenced by the electrophilicity of position 5 in unprotonated 2-alkylquinones, the increased electrophilicity of position 6 in acidic medium, and by the acidity of the intermediate hydroquinones.

  14. Synthesis of 1,4-anhydro-D-fructose and 1,4-anhydro-D-tagatose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dekany, Gyula; Lundt, Inge; Steiner, Andreas J.; Stütz, Arnold E.

    2006-01-01

    1,4-Anhydro-D-fructose and 1,4-anhydro-D-tagatose were prepared from 1,2-O-isopropylidene-D-glucofuranose via the common intermediate 3,5,6-tri-O-benzyl-D-glucitol. The title compounds may be interesting anti-oxidants and feature activities akin to their natural pyranoid counterpart, 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose....

  15. Experiment prediction for Loft Nonnuclear Experiment L1-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer analysis, using the WHAM and RELAP4 computer codes, was performed to predict the LOFT system thermal-hydraulic response for Experiment L1-4 of the nonnuclear (isothermal) test series. Experiment L1-4 will simulate a 200 percent double-ended offset shear in the cold leg of a four-loop large pressurized water reactor. A core simulator will be used to provide a reactor vessel pressure drop representative of the LOFT nuclear core. Experiment L1-4 will be initiated with a nominal isothermal primary coolant temperature of 282.20C, a pressurizer pressure of 15.51 MPa, and a primary coolant flow of 270.9 kg/s. In general, the predictions of saturated blowdown for Experiment Ll-4 are consistent with the expected system behavior, and predicted trends agree with results from Semiscale Test S-01-4A, which simulated the Ll-4 experiment conditions

  16. Improved features of MARS 1.4 and verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jae; Chung, Bub Don; Jeong, Jae Jun; Ha, Kwi Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-09-01

    MARS 1.4 code has been developed as a basic code frame for multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic analysis of light water reactor transients. This report describes the newly improved features of MARS 1.4 and their verification results. The new features of MARS 1.4 include the implementation of point kinetics model in the 3D module, the coupled heat structure model, the extension of control functions and input check functions in the 3D module, the implementation of new features of RELAP5/MOD3.2.2 -version, the addition of automatic initialization function for fuel 3-D analysis and the unification of material properties and forcing functions, etc. These features have been implemented in the code in order to extend the code modeling capability and to enhance the user friendliness. Among these features, this report describes the implementation of new features of RELAP5/MOD3.3.3-version such as reflood model and critical heat flux models, etc., the automatic initialization function, the unification of material properties and forcing functions and the other code improvements and error corrections, which were not reported in the previous report. Through the verification calculations, the new features of MARS 1.4 have been verified well implemented in the code. In conclusion, MARS 1.4 code has been developed and verified as implemented in the code. In conclusion, MARS 1.4 code has been developed and verified as a multi-dimensional system thermal-hydraulic analysis tool. And, it can play its role as a basic code frame for the future development of a multi-purpose consolidated code, MARS 2.x, for coupled analysis of multi-dimensional system thermal hydraulics, 3D core kinetics, core CHF and containment as well as for further improvement of thermal-hydraulic and numerical models. 4 refs., 10 figs. (Author)

  17. Interconversion study in 1,4-substituted six-membered cyclohexane-type rings. Structure and dynamics of trans-1,4-dibromo-1,4-dicyanocyclohexane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Alex D; Baron, Maximo; Burger, Steven K; Kowalewski, Valdemar J; Rodríguez, Marina Belén

    2011-08-25

    Cyclohexane is an extremely flexible molecule that oscillates, at room temperature, between two clearly distinct and extreme conformations that cannot be distinguished at room temperature; so much so that the NMR spectrum is a single line that includes all 12 protons be they axial or equatorial. This raises the interesting question as to what happens when there are equal substituents at the 1 and 4 carbon atoms of the ring. Therefore substitution in the 1,4-positions in the cyclohexane ring has been the subject of considerable interest because some form of interconversion between extreme conformations could lead to the existence of a rather unusual behavior. To study this problem, the interconversion in (di- or tetra-1,4)-substituted six-membered cyclohexane-type rings, trans-1,4-dibromo-1,4-dicyanocyclohexane, was found to be a particularly suitable candidate. Although X-ray diffraction studies on the crystalline solid found the molecule to be centrosymmetric, it still shows a significant dipole moment μ in solution, as determined with a procedure that leads to the vapor phase values of μ. Furthermore, the low magnetic field proton NMR spectrum at ambient temperature appears as a single line, a situation that changes with increasing field intensity and different solvents. Both these effects are attributed to dynamics, because small distortions can easily disrupt the exact cancellation of the individual dipoles (which are quite strong) associated with each end of the molecule. The molecule can exist in two forms, with both the bromines in an axial geometry or both in an equatorial position. Interconversion between these forms is observed, as in the parent cyclohexane. The single NMR line observed at low magnetic fields is due to fast exchange and requires that the two forms have roughly equal populations. Spectra obtained at low temperature confirm this, and variable-temperature studies allow measurement of the rates, leading to an enthalpy of activation of 62 k

  18. Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Enantiopure 1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobolev, A.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Duburs, G.; Groot, de Æ.

    2004-01-01

    1,4-Dihydropyridines possess a broad range of biological activities, such as the ability to control the influx of calcium into cells, as well as neuroprotective, antineuro-degenerative, cognition and memory enhancing, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and many other properties. Chirality plays an importa

  19. Amino acid derived 1,4-dialkyl substituted imidazolones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Frederik; Meldal, Morten Peter

    2010-01-01

    A general method for synthesis of 1,4-substituted imidazolones from amino acids on solid support or in solution has been developed. Amino acid derived 3-Boc-(1,3)-oxazinane (Box) protected amino aldehyde building blocks were coupled through urea bonds to the amino terminal of dipeptides or amino...

  20. N,N′-Bis(2-thienylmethylenebenzene-1,4-diamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Wei Dong

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Schiff base, C16H12N2S2, has been synthesized by refluxing an ethanolic solution of thiophene-2-carbaldehyde and benzene-1,4-diamine. The center of the benzene ring is located on a crystallographic center of inversion. The dihedral angle between the benzene and thiophene rings is 63.6 (1°.

  1. Niphargus plurispinosus sp. n. (Crustacea, Amphipoda, a stygophile and hypotelminorheic representative from Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Hudec

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The detailed description of the morphology of Niphargus plurispinosus sp. n. from Slovakia is presented. Over 300 specimens were collected from a permanent seepage spring on repeated visits between May 2011 and May 2013. The type locality is located in the foothills of the Zemplínske vrchy mountains in the East Slovakian Lowland (NE part of Pannonian Lowland - small, low and isolated hills formed during Neogene volcanic activity. Volcanic rocks draw together fragments of massives of Palaezoic and Mesozoic age as same as Neogene sediments. The new species can be classified as stygophile, living in the shallow subterranean habitat. The species has small subequal gnathopods, sexually dimorphic uropod III, sexually non-dimorphic uropod I in juveniles, dimorphic uropod 1 in adults. They are extremely different in the post-reproductive stage, when they have 2-4 dorsal spines (arranged in a transverse row on the telson and supporting dorsal spines.

  2. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    . Nevertheless, people’s experience of the environment is sought manipulated in a variety of contexts, often without offering a less ‘true’ experience of a situation than if it had not been manipulated by people. In fact, orchestrations of space are often central to sociality, politics and aesthetics. This...... introduction seeks to outline how a number of scholars have addressed the relationship between staged atmospheres and experience, and thus highlight both the philosophical, social and political aspects of atmospheres...

  3. Electronic transport through thiophene-1,4-dithiol molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we study electronic transport through thiophene-1,4-dithiol molecules attached to gold electrodes Au (111) and subjected to bias voltage. The choice of this molecule is justified by its promising applications in the construction of molecular devices. The electronic structure of thiophene-1,4-dithiol was investigated by using Density Functional Theory (DFT) combined with non-equilibrium Green's functions (NEGF), as implemented in TRANSIESTA program. We found that both an increased separation between the electrodes and the presence of anchor group S, cause an increase in transmittance through the molecule. Also, we obtain a structure in the transmittance curve, a Fano resonance feature, present in electronic transport phenomena in nanostructured devices. The results are reported in terms of transmittance versus energy around Fermi Level and voltage versus current plots. (author)

  4. Electronic Transport through Thiophene-1,4-Dithiol Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Sérgio Selma; Hobbi, Edwin; Correia, Nestor Santos

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we study electronic transport through thiophene-1,4-dithiol molecules attached to gold electrodes Au (111) and subjected to bias voltage. The choice of this molecule is justified by its promising applications in the construction of molecular devices. The electronic structure of thiophene-1,4-dithiol was investigated by using Density Functional Theory (DFT) combined with non-equilibrium Green's functions (NEGF), as implemented in TRANSIESTA program. We found that both an increased separation between the electrodes and the presence of anchor group S, cause an increase in transmittance through the molecule. Also, we obtain a structure in the transmittance curve, a Fano resonance feature, present in electronic transport phenomena in nanostructured devices. The results are reported in terms of transmittance versus energy around Fermi Level and voltage versus current plots.

  5. Vibration testing of a 1/4-scale containment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents programs for the validation of soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis methods with data that include ground and structural response motions during natural earthquakes and structural response from low-level vibration tests. The primary source of the data is the 1/4-scale containment building situated in Lotung in a seismically active region of Taiwan. The analysis validation program involves blind predictions of site and structural response to the vibration test excitations and to a selected strong-motion seismic event, and the subsequent comparison of predictions with corresponding measurements. This paper focuses on the vibration testing of the model containment structure and the determination of its dynamic characteristics from the experimental data. The 1/4-scale reinforced concrete containment structure, built by EPRI in cooperation with Taiwan Power Company, is located within an array of strong-motion seismographs, known as the SMART-1 array

  6. Electronic transport through thiophene-1,4-dithiol molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sergio Selma dos; Hobbi Junior, Edwin; Correia, Nestor Santos, E-mail: sergioss2001@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Campus Soane Nazare de Andrade

    2015-08-15

    In this paper, we study electronic transport through thiophene-1,4-dithiol molecules attached to gold electrodes Au (111) and subjected to bias voltage. The choice of this molecule is justified by its promising applications in the construction of molecular devices. The electronic structure of thiophene-1,4-dithiol was investigated by using Density Functional Theory (DFT) combined with non-equilibrium Green's functions (NEGF), as implemented in TRANSIESTA program. We found that both an increased separation between the electrodes and the presence of anchor group S, cause an increase in transmittance through the molecule. Also, we obtain a structure in the transmittance curve, a Fano resonance feature, present in electronic transport phenomena in nanostructured devices. The results are reported in terms of transmittance versus energy around Fermi Level and voltage versus current plots. (author)

  7. 1.4-GHz observations of extended giant radio galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wezgowiec, M; Mack, K -H

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents 1.4-GHz radio continuum observations of 15 very extended radio galaxies. These sources are so large that most interferometers lose partly their structure and total flux density. Therefore, single-dish detections are required to fill in the central (u,v) gap of interferometric data and obtain reliable spectral index patterns across the structures, and thus also an integrated radio continuum spectrum. We have obtained such 1.4-GHz maps with the 100-m Effelsberg telescope and combined them with the corresponding maps available from the NVSS. The aggregated data allow us to produce high-quality images, which can be used to obtain physical parameters of the mapped sources. The combined images reveal in many cases extended low surface-brightness cocoons.

  8. LOFT advanced densitometer L1-4 test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, D.B.

    1978-06-28

    The report covers the PC-2, C-beam chordal average density measurement made on the loss-of-fluid test (LOFT) primary coolant system hot leg during the L1-4 nonnuclear loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) test conducted May 3, 1977. The P-2, C-beam, or LOFT advanced densitometer, used was of the pulse height analysis/energy discrimination, or nuclear hardened type to be used for LOFT nuclear tests. The L1-4 test verified the applicability of pulse height analysis/energy discrimination techniques of the nuclear hardened gamma densitometer. Test results show that the reactor coolant fluid chordal average density can be calculated from gamma radiation source signal measured count rate data.

  9. Cytenamide–1,4-dioxane (2/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin T. Bedford

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound [systematic name: 5H-dibenzo[a,d]cycloheptatriene-5-carboxamide–1,4-dioxane (2/1], 2C16H13NO·C4H8O2, the cytenamide molecules form a hydrogen-bonded R22(8 dimer. The solvent molecule is located between two adjacent cytenamide dimers and forms N—H...O hydrogen bonds with one cytenamide molecule from each dimer.

  10. 1-Cyclohexyl-6,7-dimethoxy-1,4-dihydronaphthalene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Yuan Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C18H24O2, was isolated from the leaves extract of Ficus carica L. The cyclohexane ring displays a chair conformation whereas the cyclohexa-1,4-diene ring adopts a flattened boat conformation with methyl C atoms at the prow and stern. In the crystal, molecules are linked by weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds into supramolecular chains propagated along the b-axis direction.

  11. Simulation of the Polarized Sky at 1.4 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    O'Sullivan, S P; Taylor, A R; Ricci, R; Grant, J K; Shorten, K

    2009-01-01

    We present results from simulations of the extragalactic polarized sky at 1.4 GHz. As the basis for our polarization models, we use a semi-empirical simulation of the extragalactic total intensity (Stokes I) continuum sky developed at the University of Oxford (http://scubed.physics.ox.ac.uk) under the European SKA Design Study (SKADS) initiative, and polarization distributions derived from analysis of polarization observations. By considering a luminosity dependence for the polarization of AGN, we are able to fit the 1.4 GHz polarized source counts derived from the NVSS and the DRAO ELAIS N1 deep field survey down to approximately 1 mJy. This trend is confirmed by analysis of the polarization of a complete sample of bright AGN. We are unable to fit the additional flattening of the polarized source counts from the deepest observations of the ELAIS N1 survey, which go down to ~0.5 mJy. Below 1 mJy in Stokes I at 1.4 GHz, starforming galaxies become an increasingly important fraction of all radio sources. We use...

  12. Direct Aminolysis of Ethoxycarbonylmethyl 1,4-Dihydropyridine-3-carboxylates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigita Vigante

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ethoxycarbonylmethyl esters of 1,4-dihydropyridines were directly converted into carbamoylmethyl esters in the presence of 1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (TBD in good to excellent yields under mild conditions. The use of TBD is crucial for the successful aminolysis of ethoxycarbonylmethyl ester of 1,4-dihydropyridines with secondary amines as without it the reaction does not proceed at all. The aminolysis reaction proceeded regioselectively, as the alkyl ester conjugated with the 1,4-dihydropyridine cycle was not involved in the reaction. Screening of other N-containing bases, such as triethylamine (TEA, pyridine, 4-(N,N-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP, 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU, 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-ene (DBN, imidazole, tetramethyl guanidine (TMG and 7-methyl-1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (MTBD as catalysts revealed no activity in the studied reaction.

  13. Stable expression of human β1,4-galactosyltransferase in plant cells modifies N-linked glycosylation patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Palacpac, Nirianne Q.; Yoshida, Shohei; Sakai, Hiromi; Kimura, Yoshinobu; Fujiyama, Kazuhito; Yoshida, Toshiomi; Seki, Tatsuji

    1999-01-01

    β1,4-Galactosyltransferase (UDP galactose: β-N-acetylglucosaminide: β1,4-galactosyltransferase; EC 2.4.1.22) catalyzes the transfer of galactose from UDP-Gal to N-acetylglucosamine in the penultimate stages of the terminal glycosylation of N-linked complex oligosaccharides in mammalian cells. Tobacco BY2 cells lack this Golgi enzyme. To determine to what extent the production of a mammalian glycosyltransferase can alter the glycosylation pathway of plant cells, tobacco BY2 suspension-cultured...

  14. Formation of muonic hydrogen at 1/4 torr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muonic hydrogen has been produced at 1, 1/2 and 1/4 Torr H2 pressure using the magnetic bottle technique. At these very low pressures the slowing down time T of negative muons from kinetic energies around 2000 eV until atomic capture could be measured. The time structure of the light produced during the slowing down of the muon in the stop chamber follows the dE/dt function. The time of the sharp decrease in the dE/dt curve (corresponding to kinetic energies around 2000 eV) is determined for each event by fitting the stored light distribution. (Auth.)

  15. Bis[diethyl(hydroxyammonium] benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Ming Xie

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the centrosymmetric title compound, 2C4H12NO+·C8H4O42−, two N,N-diethyl(hydroxyammonium cations are linked to a benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate dianion by a combination of O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds, which can be described in graph-set terminology as R22(7. The crystal structure is further stabilized by C—H...O hydrogen bonds, leading to the fomation of a ribbon-like network.

  16. Spin period evolution of GX 1+4

    CERN Document Server

    González-Galán, A; Kretschmar, P; Larsson, S; Postnov, K; Kochetkova, A; Finger, M H

    2011-01-01

    We report on the long-term evolution of the spin period of the symbiotic X-ray pulsar GX 1+4 and a possible interpretation within a model of quasi-spherical accretion. New period measurements from BeppoSAX/WFC, INTEGRAL/ISGRI and Fermi/GBM observations have been combined with previously published data from four decades of observations. During the 1970's GX 1+4 was spinning up with the fastest rate among the known X-ray pulsars at the time. In the mid 1980's it underwent a change during a period of low X-ray flux and started to spin down with a rate similar in magnitude to the previous spin up rate. The spin period has changed from ~110 s to ~160 s within the last three decades. Our results demonstrate that the overall spin down trend continues and is stronger than ever. We compare the observations with predictions from a model assuming quasi-spherical accretion from the slow wind of the M giant companion.

  17. Vibration testing of a 1/4-scale containment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have undertaken programs to validate soil-structure interactions analysis methods with data that include ground and structural response motions during natural earthquakes and structural response motions from low level vibration tests. The primary source of the data is the 1/4-scale containment building situated in Lotung in a seismically active region of Taiwan. The analysis validation program involves blind predictions of site and structural responses to the vibration test excitations and to a selected strong-motion seismic event, and the subsequent comparison of these predictions with corresponding measurements. The details of these programs are described more fully elsewhere. The present paper focuses on the vibration testing of the model containment structure and the determination of its dynamic characteristics from the experimental data. The 1/4-scale reinforced concrete containment structure, built by EPRI in cooperation with Taiwan Power Company, is located within an array of strong-motion seismographs, known as the SMART-1 array. Figure 1 shows a cross section of the structure. The structure is not a replica model of a typical nuclear power plant containment building. The roof slab had to be made massive to ensure that the fundamental frequencies of the model structure would fall within the frequency range of seismic excitation typical for the site

  18. The fragmentation pattern of 1,4-dioxane ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Robert C.; Huang, Fu-Shiuan; Klippenstein, Stephen J.

    1993-09-01

    Fragmentation of 1,4-dioxane ions at low internal energies was studied by photodissociation in the ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) ion trap. Branching ratios, rate--energy curves and kinetic parameters were assigned for the m/z 58, 57 and 45 fragment ions. M/z 58 is formed through a slightly tight rate-limiting transition state (E0 = 1.46 eV, [Delta]S+1000K = -1.4 e.u.) which probably corresponds to rupture of the dioxane ring. M/z 45 is formed through a tight transition state (E0 = 1.42 eV, [Delta]S++1000K = -10.9 eV) which presumably reflects a cyclic rearrangement pathway. The kinetic data for formation of 57 are almost equally well fitted by assuming competitive (RRKM) fragmentation from the parent ion, or assuming sequential fragmentation through an intermediate 58 ion. If the mechanism is solely competitive, the transition state is extraordinary loose (E0 = 1.87 eV, [Delta]S++1000K = 14.8 e.u.) which would be very surprising for this rearrangement dissociation. Accordingly we lean toward a sequential dissociation mechanism leading to the 57 product, and suggest further experimental testing of this possibility via structural studies of the 57 fragment.

  19. Sorption and desorption of 1,4-dichlorobenzene on peat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Sorption and desorption of 1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB) on peat (>92% organic matter)display large-scale hysteresis and nonlinearity. The magnitude of desorption hysteresis decreases in the order: untreated Pahokee peat (P)>acid treated peat (FP)>humin (TP). The desorption percentages are lower than 28% of the sorbed 1, 4-DCB after desorbing for 6 days. The sorption and desorption isotherms are well fitted to Freundlich equation, whose parameter 1/n ranges from 0.055 to 0.527. Moreover, the parameter 1/n of the desorption isotherm is significantly lower than that of the sorption isotherm, but the parameter IogK increases on contrary to 1/n. The desorption isotherms are very well fitted to Langmuir equation, whose Qm decreases in the order: TP>FP>P.The apparent partition coefficients (Kp) increase with increasing sorption time or decreasing aqueous equilibrium concentration of DCB. And Kp of P is significantly higher than that of FP or TP.

  20. 1,4-Bis(4-bromo-2,6-diisopropylphenyl-1,4-diazabuta-1,3-diene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilia A. Guzei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecule of the title compound, C26H34Br2N2, lies on a crystallographic inversion center and hence the two imine groups are s-trans. The dihedral angle between the central 1,4-diazabuta-1,3-diene unit and the attached substituted phenyl ring is 88.4 (7°. The structure features a C—H...N close contact. The crystal selected for this study proved to be a non-merohedral twin with a minor component of 21.8 (3%.

  1. TPI与TPB共混物的非等温结晶动力学%Nonisothermal Crystallization Behavior of Trans-1,4-polyisoprene and Trans-1,4-polybutadiene Blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗成中; 李皓

    2011-01-01

    Nonisothermal crystallization behavior of trans- 1,4-polyisoprene (TPI) and trans-1,4-polybutadiene (TPB) blends were investigated by WAXD and DSC.The WAXD data indicates that TPI and TPB crystals coexisted.The results shown that the nonisothermal crystallization kinetics of TPI and TPB components was successfully analyzed with modified Avrami equation.The crystallization processes of TPI and TPB (Tp>119 ℃ ) are composed of primary and secondary stages.TPB (Tp<50 ℃ ) shows only one crystallization stage.TPB acts as a heterogeneous nucleation for TPI.%通过WAXD和DSC研究了反式-1,4-聚异戊二烯(TPI)与反式-1,4-聚丁二烯(TPB)共混物的非等温结晶行为.WAXD数据表明了共混物中存在TPI和TPB晶体.结果表明修正的Avrami方程能较适宜的描述TPI和TPB组分的非等温结晶过程.TPI与TPB(Tp>119℃)的结晶分为初级和次级两个结晶阶段,TPB( Tp< 50℃)只表现出一个结晶历程.TPB对TPI的结晶起到异相成核的作用.

  2. Solid Waste Projection Model: Database (Version 1.4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The SWPM system provides a modeling and analysis environment that supports decisions in the process of evaluating various solid waste management alternatives. This document, one of a series describing the SWPM system, contains detailed information regarding the software and data structures utilized in developing the SWPM Version 1.4 Database. This document is intended for use by experienced database specialists and supports database maintenance, utility development, and database enhancement. Those interested in using the SWPM database should refer to the SWPM Database User's Guide. This document is available from the PNL Task M Project Manager (D. L. Stiles, 509-372-4358), the PNL Task L Project Manager (L. L. Armacost, 509-372-4304), the WHC Restoration Projects Section Manager (509-372-1443), or the WHC Waste Characterization Manager (509-372-1193)

  3. 5,5-Dihydroxybarbituric acid 1,4-dioxane hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gelbrich

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound,, C4H4N2O5·0.5C4H8O2, contains one molecule of 5,5-dihydroxybarbituric acid with a nearly planar barbiturate ring and half a molecule of 1,4-dioxane. The geometry of the centrosymmetric dioxane molecule is close to an ideal chair conformation. The crystal structure exhibits a complex three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network. Barbiturate molecules are connected to one another via N—H...O=C, O—H...O=C and N—H...O(hydroxy interactions, while the barbituric acid molecule is linked to dioxane by an O—H...O contact.

  4. Orbital forcing of climate 1.4 billion years ago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Hammarlund, Emma U.;

    2015-01-01

    Fluctuating climate is a hallmark of Earth. As one transcends deep into Earth time, however, both the evidence for and the causes of climate change become difficult to establish. We report geochemical and sedimentological evidence for repeated, short-term climate fluctuations from the exceptionally...... well-preserved ∼1.4-billion-year-old Xiamaling Formation of the North China Craton. We observe two patterns of climate fluctuations: On long time scales, over what amounts to tens of millions of years, sediments of the Xiamaling Formation record changes in geochemistry consistent with long-term changes...... reflect what appear to be orbitally forced changes in wind patterns and ocean circulation as they influenced rates of organic carbon flux, trace metal accumulation, and the source of detrital particles to the sediment....

  5. 1,4-diphenylbutadiyne as a potential tritium getter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on the acetylene compound 1,4-diphenylbutadiyne is an effort to develop an air-operative tritium gas scavenger. T2 adds to the acetylene bond of the organic in the presence of a metal catalyst. The catalyst also stimulates the oxidation reaction as well. The butadiyne compound has shown good reaction efficiency at 300 ppM T2 in static dry air. At this concentration 75% of the scavenged tritium was in the organic. This work has expanded to the investigation of liquid acetylenes, metal acetylene complexes, organometallics and acetylene based alcohols. The best of these compounds has gettered 100% of 10 to 500 ppM T2 for both static and dynamic air flow conditions

  6. N-(3-Bromo-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydro-2-naphthyl-2-chloro-N-(2-chlorobenzoylbenzamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel S. Akinboye

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C24H12BrCl2NO4, was synthesized from 2-amino-3-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone and 2-chlorobenzoyl chloride. The crystal structure shows that each of the chlorophenyl rings is inclined at about 60° to the naphthoquinone ring system. The two chlorophenyl rings adopt a conformation that ensures that chlorine substituents are anti so as to reduce electronic repulsion. An examination of the packing shows close O...Br and Cl...Cl contacts of 2.947 (2 and 3.346 (1 Å, respectively. In addition, the molecules are linked by weak intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...Cl interactions.

  7. Hydrogen attack mechanisms in a 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo welded steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of a highly sensitive dilatometer the HA kinetics of a 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel plate and its weld metal were studied in the temperature and pressure regimes of 500-5800C and 2000-3000 PSI, respectively. The kinetic data generated from these experiments were explained using a model for bubble growth controlled by grain boundary self diffusion and the kinetic expressions corresponding to the BM and WM were used to construct Nelson diagrams. Moreover, a thorough microstructural analysis was carried out by employing scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The microstructural evaluation consisted of qualitative and quantitative determination of methane bubbles from electropolished specimens and two-stage replicas. Finally, based on microstructural observations the role of initial microporosity in the as received material on the subsequent development of methane bubbles and the effect of HA exposure times on further nucleation was investigated

  8. Keeping Your Heart Healthy: What You Should Know about Lipids When You Have Chronic Kidney Disease (Stages 1-4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jelly beans and hard candy; plain popcorn Chocolate, potato chips, nachos, buttered popcorn Fruit juices, tea, coffee, ... for transplantation. With offices nationwide, the NKF provides early detection screenings and other vital patient and community ...

  9. Spin period evolution of GX 1+4

    CERN Document Server

    González-Galán, A; Kretschmar, P; Larsson, S; Postnov, K; Kochetkova, A; Finger, M H

    2011-01-01

    We aim both to complement the existing data on the spin history of the peculiar accreting X-ray pulsar GX 1+4 with more past and current data from BeppoSAX, INTEGRAL, and Fermi and to interpret the evolution in the framework of accretion theory. We used source light curves obtained from BeppoSAX/WFC and INTEGRAL/ISGRI to derive pulse periods using an epoch-folding analysis. Fermi/GBM data were analyzed by fitting a constant plus a Fourier expansion to background-subtracted rates, and maximizing the Y2 statistic. We completed the sample with hard X-ray light curves from Swift/BAT. The data were checked for correlations between flux and changes of the pulsar spin on different timescales. The spin-down of the pulsar continues with a constant change in frequency, i.e., an apparently accelerating change in the period. Over the past three decades, the pulse period has increased by about ~50%. Short-term fluctuations on top of this long-term trend do show anti-correlation with the source flux. Possible explanations ...

  10. Deep 1.4-GHz observations of diffuse polarized emission

    CERN Document Server

    Carretti, E; Reich, W; Reich, P; Fürst, E; Bernardi, G; Cortiglioni, S; Sbarra, C

    2006-01-01

    Polarized diffuse emission observations at 1.4-GHz in a high Galactic latitude area of the northern Celestial hemisphere are presented. The 3.2 X 3.2 deg^2 field, centred at RA = 10h 58m, Dec = +42deg 18' (B1950), has Galactic coordinates l~172deg, b~+63deg and is located in the region selected as northern target of the BaR-SPOrt experiment. Observations have been performed with the Effelsberg 100-m telescope. We find that the angular power spectra of the E- and B-modes have slopes of beta_E = -1.79 +/- 0.13 and beta_B = -1.74 +/- 0.12, respectively. Because of the very high Galactic latitude and the smooth emission, a weak Faraday rotation action is expected, which allows both a fair extrapolation to Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization (CMBP) frequencies and an estimate of the contamination by Galactic synchrotron emission. We extrapolate the E-mode spectrum up to 32-GHz and confirm the possibility to safely detect the CMBP E-mode signal in the Ka band found in another low emission region (Carretti et a...

  11. Active flow control on a 1:4 car model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Till; Springer, Matthias; Lienhart, Hermann; Kniesburges, Stefan; Othmer, Carsten; Becker, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Lift and drag of a passenger car are strongly influenced by the flow field around its rear end. The bluff body geometry produces a detached, transient flow which induces fluctuating forces on the body, affecting the rear axle, which may distress dynamic stability and comfort significantly. The investigations presented here deal with a 1:4 scale model of a simplified test car geometry that produces fluctuating lift and drag due to its strongly rounded rear geometry. To examine the influence of active flow control on this behavior, steady air jets were realized to exhaust from thin slots across the rear in three different configurations. Investigations were performed at and included the capturing of effective integral lift and drag, velocity measurements in the surrounding flow field with Laser Doppler Anemometry, surface pressure measurements and surface oil flow visualization on the rear. The flow field was found to be dominated by two longitudinal vortices, developing from the detachment of the flow at the upper C-pillar positions, and a recirculating, transverse vortex above the rear window. With an air jet emerging from a slot across the surface right below the rear window section, tangentially directed upstream toward the roof section, total lift could be reduced by more than 7 %, with rear axle lift reduction of about 5 % and negligible drag affection (1 %).

  12. Crystal structure of (μ-1,4-dicarboxybutane-1,4-dicarboxylatobis[bis(triphenylphosphanesilver(I] dichloromethane trisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Frenzel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The molecular structure of the tetrakis(triphenylphosphanyldisilver salt of butane-1,1,4,4-tetracarboxylic acid, [Ag2(C8H8O8(C18H15P4]·3CH2Cl2, crystallizes with one and a half molecules of dichloromethane in the asymmetric unit. The coordination complex exhibits an inversion centre through the central CH2—CH2 bond. The AgI atom has a distorted trigonal–planar P2O coordination environment. The packing is characterized by intermolecular T-shaped π–π interactions between the phenyl rings of the PPh3 substituents in neighbouring molecules, forming a ladder-type superstructure parallel to [010]. These ladders are arranged in layers parallel to (101. Intramolecular hydrogen bonds between the OH group and one O atom of the Ag-bonded carboxylate group results in an asymmetric bidendate coordination of the carboxylate moiety to the AgI ion.

  13. LIP: The Livermore Interpolation Package, Version 1.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, F N

    2011-07-06

    to functions that interpolate or invert the interpolant at an arbitrary number of points. The first section of this report describes the overall design of the package, including both forward and inverse interpolation. Sections 2-6 describe each interpolation method in detail. The software that implements this design is summarized function-by-function in Section 7. For a complete example of package usage, refer to Section 8. The report concludes with a few brief notes on possible software enhancements. For guidance on adding other functional forms to LIP, refer to Appendix B. The reader who is primarily interested in using LIP to solve a problem should skim Section 1, then skip to Sections 7.1-4. Finally, jump ahead to Section 8 and study the example. The remaining sections can be referred to in case more details are desired. Changes since version 1.1 of this document include the new Section 3.2.1 that discusses derivative estimation and new Section 6 that discusses the birational interpolation method. Section numbers following the latter have been modified accordingly.

  14. Catecholato complexes of cobalt and nickel with 1,4-disubstituted-1,4-diazabutadiens-1,3 and 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Michael P Bubnov; Irina A Teplova; Nikolay O Druzhkov; Georgy K Fukin; Anna V Cherkasova; Vladimir K Cherkasov

    2015-03-01

    Divalent cobalt and nickel form four-coordinate complexes with sterically hindered 3,6-di-tert-butylcatecholato dianion (3,6-DBCat) and neutral bidentate 1,4-disubstituted-1,4-diazabutadiens-1,3 (DAB). Structural study of (1,4-di-tert-butyl-1,4-diazabutadiene-1,3)(3,6-di-tert-butyl-catecolato)nickel and (1,4-bis-(2,6-di-iso-propylphenyl)-2,3-dimethyl-1,4-diazabutadiene-1,3)(3,6-di-tert-butyl-catecolato)cobalt indicates square-planar environment of metals. Chemical one-electron oxidation of nickel complexes proceeds through catecholate ligand and leads to o-semiquinonato adducts. EPR spectral parameters indicate preservation of square-planar configuration after oxidation. Complexes (DAB)M(Cat) (M = Ni, Co) undergo neutral ligand substitution reactions.

  15. Monocarboxylate transporters 1-4 in NSCLC: MCT1 is an independent prognostic marker for survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte Eilertsen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs 1-4 are lactate transporters crucial for cancers cells adaption to upregulated glycolysis. Herein, we aimed to explore their prognostic impact on disease-specific survival (DSS in both cancer and tumor stromal cells in NSCLC. METHODS: Tissue micro arrays (TMAs were constructed, representing both cancer and stromal tumor tissue from 335 unselected patients diagnosed with stage I-IIIA NSCLC. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expression of MCT1-4. RESULTS: In univariate analyses; ↓ MCT1 (P = 0.021 and ↑ MCT4 (P = 0.027 expression in cancer cells, and ↑ MCT1 (P = 0.003, ↓ MCT2 (P = 0.006, ↓ MCT3 (P = 0.020 expression in stromal cells correlated significantly with a poor DSS. In multivariate analyses; ↓ MCT1 expression in cancer cells (HR: 1.9, CI 95%: 1.3-2.8, P = 0.001, ↓ MCT2 (HR: 2.4, CI 95%: 1.5-3.9, P<0.001, ↓ MCT3 (HR: 1.9, CI 95%: 1.1-3.5, P = 0.031 and ↑ MCT1 expression in stromal cells (HR: 1.7, CI 95%: 1.1-2.7, P = 0.016 were significant independent poor prognostic markers for DSS. CONCLUSIONS: We provide novel information of MCT1 as a candidate marker for prognostic stratification in NSCLC. Interestingly, MCT1 shows diverging, independent prognostic impact in the cancer cell and stromal cell compartments.

  16. Esophageal Cancer Staging

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate staging of esophageal cancer is very important to achieving optimal treatment outcomes. The AJCC (American Joint Committee on Cancer) first published TNM esophageal cancer staging recommendations in the first edition of their staging manual in 1977. Thereafter, the staging of esophageal cancer was changed many times over the years. This article reviews the current status of staging of esophageal cancer.

  17. Phase relation of LaFe11.6Si1.4 compounds annealed at different high-temperature and the magnetic property of LaFe11.6−CoSi1.4 compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiang Chen; Yungui Chen; Yongbai Tang

    2012-04-01

    LaFe11.6Si1.4 compounds are annealed at different high temperatures from 1323 to 1623 K. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns show that large amount of NaZn13-type phase begins to be observed in LaFe11.6Si1.4 compound after being annealed at 1423 K for 5 h. In the temperature range from 1423 to 1523 K, the -Fe and LaFeSi phases rapidly decrease to form 1:13 phase. LaFeSi phase is rarely observed in the XRD pattern in the LaFe11.6Si1.4 compound annealed at 1523 K (5 h).With annealing temperature increasing to 1573 K and 1673 K, La5Si3 phase is detected, and there is a certain amount of LaFeSi phase when the annealing temperature is 1673 K. The amount of impurity phases in the LaFe11.6Si1.4 compound annealed by the two-stage annealing consisting of high temperature (>1523 K) and 1523 K is larger than that of the single stage annealing at 1523 K under the same time. According to the results of different high-temperature annealing, LaFe11.6−CoSi1.4 (0.1 ≤ ≤ 0.8) compounds are annealed at 1523 K (5 h). The main phase is NaZn13-type phase, and the impurity phase is a small amount of -Fe in LaFe11.6−CoSi1.4 compounds. With increase in Co content from = 0.1 to 0.8, the Curie temperature C, goes up from 207 to 285 K. The introduction of Co element weakens the itinerant electron metamagnetic transition, and also results in the change of magnetic transition type from first to second order at about = 0.5. The magnetic entropy change decreases from 19.94 to 4.57 J /kg K with increasing Co concentration at a low magnetic field of 0–2 T. But the magnetic hysteresis loss around C reduces remarkably from 26.2 J /kg for = 0.1 to 0 J /kg for = 0.8.

  18. Staging in oesophageal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plukker, J. Th. M.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate staging defines groups for stage-specific treatment, minimising inappropriate treatment. Application of dedicated staging methods - including 16-64 multidetector computed tomography (CT), endoscopic ultrasonography with fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and positron emission tomography (PET)

  19. Early-Stage Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Diagnosis Early-Stage Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Find your local Chapter Zip code: Search by state Get Weekly E-News Stay up-to-date on Alzheimer's treatments and care. First ...

  20. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000397.htm Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  1. Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC View/Download: Small: 734x648 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Description: Drawing of stage IIIC ...

  2. Ovarian Cancer Stage IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Ovarian Cancer Stage IV View/Download: Small: 576x641 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Description: Drawing of stage IV ...

  3. The United Kingdom's results using CRAMP for stage 1A and stage 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following an IWGFR Specialists Meeting on the Predictions and Experience of Core Distortion Behaviour, 1-4 October 1984 it was agreed to compare structural mechanics computer codes. This report contains the UK's solution to the stage 1A further verification problems and the stage 2 validation problems based on Japanese Ex-reactor data using the computer code CRAMP. (author). 4 refs, 4 figs, 22 tabs

  4. Start-up of flow of a FENE-fluid through a 4:1:4 constriction in a tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter; Rallison, J.M.; Hinch, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    The flow of a FENE-fluid through a 4:1:4 constriction in a tube is computed by a split Lagrangian-Eulerian finite element method. In steady flow it is found that the upstream vortex grows with increasing Deborah number, while the downstream vortex diminishes and disappears. The steady pressure dr...... decreases with Deborah number unless the finite extensibility $L$ is quite small. Starting from rest at high Deborah number, the upstream vortex grows in two stages, each with their own time scales. A simple model of this growth is proposed....

  5. Over expression of beta-1, 4-xylanase by auto-induction in E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalytic domain of β-1, 4-xylanase gene, (xynZ.CD) of Clostridium thermocellum was cloned in pET28a expression vector and over-expressed in Escherichia colt BL21 CodonPlus (RIL). The production of XynZ.CD in E. colt was optimized using different concentrations of lactose and induction of the enzyme at different stages of growth. The maximum growth of the cells and the enzyme activity were observed when the cells were induced with 10mM lactose after 8 hours of incubation. The enzyme was found to constitute >40% of the total cell proteins in the supernatant of the lysed cells transformed with recombinant pET28a/xynZ.CD. It was purified by heating the cell lysate at 65 degree C for 30 m followed by fractionation through FPLC. Molecular weight of XynZ.CD was found to be approximately 38,524 D by MALDI-TOF analysis. The enzyme variant was quite stable within broad pH range of 5.5 - 8.0 and it retained >85% of xylanase activity after 2 h incubation at 70 degre C. (author)

  6. 40 CFR 721.1193 - Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. 721... Substances § 721.1193 Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy- (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10096 - Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. 721... Substances § 721.10096 Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)- (PMN...

  8. Urea derivatives on the basis of 6-amino benzo-1.4-dioxan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present work is devoted to urea derivatives on the basis of 6-amino benzo-1.4-dioxan. The results of studies of condensation of 6-amino benzo-1.4-dioxan with urea and its derivatives are given. The new urea derivatives synthesized by fragment of 1.4-dioxan. (author)

  9. Comparative Studies on Mass Spectrometric Fragmentation of Linear Chiral Secondary Alcohols (R) -1-(4-Alkylphenyl) and (R) -1-(4-Alkoxyphenyl/Alkylthiophenyl) Alcohols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Mass spectrometric behaviour of (R)-1-(4-alkylphenyl) alcohols, 1-(4-alkoxylphenyl) alcohols, and 1-(4-alkylthiophenyl) alcohols were studied with the aid of mass-analyzed ion kinetic energy spectrometry under electron impact ionization. All the title compounds show a tendency to eliminate a water molecule to form alkene ions and undergo an a-cleavage to produce protonated aldehyde ions by the loss of alkyl radicals. Except these two common fragment ions, they also show some different fragmentations due to with or without oxy/thioether-linkage.

  10. Degradation of 1,4-Dioxane and Cyclic Ethers by an Isolated Fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamiya, Kunichika; Hashimoto, Syunji; Ito, Hiroyasu; Edmonds, John S.; Morita, Masatoshi

    2005-01-01

    By using 1,4-dioxane as the sole source of carbon, a 1,4-dioxane-degrading microorganism was isolated from soil. The fungus, termed strain A, was able to utilize 1,4-dioxane and many kinds of cyclic ethers as the sole source of carbon and was identified as Cordyceps sinensis from its 18S rRNA gene sequence. Ethylene glycol was identified as a degradation product of 1,4-dioxane by the use of deuterated 1,4-dioxane-d8 and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. A degradation pathway invo...

  11. Antimicrobial activity of 1,4-naphthoquinones by metal complexation Atividade antimicrobiana de 1,4-naftoquinonas por complexação com metais

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano Brandelli; Delmar Bizani; Márcia Martinelli; Valter Stefani; Annelise Engel Gerbase

    2004-01-01

    The effect of metal complexation on the antimicrobial activity of 1,4-naphthoquinones was investigated. Nickel-, chromium-, iron-, copper-, and cobalt-containing metal chelates of 5-amino-8-hydroxy-1,4-naphtoquinone (2) and its acyl-derivatives (3-8) were synthesized and characterized, and their antimicrobial activity was evaluated. Data from infrared spectroscopy indicate that naphthoquinones coordinate through oxygen and nitrogen atoms for 2, and through oxygen atoms when ligands were acyl ...

  12. Progress on patent technology of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol%1,4-环己烷二甲醇专利生产技术进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琰; 张茵; 李慧文

    2003-01-01

    1,4-环己烷二甲醇是重要的聚酯生产原料之一,本文以反应原料划分,综述了1,4-环己烷二甲醇的专利生产技术及技术经济比较,为我国聚酯工业的发展提供参考.

  13. Formation and actions of calcium-mobilizing messenger, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of surface membrane receptors can activate a phospholipase C, which degrades phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate liberating a calcium mobilizing second messenger, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [(1,4,5)IP3]. The coupling of surface receptors to the phospholipase C involves one or more quanine nucleotide-dependent regulatory proteins that are similar but not identical to those that regulate adenylate cyclase. (1,4,5)IP3 has been shown to release Ca2+ from a portion of the endoplasmic reticulum and is believed responsible for the initial phase of Ca2+ mobilization ascribed to internal Ca2+ release. (1,4,5)IP3 acts by binding to a specific receptor that either is a component of, or regulates, a Ca2+ ion channel. The release of Ca2+ from the (1,4,5)IP3-sensitive component of the endoplasmic reticulum may secondarily activate the second phase of Ca2+ mobilization, which involves Ca2+ entry. (1,4,5)IP3 is metabolized by two pathways. One involves the action of a 5-phosphatase that degrades (1,4,5)IP3 to inositol 1,4-bisphosphate, whereas the other involves a 3-kinase that phosphorylates (1,4,5)IP3 to produce inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate. The significance of this dual metabolism is not known, but it may be important in rapidly extinguishing the Ca2+-releasing activity (1,4,5)IP3

  14. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  15. Stages of Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  16. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 Description: Stage III pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas, common hepatic artery, and portal vein. Also shown ... and superior mesenteric artery. Stage III pancreatic cancer. Cancer ... near the pancreas. These include the superior mesenteric artery, celiac axis, ...

  17. Staging of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which therapy (or therapies) should be used. Second, lung cancer staging tells how much your cancer has spread. Knowing ... your body. How good are these tests at staging lung cancer? If your biopsy finds cancer cells, this is ...

  18. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the body, such as the lymph nodes, lung, liver, intestine, or bone. Stage IVB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, Medical Illustration Source: National Cancer Institute ...

  19. Seven Stages of Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find your chapter: search by state Home > Alzheimer's Disease > Stages Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? Younger/Early Onset Facts and Figures Know the 10 Signs Stages Inside the Brain: ...

  20. Dynamic Stage Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Florian von Hofen[GER

    2013-01-01

    Concepts and methods for dynamic stage designs were introduced ranging from different ifelds of TV live shows, exhibitions and theatre performances, and a special emphasis was put on solution to the theatre stage design.

  1. Staging Bipolar Disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Vieta i Pascual, Eduard, 1963-; Reinares, M.; Rosa, A. R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the evidence supporting a staging model for bipolar disorder. The authors conducted an extensive Medline and Pubmed search of the published literature using a variety of search terms (staging, bipolar disorder, early intervention) to find relevant articles, which were reviewed in detail. Only recently specific proposals have been made to apply clinical staging to bipolar disorder. The staging model in bipolar disorder suggests a progression from prodro...

  2. Two-Stage Bandits

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, Murray K.; Witmer, Jeffrey A.

    1988-01-01

    Two stochastic processes, or "arms," that yield dichotomous responses are available for use in a two-stage decision problem. During the first stage, arms are chosen sequentially; the resulting observations are discounted by a fixed value $\\beta$. A single arm must be used in the second stage, in which observations are not discounted. The decision to end the first stage is based on the data obtained. Optimal strategies are considered in the presence of the random discount sequence that arises ...

  3. Electrochemical selenium- and iodonium-initiated cyclisation of hydroxy-functionalised 1,4-dienes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Röse

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cobalt(I-catalysed 1,4-hydrovinylation reaction of allyloxytrimethylsilane and allyl alcohol with substituted 1,3-dienes leads to hydroxy-functionalised 1,4-dienes in excellent regio- and diastereoselective fashion. Those 1,4-dienols can be converted into tetrahydrofuran and pyran derivatives under indirect electrochemical conditions generating selenium or iodonium cations. The reactions proceed in good yields and regioselectivities for the formation of single diastereomers.

  4. Highly regioselective synthesis of novel 1,4'-bipyrazoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Marcos A.P.; Fiss, Gabriela F.; Frizzo, Clarissa P.; Rosa, Fernanda A.; Bonacorso, Helio G.; Zanatta, Nilo [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Nucleo de Quimica de Heterociclos

    2010-07-01

    Novel 1,4'-bipyrazoles were synthesized via highly regioselective cyclocondensation reactions of beta-dimethylaminoenones with hydrazine monohydrate, tert-butylhydrazine hydrochloride, phenylhydrazine hydrochloride or carboxymethylhydrazine. X-ray diffraction technique was used in the elucidation of the regiochemistry of the beta-dimethylaminoenaminones and of the 1,4'-bipyrazoles. 1,4'-Bipyrazolylisoxazoles were also reported. (author)

  5. Beyond Erikson's Eight Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Ruth

    1979-01-01

    Erik Erikson has described eight stages of the healthy personality. This essay offers a revised version of the eight stages. Although most individuals develop through the eight stages, each is personally unique because patterns of fluctuation between safety and growth differ from one individual to another. (Author)

  6. Staging Mobilities / Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2015-01-01

    people are ‘staging themselves’ (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between ‘being staged’ (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the ‘mobile staging’ of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging mobilities is about the fact that mobility is...

  7. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; drawing ...

  8. H5dotasa (=(alphaRS)-alpha-(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid), an Asymmetrical Derivative of H4dota (=1,4,7,10-Tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic Acid) Substituted at One Acetate Pendant Arm: 1H-NMR and Potentiometric Studies of the Ligand and Its Lanthanide(III) Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    André, João P.; Brücher, Ernö; Kiraly, Robert; Carvalho, Rui A.; Mäcke, Helmut; Geraldes, Carlos F. G. C.

    2005-01-01

    The ligand H5dotasa (=(alphaRS)-alpha-(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) is a H4dota-like macrocyclic ligand with a carboxymethyl CH2COOH substituent at the C(alpha) atom of one of the four acetate pendant arms of H4dota (=1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid), present as a racemic mixture of (alphaR) and (alphaS) enantiomers. The protonation constants of the ligand were determined by potentiometry, giving values close to those of H4d...

  9. Deracemizacija (RS)-1-[(4-metilselanil)fenil]etanola i (RS)-1-[(4-etilselanil)fenil]etanola s pomoću sojeva Aspergillus terreus

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes Assis, Leonardo; Kagohara, Edna; Takeo Omori, Álvaro; Valdir Comasseto, João; Helgueira Andrade, Leandro; Meleiro Porto, André Luiz

    2007-01-01

    Sojevi plijesni Aspergillus terreus URM 3371 i A. terreus CCT 4083, izolirani u Brazilu, katalizirali su deracemizaciju (RS)-1-[(4-metilselanil)fenil]etanola (1) i (RS)-1-[(4-etilselanil)fenil]etanola (2). Upotrijebljene su cijele stanice plijesni različite mase (1-5 g), pri različitoj pH-vrijednosti (4 i 7) i temperaturi biotransformacije (20 i 32 °C), uz dodatak raznih aditiva (etanol, butanol, propanol i cikloheksanol) radi poboljšanja prinosa i selektivnosti proizvoda. Soj A. terreus URM ...

  10. Efficient and Simple Synthesis of 6-Aryl-1,4-dimethyl-9H-carbazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Rault

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic method for the preparation of 6-aryl-1,4-dimethyl-9H-carbazoles involving a palladium catalyzed coupling reaction of 1,4-dimethyl-9H-carbazole-6-boronic acids and (heteroaryl halides is described.

  11. 37 CFR 1.4 - Nature of correspondence and signature requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 1.4, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nature of correspondence and... General Information and Correspondence § 1.4 Nature of correspondence and signature requirements....

  12. 26 CFR 1.4-4 - Short taxable year caused by death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Short taxable year caused by death. 1.4-4 Section... Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.4-4 Short taxable year caused by death. An individual making a return for a... results from the death of the taxpayer. Tax on Corporations...

  13. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-2 - Site nomination for characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Site nomination for characterization. 960.3-1-4-2 Section... SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-2 Site nomination for characterization. The evidence required to support the nomination of a site as suitable for characterization...

  14. The crystal structure and physicochemical characteristics of 2-hydroxy-N-[3(5)-pyrazolyl]-1,4-naphthoquinone-4-imine, a new antitrypanosomal compound

    OpenAIRE

    Sperandeo, Norma R.; Karlsson, Alicia; Cuffini, Silvia; Pagola, Silvina; Stephens, Peter W.

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the physical characteristics and crystalline structure of 2-hydroxy-N-[3(5)-pyrazolyl]-1,4-naphthoquinone-4-imine (PNQ), a new active compound againstTrypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of American trypanosomiasis. Methods used included differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, hot stage microscopy, polarized light microscopy (PLM), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction (HR-XRPD). Accor...

