WorldWideScience

Sample records for amorphous phase separation

  1. XRD and SEM study on the phase separation and crystallization behavior for an amorphous Cu+ conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuan; Hou Jianguo; Yu Wenhai

    1990-01-01

    The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study was carried out for an amorphous Cu + conductor 0.4 CuI-0.3 Cu 2 O-0.3 P 2 O 5 with the simultaneous conductivity measurement in the isothermal heat treament process. The results indicated that the initial amorphous material was phase-separated. In the course of time the separated amorphous phase disappeared, the crystalline γ-CuI and Cu 2 P 2 O 7 formed in sequence and grew up gradually. The correlation of the phase separation and crystallization behavior with the conductivity anomaly confirmed again the interface effect between different phases in amorphous fast ionic conductors and its universality

  2. Technical Status Report on the Effect of Phosphate and Aluminum on the Development of Amorphous Phase Separation in Sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzi, A.D.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the Tank Focus Area ''Optimize Waste Loading'' task is to enhance the definition of the acceptable processing window for high-level waste vitrification plants. One possible manner in which the acceptable processing window may be enhanced is by reducing the uncertainty of various compositional/property models through a specifically defined experimental plan. A reduction in model uncertainty can reduce limitations on current acceptance constraints and may allow for a larger processing or operational window. Enhanced composition/property model predictions coupled with an increased waste loading may decrease the processing time and waste glass disposal costs (i.e., overall lifecycle costs). One of the compositional/property models currently being evaluated by the Tanks Focus Area is related to the development of amorphous phase separation in multi-component borosilicate glasses.Described in this report is the current status for evaluating the effect of phosphorus and alumina on both simple sodium borosilicate and high-level waste glasses on the formation of amorphous phase separation. The goal of this subtask is to increase the understanding of the formation of phase separation by adding significant amounts (3-5 wt. percent) of phosphorus and alumina to well-characterized glasses. Additional scope includes evaluating the effects of thermal history on the formation of amorphous phase separation and durability of select glasses.The development of data, understanding, and quantitative description for composition and kinetic effects on the development of amorphous phase separation will continue in FY99. This effort will provide insight into the compositional and thermal effects on phase stability and will lead to a better understanding of the methods used to predict the development of amorphous phase separation in HLW glasses

  3. Self-assembly of amorphous biophotonic nanostructures by phase separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufresne, Eric R.; Noh, Heeso; Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Mochrie, Simon G.J.; Cao, Hui; Prum, Richard O.; (Yale)

    2009-04-23

    Some of the most vivid colors in the animal kingdom are created not by pigments, but by wavelength-selective scattering of light from nanostructures. Here we investigate quasi-ordered nanostructures of avian feather barbs which produce vivid non-iridescent colors. These {beta}-keratin and air nanostructures are found in two basic morphologies: tortuous channels and amorphous packings of spheres. Each class of nanostructure is isotropic and has a pronounced characteristic length scale of variation in composition. These local structural correlations lead to strong backscattering over a narrow range of optical frequencies and little variation with angle of incidence. Such optical properties play important roles in social and sexual communication. To be effective, birds need to precisely control the development of these nanoscale structures, yet little is known about how they grow. We hypothesize that multiple lineages of birds have convergently evolved to exploit phase separation and kinetic arrest to self-assemble spongy color-producing nanostructures in feather barbs. Observed avian nanostructures are strikingly similar to those self-assembled during the phase separation of fluid mixtures; the channel and sphere morphologies are characteristic of phase separation by spinodal decomposition and nucleation and growth, respectively. These unstable structures are locked-in by the kinetic arrest of the {beta}-keratin matrix, likely through the entanglement or cross-linking of supermolecular {beta}-keratin fibers. Using the power of self-assembly, birds can robustly realize a diverse range of nanoscopic morphologies with relatively small physical and chemical changes during feather development.

  4. Phase separation in coamorphous systems: in silico prediction and the experimental challenge of detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajula, Katja; Wittoek, Lieke; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Korhonen, Ossi

    2014-07-07

    Combinatorial chemistry has enabled the production of very potent drugs that might otherwise suffer from poor solubility and low oral bioavailability. One approach to increase solubility is to make the drug amorphous, which leads to problems associated with drug stability. To improve stability, one option is to molecularly disperse the drug in a matrix. However, the primary reason for the failed stabilization with this approach is phase separation, which has been carefully studied in polymeric systems. Nevertheless, the amorphous-amorphous phase separation in coamorphous small molecule mixtures has not yet been reported. The goal of the present study was to experimentally detect the amorphous-amorphous phase separation between two small molecules. A modified in silico method for predicting miscibility by the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter is presented, where conformational variations of the studied molecules were taken into account. A series of drug-drug mixtures, with different mixture ratios, were analyzed by conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC(conv)) to detect possible amorphous-amorphous phase separations. The phase separation of coamorphous drug-drug mixtures was also monitored by temperature modulated DSC (MDSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) imaging at temperatures above Tg for prolonged time periods. Amorphous-amorphous phase separation was not detected with DSC(conv), probably due to the slow kinetics of phase separation. However, the melting of the separated and subsequently crystallized phases was detected by MDSC. Furthermore, FT-IR imaging was able to detect the separation of the two amorphous phases, which demonstrates the ability of this method to detect small molecule phase separations.

  5. Anisotropic imprint of amorphization and phase separation in manganite thin films via laser interference irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Junfeng; Lin, Zhipeng; Wu, Jianchun; Dong, Zhili; Wu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Materials with mesoscopic structural and electronic phase separation, either inherent from synthesis or created via external means, are known to exhibit functionalities absent in the homogeneous counterparts. One of the most notable examples is the colossal magnetoresistance discovered in mixed-valence manganites, where the coexistence of nano-to micrometer-sized phase-separated domains dictates the magnetotransport. However, it remains challenging to pattern and process such materials into predesigned structures and devices. In this work, a direct laser interference irradiation (LII) method is employed to produce periodic stripes in thin films of a prototypical phase-separated manganite Pr0.65(Ca0.75Sr0.25)0.35MnO3 (PCSMO). LII induces selective structural amorphization within the crystalline PCSMO matrix, forming arrays with dimensions commensurate with the laser wavelength. Furthermore, because the length scale of LII modification is compatible to that of phase separation in PCSMO, three orders of magnitude of increase in magnetoresistance and significant in-plane transport anisotropy are observed in treated PCSMO thin films. Our results show that LII is a rapid, cost-effective and contamination-free technique to tailor and improve the physical properties of manganite thin films, and it is promising to be generalized to other functional materials.

  6. Anisotropic imprint of amorphization and phase separation in manganite thin films via laser interference irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Junfeng

    2014-09-16

    Materials with mesoscopic structural and electronic phase separation, either inherent from synthesis or created via external means, are known to exhibit functionalities absent in the homogeneous counterparts. One of the most notable examples is the colossal magnetoresistance discovered in mixed-valence manganites, where the coexistence of nano-to micrometer-sized phase-separated domains dictates the magnetotransport. However, it remains challenging to pattern and process such materials into predesigned structures and devices. In this work, a direct laser interference irradiation (LII) method is employed to produce periodic stripes in thin films of a prototypical phase-separated manganite Pr0.65(Ca0.75Sr0.25)0.35MnO3 (PCSMO). LII induces selective structural amorphization within the crystalline PCSMO matrix, forming arrays with dimensions commensurate with the laser wavelength. Furthermore, because the length scale of LII modification is compatible to that of phase separation in PCSMO, three orders of magnitude of increase in magnetoresistance and significant in-plane transport anisotropy are observed in treated PCSMO thin films. Our results show that LII is a rapid, cost-effective and contamination-free technique to tailor and improve the physical properties of manganite thin films, and it is promising to be generalized to other functional materials.

  7. Direct separation of short range order in intermixed nanocrystalline and amorphous phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenkel, Anatoly I.; Kolobov, Alexander V.; Robinson, Ian K.; Cross, Julie O.; Maeda, Yoshihito; Bouldin, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Diffraction anomalous fine-structure (DAFS) and extended x-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) measurements were combined to determine short range order (SRO) about a single atomic type in a sample of mixed amorphous and nanocrystalline phases of germanium. EXAFS yields information about the SRO of all Ge atoms in the sample, while DAFS determines the SRO of only the ordered fraction. We determine that the first-shell distance distribution is bimodal; the nanocrystalline distance is the same as the bulk crystal, to within 0.01(2) A ring , but the mean amorphous Ge-Ge bond length is expanded by 0.076(19) Angstrom. This approach can be applied to many systems of mixed amorphous and nanocrystalline phases

  8. Detecting phase separation of freeze-dried binary amorphous systems using pair-wise distribution function and multivariate data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chieng, Norman; Trnka, Hjalte; Boetker, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of multivariate data analysis for powder X-ray diffraction-pair-wise distribution function (PXRD-PDF) data to detect phase separation in freeze-dried binary amorphous systems. Polymer-polymer and polymer-sugar binary systems at various ratios were...... freeze-dried. All samples were analyzed by PXRD, transformed to PDF and analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). These results were validated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) through characterization of glass transition of the maximally freeze-concentrate solute (Tg'). Analysis of PXRD......-PDF data using PCA provides a more clear 'miscible' or 'phase separated' interpretation through the distribution pattern of samples on a score plot presentation compared to residual plot method. In a phase separated system, samples were found to be evenly distributed around the theoretical PDF profile...

  9. Anisotropic phase separation through the metal-insulator transition in amorphous Mo-Ge and Fe-Ge alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regan, M.J.

    1993-12-01

    Since an amorphous solid is often defined as that which lacks long-range order, the atomic structure is typically characterized in terms of the high-degree of short-range order. Most descriptions of vapor-deposited amorphous alloys focus on characterizing this order, while assuming that the material is chemically homogeneous beyond a few near neighbors. By coupling traditional small-angle x-ray scattering which probes spatial variations of the electron density with anomalous dispersion which creates a species-specific contrast, one can discern cracks and voids from chemical inhomogeneity. In particular, one finds that the chemical inhomogeneities which have been previously reported in amorphous Fe x Ge 1-x and Mo x Ge 1-x are quite anisotropic, depending significantly on the direction of film growth. With the addition of small amounts of metal atoms (x 2 or MoGe 3 . Finally, by manipulating the deposited power flux and rates of growth, Fe x Ge 1-x films which have the same Fe composition x can be grown to different states of phase separation. These results may help explain the difficulty workers have had in isolating the metal/insulator transition for these and other vapor-deposited amorphous alloys

  10. Phase separation in an ionomer glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene Thostrup; Tian, K.V.; Dobó-Nagy, C.

    2015-01-01

    The G338 ionomer glass is a fluoro-alumino-silicate system, which is used as the powder component of glass ionomer cements (GICs) in dental applications. However, despite progress in understanding the nature of this glass, chemical identity of its separated amorphous phases has not yet been...... amorphous phases in G388 are Ca/Na-Al-Si-O, Ca-Al-F and Ca-P-O-F phases, respectively. However, the exact chemical compositions of the three phases still require further exploration. The results of this work are important for understanding the impact of phase separation within ionomer glasses on the setting...... conclusively determined. In this work, we identify these phases by performing differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses on both the as-received glass and heat-treated samples. We detected three glass transitions in the as-received G338 glass during DSC upscaning, implying...

  11. Neptunium immobilization and recovery using phase separated glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meaker, T.F.

    1997-01-01

    A phase separated (amorphous) glass has been developed which allows very efficient recovery of +4 valence actinides. The total amount of crystal formation in a heat treated vycor-type glass can be controlled with time, temperature and loading. Heat treatments at lower temperatures and for less time inhibit crystal formation while still allowing significant phase separation. If the Thorium loading exceeds 10 weight percent oxide, crystal formation during heat treatment may not be avoided. The total amount of crystal growth has a direct affect on thorium leachability. An increase in crystal formation limits the Th recovery significantly. High thorium loaded glasses (15 weight percent) with heat treatments (increased crystal formation) leach at approximately the same rate as non-heat treated glasses. A phase separated (amorphous) glass has been produced using thorium as a surrogate for neptunium. Two different homogeneous vycor compositions targeting 10 and 15 weight percent thorium oxide have been processed, heat treated and leached with concentrated nitric acid at 110 degrees C. Thorium recovery rates have been shown to be considerably better when the glass has been heat treated inducing phase separation that is relatively crystal free. Non-heat treated and crystalline (due to heat treatment) glasses have similar Th recovery rates with respect to surface area. Phase separated amorphous samples were found to have significantly higher thorium concentrations in the leachate compared to non-heat treated and crystalline glasses for all mesh sizes. All glasses had increased thorium concentration in the leachate as surface area increased

  12. Crystallization of amorphous phase in niobium alloys with oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekanenko, V.M.; Samojlenko, Z.A.; Revyakin, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    Crystallization and subsequent phase transformations of amorphous phase during annealings in the system Nb-O are studied. It is shown that quenching from liquid state of niobium alloys with oxygen with a rate of 10 5 -10 6 K/s results in partial crystallization of the melt. Phase transition from amorphous to crystal state at 670 K in all probability takes place without the change of chemical composition. After crystallization the decomposition of oversaturated solid solution on the basis of NbO takes place with the separation of low- temperature modification, γ-Nb 2 O 5 . Niobium pentoxide of both modifications during prolong annealings at 770 K and short- time annealings higher 1070 K disappears completely [ru

  13. Water-induced phase separation of miconazole-poly (vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) amorphous solid dispersions: Insights with confocal fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboo, Sugandha; Taylor, Lynne S

    2017-08-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of confocal fluorescence microscopy (CFM) to study the water-induced phase separation of miconazole-poly (vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (mico-PVPVA) amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs), induced during preparation, upon storage at high relative humidity (RH) and during dissolution. Different fluorescent dyes were added to drug-polymer films and the location of the dyes was evaluated using CFM. Orthogonal techniques, in particular atomic force microscopy (AFM) coupled with nanoscale infrared spectroscopy (AFM-nanoIR), were used to provide additional analysis of the drug-polymer blends. The initial miscibility of mico-PVPVA ASDs prepared under low humidity conditions was confirmed by AFM-nanoIR. CFM enabled rapid identification of drug-rich and polymer-rich phases in phase separated films prepared under high humidity conditions. The identity of drug- and polymer-rich domains was confirmed using AFM-nanoIR imaging and localized IR spectroscopy, together with Lorentz contact resonance (LCR) measurements. The CFM technique was then utilized successfully to further investigate phase separation in mico-PVPVA films exposed to high RH storage and to visualize phase separation dynamics following film immersion in buffer. CFM is thus a promising new approach to study the phase behavior of ASDs, utilizing drug and polymer specific dyes to visualize the evolution of heterogeneity in films exposed to water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermodynamical modeling of nuclear glasses: coexistence of amorphous phases; Modelisation thermodynamique des verres nucleaires: coexistence entre phases amorphes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adjanor, G

    2007-11-15

    Investigating the stability of borosilicate glasses used in the nuclear industry with respect to phase separation requires to estimate the Gibbs free energies of the various phases appearing in the material. In simulation, using current computational resources, a direct state-sampling of a glassy system with respect to its ensemble statistics is not ergodic and the estimated ensemble averages are not reliable. Our approach consists in generating, at a given cooling rate, a series of quenches, or paths connecting states of the liquid to states of the glass, and then in taking into account the probability to generate the paths leading to the different glassy states in ensembles averages. In this way, we introduce a path ensemble formalism and calculate a Landau free energy associated to a glassy meta-basin. This method was validated by accurately mapping the free energy landscape of a 38-atom glassy cluster. We then applied this approach to the calculation of the Gibbs free energies of binary amorphous Lennard-Jones alloys, and checked the correlation between the observed tendencies to order or to phase separate and the computed Gibbs free energies. We finally computed the driving force to phase separation in a simplified three-oxide nuclear glass modeled by a Born-Mayer-Huggins potential that includes a three-body term, and we compared the estimated quantities to the available experimental data. (author)

  15. Solid-State NMR Investigation of Drug-Excipient Interactions and Phase Behavior in Indomethacin-Eudragit E Amorphous Solid Dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubach, Joseph W; Hau, Jonathan

    2018-02-20

    To investigate the nature of drug-excipient interactions between indomethacin (IMC) and methacrylate copolymer Eudragit® E (EE) in the amorphous state, and evaluate the effects on formulation and stability of these amorphous systems. Amorphous solid dispersions containing IMC and EE were spray dried with drug loadings from 20% to 90%. PXRD was used to confirm the amorphous nature of the dispersions, and DSC was used to measure glass transition temperatures (T g ). 13 C and 15 N solid-state NMR was utilized to investigate changes in local structure and protonation state, while 1 H T 1 and T 1ρ relaxation measurements were used to probe miscibility and phase behavior of the dispersions. T g values for IMC-EE solid dispersions showed significant positive deviations from predicted values in the drug loading range of 40-90%, indicating a relatively strong drug-excipient interaction. 15 N solid-state NMR exhibited a change in protonation state of the EE basic amine, with two distinct populations for the EE amine at -360.7 ppm (unprotonated) and -344.4 ppm (protonated). Additionally, 1 H relaxation measurements showed phase separation at high drug load, indicating an amorphous ionic complex and free IMC-rich phase. PXRD data showed all ASDs up to 90% drug load remained physically stable after 2 years. 15 N solid-state NMR experiments show a change in protonation state of EE, indicating that an ionic complex indeed forms between IMC and EE in amorphous solid dispersions. Phase behavior was determined to exhibit nanoscale phase separation at high drug load between the amorphous ionic complex and excess free IMC.

  16. Analysis and simulation of phase transformation kinetics of zeolite A from amorphous phases

    CERN Document Server

    Marui, Y; Uchida, H; Takiyama, H

    2003-01-01

    Experiments on transformation rates of zeolite A from amorphous phases at different feed rates to alter the particle size of the amorphous phases were carried out to analyze the kinetics of the transformation, and were analyzed by performing simulation of the transformation. A clear dependence of the induction time for nucleation of zeolite A crystals on the surface area of the amorphous phase was recognized, indicating that the nucleation of zeolite A was heterogeneous and the nucleation rate was almost proportional to the size of the amorphous particles. From the simulation, the mechanism of the transformation was found to be heterogeneous nucleation of zeolite A crystals on the surface of amorphous particles followed by solution mediated phase transformation, and the transformation kinetics were well reproduced at different feed rates. (author)

  17. Nature of phase transitions in crystalline and amorphous GeTe-Sb2Te3 phase change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, B; Sen, S; Clark, S M

    2011-09-28

    The thermodynamic nature of phase stabilities and transformations are investigated in crystalline and amorphous Ge(1)Sb(2)Te(4) (GST124) phase change materials as a function of pressure and temperature using high-resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell. The phase transformation sequences upon compression, for cubic and hexagonal GST124 phases are found to be: cubic → amorphous → orthorhombic → bcc and hexagonal → orthorhombic → bcc. The Clapeyron slopes for melting of the hexagonal and bcc phases are negative and positive, respectively, resulting in a pressure dependent minimum in the liquidus. When taken together, the phase equilibria relations are consistent with the presence of polyamorphism in this system with the as-deposited amorphous GST phase being the low entropy low-density amorphous phase and the laser melt-quenched and high-pressure amorphized GST being the high entropy high-density amorphous phase. The metastable phase boundary between these two polyamorphic phases is expected to have a negative Clapeyron slope. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  18. Thermodynamical modeling of nuclear glasses: coexistence of amorphous phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adjanor, G.

    2007-11-01

    Investigating the stability of borosilicate glasses used in the nuclear industry with respect to phase separation requires to estimate the Gibbs free energies of the various phases appearing in the material. In simulation, using current computational resources, a direct state-sampling of a glassy system with respect to its ensemble statistics is not ergodic and the estimated ensemble averages are not reliable. Our approach consists in generating, at a given cooling rate, a series of quenches, or paths connecting states of the liquid to states of the glass, and then in taking into account the probability to generate the paths leading to the different glassy states in ensembles averages. In this way, we introduce a path ensemble formalism and calculate a Landau free energy associated to a glassy meta-basin. This method was validated by accurately mapping the free energy landscape of a 38-atom glassy cluster. We then applied this approach to the calculation of the Gibbs free energies of binary amorphous Lennard-Jones alloys, and checked the correlation between the observed tendencies to order or to phase separate and the computed Gibbs free energies. We finally computed the driving force to phase separation in a simplified three-oxide nuclear glass modeled by a Born-Mayer-Huggins potential that includes a three-body term, and we compared the estimated quantities to the available experimental data. (author)

  19. Phase separation and nanocrystal formation in Al-based metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonowicz, Jerzy

    2007-01-01

    Nanocrystallization in a group of Al-RE and Al-RE-TM (RE = rare earth, TM = transition metal) melt-spun amorphous alloys was studied using in situ small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering techniques (SAXS/WAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SAXS/WAXS measurements were carried out during isothermal annealing at temperatures close to crystallization point. A continuously growing interference maximum shifting progressively toward lower angles was found to develop in SAXS regime. Simultaneously taken WAXS spectra reveal formation of the primary fcc-Al nanocrystalline phase. The presence of the SAXS signal maximum indicates the spatial correlation between the compositional fluctuations. The peak position decay is an evidence of an increase of the fluctuation spacing characteristic for the coarsening stage of phase separation. The SAXS/WAXS data analysis indicates that amorphous phase decomposition triggers and controls the fcc-Al nanocrystalline phase formation. The glassy phase initially decomposes into Al-rich and RE-rich regions with typical lengths scale of about 10 nm. The nanocrystals nucleate preferentially inside the Al-rich amorphous regions and their growth is constrained by the region size because of the sluggish atomic diffusion in the RE-rich zones. A different crystallization mechanism is demonstrated in Al-Y-Ni-Co glass where WAXS spectra show formation of the fcc-Al primary phase but no interference peak in SAXS regime was found

  20. Aging mechanisms in amorphous phase-change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raty, Jean Yves; Zhang, Wei; Luckas, Jennifer; Chen, Chao; Mazzarello, Riccardo; Bichara, Christophe; Wuttig, Matthias

    2015-06-24

    Aging is a ubiquitous phenomenon in glasses. In the case of phase-change materials, it leads to a drift in the electrical resistance, which hinders the development of ultrahigh density storage devices. Here we elucidate the aging process in amorphous GeTe, a prototypical phase-change material, by advanced numerical simulations, photothermal deflection spectroscopy and impedance spectroscopy experiments. We show that aging is accompanied by a progressive change of the local chemical order towards the crystalline one. Yet, the glass evolves towards a covalent amorphous network with increasing Peierls distortion, whose structural and electronic properties drift away from those of the resonantly bonded crystal. This behaviour sets phase-change materials apart from conventional glass-forming systems, which display the same local structure and bonding in both phases.

  1. Three-dimensional nanomechanical mapping of amorphous and crystalline phase transitions in phase-change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, Ilja; Huey, Bryan D; Kolosov, Oleg V

    2013-11-13

    The nanostructure of micrometer-sized domains (bits) in phase-change materials (PCM) that undergo switching between amorphous and crystalline phases plays a key role in the performance of optical PCM-based memories. Here, we explore the dynamics of such phase transitions by mapping PCM nanostructures in three dimensions with nanoscale resolution by combining precision Ar ion beam cross-sectional polishing and nanomechanical ultrasonic force microscopy (UFM) mapping. Surface and bulk phase changes of laser written submicrometer to micrometer sized amorphous-to-crystalline (SET) and crystalline-to-amorphous (RESET) bits in chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 PCM are observed with 10-20 nm lateral and 4 nm depth resolution. UFM mapping shows that the Young's moduli of crystalline SET bits exceed the moduli of amorphous areas by 11 ± 2%, with crystalline content extending from a few nanometers to 50 nm in depth depending on the energy of the switching pulses. The RESET bits written with 50 ps pulses reveal shallower depth penetration and show 30-50 nm lateral and few nanometer vertical wavelike topography that is anticorrelated with the elastic modulus distribution. Reverse switching of amorphous RESET bits results in the full recovery of subsurface nanomechanical properties accompanied with only partial topography recovery, resulting in surface corrugations attributed to quenching. This precision sectioning and nanomechanical mapping approach could be applicable to a wide range of amorphous, nanocrystalline, and glass-forming materials for 3D nanomechanical mapping of amorphous-crystalline transitions.

  2. Electronic transport in mixed-phase hydrogenated amorphous/nanocrystalline silicon thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienkes, Lee Raymond

    Interest in mixed-phase silicon thin film materials, composed of an amorphous semiconductor matrix in which nanocrystalline inclusions are embedded, stems in part from potential technological applications, including photovoltaic and thin film transistor technologies. Conventional mixed-phase silicon films are produced in a single plasma reactor, where the conditions of the plasma must be precisely tuned, limiting the ability to adjust the film and nanoparticle parameters independently. The films presented in this thesis are deposited using a novel dual-plasma co-deposition approach in which the nanoparticles are produced separately in an upstream reactor and then injected into a secondary reactor where an amorphous silicon film is being grown. The degree of crystallinity and grain sizes of the films are evaluated using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction respectively. I describe detailed electronic measurements which reveal three distinct conduction mechanisms in n-type doped mixed-phase amorphous/nanocrystalline silicon thin films over a range of nanocrystallite concentrations and temperatures, covering the transition from fully amorphous to ~30% nanocrystalline. As the temperature is varied from 470 to 10 K, we observe activated conduction, multiphonon hopping (MPH) and Mott variable range hopping (VRH) as the nanocrystal content is increased. The transition from MPH to Mott-VRH hopping around 100K is ascribed to the freeze out of the phonon modes. A conduction model involving the parallel contributions of these three distinct conduction mechanisms is shown to describe both the conductivity and the reduced activation energy data to a high accuracy. Additional support is provided by measurements of thermal equilibration effects and noise spectroscopy, both done above room temperature (>300 K). This thesis provides a clear link between measurement and theory in these complex materials.

  3. Amorphous surface layer versus transient amorphous precursor phase in bone - A case study investigated by solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Euw, Stanislas; Ajili, Widad; Chan-Chang, Tsou-Hsi-Camille; Delices, Annette; Laurent, Guillaume; Babonneau, Florence; Nassif, Nadine; Azaïs, Thierry

    2017-09-01

    The presence of an amorphous surface layer that coats a crystalline core has been proposed for many biominerals, including bone mineral. In parallel, transient amorphous precursor phases have been proposed in various biomineralization processes, including bone biomineralization. Here we propose a methodology to investigate the origin of these amorphous environments taking the bone tissue as a key example. This study relies on the investigation of a bone tissue sample and its comparison with synthetic calcium phosphate samples, including a stoichiometric apatite, an amorphous calcium phosphate sample, and two different biomimetic apatites. To reveal if the amorphous environments in bone originate from an amorphous surface layer or a transient amorphous precursor phase, a combined solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment has been used. The latter consists of a double cross polarization 1 H→ 31 P→ 1 H pulse sequence followed by a 1 H magnetization exchange pulse sequence. The presence of an amorphous surface layer has been investigated through the study of the biomimetic apatites; while the presence of a transient amorphous precursor phase in the form of amorphous calcium phosphate particles has been mimicked with the help of a physical mixture of stoichiometric apatite and amorphous calcium phosphate. The NMR results show that the amorphous and the crystalline environments detected in our bone tissue sample belong to the same particle. The presence of an amorphous surface layer that coats the apatitic core of bone apatite particles has been unambiguously confirmed, and it is certain that this amorphous surface layer has strong implication on bone tissue biogenesis and regeneration. Questions still persist on the structural organization of bone and biomimetic apatites. The existing model proposes a core/shell structure, with an amorphous surface layer coating a crystalline bulk. The accuracy of this model is still debated because amorphous calcium

  4. Amorphous Phase Mediated Crystallization: Fundamentals of Biomineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Jin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many biomineralization systems start from transient amorphous precursor phases, but the exact crystallization pathways and mechanisms remain largely unknown. The study of a well-defined biomimetic crystallization system is key for elucidating the possible mechanisms of biomineralization and monitoring the detailed crystallization pathways. In this review, we focus on amorphous phase mediated crystallization (APMC pathways and their crystallization mechanisms in bio- and biomimetic-mineralization systems. The fundamental questions of biomineralization as well as the advantages and limitations of biomimetic model systems are discussed. This review could provide a full landscape of APMC systems for biomineralization and inspire new experiments aimed at some unresolved issues for understanding biomineralization.

  5. Maxwell rigidity and topological constraints in amorphous phase-change networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micoulaut, M.; Otjacques, C.; Raty, J.-Y.; Bichara, C.

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing first-principles molecular-dynamics simulations of different telluride amorphous networks, we develop a method for the enumeration of radial and angular topological constraints, and show that the phase diagram of the most popular system Ge-Sb-Te can be split into two compositional elastic phases: a tellurium rich flexible phase and a stressed rigid phase that contains most of the materials used in phase-change applications. This sound atomic scale insight should open new avenues for the understanding of phase-change materials and other complex amorphous materials from the viewpoint of rigidity.

  6. Nature of metastable amorphous-to-crystalline reversible phase transformations in GaSb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkan, B. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 20015 (United States); Edwards, T. G.; Sen, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Raoux, S. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)

    2013-08-28

    The structural, thermodynamic, and kinetic aspects of the transformations between the metastable amorphous and crystalline phases of GaSb are investigated as a function of pressure at ambient temperature using synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments in a diamond anvil cell. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the pressure induced crystallization of amorphous GaSb into the β-Sn crystal structure near ∼5 GPa is possibly a manifestation of an underlying polyamorphic phase transition between a semiconducting, low density and a metallic, high density amorphous (LDA and HDA, respectively) phases. In this scenario, the large differences in the thermal crystallization kinetics between amorphous GaSb deposited in thin film form by sputtering and that prepared by laser melt quenching may be related to the relative location of the glass transition temperature of the latter in the pressure-temperature (P-T) space with respect to the location of the critical point that terminate the LDA ↔ HDA transition. The amorphous →β-Sn phase transition is found to be hysteretically reversible as the β-Sn phase undergoes decompressive amorphization near ∼2 GPa due to the lattice instabilities that give rise to density fluctuations in the crystal upon decompression.

  7. Nature of metastable amorphous-to-crystalline reversible phase transformations in GaSb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, B.; Edwards, T. G.; Raoux, S.; Sen, S.

    2013-08-01

    The structural, thermodynamic, and kinetic aspects of the transformations between the metastable amorphous and crystalline phases of GaSb are investigated as a function of pressure at ambient temperature using synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments in a diamond anvil cell. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the pressure induced crystallization of amorphous GaSb into the β-Sn crystal structure near ˜5 GPa is possibly a manifestation of an underlying polyamorphic phase transition between a semiconducting, low density and a metallic, high density amorphous (LDA and HDA, respectively) phases. In this scenario, the large differences in the thermal crystallization kinetics between amorphous GaSb deposited in thin film form by sputtering and that prepared by laser melt quenching may be related to the relative location of the glass transition temperature of the latter in the pressure-temperature (P-T) space with respect to the location of the critical point that terminate the LDA ↔ HDA transition. The amorphous → β-Sn phase transition is found to be hysteretically reversible as the β-Sn phase undergoes decompressive amorphization near ˜2 GPa due to the lattice instabilities that give rise to density fluctuations in the crystal upon decompression.

  8. Nature of metastable amorphous-to-crystalline reversible phase transformations in GaSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkan, B.; Edwards, T. G.; Sen, S.; Raoux, S.

    2013-01-01

    The structural, thermodynamic, and kinetic aspects of the transformations between the metastable amorphous and crystalline phases of GaSb are investigated as a function of pressure at ambient temperature using synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments in a diamond anvil cell. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the pressure induced crystallization of amorphous GaSb into the β-Sn crystal structure near ∼5 GPa is possibly a manifestation of an underlying polyamorphic phase transition between a semiconducting, low density and a metallic, high density amorphous (LDA and HDA, respectively) phases. In this scenario, the large differences in the thermal crystallization kinetics between amorphous GaSb deposited in thin film form by sputtering and that prepared by laser melt quenching may be related to the relative location of the glass transition temperature of the latter in the pressure-temperature (P-T) space with respect to the location of the critical point that terminate the LDA ↔ HDA transition. The amorphous →β-Sn phase transition is found to be hysteretically reversible as the β-Sn phase undergoes decompressive amorphization near ∼2 GPa due to the lattice instabilities that give rise to density fluctuations in the crystal upon decompression

  9. Thermodynamically controlled crystallization of glucose pentaacetates from amorphous phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlodarczyk, P., E-mail: patrykw@imn.gliwice.pl; Hawelek, L.; Hudecki, A.; Kolano-Burian, A. [Institute of Non-Ferrous Metals, ul. Sowinskiego 5, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Wlodarczyk, A. [Department of Animal Histology and Embryology, University of Silesia, ul. Bankowa 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)

    2016-08-15

    The α and β glucose pentaacetates are known sugar derivatives, which can be potentially used as stabilizers of amorphous phase of active ingredients of drugs (API). In the present work, crystallization behavior of equimolar mixture of α and β form in comparison to both pure anomers is revealed. It was shown that despite the same molecular interactions and similar molecular dynamics, crystallization from amorphous phase is significantly suppressed in equimolar mixture. Time dependent X-ray diffraction studies confirmed higher stability of the quenched amorphous equimolar mixture. Its tendency to crystallization is about 10 times lower than for pure anomers. Calorimetric studies revealed that the α and β anomers don’t form solid solutions and have eutectic point for x{sub α} = 0.625. Suppressed crystallization tendency in the mixture is probably caused by the altered thermodynamics of the system. The factors such as difference of free energy between crystalline and amorphous state or altered configurational entropy are probably responsible for the inhibitory effect.

  10. Electronic transport in amorphous phase-change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckas, Jennifer Maria

    2012-01-01

    Phase change materials combine a pronounced contrast in resistivity and reflectivity between their disordered amorphous and ordered crystalline state with very fast crystallization kinetics. Due to this exceptional combination of properties phase-change materials find broad application in non-volatile optical memories such as CD, DVD or Bluray Disc. Furthermore, this class of materials demonstrates remarkable electrical transport phenomena in their disordered state, which have shown to be crucial for their application in electronic storage devices. The threshold switching phenomenon denotes the sudden decrease in resistivity beyond a critical electrical threshold field. The threshold switching phenomenon facilitates the phase transitions at practical small voltages. Below this threshold the amorphous state resistivity is thermally activated and is observed to increase with time. This effect known as resistance drift seriously hampers the development of multi-level storage devices. Hence, understanding the physical origins of threshold switching and resistance drift phenomena is crucial to improve non-volatile phase-change memories. Even though both phenomena are often attributed to localized defect states in the band gap, the defect state density in amorphous phase-change materials has remained poorly studied. Starting from a brief introduction of the physics of phase-change materials this thesis summarizes the most important models behind electrical switching and resistance drift with the aim to discuss the role of localized defect states. The centerpiece of this thesis is the investigation of defects state densities in different amorphous phase-change materials and electrical switching chalcogenides. On the basis of Modulated Photo Current (MPC) Experiments and Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy, a sophisticated band model for the disordered phase of the binary phase-change alloy GeTe has been developed. By this direct experimental approach the band-model for a

  11. Electronic transport in amorphous phase-change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckas, Jennifer Maria

    2012-09-14

    Phase change materials combine a pronounced contrast in resistivity and reflectivity between their disordered amorphous and ordered crystalline state with very fast crystallization kinetics. Due to this exceptional combination of properties phase-change materials find broad application in non-volatile optical memories such as CD, DVD or Bluray Disc. Furthermore, this class of materials demonstrates remarkable electrical transport phenomena in their disordered state, which have shown to be crucial for their application in electronic storage devices. The threshold switching phenomenon denotes the sudden decrease in resistivity beyond a critical electrical threshold field. The threshold switching phenomenon facilitates the phase transitions at practical small voltages. Below this threshold the amorphous state resistivity is thermally activated and is observed to increase with time. This effect known as resistance drift seriously hampers the development of multi-level storage devices. Hence, understanding the physical origins of threshold switching and resistance drift phenomena is crucial to improve non-volatile phase-change memories. Even though both phenomena are often attributed to localized defect states in the band gap, the defect state density in amorphous phase-change materials has remained poorly studied. Starting from a brief introduction of the physics of phase-change materials this thesis summarizes the most important models behind electrical switching and resistance drift with the aim to discuss the role of localized defect states. The centerpiece of this thesis is the investigation of defects state densities in different amorphous phase-change materials and electrical switching chalcogenides. On the basis of Modulated Photo Current (MPC) Experiments and Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy, a sophisticated band model for the disordered phase of the binary phase-change alloy GeTe has been developed. By this direct experimental approach the band-model for a

  12. Polyoxyethylene/styrene - a model system for studying reaction-induced phase separation (RIPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, D.; Stanford, J.L.; Ryan, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Reaction-induced, phase-separation has been studied in polymer blends. A model crystalline-amorphous system consisted of semi-crystalline polyoxyethylene (POE) dissolved in the monomer styrene, which was employed as a reactive solvent to ease processing. When the styrene was polymerised to polystyrene (PS) in the mould, phase-separation and phase-inversion are induced, and a polymer blend was formed. POE was selected with a molar mass, Mn = 8578 g mol -1 and a polydispersity of 1.19 as determined using GPC. The polymerisation of styrene was initiated using 1 wt-% benzoin methyl ether (BME) and 0.2 wt-% 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) under ultra-violet (UV) light. The polymerisation kinetics were determined by monitoring the reduction in the intensity of the C=C stretching vibration band at 1631 cm -1 in the Raman spectrum of styrene. The onset times for the liquid-solid (L-S) phase-separation and crystallisation of POE from styrene/PS were observed using simultaneous small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). Onset times for L-S phase-separation determined from the SAXS data were combined with the styrene polymerisation kinetics to plot the L-S phase-separation data onto a ternary phase diagram for the reactive system POE/styrene/PS at 45 and 50 deg C

  13. Rapid compression induced solidification of two amorphous phases of poly(ethylene terephthalate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, S M [Laboratory of High Pressure Physics, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Liu, X R [Laboratory of High Pressure Physics, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Su, L [Laboratory of High Pressure Physics, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Huang, D H [Laboratory of High Pressure Physics, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Li, L B [Foods Research Centre Unilever R and D, Vlaardingen Olivier van Noortlaan, 120, 3133 AT Vlaardingen (Netherlands)

    2006-08-21

    Melts of poly(ethylene terephthalate) were solidified by rapid compression to 2 GPa within 20 ms and by a series of comparative processes including natural cooling, slow compressing and rapid cooling, respectively. By combining XRD and differential scanning calorimetry data of the recovered samples, it is made clear that rapid compression induces two kinds of amorphous phases. One is relatively stable and can also be formed in the slow compression and the cooling processes. Another is metastable and transforms to crystalline phase at 371 K. This metastable amorphous phase cannot be obtained by slow compression or natural cooling, and its crystallization temperature is remarkably different from that of the metastable amorphous phase formed in the rapid cooling sample.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of nano/amorphous dual-phase FINEMET microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Advanced Composites Centre for Innovation and Science (ACCIS), Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Qin, F.X. [Advanced Composites Centre for Innovation and Science (ACCIS), Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Xing, D.W.; Cao, F.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Peng, H.X. [Advanced Composites Centre for Innovation and Science (ACCIS), Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Bristol Centre for NanoScience and Quantum Information (NSQI), University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1FD (United Kingdom); Sun, J.F., E-mail: jfsun@hit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2013-12-01

    Highlights: • Nano/amorphous dual-phase FINEMET microwire was fabricated and characterized. • The unique dual-phase structure is correlated to its different cooling experience. • The extracted microwires possess high tensile strength over 1800 MPa. • Excellent EMI property was elucidated by the multiple magnetic loss mechanisms. -- Abstract: A nano/amorphous dual-phase FINEMET microwire was fabricated directly from molten alloy without any interstage annealing by a home-built melt extraction technique (MET). The microstructure, mechanical and pronounced electromagnetic interference shielding (EMI) effectiveness of this dual-phase microwire has been systematically evaluated. The structural analysis reveals that the as-cast FINEMET microwire consists of two distinct structures, i.e., amorphous and nanocrystalline phase due to their different cooling characteristics. Compared with other reported FINEMET alloys, the extracted microwire exhibits a superior high tensile strength of 1800 MPa. These nanocrystals enabled dual-phase microwires also exhibit large EMI SE values in the frequency range of 8–12 GHz (X-band) due to the multiple magnetic loss mechanisms associated with their intrinsic structural characteristics. The combination of excellent mechanical properties and electromagnetic properties make this kind of melt-extracted dual-phase FINEMET microwire promising for a range of structure and multifunctional applications.

  15. Control over phase separation and nucleation using a laser-tweezing potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Finlay; Wynne, Klaas

    2018-05-01

    Control over the nucleation of new phases is highly desirable but elusive. Even though there is a long history of crystallization engineering by varying physicochemical parameters, controlling which polymorph crystallizes or whether a molecule crystallizes or forms an amorphous precipitate is still a poorly understood practice. Although there are now numerous examples of control using laser-induced nucleation, the absence of physical understanding is preventing progress. Here we show that the proximity of a liquid-liquid critical point or the corresponding binodal line can be used by a laser-tweezing potential to induce concentration gradients. A simple theoretical model shows that the stored electromagnetic energy of the laser beam produces a free-energy potential that forces phase separation or triggers the nucleation of a new phase. Experiments in a liquid mixture using a low-power laser diode confirm the effect. Phase separation and nucleation using a laser-tweezing potential explains the physics behind non-photochemical laser-induced nucleation and suggests new ways of manipulating matter.

  16. Kinetically Controlled Two-Step Amorphization and Amorphous-Amorphous Transition in Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuanlong; Yong, Xue; Tse, John S.; Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Shen, Guoyin

    2017-09-01

    We report the results of in situ structural characterization of the amorphization of crystalline ice Ih under compression and the relaxation of high-density amorphous (HDA) ice under decompression at temperatures between 96 and 160 K by synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The results show that ice Ih transforms to an intermediate crystalline phase at 100 K prior to complete amorphization, which is supported by molecular dynamics calculations. The phase transition pathways show clear temperature dependence: direct amorphization without an intermediate phase is observed at 133 K, while at 145 K a direct Ih-to-IX transformation is observed; decompression of HDA shows a transition to low-density amorphous ice at 96 K and ˜1 Pa , to ice Ic at 135 K and to ice IX at 145 K. These observations show that the amorphization of compressed ice Ih and the recrystallization of decompressed HDA are strongly dependent on temperature and controlled by kinetic barriers. Pressure-induced amorphous ice is an intermediate state in the phase transition from the connected H-bond water network in low pressure ices to the independent and interpenetrating H-bond network of high-pressure ices.

  17. Structural and phase transformations in the low-temperature annealed amorphous “finemet”-type microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tcherdyntsev, V.V., E-mail: vvch08@yandex.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Aleev, A.A. [SSC RF Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Churyukanova, M.N.; Kaloshkin, S.D. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Medvedeva, E.V. [Institute of Electrophysics, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg 620016 (Russian Federation); Korchuganova, O.A. [SSC RF Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Zhukova, V. [Dpto. de Fns. Mater., UPV/EHU, San Sebastian 20018 (Spain); Zhukov, A.P. [Dpto. de Fns. Mater., UPV/EHU, San Sebastian 20018 (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Structure and magnetic properties evolution at heating of amorphous microwires was studied. • Relaxation processes in the amorphous phase correlate with an increase in Curie temperature. • Curie temperature change can not be stabilized by a prolonged exposure at pre-crystallization temperatures. • Tomographic atom probe microscopy supports the formation of α-Fe phase precipitations enriched in Si. -- Abstract: Finemet-type glass-coated microwires with amorphous and nanocrystalline structure have been investigated. The relaxation and crystallization processes at heating of amorphous alloy have been studied by DSC method. We observed that the relaxation processes in the amorphous phase correlate with an increasing of the Curie temperature. Additionally a prolonged exposure of the samples below the crystallization temperatures does not stabilize the Curie temperature change. An investigation by the tomographic atom probe microscopy supports the formation of precipitations, probably α-Fe phase, as a result of low-temperature annealing (400 °C, 5 min). We found that the observed nano-sized areas were enriched in silicon.