  15. Characterization of Cu1.4Te Thin Films for CdTe Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangcan Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The copper telluride thin films were prepared by a coevaporation technique. The single-phase Cu1.4Te thin films could be obtained after annealing, and annealing temperature higher than 220°C could induce the presence of cuprous telluride coexisting phase. Cu1.4Te thin films also demonstrate the high carrier concentration and high reflectance for potential photovoltaic applications from the UV-visible-IR transmittance and reflectance spectra, and Hall measurements. With contacts such as Cu1.4Te and Cu1.4Te/CuTe, cell efficiencies comparable to those with conventional back contacts have been achieved. Temperature cycle tests show that the Cu1.4Te contact buffer has also improved cell stability.

  16. Implications of matrix diffusion on 1,4-dioxane persistence at contaminated groundwater sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, David T; de Blanc, Phillip C; Farhat, Shahla K; Newell, Charles J

    2016-08-15

    Management of groundwater sites impacted by 1,4-dioxane can be challenging due to its migration potential and perceived recalcitrance. This study examined the extent to which 1,4-dioxane's persistence was subject to diffusion of mass into and out of lower-permeability zones relative to co-released chlorinated solvents. Two different release scenarios were evaluated within a two-layer aquifer system using an analytical modeling approach. The first scenario simulated a 1,4-dioxane and 1,1,1-TCA source zone where spent solvent was released. The period when 1,4-dioxane was actively loading the low-permeability layer within the source zone was estimated to be solvent source zones, suggesting that back diffusion of 1,4-dioxane mass may be serving as the dominant long-term "secondary source" at many contaminated sites that must be managed using alternative approaches. PMID:27096631

  17. Mn1.4Co1.4Cu0.2O4 spinel protective coating on ferritic stainless steels for solid oxide fuel cell interconnect applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoyi; Xin, Xianshuang; Luo, Ting; Liu, Leimin; Zhou, Yuchun; Yuan, Chun; Lin, Chucheng; Zhan, Zhongliang; Wang, Shaorong

    2015-03-01

    In an attempt to reduce the oxidation and Cr evaporation rates of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), Mn1.4Co1.4Cu0.2O4 spinel coating is developed on the Crofer22 APU ferritic stainless steel substrate by a powder reduction technique. Doping of Cu into Mn-Co spinels improves electrical conductivity as well as thermal expansion match with the Crofer22 APU interconnect. Good adhesion between the coating and the alloy substrate is achieved by the reactive sintering process using the reduced powders. Long-term isothermal oxidation experiment and area specific resistance (ASR) measurement are investigated. The ASR is less than 4 mΩ cm2 even though the coated alloy undergoes oxidation at 800 °C for 530 h and four thermal cycles from 800 °C to room temperature. The Mn1.4Co1.4Cu0.2O4 spinel coatings demonstrate excellent anti-oxidation performance and long-term stability. It exhibits a promising prospect for the practical application of SOFC alloy interconnect.

  18. Staged electrostatic precipitator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Stanley J.; Almlie, Jay C.; Zhuang, Ye

    2016-03-01

    A device includes a chamber having an air inlet and an air outlet. The device includes a plurality of stages including at least a first stage adjacent a second stage. The plurality of stages are disposed in the chamber and each stage has a plurality of discharge electrodes disposed in an interior region and is bounded by an upstream baffle on an end proximate the air inlet and bounded by a downstream baffle on an end proximate the air outlet. Each stage has at least one sidewall between the upstream baffle and the downstream baffle. The sidewall is configured as a collection electrode and has a plurality of apertures disposed along a length between the upstream baffle and the downstream baffle. The upstream baffle of the first stage is positioned in staggered alignment relative to the upstream baffle of the second stage and the downstream baffle of the first stage are positioned in staggered alignment relative to the downstream baffle of the second stage.

  19. Multiple stage railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator for accelerating a projectile by movement of a plasma arc along the rails. The railgun is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources as the projectile moves through the bore of the railgun. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can be prevented by connection of the energy sources to the rails through isolation diodes. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails into electrically isolated rail sections. In such case means are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse or laser device is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage

  20. The other stage

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Christopher Stephen Williamson

    2012-01-01

    An interactive electroacoustic music composition and solo mixed-media performance realized as an alternatively-staged one-night concert event. This project examines the tradition of staging live electronic music and the role of a solo computer music composer-performer. It is a four-movement interactive work with an appended generative music system performed solo within an alternative stage layout. It is derived from an interdisciplinary practice of combining electroacoustic music and electro...

  1. Antimicrobial activity of 1,4-naphthoquinones by metal complexation Atividade antimicrobiana de 1,4-naftoquinonas por complexação com metais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Brandelli

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of metal complexation on the antimicrobial activity of 1,4-naphthoquinones was investigated. Nickel-, chromium-, iron-, copper-, and cobalt-containing metal chelates of 5-amino-8-hydroxy-1,4-naphtoquinone (2 and its acyl-derivatives (3-8 were synthesized and characterized, and their antimicrobial activity was evaluated. Data from infrared spectroscopy indicate that naphthoquinones coordinate through oxygen and nitrogen atoms for 2, and through oxygen atoms when ligands were acyl derivatives 3-8. Susceptibility tests for antimicrobial activity showed that 2 and its acyl derivatives were effective on inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis and Bacillus cereus, but not Gram-negative bacteria. The metal complexation often caused decrease of biological activity. Nickel complex of 2 was the most effective against Gram-positive bacteria, showing MIC values ranging from 375 to 1400 mg/ml. Metal chelates may be useful tools for the understanding of the antimicrobial mechanism of 1,4-naphthoquinones on these bacteria.O efeito da complexação com metais sobre a atividade antimicrobiana de 1,4-naftoquinonas foi investigado. Complexos contendo níquel, cromo, ferro, cobre e cobalto da 5-amino-8-hidroxi-1,4-naftoquinona (2 e seus acil-derivados (3-8 foram sintetizados e caracterizados e sua atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada. Dados de espectroscopia de infravermelho indicaram que as naftoquinonas coordenam os metais através dos átomos de oxigênio e nitrogênio para 2 e através de átomos de oxigênio, quando os ligantes são os acil-derivados 3-8. Testes de sensibilidade antimicrobiana demonstraram que 2 e seus derivados foram efetivos na inibição do crescimento de bactérias patogênicas como Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis e Bacillus cereus, mas não apresentaram efeito contra bactérias Gram-negativas. A complexação de metais geralmente causou diminuição da

  2. Biodegradation Kinetics of 1,4-Dioxane in Chlorinated Solvent Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Gedalanga, Phillip B; Mahendra, Shaily

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the impacts of individual chlorinated solvents and their mixtures on aerobic 1,4-dioxane biodegradation by Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190. The established association of these co-occurring compounds suggests important considerations for their respective biodegradation processes. Our kinetics and mechanistic studies demonstrated that individual solvents inhibited biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane in the following order: 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) > cis-1,2-diochloroethene (cDCE) > trichloroethene (TCE) > 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA). The presence of 5 mg L(-1) 1,1-DCE completely inhibited 1,4-dioxane biodegradation. Subsequently, we determined that 1,1-DCE was the strongest inhibitor of 1,4-dioxane biodegradation by bacterial pure cultures exposed to chlorinated solvent mixtures as well as in environmental samples collected from a site contaminated with chlorinated solvents and 1,4-dioxane. Inhibition of 1,4-dioxane biodegradation rates by chlorinated solvents was attributed to delayed ATP production and down-regulation of both 1,4-dioxane monooxygenase (dxmB) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (aldH) genes. Moreover, increasing concentrations of 1,1-DCE and cis-1,2-DCE to 50 mg L(-1) respectively increased 5.0-fold and 3.5-fold the expression of the uspA gene encoding a universal stress protein. In situ natural attenuation or enhanced biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane is being considered for contaminated groundwater and industrial wastewater, so these results will have implications for selecting 1,4-dioxane bioremediation strategies at sites where chlorinated solvents are present as co-contaminants. PMID:27486928

  3. [Cytogenetic effects of 1,4-dihydropyridine in various test systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhir, T D; Goncharova, R I; Zolotareva, G N

    1984-01-01

    Cytogenetic effect of 1,4-dihydropyridine was studied in different test-systems. The preparation is shown to decrease the level of complete sex-chromosome losses in Drosophila and chromosome aberration frequency in Allium fistulosum seedlings. The preparation does not affect spontaneous mutability of bone marrow cells in mice, high doses of the preparation have no mutagenic potential. Thus, 1,4-dihydropyridine shows antimutagenic activity reducing the chromosome mutation level in sex and somatic cells of eucaryotic organisms. Absence of the effect on mice chromosomes may testify to the specificity of 1,4-dihydropyridine action. PMID:6506216

  4. Synthesis and antiinflammatory activity of 6-Acylsubstituted benzo-1,4-dioxanes and dihydrobenzopyrans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daukshas, V.K.; Brukshtus, A.B.; Gaidyalis, P.G.; Pyatrauskas, O.Yu.; Udrenaite, E.B.

    1986-07-01

    6-Acylsubstituted benzo-1,4-dioxanes and dihydrobenzopyrans were synthesized by the Friedel-Crafts reaction by the acylation of benzo-1,4-dioxane or corresponding dihydrobenzopyran with an acid chloride in the presence of anhydrous AlCl/sub 3/; the ketone was obtained by the hydrogenation of the chalcone using Raney nickel. The antiinflammatory activity was studied on experimental models of carragheen and bentonite edema of the foot of white rats. Results indicate that derivatives of benzo-1,4-dioxane and dihydrobenzopyran of the type studied show promise as antiinflammatory agents.

  5. Functionalization of anthracene: A selective route to brominated 1,4-anthraquinones

    OpenAIRE

    Kiymet Berkil Akar; Osman Cakmak; Orhan Büyükgüngör; Ertan Sahin

    2011-01-01

    Efficient and stereoselective syntheses are described for the preparation of 2,3,9,10-tetrabromo-1,4-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroanthracenes 7, 8 and the corresponding 1,4-diol 17 by silver ion-assisted solvolysis of hexabromotetrahydroanthracene 6. Base-promoted aromatization of 7 and 8 afforded synthetically valuable tribromo-1-methoxyanthracenes 10 and 11. The reaction of 17 with sodium methoxide generated tribromodihydroanthracene-1,4-diol 27, whose oxidation with PCC gave 2,9,10-tribromo...

  6. Copper-promoted synthesis of 1,4-benzodiazepinones via alkene diamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karyakarte, Shuklendu D.; Sequeira, Fatima C.; Zibreg, Garrick H.; Huang, Guoqing; Matthew, Josiah P.; Ferreira, Marina M. M.

    2015-01-01

    A new method for the synthesis of 2-aminomethyl functionalized 1,4-benzodiazepin-5-ones is presented. The benzodiazepine core is well-known to interact with biological receptors and many pharmaceutical drugs are derived from this structure. The alkene diamination strategy is employed for the first time for the synthesis of 1,4-benzodiazepinones. In this reaction, copper(2-ethylhexanoate)2 serves as promoter and a range of external amines can be coupled with 2-sulfonamido-N-allyl benzamides to generate the 1,4-benzodiazepinones in good yields. PMID:26034340

  7. Regioselective ethyl transfer reactions between diethylzinc and 1,4-dialkyl-1,4-diaza-1,3-butadienes: Synthesis of EtZn[R(Et)NCH=CHNR],

    OpenAIRE

    van Koten, G; Gosselink, J.W.; Jastrzebski, J.T.B.H.; Vrieze, K.

    1982-01-01

    The l/l reaction of diethylzinc with 1,4dialkyl-1,4-diaza-1,3-butadienes (R-DAB = R-N=C(R’)-C(R’)=N-R) below -50°C results in formation of the l/l complex Et*Zn(R-DAB) (R = alkyl), containing o,a-N,N’ chelate bonded R-DAB. Above -50°C these complexes are unstable and undergo selective transfer of an ethyl group from Zn to the adjacent N atom, thus producing the novel species Et%[R(Et)NCR’=CR’NR] in quantitative yield. The proposed monomeric structure consists of a three-coordinate zinc atom b...

  8. Microstructure and properties of Mg-(1-4) Ce alloys%Mg-(1-4)Ce 合金的组织和性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏井利; 薛烽; 白晶; 周健; 徐燕芳

    2014-01-01

    In order to analyze the effect of rare earth Ce on the microstructure and properties of mag-nesium, Mg-(1-4) Ce alloys with 1%to 4%Ce addition were prepared.The microstructure, phase composition, tensile properties and creep resistance of the as-cast alloys were studied by metallo-graphic microscope, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer and electronic universal tes-ting machine.The results indicate that the as-cast microstructure of the Mg-(1-4) Ce alloys consists of the dendritic α-Mg and eutectic (α-Mg+Mg12 Ce) distributing along the grain boundaries.The eutectic amount increases with the increase of Ce addition and its morphology changes from discrete to netlike.Both tensile strength and yield strength increase with the increase of Ce addition but the e-longation decreases.With the increase of the temperature, the tensile strength and yield strength of the Mg-(1-4) Ce alloys decrease slightly, indicating a good thermal resistance, but the ductility in-crease obviously.The as-cast Mg-( 1-4 ) Ce alloys exhibit good creep resistance.The steady state creep rate of the as-cast Mg-4Ce alloy is 1.55 ×10 -9 s-1 .%为分析稀土元素Ce对镁的组织和性能的影响,在纯镁中分别加入1%~4%的Ce制备了Mg-(1-4) Ce系列合金.采用金相显微镜、扫描电子显微镜、X射线衍射仪和电子万能试验机对铸态合金的显微组织、相组成、拉伸性能和抗蠕变性能进行了研究.实验结果表明:Mg-(1-4) Ce合金的铸态组织由α-Mg基体和沿晶界分布的共晶(α-Mg+Mg12 Ce)组成,随着Ce含量的增加,晶界处的共晶组织数量逐渐增加,分布也由离散点状转变为网状;随Ce含量的增加,铸态Mg-(1-4)Ce合金的抗拉强度和屈服强度都逐渐增大,而塑性逐渐降低;合金的强度随温度的增加而下降,但下降的幅度不大,表现出较好的高温稳定性,而延伸率则随温度增加明显上升;铸态Mg-(1-4) Ce

  9. Addition polymers from 1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene and Bis-dienes: Processable resins for high temperature application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.

    1987-01-01

    1,4,5,8-Tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene reacts with various anthracene endcapped polyimide oligomers to form Diels-Alder cycloaddition copolymers. The polymers are soluble in common organic solvents, and have molecular weights of approximately 21,000 to 32,000. Interestingly, these resins appear to be more stable in air then in nitrogen. This is shown to be due to a unique dehydration (loss of water ranges from 2 to 5 percent) at temperatures of 390 to 400 C to give thermo-oxidatively stable pentiptycene units along the polymer backbone. Because of their high softening points and good thermo-oxidative stability, the polymers have potential as processible, matrix resins for high temperature composite applications.

  10. Kozloduy nuclear power plant. Units 1-4. Status of safety assessment activities. Rev. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of the status of safety assessment activities carried out by the Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) in order to evaluate the current status of the safety of its reactor units 1-4. The steam supply system of this units is based of the reactor WWER-440/ B-230, which is a PWR of Russian design developed according to the safety standards in force in USSR in late 60-s. Now a days 10 reactor units of this type are in operation in four NPPs. Despite of efforts of the different plants to implement safety improvements measures during first 10-15 years of operation of this type of reactor its major safety problems were not eliminated and were a subject of international concern. The systematic evaluation of the deficiencies of the original design of this type of reactors have been initiated by IAEA in the beginning of 1990 and brought to developing a comprehensive list of safety problems which required urgent implementation of safety measures in all plants. To solve this problems in 1991 KNPP initiated implementation of so called 'short term' safety improvement program, developed with the help of WANO under agreement with Bulgarian Nuclear Safety Authority (BNSA) and consortium RISKAUDIT. The program was based on a stage approach and was foreseen to be implemented by tree stages in very tight time schedule in order to achieve significant and rapid improvements of the level of safety in operation of the units. The Short Tenn Program was implemented between the years 1991 and 1997 thanks of the strong safety commitment of NEK and KNPP staff and the broad international cooperation and financial support. Important part of resources were supplied under PHARE program of CEC, EBRD grant agreement and EDF support. The plant current safety level analysis has been performed using IAEA analytical methodology according to 50-SG-O12 standard 'Periodic safety review of operational nuclear power plants'. The approach and criteria for acceptable safety level

  11. Kozloduy nuclear power plant. Units 1-4. Status of safety improvements. Rev. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    operation of the units. The plant current safety level analysis has been performed using IAEA analytical methodology according to 50-SG-O12 standard 'Periodic safety review of operational nuclear power plants'. The approach and criteria for acceptable safety level definition, developed by IAEA and presented in INSAG-8 ' was used for analysis performance. Based on this analysis a set of activities was developed, to ensures further plant operation with the necessary safety level. The measures were combined in a program called Complex program for modernization of units 1-4. The implementation of the program is foreseen for a period of four next fuel cycles and started at the beginning of 1998. In respond to the requirements for the content of this paper a detailed description of the current status of resolving of the safety issues, classified by IAEA in TECDOC 640 is presented. The whole process of safety evaluation, short and long term safety improvements presents in a systematical manner the efforts of the Government of Bulgaria, NEK Ltd and KNPP to operate these units with due respect of their nuclear safety responsibility according to Nuclear Safety Convention signed at Vienna in 1994 and ratified by Bulgarian Parliament in 1995

  12. 2.2.5.5-Tetraorganyl-1.4-dioxa-2.5-disilacyclohexane/2,2,5,5-Tetraorganyl-1,4-dioxa-2,5-disilacyclohexanes

    OpenAIRE

    Tacke, Reinhold; Lange, Hartwig; Bentlage, Anke; Sheldrick, William S.; Ernst, Ludger

    2016-01-01

    The 2,2,5,5-tetraorganyl-1,4-dioxa-2,5-disilacyclohexanes 2a-2c were prepared by condensation of the corresponding (hydroxymethyl)diorganylsilanes 1 a-1 c. The constitution of the heterocycles was confirmed by elemental analyses, cryoscopic measurements, mass spectrometry, and NMR-spectroscopic \\((^1H, ^{13}C)\\) investigations. The molecular structure of 2 b was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  13. The 1.4-l TSI gasoline engine with cylinder deactivation; Der 1,4-L-TSI-Ottomotor mit Zylinderabschaltung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middendorf, Hermann; Theobald, Joerg; Lang, Leonhard [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany). Bereich Ottomotoren; Hartel, Kai [Volkswagen AG, Salzgitter (Germany). Geschaeftsfeld Komponente Motor

    2012-03-15

    A very promising route to the reduction of fuel consumption that has been little trod thus far is that of cylinder deactivation under partial load. The new 1.4 TSI with petrol direct injection and turbocharging was selected for the first application of this technology in a Volkswagen four-cylinder in-line engine. Within the appropriate map area, the actuation of the inlet and exhaust valves on cylinders 2 and 3 is deactivated and fuel injection shut off. (orig.)

  14. Synthesis and crystallographic analysis of meso-2,3-difluoro-1,4-butanediol and meso-1,4-dibenzyloxy-2,3-difluorobutane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Linclau

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale synthesis of meso-2,3-difluoro-1,4-butanediol in 5 steps from (Z-but-2-enediol is described. Crystallographic analysis of the diol and the corresponding benzyl ether reveals an anti conformation of the vicinal difluoride moiety. Monosilylation of the diol is high-yielding but all attempts to achieve chain extension through addition of alkyl Grignard and acetylide nucleophiles failed.

  15. Multiple Stages 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, John

    Multiple stages 2: theatrical futures, set design, community plays, cultural capitals, democracy & drama, WWII dramas, performance on adoption, promenade about emigration, qualities in political theatre, performance analysis, dramaturgical education, Toulmin Variations......Multiple stages 2: theatrical futures, set design, community plays, cultural capitals, democracy & drama, WWII dramas, performance on adoption, promenade about emigration, qualities in political theatre, performance analysis, dramaturgical education, Toulmin Variations...

  16. Stages of Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... melanoma cells. The disease is metastatic melanoma, not lung cancer. The method used to stage melanoma is based mainly on the thickness of the tumor and whether cancer has spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body. The staging of melanoma depends on the following: The thickness ...

  17. Compatibility study of trans-1,4,5,8-tetranitro-1,4,5,8-tetraazadecalin (TNAD) with some energetic components and inert materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The compatibility of trans-1,4,5,8-tetranitro-1,4,5,8-tetraazadecalin (TNAD) with some energetic components and inert materials of solid propellants was studied by using the pressure DSC method where, cyclotetramethylenetetranitroamine (HMX), cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), 1,4-dinitropiperazine (DNP), 1.25/1-NC/NG mixture, lead 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-onate (NTO-Pb), aluminum powder (Al, particle size = 13.6 μm) and N-nitrodihydroxyethylaminedinitrate (DINA) were used as energetic components and polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyoxytetramethylene-co-oxyethylene (PET), addition product of hexamethylene diisocyanate and water (N-100), 2-nitrodianiline (2-NDPA), 1,3-dimethyl-1,3-diphenyl urea (C2), carbon black (C.B.), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), cupric 2,4-dihydroxy-benzoate (β-Cu), cupric adipate (AD-Cu) and lead phthalate (φ-Pb) were used as inert materials. It was concluded that the binary systems of TNAD with NTO-Pb, RDX, PET and Al powder are compatible, and systems of TNAD with DINA and HMX are slightly sensitive, and with 2-NDPA, φ-Pb, β-Cu, AD-Cu and Al2O3 are sensitive, and with PEG, N-100, C2 and C.B. are incompatible. The impact and friction sensitivity data of the TNAD and TNAD in combination with the other energetic materials under present study was also obtained, and there was no consequential affiliation between sensitivity and compatibility

  18. Reactions of 1,4-bis(tetrazole)benzenes: formation of long chain alkyl halides

    OpenAIRE

    Kelleher, Fintan; Bond, Andrew; Fleming, Adrienne; McGinley, John; Prajapati, Vipa

    2006-01-01

    The reactions of 1,4-bis[2-(tributylstannyl)tetrazol-5-yl]benzene with α,ω-dibromoalkanes were carried out in order to synthesise pendant alkyl halide derivatives of the parent bis-tetrazole. This led to the formation of several alkyl halide derivatives, substituted variously at N1 or N2 on the tetrazole ring. The crystal structures of 1,4-bis[(2-(4-bromobutyl)tetrazol-5-yl)]benzene (2-N,2-N′), 1,4-bis[(2-(4-bromobutyl)tetrazol-5-yl)]benzene (1-N,2-N′) and 1,4-bis[(2-(8-bromooctyl)tetra...

  19. Oxidative aromatization of Hantzsch 1,4-dihydropyridines by aqueous hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A simple method for the oxidative aromatization of Hantzsch 1,4-dihydropyridines to the corresponding pyridines is achieved by using hydrogen peroxide as green oxidant and acetic acid as catalyst in aqueous solution.

  20. Synthesis of 2-Substituted Hexahydro-1H-1,4-diazepine Analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    2-substituted hexahydro-1H-1,4-diazepine analogues were synthesized starting from N,N?-dibenzyl-1,3-propylene diamine and methyl-2,3-dibromo propionate through nucleophilic substitution, reduction, chlorination and debenzylation.

  1. Physiological and pathophysiological insights of Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildas eLoussouarn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 α-subunits have been associated with muscular and cardiac channelopathies, respectively. Despite intense research on the structure and function of these channels, a lot of information is still missing to delineate the various physiological and pathophysiological processes underlying their activity at the molecular level. Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 sequences are similar, suggesting structural and functional homologies between the two orthologous channels. This also suggests that any characteristics described for one channel subunit may shed light on the properties of the counterpart channel subunit. In this review article, after a brief clinical description of the muscular and cardiac channelopathies related to Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 mutations, respectively, we compare the knowledge accumulated in different aspects of the expression and function of Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 α-subunits: the regulation of the two encoding genes (SCN4A and SCN5A, the associated/regulatory proteins and at last, the functional effect of the same missense mutations detected in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5. First, it appears that more is known on Nav1.5 expression and accessory proteins. Because of the high homologies of Nav1.5 binding sites and equivalent Nav1.4 sites, Nav1.5-related results may guide future investigations on Nav1.4. Second, the analysis of the same missense mutations in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 revealed intriguing similarities regarding their effects on membrane excitability and alteration in channel biophysics. We believe that such comparison may bring new cues to the physiopathology of cardiac and muscular diseases.

  2. Synthesis of 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives using 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and Sonogashira reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Silva do Nascimento; Mauro Gomes da Silva; Ronaldo Nascimento de Oliveira; Celso Amorim Câmara

    2010-01-01

    Naphthoquinones are known according to their important bio-activities, such as their antitumoral and topoisomerase inhibition properties. From 2-azido (3) or 2,3-diacetylene-1,4-naphthoquinone (4) it was possible to obtain triazole derivatives (naphthoquinonic). This work describes the synthesis of two novel molecules, with triazole groups linked to 1,4-naphthoquinone using the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and Sonogashira reactions. The synthetic strategy followed two routes (Scheme 1). First, w...

  3. Bioactive 1,4-dihydroisonicotinic acid derivatives prevent oxidative damage of liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovic, Suzana; Tirzitis, Gunars; Tirzite, Dace; Cipak, Ana; Khoschsorur, Gholam A; Waeg, Georg; Tatzber, Franz; Scukanec-Spoljar, Mira; Zarkovic, Neven

    2006-05-10

    1,4-Dihydroisonicotinic acid derivatives (1,4-DHINA) are compounds closely related to derivatives of 1,4-dihydropyridine, a well-known calcium channel antagonists. 1,4-DHINA we used were derived from a well-known antioxidant Diludin. Although some compounds have neuromodulatory or antimutagenic properties, their activity mechanisms are not well known. This study was performed to obtain data on antioxidant and bioprotective activities of: 2,6-dimethyl-3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydroisonicotinic acid (Ia); sodium 2-(2,6-dimethyl-3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-4-carboxamido)glutamate (Ib) and sodium 2-(2,6-dimethyl-3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-4-carboxamido)ethane-sulphate (Ic). 1,4-DHINA's activities were studied in comparison to Trolox by: N,N-Diphenyl-N'-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*), deoxyribose degradation, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging and antioxidative capacity assays; copper-induced lipid peroxidation of cultured rat liver cells (malondialdehyde determination by high performance liquid chromatography and 4-hydroxynonenal-protein conjugates by dot-blot); (3)H-thymidine incorporation and trypan blue assay for liver cells growth and viability. In all assays used Ia was the most potent antioxidant. Ia was also a potent antioxidant at non-toxic concentrations for liver cell cultures. It completely abolished, while Ic only slightly decreased copper-induced lipid peroxidation of liver cells. Thus, antioxidant capacities are important activity principle of Ia, which was even superior to Trolox in the cell cultures used, while activity principles of Ic and Ib remain yet to be determined. PMID:16600211

  4. Toxic effects of 1,4-dichlorobenzene on photosynthesis in Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinhua; Wang, Jie; Feng, Jia; Lv, Junping; Cai, Jin; Liu, Qi; Xie, Shulian

    2016-09-01

    1,4-Dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) is a common organic contaminant in water. To determine the effects of this contaminant on photosynthesis in the freshwater alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa, algal cells were treated with 1,4-DCB at different concentrations for various times, and their photosynthetic pigment contents and chlorophyll fluorescence traits were analyzed. The results showed that 1,4-DCB exerted toxic effects on photosynthesis in C. pyrenoidosa, especially at concentrations exceeding 10 mg/L. The inhibitory effects of 1,4-DCB were time- and concentration-dependent. After treatment with 1,4-DCB (≥10 mg/L), the contents of photosynthetic pigments decreased significantly, the photosystem II reaction center was irreversibly damaged, and the quantum yield of photosystem II decreased significantly. Also, there were sharp decreases in the efficiency of photosynthetic electron transport and energy conversion. Photosystem II became overloaded as the amount of excitation energy distributed to it increased. All of these events weakened the photochemical reaction, and ultimately led to serious inhibition of photosynthesis. PMID:27542668

  5. Reasoned opinion on the setting of a new MRL for 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene in potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the Netherlands, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Dormfresh Ltd. to include the active substance 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene (1,4-DMN in Annex IV of the Regulation (EC No 396/2005. Considering the EFSA conclusion where the inclusion in annex IV was not recommended, the applicant submitted a revised application, in order to rise the MRL for 1,4-DMN in potatoes from the default value of 0.01* mg/kg to 15 mg/kg. The Netherlands drafted a revised evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA, the data are sufficient to derive a MRL proposal of 15 mg/kg for the post harvest use of 1,4-DMN on potato. For the other plant commodities, it is noted that a default MRL value of 0.01* mg/kg is probably not appropriate to cover the natural background levels of 1,4-DMN in plants. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control residues of 1,4-DMN in potato tubers. In contrast a validated analytical method to enforce 1,4-DMN residues in animal matrices is required. The consumer risk assessment could not be finalised as sufficient information was not provided to derive MRLs for products of animal origin. However, based on the available data, chronic intake concerns are not expected for consumers.

  6. Low level estimation of 1,4-dioxane in ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical, 1,4-dioxane does have much relevance with respect to Indian Nuclear Power Programme for counting of Tritium, which is mainly generated during the operation of nuclear research reactors and power reactors which use heavy water. Tritium analysis is routinely carried out at BARC. The scintillation solutions which are used for tritium counting, consist of mainly 1,4 dioxane and naphthalene along with minor concentration of PPO/POPOP. Each sample analysis generates about 10 ml of tritium contaminated spent scintillation liquid waste. Total generation rate of the waste in a typical PHWR reactor is about 2-3 m3 /year. Controlled incineration of scintillation liquids has been opted at BARC for the treatment of radioactive organic waste. Now that 1,4-dioxane has shown threat to human health and environment, it is important and necessary to know its levels (concentrations) in different environmental compartments to evaluate the risks associated with it. Standard methods are available for the measurement of 1,4-dioxane in air. Higher concentration can be estimated by direct analysis but estimation at lower levels (parts per billion-ppb) requires pre concentration prior to its analysis. Here an improved method that offers increased sensitivity has been used for determining lower levels of 1,4-dioxane. This report presents (1) the development of the methodology for the estimation of 1,4-dioxane at ppb levels using cryogenic pre-concentration and subsequent analysis by Gas Chromatograph with Electron Capture detector (GC-ECD) (2) techniques to check the incineration efficiency and release of 1,4-dioxane to the environment. The data generated by this study could be further used in the evaluation of risk. (author)

  7. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effects of treatment The chance that treatment can cure your cancer or help you in other ways With stage ... III prostate cancer, the main goal is to cure the cancer by treating it and keeping it from coming ...

  8. A study of gaseous benzenium and toluenium ions generated from 1,4- dihydro- and 1-methyl-1,4-dihydro-benzoic acids

    OpenAIRE

    Kuck, Dietmar; Schneider, Jens; Grützmacher, Hans-Friedrich

    1985-01-01

    Gaseous benzenium C6H7+(1) and toluenium C7H9+(2) ions have been generated by mass spectrometric loss of CO2H from the corresponding 1,4-dihydrobenzoic acids (3) and (4), and their fragmentations after ca. 10 µs have been investigated by means of mass-analysed ion kinetic energy (MIKE) spectrometry of some 2H and 13C labelled analogues. Metastable C6H7+ ions eliminate H2 after proton randomization, whereas metastable C7H9+ ions expel both H2 and CH4 after incomplete proton equilibration. In p...

  9. Bioimpedance Spectroscopy in Detecting Lower-Extremity Lymphedema in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Vulvar Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Lymphadenectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Lymphedema; Perioperative/Postoperative Complications; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  10. Phytotoxicity, uptake and metabolism of 1,4-dichlorobenzene by plant cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.J. [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Environmental and Biological Sciences]|[Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences; Bokern, M.; Boehme, C.; Harms, H. [Federal Agricultural Research Center, Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science; Jones, K.C. [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Environmental and Biological Sciences

    1996-07-01

    Phytotoxicity, uptake, and metabolism of 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) by carrot (Daucus carota L.), soybean (Glycine max. L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), and red goosefoot (Chenopodiun rubrum L.) cell suspension cultures were studied. Sealed glass systems were utilized for the investigation because 1,4-DCB is volatile. The sealed systems affect the growth of plant cells, but do not provide different results when testing xenobiotic uptake and metabolism. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene (40 {micro}g in 40 ml medium) was taken up by carrot (49%), soybean (50%), and red goosefoot (62%) cells. Only the soybean cell cultures provided evidence of the existence of metabolites of this compound, probably conjugates of chlorophenols. Conditions for phytotoxicity tests were modified because the growth of cell cultures was affected when sealed for longer than 2 d. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene is toxic to cell cultures of the three tested plant species (tomato, soybean, and carrot). Concentrations of 0.5 mM caused 50% growth inhibition in carrot and soybean cultures. The tomato cultures were more sensitive, with 0.05 mM causing 50% growth inhibition.

  11. Residual stresses in 2 1/4Cr1Mo welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two separate investigations, initiated in an attempt to explain the large amount of residual stress scatter previously observed in the weld metal of eighteen nominally identical thick-section 2 1/4Cr1Mo butt welds, are described in this paper. The first examined the detailed surface residual stress distributions in 2 1/4Cr1Mo manual arc circumferential butt welds in 80mm and 100mm thick 1/2Cr1/2Mo1/4V steam pipe. High residual stresses were found in the regions of overlap between adjacent weld beads, with low values in virgin weld metal. The second utilised single pass manual metal arc bead-in-groove welds to investigate the effects of preheat and weld metal composition on weld metal residual stresses. In four weld metals, mild steel, 1/2Cr1/2Mo1/4V, 1Cr1/2Mo, and 2 1/4Cr1Mo, the residual stresses were very similar, becoming less tensile (or more compressive) with increase of preheat, while the residual stresses in the fifth weld metal (12Cr) were significantly different, being compressive and less affected by preheat. In both investigations the effects have been described in terms of the basic metallurgical phenomena occurring in the weld metal. (author)

  12. Evaluation of Natural and Synthetic 1,4-naphthoquinones as Inhibitors of Monoamine Oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, Samantha; Petzer, Anél; Petzer, Jacobus P

    2016-05-01

    Previous reports have documented that 1,4-naphthoquinones act as inhibitors of the monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes. In particular, fractionation of the extracts of cured tobacco leafs has led to the characterization of 2,3,6-trimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, a non-selective MAO inhibitor. To derive structure-activity relationships for MAO inhibition by the 1,4-naphthoquinone class of compounds, this study investigates the human MAO inhibitory activities of fourteen structurally diverse 1,4-naphthoquinones of natural and synthetic origin. Of these, 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone was found to be the most potent inhibitor with an IC50 value of 0.860 μm for the inhibition of MAO-B. A related compound, shikonin, inhibits both the MAO-A and MAO-B isoforms with IC50 values of 1.50 and 1.01 μm, respectively. It is further shown that MAO-A and MAO-B inhibition by these compounds is reversible by dialysis. In this respect, kinetic analysis suggests that the modes of MAO inhibition are competitive. This study contributes to the discovery of novel MAO inhibitors, which may be useful in the treatment for disorders such as Parkinson's disease, depressive illness, congestive heart failure and cancer. PMID:26684482

  13. Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  14. Atomic layer deposition of stoichiometric Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} films using bis(1,4-di-iso-propyl-1,4-diazabutadiene) cobalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Byeol; Park, Jae-Min; Choi, Kyu Ha; Lim, Wan-Kyu; Mayangsari, Tirta R. [Department of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Wonyong [R& D Center, UP Chemical Co., Ltd. Pyeongtaek-si, Gyeonggi-do 459-050 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Jun, E-mail: wjlee@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-31

    We report the deposition of cobalt oxide films at 120–300 °C using alternating injections of a novel liquid cobalt precursor, bis(1,4-di-iso-propyl-1,4-diazabutadiene)cobalt [C{sub 16}H{sub 32}N{sub 4}Co, Co(dpdab){sub 2}], and ozone. The saturation doses of Co(dpdab){sub 2} and O{sub 3}/O{sub 2} were 4 × 10{sup 6} and 1 × 10{sup 8} L, respectively. The atomic layer deposition (ALD) temperature window was between 120 °C and 250 °C with a maximum growth per cycle of 0.12 nm/cycle. The deposited films showed excellent step coverage. Cobalt oxide films deposited at 250 °C consisted of stoichiometric and crystalline Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}. - Highlights: • Cobalt oxide films were grown by ALD using a novel cobalt precursor and O{sub 3}. • The ALD temperature window was 120–250 °C with a growth per cycle of 0.12 nm/cycle. • Cobalt oxide thin films showed excellent step coverage. • Cobalt oxide films deposited at 250 °C were stoichiometric and crystalline Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}.

  15. Atomic layer deposition of stoichiometric Co3O4 films using bis(1,4-di-iso-propyl-1,4-diazabutadiene) cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the deposition of cobalt oxide films at 120–300 °C using alternating injections of a novel liquid cobalt precursor, bis(1,4-di-iso-propyl-1,4-diazabutadiene)cobalt [C16H32N4Co, Co(dpdab)2], and ozone. The saturation doses of Co(dpdab)2 and O3/O2 were 4 × 106 and 1 × 108 L, respectively. The atomic layer deposition (ALD) temperature window was between 120 °C and 250 °C with a maximum growth per cycle of 0.12 nm/cycle. The deposited films showed excellent step coverage. Cobalt oxide films deposited at 250 °C consisted of stoichiometric and crystalline Co3O4. - Highlights: • Cobalt oxide films were grown by ALD using a novel cobalt precursor and O3. • The ALD temperature window was 120–250 °C with a growth per cycle of 0.12 nm/cycle. • Cobalt oxide thin films showed excellent step coverage. • Cobalt oxide films deposited at 250 °C were stoichiometric and crystalline Co3O4

  16. Mechanism and energetics for complexation of 90Y with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), a model for cancer radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A promising cancer therapy involves the use of the macrocyclic polyaminoacetate DOTA (1,4,6,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) attached to a tumor-targeting antibody complexed with the β emitter 90Y3+. However, incorporation of the 90Y into the DOTA conjugate is too slow. To identify the origins of this problem, ab initio quantum chemistry methods (B3LYP/:ACVP* and HF/LACVP*) were used to predict structures and energetics. The authors find that the initial complex YH2(DOTA)+ is 4-coordinate (the four equivalent carboxylate oxygens), which transforms to YH(DOTA) (5-coordinate with one ring N and four carboxylate oxygens), and finally to Y(DOTA)-, which is 8-coordinate (four oxygens and four nitrogens). The rate-determining step is the conversion of YH(DOTA) to Y(DOTA)-, which was calculated to have an activation free energy (aqueous phase) of 8.4 kcal/mol, in agreement with experimental results (8.1--9.3 kcal/mol) for various metals to DOTA [Kumar, K.; Tweedle, M.F. Inorg. Chem. 1993, 32, 4193--4199; Wu, S.L.; Horrocks, W.D., Jr., Inorg. Chem. 1995, 34, 3724--2732]. On the basis of this mechanism the authors propose a modified chelate, DO3AlPr, which has calculated at a much faster rate of incorporation

  17. Elicitor and resistance-inducing activities of beta-1,4 cellodextrins in grapevine, comparison with beta-1,3 glucans and alpha-1,4 oligogalacturonides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Aziz; Gauthier, Adrien; Bézier, Annie; Poinssot, Benoît; Joubert, Jean-Marie; Pugin, Alain; Heyraud, Alain; Baillieul, Fabienne

    2007-01-01

    Cellodextrins (CD), water-soluble derivatives of cellulose composed of beta-1,4 glucoside residues, have been shown to induce a variety of defence responses in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cells. The larger oligomers of CD rapidly induced transient generation of H2O2 and elevation in free cytosolic calcium, followed by a differential expression of genes encoding key enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway and pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins as well as stimulation of chitinase and beta-1,3 glucanase activities. Most of these defence reactions were also induced by linear beta-1,3 glucans (betaGlu) and alpha-1,4 oligogalacturonides (OGA) of different degree of polymerization (DP), but the intensity of some reactions induced by CD was different when compared with betaGlu and OGA effects. Moreover, desensitization assays using H2O2 production showed that cells treated with CD remained fully responsive to a second application of OGA, suggesting a different mode of perception of these oligosaccharides by grape cells. None of CD, betaGlu, or OGA induced HSR gene expression nor did they induce cell death. In accordance with elicitor activity in grapevine cells, CD-incubated leaves challenged with Botrytis cinerea also resulted in a significant reduction of the disease. Data suggest that CD could operate via other distinct reaction pathways than betaGlu and OGA. They also highlight the requirement of a specific DP for each oligosaccharide to induce the defence response. PMID:17322548

  18. 1,4-环己烷二甲醇的展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石勇; 季丛立; 赵国勇

    2008-01-01

    1.1,4-环己烷二甲醇简介1,4-环己烷二甲醇(简称CHDM),又名1,4-二羟甲基环己烷,英文名l,4-cyclohexanedimethanol,分子式C8H16O2,分子量144.21。表观为白色微臭蜡状固体,工业产品为顺反两种异构体的混合物,平衡组成中含24%顺式异构体和76%反式异构体。

  19. Formation and metabolism of inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate in human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [3H]Myo-inositol (1,4,5)trisphosphate ((1,4,5)IP3), when added to lysed platelets, was rapidly converted to [3H]inositol (1,3,4,5)tetrakisphosphate which was in turn converted to [3H]inositol (1,3,4)trisphosphate. This result demonstrates that platelets have the same metabolic pathways for interconversion of inositol polyphosphates that are found in other cells. Labelling of platelets with [32P]orthophosphate, followed by h.1.p.c. was used to measure thrombin-induced changes in the three inositol polyphosphates. Interfering compounds were removed by a combination of enzymatic and nonenzymatic techniques. [32P]-(1,4,5)IP3 was formed rapidly and reached its maximal level at about 4 sec. It was also rapidly degraded and was no longer detectable after 30-60 sec. Formation of (1,3,4,5)IP4 was almost as rapid as that of (1,4,5)IP3 and remained at detectable levels for a longer time. (1,3,4)IP3 was formed after an initial lag and this isomer reached its maximal level that was ten-fold higher than that of (1,4,5)IP3 at 30 sec. Comparison of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration as measured with fura-2 indicates that agents other than (1,4,5)IP3 are responsible for the sustained maintenance of a high level of intracellular Ca2+. It is proposed that either (1,3,4)IP3 or (1,3,4,5)IP4 may also be Ca2+-mobilizing agents

  20. Anaerobic transformation of 1,4-Tyrosol to 4-Hydoxyphenylacetate by Desulfovibrio Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamkh, F.; El Bakouchi, I.; Ouazzani, N.; Said Eddarir, S.; Bennisse, R.; Qatibi, A. I.

    2009-07-01

    1,4 Tyrosol (4-hydroxyphenylethanol) is a phenolic compound that is typically found in olive oil, olive brine, and olive oil mill wastewaters. Its anaerobic transformation was investigated in Desulfovibrio strain EMSSDQT (chamkh et al., 2008) and Desulgovibrio alcoholivorans (Qatibi et al., 1991) using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and nuclear magnetic resonance ( {sup 1}3C-NMR) as analysis technic. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the transformation of 1,4-tyrosol to 4-hydroxyphenylacetate (PHPA) by Desulfovibrio sp in anoxic conditions. (Author)

  1. Anaerobic transformation of 1,4-Tyrosol to 4-Hydoxyphenylacetate by Desulfovibrio Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1,4 Tyrosol (4-hydroxyphenylethanol) is a phenolic compound that is typically found in olive oil, olive brine, and olive oil mill wastewaters. Its anaerobic transformation was investigated in Desulfovibrio strain EMSSDQT (chamkh et al., 2008) and Desulgovibrio alcoholivorans (Qatibi et al., 1991) using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13C-NMR) as analysis technic. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the transformation of 1,4-tyrosol to 4-hydroxyphenylacetate (PHPA) by Desulfovibrio sp in anoxic conditions. (Author)

  2. STUDIES ON THE REGULAR COPOLYMERS OF POLY (1,4-PHENYLENETEREPHTHALAMIDE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Jingsheng; WANG Bing; XU Chaochou

    1991-01-01

    Two types of the regular copolymer of poly (1,4-phenyleneterephthalamide) were synthesized by the low temperature solution polycondensation in NMP-CaCl2 solvent system, using the piperazine or 2,5-dimethylpiperazine as the third components introduced in the main chain of poly (1,4-phenyleneterephthalamide). The properties of copolymers were characterized by IR, SEM, X-RAY diffraction, polarizing microscopy, TGA and solubilities.Experimental results showed that the copolymers had good solubility and thermal stability, the concentrated sulfuric acid (~ 98%) solution of regular PPTA copolymers had liquid crystalline properties.

  3. Study of the complexation of oxacillin in 1-(4-Carbomethoxypyrrolidone)-terminated PAMAM dendrimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jon Stefan; Ficker, Mario; Petersen, Johannes Fabritius;

    2013-01-01

    The complexation of oxacillin to three generations of 1-(4-carbomethoxypyrrolidone)-terminated PAMAM dendrimers was studied with NMR in CD3OD and CDCl3. The stochiometries, which were determined from Job plots, were found to be both solvent- and generation-dependent. The dissociation constants (K......) and Gibbs energies for complexation of oxacillin into the 1-(4-carbomethoxypyrrolidone)-terminated PAMAM dendrimer hosts were determined by (1)H NMR titrations and showed weaker binding of oxacillin upon increasing the size (generation) of the dendrimer....

  4. Purification and Properties of β-1, 4-Xylanase from Aeromonas caviae W-61

    OpenAIRE

    Viet, Dung Nguyen; Kamio, Yoshiyuki; Abe, Naoki; Kaneko, Jun; Izaki, Kazuo

    1991-01-01

    Aeromonas caviae W-61, which was isolated from water samples at the Faculty of Agriculture, Tohoku University, produced β-1, 4-xylanase (1,4-β-d-xylan xylanohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.8) extracellularly. The xylanase was purified to homogeneity by using DEAE-Sephadex A-50, CM-Sephadex C-50, and Sephadex G-100 column chromatographies. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 22,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric point of the enzyme...

  5. Failure of self-similarity for large (M_w > 8 1/4) earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Hartzell, Stephen H.; Heaton, Thomas H.

    1988-01-01

    We compare teleseismic P-wave records for earthquakes in the magnitude range from 6.0 to 9.5 with synthetics for a self-similar, ω^2 source model and conclude that the energy radiated by very large earthquakes (M_w > 8 1/4) is not self-similar to that radiated from smaller earthquakes (M_w < 8 1/4). Furthermore, in the period band from 2 sec to several tens of seconds, we conclude that large subduction earthquakes have an average spectral decay rate of ω^(-1.5). This spectral decay rate is co...

  6. Conductivity of I2-Doped High trans-1,4-Polybutadiene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史辰君; 薛怀国; 沈之荃; 张一烽; 李永舫; 杨春和

    2001-01-01

    High trans-1,4-polybutadiene ( ~ 96% (trans)) was prepared by lanthanum naphthenate catalytic systern. The conductivity of obtained polybutadiene doped with iodine reaches about ~10-3 s/cm, which is 2 orders of magnitude higher than the value reported.4,5 During the I2-doping, the conjugated sequence was formed through double bond shifting reaction. According to the relationship between conductivity and temperature, conducting mechanism of doped high trans-1,4-polybutadiene is fit on variable range hoping (VRH) model.

  7. Principles of Melanoma Staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Genevieve M; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E

    2016-01-01

    Although now commonplace in contemporary cancer care, the systematic approach to classification of disease-specific cancers into a formalized staging system is a relatively modern concept. Overall, the goals of cancer staging are to characterize the status of cancer at a specific moment in time, risk stratify, facilitate prognostication, and inform clinical decision making. The revisions to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) melanoma staging system over time reflect changes in our understanding of the biology of the disease. Since the 1st edition, where tumor thickness was defined anatomically by its relationship to the reticular or papillary dermis (Clark level) as well as tumor thickness (Breslow thickness), there have been significant strides in our use of clinicopathological variables to stratify low- versus high-risk patients. Management of the regional nodal basin has also changed dramatically over time, impacted by techniques such as lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and changes in pathological evaluation of the regional lymph nodes. Additionally, stratification of distant metastases has evolved as survival outcomes have been shown to vary based upon anatomic site of metastases and serum lactate dehydrogenase levels. The variables in use in the current (7th edition) AJCC staging system are surrogate markers of biology with validated impact of survival outcomes. Going forward, it is likely that these and additional clinicopathological factors will be integrated with molecular and other correlates of melanoma tumor biology to further refine and personalize melanoma staging. PMID:26601861

  8. Staging of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoperative staging of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is important in determining the best treatment plan. Several classification systems have been suggested to determine the operability and extent of surgery. Longitudinal tumor extent is especially important in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma because operative methods differ depending on the tumor extent. The Bismuth-Corlette classification system provides useful information when planning for surgery. However, this classification system is not adequate for selecting surgical candidates. Anatomic variation of the bile duct and gross morphology of the tumor must be considered simultaneously. Lateral spread of the tumor can be evaluated based on the TNM staging provided by American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). However, there is a potential for ambiguity in the distinction of T1 and T2 cancer from one another. In addition, T stage does not necessarily mean invasiveness. Blumgart T staging is helpful for the assessment of resectability with the consideration of nodal status and distant metastasis as suggested by the AJCC cancer staging system. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the primary tools used in the assessment of longitudinal and lateral spread of a tumor when determining respectability. Diagnostic laparoscopy and positron emission tomography (PET) may play additional roles in this regard. (orig.)

  9. New School Stages for Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James Hull

    A new and dynamic approach to auditorium stage design is presented. Contents include--(1) modified proscenium stage plan--a definition, (2) benefits of a modified proscenium stage plan, and (3) details of a modified proscenium stage plan--basic concepts, a typical layout, projection systems, and scenic design for space stage. (RH)

  10. Composers on stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    A trend on the scene of contemporary music is composers going on stage, performing their pieces themselves. Within a discourse of popular music, this is more the rule than exception, but when it comes to the context of contemporary scored music, the historical and aesthetic context differs...... to rise the following questions: What happens to the status of the author, when he suddenly (re-)appears on stage? How is this appearance to be understood in both a contemporary and historical context: Is it the musical virtuous appearing again, are we witnessing musical works turning...... Rønsholdt’s Documentary Concert (2013) and Johannes Kreidler Fremdarbeit (2009)....

  11. Chemical consequences of long-range orbital interaction in perhydronaphtalene-1,4 diol monosulfonate esters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orru, R.V.A.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis the base-induced reactions of perhydronaphthalene-1,4-diol monosulfonate esters are described. These compounds undergo smoothly, typical carbocationic processes upon treatment with sodium tert -amylate in refluxing benzene. The product outcome, product ratio, and (relative) rate of th

  12. Heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes based on sulfonated poly(1,4-phenylene sulfide)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schauer, Jan; Kůdela, Vlastimil; Richau, K.; Mohr, R.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 198, 1-3 (2006), s. 256-264. ISSN 0011-9164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0080 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : poly(1,4-phenylene sulfide) sulfonated * ion-exchange membrane Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.917, year: 2006

  13. Multicomponent Reaction in Ionic Liquid: A Novel and Green Synthesis of 1, 4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Ying ZHANG; Yan Zhen LI; Xue Sen FAN; Gui Rong QU; Xue Yuan HU; Jian Ji WANG

    2006-01-01

    An efficient and green method for the synthesis of 1, 4-dihydropyridine derivatives mediated in an ionic liquid, [bmim][BF4], through a four-component condensation process of aldehydes, 1, 3-dione, Meldrum's acid and ammonium acetate is disclosed in this paper.

  14. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-3 - Site recommendation for characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Site recommendation for characterization. 960.3-1-4-3... for characterization. The evidence required to support the recommendation of a site as a candidate site for characterization shall consist of the evaluations and data contained or referenced in...

  15. Activity of 1,4-Benzoquinones Against Formosan Subterranean Termites, Coptotermes formosanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large number of naturally occurring and synthetic benzoquinones were evaluated for activity against the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus, with potential use in termite control. Among these bioactive naturally occurring benzoquinones are 2-methyl-5-isopropyl-1,4-benzoquinone, ...

  16. Comparison of low-cycle fatigue data of 2 1/4%CrMo steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data files have been produced on international strain-controlled fatigue information available for 2 1/4%CrMo steels; data assessment from these files is treated in three categories viz: annealed and isothermally annealed 2 1/4%Cr1%Mo steel; normalised and tempered and quenched and tempered 2 1/4%Cr1%Mo steel; and 2 1/4%CrMo variants. The available data have been considered generally in terms of total strain range vs. cycles to failure (Nsub(f)), tensile stress at Nsub(f)/2 vs. cycles to failure and time to failure vs. cycles to failure. Where possible the continuous cycling data have been statistically analysed in terms of the elastic and plastic strain components and cycles to failure to yield best-fit equations over defined temperature (T) regimes viz: T <= 427 deg. C, 427 deg. C < T <= 550 deg. C. and 550 deg. C < T <= 600 deg. C. The behaviour of the steels within the various classifications is discussed. (author)

  17. Protein kinase A modulation of CaV1.4 calcium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Lingjie; Dick, Ivy E.; Yue, David T.

    2016-07-01

    The regulation of L-type Ca2+ channels by protein kinase A (PKA) represents a crucial element within cardiac, skeletal muscle and neurological systems. Although much work has been done to understand this regulation in cardiac CaV1.2 Ca2+ channels, relatively little is known about the closely related CaV1.4 L-type Ca2+ channels, which feature prominently in the visual system. Here we find that CaV1.4 channels are indeed modulated by PKA phosphorylation within the inhibitor of Ca2+-dependent inactivation (ICDI) motif. Phosphorylation of this region promotes the occupancy of calmodulin on the channel, thus increasing channel open probability (PO) and Ca2+-dependent inactivation. Although this interaction seems specific to CaV1.4 channels, introduction of ICDI1.4 to CaV1.3 or CaV1.2 channels endows these channels with a form of PKA modulation, previously unobserved in heterologous systems. Thus, this mechanism may not only play an important role in the visual system but may be generalizable across the L-type channel family.

  18. Functionalization of anthracene: A selective route to brominated 1,4-anthraquinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiymet Berkil Akar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Efficient and stereoselective syntheses are described for the preparation of 2,3,9,10-tetrabromo-1,4-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroanthracenes 7, 8 and the corresponding 1,4-diol 17 by silver ion-assisted solvolysis of hexabromotetrahydroanthracene 6. Base-promoted aromatization of 7 and 8 afforded synthetically valuable tribromo-1-methoxyanthracenes 10 and 11. The reaction of 17 with sodium methoxide generated tribromodihydroanthracene-1,4-diol 27, whose oxidation with PCC gave 2,9,10-tribromoanthracene-1,4-dione (28. Therefore a selective and efficient method was developed for the preparation of compound 28 starting from 9,10-dibromoanthracene (1, in a simple four-step process. Compounds 10 and 11, and diol 27 constitute key precursors for the preparation of functionalized substituted anthracene derivatives that are difficult to prepare by other routes. The studies also reveal the broad range of reactivity and selectivity of the stereoisomeric anthracene derivatives.

  19. Poly[bis[μ-1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethylbenzene]dichloridocadmium(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinliang Hu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [CdCl2(C14H14N42]n, has a slightly distorted octahedral coordination geometry, formed by four N atoms from 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethylbenzene ligands and two Cl atoms, giving a two-dimensional network. The Cd atom lies on a centre of inversion.

  20. Role of (1,3)(1,4)-β-glucan in cell walls: interaction with cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiemle, Sarah N; Zhang, Xiao; Esker, Alan R; Toriz, Guillermo; Gatenholm, Paul; Cosgrove, Daniel J

    2014-05-12

    (1,3)(1,4)-β-D-Glucan (mixed-linkage glucan or MLG), a characteristic hemicellulose in primary cell walls of grasses, was investigated to determine both its role in cell walls and its interaction with cellulose and other cell wall polysaccharides in vitro. Binding isotherms showed that MLG adsorption onto microcrystalline cellulose is slow, irreversible, and temperature-dependent. Measurements using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring showed that MLG adsorbed irreversibly onto amorphous regenerated cellulose, forming a thick hydrogel. Oligosaccharide profiling using endo-(1,3)(1,4)-β-glucanase indicated that there was no difference in the frequency and distribution of (1,3) and (1,4) links in bound and unbound MLG. The binding of MLG to cellulose was reduced if the cellulose samples were first treated with certain cell wall polysaccharides, such as xyloglucan and glucuronoarabinoxylan. The tethering function of MLG in cell walls was tested by applying endo-(1,3)(1,4)-β-glucanase to wall samples in a constant force extensometer. Cell wall extension was not induced, which indicates that enzyme-accessible MLG does not tether cellulose fibrils into a load-bearing network. PMID:24678830

  1. Intermediate SCDC Spanish Curricula Units. Fine Arts, Unit 1, Kits 1-4, Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodarte, Dolores, Ed.; And Others

    Reflecting the observations made by Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans in the Southwest, Northeast, Midwest, and Southeast, this unit aims to develop artistic sensitivity through the study of different art forms of music, dance, literature, folklore, and the visual arts. Comprised of Kits 1-4, the unit's theme is "our community", with a…

  2. A NEW CELL CLONE DERIVED FROM TRICHOPLUSIA NI TN5B1-4 CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-xiaoTian; Chang-youLi; Gui-lingZheng; Guo-xunLi; PingWang; Granados

    2004-01-01

    The characteristics of a cultured cell line do not always remain stable and may change upon continuous passage. Most continuous cell lines, even after cloning, possess several genotypes that are constantly changing. There are numerous selective and adaptive culture processes, in addition to genetic instability, that may improve phenotypic change in cell growth, virus susceptibility, gene expression, and production of virus. Similar detrimental effects of long term passaging of insect cells have also been reported for continuous cell lines, for example, Tn5B 1-4 cells, which are the most widely used for the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS), provide superior production of recombinant proteins,however, this high productivity may be more evident in low passage cells. In this paper, we describe the isolation of a cell clone, Tn5B-40, from low passage Tn5B 1-4 cells. The growth characteristics,productions of virus, and high level of recombinant protein productions were determined. The results showed the susceptibility of both clone and Tn5B 1-4 cells to wild-type AcNPV was approximately the same rate with over 95% of infection; when the cloned cells were infected with recombinant baculoviruses expressing β-galactosidase and secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP), expression of the recombinant proteins from the cloned cells exceeded that from the parental Tn5B 1-4 cells.

  3. Protein kinase A modulation of CaV1.4 calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Lingjie; Dick, Ivy E; Yue, David T

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of L-type Ca(2+) channels by protein kinase A (PKA) represents a crucial element within cardiac, skeletal muscle and neurological systems. Although much work has been done to understand this regulation in cardiac CaV1.2 Ca(2+) channels, relatively little is known about the closely related CaV1.4 L-type Ca(2+) channels, which feature prominently in the visual system. Here we find that CaV1.4 channels are indeed modulated by PKA phosphorylation within the inhibitor of Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation (ICDI) motif. Phosphorylation of this region promotes the occupancy of calmodulin on the channel, thus increasing channel open probability (PO) and Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation. Although this interaction seems specific to CaV1.4 channels, introduction of ICDI1.4 to CaV1.3 or CaV1.2 channels endows these channels with a form of PKA modulation, previously unobserved in heterologous systems. Thus, this mechanism may not only play an important role in the visual system but may be generalizable across the L-type channel family. PMID:27456671

  4. Structure-activity studies on 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists and activators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four series of 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel antagonists related to mifedipine were synthesized by a modified Hantzsch procedure to determine the effects of ester (C3 = CO2Me, C5 = CO2R) and phenyl (C4) substituents on pharmacological and radioligand binding ([H]nitrendipine) activities in guinea pig ileal longitudinal smooth muscle. Two series of Ca2+ channel activator 1,4-dihydropyridines, BAY K 8644 (C3 = NO2, C5 = CO2Me) and CGP 28392 (C2,3 = lactone, C5 = CO2Me) were biochemically evaluated by inhibition of [3H]nitrendipine binding in guinea pig ileal longitudinal smooth muscle membranes to establish fundamental structure-activity requirements. A homologous series of bis-1,4-dihydropyridines were synthesized, pharmacologically and biochemically evaluated in an attempt to explore the distribution of the 1,4-dihydropyridine receptor in guinea pig ileal longitudinal smooth muscle membranes. Several potential affinity labels including ester substituted 3- and 4-fluorosulfonyl benzoyl and isothiocyanate derivatives were synthesized and evaluated by inhibition of [3H]nitrendipine binding

  5. IR laser ablative desulfurization of poly (1,4-phenylene sulfide)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Durani, S. M. A.; Khawaja, E. E.; Masoudi, H. M.; Bastl, Zdeněk; Šubrt, Jan; Galíková, Anna; Pola, Josef

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 1 (2005), s. 145-149. ISSN 0165-2370 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/04/2028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : poly (1,4-phenylene sulfide) * laser ablation * desulfurization Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.265, year: 2005

  6. 1-Zircona-2,5-disilacyclopent-3-in: ein Zirconocen-koordiniertes 1,4-Disilabutatrien?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lamač, Martin; Spannenberg, A.; Jiao, H.; Hansen, S.; Baumann, W.; Arndt, P.; Rosenthal, U.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 16 (2010), s. 2999-3002. ISSN 0570-0833 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : 1-Zircona-2,5-disilacyclopent-3-yne * 1,4-Disilabutatriene * zirconocene Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  7. PEG - MEDICATED CATALYST: FREE SYNTHESIS OF HANTZSCH 1, 4 – DIHYDROPYRIDINES OF AZELNIDIPINE AND NIFEDIINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Venkata Subba Reddy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hantzsch 1, 4 – dihydropyridines derivative of Azelnidipine and Nifediine were synthesized in good yield by PEG- medicated, catalyst free synthesis under solvent – free conditions. The product was directly recrystallized from methanol. The reaction gave excellent yield and purity obtained.

  8. Radio confirmation of Galactic supernova remnant G308.3-1.4

    CERN Document Server

    De Horta, A Y; Filipovic, M D; Crawford, E J; Urosevic, D; Stootman, F H; Tothill, N F H

    2012-01-01

    We present radio-continuum observations of the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) candidate, G308.3-1.4, made with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope and the Parkes radio telescope. Our results combined with Chandra X-ray images confirm that G308.3-1.4 is a bona fide SNR with a shell morphology. The SNR has average diameter of D = 34 +- 19 pc, radio spectral index of alpha = -0.68 +- 0.16 and linear polarisation of 10 +- 1%; We estimate the SNR magnetic field B = 29 uG. Employing a Sigma-D relation, we estimate a distance to G308.3-1.4 of d = 19 +- 11 kpc. The radio morphology, although complex, suggests a smaller size for the SNR than previously implied in an X-Ray study. These results imply that G308.3-1.4 is a young to middle-aged SNR in the early adiabatic phase of evolution.

  9. 8-Hydroxynaphthalene-1,4-dione derivative as novel compound for glioma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagotto, Giuseppe; Redaelli, Marco; Pasquale, Riccardo; D'Avella, Domenico; Cozza, Giorgio; Denaro, Luca; Pizzato, Francesca; Mucignat-Caretta, Carla

    2011-04-01

    Malignant gliomas continue to demand the search for improved chemotherapeutic solutions. In this work the results of a preliminary in vitro screening performed on a small library of compounds are disclosed. As a result 2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-8-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone emerged as a promising therapeutic lead. PMID:21353776

  10. Diastereoselective Ni-catalyzed 1,4-hydroboration of chiral dienols#

    OpenAIRE

    Ely, Robert J.; Yu, Zhiyong; Morken, James P.

    2015-01-01

    The Ni-catalyzed hydroboration of dienols occurs in a 1,4 fashion and delivers a syn-propionate motif in high diastereoselectivity and with a stereodefined trisubstituted crotylboronic ester. The boronic ester can be further manipulated to provide carbon-carbon or carbon-oxygen bonds.

  11. Indirect consideration of un-bonded tendons in 1/4 PCCV model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper concentrates on the development of a tendon model which can simulate slip behavior between un-bonded tendons and concrete for finite element modeling of 1/4 PCCV (1:4-scale prestressed concrete containment vessel) model. Differently from the bonded tendon depended on structural section, a stress increase beyond the effective value of initial prestress in the un-bonded tendon is mainly depended on the structural member. Therefore, the tendon stress in the un-bonded tendon can be represented as having uniform distribution along the length of the member if the friction loss is not included. To trace the structural response of prestressed concrete structures, accordingly, a modified stress-strain curve for the un-bonded tendon can be derived through performing the successive iterations. This indirect tendon model can take into account the slip effect between un-bonded tendon and concrete, and then it is incorporated into commercialized programs such as DIANA and ABAQUS which have the fundamental limitation in simulating the un-bonded tendon. Finally, the ultimate pressure capacity analyses of 1/4 PCCV model are carried out to evaluate the efficiency and applicability of this tendon model. The numerical results show that 1/4 PCCV represents the ultimate resisting capacity larger than 3 times of the design pressure. (authors)

  12. Learning Progression of Ecological System Reasoning for Lower Elementary (G1-4) Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokayem, Hayat Al

    2012-01-01

    In this study, I utilized a learning progression framework to investigate lower elementary students (G1-4) systemic reasoning in ecology and I related students reasoning to their sources of knowledge. I used semi-structured interviews with 44 students from first through fourth grade, four teachers, and eight parents. The results revealed that a…

  13. Electronic states of 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene. A synchrotron radiation linear dichroism investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duy Duc; Jones, Nykola C.; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning;

    2012-01-01

    The electronic transitions of 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene (BPEB) were investigated by UV synchrotron radiation linear dichroism (SRLD) spectroscopy in the range 25,000 – 58,000 cm–1 (400 – 170 nm) on molecular samples aligned in stretched polyethylene. The investigation was supported by variable...

  14. High-affinity antibodies to the 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel blockers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibodies with high affinity and specificity for the 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel blockers have been produced in rabbits by immunization with dihydropyridine-protein conjugates. Anti-dihydropyridine antibodies were found to specifically bind [3H]nitrendipine, [3H]-nimodipine, [3H]nisoldipine, and [3H]PN 200-110 (all 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel blockers) with high affinity, while [3H]verapamil, [3H]diltiazem, and [3H]trifluoperazine were not recognized. The average dissociation constant of the [3H]nitrendipine-antibody complex was 0.06 (+/- 0.02) X 10(-9) M for an antiserum studied in detail and ranged from 0.01 to 0.24 X 10(-9) M for all antisera. Inhibition of [3H]nitrendipine binding was specific for the 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel modifiers and the concentrations required for half-maximal inhibition ranged between 0.25 and 0.90 nM. Structurally unrelated Ca2+-channel blockers, calmodulin antagonists, inactive metabolites of nitrendipine, and UV-inactivated nisoldipine did not modify [3H]nitrendipine binding to the anti-dihydropyridine antibodies. Dihydropyridines without a bulky substituent in the 4-position of the heterocycle were able to displace [3H]nitrendipine binding, but the concentrations required for half-maximal inhibition were greater than 800 nM. In summary, anti-dihydropyridine antibodies have been shown to have high affinity and specificity for the 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel blockers and to exhibit dihydropyridine binding properties similar to the membrane receptor for the 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel blockers

  15. Novel semiconducting alloy polymers formed from ortho-carborane and 1,4-diaminobenzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquale, Frank L. [Department of Chemistry and Center for Electronic Materials Processing and Integration, 1155 Union Circle 305070, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203-5017 (United States); Liu, Jing; Dowben, P.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nebraska Center for Nanostructures and Materials, 855 North 16th Street, Theodore Jorgensen Hall, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NB 68588-0299 (United States); Kelber, Jeffry A., E-mail: kelber@unt.edu [Department of Chemistry and Center for Electronic Materials Processing and Integration, 1155 Union Circle 305070, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203-5017 (United States)

    2012-04-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel semiconducting films were formed from ortho-carborane and 1,4-diaminobenzene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron bombardment induced site-specific crosslinking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crosslinking through boron in the ortho-carborane and carbon in 1,4-diaminobenzene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An observed shift in the valence band maximum indicates a reduction of band gap. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A surface photovoltage effect is observed after cross-linking. - Abstract: Novel semiconducting polymers have been formed via the electron-induced cross-linking of ortho-carborane (B{sub 10}C{sub 2}H{sub 12}) and 1,4-diaminobenzene. The films were formed by co-condensation of the molecular precursors and 200 eV electron-induced cross-linking under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. Ultraviolet photoemission spectra show that the compound films display a shift of the valence band maximum from {approx}4.3 eV below the Fermi level for pure boron carbide to {approx}1.7 eV below the Fermi level when diaminobenzene is added. The surface photovoltage effect decreases with decreasing B/N atomic ratio. Core level photoelectron spectra indicate site-specific bonding between B sites non-adjacent to icosahedral carbon sites on the carborane moiety, and carbon sites on the diaminobenzene moiety. Molecular orbital calculations and experiment suggest significant electronic interaction between ortho-carborane and 1,4-diaminobenzene units, with the highest occupied valence band states predominantly 1,4-diaminobenzene in character.

  16. Novel semiconducting alloy polymers formed from ortho-carborane and 1,4-diaminobenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Novel semiconducting films were formed from ortho-carborane and 1,4-diaminobenzene. ► Electron bombardment induced site-specific crosslinking. ► Crosslinking through boron in the ortho-carborane and carbon in 1,4-diaminobenzene. ► An observed shift in the valence band maximum indicates a reduction of band gap. ► A surface photovoltage effect is observed after cross-linking. - Abstract: Novel semiconducting polymers have been formed via the electron-induced cross-linking of ortho-carborane (B10C2H12) and 1,4-diaminobenzene. The films were formed by co-condensation of the molecular precursors and 200 eV electron-induced cross-linking under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. Ultraviolet photoemission spectra show that the compound films display a shift of the valence band maximum from ∼4.3 eV below the Fermi level for pure boron carbide to ∼1.7 eV below the Fermi level when diaminobenzene is added. The surface photovoltage effect decreases with decreasing B/N atomic ratio. Core level photoelectron spectra indicate site-specific bonding between B sites non-adjacent to icosahedral carbon sites on the carborane moiety, and carbon sites on the diaminobenzene moiety. Molecular orbital calculations and experiment suggest significant electronic interaction between ortho-carborane and 1,4-diaminobenzene units, with the highest occupied valence band states predominantly 1,4-diaminobenzene in character.

  17. Staging interrail mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg; Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    This article applies the multiscalar ‘staging mobilities’ framework from the emergent subfield of mobilities design to analyse an enduring European rail travel phenomenon, interrail. This discussion extends and contributes to tourism mobilities research. Second, the article enriches previous stud...

  18. World Stage Design

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    12-19. III Torontos rahvusvaheline lavakujunduse, kostüümi ning valgus- ja helikujunduse näitus, mis toimub samaaegselt OISTATi (International Organization of Scenographers, Theatre Architects and Technicians) maailmakongressiga ja USITT (United States Institute for Theatre Technology) üritustega (konverents, Stage Expo). Eestit esindab lavakujunduse kategoorias Lilja Blumenfeld-Luhse

  19. Stages of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know your pregnancy rights Getting ready for baby Childbirth and beyond Mom-to-be tools Government in action on pregnancy Pregnancy in Spanish ( en español ) Subscribe to Stages of pregnancy email updates. Enter email address Submit Home > Pregnancy > You're pregnant: Now what? Pregnancy This ...

  20. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung, liver, and peritoneal cavity. An inset shows cancer cells spreading from the pancreas, through the blood and lymph system, to another ... abdomen that contains the intestines, stomach, and liver). Cancer may also have spread to ... pancreas or to lymph nodes. Stage IV pancreatic cancer. ...

  1. Stages of economic growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kejak, Michal

    Detroit : Macmillan Reference USA, 2008 - (Darity, W.), s. 79-82 ISBN 978-0-02-865973-2. - (International encyclopedia of the social sciences. Vol. 8) R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : economic growth * stages * political consequencies Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  2. Antisense Oligonucleotides Targeting Parasite Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor Inhibits Mammalian Host Cell Invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Muneaki; Nara, Takeshi; Hirawake, Hiroko; Morales, Jorge; Enomoto, Masahiro; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2014-02-01

    Chagas disease is caused by an intracellular parasitic protist, Trypanosoma cruzi. As there are no highly effective drugs against this agent that also demonstrate low toxicity, there is an urgent need for development of new drugs to treat Chagas disease. We have previously demonstrated that the parasite inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (TcIP3R) is crucial for invasion of the mammalian host cell by T. cruzi. Here, we report that TcIP3R is a short-lived protein and that its expression is significantly suppressed in trypomastigotes. Treatment of trypomastigotes, an infective stage of T. cruzi, with antisense oligonucleotides specific to TcIP3R deceased TcIP3R protein levels and impaired trypomastigote invasion of host cells. Due to the resulting instability and very low expression level of TcIP3R in trypomastigotes indicates that TcIP3R is a promising target for antisense therapy in Chagas disease.

  3. Proton transfer from 1,4-pentadiene to superoxide radical anion: a QTAIM analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Rodríguez-Serrano

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied the bis-allylic proton transferreaction from 1,4-pentadiene to superoxideradical anion (O2·־. Minima andtransition state geometries, as well asthermochemical parameters were computedat the B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2plevel of theory. The electronic wavefunctions of reactants, intermediates,and products were analyzed within theframework of the Quantum Theory ofAtoms in Molecules. The results showthe formation of strongly hydrogen bondedcomplexes between the 1,4-pentadien-3-yl anion and the hydroperoxylradical as the reaction products. Theseproduct complexes (PCs are more stablethan the isolated reactants and muchmore stable than the isolated products.This reaction occurs via pre-reactivecomplexes which are more stable thanthe PCs and the transition states. This isin agreement with the fact that the netproton transfer reaction that leads to freeproducts is an endothermic and nonspontaneousprocess.

  4. Cancer Cell Cytotoxicities of 1-(4-Substitutedbenzoyl-4-(4-chlorobenzhydrylpiperazine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Yarim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel 1-(4-substitutedbenzoyl-4-(4-chlorobenzhydrylpiperazine derivatives 5ag was designed by a nucleophilic substitution reaction of 1-(4-chlorobenzhydrylpiperazine with various benzoyl chlorides and characterized by elemental analyses, IR and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Cytotoxicity of the compounds was demonstrated on cancer cell lines from liver (HUH7, FOCUS, MAHLAVU, HEPG2, HEP3B, breast (MCF7, BT20, T47D, CAMA-1, colon (HCT-116, gastric (KATO-3 and endometrial (MFE-296 cancer cell lines. Time-dependent cytotoxicity analysis of compound 5a indicated the long-term in situ stability of this compound. All compounds showed significant cell growth inhibitory activity on the selected cancer cell lines.

  5. Cloning and characterization of a novel member of human β-1,4-galactosyltransferase gene family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范玉新; 余龙; 张琪; 江萤; 戴方彦; 陈驰原; 屠强; 毕安定; 许月芳; 赵寿元

    1999-01-01

    By using the EST strategy for identifying novel members belonging to homologous gene families, a novel full-length cDNA encoding a protein significantly homologous to UDP-Gal: N-acetylglucosamine β-1, 4-galactosyltransferase (GAlT) was isolated from a human testis cDNA library. A nucleotide sequence of 2 173 bp long was determined to contain an open reading frame of 1032 nucleotides (344 amino acids). In view of the homology to members of the galactosyltransferase gene family and especially the closest relationship to Gallus gallus GalT type I (CK I), the predicted product of the novel cDNA was designated as human β-1, 4-galactosyltransferase homolog I (HumGT-H1). Its mRNA is present in different degrees in 16 tissues examined. Southern analysis of human genomic DNA revealed its locus on chromosome 3.

  6. Synthesis of new 2-aminocarbohydrate-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives promoted by ultrasonic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Caroline F.J.; Jordao, Alessandro K.; Ferreira, Vitor F.; Souza, Maria C.B.V. de; Cunha, Anna C., E-mail: annac@vm.uff.b [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Resende, Jackson A.L.C. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Inorganica. Lab. Regional de Difracao de Raios X

    2011-07-01

    In this report we describe the ultrasound-accelerated synthesis of new naphthoquinone derivatives 6a-f and 7a-c, which possess an aminocarbohydrate chain at the C-2 position of the quinone ring. This novel type of 1,4-naphthoquinone derivative has been synthesized under mild conditions by the reaction of 1,4-naphthoquinone (8a) or methoxylapachol (8b) with different aminocarbohydrates 9a-d. Characterization of all substances was confirmed by one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques ({sup 1}H, {sup 13}C-APT, cosy-1H vs. 1H and HETCOR {sup 1}J{sub CH}) and by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR ESI MS). (author)

  7. Polyesters from 1,4 cyclohexanediol: kinetics aspects in protic and non protic catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuing with the kinetic studies in polycondensation, it has been choosen the 1,4 cyclohexane diol as a monomer to polyesterify with acid and succinic anhydride, using p.toluen sulphonic acid as protic external catalyst and cooper (II) acetylacetonate as non protic catalyst. The reactions were carried out in bulk and the acid number followed for kinetical approaches. The structure of the polyester was characterized by means of IR, NMR and the thermal properties were studied by TGA and DSC. The molecular weight were measured by GPC and end group analysis. The kinetics is accomplish and the properties of the resulting material is compared to those of the polymer prepared from 1,4 cyclohexane dimethanol, in order to explore its probable liquid crystal behaviour

  8. Interaction of small vacancy clusters with (1 1 4) twin-boundary in gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Fayyaz [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63120 (Pakistan); Hayat, Sardar Sikandar, E-mail: sikandariub@yahoo.co [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hazara University, Mansehra 21300 (Pakistan); Imran, Muhammad [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63120 (Pakistan)

    2011-03-01

    The molecular dynamics simulation technique with many-body and semi-empirical potentials is used to calculate the (1 1 4) twin-boundary in gold at different temperatures. Relaxations are found on both sides of the interface with the same magnitude and the phenomenon of coalescence is observed near the interface. The interactions of single-, di- and tri-vacancies with twin-interface at 300 K on mirror and off-mirror sites are calculated. Off-mirror arrangements are favorable for all vacancy clusters, except for the single-vacancy cluster, which is less repulsive on the mirror site. Vacancy clusters energetically prefer to lie at planes closest to the (1 1 4) interface rather than away from it. The effect of temperature on interaction behavior is also calculated.

  9. THE SOLUBILITY OF LIGNIN FROM BAGASSE IN A 1,4-BUTANEDIOL/WATER SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Wang; Kefu Chen; Jun Li; Guihua Yang,; Shanshan Liu; Jun Xu

    2011-01-01

    The solubility of lignin from bagasse in a 1,4-butanediol/water mixed solution was investigated and explained by the solubility parameter (δ-value). To explore the lignin solubility, enzymatic hydrolysis/mild acidolysis lignin (EMAL) isolated from bagasse was used as the starting material to prepare lignin solution by ultrasonic treatment. The lignin content in solution was determined by UV-vis spectroscopy at a wavelength of 280 nm. The results showed that 240 minutes of ultrasonic treatment...

  10. Enantioselective Synthesis of Homo-N-Nucleosides Containing a 1,4-Dioxane Sugar Analog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Yu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A dioxane homo-sugar analog, (2S,5S-and (2R,5S-5-[(4S-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl]-2-iodomethyl-1,4-dioxane was prepared from (2R,3R-dimethyl tartrate, and further elaborated into the corresponding homo-N-nucleoside analogs by its reactions with uracil and adenine, respectively.

  11. Characterization of plants expressing the human β1,4-galactosyltrasferase gene

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Jeannine; Castilho, Alexandra; Pabst, Martin; Altmann, Friedrich; Gruber, Clemens; Strasser, Richard; Gattinger, Pia; Seifert, Georg J.; Steinkellner, Herta

    2015-01-01

    Modification of the plant N-glycosylation pathway towards human type structures is an important strategy to implement plants as expression systems for therapeutic proteins. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the overall impact of non-plant glycosylation enzymes in stable transformed plants. Here, we analyzed transgenic lines (Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana) that stably express a modified version of human β1,4-galactosyltransferase (STGalT). While some transgenic pl...

  12. Physiological and Chemical Investigations into Microbial Degradation of Synthetic Poly(cis-1,4-isoprene)

    OpenAIRE

    Bode, Helge B; Zeeck, Axel; Plückhahn, Kirsten; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2000-01-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor 1A and Pseudomonas citronellolis were able to degrade synthetic high-molecular-weight poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) and vulcanized natural rubber. Growth on the polymers was poor but significantly greater than that of the nondegrading strain Streptomyces lividans 1326 (control). Measurement of the molecular weight distribution of the polymer before and after degradation showed a time-dependent increase in low-molecular-weight polymer molecules for S. coelicolor 1A and P. citr...

  13. Probing the Mechanism of 1,4-Conjugate Elimination Reactions Catalyzed by Terpene Synthases

    OpenAIRE

    Faraldos, Juan A.; Gonzalez, Veronica; Li, Amang; Yu, Fanglei; Köksal, Mustafa; Christianson, David W.; Allemann, Rudolf K.

    2012-01-01

    The reaction mechanisms of (E)-β-farnesene synthase (EBFS) and isoprene synthase (ISPS), enzymes that catalyze a formal regioespecific 1,4-conjugate elimination of hydrogen-diphosphate from (E, E)-farnesyl and dimethylallyl diphosphate (FDP and DMADP) to generate the semiochemicals (E)-β-farnesene and isoprene, respectively, were probed with substrate analogs and kinetic measurements. The results support stepwise reaction mechanisms through analogous enzyme-bound allylic cationic intermediate...

  14. Sigma-1 receptor agonists directly inhibit Nav1.2/1.4 channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Fei Gao

    Full Text Available (+-SKF 10047 (N-allyl-normetazocine is a prototypic and specific sigma-1 receptor agonist that has been used extensively to study the function of sigma-1 receptors. (+-SKF 10047 inhibits K(+, Na(+ and Ca2+ channels via sigma-1 receptor activation. We found that (+-SKF 10047 inhibited Na(V1.2 and Na(V1.4 channels independently of sigma-1 receptor activation. (+-SKF 10047 equally inhibited Na(V1.2/1.4 channel currents in HEK293T cells with abundant sigma-1 receptor expression and in COS-7 cells, which barely express sigma-1 receptors. The sigma-1 receptor antagonists BD 1063,BD 1047 and NE-100 did not block the inhibitory effects of (+-SKF-10047. Blocking of the PKA, PKC and G-protein pathways did not affect (+-SKF 10047 inhibition of Na(V1.2 channel currents. The sigma-1 receptor agonists Dextromethorphan (DM and 1,3-di-o-tolyl-guanidine (DTG also inhibited Na(V1.2 currents through a sigma-1 receptor-independent pathway. The (+-SKF 10047 inhibition of Na(V1.2 currents was use- and frequency-dependent. Point mutations demonstrated the importance of Phe(1764 and Tyr(1771 in the IV-segment 6 domain of the Na(V1.2 channel and Phe(1579 in the Na(V1.4 channel for (+-SKF 10047 inhibition. In conclusion, our results suggest that sigma-1 receptor agonists directly inhibit Na(V1.2/1.4 channels and that these interactions should be given special attention for future sigma-1 receptor function studies.

  15. Simple synthesis of non-symmetric 1,4-dialkoxybenzenes via 4-alkoxyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motyka Radosław

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A three steps synthesis of non-symmetric 1,4-dialkoxybenzenes starting from 4-hydroxybenzaldehydes was described. At first step 4-alkoxyphneols were alkylated to give 4-alkoxybenzaldehydes. At the second step 4-alkoxybenzaldehydes were submitted to a Baeyer-Villiger oxidation with 30% H 2O 2 to afford 4-alkoxyphenols. At the last step 4-alkoxyphenols were secondly alkylated to give the title compounds.

  16. The combinatorial synthesis and chemical and biological evaluation of a 1,4-benzodiazepine library.

    OpenAIRE

    Bunin, B A; Plunkett, M J; Ellman, J A

    1994-01-01

    A library of 192 structurally diverse 1,4-benzodiazepine derivatives containing a variety of chemical functionalities including amides, carboxylic acids, amines, phenols, and indoles was constructed from three components, 2-aminobenzophenones, amino acids, and alkylating agents, by employing Geysen's pin apparatus [Geysen, H. M., Rodda, S. J., Mason, T. J., Tribbick, G. & Schoofs, P. G. (1987) J. Immunol. Methods 102, 259-274]. Rigorous analytical verification of the chemical integrity and yi...

  17. Synthesis of cyclic guanidines: 2-arylamino-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidines

    OpenAIRE

    Rozas, Isabel; Grayson, David

    2014-01-01

    PUBLISHED Considering the biological and chemical relevance of guanidine containing derivatives, we have devised a novel and efficient two-step synthesis of 2-arylamino-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidines. We have found that the coupling of aryl bromides with 2-aminopyrimidine is a very effective method for the high yielding synthesis of 2-arylaminopyrimidines. Moreover, the employment of Pd-catalysed hydrogenation to selectively reduce the pyrimidine ring generates a very high- yielding pathway...

  18. Über dimere 1,4-Dithiafulvene als Vorstufen zu leitfähigen Polymeren

    OpenAIRE

    Haverkamp, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    Diese Arbeit beschreibt die Synthese und die Eigenschaften dimerer 1,4-Dithiafulvene (DTF) im Hinblick auf ihre Anwendung als Vorstufen leitfähiger Polymere. Besonderes Augenmerk lag hierbei auf deren elektrochemischen Eigenschaften und ihren Fähigkeiten zur Ladungsdelokalisierung sowie zur Polymerisation. Es wurden neue monomere und dimere Verbindungen durch Lithiierung von 4-Phenyl-2-phenylmethyliden-1,3-dithiol (PhDTFPh) und anschließende Umsetzung mit silicium-, phosphor-, schwefel- oder ...

  19. Production, Purification, and Characterization of β-(1-4)-Endoxylanase of Streptomyces roseiscleroticus

    OpenAIRE

    Grabski, Anthony C.; Jeffries, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Twelve species of Streptomyces that formerly belonged to the genus Chainia were screened for the production of xylanase and cellulase. One species, Streptomyces roseiscleroticus (Chainia rosea) NRRL B-11019, produced up to 16.2 IU of xylanase per ml in 48 h. A xylanase from S. roseiscleroticus was purified and characterized. The enzyme was a debranching β-(1-4)-endoxylanase showing high activity on xylan but essentially no activity against acid-swollen (Walseth) cellulose. It had a very low a...

  20. Low-energy gamma rays from pulsar GX 1+4 balloon results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results from a search of pulsed emissions in low-energy gamma rays from GX 1+4 source is presented. These pulsations, observed at gamma ray energies from an X-ray pulser, in conjuction with the period determined in X-rays, indicate a spin-down in contrast with the spin-up behavior observed by others before. (G.D.F.)

  1. 1,4-Diketones from Cross-Conjugated Dienones: Potassium Permanganate-Interrupted Nazarov Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yonghoon; Schatz, Devon J; West, Frederick G

    2015-08-17

    A domino potassium permanganate-interrupted Nazarov reaction to yield syn-2,3-disubstituted 1,4-diketones via a decarbonylative cleavage of the Nazarov oxyallyl intermediate, believed to be without precedent, is presented. This process allows syn substituents to be established stereospecifically on the 2-carbon bridge connecting the ketone carbonyl carbons, and the formation of one carbon-carbon and two carbon-oxygen bonds. Two carbon-carbon bonds are cleaved in this process. PMID:26138361

  2. Organocatalytic asymmetric addition of malonates to unsaturated 1,4-diketones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Žari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The organocatalytic Michael addition of malonates to symmetric unsaturated 1,4-diketones catalyzed by thiourea and squaramide derivatives with Cinchona alkaloids afforded the formation of a new C–C bond in high yields (up to 98% and enantiomeric purities (up to 93%. The absolute configuration of the product was suggested from comparison of the experimental and calculated VCD spectra of the reaction product 3a.

  3. Corrosion of 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo steel under superheat transfer conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steam generators being developed for use with liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's) will operate at substantially greater heat fluxes than conventional fossil-fired steam plants. To establish the corrosion allowance for the superheater tube walls, tests on 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel with a heat flux of 126 kW/m2 across the specimen surface were conducted under steam conditions similar to those that will exist in LMFBR superheaters. (author)

  4. Painting Tableau Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Derby, Moyra; Elliot, Stuart; Finch, Mark; Harland, Beth

    2013-01-01

    The central visual core of Painting Tableau Stage comprised of paintings by four contemporary artists from the United Kingdom, Moyra Derby, Stuart Elliot, Mick Finch, Beth Harland, all of whom share an interest in concepts of the tableau, a term that has received recent critical attention in the U.K. and often translated as "picture form." In addition, a small selection of scenographic artifacts and models from OSU's Jerome Lawrence and Robert E. Lee Theater Research Institute act as a visual...

  5. Endometrial carcinoma stage I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baram, A; Ron, I; Kupferminc, M; Inbar, M

    1997-01-01

    Standard staging and therapeutic approach to endometrial cancer involves lymph node sampling (LNS) at the time of total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO). Lymphadenectomy prolongs time of surgery and increases the risk of morbidity; where other predictors are available, it may not contribute important supplementary information. 185/247 women with stage I endometrial carcinoma underwent the standard surgery while 62 underwent TAH+BSO. Recurrence and survival were monitored for a mean of 6.5 years and retrospectively reviewed: the rates for groups with and without known lymph node status were alike [13.5% (25/185) recurrence for the former and 12.9% (8/62) for the latter, and 5-year survival rates of 75.7% (140/185) for the former and 74.2 (46/62) for the latter]. Myometrial invasion and histological grade appeared to have been highly accurate predictors without lymph node information. Because information on histological grade is available early and is highly predictive, its use could be incorporated into a revised management algorithm for stage I endometrial cancer which would depend upon ensuring lymphadenectomy for women with low grade histopathology and omitting it for those with high grades on the grounds that no further information is necessary to act appropriately. PMID:21590195

  6. Staging Sociotechnical Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian; Yoshinaka, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    The management of innovation and product development is increasingly facing complex challenges of staging design processes across heterogeneous organisational spaces, with multiple actor-concerns and sources of knowledge. This paper addresses how insights from the Actor-Network Theory and politic...... of product development. The concept of socio-technical spaces is further illustrated through actual examples from industry dealing with early conceptualisation in product development and the role played by management concepts in the configuration of spaces.......The management of innovation and product development is increasingly facing complex challenges of staging design processes across heterogeneous organisational spaces, with multiple actor-concerns and sources of knowledge. This paper addresses how insights from the Actor-Network Theory and political...... process theory may contribute to a reflexive understanding of design as the staging of socio-technical relations and processes cutting across boundaries of diverse organisational, political and knowledge domains. This idea is pursued through the notion of ‘socio-technical spaces’. Socio-technical space...

  7. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 2,5-Bis(alkylamino-1,4-benzoquinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Pessoa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of twelve 2,5-bis(alkylamino-1,4-benzoquinones were prepared in yields ranging from 9–58% via the reaction between p-benzoquinone and various amines. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR and MS analyses. The phytotoxicity of the 2,5-bis(alkylamino-1,4-benzoquinones was evaluated against two crop species, Cucumis sativus and Sorgum bicolor, at 1.0 × 10-3 mol/L. In general, the quinones displayed inhibitory effects on the dicotyledonous species C. sativus (7–74%. On the other hand stimulatory effects were observed on S. bicolor (monocotyledonous. Similar results were observed in the biological assays carried out with the weed species Ipomoea grandifolia (dicotyledonous and Brachiaria decumbens (monocotyledonous. In addition, the cytotoxicity of the 2,5-bis(alkylamino-1,4-benzoquinones was assayed against HL-60 (leukemia, MDA-MB-435 (melanoma, SF-295 (brain and HCT-8 (colon human cancer cell lines and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, as representatives of healthy cells, using a MTT and an Alamar Blue assay. Compound 12 was the most active, displaying cytotoxicity against all cancer cell lines tested.

  8. The evolution of quiescent galaxies at high redshift (z > 1.4)

    CERN Document Server

    Pozzi, F; Cimatti, A; Ilbert, O; Pozzetti, L; McCracken, H; Capak, P; Floch, E Le; Salvato, M; Zamorani, G; Carollo, C M; Contini, T; Kneib, J P; Févre, O Le; Lilly, S J; Mainieri, V; Renzini, A; Scodeggio, M; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Bongiorno, A; Caputi, K; Coppa, G; Cucciati, O; de la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Iovino, A; Kampczyk, P; Knobel, C; Kovac, K; Lamareille, F; Borgne, J F Le; Brun, V Le; Maier, C; Mignoli, M; Pelló, R; Peng, Y; Pérez-Montero, E; Ricciardelli, E; Silverman, J D; Tanaka, M; Tasca, L A M; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Zucca, E

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the evolution of high redshift quiescent galaxies over an effective area of ~1.7 deg^2 in the COSMOS field. Galaxies have been divided according to their star-formation activity and the evolution of the different populations has been investigated in detail. We have studied an IRAC (mag_3.6 1.4 with multi-wavelength coverage. We have derived accurate photometric redshifts (sigma=0.06) and other important physical parameters through a SED-fitting procedure. We have divided our sample into actively star-forming, intermediate and quiescent galaxies depending on their specific star formation rate. We have computed the galaxy stellar mass function of the total sample and the different populations at z=1.4-3.0. We have studied the properties of high redshift quiescent galaxies finding that they are old (1-4 Gyr), massive (log(M/M_sun)~10.65), weakly star forming stellar populations with low dust extinction (E(B-V) 11, while the quiescent population increases from 10% to 50% at the same redshift and...

  9. Synthesis of High cis-1,4-BR with Neodymium for the Manufacture of Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Leonor Méndez-Hernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The salt of neodymium has been widely used in industrial polymerization of 1,3-butadiene. We used the ternary catalytic system neodymium versatate/diethylaluminum chloride/triisobutylaluminum (NdV3/DEAC/TIBA with 0.5 mM NdV3/100 g Bd, NdV3 : DEAC = 1 : 9 mol : mol, and TIBA = 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM. The number-average molecular weight (Mn, weight-average molecular weight (Mw, and polydispersity index (PDI were analyzed by GPC; the rheological properties were analyzed by DMA. The formulations were prepared with carbon black (IRB6 as reinforcing filler and the mechanical properties were compared to behavior of the different elastomeric compounds. The elastomeric compounds were characterized by their rheological properties, tensile strength, abrasion resistance, tear strength, permanent set, resilience, and fatigue properties. The high cis-1,4 polybutadiene (high cis-1,4-BR was obtained with a percentage of cis-1,4 ≥97%. The weight-average molecular weight (Mw was from 150 × 103 to 900 × 103 g/mol and polydispersity index (PDI was from 3.1 to 5.1. This work is based on evaluation of the effect of the catalyst system on the final properties of the synthesized polybutadiene.

  10. Hydrate phase equilibria of furan, acetone, 1,4-dioxane, TBAC and TBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Experimental hydrate dissociation conditions are reported for CO2/methane + some water soluble/insoluble hydrate formers. • An isochoric pressure-search method was used to generate the experimental data. • The data are compared with the corresponding literature data in the presence of pure water. • The hydrate promotion effects of acetone, 1,4-dioxane, furan, TBAC and TBAF are discussed. -- Abstract: In this communication, we first report experimental hydrate dissociation pressures for the methane/carbon dioxide + furan/acetone/1,4-dioxane + water and the methane + tetra n-butyl ammonium chloride (TBAC) + water as well as the carbon dioxide + tetra n-butyl ammonium floride (TBAF) + water systems in the temperature ranges of (269.9 to 303.3) K. An isochoric pressure-search method was used to generate the experimental data. The hydrate dissociation data are compared with the corresponding literature data, if exists, and the literature data in the presence of pure water and acceptable agreement is observed. A discussion is made on hydrate promotion effects of acetone, 1,4-dioxane, furan, TBAC and TBAF

  11. Thermal and structural study on the lattice compound 1,4-diammoniumbutane bis(theophyllinate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystalline title compound (1) prepared from aqueous solution of theophylline and 1,4-diaminobutane has been structurally and thermally characterized. Both the two-step TG decomposition curve and elemental analysis of the hexagonal crystals show that it consists of theophylline and 1,4-diaminobutane in 2:1 molar ratio. Actually, presence of one type of both theophyllinate anions and 1,4-diammoniumbutane dication have been indicated by FTIR spectroscopy. The molecular structure of lattice compound (1) has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction, where the hydrogen positions have been obtained from differential Fourier maps. It has confirmed that the crystal is really built up from these ionic constituents bound together with an extensive net of hydrogen bonds. The coupled TG-FTIR analysis of the evolved gases has revealed that the diamine is released as a whole molecule in the first decomposition step. Clathrate 1 and the proton migration in it might serve as a structural model of solid aminophylline whose crystal structure is still unknown

  12. Thermal and structural study on the lattice compound 1,4-diammoniumbutane bis(theophyllinate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, Margit; Madarasz, Janos; Bombicz, Petra; Pokol, Gyoergy; Gal, Sandor

    2004-10-01

    Crystalline title compound (1) prepared from aqueous solution of theophylline and 1,4-diaminobutane has been structurally and thermally characterized. Both the two-step TG decomposition curve and elemental analysis of the hexagonal crystals show that it consists of theophylline and 1,4-diaminobutane in 2:1 molar ratio. Actually, presence of one type of both theophyllinate anions and 1,4-diammoniumbutane dication have been indicated by FTIR spectroscopy. The molecular structure of lattice compound (1) has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction, where the hydrogen positions have been obtained from differential Fourier maps. It has confirmed that the crystal is really built up from these ionic constituents bound together with an extensive net of hydrogen bonds. The coupled TG-FTIR analysis of the evolved gases has revealed that the diamine is released as a whole molecule in the first decomposition step. Clathrate 1 and the proton migration in it might serve as a structural model of solid aminophylline whose crystal structure is still unknown.

  13. The calcineurin antagonist RCAN1-4 is induced by exhaustive exercise in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrani, Ramin; Rébillard, Amélie; Lefeuvre, Luz; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette; Davies, Kelvin J A; Cillard, Josiane

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the regulation of the calcineurin antagonist regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) in rat skeletal muscles after exhaustive physical exercise, which is a physiological modulator of oxidative stress. Three skeletal muscles, namely extensor digitorum longus (EDL), gastrocnemius, and soleus, were investigated. Exhaustive exercise increased RCAN1-4 protein levels in EDL and gastrocnemius, but not in soleus. Protein oxidation as an index of oxidative stress was increased in EDL and gastrocnemius, but remained unchanged in soleus. However, lipid peroxidation was increased in all three muscles. CuZnSOD and catalase protein levels were increased at 3 h postexercise in soleus, whereas they remained unchanged in EDL and gastrocnemius. Calcineurin enzymatic activity declined in EDL and gastrocnemius but not in soleus, and its protein expression was decreased in all three muscles. The level of PGC1-α protein remained unchanged, whereas the protein expression of the transcription factor NFATc4 was decreased in all three muscles. Adiponectin expression was increased in all three muscles. RCAN1-4 expression in EDL and gastrocnemius muscles was augmented by the oxidative stress generated from exhaustive exercise. We propose that increased RCAN1-4 expression and the signal transduction pathways it regulates represent important components of the physiological adaptation to exercise-induced oxidative stress. PMID:26122706

  14. Molluscicidal activity of 2-hydroxy-[1,4]naphthoquinone and derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso A. Camara

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The toxic profile of lawsone (2-hydroxy-[1,4]naphthoquinone and a series of [1,4]naphthoquinone derivatives was evaluated against the brine shrimp Artemia salina and against the mollusk Biomphalaria glabrata, the main transmitting vector of schistosomiasis in Brazil. Of the seventeen compounds tested nine fell below the threshold of 100 µg/mL set for potential molluscicidal activity by the World Health Organization. As a general rule derivatives with non-polar substituents presented the highest molluscicidal activities. These substances showed significant toxicity in A. salina lethality bioassay.A toxicidade da lausona (2-hidroxi-1,4-naftoquinona e de diversos derivados foi avaliada frente à Artemia salina e ao molusco Biomphalaria glabrata, o principal vetor de transmissão da esquistossomose no Brasil. Entre os dezessete compostos testados, nove apresentaram um perfil de toxicidade menor que 100 µg/mL, sendo potenciais agentes moluscicidas de acordo com as designações da Organização Mundial da Saúde. No presente estudo, os compostos contendo substituintes apolares exibiram as maiores atividades. Estes compostos também se mostraram significantemente tóxicos frente à A. salina.

  15. 1,4-Dioxane enhances properties and biocompatibility of polyanionic collagen for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forti, Fabio L; Bet, Marcos R; Goissis, Gilberto; Plepis, Ana M G

    2011-08-01

    Polyanionic collagen obtained from bovine pericardial tissue submitted to alkaline hydrolysis is an acellular matrix with strong potential in tissue engineering. However, increasing the carboxyl content reduces fibril formation and thermal stability compared to the native tissues. In the present work, we propose a chemical protocol based on the association of alkaline hydrolysis with 1,4-dioxane treatment to either attenuate or revert the drastic structural modifications promoted by alkaline treatments. For the characterization of the polyanionic membranes treated with 1,4-dioxane, we found that (1) scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows a stronger reorientation and aggregation of collagen microfibrils; (2) histological evaluation reveals recovering of the alignment of collagen fibers and reassociation with elastic fibers; (3) differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) shows an increase in thermal stability; and (4) in biocompatibility assays there is a normal attachment, morphology and proliferation associated with high survival of the mouse fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 in reconstituted membranes, which behave as native membranes. Our conclusions reinforce the ability of 1,4-dioxane to enhance the properties of negatively charged polyanionic collagen associated with its potential use as biomaterials for grafting, cationic drug- or cell-delivery systems and for the coating of cardiovascular devices. PMID:21643966

  16. Anodic oxidation of 1,4-dioxane on boron-doped diamond electrodes for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the anodic oxidation of 1,4-dioxane, a refractory water pollutant, by boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes was carried out under a range of major system variables: initial concentration, current density, temperature, pH, and electrolyte concentration. The 1,4-dioxane removal behavior was monitored by chemical oxygen demand (COD), and the results were compared with theoretical models for the electrochemical incineration of organic compounds. The removal efficiency of COD was shown to be greater than 95% in most cases, and no electrode fouling was observed during the reaction. Experimental degradation behavior agreed well with the theoretical models, implying that system variables can be predicted, even when the process is applied at pilot scale. Processes conducted at lower initial concentrations and higher temperatures yielded better energy consumption efficiency. Conditions of higher current density yielded faster degradation but need greater quantities of charge loading into the system. Therefore, a compromise between treatment time and energy consumption is required to achieve the desired efficiency. Meanwhile, pH and electrolyte concentrations did not affect reaction efficiency, suggesting that pH adjustment prior to wastewater treatment is not necessary. Thus, anodic oxidation of 1,4-dioxane by BDD electrodes promises to be both an economical and an efficient in wastewater treatment process.

  17. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced NEP.

  18. Stagings of Divine Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bent

    2011-01-01

    Based on a combination of performativity and historicity royal Danish ceremonilality is analysed with a special regard to coronation ceremonies as a manifestation of the idea of godgiven royal power. Point of departure is the coronation of Christian 4. in 1596 and the theme of stagings of power...... is investigated up to the 18. century. Particilarly three fields of reference are exposed - the Christian, the Antique, and the Norse - in a context of European notions and manifestations of royal and state power. Three approaches are especially significant: Divine Monarchy, Divine Monarch, The long Baroque....