  18. Structural and phase transformations in the low-temperature annealed amorphous “finemet”-type microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tcherdyntsev, V.V.; Aleev, A.A.; Churyukanova, M.N.; Kaloshkin, S.D.; Medvedeva, E.V.; Korchuganova, O.A.; Zhukova, V.; Zhukov, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Structure and magnetic properties evolution at heating of amorphous microwires was studied. • Relaxation processes in the amorphous phase correlate with an increase in Curie temperature. • Curie temperature change can not be stabilized by a prolonged exposure at pre-crystallization temperatures. • Tomographic atom probe microscopy supports the formation of α-Fe phase precipitations enriched in Si. -- Abstract: Finemet-type glass-coated microwires with amorphous and nanocrystalline structure have been investigated. The relaxation and crystallization processes at heating of amorphous alloy have been studied by DSC method. We observed that the relaxation processes in the amorphous phase correlate with an increasing of the Curie temperature. Additionally a prolonged exposure of the samples below the crystallization temperatures does not stabilize the Curie temperature change. An investigation by the tomographic atom probe microscopy supports the formation of precipitations, probably α-Fe phase, as a result of low-temperature annealing (400 °C, 5 min). We found that the observed nano-sized areas were enriched in silicon

  19. Phase Separation and Elastic Properties of Poly(Trimethylene Terephthalate-block-poly(Ethylene Oxide Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Piesowicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of poly(trimethylene terephthalate-block-poly(ethylene oxide (PTT-b-PEOT copolymers with different compositions of rigid PTT and flexible PEOT segments were synthesized via condensation in the melt. The influence of the block length and the block ratio on the micro-separated phase structure and elastic properties of the synthesized multiblock copolymers was studied. The PEOT segments in these copolymers were kept constant at 1130, 2130 or 3130 g/mol, whereas the PTT content varied from 30 up to 50 wt %. The phase separation was assessed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA. The crystal structure of the synthesised block copolymers and their microstructure on the manometer scale was evaluated by using WAXS and SAXS analysis. Depending on the PTT/PEOT ratio, but also on the rigid and flexible segment length in PTT-b-PEO copolymers, four different domains were observed i.e.,: a crystalline PTT phase, a crystalline PEO phase (which exists for the whole series based on three types of PEOT segments, an amorphous PTT phase (only at 50 wt % content of PTT rigid segments and an amorphous PEO phase. Moreover, the elastic deformability and reversibility of PTT-b-PEOT block copolymers were studied during a cyclic tensile test. Determined values of permanent set resultant from maximum attained stain (100% and 200% for copolymers were used to evaluate their elastic properties.

  20. Amorphous and crystalline phase interaction during the Brill transition in nylon 66

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A prominent α' process in specifically treated nylon 66 and microcomposite samples is identified by dynamic mechanical analysis and proposed to be an amorphous phase counterpart of the Brill transition identified by synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD. It is suggested that this α' process, which marks a critical free volume change and an onset of segmental chain movement in the amorphous phase, precedes and prompts the Brill transition in the crystalline phase.

  1. Transportation properties of amorphous state InSb and its metastable middle phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xiaowen

    1990-09-01

    The variation of the substrate temperature induces the metal-semiconductor transition in the condensation InSb films at low temperatrue. The electron conduction is dominant in the metal-type amorphous InSb and the hole in semiconductor-type one. In the metal-type amorphous InSb the electron-electron is correlated under the field above 0.1T in the temperature region of liquid nitrogen. The structure relaxation leads to not only the increase of the short range order but also the change of electron structure in metal-type amorphous InSb. The first conductance jump originates mainly from the increase of Hall mobility of the carrier, i.e. the increase of the short range order, and the system relaxes from the liquid-like to the lattice-like amorphous state. The three types of the crystallization phase transition for the metal-type amorphous InSb present obviously different transportation behaviours. Both metal-type amorphous state and metastable middle phase of InSb all are one of superconducting system with the lowest carrier concentration (n 0 ∼10 18 cm -3 ). Superconducting T c of the metastable middle phase is related to the state density near Fermi surface, i.e. the higher T c corresponds to the higher state density. The quasi-two-dimensional structure is favourable to superconductivity

  2. Distortion of Local Atomic Structures in Amorphous Ge-Sb-Te Phase Change Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, A.; Ichitsubo, T.; Guan, P. F.; Fujita, T.; Chen, M. W.

    2018-05-01

    The local atomic structures of amorphous Ge-Sb-Te phase-change materials have yet to be clarified and the rapid crystal-amorphous phase change resulting in distinct optical contrast is not well understood. We report the direct observation of local atomic structures in amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 using "local" reverse Monte Carlo modeling dedicated to an angstrom-beam electron diffraction analysis. The results corroborated the existence of local structures with rocksalt crystal-like topology that were greatly distorted compared to the crystal symmetry. This distortion resulted in the breaking of ideal octahedral atomic environments, thereby forming local disordered structures that basically satisfied the overall amorphous structure factor. The crystal-like distorted octahedral structures could be the main building blocks in the formation of the overall amorphous structure of Ge-Sb-Te.

  3. Use of isoconcentrational phase diagrams for prediction of amorphization of binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarev, A.I.; Belashchenko, D.K.

    1992-01-01

    Based on the application of isoconcentrational diagrams of phase equilibria of liquid with solid solutions of various crystal structures the thermodynamic method was considered for prediction of concentration ranges of amorphization in binary systems.To confirm the applicability of the thermodynamic criterion in practice caclulations of phase diagrams were accomplished for complex binary eutectic systems (Hf-Be, Zr-Be) with the known concentration ranges of amorphization

  4. Multivariate Quantification of the Solid State Phase Composition of Co-Amorphous Naproxen-Indomethacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Beyer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To benefit from the optimized dissolution properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients in their amorphous forms, co-amorphisation as a viable tool to stabilize these amorphous phases is of both academic and industrial interest. Reports dealing with the physical stability and recrystallization behavior of co-amorphous systems are however limited to qualitative evaluations based on the corresponding X-ray powder diffractograms. Therefore, the objective of the study was to develop a quantification model based on X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD, followed by a multivariate partial least squares regression approach that enables the simultaneous determination of up to four solid state fractions: crystalline naproxen, γ-indomethacin, α-indomethacin as well as co-amorphous naproxen-indomethacin. For this purpose, a calibration set that covers the whole range of possible combinations of the four components was prepared and analyzed by XRPD. In order to test the model performances, leave-one-out cross validation was performed and revealed root mean square errors of validation between 3.11% and 3.45% for the crystalline molar fractions and 5.57% for the co-amorphous molar fraction. In summary, even four solid state phases, involving one co-amorphous phase, can be quantified with this XRPD data-based approach.

  5. Atomic mobility in the overheated amorphous GeTe compound for phase change memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosso, G.C.; Behler, J.; Bernasconi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstractauthoren Phase change memories rest on the ability of some chalcogenide alloys to undergo a fast and reversible transition between the crystalline and amorphous phases upon Joule heating. The fast crystallization is due to a high nucleation rate and a large crystal growth velocity which are actually possible thanks to the fragility of the supercooled liquid that allows for the persistence of a high atomic mobility at high supercooling where the thermodynamical driving force for crystallization is also high. Since crystallization in the devices occurs by rapidly heating the amorphous phase, hysteretic effects might arise with a different diffusion coefficient and viscosity on heating than on cooling. In this work, we have quantified these hysteretic effects in the phase change compound GeTe by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The atomic mobility in the overheated amorphous phase is lower than in supercooled liquid at the same temperature and the viscosity is consequently higher. Still, the simulations of the overheated amorphous phase reveal a breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relation between the diffusion coefficient and the viscosity, similarly to what we found previously in the supercooled liquid. Evidences are provided that the breakdown is due to the emergence of dynamical heterogeneities at high supercooling. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. A possible mechanism of ultrafast amorphization in phase-change memory alloys: an ion slingshot from the crystalline to amorphous position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolobov, A V; Mishchenko, A S; Fons, P; Yakubenya, S M; Tominaga, J

    2007-01-01

    We propose that the driving force of the ultrafast crystalline-to-amorphous transition in phase-change memory alloys is caused by strained bonds existing in the (metastable) crystalline phase. For the prototypical example of Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 , we demonstrate that upon breaking of the longer Ge-Te bond by photoexcitation, a Ge ion is shot from an octahedral crystalline to a tetrahedral amorphous position by the uncompensated force of strained short bonds. Subsequent lattice relaxation stabilizes the tetrahedral surroundings of the Ge atoms and ensures the long-term stability of the optically induced phase

  7. Determination of the fraction of amorphous phases in superconducting samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes Junior, G.G.; Ogasawara, T.; Amorim, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    The study phase formation of high critical temperature superconducting (Bi, Pb) - 2223 by partial melting and recrystallization aims to improve the microstructure of the material. Was used for X-ray diffraction characterization of the phases present. The DDM method (Derivative Difference Minimization) was used for the refinement of structures, quantification of the phases and determination the fraction of this amorphous. The advantage this method is not necessary to introduce an internal standard to determine the amorphous fraction. Were observed in the powder precursor phases (Bi, Pb) 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x (Bi, Pb) -2223, 93% of the sample, Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O y (Bi-2212) and Bi 2 Sr 2 CuO z (Bi-2201). The powder precursor was heat treated at 820-870 deg C. To minimize volatilization of lead, the material was placed in silver crucibles closed. To get a high recovery of (Bi, Pb) - 2223, the material was cooled slowly, due to slow kinetic of formation of this phase. We observed a partial recovery phase (Bi, Pb) -2223. (author)

  8. Moessbauer and EXAFS studies of amorphous iron produced by thermal decomposition of carbonyl iron in liquid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Junichi; Ujihira, Yusuke; Takahashi, Tamotu; Uchida, Yasuzo

    1990-01-01

    Decomposition of iron carbonyl Fe(CO) 5 and Fe 2 (CO) 9 in liquid phase gave amorphous and crystalline iron powders in the absence and presence of catalyst, respectively. The hyperfine fields were large in amorphous phases prepared from Fe(CO) 5 than from Fe 2 (CO) 9 . Crystalline iron, iron carbide and a trace amount of Fe 3 O 4 were detected in the decomposition products of the amorphous phase prepared from Fe(CO) 5 , and iron carbide was mainly included in the decomposition products of the amorphous phase prepared from Fe 2 (CO) 9 . (orig.)

  9. The amorphous phase transition in irradiated NiTi alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brimhall, J.L.; Kissinger, H.E.; Pelton, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    Observed supralinear dose dependence for the amorphous transformation during irradiation of NiTi is compatible with a cascade overlap model for heavy ion (2.5 MeV Ni + , 6 MeV Ta +++ ) irradiations. A model based on total defect build-up, however, is necessary to explain the amorphous transition induced by electron irradiation and can also be applied to heavy ion irradiation. The cascade effects in this latter model are manifested by non-uniform defect distribution in the lattice. The defect build-up model requires a high activation energy for interstitial migration which is not incompatible with recent findings. The form of the temperature dependence can also be rationalized using a defect build-up model (amorphous phase transition, heavy-ion irradiation, electron irradiation, NiTi, defect build-up, cascade overlap). (author)

  10. First-principles study of the liquid and amorphous phases of In2Te3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoni, D.; Gabardi, S.; Bernasconi, M.

    2017-08-01

    Structural, dynamical, and electronic properties of the liquid and amorphous phase of the In2Te3 compound have been studied by means of density functional molecular dynamics simulations. This system is of interest as a phase change material, undergoing a fast and reversible change between the crystalline and amorphous phases upon heating. It can be seen as a constituent of ternary InSbTe alloys which are receiving attention for application in electronic phase change memories. Amorphous models of In2Te3 300 -atom large have been generated by quenching from the melt by using different exchange and correlation functionals and different descriptions of the van der Waals interaction. It turns out the local bonding geometry of the amorphous phase is mostly tetrahedral with corner and edge sharing tetrahedra similar to those found in the crystalline phases of the InTe, In2Te3 , and In2Te5 compounds. Benchmark calculations on the crystalline α phase of In2Te3 in the defective zincblend geometry have also been performed. The calculations reveal that the high symmetric F 4 ¯3 m structure inferred experimentally from x-ray diffraction for the α phase must actually result from a random distribution of Te-Te bonds in different octahedral cages formed by the coalescence of vacancies in the In sublattice.

  11. Phase transitions of amorphous solid acetone in confined geometry investigated by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunghwan; Kang, Hani; Kim, Jun Soo; Kang, Heon

    2014-11-26

    We investigated the phase transformations of amorphous solid acetone under confined geometry by preparing acetone films trapped in amorphous solid water (ASW) or CCl4. Reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) were used to monitor the phase changes of the acetone sample with increasing temperature. An acetone film trapped in ASW shows an abrupt change in the RAIRS features of the acetone vibrational bands during heating from 80 to 100 K, which indicates the transformation of amorphous solid acetone to a molecularly aligned crystalline phase. Further heating of the sample to 140 K produces an isotropic solid phase, and eventually a fluid phase near 157 K, at which the acetone sample is probably trapped in a pressurized, superheated condition inside the ASW matrix. Inside a CCl4 matrix, amorphous solid acetone crystallizes into a different, isotropic structure at ca. 90 K. We propose that the molecularly aligned crystalline phase formed in ASW is created by heterogeneous nucleation at the acetone-water interface, with resultant crystal growth, whereas the isotropic crystalline phase in CCl4 is formed by homogeneous crystal growth starting from the bulk region of the acetone sample.

  12. Solid solution and amorphous phase in Ti–Nb–Ta–Mn systems synthesized by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, C., E-mail: claudio.aguilar@usm.cl [Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Materiales, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Guzman, P. [Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Materiales, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Lascano, S. [Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Parra, C. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Bejar, L. [Instituto de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Ciudad Universitaria, Morelia C.P. 58000, Michoacán (Mexico); Medina, A. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 58000, Michoacán (Mexico); Guzman, D. [Departamento de Metalurgia, Universidad de Atacama, Av. España 485, Copiapó (Chile)

    2016-06-15

    This work discusses the formation of Ti–30Nb–13Ta–xMn (x: 2, 4 and 6 wt%) solid solution by mechanical alloying using a shaker mill. A solid solution was formed after 15 h of milling and an amorphous phase was formed after 30 h of milling, according to X-ray diffraction results. Disappearance of strongest X-ray diffraction peaks of Nb, Ta and Mn indicated the formation of solid solution, while, X-ray diffraction patterns of powders milled for 30 h showed an amorphous hump with crystalline peaks in the angular range of 35–45° in 2θ. TEM image analysis showed the presence of nanocrystalline intermetallic compounds embedded in an amorphous matrix. Mn{sub 2}Ti, MnTi and NbTi{sub 4} intermetallic compounds were detected and revealed crystallites with size ranging from 3 to 20 nm. The Gibbs free energy for the formation of solid solution and amorphous phase of three ternary systems (Ti–Nb–Ta, Ti–Nb–Mn and Ti–Ta–Mn) was calculated using extended Miedema's model. Experimental and thermodynamic data confirmed that solid solution was first formed in the alloy with 6wt% Mn followed by the formation of an amorphous phase as milling time increases. The presence of Mn promoted the formation of amorphous phase because the atomic radius difference between Mn with Ti, Nb and Ta. - Highlights: • Thermodynamics analysis of extension of solid solution of the Ti–Nb–Ta–Mn system. • Formation of amorphous phase and intermetallic compounds were observed. • Nanocrystalline intermetallic compounds were formed with the sizes between 3 and 20 nm.

  13. Theory of amorphous ices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David T; Chandler, David

    2014-07-01

    We derive a phase diagram for amorphous solids and liquid supercooled water and explain why the amorphous solids of water exist in several different forms. Application of large-deviation theory allows us to prepare such phases in computer simulations. Along with nonequilibrium transitions between the ergodic liquid and two distinct amorphous solids, we establish coexistence between these two amorphous solids. The phase diagram we predict includes a nonequilibrium triple point where two amorphous phases and the liquid coexist. Whereas the amorphous solids are long-lived and slowly aging glasses, their melting can lead quickly to the formation of crystalline ice. Further, melting of the higher density amorphous solid at low pressures takes place in steps, transitioning to the lower-density glass before accessing a nonequilibrium liquid from which ice coarsens.

  14. Atomic scale insight into the amorphous structure of Cu doped GeTe phase-change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Linchuan; Sa, Baisheng; Zhou, Jian; Sun, Zhimei; Song, Zhitang

    2014-01-01

    GeTe shows promising application as a recording material for phase-change nonvolatile memory due to its fast crystallization speed and extraordinary amorphous stability. To further improve the performance of GeTe, various transition metals, such as copper, have been doped in GeTe in recent works. However, the effect of the doped transition metals on the stability of amorphous GeTe is not known. Here, we shed light on this problem for the system of Cu doped GeTe by means of ab initio molecular dynamics calculations. Our results show that the doped Cu atoms tend to agglomerate in amorphous GeTe. Further, base on analyzing the pair correlation functions, coordination numbers and bond angle distributions, remarkable changes in the local structure of amorphous GeTe induced by Cu are obviously seen. The present work may provide some clues for understanding the effect of early transition metals on the local structure of amorphous phase-change compounds, and hence should be helpful for optimizing the structure and performance of phase-change materials by doping transition metals.

  15. Formation of soft magnetic high entropy amorphous alloys composites containing in situ solid solution phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ran; Sun, Huan; Chen, Chen; Tao, Juan; Li, Fushan

    2018-03-01

    Fe-Co-Ni-Si-B high entropy amorphous alloys composites (HEAACs), which containing high entropy solid solution phase in amorphous matrix, show good soft magnetic properties and bending ductility even in optimal annealed state, were successfully developed by melt spinning method. The crystallization phase of the HEAACs is solid solution phase with body centered cubic (BCC) structure instead of brittle intermetallic phase. In addition, the BCC phase can transformed into face centered cubic (FCC) phase with temperature rise. Accordingly, Fe-Co-Ni-Si-B high entropy alloys (HEAs) with FCC structure and a small amount of BCC phase was prepared by copper mold casting method. The HEAs exhibit high yield strength (about 1200 MPa) and good plastic strain (about 18%). Meanwhile, soft magnetic characteristics of the HEAs are largely reserved from HEAACs. This work provides a new strategy to overcome the annealing induced brittleness of amorphous alloys and design new advanced materials with excellent comprehensive properties.

  16. Second amorphous-to-crystalline phase transformation in Cu60Ti20Zr20 bulk metallic glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Q.P.; Li, J.F.; Zhang, P.N.

    2007-01-01

    The second amorphous-to-crystalline phase transformation in Cu60Ti20Zr20 bulk metallic glass was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray diffractometry. The difference of the Gibbs free energies between the amorphous phase and the crystalline products during the transformation...

  17. Dynamics and Structural Details of Amorphous Phases of Ice Determined by Incoherent Inelastic Neutron Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klug, D.D.; Tulk, C.A.; Svensson, E.C.; Loong, C.

    1999-01-01

    Incoherent-inelastic neutron scattering data are obtained over the energy range of lattice and internal vibrations of water molecules in phases of ice prepared by pressure-induced amorphization (high-density amorphous ice, hda), by thermal annealing of hda (low-density amorphous ice, lda), and by rapidly cooling water, as well as in ice Ih and Ic . Hydrogen bonding interactions in lda differ significantly from those in the glass obtained by rapid quenching, which has hydrogen-bond interactions characteristic of highly supercooled water. Hydrogen-bond interactions in hda are weaker than in the low-density phases. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  18. Casimir Force Contrast Between Amorphous and Crystalline Phases of AIST

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torricelli, Gauthier; van Zwol, Peter J.; Shpak, Olex; Palasantzas, George; Svetovoy, Vitaly B.; Binns, Chris; Kooi, Bart J.; Jost, Peter; Wuttig, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) can be rapidly and reversibly switched between the amorphous and crystalline state. The structural transformation is accompanied by a significant change of optical and electronic properties rendering PCMs suitable for rewritable optical data storage and non-volatile

  19. Casimir Force Contrast Between Amorphous and Crystalline Phases of AIST

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrichelli, G.; van Zwol, P.J.; Shpak, O.; Palasantzas, G.; Svetovoy, Vitaly; Binns, C.; Kooi, B.J.; Jost, P.; Wittig, M.

    2012-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) can be rapidly and reversibly switched between the amorphous and crystalline state. The structural transformation is accompanied by a signifi cant change of optical and electronic properties rendering PCMs suitable for rewritable optical data storage and nonvolatile

  20. Relation between bandgap and resistance drift in amorphous phase change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütten, Martin; Kaes, Matthias; Albert, Andreas; Wuttig, Matthias; Salinga, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Memory based on phase change materials is currently the most promising candidate for bridging the gap in access time between memory and storage in traditional memory hierarchy. However, multilevel storage is still hindered by the so-called resistance drift commonly related to structural relaxation of the amorphous phase. Here, we present the temporal evolution of infrared spectra measured on amorphous thin films of the three phase change materials Ag4In3Sb67Te26, GeTe and the most popular Ge2Sb2Te5. A widening of the bandgap upon annealing accompanied by a decrease of the optical dielectric constant ε∞ is observed for all three materials. Quantitative comparison with experimental data for the apparent activation energy of conduction reveals that the temporal evolution of bandgap and activation energy can be decoupled. The case of Ag4In3Sb67Te26, where the increase of activation energy is significantly smaller than the bandgap widening, demonstrates the possibility to identify new phase change materials with reduced resistance drift.

  1. Phase Analysis of the Cellulose Triacetate-Nitromethane System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna B. Shipovskaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study was made on the cellulose triacetate-nitromethane system to explore its phase separation within ranges 2–25 wt.% and −5÷+80°C by means of polarization light and electron microscopy, the turbidity spectrum method, differential thermal and X-ray analyses, and rheological techniques. The physical state of the polymer was identified within the phase coexistence boundaries on the phase diagram which included three types of phase separation (amorphous (with a UCST at Tcr=57∘C and ccr=7.3 wt.%, crystal, and liquid crystal. The boundaries of the regions determining the coexistence of the liquid crystal (LC and the partly crystal phase were found to be inside the region of amorphous liquid-liquid phase separation. For cellulose ester-solvent systems, this state diagram is the first experimental evidence for the possibility of coexistence of several phases with amorphous, LC, and crystal polymer ordering.

  2. Multivariate Quantification of the Solid State Phase Composition of Co-Amorphous Naproxen-Indomethacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Andreas; Grohganz, Holger; Löbmann, Korbinian

    2015-01-01

    To benefit from the optimized dissolution properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients in their amorphous forms, co-amorphisation as a viable tool to stabilize these amorphous phases is of both academic and industrial interest. Reports dealing with the physical stability and recrystallization...... components was prepared and analyzed by XRPD. In order to test the model performances, leave-one-out cross validation was performed and revealed root mean square errors of validation between 3.11% and 3.45% for the crystalline molar fractions and 5.57% for the co-amorphous molar fraction. In summary, even...

  3. Fast diffusion and nucleation of the amorphous phase in Ni--Zr films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhart, P.; Averback, R.S.; Hahn, H.; Yadavalli, S.; Flynn, C.P.

    1988-01-01

    The nucleation of the amorphous phase by solid-state reactions has been investigated on single-crystal Zr films grown by molecular beam epitaxy and covered in situ with either polycrystalline Ni, amorphous (a-) NiZr, or single-crystalline Zr 99 N 01 films. Interfacial reactions were investigated by backscattering analysis or secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The amorphizing reaction occurred only in the specimen with the a-NiZr overlayer, although fast Ni diffusion through the single-crystalline Zr layer was observed in all three specimens. The nucleation behavior of a-NiZr is attributed to the combination of high-Ni and low-Zr mobility in crystalline Zr

  4. Thermal conductivity of the amorphous and nanocrystalline phases of the beech wood biocarbon nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartenko, N. F.; Orlova, T. S.; Parfen'eva, L. S.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnov, I. A.

    2014-11-01

    Natural composites (biocarbons) obtained by carbonization of beech wood at different carbonization temperatures T carb in the range of 800-2400°C have been studied using X-ray diffraction. The composites consist of an amorphous matrix and nanocrystallites of graphite and graphene. The volume fractions of the amorphous and nanocrystalline phases as functions of T carb have been determined. Temperature dependences of the phonon thermal conductivity κ( T) of the biocarbons with different temperatures T carb (1000 and 2400°C) have been analyzed in the range of 5-300 K. It has been shown that the behavior of κ( T) of the biocarbon with T carb = 1000°C is controlled by the amorphous phase in the range of 5-50 K and by the nanocrystalline phase in the range of 100-300 K. The character of κ( T) of the biocarbon with T carb = 2400°C is determined by the heat transfer (scattering) in the nanocrystalline phase over the entire temperature range of 5-300 K.

  5. High transmittance contrast in amorphous to hexagonal phase of Ge2Sb2Te5: Reversible NIR-window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Palwinder; Singh, A. P.; Kanda, Neetu; Mishra, Monu; Gupta, Govind; Thakur, Anup

    2017-12-01

    Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) is one of the best phase change materials because of its splendid set of properties, viz., high thermal stability, fast crystallization speed, good endurance, scalability, and reliability. Phase transition [amorphous → face centered cubic (fcc) → hexagonal close packed (hcp)] of GST thin films with annealing was studied using X-ray diffraction. Thin films in amorphous, fcc, and hcp phases are highly, medium, and negligible transparent in the near infra-red region, respectively. The optical transmission in amorphous, fcc, and hcp phases is ˜92%, ˜46%, and ˜2%, respectively, at the wavelength of 2740 nm. At 2740 nm, a high transmission contrast (˜90%) is observed with phase transition from the amorphous to hcp phase. By utilizing large transmission contrast, it is demonstrated that GST can be availed as a potential candidate for reversible near infra-red-window. The sharp change in optical transmission with phase transition can be understood from the change in density of states in the valence band.

  6. Phase Field Theory and Analysis of Pressure-Shear Induced Amorphization and Failure in Boron Carbide Ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Clayton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear continuum phase field theory is developed to describe amorphization of crystalline elastic solids under shear and/or pressure loading. An order parameter describes the local degree of crystallinity. Elastic coefficients can depend on the order parameter, inelastic volume change may accompany the transition from crystal to amorphous phase, and transitional regions parallel to bands of amorphous material are penalized by interfacial surface energy. Analytical and simple numerical solutions are obtained for an idealized isotropic version of the general theory, for an element of material subjected to compressive and/or shear loading. Solutions compare favorably with experimental evidence and atomic simulations of amorphization in boron carbide, demonstrating the tendency for structural collapse and strength loss with increasing shear deformation and superposed pressure.

  7. Structural Analyses of Phase Stability in Amorphous and Partially Crystallized Ge-Rich GeTe Films Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, Taehong; Mohamed, Ahmed Yousef; Yoo, Chanyoung; Park, Eui-Sang; Kim, Sanggyun; Yoo, Sijung; Lee, Han-Koo; Cho, Deok-Yong; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2017-11-29

    The local bonding structures of Ge x Te 1-x (x = 0.5, 0.6, and 0.7) films prepared through atomic layer deposition (ALD) with Ge(N(Si(CH 3 ) 3 ) 2 ) 2 and ((CH 3 ) 3 Si) 2 Te precursors were investigated using Ge K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The results of the X-ray absorption fine structure analyses show that for all of the compositions, the as-grown films were amorphous with a tetrahedral Ge coordination of a mixture of Ge-Te and Ge-Ge bonds but without any signature of Ge-GeTe decomposition. The compositional evolution in the valence band electronic structures probed through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests a substantial chemical influence of additional Ge on the nonstoichiometric GeTe. This implies that the ALD process can stabilize Ge-abundant bonding networks like -Te-Ge-Ge-Te- in amorphous GeTe. Meanwhile, the XAS results on the Ge-rich films that had undergone post-deposition annealing at 350 °C show that the parts of the crystalline Ge-rich GeTe became separated into Ge crystallites and rhombohedral GeTe in accordance with the bulk phase diagram, whereas the disordered GeTe domains still remained, consistent with the observations of transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Therefore, amorphousness in GeTe may be essential for the nonsegregated Ge-rich phases and the low growth temperature of the ALD enables the achievement of the structurally metastable phases.

  8. Formation of nanocrystalline and amorphous phase of Al-Pb-Si-Sn-Cu powder during mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran Guang; Zhou Jingen; Xi Shengqi; Li Pengliang

    2006-01-01

    Al-15%Pb-4%Si-1%Sn-1.5%Cu alloys (mass fraction, %) were prepared by mechanical alloying (MA). Phase transformation and microstructure characteristics of the alloy powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the nanocrystalline supersaturated solid solutions and amorphous phase in the powders are obtained during MA. The effect of ball milling is more evident to lead than to aluminum. During MA, the mixture powders are firstly fined, alloyed, nanocrystallized and then the nanocrystalline partly transforms to amorphous phase. A thermodynamic model is developed based on semi-experimental theory of Miedema to calculate the driving force for phase evolution. The thermodynamic analysis shows that there is no chemical driving force to form a crystalline solid solution from the elemental components. But for the amorphous phase, the Gibbs free energy is higher than 0 for the alloy with lead content in the ranges of 0-86.8 at.% and 98.4-100 at.% and lower than 0 in range of 86.8-98.4 at.%. For the Al-2.25 at.%Pb (Al-15%Pb, mass fraction, %), the driving force for formation of amorphization and nanocrystalline supersaturated solid solutions are provided not by the negative heat of mixing but by mechanical work

  9. Microcellular foams via phase separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.T.

    1985-01-01

    A study of wide variety of processes for making plastic foams shows that phase separation processes for polymers from solutions offers the most viable methods for obtaining rigid plastic foams which met the physical requirements for fusion target designs. Four general phase separation methods have been shown to give polymer foams with densities less than 0.1 g/cm 3 and cell sizes of 30μm or less. These methods involve the utilization of non-solvent, chemical or thermal cooling processes to achieve a controlled phase separation wherein either two distinct phases are obtained where the polymer phase is a continuous phase or two bicontinuous phases are obtained where both the polymer and solvent are interpenetrating, continuous, labyrinthine phases. Subsequent removal of the solvent gives the final foam structure

  10. Amorphous phase formation in intermetallic Mg2Ni alloy synthesized by ethanol wet milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.-W.; Chyou, S.-D.; Wang, S.-H.; Yang, M.-W.; Hsu, C.-Y.; Tien, H.-C.; Huang, N.-N.

    2009-01-01

    The hydriding/dehydriding properties of an intermetallic Mg 2 Ni alloy synthesized by wet ball milling in ethanol have been investigated. The appearance of the particle surface after different milling methods is one obvious difference. The alloyed powders prepared by either dry milling or wet milling under ethanol were characterized for phase content by X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The results show that two broad diffuse peaks, which are an ionic-organic-Mg amorphous material, appear in addition to the nickel element peaks. This unexpected amorphous phase has the special hydrogen absorbing/desorbing features.

  11. Oxidation studies of β-sialon ceramics containing amorphous and / or crystalline intergranular phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, J.; Kall, P.O.; Jansson, K.; Nygren, M.

    1992-01-01

    β-sialon ceramics of equal overall compositions but containing amorphous, partly crystalline and almost completely crystalline intergranular phase(s) have been oxidized in oxygen at 1350 deg C for 20 hours. The obtained weight gain curves do not follow the parabolic rate law (ΔW/A 0 ) 2 = k p t + β. To the extent that crystallization occurs in the oxide scale during the oxidation experiment, the amorphous cross section area through which oxygen most easily diffuses will decrease with time. A brief description of this new rate law is given, and the obtained oxidation curves will be discussed within that framework. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  12. Developing methodologies for source attribution. Glass phase separation in Trinitite using NF{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeman, Elizabeth C.; Simonetti, Antonio [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences; McNamara, Bruce K.; Smith, Frances N. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States). Nuclear Chemistry and Engineering; Burns, Peter C. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences; Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2017-08-01

    This study details thermal reactions between glasses, common minerals, and Trinitite post-detonation material with the fluorinating agent nitrogen trifluoride (NF{sub 3}). The ultimate goal of our investigation is to develop a relatively rapid method for the effective separation of bomb components from complex matrices resulting from a nuclear explosion. Trinitite samples, silicate minerals (quartz; plagioclase and microcline), amorphous SiO{sub 2}, calcite, a natural glass (obsidian), and two synthetic glasses were characterized extensively before and after the fluorination to fully understand the effects of the NF{sub 3} thermal treatment. Samples were reacted with NF{sub 3} using a combined thermogravimetric (TG) differential thermal analysis (DTA) unit, as well as in a stainless steel bomb reactor connected to a fluorination line. Subsequent to the NF{sub 3} treatment, samples were imaged by scanning electron microscopy in order to document changes in grain size and morphology. Energy dispersive spectroscopy was performed to determine changes in major element abundances. Results demonstrate that rates of reaction are dependent on grain size, temperature, pressure, and time of fluorination. All mineral samples experienced mass loss during fluorination. Specifically, amorphous SiO{sub 2} (∝90% mass loss) experienced the most while calcite experienced the least (∝18%). Major element analysis reveals that mass loss is attributable to the volatilization of silica (SiO{sub 2}) in Si-bearing phases, or sample decomposition in calcite due to fluorination. Results for fluorinated samples of Trinitite demonstrate that mass loss occurs at different rates for each sample, but each sample experienced an expected large decrease in Si content (resulting from volatilization of SiF{sub 4}). Hence, the concentration of metals in the residual material increased due to the volatilization of Si. These results validate that this thermal-fluorination technique allows the

  13. Effect of Si additions on thermal stability and the phase transition sequence of sputtered amorphous alumina thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolvardi, H.; Baben, M. to; Nahif, F.; Music, D.; Schnabel, V.; Shaha, K. P.; Mráz, S.; Schneider, J. M.; Bednarcik, J.; Michalikova, J.

    2015-01-01

    Si-alloyed amorphous alumina coatings having a silicon concentration of 0 to 2.7 at. % were deposited by combinatorial reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of Al and Al-Si (90-10 at. %) split segments in Ar/O 2 atmosphere. The effect of Si alloying on thermal stability of the as-deposited amorphous alumina thin films and the phase formation sequence was evaluated by using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The thermal stability window of the amorphous phase containing 2.7 at. % of Si was increased by more than 100 °C compared to that of the unalloyed phase. A similar retarding effect of Si alloying was also observed for the α-Al 2 O 3 formation temperature, which increased by more than 120 °C. While for the latter retardation, the evidence for the presence of SiO 2 at the grain boundaries was presented previously, this obviously cannot explain the stability enhancement reported here for the amorphous phase. Based on density functional theory molecular dynamics simulations and synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments for amorphous Al 2 O 3 with and without Si incorporation, we suggest that the experimentally identified enhanced thermal stability of amorphous alumina with addition of Si is due to the formation of shorter and stronger Si–O bonds as compared to Al–O bonds

  14. Effect of Si additions on thermal stability and the phase transition sequence of sputtered amorphous alumina thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolvardi, H.; Baben, M. to; Nahif, F.; Music, D., E-mail: music@mch.rwth-aachen.de; Schnabel, V.; Shaha, K. P.; Mráz, S.; Schneider, J. M. [Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Kopernikusstr. 10, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Bednarcik, J.; Michalikova, J. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, FS-PE group, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-01-14

    Si-alloyed amorphous alumina coatings having a silicon concentration of 0 to 2.7 at. % were deposited by combinatorial reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of Al and Al-Si (90-10 at. %) split segments in Ar/O{sub 2} atmosphere. The effect of Si alloying on thermal stability of the as-deposited amorphous alumina thin films and the phase formation sequence was evaluated by using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The thermal stability window of the amorphous phase containing 2.7 at. % of Si was increased by more than 100 °C compared to that of the unalloyed phase. A similar retarding effect of Si alloying was also observed for the α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} formation temperature, which increased by more than 120 °C. While for the latter retardation, the evidence for the presence of SiO{sub 2} at the grain boundaries was presented previously, this obviously cannot explain the stability enhancement reported here for the amorphous phase. Based on density functional theory molecular dynamics simulations and synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments for amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with and without Si incorporation, we suggest that the experimentally identified enhanced thermal stability of amorphous alumina with addition of Si is due to the formation of shorter and stronger Si–O bonds as compared to Al–O bonds.

  15. Polymer solution phase separation: Microgravity simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerny, Lawrence C.; Sutter, James K.

    1989-01-01

    In many multicomponent systems, a transition from a single phase of uniform composition to a multiphase state with separated regions of different composition can be induced by changes in temperature and shear. The density difference between the phase and thermal and/or shear gradients within the system results in buoyancy driven convection. These differences affect kinetics of the phase separation if the system has a sufficiently low viscosity. This investigation presents more preliminary developments of a theoretical model in order to describe effects of the buoyancy driven convection in phase separation kinetics. Polymer solutions were employed as model systems because of the ease with which density differences can be systematically varied and because of the importance of phase separation in the processing and properties of polymeric materials. The results indicate that the kinetics of the phase separation can be performed viscometrically using laser light scattering as a principle means of following the process quantitatively. Isopycnic polymer solutions were used to determine the viscosity and density difference limits for polymer phase separation.

  16. Phase separation and shape deformation of two-phase membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Y.; Lookman, T.; Saxena, A.

    2000-01-01

    Within a coupled-field Ginzburg-Landau model we study analytically phase separation and accompanying shape deformation on a two-phase elastic membrane in simple geometries such as cylinders, spheres, and tori. Using an exact periodic domain wall solution we solve for the shape and phase separating field, and estimate the degree of deformation of the membrane. The results are pertinent to preferential phase separation in regions of differing curvature on a variety of vesicles. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  17. Crystalline-to-amorphous phase transformation in mechanically alloyed Fe50W50 powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherif El-Eskandarany, M.S.; Sumiyama, K.; Suzuki, K.

    1997-01-01

    A mechanical alloying process via a ball milling technique has been applied for preparing amorphous Fe 50 W 50 alloy powders. The results have shown that during the first and second stages of milling (0 to 360 ks) W atoms emigrate to Fe lattices to form nanocrystalline b.c.c. Fe-W solid solution, with a grain size of about 7 nm in diameter. After 720 ks of the milling time, this solid solution was transformed to an amorphous Fe-W alloy coexisting with the residual fraction of the unprocessed W powders. During the last stage of milling (720 to 1,440 ks) all of this residual W powder reacts with the amorphous phase to form a homogeneous Fe 50 W 50 amorphous alloy. The crystallization temperature and the enthalpy change of crystallization of amorphous Fe 50 W 50 powders milled for 1,440 ks were measured to be 860 K and -9kJ/mol, respectively. The amorphous Fe 50 W 50 powder produced is almost paramagnetic at room temperature. The powder comprises homogeneous and smooth spheres with an average size of about 0.5 microm in diameter

  18. Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation in Model Nuclear Waste Glasses: A Solid-State Double-Resonance NMR Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineau, Ch.; Michaelis, V.K.; Kroeker, S. [Univ Manitoba, Dept Chem, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Schuller, S. [CEA Valrho Marcoule, LDMC, SECM, DTCD, DEN, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France)

    2010-07-01

    Double-resonance nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are used in addition to single-resonance NMR experiments to probe the degree of mixing between network-forming cations Si and B, along with the modifier cations Cs{sup +} and Na{sup +} in two molybdenum-bearing model nuclear waste glasses. The double-resonance experiments involving {sup 29}Si in natural abundance are made possible by the implementation of a CPMG pulse-train during the acquisition period of the usual REDOR experiments. For the glass with lower Mo content, the NMR results show a high degree of Si-B mixing, as well as an homogeneous distribution of the cations within the borosilicate network, characteristic of a non-phase-separated glass. For the higher-Mo glass, a decrease of B-Si(Q{sup 4}) mixing is observed, indicating phase separation. {sup 23}Na and {sup 133}Cs NMR results show that although the Cs{sup +} cations, which do not seem to be influenced by the molybdenum content, are spread within the borate network, there is a clustering of the Na{sup +} cations, very likely around the molybdate units. The segregation of a Mo-rich region with Na{sup +} cations appears to shift the bulk borosilicate glass composition toward the metastable liquid liquid immiscibility region and induce additional phase separation. Although no crystallization is observed in the present case, this liquid liquid phase separation is likely to be the first stage of crystallization that can occur at higher Mo loadings or be driven by heat treatment. From this study emerges a consistent picture of the nature and extent of such phase separation phenomena in Mo-bearing glasses, and demonstrates the potential of double-resonance NMR methods for the investigation of phase separation in amorphous materials. (authors)

  19. The role seemingly of amorphous silica gel layers in chiral separations by planar chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajewicz, M.; Kowalska, T.

    2007-01-01

    In planar chromatography, silica gel appears as the most frequently used adsorbent. Its preference as planar chromatographic stationary phase is due to its high specific surface area (ca. 700 m2 gl) and relatively simple active sites (silanol groups =Si-OH). The high specific surface area of silica gel and a high density of coverage of its surface with the silanol active sites contribute jointly to an excellent separation performance of this adsorbent. In our experiments on chiral separation of the enantiomer pairs by planar chromatography, contradictory behavior of the silica gel layers versus the chiral compounds was observed. The migration tracks of chiral compounds in the ascending planar chromatographic mode were not vertical but bent on either side being a function of analyte chirality. This deviation of the analytes migration track was noticed, when using the densitometric scanner to quantify the respective chromatograms. In order to confirm the hypothesis as to the microcrystalline nature of silica gel used in liquid chromatography, it was further investigated through circular dichroism (CD) and the data thereof confirmed that the chromatographic silica gels are not amorphous but microcrystalline, contributing to the (partial) horizontal enantioseparation of the antimer pairs. This paper summarizes the results of our investigation on the microcrystalline nature of silica gels used in planar chromatography and their impact on enantioseparation of the selected pairs of antimers. (author)

  20. Liquid-phase separation with the rotational particle separator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemenade, van H.P.; Mondt, E.; Hendriks, A.J.A.M.; Verbeek, P.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, the rotational particle separator (RPS) was introduced as a new technique for separating solid and/or liquid particles of 0.1 m and larger from gases. In this patented technique the principles of centrifugation are exploited to enhance separation of small-sized phases and particulate

  1. High-performance ferroelectric memory based on phase-separated films of polymer blends

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Yasser; Bhansali, Unnat Sampatraj; Almadhoun, Mahmoud N.; Odeh, Ihab N.; Cha, Dong Kyu; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2013-01-01

    High-performance polymer memory is fabricated using blends of ferroelectric poly(vinylidene-fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) and highly insulating poly(p-phenylene oxide) (PPO). The blend films spontaneously phase separate into amorphous PPO nanospheres embedded in a semicrystalline P(VDF-TrFE) matrix. Using low molecular weight PPO with high miscibility in a common solvent, i.e., methyl ethyl ketone, blend films are spin cast with extremely low roughness (Rrms ≈ 4.92 nm) and achieve nanoscale phase seperation (PPO domain size < 200 nm). These blend devices display highly improved ferroelectric and dielectric performance with low dielectric losses (<0.2 up to 1 MHz), enhanced thermal stability (up to ≈353 K), excellent fatigue endurance (80% retention after 106 cycles at 1 KHz) and high dielectric breakdown fields (≈360 MV/m). © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. High-performance ferroelectric memory based on phase-separated films of polymer blends

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Yasser

    2013-10-29

    High-performance polymer memory is fabricated using blends of ferroelectric poly(vinylidene-fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) and highly insulating poly(p-phenylene oxide) (PPO). The blend films spontaneously phase separate into amorphous PPO nanospheres embedded in a semicrystalline P(VDF-TrFE) matrix. Using low molecular weight PPO with high miscibility in a common solvent, i.e., methyl ethyl ketone, blend films are spin cast with extremely low roughness (Rrms ≈ 4.92 nm) and achieve nanoscale phase seperation (PPO domain size < 200 nm). These blend devices display highly improved ferroelectric and dielectric performance with low dielectric losses (<0.2 up to 1 MHz), enhanced thermal stability (up to ≈353 K), excellent fatigue endurance (80% retention after 106 cycles at 1 KHz) and high dielectric breakdown fields (≈360 MV/m). © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Constructing first-principles phase diagrams of amorphous LixSi using machine-learning-assisted sampling with an evolutionary algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artrith, Nongnuch; Urban, Alexander; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2018-06-01

    The atomistic modeling of amorphous materials requires structure sizes and sampling statistics that are challenging to achieve with first-principles methods. Here, we propose a methodology to speed up the sampling of amorphous and disordered materials using a combination of a genetic algorithm and a specialized machine-learning potential based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). We show for the example of the amorphous LiSi alloy that around 1000 first-principles calculations are sufficient for the ANN-potential assisted sampling of low-energy atomic configurations in the entire amorphous LixSi phase space. The obtained phase diagram is validated by comparison with the results from an extensive sampling of LixSi configurations using molecular dynamics simulations and a general ANN potential trained to ˜45 000 first-principles calculations. This demonstrates the utility of the approach for the first-principles modeling of amorphous materials.