  19. Metabolism of inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate by a soluble enzyme fraction from pea (Pisum sativum) roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drobak, B.K.; Watkins, P.A.C.; Roberts, K. (John Innes Inst., Norwich (England)); Chattaway, J.A. (John Innes Inst., Norwich (England) Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (England)); Dawson, A.P. (Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (England))

    1991-02-01

    Metabolism of the putative messenger molecule D-myo-inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3}) in plant cells has been studied using a soluble fraction from pea (pisum sativum) roots as enzyme source and (5-{sup 32}P)Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} and (2-{sup 3}H)Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} as tracers. Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} was rapidly converted into both lower and higher inositol phosphates. The major dephosphorylation product was inositol (4,5) bisphosphate (Ins(4,5)P{sub 2}) whereas inositol(1,4)bisphosphate (Ins(1,4)P{sub 2}) was only present in very small quantities throughout a 15 minute incubation period. In addition to these compounds, small amounts of nine other metabolites were produced including inositol and inositol(1,4,5,X)P{sub 4}. Dephosphorylation of Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} to Ins(4,5)P{sub 2} was dependent on Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} concentration and was partially inhibited by the phosphohydrolase inhibitors 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, glucose 6-phosphate, and p-nitrophenylphosphate. Conversion of Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} to Ins(4,5)P{sub 2} and Ins(1,4,5,X)P{sub 4} was inhibited by 55 micromolar Ca{sup 2+}. This study demonstrates that enzymes are present in plant tissues which are capable of rapidly converting Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} and that pathways of inositol phosphate metabolism exist which may prove to be unique to the plant kingdom.

  20. Unilateral lag-screw technique for an isolated anterior 1/4 atlas fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskil, Semih; Göksel, Murat; Yüksel, Ulaş

    2016-01-01

    Study Design: Fractures of the atlas are classified based on the fracture location and associated ligamentous injury. Among patients with atlas fractures treated using external immobilization, nonunion of the fracture could be seen. Objective: Ideally, treatment strategy for an unstable atlas fracture would involve limited fixation to maintain the fracture fragments in a reduced position without restricting the range of motion (ROM) of the atlantoaxial and atlantooccipital joints. Summary of Background Data: Such a result can be established using either transoral limited internal fixation or limited posterior lateral mass fixation. However, due to high infection risk and technical difficulty, posterior approaches are preferred but none of these techniques can fully address anterior 1/4 atlas fractures such as in this case. Materials and Methods: A novel open and direct technique in which a unilateral lag screw was placed to reduce and stabilize a progressively widening isolated right-sided anterior 1/4 single fracture of C1 that was initially treated with a rigid cervical collar is described. Results: Radiological studies made after the surgery showed no implant failure, good cervical alignment, and good reduction with fusion of C1. Conclusions: It is suggested that isolated C1 fractures can be surgically reduced and immobilized using a lateral compression screw to allow union and maintain both C1-0 and C1-2 motions, and in our knowledge this is the first description of the use of a lag screw to achieve reduction of distracted anterior 1/4 fracture fragments of the C1 from a posterior approach. This technique has the potential to become a valuable adjunct to the surgeon's armamentarium, in our opinion, only for fractures with distracted or comminuted fragments whose alignment would not be expected to significantly change with classical lateral mass screw reduction. PMID:27041886

  1. Kinetics of hydrogen attack of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of welding on the kinetics of hydrogen attack of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo quenched and tempered steel was studied using a highly sensitive capacitance dilatometer, in the temperature range of 490 C to 590 C and hydrogen pressures of 10 to 23 MPa. The strain rate of the weld metal was an order of magnitude greater than that of the base metal at 500 C and 20.3 MPa of hydrogen, but it was the same as that of the base metal at 570 C. The base metal exhibited an activation energy of 256 +/- 5 KJ/mol and a methane pressure dependence of 1.76 +/- 0.4. The weld metal had an activation energy of 313 +/- 36 KJ/mol and a methane pressure dependence of 6.6 +/- 1.5. The bubbles in the base metal formed preferentially at the grain boundaries, but those in the weld metal showed no such preference. The effects of tempering on the hydrogen attack kinetics was studied by measuring strain rates and carbon activities of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel samples tempered to different extents. Both carbon activity and the hydrogen attack strain rate decreased monotonically with tempering. Tempering for up to 500 hrs at 700 C does not decrease carbon activity below 0.05 and appreciable strain rates were measured at 550 C and 20.3 MPa. Bubble growth mechanism maps were drawn for both carbon and low alloy steels, and the maps give the predicted mechanisms controlling bubble growth at various temperatures and hydrogen pressures. Commercial 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo Q and T steel was found to suffer hydrogen attack by grain boundary diffusion up to about 25 MPa hydrogen. The weld metal however was found to suffer hydrogen attack by the growth of bubbles by power-law creep of the matrix

  2. Particle correlations in interactions of 4.1(4,5) 22Ne(28Si) with emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different types of particle correlations, in the pseudorapidity intervals and the azimuthal intervals, have been carried out to search for cluster formation in central collisions of 4.1(4.5) A GeV/c 22Ne(28Si). The results showed the formation of hadronic and baryonic clusters emitted back-to back in the azimuthal plane, which may reflect the side ward flow of the nuclear matter. The two particle correlation function results are also presented, and it was found to be positive except in extreme projectile-fragmentation region

  3. Irreducible *-representations of the lie superalgebra osp(1,4) with finite-degenerated vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method presented previously is applied to the Lie superalgebra B(0,2). A family of irreducible *-representations of this superalgebra and its real form osp(1,4) in terms of differential operators is obtained, the dimension of the vacuum subspace of πJ being J+1. Reduction with respect to the subalgebra sp(4,IR) approx.= so(3,2) is performed: the representation πO reduces into three irreducible representations of so(3,2), whereas all the other πJ into two. (author)

  4. On the Correlation of Torque and Luminosity in GX 1+4

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Bildsten, Lars; Finger, Mark H.; Grunsfeld, John M.; Koh, Danny T.; Nelson, Robert W.; Prince, Thomas A.; Vaughan, Brian A.; Wilson, Robert B.

    1997-01-01

    Over 5 years of daily hard X-ray (.20 keV) monitoring of the 2 minute accretion-powered pulsar GX 1+4 with the Compton Gamma Ray ObservatoryyBATSE large-area detectors has found nearly continuous rapid spin-down, interrupted by a bright 200 day spin-up episode. During spin-down, the torque becomes more negative as the luminosity increases (assuming that the 20–60 keV pulsed flux traces bolometric luminosity), the opposite of what is predicted by standard accretion torque theory. No changes in...

  5. Comptonization in the accretion column of the X-ray pulsar GX~1+4

    OpenAIRE

    Galloway, D. K.

    2000-01-01

    X-ray observations of the binary pulsar GX 1+4 made using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) satellite between February 1996 and May 1997 were analysed to quantify source spectral variation with luminosity. Mean Proportional Counter Array (PCA) spectra over the range 2-40 keV are best fitted with a Comptonization model, with source spectrum temperature T_0 approx 1-1.3 keV, plasma temperature T_e approx 6-10 keV, and optical depth tau approx 2-6. The range of fitted T_0 was consistent wit...

  6. K-corona recording in the range < 1.4 Rsun

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, I S; Lisin, D V; Nasonova, L P

    2015-01-01

    Two approaches are suggested for recording the continuum corona in the range < 1.4 Rsun. They are different from the classical coronagraphic ones. Current state in the thin film technology allows discussing a new generation coronagraph with a variable transmission of an entrance aperture. The estimated coronagraphic factor is 2 orders of magnitude higher compared to a Lyot-type coronagraph. Another approach is based on the use of total solar eclipses at near-Mercury orbits. The instrumental background is decreased at least 3 orders of magnitude. That allows using a more simplified optical sketch.

  7. Poly[[μ-1,4-anhydroerythritolato-di-μ-aqua-sodium(I] monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Klüfers

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, {[Na(C4H7O3(H2O2]·H2O}n, the sodium ion is octahedrally coordinated by two bridging 1,4-anhydroerythritolate ligands, unexpectedly coordinated by the ring oxygen and four water ligands. This bonding pattern leads to one-dimensional antitactical polymeric chains along [010]. One of the exocyclic O atoms of the anhydroerythritolate group is an acceptor in four hydrogen bonds, giving further evidence that it is deprotonated.

  8. Studies on vanadium salicyl hydroxamic acid complexes - a 1:4 metal-ligand system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanadium reacts with salicyl hydroxamic acid to form a blue-violet coloured complex with lambdasub(max) at 475 nm at pH 3.3. The metal-ligand ratio in the complex is 1:4. The step-wise formation constants of the complexes have been evaluated by Yatsimirskii's and Leden's graphical extrapolation methods from extractive photometric data. The values from log K1, log K3 and log K2, and log K4 are 3.65 +- 0.05, 2.50 +- 0.05, 2.30 +- 0.05 and 2.15 +- 0.05 respectively. (author)

  9. 4-Week repeated oral dose toxicity study of 1,4-dichlorobutane in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Wook-Joon; Lee, In-Chul; Lee, Jinsoo; Lee, Sang-Min; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Baek, Hyung-Seon; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Sung-Ho; Chung, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the potential subacute toxicity of 1,4-dichlorobutane by a 4-week repeated oral dose in Sprague-Dawley rats. The test article was administered once daily by gavage to male rats at dose levels of 0, 100, 300, and 1,000 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. All rats were sacrificed at the end of the treatment period. During the test period, clinical signs, mortality, body weight, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross findings, and organ weight were examined. At 1,000 mg/kg/day, ...

  10. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Valence Orbitals in 1,4-Dioxane by Electron momentum Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Tie-Cheng; NING Chuan-Gang; SU Guo-Lin; DENG Jing-Kang; ZHANG Shu-Feng; REN Xue-Guang; HUANG Yan-Ru

    2006-01-01

    @@ The binding energy spectrum of all valence orbitals and the momentum distributions of highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO: 8ag), 7bu + 7ag, 4bu, 2bg + 4ag and 2au in 1, 4-dioxane are investigated by electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS) with 600 e V impact energy. The experimental results are consistent with theoretical calculations of C2h chair conformation using the Hartree-Fock method and density functional theory with 6-311++G**and A UG-CC-PVTZ basis sets.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ATLAS 1.4GHz Data Release 2 (Hales+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, C. A.; Norris, R. P.; Gaensler, B. M.; Middelberg, E.; Chow, K. E.; Hopkins, A. M.; Huynh, M. T.; Lenc, E.; Mao, M. Y.

    2015-02-01

    ATLAS observations of the CDF-S and ELAIS-S1 fields were obtained with the ATCA, a synthesis telescope consisting of six 22m alt-az antennas on an east-west baseline. Each antenna is equipped with linearly polarized feeds used to measure all four polarization products (XX, YY, XY, YX), from which all four Stokes parameters (I, Q, U, V) can be derived. Noise diodes in the feed horns of each antenna replace the need to observe a polarization position angle calibrator to derive absolute XY phase. We supplemented our 1.4GHz radio observations with data at infrared and optical wavelengths. (2 data files).

  12. Structure of rat acidic fibroblast growth factor at 1.4 A resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahin, Nikolaj; Kiselyov, Vladislav; Kochoyan, Artur;

    2007-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) constitute a family of 22 structurally related heparin-binding polypeptides that are involved in the regulation of cell growth, survival, differentiation and migration. Here, a 1.4 A resolution X-ray structure of rat FGF1 is presented. Two molecules are present in...... the asymmetric unit of the crystal and they coordinate a total of five sulfate ions. The structures of human, bovine and newt FGF1 have been published previously. Human and rat FGF1 are found to have very similar structures....

  13. Differential Seroprevalence of Human Bocavirus Species 1-4 in Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Li; Wang, Yaying; Zhou, Hongli; Wu, Chao; Song, Jingdong; Li, Jianguo; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; Vernet, Guy; Wang, Jianwei; Hung, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Background Four species of human bocaviruses (HBoV1-4) have been identified based on phylogenetic analysis since its first report in 2005. HBoV1 has been associated with respiratory disease, whereas HBoV2-4 are mainly detected in enteric infections. Although the prevalence of HBoVs in humans has been studied in some regions, it has not been well addressed globally. Methodology/Principal Findings Cross-reactivity of anti-VP2 antibodies was detected between HBoV1, 2, 3, and 4 in mouse and human...

  14. X-ray properties of G308.3-1.4 and its central compact object

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, K. A.; Hui, C. Y.; Huang, R. H. H.; Trepl, L.; Lu, T.-N.; Kong, A. K. H.; Walter, F. M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a short Chandra observation that confirms a previous unidentified extended X-ray source, G308.3-1.4, as a new supernova remnant (SNR) in the Milky Way. Apart from identifying its SNR nature, a bright X-ray point source has also been discovered at the geometrical center. Its X-ray spectral properties are similar to those of a particular class of neutron star known as central compact objects (CCOs). On the other hand, the optical properties of this counterpart suggests it to be a lat...

  15. Synthesis, antimicrobial and antifungal activities of novel 1H-1,4-diazepines containing pyrazolopyrimidinone moiety

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajesh Kumar; Yogesh Chandra Joshi

    2009-07-01

    Acylation of 5-(2-ethoxyphenyl)-1-methyl-3-propyl-1,6-dihydro-7-pyrazolo [4,3-d) pyrimidin-7-one 1 with chloroacetylchloride in the presence of anyhydrous aluminium chloride affords 5-[(5-chloroacetyl-2-ethoxy)phenyl]-1-methyl-3-propyl-1,6-dihydro-7H-pyrazolo [4,3-d] pyrimidin-7-one 2. The compound 2 condensed with various -diketones/-ketoesters compound, to obtain new -diketones/-ketoesters 4a-i treated with ethylenediamine (EDA) gives 1H-1,4-diazepines. The compounds 5a-i has been screened for antimicrobial, antifungal and anthelmintic activities.

  16. Zirconium phosphonate/1,4,5,8-naphthalenediimides self-assembled films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAGALI A. RODRIGUES

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The formation and characterization of self-assembled films of zirconium phosphonate / N,N'-di(2-phosphonoethyl-1,4,5,8-naphthalenediimide (DPN is presented. The films were produced on glass substrates by deposition of alternating layers of Zr+4 and DPN. Films containing up to 16 layers on each side of the substrate were obtained and monitored by absorption spectroscopy and ellipsometry. When irradiated, the initially colorless films turned to a persistent pinky color reminiscent of that of DPN anion radical. These films are a promising material to the development of photovoltaic devices.

  17. Spectroscopic, antifungal and antibacterial studies of 1,4-bis-(chloromethyl)-naphthalene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H/sup 1/ and C/sup 13/-NMR spectra indicate that naphthalene portion of 1,4-bis-(chloromethyl)-naphthalene was slightly twisted due to C/sup 8/ - H - Cl bonding. The electrons distribution on magnetically equivalent carbons became uneven that is why ten carbon peaks instead of five pairs of magnetically equivalent carbons had appeared in C/sup 13/-NMR spectra. Due to C/sup 8/ - H - Cl bonding, extension and contraction in bond lengths from their normal positions had occurred. Similar case was with H/sup 1/-NMR of the said compound. The molecule also showed antifungal and antibacterial properties. (author)

  18. A New Class of Heterocycles: 1,4,3,5-Oxathiadiazepane 4,4-dioxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Bendjeddou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the synthesis of novel 1,4,3,5-oxathiadiazepanes 4,4-dioxides from the reaction of N’-benzyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl-sarcosine or proline sulfamide with aromatic aldehydes under acid catalysis. To prepare the starting materials N-Boc-sulfamide derivatives of sarcosine or proline were alkylated with benzyl alcohol under Mitsunobu reaction conditions, the Boc group was removed chemoselectively by acidolysis, and the resulting product reduced to the corresponding alcohol in good yields.

  19. Poly[1,4-bis(ammoniomethylcyclohexane [di-μ-iodido-diiodidoplumbate(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Kyle Rayner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, {(C8H20N2[PbI4]}n, is an inorganic–organic hybrid. The structure is composed of alternate layers of two-dimensional corner-sharing PbI6 octahedra (overline{1} symmetry and 1,4-bis(ammoniomethylcyclohexane cations (overline{1} symmetry extending parallel to the bc plane. The cations interact with the inorganic layer via N—H...I hydrogen bonding in the right-angled halogen sub-type of the terminal halide hydrogen-bonding motif.

  20. Changes in Brain Function in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Who Are Receiving Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Malignant Ovarian Epithelial Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Polyembryoma; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  1. Nano aluminium nitride as a solid source of ammonia for the preparation of Hantzsch 1,4-dihydropyridines and bis -(1,4-dihydropyridines) in water via one pot multicomponent reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghorbani-Choghamarani, Arash; Goudarziafshar, Hamid; Nikoorazm, Mohsen; Yousefi, Somaieh; Tahmasbi, Bahman, E-mail: arashghch58@yahoo.co [Ilam Univ., Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Science. Dept. of Chemistry; Zolfigol, Mohammad Ali; Hajjami, Maryam [Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Chemistry

    2011-07-01

    Nano aluminium nitride in the presence of water acts as solid source of ammonia, which is used for the preparation of 1,4-dihydropyridines and bis-(1,4-dihydropyridines). An efficient and simple procedure for the one-pot synthesis of 1,4-dihydropyridine and bis-(1,4-dihydropyridine) derivatives was achieved by combination of methyl acetoacetate or ethyl acetoacetate with aldehydes or dialdehydes and aluminium nitride at 80 deg C in water in high purity and good yields. (author)

  2. Effects of Propafenone, Amiodarone and Dilthiazem on the potassium channel of c-Type Kv1.4△N%普罗帕酮、胺碘酮、地尔硫卓对Kv1.4△N钾通道的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智泉; 蒋学俊; 王世敏; 徐林; 王能; 张冬

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨不同类别抗心律失常药物普罗帕酮、胺碘酮和地尔硫卓对去N端Kv1.4通道(Kv1.4△N)的作用方式,以及这些作用的差异性.方法 将Kv1.4△N的mRNA注射入非洲爪蟾卵母细胞并使用双电极钳制法(two electrodes voltage clamp,TEV),运用Clampfit 9.0软件分别观察三种药物对KV1..4△N电生理特性的影响.结果 三种药物对ELvl.4△N通道的作用都具有浓度、频率和电压依赖性.在亲和力方面,propafenone的IC50最小,dilthiazem次之,amiodarone的IC50最大(P=0.031);在频率抑制性方面,propafenone组达到稳态时为对照组的41%,amiodarone为32%左右,dilthiazem为21%左右(P=0.045);在电压抑制性方面,100μMpropafenone,500μM amiodarone、350μM dilthjazem在+50 mV电压下分别能使fKv1.4△N通道电流抑制到对照组的(54.6±1.9)%,(46.3±3.5)%和(52.8±2.8)%(P=0.046).结论 三者都是fKv1.4△N通道的开放通道阻滞剂,对fKv1.4△N通道的作用和机制既有相同之处,又有不同特点,这可能是三者抗心律失常的机制之一.%Objective To study the effects of the antiarrhythmic drugs of propafenone, amiodarone and dilthiazem on c-type Kv1. 4 channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes with two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Methods Defolliculated oocytes ( stage Ⅴ - Ⅵ) had transcribed cRNAs of ferret Kv1. 4△N channels injected. The oocytes were continuously perfused with control solution or propafenone, amiodarone and dilthiazem under monitoring of software of Clampfit v 9. 0. Results All of the three drugs blocked ferret Kv1. 4△N channel in voltage-, frequency- and concentration-dependent manners. The values of IC50 (50%inhibiting concentration ) of propafenone, amiodarone and dilthiazem were ( 103.4± 2. 2 ) μ mol/L,(501.22 +5.9) μmol/L and (353.62 +9.9) μmol/L, respectively. The currents under the actions of propafenone , amiodarone and dilthiazem were decreased to 41%, 32% and 21% of control group, respectively. Propafenone

  3. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinases: functions and regulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Jun XIA; Guang YANG

    2005-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase (IP3 3-kinase/IP3K) plays an important role in signal transduction in animal cells by phosphorylating inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) to inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (IP4). Both IP3 and IP4 are critical second messengers which regulate calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis. Mammalian IP3Ks are involved in many biological processes, including brain development, memory, learning and so on. It is widely reported that Ca2+ is a canonical second messenger in higher plants. Therefore, plant IP3K should also play a crucial role in plant development. Recently,we reported the identification of plant IP3K gene (AtIpk2β/AtIP3K) from Arabidopsis thaliana and its characterization.Here, we summarize the molecular cloning, biochemical properties and biological functions of IP3Ks from animal, yeast and plant. This review also discusses potential functions of IP3Ks in signaling crosstalk, inositol phosphate metabolism,gene transcriptional control and so on.

  4. Spin period evolution of the X-ray pulsar GX 1+4

    CERN Document Server

    González-Galán, A; Kretschmar, P; Larsson, S; Postnov, K; Kochetkova, A; Finger, M H

    2012-01-01

    We report on the long-term evolution of the spin period of the symbiotic X-ray pulsar GX 1+4 and a possible interpretation within a model of quasi-spherical accretion. New period measurements from BeppoSAX, INTEGRAL and Fermi observations have been combined with previously published data from four decades of observations. During the 1970s GX 1+4 was spinning up with the fastest rate among the known X-ray pulsars at the time. In the mid 1980s it underwent a change during a period of low X-ray ux and started to spin down with a rate similar in magnitude to the previous spin up rate. The spin period has changed from ~110 s to ~160 s within the last three decades. Our results demonstrate that the overall spin down trend continues and is stronger than ever. We compare the observations with predictions from a model assuming quasi-spherical accretion from the slow wind of the M giant companion.

  5. Deformed Matrix Models, Supersymmetric Lattice Twists and N=1/4 Supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsal, Mithat

    2008-09-24

    A manifestly supersymmetric nonperturbative matrix regularization for a twisted version of N = (8, 8) theory on a curved background (a two-sphere) is constructed. Both continuum and the matrix regularization respect four exact scalar supersymmetries under a twisted version of the supersymmetry algebra. We then discuss a succinct Q = 1 deformed matrix model regularization of N = 4 SYM in d = 4, which is equivalent to a non-commutative A*{sub 4} orbifold lattice formulation. Motivated by recent progress in supersymmetric lattices, we also propose a N = 1/4 supersymmetry preserving deformation of N = 4 SYM theory on R{sup 4}. In this class of N = 1/4 theories, both the regularized and continuum theory respect the same set of (scalar) supersymmetry. By using the equivalence of the deformed matrix models with the lattice formulations, we give a very simple physical argument on why the exact lattice supersymmetry must be a subset of scalar subalgebra. This argument disagrees with the recent claims of the link approach, for which we give a new interpretation.

  6. Theoretical reconstruction of realistic dynamics of highly coarse-grained cis-1,4-polybutadiene melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubimov, I. Y.; Guenza, M. G.

    2013-03-01

    The theory to reconstruct the atomistic-level chain diffusion from the accelerated dynamics that is measured in mesoscale simulations of the coarse-grained system, is applied here to the dynamics of cis-1,4-polybutadiene melts where each chain is described as a soft interacting colloidal particle. The rescaling formalism accounts for the corrections in the dynamics due to the change in entropy and the change in friction that are a consequence of the coarse-graining procedure. By including these two corrections the dynamics is rescaled to reproduce the realistic dynamics of the system described at the atomistic level. The rescaled diffusion coefficient obtained from mesoscale simulations of coarse-grained cis-1,4-polybutadiene melts shows good agreement with data from united atom simulations performed by Tsolou et al. [Macromolecules 38, 1478 (2005)], 10.1021/ma0491210. The derived monomer friction coefficient is used as an input to the theory for cooperative dynamics that describes the internal dynamics of a polymer moving in a transient regions of slow cooperative motion in a liquid of macromolecules. Theoretically predicted time correlation functions show good agreement with simulations in the whole range of length and time scales in which data are available.

  7. A major electronics upgrade for the H.E.S.S. Cherenkov telescopes 1-4

    CERN Document Server

    Giavitto, G; Balzer, A.; Berge, D.; Brun, F.; Chaminade, T.; Delagnes, E.; Fontaine, G.; Füßling, M.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J.F.; Gräber, T.; Hinton, J.A.; Jahnke, A.; Klepser, S.; Kossatz, M.; Kretzschmann, A.; Lefranc, V.; Leich, H.; Lüdecke, H.; Manigot, P.; Marandon, V.; Moulin, E.; de, M.; Nayman, P.; Penno, M.; Ross, D.; Salek, D.; Schade, M.; Schwab, T.; Simoni, R.; Stegmann, C.; Thornhill, J.; Toussenel, F.

    2015-01-01

    The High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is an array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) located in the Khomas Highland in Namibia. It consists of four 12-m telescopes (CT1-4), which started operations in 2003, and a 28-m diameter one (CT5), which was brought online in 2012. It is the only IACT system featuring telescopes of different sizes, which provides sensitivity for gamma rays across a very wide energy range, from ~30 GeV up to ~100 TeV. Since the camera electronics of CT1-4 are much older than the one of CT5, an upgrade is being carried out; first deployment was in 2015, full operation is planned for 2016. The goals of this upgrade are threefold: reducing the dead time of the cameras, improving the overall performance of the array and reducing the system failure rate related to aging. Upon completion, the upgrade will assure the continuous operation of H.E.S.S. at its full sensitivity until and possibly beyond the advent of CTA. In the design of the new components, several CTA con...

  8. Experiment data report for LOFT nonnuclear Test L1-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Test L1-4 was the fourth in a series of five nonnuclear isothermal blowdown tests conducted by the Loss of Fluid Test (LOFT) Program. Test L1-4 was the first Nuclear Regulatory Commission standard problem (International Problem No. 5 and U.S. Problem No. 7) experiment conducted at LOFT. Data from this test will be compared with predictions generated by the standard problem participants. For this test the LOFT Facility was configured to simulate a loss-of-coolant accident in a large pressurized water reactor resulting from a 200% double-ended offset shear break in a cold leg of the primary coolant system. A hydraulic core simulator assembly was installed in place of the nuclear core. The initial conditions in the primary coolant system intact loop were temperature at 2790C, gauge pressure at 15.65 MPa, and intact loop flow at 268.4 kg/s. During system depressurization into a simulated containment, emergency core cooling water was injected into the primary coolant system cold leg to provide data on the effects of emergency core cooling on system thermalhydraulic response

  9. Angular Momentum Transfer in the Binary X-ray Pulsar GX 1+4

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhill, J; Murray, J R

    1999-01-01

    We describe three presentations relating to the X-ray pulsar GX 1+4 at a workshop on magnetic fields and accretion at the Astrophysical Theory Centre, Australian National University on 1998, November 12-13. Optical and X-ray spectroscopy indicate that GX 1+4 is seen through a cloud of gravitationaly bound matter. We discuss an unstable negative feedback mechanism (originally proposed by Kotani et al, 1999), based on X-ray heating of this matter which controls the accretion rate when the source is in a low X-ray luminosity state. A deep minimum lasting ~6 hours occurred during observations with the RXTE satellite over 1996, July 19-21. The shape of the X-ray pulses changed remarkably from before to after the minimum. These changes may be related to the transition from neutron star spin-down to spin-up which occurred at about the same time. Smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of the effect of adding matter with opposite angular momentum to an existing disc, show that it is possible for a number of concen...

  10. ATLAS 1.4 GHz Data Release 2 -- II. Properties of the faint polarized sky

    CERN Document Server

    Hales, C A; Gaensler, B M; Middelberg, E

    2014-01-01

    This is the second of two papers describing the second data release (DR2) of the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) at 1.4 GHz. In Paper I we detailed our data reduction and analysis procedures, and presented catalogues of components (discrete regions of radio emission) and sources (groups of physically associated radio components). In this paper we present our key observational results. We find that the 1.4 GHz Euclidean normalised differential number counts for ATLAS components exhibit monotonic declines in both total intensity and linear polarization from millijansky levels down to the survey limit of ~100 uJy. We discuss the parameter space in which component counts may suitably proxy source counts. We do not detect any components or sources with fractional polarization levels greater than 24%. The ATLAS data are consistent with a lognormal distribution of fractional polarization with median level 4% that is independent of flux density down to total intensity ~10 mJy and perhaps even 1 mJy. Eac...

  11. Gas-to-dust ratio in massive star-forming galaxies at z~1.4

    CERN Document Server

    Seko, Akifumi; Yabe, Kiyoto; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Aono, Yuya; Iono, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    We present results of 12CO(J=2-1) observations toward four massive star-forming galaxies at z~1.4 with the Nobeyama 45~m radio telescope. The galaxies are detected with Spitzer/MIPS in 24 um, Herschel/SPIRE in 250 um, and 350 um and they mostly reside in the main sequence. Their gas-phase metallicities derived with N2 method by using the Ha and [NII]6584 emission lines are near the solar value. CO lines are detected toward three galaxies. The molecular gas masses obtained are (9.6-35) x 10^{10} Msun by adopting the Galactic CO-to-H2 conversion factor and the CO(2-1)/CO(1-0) flux ratio of 3. The dust masses derived with the modified blackbody model (assuming the dust temperature of 35 K and the emissivity index of 1.5) are (2.4-5.4) x 10^{8} Msun. The resulting gas-to-dust ratios (not accounting for HI mass) at z~1.4 are 220-1450, which are several times larger than those in local star-forming galaxies. A dependence of the gas-to-dust ratio on the far-infrared luminosity density is not clearly seen.

  12. ADAMS/WT advanced development - version 1.4 and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, A.S.; Depauw, T.R. [Mechanical Dynamics, Inc., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    ADAMS/WT is an wind-turbine-specific shell for the general-purpose mechanical system simulation package ADAMS5. It was developed under the guidance of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to give engineers and analysts in the wind turbine community access to the analytical power of ADAMS, without having to become expert in its particular technology. The 1.4 version of ADAMS/WT is the most recent upgrade to the package, incorporating the most up-to-date version of the AeroDyn aerodynamic forcing subroutines from the University of Utah. It is also the first version to be made available on the Windows/NT platform. In version 1.4, ADAMS/WT has been significantly improved throughout and runs much faster. Automatic generation of standardized output has been added. The documentation has been extensively augmented with more detailed descriptions, more figures and more examples. ADAMS/WT remains the most powerful analytical tool available for horizontal-axis wind turbine development. 10 figs.

  13. New series of chelated organochromium(III) complexes. [1,4,8,12-Tetraazacyclopentaedecane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuels, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    A kinetic and mechanistic study of the preparation of a new family of chelated organochromium(III) complexes was completed. These species were formed from organic halides and (1,4,8,12 tetraazacyclopentadecane) chromium(II) by a mechanism which involves initial halogen atom abstraction followed by subsequent radical capture by another Cr(II) complex. The rates of reaction follow the pattern expected for a S/sub H/2 process, 3/sup 0/ > 2/sup 0/ > 1/sup 0/ and I > Br > Cl. These organochromium(III) chelate complexes have the trans configuration. Electrophilic cleavage reactions by mercuric and methylmercuric ions were studied. These reactions proceed by a S/sub E/2 (open) mechanism with the reaction rates being approx. 100 times slower for the chelated species. The activation parameters were determined for five reactions. The crystal structure of (trans-chloroaquo(1,4,8,12-tetraazacyclopentadecane)chromium(III))diiodide-dihydrate is also reported. The macrocycle assumes the lowest energy conformation as predicted by strain energy calculations.

  14. Elastic scattering of low-energy electrons by 1,4-dioxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Alessandra Souza; Bettega, Márcio H. F.

    2014-05-01

    We report calculated cross sections for elastic collisions of low-energy-electrons with 1,4-dioxane. Our calculations employed the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials and were carried out in the static-exchange and static-exchange plus polarization approximations for energies up to 30 eV. Our results show the presence of three shape resonances belonging to the Bu, Au, and Bg symmetries and located at 7.0 eV, 8.4 eV, and 9.8 eV, respectively. We also report the presence of a Ramsauer-Townsend minimum located at around 0.05 eV. We compare our calculated cross sections with experimental data and R-matrix and independent atom model along with the additivity rule corrected by using screening coefficients theoretical results for 1,4-dioxane obtained by Palihawadana et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 014308 (2013)]. The agreement between the present and the R-matrix theoretical calculations of Palihawadana et al. is relatively good at energies below 10 eV. Our calculated differential cross sections agree well with the experimental data, showing only some discrepancies at higher energies.

  15. Spectral properties of new N, N'-bis-alkyl-1,4,6,8-naphthalenediimide complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, M. S.; Grabchev, I.; Chovelon, J.-M.; Ivanova, G.

    2006-05-01

    The photophysical properties of two N, N'-bis-alkyl-1,4,6,8-naphthalenediimide (DCN1 and DCN2) have been studied in chloroform and N, N-dimethylformamide solvents. The ability of DCN2 in N, N-dimethylformamide to detect metal cations have been monitored by the fluorescence emission spectroscopy. It has been shown that the fluorescent intensity is very sensitive to the concentration of Fe 3+ cations. The reaction of iodine with N, N'-bis-alkyl-1,4,6,8-naphthalenediimide in chloroform solution have been investigated by spectrophotometric method. The results indicate the formation of two CT-complexes [(DCN1)I] +·I 3- and [(DCN2)I] +·I 3- at donor:acceptor molar ratio of 1:2. The [(DCN1)I] +·I 3- shows the characteristic absorptions of I 3- ion at 290 and 360 nm while the charge-transfer transition of [(DCN2)I] +·I 3- occurs at 310 nm. Three characteristic bands at the far infrared region in each iodine complex are observed around 135, 105 and 85 cm -1 due to νas (I-I), νs (I-I) and δ (I 3-), respectively with C2v symmetry. The values of the complex formation constant, K, and the absorptivity, ɛ have been calculated.

  16. Aspects of the Optomechanical Design of the Forthcoming 1.4m TCC Reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomos, N. H.

    2010-07-01

    The new Greek 1.4m “Constantine Caratheodory” Telescope (TCC) to be operational from June 2010 onwards, is an advanced robotic telescope-the second biggest reflector and the most advanced tracking facility in Greece-. It will be robotically integrated to a sophisticated fast rotating metallic dome 7m in diameter and a group of real-time environmental condition monitors. The main mechanical and electrooptical characteristics of this multi-role new instrument had been analyzed, emphasizing the features that highlight its science potential and define its own place in the capabilities spectrum of our national astronomy assets. Due to the very limited space available, only the headlines of that analysis can be repeated here, with a more complete description scheduled to be published elsewhere; the concluding remark being the following: the final design of the 1.4m Constantine Caratheodory Telescope, frozen in 2008, was made to incorporate a number of special features and particular capabilities in order to achieve the required performance for potential deployment in Quantum Optics Experiments in conjunction with Satellites, Quantum Astronomy precursor studies, γ-ray burst follow-up and Long-Term Monitoring of Variable Sources.

  17. Enhancement of the thermostability of β-1,3-1,4-glucanase by directed evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiu-yan; RUAN Hui; MU Lin; HE Guo-qing; TANG Xing-jun; CHEN Qi-he

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the thermostability of β- 1,3-1,4-glucanase, evolutionary molecular engineering was used to evolve the β-l,3-1,4-glucanase from Bacillus subtilis ZJF-1A5. The process involves random mutation by error-prone PCR and DNA shuffling followed by screening on the filter-based assay. Two mutants, EGsl and EGs2, were found to have four and five amino acid substitutions, respectively. These substitutions resulted in an increase in melting temperature from Tm=62.5℃ for the wild-type enzyme to Tm=65.5℃ for the mutant EGsl and 67.5℃ for the mutant EGs2. However, the two mutated enzymes had opposite approaches to produce reducing sugar from lichenin with either much higher (28%) for the former or much lower (21.6%)for the latter in comparison with their parental enzymes. The results demonstrate that directed evolution is an effective approach to improve the thermostability of a mesophilic enzyme.

  18. 1,4-环己烷二甲酸催化加氢制备1,4-环己烷二甲醇的热力学分析%Thermodynamic Analysis of Hydrogenation of 1, 4-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic Acid to 1, 4-Cyclohexanedimethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱庆才; 畅延青

    2015-01-01

    采用Constantinou-Gani基团贡献法和Rozicka-Domalski基团贡献法计算了1,4-环己烷二甲酸(CHDA)加氢制备1,4-环己烷二甲醇(CHDM)过程中涉及的主副产物的标准摩尔生成焓、标准摩尔蒸发焓和摩尔定压热容;分别计算了CHDA加氢反应体系中各反应的焓变、Gibbs自由能变和平衡常数.计算结果表明,在373.15~ 573.15 K内,CHDA加氢体系中的各反应均为放热反应,主反应为可逆反应,副反应为不可逆反应.计算了不同反应温度和氢分压下CHDA加氢生成中间产物4-羟甲基-环己烷甲酸(CHMA)及CHMA加氢生成CHDM的平衡转化率.实验结果表明,降低反应温度和提高氢分压均有利于反应物CHDA和中间产物CHMA平衡转化率的提高.

  19. GOOSE Version 1.4: A powerful object-oriented simulation environment for developing reactor models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype software package for a fully interactive Generalized Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (GOOSE) is being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Dynamic models are easily constructed and tested; fully interactive capabilities allow the user to alter model parameters and complexity without recompilation. This environment provides assess to powerful tools such as numerical integration packages, graphical displays, and online help. In GOOSE, portability has been achieved by creating the environment in Objective-C1, which is supported by a variety of platforms including UNIX and DOS. GOOSE Version 1.4 introduces new enhancements like the capability of creating ''initial,'' ''dynamic,'' and ''digital'' methods. The object-oriented approach to simulation used in GOOSE combines the concept of modularity with the additional features of allowing precompilation, optimization, testing, and validation of individual modules. Once a library of classes has been defined and compiled, models can be built and modified without recompilation. GOOSE Version 1.4 is primarily command-line driven

  20. Intrinsically Conductive Polymer Fibers from Thermoplastic trans-1,4-Polyisoprene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peng; Zhang, Xiaohong; Qiao, Jinliang

    2016-05-17

    Herein, we report a new strategy to prepare conductive polymer fibers to overcome the insurmountable weakness of current conductive polymer fibers. First, special thermoplastic polymers are processed into polymer fibers using a conventional melt-spinning process, and then the nonconductive polymer fibers are converted into intrinsically conductive polymer fibers. Using this new strategy, intrinsically conductive polymer fibers have been prepared by melt spinning low-cost thermoplastic trans-1,4-polyisoprene and doping with iodine, which can be as fine as 0.01 mm, and the resistivity can be as low as 10(-2) Ω m. Moreover, it has been found that drawing can improve the orientation of trans-1,4-polyisoprene crystals in the fibers and, thus, the conductivity of the conductive polymer fibers. Therefore, conductive fibers with excellent conductivities can be prepared by large drawing ratios before doping. Such conductive polymer fibers with low cost could be used in textile, clothing, packing, and other fields, which would benefit both industry and daily life. The newly developed method also allows one to produce conductive polymers of any shape besides fibers for antistatic or conductive applications. PMID:27135825

  1. Novel benzo[1,4]diazepin-2-one derivatives as endothelin receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolli, Martin H; Marfurt, Judith; Grisostomi, Corinna; Boss, Christoph; Binkert, Christoph; Hess, Patrick; Treiber, Alexander; Thorin, Eric; Morrison, Keith; Buchmann, Stephan; Bur, Daniel; Ramuz, Henri; Clozel, Martine; Fischli, Walter; Weller, Thomas

    2004-05-20

    Since its discovery in 1988 by Yanagisawa et al., endothelin (ET), a potent vasoconstrictor, has been widely implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and renal diseases. Many research groups have embarked on the discovery and development of ET receptor antagonists for the treatment of such diseases. While several compounds, e.g., ambrisentan 2, are in late clinical trials for various indications, one compound (bosentan, Tracleer) is being marketed to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension. Inspired by the structure of ambrisentan 2, we designed a novel class of ET receptor antagonists based on a 1,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-benzo[e][1,4]diazepin-2-one scaffold. Here, we report on the preparation as well as the in vitro and in vivo structure-activity relationships of these derivatives. Potent dual ET(A)/ET(B) receptor antagonists with affinities in the low nanomolar range have been identified. In addition, several compounds efficiently reduced arterial blood pressure after oral administration to Dahl salt sensitive rats. In this animal model, the efficacy of the benzo[e][1,4]diazepin-2-one derivative rac-39au was superior to that of racemic ambrisentan, rac-2. PMID:15139756

  2. Oxygen Gas Abundances at z~1.4: Implications for the Chemical Evolution History of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, C; Carollo, C M; Meisenheimer, K; Hippelein, H; Stockton, A

    2006-01-01

    The 11.4 galaxies, by which we measured Hbeta and [OIII]5007 emission line fluxes from J-band spectra, and Halpha line fluxes plus upper limits for [NII]6584 fluxes from H-band spectra. The z~1.4 galaxies are characterized by the high [OIII]/[OII] line ratios, low extinction and low metallicity that are typical of lower luminosity CADIS galaxies at 0.4

  3. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2A Description: Stage IIA pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas and duodenum. The bile duct and pancreatic duct are also shown. Stage IIA pancreatic cancer. Cancer has spread to nearby tissue and organs ...

  4. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2B Description: Stage IIB pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas and in nearby lymph nodes. Also shown are the bile duct, pancreatic duct, and duodenum. Stage IIB pancreatic cancer. Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes and ...

  5. PREDICTING TURBINE STAGE PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    This program was developed to predict turbine stage performance taking into account the effects of complex passage geometries. The method uses a quasi-3D inviscid-flow analysis iteratively coupled to calculated losses so that changes in losses result in changes in the flow distribution. In this manner the effects of both the geometry on the flow distribution and the flow distribution on losses are accounted for. The flow may be subsonic or shock-free transonic. The blade row may be fixed or rotating, and the blades may be twisted and leaned. This program has been applied to axial and radial turbines, and is helpful in the analysis of mixed flow machines. This program is a combination of the flow analysis programs MERIDL and TSONIC coupled to the boundary layer program BLAYER. The subsonic flow solution is obtained by a finite difference, stream function analysis. Transonic blade-to-blade solutions are obtained using information from the finite difference, stream function solution with a reduced flow factor. Upstream and downstream flow variables may vary from hub to shroud and provision is made to correct for loss of stagnation pressure. Boundary layer analyses are made to determine profile and end-wall friction losses. Empirical loss models are used to account for incidence, secondary flow, disc windage, and clearance losses. The total losses are then used to calculate stator, rotor, and stage efficiency. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 370/3033 under TSS with a central memory requirement of approximately 4.5 Megs of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1985.

  6. Bipolar disorder: staging and neuroprogression

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Aline André; Rosa, Adriana R.; Kunz, Maurício; Ascoli, Bruna; Kapczinski, Flávio

    2014-01-01

    In bipolar disorder illness progression has been associated with a higher number of mood episodes and hospitalizations, poorer response to treatment, and more severe cognitive and functional impairment. This supports the notion of the use of staging models in this illness. The value of staging models has long been recognized in many medical and malignant conditions. Staging models rely on the fact that different interventions may suit different stages of the disorder, and that better outcomes...

  7. Comparison of low-cycle fatigue data of 2 1/4 % CrMo steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data files have been produced on international strain-controlled fatigue information available for 2 1/4 %CrMo steels. The available data have been considered generally in terms of total strain range vs. cycles to failure (Nsub(f)), tensile stress at Nsub(f)/2 vs. cycles to failure and time to failure vs. cycles to failure. Where possible the continuous cycling data been statistically analysed in terms of the elastic and plastic strain components and cycles to failure to yield best-fit equations over defined temperature (T) regime viz: T 0C, 4270C 0C and 5500C 0C. Increasing test temperatures result in a progressive decrease in continuous cycling fatigue endurance and sustainable stress range

  8. Long-Term Monitoring of the Accreting Pulsar GX 1+4

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Bildsten, L.; Chiu, J.; Grunsfeld, J. M.; Koh, T; Prince, Thomas A.; Finger, Mark H.; Wilson, Robert B.

    1993-01-01

    We present preliminary results from two years of GRO/BATSE hard X‐ray (20–100 keV) monitoring of the ∼120 s accretion‐powered pulsar GX 1+4. Daily pulse frequency measurements from 1991 April to 1993 September show an average spin‐down of ḟ≊−5×10^(−12) s^(−2), with increases in the spin‐down rate during high‐luminosity intervals. The 20–100 keV pulsed flux spectrum for the interval TJD 8393–8406 is fit by a power‐law index of 2.56±0.04. Optical spectroscopy of the suggested red giant compani...

  9. Molecular and Crystal Structure of 1-(4-Chlorophenyl)- 3- (4-Nitrophenyl)- 1-Triazene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德纯; 费正皓; 张艳秋; 郁开北

    2000-01-01

    The title compound, 1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-3-(4-Nitrophenyl)-1-Tri-azene, crystallized in the orthorhombic system, space group Pbca, with a= 13. 793(2), b=10. 843(2), c=16. 851(2)A , V=2520. 2(7) A Dc=1. 458g/cma, Z=8,C12H9ClN4O2, Mr= 276.68, μ(MoKa) = 0. 306mm-1, F(000) = 1136. The structure was refined to R=0. 0372, wR=0. 0786 for 1216 reflections (I>2σ(I)). The title molecule has trans geometry about the central triazenyl linkage. The dihedral angle between the two phenyl rings is only 5.8(2)°. They are also nearly coplanar with the triand form the zigzag chains. The polar molecular chains are antiparallelly stacked throughπ …π interactions. The interstack int eraction is mainly van der Waals force.

  10. 2-[(1R*,4R*-1,4-Dihydroxycyclohexyl]acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Arfan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C8H14O4, is an isolation product of the aerial parts of Senecio desfontanei. The acetic acid group is oriented at a dihedral angle of 48.03 (9° with respect to the basal plane of the cyclohexane-1,4-diol chair. An intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond generates an S(6 ring with an envelope conformation. In the crystal, molecules are linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, resulting in R33(20 ring motifs and C(2 O—H...O—H...O—H... chains. Overall, a three-dimensional polymeric network arises. A C—H...O contact is also present.

  11. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced calcium release from platelet plasma membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A platelet membrane preparation, enriched in plasma membrane markers, took up 45Ca2+ in exchange for intravesicular Na+ and released it after the addition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). The possibility that contaminating dense tubular membrane (DTS) vesicles contributed the Ca2+ released by IP3 was eliminated by the addition of vanadate to inhibit Ca+-ATPase-mediated DTS Ca2+ sequestration and by the finding that only plasma membrane vesicles exhibit Na+-dependent Ca2+ uptake. Ca2+ released by IP3 was dependent on low extravesicular Ca2+ concentrations. IP3-induced Ca2+ release was additive to that released by Na+ addition while GTP or polyethylene glycol (PEG) had no effect. These results strongly suggest that IP3 facilitates extracellular Ca2+ influx in addition to release from DTS membranes

  12. Pulse tube cooler having 1/4 wavelength resonator tube instead of reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedeon, David R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An improved pulse tube cooler having a resonator tube connected in place of a compliance volume or reservoir. The resonator tube has a length substantially equal to an integer multiple of 1/4 wavelength of an acoustic wave in the working gas within the resonator tube at its operating frequency, temperature and pressure. Preferably, the resonator tube is formed integrally with the inertance tube as a single, integral tube with a length approximately 1/2 of that wavelength. Also preferably, the integral tube is spaced outwardly from and coiled around the connection of the regenerator to the pulse tube at a cold region of the cooler and the turns of the coil are thermally bonded together to improve heat conduction through the coil.

  13. Synthesis of new 1H-1,2,3-triazole-1,4-naphthoquinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner O. Valença

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, were synthesized new 1H-1,2,3-triazole-1,4-naphthoquinones via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction using CuI/acetonitrile without addition of base or ligand. The compounds (3a-i were obtained in moderate-to-good yields 45-92%. To prepare (3d, we obtain a mixture of (3d and (4 in a ratio 3:1, that it was difficult to separate. The low yield for the compound (3f can be also justified based in the formation of aminonaphthoquinone (4. The acetylation of (3h and (3i afforded the compounds (5 and (6 in 77% and 35% of yields, respectively. The low yield of (6 was due to formation of 35 % of the elimination product (7.

  14. System identification on LSST 1/4 scale soil-structure interaction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of system identification in earthquake engineering has increased in recent years, primarily motivated by the desire to have a more accurate description of the structural dynamic characteristics. A 3-D array to measure soil-structure interaction has been constructed. This LSST 1/4 scale model was located in Lotung, Taiwan. Up to now, many good earthquake data had been recorded by this LSST array which provide data to study the soil-structure interaction. Dynamic soil-structure interaction have been studied by many authors from theoretical points of view. The objective of this paper is to present the basis of system identification on the LSST array data. By taking advantage of the parametric identification, the sequential regression algorithm is used to identify the dynamic characteristics of the soil deposit. The overturning moment and the base shear force of the soil-structure system during earthquake are analyzed. Some dynamic properties of the structure and the soil are estimated

  15. Synthesis and Molecular Structure of 1-Acetyl-1-(4-iodophenyl)-3-cyclohexylurea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Qiu-Feng; ZOU Jian-Ping; MU Xue-Jun; ZENG Run-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    The title compound 1-acetyl-1-(4-iodophenyl)-3-cyclohexylurea 1 (C15H19IN2O2, Mr = 386.22) has been synthesized and its crystal structure was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. It crystallizes in orthorhombic, space group Pbca, a =15.4754(16), b = 11.4284(11), c = 17.829(2) (A),Z = 8, V = 3153.2(6)(A)3, Dc= 1.627 mg/m3, μ(MoKα) = 2.034 mm-1, F(000) = 1536, the final R = 0.0276 and wR = 0.0593 for 2805 observed reflections (I > 2σ(I)). X-ray analysis reveals that cyclohexyl ring adopts a chair conformation, with the cyclohexyl group located at the 3-position of urea, and the acetyl and 4-iodophenyl groups at the 1-position.

  16. Academic Training Lecture Regular Programme: Computer Security - Introduction to information and computer security (1/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Computer Security: Introduction to information and computer security (1/4), by Sebastian Lopienski (CERN).   Monday, 21 May, 2012 from 11:00 to 12:00 (Europe/Zurich) at CERN ( 31-3-004 - IT Auditorium ) Sebastian Lopienski is CERN's Deputy Computer Security Officer. He works on security strategy and policies; offers internal consultancy and audit services; develops and maintains security tools for vulnerability assessment and intrusion detection; provides training and awareness raising; and does incident investigation and response. During his work at CERN since 2001, Sebastian has had various assignments, including designing and developing software to manage and support services hosted in the CERN Computer Centre; providing Central CVS Service for software projects at CERN; and development of applications for accelerator controls in Java. He graduated from the University of Warsaw (MSc in Computer Science) in 2002, and earned an MBA degree at the Enterprise Administration Institute in Ai...

  17. "Sit u hier maar gaan staan jy daar": Kantaantekeninge by Jakobus 2:1-4

    OpenAIRE

    Jan van der Watt

    2001-01-01

    "You may sit here, but you must stand there" -On James 2:1-4 The question is what the speaker in James 2:2-3. Intended when he said that the rich man may sit "here" on a good place, but that the poor man must stand over "there" or may sit "under" his footstool. It is argued that this episode should be located within a larger ancient house which was used as a gathering place for the Christian community. The poor man is asked to stand in the courtyard or may sit on the ground in  the sittingroo...