  4. A simple transferable adaptive potential to study phase separation in large-scale xMgO-(1-x)SiO2 binary glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidault, Xavier; Chaussedent, Stéphane; Blanc, Wilfried

    2015-10-21

    A simple transferable adaptive model is developed and it allows for the first time to simulate by molecular dynamics the separation of large phases in the MgO-SiO2 binary system, as experimentally observed and as predicted by the phase diagram, meaning that separated phases have various compositions. This is a real improvement over fixed-charge models, which are often limited to an interpretation involving the formation of pure clusters, or involving the modified random network model. Our adaptive model, efficient to reproduce known crystalline and glassy structures, allows us to track the formation of large amorphous Mg-rich Si-poor nanoparticles in an Mg-poor Si-rich matrix from a 0.1MgO-0.9SiO2 melt.

  5. Systematic comparison of crystalline and amorphous phases: Charting the landscape of water structures and transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrucci, Fabio; Martoňák, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Systematically resolving different crystalline phases starting from the atomic positions, a mandatory step in algorithms for the prediction of structures or for the simulation of phase transitions, can be a non-trivial task. Extending to amorphous phases and liquids which lack the discrete symmetries, the problem becomes even more difficult, involving subtle topological differences at medium range that, however, are crucial to the physico-chemical and spectroscopic properties of the corresponding materials. Typically, system-tailored order parameters are devised, like global or local symmetry indicators, ring populations, etc. We show that a recently introduced metric provides a simple and general solution to this intricate problem. In particular, we demonstrate that a map can be traced displaying distances among water phases, including crystalline as well as amorphous states and the liquid, consistently with experimental knowledge in terms of phase diagram, structural features, and preparation routes

  6. Amorphous ices explained in terms of nonequilibrium phase transitions in supercooled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David; Chandler, David

    2013-03-01

    We analyze the phase diagram of supercooled water out-of-equilibrium using concepts from space-time thermodynamics and the dynamic facilitation theory of the glass transition, together with molecular dynamics simulations. We find that when water is driven out-of-equilibrium, it can exist in multiple amorphous states. In contrast, we find that when water is at equilibrium, it can exist in only one liquid state. The amorphous non-equilibrium states are solids, distinguished from the liquid by their lack of mobility, and distinguished from each other by their different densities and local structure. This finding explains the experimentally observed polyamorphism of water as a class of nonequilibrium phenomena involving glasses of different densities. While the amorphous solids can be long lived, they are thermodynamically unstable. When allowed to relax to equilibrium, they crystallize with pathways that pass first through liquid state configurations and then to ordered ice.

  7. Ion implantation and amorphous metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohmuth, K.; Rauschenbach, B.

    1981-01-01

    This review deals with ion implantation of metals in the high concentration range for preparing amorphous layers (>= 10 at%, implantation doses > 10 16 ions/cm 2 ). Different models are described concerning formation of amorphous phases of metals by ion implantation and experimental results are given. The study of amorphous phases has been carried out by the aid of Rutherford backscattering combined with the channeling technique and using transmission electron microscopy. The structure of amorphous metals prepared by ion implantation has been discussed. It was concluded that amorphous metal-metalloid compounds can be described by a dense-random-packing structure with a great portion of metal atoms. Ion implantation has been compared with other techniques for preparing amorphous metals and the adventages have been outlined

  8. Creating Drug Solubilization Compartments via Phase Separation in Multicomponent Buccal Patches Prepared by Direct Hot Melt Extrusion-Injection Molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhijjaj, Muqdad; Bouman, Jacob; Wellner, Nikolaus; Belton, Peter; Qi, Sheng

    2015-12-07

    Creating in situ phase separation in solid dispersion based formulations to allow enhanced functionality of the dosage form, such as improving dissolution of poorly soluble model drug as well as being mucoadhesive, can significantly maximize the in vitro and in vivo performance of the dosage form. This formulation strategy can benefit a wide range of solid dosage forms for oral and alternative routes of delivery. This study using buccal patches as an example created separated phases in situ of the buccal patches by selecting the excipients with different miscibility with each other and the model drug. The quaternary dispersion based buccal patches containing PEG, PEO, Tween 80, and felodipine were prepared by direct hot melt extrusion-injection molding (HME-IM). The partial miscibility between Tween 80 and semicrystalline PEG-PEO led to the phase separation after extrusion. The Tween phases acted as drug solubilization compartments, and the PEG-PEO phase had the primary function of providing mucoadhesion and carrier controlled dissolution. As felodipine was preferably solubilized in the amorphous regions of PEG-PEO, the high crystallinity of PEG-PEO resulted in an overall low drug solubilizing capacity. Tween 80 was added to improve the solubilization capacity of the system as the model drug showed good solubility in Tween. Increasing the drug loading led to the supersaturation of drug in Tween compartments and crystalline drug dispersed in PEG-PEO phases. The spatial distribution of these phase-separated compartments was mapped using X-ray micro-CT, which revealed that the domain size and heterogeneity of the phase separation increased with increasing the drug loading. The outcome of this study provides new insights into the applicability of in situ formed phase separation as a formulation strategy for the delivery of poorly soluble drugs and demonstrated the basic principle of excipient selection for such technology.

  9. The Role Seemingly of Amorphous Silica Gel Layers in Chiral Separations by Planar Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Kowalska

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In planar chromatography, silica gel appears as the most frequently used adsorbent. Its preference as planar chromatographic stationary phase is due to its high specific surface area (ca. 700 m2 g-1 and relatively simple active sites (silanol groups, Si-OH. The high specific surface area of silica gel and a high density of coverage of its surface with the silanol active sites contribute jointly to an excellent separation performance of this adsorbent. In our experiments on chiral separation of the enantiomer pairs by planar chromatography, contradictory behavior of the silica gel layers versus the chiral compounds was observed. The migration tracks of chiral compounds in the ascending planar chromatographic mode were not vertical but bent on either side being a function of analyte chirality. This deviation of the analyte’s migration track was noticed, when using the densitometric scanner to quantify the respective chromatograms. In order to confirm the hypothesis as to the microcrystalline nature of silica gel used in liquid chromatography, it was further investigated through circular dichroism (CD and the data thereof confirmed that the ‘chromatographic’ silica gels are not amorphous but microcrystalline, contributing to the (partial horizontal enantioseparation of the antimer pairs. This paper summarizes the results of our investigation on the microcrystalline nature of silica gels used in planar chromatography and their impact on enantioseparation of the selected pairs of antimers.

  10. Amorphous and crystalline aerosol particles interacting with water vapor: conceptual framework and experimental evidence for restructuring, phase transitions and kinetic limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Koop

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Interactions with water are crucial for the properties, transformation and climate effects of atmospheric aerosols. Here we present a conceptual framework for the interaction of amorphous aerosol particles with water vapor, outlining characteristic features and differences in comparison to crystalline particles. We used a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA to characterize the hydration and dehydration of crystalline ammonium sulfate, amorphous oxalic acid and amorphous levoglucosan particles (diameter ~100 nm, relative humidity 5–95% at 298 K. The experimental data and accompanying Köhler model calculations provide new insights into particle microstructure, surface adsorption, bulk absorption, phase transitions and hygroscopic growth. The results of these and related investigations lead to the following conclusions:

    (1 Many organic substances, including carboxylic acids, carbohydrates and proteins, tend to form amorphous rather than crystalline phases upon drying of aqueous solution droplets. Depending on viscosity and microstructure, the amorphous phases can be classified as glasses, rubbers, gels or viscous liquids.

    (2 Amorphous organic substances tend to absorb water vapor and undergo gradual deliquescence and hygroscopic growth at lower relative humidity than their crystalline counterparts.

    (3 In the course of hydration and dehydration, certain organic substances can form rubber- or gel-like structures (supramolecular networks and undergo transitions between swollen and collapsed network structures.

    (4 Organic gels or (semi-solid amorphous shells (glassy, rubbery, ultra-viscous with low molecular diffusivity can kinetically limit the uptake and release of water and may influence the hygroscopic growth and activation of aerosol particles as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN and ice nuclei (IN. Moreover, (semi-solid amorphous phases may influence the uptake of gaseous photo

  11. Electron-beam-irradiation-induced crystallization of amorphous solid phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dong; Wu, Liangcai; Wen, Lin; Ma, Liya; Zhang, Xingyao; Li, Yudong; Guo, Qi; Song, Zhitang

    2018-04-01

    The electron-beam-irradiation-induced crystallization of phase change materials in a nano sized area was studied by in situ transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. Amorphous phase change materials changed to a polycrystalline state after being irradiated with a 200 kV electron beam for a long time. The results indicate that the crystallization temperature strongly depends on the difference in the heteronuclear bond enthalpy of the phase change materials. The selected area electron diffraction patterns reveal that Ge2Sb2Te5 is a nucleation-dominated material, when Si2Sb2Te3 and Ti0.5Sb2Te3 are growth-dominated materials.

  12. Phase separator safety valve blow-off.

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Perinic

    2006-01-01

    The fast discharge of the CMS solenoid leads to a pressure rise in the phase separator. On August 28th, a fast discharge was triggered at a current level of 19.1 kA. The pressure in the phase separator increased up to the set pressure of the safety valve and some helium was discharged. In consequence of this and prevoious similar observations the liquid helium level in the phase separator has been reduced from 60% to 50% and later to 45% in order to reduce the helium inventory in the magnet.

  13. Amorphous-crystalline interface evolution during Solid Phase Epitaxy Regrowth of SiGe films amorphized by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Angelo, D.; Piro, A.M.; Mirabella, S.; Bongiorno, C.; Romano, L.; Terrasi, A.; Grimaldi, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Transmission Electron Microscopy was combined with Time Resolved Reflectivity to study the amorphous-crystalline (a-c) interface evolution during Solid Phase Epitaxy Regrowth (SPER) of Si 0.83 Ge 0.17 films deposited on Si by Molecular Beam Epitaxy and amorphized with Ge + ion implantation. Starting from the Si/SiGe interface, a 20 nm thick layer regrows free of defects with the same SPER rate of pure Si. The remaining SiGe regrows with planar defects and dislocations, accompanied by a decrease of the SPER velocity. The sample was also studied after implantation with B or P. In these cases, the SPER rate raises following the doping concentration profile, but no difference in the defect-free layer thickness was observed compared to the un-implanted sample. On the other hand, B or P introduction reduces the a-c interface roughness, while B-P co-implantation produces roughness comparable to the un-implanted sample

  14. Pressure-induced transformations in amorphous silicon: A computational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcez, K. M. S., E-mail: kmgarcez@ufma.br [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, 65700-000 Bacabal, Maranhão (Brazil); Antonelli, A., E-mail: aantone@ifi.unicamp.br [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, 13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-02-14

    We study the transformations between amorphous phases of Si through molecular simulations using the environment dependent interatomic potential (EDIP) for Si. Our results show that upon pressure, the material undergoes a transformation from the low density amorphous (LDA) Si to the high density amorphous (HDA) Si. This transformation can be reversed by decompressing the material. This process, however, exhibits clear hysteresis, suggesting that the transformation LDA ↔ HDA is first-order like. The HDA phase is predominantly five-fold coordinated, whereas the LDA phase is the normal tetrahedrally bonded amorphous Si. The HDA phase at 400 K and 20 GPa was submitted to an isobaric annealing up to 800 K, resulting in a denser amorphous phase, which is structurally distinct from the HDA phase. Our results also show that the atomic volume and structure of this new amorphous phase are identical to those of the glass obtained by an isobaric quenching of the liquid in equilibrium at 2000 K and 20 GPa down to 400 K. The similarities between our results and those for amorphous ices suggest that this new phase is the very high density amorphous Si.

  15. Pressure-induced transformations in amorphous silicon: A computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcez, K. M. S.; Antonelli, A.

    2014-02-01

    We study the transformations between amorphous phases of Si through molecular simulations using the environment dependent interatomic potential (EDIP) for Si. Our results show that upon pressure, the material undergoes a transformation from the low density amorphous (LDA) Si to the high density amorphous (HDA) Si. This transformation can be reversed by decompressing the material. This process, however, exhibits clear hysteresis, suggesting that the transformation LDA ↔ HDA is first-order like. The HDA phase is predominantly five-fold coordinated, whereas the LDA phase is the normal tetrahedrally bonded amorphous Si. The HDA phase at 400 K and 20 GPa was submitted to an isobaric annealing up to 800 K, resulting in a denser amorphous phase, which is structurally distinct from the HDA phase. Our results also show that the atomic volume and structure of this new amorphous phase are identical to those of the glass obtained by an isobaric quenching of the liquid in equilibrium at 2000 K and 20 GPa down to 400 K. The similarities between our results and those for amorphous ices suggest that this new phase is the very high density amorphous Si.

  16. Amorphization of ceramics by ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHargue, C.J.; Farlow, G.C.; White, C.W.; Williams, J.M.; Appleton, B.R.; Naramoto, H.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of the implantation parameters fluence, substrate temperature, and chemical species on the formation of amorphous phases in Al 2 O 3 and α-SiC was studied. At 300 0 K, fluences in excess of 10 17 ions.cm -2 were generally required to amorphize Al 2 O 3 ; however, implantation of zirconium formed the amorphous phase at a fluence of 4 x 10 16 Zr.cm -2 . At 77 0 K, the threshold fluence was lowered to about 2 x 10 15 Cr.cm -2 . Single crystals of α-SiC were amorphized at 300 0 K by a fluence of 2 x 10 14 Cr.cm -2 or 1 x 10 15 N.cm -2 . Implantation at 1023 0 K did not produce the amorphous phase in SiC. The micro-indentation hardness of the amorphous material was about 60% of that of the crystalline counterpart

  17. First-principles study of the amorphous In3SbTe2 phase change compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Jan H.; Kühne, Thomas D.; Gabardi, Silvia; Bernasconi, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations based on density functional theory were performed to generate amorphous models of the phase change compound In3SbTe2 by quenching from the melt. In-Sb and In-Te are the most abundant bonds with only a minor fraction of Sb-Te bonds. The bonding geometry in the amorphous phase is, however, strongly dependent on the density in the range 6.448-5.75 g/cm3 that we investigated. While at high density the bonding geometry of In atoms is mostly octahedral-like as in the cubic crystalline phase of the ternary compound In3SbTe2, at low density we observed a sizable fraction of tetrahedral-like geometries similar to those present in the crystalline phase of the two binary compounds InTe and InSb that the ternary system can be thought to be made of. We show that the different ratio between octahedral-like and tetrahedral-like bonding geometries has fingerprints in the optical and vibrational spectra.

  18. Schottky barrier formation at amorphous-crystalline interfaces of GeSb phase change materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroezen, H. J.; Eising, G.; ten Brink, Gert; Palasantzas, G.; Kooi, B. J.; Pauza, A.

    2012-01-01

    The electrical properties of amorphous-crystalline interfaces in phase change materials, which are important for rewritable optical data storage and for random access memory devices, have been investigated by surface scanning potential microscopy. Analysis of GeSb systems indicates that the surface

  19. Miscibility of amorphous ZrO2-Al2O3 binary alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C.; Richard, O.; Bender, H.; Caymax, M.; De Gendt, S.; Heyns, M.; Young, E.; Roebben, G.; Van Der Biest, O.; Haukka, S.

    2002-04-01

    Miscibility is a key factor for maintaining the homogeneity of the amorphous structure in a ZrO2-Al2O3 binary alloy high-k dielectric layer. In the present work, a ZrO2/Al2O3 laminate thin layer has been prepared by atomic layer chemical vapor deposition on a Si (100) wafer. This layer, with artificially induced inhomogeneity (lamination), enables one to study the change in homogeneity of the amorphous phase in the ZrO2/Al2O3 system during annealing. High temperature grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) was used to investigate the change in intensity of the constructive interference peak of the x-ray beams which are reflected from the interfaces of ZrO2/Al2O3 laminae. The HT-XRD spectra show that the intensity of the peak decreases with an increase in the anneal temperature, and at 800 °C, the peak disappears. The same samples were annealed by a rapid thermal process (RTP) at temperatures between 700 and 1000 °C for 60 s. Room temperature XRD of the RTP annealed samples shows a similar decrease in peak intensity. Transmission electronic microscope images confirm that the laminate structure is destroyed by RTP anneals and, just below the crystallization onset temperature, a homogeneous amorphous ZrAlxOy phase forms. The results demonstrate that the two artificially separated phases, ZrO2 and Al2O3 laminae, tend to mix into a homogeneous amorphous phase before crystallization. This observation indicates that the thermal stability of ZrO2-Al2O3 amorphous phase is suitable for high-k applications.

  20. Solid phase epitaxy of amorphous silicon carbide: Ion fluence dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, I.-T.; Ishimaru, Manabu; Hirotsu, Yoshihiko; Sickafus, Kurt E.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of radiation damage and impurity concentration on solid phase epitaxial growth of amorphous silicon carbide (SiC) as well as microstructures of recrystallized layer using transmission electron microscopy. Single crystals of 6H-SiC with (0001) orientation were irradiated with 150 keV Xe ions to fluences of 10 15 and 10 16 /cm 2 , followed by annealing at 890 deg. C. Full epitaxial recrystallization took place in a specimen implanted with 10 15 Xe ions, while retardation of recrystallization was observed in a specimen implanted with 10 16 /cm 2 Xe ions. Atomic pair-distribution function analyses and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy results suggested that the retardation of recrystallization of the 10 16 Xe/cm 2 implanted sample is attributed to the difference in amorphous structures between the 10 15 and 10 16 Xe/cm 2 implanted samples, i.e., more chemically disordered atomistic structure and higher Xe impurity concentration in the 10 16 Xe/cm 2 implanted sample

  1. Identifying low and high density amorphous phases during zeolite amorphisation using small and wide angle X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneau, F.; Greaves, G.N.

    2005-01-01

    In situ experiments following the thermal amorphisation of zeolites reveal massive increases in small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), persisting well beyond the stage where wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) can detect that any crystalline phase is present. This heterogeneity in the amorphised phase is attributed to the transition from a low density amorphous phase (LDA) to a high density amorphous phase (HDA) at the glass transition. The fractions of zeolite, LDA and HDA phases obtained from SAXS analysis are discussed in the context of non-linear changes detected in 29 Si solid state NMR during zeolite amorphisation. Whilst the HDA phase is chemically disordered, the LDA phase exhibits much of the Al-Si ordering present in the starting zeolite. These findings are considered in the context of perfect glasses predicted to occur when super strong liquids are supercooled

  2. The kinetics of solid phase epitaxy in As-doped buried amorphous silicon layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Ion implantation is the principal method used to introduce dopants into silicon for fabrication of semiconductor devices. During ion implantation, damage accumulates in the crystalline silicon lattice and amorphisation may occur over the depth range of the ions if the implant dose is sufficiently high. As device dimensions shrink, the need to produce shallower and shallower highly-doped layers increases and the probability of amorphisation also increases. To achieve dopant-activation, the amorphous or damaged material must be returned to the crystalline state by thermal annealing. Amorphous silicon layers can be crystallised by the solid-state process of solid phase epitaxy (SPE) in which the amorphous layer transforms to crystalline silicon (c-Si) layer by layer using the underlying c-Si as a seed. The atomic mechanism that is responsible for the crystallisation is thought to involve highly-localised bond-breaking and rearrangement processes at the amorphous/crystalline (a/c) interface but the defect responsible for these bond rearrangements has not yet been identified. Since the bond breaking process necessarily generates dangling bonds, it has been suggested that the crystallisation process may solely involve the formation and migration of dangling bonds at the interface. One of the key factors which may shed further light on the nature of the SPE defect is the observed dopant-dependence of the rate of crystallisation. It has been found that moderate concentrations of dopants enhance the SPE crystallisation rate while the presence of equal concentrations of an n-type and a p-type dopant (impurity compensation) returns the SPE rate to the intrinsic value. This provides crucial evidence that the SPE mechanism is sensitive to the position of the Fermi level in the bandgap of the crystalline and/or the amorphous silicon phases and may lead to identification of an energy level within the bandgap that can be associated with the defect. This paper gives details of SPE

  3. diffusive phase separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kenmochi

    1996-01-01

    w is constrained to have double obstacles σ*≤w≤σ* (i.e., σ* and σ* are the threshold values of w. The objective of this paper is to discuss the semigroup {S(t} associated with the phase separation model, and construct its global attractor.

  4. Second amorphous-to-crystalline phase transformation in Cu(60)Ti(20)Zr(20) bulk metallic glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Q P; Li, J F; Zhang, P N; Horsewell, A; Jiang, J Z; Zhou, Y H

    2007-06-20

    The second amorphous-to-crystalline phase transformation in Cu(60)Ti(20)Zr(20) bulk metallic glass was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray diffractometry. The difference of the Gibbs free energies between the amorphous phase and the crystalline products during the transformation is estimated to be about 2.46 kJ mol(-1) at 753 K, much smaller than the 61 kJ mol(-1) obtained assuming that it is a polymorphic transformation. It was revealed that the phase transformation occurs through a eutectic crystallization of Cu(51)Zr(14) and Cu(2)TiZr, having an effective activation energy of the order of 400 kJ mol(-1). The average Avrami exponent n is about 2.0, indicating that the crystallization is diffusion controlled.

  5. Tribological studies of nitrogen ion implantation induced overlayer coatings of amorphous carbon and carbonitride phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, N.; Srivastava, S.K.; Pandian, R.; Bahuguna, Ashok; Dhara, S.; Nair, K.G.M.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Composite phase of amorphous carbon and carbonitride phase is observed on the N + ion implanted surface of steel. ► Advanced properties of implanted surface shows low friction coefficient of ∼0.05. ► High wear resistance 4.3 × 10 −8 mm 3 /Nm of N + implanted surface is obtained. -- Abstract: Morphology and microstructure of N + ion implanted 316 LN steel are found to modify with irradiated substrate temperature. At low temperature of 100 °C, self-similar micro-ripples are formed but at high temperature of 200 and 300 °C, micro-pores and blisters are observed on the implanted surface. Chemically modified surface is found to consist of amorphous carbon and carbonitride phase. Such composite characteristic of implanted steel surface at irradiated substrate temperature of 300 °C shows improved tribological properties with low friction coefficient and high wear resistance

  6. Characterizing the Phyllosilicates and Amorphous Phases Found by MSL Using Laboratory XRD and EGA Measurements of Natural and Synthetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, Elizabeth B.; Morris, Richard V.; Chipera, Steve; Bish, David L.; Bristow, Thomas; Archer, Paul Douglas; Blake, David; Achilles, Cherie; Ming, Douglas W.; Vaniman, David; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Curiosity Rover landed on the Peace Vallis alluvial fan in Gale crater on August 5, 2012. A primary mission science objective is to search for past habitable environments, and, in particular, to assess the role of past water. Identifying the minerals and mineraloids that result from aqueous alteration at Gale crater is essential for understanding past aqueous processes at the MSL landing site and hence for interpreting the site's potential habitability. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data from the CheMin instrument and evolved gas analyses (EGA) from the SAM instrument have helped the MSL science team identify phases that resulted from aqueous processes: phyllosilicates and amorphous phases were measure in two drill samples (John Klein and Cumberland) obtained from the Sheepbed Member, Yellowknife Bay Fm., which is believed to represent a fluvial-lacustrine environment. A third set of analyses was obtained from scoop samples from the Rocknest sand shadow. Chemical data from the APXS instrument have helped constrain the chemical compositions of these secondary phases and suggest that the phyllosilicate component is Mg-enriched and the amorphous component is Fe-enriched, relatively Si-poor, and S- and H-bearing. To refine the phyllosilicate and amorphous components in the samples measured by MSL, we measured XRD and EGA data for a variety of relevant natural terrestrial phyllosilicates and synthetic mineraloids in laboratory testbeds of the CheMin and SAM instruments. Specifically, Mg-saturated smectites and vermiculites were measured with XRD at low relative humidity to understand the behavior of the 001 reflections under Mars-like conditions. Our laboratory XRD measurements suggest that interlayer cation composition affects the hydration state of swelling clays at low RH and, thus, the 001 peak positions. XRD patterns of synthetic amorphous materials, including allophane, ferrihydrite, and hisingerite were used in full-pattern fitting (FULLPAT) models to help

  7. Interface amorphization in hexagonal boron nitride films on sapphire substrate grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; Nitta, Shugo; Pristovsek, Markus; Liu, Yuhuai; Nagamatsu, Kentaro; Kushimoto, Maki; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) films directly grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by pulsed-mode metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy exhibit an interlayer for growth temperatures above 1200 °C. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy shows that this interlayer is amorphous, while the crystalline h-BN layer above has a distinct orientational relationship with the sapphire substrate. Electron energy loss spectroscopy shows the energy-loss peaks of B and N in both the amorphous interlayer and the overlying crystalline h-BN layer, while Al and O signals are also seen in the amorphous interlayer. Thus, the interlayer forms during h-BN growth through the decomposition of the sapphire at elevated temperatures.

  8. Potential Energy Landscape of the Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition in Water and the transformation between Low-Density and High-Density Amorphous Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovambattista, N.; Sciortino, F.; Starr, F. W.; Poole, P. H.

    The potential energy landscape (PEL) formalism is a valuable approach within statistical mechanics for describing supercooled liquids and glasses. We use the PEL formalism and computer simulations to study the transformation between low-density (LDL) and high-density liquid (HDL) water, and between low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous ice (HDA). We employ the ST2 water model that exhibits a LDL-HDL first-order phase transition and a sharp LDA-HDA transformation, as observed in experiments. Our results are consistent with the view that LDA and HDA configurations are associated with two distinct regions (megabasins) of the PEL that are separated by a potential energy barrier. At higher temperature, we find that LDL configurations are located in the same megabasin as LDA, and that HDL configurations are located in the same megabasin as HDA. We show that the pressure-induced LDL-HDL and LDA-HDA transformations occur along paths that interconnect these two megabasins, but that the path followed by the liquid and the amorphous ice differ. We also study the liquid-to-ice-VII first-order phase transition. The PEL properties across this transition are qualitatively similar to the changes found during the LDA-HDA transformation, supporting the interpretation that the LDA-HDA transformation is a first-order-like phase transition between out-of-equilibrium states.

  9. Phase separation of self-propelled ballistic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruss, Isaac R.; Glotzer, Sharon C.

    2018-04-01

    Self-propelled particles phase-separate into coexisting dense and dilute regions above a critical density. The statistical nature of their stochastic motion lends itself to various theories that predict the onset of phase separation. However, these theories are ill-equipped to describe such behavior when noise becomes negligible. To overcome this limitation, we present a predictive model that relies on two density-dependent timescales: τF, the mean time particles spend between collisions; and τC, the mean lifetime of a collision. We show that only when τF<τC do collisions last long enough to develop a growing cluster and initiate phase separation. Using both analytical calculations and active particle simulations, we measure these timescales and determine the critical density for phase separation in both two and three dimensions.

  10. Electronic phase separation and high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivelson, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    The authors review the extensive evidence from model calculations that neutral holes in an antiferromagnet separate into hole-rich and hole-poor phases. All known solvable limits of models of holes in a Heisenberg antiferromagnet exhibit this behavior. The authors show that when the phase separation is frustrated by the introduction of long-range Coulomb interactions, the typical consequence is either a modulated (charge density wave) state or a superconducting phase. The authors then review some of the strong experimental evidence supporting an electronically-driven phase separation of the holes in the cuprate superconductors and the related Ni oxides. Finally, the authors argue that frustrated phase separation in these materials can account for many of the anomalous normal state properties of the high temperature superconductors and provide the mechanism of superconductivity. In particular, it is shown that the T-linear resistivity of the normal state is a paraconductivity associated with a novel composite pairing, although the ordered superconducting state is more conventional

  11. Ball-milling-induced crystallization and ball-milling effect on thermal crystallization kinetics in an amorphous FeMoSiB alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, F.Q.; Lu, K.

    1997-01-01

    Microstructure evolution in a melt-spun amorphous Fe 77.2 Mo 0.8 Si 9 B 13 alloy subjected to high-energy ball milling was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), a transmission electron microscope (TEM), and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). It was found that during ball milling, crystallization occurs in the amorphous ribbon sample with precipitation of an α-Fe solid solution, and the amorphous sample crystallizes completely into a single α-Fe nanostructure (rather than α-Fe and borides as in the usual thermal crystallization products) when the milling time exceeds 135 hours. The volume fraction of material crystallized was found to be approximately proportional to the milling time. The fully crystallized sample with a single α-Fe nanophase exhibits an intrinsic thermal stability against phase separation upon annealing at high temperatures. The ball-milling effect on the subsequent thermal crystallization of the amorphous phase in an as-milled sample was studied by comparison of the crystallization products and kinetic parameters between the as-quenched amorphous sample and the as-milled sample was studied by comparison of the crystallization products and kinetic parameters between the as-quenched amorphous sample and the as-milled partially crystallized samples. The crystallization temperatures and activation energies for the crystallization processes of the residual amorphous phase were considerably decreased due to ball milling, indicating that ball milling has a significant effect on the depression of thermal stability of the residual amorphous phase

  12. Femtosecond laser-induced phase transformations in amorphous Cu{sub 77}Ni{sub 6}Sn{sub 10}P{sub 7} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Zou, G.; Wu, A.; Bai, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, L., E-mail: liulei@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); The State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, N. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhou, Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-01-14

    In this study, the femtosecond laser-induced crystallization of CuNiSnP amorphous ribbons was investigated by utilizing an amplified Ti:sapphire laser system. X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscope were applied to examine the phase and morphology changes of the amorphous ribbons. Micromachining without crystallization, surface patterning, and selective crystallization were successfully achieved by changing laser parameters. Obvious crystallization occurred under the condition that the laser fluence was smaller than the ablation threshold, indicating that the structural evolution of the material depends strongly on the laser parameters. Back cooling method was used to inhibit heat accumulation; a reversible transformation between the disordered amorphous and crystalline phases can be achieved by using this method.

  13. Preparation of macroporous zirconia monoliths from ionic precursors via an epoxide-mediated sol-gel process accompanied by phase separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xingzhong; Song, Jie; Lvlin, Yixiu; Yang, Hui; Nakanishi, Kazuki; Kanamori, Kazuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Monolithic macroporous zirconia (ZrO 2 ) derived from ionic precursors has been successfully fabricated via the epoxide-mediated sol-gel route accompanied by phase separation in the presence of propylene oxide (PO) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). The addition of PO used as an acid scavenger mediates the gelation, whereas PEO enhances the polymerization-induced phase separation. The appropriate choice of the starting compositions allows the production of a macroporous zirconia monolith with a porosity of 52.9% and a Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area of 171.9 m 2 · g −1 . The resultant dried gel is amorphous, whereas tetragonal ZrO 2 and monoclinic ZrO 2 are precipitated at 400 and 600 °C, respectively, without spoiling the macroporous morphology. After solvothermal treatment with an ethanol solution of ammonia, tetragonal ZrO 2 monoliths with smooth skeletons and well-defined mesopores can be obtained, and the BET surface area is enhanced to 583.8 m 2 · g −1 . (paper)

  14. Thermal stability and primary phase of Al-Ni(Cu)-La amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhenghua; Li Jinfu; Rao Qunli; Zhou Youhe

    2008-01-01

    Thermal stability and primary phase of Al 85+x Ni 9-x La 6 (x = 0-6) and Al 85 Ni 9-x Cu x La 6 (x = 0-9) amorphous alloys were investigated by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimeter. It is revealed that replacing Ni in the Al 85 Ni 9 La 6 alloy by Cu decreases the thermal stability and makes the primary phase change from intermetallic compounds to single fcc-Al as the Cu content reaches and exceeds 4 at.%. When the Ni and La contents are fixed, replacing Al by Cu increases the thermal stability but also promotes the precipitation of single fcc-Al as the primary phase

  15. Structural Changes of PVDF Membranes by Phase Separation Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Semin; Kim, Sung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) and nonsolvent induced phase separation (NIPS) were simultaneously induced for the preparation of flat PVDF membranes. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) was used as a solvent and dibutyl-phthlate (DBP) was used as a diluent for PVDF. When PVDF was melt blended with NMP and DBP, crystallization temperature was lowered for TIPS and unstable region was expanded for NIPS. Ratio of solvent to diluent changed the phase separation mechanism to obtain the various membrane structures. Contact mode of dope solution with nonsolvent determined the dominant phase separation behavior. Since heat transfer rate was greater than mass transfer rate, surface structure was formed by NIPS and inner structure was by TIPS. Quenching temperature of dope solution also affected the phase separation mechanism and phase separation rate to result in the variation of structure

  16. Hot Melt Extrusion and Spray Drying of Co-amorphous Indomethacin-Arginine With Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, Elisabeth; Löbmann, Korbinian; Rades, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Co-amorphous drug-amino acid systems have gained growing interest as an alternative to common amorphous formulations which contain polymers as stabilizers. Several preparation methods have recently been investigated, including vibrational ball milling on a laboratory scale or spray drying......, and stability. Results were compared to those of spray-dried formulations with the same compositions and to spray-dried indomethacin-copovidone. Overall, stable co-amorphous systems could be prepared by extrusion without or with copovidone, which exhibited comparable molecular interaction properties...... to the respective spray-dried products, while phase separation was detected by differential scanning calorimetry in several cases. The formulations containing indomethacin in combination with arginine and copovidone showed enhanced dissolution behavior over the formulations with only copovidone or arginine....

  17. First-principles study of amorphous Ga4Sb6Te3 phase-change alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Assil; Gabardi, Silvia; Massobrio, Carlo; Boero, Mauro; Bernasconi, Marco

    2015-05-01

    First-principles molecular dynamics simulations within the density functional theory framework were performed to generate amorphous models of the Ga4Sb6Te3 phase change alloy by quenching from the melt. We find that Ga-Sb and Ga-Te are the most abundant bonds with only a minor amount of Sb-Te bonds participating to the alloy network. Ga and four-coordinated Sb atoms present a tetrahedral-like geometry, whereas three-coordinated Sb atoms are in a pyramidal configuration. The tetrahedral-like geometries are similar to those of the crystalline phase of the two binary compounds GaTe and GaSb. A sizable fraction of Sb-Sb bonds is also present, indicating a partial nanoscale segregation of Sb. Despite the fact that the composition Ga4Sb6Te3 lies on the pseudobinary Ga Sb -Sb2Te3 tie line, the amorphous network can be seen as a mixture of the two binary compounds GaTe and GaSb with intertwined elemental Sb.

  18. Structural investigation of Fe(Cu)ZrB amorphous alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhaj, P.; Janickovic, D.

    1996-01-01

    The crystallization process in Fe 86 (Cu 1 )Zr 7 B 6 and Fe 87 Zr 7 B 6 is investigated using the methods of transmission electron microscopy, electron and X-ray diffraction and resistometry. Two crystallization reactions take place during thermal annealing of amorphous Fe 86 (Cu 1 )Zr 7 B 6 and Fe 87 Zr 7 B 6 alloys. In both alloys the first crystallization begins with the formation of nanocrystalline α-Fe at temperature to approximately 800 K. The second crystallization starts above 1000 K; the nanocrystalline phase dissolves and together with the remaining amorphous matrix form rough grains of α-Fe and dispersed Fe 23 Zr 6 phases. From Moessbauer spectroscopy it seems that there exist two neighbourhoods of Fe atoms in the amorphous structure. One of them is characterized by low Zr content and is responsible for the high-field component of the hyperfine field distribution p(H). The second one is rich in Zr and B and is responsible for the low-field component of p(H). This is in accord with the observation of two crystallization steps separated by a large interval of temperatures due to the existence of two chemically different regions or clusters. (orig.)

  19. Effects of Intercalation on the Hole Mobility of Amorphous Semiconducting Polymer Blends

    KAUST Repository

    Cates, Nichole C.

    2010-06-08

    Fullerenes have been shown to intercalate between the side chains of many crystalline and semicrystalline polymers and to affect the properties of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells. Here we present the first in-depth study of intercalation in an amorphous polymer. We study blends of the widely studied amorphous polymer poly(2-methoxy-5-(3studied amorphous polymer poly(,7·studied amorphous polymer poly(-dimethyloctyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene) (MDMO-PPV) with a variety of molecules using photoluminescence measurements, scanning electron microscopy, and space-charge limited current mobility measurements. The blends with elevated hole mobilities exhibit complete photoluminescence quenching and show no phase separation in a scanning electron microscope. We conclude that intercalation occurs in MDMO-PPV:fullerene blends and is responsible for the increase in the MDMO-PPV hole mobility by several orders of magnitude when it is blended with fullerenes, despite the dilution of the hole-conducting polymer with an electron acceptor. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  20. Enhanced proton conductivity of niobium phosphates by interfacing crystal grains with an amorphous functional phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yunjie; Yu, Lele; Li, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Niobium phosphate is an interesting proton conductor operational in the intermediate temperature range. In the present work two forms of phosphates were prepared: an amorphous one with high specific area and a crystalline one with low specific surface area. Both phosphates exhibited very low prot...... the high surface area amorphous phosphate was used as the precursor. At 250 °C thus obtained niobium phosphate showed a high and stable conductivity of 0.03 S cm−1 under dry atmosphere and of 0.06 S cm−1 at a water partial pressure of 0.12 atm....... conductivities. An activation process was developed to convert the phosphates into crystal grains with a phosphorus rich amorphous phase along the grain boundaries. As a result, the obtained niobium phosphates showed considerably enhanced and stable proton conductivities. The activation effect was prominent when...

  1. MC3T3-E1 cell response of amorphous phase/TiO{sub 2} nanocrystal composite coating prepared by microarc oxidation on titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Rui [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wei, Daqing, E-mail: daqingwei@hit.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Yang, Haoyue; Feng, Wei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Cheng, Su [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, Baoqiang; Wang, Yaming; Jia, Dechang; Zhou, Yu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Bioactive amorphous phase/TiO{sub 2} nanocrystal (APTN) composite coatings were fabricated by microarc oxidation (MAO) on Ti. The APTN coatings are composed of much amorphous phase with Si, Na, Ca, Ti and O elements and a few TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals. With increasing applied voltage, the micropore density of the APTN coating decreases and the micropore size of the APTN coating increases. The results indicate that less MC3T3-E1 cells attach on the APTN coatings as compared to Ti. However, the APTN coatings greatly enhance the cell proliferation ability and the activity of alkaline phosphatase. The amorphous phase and the concentrations of the released Ca and Si from the APTN coatings during cell culture have significant effects on the cell response. - Highlights: • Amorphous phase/TiO2 nanocrystal (APTN) composite coatings were fabricated. • The MC3T3-E1 cell response of the APTN coatings was evaluated. • The APTN coatings greatly enhanced the cell proliferation ability.

  2. THE IMPACT OF PARTIAL CRYSTALLIZATION ON THE PERMEATION PROPERTIES BULK AMORPHOUS GLASS HYDROGEN SEPARATION MEMBRANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, K; Paul Korinko, P; Thad Adams, T; Elise Fox, E; Arthur Jurgensen, A

    2008-11-25

    It is recognized that hydrogen separation membranes are a key component of the emerging hydrogen economy. A potentially exciting material for membrane separations are bulk metallic glass materials due to their low cost, high elastic toughness and resistance to hydrogen 'embrittlement' as compared to crystalline Pd-based membrane systems. However, at elevated temperatures and extended operation times structural changes including partial crystallinity may appear in these amorphous metallic systems. A systematic evaluation of the impact of partial crystallinity/devitrification on the diffusion and solubility behavior in multi-component Metallic Glass materials would provide great insight into the potential of these materials for hydrogen applications. This study will report on the development of time and temperature crystallization mapping and their use for interpretation of 'in-situ' hydrogen permeation at elevated temperatures.

  3. Amorphous drugs and dosage forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohganz, Holger; Löbmann, K.; Priemel, P.

    2013-01-01

    The transformation to an amorphous form is one of the most promising approaches to address the low solubility of drug compounds, the latter being an increasing challenge in the development of new drug candidates. However, amorphous forms are high energy solids and tend to recry stallize. New...... formulation principles are needed to ensure the stability of amorphous drug forms. The formation of solid dispersions is still the most investigated approach, but additional approaches are desirable to overcome the shortcomings of solid dispersions. Spatial separation by either coating or the use of micro-containers...... before single molecules are available for the formation of crystal nuclei, thus stabilizing the amorphous form....

  4. Effect of geometric parameters of liquid-gas separator units on phase separation performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Songping; Chen, Xueqing; Chen, Ying [Guangdong University of Technology, Seoul (China); Yang, Zhen [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2015-07-15

    Five liquid-gas separator units were designed and constructed based on a new concept of a validated high-performance condenser. Each separator unit consists of two united T-junctions and an apertured baffle. The separator units have different header diameters or different baffles with different diameters of the liquid-gas separation hole. The phase separation characteristics of the units were investigated at inlet air superficial velocities from 1.0m/s to 33.0m/s and water superficial velocities from 0.0015 m/s to 0..50 m/s. The experimental results showed that the liquid height, liquid flow rate through the separation hole, and liquid separation efficiency increased with increased header diameter and decreased diameter of the separation hole. The geometric structures of the separator units affected the phase separation characteristics by influencing the liquid height in the header and the liquid flow rate through the separation hole.

  5. Phase separation and large deviations of lattice active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelam, Stephen; Klymko, Katherine; Mandal, Dibyendu

    2018-04-01

    Off-lattice active Brownian particles form clusters and undergo phase separation even in the absence of attractions or velocity-alignment mechanisms. Arguments that explain this phenomenon appeal only to the ability of particles to move persistently in a direction that fluctuates, but existing lattice models of hard particles that account for this behavior do not exhibit phase separation. Here we present a lattice model of active matter that exhibits motility-induced phase separation in the absence of velocity alignment. Using direct and rare-event sampling of dynamical trajectories, we show that clustering and phase separation are accompanied by pronounced fluctuations of static and dynamic order parameters. This model provides a complement to off-lattice models for the study of motility-induced phase separation.

  6. A novel mechanical model for phase-separation in debris flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudasaini, Shiva P.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the physics of phase-separation between solid and fluid phases as a two-phase mass moves down slope is a long-standing challenge. Here, I propose a fundamentally new mechanism, called 'separation-flux', that leads to strong phase-separation in avalanche and debris flows. This new model extends the general two-phase debris flow model (Pudasaini, 2012) to include a separation-flux mechanism. The new flux separation mechanism is capable of describing and controlling the dynamically evolving phase-separation, segregation, and/or levee formation in a real two-phase, geometrically three-dimensional debris flow motion and deposition. These are often observed phenomena in natural debris flows and industrial processes that involve the transportation of particulate solid-fluid mixture material. The novel separation-flux model includes several dominant physical and mechanical aspects that result in strong phase-separation (segregation). These include pressure gradients, volume fractions of solid and fluid phases and their gradients, shear-rates, flow depth, material friction, viscosity, material densities, boundary structures, gravity and topographic constraints, grain shape, size, etc. Due to the inherent separation mechanism, as the mass moves down slope, more and more solid particles are brought to the front, resulting in a solid-rich and mechanically strong frontal surge head followed by a weak tail largely consisting of the viscous fluid. The primary frontal surge head followed by secondary surge is the consequence of the phase-separation. Such typical and dominant phase-separation phenomena are revealed here for the first time in real two-phase debris flow modeling and simulations. However, these phenomena may depend on the bulk material composition and the applied forces. Reference: Pudasaini, Shiva P. (2012): A general two-phase debris flow model. J. Geophys. Res., 117, F03010, doi: 10.1029/2011JF002186.

  7. Deconvolution of ferromagnetic resonance in devitrification process of Co-based amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montiel, H.; Alvarez, G.; Betancourt, I.; Zamorano, R.; Valenzuela, R.

    2006-01-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements were carried out on soft magnetic amorphous ribbons of composition Co 66 Fe 4 B 12 Si 13 Nb 4 Cu prepared by melt spinning. In the as-cast sample, a simple FMR spectrum was apparent. For treatment times of 5-20 min a complex resonant absorption at lower fields was detected; deconvolution calculations were carried out on the FMR spectra and it was possible to separate two contributions. These results can be interpreted as the combination of two different magnetic phases, corresponding to the amorphous matrix and nanocrystallites. The parameters of resonant absorptions can be associated with the evolution of nanocrystallization during the annealing

  8. Non-stoichiometric mullites from Al2O3-SiO2-ZrO2 amorphous materials by rapid quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, M.; Hanaue, Y.; Somiya, S.

    1990-01-01

    In order to study the formation of zirconia dispersed mullite ceramics from homogeneous starting materials hot-pressing and heat-treatments have been carried out for rapidly quenched amorphous materials with 0 to 20 wt% ZrO 2 mullite compositions. These amorphous materials crystallized directly to mullite for 0-10 wt% ZrO 2 samples or mullite + t-ZrO 2 for 20 wt% ZrO 2 at about 970 degrees C. An A1 2 O 3 - rich composition (82 wt% A1 2 O 3 ) and also a significant solid solubility of ZrO 2 (>10 wt%) were estimated for these mullites by XRD studies. Amorphous speres of 10 nm which were considered to be SiO 2 - rich phase were produced by a phase separation in mullite grains

  9. Experimental study of the polyamorphism of water. I. The isobaric transitions from amorphous ices to LDA at 4 MPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handle, Philip H.; Loerting, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    The existence of more than one solid amorphous state of water is an extraordinary feature. Since polyamorphism might be connected to the liquid-liquid critical point hypothesis, it is particularly important to study the relations amongst the different amorphous ices. Here we study the polyamorphic transformations of several high pressure amorphous ices to low-density amorphous ice (LDA) at 4 MPa by isobaric heating utilising in situ volumetry and ex situ X-ray diffraction. We find that very-high density amorphous ice (VHDA) and unannealed high density amorphous ice (HDA) show significant relaxation before transforming to LDA, whereby VHDA is seen to relax toward HDA. By contrast, expanded HDA shows almost no relaxation prior to the transformation. The transition to LDA itself obeys criteria for a first-order-like transition in all cases. In the case of VHDA, even macroscopic phase separation is observed. These findings suggest that HDA and LDA are two clearly distinct polyamorphs. We further present evidence that HDA reaches the metastable equilibrium at 140 K and 0.1 GPa but only comes close to that at 140 K and 0.2 GPa. The most important is the path independence of the amorphous phase reached at 140 K and 0.1 GPa.

  10. Phase separation and pressure drop of two-phase flow in vertical manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zetzmann, K.

    1982-01-01

    The splitting of a two-phase mass flow in a tube manifold results in a separation between liquid and gas phase. A study is presented of the phase distribution and the related two-phase pressure drop for vertical manifolds in the technically relevant geometry and flow parameter region of an air-water-flow. At the outlet changes in the gas/fluid-radio are observed which are proportional to this ratio at the inlet. The separation characteristic strongly depends on the massflow through the junction. Empirical equations are given to calculate the separation. Measuring the pressure drop at main- and secondary tube of the manifold the additional pressure drop can be obtained. If these results are related with the dynamic pressure at the inlet, two-phase resistance coefficients can be deduced, which may be tested by empirical relations. (orig.) [de

  11. Ultrafast characterization of phase-change material crystallization properties in the melt-quenched amorphous phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyasingh, Rakesh; Fong, Scott W; Lee, Jaeho; Li, Zijian; Chang, Kuo-Wei; Mantegazza, Davide; Asheghi, Mehdi; Goodson, Kenneth E; Wong, H-S Philip

    2014-06-11

    Phase change materials are widely considered for application in nonvolatile memories because of their ability to achieve phase transformation in the nanosecond time scale. However, the knowledge of fast crystallization dynamics in these materials is limited because of the lack of fast and accurate temperature control methods. In this work, we have developed an experimental methodology that enables ultrafast characterization of phase-change dynamics on a more technologically relevant melt-quenched amorphous phase using practical device structures. We have extracted the crystallization growth velocity (U) in a functional capped phase change memory (PCM) device over 8 orders of magnitude (10(-10) 10(8) K/s), which reveals the extreme fragility of Ge2Sb2Te5 in its supercooled liquid phase. Furthermore, these crystallization properties were studied as a function of device programming cycles, and the results show degradation in the cell retention properties due to elemental segregation. The above experiments are enabled by the use of an on-chip fast heater and thermometer called as microthermal stage (MTS) integrated with a vertical phase change memory (PCM) cell. The temperature at the PCM layer can be controlled up to 600 K using MTS and with a thermal time constant of 800 ns, leading to heating rates ∼10(8) K/s that are close to the typical device operating conditions during PCM programming. The MTS allows us to independently control the electrical and thermal aspects of phase transformation (inseparable in a conventional PCM cell) and extract the temperature dependence of key material properties in real PCM devices.

  12. Laser Photolytic Approach to Cu/polymer Sols and Cu/polymer Nanocomposites with Amorphous Cu Phase.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pola, Josef; Ouchi, A.; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Urbanová, Markéta; Boháček, Jaroslav; Šubrt, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 192, 2-3 (2007) , s. 84-92 ISSN 1010-6030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : Cu-polymer nanocomposite * laser solution photolysis * amorphous Cu phase Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 1.911, year: 2007

  13. Amorphization of C-implanted Fe(Cr) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, J.A.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Sorensen, N.R.; Pope, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    The amorphous phase formed by implanting C into Fe alloyed with Cr, which is a prototype for the amorphous phase formed by implanting C into stainless steels, is compared to that formed by implanting C and Ti into Fe and steels. The composition range of the phase has been examined; higher Cr and C concentrations are required than needed with Ti and C. The friction and wear benefits obtained by implanting stainless steels with C only do not persist for the long durations and high wear loads found with Ti and C. However, the amorphous Fe-Cr-C alloys exhibit good aqueous corrosion resistance. (orig.)

  14. X-Ray Amorphous Phases in Antarctica Dry Valley Soils: Insight into Aqueous Alteration Processes on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Rampe, E. B.; Golden, D. C.; Quinn, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    The Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instrument onboard the Mars Curiosity rover has detected abundant amounts (approx. 25-30 weight percentage) of X-ray amorphous materials in a windblown deposit (Rocknest) and in a sedimentary mudstone (Cumberland and John Klein) in Gale crater, Mars. On Earth, X-ray amorphous components are common in soils and sediments, but usually not as abundant as detected in Gale crater. One hypothesis for the abundant X-ray amorphous materials on Mars is limited interaction of liquid water with surface materials, kinetically inhibiting maturation to more crystalline phases. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemistry and mineralogy of soils formed in the Antarctica Dry Valleys, one of the driest locations on Earth. Two soils were characterized from different elevations, including a low elevation, coastal, subxerous soil in Taylor Valley and a high elevation, ultraxerous soil in University Valley. A variety of techniques were used to characterize materials from each soil horizon, including Rietveld analysis of X-ray diffraction data. For Taylor Valley soil, the X-ray amorphous component ranged from about 4 weight percentage in the upper horizon to as high as 15 weight percentage in the lowest horizon just above the permafrost layer. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that the presence of short-range ordered (SRO) smectite was the most likely candidate for the X-ray amorphous materials in the Taylor Valley soils. The SRO smectite is likely an aqueous alteration product of mica inherited from granitic materials during glaciation of Taylor Valley. The drier University Valley soils had lower X-ray amorphous contents of about 5 weight percentage in the lowest horizon. The X-ray amorphous materials in University Valley are attributed to nanoparticles of TiO2 and possibly amorphous SiO2. The high abundance of X-ray amorphous materials in Taylor Valley is surprising for one of the driest places on Earth. These materials

  15. Phase separation of superconducting phases in the Penson–Kolb–Hubbard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapcia, Konrad Jerzy; Czart, Wojciech Robert; Ptok, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we determine the phase diagrams (for T = 0 as well as T > 0) of the Penson–Kolb–Hubbard model for two dimensional square lattice within Hartree–Fock mean-field theory focusing on an investigation of superconducting phases and on a possibility of the occurrence of the phase separation. We obtain that the phase separation, which is a state of coexistence of two different superconducting phases (with s- and η-wave symmetries), occurs in definite ranges of the electron concentration. In addition, increasing temperature can change the symmetry of the superconducting order parameter (from η-wave into s-wave). The system considered exhibits also an interesting multicritical behaviour including bicritical points. The relevance of the results to experiments for real materials is also discussed. (author)

  16. Phase Separation of Superconducting Phases in the Penson-Kolb-Hubbard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerzy Kapcia, Konrad; Czart, Wojciech Robert; Ptok, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we determine the phase diagrams (for T = 0 as well as T > 0) of the Penson-Kolb-Hubbard model for two dimensional square lattice within Hartree-Fock mean-field theory focusing on an investigation of superconducting phases and on a possibility of the occurrence of the phase separation. We obtain that the phase separation, which is a state of coexistence of two different superconducting phases (with s- and η-wave symmetries), occurs in definite ranges of the electron concentration. In addition, increasing temperature can change the symmetry of the superconducting order parameter (from η-wave into s-wave). The system considered exhibits also an interesting multicritical behaviour including bicritical points. The relevance of the results to experiments for real materials is also discussed.

  17. Structural investigation of Fe(Cu)ZrB amorphous alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhaj, P. [Slovenska Akademia Vied, Bratislava (Slovakia). Fyzikalny Ustav; Matko, I. [Slovenska Akademia Vied, Bratislava (Slovakia). Fyzikalny Ustav; Svec, P. [Slovenska Akademia Vied, Bratislava (Slovakia). Fyzikalny Ustav; Sitek, J. [Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Slovak Technical University, 81219 Bratislava (Slovakia); Janickovic, D. [Slovenska Akademia Vied, Bratislava (Slovakia). Fyzikalny Ustav

    1996-07-01

    The crystallization process in Fe{sub 86}(Cu{sub 1})Zr{sub 7}B{sub 6} and Fe{sub 87}Zr{sub 7}B{sub 6} is investigated using the methods of transmission electron microscopy, electron and X-ray diffraction and resistometry. Two crystallization reactions take place during thermal annealing of amorphous Fe{sub 86}(Cu{sub 1})Zr{sub 7}B{sub 6} and Fe{sub 87}Zr{sub 7}B{sub 6} alloys. In both alloys the first crystallization begins with the formation of nanocrystalline {alpha}-Fe at temperature to approximately 800 K. The second crystallization starts above 1000 K; the nanocrystalline phase dissolves and together with the remaining amorphous matrix form rough grains of {alpha}-Fe and dispersed Fe{sub 23}Zr{sub 6} phases. From Moessbauer spectroscopy it seems that there exist two neighbourhoods of Fe atoms in the amorphous structure. One of them is characterized by low Zr content and is responsible for the high-field component of the hyperfine field distribution p(H). The second one is rich in Zr and B and is responsible for the low-field component of p(H). This is in accord with the observation of two crystallization steps separated by a large interval of temperatures due to the existence of two chemically different regions or clusters. (orig.)

  18. α″ Martensite and Amorphous Phase Transformation Mechanism in TiNbTaZr Alloy Incorporated with TiO2 Particles During Friction Stir Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Ruoshi; Liu, Yiwei; Wang, Liqiang; Lu, Eryi; Xie, Lechun; Lu, Weijie; Wang, Kuaishe; Zhang, Lai-Chang

    2018-06-01

    This work studied the formation of the α″ martensite and amorphous phases of TiNbTaZr alloy incorporated with TiO2 particles during friction stir processing. Formation of the amorphous phase in the top surface mainly results from the dissolution of oxygen, rearrangement of the lattice structure, and dislocations. High-stress stemming caused by dislocations and high-stress concentrations at crystal-amorphous interfaces promote the formation of α″ martensite. Meanwhile, an α″ martensitic transformation is hindered by oxygen diffusion from TiO2 to the matrix, thereby increasing resistance to shear.

  19. High-resolution observation of phase contrast at 1MeV. Amorphous or crystalline objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, A.; Desseaux, J.

    1975-01-01

    Many authors have stressed the possibilities of high voltage to improve resolution, but owing to numerous experimental difficulties the resolution limit at 1MeV, which lies around 1A for conventional lenses, has so far been unattainable. Thus the phase contrast at 1MeV has not been studied on evaporated objects. On the other hand the fringes of crystal planes have been observed at 1MeV. the CEN-G microscope having been considerably modified it has been possible to observe the phase contrast of amorphous or crystalline objects [fr

  20. Crystallization behavior of nanocomposites based on poly(L-lactide) and layered double hydroxides - Unbiased determination of the rigid amorphous phases due to the crystals and the nanofiller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenhals, Andreas; Leng, Jing; Wurm, Andreas; Schick, Christoph

    Semicrystalline polymers have to be described by a three phase model consisting of a mobile amorphous (MAF), a crystalline (CF), and a rigid amorphous fraction (RAF). For nanocomposites based on a semicrystalline polymer the RAF is due to both the crystallites (RAFcrystal) and the filler (RAFfiller) . In most cases a separation of both contributions is not possible without further assumptions. Here polymer nanocomposite based on poly(L-lactide) and layered double hydroxide nanofiller were prepared. Due to the low crystallization rate of PLA its crystallization can be suppressed by a high enough cooling rate, and the RAF is due only to the nanofiller. The MAF, CF, and RAF were estimated by Temperature Modulated DSC. For the first time CF, MAF, RAFcrystal, and RAFfiller could be estimated without any assumption. Two different systems with a different degree of exfoliation were prepared and discussed in detail.

  1. Accuracy in quantitative phase analysis of mixtures with large amorphous contents. The case of stoneware ceramics and bricks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gualtieri, A. F.; Riva, V.; Bresciani, A.; Maretti, S.; Tamburini, M.; Viani, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2014), s. 835-846 ISSN 0021-8898 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : amorphous phases * bricks * ceramics * internal standards * quantitative phase analysis Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering Impact factor: 3.720, year: 2014 http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/paper?S160057671400627X

  2. The phase-change kinetics of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 and device characteristics investigated by thin-film mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Ju-Young; Kim, Dohyung; Park, Yong-Jin; Yang, Tae-Youl; Lee, Yoo-Yong; Joo, Young-Chang

    2015-01-01

    For high switching speed and high reliability of phase-change random access memory (PcRAM), we need to identify materials that enable fast crystallization at elevated temperatures but are stable at and above room temperature. Achieving this goal requires a breakthrough in our understanding of the unique crystallization kinetics of amorphous phase change materials as a fragile glass, described as the non-Arrhenius behavior of atomic mobility. It is a highly rewarding task to unravel the unconventional crystallization kinetics and related properties, because these properties can be utilized to predict the device characteristics. This manuscript utilizes the thin-film mechanics to investigate the crystallization kinetics of amorphous Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 phase-change materials doped with Al, Bi, C and N, which is an effective method to analyze the structural changes in amorphous materials. Crystallization temperature, super-cooled liquid region, glass transition temperature and fragility are measured to describe the crystallization kinetics tuned by doping; characteristic fragile-to-strong transition is observed for C and N dopings due to their structural feature as an interstitial dopant. Consequently, doping effects on the phase stability and atomic mobility manifested by the crystallization temperature and the super-cooled liquid region (or 1/fragility) successfully correspond with PcRAM characteristics, i.e., reliability and switching speed, respectively

  3. One-step liquid phase chemical method to prepare carbon-based amorphous molybdenum sulfides: As the effective hydrogen evolution reaction catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Mengmeng; Wu, Qikang; Yu, Miaomiao; Wang, Yinling; Li, Maoguo

    2017-01-01

    Two different kinds of carbon-based amorphous molybdenum sulfide composite catalysts (activated carbon supported amorphous molybdenum sulfide and acetylene black supported amorphous molybdenum sulfide) had been prepared in a facile and scalable one-step liquid phase chemical method. The morphological and structural information of catalysts was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and it’s electro-catalytic HER activity were evaluated by linear sweep voltammetry(LSV), amperometric i-t technology and AC impedance technology. The as-prepared carbon-based amorphous molybdenum sulfides showed greatly enhanced electro-catalytic activity for HER compared with pure amorphous molybdenum sulfides. Especially, the nano-sized acetylene black supported molybdenum sulfide exhibited excellent electro-catalytic HER performances with a low onset potential of −116 mV versus reverse hydrogen electrode (RHE) and a small Tafel slope of 51 mV per decade.

  4. Generalized melting criterion for beam-induced amorphization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, N. Q.; Okamoto, Paul R.

    1993-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that the mean-square static atomic displacements provide a generic measure of the enthalpy stored in the lattice in the form of chemical and topological disorder, and that the effect of the displacements on the softening of shear elastic constants is identical to that of heating. This finding lends support to a generalized form of the Lindemann phenomenological melting criterion and leads to a natural interpretion of crystalline-to-amorphous transformations as defect-induced melting of metastable crystals driven beyond a critical state of disorder where the melting temperature falls below the glass-transition temperature. Application of the generalized Lindemann criterion to both the crystalline and amorphous phases indicates that the enthalpies of the two phases become identical when their shear moduli become equal. This thermo-elastic rule provides a basis for predicting the relative susceptibility of compounds to amorphization in terms of their elastic properties as measured by Debye temperatures. The present approach can explain many of the basic findings on beam-induced amorphization of intermetallic compounds as well as amorphous phase formation associated with ion implantation, ion-beam mixing and other solid-state processes

  5. Origin of Reversible Photoinduced Phase Separation in Hybrid Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischak, Connor G; Hetherington, Craig L; Wu, Hao; Aloni, Shaul; Ogletree, D Frank; Limmer, David T; Ginsberg, Naomi S

    2017-02-08

    The distinct physical properties of hybrid organic-inorganic materials can lead to unexpected nonequilibrium phenomena that are difficult to characterize due to the broad range of length and time scales involved. For instance, mixed halide hybrid perovskites are promising materials for optoelectronics, yet bulk measurements suggest the halides reversibly phase separate upon photoexcitation. By combining nanoscale imaging and multiscale modeling, we find that the nature of halide demixing in these materials is distinct from macroscopic phase separation. We propose that the localized strain induced by a single photoexcited charge interacting with the soft, ionic lattice is sufficient to promote halide phase separation and nucleate a light-stabilized, low-bandgap, ∼8 nm iodide-rich cluster. The limited extent of this polaron is essential to promote demixing because by contrast bulk strain would simply be relaxed. Photoinduced phase separation is therefore a consequence of the unique electromechanical properties of this hybrid class of materials. Exploiting photoinduced phase separation and other nonequilibrium phenomena in hybrid materials more generally could expand applications in sensing, switching, memory, and energy storage.

  6. The possibility of using dc conductivity for investigating phase transition in amorphous semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mously, M.K.; Mina, N.K.

    1985-07-01

    Different formulas have been applied to deduce the effective or the generalized electrical conductivity of double phase systems. These formulas have been revised and fitted to the experimental data of the binary systems amorphous-crystal (a-c) and liquid-crystal (l-c) for pure elementary selenium and selenium doped by different other elements. Both connected medium and statistical mixture theories can be applied depending on the nature of the system under investigation. (author)

  7. Pressure induced Amorphization of Ln1/3(Nb,Ta)O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchior, A.; Noked, O.; Sterer, E.; Shuker, R.

    2014-01-01

    The research focuses on the phenomenon of pressure induced amorphization (PIA) in Ln1/3MO3, Ln - La,Pr,Nd and M-Nb,Ta. In most pressure induced phase transitions the material changes from a crystalline phase to another crystalline phase. However, if this transition is kinetically hindered, the increased free energy due to the applied pressure will result in a structural collapse to an amorphous intermediate phase. This phenomenon is known as pressure induced amorphization

  8. Amorphization reaction in thin films of elemental Cu and Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. W.; Ahn, C. C.; Ratner, E. R.

    1989-10-01

    Compositionally modulated thin films of Cu and Y were prepared in an ultrahigh-vacuum dc ion-beam deposition chamber. The amorphization reaction was monitored by in situ x-ray-diffraction measurements. Growth of amorphous Cu1-xYx is observed at room temperature with the initial formation of a Cu-rich amorphous phase. Further annealing in the presence of unreacted Y leads to Y enrichment of the amorphous phase. Growth of crystalline CuY is observed for T=469 K. Transmission-electron-microscopy measurements provide real-space imaging of the amorphous interlayer and growth morphology. Models are developed, incorporating metastable interfacial and bulk free-energy diagrams, for the early stage of the amorphization reaction.

  9. Origin of deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide: Chemically disordered coordination of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallis, S.; Williams, D. S.; Butler, K. T.; Walsh, A.; Quackenbush, N. F.; Junda, M.; Podraza, N. J.; Fischer, D. A.; Woicik, J. C.; White, B. E.; Piper, L. F. J.

    2014-01-01

    The origin of the deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO), whether intrinsic to the amorphous structure or not, has serious implications for the development of p-type transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors. We report that the deep subgap feature in a-IGZO originates from local variations in the oxygen coordination and not from oxygen vacancies. This is shown by the positive correlation between oxygen composition and subgap intensity as observed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We also demonstrate that the subgap feature is not intrinsic to the amorphous phase because the deep subgap feature can be removed by low-temperature annealing in a reducing environment. Atomistic calculations of a-IGZO reveal that the subgap state originates from certain oxygen environments associated with the disorder. Specifically, the subgap states originate from oxygen environments with a lower coordination number and/or a larger metal-oxygen separation.

  10. Origin of deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide: Chemically disordered coordination of oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallis, S.; Williams, D. S. [Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Butler, K. T.; Walsh, A. [Center for Sustainable Technologies and Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Quackenbush, N. F. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Junda, M.; Podraza, N. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Fischer, D. A.; Woicik, J. C. [Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); White, B. E.; Piper, L. F. J., E-mail: lpiper@binghamton.edu [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States)

    2014-06-09

    The origin of the deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO), whether intrinsic to the amorphous structure or not, has serious implications for the development of p-type transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors. We report that the deep subgap feature in a-IGZO originates from local variations in the oxygen coordination and not from oxygen vacancies. This is shown by the positive correlation between oxygen composition and subgap intensity as observed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We also demonstrate that the subgap feature is not intrinsic to the amorphous phase because the deep subgap feature can be removed by low-temperature annealing in a reducing environment. Atomistic calculations of a-IGZO reveal that the subgap state originates from certain oxygen environments associated with the disorder. Specifically, the subgap states originate from oxygen environments with a lower coordination number and/or a larger metal-oxygen separation.

  11. Electrodeposition of amorphous Ni-P coatings onto Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, C.B [Department of Chemistry, Yuquan campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Cao, F.H [Department of Chemistry, Yuquan campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang, Z. [Department of Chemistry, Yuquan campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)]. E-mail: eaglezzy@zjuem.zju.edu.cn; Zhang, J.Q [Department of Chemistry, Yuquan campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection of Metals, Institute of Metal Research, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2006-12-15

    Decorative and protective Ni-P amorphous coatings were electroplated onto NdFeB permanent magnet from an ortho-phosphorous acid contained bath. The influences of the main electroplating technological parameters including current density, bath pH, bath temperature and H{sub 3}PO{sub 3} on the structure and chemical composition of Ni-P coatings were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques in conjunction with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning transmission electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDX). The optimized amorphous Ni-P coated NdFeB can stand for ca. 180 h against neutral 3.0 wt.% NaCl salt spray without any pitting corrosion. Meanwhile, the results also showed that large phosphorous content is the precondition for Ni-P coatings to possess the amorphous structure, but too much high phosphorous content can damage the amorphous structure due to the separation of superfluous P from Ni{sub 2}P/Ni{sub 3}P and the resultant formation of multi-phase coatings (such as Ni{sub 2}P-P)

  12. COMPOSITION OF MINERAL PHASES OF THE GHIDIRIM DIATOMITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Rusu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the mineralogical composition of diatomite from the Ghidirim location of RM, as well as of the extracted clay phase are presented. The mineral phase of the diatomite contains a number of clay minerals, like montmorillonite (in a mixture with insignificant quantities of slightly chloritized montmorillonite, illite and kaolinite. Diatomite contains also non-clay components as fine-dispersed quartz and amorphous material, the more probable sources of which are opal, amorphous alumosilicates, aluminum and iron hydroxides. The applied procedure for separation of clay fractions by sizing settling in liquid media proves to be very useful, enabling possibilities for more accurate identification of the clay constituents of diatomic material. Procedure allows to separate very clean clay fraction especially rich in montmorillonite, which can be utilized itself as mineral adsorbent for practical purposes.

  13. In situ observation of shear-driven amorphization in silicon crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yang; Zhong, Li; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Chongmin; Zhu, Ting; Mao, Scott X.

    2016-09-19

    Amorphous materials have attracted great interest in the scientific and technological fields. An amorphous solid usually forms under the externally driven conditions of melt-quenching, irradiation and severe mechanical deformation. However, its dynamic formation process remains elusive. Here we report the in situ atomic-scale observation of dynamic amorphization processes during mechanical straining of nanoscale silicon crystals by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We observe the shear-driven amorphization (SDA) occurring in a dominant shear band. The SDA involves a sequence of processes starting with the shear-induced diamond-cubic to diamond-hexagonal phase transition that is followed by dislocation nucleation and accumulation in the newly formed phase, leading to the formation of amorphous silicon. The SDA formation through diamond-hexagonal phase is rationalized by its structural conformity with the order in the paracrystalline amorphous silicon, which maybe widely applied to diamond-cubic materials. Besides, the activation of SDA is orientation-dependent through the competition between full dislocation nucleation and partial gliding.

  14. Quantitative determination of amorphous content in ceramic materials using x-ray powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchinski, M.A.; Hubbard, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    A quantitative technique which employs a modified method of additions approach to analyze for low amorphous content in crystalline matrices was developed and tested. Known amounts of amorphous material are added to the starting powder. The method uses the ratio of a measure of the intensity of the amorphous phase corrected for background to the background corrected intensity of a reference line from a crystalline phase. The amorphous spiking phase must be close in composition to the amorphous phase existing in the analyte. A critical step of the method is to correctly establish the background intensity. A completely crystalline material of similar scattering power was used to establish background intensity

  15. Low-temperature crystallization of amorphous silicon and amorphous germanium by soft X-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heya, Akira, E-mail: heya@eng.u-hyogo.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Chemistry, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671–2280 (Japan); Kanda, Kazuhiro [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry (LASTI), University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Koto, Kamigori, Hyogo 678–1205 (Japan); Toko, Kaoru; Sadoh, Taizoh [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Nishi-ku, Motooka, Fukuoka 819–0395 (Japan); Amano, Sho [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry (LASTI), University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Koto, Kamigori, Hyogo 678–1205 (Japan); Matsuo, Naoto [Department of Materials Science and Chemistry, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671–2280 (Japan); Miyamoto, Shuji [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry (LASTI), University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Koto, Kamigori, Hyogo 678–1205 (Japan); Miyao, Masanobu [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Nishi-ku, Motooka, Fukuoka 819–0395 (Japan); Mochizuki, Takayasu [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry (LASTI), University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Koto, Kamigori, Hyogo 678–1205 (Japan)

    2013-05-01

    The low-temperature-crystallization effects of soft X-ray irradiation on the structural properties of amorphous Si and amorphous Ge films were investigated. From the differences in crystallization between Si and Ge, it was found that the effects of soft X-ray irradiation on the crystallization strongly depended on the energy band gap and energy level. The crystallization temperatures of the amorphous Si and amorphous Ge films decreased from 953 K to 853 K and 773 K to 663 K, respectively. The decrease in crystallization temperature was also related to atoms transitioning into a quasi-nucleic phase in the films. The ratio of electron excitation and migration effects to thermal effects was controlled using the storage-ring current (photon flux density). Therefore, we believe that low-temperature crystallization can be realized by controlling atomic migration through electron excitation. - Highlights: • This work investigates the crystallization mechanism for soft X-ray irradiation. • The soft X-ray crystallization depended on the energy band gap and energy level. • The decrease in the crystallization temperature for Si and Ge films was 100 K. • This decrement was related to atoms transitioning into a quasi-nucleic phase.

  16. Influence of amorphous layers on the thermal conductivity of phononic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdier, Maxime; Lacroix, David; Didenko, Stanislav; Robillard, Jean-François; Lampin, Evelyne; Bah, Thierno-Moussa; Termentzidis, Konstantinos

    2018-03-01

    The impact of amorphous phases around the holes and at the upper and lower free surfaces on thermal transport in silicon phononic membranes is studied. By means of molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations, we explore the impact of the amorphous phase (oxidation and amorphous silicon), surfaces roughness, and a series of geometric parameters on thermal transport. We show that the crystalline phase drives the phenomena; the two main parameters are (i) the crystalline fraction between two holes and (ii) the crystalline thickness of the membranes. We reveal the hierarchical impact of nanostructurations on the thermal conductivity, namely, from the most resistive to the less resistive: the creation of holes, the amorphous phase around them, and the amorphization of the membranes edges. The surfaces or interfaces perpendicular to the heat flow hinder the thermal conductivity to a much greater extent than those parallel to the heat flow.

  17. Phase separation in Sr doped BiMnO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guan-Nan; Gao Qing-Qing; Luo Jun; Liu Guang-Yao; Liang Jing-Kui; Rao Guang-Hui; Huang Qing-Zhen; Li Jing-Bo

    2014-01-01

    Phase separation in Sr doped BiMnO 3 (Bi 1−x Sr x MnO 3 , x = 0.4−0.6) was studied by means of temperature-dependent high-resolution neutron powder diffraction (NPD), high resolution X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and physical property measurements. All the experiments indicate that a phase separation occurs at the temperature coinciding with the reported charge ordering temperature (T CO ) in the literature. Below the reported T CO , both the phases resulting from the phase separation crystallize in the orthorhombically distorted perovskite structure with space group Imma. At lower temperature, these two phases order in the CE-type antiferromagnetic structure and the A-type antiferromagnetic structure, respectively. However, a scrutiny of the high-resolution NPD and XRD data at different temperatures and the electron diffraction experiment at 300 K did not manifest any evidence of a long-range charge ordering (CO) in our investigated samples, suggesting that the anomalies of physical properties such as magnetization, electric transport, and lattice parameters at the T CO might be caused by the phase separation rather than by a CO transition

  18. Stress-Triggered Phase Separation Is an Adaptive, Evolutionarily Tuned Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riback, Joshua A.; Katanski, Christopher D.; Kear-Scott, Jamie L.; Pilipenko, Evgeny V.; Rojek, Alexandra E.; Sosnick, Tobin R.; Drummond, D. Allan

    2017-03-01

    In eukaryotic cells, diverse stresses trigger coalescence of RNA-binding proteins into stress granules. In vitro, stress-granule-associated proteins can demix to form liquids, hydrogels, and other assemblies lacking fixed stoichiometry. Observing these phenomena has generally required conditions far removed from physiological stresses. We show that poly(A)-binding protein (Pab1 in yeast), a defining marker of stress granules, phase separates and forms hydrogels in vitro upon exposure to physiological stress conditions. Other RNA-binding proteins depend upon low-complexity regions (LCRs) or RNA for phase separation, whereas Pab1’s LCR is not required for demixing, and RNA inhibits it. Based on unique evolutionary patterns, we create LCR mutations, which systematically tune its biophysical properties and Pab1 phase separation in vitro and in vivo. Mutations that impede phase separation reduce organism fitness during prolonged stress. Poly(A)-binding protein thus acts as a physiological stress sensor, exploiting phase separation to precisely mark stress onset, a broadly generalizable mechanism.

  19. Phase separation in lipid bilayers triggered by low pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh, Swetha; Edwardson, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Lipid bilayers have been imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM). → At pH 5 phase separation occurs in lipid bilayers containing mixed acyl chains. → Phase separation does not occur when lipids have only unsaturated chains. → Phase separation might drive protein clustering during endocytosis. -- Abstract: Endocytosis involves the capture of membrane from the cell surface in the form of vesicles, which become rapidly acidified to about pH 5. Here we show using atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging that this degree of acidification triggers phase separation in lipid bilayers containing mixed acyl chains (e.g. palmitoyl/oleoyl) or complex mixtures (e.g. total brain extract) but not in bilayers containing only lipids with unsaturated chains (e.g. dioleoyl). Since mixed-chain lipids are major constituents of the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane, the type of phase separation reported here might support protein clustering and signaling during endocytosis.

  20. Time resolved reflectivity measurements of the amorphous-to-gamma and gamma-to-alpha phase transitions in ion-implanted Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, J.C.; Simpson, T.W.; Mitchell, I.V.

    1994-01-01

    Time resolved optical reflectivity (TRR) has been used to measure the growth kinetics associated with the amorphous-to-gamma and gamma-to-alpha phase transitions in ion-beam amorphised c-axis oriented α-Al 2 O 3 . The optical reflectivity technique allows the recrystallisation behaviour to be monitored dynamically during regrowth so that the growth kinetics associated with the two phase transitions can be measured simply and accurately from a relatively small number of samples. The amorphous-to-gamma and gamma-to-alpha phase transitions were studied over the temperature ranges of 670-770 C and 900-1070 C, respectively. The growth kinetics obtained for the two transitions are compared to previous work. ((orig.))

  1. Study of amorphous phases in the ash of power plant (Zemianske Kostolany site); Studium amorfnych faz v elektrarenskych popoloch (lokalita Zemianske Kostolany)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petkova, K [Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra geocheomie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia); Lalinska-Volekova, B [Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra mineralogie a petrologie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-04-25

    Using mineralogical methods (SEM, BSE, WDS, TEM, XRD) a chemical and mineral composition of selected samples of fresh power plant ash and of soils containing buried ash sediments in the area Zemianske Kostolany was studied. Chemically, the ash samples mainly comprised of Si, Fe, Al and Ca, followed by Mg, K, Na, Ti and S. From potentially toxic elements in the ash significantly increased arsenic content (358 - 1859 mg/kg), which is present mainly in the finest fraction of the studied samples. The dominant component of the investigated samples (average 74%) is created by amorphous aluminosilicate glass. These amorphous components have variable representation of Si, Al, Ca, Fe and were identified as a major phase bearing arsenic (by 2.28 wt. %). Arsenic binds to aggregates of nanoparticles, which consist of Al, Si, Ca, Fe, less to the phases of Fe and Ca. In addition to amorphous glass, arsenic binds also to unburned coal residues (up to 0.5 wt.%). From crystalline phases were identified quartz, calcite, mullite, feldspars, hematite, magnetite, cristobalite, rutile, mica light, pyrotite, pyrite, montmorillonite and perovskite. (authors)

  2. Stabilization of organic matter in soils: role of amorphous mineral phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewde Tamrat, Wuhib; Rose, Jérôme; Levard, Clément; Chaurand, Perrine; Basile-Doelsch, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) globally contributes the largest portion of continental carbon stock. One major issue concerning this large C pool includes its instability by mineralization and erosion due to land use. The main hypothesis of this work is that physicochemical stabilization of SOM is mainly driven by interactions of organic compounds, not with mineral surfaces as classically considered, but with amorphous polymers continuously formed by the alteration of soil minerals(1-3). Our objective is to understand how nano-organomineral complexes (nCOMx) are structured at the nanoscale, assess mechanisms of their formation, and quantify the effects of their occurrence on SOM turnovers. Due to inherent high complexity of natural samples, our methodology is based on the formation of nCOMx from both synthetic systems and natural mineral-weathered components. For the mineral component, biotite (from Bancroft, Canada) was selected. For the organic component, 3,4-Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, an amino acid with hydroxyl (pKa=9.95), carboxyl (pKa=2,58), amino (pKa=9,24) and an aromatic functions was chosen. The methodology aimed at developing conditions that generate biotite dissolution and nCOMx precipitation. The second step of the experiment consisted of the precipitation of nCOMx by slowly increasing pH over 3 to 12 hours of hydrolysis. Three final pH conditions were tested (4.2, 5 and 7) with Metal/Carbon ratios of 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 and 'No Carbon'. The first results of dissolution rates and congruency, AFM imaging, ICPMS, HR-TEM and XRD as well as XAS characterizations (transmission and florescence mode at the Fe K-edge) of nCOMx will be presented. Experiments and analysis techniques were designed to study these synthetic phases with regard to Si, Al, Fe and OM proportions to increase the OM proportion (as in natural soil phases) and also increase the stability of the OM phase (as in increased residence time of OM in the soil). We will focus particularly on the Fe state

  3. Investigations into polymer and carbon nanomaterial separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Cherie Nicole

    utilize as novel UTLC substrates. Additionally, aligned electrospun UTLC (AE-UTLC) substrates were developed to compare to the randomly oriented electrospun (E-UTLC) devices. The PHB plates were compared to commercially available substrates for the separation of biological samples: nucleotides and steroids. The electrospun substrates show lower band broadening and higher reproducibility in a smaller development distance than commercially available TLC plates, conserving both resources and time. The AE-UTLC plates provided further enhancement of reproducibility and development time compared to E-UTLC plates. Thus, the P3HB E-UTLC phases are an excellent sustainable option for TLC as they are biodegradable and perform better than commercial phases. A third topic of interest is the study of ordered carbon nanomaterials. The typical amorphous carbon used as a stationary phase in Hypercarb ® is known to consist of basal- and edge-plane oriented sites. This heterogeneity of the stationary phase can lead to peak broadening that may be improved by using homogeneous carbon throughout. Amorphous, basal-plane, and edge-plane carbons were produced in-house through membrane template synthesis. Amorphous, basal-plane, and edge-plane carbons were then used separately as chromatographic phases in capillary electrochomatography (CEC). Differences in chromatographic performance between these species were assessed by modeling retention data for test solutes to determine Linear Solvation Energy Relationships (LSER). The LSER study for the three carbon phases indicates that the main difference is in the polarizability, and hydrogen bonding character of the surface leading to unique solute interactions. These results highlight the possible usefulness of using these phases independently.

  4. Double-antibody solid-phase radioimmunoassay: a simplified phase-separation procedure applied to various ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tevaarwerk, G.J.M.; Boyle, D.A.; Hurst, C.J.; Anguish, I.; Uksik, P.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose was to develop a simplified and reliable method of separating free from antibody-bound ligand using a precipitating antibody linked to a cellulose derivative. Dose-response curves and control sera were set up in parallel for various pituitary and placental polypeptides, steroid hormones, insulin, glucagon, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, angiotensin I, calcitonin, gastrin, cyclic AMP, and digoxin. After first-antibody reactions had reached equilibrium, free and bound ligand were separated using a double-antibody solid-phase system in parallel with conventional methods, including dextran-coated charcoal, double-antibody precipitation, single-antibody solid phase, organic solvents, salt precipitation, and anion-exchange resins. The effect of variations in temperature, incubation time, protein content, pH, and amount of separating material added were studied. The results showed that separation was complete within 1 hr for small ligand molecules and within 2 hr for larger ones. Dose-response curves and control-sera results closely paralleled those obtained with conventional methods. The method was not affected by moderate variations in incubation variables. Nonspecific binding was less than 3% in all assays, while intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation were similar to those obtained with conventional phase-separation methods. It is concluded that the method is a simple and rapid alternative phase-separation system. It has the advantage of being free from common nonspecific intersample variations, and can be applied to any assay system based on rabbit or guinea pig antibodies without preliminay time- or reagent-consuming titration or adjustments to establish optimum phase-separating conditions

  5. Evidence of polymorphous amorphous-to-quasicrystalline phase transformation in Zr66.7Pd33.3 metallic glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Saksl, K.; Saida, J.

    2002-01-01

    The amorphous-to-quasicrystalline phase transformation and the pressure effect on the transformation in a Zr66.7Pd33.3 metallic glass have been investigated by in situ x-ray diffraction measurements using synchrotron radiation. It is found that the transformation is a polymorphous reaction...

  6. Phase separation in the nonequilibrium Verwey transition in magnetite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randi, F.; Vergara, I.; Novelli, F.; Esposito, M.; Dell'Angela, M.; Brabers, V. A. M.; Metcalf, P.; Kukreja, R.; Dürr, H. A.; Fausti, D.; Grüninger, M.; Parmigiani, F.

    2016-02-01

    We present equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium studies of the Verwey transition in magnetite. In the equilibrium optical conductivity, we find a steplike change at the phase transition for photon energies below about 2 eV. The possibility of triggering a nonequilibrium transient metallic state in insulating magnetite by photo excitation was recently demonstrated by an x-ray study. Here we report a full characterization of the optical properties in the visible frequency range across the nonequilibrium phase transition. Our analysis of the spectral features is based on a detailed description of the equilibrium properties. The out-of-equilibrium optical data bear the initial electronic response associated to localized photoexcitation, the occurrence of phase separation, and the transition to a transient metallic phase for excitation density larger than a critical value. This allows us to identify the electronic nature of the transient state, to unveil the phase transition dynamics, and to study the consequences of phase separation on the reflectivity, suggesting a spectroscopic feature that may be generally linked to out-of-equilibrium phase separation.

  7. The nature of the photoluminescence in amorphized PZT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.S.; Cilense, M.; Orhan, E.; Goes, M.S.; Machado, M.A.C.; Santos, L.P.S.; Paiva-Santos, C.O.; Longo, E.; Varela, J.A.; Zaghete, M.A.; Pizani, P.S.

    2005-01-01

    The polymeric precursor method was used to synthesize lead zirconate titanate powder (PZT). The crystalline powder was then amorphized by a high-energy ball milling process during 120 h. A strong photoluminescence emission was observed at room temperature for the amorphized PZT powder. The powders were characterized by XRD and the percentage of amorphous phase was calculated through Rietveld refinement. The microstructure for both phases was investigated by TEM. The optical gap was calculated through the Wood and Tauc method using the UV-Vis. data. Quantum mechanical calculations were carried out to give an interpretation of the photoluminescence in terms of electronic structure

  8. Magnetic and magnetoelastic properties of the random anisotropy amorphous magnets Tb2(FexNi1-x)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Fuente, C.; Arnaudas, J.I.; Del Moral, A.; Ciria, M.

    1996-01-01

    Amorphous Tb 2 (Fe x Ni 1-x ) compounds show the strongest random anisotropy known: D/J≅5.2, between crystal field and exchange strengths, separately obtained. The magnetic phase diagram shows two speri-magnetic phases. The effective magnetic moment is reduced, μ eff. (5 K, 12 T)≅7.2 μ B /Tb 3+ . Magnetostriction is very large and constant, λ t (5 K, 12 T)≅4.1.10 -3 . The local distribution of Tb 3+ ions is aspherical. (orig.)

  9. Mesoporous calcium carbonate as a phase stabilizer of amorphous celecoxib--an approach to increase the bioavailability of poorly soluble pharmaceutical substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsgren, Johan; Andersson, Mattias; Nilsson, Peter; Mihranyan, Albert

    2013-11-01

    The bioavailability of crystalline pharmaceutical substances is often limited by their poor aqueous solubility but it can be improved by formulating the active substance in the amorphous state that is featured with a higher apparent solubility. Although the possibility of stabilizing amorphous drugs inside nano-sized pores of carbon nanotubes and ordered mesoporous silica has been shown, no conventional pharmaceutical excipients have so far been shown to possess this property. This study demonstrates the potential of using CaCO3 , a widely used excipient in oral drug formulations, to stabilize the amorphous state of active pharmaceutical ingredients, in particular celecoxib. After incorporation of celecoxib in the vaterite particles, a five to sixfold enhancement in apparent solubility of celecoxib is achieved due to pore-induced amorphization. To eliminate the possibility of uncontrolled phase transitions, the vaterite particles are stored in an inert atmosphere at 5 °C throughout the study. Also, to demonstrate that the amorphization effect is indeed associated with vaterite mesopores, accelerated stress conditions of 100% relative humidity are employed to impose transition from mesoporous vaterite to an essentially non-porous aragonite phase of CaCO3 , which shows only limited amorphization ability. Further, an improvement in solubility is also confirmed for ketoconazole when formulated with the mesoporous vaterite. Synthesis of the carrier particles and the incorporation of the active substances are carried out simultaneously in a one-step procedure, enabling easy fabrication. These results represent a promising approach to achieve enhanced bioavailability in new formulations of Type II BCS drugs. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Numerical Simulation on Flow Field of Oilfield Three-Phase Separator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-tu Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional measurement method can no longer guarantee the accuracy requirement after the oilfield development entering high water cut stage, due to the water content and gas phase in the flow. In order to overcome the impact of measurement deviation the oilfield production management, the flow field of three-phase separator is studied numerically in this paper using Fluent 6.3.26. Taking into consideration the production situation of PetroChina Huabei Oilfield and the characteristics of three-phase separator, the effect of internal flow status as well as other factors such as varying flow rate, gas fraction, and water content on the separation efficiency is analyzed. The results show that the separation efficiencies under all operation conditions are larger than 95%, which satisfy the accuracy requirement and also provide the theoretical foundation for the application of three-phase separators at oilfields.