  18. Activity of alpha-1, 4-glucosidase in furazolidone-induced glycogenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, C M; Salam, A; Caldwell, R; Jankus, E F

    1978-01-01

    Furazolidone (FZ) at 700 and 800 p.p.m. was added to feed mixtures fed turkey poults two and three weeks posthatching, respectively, to induce acute experimental cardiomyopathy. Poults in the control pen received the same ration but without FZ. From EKG data obtained at 2, 4, and 5 weeks of age, control unaffected and experimental affected poults were selected for sacrifice. Poults were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and appropriate samples of hepatic tissue were removed for assays of activity of alpha-1, 4-glucosidase. Results indicate that enzyme activity in affected FZ-treated poults is similar to that in unaffected control poults. Lack of significant differences in activity of this lysosomal enzyme suggests that FZ-induced glycogenosis may be related to the adult form of idiopathic generalized glucogenosis, the etiology of which remains unidentified. PMID:353772

  19. $Spin(7)$ Compactifications and 1/4-BPS Vacua in Heterotic Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Angus, Stephen; Svanes, Eirik Eik

    2015-01-01

    We continue the investigation into non-maximally symmetric compactifications of the heterotic string. In particular, we consider compactifications where the internal space is allowed to depend on two or more external directions. For preservation of supersymmetry, this implies that the internal space must in general be that of a $Spin(7)$ manifold, which leads to a $1/4$-BPS four-dimensional non-supersymmetric perturbative vacuum. We find that these solutions allow for internal geometries previously excluded by the domain-wall-type solutions, and hence the resulting four-dimensional superpotential is more generic. In particular, we find an interesting resemblance to the superpotentials that appear in non-geometric flux compactifications of type II string theory. If the vacua are to be used for phenomenological applications, they must be lifted to a maximally symmetric one by some non-perturbative or higher-order effect.

  20. AdS3 Holography for 1/4 and 1/8 BPS geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Giusto, Stefano; Russo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Recently a new class of 1/8-BPS regular geometries in type IIB string theory was constructed in arXiv:1502.01254. In this paper we provide a precise description of the semiclassical states dual, in the AdS/CFT sense, to these geometries. In explicit examples we show that the holographic 1-point functions and the Ryu-Takayanagi's Entanglement Entropy for a single small interval match the corresponding CFT calculations performed by using the proposed dual states. We also discuss several new examples of such precision holography analysis in the 1/4-BPS sector and provide an explicit proof that the small interval derivation of the Entanglement Entropy used in arXiv:1405.6185 is fully covariant.

  1. Vapor pressure, density, viscosity and refractive index of dimethyl sulfoxide + 1,4-dimethylbenzene system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA CIOCIRLAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the experimental results of isothermal vapor–liquid equilibrium data between 303.15 and 333.15 K, and densities, viscosities, refractive indices from 298.15 to 323.15 K of the dimethyl sulfoxide + 1,4-dimethylbenzene system over the entire range of mixture composition. The obtained PTX data were correlated by the Wilson and NRTL models and estimated by the UNIFAC model. The excess Gibbs energy and activity coefficients were calculated and compared with others excess properties. Excess molar volumes, viscosity deviations and deviations in refractivity were calculated from the experimental data; all the computed quantities were fitted to the Redlich–Kister equation. The resulting excess functions were interpreted in terms of structure and interactions.

  2. Remote sensing of soil moisture content over bare field at 1.4 GHz frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. R.; Choudhury, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    An algorithm for estimating moisture content of a bare soil from the observed brightness temperature at 1.4 GHz is discussed and applied to a limited data base. The method is based on a radiative transfer model calculation, which has been successfully used in the past to account for many observational results, with some modifications to take into account the effect of surface roughness. Besides the measured brightness temperatures, the three additional inputs required by the method are the effective soil thermodynamic temperature, the precise relation between moisture content and the smooth field brightness temperatures and a pair of parameters related to surface roughness. The procedures of estimating surface roughness parameters and of obtaining moisture content from observed brightness temperature are discussed. The algorithm is applied to observations from truck mounted and airborne radiometers. The estimated moisture contents compare favorably with the observations in the top 2 cm layer.

  3. Oxidation of 1,4-dichloro-2-butene by aqueous sodium hypochlorite under phase transfer conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoryan, G.S.; Karoyan, I.L.; Malkhasyan, A.Ts.; Martirosyan, G.T.; Artamkina, G.A.; Beletskaya, I.P.

    1987-11-10

    In the industrial process for the production of chloroprene from butadiene, the problem of reducing the organic impurities in the waste water to 2000 mg/liter has not yet been solved. A method has been patented for the oxidation of organic compounds by sodium hypochlorite at high temperatures and high pressure but this method is limited by the oxidation of soluble organic compounds. The oxidation of 1,4-dichloro-2-butene by aqueous sodium hypochlorite was studied. A sharp increase in the reaction rate was found in the presence of phase transfer catalysts and surfactants. The involvement of oxygen as a cooxiant and the effect of surfactants on the absorption of atmospheric oxygen by the reaction system were demonstrated.

  4. Improvement of Lithium Interface Stability with 1,4-dioxane Pretreatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1,4-dioxane (DOA) was originally used to pretreat the lithium metal electrode in order to improve its interface stability. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) measurements reveal that with DOA pretreatment, lithium electrode has a low and stable interracial resistance during the storage in electrolyte for a long time. And it is also found that the pretreated lithium electrode has an improved inteffacial performance in repeated charge/discharge cycles. Furthermore, it is proved by SEM that the pretreated one has smooth morphology after long-time storage or repeated charge/discharge cycles. Consequentially, because of more stable interface characteristics of lithium electrode, the rechargeable lithium cell with DOA pretreated lithium anode has an obviously enhanced discharging performance and a better cycleability, compared with that of the cell using the untreated lithium anode.

  5. Structure of rat acidic fibroblast growth factor at 1.4 Å resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of rat acidic fibroblast growth factor was determined and compared with those of human, bovine and newt origin. The rat and human structures were found to be very similar. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) constitute a family of 22 structurally related heparin-binding polypeptides that are involved in the regulation of cell growth, survival, differentiation and migration. Here, a 1.4 Å resolution X-ray structure of rat FGF1 is presented. Two molecules are present in the asymmetric unit of the crystal and they coordinate a total of five sulfate ions. The structures of human, bovine and newt FGF1 have been published previously. Human and rat FGF1 are found to have very similar structures

  6. Magnetic orientation of garden warblers (Sylvia borin) under 1.4 MHz radiofrequency magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavokin, Kirill; Chernetsov, Nikita; Pakhomov, Alexander; Bojarinova, Julia; Kobylkov, Dmitry; Namozov, Barot

    2014-01-01

    We report on the experiments on orientation of a migratory songbird, the garden warbler (Sylvia borin), during the autumn migration period on the Courish Spit, Eastern Baltics. Birds in experimental cages, deprived of visual information, showed the seasonally appropriate direction of intended flight with respect to the magnetic meridian. Weak radiofrequency (RF) magnetic field (190 nT at 1.4 MHz) disrupted this orientation ability. These results may be considered as an independent replication of earlier experiments, performed by the group of R. and W. Wiltschko with European robins (Erithacus rubecula). Confirmed outstanding sensitivity of the birds' magnetic compass to RF fields in the lower megahertz range demands for a revision of one of the mainstream theories of magnetoreception, the radical-pair model of birds' magnetic compass. PMID:24942848

  7. Dual-laser absorption spectroscopy of C2H2 at 1.4 μ m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasci, E.; Odintsova, T. A.; Castrillo, A.; De Vizia, M. D.; Merlone, A.; Bertiglia, F.; Moretti, L.; Gianfrani, L.

    2016-04-01

    Spectroscopic parameters (line intensity factor, pressure self-broadening, and shifting coefficients) of C2H2 at 1.4 μ m were accurately measured using a dual-laser approach, based upon the technique of optical phase locking. This generated an absolute frequency scale underneath the absorption spectra. A pair of extended-cavity diode lasers was used. One of them, the probe laser, is forced to maintain a precise frequency offset from a reference laser, which is an optical frequency standard based on noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy. Laser-gas interaction takes place inside an isothermal multipass cell that is stabilized at the temperature of the triple point of water. The fidelity in the observation of the shape associated to the Pe(14) line of the 2 ν3+ν5 band allowed us to measure the spectroscopic parameters, with a global uncertainty for the line strength of 0.22%.

  8. Absorption and Fluorescence Spectroscopic Properties of 1- and 1,4-Silyl-Substituted Naphthalene Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Mizuno

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Silyl-substituted naphthalene derivatives at the 1- and 1,4-positions were synthesized and their UV absorption, fluorescence spectroscopic properties, and fluorescence lifetimes were determined. Analysis of the results shows that the introduction of silyl groups at these positions of the naphthalene chromophore/fluorophore causes shifts of the absorption maxima to longer wavelengths and increases in fluorescence intensities. Bathochromic shifts of the absorption maxima and increases in fluorescence intensities are also promoted by the introduction of methoxy and cyano groups at the naphthalene 4- and 5-positions. In addition, the fluorescence of 9,10-dicyanoanthracene is efficiently quenched by these naphthalene derivatives with Stern-Volmer plot calculated rate constants that depend on the steric bulk of the silyl groups.

  9. Reliability research based experience with systems and events at the Kozloduy NPP units 1-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of equipment reliability based on operational data of selected safety systems at the Kozloduy NPP is presented. Conclusions are drawn on reliability of the service water system, feed water system, emergency power supply - category 2, emergency high pressure ejection system and spray system. For the units 1-4 all recorded accident protocols in the period 1974-1993 have been processed and the main initiators identified. A list with 39 most frequent initiators of accidents/incidents is compiled. The human-caused errors account for 27% of all events. The reliability characteristics and frequencies have been calculated for all initiating events. It is concluded that there have not been any accidents with consequences for fuel integrity or radioactive release. 14 refs

  10. Bubbling 1/4 BPS solutions in type IIB and supergravity reductions on SnxSn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We extend the construction of bubbling 1/2 BPS solutions of Lin, Lunin and Maldacena (H. Lin, O. Lunin, J. Maldacena, JHEP 0410 (2004) 025, hep-th/0409174) in two directions. First we enquire whether bubbling 1/2 BPS solutions can be constructed in minimal 6d supergravity and second we construct solutions that are 1/4 BPS in type IIB. We find that the S1xS1 bosonic reduction of (1,0) 6d supergravity to 4d gravity coupled to 2 scalars and a gauge field is consistent only provided that the gauge field obeys a constraint (F-bar F=0). This is to be contrasted to the case of the S3xS3 bosonic reduction of type IIB supergravity to 4d gravity, 2 scalars and a gauge field, where consistency is achieved without imposing any such constraints. Therefore, in the case of (1,0) 6d supergravity we are able to construct 1/2 BPS solutions, similar to those derived in type IIB, provided that this additional constraint is satisfied. This ultimately prohibits the construction of a family of 1/2 BPS solutions corresponding to a bubbling AdS3xS3 geometry. Returning to type IIB solutions, by turning on an axion-dilaton field we construct a family of bubbling 1/4 BPS solutions. This corresponds to the inclusion of back-reacted D7 branes to the solutions of Lin, Lunin and Maldacena

  11. Power Burst Facility (PBF) severe fuel damage test 1-4 test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive evaluation of the Severe Fuel Damage (SFD) Test 1-4 performed in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is presented. Test SFD 1-4 was the fourth and final test in an internationally sponsored light water reactor severe accident research program, initiated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The overall technical objective of the test was to contribute to the understanding of fuel and control rod behavior, aerosol and hydrogen generation, and fission product release and transport during a high-temperature, severe fuel damage transient. A test bundle, comprised of 26 previously irradiated (36,000 MWd/MtU) pressurized water-reactor-type fuel rods, 2 fresh instrumented fuel rods, and 4 silver-indium-cadmium control rods, was surrounded by an insulating shroud and contained in a pressurized in-pile tube. The experiment consisted of a 1.3-h transient at a coolant pressure of 6.95 MPa in which the inlet coolant flow to the bundle was reduced to 0.6 g/s while the bundle fission power was gradually increased until dryout, heatup, cladding rupture, and oxidation occurred. With sustained fission power and heat from oxidation, temperatures continued to rise rapidly, resulting in zircaloy and control rod absorber alloy melting, fuel liquefaction, material relocation, and the release of hydrogen, aerosols, and fission products. The transient was terminated over a 2100-s time span by slowly reducing the reactor power and cooling the damaged bundle with argon gas. A description and evaluation of the major phenomena, based upon the response of on-line instrumentation, analysis of fission product and aerosol data, postirradiation examination of the fuel bundle, and calculations using the SCDAP/RELAP5 computer code, are presented. 40 refs., 160 figs., 31 tabs

  12. (Solid + liquid) phase equilibria of tetraphenyl piperazine-1, 4-diyldiphosphonate in pure solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The simulated infinite dilute solutions of TPPDP in acetic acid (a), acetone (b), 1-butanol (c), and 2-propanol (d) and their interactions (H-bond). - Highlights: • The solubilities of tetraphenyl piperazine-1, 4-diyldiphosphonate in eight organic solvents were studied. • Molecular dynamic simulation was performed to understand solubility behavior. • Solubility prediction using NRTL-SAC agreed well with experimental data. • The thermodynamic functions relative to dissolution process were predicted. - Abstract: Tetraphenyl piperazine-1, 4-diyldiphosphonate (TPPDP), a phosphorus–nitrogen containing flame retardant, was synthesized successfully, and its structure was characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR, 31P NMR). The melting temperature and fusion enthalpy of TPPDP were measured by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The solubility of TPPDP in dichloromethane, acetic acid, ethyl acetate, acetone, n-hexane, 1-butanol, 2-propanol and isopropyl ether have been determined at temperatures from (283.15 to 323.15) K using a static analytic method. Molecular modeling and the Scatchard–Hildebrand model were employed to discuss the results obtained and to reveal the relationship of solubility and structures of the solvents. The modified Apelblat equation, Wilson model and NRTL model were used to correlate the solubility results, in which the Wilson model provides the best fitting results. Furthermore, the non-random two liquid segment activity coefficient model (NRTL-SAC) with four types of conceptual segments was used for solubility prediction and exhibited a good agreement with experimental values except for the acetic acid system. Finally, the molar Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of solution were predicted based on the modified Apelblat equation

  13. Power Burst Facility (PBF) severe fuel damage test 1-4 test results report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, D.A.; Martinson, Z.R.; Hobbins, R.R.; Allison, C.M.; Carlson, E.R.; Hagrman, D.L.; Cheng, T.C.; Hartwell, J.K.; Vinjamuri, K.; Seifken, L.J.

    1989-04-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of the Severe Fuel Damage (SFD) Test 1-4 performed in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is presented. Test SFD 1-4 was the fourth and final test in an internationally sponsored light water reactor severe accident research program, initiated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The overall technical objective of the test was to contribute to the understanding of fuel and control rod behavior, aerosol and hydrogen generation, and fission product release and transport during a high-temperature, severe fuel damage transient. A test bundle, comprised of 26 previously irradiated (36,000 MWd/MtU) pressurized water-reactor-type fuel rods, 2 fresh instrumented fuel rods, and 4 silver-indium-cadmium control rods, was surrounded by an insulating shroud and contained in a pressurized in-pile tube. The experiment consisted of a 1.3-h transient at a coolant pressure of 6.95 MPa in which the inlet coolant flow to the bundle was reduced to 0.6 g/s while the bundle fission power was gradually increased until dryout, heatup, cladding rupture, and oxidation occurred. With sustained fission power and heat from oxidation, temperatures continued to rise rapidly, resulting in zircaloy and control rod absorber alloy melting, fuel liquefaction, material relocation, and the release of hydrogen, aerosols, and fission products. The transient was terminated over a 2100-s time span by slowly reducing the reactor power and cooling the damaged bundle with argon gas. A description and evaluation of the major phenomena, based upon the response of on-line instrumentation, analysis of fission product and aerosol data, postirradiation examination of the fuel bundle, and calculations using the SCDAP/RELAP5 computer code, are presented. 40 refs., 160 figs., 31 tabs.

  14. A photoelectron spectroscopic study of monovanadium oxide anions (VOx-, x=1-4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongbin; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    1998-04-01

    We report on a photoelectron spectroscopic study of monovanadium oxides, VOx- (x=1-4), at four photon energies: 532, 355, 266, and 193 nm. Vibrationally resolved spectra are obtained for VO- at 532 and 355 nm detachment photon energies. Two new low-lying excited states are observed for VO at 5630 and 14 920 cm-1 above the ground state. These states are assigned to two doublet states, 2Σ- and 2Φ, respectively. The 532 and 355 nm spectra of VO2- reveal a single vibrational progression for the ground state with a frequency of 970 cm-1 (ν1). Three electronic excited states are observed for VO2 in the 193 nm spectrum. For VO3-, three surprisingly sharp detachment transitions are observed at 193 nm. The two excited states of VO3 are measured to be 0.59 and 0.79 eV above the ground state. The spectra of VO2- and VO3- are interpreted using the molecular-orbital schemes obtained in a recent ab initio theoretical study [Knight, Jr. et al., J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10237 (1996)], which predicts that both VO2 and VO3 neutrals are of C2v symmetry with a doublet ground state. The spectrum of VO4- is obtained at 193 nm, showing features similar to that of VO3-, but much more broadened. The adiabatic electron affinities of VO, VO2, VO3, and VO4 are measured to be 1.229 (8), 2.03 (1), 4.36 (5), and 4.0 (1) eV, respectively, with a significant increase from VO2 to VO3. The electronic and geometrical structures of the series of monovanadium oxide species are discussed based on the current observation and previous spectroscopic and theoretical results.

  15. 2-Bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone: a potentially improved substitute of menadione in Apatone™ therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apatone™, a combination of menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, VK3) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C, VC) is a new strategy for cancer treatment. Part of its effect on tumor cells is related to the cellular pro-oxidative imbalance provoked by the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) through naphthoquinone redox cycling. In this study, we attempted to find new naphthoquinone derivatives that would increase the efficiency of H2O2 production, thereby potentially increasing its efficacy for cancer treatment. The presence of an electron-withdrawing group in the naphthoquinone moiety had a direct effect on the efficiency of H2O2 production. The compound 2-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone (BrQ), in which the bromine atom substituted the methyl group in VK3, was approximately 10- and 19-fold more efficient than VK3 in terms of oxygen consumption and H2O2 production, respectively. The ratio [H2O2]produced / [naphthoquinone]consumed was 68 ± 11 and 5.8 ± 0.2 (µM/µM) for BrQ and VK3, respectively, indicating a higher efficacy of BrQ as a catalyst for the autoxidation of ascorbic acid. Both VK3 and BrQ reacted with glutathione (GSH), but BrQ was the more effective substrate. Part of GSH was incorporated into the naphthoquinone, producing a nucleophilic substitution product (Q-SG). The depletion of BrQ by GSH did not prevent its redox capacity since Q-SG was also able to catalyze the production of reactive oxygen species. VK3/VC has already been submitted to clinical trials for the treatment of prostate cancer and has demonstrated promising results. However, replacement of VK3 with BrQ will open new lines of investigation regarding this approach to cancer treatment

  16. 2-Bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone: a potentially improved substitute of menadione in Apatone™ therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Graciani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Apatone™, a combination of menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, VK3 and ascorbic acid (vitamin C, VC is a new strategy for cancer treatment. Part of its effect on tumor cells is related to the cellular pro-oxidative imbalance provoked by the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 through naphthoquinone redox cycling. In this study, we attempted to find new naphthoquinone derivatives that would increase the efficiency of H2O2 production, thereby potentially increasing its efficacy for cancer treatment. The presence of an electron-withdrawing group in the naphthoquinone moiety had a direct effect on the efficiency of H2O2 production. The compound 2-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone (BrQ, in which the bromine atom substituted the methyl group in VK3, was approximately 10- and 19-fold more efficient than VK3 in terms of oxygen consumption and H2O2 production, respectively. The ratio [H2O2]produced / [naphthoquinone]consumed was 68 ± 11 and 5.8 ± 0.2 (µM/µM for BrQ and VK3, respectively, indicating a higher efficacy of BrQ as a catalyst for the autoxidation of ascorbic acid. Both VK3 and BrQ reacted with glutathione (GSH, but BrQ was the more effective substrate. Part of GSH was incorporated into the naphthoquinone, producing a nucleophilic substitution product (Q-SG. The depletion of BrQ by GSH did not prevent its redox capacity since Q-SG was also able to catalyze the production of reactive oxygen species. VK3/VC has already been submitted to clinical trials for the treatment of prostate cancer and has demonstrated promising results. However, replacement of VK3 with BrQ will open new lines of investigation regarding this approach to cancer treatment.

  17. One-pot synthesis of N-aryl 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives and their biological activities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Isaivani Dhinakaran; Vediappen Padmini; Nattamai Bhuvanesh

    2015-12-01

    Highly efficient, one pot synthesis of N-aryl, 1,4-dihydopyridines was carried out by four component reaction. Synthesized 1,4-dihydropyridines were screened for their cytotoxicity against A549 cell line. All the synthesized compounds exhibited better DPPH radical scavenging activity.

  18. Synthesis of Gingerenone C and 5-Hydroxy-1-(4'-hydroxy- 3'-methoxyphenyl)-7-(4"-hydroxyphenyl)-3-heptanone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The two diarylheptanoids (E)-1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-7-(4"-hydroxyphenyl) hept-4-en-3-one 1 (Gingerenone C) and (±)-5-hydroxy-1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-7-(4"-hydroxyphenyl)-3-heptanone 2 were synthesized from vanillin 3 and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde 9.

  19. Gas phase UV and IR absorption spectra of CxF2x+1CHO (x=1-4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashikawa, Y; Kawasaki, M; Waterland, RL;

    2004-01-01

    The UV and IR spectra of CxF2x+1 CHO (x = 1-4) were investigated using computational and experimental techniques. CxF2x+1CHO (x = 1-4) have broad UV absorption features centered at 300-310 nm. The maximum absorption cross-section increases significantly and shifts slightly to the red with increas...

  20. Staged theta pinch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two implosion heating circuits are being experimentally tested. The principal experiment in the program is the 4.5-m-long Staged Theta Pinch (STP). It uses two relatively low energy (50kJ and 100 kJ), high voltage (125 kV) capacitor banks to produce the theta pinch plasma inside the 20 cm i.d. quartz discharge tube. A lower voltage (50 kV), higher energy (750 kJ) capacitor bank is used to contain the plasma and provide a variable amount of adiabatic compression. Because the experiment produces a higher ratio of implosion heating to compressional heating than conventional theta pinches, it should be capable of producing high temperature plasmas with a much larger ratio of plasma radius to discharge tube radius than has been possible in the past. The Resonant Heating Experiment (RHX) in its initial configuration is the same as a 0.9-m-long section of the high voltage part of the STP experiment and all the plasma results here were obtained with the experiment in that configuration. Part of the implosion bank will be removed and a low inductance crowbar added to convert it to the resonant heating configuration. (U.K.)

  1. Science on stage

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    During the opening ceremony, the audience was dazzled by a juggling show involving dramatic light effects. They also took away with them a teacher's sheet explaining some of the scientific concepts involved in juggling. Science teachers can sometimes be quite humorous when it comes to explaining serious matters, as those who took part in the 'Science on Stage' festival held at CERN from 21 to 25 November were able to see for themselves. The 500 or so participants from 27 different countries, mostly science teachers but also some university lecturers, science outreach specialists and students, had the opportunity to share their experience of the teaching of science. They also attended presentations and shows, took part in workshops and visited a fair with stands offering ideas on how to make school science lessons more appealing. The festival, organised by the EIROforum (a partnership between CERN, EFDA, ESA, ESO, EMBL, ESRF and ILL), marked the end of two years of projects for the promotion of science in vir...

  2. Lineage-related cytotoxicity and clonogenic profile of 1,4-benzoquinone-exposed hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Paik Wah [Biomedical Science Programme, School of Diagnostic & Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Abdul Muda Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Malaysia); Toxicology Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Abdul Hamid, Zariyantey, E-mail: zyantey@ukm.edu.my [Biomedical Science Programme, School of Diagnostic & Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Abdul Muda Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Malaysia); Toxicology Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Chan, Kok Meng [Environmental Health and Industrial Safety Programme, School of Diagnostic & Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Abdul Muda Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Malaysia); Toxicology Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Inayat-Hussain, Salmaan Hussain [Environmental Health and Industrial Safety Programme, School of Diagnostic & Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Abdul Muda Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Malaysia); Rajab, Nor Fadilah [Biomedical Science Programme, School of Diagnostic & Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Abdul Muda Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Malaysia); Toxicology Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) are sensitive targets for benzene-induced hematotoxicity and leukemogenesis. The impact of benzene exposure on the complex microenvironment of HSCs and HPCs remains elusive. This study aims to investigate the mechanism linking benzene exposure to targeting HSCs and HPCs using phenotypic and clonogenic analyses. Mouse bone marrow (BM) cells were exposed ex vivo to the benzene metabolite, 1,4-benzoquinone (1,4-BQ), for 24 h. Expression of cellular surface antigens for HSC (Sca-1), myeloid (Gr-1, CD11b), and lymphoid (CD45, CD3e) populations were confirmed by flow cytometry. The clonogenicity of cells was studied using the colony-forming unit (CFU) assay for multilineage (CFU-GM and CFU-GEMM) and single-lineage (CFU-E, BFU-E, CFU-G, and CFU-M) progenitors. 1,4-BQ demonstrated concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in mouse BM cells. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased (p < 0.05) following 1,4-BQ exposure. Exposure to 1,4-BQ showed no significant effect on CD3e{sup +} cells but reduced the total counts of Sca-1{sup +}, CD11b{sup +}, Gr-1{sup +}, and CD45{sup +} cells at 7 and 12 μM (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the CFU assay showed reduced (p < 0.05) clonogenicity in 1,4-BQ-treated cells. 1,4-BQ induced CFU-dependent cytotoxicity by significantly inhibiting colony growth for CFU-E, BFU-E, CFU-G, and CFU-M starting at a low concentration of exposure (5 μM); whereas for the CFU-GM and CFU-GEMM, the inhibition of colony growth was remarkable only at 7 and 12 μM of 1,4-BQ, respectively. Taken together, 1,4-BQ caused lineage-related cytotoxicity in mouse HPCs, demonstrating greater toxicity in single-lineage progenitors than in those of multi-lineage. - Highlights: • We examine 1,4-BQ toxicity targeting mouse hematopoietic cell lineages. • 1,4-BQ induces concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in bone marrow (BM) cells. • 1,4-BQ shows lineage-related toxicity on hematopoietic stem and

  3. Lineage-related cytotoxicity and clonogenic profile of 1,4-benzoquinone-exposed hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) are sensitive targets for benzene-induced hematotoxicity and leukemogenesis. The impact of benzene exposure on the complex microenvironment of HSCs and HPCs remains elusive. This study aims to investigate the mechanism linking benzene exposure to targeting HSCs and HPCs using phenotypic and clonogenic analyses. Mouse bone marrow (BM) cells were exposed ex vivo to the benzene metabolite, 1,4-benzoquinone (1,4-BQ), for 24 h. Expression of cellular surface antigens for HSC (Sca-1), myeloid (Gr-1, CD11b), and lymphoid (CD45, CD3e) populations were confirmed by flow cytometry. The clonogenicity of cells was studied using the colony-forming unit (CFU) assay for multilineage (CFU-GM and CFU-GEMM) and single-lineage (CFU-E, BFU-E, CFU-G, and CFU-M) progenitors. 1,4-BQ demonstrated concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in mouse BM cells. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased (p < 0.05) following 1,4-BQ exposure. Exposure to 1,4-BQ showed no significant effect on CD3e+ cells but reduced the total counts of Sca-1+, CD11b+, Gr-1+, and CD45+ cells at 7 and 12 μM (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the CFU assay showed reduced (p < 0.05) clonogenicity in 1,4-BQ-treated cells. 1,4-BQ induced CFU-dependent cytotoxicity by significantly inhibiting colony growth for CFU-E, BFU-E, CFU-G, and CFU-M starting at a low concentration of exposure (5 μM); whereas for the CFU-GM and CFU-GEMM, the inhibition of colony growth was remarkable only at 7 and 12 μM of 1,4-BQ, respectively. Taken together, 1,4-BQ caused lineage-related cytotoxicity in mouse HPCs, demonstrating greater toxicity in single-lineage progenitors than in those of multi-lineage. - Highlights: • We examine 1,4-BQ toxicity targeting mouse hematopoietic cell lineages. • 1,4-BQ induces concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in bone marrow (BM) cells. • 1,4-BQ shows lineage-related toxicity on hematopoietic stem and progenitors. • 1,4-BQ toxicity is

  4. Hydrogen cracking of 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo steel welds in ammonia converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low alloy steels containing chromium and molybdenum are widely used as materials of construction for components used at high temperature and high pressure applications e.g., pressure vessels and piping in thermal power plants, boiler, and etc including ammonia converters in fertilizer plants. Field experiences indicate that wrought plates of 2 1/4 Cr -l Mo steel are resistant to hydrogen embrittlement (HE), hydrogen attack (HA) up to about 450 C. However, data on this alloy steel welds are limited and exhibit wide variations in performance particularly in fertilizer plants. Welding parameters, post welding heat treatment (PWHT) that control hardness values both at weldments and the heat affected zone (HAZ) are found to be of immense importance to avoid HE. These facts would be highlighted by citing case studies. An integrated gas based, low energy urea Fertilizer Plant at Babrala was commissioned in December 1994. 1520 MTPD capacity Ammonia Plant comprises of two converters namely R-501 and R-502, operating in the temperature range of 375 to 450 C at 137 kg/cm2 pressure. These converters are tall and are of multi wall (3-ply) construction, transported to sites in three segments and thus having two circumferential field welds. R-502 is made of 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo steels both shop welds and field welds were made using SMAW followed by stress relieving heat treatments. However, within few months of operation after commissioning of the plant in 1995, lower circumferential field weld leaked requiring plant shutdown. Subsequently, the upper circumferential field welds namely CW -3 also leaked during September 2004 after about 9 years in service. Extensive weld repairs were necessary followed by very elaborate PWHT and hardness measurements on weld, HAZ and base metals. PWHT in some segments were repeated until lowering of hardness values below 200 BHN. At present this converter is performing to its full capacity and hardness values are being monitored during each turn around

  5. Posttest analysis of a 1:4-scale prestressed concrete containment vessel model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, co-sponsored a Cooperative Containment Research Program at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. As part of the program, a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model was subjected to a series of overpressurization tests at SNL beginning in July 2000 and culminating in a functional failure mode or Limit State Test (LST) in September 2000 and a Structural Failure Mode Test (SFMT) in November 2001. The PCCV model, uniformly scaled at 1:4, is representative of the containment structure of an actual Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant (OHI-3) in Japan. The objectives of the pressurization tests were to obtain measurement of the structural response to pressure loading beyond design basis accident in order to validate analytical modeling, to find pressure capacity of the model, and to observe its failure mechanisms. This paper compares results of pretest analytical studies of the PCCV model to the PCCV high pressure test measurements and describes results of post-test analytical studies. These analyses have been performed by ANATECH Corp. under contract with Sandia National Laboratories. The post-test analysis represents the third phase of a comprehensive PCCV analysis effort. The first phase consisted of preliminary analyses to determine what finite element models would be necessary for the pretest prediction analyses, and the second phase consisted of the pretest prediction analyses. The principal objectives of the post-test analyses were: (1) to provide insights to improve the analytical methods for predicting the structural response and failure modes of a prestressed concrete containment, and (2) to evaluate by analysis any phenomena or failure mode observed during the test that had not been explicitly predicted by analysis. In addition to summarizing comparisons between measured

  6. Synthesis and Bioevaluation of 3-(substitutedphenyl-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl-2-propen-1-ones and their Carbamate Derivatives against Root – Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne javanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumona Kumari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of 3-(4-chloro/methyl/nitro/methoxy/3,4,5-trimethoxy/2,4-dichloro/ 4-bromo/ 3, 4-dimethoxy/ 2, 4-dimethoxy/ 3-bromo/ 2-chloro/ 2-methoxy phenyl-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl-2-propen-1-one (14-25 has been carried out from substituted benzaldehyde (1-12 and 4-hydroxy acetophenone (13. The condensation of synthesized 2-propen-1-ones (14-25 with phenyl isocyanate (26 gave 4-[3-(4-chloro/ methyl/nitro/methoxy/3, 4, 5-trimethoxy/2, 4-dichloro/4-bromo/3, 4-dimethoxy/2, 4-dimethoxy/3-bromo phenyl prop-2-enoyl] phenyl phenylcarbamate (27-36. The synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of analytical and spectral data. All the compounds were evaluated for their nematicidal activity in- vitro against second stage juveniles (J2 of root - knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica. Incorporation of carbamoyloxy moiety in 2-propen-1-ones enhanced the activity. Irrespective of the concentration, compounds 3-(4-methoxyphenyl-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl-2-propen-1-one (17 and 4-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl prop-2-enoyl] phenyl phenyl carbamate (30 have shown maximum nematode mortality i.e. 30% and 51.8%.

  7. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2012-09-11

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  8. Staged Repository Development Programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, T

    2003-10-01

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods-many millennia-and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance. What was perhaps underappreciated in the early days of waste management and repository program development were the unique and intense reactions that the institutional, political, and public bodies would have to repository program development, particularly in programs attempting to identify and then select sites for characterization, design, licensing, and ultimate development. Reactions in most nations were strong, focused, unrelenting, and often successful in hindering, derailing, and even stopping national repository programs. The reasons for such reactions and the measures to successfully respond to them are still evolving and continue to be the focus of many national program and political leaders. Adaptive Staging suggests an approach to repository program development that reflects the unique challenges associated with the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The step-wise, incremental, learn-as-you-go approach is intended to

  9. Staged Repository Development Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods-many millennia-and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance. What was perhaps underappreciated in the early days of waste management and repository program development were the unique and intense reactions that the institutional, political, and public bodies would have to repository program development, particularly in programs attempting to identify and then select sites for characterization, design, licensing, and ultimate development. Reactions in most nations were strong, focused, unrelenting, and often successful in hindering, derailing, and even stopping national repository programs. The reasons for such reactions and the measures to successfully respond to them are still evolving and continue to be the focus of many national program and political leaders. Adaptive Staging suggests an approach to repository program development that reflects the unique challenges associated with the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The step-wise, incremental, learn-as-you-go approach is intended to maximize the

  10. Stress relief cracking studies of 2 1/4Cr1Mo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stress relief cracking susceptibility of coarse grained heat-affected-zone microstructures of 2 1/4Cr1Mo steel has been assessed using a recently developed constant displacement stress relief cracking test procedure. Two types of test are described: the ''relaxation test'' which simulates conditions of stress, strain and temperature during the post weld heat treatment cycle, and the ''load shedding'' test which characterises crack growth behaviour in terms of the stress intensity parameter at constant temperatures in the stress relief thermal cycle. Particular attention has been directed at characterising the micromechanisms of cracking and the role of residual impurities. Two distinct types of stress relief cracking were identified: failure at high temperatures, >875K, was characterised by intergranular ductile microvoid coalescence, whereas at lower temperatures, 725K-875K, a low ductility intergranular failure was produced with the cracking promoted by solute segregation to the grain boundaries and the crack tip region. An increase in the heating rate during the post weld heat treatment was shown to be beneficial to cracking resistance. The application of the laboratory test data to the prediction of stress relief cracking of actual weldments is considered, using two alternative methods. (author)

  11. A planet in a polar orbit of 1.4 solar-mass star

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guenther E.W.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although more than a thousand transiting extrasolar planets have been discovered, only very few of them orbit stars that are more massive than the Sun. The discovery of such planets is interesting, because they have formed in disks that are more massive but had a shorter life time than those of solar-like stars. Studies of planets more massive than the Sun thus tell us how the properties of the proto-planetary disks effect the formation of planets. Another aspect that makes these planets interesting is that they have kept their original orbital inclinations. By studying them we can thus find out whether the orbital axes planets are initially aligned to the stars rotational axes, or not. Here we report on the discovery of a planet of a 1.4 solar-mass star with a period of 5.6 days in a polar orbit made by CoRoT. This new planet thus is one of the few known close-in planets orbiting a star that is substantially more massive than the Sun.

  12. Faint 1.4 GHz sources in the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, B H P; Sadler, E M; Killeen, N E B; Jackson, C A; Mobasher, B; Ekers, R D

    2003-01-01

    The Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) has been used to survey at 1.4GHz, a small region ( 0.001 lying within the surveyed region, of which 316 have reliable spectral classification. Following Sadler et al. 2002 (MNRAS, 329, 227), we visually classified 176 as AGN or early-type galaxies, and 140 as star-forming galaxies. We derived radio flux density measurement or upperlimits for each of the 365 2dFGRS sources. The fraction of radio detected 2dFGRS star-forming galaxies increases from ~ 50% at ~ 0.7mJy up to ~ 60% at ~ 0.2mJy. The mean redshift for the fraction of radio detected star-forming galaxies increases with increasing radio detection sensitivity, while the mean redshift is fairly constant for the AGN/early-type fraction. We found very similar radio detection rates of 2dFGRS galaxies for both the AGN/early-type and star-forming components. The radio detection rate increases approximately linearly with respect to the rate of increase in radio detection sensitivity. We derived the radio luminosity...

  13. Investigations of 1-(4-propylamino-3-ethyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid capturing CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lijuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 1-(4-propylamino-3-ethyl imidazolium ([Paeim]+ Tetrafluoroborate([BF4]- Ionic liquid (IL, capturing CO2, was explored systematically at B3LYP/6-311++G** and mp2/6-311++G** level. The stable geometries of ILs and capture products were optimized, the energies of these geometries were obtained and corrected by Zero-point-vibration-energy and basis set superposition error correction. The results show that the interactions between [Paeim]+and [BF4]-are mainly displayed as hydrogen bonds, but the interaction energies exceeds -328 kJ/mol. Further analysis found that the interactions are reinforced by charge dispersion and charge redistribution of ion-pair, and that electrostatic attraction contributes much to the interaction energies. This IL system capturing CO2belongs to the class of physical sorption with 1:1 molar absorption ratio, the absorption energy is nearly -18kJ/moland thus this IL may have low energy consumption when regenerated from IL-CO2.

  14. ATLAS - I. Third Release of 1.4 GHz Mosaics and Component Catalogues

    CERN Document Server

    Franzen, T M O; Hales, C A; Hopkins, A; Norris, R P; Seymour, N; Chow, K E; Herzog, A; Huynh, M T; Lenc, E; Mao, M Y; Middelberg, E

    2015-01-01

    We present the third data release from the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS). These data combine the observations at 1.4 GHz before and after upgrades to the Australia Telescope Compact Array reaching a sensitivity of 14 microJy/beam in 3.6 deg^2 over the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS) and of 17 microJy/beam in 2.7 deg^2 over the European Large Area ISO Survey South 1 (ELAIS-S1). We used a variety of array configurations to maximise the uv coverage resulting in a resolution of 16 by 7 arcsec in CDFS and of 12 by 8 arcsec in ELAIS-S1. After correcting for peak bias and bandwidth smearing, we find a total of 3034 radio source components above 5 sigma in CDFS, of which 514 (17 per cent) are considered to be extended. The number of components detected above 5 sigma in ELAIS-S1 is 2084, of which 392 (19 per cent) are classified as extended. The catalogues include reliable spectral indices (delta alpha < 0.2) between 1.40 and 1.71 GHz for ~350 of the brightest components.

  15. Radio variability in the Phoenix Deep Survey at 1.4GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, Paul; Bell, Martin; Murphy, Tara; Gaensler, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    We use archival data from the Phoenix Deep Survey to investigate the variable radio source population above 1mJy/beam at 1.4GHz. Given the similarity of this survey to other such surveys we take the opportunity to investigate the conflicting results which have appeared in the literature. Two previous surveys for variability conducted with the Very Large Array (VLA) achieved a sensitivity of 1mJy/beam. However, one survey found an areal density of radio variables on timescales of decades that is a factor of ~4 times greater than a second survey which was conducted on timescales of less than a few years. In the Phoenix deep field we measure the density of variable radio sources to be $\\rho =0.98\\mathrm{deg}^{-2}$ on timescales of 6 months to 8 years. We make use of WISE infrared cross-ids, and identify all variable sources as an AGN of some description. We suggest that the discrepancy between previous VLA results is due to the different time scales probed by each of the surveys, and that radio variability at 1....

  16. Purification and properties of an endo-1,4-. beta. -glucanase from Clostridium josui

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, Tsuchiyoshi (Nagoya Seiraku Co. Ltd., Tenpaku (Japan)); Sukhumavasi, J. (Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research, Bangkok (Thailand)); Sasaki, Takuji; Ohmiya, Kunio; Shimizu, Shoichi (Nagoya Univ., Chikusa (Japan))

    1989-07-01

    Recently, cellulolytic anaerobic bacteria have become of great interest because of possible conversion of cellulosic materials from agricultural and forestry wastes, such as rice straw, water hyacinth, and wood chips, to ethanol and other valuable compounds. An enzyme active against carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was purified from the stationary-phase-culture supernatant of Clostridium josui grown in a medium containing ball-milled cellulose. The purification in the presence of 6 M urea yielded homogeneous enzyme after an approximately 50-fold increase in specific activity and a 13% yield. The enzyme had a molecular mass of 45 kilodaltons. The optimal temperature and pH of the enzyme against CMC were 60{degree}C and 6.8, respectively. The enzyme hydrolyzed cellotetraose, cellopentaose, and cellohexaose to cellobiose and cellotriose but did not hydrolyze cellobiose or cellotriose. A microcrystalline cellulose, Avicel, was also hydrolyzed significantly, but the extent of hydrolysis was remarkably less than that of CMC. On the basis of these results, the enzyme purified here is one of the endo-1,4-{beta}-glucanases. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme is Tyr-Asp-Ala-Ser-Leu-Lys-Pro-Asn-Leu-Gln-Ile-Pro-Gln-Lys-Asn-Ile-Pro-Asn-Asn-Asp-Ala-Val-Asn-Ile-Lys.

  17. Functional and structural analyses of a 1,4-β-endoglucanase from Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guizhi; Li, Qian; Shang, Na; Huang, Jian-Wen; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Liu, Weidong; Zheng, Yingying; Han, Xu; Chen, Yun; Chen, Chun-Chi; Jin, Jian; Guo, Rey-Ting

    2016-05-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a saprotrophic white-rot fungus which contains a rich set of cellulolytic enzymes. Here, we screened an array of potential 1,4-β-endoglucanases from G. lucidum based on the gene annotation library and found that one candidate gene, GlCel5A, exhibits CMC-hydrolyzing activity. The recombinant GlCel5A protein expressed in Pichia pastoris is able to hydrolyze CMC and β-glucan but not xylan and mannan. The enzyme exhibits optimal activity at 60°C and pH 3-4, and retained 50% activity at 80 and 90°C for at least 15 and 10min. The crystal structure of GlCel5A and its complex with cellobiose, solved at 2.7 and 2.86Å resolution, shows a classical (β/α)8 TIM-barrel fold as seen in other members of glycoside hydrolase family 5. The complex structure contains a cellobiose molecule in the +1 and +2 subsites, and reveals the interactions with the positive sites of the enzyme. Collectively, the present work provides the first comprehensive characterization of an endoglucanase from G. lucidum that possesses properties for industrial applications, and strongly encourages further studying in the cellulolytic enzyme system of G. lucidum. PMID:26992795

  18. Paleointensity record from Pleistocene sediments (1.4-0 Ma) off the California Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyodo, Yohan; Richter, Carl; Valet, Jean-Pierre

    1999-10-01

    High resolution magnetic measurements of 45 m of sediment from the Delgada Fan area at Ocean Drilling Program Site 1021 (39°5'N/127°46'W) were performed in order to extract a reliable signal of relative paleointensity. A detailed chronology was established by correlation of the magnetic susceptibility variations to the insolation curve for the past 1.4 Myr covered by the record. The remanence carrier is pseudo-single-domain-sized magnetite that varies in concentration by a factor Punaruu event (1.105 Ma). Two techniques have been used to extract the signal of relative paleointensity. A significant climatic component remained present in the curve obtained from the slopes of the NRM versus the anhysteretic remanent magnetization(ARM). In contrast the NRM and the susceptibility (klf) both being driven by orbital forcing, normalization by susceptibility is not contaminated by climatically driven changes and is thus taken as our best estimate of relative paleointensity. Comparison with other high-resolution records and compilations reinforces the actual geomagnetic origin of the variations displayed by the NRM/k signal. Overall, this record confirms the succession of distinct highs and lows which are concomitant with full field reversals and short-term geomagnetic events present during the Matuyama Chron. The presence of large oscillations of the field with no periodicity confirms that the geomagnetic field (at least his dipolar part) is highly unstable and may have remained in this mode for a long period of time.

  19. Chemical modification of polycarbonate induced by 1.4 GeV Ar ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycarbonate foil stacks were irradiated with 1.4 GeV Ar ions at room temperature. The induced modifications in chemical structure were studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet/visible absorption (UV/VIS) spectroscopies. FTIR measurements reveal that material degradation through bond breaking are the main effects. Significant reduction in absorbance of the typical infrared bands is observed at energy densities higher than 8x1022 eV/cm3. Alkyne end groups are produced by the irradiations and the electronic energy loss threshold for production of the alkyne end group is found to be below 0.61 keV/nm. UV/VIS measurements indicate a shifting of the absorption edge from ultraviolet towards visible and a strong increase of absorbance in the ultraviolet and visible regions. The irradiation induced changes in absorbance at wavelengths of 380, 450 and 500 nm follow roughly linear relationship with fluence and scale rather good with the square of electronic energy loss. The results are briefly discussed

  20. Dielectric Relaxation Studies of Alkylacrylates with Ortho-Substituted Benzoic acids in 1, 4 - Dioxane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Liakath Ali Khan*,1

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dielectric absorption studies of Hydrogen bonded complexes of alkyl acrylates with ortho substituted benzoic acid (2 - Fluro benzoic acid, 2 - Iodo benzoic acid, 2 - Chloro benzoic acid, 2 - Bromo benzoic acid, and 2 - Nitro benzoic acid were studied at microwave frequency 9.43GHz in dilute solution of 1,4 - Dioxane at room temperature. Different dielectric parameters like dielectric constant ( and dielectric loss ( at microwave frequency, and static dielectric constant (0 and dielectric constant ( at optical frequency were determined. The validity of the single frequency equation proposed by Higasi et.al., for multiple relaxation time (1 was found to be a function of the hydrogen bonding strength in benzoic acid, whereas the group rotation relaxation time (2 was a function of the steric interaction of proton donor. The relaxation time was maximum at 1:1 molar ratios of alky acrylates with ortho substituted benzoic acid.

  1. Photostabilization studies of antihypertensive 1,4-dihydropyridines using polymeric containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Michele; Ioele, Giuseppina; Spatari, Claudia; Ragno, Gaetano

    2016-05-30

    1,4-dihydropyridine antihypertensives (DHPs) are almost all dispensed in solid pharmaceutical formulations for their easy lability when exposed to light. This paper reports a study on the photoprotective effect of containers in different glassy or polymeric matrices with regard to four known DHPs when in solutions. The samples were subjected to forced degradation by means of a Xenon lamp, in accordance with the international rules on drug stability evaluation. The simultaneous determination of the drugs and their photoproducts was carried out by applying the multivariate curve resolution (MCR) methodology to the spectral data recorded along the irradiation test. This technique was able to determine the kinetic parameters and resolve the spectra of the photoproducts. The time required to reduce by 10% the concentration of the drug (t0.1) was adopted as a criterion to compare the protective ability of the containers. A significant photoprotection for all drugs tested was obtained by the use of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers. The best result was achieved for the felodipine solution in blue PET transparent bottle of 0.6mm thickness, reaching an almost complete stabilization up to six hours under stressing irradiation. In contrast, the glass containers, whether or not coloured, did not provide a satisfactory photoprotection of the drugs, showing in any case t0.1 values under 24min. These results can be a good opportunity to design new photoprotective pharmaceutical packaging for DHPs in liquid dosage form. PMID:27085645

  2. Retrogradation behavior of corn starch treated with 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenwen; Li, Caiming; Gu, Zhengbiao; Qiu, Yijing; Cheng, Li; Hong, Yan; Li, Zhaofeng

    2016-07-15

    The retrogradation behavior of corn starch treated with 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme (GBE) was investigated using rheometry, pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (PNMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Dynamic time sweep analysis confirmed that the storage modulus (G') of corn starch stored at 4 °C decreased with increasing GBE treatment time. PNMR analysis demonstrated that the transverse relaxation times (T2) of corn starches treated with GBE were higher than that of control during the storage at 4 °C. DSC results demonstrated that the retrogradation enthalpy (ΔHr) of corn starch was reduced by 22.3% after GBE treatment for 10h. Avrami equation analysis showed that GBE treatment reduced the rate of starch retrogradation. FTIR analysis revealed that GBE treatment led to a decrease in hydrogen bonds within the starch. Overall, these results demonstrate that both short- and long-term retrogradation of corn starch were retarded by GBE treatment. PMID:26948619

  3. Surface chemistry and structures of 1,4-phenylene diisocyanide on gold films from solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuflaha, Rasha; Olson, Dustin; Bennett, Dennis W.; Tysoe, Wilfred T.

    2016-07-01

    The adsorption of 1,4-phenylene diisocyanide (PDI) is studied on gold films as a function of PDI exposure from benzene solution by a combination of attenuated total internal reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy and conductivity measurements. The infrared spectrum found for low PDI doses exhibits a single isocyanide vibrational peak consistent with the formation of -(Au-PDI)- oligomer chains that have been identified previously on a Au(111) surface dosed in ultrahigh vacuum. Larger solution doses cause the isocyanide peaks to split into two, with the lower-frequency vibrations corresponding to a free isocyanide mode, indicating the formation of a perpendicular, vertically bonded PDI molecule. This observation also rationalizes the apparent disparity between studies of the chemistry of PDI on gold in ultrahigh vacuum and with solution dosing. Since it has been shown previously that the -(Au-PDI)- oligomer chains are capable of providing conductive linkages between gold nanoparticles on an insulating mica substrate, it was proposed that higher PDI doses from solution should cause a decrease in conductivity due to chain disruption. This effect was found experimentally, thereby providing corroborative evidence for the above conclusions.

  4. Globally stable structures of LixZn (x = 1-4) compounds at high pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Haixin; Zhang, Shoutao; Wei, Shubo; Wang, Jianyun; Zhou, Dan; Li, Quan; Ma, Yanming

    2016-02-01

    Pressure can change the properties of atoms and bonding patterns, leading to the synthesis of novel compounds with interesting properties. The intermetallic lithium-zinc (Li-Zn) compounds have attracted increasing attention because of their fascinating mechanical properties and widespread applications in rechargeable Li-ion batteries. Using the effective CALYPSO searching method in combination with first-principles calculations, we theoretically investigated the LixZn (x = 1-4) compounds at pressures of 0 to 100 GPa. We found several stable structures with a variety of stoichiometries and the phase diagram on the Li-rich side under high pressure. The electronic structures of these compounds reveal transferred charges from lithium to zinc mainly fill Zn 4p states and compounds with negatively charged Zn atoms are dramatic. We also calculated the elastic constants to discuss their mechanical properties. Our results enrich the crystal structures of the Li-Zn system and provide a further understanding of structural features and their properties. PMID:26791574

  5. 1,4-Naphthalenediyl-Bridged Molecular Gyrotops: Rotation of the Rotor and Fluorescence in Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Yohei; Inagaki, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Setaka, Wataru

    2015-10-16

    Macrocage molecules with a bridged π-electron system have been reported as molecular gyrotops in which the π-electron system can rotate within the cage. We recently reported the dynamics of the rotor in solution using 1,4-naphthalenediyl-bridged molecular gyrotops, which consist of cages formed of three C14, C16, or C18 chains. In this work, we synthesized novel gyrotops with C15 and C17 chains and systematically investigated the activation energies for the rotation of the rotor in solution. The activation energies for rotation in solution were found to decrease with increasing size of the cage. Therefore, a rotational barrier can be designed by adjusting the length of the side chains in these molecular gyrotops. Additionally, these gyrotops were fluorescent in solution; the quantum yields and lifetimes of the fluorescence were investigated. However, these properties were not influenced by the chain length owing to a large difference in time scale between fluorescence (10(-8)-10(-9) s) and the rotational dynamics inside the cage (10°-10(-5) s). PMID:26374975

  6. Cross sections of Oq+ (q = 1 - 4) electron loss in collisions with He, Ne and Ar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Yan-Xia; Lu Xing-Qiang; Song Xiang; Zhang Bo-Li

    2011-01-01

    Electron-loss cross sections of Oq+ (q = 1-4) colliding with He, Ne and Ar atoms are measured in the intermediate velocity regime. The ratios of the cross sections of two-electron loss to that of one-electron loss R21 are presented. It is shown that single-channel analysis is not sufficient to explain the results, but that projectile electron loss, electron capture by the projectile and target ionization must be considered together to interpret the experimental data. The screening and antiscreening effects can account for the threshold velocity results, but cannot explain the dependence of the ratio R21 on velocity quantitatively. In general, the effective charge of the target atom increases with velocity increasing because the high-speed projectile ion can penetrate into the inner electronic shell of target atom. Ne and Ar atoms have similar effective charges in this velocity regime, but He atoms have smaller ones at the same velocities due to its smaller nuclear charge.