  11. Amorphization of Laves-Phase Precipitates in Zircaloy-4 by Neutron Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, H.R.; Taylor, D.F.; Yang, Walter J.S.

    1999-04-23

    Examination of corrosion coupons by transmission electron microscopy after their exposure in the Idaho Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) has broadened the Zircaloy-4 precipitate-amorphization database and validated a new kinetic model for previously unavailable values of temperature and fast-neutron flux. The model describes the amorphization of Zr(Fe,Cr){sub 2} intermetallic precipitates in zirconium alloys as a dynamic competition between radiation damage and thermal annealing that leaves some iron atoms available for flux-assisted diffusion to the zirconium matrix. It predicts the width of the amorphous zone as a function of neutron flux (E>1 MeV), temperature, and time. In its simplest form, the model treats the crystalline/amorphous and precipitate/matrix interfaces as parallel planes, and its accuracy decreases for small precipitates and high fluence as the amorphous-zone width approaches precipitate dimensions. The simplest form of the model also considers diffusion to be rate-determining. This is an accurate approximation for steady-state conditions or slow changes in flux and temperature, but inappropriate for the analysis of faster transients. The paper addresses several difficulties inherent in measuring amorphous-zone width, and utilizes the expanded database to evaluate the improvements in predictive accuracy available through both conversion of the model to spherical coordinates and extension of its time dependency.

  12. Atomistic modeling of defect evolution in Si for amorphizing and subamorphizing implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Pedro; Pelaz, Lourdes; Marques, Luis A.; Santos, Ivan; Aboy, Maria; Barbolla, Juan

    2004-01-01

    Solid phase epitaxial regrowth of pre-amorphizing implants has received significant attention as a method to achieve high dopant activation with minimal diffusion at low implant temperatures and suppress channelling. Therefore, a good understanding of the amorphization and regrowth mechanisms is required in process simulators. We present an atomistic amorphization and recrystallization model that uses the interstitial-vacancy (I-V) pair as a building block to describe the amorphous phase. I-V pairs are locally characterized by the number of neighbouring I-V pairs. This feature captures the damage generation and the dynamical annealing during ion implantation, and also explains the annealing behaviour of amorphous layers and amorphous pockets

  13. Spin Filtering in Epitaxial Spinel Films with Nanoscale Phase Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Peng

    2017-05-08

    The coexistence of ferromagnetic metallic phase and antiferromagnetic insulating phase in nanoscaled inhomogeneous perovskite oxides accounts for the colossal magnetoresistance. Although the model of spin-polarized electron transport across antiphase boundaries has been commonly employed to account for large magnetoresistance (MR) in ferrites, the magnetic anomalies, the two magnetic phases and enhanced molecular moment, are still unresolved. We observed a sizable MR in epitaxial spinel films (NiCo2O4-δ) that is much larger than that commonly observed in spinel ferrites. Detailed analysis reveals that this MR can be attributed to phase separation, in which the perfect ferrimagnetic metallic phase and ferrimagnetic insulating phase coexist. The magnetic insulating phase plays an important role in spin filtering in these phase separated spinel oxides, leading to a sizable MR effect. A spin filtering model based on Zeeman effect and direct tunneling is developed to account for MR of the phase separated films.

  14. Irradiation induced crystalline to amorphous transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgoin, J.

    1980-01-01

    Irradiation of a crystalline solid with energetic heavy particles results in cascades of defects which, with increasing dose, overlap and form a continuous disordered layer. In semiconductors the physical properties of such disordered layers are found to be similar to those of amorphous layers produced by evaporation. It is shown in the case of silicon, that the transition from a disordered crystalline (X) layer to an amorphous (α) layer occurs when the Gibbs energy of the X phase and of the defects it contains becomes larger than the Gibbs energy of the α phase. (author)

  15. Reversible electrical resistance switching in GeSbTe thin films : An electrolytic approach without amorphous-crystalline phase-change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandian, Ramanathaswamy; Kooi, Bart J.; Palasantzas, George; De Hosson, Jeff Th. M.; Wouters, DJ; Hong, S; Soss, S; Auciello, O

    2008-01-01

    Besides the well-known resistance switching originating from the amorphous-crystalline phase-change in GeSbTe thin films, we demonstrate another switching mechanism named 'polarity-dependent resistance (PDR) switching'. 'Me electrical resistance of the film switches between a low- and high-state

  16. Crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition in irradiated silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidman, D.N.; Averback, R.S.; Okamoto, P.R.; Baily, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    The amorphous(a)-to-crystalline (c) phase transition has been studied in electron(e - ) and/or ion irradiated silicon (Si). The irradiations were performed in situ in the Argonne High Voltage Microscope-Tandem Facility. The irradiation of Si, at 0 K, with 1-MeV e - to a fluence of 14 dpa failed to induce the c-to-a transition. Whereas an irradiation, at 0 K, with 1.0 or 1.5-MeV Kr+ ions induced the c-to-a transition by a fluence of approx.0.37 dpa. Alternatively a dual irradiation, at 10 0 K, with 1.0-MeV e - and 1.0 or 1.5-MeV Kr+ to a Kr+ fluence of 1.5 dpa - where the ratio of the displacement rates for e - to ions was approx.0.5 - resulted in the Si specimen retaining a degree of crystallinity. These results are discussed in terms of the degree of dispersion of point defects in the primary state of damage and the mobilities of point defects

  17. Effect of atomic disorder on the magnetic phase separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groshev, A. G.; Arzhnikov, A. K.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of disorder on the magnetic phase separation between the antiferromagnetic and incommensurate helical and phases is investigated. The study is based on the quasi-two-dimensional single-band Hubbard model in the presence of atomic disorder (the Anderson–Hubbard model). A model of binary alloy disorder is considered, in which the disorder is determined by the difference in energy between the host and impurity atomic levels at a fixed impurity concentration. The problem is solved within the theory of functional integration in static approximation. Magnetic phase diagrams are obtained as functions of the temperature, the number of electrons and impurity concentration with allowance for phase separation. It is shown that for the model parameters chosen, the disorder caused by impurities whose atomic-level energy is greater than that of the host atomic levels, leads to qualitative changes in the phase diagram of the impurity-free system. In the opposite case, only quantitative changes occur. The peculiarities of the effect of disorder on the phase separation regions of the quasi-two-dimensional Hubbard model are discussed.

  18. Structure, thermodynamics, and crystallization of amorphous hafnia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xuhui; Demkov, Alexander A.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate theoretically amorphous hafnia using the first principles melt and quench method. We identify two types of amorphous structures of hafnia. Type I and type II are related to tetragonal and monoclinic hafnia, respectively. We find type II structure to show stronger disorder than type I. Using the phonon density of states, we calculate the specific heat capacity for type II amorphous hafnia. Using the nudged elastic band method, we show that the averaged transition barrier between the type II amorphous hafnia and monoclinic phase is approximately 0.09 eV/HfO 2 . The crystallization temperature is estimated to be 421 K. The calculations suggest an explanation for the low thermal stability of amorphous hafnia

  19. Phase separation phenomena in branching conduits. Topical report Dec 78-Dec 81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, N.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.

    1982-03-01

    The analysis of Light Water Reactor (LWR) Loss-of-Coolant Accidents (LOCA's) requires that one be able to accurately calculate the two-phase flow splits in complex, branching conduits. The purpose of this study is to provide a general method for calculating the phase separation in a branching conduit. The degree of phase separation of a two-phase (air/water) mixture flowing through a plexiglas tee test section was measured. In addition, flow visualization, using high speed photography, was performed. The experimental design considerations, error analysis and the dependence of the observed phase separation on global parameters, such as inlet quality, mass flux and separation angle, are discussed. The pressure gradients were measured along the various conduits and the differential pressure was obtained at the tee junction by extrapolation. It was found that the degree of phase separation was quite pronounced, with the vapor phase preferentially separating into the branch. Using these data, a physically-based empirical model was developed with which to calculate the phasic distribution of a subsonic two-phase mixture in the downstream branches of a branching conduit

  20. The Structure of Liquid and Amorphous Hafnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leighanne C. Gallington

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the atomic structure of amorphous solids is important in predicting and tuning their macroscopic behavior. Here, we use a combination of high-energy X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, and molecular dynamics simulations to benchmark the atomic interactions in the high temperature stable liquid and low-density amorphous solid states of hafnia. The diffraction results reveal an average Hf–O coordination number of ~7 exists in both the liquid and amorphous nanoparticle forms studied. The measured pair distribution functions are compared to those generated from several simulation models in the literature. We have also performed ab initio and classical molecular dynamics simulations that show density has a strong effect on the polyhedral connectivity. The liquid shows a broad distribution of Hf–Hf interactions, while the formation of low-density amorphous nanoclusters can reproduce the sharp split peak in the Hf–Hf partial pair distribution function observed in experiment. The agglomeration of amorphous nanoparticles condensed from the gas phase is associated with the formation of both edge-sharing and corner-sharing HfO6,7 polyhedra resembling that observed in the monoclinic phase.

  1. The potential for the fabrication of wires embedded in the crystalline silicon substrate using the solid phase segregation of gold in crystallising amorphous volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, A.C.Y.; McCallum, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    The refinement of gold in crystallising amorphous silicon volumes was tested as a means of creating a conducting element embedded in the crystalline matrix. Amorphous silicon volumes were created by self-ion-implantation through a mask. Five hundred kiloelectronvolt Au + was then implanted into the volumes. The amorphous volumes were crystallised on a hot stage in air, and the crystallisation was characterised using cross sectional transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the amorphous silicon volumes crystallised via solid phase epitaxy at all the lateral and vertical interfaces. The interplay of the effects of the gold and also the hydrogen that infilitrated from the surface oxide resulted in a plug of amorphous material at the surface. Further annealing at this temperature demonstrated that the gold, once it had reached a certain critical concentration nucleated poly-crystalline growth instead of solid phase epitaxy. Time resolved reflectivity and Rutherford backscattering and channeling measurements were performed on large area samples that had been subject to the same implantation regime to investigate this system further. It was discovered that the crystallisation dynamics and zone refinement of the gold were complicated functions of both gold concentration and temperature. These findings do not encourage the use of this method to obtain conducting elements embedded in the crystalline silicon substrate

  2. Membranes as separators of dispersed emulsion phases

    OpenAIRE

    Lefferts, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    The reuse or discharge of industrial waste waters, containing small fractions of dispersed oil, requires a purification treatment for which membranes can be used. If only little oil is present, removal of the dispersed phase might be preferable to the more commonly applied removal of the continuous phase. For this purpose dispersed phase separators can be applied, which combine the features of conventional coalescers and membrane filtration. The membrane surface promotes coalescence ...

  3. Effect of applied strain on phase separation of Fe-28 at.% Cr alloy: 3D phase-field simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lihui; Li, Yongsheng; Liu, Chengwei; Chen, Shi; Shi, Shujing; Jin, Shengshun

    2018-04-01

    A quantitative simulation of the separation of the α‧ phase in Fe-28 at.% Cr alloy under the effects of applied strain is performed by utilizing a three-dimensional phase-field model. The elongation of the Cr-enriched α‧ phase becomes obvious with the influence of applied uniaxial strain for the phase separation transforms from spinodal decomposition of 700 K to nucleation and growth of 773 K. The applied strain shows a significant influence on the early stage phase separation, and the influence is enlarged with the elevated temperature. The steady-state coarsening with the mechanism of spinodal decomposition is substantially affected by the applied strain for low-temperature aging, while the influence is reduced as the temperature increases and as the phase separation mechanism changes to nucleation and growth. The peak value of particle size distribution decreases, and the PSD for 773 K becomes more widely influenced by the applied strain. The simulation results of separation of the Cr-enriched α‧ phase with the applied strain provide a further understanding of the strain effect on the phase separation of Fe-Cr alloys from the metastable region to spinodal regions.

  4. Thermal conductivity measurement of amorphous dielectric multilayers for phase-change memory power reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fong, S. W., E-mail: swfong@stanford.edu; Wong, H.-S. P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Sood, A. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Chen, L. [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiatong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Kumari, N.; Gibson, G. A. [Hewlett-Packard Labs, 1501 Page Mill Rd., Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); Asheghi, M.; Goodson, K. E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2016-07-07

    In this work, we investigate the temperature-dependent thermal conductivities of few nanometer thick alternating stacks of amorphous dielectrics, specifically SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Experiments using steady-state Joule-heating and electrical thermometry, while using a micro-miniature refrigerator over a wide temperature range (100–500 K), show that amorphous thin-film multilayer SiO{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibit through-plane room temperature effective thermal conductivities of about 1.14 and 0.48 W/(m × K), respectively. In the case of SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the reduced conductivity is attributed to lowered film density (7.03 → 5.44 × 10{sup 28 }m{sup –3} for SiO{sub 2} and 10.2 → 8.27 × 10{sup 28 }m{sup –3} for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) caused by atomic layer deposition of thin-films as well as a small, finite, and repeating thermal boundary resistance (TBR) of 1.5 m{sup 2} K/GW between dielectric layers. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that vibrational mismatch between amorphous oxide layers is small, and that the TBR between layers is largely due to imperfect interfaces. Finally, the impact of using this multilayer dielectric in a dash-type phase-change memory device is studied using finite-element simulations.

  5. Hot Melt Extrusion and Spray Drying of Co-amorphous Indomethacin-Arginine With Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Elisabeth; Löbmann, Korbinian; Rades, Thomas; Knop, Klaus; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Co-amorphous drug-amino acid systems have gained growing interest as an alternative to common amorphous formulations which contain polymers as stabilizers. Several preparation methods have recently been investigated, including vibrational ball milling on a laboratory scale or spray drying in a larger scale. In this study, the feasibility of hot melt extrusion for continuous manufacturing of co-amorphous drug-amino acid formulations was examined, challenging the fact that amino acids melt with degradation at high temperatures. Furthermore, the need for an addition of a polymer in this process was evaluated. After a polymer screening via the solvent evaporation method, co-amorphous indomethacin-arginine was prepared by a melting-solvent extrusion process without and with copovidone. The obtained products were characterized with respect to their solid-state properties, non-sink dissolution behavior, and stability. Results were compared to those of spray-dried formulations with the same compositions and to spray-dried indomethacin-copovidone. Overall, stable co-amorphous systems could be prepared by extrusion without or with copovidone, which exhibited comparable molecular interaction properties to the respective spray-dried products, while phase separation was detected by differential scanning calorimetry in several cases. The formulations containing indomethacin in combination with arginine and copovidone showed enhanced dissolution behavior over the formulations with only copovidone or arginine. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lithium isotope separation factors of some two-phase equilibrium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palko, A.A.; Drury, J.S.; Begun, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Isotope separation factors of seventeen two-phase equilibrium systems for lithium isotope enrichment have been determined. In all cases, lithium amalgam was used as one of the lithium-containing phases and was equilibrated with an aqueous or organic phase containing a lithium compound. In all systems examined, isotopic exchange was found to be extremely rapid, and 6 Li was concentrated in the amalgam phase. The isotopic separation factor for the LiOH(aqueous) vs Li(amalgam) system has been studied as a function of temperature from -2 to 80 degreeC. The values obtained have been compared with the ''electrolysis'' and exchange separation factors given in the literature. The two-phase systems, LiCl(ethylenediamine) vs Li(amalgam) and LiCl(propylenediamine) vs Li(amalgam), have been studied, and the isotopic separation factors have been determined as functions of the temperature. The factors for the two systems have been found to be substantially the same (within limits of the errors involved) over the temperature range studied (0 to 100 degreeC) as those for the aqueous system. The isotopic separation factors for the seventeen systems have been tabulated, and correlations have been drawn that show the salt and solvent effects upon the values obtained

  7. Phase separation in fermionic systems with particle–hole asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montorsi, Arianna

    2008-01-01

    We determine the ground-state phase diagram of a Hubbard Hamiltonian with correlated hopping, which is asymmetric under particle–hole transform. By lowering the repulsive Coulomb interaction U at appropriate filling and interaction parameters, the ground state separates into hole and electron conducting phases: two different wavevectors characterize the system and charge–charge correlations become incommensurate. By further decreasing U another transition occurs at which the hole conducting region becomes insulating, and conventional phase separation takes place. Finally, for negative U the whole system eventually becomes a paired insulator. It is speculated that such behavior could be at the origin of the incommensurate superconducting phase recently discovered in the 1D Hirsch model. The exact phase boundaries are calculated in one dimension. (letter)

  8. Synthesis of Fe-based amorphous composite coatings with low purity materials by laser cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Qingjun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)]. E-mail: sduzhu@yahoo.com.cn; Qu Shiyao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Wang Xinhong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Zou Zengda [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2007-06-30

    Amorphous composite coatings Fe{sub 38}Ni{sub 30-X}Si{sub 16}B{sub 14}V{sub 2}M {sub X} (X = 0, 1, 2) (M contains Al, Ti, Mo, and C) were prepared with low purity of raw materials by laser cladding. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy results show that the coating have an amorphous structure with a few crystalline phase on it. The amorphous phase is the primary phase. The glass forming ability as well as the microhardness of the Fe-based alloy made from low purity raw materials can be much enhanced by adding small amount of multi-components. However, the elements addition has its optimal quantity. When X is equal to 1, the microstructure of the coating contains 97.93% amorphous phase and 2.07% crystalline phase on it. As a result, the microhardness of the coating reaches maximum. With further increasing of the additions, the amorphous phase in the coating lessens instead of augment and the crystalline phase begins to accumulate, which result in the decrease of the microhardness.

  9. TEM study of amorphous alloys produced by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Grant, W.A.; Wohlenberg, P.; Hansen, P.; Chadderton, L.T.

    1978-01-01

    Ion implantation is a technique for introducing foreign elements into surface layers of solids. Ions, as a suitably accelerated beam, penetrate the surface, slow down by collisions with target atoms to produce a doped layer. This non-equilibrium technique can provide a wide range of alloys without the restrictions imposed by equilibrium phase diagrams. This paper reports on the production of some amorphous transition metal-metalloid alloys by implantation. Thinned foils of Ni, Fe and stainless steel were implanted at room temperature with Dy + and P + ions at doses between 10 13 - 10 17 ions/cm 2 at energies of 20 and 40 keV respectively. Transmission electron microscopy and selected area diffraction analysis were used to investigate the implanted specimens. Radial diffracted intensity measurements confirmed the presence of an amorphous implanted layer. The peak positions of the maxima are in good agreement with data for similar alloys produced by conventional techniques. Only certain ion/target combinations produce these amorphous layers. Implantations at doses lower than those needed for amorphization often result in formation of new crystalline phases such as an h.c.p. phase in nickel and a b.c.c. phase in stainless steel. (Auth.)

  10. Amorphous-crystalline transition in thermoelectric NbO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, Denis; Chen, Yen-Ting; Bliem, Pascal; Geyer, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Density functional theory was employed to design enhanced amorphous NbO 2 thermoelectrics. The covalent-ionic nature of Nb–O bonding is identical in amorphous NbO 2 and its crystalline counterpart. However, the Anderson localisation occurs in amorphous NbO 2 , which may affect the transport properties. We calculate a multifold increase in the absolute Seebeck coefficient for the amorphous state. These predictions were critically appraised by measuring the Seebeck coefficient of sputtered amorphous and crystalline NbO 2 thin films with the identical short-range order. The first-order phase transition occurs at approximately 550 °C, but amorphous NbO 2 possesses enhanced transport properties at all temperatures. Amorphous NbO 2 , reaching  −173 μV K −1 , exhibits up to a 29% larger absolute Seebeck coefficient value, thereby validating the predictions. (paper)

  11. Crystalline to amorphous transformation in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheruvu, S.M.

    1982-09-01

    In the present investigation, an attempt was made to understand the fundamental mechanism of crystalline-to-amorphous transformation in arsenic implanted silicon using high resolution electron microscopy. A comparison of the gradual disappearance of simulated lattice fringes with increasing Frenkel pair concentration with the experimental observation of sharp interfaces between crystalline and amorphous regions was carried out leading to the conclusion that when the defect concentration reaches a critical value, the crystal does relax to an amorphous state. Optical diffraction experiments using atomic models also supported this hypothesis. Both crystalline and amorphous zones were found to co-exist with sharp interfaces at the atomic level. Growth of the amorphous fraction depends on the temperature, dose rate and the mass of the implanted ion. Preliminary results of high energy electron irradiation experiments at 1.2 MeV also suggested that clustering of point defects occurs near room temperature. An observation in a high resolution image of a small amorphous zone centered at the core of a dislocation is presented as evidence that the nucleation of an amorphous phase is heterogeneous in nature involving clustering or segregation of point defects near existing defects

  12. Segregative phase separation in aqueous mixtures of polydisperse biopolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: biopolymer, gelatine, dextran, PEO, phase separation, polydispersity, molar mass distribution, SEC-MALLS, CSLM The temperature-composition phase diagram of aqueous solutions of gelatine and dextran, which show liquid/liquid phase segregation, were explored at temperatures above the

  13. Pressure-induced crystallization and phase transformation of amorphous selenium: Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Kaifeng; Cui Qiliang; Hou Yuanyuan; Liu Bingbing; Zhou Qiang; Hu Jingzhu; Mao, H-K; Zou Guangtian

    2007-01-01

    High-pressure Raman spectroscopy studies have been carried out on amorphous Se (a-Se) at room temperature in a diamond anvil cell with an 830 nm exciting line. Raman evidence for the pressure-induced crystallization of a-Se and the coexistence of the unknown high-pressure phase with the hexagonal phase is presented for the first time. Further experimental proof of high-pressure angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction studies for a-Se indicates that the unknown high-pressure phase is also a mixture phase of the tetragonal I4 1 /acd and Se IV structure. Our Raman and x-ray diffraction results suggest that hexagonal Se I undergoes a direct transition to triclinic Se III at about 19 GPa, which is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction

  14. On the nature of amorphous polymorphism of water

    OpenAIRE

    Koza, Michael Marek; Geil, Burkhard; Winkel, Katrin; Koehler, Christian; Czeschka, Franz; Scheuermann, Marco; Schober, Helmut; Hansen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    We report elastic and inelastic neutron scattering experiments on different amorphous ice modifications. It is shown that an amorphous structure (HDA') indiscernible from the high-density phase (HDA), obtained by compression of crystalline ice, can be formed from the very high-density phase (vHDA) as an intermediate stage of the transition of vHDA into its low-density modification (LDA'). Both, HDA and HDA' exhibit comparable small angle scattering signals characterizing them as structures he...

  15. Steric Pressure among Membrane-Bound Polymers Opposes Lipid Phase Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Zachary I; Kenyon, Laura E; Carrillo, Adelita; Espinoza, Isai; Nagib, Fatema; Stachowiak, Jeanne C

    2016-04-19

    Lipid rafts are thought to be key organizers of membrane-protein complexes in cells. Many proteins that interact with rafts have bulky polymeric components such as intrinsically disordered protein domains and polysaccharide chains. Therefore, understanding the interaction between membrane domains and membrane-bound polymers provides insights into the roles rafts play in cells. Multiple studies have demonstrated that high concentrations of membrane-bound polymeric domains create significant lateral steric pressure at membrane surfaces. Furthermore, our recent work has shown that lateral steric pressure at membrane surfaces opposes the assembly of membrane domains. Building on these findings, here we report that membrane-bound polymers are potent suppressors of membrane phase separation, which can destabilize lipid domains with substantially greater efficiency than globular domains such as membrane-bound proteins. Specifically, we created giant vesicles with a ternary lipid composition, which separated into coexisting liquid ordered and disordered phases. Lipids with saturated tails and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains conjugated to their head groups were included at increasing molar concentrations. When these lipids were sparse on the membrane surface they partitioned to the liquid ordered phase. However, as they became more concentrated, the fraction of GUVs that were phase-separated decreased dramatically, ultimately yielding a population of homogeneous membrane vesicles. Experiments and physical modeling using compositions of increasing PEG molecular weight and lipid miscibility phase transition temperature demonstrate that longer polymers are the most efficient suppressors of membrane phase separation when the energetic barrier to lipid mixing is low. In contrast, as the miscibility transition temperature increases, longer polymers are more readily driven out of domains by the increased steric pressure. Therefore, the concentration of shorter polymers required

  16. Bringing nanomagnetism to the mesoscale with artificial amorphous structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscas, G.; Brucas, R.; Jönsson, P. E.

    2018-05-01

    In the quest for materials with emergent or improved properties, an effective route is to create artificial superstructures. Novel properties emerge from the coupling between the phases, but the strength of this coupling depends on the quality of the interfaces. Atomic control of crystalline interfaces is notoriously complicated and to elude that obstacle, we suggest here an all-amorphous design. Starting from a model amorphous iron alloy, we locally tune the magnetic behavior by creating boron-doped regions by means of ion implantation through a lithographic mask. This process preserves the amorphous environment, creating a non-topographic magnetic superstructure with smooth interfaces and no structural discontinuities. The absence of inhomogeneities acting as pinning centers for the magnetization reversal is demonstrated by the formation of magnetic vortexes for ferromagnetic disks as large as 20 µm in diameter embedded within a paramagnetic matrix. Rigid exchange coupling between two amorphous ferromagnetic phases in a microstructured sample is evidenced by an investigation involving first-order reversal curves. The sample consists of a soft matrix with embedded elements constituting a hard phase where the anisotropy originates from an elongated shape of the elements. We provide an intuitive explanation for the micrometer-range exchange coupling mechanism and discuss how to tailor the properties of all-amorphous superstructures.

  17. Isotopic separation of nitrogen 15. Influence of the gaseous phase composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, Germain; Routie, Rene; Mahenc, Jean

    1977-01-01

    A study has been made on the gas phase composition effect on the isotopic separation of nitrogen 15 for the two HNO 3 -NO and N 2 O 3 -NO systems. It was shown that the changes in composition of the gas phases could account for the increase in the overall separation; most accuracy, measurements of isotopic concentration along the separation column and of total enrichment exhibit how important are the reactions of oxydo-reduction between the two phases in such process [fr

  18. A phase-field and electron microscopy study of phase separation in Fe-Cr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedstroem, Peter, E-mail: pheds@kth.se [Materials Science and Engineering, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Baghsheikhi, Saeed [Materials Science and Engineering, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Liu, Ping [Sandvik Materials Technology, R and D Centre, SE-81181 Sandviken (Sweden); Odqvist, Joakim [Materials Science and Engineering, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Sandvik Materials Technology, R and D Centre, SE-81181 Sandviken (Sweden)

    2012-02-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental characterization and Phase-field modeling of phase separation in Fe-Cr. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transition from particle-like to spinodal-like structure observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural evolution generates increased hardness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results in agreement with recent thermodynamic description. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantitative kinetic modeling must include thermal noise and improved kinetic data. - Abstract: Phase separation in the binary Fe-Cr system, the basis for the entire stainless steel family, is considered responsible for the low temperature embrittlement in ferritic, martensitic and duplex stainless steels. These steels are often used in load-bearing applications with considerable service time at elevated temperature. Thus, understanding the effect of microstructure on mechanical properties and predicting dynamics of phase separation are key issues. In the present work, experimental evaluation of structure and mechanical properties in binary Fe-Cr alloys as well as phase-field modeling, using a new thermodynamic description of Fe-Cr, is conducted. A significant hardening evolution with time is found for alloys aged between 400 and 550 Degree-Sign C, and it can be attributed to phase separation. The decomposed structure changed with increasing Cr content at 500 Degree-Sign C, with a more particle-like structure at 25 wt% Cr and a more spinodal-like structure at 30 wt% Cr. The observed transition of structure agrees with the thermodynamically predicted spinodal, although the transition is expected to be gradual. The phase-field simulations qualitatively agree with experiments. However, to enable accurate quantitative predictions, the diffusional mobilities must be evaluated further and thermal fluctuations as well as 3D diffusion fields must be properly accounted for.

  19. Origin of Reversible Photoinduced Phase Separation in Hybrid Perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischak, Connor G.; Hetherington, Craig L.; Wu, Hao; Aloni, Shaul; Ogletree, D. Frank; Limmer, David T.; Ginsberg, Naomi S.

    2017-02-01

    Nonequilibrium processes occurring in functional materials can significantly impact device efficiencies and are often difficult to characterize due to the broad range of length and time scales involved. In particular, mixed halide hybrid perovskites are promising for optoelectronics, yet the halides reversibly phase separate when photo-excited, significantly altering device performance. By combining nanoscale imaging and multiscale modeling, we elucidate the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, demonstrating that local strain induced by photo-generated polarons promotes halide phase separation and leads to nucleation of light-stabilized iodide-rich clusters. This effect relies on the unique electromechanical properties of hybrid materials, characteristic of neither their organic nor inorganic constituents alone. Exploiting photo-induced phase separation and other nonequilibrium phenomena in hybrid materials, generally, could enable new opportunities for expanding the functional applications in sensing, photoswitching, optical memory, and energy storage.

  20. Relation between secondary doping and phase separation in PEDOT:PSS films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoval, Martin; Micjan, Michal; Novota, Miroslav; Nevrela, Juraj; Kovacova, Sona; Pavuk, Milan; Juhasz, Peter; Jagelka, Martin; Kovac, Jaroslav; Jakabovic, Jan [Institute of Electronics and Photonics, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, Bratislava 81219 (Slovakia); Cigan, Marek [Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Science, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina CH-2, Ilkovicova 6, Bratislava 84215 (Slovakia); Weis, Martin, E-mail: martin.weis@stuba.sk [Institute of Electronics and Photonics, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, Bratislava 81219 (Slovakia)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Surface morphology of highly conductive polymer was investigated. • Phase separation due to secondary doping is an origin of conductivity enhancement. • Phase separation is not dependent on secondary dopant type. - Abstract: Conductive copolymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been proposed as an alternative to transparent conductive oxides because of its flexibility, transparency, and low-cost production. Four different secondary dopants, namely N,N-dimethylformamide, ethyleneglycol, sorbitol, and dimethyl sulfoxide, have been used to improve the conductivity. The relation between the structure changes and conductivity enhancement is studied in detail. Atomic force microscopy study of the thin film surface reveals the phase separation of PEDOT and PSS. We demonstrate that secondary doping induces the phase separation as well as the conductivity enhancement.

  1. Study of crystallization kinetics and structural relaxation behavior in phase separated Ag{sub 33}Ge{sub 17}Se{sub 50} glassy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Praveen, E-mail: prafiziks@gmail.com [Semiconductors Laboratory, Department of Physics, GND University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Nanotechnology Research Centre, DAV Institute of Engineering and Technology, Kabir Nagar, Jalandhar 144008 (India); Yannopoulos, S.N. [Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes (FORTH/ICE-HT), P.O. Box 1414, GR-26 504, Rio-Patras (Greece); Sathiaraj, T.S. [Department of Physics, University of Botswana, Gaborone (Botswana); Thangaraj, R., E-mail: rthangaraj@rediffmail.com [Semiconductors Laboratory, Department of Physics, GND University, Amritsar 143005 (India)

    2012-07-16

    We report on the crystallization processes and structure (crystal phases) of Ag{sub 33}Ge{sub 17}Se{sub 50} glassy alloy using differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray diffraction techniques, respectively. The devitrification that gives rise to the first exothermic peak results in the crystallization of Ag{sub 2}Se and Ag{sub 8}GeSe{sub 6} phases, while the growth of GeSe{sub 2} accompanied by the transformation of Ag{sub 8}GeSe{sub 6} to Ag{sub 2}Se phase occurs during the second crystallization process. Different theoretical models are used to elucidate various kinetic parameters for the crystallization transformation process in this phase separated system. With annealing below the glass transition temperature, an inverse behavior between the variation of the optical gap and the band tailing parameter is observed for the thermally evaporated films. These results are explained as the mixing of different clusters/species in the amorphous state and/or changes caused by structural relaxation of the glassy network for the thermally evaporated films. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase separation in Ag{sub 33}Ge{sub 17}Se{sub 50} glassy alloy bordering two glass forming regions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformation of Ag{sub 8}GeSe{sub 6} {yields} Ag{sub 2}Se along with crystallization GeSe{sub 2} phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elucidation of various kinetic parameters for the crystalline transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural relaxation in thermally evaporated films by optical spectroscopy.

  2. Amorphous surface layers in Ti-implanted Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, J.A.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Picraux, S.T.

    1979-01-01

    Implanting Ti into high-purity Fe results in an amorphous surface layer which is composed of not only Fe and Ti, but also C. Implantations were carried out at room temperature over the energy range 90 to 190 keV and fluence range 1 to 2 x 10 16 at/cm 2 . The Ti-implanted Fe system has been characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ion backscattering and channeling analysis, and (d,p) nuclear reaction analysis. The amorphous layer was observed to form at the surface and grow inward with increasing Ti fluence. For an implant of 1 x 10 17 Ti/cm 2 at 180 keV the layer thickness was 150 A, while the measured range of the implanted Ti was approx. 550 A. This difference is due to the incorporation of C into the amorphous alloy by C being deposited on the surface during implantation and subsequently diffusing into the solid. Our results indicate that C is an essential constituent of the amorphous phase for Ti concentrations less than or equal to 10 at. %. For the 1 x 10 17 Ti/cm 2 implant, the concentration of C in the amorphous phase was approx. 25 at. %, while that of Ti was only approx. 3 at. %. A higher fluence implant of 2 x 10 17 Ti/cm 2 produced an amorphous layer with a lower C concentration of approx. 10 at. % and a Ti concentration of approx. 20 at. %

  3. The on-line graph processing study on phase separation of two-phase flow in T-tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Yong; Xu Jijun; Yang Zhilin; Chen Yifen

    1997-01-01

    The on-line graph processing measure system is equipped with and experimental study of phase separation of air-water bubbly flow in the horizontal T-junction is carried out. For the first time, the author have found and defined the new type of complete phase separation, by the visual experiment, which shows that under certain conditions, the air flow entering the T junction will flow into the run outlet completely, which had never been reported in the literature Also, the pressure wave feed back effect and the branch bubble flow reorganization effect were found and analyzed. The complexity of this phase separation phenomenon in the T junction has been further revealed via the on-line graph processing technology. Meanwhile the influences of the inlet mass flow rate W1, the inlet mass quality X1, and the mass extraction rate G3/G1 on phase separation were analyzed

  4. Relating hydrogen-bonding interactions with the phase behavior of naproxen/PVP K 25 solid dispersions: evaluation of solution-cast and quench-cooled films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Amrit; Nies, Erik; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2012-11-05

    In this work, we investigated the relationship between various intermolecular hydrogen-bonding (H-bonding) interactions and the miscibility of the model hydrophobic drug naproxen with the hydrophilic polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) across an entire composition range of solid dispersions prepared by quasi-equilibrium film casting and nonequilibrium melt quench cooling. The binary phase behavior in solid dispersions exhibited substantial processing method dependence. The solid state solubility of crystalline naproxen in PVP to form amorphous solid dispersions was 35% and 70% w/w naproxen in solution-cast films and quench-cooled films, respectively. However, the presence of a single mixed phase glass transition indicated the amorphous miscibility to be 20% w/w naproxen for the films, beyond which amorphous-amorphous and/or crystalline phase separations were apparent. This was further supported by the solution state interactions data such as PVP globular size distribution and solution infrared spectral profiles. The borderline melt composition showed cooling rate dependence of amorphization. The glass transition and melting point depression profiles of the system were treated with the analytical expressions based on Flory-Huggins mixing theory to interpolate the equilibrium solid solubility. FTIR analysis and subsequent spectral deconvolution revealed composition and miscibility dependent variations in the strength of drug-polymer intermolecular H-bonding. Two types of H-bonded populations were evidenced from 25% w/w and 35% w/w naproxen in solution-cast films and quench-cooled films, respectively, with the higher fraction of strongly H-bonded population in the drug rich domains of phase separated amorphous film compositions and highly drug loaded amorphous quench-cooled dispersions.

  5. Amorphous Cu-Ag films with high stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reda, I.M.; Hafner, J.; Pongratz, P.; Wagendristel, A.; Bangert, H.; Bhat, P.K.

    1982-06-01

    Films produced by quenching Cu-Ag vapour onto cooled substrates at liquid nitrogen temperature have been investigated using electron microscopy, electron diffraction and electrical resistivity measurements. In the composition range from 30 to 70 at% Cu the as quenched films are amorphous, and within the range of 35 to 63 at% Cu the amorphous phase is stable above room temperature with a maximum crystallization temperature Tsub(c)=381 K at 47.5 at% Cu. Crystallization results in the formation of a supersaturated fcc solid solution which decomposes in a second crystallization step. The effect of deposition rate, film thickness, temperature and surface of the substrate, and most importantly of the composition on the transition temperatures has been investigated. A comparative study of the formation of amorphous phases in a wide variety of Cu-based alloys is presented. (author)

  6. Pinning of phase separation of aqueous solution of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose by gelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Rio; Kaku, Takeshi; Kubota, Kenji; Dobashi, Toshiaki

    1999-08-01

    Opalescence of the aqueous solution of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) induced by heating has been studied in terms of the phase diagram and the phase separation dynamics. The cloud point curve and the sol-to-gel transition curve intersected with each other at about 55 °C. Just above the cloud-point curve at which the spinodal curve has its minimum, a ring-like scattering pattern appeared corresponding to the spinodal decomposition. Temporal growth of the scattering function in the course of phase separation was studied by a time-resolved light scattering technique. The gelation pinned the phase separation (spinodal decomposition) of the aqueous HPMC solution.

  7. On the phase form of a deformation quantization with separation of variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabegov, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Given a star product with separation of variables on a pseudo-Kähler manifold, we obtain a new formal (1, 1)-form from its classifying form and call it the phase form of the star product. The cohomology class of a star product with separation of variables equals the class of its phase form. We show that the phase forms can be arbitrary and they bijectively parametrize the star products with separation of variables. We also describe the action of a change of the formal parameter on a star product with separation of variables, its formal Berezin transform, classifying form, phase form, and canonical trace density.

  8. CFA Films in Amorphous Substrate: Structural Phase Induction and Magnetization Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, M. A.; Bohn, F.; Escobar, V. M.

    We report a systematic study of the structural and quasi-static magnetic properties, as well as of the dynamic magnetic response through MI effect, in Co2FeAl and MgO//Co2FeAl single layers and a MgO//Co2FeAl/Ag/Co2FeAl trilayered film, all grown onto an amorphous substrate. We present a new route to induce the crystalline structure in the Co2FeAl alloy and verify that changes in the structural phase of this material leads to remarkable modifications of the magnetic anisotropy and, consequently, dynamic magnetic behavior. Considering the electrical and magnetic properties of the Co2FeAl, our results open new possibilities for technological applications of this full-Heusler alloy in rigid and flexible spintronic devices.

  9. Kinetics and formation mechanism of amorphous Fe52Nb48 alloy powder fabricated by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Eskandarany, S.

    1999-01-01

    A single phase amorphous Fe 52 Nb 48 alloy has been synthesized through a solid state interdiffusion of pure polycrystalline Fe and Nb powders at room temperature, using a high-energy ball-milling technique. The mechanisms of metallic glass formation and competing crystallization processes in the mechanically deformed composite powders have been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The numerous intimate layered composite particles of the diffusion couples that formed during the first and intermediate stages of milling time (0-56 ks), are intermixed to form amorphous phase(s) upon heating to about 625 K by so-called thermally assisted solid state amorphization, TASSA. The amorphization heat of formation for binary system via the TASSA, ΔH a , was measured directly as a function of the milling time. Comparable with the TASSA, homogeneous amorphous alloys were fabricated directly without heating the composite multilayered particles upon milling these particles for longer milling time (86 ks-144 ks). The amorphization reaction here is attributed to the mechanical driven solid state amorphization. This single amorphous phase transforms into an order phasephase) upon heating at 1088 K (crystallization temperature, T x ) with enthalpy change of crystallization, ΔH x , of -8.3 kJmol -1 . (orig.)

  10. Amorphous structure evolution of high power diode laser cladded Fe–Co–B–Si–Nb coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yanyan; Li Zhuguo; Huang Jian; Li Min; Li Ruifeng; Wu Yixiong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fabricated amorphous composited coating by high power diode laser cladding with single track. ► Lower dilution and higher scanning speed are desired to obtain higher amorphous phase fraction. ► White spots phase with high content of Nb embedded in the amorphous matrix. - Abstract: Fe–Co–B–Si–Nb coatings were fabricated on the surface of low carbon steel using high power diode laser cladding of [(Fe 0.5 Co 0.5 ) 0.75 B 0.2 Si 0.05 ] 95.7 Nb 4.3 amorphous powders at three different scanning speeds of 6, 17 and 50 m/s. At each scanning speed, laser power was optimized to obtain low dilution ratio. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometer and electron probe micro analysis were carried out to characterize the microstructure and chemical composition of the cladded coatings. Differential scanning calorimetry was also carried out to investigate the fraction of the amorphous phase. The results showed that dilution ratio and scanning speed were the two main factors for fabricating Fe–Co–B–Si–Nb amorphous coating by high power diode laser cladding. Low dilution ratio was crucial for the formation of amorphous phase. When the dilution ratio was low, the fraction of amorphous phase in the cladded coatings increased upon increasing the scanning speed.

  11. Exact theory of dense amorphous hard spheres in high dimension. II. The high density regime and the Gardner transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurchan, Jorge; Parisi, Giorgio; Urbani, Pierfrancesco; Zamponi, Francesco

    2013-10-24

    We consider the theory of the glass phase and jamming of hard spheres in the large space dimension limit. Building upon the exact expression for the free-energy functional obtained previously, we find that the random first order transition (RFOT) scenario is realized here with two thermodynamic transitions: the usual Kauzmann point associated with entropy crisis and a further transition at higher pressures in which a glassy structure of microstates is developed within each amorphous state. This kind of glass-glass transition into a phase dominating the higher densities was described years ago by Elisabeth Gardner, and may well be a generic feature of RFOT. Microstates that are small excitations of an amorphous matrix-separated by low entropic or energetic barriers-thus emerge naturally, and modify the high pressure (or low temperature) limit of the thermodynamic functions.

  12. Prediction of Phase Separation of Immiscible Ga-Tl Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunkyum; Kim, Han Gyeol; Kang, Youn-Bae; Kaptay, George; Lee, Joonho

    2017-06-01

    Phase separation temperature of Ga-Tl liquid alloys was investigated using the constrained drop method. With this method, density and surface tension were investigated together. Despite strong repulsive interactions, molar volume showed ideal mixing behavior, whereas surface tension of the alloy was close to that of pure Tl due to preferential adsorption of Tl. Phase separation temperatures and surface tension values obtained with this method were close to the theoretically calculated values using three different thermodynamic models.

  13. Native amorphous nanoheterogeneity in gallium germanosilicates as a tool for driving Ga2O3 nanocrystal formation in glass for optical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigaev, Vladimir N; Golubev, Nikita V; Ignat'eva, Elena S; Champagnon, Bernard; Vouagner, Dominique; Nardou, Eric; Lorenzi, Roberto; Paleari, Alberto

    2013-01-07

    Nanoparticles in amorphous oxides are a powerful tool for embedding a wide range of functions in optical glasses, which are still the best solutions in several applications in the ever growing field of photonics. However, the control of the nanoparticle size inside the host material is often a challenging task, even more challenging when detrimental effects on light transmittance have to be avoided. Here we show how the process of phase separation and subsequent nanocrystallization of a Ga-oxide phase can be controlled in germanosilicates - prototypal systems in optical telecommunications - starting from a Ga-modified glass composition designed to favour uniform liquid-liquid phase separation in the melt. Small angle neutron scattering data demonstrate that nanosized structuring occurs in the amorphous as-quenched glass and gives rise to initially smaller nanoparticles, by heating, as in a secondary phase separation. By further heating, the nanophase evolves with an increase of nanoparticle gyration radius, from a few nm to a saturation value of about 10 nm, through an initial growing process followed by an Ostwald ripening mechanism. Nanoparticles finally crystallize, as indicated by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, as γ-Ga(2)O(3)- a metastable gallium oxide polymorph. Infrared reflectance and photoluminescence, together with the optical absorption of Ni ions used as a probe, give an indication of the underlying interrelated processes of the structural change in the glass and in the segregated phase. As a result, our data give for the first time a rationale for designing Ga-modified germanosilicates at the nanoscale, with the perspective of a detailed nanostructuring control.

  14. Relaxation processes during amorphous metal alloys heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinochka, E.Ya.; Durachenko, A.M.; Borisov, V.T.

    1982-01-01

    Behaviour of Te+15 at.%Ge and Fe+13 at.%P+7 at.%C amorphous metal alloys during heating has been studied using the method of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the most convenient one for determination of the value of heat effects, activation energies, temperature ranges of relaxation processes. Thermal effects corresponding to high-temperature relaxation processes taking place during amorphous metal alloys (AMA) heating are detected. The change of ratio of relaxation peaks values on DSC curves as a result of AMA heat treatment can be explained by the presence of a number of levels of inner energy in amorphous system, separated with potential barriers, the heights of which correspond to certain activation energies of relaxation processes

  15. Creep of FINEMET alloy at amorphous to nanocrystalline transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Csach, K.; Miškuf, J.; Juríková, A.; Ocelík, V.

    2009-01-01

    The application of FINEMET-type materials with specific magnetic properties prepared by the crystallization of amorphous alloys is often limited by their brittleness. The structure of these materials consists of nanosized Fe-based grains surrounded with amorphous phase. Then the final macroscopic

  16. Magnetomechanical coupling in thermal amorphous solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, H. George E.; Ilyin, Valery; Mondal, Chandana; Procaccia, Itamar

    2018-05-01

    Standard approaches to magnetomechanical interactions in thermal magnetic crystalline solids involve Landau functionals in which the lattice anisotropy and the resulting magnetization easy axes are taken explicitly into account. In glassy systems one needs to develop a theory in which the amorphous structure precludes the existence of an easy axis, and in which the constituent particles are free to respond to their local amorphous surroundings and the resulting forces. We present a theory of all the mixed responses of an amorphous solid to mechanical strains and magnetic fields. Atomistic models are proposed in which we test the predictions of magnetostriction for both bulk and nanofilm amorphous samples in the paramagnetic phase. The application to nanofilms with emergent self-affine free interfaces requires a careful definition of the film "width" and its change due to the magnetostriction effect.

  17. Structure and low temperature thermal relaxation of amorphized germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, C.J.; Ridgway, M.C.; Byrne, A.P.; Clerc, C.; Hansen, J.L.; Larsen, A.N.

    1999-01-01

    The structure of implantation-induced damage in amorphized Ge has been investigated using high resolution extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). EXAFS data analysis was performed with the Cumulant Method, allowing a full reconstruction of the interatomic distance distribution (RDF). For the case of MeV implantation at -196 deg C, for an ion-dose range extending two orders of magnitude beyond that required for amorphization, a dose-dependent asymmetric RDF was determined for the amorphous phase including an increase in bond-length as a function of ion dose. Low-temperature thermal annealing resulted in structural relaxation of the amorphous phase as evidenced by a reduction in the centroid, asymmetry and width of the RDF. Such an effect was attributed to the formation (and subsequent annihilation) of three- and five-fold Co-ordinated atoms, comparing favourably to theoretical simulations of the structure of a-Ge

  18. Separation of Transfer Ribonucleic Acids by Reverse Phase Chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelmers, A. D.; Novelli, G. David; Stulberg, M. P.

    1965-10-01

    Numerous experimental techniques for the separation of transfer ribonucleic acids have been successful in preparing partially purified fractions of several specific t-RNAs. Many of the existing methods have depended upon the differential solubility of specific t-RNAs in complex two-phase systems (1-6) and the separation was achieved by means of counter-current extraction techniques. Column chromatography experiments using cellulose exchangers, (7,8) methylated albumin (9,10) or with solvent phases supported on inert material (11-13) have also shown partial separation of specific t-RNAs. Paper chromatographic procedures have produced partial resolutions of t-RNA.14 Methods involving chemical treatment of specific t-RNAs have been reported (15-19).

  19. Phase separation of X-irradiated lenses of rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.I.; Giblin, F.J.; Reddy, V.N.; Benedek, G.B.

    1982-01-01

    The phase separation temperature (Tcat) was studied as a function of time (age) after the administration of a single dose of radiation (2000 rad), which induces cataract in the rabbit lens. In the normal unirradiated lens, Tcat decreases linearly with age at a rate (DTcat/dt) approximately 2.2 degrees/week. In the irradiated lens, Tcat initially decreases with age much less than the normal lens, then rises sharply with age at the time of the appearance of opacity in the living rabbit eye. We suggest that the phase separation temperature may serve as a sensitive and early indicator of cataractogenic processes in the lens

  20. Dynamics anomaly in high-density amorphous ice between 0.7 and 1.1 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handle, Philip H.; Loerting, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    We studied high-density amorphous ices between 0.004 and 1.6 GPa by isobaric in situ volumetry and by subsequent ex situ x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry at 1 bar. Our observations indicate two processes, namely, relaxation in the amorphous matrix and crystallization, taking place at well-separated time scales. For this reason, we are able to report rate constants of crystallization kX and glass-transition temperatures Tg in an unprecedented pressure range. Tg's agree within ±3 K with earlier work in the small pressure range where there is overlap. Both Tg and kX show a pressure anomaly between 0.7 and 1.1 GPa, namely, a kX minimum and a Tg maximum. This anomalous pressure dependence suggests a continuous phase transition from high- (HDA) to very-high-density amorphous ice (VHDA) and faster hydrogen bond dynamics in VHDA. We speculate this phenomenology can be rationalized by invoking the crossing of a Widom line between 0.7 and 1.1 GPa emanating from a low-lying HDA-VHDA critical point. Furthermore, we interpret the volumetric relaxation of the amorphous matrix to be accompanied by viscosity change to explain the findings such that the liquid state can be accessed prior to the crystallization temperature TX at 0.8 GPa.

  1. Synthesis of PANi-SiO2 Nanocomposite with In-Situ Polymerization Method: Nanoparticle Silica (NPS) Amorphous and Crystalline Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasir; Luvita, N. R. D.; Kusumawati, D. H.; Putri, N. P.; Triwikantoro; Supardi, Z. A. I.

    2018-03-01

    Silica which is synthesized from natural materials such as Bancar Tuban’s sand composited with Polyaniline (PANi), where the silica used are silica has an amorphous phase and cristobalite phase. In this research, the composite method used is in- situ polymerization, which is silica entered during the fabrication of PANi, then automatically silica will be substitute into the chain bonding of PANi. The aim of this research is to find out the results of a composite process using in-situ methods as well as differences in the morphology of PANi/a- SiO2 and PANi/c-SiO2. For the characterization of samples tested in the form of FTIR to determine the functional groups of the composite and SEM to determine the morphology of the sample. From the test results of FTIR are known composite possibility has occurred because there are several functional groups belonging to silica also functional groups belonging polyaniline, functional group that’s happened in wave numbers were almost identical between PANi/a-SiO2 and PANi/c-SiO2, but there are little differences were seen in the form of a graph generated from the peak and intensity that occurred charts for PANi/c-SiO2 has peak more pointed or sharp compared to PANi/a-SiO2 because that bond of crystal is strong, stiff and has a larger particle size than the amorphous composite. Then from the data of SEM seen clearly their morphological differences between PANi/a-SiO2 and PANi/c-SiO2 where polyaniline is composited with amorphous silica will have a fault that is not uniform or irregular different from PANi/c -SiO2 has a regular fault and this is corresponding with the nature of the typical structure of amorphous and crystalline.

  2. Concurrent phase separation and clustering in the ferrite phase during low temperature stress aging of duplex stainless steel weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, J.; Odqvist, J.; Thuvander, M.; Hertzman, S.; Hedström, P.

    2012-01-01

    The concurrent phase separation and clustering of alloying elements in the ferrite phase of duplex stainless steel weldments after stress aging at 325 °C have been investigated by atom probe tomography analysis. Both phase separation, into Fe-rich and Cr-rich ferrite, and solute clustering were observed. Phase separation in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) is most pronounced in the high alloyed SAF 2507, followed by SAF 2205 and SAF 2304. Moreover Cu clustering was observed in the HAZ of SAF 2507. However, decomposition in the weld bead (25.10.4L) was more pronounced than in the HAZs, with both phase separation and clustering of Ni–Mn–Si–Cu. The observed differences in the decomposition behaviors in the HAZ and weld bead can be attributed to the high Ni content and the characteristic microstructure of the weld bead with high internal strains. In addition, an applied tensile stress during aging of weldments has been found to further promote the kinetics of phase separation and clustering.

  3. Continuous Hydrolysis and Liquid–Liquid Phase Separation of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Intermediate Using a Miniscale Hydrophobic Membrane Separator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Morthensen, Sofie Thage; Lewandowski, Daniel Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Continuous hydrolysis of an active pharmaceutical ingredient intermediate, and subsequent liquid–liquid (L-L) separation of the resulting organic and aqueous phases, have been achieved using a simple PTFE tube reactor connected to a miniscale hydrophobic membrane separator. An alkoxide product......, obtained in continuous mode by a Grignard reaction in THF, reacted with acidic water to produce partially miscible organic and aqueous phases containing Mg salts. Despite the partial THF–water miscibility, the two phases could be separated at total flow rates up to 40 mL/min at different flow ratios, using...

  4. Amorphization of metals by ion implantation and ion beam mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschenbach, B.; Heera, V.

    1988-01-01

    Amorphous metallic systems can be formed either by high-fluence ion implantation of glassforming species or by irradiation of layered metal systems with inert gas ions. Both techniques and experimental examples are presented. Empirical rules are discussed which predict whether a given system can be transformed into an amorphous phase. Influence of temperature, implantation dose and pre-existing crystalline metal composition on amorphization is considered. Examples are given of the implantation induced amorphous structure, recrystallization and formation of quasicrystalline structures. (author)

  5. High pressure synthesis of amorphous TiO2 nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanjun Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous TiO2 nanotubes with diameters of 8-10 nm and length of several nanometers were synthesized by high pressure treatment of anatase TiO2 nanotubes. The structural phase transitions of anatase TiO2 nanotubes were investigated by using in-situ high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD method. The starting anatase structure is stable up to ∼20GPa, and transforms into a high-density amorphous (HDA form at higher pressure. Pressure-modified high- to low-density transition was observed in the amorphous form upon decompression. The pressure-induced amorphization and polyamorphism are in good agreement with the previous results in ultrafine TiO2 nanoparticles and nanoribbons. The relationship between the LDA form and α-PbO2 phase was revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM study. In addition, the bulk modulus (B0 = 158 GPa of the anatase TiO2 nanotubes is smaller than those of the corresponding bulks and nanoparticles (180-240 GPa. We suggest that the unique open-ended nanotube morphology and nanosize play important roles in the high pressure phase transition of TiO2 nanotubes.

  6. Intrinsic Tunneling in Phase Separated Manganites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Bhalla, G.; Selcuk, S.; Dhakal, T.; Biswas, A.; Hebard, A. F.

    2009-02-01

    We present evidence of direct electron tunneling across intrinsic insulating regions in submicrometer wide bridges of the phase-separated ferromagnet (La,Pr,Ca)MnO3. Upon cooling below the Curie temperature, a predominantly ferromagnetic supercooled state persists where tunneling across the intrinsic tunnel barriers (ITBs) results in metastable, temperature-independent, high-resistance plateaus over a large range of temperatures. Upon application of a magnetic field, our data reveal that the ITBs are extinguished resulting in sharp, colossal, low-field resistance drops. Our results compare well to theoretical predictions of magnetic domain walls coinciding with the intrinsic insulating phase.

  7. Deformation-induced amorphization of crystalline particles in a Cu-Ti metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamentzky, E.A.; Askenazy, P.D.; Johnson, W.L.; Tanner, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Crystalline particles and grains embedded in Cu 35 Ti 65 glass ribbons have been amorphized by isothermal cold rolling. The structural evolution has been studied by X-ray diffraction and TEM techniques. Initial particle morphologies are spherulitic and spherical, the latter with sizes ranging between 10 and 100 nm. The new amorphous phase seems to nucleate at crystalline-amorphous matrix interfaces. Initially there is a well defined interface between the new and the existing amorphous phases but it disappears as rolling progresses. Crystallites on a nanoscale still present in the final stages of particle amorphization have been observed by convergent beam electron diffraction. After sufficient deformation the consolidated ribbon becomes a completely glassy. A morphological description of the transformation process in terms of crystal destabilization and solid- state particle melting is presented

  8. A reactor/separator device for use in automated solid phase immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, P.R.; Ordonez, K.P.; Siewers, I.J.

    1979-01-01

    A reactor/separator device is described for use in automated solid phase immunoassay, including radioimmunoassays. The device is a column fitted at the bottom portion with a water impermeable disc which can hold, for example, immunoabsorbents, immobilized antisera or ion exchange resins. When the contents of the column supported by the disc are brought into contact with an aqueous phase containing reagents or reactants, a chemical reaction is initiated. After the reaction, centrifugally applied pressure forces the aqueous phase through the filter disc making it water permeable and separating a desired component for subsequent analysis. The reactor/separator device of the present invention permits kinetic solid phase assays (non-equilibrium conditions) to be carried out which would be difficult to perform by other conventional methods. (author)

  9. Separation of piracetam derivatives on polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kažoka, H; Koliškina, O; Veinberg, G; Vorona, M

    2013-03-15

    High-performance liquid chromatography was used for the enantiomeric separation of two chiral piracetam derivatives. The suitability of six commercially available polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases (CSPs) under normal phase mode for direct enantioseparation has been investigated. The influence of the CSPs as well the nature and content of an alcoholic modifier in the mobile phase on separation and elution order was studied. It was established that CSP Lux Amylose-2 shows high chiral recognition ability towards 4-phenylsubstituted piracetam derivatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Sb on physical properties and microstructures of laser nano/amorphous-composite film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jia-Ning; Gong, Shui-Li; Sun, Mei; Shan, Fei-Hu; Wang, Xi-Chang; Jiang, Shuai

    2013-01-01

    A nano/amorphous-composite film was fabricated by laser cladding (LC) of the Co–Ti–B 4 C–Sb mixed powders on a TA15 alloy. Such film mainly consisted of Ti–Al, Co–Ti, Co–Sb intermetallics, TiC, TiB 2 , TiB, and the amorphous phases. Experimental results indicated that the crystal systems of TiB 2 (hexagonal)/TiC (cubic) and Sb (rhombohedral) played important role on the formation of such film. Due to the mismatch of these crystals systems and mutual immiscibility of the metallic components, Sb was not incorporated in TiB 2 /TiC, but formed separate nuclei during the film growth. Thus, the growth of TiB 2 /TiC was stopped by the Sb nucleus in such LC molten pool, so as to form the nanoscale particles

  11. Effect of Sb on physical properties and microstructures of laser nano/amorphous-composite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jia-Ning, E-mail: jn2369@163.com [Science and Technology on Power Beam Processes Laboratory, Beijing (China); Aviation Industry Corporation of China, Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Beijing 100024 (China); Gong, Shui-Li, E-mail: gongshuili@sina.com [Science and Technology on Power Beam Processes Laboratory, Beijing (China); Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Beijing 100024 (China); Sun, Mei; Shan, Fei-Hu; Wang, Xi-Chang [Science and Technology on Power Beam Processes Laboratory, Beijing (China); Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Beijing 100024 (China); Jiang, Shuai [Science and Technology on Power Beam Processes Laboratory, Beijing (China); Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Beijing 100024 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580 (China)

    2013-11-01

    A nano/amorphous-composite film was fabricated by laser cladding (LC) of the Co–Ti–B{sub 4}C–Sb mixed powders on a TA15 alloy. Such film mainly consisted of Ti–Al, Co–Ti, Co–Sb intermetallics, TiC, TiB{sub 2}, TiB, and the amorphous phases. Experimental results indicated that the crystal systems of TiB{sub 2} (hexagonal)/TiC (cubic) and Sb (rhombohedral) played important role on the formation of such film. Due to the mismatch of these crystals systems and mutual immiscibility of the metallic components, Sb was not incorporated in TiB{sub 2}/TiC, but formed separate nuclei during the film growth. Thus, the growth of TiB{sub 2}/TiC was stopped by the Sb nucleus in such LC molten pool, so as to form the nanoscale particles.

  12. Electric field tuning of phase separation in manganite thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Lourembam, James; Wu, Jianchun; Ding, Junfeng; Lin, Weinan; Wu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the electric field effect on epitaxial Pr0.65(Ca0.75Sr0.25)0.35MnO3 thin films in electric double-layer transistors. Different from the conventional transistors with semiconducting channels, the sub(micrometer)-scale phase separation in the manganite channels is expected to result in inhomogeneous distribution of mobile carriers and local enhancement of electric field. The field effect is much larger in the low-temperature phase separation region compared to that in the high-temperature polaron transport region. Further enhancement of electroresistance is achieved by applying a magnetic field, and a 250% modulation of resistance is observed at 80 K, equivalent to an increase of the ferromagnetic metallic phase fraction by 0.51%, as estimated by the general effective medium model. Our results illustrate the complementary nature of electric and magnetic field effects in phase-separated manganites, providing insights on such novel electronic devices based on complex oxides.

  13. Electric field tuning of phase separation in manganite thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Lourembam, James

    2014-01-29

    In this paper, we investigate the electric field effect on epitaxial Pr0.65(Ca0.75Sr0.25)0.35MnO3 thin films in electric double-layer transistors. Different from the conventional transistors with semiconducting channels, the sub(micrometer)-scale phase separation in the manganite channels is expected to result in inhomogeneous distribution of mobile carriers and local enhancement of electric field. The field effect is much larger in the low-temperature phase separation region compared to that in the high-temperature polaron transport region. Further enhancement of electroresistance is achieved by applying a magnetic field, and a 250% modulation of resistance is observed at 80 K, equivalent to an increase of the ferromagnetic metallic phase fraction by 0.51%, as estimated by the general effective medium model. Our results illustrate the complementary nature of electric and magnetic field effects in phase-separated manganites, providing insights on such novel electronic devices based on complex oxides.

  14. Phase separation in a gravity field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Pavel; Rocca, E.; Sprekels, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2011), s. 391-407 ISSN 1937-1632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/2315 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : phase separation * existence and uniqueness * long-time behavior of solutions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticles.jsp?paperID=5633

  15. Pressure-induced amorphization of NaVO/sub 3 at room temperature and its re-crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Z.X.; Ong, C.W.; Tang, S.H.; Kuok, M.H.

    1994-01-01

    Pressure-induced amorphization is the subject of intense study for the past few years because of its importance in material science and in solid state physics. We reported a crystalline-amorphous phase transition at ca 60kbar in NaVO1/3, which is the lowest pressure for such transitions in ionic crystals. The transition is marked by the sudden appearance of very broad bands at the 800 and 350 cm/sup -1 regions. The amorphization includes the complete breaking up of the infinite chains of corner-linked tetrahedral VO/sub 4, most likely into VO/sup -/sub 3. On decompression, the amorphous phase transforms to another phase, probably also amorphous at ca 40 kbar. It reverts to the stable ambient condition α-phase upon heating. Here we report on the details of the transtitional region and the re-linking of the VO/sub 4 chains upon heating. (authors)

  16. Effect of MoO3 addition on phase separation in borosilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Hajimu; Yamanaka, Hiroshi; Terai, Ryohei; Fukumoto, Shinji.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of MoO 3 addition on the phase separation of sodium borosilicate glasses has been studied by electron microscopic observation and electrical conductivity measurement. With increasing MoO 3 addition, the immiscibility temperatures rose, the growth rate of phase separation increased, and the immiscibility region in the Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 system extended. When MoO 3 more than 5 mol% was added to the glasses, two stages of phase separation appeared ; one is metastable immiscibility, which takes place below the liquidus temperature, and the other is stable immiscibility, occurring above the liquidus temperature. The present experiment confirmed that the conductivity measurement of molten glasses is usefull to detect phase separation in the glasses, giving some suggestions for preventing the separation of molybdates in nuclear waste glasses and also for controlling the micro-pore sizes of porous glasses. (author)

  17. Mixed-mode reversed phase/positively charged repulsion chromatography for intact protein separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ling; Guo, Zhimou; Hu, Zhuo; Liang, Xinmiao

    2017-05-10

    A mixed-mode reversed phase/positively charged repulsion stationary phase C8PN composed of octyl and amino group has been developed for separation of intact protein. Before the separation of proteins, a set of probe compounds were employed to evaluate the chromatographic properties of C8PN, demonstrating typical reversed phase/positively charged repulsion interaction on this stationary phase as estimated. Then the new C8PN stationary phase was used to separate a standard protein mixture on the reversed phase mode. Compared with a commercial C4 stationary phase, it showed different selectivity for some proteins. In order to better understand the properties of C8PN, the effect of acetonitrile content was investigated based on retention equation. Higher values of the equation parameters on C8PN demonstrated that the protein retentions were more sensitive to the change of acetonitrile content. Besides, the influences of buffer salt additives on the protein retentions were also studied. The retention factors of the proteins got larger with the increase of buffer salt concentration, which confirmed the positively charged repulsion interaction on the column. Finally, the C8PN was further applied to separate oxidized- and reduced- forms of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone. Our study indicated the advantages and application potential of mixed-mode reversed phase/positively charged repulsion stationary phase for intact protein separation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Laser-induced separation of hydrogen isotopes in the liquid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beattie, W.; Freund, S.; Holland, R.; Maier, W.

    1980-01-01

    A process for separating hydrogen isotopes which comprises (A) forming a liquid phase of hydrogen-bearing feedstock compound at a temperature at which the spectral features of the feedstock compound are narrow enough or the absorption edges sharp enough to permit spectral features corresponding to the different hydrogen isotopes to be separated to be distinguished, (B) irradiating the liquid phase at said temperature with monochromatic radiation of a first wavelength which selectively or at least preferentially excites those molecules of said feedstock compound containing a first hydrogen isotope, and (C) subjecting the excited molecules to physical or chemical processes or a combination thereof whereby said first hydrogen isotope contained in said excited molecules is separated from other hydrogen isotopes contained in the unexcited molecules in said liquid phase

  19. Microstructural evolution in decomposition of amorphous Zr41Ti14Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 alloy, as investigated by small-angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Junming; Hahn-Meitner-Inst. Berlin, Bereich, NM; Nanjing Univ.

    1997-01-01

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been applied to investigate decomposition kinetics and microstructural evolution in amorphous Zr 41 Ti 14 Cu 12.5 Ni 10 Be 22.5 . It is detected that immediately after the alloy is submitted into the supercooled liquid range, phase separation develops rapidly in the early stage, leaving a sluggish coarsening stage. The decomposed alloy finally achieves a roughly regular microstructure which consists of one particle-like supercooled liquid phase embedded in the similarly disordered matrix. The morphology of the particles as a function of time is evaluated, predicting a bar-like pattern. Strong temperature dependence of the phase separation is observed. (orig.)

  20. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: Molecular Dynamics Study of Stability of Solid Solutions and Amorphous Phase in the Cu-Al System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Lai, Wen-Sheng

    2009-06-01

    The relative stability of fcc and bcc solid solutions and amorphous phase with different compositions in the Cu-Al system is studied by molecular dynamics simulations with n-body potentials. For Cu1-xAlx alloys, the calculations show that the fcc solid solution has the lowest energies in the composition region with x 0.72, while the bee solid solution has the lowest energies in the central composition range, in agreement with the ball-milling experiments that a single bcc solid solution with 0.30 < x < 0.70 is obtained. The evolution of structures in solid solutions and amorphous phase is studied by the coordination number (CN) and bond-length analysis so as to unveil the underlying physics. It is found that the energy sequence among three phases is determined by the competition in energy change originating from the bond length and CNs (or the number of bonds).

  1. Film thickness dependence of phase separation and dewetting behaviors in PMMA/SAN blend films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jichun; Liao, Yonggui; Men, Yongfeng; Shi, Tongfei; An, Lijia

    2010-09-21

    Film thickness dependence of complex behaviors coupled by phase separation and dewetting in blend [poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(styrene-ran-acrylonitrile) (SAN)] films on silicon oxide substrate at 175 °C was investigated by grazing incidence ultrasmall-angle X-ray scattering (GIUSAX) and in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that the dewetting pathway was under the control of the parameter U(q0)/E, which described the initial amplitude of the surface undulation and original thickness of film, respectively. Furthermore, our results showed that interplay between phase separation and dewetting depended crucially on film thickness. Three mechanisms including dewetting-phase separation/wetting, dewetting/wetting-phase separation, and phase separation/wetting-pseudodewetting were discussed in detail. In conclusion, it is relative rates of phase separation and dewetting that dominate the interplay between them.

  2. An IR investigation of solid amorphous ethanol - Spectra, properties, and phase changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Reggie L.

    2017-12-01

    Mid- and far-infrared spectra of condensed ethanol (CH3CH2OH) at 10-160 K are presented, with a special focus on amorphous ethanol, the form of greatest astrochemical interest, and with special attention given to changes at 155-160 K. Infrared spectra of amorphous and crystalline forms are shown. The refractive index at 670 nm of amorphous ethanol at 16 K is reported, along with three IR band strengths and a density. A comparison is made to recent work on the isoelectronic compound ethanethiol (CH3CH2SH), and several astrochemical applications are suggested for future study.

  3. Particle separation by phase modulated surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Gergely; Andrade, Marco A B; Reboud, Julien; Marques-Hueso, Jose; Desmulliez, Marc P Y; Cooper, Jonathan M; Riehle, Mathis O; Bernassau, Anne L

    2017-09-01

    High efficiency isolation of cells or particles from a heterogeneous mixture is a critical processing step in lab-on-a-chip devices. Acoustic techniques offer contactless and label-free manipulation, preserve viability of biological cells, and provide versatility as the applied electrical signal can be adapted to various scenarios. Conventional acoustic separation methods use time-of-flight and achieve separation up to distances of quarter wavelength with limited separation power due to slow gradients in the force. The method proposed here allows separation by half of the wavelength and can be extended by repeating the modulation pattern and can ensure maximum force acting on the particles. In this work, we propose an optimised phase modulation scheme for particle separation in a surface acoustic wave microfluidic device. An expression for the acoustic radiation force arising from the interaction between acoustic waves in the fluid was derived. We demonstrated, for the first time, that the expression of the acoustic radiation force differs in surface acoustic wave and bulk devices, due to the presence of a geometric scaling factor. Two phase modulation schemes are investigated theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical findings were experimentally validated for different mixtures of polystyrene particles confirming that the method offers high selectivity. A Monte-Carlo simulation enabled us to assess performance in real situations, including the effects of particle size variation and non-uniform acoustic field on sorting efficiency and purity, validating the ability to separate particles with high purity and high resolution.

  4. Short range order in amorphous polycondensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamers, C.; Richter, D.; Schweika, W. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Festkoerperforschung; Batoulis, J.; Sommer, K. [Bayer AG, Leverkusen (Germany); Cable, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Shapiro, S.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The static coherent structure factors S(Q) of the polymer glass Bisphenol-A-Polycarbonate and its chemical variation Bisphenol-A- Polyctherkctone- both in differently deuterated versions- have been measured by spin polarized neutron scattering. The method of spin polarization analysis provided an experimental separation of coherent and incoherent scattering and a reliable intensity calibration. Results are compared to structure factors calculated for model structures which were obtained by ``amorphous cell`` computer simulations. In general reasonable agreement is found between experiment and simulation; however, certain discrepancies hint at an insufficient structural relaxation in the amorphous cell method. 15 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab.

  5. Partial amorphization of an α-FeCr alloy by ball-milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, J. M.; Costa, B. F. O.; Caer, G. Le; Delcroix, P.

    2008-01-01

    The structural changes of near-equiatomic α-FeCr alloys, ground in a vibratory mill in vacuum and in argon, were followed as a function of milling time. An amorphous phase forms in both cases but at a much faster rate when milling in argon than when milling in vacuum. Amorphisation by ball-milling of α-FeCr alloys is deduced to be an intrinsic phenomenon which is however speeded-up by oxygen. The amorphous phase crystallizes into a bcc Cr-rich phase and a bcc Fe-rich phase when annealed for short times.

  6. Moessbauer effect study on mechanically alloyed amorphous Fe1-xTix alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hong; Xu Zuxiong; Ma Ruzhang; Zhao Zhongtao; Ping Jueyun

    1994-01-01

    Amorphous Fe 1-x Ti x (x = 0.50, 0.60) powders were produced by mechanical alloying from pure elemental powders in a vibratory ball-mill. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Moessbauer effect (ME) were used to study the progress of amorphization and the property of hydrogen absorption in Fe-Ti alloys. The amorphization process and the properties of the amorphous phase are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Crystallization process and magnetic properties of amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phu, N D; Luong, N H; Chau, N; Hai, N H; Ngo, D T; Hoang, L H

    2011-01-01

    This paper studied the crystallization process, phase transition and magnetic properties of amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by the microwave heating technique. Thermal analysis and magnetodynamics studies revealed many interesting aspects of the amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles. The as-prepared sample was amorphous. Crystallization of the maghemite γ-Fe 2 O 3 (with an activation energy of 0.71 eV) and the hematite α-Fe 2 O 3 (with an activation energy of 0.97 eV) phase occurred at around 300 deg. C and 350 deg. C, respectively. A transition from the maghemite to the hematite occurred at 500 deg. C with an activation energy of 1.32 eV. A study of the temperature dependence of magnetization supported the crystallization and the phase transformation. Raman shift at 660 cm -1 and absorption band in the infrared spectra at 690 cm -1 showed the presence of disorder in the hematite phase on the nanoscale which is supposed to be the origin of the ferromagnetic behaviour of that antiferromagnetic phase.

  8. Rapid Separation of Copper Phase and Iron-Rich Phase From Copper Slag at Low Temperature in a Super-Gravity Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xi; Gao, Jintao; Huang, Zili; Guo, Zhancheng

    2018-06-01

    A novel approach for quickly separating a metal copper phase and iron-rich phase from copper slag at low temperature is proposed based on a super-gravity method. The morphology and mineral evolution of the copper slag with increasing temperature were studied using in situ high-temperature confocal laser scanning microscopy and ex situ scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. Fe3O4 particles dispersed among the copper slag were transformed into FeO by adding an appropriate amount of carbon as a reducing agent, forming the slag melt with SiO2 at low temperature and assisting separation of the copper phase from the slag. Consequently, in a super-gravity field, the metallic copper and copper matte were concentrated as the copper phase along the super-gravity direction, whereas the iron-rich slag migrated in the opposite direction and was quickly separated from the copper phase. Increasing the gravity coefficient (G) significantly enhanced the separation efficiency. After super-gravity separation at G = 1000 and 1473 K (1200 °C) for 3 minutes, the mass fraction of Cu in the separated copper phase reached 86.11 wt pct, while that in the separated iron-rich phase was reduced to 0.105 wt pct. The recovery ratio of Cu in the copper phase was as high as up to 97.47 pct.

  9. Reversible amorphous-crystalline phase changes in a wide range of Se1-xTex alloys studied using ultrafast differential scanning calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Paul. A.; Momand, Jamo; Kooi, Bart J.

    The reversible amorphous-crystalline phase change in a chalcogenide material, specifically the Se1-xTex alloy, has been investigated for the first time using ultrafast differential scanning calorimetry. Heating rates and cooling rates up to 5000 K/s were used. Repeated reversible

  10. First-principles study of nitrogen doping in cubic and amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravati, S.; Colleoni, D.; Mazzarello, R.; Kühne, T. D.; Krack, M.; Bernasconi, M.; Parrinello, M.

    2011-07-01

    We investigated the structural, electronic and vibrational properties of amorphous and cubic Ge2Sb2Te5 doped with N at 4.2 at.% by means of large scale ab initio simulations. Nitrogen can be incorporated in molecular form in both the crystalline and amorphous phases at a moderate energy cost. In contrast, insertion of N in the atomic form is very energetically costly in the crystalline phase, though it is still possible in the amorphous phase. These results support the suggestion that N segregates at the grain boundaries during the crystallization of the amorphous phase, resulting in a reduction in size of the crystalline grains and an increased crystallization temperature.

  11. Effect of temperature gradient on liquid-liquid phase separation in a polyolefin blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Dou, Nannan; Fan, Guoqiang; Yang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Xiaohua

    2013-09-28

    We have investigated experimentally the structure formation processes during phase separation via spinodal decomposition above and below the spinodal line in a binary polymer blend system exposed to in-plane stationary thermal gradients using phase contrast optical microscopy and temperature gradient hot stage. Below the spinodal line there is a coupling of concentration fluctuations and thermal gradient imposed by the temperature gradient hot stage. Also under the thermal gradient annealing phase-separated domains grow faster compared with the system under homogeneous temperature annealing on a zero-gradient or a conventional hot stage. We suggest that the in-plane thermal gradient accelerates phase separation through the enhancement in concentration fluctuations in the early and intermediate stages of spinodal decomposition. In a thermal gradient field, the strength of concentration fluctuation close to the critical point (above the spinodal line) is strong enough to induce phase separation even in one-phase regime of the phase diagram. In the presence of a temperature gradient the equilibrium phase diagrams are no longer valid, and the systems with an upper critical solution temperature can be quenched into phase separation by applying the stationary temperature gradient. The in-plane temperature gradient drives enhanced concentration fluctuations in a binary polymer blend system above and below the spinodal line.

  12. Path-separated electron interferometry in a scanning transmission electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Fehmi S.; Harvey, Tyler R.; Chess, Jordan J.; Pierce, Jordan S.; McMorran, Benjamin J.

    2018-05-01

    We report a path-separated electron interferometer within a scanning transmission electron microscope. In this setup, we use a nanofabricated grating as an amplitude-division beamsplitter to prepare multiple spatially separated, coherent electron probe beams. We achieve path separations of 30 nm. We pass the  +1 diffraction order probe through amorphous carbon while passing the 0th and  ‑1 orders through vacuum. The probes are then made to interfere via imaging optics, and we observe an interference pattern at the CCD detector with up to 39.7% fringe visibility. We show preliminary experimental results in which the interference pattern was recorded during a 1D scan of the diffracted probes across a test phase object. These results qualitatively agree with a modeled interference predicted by an independent measurement of the specimen thickness. This experimental design can potentially be applied to phase contrast imaging and fundamental physics experiments, such as an exploration of electron wave packet coherence length.

  13. Exchange bias and bistable magneto-resistance states in amorphous TbFeCo thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaopu, E-mail: xl6ba@virginia.edu; Ma, Chung T.; Poon, S. Joseph, E-mail: sjp9x@virginia.edu [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Lu, Jiwei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Devaraj, Arun [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Spurgeon, Steven R.; Comes, Ryan B. [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Amorphous TbFeCo thin films sputter deposited at room temperature on thermally oxidized Si substrate are found to exhibit strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Atom probe tomography, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping have revealed two nanoscale amorphous phases with different Tb atomic percentages distributed within the amorphous film. Exchange bias accompanied by bistable magneto-resistance states has been uncovered near room temperature by magnetization and magneto-transport measurements. The exchange anisotropy originates from the exchange interaction between the ferrimagnetic and ferromagnetic components corresponding to the two amorphous phases. This study provides a platform for exchange bias and magneto-resistance switching using single-layer amorphous ferrimagnetic thin films that require no epitaxial growth.

  14. Thermal stability study of crystalline and novel spray-dried amorphous nilotinib hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbrink, Maikel; Vromans, Herman; Schellens, Jan; Beijnen, Jos; Nuijen, Bastiaan

    2018-01-30

    The thermal characteristics and the thermal degradation of crystalline and amorphous nilotinib hydrochloride (NH) were studied. The spray drying technique was successfully utilized for the amorphization of NH and was evaluated by spectroscopic techniques and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The ethanolic spray drying process yielded amorphous NH with a glass transition temperature (T g ) of 147°C. Thermal characterization of the amorphous phase was performed by heat capacity measurements using modulated DSC (mDSC). Thermal degradation was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The derived thermodynamic properties of the amorphous NH indicate fragile behaviour and a low crystallization tendency. NH was found to be molecularly stable up to 193°C. After which, the thermal degradation displayed two phases. The values of the thermal degradation parameters were estimated using the Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Friedman non-isothermal, model-free, isoconversional methods The results indicate the two phases to be single-step reactions. The examination of the physical stability of amorphous NH during storage and at elevated temperatures showed stability at 180°C for at least 5h and at 20-25°C/60% RH for at least 6 months. During these periods, no crystallization was observed. This study is the first to report the thermal characteristics of NH. Additionally, it is also the first to describe the full thermal analysis of a spray-dried amorphous drug. The thermal data may be used in the projection of future production processes and storage conditions of amorphous NH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Amorphous-to-Cu51Zr14 phase transformation in Cu60Ti20Zr20 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Q P; Zhou, Y H; Horsewell, A; Jiang, J Z

    2003-01-01

    The kinetics of an amorphous-to-Cu 51 Zr 14 phase transformation in an as-cast Cu 60 Ti 20 Zr 20 rod have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The relative volume fractions of the transferred crystalline phase as a function of annealing time, obtained at 713, 716, 723, 728, and 733 K, have been analysed in detail using 14 nucleation and growth models together with the JMA model. A time-dependent nucleation process is revealed. A steady-state nucleation rate of the order of 10 22 - 10 23 nuclei m -3 s -1 in the temperature range 713-733 K and an activation energy of the order of 550 kJmol -1 for the phase transformation in the as-cast Cu 60 Ti 20 Zr 20 rod were detected, for which some possible reasons are suggested

  16. Structure of a new dense amorphous ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finney, J.L.; Bowron, D.T.; Soper, A.K.; Loerting, T.; Mayer, E.; Hallbrucker, A.

    2002-01-01

    The detailed structure of a new dense amorphous ice, VHDA, is determined by isotope substitution neutron diffraction. Its structure is characterized by a doubled occupancy of the stabilizing interstitial location that was found in high density amorphous ice, HDA. As would be expected for a thermally activated unlocking of the stabilizing 'interstitial', the transition from VHDA to LDA (low-density amorphous ice) is very sharp. Although its higher density makes VHDA a better candidate than HDA for a physical manifestation of the second putative liquid phase of water, as for the HDA case, the VHDA to LDA transition also appears to be kinetically controlled

  17. Peculiarities of Vibration Characteristics of Amorphous Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gets, Kirill V.; Subbotin, Oleg S.; Belosludov, Vladimir R.

    2012-03-01

    Dynamic properties of low (LDA), high (HDA) and very high (VHDA) density amorphous ices were investigated within the approach based on Lattice Dynamics simulations. In this approach, we assume that the short-range molecular order mainly determines the dynamic and thermodynamic properties of amorphous ices. Simulation cell of 512 water molecules with periodical boundary conditions and disordering allows us to study dynamical properties and dispersion curves in the Brillouin zone of pseudo-crystal. Existence of collective phenomena in amorphous ices which is usual for crystals but anomalous for disordered phase was confirmed in our simulations. Molecule amplitudes of delocalized (collective) as well as localized vibrations have been considered.

  18. Separation of multiphosphorylated peptide isomers by hydrophilic interaction chromatography on an aminopropyl phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, David; Kuhlmann, Julia; Muschket, Matthias; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2010-08-01

    The separation of isomeric phosphorylated peptides is challenging and often impossible for multiphosphorylated isomers using chromatographic and capillary electrophoretic methods. In this study we investigated the separation of a set of single-, double-, and triple-phosphorylated peptides (corresponding to the human tau protein) by ion-pair reversed-phase chromatography (IP-RPC) and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC). In HILIC both hydroxyl and aminopropyl stationary phases were tested with aqueous acetonitrile in order to assess their separation efficiency. The hydroxyl phase separated the phosphopeptides very well from the unphosphorylated analogue, while on the aminopropyl phase even isomeric phosphopeptides attained baseline separation. Thus, up to seven phosphorylated versions of a given tau domain were separated. Furthermore, the low concentration of an acidic ammonium formate buffer allowed an online analysis with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) to be conducted, enabling peptide sequencing and identification of phosphorylation sites.

  19. Quantitative analysis of aqueous phase composition of model dentin adhesives experiencing phase separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qiang; Park, Jonggu; Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Pamatmat, Francis; Misra, Anil; Laurence, Jennifer S.; Marangos, Orestes; Spencer, Paulette

    2013-01-01

    There have been reports of the sensitivity of our current dentin adhesives to excess moisture, for example, water-blisters in adhesives placed on over-wet surfaces, and phase separation with concomitant limited infiltration of the critical dimethacrylate component into the demineralized dentin matrix. To determine quantitatively the hydrophobic/hydrophilic components in the aqueous phase when exposed to over-wet environments, model adhesives were mixed with 16, 33, and 50 wt % water to yield well-separated phases. Based upon high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection, it was found that the amounts of hydrophobic BisGMA and hydrophobic initiators are less than 0.1 wt % in the aqueous phase. The amount of these compounds decreased with an increase in the initial water content. The major components of the aqueous phase were hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and water, and the HEMA content ranged from 18.3 to 14.7 wt %. Different BisGMA homologues and the relative content of these homologues in the aqueous phase have been identified; however, the amount of crosslinkable BisGMA was minimal and, thus, could not help in the formation of a crosslinked polymer network in the aqueous phase. Without the protection afforded by a strong crosslinked network, the poorly photoreactive compounds of this aqueous phase could be leached easily. These results suggest that adhesive formulations should be designed to include hydrophilic multimethacrylate monomers and water compatible initiators. PMID:22331596

  20. Studies on Three Liquid Phase Extraction (TLPE) system for separation of rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Kartikey K.; Singh, D.K.; Anitha, M.; Singh, H.

    2014-01-01

    Three-liquid-phase extraction (TLPE) is relatively a new separation technique, which takes the advantage of the differences in physicochemical properties of three coexisted phases to achieve multi-phase liquid separation of two or more components in one-step extraction. TLPE system consists of three liquid layers namely an organic solvent phase (organophosphorous type) and two aqueous phases one rich in polymer phase (poly alkylene glycol) and other a salt solution. To study the feasibility of using such system for separation of rare earths, it is important to optimize the preparatory conditions by selective suitable polymer and salt solutions at an appropriate pH to obtain a stable three phase layers to effect the separation. D2EHPA (di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid) is a well- established extractant in the rare earth industry and has been chosen in the present work to form a TLPE with polymer and salt solution. In the present investigation after preparing the stable three phase, the feasibility of using TLPE has been examined to separate rare earths from a multicomponent solutions. This study has demonstrated the ability of TLPE having D2EHPA as organic phase to separate rare earths from a multicomponent system. Effect of pH, concentration and types of polymer, complexing agent and D2EHPA concentration has been studied. Variation in pH study indicated that 4.0 leads to extraction of rare earths in the polymer phase. PEG 600 was found to be best amongst the polymer investigated. Presence of DTPA as complexing agent in the salt solution having pH >4.0 resulted in enhanced extraction of rare earths in PEG phase

  1. On the phase form of a deformation quantization with separation of variables

    OpenAIRE

    Karabegov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Given a star product with separation of variables on a pseudo-Kaehler manifold, we obtain a new formal (1,1)-form from its classifying form and call it the phase form of the star product. The cohomology class of a star product with separation of variables equals the class of its phase form. We show that the phase forms can be arbitrary and they bijectively parametrize the star products with separation of variables. We also describe the action of a change of the formal parameter on a star prod...