  7. Development of trans-1,4-polyisoprene for sutureless vascular anastomosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation crosslinked trans-1,4-polyisoprene (t-PIP) is shown to be effective as a heat shrinkable connector for severed blood vessels. The sutureless vascular anastomosis system (SVAS) requires a plastic sleeve with the following requirements: biocompatibility, heat shrinkability, melting point 50 to 600C, and proper mechanical properties. The effects of irradiation by cobalt-60 gammas on pertinent physical properties were determined. The measurements of gel fraction, thermal and mechanical properties demonstrate that at appropriate dose levels t-PIP meets initial SVAS requirements. The ability of processed t-PIP to retain its structural integrity after aging was measured in various oxidizing environments for twenty weeks. The results show no change in the gel fraction and mechanical strength. An in-vitro test of the processed t-PIP with intravenous saline solution demonstrates that the material undergoes no physical property changes after five months. Also, biocompatibility of the crosslinked t-PIP sleeve was established by tests performed at the University of Tennessee. Both in-vitro in in-vivo tests were performed at The Johns Hopkins University. In the in-vivo test, an SVAS operation was performed on the carotid artery of a live dog. The results of all the tests demonstrated that the procedure and the t-PIP sleeve were effective and safe. (author)

  8. The fluorescence decay times and quantum efficiencies of 1,4,5,8-naphthalisoimides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurak, Zbigniew, E-mail: zbigniew.mazurak@cmpw-pan.edu.pl [Center of Polymer and Carbon Materials of Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Skłodowskiej-Curie 34, 41-819 Zabrze (Poland); Wanic, Andrzej [Center of Polymer and Carbon Materials of Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Skłodowskiej-Curie 34, 41-819 Zabrze (Poland); Karolczak, Jerzy [Department of Physics and Center for Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Czaja, Maria [University of Silesia, Department of Earth Sciences, Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland)

    2015-02-15

    Presented herein are the luminescence properties of several 1,4,5,8- polinahthalisoimides. The luminescence decay curves after deconvolution exhibit three decay times: τ{sub 1}, τ{sub 2}, and τ{sub 3}.The luminescence lifetimes change along with the growth of excitation energy, as well as the contribution of each luminescence decay mechanism (A{sub 1}, A{sub 2}, and A{sub 3}). The manner of change is distinct for one sample, namely, the pure E-isomer, in comparison to the others. The radiative deexcitation coupled with radiationless vibrational energy transfer to other luminescence centers, mainly other isomer units, is discussed as a possible deexcitation mechanism of fluorescence. The Kasha–Vavilov empirical rule is not fulfilled for the studied samples, as the luminescence quantum efficiency (Φ{sub F}) distinctly depends on the excitation wavelength (λ{sub exc}). The quantum yield of one sample (about 63% of Z-isomer) is quite high, at 1%. - Highlights: • The fluorescence decay curves and quantum yields of naphthalimides are presented for the first time. • Luminescence decay curves (3 compounds) and deexcitation processes are discussed. • Fluorescence quantum efficiency measurements did not confirmed Kasha-Vavilov rule. • Large Stokes shift is regard as the main cause of the characteristics of the studied samples.

  9. Experimental and computational thermochemistry of 1-phenylpyrrole and 1-(4-methylphenyl)pyrrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Ana Filipa L.O.M. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V., E-mail: risilva@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2010-06-15

    The standard (p{sup o} = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation, in the crystalline phase, of 1-phenylpyrrole and 1-(4-methylphenyl)pyrrole, at T = 298.15 K, were derived from the standard molar energies of combustion in oxygen, measured by static-bomb combustion calorimetry. For these compounds, the standard molar enthalpies of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K, were determined from the temperature-vapour pressure dependence, obtained by the Knudsen mass-loss effusion method. Using estimated values for the heat capacity differences between the gas and the crystal phases of the studied compounds, the standard (p{sup o} = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies, entropies, and Gibbs energies of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K, were derived. From the experimental values, the standard molar enthalpies of formation, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, were calculated. Additionally, the enthalpies of formation of both compounds were estimated using the composite G3(MP2)//B3LYP approach together with adequate gas-phase working reactions. There is a very good agreement between computational and experimental results.

  10. Spectrophotometric determination of desoximetasone in ointment using 1,4-dihydrazinophthalazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, S; Cudina, O; Agbaba, D; Jovanović M; Zivanov-Stakić, D

    1996-06-01

    The proposed method is based on coloured hydrazone formation with 1,4-dihydrazinophthalazine as a reagent. Heating at 85 degrees C for 2 h was found necessary to ensure optimal hydrazone formation in the presence of hydrochloric acid. The yellow hydrazone product has an absorption maximum at 380 nm. A linear relationship between absorbance and concentration was established in the concentration range 3.19 x 10(-6) -3.19 x 10(-5) mol l-1 (the regression equation was y = 0.013 167 3 + 0.019 025 9x; correlation coefficient r = 0.9991; n = 6). The detection limit was 1.2 micrograms ml-1 (molar absorptivity found was 1.97 x 10(4) l mol-1 cm-1). The reliability of the proposed method was checked at three different concentrations; the relative standard deviation (RSD) varied from 1.03 to 2.01%. The described method applied to the determination of desoximetasone in ointment gave precise and reproducible results; the recovery was 98.55% with RSD = 2.40% (n = 10). PMID:8817999

  11. β,β-(1,4-Dithiino)subporphyrin Dimers Capturing Fullerenes with Large Association Constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kota; Osuka, Atsuhiro

    2016-06-27

    β,β-(1,4-Dithiino)subporphyrin dimers 7-syn and 7-anti were synthesized by the nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction of 2-bromo-3-(4-methoxyphenylsulfonyl)subporphyrin 4 with 2,3-dimercaptosubporphyrin 5 under basic conditions followed by axial arylation. Additions of C60 or C70 to a dilute solution of 7-anti (ca. 10(-6)  m) in toluene did not cause appreciable UV/Vis spectral changes, while similar additions to a concentrated solution (ca. 10(-3)  m) resulted in precipitation of complexes. In contrast, dimer 7-syn captured C60 and C70 in different complexation stoichiometries in toluene; a 1:1 manner and a 2:1 manner, respectively, with large association constants; Ka =(1.9±0.2)×10(6)  m(-1) for C60 @7-syn, and K1 =(1.6±0.5)×10(6) and K2 =(1.8±0.9)×10(5)  m(-1) for C70 @(7-syn)2 . These association constants are the largest for fullerenes-capture by bowl-shaped molecules reported so far. The structures of C60 @7-anti, C70 @7-anti, C60 @7-syn, and C70 @7-syn have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. PMID:27238619

  12. Spatially-resolved dust maps from Balmer decrements in galaxies at z~1.4

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Erica June; Momcheva, Ivelina G; Brammer, Gabriel B; Wuyts, Stijn; Franx, Marijn; Schreiber, Natascha M Forster; Whitaker, Katherine E; Skelton, Rosalind E

    2015-01-01

    We derive average radial gradients in the dust attenuation towards HII regions in 609 galaxies at z~1.4, using measurements of the Balmer decrement out to r~3kpc. The Balmer decrements are derived from spatially resolved maps of Halpha and Hbeta emission from the 3D-HST survey. We find that with increasing stellar mass (M) both the normalization and strength of the gradient in dust attenuation increases. Galaxies with a mean mass of = 9.2Msun have little dust attenuation at all radii, whereas galaxies with = 10.2Msun have dust attenuation toward Halpha A(Halpha)~2mag in their central regions. We parameterize this as A(Halpha) = b + c log(r), with b = 0.9 + 1.0 log(M10), c = -1.9 - 2.2 log(M10), r in kpc, and M10 the stellar mass in units of 10^10Msun. This expression can be used to correct spatially resolved measurements of Halpha to radial distributions of star formation. When applied to our data, we find that the star formation rates in the central r<1kpc of galaxies in the highest mass bin are ~ 6 Msun...

  13. 4-Oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide Derivatives as New Axl Kinase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li; Zhang, Zhang; Gao, Donglin; Luo, Jinfeng; Tu, Zheng-Chao; Li, Zhengqiu; Peng, Lijie; Ren, Xiaomei; Ding, Ke

    2016-07-28

    Axl is a new potential target for anticancer drug discovery. A series of 4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamides were designed and synthesized as highly potent Axl kinase inhibitors. One of the most promising compounds, 9im, tightly bound with Axl protein and potently inhibited its kinase function with a Kd value of 2.7 nM and an IC50 value of 4.0 nM, respectively, while was obviously less potent against most of the 403 wild-type kinases evaluated at a relatively high concentration. The compound dose-dependently inhibited the TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and suppressed the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. In addition, 9im also demonstrated reasonable pharmacokinetics properties in rats and exhibited in vivo therapeutic effect on hepatic metastasis in a xenograft model of highly metastatic 4T1 murine breast cancer cells. Compound 9im may serve as a lead compound for new anticancer drug discovery and a valuable research probe for further biological investigation on Axl. PMID:27379978

  14. Ionothermal synthesis, structures, properties of cobalt-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zong-Hui; Xu, Ling; Jiao, Huan

    2016-06-01

    Eight kinds of 1-methyl-3-alkylimidazolium halide [RMI]X (R=ethyl (E), propyl (P), butyl (B) and amyl (A); MI = imidazolium; X= Cl-, I-) ionic liquids (ILs) were used as reaction media and obtained a series of 2D [RMI]2[Co3(BDC)3X2] frameworks through the ionothermal reactions of 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (H2BDC) with Co(NO3)2·6H2O. The 2D [RMI]2[Co3(BDC)3X2] frameworks exhibit a same (3,6) topology network with [RMI]+ cations locating in the interlayer space. [RMI]+ cations play a template role in the structure constructions, whose influence combining with the effect of X- anions pass to the TG behaviors. The decomposition temperatures of the [RMI]2[Co3(BDC)3X2] frameworks decrease with the alkyl chains in [RMI]+ cations, and the compounds containing Cl- show higher thermal stabilities than those with I-. However, compounds 1-8 exhibit two similar broad emissions at ca. 380 and 390 nm, assigned to ILCT. The RMI+ templates and the X- anions do not exert their influence on the fluorescence.

  15. System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA) v. 2.1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, O.; Bechtel, B.; Bock, M.; Dietrich, H.; Fischer, E.; Gerlitz, L.; Wehberg, J.; Wichmann, V.; Böhner, J.

    2015-02-01

    The System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA) is an open-source Geographic Information System (GIS), mainly licensed under the GNU General Public License. Since its first release in 2004, SAGA has rapidly developed from a specialized tool for digital terrain analysis to a comprehensive and globally established GIS platform for scientific analysis and modeling. SAGA is coded in C++ in an object oriented design and runs under several operating systems including Windows and Linux. Key functional features of the modular organized software architecture comprise an application programming interface for the development and implementation of new geoscientific methods, an easily approachable graphical user interface with many visualization options, a command line interpreter, and interfaces to scripting and low level programming languages like R and Python. The current version 2.1.4 offers more than 700 tools, which are implemented in dynamically loadable libraries or shared objects and represent the broad scopes of SAGA in numerous fields of geoscientific endeavor and beyond. In this paper, we inform about the system's architecture, functionality, and its current state of development and implementation. Further, we highlight the wide spectrum of scientific applications of SAGA in a review of published studies with special emphasis on the core application areas digital terrain analysis, geomorphology, soil science, climatology and meteorology, as well as remote sensing.

  16. Near infrared cavity enhanced absorption spectra of atmospherically relevant ether-1, 4-Dioxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Satheesh; Varma, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    1, 4-Dioxane (DX) is a commonly found ether in industrially polluted atmosphere. The near infrared absorption spectra of this compound has been recorded in the region 5900-8230 cm- 1 with a resolution of 0.08 cm- 1 using a novel Fourier transform incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer (FT-IBBCEAS). All recorded spectra were found to contain regions that are only weakly perturbed. The possible combinations of fundamental modes and their overtone bands corresponding to selected regions in the measured spectra are tabulated. Two interesting spectral regions were identified as 5900-6400 cm- 1 and 8100-8230 cm- 1. No significant spectral interference due to presence of water vapor was observed suggesting the suitability of these spectral signatures for spectroscopic in situ detection of DX. The technique employed here is much more sensitive than standard Fourier transform spectrometer measurements on account of long effective path length achieved. Hence significant enhancement of weaker absorption lines above the noise level was observed as demonstrated by comparison with an available measurement from database.

  17. System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA) v. 2.1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, O.; Bechtel, B.; Bock, M.; Dietrich, H.; Fischer, E.; Gerlitz, L.; Wehberg, J.; Wichmann, V.; Böhner, J.

    2015-07-01

    The System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA) is an open source geographic information system (GIS), mainly licensed under the GNU General Public License. Since its first release in 2004, SAGA has rapidly developed from a specialized tool for digital terrain analysis to a comprehensive and globally established GIS platform for scientific analysis and modeling. SAGA is coded in C++ in an object oriented design and runs under several operating systems including Windows and Linux. Key functional features of the modular software architecture comprise an application programming interface for the development and implementation of new geoscientific methods, a user friendly graphical user interface with many visualization options, a command line interpreter, and interfaces to interpreted languages like R and Python. The current version 2.1.4 offers more than 600 tools, which are implemented in dynamically loadable libraries or shared objects and represent the broad scopes of SAGA in numerous fields of geoscientific endeavor and beyond. In this paper, we inform about the system's architecture, functionality, and its current state of development and implementation. Furthermore, we highlight the wide spectrum of scientific applications of SAGA in a review of published studies, with special emphasis on the core application areas digital terrain analysis, geomorphology, soil science, climatology and meteorology, as well as remote sensing.

  18. System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA v. 2.1.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Conrad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA is an open-source Geographic Information System (GIS, mainly licensed under the GNU General Public License. Since its first release in 2004, SAGA has rapidly developed from a specialized tool for digital terrain analysis to a comprehensive and globally established GIS platform for scientific analysis and modeling. SAGA is coded in C++ in an object oriented design and runs under several operating systems including Windows and Linux. Key functional features of the modular organized software architecture comprise an application programming interface for the development and implementation of new geoscientific methods, an easily approachable graphical user interface with many visualization options, a command line interpreter, and interfaces to scripting and low level programming languages like R and Python. The current version 2.1.4 offers more than 700 tools, which are implemented in dynamically loadable libraries or shared objects and represent the broad scopes of SAGA in numerous fields of geoscientific endeavor and beyond. In this paper, we inform about the system's architecture, functionality, and its current state of development and implementation. Further, we highlight the wide spectrum of scientific applications of SAGA in a review of published studies with special emphasis on the core application areas digital terrain analysis, geomorphology, soil science, climatology and meteorology, as well as remote sensing.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ATLAS 1.4GHz Data Release 3 (Franzen+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, T. M. O.; Banfield, J. K.; Hales, C. A.; Hopkins, A.; Norris, R. P.; Seymour, N.; Chow, K. E.; Herzog, A.; Huynh, M. T.; Lenc, E.; Mao, M. Y.; Middelberg, E.

    2016-04-01

    ATLAS covers two regions, each of ~3 deg2, surroundin (RA=03:30:16.3, DE=-28:05:12.4) and ELAIS-S1 (RA=00:33:50.8, DE=-43:44:57.4). These two fields have previously been observed at 1.4GHz as part of the ATLAS project and are described by Hales et al. (2014, Cat. J/MNRAS/441/2555). Both of these fields were originally targeted for radio observations as they overlap with SWIRE which includes infrared and optical data for the majority of the radio objects. ATCA project C1967 was allocated 1000h distributed over 78d between 2009 June and 2010 June to extend ATLAS. Previous ATLAS DR2 observations (ATCA Project IDs C1035 and C1241) from Hales et al. (2014, Cat. J/MNRAS/441/2555) were combined with our CABB observations to maximize the sensitivity. The data were combined in the image plane for reasons related to bandwidth smearing, and described in detail in Section 3.2. These data consist of two 128MHz bands centred at 1344 and 1432MHz each containing 16 channels of 8MHz in size. Both bands were imaged together using a similar procedure to the CABB data. (1 data file).

  20. Climate applications for NOAA 1/4° Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, T.; Banzon, P. V. F.; Liu, G.; Saha, K.; Wilson, C.; Stachniewicz, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Few sea surface temperature (SST) datasets from satellites have the long temporal span needed for climate studies. The NOAA Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (DOISST) on a 1/4° grid, produced at National Centers for Environmental Information, is based primarily on SSTs from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), available from 1981 to the present. AVHRR data can contain biases, particularly when aerosols are present. Over the three decade span, the largest departure of AVHRR SSTs from buoy temperatures occurred during the Mt Pinatubo and El Chichon eruptions. Therefore, in DOISST, AVHRR SSTs are bias-adjusted to match in situ SSTs prior to interpolation. This produces a consistent time series of complete SST fields that is suitable for modelling and investigating local climate phenomena like El Nino or the Pacific warm blob in a long term context. Because many biological processes and animal distributions are temperature dependent, there are also many ecological uses of DOISST (e.g., coral bleaching thermal stress, fish and marine mammal distributions), thereby providing insights into resource management in a changing ocean. The advantages and limitations of using DOISST for different applications will be discussed.

  1. Thermal Degradation Kinetics of N,N'-Di(diethoxythiophosphoryl)-1,4-phenylenediamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yuan-lin; CHENG Bo-wen; ZHANG Jin-shu; JIANG Ai-bing; FU Wen-li

    2008-01-01

    The non-isothermal degradation kinetics of N,N'-di(diethoxythiophosphoryl)-1,4-phenylenediamine in N2 was studied by TG-DTG techniques.The kinetic parameters,including the activation energy and pre-exponential factor of the degradation process for the title compound were calculated by means of the Kissinger and Fiynn-Wall-Ozawa(FWO) method and the thermal degradation mechanism of the title compound was also studied with the Satava-Sestak methods.The results indicate that the activation energy and pre-exponential factor are 152.61 kJ/mol and 9.06×1014 s-1 with the Kissinger method and 154.08 kJ/mol with the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method,respectively.It has been shown that the degradation of the title compound follows a kinetic model of one-dimensional diffusion or parabolic law,the kinetic function is G(a)=a2 and the reaction order is n=2.

  2. Ubiquitous outflows in DEEP2 spectra of star-forming galaxies at z=1.4

    CERN Document Server

    Weiner, Benjamin J; Prochaska, Jason X; Newman, Jeffrey A; Cooper, Michael C; Bundy, Kevin; Conselice, Christopher J; Dutton, Aaron A; Faber, S M; Koo, David C; Lotz, Jennifer M; Rieke, G H; Rubin, K H R

    2008-01-01

    Galactic winds are a prime suspect for the metal enrichment of the intergalactic medium and may have a strong influence on the chemical evolution of galaxies and the nature of QSO absorption line systems. We use a sample of 1406 galaxy spectra at z~1.4 from the DEEP2 redshift survey to show that blueshifted Mg II 2796, 2803 A absorption is ubiquitous in starforming galaxies at this epoch. This is the first detection of frequent outflowing galactic winds at z~1. The presence and depth of absorption are independent of AGN spectral signatures or galaxy morphology; major mergers are not a prerequisite for driving a galactic wind from massive galaxies. Outflows are found in coadded spectra of galaxies spanning a range of 30x in stellar mass and 10x in star formation rate (SFR), calibrated from K-band and from MIPS IR fluxes. The outflows have column densities of order N_H ~ 10^20 cm^-2 and characteristic velocities of ~ 300-500 km/sec, with absorption seen out to 1000 km/sec in the most massive, highest SFR galaxi...

  3. Synthesis, crystal structure, and thermal properties of N,N'-di(diethoxythiophosphoryl)-1,4-phenylenediamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanlin REN; Bowen CHENG; Jinshu ZHANG; Hongjun ZANG; Weimin KANG; Changkun DING

    2008-01-01

    The title compound N,N',di(diethoxythiophosphoryl),1,4,phenyl,enediamine was synthesized by the reaction of diethoxythiophosphoryl chloride with p,phe,nylenediamine and characterized by elemental analysis,IR, and 1H NMR spectra. Its crystal structure was determined by X,ray diffraction analysis and the thermal property was studied by TG analysis. The relative molecular weight of the title compound is 412.42. The crystal structure belongs to the orthorhombic, Pbca space group, with a=0.86936(16) nm, b=1.2787(2)nm,c=1.8897(3)nm,β=90°, V=2.1006(7) nm3, Z=8, Dc=1.304 g/cm3,μ(Mo Kα) = 0.425 mm,1, F(000)=872, S=1.052, the final R=0.0628 and wR=0.1860 for 1852 observed reflections with I>2σ(I). The X,ray diffraction analysis demonstrates that the crystal structure is centrosymmetric.observed to link the molecules into sheets. The TG analysis shows that the title compound has good thermal stability and char forming capability and its fire retardation for polyacrylonitrile reveals that the compound is an excellent intumescent fire retardant.

  4. Interactions of arabinoxylan and (1,3)(1,4)-β-glucan with cellulose networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Deirdre; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Wilson, Sarah M; Bacic, Antony; Gidley, Michael J

    2015-04-13

    To identify interactions of relevance to the structure and properties of the primary cell walls of cereals and grasses, we used arabinoxylan and (1,3)(1,4)-β-glucan, major polymers in cereal/grass primary cell walls, to construct composites with cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus. Both polymers associated prolifically with cellulose without becoming rigid or altering the nature or extent of cellulose crystallinity. Mechanical properties were modestly affected compared with xyloglucan or pectin (characteristic components of nongrass primary cell walls) composites with cellulose. In situ depletion of arabinoxylan arabinose side chains within preformed cellulose composites resulted in phase separation, with only limited enhancement of xylan-cellulose interactions. These results suggest that arabinoxylan and (1 → 3)(1 → 4)-β-d-glucan are not functional homologues for either xyloglucan or pectin in the way they interact with cellulose networks. Association of cell-wall polymers with cellulose driven by entropic amelioration of high energy cellulose/water interfaces should be considered as a third type of interaction within cellulose-based cell walls, in addition to molecular binding (enthalpic driving force) exhibited by, for example, xyloglucans or mannans, and interpenetrating networks based on, for example, pectins. PMID:25756836

  5. Two Pine Endo-β-1,4-Glucanases Are Associated with Rapidly Growing Reproductive Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loopstra, Carol A.; Mouradov, Aidyn; Vivian-Smith, Adam; Glassick, Tina V.; Gale, Beth V.; Southerton, Simon G.; Marshall, Heidi; Teasdale, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    Two cDNA clones encoding endo-β-1,4-glucanases (EGases) were isolated from a radiata pine (Pinus radiata) cDNA library prepared from immature female strobili. The cDNAs PrCel1 (Pinus radiata cellulase 1) and PrCel2 encode proteins 509 and 515 amino acids in length, respectively, including putative signal peptides. Both proteins contain domains conserved in plant and bacterial EGases. The proteins PRCEL1 and PRCEL2 showed strong similarity to each other (76% amino acid identity), and higher similarity to TPP18 (73 and 67%, respectively), an EGase cloned from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) pistils, than to any other reported EGases. Northern-blot analyses indicated that both genes displayed a similar pattern of expression. The only significant difference was in the level of expression. In situ hybridizations were used to demonstrate that, within differentiating pine reproductive structures, PrCel1 expression was greatest in microsporangia in pollen strobili and near the developing ovule in the seed strobili. Expression was also found in vegetative tissues, especially in regions experiencing cell elongation, such as the elongating region of root tips. Both proteins have an ability to degrade carboxymethylcellulose in vitro. Genomic-blot analysis indicated the presence of a family of EGase genes in the radiata pine genome, and that PrCel1 and PrCel2 are transcribed from distinct one-copy genes. PMID:9501128

  6. Two pine endo-beta-1,4-glucanases are associated with rapidly growing reproductive structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loopstra, C A; Mouradov, A; Vivian-Smith, A; Glassick, T V; Gale, B V; Southerton, S G; Marshall, H; Teasdale, R D

    1998-03-01

    Two cDNA clones encoding endo-beta-1,4-glucanases (EGases) were isolated from a radiata pine (Pinus radiata) cDNA library prepared from immature female strobili. The cDNAs PrCel1 (inus adiata cellulase ) and PrCel2 encode proteins 509 and 515 amino acids in length, respectively, including putative signal peptides. Both proteins contain domains conserved in plant and bacterial EGases. The proteins PRCEL1 and PRCEL2 showed strong similarity to each other (76% amino acid identity), and higher similarity to TPP18 (73 and 67%, respectively), an EGase cloned from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) pistils, than to any other reported EGases. Northern-blot analyses indicated that both genes displayed a similar pattern of expression. The only significant difference was in the level of expression. In situ hybridizations were used to demonstrate that, within differentiating pine reproductive structures, PrCel1 expression was greatest in microsporangia in pollen strobili and near the developing ovule in the seed strobili. Expression was also found in vegetative tissues, especially in regions experiencing cell elongation, such as the elongating region of root tips. Both proteins have an ability to degrade carboxymethylcellulose in vitro. Genomic-blot analysis indicated the presence of a family of EGase genes in the radiata pine genome, and that PrCel1 and PrCel2 are transcribed from distinct one-copy genes. PMID:9501128

  7. Hyperconjugative and Electrostatic Interactions as Anomeric Triggers in Archetypical 1,4-Dioxane Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Pilar Gema Rodríguez; Montejo, Manuel; López González, Juan Jesús

    2016-02-01

    The anomeric effect accounts for the greater thermodynamic stability of axially arranged six-membered heterocycles holding an electronegative substituent at the C1 position. Within a frame of no general consensus, two different theories are typically claimed to justify this effect mostly based on either hyperconjugative or electrostatic factors. Here we report a theoretical-experimental study of the role of both as anomeric triggers in two archetypical 1,4-dioxane derivatives, using a suitable combination of spectroscopic (IR and vibrational circular dichroism) and computational techniques for the analysis of the solvation environment effect in their anomeric choices. VCD and IR spectroscopies are used as conformer-discriminating tools: a detailed analysis of the evolution of the spectral profiles allows assessing the theoretically predicted changes in the experimental α/β ratios when changing the polar solvent, which are fully explained on the basis of an extensive NBO energy partition scheme that provides a detailed view of the role of hyperconjugative and electrostatic interactions as anomeric regulators. Our results suggest that the anomeric equilibrium cannot be described by a single stereoelectronic effect but by the combined contribution of hyperconjugation and electrostatic repulsions, so that the β-anomeric choice in polar solvents is markedly driven by the strong attenuation of electrostatic repulsive interactions that occurs in solution. PMID:26663638

  8. Hexaaquacopper(II bis(tetrafluoridoborate–pyrazine 1,4-dioxide (1/3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan L. Wikaira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, [Cu(H2O6](BF42·3C4H4N2O2, comprises discrete [Cu(H2O6]2+ cations and BF4− anions along with three equivalents of pyrazine 1,4-dioxide (pzdo. The hexaaquacopper(II ion and all three pzdo molecules lie about crystallographic inversion centers. The lattice is supported by an extensive hydrogen-bonding network. O—H...O hydrogen bonding between the [Cu(H2O6]2+ and pzdo units creates a pseudo-hexagonal lattice parallel to the bc plane. The BF4− anions lie in the voids of that lattice, held in place by O—H...F hydrogen bonds, and also generate BF4−–pzdo–BF4−–pzdo stacks via short F...N contacts [2.866 (3–3.283 (4 Å].

  9. Photochemistry of the 1,4-Diphenyl-1,3-butadienes in Ethanol. Trapping Conical Intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltiel, Jack; Redwood, Christopher E

    2016-05-12

    We report photoisomerization and photoaddition quantum yields in ethanol starting from each 1,4-diphenyl-1,3-butadiene, DPB, isomer. Despite the fact that the trans,trans isomer, tt-DPB, has a significant fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime, whereas no fluorescence is observed from the cis isomers, ether formation occurs with similar efficiency from tt-DPB and ct-DPB and less efficiently from cc-DPB. Photoaddition is about 72 times slower than photoisomerization to the ct- and tt-DPB isomers starting from tt- and ct-DPB, respectively. The results are consistent with addition of alcohol to the common zwitterionic trans-phenallyl cation/benzyl anion intermediate that leads to photoisomerization through a conical intersection. Ether formation from cc-DPB tracks inefficient formation of tt-DPB indicating that the small bicycle pedal cc-DPB → tt-DPB component proceeds stepwise through the same zwitterionic trans-phenallyl cation/benzyl anion intermediate. Previous results concerning the addition of methanol to the stilbenes are similarly interpreted. In contrast to trans-stilbene, the fluorescence and photoisomerization quantum yields of tt-DPB are inconsistent with the assumption of strict complementarity between radiative and torsional relaxation channels of tt-DPB in alcohols. PMID:27081783

  10. Peroxone activated persulfate treatment of 1,4-dioxane in the presence of chlorinated solvent co-contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Dylan; Ball, Raymond; Boving, Thomas B

    2016-02-01

    1,4-dioxane is often found as a co-contaminant with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at solvent release sites such as landfills, solvent recycling facilities, or fire training areas. Historically, soil and groundwater samples were not routinely analyzed for 1,4-dioxane and therefore the number of known 1,4-dioxane sites is still increasing. Due to its co-occurrence with chlorinated compounds, remediation strategies are needed that simultaneously treat both 1,4-dioxane as well as chlorinated VOC co-contaminants. In this proof of concept laboratory study, the fate of 1,4-dioxane was examined during the targeted destruction of aqueous phase VOC, using a peroxone activated persulfate (PAP) chemical oxidation method. Bench-scale experiments were carried out to evaluate the treatability of 1,4-dioxane as both a single-contaminant and in the presence of trichloroethene (TCE), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA). Possible dependencies on oxidant concentration and reaction kinetics were studied. The oxidative destruction of 1,4-dioxane, TCE and 1,1,1-TCA in single-contaminant batch systems followed pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics and even at the most dilute oxidant concentration lasted for at least 13 days. The rate of oxidation for each contaminant increased linearly with increasing persulfate concentration over the range of oxidant concentrations tested. The rate of oxidative destruction, from most easily degraded to least, was: TCE > 1,4-dioxane > 1,1,1-TCA. Oxidation rates were up to 87% slower in a mixture of these three compounds. Although additional tests are necessary, our data suggest that PAP oxidation of 1,4-dioxane might aid in the cleanup of VOC contaminated sites. PMID:26408980

  11. Corophiidae (Crustacea, Amphipoda da costa brasileira Corophiidae (Crustacea, Amphipoda from Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Valério-Berardo

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Twelve genera and seventeen species of corophiid amphipods are reported from Brazilian coastal waters: Ampelisciphotis podophthalma J.L. Barnard, 1958, Aora spinicornis Afonso, 1976, Audulla chelifera Chevreux, 1901, Bemlos foresti (Mateus & Mateus, 1966, B. unicornis (Bynum & Fox, 1977, Cheiriphotis megacheles (Giles, 1885, Chevalia mexicana Pearse, 1913, Corophium acherusicum Costa, 1851, Gammaropsis (Gammaropsis atlantica Stebbing, 1888, G. (G.. thompsoni (Walker, 1898, G. (G. togoensis (Schellenberg, 1925, G. (Podoceropsis sophiae (Boeck, 1861, Globoso-lembos smithi (Holmes, 1905, Lembos hypacanthus (K.H. Barnard, 1916, Photis brevipes Shoemaker, 1942, P. longicaudata Bate & Westwood, 1862 e Pseudomegamphopus barnardi Myers, 1968. An identification key, diagnosis and latitutinal distribution of each species are provided.

  12. Electro–oxidation of industrial wastewater containing 1,4-dioxane in the presence of different salts

    OpenAIRE

    Barndok, Helen; Hermosilla, Daphne; Cortijo, Luis; Torres, Esperanza; Blanco, Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of 1,4-dioxane solution by electrochemical oxidation on boron-doped diamond was studied using a central composite design and the response surface methodology to investigate the use of SO42- and HCO3- as supporting electrolytes considering the applied electric current, initial COD value, and treatment time. Two industrial effluents containing bicarbonate alkalinity, one just carrying 1,4-dioxane (S1), and another one including 1,4-dioxane and 2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane (S2), were tre...

  13. Short-chain grafting of tetrahydrofuran and 1,4-dioxane cycles on vinylchloride-maleic anhydride copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass increase of vinylchloride-maleic anhydride (VC-MA copolymer samples aged in tetrahydrofuran (THF or in 1,4-dioxane results from chemical interaction of VC-MA macromolecules with 1,4-dioxane or THF. Microstructure of the products of such modification was proved by infrared spectroscopy (IR- and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR and 1H NMR. Mechanism of modification has been proposed. The results of microstructure research of VC-MA samples aged in THF and in 1,4-dioxane coincide with already known data on the reactions of opening of these and other oxygen-containing cycles under mild conditions.

  14. Involvement of reversible binding to alpha 2u-globulin in 1,4-dichlorobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, M; Strasser, J; Lock, E A; Turner, M J; Swenberg, J A

    1989-06-01

    Similarly to unleaded gasoline, 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) administered for 2 years caused a dose-related increase in the incidence of renal tumors in male but not in female rats or in either sex of mice. Unleaded gasoline and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (TMP), a component of unleaded gasoline, increased protein droplet formation and cell proliferation in male but not in female rat kidneys. These protein droplets contained, alpha 2u-globulin, a male rat-specific low-molecular-weight protein and 2,4,4-trimethyl-2-pentanol, a metabolite of TMP that was reversibly bound to this protein. Studies were undertaken to determine if 1,4-DCB produced similar effects; 1,2-DCB was used for comparison since it did not produce renal carcinogenesis in male rats. Gel filtration chromatography of a 116,000g supernatant prepared from kidneys of 1,4-[14C]DCB-treated rats showed that radiolabel coeluted with alpha 2u-globulin as one sharp peak as opposed to a multipeak pattern observed for 1,2-[14C]DCB; the maximal quantity of radiolabel for 1,4-DCB was twice that for 1,2-DCB. Equilibrium dialysis of kidney cytosol in the presence or absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate demonstrated that the radiolabel was reversibly bound to alpha 2u-globulin; the amount for 1,4-[14C]DCB-treated rats was almost twice as much as that for 1,2-[14C]DCB-treated rats. 1,2-DCB was also shown to be covalently bound to renal alpha 2u-globulin, and covalently bound to liver and plasma high-molecular-weight proteins. 1,4-DCB and, to a minor extent, 2,5-dichlorophenol, the major metabolite of 1,4-DCB, were reversibly bound to renal alpha 2u-globulin from 1,4-DCB-treated rats. 1,4-DCB increased protein droplet formation in male but not in female rat kidneys, whereas equimolar doses of 1,2-DCB showed no effect in either sex. Renal cell proliferation, measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation into renal DNA, was increased after 1,4-DCB but not after 1,2-DCB treatment. Nephrotoxicity and biochemical alterations induced by

  15. Synthesis and photophysical and electroluminescent properties of poly(1,4-phenylene–ethynylene)-alt-poly(1,4-phenylene–vinylene)s with various dissymmetric substitution of alkoxy side chains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bouguerra, N.; Růžička, Aleš; Ulbricht, C.; Enengl, C.; Enengl, S.; Pokorná, Veronika; Výprachtický, Drahomír; Tordin, E.; Aitout, R.; Cimrová, Věra; Egbe, D. A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2016), s. 455-464. ISSN 0024-9297 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-26542S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0827 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : poly(1,4-phenylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene)s * dissymmetric side chains * synthesis Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 5.800, year: 2014

  16. MPEG码流中I帧1/4图像的快速近似提取方法%Fast approximate 1/4 image extracting method of I frame in MPEG bit-stream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶楠; 郑志航

    2001-01-01

    A fast I frames searching method was proposed, and a fastapproximate 1/4 image extracting methods of I frames directly in DCT domain was discussed.%给出了MPEG码流中I帧图像的快速搜索方法,并详细论述了在DCT域上直接提取I帧的1/4图像的快速近似提取方法。

  17. Second stage gasifier in staged gasification and integrated process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, Wan Wang

    2015-10-06

    A second stage gasification unit in a staged gasification integrated process flow scheme and operating methods are disclosed to gasify a wide range of low reactivity fuels. The inclusion of second stage gasification unit operating at high temperatures closer to ash fusion temperatures in the bed provides sufficient flexibility in unit configurations, operating conditions and methods to achieve an overall carbon conversion of over 95% for low reactivity materials such as bituminous and anthracite coals, petroleum residues and coke. The second stage gasification unit includes a stationary fluidized bed gasifier operating with a sufficiently turbulent bed of predefined inert bed material with lean char carbon content. The second stage gasifier fluidized bed is operated at relatively high temperatures up to 1400.degree. C. Steam and oxidant mixture can be injected to further increase the freeboard region operating temperature in the range of approximately from 50 to 100.degree. C. above the bed temperature.

  18. Material Property Correlations: Comparisons between FRAPCON-3.4, FRAPTRAN 1.4, and MATPRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luscher, Walter G.; Geelhood, Kenneth J.

    2010-08-01

    Sections 3 and 4, respectively. In addition to describing the material property correlations used in the subroutines of FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN, this report also provides a variety of comparisons between material property correlations and data. Although they are frequently identical, comparisons are made between the material property correlations used in the FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN codes. Comparisons are also made between the material property correlations used in MATPRO, a compilation of fuel and cladding material property correlations with an extensive history of used with various fuel performance and severe accident codes. For a number of reasons, consistency between the material property correlations in FRAPCON-3, FRAPTRAN, and MATPRO has never been complete. However, the current versions of FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN use a relatively consistent set of correlations for the properties that are used by both codes. The material property correlations in the most recent version of MATPRO are documented in Volume 4 of NUREG/CR-6150. In addition to comparison of the various correlations, correlation-to-data comparisons are also made with FRAPCON-3, FRAPTRAN, and MATPRO. All comparisons made in this report are based on the material property correlations used in the most recent version of the FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN codes, FRAPCON-3.4 and FRAPTRAN 1.4. The source code for each material property correlation discussed will be provided for FRAPCON-3.4 and FRAPTRAN 1.4 (see appendix) as well as a range of applicability and an estimate of uncertainty where possible.

  19. Isothermal flow measurement using planar PIV in the 1/4 scaled model of CANDU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Sunghyuk; Sung, Hyung Jin [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Han; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung Tae [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The local temperature of the moderator is a key parameter in determining the available subcooling. To predict the flow field and local temperature distribution in the calandria, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started the experimental research on moderator circulation as one of a national R and D research programs from 2012. This research program includes the construction of the Moderator Circulation Test (MCT) facility, production of the validation data for self-reliant CFD tools, and development of optical measurement system using the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) techniques. Small-scale 1/40 and 1/8 small-scale model tests were performed prior to installation of the main MCT facility to identify the potential problems of the flow visualization and measurement expected in the 1/4 scale MCT facility. In the 1/40 scale test, a flow field was measured with a PIV measurement technique under an iso-thermal state, and the temperature field was visualized using a LIF technique. In this experiment, the key point was to illuminate the region of interest as uniformly as possible since the velocity and temperature fields in the shadow regions were distorted and unphysical. In the 1/8 scale test, the flow patterns from the inlet nozzles to the top region of the tank were investigated using PIV measurement at two different positions of the inlet nozzle. For each position of laser beam exposure the measurement sections were divided to 7 groups to overcome the limitation of the laser power to cover the relatively large test section. The MCT facility is the large-scale facility designed to reproduce the important characteristics of moderator circulation in a CANDU6 calandria under a range of operating conditions. It is reduced in a 1/4 scale and a moderator test vessel is built to the specifications of the CANDU6 reactor design, where a working fluid is sub-cooled water with atmospheric pressure. Previous studies were

  20. Isothermal flow measurement using planar PIV in the 1/4 scaled model of CANDU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The local temperature of the moderator is a key parameter in determining the available subcooling. To predict the flow field and local temperature distribution in the calandria, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started the experimental research on moderator circulation as one of a national R and D research programs from 2012. This research program includes the construction of the Moderator Circulation Test (MCT) facility, production of the validation data for self-reliant CFD tools, and development of optical measurement system using the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) techniques. Small-scale 1/40 and 1/8 small-scale model tests were performed prior to installation of the main MCT facility to identify the potential problems of the flow visualization and measurement expected in the 1/4 scale MCT facility. In the 1/40 scale test, a flow field was measured with a PIV measurement technique under an iso-thermal state, and the temperature field was visualized using a LIF technique. In this experiment, the key point was to illuminate the region of interest as uniformly as possible since the velocity and temperature fields in the shadow regions were distorted and unphysical. In the 1/8 scale test, the flow patterns from the inlet nozzles to the top region of the tank were investigated using PIV measurement at two different positions of the inlet nozzle. For each position of laser beam exposure the measurement sections were divided to 7 groups to overcome the limitation of the laser power to cover the relatively large test section. The MCT facility is the large-scale facility designed to reproduce the important characteristics of moderator circulation in a CANDU6 calandria under a range of operating conditions. It is reduced in a 1/4 scale and a moderator test vessel is built to the specifications of the CANDU6 reactor design, where a working fluid is sub-cooled water with atmospheric pressure. Previous studies were

  1. Proteolytic fragmentation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors: a novel mechanism regulating channel activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liwei; Alzayady, Kamil J; Yule, David I

    2016-06-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3 Rs) are a family of ubiquitously expressed intracellular Ca(2+) release channels. Regulation of channel activity by Ca(2+) , nucleotides, phosphorylation, protein binding partners and other cellular factors is thought to play a major role in defining the specific spatiotemporal characteristics of intracellular Ca(2+) signals. These properties are, in turn, believed pivotal for the selective and specific physiological activation of Ca(2+) -dependent effectors. IP3 Rs are also substrates for the intracellular cysteine proteases, calpain and caspase. Cleavage of the IP3 R has been proposed to play a role in apoptotic cell death by uncoupling regions important for IP3 binding from the channel domain, leaving an unregulated leaky Ca(2+) pore. Contrary to this hypothesis, we demonstrate following proteolysis that N- and C-termini of IP3 R1 remain associated, presumably through non-covalent interactions. Further, we show that complementary fragments of IP3 R1 assemble into tetrameric structures and retain their ability to be regulated robustly by IP3 . While peptide continuity is clearly not necessary for IP3 -gating of the channel, we propose that cleavage of the IP3 R peptide chain may alter other important regulatory events to modulate channel activity. In this scenario, stimulation of the cleaved IP3 R may support distinct spatiotemporal Ca(2+) signals and activation of specific effectors. Notably, in many adaptive physiological events, the non-apoptotic activities of caspase and calpain are demonstrated to be important, but the substrates of the proteases are poorly defined. We speculate that proteolytic fragmentation may represent a novel form of IP3 R regulation, which plays a role in varied adaptive physiological processes. PMID:26486785

  2. The levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in 1,4-dichlorobenzene mothballs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenbin; Zheng, Minghui; Xing, Ying; Wang, Dongshen; Zhao, Xingru; Gao, Lirong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Key laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences

    2004-09-15

    The chemical 1,4-dichlorobenzene (p-DCB), also called paramoth, is one of the chemicals commonly used to make mothballs. For the more than 20 years, p-DCB has been used principally (35-55% of all uses) as a space deodorant for toilets and refuse containers, and as a fumigant for control of moths, molds, and mildews. The process of production of p-DCB currently used by industry is direct chlorination of benzene or chlorobenzene in the presence of a Friedel-Crafts catalyst (typically FeCl{sub 3}), and the pure products of p-DCB are obtained by distillation and crystallization from the mixture of polychlorinated benzenes. This process is similar to that of production of PCBs which were manufactured commercially by the progressive chlorination of biphenyl in the presence of a suitable catalyst, e.g., iron chloride. However, few studies on the formation of PCBs from chlorobenzenes have been published. Buser reported significant quantities of PCDFs and a small amount of PCDDs, PCBs, and chlorophenols were formed in the pyrolysis of chlorobenzenes at 620 C. Peng-Yan Liu et al. revealed that lower chlorinated benzenes produce more PCBs than higher ones. Nevertheless, prior to this study, no reports on PCBs in p-DCB and the restriction of PCBs in p-DCB products have been found. In this paper, the occurrence and distribution of dioxin-like PCBs and total PCBs in some commercial p-DCB mothballs are investigated. Except of the toxic of p-DCB, the low concentration of PCBs in p-DCB mothballs should not be negligible.

  3. Crystal Structure of the Catalytic Domain of Drosophila [beta]1,4-Galactosyltransferase-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishnan, Boopathy; Qasba, Pradman K. (NIH)

    2010-11-03

    The {beta}1,4-galactosyltransferase-7 ({beta}4Gal-T7) enzyme, one of seven members of the {beta}4Gal-T family, transfers in the presence of manganese Gal from UDP-Gal to an acceptor sugar (xylose) that is attached to a side chain hydroxyl group of Ser/Thr residues of proteoglycan proteins. It exhibits the least protein sequence similarity with the other family members, including the well studied family member {beta}4Gal-T1, which, in the presence of manganese, transfers Gal from UDP-Gal to GlcNAc. We report here the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of {beta}4Gal-T7 from Drosophila in the presence of manganese and UDP at 1.81 {angstrom} resolution. In the crystal structure, a new manganese ion-binding motif (HXH) has been observed. Superposition of the crystal structures of {beta}4Gal-T7 and {beta}4Gal-T1 shows that the catalytic pocket and the substrate-binding sites in these proteins are similar. Compared with GlcNAc, xylose has a hydroxyl group (instead of an N-acetyl group) at C2 and lacks the CH{sub 2}OH group at C5; thus, these protein structures show significant differences in their acceptor-binding site. Modeling of xylose in the acceptor-binding site of the {beta}4Gal-T7 crystal structure shows that the aromatic side chain of Tyr{sup 177} interacts strongly with the C5 atom of xylose, causing steric hindrance to any additional group at C5. Because Drosophila Cd7 has a 73% protein sequence similarity to human Cd7, the present crystal structure offers a structure-based explanation for the mutations in human Cd7 that have been linked to Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

  4. 1,4-Dioxane biodegradation at low temperatures in Arctic groundwater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengyan; Fiorenza, Stephanie; Chatham, James R; Mahendra, Shaily; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2010-05-01

    1,4-Dioxane biodegradation was investigated in microcosms prepared with groundwater and soil from an impacted site in Alaska. In addition to natural attenuation conditions (i.e., no amendments), the following treatments were tested: (a) biostimulation by addition of 1-butanol (a readily available auxiliary substrate) and inorganic nutrients; and (b) bioaugmentation with Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190, a well-characterized dioxane-degrading bacterium, or with Pseudonocardia antarctica DVS 5a1, a bacterium isolated from Antarctica. Biostimulation enhanced the degradation of 50 mg L(-1) dioxane by indigenous microorganisms (about 0.01 mg dioxane d(-1) mg protein(-1)) at both 4 and 14 degrees C, with a simultaneous increase in biomass. A more pronounced enhancement was observed through bioaugmentation. Microcosms with 50 mg L(-1) initial dioxane (representing source-zone contamination) and augmented with CB1190 degraded dioxane fastest (0.16 +/- 0.04 mg dioxane d(-1) mg protein(-1)) at 14 degrees C, and the degradation rate decreased dramatically at 4 degrees C (0.021 +/- 0.007 mg dioxane d(-1) mg protein(-1)). In contrast, microcosms with DVS 5a1 degraded dioxane at similar rates at 4 degrees C and 14 degrees C (0.018 +/- 0.004 and 0.015 +/- 0.006 mg dioxane d(-1) mg protein(-1), respectively). DVS 5a1 outperformed CB1190 when the initial dioxane concentration was low (500 microg L(-1), which is representative of the leading edge of plumes). This indicates differences in competitive advantages of these two strains. Natural attenuation microcosms also showed significant degradation over 6 months when the initial dioxane concentration was 500 microg L(-1). This is the first study to report the potential for dioxane bioremediation and natural attenuation of contaminated groundwater in sensitive cold-weather ecosystems such as the Arctic. PMID:20199795

  5. The verification of Helios-1.4 for MOX, thorium and inert matrix fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helios' capability to predict the neutron behavior for plutonium-fueled and thorium-fueled cores has been verified against critical experiments and numerical benchmark problems: B and W, NEA WPPR phase 1 and 2, ESADA, TCA, PNL30-35, SAXTON, and VIP-PWR for MOX benchmarks, BNL, B and W, and IAEA thorium CRP problem for thorium benchmark, and NEA Inert Matrix Fuel (IMF) phase 1 and 2 benchmark problems for IMF. The neutron multiplication factor was adopted as a key parameter to evaluate Helios' capability, and some experiments and benchmark problem. Based on the results of Helios-1.4 verification, the conclusion so far is as followings; Helios predicts the neutron multiplication factor within the range of 1% Δk error bound and overestimates it for the core with higher moderator-to fuel ratio. Helios underestimates k at the beginning of irradiation, but predicts similar k at the end of irradiation in comparison with MCNP and the other codes. The rod power distribution calculated with Helios shows good agreement with measured one for inner region of core except the periphery near core-reflector boundary. For the depletion calculation of thorium fuel, the k calculated with Helios was rapidly decreased at the beginning of irradiation. It was concluded that Helios predicts neutron physic well for any kinds of fuel and geometry and can be used as an assembly lattice code for versatile fuel type. The extension of calculation modeling from unit lattice to 2-dimensional core, the verification of Helios-1.5, the effect of group-condensed library, and the extension of Helios verification including VIPEX experiments will be performed further. (Author). 23 refs., 88 tabs., 43 figs

  6. Remote sensing of soil moisture content over bare fields at 1.4 GHz frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. R.; Choudhury, B. J.

    1980-01-01

    A simple method of estimating moisture content (W) of a bare soil from the observed brightness temperature (T sub B) at 1.4 GHz is discussed. The method is based on a radiative transfer model calculation, which has been successfully used in the past to account for many observational results, with some modifications to take into account the effect of surface roughness. Besides the measured T sub B's, the three additional inputs required by the method are the effective soil thermodynamic temperature, the precise relation between W and the smooth field brightness temperature T sub B and a parameter specifying the surface roughness characteristics. The soil effective temperature can be readily measured and the procedures of estimating surface roughness parameter and obtaining the relation between W and smooth field brightness temperature are discussed in detail. Dual polarized radiometric measurements at an off-nadir incident angle are sufficient to estimate both surface roughness parameter and W, provided that the relation between W and smooth field brightness temperature at the same angle is known. The method of W estimate is demonstrated with two sets of experimental data, one from a controlled field experiment by a mobile tower and the other, from aircraft overflight. The results from both data sets are encouraging when the estimated W's are compared with the acquired ground truth of W's in the top 2 cm layer. An offset between the estimated and the measured W's exists in the results of the analyses, but that can be accounted for by the presently poor knowledge of the relationship between W and smooth field brightness temperature for various types of soils. An approach to quantify this relationship for different soils and thus improve the method of W estimate is suggested.

  7. Rest lifetime evaluation and ageing management in NPP 'Kozloduy' unit 1-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1992 as a result of an IAEA SRM review the 'WANO 6-month program' has been issued to improve operation, maintenance nad safety culture for the four WWER 440/230 units at the NPP 'Kozloduy' Siemens has awarded 3 contracts related to RTL evaluation of the main equipment, integrity of reactor pressure vessel and to the leak-before-break behaviour of the main piping od unit 2. It is pursuit an overall strategy that allows to: implement on the basis of RTL evaluation a long term ageing management program (AMAP) for Kozloduy's units 1-4 to assure their operation until the end of their design life; identify those components and equipment for which from the safety point of view urgent and immediate actions have to be performed; increase step by step the safety and reliability according to the Western standards and to internationally accepted safety culture; keep open the possibility of life extension as far as this would be technically feasible and acceptable and economically reasonable. Under the technical leadership of Siemens studies have been performed related to the subject of integrity and RTL, such as: reirradiation of RPV samples from Unit 1 and 2; evaluation of PV embrittlement of Unit 1; transfer of the results of LBB assessment of Unit 2 to Units 1, 3 and 4; transfer of results of RTL evaluation of Unit 2 to Units 1, 3 and 4; PTS analysis of RPV of Unit 1, 2,3 and 4. The main remarkable results are: no life-limiting mechanisms detected, requiring immediate actions, except for RPVs; residual lifetime determined for RPVs on reliable basis of advanced modern PTS analysis and sample testing; necessary activities in monitoring of ageing and in-service inspection clearly identified successful proof of lBB for main primary piping after slight modification of supports; international experts agreement reached (e.g. Risk Audit, successful IAEA experts meetings and OSART missions)

  8. UBIQUITOUS OUTFLOWS IN DEEP2 SPECTRA OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z = 1.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galactic winds are a prime suspect for the metal enrichment of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and may have a strong influence on the chemical evolution of galaxies and the nature of QSO absorption-line systems. We use a sample of 1406 galaxy spectra at z ∼ 1.4 from the DEEP2 redshift survey to show that blueshifted Mg IYI λλ 2796, 2803 absorption is ubiquitous in star-forming galaxies at this epoch. This is the first detection of frequent outflowing galactic winds at z ∼ 1. The presence and depth of absorption are independent of active galactic nuclei spectral signatures or galaxy morphology; major mergers are not a prerequisite for driving a galactic wind from massive galaxies. Outflows are found in co-added spectra of galaxies spanning a range of 30 times in stellar mass and 10 times in star formation rate (SFR), calibrated from K-band and from the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer IR fluxes. The outflows have column densities of order NH ∼ 1020 cm-2 and characteristic velocities of ∼ 300-500 km s-1, with absorption seen out to 1000 km s-1 in the most massive, highest SFR galaxies. The velocities suggest that the outflowing gas can escape into the IGM and that massive galaxies can produce cosmologically and chemically significant outflows. Both the Mg II equivalent width and the outflow velocity are larger for galaxies of higher stellar mass and SFR, with V wind ∼ SFR0.3, similar to the scaling in low redshift IR-luminous galaxies. The high frequency of outflows in the star-forming galaxy population at z ∼ 1 indicates that galactic winds occur in the progenitors of massive spirals as well as those of ellipticals. The increase of outflow velocity with mass and SFR constrains theoretical models of galaxy evolution that include feedback from galactic winds, and may favor momentum-driven models for the wind physics.

  9. Neutraalne kaasabi ja kaasaaitamise ebaõigussisu. Riigikohtu kriminaalkolleegiumi otsus 3-1-1-4-12 / Jaan Sootak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sootak, Jaan, 1948-

    2012-01-01

    Riigikohtu otsusest 3-1-1-4-12, mis selgitab, et mitte igasugune objektiivselt põhitegu soodustav ja subjektiivselt tahtlikult toime pandud tegu ei ole kaasaaitamine. Ründamise teooriast, riskiteooriast ning deliktilise olemusseose ja professionaalse adekvaatsuse teooriatest

  10. Enhancement of Raman Scattering of 1,4-Benzenedithiol by CdS Nanoparticles Assembled on a Silver Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qun; ZHAO Hong; LI Xiao-wei; ZHENG Jun-wei

    2004-01-01

    CdS nanoparticles were assembled on the smooth surface of a piece of silver by using 1,4-benzenedithiol as coupling molecules. The SEM and resonance Raman spectroscopic characterizations demonstrate that the nanosized structure of CdS was still preserved upon assembly, and a two-dimensional structure of CdS nanoparticles was formed on the substrate surface. The FT-Raman spectra indicate that 1,4-benzenedithiol was coupled between CdS nanoparticles and the silver surface with a tilted orientation. The Raman scattering of 1,4-benzenedithiol was substantially enhanced by the assembled CdS nanoparticles, probably due to the alteration of the polarizability of 1,4-benzenedithiol and the electromagnetic interaction between the dipoles of the CdS particle with its image in the metal substrate.

  11. Synthesis of substituted 1,4-diazepines and 1,5-benzodiazepines using an efficient heteropolyacid-catalyzed procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaoua, Rachedine; Bennamane, Norah; Bakhta, Saliha; Benadji, Sihame; Rabia, Cherifa; Nedjar-Kolli, Bellara

    2011-01-01

    An efficient and improved procedure for the synthesis of 1,4-diazepine and 1,5-benzodiazepine derivatives via the reaction of ketimine intermediates with aldehydes in the presence of Keggin-type heteropolyacids (HPAs) was developed. High yields and short reaction times were obtained for both electron-releasing and electron-withdrawing substituted 1,4-diazepine  and 1,5-benzodiazepines derivatives. PMID:21189457

  12. Synthesis of 2,3-diyne-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives and evaluation of cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Mauro G.; Camara, Celso A.; Silva, Tania M.S., E-mail: ccelso@dcm.ufrpe.br [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (LSCB/UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Moleculares. Lab. de Sintese de Compostos Bioativos; Feitosa, Anderson C.S.; Meira, Assuero S.; Pessoa, Claudia [Universidade Federal do Ceara (LOE/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia e Farmacologia. Lab. de Oncologia Experimental

    2013-09-15

    A series of 2,3-diyne-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives was synthesized from 2,3-dibromo- 1,4-naphthoquinone and various functionalized terminal alkynes using palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction. The diynes were evaluated as potential cytotoxic agents against three tumor cell lines: human ovarian adenocarcinoma (OVCAR-8), human metastatic prostate cancer (PC-3M) and human bronchoalveolar lung carcinoma (NCI-H358M), presenting, in general, satisfactory results for inhibition of cell growth. (author)

  13. Development of tools for genetic analysis of phenanthrene degradation and nanopod production by Delftia sp. Cs1-4

    OpenAIRE

    William James Hickey

    2011-01-01

    The bacterium Delftia sp. Cs1-4 produces novel extracellular structures (nanopods) in conjunction with its growth on phenanthrene. While a full genome sequence is available for Strain Cs1-4, genetic tools that could be applied to study phenanthrene degradation/nanopod production have not been reported. Thus, the objectives of this study were to establish such tools, and apply them for molecular analysis of nanopod formation and/or phenanthrene degradation. Three types of tools were developed ...

  14. Epoxidation and oxidation reactions using 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate crosslinked polystyrene-supported tertiary butyl hydroperoxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M S Sheela; K Sreekumar

    2004-11-01

    1,4-Butanediol dimethacrylate (1,4-BDDMA) crosslinked polystyrene-supported -butyl hydroperoxide was employed in the epoxidation of olefins and oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds. The reagent proved to be successful as a recyclable solid phase organic reagent with as much or more efficiency when compared to its monomeric counterpart. The extent of reaction was found to be dependent on various reaction parameters like solvent, temperature, molar concentration and presence of catalyst.

  15. Multi-stage complex contagions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Sergey; Ward, Jonathan A.; Gleeson, James P.; Porter, Mason A.

    2013-03-01

    The spread of ideas across a social network can be studied using complex contagion models, in which agents are activated by contact with multiple activated neighbors. The investigation of complex contagions can provide crucial insights into social influence and behavior-adoption cascades on networks. In this paper, we introduce a model of a multi-stage complex contagion on networks. Agents at different stages—which could, for example, represent differing levels of support for a social movement or differing levels of commitment to a certain product or idea—exert different amounts of influence on their neighbors. We demonstrate that the presence of even one additional stage introduces novel dynamical behavior, including interplay between multiple cascades, which cannot occur in single-stage contagion models. We find that cascades—and hence collective action—can be driven not only by high-stage influencers but also by low-stage influencers.

  16. ESR, electrochemical, molecular modeling and biological evaluation of 4-substituted and 1,4-disubstituted 7-nitroquinoxalin-2-ones as potential anti- Trypanosoma cruzi agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Venegas, Benjamín; Olea-Azar, Claudio; Norambuena, Ester; Arán, Vicente J.; Mendizábal, Fernando; Lapier, Michel; Maya, Juan Diego; Kemmerling, Ulrike; López-Muñoz, Rodrigo

    2011-03-01

    Electrochemical and ESR studies were carried out in this work with the aim of characterizing the reduction mechanisms of 4-substituted and 1,4-disubstituted 7-nitroquinoxalin-2-ones by means of cyclic voltammetry in DMSO as aprotic solvent. Two reduction mechanisms were found for these compounds: the first, for compounds bearing a labile hydrogen by following a self-protonation mechanism (ECE steps), and the second, for compounds without labile hydrogen, based on a purely electrochemical reduction mechanism (typical of nitroheterocycles). The electrochemical results were corroborated using ESR spectroscopy allowing us to propose the hyperfine splitting pattern of the nitro-radical, which was later corroborated by the ESR simulation spectra. All these compounds were assayed as growth inhibitors against Trypanosoma cruzi: first, on the non-proliferative (and infective) form of the parasite (trypomastigote stage), and then, the ones that displayed activity, were assayed on the non-infective form (epimastigote stage). Thus, we found four new compounds highly active against T. cruzi. Finally, molecular modeling studies suggest the inhibition of the trypanothione reductase like one of the possible mechanisms involved in the trypanocidal action.

  17. Stages of Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stage I Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB: In stage IA , the tumor is low grade (likely to grow ... tumor does not place any vital organs in danger. Hormone therapy Hormone therapy is a cancer treatment ...

  18. Quantum cascade lasers operating from 1.4 to 4 THz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sushil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The development of teranertz (THz) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) has progressed considerably since their advent almost a decade ago. THz QCLs operating in a frequency range from 1.4 to 4 THz with electron-phonon scattering mediated depopulation schemes are described. Several different types of GaAs/AlGaAs superlattice designs are reviewed. Some of the best temperature performances are obtained by the so-called resonant-phonon designs that are described. Operation above a temperature of 160 K has been obtained across the spectrum for THz QCLs operating at v > 1.8 THz. The maximum operating temperature of previously reported THz QCLs has empirically been limited to a value of ~ hω/kB- A new design scheme for THz QCLs with scattering-assisted injection is shown to surpass this empirical temperature barrier, and is promising to improve the maximum operating temperatures of THz QCLs even further.%1.IntroductionHigh-power sources of terahertz (THz) radiation are required for a multitude of applications in sensing,imaging,and spectroscopy in fields as diverse as astronomy,medicine,security,pharmaceuticals and so-forth.THz science and technology has advanced significantly in the recent years[1,2] especially toward the realization of novel THz radiation sources.In comparison to narrow-band sources such as lasers,broadband sources of terahertz radiation are more widely available;however,such sources are inherently low power (average power is of the order of few micro-Watts).They are useful nevertheless because of room temperature operation and for their ability to be detected coherently.Techniques such as generation of THz bandwidth time-domain pulses in high resistivity semiconductors[3],non-linear generation by electrooptical-rectification in crystals such as ZnTe[4],or nonlinear generation by optical parametric conversion in materials such as LiNbO3[5] or by difference-frequency generation in semiconductors[6],have been used for various raster-scanned imaging and

  19. Development of quinoxaline 1, 4-dioxides resistance in Escherichia coli and molecular change under resistance selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Guo

    Full Text Available Quinoxaline 1, 4-dioxides (QdNOs has been used in animals as antimicrobial agents and growth promoters for decades. However, the resistance to QdNOs in pathogenic bacteria raises worldwide concern but it is barely known. To explore the molecular mechanism involved in development of QdNOs resistance in Escherichia coli, 6 strains selected by QdNOs in vitro and 21 strains isolated from QdNOs-used swine farm were subjected to MIC determination and PCR amplification of oqxA gene. A conjugative transfer was carried out to evaluate the transfer risk of QdNOs resistant determinant. Furthermore, the transcriptional profile of a QdNOs-resistant E. coli (79O4-2 selected in vitro with its parent strain 79-161 was assayed with a prokaryotic suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH PCR cDNA subtraction. The result showed that more than 95% (20/21 clinical isolates were oqxA positive, while all the 6 induced QdNOs-resistant strains carried no oqxA gene and exhibited low frequency of conjugation. 44 fragments were identified by SSH PCR subtraction in the QdNOs-resistant strain 79O4-2. 18 cDNAs were involved in biosynthesis of Fe-S cluster (narH, protein (rpoA, trmD, truA, glyS, ileS, rplFCX, rpsH, fusA, lipoate (lipA, lipid A (lpxC, trehalose (otsA, CTP(pyrG and others molecular. The 11 cDNAs were related to metabolism or degradation of glycolysis (gpmA and pgi and proteins (clpX, clpA, pepN and fkpB. The atpADG and ubiB genes were associated with ATP biosynthesis and electron transport chain. The pathway of the functional genes revealed that E. coli may adapt the stress generated by QdNOs or develop specific QdNOs-resistance by activation of antioxidative agents biosynthesis (lipoate and trehalose, protein biosynthesis, glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. This study initially reveals the possible molecular mechanism involved in the development of QdNOs-resistance in E. coli, providing with novel insights in prediction and assessment of the emergency

  20. Clinical impact of PAI 1 4G/5G gene polymorphism in colorectal carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halamkova, J; Kiss, I; Pavlovsky, Z; Tomasek, J; Jarkovsky, J; Cech, Z; Bednarova, D; Tucek, S; Hanakova, L; Moulis, M; Zavrelova, J; Man, M; Benda, P; Robek, O; Kala, Z; Penka, M

    2013-01-01

    Plasminogen activator ihnibitor (PAI 1) belongs to the plasminogen activator system, which is part of the metastatic cascade and significantly contributes to invasive growth and angiogenesis of malignant tumors. Its plasma level is normally low but 4G/4G homozygotes have higher concentrations of PAI 1. This genotype may be associated with worse prognosis and proximal location of colorectal cancer than 5G/5G homozygotes. In our prospective evaluation we examined plasma level PAI 1 (using photometric microplate method ELISA) pre-surgery and, subsequently, 6-8 weeks later, from 80 patients. For the PAI 1 rs1799889 -675 4G/5G polymorphism test the PCR amplification was used.Analysis of collected data was confirmed that significantly higher plasma levels of PAI 1 were found in patients before starting therapy, which decreased (p=0.004) after initiation of treatment. Patients with higher plasma level PAI 1 before (p=0.013) and after therapy (p=0.004) had significantly shorter survival. We found no relationship between polymorphisms of PAI 1 (-675 4G/5G) in relation to stage, survival or tumor location. PAI 1 is useful as a negative marker of prognosis and could be advantageous when planning adjuvant treatment of patients with colorectal carcinoma. Although opinions on the importance of polymorphisms of PAI 1 in relation to the prognosis are not uniform, it does seem that their role in the prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer is not essential. PMID:23259783

  1. Synthesis and Structure of a Novel Supramolecular Compound [Co(2,2'-bipy)(H2 O)4 ][trans-1,4-chdc] and Separation of Isomer of 1,4-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A supramolecular compound, [Co(2,2'-bipy)(H2O)4][trans-1,4-chdc] (compound 1) (2,2'-bipy=2,2'-bipyridine, 1,4-chdcH2=1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid), was synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, IR spectrometry, TG analysis, and elemental analyses. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that [Co(2,2'-bipy)(H2O)4]2+ units and adjacent 1,4-chdc2- formed a single layer by hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions along the ac-plane, and two symmetry-related single layers interacted with each other by hydrogen bonding, resulting in a double layer, which further formed a 3-D structure by π-π stacking. The most attractive structural feature of compound 1 is that 1,4-chdc2- possesses only trans-conformation although there are both cis- and trans-conformations in the raw material.

  2. LOW PRESSURE PROCESS FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF 1,4-CYCLOHEXANEDIMETHANOL%低压加氢法制备1,4-环己烷二甲醇的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙绪江; 段大勇; 齐彦伟; 王开林; 张立群

    2003-01-01

    1,4-环己烷二甲醇是生产改性聚酯的中间单体.采用铜系催化剂,以1,4-环己烷二甲酸二甲酯为原料,低压加氢生成1,4-环己烷二甲醇.考察了反应温度、反应压力等对反应活性的影响,进行了200h的催化剂寿命评价,并对催化剂进行了表征.结果表明,在反应温度200℃,反应压力3.0MPa的条件下,1,4-环己烷二甲酸二甲酯的转化率大于95%,1,4-环己烷二甲醇的选择性大于98%,XRD谱图说明金属铜是该催化剂的主要活性中心.

  3. Staging of unipolar affective illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Ferensztajn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a concept of staging of unipolar affective illness (recurrent depression is presented. In respective subchapters, three most important aspects of this issue have been discussed: 1 staging of unipolar affective illness; 2 staging of treatment-resistant depression; and 3 conversion of unipolar into bipolar affective illness. The evidence for so called neuroprogression of the illness, accumulated in recent years, has allowed for a classification of staging based on a concept of allostasis and allostatic load. In the course of illness, changes in neuroendocrine system (mainly hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, immunological system, mechanisms of oxidative stress, neurotransmitters, neurotrophic factors as well as structural and functional changes of the brain occur. In their paper of 2007, Fava and Tossani elaborated a concept of staging of unipolar affective illness presenting a continuum model of five consecutive stages with specific clinical features. In the present paper, a concept of treatment-resistant depression and staging of treatment resistance is presented in the context of several models. An important determinant of treatment-resistant depression is so called subthreshold bipolarity which is connected with worse efficacy of antidepressant drugs. In the course of illness, there is a possibility of changing diagnosis from recurrent depression into bipolar affective illness. The studies on this issue show that frequency of such diagnostic conversion is 1,5% of depressed patients per year.

  4. Isostatic compaction of beaker shaped bentonite blocks on the scale 1:4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Nord, Sven [Ifoe Ceramics AB, Bromoella (Sweden ); Pusch, Roland [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden); Sjoeblom, Rolf [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of the present work is to test, on a scale of 1:4, the feasibility of manufacturing bentonite blocks by isostatic compaction for application as a buffer material in a repository for spent nuclear fuel. In order for the tests to be sensitive to any weaknesses of the method, the blocks were shaped as beakers. The scope included the following: 1. Preparation of powder: a. mixing of the bentonite and addition of water in predetermined amounts, b. sieving to remove any lumps generated; 2. Isostatic compaction: a. establishment of a separate laboratory for the handling of bentonite powder (weighing, mixing, filling, sampling and machining), b. development and design of equipment and procedures for compaction of bentonite to beaker-shaped specimens, c. compaction process operation, d. visual inspection; 3. Sampling and characterisation: a. extraction of samples from the blocks made, b. determination of water content, c. determination of density, d. determination of strain at maximum stress by means of bending tests, e. determination of tensile strength by means of bending tests, f. determination of geometries of the blocks prepared; 4. Post-treatment by means of machining: a. machining of blocks made, b. visual inspection; 5. Evaluation. The work went very smoothly. No significant obstacles or unexpected events were encountered. The conclusions are as follows: The conclusions drawn in this report from work on the (linear)scale of one to four are very relevant to the full scale. Mixing of bentonite powder as well as moistening can be carried out on a pilot scale with a good homogeneity and with maintained good quality of the press powder. The compaction of bentonite can be carried out in a similar manner to the present operation at Ifoe Ceramics AB. This implies a very efficient handling as well as a very efficient use of the time in the press which may account for a large proportion of the total cost. The blocks could readily be produced to reproducible

  5. Prevalence and Characterization of Monophasic Salmonella Serovar 1,4,[5],12:i:- of Food Origin in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Yang

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar 1,4,[5],12:i:- is a monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium, which has recently been recognized as an emerging cause of infection worldwide. This bacterium has also ranked among the four most frequent serovars causing human salmonellosis in China. However, there are no reports on its contamination in Chinese food. Serotyping, polymerase chain reaction, antibiotic resistance, virulotyping, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST assays were used to investigate the prevalence of this serological variant in food products in China, and to determine phenotypic and genotypic difference of monophasic isolates and Salmonella Typhimurium isolated over the same period. Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- was prevalent in various food sources, including beef, pork, chicken, and pigeon. The study also confirmed the high prevalence (53.8% of resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline in Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:-, which was higher than that in Salmonella Typhimurium. Moreover, Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates in our study were different from Salmonella Typhimurium isolates by the absence of three plasmid-borne genes (spvC, pefA, and rck and the presence of gipA in all isolates. All Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates demonstrated MLST pattern ST34. Genomic deletions within the fljBA operon and surrounding genes were only found in Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates, with all isolates containing a deletion of fljB. However, hin and iroB were identified in all Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates. Three different deletion profiles were observed and two of them were different from the reported Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- clones from Spain, America, and Italy, which provided some new evidence on the independent evolution of the multiple successful monophasic clones from Salmonella Typhimurium ancestors. This study is the first report of Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- in food products from China. The data are

  6. Prevalence and Characterization of Monophasic Salmonella Serovar 1,4,[5],12:i:- of Food Origin in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojuan; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Huang, Jiahui; Guo, Weipeng; Cai, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar 1,4,[5],12:i:- is a monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium, which has recently been recognized as an emerging cause of infection worldwide. This bacterium has also ranked among the four most frequent serovars causing human salmonellosis in China. However, there are no reports on its contamination in Chinese food. Serotyping, polymerase chain reaction, antibiotic resistance, virulotyping, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) assays were used to investigate the prevalence of this serological variant in food products in China, and to determine phenotypic and genotypic difference of monophasic isolates and Salmonella Typhimurium isolated over the same period. Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- was prevalent in various food sources, including beef, pork, chicken, and pigeon. The study also confirmed the high prevalence (53.8%) of resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline in Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:-, which was higher than that in Salmonella Typhimurium. Moreover, Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates in our study were different from Salmonella Typhimurium isolates by the absence of three plasmid-borne genes (spvC, pefA, and rck) and the presence of gipA in all isolates. All Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates demonstrated MLST pattern ST34. Genomic deletions within the fljBA operon and surrounding genes were only found in Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates, with all isolates containing a deletion of fljB. However, hin and iroB were identified in all Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates. Three different deletion profiles were observed and two of them were different from the reported Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- clones from Spain, America, and Italy, which provided some new evidence on the independent evolution of the multiple successful monophasic clones from Salmonella Typhimurium ancestors. This study is the first report of Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- in food products from China. The data are more

  7. Synthesis and antifungal activity of 2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmist, Małgorzata; Kwiecień, Halina; Krawczyk, Maria

    2016-06-01

    A series of 2-alkyl-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-ones (4a-l) was easily synthesized by two-step process involving O-alkylation of 2-nitrophenols with methyl 2-bromoalkanoates and next "green" catalytic reductive cyclization of the obtained 2-nitro ester intermediates (3a-l). Further, 6,7-dibromo (5a-c) and N-acetyl (6) derivatives were prepared by bromination and acetylation of unsubstituted 2-alkyl-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-ones (4a-c). The novel compounds (3a-l, 4d-l, 5a-c and 6) were fully characterized by spectroscopic methods (MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR). 2-Alkyl-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-ones (4a-l, 5a-c and 6) were screened for antifungal activity. Preliminary assays were performed using two methods: in vitro against seven phytopathogenic fungi-Botrytis cinerea, Phythophtora cactorum, Rhizoctonia solani, Phoma betae, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria alternata-and in vivo against barley powdery mildew Blumeria graminis. The tested compounds displayed moderate to good antifungal activity at high concentration (200 mg L(-1)). The most potent compounds were 2-ethyl-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (4a), 2-ethyl-7-fluoro-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (4g) and 4-acetyl-2-ethyl-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (6), which completely inhibited the mycelial growth of seven agricultural fungi at the concentration of 200 mg L(-1) in the in vitro tests. Moreover, 2-ethyl-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (4a) and 4-acetyl-2-ethyl-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (6) were also screened for antifungal activity at concentrations of 100 mg L(-1) and 20 mg L(-1). In the concentration of 100 mg L(-1), the N-acetyl derivative (6) completely inhibited the growth of three strains of fungi (F. culmorum, P. cactorum and R. solani), while 2-ethyl-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (4a) completely inhibited only R. solani strain. At the concentration of 20 mg L(-1), compound 6 showed good activity only against P. cactorum strain (72%). PMID:26963527

  8. Cognitive Development and Group Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidla, Debie D.

    1990-01-01

    Attempts to integrate Perry's (1970) scheme of the cognitive development of college students with a model of group development adapted by Waldo (1985) based on Tuckman's (1965) formulation of developmental group stages. (Author)

  9. Radiological staging of bronchogenic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staging of the bronchogenic carcinoma is based on the TNM code; radiological imaging and radionuclide scanning account for most of the preoperative assessment of the tumor stage. A series of 206 patients was evaluated by chest radiography, mediastinal and hilar tomography, CT of the thorax, upper abdomen and brain. The pathological correlations performed after surgery showed that CT provided a correct T in 175 patients out of 206 (= 84.9%), while conventional radiology gave only 120 correct diagnoses (58.2%). In assessment of N1, sensitivity was 53%, specificity 85.3%, diagnostic accuracy 77.7%. Pertinent figures for N2 were 81.8 - 88.3 - 86.9%. The reliability of CT in staging for M is difficult to assess, because tha majority of patients who showed distant metastases were not operated upon. The main problems concerning evaluation criteria for staging are discussed. (Author)

  10. How Is Endometrial Cancer Staged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organs away from the uterus, such as the lungs or bones. The cancer can be any size and it may or may not have spread to ... and Staging Treating Endometrial Cancer Talking With Your Doctor After ...

  11. Neuroblastoma: diagnostic imaging and staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of computed tomography (CT), scintigraphy, excretory urography, and other imaging tests used to diagnose and stage 38 cases of neuroblastoma prior to treatment were reviewed. Findings of these examinations were correlated with clinical data, laboratory data, results of biopsy, and surgical findings. CT was the most sensitive single test (100%) for the detection and delineation of the primary tumor. Calcifications that suggested the histologic diagnosis of neuroblastoma were present in 79% of the cases. Rim calcifications, the most specific pattern for neuroblastoma, were identified in 29% of all cases. CT alone accurately staged 82% of cases; when complemented by bone marrow biopsy, staging accuracy was 97%. CT alone was more accurate than any combination of imaging tests that excluded CT. An algorithm using CT is presented for the diagnosis and staging of neuroblastoma at reduced cost and with increased efficiency

  12. Carcinoma of unknown primary of neuroendocrine origin: Accurate detection of primary with 68Ga-labelled [1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid]-1-NaI3-Octreotide positron emission tomography/computed tomography enterography

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Tarun Kumar; Karunanithi, Sellam; Dhull, Varun Singh; Roy, Shambo Guha; Kumar, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    68Ga-labelled [1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid]-1-NaI3-Octreotide (68Ga-DOTANOC) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is an excellent modality in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary of neuroendocrine origin. Most of the primary lesions are located in mid gut region where the lesions have poor resolution due to undistended and overlapping intestinal loops and motility-related artifacts. Although PET/CT enteroclysis, enterography and co...

  13. 对苯二甲酸催化加氢制1,4 环己烷二甲醇的专利技术%Patent Methods for Producing 1,4-Cyclohexanedimethanol by Hydrogenation of Terephthalic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱志庆

    2005-01-01

    综述了国外研究以对苯二甲酸为原料,直接加氢制备1,4-环己烷二甲醇的两段法和一步法的专利技术,包括各种工艺及催化剂的研究进展.评述了对苯二甲酸苯骨架加氢、1,4-环己烷二甲酸羧基加氢的专利技术和对苯二甲酸一步加氢法等专利技术.

  14. Microwave absorption of gamma'-Fe2.6 Ni1.4N nanoparticles derived from nitriding counterpart precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H; Wang, F; Lv, B; Xue, F H; Guo, D Y; Park, W J; Lee, W J; Dong, X L

    2012-04-01

    Gamma-Fe2.6Ni1.4 nanoparticles were prepared by the arc-discharge method as the precursor and its nitride counterpart of gamma'-Fe2.6Ni14N nanoparticles was synthesized directly through a thermal ammonolysis reaction at the temperature of 673 K for two hours. The resultant product was identified as a homogeneous ternary nitride with nearly spherical shape and average size of about 60.0 nm. The electromagnetic characteristics of gamma'-Fe2.6Ni1.4N derivant and gamma-Fe2.6Ni1.4 precursor have been studied in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz. Compared with the precursor, gamma'-Fe2.6Ni1.4N nanoparticles exhibits an enhanced electromagnetic absorption property resulted from the increased dielectric loss by nitriding process. The optimal reflection loss (RL) of gamma'-Fe2.6Ni1.4N nanoparticles/paraffin composite can reach -39.9 dB at 5.2 GHz in a thickness of 2.29 mm, and the frequency band corresponding RL < -10 dB is over 2.6-18 GHz in the thickness range of 0.78-4.20 mm. PMID:22849063

  15. The Staging of the Turk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bent

    2013-01-01

    An analytical and contextualized presentation of the figure of the Turk on the Danish stage in the 18. century with a specific focus on the interaction between the actual commercial and military circumstances on the one hand and the performative representations on the other hand. How far did the ...... staged image reflect the actual circumstances and how far was it an internal self-reflection?...

  16. Mediastinal Staging for Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob Gelberg; Sean Grondin; Alain Tremblay

    2014-01-01

    Staging of the mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes plays a crucial role in identifying the best treatment option for patients with confirmed or suspected lung cancer and, in many cases, can simultaneously confirm a diagnosis of cancer. Noninvasive modalities, such as computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) and PET-CT, are an important first step in this assessment. Ultimately, invasive staging is frequently required to confirm or rule out the presence of metastatic disease ...

  17. Invasive staging of the mediastinum

    OpenAIRE

    Wever, W De; Coolen, J; Verschakelen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Staging of patients with lung cancer provides accurate information on the extent of disease and guides the choice of treatment. Non-invasive imaging techniques are safe, however these imaging techniques have limited accuracy in detection of mediastinal lymph node metastases. The American College of Chest Physicians guidelines for lung cancer staging recommend that patients with abnormal lymph nodes on CT or PET, or centrally located tumors without mediastinal LNs, should undergo invasive stag...

  18. Method of oxygen-enriched two-stage underground coal gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hongtao; Chen Feng; Pan Xia; Yao Kai; Liu Shuqin

    2011-01-01

    Two-stage underground coal gasification was studied to improve the caloric value of the syngas and to extend gas production times. A model test using the oxygen-enriched two-stage coal gasification method was carried out. The composition of the gas produced, the time ratio of the two stages, and the role of the temperature field were analysed. The results show that oxygen-enriched two-stage gasification shortens the time of the first stage and prolongs the time of the second stage. Feed oxygen concentrations of 30%,35%, 40%, 45%, 60%, or 80% gave time ratios (first stage to second stage) of 1:0.12, 1:0.21, 1:0.51, 1:0.64,1:0.90, and 1:4.0 respectively. Cooling rates of the temperature field after steam injection decreased with time from about 19.1-27.4 ℃/min to 2.3-6.8 ℃/min. But this rate increased with increasing oxygen concentrations in the first stage. The caloric value of the syngas improves with increased oxygen concentration in the first stage. Injection of 80% oxygen-enriched air gave gas with the highest caloric value and also gave the longest production time. The caloric value of the gas obtained from the oxygenenriched two-stage gasification method lies in the range from 5.31 MJ/Nm3 to 10.54 MJ/Nm3.

  19. Staging of pediatric abdominal malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of this review is the role of CT in the staging of childhood solid abdominal malignancies. Owing to the limitations of space, only the commonest lesions will be discussed in detail: Wilms' tumor, neuroblastoma, and liver tumors. The TNM staging system has been utilized throughout this monograph. It will not be used in this chapter, however, since in this country different staging systems individualized to each pediatric tumor have been developed. These staging systems take into account the different biology of each tumor and have clear correlations with prognosis and therapeutic programs. The discussion centers almost exclusively on the role of CT in the staging and management of neoplastic processes in children. The information required for staging can sometimes be obtained by other imaging modalities (i.e., ultrasound, excretory urography, etc.) The choice of modality will be strongly influenced by techniques and expertise available as well as by the bias of the institution. An additional factor to be taken into consideration will be the economic factor. Prospective reimbursement will strongly encourage the use of tests that are cost-effective and clinically efficacious

  20. 1,4-丁炔二醇对硫酸盐镀镍液及镀层性能的影响%Effect of 1,4-butynediol on the Properties of Nickel Sulfate Plating Electrolyte and Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李延伟; 黄晓曦; 姚金环; 尚雄; 杨哲龙

    2011-01-01

    研究了硫酸盐镀镍电解液中1,4-丁炔二醇对电解液电流效率、分散能力、阴极极化及镍镀层光亮度、硬度及内应力的影响.采用扫描电镜和X-射线衍射分析表征了镍镀层表面形貌和微观结构.结果表明,1,4-丁炔二醇的加入使镍镀层的光亮度有所改善,但达不到镜面光亮;而对电解液的电流效率、分散能力影响不大;当ρ(1,4-丁炔二醇)达0.3 g/L时,镍镀层的硬度逐渐减小,镍镀层的拉应力则先增大后略有降低;继续增加1,4-丁炔二醇的质量浓度,镍镀层的硬度和拉应力随之增大;在较低的过电位下1,4-丁炔二醇能够显著增加镍沉积的电位,细化镍镀层晶粒尺寸,使其表面更加平滑;呈现出(200)面择优取向.%The influences of 1,4-butynediol on the brightness, hardness, internal stress of nickel deposit and the cathodic current efficiency, throwing power, cathodic polarization behavior of plating solution from sulfate electrolyte were studied. The surface morphology and microstructure of nickel deposit were characterized by scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and X-ray diffraction(XRD) techniques. The results show that the addition of 1,4- butynediol can improve the brightness but not yet reach the mirrorlike brightness of nickel deposit, while has no significant effect on the cathodic current efficiency and throwing power of plating solution. With the 1,4-butynediol concentration increased from 0 to 0. 3 g/L, the hardness of nickel deposit decreases gradually and the internal stress of nickel deposit increases firstly then decreases slightly. By further increasing the concentration of 1, 4- butynediol, the hardness and internal stress of nickel deposit increase. The addition of 1,4- butynediol can remarkably enhance the polarization potential of nickel deposition at lower overpotential. SEM observation indicates that the addition of 1, 4-butynediol can refine the grain size of nickel deposit and obtain a

  1. Regulation of (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan synthesis in developing endosperm of barley lys mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2012-01-01

    alleles lys5f and lys5g exerted pronounced effects on the cell wall with increased level of (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan content. The low-starch high-(1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan phenotype was most pronounced in lys5f. Among the Cellulose Synthase-Like (CSL) gene members belonging to the families CSLF and CSLH...... suggests the presence of a sensing and signaling system in the cell wall, which in the case of the lys5 mutants caused a decreased transcript level in response to the increased (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan levels. In the lys3a mutant we found a 1000-fold repression of the CSLF6 transcript throughout the whole...

  2. The 7th lung cancer TNM classification and staging system: Review of the changes and implications

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of death from cancer in males, accounting for more than 1.4 million deaths in 2008. It is a growing concern in China, Asia and Africa as well. Accurate staging of the disease is an important part of the management as it provides estimation of patient’s prognosis and identifies treatment sterategies. It also helps to build a database for future staging projects. A major revision of lung cancer staging has been announced with effect from January 2010. The ne...

  3. Screening and identification of a Bacillus thuringiensis strain S1/4 with large and efficient insecticidal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Sameh; Zghal, Taheni; Cherif, Maroua; Zalila-Kolsi, Imen; Jaoua, Samir; Jamoussi, Kaïs

    2013-06-01

    The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis was recognized for its entomopathogenic activities related to Cry and Cyt proteins forming the δ-endotoxins and some extracellular activities like the vegetative insecticidal proteins (VIP) and Cry1I. These activities may act specifically against diverse organisms and some of them typically characterize each strain. Here, we screened a set of 212 B. thuringiensis strains to search the higher insecticidal activities. These strains had bipyramidal and cubic crystal morphologies and 30% of them showed PCR amplification of vip3 internal region, from which five isolates (S1/4, S17, S122, S123, and S144) showed plasmid profile variability. These five strains contained the cry1I, cry1Aa and/or cry1Ac, cry1Ab and cry2 genes, and S1/4 harbored in addition the cry1C, vip1, and vip2 genes. They produced from 25 to 46 µg δ-endotoxin per 10(7) spores. Their δ-endotoxins displayed distinct lethal concentrations 50% against either Spodoptera littoralis or Ephestia kuehniella larvae with the lowest one for S1/4, which was also active against Tuta absoluta. Fortunately, the analysis of the culture supernatants revealed that S1/4 had the higher toxicity towards these lepidopteron but it did not show any toxicity against the Tribolium castaneum coleopteran larvae; additionally, S1/4 displayed an antibacterial activity. S1/4 is a good candidate for agricultural pest control, as it is more efficient than the reference strain HD1. PMID:22915162

  4. Synthesis, radiosynthesis and biological evaluation of 1, 4-dihydroquinoline derivatives as new carriers for specific brain delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foucout, L.; Bohn, P.; Dupas, G.; Marsais, F.; Levacher, V. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique Fine et Heterocyclique, UMR 6014, IRCOF, CNRS, Universite et INSA de Rouen, B.P. 08 F-76131, Mont- Saint-Aignan Cedex (France); Gourand, F.; Dhilly, M.; Barre, L. [Groupe de Developpements Methodologiques en Tomographie par Emission de Positons, CEA/DSV/I2BM/CI-NAPS UMR6232, Universite de Caen Basse Normandie, Caen (France); Bohn, P.; Costentin, J. [Laboratoire de Neuropharmacologie Experimentale associe au CNRS, FRE-2735, Faculte de Medecine et de pharmacie, Universite de Rouen, F-76000 (France); Abbas, A. [Inserm-EPHE-Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Unite U923, GIP Cyceron, CHU Cote de Nacre, Caen (France)

    2009-07-01

    In spite of numerous reports dealing with the use of 1, 4-dihydro-pyridines as carriers to deliver biological active compounds to the brain, this chemical delivery system (CDS) suffers from poor stability of the 1, 4-dihydropyridine derivatives towards oxidation and hydration reactions seriously limiting further investigations in vivo. In an attempt to overcome these limitations, we report herein the first biological evaluation of more stable annellated NADH models in the quinoline series as relevant neuro-active drug-carrier candidates. The radiolabeled 1, 4-dihydroquinoline [{sup 11}C]1a was prepared to be subsequently peripherally injected in rats. The injected animals were sacrificed and brains were collected. The radioactivity measured in rat brain indicated a rapid penetration of the carrier [{sup 11}C]1a into the CNS. HPLC analysis of brain homogenates showed that oxidation of [{sup 11}C]1a into the corresponding quinolinium salt [{sup 11}C]4a was completed in less than 5 min. An in vivo evaluation in mice is also reported to illustrate the potential of such 1, 4-dihydroquinoline derivatives to transport a neuro-active drug in the CNS. For this purpose, g-aminobutyric acid (GABA), well known to poorly cross the brain blood barrier (BBB) was connected to this 1, 4-dihydroquinoline-type carrier. After i.p. injection of 1, 4-dihydroquinoline-GABA derivative 1b in mice, a significant alteration of locomotor activity (LMA) was observed presumably resulting from an enhancement of central GABAergic activity. These encouraging results give strong evidence for the capacity of carrier-GABA derivative 1b to cross the BBB and exert a pharmacological effect on the CNS. This study paves the way for further progress in designing new redox chemical delivery systems. (authors)

  5. Expression of an Endo-β-1,4-glucanase Gene from Orpinomyces PC-2 in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ming Xia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene celE from the anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces PC-2 was placed under the control of an alcohol oxidase promoter (AOX1 in the plasmid pPIC9K, and integrated into the genome of a methylotrophic yeast P. pastoris GS115 by electroporation. The strain with highest endo-β-1,4-glucanase activity was selected and designed as P. pastoris egE, and cultivated in shaking flasks. The culture supernatant was assayed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and showed a single band at about 52 kDa. Furthermore, the recombinant P. pastoris egE was proved to possess the ability to utilize sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as a carbon source. The recombinant endoglucanase produced by P. pastoris showed maximum activity at pH 6.0 and temperature 45 °C, indicating it was a mesophilic neutral endo-β-1,4-glucanase, suitable for denim biofinishing/washing. Further research was carried out in suitable fermentation medium in shaking flasks. The most favorable methanol addition concentration was discussed and given as 1.0%. After methanol induction for 96 h, the endo-β-1,4-glucanase activity reached 72.5 IU mL−1. This is the first report on expression and characterization of endo-β-1,4-glucanase from Orpinomyces in P. pastoris. The endo-β-1,4-glucanase secreted by recombinant P. pastoris represents an attractive potential for both academic research and textile industry application.

  6. Synthesis, radiosynthesis and biological evaluation of 1, 4-dihydroquinoline derivatives as new carriers for specific brain delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of numerous reports dealing with the use of 1, 4-dihydro-pyridines as carriers to deliver biological active compounds to the brain, this chemical delivery system (CDS) suffers from poor stability of the 1, 4-dihydropyridine derivatives towards oxidation and hydration reactions seriously limiting further investigations in vivo. In an attempt to overcome these limitations, we report herein the first biological evaluation of more stable annellated NADH models in the quinoline series as relevant neuro-active drug-carrier candidates. The radiolabeled 1, 4-dihydroquinoline [11C]1a was prepared to be subsequently peripherally injected in rats. The injected animals were sacrificed and brains were collected. The radioactivity measured in rat brain indicated a rapid penetration of the carrier [11C]1a into the CNS. HPLC analysis of brain homogenates showed that oxidation of [11C]1a into the corresponding quinolinium salt [11C]4a was completed in less than 5 min. An in vivo evaluation in mice is also reported to illustrate the potential of such 1, 4-dihydroquinoline derivatives to transport a neuro-active drug in the CNS. For this purpose, g-aminobutyric acid (GABA), well known to poorly cross the brain blood barrier (BBB) was connected to this 1, 4-dihydroquinoline-type carrier. After i.p. injection of 1, 4-dihydroquinoline-GABA derivative 1b in mice, a significant alteration of locomotor activity (LMA) was observed presumably resulting from an enhancement of central GABAergic activity. These encouraging results give strong evidence for the capacity of carrier-GABA derivative 1b to cross the BBB and exert a pharmacological effect on the CNS. This study paves the way for further progress in designing new redox chemical delivery systems. (authors)

  7. Poly[di-μ4-benzene-1,4-dicarboxylato-μ6-succinato-diholmium(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin He

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Ho2(C4H4O4(C8H4O42]n, was synthesized hydrothermally. The Ho atom is coordinated by four O atoms from four benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate (BDC anions and four O atoms from three succinate anions, in a distorted square-antiprismatic coordination geometry. The antiprisms are bridged by the benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate and succinate anions, into a three-dimensional coordination network. The succinate anions are located on centres of inversion.

  8. 6-Methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine butane-1,4-diol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni M. Bhardwaj

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The title co-crystal, C4H7N5·C4H10O2, crystallizes with one molecule of 6-methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (DMT and one molecule of butane-1,4-diol in the asymmetric unit. The DMT molecules form ribbons involving centrosymmetric R22(8 dimer motifs between DMT molecules along the c-axis direction. These ribbons are further hydrogen bonded to each other through butane-1,4-diol, forming sheets parallel to (121.

  9. A Kinetically Mechanistic Investigation of Oxidation of 1,4-Butanediamine by Ag(Ⅲ)Complex in Alkaline Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG,Changying; SHAN,Jinhuan; Shen,Shigang; Sun,Hanwen

    2009-01-01

    Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of 1,4-butanediamine by a Ag (Ⅲ)complex were studied spectropho-tometrically in alkaline medium at constant ion strength. The reaction shows first order with respect to the Ag(Ⅲ)complex and 1,4.butanediamine respectively. The second order rate constant,k`:increased with the increasing in[OH-],and decreased with the increasing in[IO4-4].A plausible mechanism was proposed from the kinetics study.The rate equations derived from the mechanism Can explain all experimental phenomena. The activation parameters were calculated.

  10. Synthesis of graft copolymers with 1,4-polybutadiene backbone and polar grafts by combination of ROP and ROMP

    OpenAIRE

    Leroux, Flavien

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was the preparation of graft copolymers with a poly(1,4-butadiene) backbone and a high density of polar grafts. We used a consecutive Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP)/Ring-Opening Polymerization (ROP) route to prepare poly(1,4-butadiene)-g-polyesters from cyclobutenyl macromonomers bearing one or two polyester segment(s) derived from L-lactide (L-LA) or Ɛ-caprolactone (Ɛ-CL). Poly(L-lactide)s (PLLA) or poly(Ɛ-caprolactone)s (PCL) are important polymers ...

  11. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) Bill of Materials (BOM) for FEMIS Version 1.4.6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homer, B.J., Johnson, D.M.; Wood, B.M.; Stoops, L.R.; Fangman, P.M.; Johnson, R.L.; Loveall, R.M.; Millard, W.D.; Johnson, S.M.; Downing, T.R.

    1999-03-12

    This document describes the hardware and software required for the Federal Emergency Management Information System version 1.4.6 (FEMIS{copyright} v1.4.6). FEMIS is designed for a single Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) site that has multiple Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs). Each EOC has personal computers (PCs) that emergency planners and operations personnel use to do their jobs. These PCs are connected via a local area network (LAN) to servers that provide EOC-wide services. Each EOC is interconnected to other EOCS via a Wide Area Network (WAN).

  12. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Some New 1, 4-Benzothiazine Containing Thiosemicarbazides and 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Bhikan J Khairnar; Salunke, Rahul S.; Premchand B. Patil; Patil, Sanjay A .; Kapade, Rajeshwar J .; Pravin S. Girase; Bhata R. Chaudhari

    2012-01-01

    A series of novel 3- methyl-7-substituted-4H,4-benzothiazine-2-carbohydrazide (3a-e) and corresponding thiosemicarbazides (4-a-q); 2-[3-methyl-7-substituted- 4H -1, 4-benzothiazine-2-yl]-N-(aryl) hydrazine carbothiamide have been synthesized. The thiosemicarbazide when cyclized with iodine via intramolecular cyclisation gave benzothiazonyl oxadiazoles (5-a-q); 5-(3-methyl -7-substitued-4H- 1,4-benzothiazin-2-yl)- N —aryl- 1,3,4- oxadiazol -2-amine and the compounds were tested for antibacteri...

  13. Pectin Biosynthesis: GALS1 in Arabidopsis thaliana Is a β-1,4-Galactan β-1,4-Galactosyltransferase [C][W][OA]

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liwanag, April Jennifer Madrid; Ebert, Berit; Verhertbruggen, Yves;

    2012-01-01

    β-1,4-Galactans are abundant polysaccharides in plant cell walls, which are generally found as side chains of rhamnogalacturonan I. Rhamnogalacturonan I is a major component of pectin with a backbone of alternating rhamnose and galacturonic acid residues and side chains that include α-1,5-arabina...

  14. Thermodynamics of linear polyurethanes on basis of 1,4-diisocyanatobutane with 1,4-butanediol and 1,6-hexanediol in the range from T->0 to 490 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temperature dependence of heat capacity and characteristics of physical transformations of partially crystalline linear aliphatic polyurethanes based on 1,4-diisocyanatobutane with 1,4-butanediol and 1,6-hexanediol have been studied over the range 6.5-490K by precision adiabatic vacuum and dynamic calorimetry. The calorimetric data were used to determine the thermodynamic quantities of devitrification and fusion and to calculate the standard thermodynamic functions Cp0(T), H0(T)-H0(0), S0(T) and G0(T)-H0(0) of linear polyurethanes in totally crystalline and amorphous states. The values of the fractal dimension D in the function of multifractal generalization of Debye's theory of the heat capacity of solids were estimated and the character of heterodynamics of their structures was detected. The energies of combustion of the substances were measured in a calorimeter with an isothermal shield and a static bomb. The enthalpies of combustion and the standard thermodynamic characteristics of formation of the polymers at T=298.15K were calculated too. The standard thermodynamic characteristics of polycondensation processes in bulk of 1,4-diisocyanatobutane with 1,4-butanediol and 1,6-hexanediol followed by the formation of linear polyurethanes were determined in the range from 0 to 350K. A comparative analysis of the corresponding standard thermodynamic properties of the polymers under consideration and polyurethanes of isomeric structure was made and some dependences of their change on various conditions were found

  15. 半乳糖β-1,4-糖苷键在瘢痕疙瘩组织中的定位与表达%Location and expression of galactose β-1,4-glycosidic bonds in keloid tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨圣菊; 孟国梁; 陈晓栋

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨半乳糖β-1,4-糖苷键在瘢痕疙瘩组织中的合成、定位及糖蛋白半乳糖基化在瘢痕疙瘩形成机制中的作用.方法 Lectin印迹法观察瘢痕疙瘩、增生性瘢痕和正常皮肤组织中糖蛋白的糖基化水平;饱和苦味酸-天狼猩红偏振光法观察组织学结构及胶原的形态与分布.分析组织中Ⅰ、Ⅲ型胶原的比例;蓖麻凝集素-Ⅰ免疫荧光组化法分析组织中半乳糖β-1,4-糖苷键的表达与定位,并与Ⅰ型前胶原α1共定位.结果 经糖链染色,与正常皮肤组织相比,瘢痕疙瘩组织在约30 000和40 000处糖蛋白的半乳糖β-1,4-糖苷键表达增高.偏振光显微镜显示,瘢痕疙瘩组织中含有大量Ⅰ型胶原纤维,约占(71.53±4.03)%,Ⅰ、Ⅲ型胶原比例为2.56±0.53,高于正常皮肤组织(P<0.05).免疫荧光发现,半乳糖β-1,4-糖苷键均匀分布在瘢痕疙瘩组织成纤维细胞胞膜和胞质内,与正常皮肤组织相比其表达量明显增加,且与Ⅰ型前胶原α1存在共定位.结论 瘢痕疙瘩组织中存在着半乳糖β-1,4-糖苷键的表达变化,且主要定位于成纤维细胞,提示半乳糖β-1,4-糖苷键可能参与瘢痕疙瘩修复过程中纤维过度增生相关因子的修饰调控.%Objective To observe the expression and location of galactose β-1,4-glycosidic bonds (Gal β-1,4-GlcNAc) in keloid tissue,and to investigate the role of glycoprotein galactosylation in the formation of keloid.Methods This study included 10 keloid tissue specimens,7 hyperplastic scar tissue specimens,and 6 normal skin specimens.Lectin blot analysis was performed to measure the glycosylation level of glycoproteins,saturated picric acid-Sirius red staining followed by polarization microscopy to observe the type,expression and distribution of collagens in these specimens.The type Ⅰ/type Ⅲ collagen ratio was calculated.Immunofluorescence-based histochemistry was carried out by using Ricinus communis agglutinin I to

  16. Treatment of patients with minimal stage IIIA Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment recommendations for patients with upper abdominal Stage IIIA Hodgkin's (III1A) disease have varied widely. The current study reports on a combined institutional retrospective review of 85 patients with surgically staged III1A Hodgkin's disease. Twenty-two patients received combined modality therapy (CMT), 36 patients were treated initially with total nodal irradiation (TNI), and 27 with mantle and para-aortic radiotherapy (MPA). Patients treated with CMT had an actuarial 8-year freedom from relapse (FFR) of 96% as compared to a FFR of 51% in TNI treated patients (p = 0.002), and a FFR of 54% in MPA treated patients (p = 0.004). Of the 11 relapses in MPA treated patients, 7 had a component of their failure in the untreated pelvic or inguinal nodes. The patients treated with CMT had an 8-year actuarial survival of 100% as compared to 79% in TNI treated patients (p = 0.055) and 78% in patients treated with MPA (p = 0.025). Histology and the number of splenic nodules were the most important prognostic variables. Patients with MC/LD histology and greater than or equal to 5 splenic nodules have a high risk of relapse (10/13) when treated with radiation alone (TNI or MPA). We recommend CMT for this group of patients. Patients with NS/LP histology and 1-4 splenic nodules represent a favorable subset of Stage III1A patients. Only 4/21 patients have relapsed and all 21 patients are currently alive without disease regardless of treatment. We currently feel that patients with Stage III1A Hodgkin's disease with NS/LP histology and splenic disease limited to 1-4 nodules are good candidates for MPA as an alternative to TNI or CMT

  17. BASF and Sinopec Break Ground on $1.4 Billion Expansion of Nanjing Joint Venture Chemical Site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ BASF and Sinopec began the construction for the expansion of their joint venture,BASF-YPC Co.,Ltd.(BYC).BASF and Sinopec plan to jointly invest approximately $1.4 billion in technologies to produce downstream chemical intermediates and specialties for the Chinese market.