  2. Aluminium base amorphous and crystalline alloys with Fe impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.; Degmova, J.

    2006-01-01

    Aluminium base alloys show remarkable mechanical properties, however their low thermal stability still limits the technological applications. Further improvement of mechanical properties can be reached by partial crystallization of amorphous alloys, which gives rise to nanostructured composites. Our work was focused on aluminium based alloys with Fe, Nb and V additions. Samples of nominal composition Al 90 Fe 7 Nb 3 and Al 94 Fe 2 V 4 were studied in amorphous state and after annealing up to 873 K. From Moessbauer spectra taken on the samples in amorphous state the value of f-factor was determined as well as corresponding Debye temperatures were calculated. Annealing at higher temperatures induced nano and microcrystalline crystallization. Moessbauer spectra of samples annealed up to 573 K are fitted only by distribution of quadrupole doublets corresponding to the amorphous state. An increase of annealing temperature leads to the structural transformation, which consists in growth of nanometer sized aluminium nuclei. This is partly reflected in Moessbauer parameters. After annealing at 673 K intermetallic phase Al 3 Fe and other Al-Fe phases are created. In this case Moessbauer spectra are fitted by quadrupole doublets. During annealing up to 873 K large grains of Fe-Al phases are created. (authors)

  3. Temperature-dependent phase separation during annealing of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} thin films in vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zheng [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore117602 (Singapore); Pan Jisheng, E-mail: js-pan@imre.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore117602 (Singapore); Fang, Lina Wei-Wei; Yeo, Yee-Chia [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore 119260 (Singapore); Foo, Yong Lim [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore117602 (Singapore); Zhao Rong; Shi Luping [Data Storage Institute, A-STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Tok, Eng Soon [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore117602 (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore 119260 (Singapore)

    2012-06-01

    Thermal stability of 100 nm Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} thin film during annealing from room temperature to 240 Degree-Sign C inside a UHV chamber was studied in situ by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ex situ by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Ge species are found to diffuse preferentially to the surface when GST film is annealed from 25 Degree-Sign C to 100 Degree-Sign C. This process is accompanied by a change of phase whereby the amorphous film completely becomes face-center-cubic (FCC) phase at 100 Degree-Sign C. From 100 Degree-Sign C to 200 Degree-Sign C, both Sb and Te species are observed to diffuse more to the surface. The FCC phase is partially changed into hexagonal-close-pack (HCP) phase at 200 Degree-Sign C. At 220 Degree-Sign C, FCC phase is completely transformed into HCP phase. Loss of Sb and Te are also detected from the surface and this is attributed to desorption due to their high vapor pressures. At 240 Degree-Sign C, Sb and Te species are found to have desorbed completely from the surface, and leave behind Ge-rich 3D droplets on the surface. The separation of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} into Sb,Te-rich phase and Ge-rich phase is thus the main mechanism to account for the failure of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}-based phase change memory devices under thermal stress.

  4. Phase separation of comb polymer nanocomposite melts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinzhi; Feng, Yancong; Chen, Lan

    2016-02-07

    In this work, the spinodal phase demixing of branched comb polymer nanocomposite (PNC) melts is systematically investigated using the polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) theory. To verify the reliability of the present method in characterizing the phase behavior of comb PNCs, the intermolecular correlation functions of the system for nonzero particle volume fractions are compared with our molecular dynamics simulation data. After verifying the model and discussing the structure of the comb PNCs in the dilute nanoparticle limit, the interference among the side chain number, side chain length, nanoparticle-monomer size ratio and attractive interactions between the comb polymer and nanoparticles in spinodal demixing curves is analyzed and discussed in detail. The results predict two kinds of distinct phase separation behaviors. One is called classic fluid phase boundary, which is mediated by the entropic depletion attraction and contact aggregation of nanoparticles at relatively low nanoparticle-monomer attraction strength. The second demixing transition occurs at relatively high attraction strength and involves the formation of an equilibrium physical network phase with local bridging of nanoparticles. The phase boundaries are found to be sensitive to the side chain number, side chain length, nanoparticle-monomer size ratio and attractive interactions. As the side chain length is fixed, the side chain number has a large effect on the phase behavior of comb PNCs; with increasing side chain number, the miscibility window first widens and then shrinks. When the side chain number is lower than a threshold value, the phase boundaries undergo a process from enlarging the miscibility window to narrowing as side chain length increases. Once the side chain number overtakes this threshold value, the phase boundary shifts towards less miscibility. With increasing nanoparticle-monomer size ratio, a crossover of particle size occurs, above which the phase separation

  5. Method to quantify the delocalization of electronic states in amorphous semiconductors and its application to assessing charge carrier mobility of p -type amorphous oxide semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jamblinne de Meux, A.; Pourtois, G.; Genoe, J.; Heremans, P.

    2018-01-01

    Amorphous semiconductors are usually characterized by a low charge carrier mobility, essentially related to their lack of long-range order. The development of such material with higher charge carrier mobility is hence challenging. Part of the issue comes from the difficulty encountered by first-principles simulations to evaluate concepts such as the electron effective mass for disordered systems since the absence of periodicity induced by the disorder precludes the use of common concepts derived from condensed matter physics. In this paper, we propose a methodology based on first-principles simulations that partially solves this problem, by quantifying the degree of delocalization of a wave function and of the connectivity between the atomic sites within this electronic state. We validate the robustness of the proposed formalism on crystalline and molecular systems and extend the insights gained to disordered/amorphous InGaZnO4 and Si. We also explore the properties of p -type oxide semiconductor candidates recently reported to have a low effective mass in their crystalline phases [G. Hautier et al., Nat. Commun. 4, 2292 (2013), 10.1038/ncomms3292]. Although in their amorphous phase none of the candidates present a valence band with delocalization properties matching those found in the conduction band of amorphous InGaZnO4, three of the seven analyzed materials show some potential. The most promising candidate, K2Sn2O3 , is expected to possess in its amorphous phase a slightly higher hole mobility than the electron mobility in amorphous silicon.

  6. High pressure synthesis of amorphous TiO{sub 2} nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Quanjun; Liu, Ran; Wang, Tianyi; Xu, Ke; Dong, Qing; Liu, Bo; Liu, Bingbing, E-mail: liubb@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Liu, Jing [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Amorphous TiO{sub 2} nanotubes with diameters of 8-10 nm and length of several nanometers were synthesized by high pressure treatment of anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. The structural phase transitions of anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were investigated by using in-situ high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The starting anatase structure is stable up to ∼20GPa, and transforms into a high-density amorphous (HDA) form at higher pressure. Pressure-modified high- to low-density transition was observed in the amorphous form upon decompression. The pressure-induced amorphization and polyamorphism are in good agreement with the previous results in ultrafine TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and nanoribbons. The relationship between the LDA form and α-PbO{sub 2} phase was revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) study. In addition, the bulk modulus (B{sub 0} = 158 GPa) of the anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotubes is smaller than those of the corresponding bulks and nanoparticles (180-240 GPa). We suggest that the unique open-ended nanotube morphology and nanosize play important roles in the high pressure phase transition of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes.

  7. Hydration and phase separation of polyethylene glycol in copolymers of tyrosine derived carbonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjeeva Murthy, N.; Wang, Wenjie; Kohn, Joachim

    2009-03-01

    Effect of PEG fraction and its block size on the temperature-induced phase transitions and the hydration-induced phase separation were investigated in a copolymer of desaminotyrosyl tyrosine ethyl ester (DTE) and PEG using simultaneous SAXS/WAXS/DSC. The PEG segments crystallized when the block size was at least 2000 Daltons and present at ˜ 40 wt%, and raised the Tg of the polymer by ˜ 15 ^oC. The PEG blocks in dry polymers with up to 50 wt% PEG, even when crystalline, were found to be uniformly distributed with no evidence of phase separation at 10 nm length scales. The non-iodinated PEG-rich sample with 30 mole% PEG2k showed the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behavior with PEG blocks forming a separate phase above -21 ^oC. In the iodinated version of this polymer, the PEG2k blocks were phase separated in the solid phase. In all samples, whether PEG was crystalline or not, hydration induced PEG to separate into 15 nm hydrated domains. Phase behavior was dependent on whether poly(DTE) or the PEG was the major (matrix) phase. Changes in the mobility of the chains brought about by water-mediated hydrogen-bonding, and modulated by heat, appear to be the common underlying explanation for the range of observed phase behavior.

  8. Phase separation and structure formation in gadolinium based liquid and glassy metallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Junhee

    2014-01-01

    In this PhD research the liquid-liquid phase separation phenomena in Gd-based alloys was investigated in terms of phase equilibria, microstructure formation upon quenching the melt and corresponding magnetic properties of phase-separated metallic glasses. The phase diagrams of the binary subsystems Gd-Zr and Gd-Ti were experimentally reassessed. Especially the phase equilibria with the liquid phase could be determined directly by combining in situ high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction with electrostatic levitation of the melt. The Gd-Zr system is of eutectic type with a metastable miscibility gap. The eutectic composition at 18 ± 2 at.% Zr, the liquidus line and the coexistence of bcc-Zr and bcc-Gd at elevated temperature could be determined. The Gd-Ti system is a monotectic system. The experimental observations in this work led to improved new Gd-Zr and Gd-Ti phase diagrams. The phase equilibria of the ternary Gd-Ti-Co system were analyzed for two alloy compositions. The XRD patterns for molten Gd 35 Ti 35 Co 30 gave direct evidence for the coexistence of two liquid phases formed by liquid-liquid phase separation. The first experimental and thermodynamic assessment of the ternary Gd-Ti-Co system revealed that the stable miscibility gap of binary Gd-Ti extends into the ternary Gd-Ti-Co system (up to about 30 at.% Co). New phase-separated metallic glasses were synthesized in Gd-TM-Co-Al (TM = Hf, Ti or Zr) alloys. The microstructure was characterized in terms of composition and cooling rate dependence of phase separation. Due to large positive enthalpy of mixing between Gd on the one side and Hf, Ti or Zr on the other side, the alloys undergo liquid-liquid phase separation during rapid quenching the melt. The parameters determining the microstructure development during phase separation are the thermodynamic properties of the liquid phase, kinetic parameters and quenching conditions. By controlling these parameters and conditions the microstructure can be

  9. Detection of various phases in liquids from the hypersound velocity and damping near closed phase-separation regions of solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, K. V.; Krivokhizha, S. V.; Chaban, I. A.; Chaikov, L. L.

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical analysis revealed that experimental results obtained in our studies on hypersound propagation in a guaiacol-glycerol solution in the vicinity of the closed phase-separation region, double critical point, and special point, as well as the origin of these regions, can be explained by the presence of two different phases (I and II) of the solution with phase-transition temperature T 0 . Temperature T 0 coincides with the temperature at the center of closed phase-separation regions, as well as with the double critical point and with the special point. In (Frenkel) phase I, molecules are in potential wells whose depth exceeds the thermal energy of a molecule, while thermal energy in (gaslike) phase II is higher than the potential well depth. At the lower critical point, the thermodynamic potential of phase I is equal to the thermodynamic potential of the phase-separated solution. At the upper critical point, the thermodynamic potential of phase II is equal to the thermodynamic potential of the phase-separated solution. The observed broad dome of the hypersound absorption coefficient near T 0 can be explained by the contribution associated with fluctuations of the order parameter corresponding to the transition from phase I to phase II. The difference in the temperature coefficients of hypersound velocity on different sides of T 0 and some other effects are also explained

  10. Atomistic modeling of ion beam induced amorphization in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelaz, Lourdes; Marques, Luis A.; Lopez, Pedro; Santos, Ivan; Aboy, Maria; Barbolla, Juan

    2005-01-01

    Ion beam induced amorphization in Si has attracted significant interest since the beginning of the use of ion implantation for the fabrication of Si devices. Nowadays, a renewed interest in the modeling of amorphization mechanisms at atomic level has arisen due to the use of preamorphizing implants and high dopant implantation doses for the fabrication of nanometric-scale Si devices. In this work, we briefly describe the existing phenomenological and defect-based amorphization models. We focus on the atomistic model we have developed to describe ion beam induced amorphization in Si. In our model, the building block for the amorphous phase is the bond defect or IV pair, whose stability increases with the number of surrounding IV pairs. This feature explains the regrowth behavior of different damage topologies and the kinetics of the crystalline to amorphous transition. The model provides excellent quantitative agreement with experimental results

  11. Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Binary Amorphous Transition Metal Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Sy-Hwang

    The electrical, superconductive and magnetic properties of several binary transition metal amorphous and metastable crystalline alloys, Fe(,x)Ti(,100-x) (30 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 100), Fe(,x)Zr(,100-x) (20 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 93), Fe(,x)Hf(,100-x) (20 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 100), Fe(,x)Nb(,100 -x) (22 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 85), Ni(,x)Nb(,100-x) (20 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 80), Cu(,x)Nb(,100-x) (10 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 90) were studied over a wide composition range. Films were made using a magnetron sputtering system, and the structure of the films was investigated by energy dispersive x-ray diffraction. The composition region of each amorphous alloys system was determined and found in good agreement with a model proposed by Egami and Waseda. The magnetic properties and hyperfine interactions in the films were investigated using a conventional Mossbauer spectrometer and a ('57)Co in Rh matrix source. In all Fe-early transition metal binary alloys systems, Fe does not retain its moment in the low iron concentration region and the result is that the critical concentration for magnetic order (x(,c)) is much larger than anticipated from percolation considerations. A direct comparison between crystalline alloys and their amorphous counterparts of the same composition illustrate no clear correlation between crystalline and amorphous states. Pronounced discontinuities in the magnetic properties with variation in Fe content of all Fe-early transition metal alloys at phase boundaries separating amorphous and crystalline states have been observed. This is caused by the differences in the atomic arrangement and the electronic structure between crystalline and amorphous solids. The temperature dependence of resistivity, (rho)(T), of several binary amorphous alloys of Fe-TM (where TM = Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb etc.) has been studied from 2K to 300K. The Fe-poor (x x(,c)) samples have distinctive differences in (rho)(T) at low temperature (below 30K). All the magnetic samples

  12. Reversible devitrification in amorphous As2 Se3 under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Azkar Saeed; Lou, Hong Bo; Lin, Chuan Long

    2016-01-01

    as compared to the virgin amorphous phase and that the structural recovery to the virgin amorphous phase is a consequence of an enhancement in covalent bonding character over interlayer forces upon complete decompression. Furthermore, we observed a two-dimensional to three-dimensional network transition under...

  13. Change of quasilattice constant during amorphous-to-quasicrystalline phase transformation in Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu7.5Ag10 metallic glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Rasmussen, A.R.; Jensen, C.H.

    2002-01-01

    The amorphous-to-quasicrystalline phase transformation in a Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu7.5Ag10 metallic glass has been investigated by monitoring the quasilattice constant and the composition of quasicrystalline particles in the samples annealed in vacuum at 663 K for various times. It is found that the quas......The amorphous-to-quasicrystalline phase transformation in a Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu7.5Ag10 metallic glass has been investigated by monitoring the quasilattice constant and the composition of quasicrystalline particles in the samples annealed in vacuum at 663 K for various times. It is found......Cu7.5Ag10 metallic glass is a nonpolymorphous reaction....

  14. Moessbauer study of isothermally annealed amorphous Fe-Nb-Cu-Si-B alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.; Toth, I.; Miglierini, M.

    1993-01-01

    Amorphous ribbons of Fe 73.5 Nb 3 Cu 1 Si 13.5 B 9 have been annealed above the crystallization temperature. Annealed samples consisted of crystalline and amorphous phases in a wide temperature range. Two samples of different thicknesses of 33 μm and 27 μm were isothermally annealed at a temperature of 545 C from 0.5 to 5 h in a vacuum furnace. The amount of crystalline phase increases rapidly in the ticker sample. The crystalline part of the Moessbauer spectrum consists of four sharp sextets which can be assigned to a DO 3 -structure FeSi alloy. After 700 C annealing the amorphous phase was not observed and the crystalline phase consisted of the DO 3 -structure FeSi alloy, paramagnetic FeNbB and presumably Fe 23 B 6 and Fe 3 SiB 2 . (orig.)

  15. Threshold irradiation dose for amorphization of silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, L.L.; Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The amorphization of silicon carbide due to ion and electron irradiation is reviewed with emphasis on the temperature-dependent critical dose for amorphization. The effect of ion mass and energy on the threshold dose for amorphization is summarized, showing only a weak dependence near room temperature. Results are presented for 0.56 MeV silicon ions implanted into single crystal 6H-SiC as a function of temperature and ion dose. From this, the critical dose for amorphization is found as a function of temperature at depths well separated from the implanted ion region. Results are compared with published data generated using electrons and xenon ions as the irradiating species. High resolution TEM analysis is presented for the Si ion series showing the evolution of elongated amorphous islands oriented such that their major axis is parallel to the free surface. This suggests that surface of strain effects may be influencing the apparent amorphization threshold. Finally, a model for the temperature threshold for amorphization is described using the Si ion irradiation flux and the fitted interstitial migration energy which was found to be {approximately}0.56 eV. This model successfully explains the difference in the temperature-dependent amorphization behavior of SiC irradiated with 0.56 MeV silicon ions at 1 x 10{sup {minus}3} dpa/s and with fission neutrons irradiated at 1 x 10{sup {minus}6} dpa/s irradiated to 15 dpa in the temperature range of {approximately}340 {+-} 10K.

  16. Threshold irradiation dose for amorphization of silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, L.L.; Zinkle, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    The amorphization of silicon carbide due to ion and electron irradiation is reviewed with emphasis on the temperature-dependent critical dose for amorphization. The effect of ion mass and energy on the threshold dose for amorphization is summarized, showing only a weak dependence near room temperature. Results are presented for 0.56 MeV silicon ions implanted into single crystal 6H-SiC as a function of temperature and ion dose. From this, the critical dose for amorphization is found as a function of temperature at depths well separated from the implanted ion region. Results are compared with published data generated using electrons and xenon ions as the irradiating species. High resolution TEM analysis is presented for the Si ion series showing the evolution of elongated amorphous islands oriented such that their major axis is parallel to the free surface. This suggests that surface of strain effects may be influencing the apparent amorphization threshold. Finally, a model for the temperature threshold for amorphization is described using the Si ion irradiation flux and the fitted interstitial migration energy which was found to be ∼0.56 eV. This model successfully explains the difference in the temperature-dependent amorphization behavior of SiC irradiated with 0.56 MeV silicon ions at 1 x 10 -3 dpa/s and with fission neutrons irradiated at 1 x 10 -6 dpa/s irradiated to 15 dpa in the temperature range of ∼340 ± 10K

  17. Threshold irradiation dose for amorphization of silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, L.L.; Zinkle, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    The amorphization of silicon carbide due to ion and electron irradiation is reviewed with emphasis on the temperature-dependent critical dose for amorphization. The effect of ion mass and energy on the threshold dose for amorphization is summarized, showing only a weak dependence near room temperature. Results are presented for 0.56 MeV silicon ions implanted into single crystal 6H-SiC as a function of temperature and ion dose. From this, the critical dose for amorphization is found as a function of temperature at depths well separated from the implanted ion region. Results are compared with published data generated using electrons and xenon ions as the irradiating species. High resolution TEM analysis is presented for the Si ion series showing the evolution of elongated amorphous islands oriented such that their major axis is parallel to the free surface. This suggests that surface or strain effects may be influencing the apparent amorphization threshold. Finally, a model for the temperature threshold for amorphization is described using the Si ion irradiation flux and the fitted interstitial migration energy which was found to be ∼0.56eV. This model successfully explains the difference in the temperature dependent amorphization behavior of SiC irradiated with 0.56 MeV Si + at 1 x 10 -3 dpa/s and with fission neutrons irradiated at 1 x 10 -6 dpa/s irradiated to 15 dpa in the temperature range of ∼340±10K

  18. Production and properties of light-metal base amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Akihisa; Masumoto, Tsuyoshi

    1993-01-01

    Light-metal base alloys with high specific strength and good corrosion resistance were produced through amorphization of Al and Mg-based alloys. The amorphous phase is formed in rapidly solidified Al-TM-Ln and Mg-TM-Ln (TM=transition metal, Ln=lanthanide metal) alloys. The highest tensile strength (σ f ) reaches 1,330 MPa for the Al base and 830 MPa for the Mg base. Furthermore, the Mg-based alloys have a large glass-forming capacity which enables to produce an amorphous phase by a metallic mold casting method. The extrusion of the Al-based amorphous powders at temperatures above crystallization temperature caused the formation of high strength materials with finely mixed structure consisting of dispersed intermetallic compounds in an Al matrix. The highest values of σ f and fatigue limit are as high as 940 and 313 MPa, respectively, at room temperature and 520 and 165 MPa at 473 K. The extruded Al-Ni-Mm alloy has already been used as machine parts and subsequent further development as practical materials is expected by taking these advantages

  19. Crystallization of Trehalose in Frozen Solutions and its Phase Behavior during Drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaramurthi, Prakash; Patapoff, Thomas W.; Suryanarayanan, Raj (Genentech); (UMM)

    2015-02-19

    To study the crystallization of trehalose in frozen solutions and to understand the phase transitions during the entire freeze-drying cycle. Aqueous trehalose solution was cooled to -40 C in a custom-designed sample holder. The frozen solution was warmed to -18 C and annealed, and then dried in the sample chamber of the diffractometer. XRD patterns were continuously collected during cooling, annealing and drying. After cooling, hexagonal ice was the only crystalline phase observed. However, upon annealing, crystallization of trehalose dihydrate was evident. Seeding the frozen solution accelerated the solute crystallization. Thus, phase separation of the lyoprotectant was observed in frozen solutions. During drying, dehydration of trehalose dihydrate yielded a substantially amorphous anhydrous trehalose. Crystallization of trehalose, as trehalose dihydrate, was observed in frozen solutions. The dehydration of the crystalline trehalose dihydrate to substantially amorphous anhydrate occurred during drying. Therefore, analyzing the final lyophile will not reveal crystallization of the lyoprotectant during freeze-drying. The lyoprotectant crystallization can only become evident by continuous monitoring of the system during the entire freeze-drying cycle. In light of the phase separation of trehalose in frozen solutions, its ability to serve as a lyoprotectant warrants further investigation.

  20. Physico-chemical and thermochemical studies of the hydrolytic conversion of amorphous tricalcium phosphate into apatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somrani, Saida; Banu, Mihai; Jemal, Mohamed; Rey, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The conversion of amorphous tricalcium phosphate with different hydration ratio into apatite in water at 25 deg. C has been studied by microcalorimetry and several physical-chemical methods. The hydrolytic transformation was dominated by two strong exothermic events. A fast, relatively weak, wetting process and a very slow but strong heat release assigned to a slow internal rehydration and the crystallization of the amorphous phase into an apatite. The exothermic phenomenon related to the rehydration exceeded the crystalline transformation enthalpy. Rehydration occurred before the conversion of the amorphous phase into apatite and determined the advancement of the hydrolytic reaction. The apatitic phases formed evolved slightly with time after their formation. The crystallinity increased whereas the amount of HPO 4 2- ion decreased. These data allow a better understanding of the behavior of biomaterials involving amorphous phases such as hydroxyapatite plasma-sprayed coatings

  1. Structure and properties of bulk amorphous magnetically soft coatings prepared by plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalita, V.I.; Kekalo, I.B.; Komlev, D.I.; Taranichev, V.E.

    1995-01-01

    Co-Ni-Fe-Si-B composition plasma coatings consisting of amorphous disk-shaped particles forming the bulk of a coating, of crystalline particles and of a threshold space, were studied. Iron and metalloid distribution heterogeneous by the thickness represents a peculiar feature for coating amorphous particles. Structure of coatings and their magnetic properties depend on some technological parameters. Conclusion is made that at annealing the variation of magnetic properties is determined by the processes of directed ordering and stratification of amorphous phase, while the low level of the initial magnetic properties of coatings is caused alongside with structure peculiarities, by occurrence of independent fine-dispersive domain structure in each disk-shaped amorphous phase. 14 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Microscopic origin of resistance drift in the amorphous state of the phase-change compound GeTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, S.; Caravati, S.; Sosso, G. C.; Behler, J.; Bernasconi, M.

    2015-08-01

    Aging is a common feature of the glassy state. In the case of phase-change chalcogenide alloys the aging of the amorphous state is responsible for an increase of the electrical resistance with time. This phenomenon called drift is detrimental in the application of these materials in phase-change nonvolatile memories, which are emerging as promising candidates for storage class memories. By means of combined molecular dynamics and electronic structure calculations based on density functional theory, we have unraveled the atomistic origin of the resistance drift in the prototypical phase-change compound GeTe. The drift results from a widening of the band gap and a reduction of Urbach tails due to structural relaxations leading to the removal of chains of Ge-Ge homopolar bonds. The same structural features are actually responsible for the high mobility above the glass transition which boosts the crystallization speed exploited in the device.

  3. Robust water fat separated dual-echo MRI by phase-sensitive reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romu, Thobias; Dahlström, Nils; Leinhard, Olof Dahlqvist; Borga, Magnus

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate a robust water-fat separation method for T1-weighted symmetric two-point Dixon data. A method for water-fat separation by phase unwrapping of the opposite-phase images by phase-sensitive reconstruction (PSR) is introduced. PSR consists of three steps; (1), identification of clusters of tissue voxels; (2), unwrapping of the phase in each cluster by solving Poisson's equation; and (3), finding the correct sign of each unwrapped opposite-phase cluster, so that the water-fat images are assigned the correct identities. Robustness was evaluated by counting the number of water-fat swap artifacts in a total of 733 image volumes. The method was also compared to commercial software. In the water-fat separated image volumes, the PSR method failed to unwrap the phase of one cluster and misclassified 10. One swap was observed in areas affected by motion and was constricted to the affected area. Twenty swaps were observed surrounding susceptibility artifacts, none of which spread outside the artifact affected regions. The PSR method had fewer swaps when compared to commercial software. The PSR method can robustly produce water-fat separated whole-body images based on symmetric two-echo spoiled gradient echo images, under both ideal conditions and in the presence of common artifacts. Magn Reson Med 78:1208-1216, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. Crystallization of amorphous Fe78Si9B13 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubczyk, E; Krajczyk, A; Jakubczyk, M

    2007-01-01

    The crystallization process of Fe 78 Si 9 B 13 metallic glass was investigated by DSC, X-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity, Hall effect and TEM methods. The investigations proved two-stages crystallization. By means of non-isothermal DSC experiments the activation energy and the Avrami exponent were determined for both stages. The created phases: α-Fe(Si) and (Fe,Si) 2 B were identified on the basis of X-ray and TEM investigations. However, TEM observations showed also a little amount of the FeB 49 phase as well as some rest of the amorphous phase. The electrical and Hall resistivities decrease abruptly after the creation of the phases out of the amorphous matrix

  5. Amorphous Alloy Membranes Prepared by Melt-Spin methods for Long-Term use in Hydrogen Separation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Dhanesh; Kim, Sang-Mun; Adibhatla, Anasuya; Dolan, Michael; Paglieri, Steve; Flanagan, Ted; Chien, Wen-Ming; Talekar, Anjali; Wermer, Joseph

    2013-02-28

    Amorphous Ni-based alloy membranes show great promise as inexpensive, hydrogenselective membrane materials. In this study, we developed membranes based on nonprecious Ni-Nb-Zr alloys by adjusting the alloying content and using additives. Several studies on crystallization of the amorphous ribbons, in-situ x-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM, hydrogen permeation, hydrogen solubility, hydrogen deuterium exchange, and electrochemical studies were conducted. An important part of the study was to completely eliminate Palladium coatings of the NiNbZr alloys by hydrogen heattreatment. The amorphous alloy (Ni0.6Nb0.4)80Zr20 membrane appears to be the best with high hydrogen permeability and good thermal stability.

  6. Scientific and engineering aspects of the Active Phase Separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klipping, G.

    1986-01-01

    The development of the Active Phase Separator (APS), which was initiated by the rather extreme demands for the GIRL (German Infrared Laboratory) mission, is reviewed. As a final result the APS model V is presented, which is suitable for space qualification and can be considered not only as a universal phase separator but also as a multifunctional component for space cooling systems, allowing a simplification of the valve plan. Besides discussing the scientific results obtained with annular flow channels and presentation of performance tests with the APS, the status of the actual IR telescopes IRAS, (Infra Red Astronomy Sattelite), GIRL, and ISO (Infrared Space Observatory) is summarized

  7. Complexation-Induced Phase Separation: Preparation of Metal-Rich Polymeric Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Villalobos, Luis Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The majority of state-of-the-art polymeric membranes for industrial or medical applications are fabricated by phase inversion. Complexation induced phase separation (CIPS)—a surprising variation of this well-known process—allows direct fabrication

  8. Effects of Polymeric Additives on the Crystallization and Release Behavior of Amorphous Ibuprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yang Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Some polymeric additives were studied to understand their effects on the amorphous phase of ibuprofen (IBU, used as a poorly water soluble pharmaceutical model compound. The amorphous IBU in bulk, as well as in nanopores (diameter ~24 nm of anodic aluminum oxide, was examined with the addition of poly(acrylic acid, poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone, or poly(4-vinylphenol. Results of bulk crystallization showed that they were effective in limiting the crystal growth, while the nucleation of the crystalline phase in contact with water was nearly instantaneous in all cases. Poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone, the most effective additive, was in specific interaction with IBU, as revealed by IR spectroscopy. The addition of the polymers was combined with the nanoscopic confinement to further stabilize the amorphous phase. Still, the IBU with addition of polymeric additives showed sustained release behavior. The current study suggested that the inhibition of the crystal nucleation was probably the most important factor to stabilize the amorphous phase and fully harness its high solubility.

  9. Integral equation theory study on the phase separation in star polymer nanocomposite melts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Li, Yi-Gui; Zhong, Chongli

    2007-10-21

    The polymer reference interaction site model theory is used to investigate phase separation in star polymer nanocomposite melts. Two kinds of spinodal curves were obtained: classic fluid phase boundary for relatively low nanoparticle-monomer attraction strength and network phase boundary for relatively high nanoparticle-monomer attraction strength. The network phase boundaries are much more sensitive with nanoparticle-monomer attraction strength than the fluid phase boundaries. The interference among the arm number, arm length, and nanoparticle-monomer attraction strength was systematically investigated. When the arm lengths are short, the network phase boundary shows a marked shift toward less miscibility with increasing arm number. When the arm lengths are long enough, the network phase boundaries show opposite trends. There exists a crossover arm number value for star polymer nanocomposite melts, below which the network phase separation is consistent with that of chain polymer nanocomposite melts. However, the network phase separation shows qualitatively different behaviors when the arm number is larger than this value.

  10. Research Progress on Laser Cladding Amorphous Coatings on Metallic Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Ming-hui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure and property of amorphous alloy as well as the limitations of the traditional manufacturing methods for the bulk amorphous alloy were briefly introduced in this paper.Combined with characteristics of the laser cladding technique,the research status of the laser cladding Fe-based,Zr-based,Ni-based,Cu-based and Al-based amorphous coatings on the metal substrates were mainly summarized.The effects of factors such as laser processing parameter,micro-alloying element type and content and reinforcing phase on the laser cladding amorphous coatings were also involved.Finally,the main problems and the future research directions of the composition design and control of the laser-cladded amorphous coating,the design and optimization of the laser cladding process,and the basic theory of the laser cladding amorphous coatings were also put forward finally.

  11. Separation of Chloroplast Pigments Using Reverse Phase Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, R. Neil

    1997-01-01

    Presents a protocol that uses reverse phase chromatography for the separation of chloroplast pigments. Provides a simple and relatively safe procedure for use in teaching laboratories. Discusses pigment extraction, chromatography, results, and advantages of the process. (JRH)

  12. Molecular dynamics simulations of phase separation in the presence of surfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laradji, Mohamed; Mouritsen, Ole G.; Toxvaerd, Søren

    1994-01-01

    The dynamics of phase separation in two-dimensional binary mixtures diluted by surfactants is studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations. In contrast to pure binary systems, characterized by an algebraic time dependence of the average domain size, we find that systems containing surfactants...... not fully phase separate, we observe a dynamical scaling which is independent of the surfactant concentration. The results of these simulations are in general in agreement with previous Langevin simulations [Laradji, Guo, Grant, and Zuckermann, J. Phys. A 44, L629 (1991)] and a theory of Ostwald ripening...... exhibit nonalgebraic, slow dynamics. The average domain size eventually saturates at a value inversely proportional to the surfactant concentration. We also find that phase separation in systems with different surfactant concentrations follow a crossover scaling form. Finally, although these systems do...

  13. Low-temperature interface reactions in layered Au/Sb films: In situ investigation of the formation of an amorphous phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyen, H.-G.; Cossy-Favre, A.; Oelhafen, P.; Siber, A.; Ziemann, P.; Lauinger, C.; Moser, T.; Häussler, P.; Baumann, F.

    1995-01-01

    Photoelectron-spectroscopy methods combined with electrical-resistance measurements were employed to study the effects of intermixing at Au/Sb interfaces at low temperatures. For the purpose of characterizing the growth processes of the intermixed phase on a ML scale, Au/Sb bilayers (layer thicknesses DAu=0.5-75 ML and DSb=150 ML) were evaporated at 77 K and the different in situ techniques allowed a comparison to vapor-quenched amorphous AuxSb100-x alloys. For Au thicknesses between 0.5 and 0.9 ML, a change from a semiconducting to a metallic behavior of the samples has been detected, as indicated by the development of a steplike photoelectron intensity at the Fermi level. Evidence has been found that for Au coverages quenched amorphous alloys. Variation of the deposition temperature Ts revealed that an amorphous interface layer is only formed for Ts<= 220 K. This is consistent with the fact that for multilayers with large modulation lengths containing unreacted polycrystalline Au and Sb layers, long-range interdiffusion is found to set in at temperatures above 230 K. This interdiffusion, however, results in the formation of polycrystalline Au-Sb alloys.

  14. Bulk amorphous Mg-based alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini

    2004-01-01

    are discussed in this paper. On the basis of these measurements phase diagrams of the different systems were constructed. Finally, it is demonstrated that when pressing the bulk amorphous alloy onto a metallic dies at temperatures within the supercooled liquid region, the alloy faithfully replicates the surface...

  15. Supramolecular structure, phase behavior and thermo-rheological properties of a poly (L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) statistical copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugartemendia, Jone M; Muñoz, M E; Santamaria, A; Sarasua, J R

    2015-08-01

    PLAcoCL samples, both unaged, termed PLAcoCLu, and aged over time, PLAcoCLa, were prepared and analyzed to study the phase structure, morphology, and their evolution under non-quiescent conditions. X- ray diffraction, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Atomic Force Microscopy were complemented with thermo-rheological measurements to reveal that PLAcoCL evolves over time from a single amorphous metastable state to a 3 phase system, made up of two compositionally different amorphous phases and a crystalline phase. The supramolecular arrangements developed during aging lead to a rheological complex behavior in the PLAcoCLa copolymer: Around Tt=131 °C thermo-rheological complexity and a peculiar chain mobility reduction were observed, but at T>Tt the thermo-rheological response of a homogeneous system was recorded. In comparison with the latter, the PLLA/PCL 70:30 physical blend counterpart showed double amorphous phase behavior at all temperatures, supporting the hypothesis that phase separation in the PLAcoCLa copolymer is caused by the crystallization of polylactide segment blocks during aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Amide-induced phase separation of hexafluoroisopropanol-water mixtures depending on the hydrophobicity of amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamuku, Toshiyuki; Wada, Hiroshi; Kawatoko, Chiemi; Shimomura, Takuya; Kanzaki, Ryo; Takeuchi, Munetaka

    2012-06-21

    Amide-induced phase separation of hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP)-water mixtures has been investigated to elucidate solvation properties of the mixtures by means of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), (1)H and (13)C NMR, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The amides included N-methylformamide (NMF), N-methylacetamide (NMA), and N-methylpropionamide (NMP). The phase diagrams of amide-HFIP-water ternary systems at 298 K showed that phase separation occurs in a closed-loop area of compositions as well as an N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) system previously reported. The phase separation area becomes wider as the hydrophobicity of amides increases in the order of NMF amides due to the hydrophobic interaction gives rise to phase separation of the mixtures. In contrast, the disruption of HFIP clusters causes the recovery of the homogeneity of the ternary systems. The present results showed that HFIP clusters are evolved with increasing amide content to the lower phase separation concentration in the same mechanism among the four amide systems. However, the disruption of HFIP clusters in the NMP and DMF systems with further increasing amide content to the upper phase separation concentration occurs in a different way from those in the NMF and NMA systems.

  17. Phase Separation in Doped Mott Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuck-Hou Yee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the commonplace observation of Mott insulators away from integer filling, we construct a simple thermodynamic argument for phase separation in first-order doping-driven Mott transitions. We show how to compute the critical dopings required to drive the Mott transition using electronic structure calculations for the titanate family of perovskites, finding good agreement with experiment. The theory predicts that the transition is percolative and should exhibit Coulomb frustration.

  18. Numerical simulation of gas-solid two-phase flow in U-beam separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X Y; Chen, X P; Dou, H S; Zhang, H Z; Ruan, J M

    2015-01-01

    Numerical simulation is carried out for gas-solid two-phase flow in a U-beam separator. In this study, the U-beam is altered with the inlet fins in order to improve the performance of the separator. The inlet fin angle of the separator are 30°, 35°, 40°, 45°, 50°, 55 ° and 60°. The governing equations are the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equation with the standard k-ε model and the discrete phase model (DPM) describing the discrete two - phase flow as well as stochastic tracking model. Results show that the pressure drop deviation with fins is within 3% from those without fins. It is found that there is a maximum separation efficiency at the fin angle of 35°. Fin induces generation of a stagnation region which could collect particles and lead to change of vortical structures. The fin induced flow also causes the turbulent intensity inside the baffle to decrease to facilitate separation

  19. Amorphous and nanocrystalline titanium nitride and carbonitride materials obtained by solution phase ammonolysis of Ti(NMe2)4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Andrew W.; Shebanova, Olga; Hector, Andrew L.; McMillan, Paul F.

    2006-01-01

    Solution phase reactions between tetrakisdimethylamidotitanium (Ti(NMe 2 ) 4 ) and ammonia yield precipitates with composition TiC 0.5 N 1.1 H 2.3 . Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates that decomposition of these precursor materials proceeds in two steps to yield rocksalt-structured TiN or Ti(C,N), depending upon the gas atmosphere. Heating to above 700 deg. C in NH 3 yields nearly stoichiometric TiN. However, heating in N 2 atmosphere leads to isostructural carbonitrides, approximately TiC 0.2 N 0.8 in composition. The particle sizes of these materials range between 4-12 nm. Heating to a temperature that corresponds to the intermediate plateau in the TGA curve (450 deg. C) results in a black powder that is X-ray amorphous and is electrically conducting. The bulk chemical composition of this material is found to be TiC 0.22 N 1.01 H 0.07 , or Ti 3 (C 0.17 N 0.78 H 0.05 ) 3.96 , close to Ti 3 (C,N) 4 . Previous workers have suggested that the intermediate compound was an amorphous form of Ti 3 N 4 . TEM investigation of the material indicates the presence of nanocrystalline regions x (C,N) y crystalline phases

  20. Vitrification and Crystallization of Phase-Separated Metallic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Cheng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS behavior of Fe50Cu50 melt from 3500 K to 300 K with different rapid quenching is investigated by molecular dynamics (MD simulation based on the embedded atom method (EAM. The liquid undergoes metastable phase separation by spinodal decomposition in the undercooled regime and subsequently solidifies into three different Fe-rich microstructures: the interconnected-type structure is kept in the glass and crystal at a higher cooling rate, while the Fe-rich droplets are found to crystalize at a lower cooling rate. During the crystallization process, only Fe-rich clusters can act as the solid nuclei. The twinning planes can be observed in the crystal and only the homogeneous atomic stacking shows mirror symmetry along the twinning boundary. Our present work provides atomic-scale understanding of LLPS melt during the cooling process.

  1. Solvent-mediated pathways to gelation and phase separation in suspensions of grafted nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Anyfantakis, Manos

    2009-01-01

    We explore the role of the solvent medium on the interplay between gelation and phase separation in suspensions of organosilicate planar hybrids grafted with hydrocarbon chains. We establish their phase diagram by means of dynamic light scattering, rheology and visual observations, and different routes to gelation, depending on the solvent used. In agreement with earlier works, the solvent quality for the grafted chains at a given temperature controls the balance between attractions and repulsions, and hence the phase diagram of the nanoparticles and their tendency to gel. Here we show how to tune the suspension state and hence its rheology. For decane, a good solvent for the hydrocarbon chains, gelation occurs at rather low volume fractions in the presence of phase separation. This is due to the interdigitation of solvent molecules with the grafted chains, resulting in their crystalline packing that promotes the attraction between particles. For toluene, a solvent of reduced quality for the hydrocarbon chains, no interdigitation takes place, and hence gelation is triggered by clustering at higher volume fractions before phase separation. Our results support the generic picture of complex kinetic arrest/phase separation interplay in soft matter, where phase separation can proceed, be interrupted or be completely inhibited. A number of interesting possibilities for tailoring the rheology of grafted colloidal systems emerge. © 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Phase separation of cesium from lead borosilicate glass by heat treatment under a reducing atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhanglian; Okada, Takashi, E-mail: t-okada@u-fukui.ac.jp; Nishimura, Fumihiro; Yonezawa, Susumu

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Cesium was phase separated from lead borosilicate glass under a reductive atmosphere. • The phase separation occurred on the glass surface that was in contact with the gas. • The leachability of cesium was enhanced by the phase separation. • The degree of such enhancement varied depending on the heat treatment conditions. - Abstract: A phase-separation technique for removing sodium from glass using a heat-treatment method under a reducing atmosphere was previously developed for sodium recovery from waste glass. In this study, this technique was applied to cesium-containing lead borosilicate glass to concentrate the cesium in phase-separated sodium-rich materials for efficient cesium extraction. The theoretical phase-separation temperature of the sodium-rich phase was simulated by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and was predicted to occur below 700 °C for lead borosilicate glass. Experimentally, a simulated lead borosilicate glass was melted at 1000 °C and subsequently annealed below 700 °C under a CO-containing reducing atmosphere. The phase separation of cesium was found to occur with sodium enrichment on the glass surface that was in contact with the gas phase, promoting cesium extraction from the treated glass using water. The cesium extraction efficiency was affected by the surface area of the treated glass that was in contact with water, and under the examined conditions, the cesium extraction efficiency was up to 66%. Phase separation using reductive heat treatment, combined with a water leaching technique, is suggested to be effective for extracting cesium incorporated in borosilicate glass waste.