  18. Trans-1,4 selective polymerization of 1,3-butadiene with symmetry pincer chromium complexes activated by MMAO

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Dirong

    2014-09-01

    Tridentate chromium complexes (Cr1-Cr7) incorporated with symmetrical pincer ligand bis(arylimino)pyridine and bis(pyrzaolyl)pyridine have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyis, FT-IR as well as ESI-MS. X-ray diffraction reveals solids-state structures of Cr2, Cr4 and Cr6 all adopt pseudo-octahedral coordination environment with respect to metal center. All complexes have been tested in stereoregulated polymerization of butadiene under various polymerization conditions. The trans-1,4 and cis-1,4 enchainment of resultant polymer are found to be dependent on the structure of ligand and amount of activator used. Under the optimized condition, free ortho-substitutes Cr catalysts Cr1, Cr3, Cr4 and Cr6 are capable of initiating high trans-1,4 selectivity (trans-1,4: 89.2%-92.0%) with good polymer yields (71.5%-78.0%), while counterparts with ortho-positioned alkyl groups Cr2, Cr5 and Cr7 display mixed selectivities with moderate polymer yields. The sterical effect of ligand and amount of MMAO on the catalytic performance, in particular, the stereoselectivity and polymer yield, has been also elucidated by conjugated diene polymerization mechanism. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. DEPLETION OF CELLULAR PROTEIN THIOLS AS AN INDICATOR OF ARYLATION IN ISOLATED TROUT HEPATOCYTES EXPOSED TO 1,4-BENZOQUINONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method for the measurement of protein thiols (PrSH), un-reacted as well as oxidized, i.e. dithiothreitol recoverable, was adapted for the determination of PrSH depletion in isolated rainbow trout hepatocytes exposed to an arylating agent, 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ). Toxicant analysi...

  20. Formation of 1,4-dioxo-2-butene-derived adducts of 2'-deoxyadenosine and 2'-deoxycytidine in oxidized DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingzi; Vu, Choua C; Byrns, Michael C; Dedon, Peter C; Peterson, Lisa A

    2006-08-01

    Oxidation of deoxyribose in DNA produces a variety of electrophilic residues that are capable of reacting with nucleobases to form adducts such as M(1)dG, the pyrimidopurinone adduct of dG. We now report that deoxyribose oxidation in DNA leads to the formation of oxadiazabicyclo(3.3.0)octaimine adducts of dC and dA. We previously demonstrated that these adducts arise in reactions of nucleosides and DNA with trans-1,4-dioxo-2-butene, the beta-elimination product of the 2-phosphoryl-1,4-dioxobutane residue arising from 5'-oxidation of deoxyribose in DNA, and with cis-1,4-dioxo-2-butene, a metabolite of furan. Treatment of DNA with enediyne antibiotics capable of oxidizing the 5'-position of deoxyribose (calicheamicin and neocarzinostatin) led to a concentration-dependent formation of oxadiazabicyclo(3.3.0)octaimine adducts of dC and dA, while the antibiotic bleomycin, which is capable of performing only 4-oxidation of deoxyribose, did not give rise to the adducts. The nonspecific DNA oxidant, gamma-radiation, also produced the adducts that represented approximately 0.1% of the 2-phosphoryl-1,4-dioxobutane residues formed during the irradiation. These results suggest that the oxadiazabicyclo(3.3.0)octaimine adducts of dC and dA could represent endogenous DNA lesions arising from oxidative stresses that also give rise to other DNA adducts. PMID:16918236

  1. STABILITY OF HEMOGLOBIN AND ALBUMIN ADDUCTS OF NAPHTHALENE OXIDE, 1,2-NAPHTHOQUINONE, AND 1,4-NAPHTHOQUINONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naphthalene is an important industrial chemical, which has recently been shown to cause tumors of the respiratory tract in rodents. It is thought that one or more reactive metabolites of naphthalene, namely, naphthalene-1,2-oxide (NPO), 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NPQ), and 1,4-na...

  2. Start-up of flow of a FENE-fluid through a 4:1:4 constriction in a tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter; Rallison, J.M.; Hinch, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    The flow of a FENE-fluid through a 4:1:4 constriction in a tube is computed by a split Lagrangian-Eulerian finite element method. In steady flow it is found that the upstream vortex grows with increasing Deborah number, while the downstream vortex diminishes and disappears. The steady pressure dr...

  3. Solid Phase Synthesis of 1, 4-Disubstituted 1, 2, 3-Triazole from Polystyrene-supported Selenium Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Ming XU; Lu Ling WU; Xian HUANG

    2006-01-01

    We report here a solid-phase synthesis of 1, 4-disubstituted 1, 2, 3-triazole using polystyrene-supported selenium resin. The resin used here not only works as a simple linker, but also assists the crucial α-alkylation reaction and selenoxide syn-elimination, which ensures the purity of the products.

  4. Digital Library and Archives receives part of $1.4 million award to create digital archive of Southern history, culture

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Clara B.

    2004-01-01

    Digital Library and Archives (DLA), a department in Virginia Tech's University Libraries, will receive $250,000 as part of a $1.4 million partnership that the Library of Congress is awarding to a cooperative of six research libraries to create a MetaArchive of Southern Digital Culture, according to an announcement made by the Library of Congress.

  5. Myocardial infarction and arterial thrombosis in identical newborn twins with homozygosity for the PAI-1 4 G/5 G polymorphism

    OpenAIRE

    De Lucia, Vittoria; Andreassi, Maria Grazia; Sabatini, Laura; Ait-Ali, Lamia; Spadoni, Isabella; Giusti, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Myocardial infarction in the perinatal period, in the absence of congenital heart disease or coronary artery lesions, is rare. The most common etiology described are the thromboembolism and perinatal asphyxia. We report a case of monozygotic twins who developed, after birth, acute vascular events and both had PAI-1 4G/4G homozygosity.

  6. 7-(3-Chlorophenylamino-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-8-nitro-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan F. Shattat

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available 7-(3-Chlorophenylamino-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-8-nitro-4-oxo-1,4-dihydro-quinoline-3-carboxylic acid (2 was prepared and fully characterized by NMR, IR, and MS. Compound 2 exhibited good antibacterial activity against gram-positive standard and resistant strains.

  7. Synthesis of 1,4,5 trisubstituted γ-lactams via a 3-component cascade reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Åxman; Mortensen, Michael Agerup; Cohrt, A. Emil;

    2015-01-01

    A three component one-pot cascade reaction was developed for the synthesis of 1,4,5-trisubstituted γ-lactams. The resulting scaffold can be modified independently at three positions, two of which are conveniently accessed by changing the components of the one-pot reaction. The phases of building...

  8. One-pot multi-component synthesis of 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives in biocompatible deep eutectic solvents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suhas Pednekar; Rahul Bhalerao; Nitin Ghadge

    2013-05-01

    An efficient protocol for the synthesis of differently substituted 1, 4-dihydropyridines in deep eutectic solvents under solvent-free conditions is reported here. Excellent yields of the resultant products have been obtained. Recyclability studies have also been performed for deep eutectic solvents with very little loss in activity up to five recycles.

  9. Formation of a 1-Zircona-2,5-disilacyclopent-3-yne: Coordination of 1,4-Disilabutatriene to Zirconocene?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lamač, Martin; Spannenberg, A.; Jiao, H.; Hansen, S.; Baumann, W.; Arndt, P.; Rosenthal, U.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 16 (2010), s. 2937-2940. ISSN 1433-7851 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : 1-Zircona-2,5-disilacyclopent-3-yne * 1,4-Disilabutatriene * zirconocene Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 12.730, year: 2010

  10. The GIRK1 subunit potentiates G protein activation of cardiac GIRK1/4 hetero-tetramers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touhara, Kouki K; Wang, Weiwei; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2016-01-01

    G protein gated inward rectifier potassium (GIRK) channels are gated by direct binding of G protein beta-gamma subunits (Gβγ), signaling lipids, and intracellular Na+. In cardiac pacemaker cells, hetero-tetramer GIRK1/4 channels and homo-tetramer GIRK4 channels play a central role in parasympathetic slowing of heart rate. It is known that the Na+ binding site of the GIRK1 subunit is defective, but the functional difference between GIRK1/4 hetero-tetramers and GIRK4 homo-tetramers remains unclear. Here, using purified proteins and the lipid bilayer system, we characterize Gβγ and Na+ regulation of GIRK1/4 hetero-tetramers and GIRK4 homo-tetramers. We find in GIRK4 homo-tetramers that Na+ binding increases Gβγ affinity and thereby increases the GIRK4 responsiveness to G protein stimulation. GIRK1/4 hetero-tetramers are not activated by Na+, but rather are in a permanent state of high responsiveness to Gβγ, suggesting that the GIRK1 subunit functions like a GIRK4 subunit with Na+ permanently bound. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15750.001 PMID:27074664

  11. Extracellular Enzymes of the White-Rot Fungus Fomes fomentarius and Purification of 1,4-beta-Glucosidase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Větrovský, Tomáš; Baldrian, Petr; Gabriel, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 169, č. 1 (2013), s. 100-109. ISSN 0273-2289 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LA10001; GA MŠk OC08050 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Cellulose * 1,4-beta-glucosidase * Glycosyl hydrolase Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.687, year: 2013

  12. Structural and optical properties of langmuir-blodgett films of the electron acceptor 2-octadecylthio-1,4-benzoquinone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholm, T.; Larsen, N. B.; Christensen, Finn Erland;

    1993-01-01

    The electron acceptor 2-octadecylthio-1,4-benzoquinone forms stable monolayers at air/water interfaces. Transfer to hydrophobic substrates yields Y-type Langmuir-Blodgett films. By studies of multilayers using X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy with polarized light a structure model is obtained...

  13. Alternating polyesteramides based on 1,4-butylene terephthalamide: 4. Alternating polyetheresteramides based on glycols (4NTglycol)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, P.J.M.; Gaymans, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Polyetheresteramides (PEEAs) have been synthesised in the melt from 1,4-butylene terephthalamide and ethylene or propylene glycols. The ethylene glycols were ethylenediol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol and tetraethylene glycol. The propylene glycols were 1,3-propanediol and the mixtures of 1

  14. Alternating polyesteramides based on 1,4-butylene terephthalamide: 2. alternating polyesteramides based on a single, linear diol (4NTm)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, P.J.M.; Thuss, E.H.L.; Gaymans, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    Strictly alternating polyesteramides consisting of 1,4-butylene terephthalamide and aliphatic diols have been synthesized in the melt in the presence of a titanium catalyst. The influence of diol length on the thermal and mechanical properties was studied. Depending on its structure, the diol took p

  15. An antibody produced in tobacco expressing a hybrid beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase is essentially devoid of plant carbohydrate epitopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bakker; G.J.A. Rouwendal; A.S. Karnoup; D.E.A. Florack; G.M. Stoopen; J.P.F.G. Helsper; R. van Ree; I. van Die; D. Bosch

    2006-01-01

    N-glycosylation of a mAb may have a major impact on its therapeutic merits. Here, we demonstrate that expression of a hybrid enzyme (called xylGaIT), consisting of the N-terminal domain of Arabidopsis thaliana xylosyltra nsf erase and the catalytic domain of human 0-1,4-galactosyltransf erase I (GaI

  16. Advanced Electrochemical Oxidation of 1,4-Dioxane via Dark Catalysis by Novel Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) Pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmann, Jeramy R; Borch, Thomas; Sale, Tom C; Blotevogel, Jens

    2016-08-16

    1,4-dioxane is an emerging groundwater contaminant with significant regulatory implications. Because it is resistant to traditional groundwater treatments, remediation of 1,4-dioxane is often limited to costly ex situ UV-based advanced oxidation. By varying applied voltage, electrical conductivity, seepage velocity, and influent contaminant concentration in flow-through reactors, we show that electrochemical oxidation is a viable technology for in situ and ex situ treatment of 1,4-dioxane under a wide range of environmental conditions. Using novel titanium dioxide (TiO2) pellets, we demonstrate for the first time that this prominent catalyst can be activated in the dark even when electrically insulated from the electrodes. TiO2-catalyzed reactors achieved efficiencies of greater than 97% degradation of 1,4-dioxane, up to 4.6 times higher than noncatalyzed electrolytic reactors. However, the greatest catalytic enhancement (70% degradation versus no degradation without catalysis) was observed in low-ionic-strength water, where conventional electrochemical approaches notoriously fail. The TiO2 pellet's dark-catalytic oxidation activity was confirmed on the pharmaceutical lamotrigine and the industrial solvent chlorobenzene, signifying that electrocatalytic treatment has tremendous potential as a transformative remediation technology for persistent organic pollutants in groundwater and other aqueous environments. PMID:27420906

  17. Novel application of Leuckart-Wallach reaction for synthesis of tetrahydro-1,4-benzodiazepin-5-ones library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Chan; Park, Seung Bum

    2007-09-28

    A novel and efficient strategy has been developed to synthesize privileged tetrahydro-1,4-benzodiazepines with excellent yields and purities; this synthetic pathway was established by the revitalization of the Leuckart-Wallach (LW) reaction via solid-phase synthesis. PMID:17851604

  18. 77 FR 68692 - 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene; Amendment to an Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... acute dermal toxicity (median lethal dose (LD) 50 > 2,000 mg/kg), 1,4-DMN is not considered a dermal... (150 ppm) for females. The previous tolerance exemption showed an acute oral toxicity LD 50 of 2,730 mg.... Background and Statutory Findings In the Federal Register of March 14, 2012 (77 FR 15012) (FRL-9335- 9),...

  19. PET in lung cancer staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary clinical application of FDG-PET is in the evaluation of patients with lung cancer and includes diagnosis, staging and restaging of non-small cell lung cancer. PET has a very high accuracy (sensitivity=97%, specificity=78%) for characterizing nodules that are indeterminate by chest radiograph and computed tomography. The major utility of PET in the evaluation of patients with lung cancer is the staging of the entire body. PET is more accurate than the conventional imaging modalities of CT and bone scans in the detection of metastatic disease. PET is accurate in the staging of the mediastinum, adrenal glands, and the skeletal system. PET is not as accurate in the detection of brain metastases because of their small size and the normal cortical accumulation

  20. Kinetics and energy efficiency for the degradation of 1,4-dioxane by electro-peroxone process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • E-peroxone couples electrolysis with ozonation to driven peroxone reaction for pollutant degradation. • Significant amounts of ·OH can be efficiently produced in the E-peroxone process. • E-peroxone greatly enhances 1,4-dioxane degradation kinetics compared with ozonation and electrolysis. • E-peroxone consumes less energy for 1,4-dioxane mineralization than ozonation and electrolysis. • E-peroxone offers a cost-effective and energy-efficient alternative to degrade 1,4-dioxane. - Abstract: Degradation of 1,4-dioxane by ozonation, electrolysis, and their combined electro-peroxone (E-peroxone) process was investigated. The E-peroxone process used a carbon-polytetrafluorethylene cathode to electrocatalytically convert O2 in the sparged ozone generator effluent (O2 and O3 gas mixture) to H2O2. The electro-generated H2O2 then react with sparged O3 to yield aqueous ·OH, which can in turn oxidize pollutants rapidly in the bulk solution. Using p-chlorobenzoic acid as ·OH probe, the pseudo-steady concentration of ·OH was determined to be ∼0.744 × 10−9 mM in the E-peroxone process, which is approximately 10 and 186 times of that in ozonation and electrolysis using a Pt anode. Thanks to its higher ·OH concentration, the E-peroxone process eliminated 96.6% total organic carbon (TOC) from a 1,4-dioxane solution after 2 h treatment with a specific energy consumption (SEC) of 0.376 kWh g−1 TOCremoved. In comparison, ozonation and electrolysis using a boron-doped diamond anode removed only ∼6.1% and 26.9% TOC with SEC of 2.43 and 0.558 kWh g−1 TOCremoved, respectively. The results indicate that the E-peroxone process can significantly improve the kinetics and energy efficiency for 1,4-dioxane mineralization as compared to the two individual processes. The E-peroxone process may thus offer a highly effective and energy-efficient alternative to treat 1,4-dioxane wastewater

  1. Kinetics and energy efficiency for the degradation of 1,4-dioxane by electro-peroxone process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huijiao; Bakheet, Belal; Yuan, Shi; Li, Xiang; Yu, Gang [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Murayama, Seiichi [Power and Industrial Systems R& D Center, Toshiba Corporation, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo (Japan); Wang, Yujue, E-mail: wangyujue@tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • E-peroxone couples electrolysis with ozonation to driven peroxone reaction for pollutant degradation. • Significant amounts of ·OH can be efficiently produced in the E-peroxone process. • E-peroxone greatly enhances 1,4-dioxane degradation kinetics compared with ozonation and electrolysis. • E-peroxone consumes less energy for 1,4-dioxane mineralization than ozonation and electrolysis. • E-peroxone offers a cost-effective and energy-efficient alternative to degrade 1,4-dioxane. - Abstract: Degradation of 1,4-dioxane by ozonation, electrolysis, and their combined electro-peroxone (E-peroxone) process was investigated. The E-peroxone process used a carbon-polytetrafluorethylene cathode to electrocatalytically convert O{sub 2} in the sparged ozone generator effluent (O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} gas mixture) to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The electro-generated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} then react with sparged O{sub 3} to yield aqueous ·OH, which can in turn oxidize pollutants rapidly in the bulk solution. Using p-chlorobenzoic acid as ·OH probe, the pseudo-steady concentration of ·OH was determined to be ∼0.744 × 10{sup −9} mM in the E-peroxone process, which is approximately 10 and 186 times of that in ozonation and electrolysis using a Pt anode. Thanks to its higher ·OH concentration, the E-peroxone process eliminated 96.6% total organic carbon (TOC) from a 1,4-dioxane solution after 2 h treatment with a specific energy consumption (SEC) of 0.376 kWh g{sup −1} TOC{sub removed}. In comparison, ozonation and electrolysis using a boron-doped diamond anode removed only ∼6.1% and 26.9% TOC with SEC of 2.43 and 0.558 kWh g{sup −1} TOC{sub removed}, respectively. The results indicate that the E-peroxone process can significantly improve the kinetics and energy efficiency for 1,4-dioxane mineralization as compared to the two individual processes. The E-peroxone process may thus offer a highly effective and energy-efficient alternative to treat 1,4-dioxane

  2. Staged separation of craniopagus twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaway, David; Jeelani, N U Owase

    2015-10-01

    Craniopagus twins are rare and account for up to 6% of all conjoined twins. No hospital will encounter many such twins and the opportunity to develop expertise is limited. We have dealt with 2 such sets and illustrate our approach by reference to our most recent set. We believe that detailed imaging allows precise delineation of the anatomy and facilitates detailed planning of the surgery. When venous drainage from the 2 brains is connected, we believe that staged separation is preferable as gradual alteration of hemodynamics may be safer than a single-stage procedure. PMID:26382265

  3. The reactions of hydroxyl radicals with 1,4- and 1,3-cyclohexadiene in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactions of radiolytically generated hydroxyl radicals and H atoms with 1,4- and 1,3-cyclohexadiene were studied by pulse radiolysis and product analysis. Hydrogen abstraction from these substrates by the OH radical yields the cyclohexadienyl radical (ε(310 nm) = 4400 dm3 mol-1 cm-1 from the reaction of the H atom with benzene) with an efficiency of 50% (0.29 μmol J-1) in the case of 1,4-cyclohexadiene and 25% (0.15 μmol J-1) in the case of 1,3-cyclohexadiene as determined by pulse radiolysis. The remaining OH radicals add to the olefin. In 1,4-cyclohexadiene the yield of the resulting adduct radicals has been determined in a steady-state 60Co-γ-irradiation experiment by reducing it with added 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT) to 4-hydroxycyclohexene. There are two sites of OH radical attack in the case of 1,3-cyclohexadiene, and only the alkyl radical is reduced quantitatively by DTT (G(3-hydroxycyclohexene) = 0.15 μmol J-1). From material balance considerations it is concluded that the allylic radical must be formed with a G value of 0.28 μmol J-1 but largely escapes reduction by DTT (G(4-hydroxycyclohexene) = 0.03 μmol J-1). H atoms add preferentially to the double bonds of 1,4- and 1,3-cyclohexadiene (78% and 93%, respectively), while the O- radical (the basic form of the OH radical) undergoes mainly H-abstraction (92% and 83%, respectively). (orig./EF)

  4. Rock River, VT 1.4 meter LiDAR Contract Number 07CRCN0014 Task Order Number G09PD00085

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — LiDAR was collected at a 1.4 points per square meter (1.4m GSD) for 359 square miles in northwestern Vermont. The geoid used to reduce satellite derived elevations...

  5. Poly[[[[1-ethyl-6,8-difluoro-7-(3-methylpiperazin-1-yl-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylato]cadmium]-μ-benzene-1,4-dicarboxylato] trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Ping Kang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title layered coordination polymer, {[Cd(C17H18F2N3O3(C8H4O4]·3H2O}n, the CdII atom exhibits a very distorted CdO6 octahedral geometry defined by one O3,O4-bidentate 1-ethyl-6,8-difluoro-7-(3-methylpiperazin-1-yl-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylate (lome ligand, one O,O′-bidentate benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate (bdc dianion and two O-monodentate bdc dianions. Both the bdc species in the asymmetric unit are completed by crystallographic inversion symmetry. The bridging bdc dianions link the cadmium nodes into a rectangular grid lying parallel to (01overline{1}. A network of N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds helps to establish the packing.

  6. Electrochemical Studies of 1,4-Bis[2-(2-pyridyl)-vinyl] Benzene and 1,4-Bis[2-(4-pyridyl) vinyl] Benzene Laser Dyes via Cyclic Voltammetry, Convolutive Voltammetry and Digital Simulation Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EL-DALY, Samy A; EL-HALLAG,Ibrahirn S; EBEED, Ezeiny M; GHONEIM, Mohamed M

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical properties of two diolefinic laser dyes namely 1,4-bis[2-(2-pyddyl)-vinyl] benzene (2PVB) and 1,4-bis[2-(4-pyridyl) vinyl] benzene (4PVB) have been investigated using cyclic voltammetry and convolutive voltammetry combined with digital simulation at a platinum electrode in 0.1 mol/L tetrabutyl ammonium perchlo-rate (TBAP) in the two different solvents acetonitrile (CH3CN) and dimethylformamide (DMF). The species were reduced via consumption of two sequential electrons to form radical anion and dianion. In switching the potential to positive direction, the two compounds were oxidized by loss of one electron, which was followed by a fast isomeri-sation process. The electrode reaction pathway and the electrochemical parameters of the investigated compounds were determined using cyclic voltammetry. The extracted electrochemical parameters were verified and confirmed via digital simulation and convolutive voltammetry methods.

  7. Carcinoma of unknown primary of neuroendocrine origin: Accurate detection of primary with 68Ga-labelled [1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid]-1-NaI3-Octreotide positron emission tomography/computed tomography enterography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    68Ga-labelled [1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid]-1-NaI3-Octreotide (68Ga-DOTANOC) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is an excellent modality in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary of neuroendocrine origin. Most of the primary lesions are located in mid gut region where the lesions have poor resolution due to undistended and overlapping intestinal loops and motility-related artifacts. Although PET/CT enteroclysis, enterography and colonography have been described with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose, PET/CT enterography with68Ga-DOTANOC has not been described in the literature. Here, we present a case where68Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT enterography was useful in identifying the primary neuroendocrine tumor lesion in small intestine with accurate delineation

  8. Study on the Preparation of the Modified Co-PET with 1,4-Cyclohexanedimethanol%由1,4-环己烷二甲醇制备改性共聚酯的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖; 邹妍; 王博; 马城华; 陈中刚

    2006-01-01

    以催化剂A、B、C、D和磷为催化-稳定体系,采用PTA法进行了由1,4-环己烷二甲醇改性的共聚酯聚合工艺研究,并对制备的产品进行了注塑实验和性能测试.实验表明:共聚酯聚合工艺受催化剂种类和用量、稳定剂用量、总醇与酸的物质的量比、聚合温度等条件影响;共聚酯注塑样品的物理和机械性能指标受1,4-环己烷二甲醇加量影响.

  9. 1,4-环己烷二甲醇(CHDM)顺式、反式异构体的确定%Determination of Cis-isomerism and Trans-isomerism of 1,4-Cyclohexanedimethanol (CHDM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田振英

    2014-01-01

    Applied SE-54, PEG-20M capillary as detector, the cis-isomerism and trans-isomerism of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol (CHDM) was determined by gas chromatography of programing temperature with FID detector. The analysis method was easy operation, fast and sensitive with good accuracy and precision, and could be use for the quantitative analysis of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol.%以SE-54、聚乙二醇20M毛细管柱、氢火焰离子检测器、程序升温的气相色谱法确定CHDM的顺式反式异构体结构。该方法操作简便、快速、灵敏、精密度高、准确度好,同时适用于CHDM含量分析。

  10. catena-Poly[[bis(ethanol-κOmanganese(II]-μ-2,5-dichloro-3,6-dioxocyclohexa-1,4-diene-1,4-bis(olato-κ4O1,O6:O3,O4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiya Tanaka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title coordination polymer, [Mn(C6Cl2O4(C2H5OH2]n, the MnII atom and the chloranilate [systematic name: 2,5-dichloro-3,6-dioxocyclohexa-1,4-diene-1,4-bis(olate] ion lie on crystallographic inversion centers. The geometry around the MnII atom is a distorted octahedron involving four O atoms of two chloranilate ions and two O atoms from two ethanol molecules. The chloranilate ion serves as a bridging ligand between the MnII ions, leading to an infinite linear chain along the b-axis direction. The chains are linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds between the apically coordinating ethanol molecule and the chloranilate ion, affording a two-dimensional layer expanding parallel to the ab plane.

  11. When science takes centre stage

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The teachers at 'Science on stage' are not emotionally attached to their chalk. Neither are they are weary old men who sport tweed jackets with elbow-patches and enter into conversation with their blackboards. Actually, 'Science on stage' teachers are far from the cliché of the boring physics teacher who can only inspire yawns from his pupils. Some present the basic principles of mechanics using a bicycle, others explain chemistry with examples from everyday life. The most audacious of them go so far as to explain the Doppler effect by means of a play in which Einstein dreams about jumping cows... These are but a few of the activities and plays that will be shown during the EIROforum1 Science on Stage Festival (organised by 7 European scientific organisations including CERN), to be held from 21 to 25 November at CERN, Geneva. This festival is dedicated to the teaching science in order to make it more attractive. After the first edition 'Physics on Stage' which was held in 2000 at CERN, the laboratory agai...

  12. Stage 2--Information Seeking Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenberg, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    A brief overview of one Big6 stage by Mike Eisenberg, followed by articles by two exemplary Big6 teachers, Barbara Jansen and Rob Darrow, offering practical uses of the Big6 in elementary and secondary situations is presented. The two-part nature of information seeking strategies that includes brainstorming and choosing is emphasized.

  13. Early stage fuel cell funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' Early stage venture funding requires an in depth understanding of both current and future markets as well as the key technical hurdles that need to be overcome for new technology to commercialize into successful products for mass markets. As the leading fuel cell and hydrogen investor, Chrysalix continuously reviews global trends and new technologies, evaluates them with industry leaders worldwide and tries to match them up with the best possible management teams when selecting its early stage investments. Chrysalix Energy Limited Partnership is an early-stage venture capital firm focusing on fuel cell and related fueling technology companies and is a private equity joint venture between Ballard Power Systems, BASF Venture Capital, The BOC Group, The Boeing Company, Duke Energy, Mitsubishi Corporation and Shell Hydrogen. Operating independently, Chrysalix offers a unique value proposition to its clients throughout the business planning, start-up and operations phases of development. Chrysalix provides early-stage funding to new companies as well as management assistance, technological knowledge, organized networking with industry players and experience in the management of intellectual property. (author)

  14. Tumor diagnosis, grading, and staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimal use of radiation therapy for the treatment of animal tumors necessitates accurate clinical evaluation, diagnostic imaging, and pathology. This requires a coordinated effort between the clinical and radiation oncologist, radiologist, and pathologist. The histological appearance of the tumor, tumor grade, and tumor stage are important diagnostic criteria that need to be established. Diagnostic imaging, including radiographic, computerized tomographic, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound studies are helpful in establishing an accurate tumor location and diagnosis. Biopsy and histological examination of tumor tissue are necessary for final diagnosis of tumor type. Determination of tumor type is critical because different tumor types vary in regard to radiosensitivity, local behavior, and propensity for regional and systemic metastasis. The histological grade of many tumors is an important indicator of the potential for local invasion or systemic metastases, and may influence treatment response. Tumor staging as determined by clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and histological evaluation is necessary to establish the extent of the tumor, both locally, regionally, and systemically. The clinical oncologist should have an understanding of the procedures involved in tumor diagnosis, tumor grading, and tumor staging. This provides a better understanding of the neoplastic condition and recognition of the limitations of diagnostic procedures. Tumor type, grade, and stage all impact radiation treatment planning and the need for adjuvant regional or systemic therapy

  15. Staging Urban Experiences in Suburbia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Christian; Vetner, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    Urban design provides props, requisites and decors for staging the users' performances in space. Design may facilitate or impede specific ways of moving around, interacting with objects and other people, feeling, learning and sense making.The actual design may very well contradict the explicit...

  16. Efficient one-pot enzymatic synthesis of alpha-(1 -> 4)-glucosidic disaccharides through a coupled reaction catalysed by Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM maltose phosphorylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakai, Hiroyuki; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Abou Hachem, Maher;

    2010-01-01

    -b-glucopyranosyl( 1 -> 4)-o-glucosaminopyranose I maltosaminej, a-a-glucopyranosyl-(1 -> 4)-b-mannopyranose, alpha-n-glucopyranosyl-(1 -> 4)-t-fucopyranose and alpha-b-glucopyranosyl-(1 -> 4)-D-xylopyranose, respectively, from 0 1 M maltose, 0.5 M N-acetyl glucosamine, 0.1 M glucosamine. 0.1 M mannose, 1 M t-fucose...

  17. Advances in Synthesis and Aromatization of Hantzsch 1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives%Hantzsch 1,4-二氢吡啶衍生物的合成及其芳香化研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹显洪

    2003-01-01

      综述了Hantzsch 1,4-二氢吡啶衍生物的合成及其芳香化研究进展.Hantzsch 1,4-二氢吡啶衍生物的合成方法有:(1)乙酰乙酸乙酯、芳香醛和氨或伯胺反应;(2)1,3-二酮化合物、芳香醛和氨或伯胺反应;(3)烯胺化合物和芳香醛反应;(4)1,5-二酮与氨反应;(5) a,b-不饱和酮与烯胺或酮和氨反应等.在合成技术上有固相合成和微波辅助合成等.Hantzsch 1,4-二氢吡啶芳香化方法有:光化学反应、电化学反应、脱氢反应、氢转移反应等,本文主要对脱氢反应研究进展进行综述.%  The main methods of synthesis and aromatization of Hantzsch 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives was reviewed in this paper. The former included the reactions of ethyl acetoacetate and aromaticaldehyde with ammonia or primary amine, the reactions of 1,3-diketone compounds and aromaticaldehyde with ammonia or primary amine, the reactions of enamine compounds with aromaticaldehyde, the reactions of 1,5-diketone with amine, the reactions of a,b-unsaturated ketone with enamine or ketone and amine. The synthetic technologies included solid-phase synthesis and microwave-assistant synthesis. The latter included photochemical reactions, electrochemical reactions, dehydrogenation reactions, hydrogen transfer reactions.

  18. 3,5-二乙酰基-1,4-二氢吡啶热致变色性质的研究%Thermochromism of 3,5-Diacety-1,4-Dihydropyridine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏; 孟建新

    2005-01-01

    研究了3,5-二乙酰基-1,4-二氢吡啶的热致变色过程中吸收光谱的变化,考察了溶剂、酸碱性、加热时间和温度等因素对热致变色现象的影响,并简要讨论了可能的变色机理.

  19. Design of Large Scale 3Cr-1Mo-1/4V Forge Stell Hydrocrrack-ing Reactor%大型3Cr-1 Mo-1/4V锻钢制加氢反应器的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金光; 陶宁

    2003-01-01

    对一台大直径的3Cr-1Mo-1/4V锻钢制加氢反应器的选材、新型冷氢箱结构进行了详细介绍,并对热电偶结构提出了改进措施,同时利用先进的计算软件对关键部位进行了应力分析.

  20. Possible Protective Effect Of Quercetin Against 1,4-Dioxane And Gamma Radiation Induced Oxidative Stress In Male Albino Rats Key words: Quercetin, 1,4-Dioxane, Irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quercetin, a bioflavonoid, is frequently found in consumed foods including apples, berries, onion, tea and vegetables. Quercetin has many beneficial effects on human health including cardiovascular protection, anti-cancer activity, cataract prevention, anti-viral activity and anti inflammatory effects. The present study is an attempt to evaluate the radio-protective properties of quercetin in gamma irradiated rat and the toxic effect of administration of 1,4-dioxane as well as the efficacy of quercetin as one of the most important antioxidant flavonoid in diet. At the 3rd and 10th days after the last dose of dioxane injection (one month) and radiation exposure (6 Gy, fractionated), the biochemical analysis in the serum showed significant elevation in lipid peroxide content (MDA), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) accompanied by significant depletion in glutathione (GSH). Also, the results showed significant increase in the level of DNA fragmentation in liver tissues of rats. Supplementation of quercetin to rats before and during exposure to gamma radiation and/or administration of 1,4-dioxane induced significant amelioration in the levels of all studied parameters. According to the results obtained, it could be concluded that quercetin might provide a protection against oxidative stress and metabolic disorders induced by gamma irradiation and 1,4-dioxane.

  1. Post-irradiation fatigue test of 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel for the pressure vessel material of the HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low cycle fatigue tests of the irradiated 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel for the pressure vessel material of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) were performed to examine the neutron irradiation effect on fatigue properties, i.e., fatigue life and cyclic softening behavior. These tests were performed at 450degC in a vacuum of ∼10-4 Pa using a servo-hydraulic fatigue testing machine installed in a hot cell of the Hot Laboratory of the Oarai Research Establishment. Axial strain rate was controlled at 0.1%/sec with total strain ranges of 0.75, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2 and 1.5%. Main results are summarized as follows: 1) Maximum stress at the initial stage of the cyclic fatigue testing of the specimens irradiated to a neutron fluence over 2x1019 n/cm2 (>1MeV) increased in comparison with the unirradiated specimens. 2) No significant difference was found in the cyclic softening behavior between the irradiated and unirradiated specimens. 3) Fatigue life of the irradiated specimen whose ductility was reduced by the neutron irradiation decreased slightly in comparison with the unirradiated specimen. 4) It is considered that there is no effect of the neutron irradiation on the fatigue life and the cyclic softening behavior at the total fluence expected in the lifetime of the HTTR pressure vessel. (author)

  2. Results from a 20 scintillator bar time-of-flight test system located inside the 1.4 T CDF solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on a test time-of-flight (TOF) system that operated in the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) during pp-bar Tevatron collider operation at √s=1.8 TeV in the fall 1995 running period. The TOF system consisted of 20 130x4x4 cm3 long Bicron BC408 scintillator bars, with each end of the bars fitted with a small compound parabolic concentrator and a 16-stage R5946 Hamamatsu fine-mesh photomultiplier. The electronics chain consisted of a custom designed preamplifier, constant fraction discriminator, and commercial TDC and ADC FASTBUS modules read out with the CDF data acquisition system. The counters were installed between the Central Tracking Chamber and the 1.4 T superconducting solenoid at a mean radius of 140 cm. We report a procedure for calculating the t0 time from all tracks in an event, the timing resolution, and the particle identification performance of this system

  3. A 3.1-4.8 GHz transmitter with a high frequency divider in 0.18 μm CMOS for OFDM-UWB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Renliang; Ren Junyan; Li Wei; Li Ning

    2009-01-01

    A fully integrated low power RF transmitter for a WiMedia 3.1-4.8 GHz multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing ultra-wideband system is presented. With a separate transconductance stage, the quadrature up-conversion modulator achieves high linearity with low supply voltage. The co-design of different resonant frequencies of the modulator and the differential to single (D2S) converter ensures in-band gain flatness. By means of a series inductor peaking technique, the D2S converter obtains 9 dB more gain without extra power consumption. A divided-by-2 divider is used for carrier signal generation. The measurement results show an output power between -10.7 and -3.1 dBm with 7.6 dB control range, an OIP3 up to 12 dBm, a sideband rejection of 35 dBc and a carrier rejection of 30 dBc. The ESD protected chip is fabricated in the Jazz 0.18/zm RF CMOS process with an area of 1.74 mm~2 and only consumes 32 mA current (at 1.8 V) including the test associated parts.

  4. Infrared fluorescent protein 1.4 genetic labeling tracks engrafted cardiac progenitor cells in mouse ischemic hearts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Chen

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy has a potential for regenerating damaged myocardium. However, a key obstacle to cell therapy's success is the loss of engrafted cells due to apoptosis or necrosis in the ischemic myocardium. While many strategies have been developed to improve engrafted cell survival, tools to evaluate cell efficacy within the body are limited. Traditional genetic labeling tools, such as GFP-like fluorescent proteins (eGFP, DsRed, mCherry, have limited penetration depths in vivo due to tissue scattering and absorption. To circumvent these limitations, a near-infrared fluorescent mutant of the DrBphP bacteriophytochrome from Deinococcus radiodurans, IFP1.4, was developed for in vivo imaging, but it has yet to be used for in vivo stem/progenitor cell tracking. In this study, we incorporated IFP1.4 into mouse cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs by a lentiviral vector. Live IFP1.4-labeled CPCs were imaged by their near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF using an Odyssey scanner following overnight incubation with biliverdin. A significant linear correlation was observed between the amount of cells and NIRF signal intensity in in vitro studies. Lentiviral mediated IFP1.4 gene labeling is stable, and does not impact the apoptosis and cardiac differentiation of CPC. To assess efficacy of our model for engrafted cells in vivo, IFP1.4-labeled CPCs were intramyocardially injected into infarcted hearts. NIRF signals were collected at 1-day, 7-days, and 14-days post-injection using the Kodak in vivo multispectral imaging system. Strong NIRF signals from engrafted cells were imaged 1 day after injection. At 1 week after injection, 70% of the NIRF signal was lost when compared to the intensity of the day 1 signal. The data collected 2 weeks following transplantation showed an 88% decrease when compared to day 1. Our studies have shown that IFP1.4 gene labeling can be used to track the viability of transplanted cells in vivo.

  5. Loop reactor staged with structured fibrous catalytic layers for liquid-phase hydrogenations

    OpenAIRE

    Kiwi-Minsker, L.; Joannet, E.; Renken, A.

    2004-01-01

    A novel concept of a recycle loop reactor is developed with structured filamentous catalysts integrated as trays in a staged bubble column. The reactor can be operated in batch or continuous mode. Woven fabrics of activated carbon fibers (ACF) were used as support for the Pd catalyst. The loop reactor was tested in the 2-butyne-1,4-diol hydrogenation showing selectivity up to 97% towards 2-butene-1,4-diol at conversions up to 80%. The reactor behavior was described quant. assuming an ideally ...

  6. (2,2′-Bipyridine-κ2N,N′dichloridopalladium(II 1,4-dioxane hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alfredo Gutiérrez Márquez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [PdCl2(C10H8N2]·0.5C4H8O2, consists of one PdII complex molecule and a half-molecule of 1,4-dioxane, the complete molecule being generated by inversion symmetry. The PdII atom has an almost square-planar coordination formed by the 2,2′-bipyridine ligand and two chloride ligands. Two intramolecular C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds occur. In the crystal, the PdII complex and 1,4-dioxane molecules are connected by C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a layer parallel to (10-1. Within the layer, weak π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.817 (4 Å] are observed between the pyridine rings.

  7. Mechanism and kinetics of the reaction of 1,4-thioxane with O3 in the atmosphere - A theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhiya, L.; Kolandaivel, P.; Senthilkumar, K.

    2012-02-01

    A theoretical investigation of the atmospheric oxidation of a cyclic organosulfur compound 1,4-thioxane by O3 is performed. The pathways for the reaction of 1,4-thioxane with O3 have been modeled using B3LYP, M06-2X, MPW1K and MP2 level of theories with 6-31G(d,p), 6-311G(d,p) and 6-31+G(d,p) basis sets. The reaction is initiated by the formation of a primary ozonide, followed by a biradical, which on subsequent reactions with other atmospheric species produces hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxides and organic peroxides. The results obtained from DFT calculations were subsequently used to perform canonical variational transition-state theory calculations to determine the rate constant. The calculated rate constant is in good agreement with the available experimental data.

  8. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply and laying of pipes for the LHC (points 1 & 4)

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply and laying of pipes for the LHC (Points 1 & 4). Following a market survey carried out among 65 firms in twelve Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2635/ST/LHC) was sent on 18 February 2000 to one firm and five consortia, four consisting of two firms and one consisting of three firms in seven Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received five tenders from the five consortia. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium JBS CONSTRUCTION (UK) and SADE (FR), the lowest bidder, for the supply and laying of pipes at LHC Points 1 & 4, for an amount of 897 819 Swiss francs, not subject to revision. The consortium has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: GB-53%; FR-47%.

  9. Detection and period measurements of GX1+4 at hard x ray energies with the SIGMA telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, PH.; Salotti, L.; Lebrun, F.; Paul, J.; Denis, M.; Barret, D.; Jourdain, E.; Roques, J. P.; Churazov, E.; Gilfanov, M.

    1992-01-01

    The galactic Low Mass X ray Binary GX1+4 was detected by the coded aperture hard X ray gamma ray SIGMA telescope during the Feb. to April 1991 observations of the galactic center regions. The source, whose emission varied during the survey of a factor greater than 40 pct., reached a maximum luminosity in the 40 to 140 energy range of 1.03 x 10(exp 37) erg/s (D = 8.5 kpc), thus approaching the emission level of the 1970 to 1980 high state. Two minute flux pulsations were detected on Mar. 22 and on Mar. 31 and Apr. 1. Comparison with the last period measurements shows that the current spin-down phase of GX1+4 is ending. Concerning the proposed association of this source with the galactic center 511 keV annihilation emission, upper limits were derived.

  10. Production of xylan degrading endo-1, 4-β-xylanase from thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus KIBGE-IB29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Bibi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Xylan degrading bacterial strain was isolated from soil and identified as Geobacillus stearothermophilus KIBGE-IB29 on the basis of morphological, biochemical and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Optimization of medium and culture conditions in submerged fermentation was investigated for maximum endo-1, 4-β-xylanase production. High yield of xylan degrading endo-1, 4-β-xylanase was achieved at 60 °C and pH-6.0 with 24 h of fermentation. Maximum enzyme was produced using 0.5% xylan as a carbon source, 0.5% peptone, 0.2% yeast extract and 0.1% meat extract as nitrogen sources. Di-potassium hydrogen phosphate (0.25%, calcium chloride (0.01%, potassium hydrogen phosphate (0.05% and ammonium sulfate (0.05% were also incorporated in the fermentation medium to enhance the enzyme production.

  11. Synthesis of 2-(4-Aminomethyl-1H-1,2,3-Triazole-1-yl-1,4-Naphthoquinone Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner O. Valença

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, were synthesized 18 new compounds based on 1H-1,2,3-triazole-1,4-naphthoquinones via Cu-AAC (Cu-catalyzed Azide Alkyne Cycloaddition reaction. The compounds (2-7(a-c were obtained in moderate-to-good yields (43-99%. Two methodologies were employed to obtain 2-(4-aminomethyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives. Firstly, we using the Method A (CH3CN/CuI/r.t./20h, but some compounds presented moderate yields of 43-60%. Fortunately, when we applied the Method B (DMF/Et3N/ultrasound, were obtained yields between 78 and 92%.

  12. Survival Advantage Associated with Decrease in Stage at Detection from Stage IIIC to Stage IIIA Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hoff

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to document the survival advantage of lowering stage at detection from Stage IIIC to Stage IIIA epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods. Treatment outcomes and survival were evaluated in patients with Stage IIIA and Stage IIIC epithelial ovarian cancer treated from 2000 to 2009 at the University of Kentucky Markey Cancer Center (UKMCC and SEER institutions. Results. Cytoreduction to no visible disease (P<0.0001 and complete response to platinum-based chemotherapy (P<0.025 occurred more frequently in Stage IIIA than in Stage IIIC cases. Time to progression was shorter in patients with Stage IIIC ovarian cancer (17±1 months than in those with Stage II1A disease (36±8 months. Five-year overall survival (OS improved from 41% in Stage IIIC patients to 60% in Stage IIIA patients treated at UKMCC and from 37% to 56% in patients treated at SEER institutions for a survival advantage of 19% in both data sets. 53% of Stage IIIA and 14% of Stage IIIC patients had NED at last followup. Conclusions. Decreasing stage at detection from Stage IIIC to stage IIIA epithelial ovarian cancer is associated with a 5-year survival advantage of nearly 20% in patients treated by surgical tumor cytoreduction and platinum-based chemotherapy.

  13. Development of one pot three component synthesis of 1,4-substituted, 1,2,3-triazoles, employing green catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. N arasimha Murthy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and eco-friendly protocol for the synthesis of 1,4-substituted-1H-1,2,3-triazoles was achieved employing D-glucosamine as a green ligand with CuI as catalyst. An advantage, of high water solubility, of the ligand facilitates easy catalyst removal. All the products were formed in good yields and were characterized by advanced spectral data.

  14. Synthesis of Some New 1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives through a Facile One-pot Hantzsch Condensation Catalyzed by Triethylamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghalem, Wassima; Boulcina, Raouf; Debache, Abdelmadjid

    2012-01-01

    A facile and efficient synthesis of new 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives was reported via Hantzsch three-com- ponent condensation reaction of aldehydes or formylphenylboronic acids, ethyl acetoacetate, and ammonium acetate in the presence of a catalytic amount of triethylamine under solvent-free conditions. The method described here of- fers several advantages including high yields, short reaction times, and simple work-up procedure.

  15. Asymmetric 1,4-bis(ethynylbicyclo[2.2.2]octane rotators via monocarbinol functionalization. Ready access to polyrotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyprien Lemouchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric rotators with a 1,4-bis(ethynylbicyclo[2.2.2]octane (BCO core are needed for engineering crystalline arrays of functional molecular rotors. Their synthesis uses carbinol, 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol, as a protecting group because of its polar character and its ability to sustain orthogonal functionalization with the further advantage of being readily removed. The synthesis in good yields of unprecedented asymmetric rotors and polyrotors demonstrates the efficiency of this strategy.

  16. Some experiments investigating a possible L(1/4) algorithm for the discrete logarithm problem in algebraic curves

    OpenAIRE

    Massierer, Maike

    2014-01-01

    The function field sieve, a subexponential algorithm of complexity L(1/3) that computes discrete logarithms in finite fields, has recently been improved to an algorithm of complexity L(1/4) and subsequently to a quasi-polynomial time algorithm. We investigate whether the new ideas also apply to index calculus algorithms for computing discrete logarithms in Jacobians of algebraic curves. While we do not give a final answer to the question, we discuss a number of ideas, experiments, and possibl...

  17. Effect of the environment on the electrical conductance of the single benzene-1,4-diamine molecule junction

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeto Nakashima; Yuuta Takahashi; Manabu Kiguchi

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the environment on the electrical conductance of a single benzene-1,4-diamine (BDA) molecule bridging Au electrodes, using the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The conductance of the single BDA molecule junction decreased upon a change in the environment from tetraglyme, to mesitylene, to water, and finally to N2 gas, while the spread in the conductance value increased. The order of the conductance values of the single BDA molecule junction was explained by t...

  18. One-pot efficient green synthesis of 1,4-dihydro-quinoxaline-2,3-dione derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Harjyoti Thakuria; Gopal Das

    2006-09-01

    An efficient synthesis of the potential pharmacophore 1,4-dihydro-quinoxaline-2,3-dione (1) has been achieved in a one-pot reaction at room temperature from substituted -phenylene diamine and oxalic acid under solvent-free conditions by a simple grinding method with unsurpassed atom economy. Thermal and powder X-ray diffraction analysis was carried out for some hydrated crystals.

  19. Fine mapping and single nucleotide polymorphism effects estimation on pig chromosomes 1, 4, 7, 8, 17 and X

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo, André M.; Lopes, Paulo S.; Paixão, Débora M.; Silva, Fabyano F; Bastiaansen, John W. M.; Paiva, Samuel R.; Faria, Danielle A; Simone E F Guimarães

    2013-01-01

    Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) from previous linkage studies was performed on pig chromosomes 1, 4, 7, 8, 17, and X which were known to harbor QTL. Traits were divided into: growth performance, carcass, internal organs, cut yields, and meat quality. Fifty families were used of a F2 population produced by crossing local Brazilian Piau boars with commercial sows. The linkage map consisted of 237 SNP and 37 microsatellite markers covering 866 centimorgans. QTL were identified by r...

  20. The 1,4-benzodiazepine Ro5-4864 (4-chlorodiazepam) suppresses multiple pro-inflammatory mast cell effector functions

    OpenAIRE

    Yousefi, Omid Sascha; Wilhelm, Thomas; Maschke-Neuß, Karin; Kuhny, Marcel; Martin, Christian; Molderings, Gerhard J; Kratz, Felix; Hildenbrand, Bernd; Huber, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Activation of mast cells (MCs) can be achieved by the high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI) as well as by additional receptors such as the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor and the receptor tyrosine kinase Kit (stem cell factor [SCF] receptor). Thus, pharmacological interventions which stabilize MCs in response to different receptors would be preferable in diseases with pathological systemic MC activation such as systemic mastocytosis. 1,4-Benzodiazepines (BDZs) have been reported to suppres...