  3. Phase-Separated Polyaniline/Graphene Composite Electrodes for High-Rate Electrochemical Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jifeng; Zhang, Qin'e; Zhou, An'an; Huang, Zhifeng; Bai, Hua; Li, Lei

    2016-12-01

    Polyaniline/graphene hydrogel composites with a macroscopically phase-separated structure are prepared. The composites show high specific capacitance and excellent rate performance. Further investigation demonstrates that polyaniline inside the graphene hydrogel has low rate performance, thus a phase-separated structure, in which polyaniline is mainly outside the graphene hydrogel matrix, can enhance the rate performance of the composites. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Amorphization and the effect of implanted ions in SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, L.L.; Zinkle, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of implanted ion chemistry and displacement damage on the amorphization threshold dose of SiC were studied using cross-section transmission electron microscopy. Room temperature as well as 200 and 400 C irradiations were carried out with 3.6 MeV Fe, 1.8 MeV Cl, 1 MeV He or 0.56 MeV Si ions. The room temperature amorphization threshold dose in irradiated regions well separated from the implanted ions was found to range from 0.3 to 0.5 dpa for the four different ion species. The threshold dose for amorphization in the He, Si and Fe ion-implanted regions was also ∼0.3 to 0.5 dpa. On the other hand, the amorphization threshold in the Cl-implanted region was only about 0.1 dpa. The volume change associated with amorphization was ∼17%. No evidence for amorphization was obtained in specimens irradiated at 200 or 400 C. An understanding of the microstructural evolution of SiC under irradiation is critical to the application of these materials in fusion energy systems

  5. Phase-Separated Liposomes Enhance the Efficiency of Macromolecular Delivery to the Cellular Cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Zachary I; Kenyon, Laura E; Ashby, Grant; Nagib, Fatema; Mendicino, Morgan; Zhao, Chi; Gadok, Avinash K; Stachowiak, Jeanne C

    2017-10-01

    From viruses to organelles, fusion of biological membranes is used by diverse biological systems to deliver macromolecules across membrane barriers. Membrane fusion is also a potentially efficient mechanism for the delivery of macromolecular therapeutics to the cellular cytoplasm. However, a key shortcoming of existing fusogenic liposomal systems is that they are inefficient, requiring a high concentration of fusion-promoting lipids in order to cross cellular membrane barriers. Toward addressing this limitation, our experiments explore the extent to which membrane fusion can be amplified by using the process of lipid membrane phase separation to concentrate fusion-promoting lipids within distinct regions of the membrane surface. We used confocal fluorescence microscopy to investigate the integration of fusion-promoting lipids into a ternary lipid membrane system that separated into liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered membrane phases. Additionally, we quantified the impact of membrane phase separation on the efficiency with which liposomes transferred lipids and encapsulated macromolecules to cells, using a combination of confocal fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry. Here we report that concentrating fusion-promoting lipids within phase-separated lipid domains on the surfaces of liposomes significantly increases the efficiency of liposome fusion with model membranes and cells. In particular, membrane phase separation enhanced the delivery of lipids and model macromolecules to the cytoplasm of tumor cells by at least 4-fold in comparison to homogenous liposomes. Our findings demonstrate that phase separation can enhance membrane fusion by locally concentrating fusion-promoting lipids on the surface of liposomes. This work represents the first application of lipid membrane phase separation in the design of biomaterials-based delivery systems. Additionally, these results lay the ground work for developing fusogenic liposomes that are triggered by physical and

  6. First-principles study of crystalline and amorphous AlMgB14-based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivashchenko, V. I.; Shevchenko, V. I.; Turchi, P. E. A.; Veprek, S.; Leszczynski, Jerzy; Gorb, Leonid; Hill, Frances

    2016-01-01

    We report first-principles investigations of crystalline and amorphous boron and M1 x M2 y X z B 14−z (M1, M2 = Al, Mg, Li, Na, Y; X = Ti, C, Si) phases (so-called “BAM” materials). Phase stability is analyzed in terms of formation energy and dynamical stability. The atomic configurations as well as the electronic and phonon density states of these phases are compared. Amorphous boron consists of distorted icosahedra, icosahedron fragments, and dioctahedra, connected by an amorphous network. The presence of metal atoms in amorphous BAM materials precludes the formation of icosahedra. For all the amorphous structures considered here, the Fermi level is located in the mobility gap independent of the number of valence electrons. The intra-icosahedral vibrations are localized in the range of 800 cm −1 , whereas the inter-icosahedral vibrations appear at higher wavenumbers. The amorphization leads to an enhancement of the vibrations in the range of 1100–1250 cm −1 . The mechanical properties of BAM materials are investigated at equilibrium and under shear and tensile strain. The anisotropy of the ideal shear and tensile strengths is explained in terms of a layered structure of the B 12 units. The strength of amorphous BAM materials is lower than that of the crystalline counterparts because of the partial fragmentation of the boron icosahedra in amorphous structures. The strength enhancement found experimentally for amorphous boron-based films is very likely related to an increase in film density, and the presence of oxygen impurities. For crystalline BAM materials, the icosahedra are preserved during elongation upon tension as well as upon shear in the (010)[100] slip system.

  7. Effect of the milling conditions on the degree of amorphization of selenium by milling in a planetary ball mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksiazek, K; Wacke, S; Gorecki, T; Gorecki, Cz

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the milling parameters (rotation speed of the milling device and duration of milling) on the phase composition of the products of milling of fully crystalline selenium has been investigated. The milling was conducted using a planetary micromill and the phase composition of the milling products was determined by differential thermal analysis. It has been found that ball milling leads to the partial amorphization of the starting crystalline material. The content of amorphous phase in the milling products depends, in a rather complicated way, on the milling parameters. At the milling parameters adopted in the present study, the milling product was never fully amorphous. The complicated way the milling parameters affect the content of amorphous phase in the milling products is a result of competition of two processes: amorphization due to deformation and refinement of grains of milled material and crystallization of the already produced amorphous material at the cost of heat evolved in the milling vial during the milling process

  8. Unraveling the Mystery of the Blue Fog: Structure, Properties, and Applications of Amorphous Blue Phase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sahil Sandesh; Chien, Liang-Chy

    2017-12-01

    The amorphous blue phase III of cholesteric liquid crystals, also known as the "blue fog," are among the rising stars in materials science that can potentially be used to develop next-generation displays with the ability to compete toe-to-toe with disruptive technologies like organic light-emitting diodes. The structure and properties of the practically unobservable blue phase III have eluded scientists for more than a century since it was discovered. This progress report reviews the developments in this field from both fundamental and applied research perspectives. The first part of this progress report gives an overview of the 130-years-long scientific tour-de-force that very recently resulted in the revelation of the mysterious structure of blue phase III. The second part reviews progress made in the past decade in developing electrooptical, optical, and photonic devices based on blue phase III. The strong and weak aspects of the development of these devices are underlined and criticized, respectively. The third- and-final part proposes ideas for further improvement in blue phase III technology to make it feasible for commercialization and widespread use. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Shear viscosity of phase-separating polymer blends with viscous asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, H. S.; Hobbie, E. K.

    2001-01-01

    Rheo-optical measurements of phase separating polymer mixtures under simple shear flow have been used to investigate the influence of domain morphology on the viscosity of emulsionlike polymer blends, in which the morphology under weak shear is droplets of one coexisting phase dispersed in a matrix of the second. The structure and viscosity of low-molecular-weight polybutadiene and polyisoprene mixtures, phase separated by quenching to a temperature inside the coexistence region of the phase diagram, were measured as a function of shear rate and composition. In the weak shear regime, the data are in qualitative agreement with an effective medium model for non-dilute suspensions of slightly deformed interacting droplets. In the strong shear regime, where a stringlike pattern appears en route to a shear-homogenized state, the data are in qualitative agreement with a simple model that accounts for viscous asymmetry in the components

  10. Solid phase separation technique for use in radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, J.I.

    1979-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay procedure, and article of manufacture for carrying out that procedure, are disclosed herein. The solid phase separation technique utilized in the radioimmunoassay of this invention utilizes a test tube, the internal surface of which has been coated with two antibody layers

  11. Moessbauer study of isothermally annealed amorphous Fe-Nb-Cu-Si-B alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitek, J. (Dept. of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia)); Toth, I. (Dept. of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia)); Miglierini, M. (Dept. of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia))

    1993-11-01

    Amorphous ribbons of Fe[sub 73.5]Nb[sub 3]Cu[sub 1]Si[sub 13.5]B[sub 9] have been annealed above the crystallization temperature. Annealed samples consisted of crystalline and amorphous phases in a wide temperature range. Two samples of different thicknesses of 33 [mu]m and 27 [mu]m were isothermally annealed at a temperature of 545 C from 0.5 to 5 h in a vacuum furnace. The amount of crystalline phase increases rapidly in the ticker sample. The crystalline part of the Moessbauer spectrum consists of four sharp sextets which can be assigned to a DO[sub 3]-structure FeSi alloy. After 700 C annealing the amorphous phase was not observed and the crystalline phase consisted of the DO[sub 3]-structure FeSi alloy, paramagnetic FeNbB and presumably Fe[sub 23]B[sub 6] and Fe[sub 3]SiB[sub 2]. (orig.)

  12. Pressure-induced amorphization of La1/3TaO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noked, O.; Melchior, A.; Shuker, R.; Livneh, T.; Steininger, R.; Kennedy, B.J.; Sterer, E.

    2013-01-01

    La 1/3 TaO 3 , an A-site cation deficient perovskite, has been studied under pressure by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. It undergoes irreversible pressure induced amorphization at P=18.5 GPa. An almost linear unit cell volume decrease vs. pressure is observed from ambient pressure up to the phase transition. The Raman spectroscopy also shows amorphization at the same pressure, with positive shifts of all modes as a function of pressure. The pressure dependence of the E g and A 1g Raman modes arising from the octahedral oxygen network is discussed. - Graphical abstract: La 1/3 Tao 3 exhibits linear pressure–volume relation until irreversible pressure induced amorphization at 18.5 Gpa. - Highlights: • La 1/3 TaO 3 has been studied under pressure by synchrotron XRD and Raman spectroscopy. • La 1/3 TaO 3 undergoes irreversible pressure induced amorphization around 18.5 GPa. • The transition is manifested in both XRD and Raman measurements. • A linear P–V relation is observed from ambient pressure up to the phase transition

  13. Lifshitz-Slyozov kinetics of a nonconserved system that separates into phases of different density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Ole G.; Shah, Peter Jivan; Andersen, Jørgen Vitting

    1990-01-01

    Computer-simulation techniques are applied to analyze the late-stage ordering kinetics of a two-dimensional annealed dilute Ising model quenched into regions of its phase diagram that involve phase separation of phases with different densities. The order parameter of the model is a nonconserved...... of the phase-separation kinetics in O/W(110) systems at high coverage....

  14. Phase separation in living micellar networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristobal, G.; Rouch, J.; Curély, J.; Panizza, P.

    We present a lattice model based on two n→0 spin vectors, capable of treating the thermodynamics of living networks in micellar solutions at any surfactant concentration. We establish an isomorphism between the coupling constants in the two spin vector Hamiltonian and the surfactant energies involved in the micellar situation. Solving this Hamiltonian in the mean-field approximation allows one to calculate osmotic pressure, aggregation number, free end and cross-link densities at any surfactant concentration. We derive a phase diagram, including changes in topology such as the transition between spheres and rods and between saturated and unsaturated networks. A phase separation can be found between a saturated network and a dilute solution composed of long flexible micelles or a saturated network and a solution of spherical micelles.

  15. In vitro characterization of a novel polymeric system for preparation of amorphous solid drug dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Zahra N; Upadhye, Sampada B; Ferrizzi, David; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali R

    2014-07-01

    Preparation of amorphous solid dispersions using polymers is a commonly used formulation strategy for enhancing the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. However, often a single polymer may not bring about a significant enhancement in solubility or amorphous stability of a poorly water-soluble drug. This study describes application of a unique and novel binary polymeric blend in preparation of solid dispersions. The objective of this study was to investigate amorphous solid dispersions of glipizide, a BCS class II model drug, in a binary polymeric system of polyvinyl acetate phthalate (PVAP) and hypromellose (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, HPMC). The solid dispersions were prepared using two different solvent methods: rotary evaporation (rotavap) and fluid bed drug layering on sugar spheres. The performance and physical stability of the dispersions were evaluated with non-sink dissolution testing, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (mDSC). PXRD analysis demonstrated an amorphous state for glipizide, and mDSC showed no evidence of phase separation. Non-sink dissolution testing in pH 7.5 phosphate buffer indicated more than twofold increase in apparent solubility of the drug with PVAP-HPMC system. The glipizide solid dispersions demonstrated a high glass transition temperature (Tg) and acceptable chemical and physical stability during the stability period irrespective of the manufacturing process. In conclusion, the polymeric blend of PVAP-HPMC offers a unique formulation approach for developing amorphous solid dispersions with the flexibility towards the use of these polymers in different ratios and combined quantities depending on drug properties.

  16. Ab initio simulation of amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, N.C.; McKenzie, D.R.; Goringe, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: A first-principles Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulation of amorphous silicon is presented. Density Functional Theory is used to describe the forces between the atoms in a 64 atom supercell which is periodically repeated throughout space in order to generate an infinite network of atoms (a good approximation to a real solid). A quench from the liquid phase is used to achieve a quenched amorphous structure, which is subjected to an annealing cycle to improve its stability. The final, annealed network is in better agreement with experiment than any previous simulation of amorphous silicon. Significantly, the predicted average first-coordination numbers of 3.56 and 3.84 for the quenched and annealed structures from this simulation agree very closely with the experimental values of 3.55 and 3.90 respectively, whereas all previous simulations yielded first coordination numbers greater than 4. This improved agreement in coordination numbers is important because it supports the experimental finding that dangling bonds (which are associated with under-coordinated atoms) are more prevalent than floating bonds (the strained, longer bond of a five coordinate atom) in pure amorphous silicon. Finally, the effect of adding hydrogen to amorphous silicon was investigated by specifically placing hydrogen atoms at the likely defect sites. After a structural relaxation to optimise the positions of these hydrogen atoms, the localised electronic states associated with these defects are absent. Thus hydrogen is responsible for removing these defect states (which are able to trap carriers) from the edge of the band gap of the amorphous silicon. These results confirm the widely held ideas about the effect of hydrogen in producing remarkable improvements in the electronic properties of amorphous silicon

  17. Micro-Raman spectroscopy studies of the phase separation mechanisms of transition-metal phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazali, Italo Odone; Alves, Oswaldo Luiz; Gimenez, Iara de Fatima

    2009-01-01

    Glass-ceramics are prepared by controlled separation of crystal phases in glasses, leading to uniform and dense grain structures. On the other hand, chemical leaching of soluble crystal phases yields porous glass-ceramics with important applications. Here, glass/ceramic interfaces of niobo-, vanado- and titano-phosphate glasses were studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy, whose spatial resolution revealed the multiphase structures. Phase-separation mechanisms were also determined by this technique, revealing that interface composition remained unchanged as the crystallization front advanced for niobo- and vanadophosphate glasses (interface-controlled crystallization). For titanophosphate glasses, phase composition changed continuously with time up to the equilibrium composition, indicating a spinodal-type phase separation. (author)

  18. Influence of the pressure of Fe fundamental amorphous metallic fusions to magnet description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panakhov, T.M; Ahmadov, V.I; Musayev, Z.S

    2011-01-01

    Full tex: Obtaining, exploration and application of amorphous fusions on the basis of iron group magnet metals including amorphous phase non-magnetic additions as silisium and boric playing the role of stabilizer of the amorphous phase is widely used last years. Scientific and technical interest to these objects is connected with their physical property - high mechanical, electric, uncial agreement of corrosion and magnet characteristics. Amorphous alloy Fe58Ni20Si9B13 was selected as the object of research. To set the built-in hysteresis characteristics of magnetic fusion mesh, then the maximum magnetic induction (saturation induction) was appointed to the BS and the residual induction Br. The average distance between the borders as a result of pressure and magnetic characteristics of nano parosities in comparison of the relative change that is to say they are close to each other, with the magnetic characteristics of amorphous fusions nano parosity characteristics indicate that the corellation is between magnetic characteristics and nano parosity characteristics.

  19. A new liquid-phase-separation glaze containing neodymium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, S.; Xianque, C.; Luxing, K.; Pentecost, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    A color-changeable opaque glaze containing neodymium oxide was investigated. Results show that the glaze is a new example of the liquid-phase-separation type. The discrete phase droplets are from 50 to 500 nm in size. They are rich in Nd, Zn, Ca, and Mg and the continuous phase is rich in Si, Al, and K. The concentration of the discrete phase is approx. =45%. The large number of discrete droplets and the zinc oxide in the glaze increase its opacity to cover the selective light absorption and scattering of the neodymium ion and reduce the opalescence effect

  20. Poly(Ionic Liquid: A New Phase in a Thermoregulated Phase Separated Catalysis and Catalyst Recycling System of Transition Metal-Mediated ATRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Yao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ionic liquids (PILs have become the frontier domains in separation science because of the special properties of ionic liquids as well as their corresponding polymers. Considering their function in separation, we designed and synthesized a thermoregulated PIL. That is, this kind of PIL could separate with an organic phase which dissolves the monomers at ambient temperature. When heated to the reaction temperature, they become a homogeneous phase, and they separate again when the temperature falls to the ambient temperature after polymerization. Based on this, a thermoregulated phase separated catalysis (TPSC system for Cu-based atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP was constructed. The copper catalyst (CuBr2 used here is easily separated and recycled in situ just by changing the temperature in this system. Moreover, even when the catalyst had been recycled five times, the controllability over resultant polymers is still satisfying. Finally, only 1~2 ppm metal catalyst was left in the polymer solution phase, which indicates the really high recycling efficiency.

  1. Electronic Structures Localized at the Boron Atom in Amorphous Fe-B and Fe-B-P Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Hidehiro; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    1989-11-01

    The electronic structures localized at the B in amorphous Fe-B and Fe-B-P alloys and their crystallized alloys were studied by Auger valence electron spectroscopy and the states of solute B are discussed based on the change in the degree of covalent bonding and the charge transfer between the Fe and B atoms. In amorphous phases, the charge transfers from Fe to B above 15at%B where B atoms occupy the substitutionallike situations, and from B to Fe below 15at%B where B atoms occupy the interstitiallike situations. Magnetic properties depend on such states of solute B. In crystalline phases, covalent bonding becomes dominant because the electron excitation occurs to the B2p state. Consequently, amorphous phases are more metallic in character than crystalline phases and amorphous structures are stabilized by a mixture of more than two different bonding states.

  2. Dynamical phase separation using a microfluidic device: experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymard, Benjamin; Vaes, Urbain; Radhakrishnan, Anand; Pradas, Marc; Gavriilidis, Asterios; Kalliadasis, Serafim; Complex Multiscale Systems Team

    2017-11-01

    We study the dynamical phase separation of a binary fluid by a microfluidic device both from the experimental and from the modeling points of view. The experimental device consists of a main channel (600 μm wide) leading into an array of 276 trapezoidal capillaries of 5 μm width arranged on both sides and separating the lateral channels from the main channel. Due to geometrical effects as well as wetting properties of the substrate, and under well chosen pressure boundary conditions, a multiphase flow introduced into the main channel gets separated at the capillaries. Understanding this dynamics via modeling and numerical simulation is a crucial step in designing future efficient micro-separators. We propose a diffuse-interface model, based on the classical Cahn-Hilliard-Navier-Stokes system, with a new nonlinear mobility and new wetting boundary conditions. We also propose a novel numerical method using a finite-element approach, together with an adaptive mesh refinement strategy. The complex geometry is captured using the same computer-aided design files as the ones adopted in the fabrication of the actual device. Numerical simulations reveal a very good qualitative agreement between model and experiments, demonstrating also a clear separation of phases.

  3. First-principles study of nitrogen doping in cubic and amorphous Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravati, S; Mazzarello, R; Kuehne, T D; Parrinello, M [Computational Science, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, USI Campus, Via Giuseppe Buffi 13, CH-6900 Lugano (Switzerland); Colleoni, D; Bernasconi, M [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Via R Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Krack, M [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2011-07-06

    We investigated the structural, electronic and vibrational properties of amorphous and cubic Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} doped with N at 4.2 at.% by means of large scale ab initio simulations. Nitrogen can be incorporated in molecular form in both the crystalline and amorphous phases at a moderate energy cost. In contrast, insertion of N in the atomic form is very energetically costly in the crystalline phase, though it is still possible in the amorphous phase. These results support the suggestion that N segregates at the grain boundaries during the crystallization of the amorphous phase, resulting in a reduction in size of the crystalline grains and an increased crystallization temperature.

  4. Phase separation in artificial vesicles driven by light and curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldin, Melissa; Pomp, Wim; Schmidt, Thomas; Giomi, Luca; Kraft, Daniela; Physics of Life Processes Team; Soft; Bio Mechanics Collaboration; Self-Assembly in Soft Matter Systems Collaboration

    The role of phase-demixing in living cells, leading to the lipid-raft hypothesis, has been extensively studied. Lipid domains of higher lipid chain order are proposed to regulate protein spatial organization. Giant Unilamellar Vesicles provide an artificial model to study phase separation. So far temperature was used to initiate the process. Here we introduce a new methodology based on the induction of phase separation by light. To this aim, the composition of the lipid membrane is varied by photo-oxidation of lipids. The control of the process gained by using light allowed us to observe vesicle shape fluctuations during phase-demixing. The presence of fluctuations near the critical mixing point resembles features of a critical process. We quantitatively analyze these fluctuations using a 2d elastic model, from which we can estimate the material parameters such as bending rigidity and surface tension, demonstrating the non-equilibrium critical behaviour. Finally, I will describe recent attempts toward tuning the membrane composition by controlling the vesicle curvature.

  5. Formation of iron disilicide on amorphous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlesand, U.; Östling, M.; Bodén, K.

    1991-11-01

    Thin films of iron disilicide, β-FeSi 2 were formed on both amorphous silicon and on crystalline silicon. The β-phase is reported to be semiconducting with a direct band-gap of about 0.85-0.89 eV. This phase is known to form via a nucleation-controlled growth process on crystalline silicon and as a consequence a rather rough silicon/silicide interface is usually formed. In order to improve the interface a bilayer structure of amorphous silicon and iron was sequentially deposited on Czochralski silicon in an e-gun evaporation system. Secondary ion mass spectrometry profiling (SIMS) and scanning electron micrographs revealed an improvement of the interface sharpness. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and X-ray diffractiometry showed β-FeSi 2 formation already at 525°C. It was also observed that the silicide growth was diffusion-controlled, similar to what has been reported for example in the formation of NiSi 2 for the reaction of nickel on amorphous silicon. The kinetics of the FeSi 2 formation in the temperature range 525-625°C was studied by RBS and the activation energy was found to be 1.5 ± 0.1 eV.

  6. Nature of amorphous polymorphism of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koza, M.M.; Schober, H.; Hansen, T.; Geil, B.; Winkel, K.; Koehler, C.; Scheuermann, M.; Czeschka, F.

    2005-01-01

    We report elastic and inelastic neutron scattering experiments on different amorphous ice modifications. It is shown that an amorphous structure (HDA ' ) indiscernible from the high-density phase (HDA), obtained by compression of crystalline ice, can be formed from the very high-density phase (vHDA) as an intermediate stage of the transition of vHDA into its low-density modification (LDA ' ). Both HDA and HDA ' exhibit comparable small-angle scattering signals characterizing them as structures heterogeneous on a length scale of a few nanometers. The homogeneous structures are the initial and final transition stages vHDA and LDA ' , respectively. Despite their apparent structural identity on a local scale, HDA and HDA ' differ in their transition kinetics explored by in situ experiments. The activation energy of the vHDA-to-LDA ' transition is at least 20 kJ/mol higher than the activation energy of the HDA-to-LDA transition

  7. Ternary Phase-Separation Investigation of Sol-Gel Derived Silica from Ethyl Silicate 40

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengnan; Wang, David K.; Smart, Simon; Diniz da Costa, João C.

    2015-01-01

    A ternary phase-separation investigation of the ethyl silicate 40 (ES40) sol-gel process was conducted using ethanol and water as the solvent and hydrolysing agent, respectively. This oligomeric silica precursor underwent various degrees of phase separation behaviour in solution during the sol-gel reactions as a function of temperature and H2O/Si ratios. The solution composition within the immiscible region of the ES40 phase-separated system shows that the hydrolysis and condensation reactions decreased with decreasing reaction temperature. A mesoporous structure was obtained at low temperature due to weak drying forces from slow solvent evaporation on one hand and formation of unreacted ES40 cages in the other, which reduced network shrinkage and produced larger pores. This was attributed to the concentration of the reactive sites around the phase-separated interface, which enhanced the condensation and crosslinking. Contrary to dense silica structures obtained from sol-gel reactions in the miscible region, higher microporosity was produced via a phase-separated sol-gel system by using high H2O/Si ratios. This tailoring process facilitated further condensation reactions and crosslinking of silica chains, which coupled with stiffening of the network, made it more resistant to compression and densification. PMID:26411484

  8. Short range order and phase separation in Ti-rich Ti-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liew, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Many metals and alloys are used in service under conditions in which they are metastable or unstable with respect to phase separation or transformation. Analytical and numerical models exist for relatively simple decomposition processes, such as nucleation and growth mechanisms and spinodal decomposition. In reality, however, more complex phase transformations may occur which are less well understood. For example, reactions involving coupled ordering and phase separation, such as the 'conditional spinodal mechanism', have been predicted. A 'conditional spinodal' is defined as a reaction in which compositional phase separation is thermodynamically possible only after a prior process, such as ordering at the parent composition. There is some debate regarding which real alloy systems exhibit such complex behaviour. Previous atom probe field ion microscopy work on titanium-rich titanium-aluminium based alloys has led to the suggestion that formation of the α 2 phase in this system may occur by a complex phase separation process. As well as being of interest from the point of view of fundamental materials science, this has potential engineering significance as the Ti-Al system forms the basis of the current generation of high-temperature Ti-based alloys for compressor applications in jet engines. This thesis describes an investigation into the phase decomposition process taking place in a titanium-rich Ti-Al alloy lying in the two-phase α+α 2 region. Experimentally, a binary alloy containing 15at% aluminium was heat-treated and examined using electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, atom probe field ion microscopy and mechanical testing methods. Neutron diffraction experiments were also completed on this system for the first time. In addition, fully three-dimensional atomistic simulations were conducted using a Monte Carlo computer model based on first principles thermodynamic stability calculations of the Ti-Al system. The results provide an insight into many aspects

  9. Formation of quasicrystals and amorphous-to-quasicrystalline phase transformation kinetics in Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu7.5Ag10 metallic glass under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Zhuang, Yanxin; Rasmussen, Helge Kildahl

    2001-01-01

    The effect of pressure on the formation of quasicrystals and the amorphous-to-quasicrystalline phase transformation kinetics in the supercooled liquid region for a Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu7.5Ag10 metallic glass have been investigated by in situ high-pressure and high-temperature nonisothermal and isothermal...... of quasicrystals decrease, Atomic mobility is important for the formation of quasicrystals from the metallic glass whereas the relationship of the crystallization temperature vs pressure for the transition from the quasicrystalline state to intermetallic compounds may mainly depend on the thermodynamic potential...... energy barrier. To study the amorphous-to-quasicrystalline phase transformation kinetics in the metallic glass, relative volume fractions of the transferred quasicrystalline phase as a function of annealing time, obtained at 663, 673, 683, and 693 K, have been analyzed in details using 14 nucleation...

  10. Phase separation in an experimental mixer-settler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, N.L.; Gormely, L.S.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental investigation was undertaken to study the factors affecting phase separation in a laboratory scale mixer-settler using a laboratory-prepared commercial oxime-copper system, and a system obtained from the Key Lake uranium extraction circuit. Besides being dependent on specific settler flow, the dispersion band thickness was found to be a function of the phase ratio and dispersion introduction level (uranium system only), and temperature. Drop size was found to be independent of dispersion throughout, a weak function of impeller speed, and a relatively strong function of the phase ratio. Microscopic examination of the uranium dispersion revealed the existence of drops within drops. With the exception of the organic continuous copper system, it was possible to distinguish two horizontal sublayers within the dispersion band. This structure conforms to the model provided by Barnea and Mizrahi. (author)

  11. Lamellar-lamellar phase separation of phospholipid bilayers induced by salting-in/-out effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hishida, Mafumi [Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Seto, Hideki, E-mail: hideki.seto@kek.jp [KENS and CMRC, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2011-01-01

    The multilamellar structure of phospholipid bilayers is stabilized by the interactions between bilayers. Although the lamellar repeat distance is uniquely determined at the balance point of interactions between bilayers, a lamellar-lamellar phase separation, where the two phases with different lamellar repeat distance coexist, has been reported in a case of adding a salt to the aqueous solution of lipids. In order to understand the physical mechanism of the lamellar-lamellar phase separation, the effects of adding monovalent salt on the lamellar structure are studied by visual observation and by small-angle X-ray scattering. Further, a theoretical model based on the mean field theory is introduced and it is concluded that the salting-in and -out effects of lipid bilayers trigger the lamellar-lamellar phase separation.

  12. Miedema model based methodology to predict amorphous-forming-composition range in binary and ternary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, N., E-mail: nirupamd@barc.gov.in [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Mittra, J. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Murty, B.S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Pabi, S.K. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Kulkarni, U.D.; Dey, G.K. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A methodology was proposed to predict amorphous forming compositions (AFCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical contribution to enthalpy of mixing {proportional_to} enthalpy of amorphous for AFCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accuracy in the prediction of AFC-range was noticed in Al-Ni-Ti system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanical alloying (MA) results of Al-Ni-Ti followed the predicted AFC-range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Earlier MA results of Al-Ni-Ti also conformed to the predicted AFC-range. - Abstract: From the earlier works on the prediction of amorphous forming composition range (AFCR) using Miedema based model and also, on mechanical alloying experiments it has been observed that all amorphous forming compositions of a given alloy system falls within a linear band when the chemical contribution to enthalpy of the solid solution ({Delta}H{sup ss}) is plotted against the enthalpy of mixing in the amorphous phase ({Delta}H{sup amor}). On the basis of this observation, a methodology has been proposed in this article to identify the AFCR of a ternary system that is likely to be more precise than what can be obtained using {Delta}H{sup amor} - {Delta}H{sup ss} < 0 criterion. MA experiments on various compositions of Al-Ni-Ti system, producing amorphous, crystalline, and mixture of amorphous plus crystalline phases have been carried out and the phases have been characterized using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy techniques. Data from the present MA experiments and, also, from the literature have been used to validate the proposed approach. Also, the proximity of compositions, producing a mixture of amorphous and crystalline phases to the boundary of AFCR in the Al-Ni-Ti ternary has been found useful to validate the effectiveness of the prediction.

  13. First-principles study of crystalline and amorphous AlMgB{sub 14}-based materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivashchenko, V. I.; Shevchenko, V. I., E-mail: shev@materials.kiev.ua [Institute of Problems of Material Science, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Krzhyzhanosky Str. 3, 03142 Kyiv (Ukraine); Turchi, P. E. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (L-352), P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Veprek, S. [Department of Chemistry, Technical University Munich, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Leszczynski, Jerzy [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Interdisciplinary Center for Nanotoxicity, Jackson State University, Jackson, Mississippi 39217 (United States); Gorb, Leonid [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Interdisciplinary Center for Nanotoxicity, Jackson State University, Jackson, Mississippi 39217 (United States); Badger Technical Services, LLC, Vicksburg, Mississippi 39180 (United States); Hill, Frances [U.S. Army ERDC, Vicksburg, Mississippi 39180 (United States)

    2016-05-28

    We report first-principles investigations of crystalline and amorphous boron and M1{sub x}M2{sub y}X{sub z}B{sub 14−z} (M1, M2 = Al, Mg, Li, Na, Y; X = Ti, C, Si) phases (so-called “BAM” materials). Phase stability is analyzed in terms of formation energy and dynamical stability. The atomic configurations as well as the electronic and phonon density states of these phases are compared. Amorphous boron consists of distorted icosahedra, icosahedron fragments, and dioctahedra, connected by an amorphous network. The presence of metal atoms in amorphous BAM materials precludes the formation of icosahedra. For all the amorphous structures considered here, the Fermi level is located in the mobility gap independent of the number of valence electrons. The intra-icosahedral vibrations are localized in the range of 800 cm{sup −1}, whereas the inter-icosahedral vibrations appear at higher wavenumbers. The amorphization leads to an enhancement of the vibrations in the range of 1100–1250 cm{sup −1}. The mechanical properties of BAM materials are investigated at equilibrium and under shear and tensile strain. The anisotropy of the ideal shear and tensile strengths is explained in terms of a layered structure of the B{sub 12} units. The strength of amorphous BAM materials is lower than that of the crystalline counterparts because of the partial fragmentation of the boron icosahedra in amorphous structures. The strength enhancement found experimentally for amorphous boron-based films is very likely related to an increase in film density, and the presence of oxygen impurities. For crystalline BAM materials, the icosahedra are preserved during elongation upon tension as well as upon shear in the (010)[100] slip system.

  14. Macroscopic phase separation in high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hai-Hu

    2000-01-01

    High-temperature superconductivity is recovered by introducing extra holes to the Cu-O planes, which initially are insulating with antiferromagnetism. In this paper I present data to show the macroscopic electronic phase separation that is caused by either mobile doping or electronic instability in the overdoped region. My results clearly demonstrate that the electronic inhomogeneity is probably a general feature of high-temperature superconductors. PMID:11027323

  15. Pointwise asymptotic convergence of solutions for a phase separation model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Pavel; Zheng, S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2006), s. 1-18 ISSN 1078-0947 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : phase-field system * asymptotic phase separation * energy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.087, year: 2006 http://aimsciences.org/journals/pdfs.jsp?paperID=1875&mode=full

  16. The Stabilization of Amorphous Zopiclone in an Amorphous Solid Dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Marnus; Liebenberg, Wilna; Aucamp, Marique

    2015-10-01

    Zopiclone is a poorly soluble psychotherapeutic agent. The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize an amorphous form of zopiclone as well as the characterization and performance of a stable amorphous solid dispersion. The amorphous form was prepared by the well-known method of quench-cooling of the melt. The solid dispersion was prepared by a solvent evaporation method of zopiclone, polyvinylpyrrolidone-25 (PVP-25), and methanol, followed by freeze-drying. The physico-chemical properties and stability of amorphous zopiclone and the solid dispersion was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), hot-stage microscopy (HSM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), solubility, and dissolution studies. The zopiclone amorphous solid-state form was determined to be a fragile glass; it was concluded that the stability of the amorphous form is influenced by both temperature and water. Exposure of amorphous zopiclone to moisture results in rapid transformation of the amorphous form to the crystalline dihydrated form. In comparison, the amorphous solid dispersion proved to be more stable with increased aqueous solubility.

  17. Monte Carlo simulations of the phase separation of a copolymer blend in a thin film

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhexiao

    2014-12-11

    Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to study the phase separation of a copolymer blend comprising an alternating copolymer and/or block copolymer in a thin film, and a phase diagram was constructed with a series of composed recipes. The effects of composition and segregation strength on phase separation were discussed in detail. The chain conformation of the block copolymer and alternating copolymer were investigated with changes of the segregation strength. Our simulations revealed that the segment distribution along the copolymer chain and the segregation strength between coarse-grained beads are two important parameters controlling phase separation and chain conformation in thin films of a copolymer blend. A well-controlled phase separation in the copolymer blend can be used to fabricate novel nanostructures.

  18. Crystallization of biogenic hydrous amorphous silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyono, A.; Yokooji, M.; Chiba, T.; Tamura, T.; Tuji, A.

    2017-12-01

    Diatom, Nitzschia cf. frustulum, collected from Lake Yogo, Siga prefecture, Japan was cultured in laboratory. Organic components of the diatom cell were removed by washing with acetone and sodium hypochlorite. The remaining frustules were studied by SEM-EDX, FTIR spectroscopy, and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the spindle-shaped morphology of diatom frustule was composed of hydrous amorphous silica. Pressure induced phase transformation of the diatom frustule was investigated by in situ Raman spectroscopic analysis. With exposure to 0.3 GPa at 100 oC, Raman band corresponding to quartz occurred at ν = 465 cm-1. In addition, Raman bands known as a characteristic Raman pattern of moganite was also observed at 501 cm-1. From the integral ratio of Raman bands, the moganite content in the probed area was estimated to be approximately 50 wt%. With the pressure and temperature effect, the initial morphology of diatom frustule was completely lost and totally changed to a characteristic spherical particle with a diameter of about 2 mm. With keeping the compression of 5.7 GPa at 100 oC, a Raman band assignable to coesite appeared at 538 cm-1. That is, with the compression and heating, the hydrous amorphous silica can be readily crystallized into quartz, moganite, and coesite. The first-principles calculations revealed that a disiloxane molecule stabilized in a trans configuration is twisted 60o and changed into the cis configuration with a close approach of water molecule. It is therefore a reasonable assumption that during crystallization of hydrous amorphous silica, the Si-O-Si bridging unit with the cis configuration would survive as a structural defect and then crystallized into moganite by keeping the geometry. This hypothesis is adaptable to the phase transformation from hydrous amorphous silica to coesite as well, because coesite has the four-membered rings and easily formed from the hydrous amorphous silica under high pressure and high

  19. Influence of mobile dislocations on phase separation in binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haataja, Mikko; Leonard, Francois

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a continuum model to describe the phase separation of a binary alloy in the presence of mobile dislocations. The kinetics of the local composition and dislocation density are coupled through their elastic fields. We show both analytically and numerically that mobile dislocations modify the standard spinodal decomposition process, and lead to several regimes of growth. Depending on the dislocation mobility and observation time, the phase separation may be accelerated, decelerated, or unaffected by mobile dislocations. For any finite dislocation mobility, we show that the domain growth rate asymptotically becomes independent of the dislocation mobility, and is faster than the dislocation-free growth rate

  20. Synthesis of a mixed-model stationary phase derived from glutamine for HPLC separation of structurally different biologically active compounds: HILIC and reversed-phase applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Tarık; Aral, Hayriye; Ziyadanoğulları, Berrin; Ziyadanoğulları, Recep

    2015-01-01

    A novel mixed-mode stationary phase was synthesised starting from N-Boc-glutamine, aniline and spherical silica gel (4 µm, 60 Å). The prepared stationary phase was characterized by IR and elemental analysis. The new stationary phase bears an embedded amide group into phenyl ring, highly polar a terminal amide group and non-polar groups (phenyl and alkyl groups). At first, this new mixed-mode stationary phase was used for HILIC separation of four nucleotides and five nucleosides. The effects of different separation conditions, such as pH value, mobile phase and temperature, on the separation process were investigated. The optimum separation for nucleotides was achieved using HILIC isocratic elution with aqueous mobile phase and acetonitrile with 20°C column temperature. Under these conditions, the four nucleotides could be separated and detected at 265 nm within 14 min. Five nucleosides were separated under HILIC isocratic elution with aqueous mobile phase containing pH=3.25 phosphate buffer (10mM) and acetonitrile with 20°C column temperature and detected at 265 nm within 14 min. Chromatographic parameters as retention factor, selectivity, theoretical plate number and peak asymmetry factor were calculated for the effect of temperature and water content in mobile phase on the separation process. The new column was also tested for nucleotides and nucleosides mixture and six analytes were separated in 10min. The chromatographic behaviours of these polar analytes on the new mixed-model stationary phase were compared with those of HILIC columns under similar conditions. Further, phytohormones and phenolic compounds were separated in order to see influence of the new stationary phase in reverse phase conditions. Eleven plant phytohormones were separated within 13 min using RP-HPLC gradient elution with aqueous mobile phase containing pH=2.5 phosphate buffer (10mM) and acetonitrile with 20°C column temperature and detected at 230 or 278 nm. The best separation

  1. Defects in Amorphous Semiconductors: The Case of Amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jamblinne de Meux, A.; Pourtois, G.; Genoe, J.; Heremans, P.

    2018-05-01

    Based on a rational classification of defects in amorphous materials, we propose a simplified model to describe intrinsic defects and hydrogen impurities in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a -IGZO). The proposed approach consists of organizing defects into two categories: point defects, generating structural anomalies such as metal—metal or oxygen—oxygen bonds, and defects emerging from changes in the material stoichiometry, such as vacancies and interstitial atoms. Based on first-principles simulations, it is argued that the defects originating from the second group always act as perfect donors or perfect acceptors. This classification simplifies and rationalizes the nature of defects in amorphous phases. In a -IGZO, the most important point defects are metal—metal bonds (or small metal clusters) and peroxides (O - O single bonds). Electrons are captured by metal—metal bonds and released by the formation of peroxides. The presence of hydrogen can lead to two additional types of defects: metal-hydrogen defects, acting as acceptors, and oxygen-hydrogen defects, acting as donors. The impact of these defects is linked to different instabilities observed in a -IGZO. Specifically, the diffusion of hydrogen and oxygen is connected to positive- and negative-bias stresses, while negative-bias illumination stress originates from the formation of peroxides.

  2. Thermal conductivity at the amorphous-nanocrystalline phase transition in beech wood biocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfen'eva, L. S.; Orlova, T. S.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnov, I. A.; Misiorek, H.; Jezowski, A.; Ramirez-Rico, J.

    2014-05-01

    High-porosity samples of beech wood biocarbon (BE-C) were prepared by pyrolysis at carbonization temperatures T carb = 650, 1300, and 1600°C, and their resistivity ρ and thermal conductivity κ were studied in the 5-300 and 80-300 K temperature intervals. The experimental results obtained were evaluated by invoking X-ray diffraction data and information on the temperature dependences ρ( T) and κ( T) for BE-C samples prepared at T carb = 800, 1000, and 2400°C, which were collected by the authors earlier. An analysis of the κ( T carb) behavior led to the conclusion that the samples under study undergo an amorphous-nanocrystalline phase transition in the interval 800°C < T carb < 1000°C. Evaluation of the electronic component of the thermal conductivity revealed that the Lorentz number of the sample prepared at T carb = 2400°C exceeds by far the classical Sommerfeld value, which is characteristic of metals and highly degenerate semiconductors.

  3. Fluid Phase Separation (FPS) experiment for flight on a space shuttle Get Away Special (GAS) canister

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Bruce; Wingo, Dennis; Bower, Mark; Amborski, Robert; Blount, Laura; Daniel, Alan; Hagood, Bob; Handley, James; Hediger, Donald; Jimmerson, Lisa

    1990-01-01

    The separation of fluid phases in microgravity environments is of importance to environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) and materials processing in space. A successful fluid phase separation experiment will demonstrate a proof of concept for the separation technique and add to the knowledge base of material behavior. The phase separation experiment will contain a premixed fluid which will be exposed to a microgravity environment. After the phase separation of the compound has occurred, small samples of each of the species will be taken for analysis on the Earth. By correlating the time of separation and the temperature history of the fluid, it will be possible to characterize the process. The experiment has been integrated into space available on a manifested Get Away Special (GAS) experiment, CONCAP 2, part of the Consortium for Materials Complex Autonomous Payload (CAP) Program, scheduled for STS-42. The design and the production of a fluid phase separation experiment for rapid implementation at low cost is presented.

  4. Ribbon phase in a phase-separated lyotropic lamellar-sponge mixture under shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristobal, G.; Rouch, J.; Panizza, P.; Narayanan, T.

    2001-07-01

    We report the effect of shear flow on a phase-separated system composed of lyotropic lamellar (Lα) and sponge (L3) phases in a mixture of brine, surfactant, and cosurfactant. Optical microscopy, small-angle light, and x-ray scattering measurements are consistent with the existence of a steady state made of multilamellar ribbonlike structures aligned in the flow direction. At high shear rates, these ribbonlike structures become unstable and break up into monodisperse droplets resulting in a shear-thickening transition.

  5. Observing the amorphous-to-crystalline phase transition in Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} non-volatile memory materials from ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.H.; Elliott, S.R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, CB2 1EW Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    Phase-change memory is a promising candidate for the next generation of non-volatile memory devices. This technology utilizes reversible phase transitions between amorphous and crystalline phases of a recording material, and has been successfully used in rewritable optical data storage, revealing its feasibility. In spite of the importance of understanding the nucleation and growth processes that play a critical role in the phase transition, this understanding is still incomplete. Here, we present observations of the early stages of crystallization in Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} materials through ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations. Planar structures, including fourfold rings and planes, play an important role in the formation and growth of crystalline clusters in the amorphous matrix. At the same time, vacancies facilitate crystallization by providing space at the glass-crystalline interface for atomic diffusion, which results in fast crystal growth, as observed in simulations and experiments. The microscopic mechanism of crystallization presented here may deepen our understanding of the phase transition occurring in real devices, providing an opportunity to optimize the memory performance of phase-change materials. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. PDF analysis on re-crystallized structure from amorphous BiT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, Yasuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Kouto 1-1-1, Mikazuki-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)]. E-mail: yoneda@spring8.or.jp; Kohara, Shinji [Synchrotron Radiation Research Laboratory, Japan Synchrotron Radiation, Research Institute, Kouto 1-1-1, Mikazuki-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hamazaki, Shin' ichi [Department of Electronics, Iwaki Meisei University, Iino 5-5-1, Chuohdai, Fukushima 970-8551 (Japan); Takashige, Masaaki [Department of Electronics, Iwaki Meisei University, Iino 5-5-1, Chuohdai, Fukushima 970-8551 (Japan); Mizuki, Jun' ichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Kouto 1-1-1, Mikazuki-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2005-08-15

    A glass sample of composition Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} was prepared by rapid quenching. The as-quenched sample was confirmed to be amorphous by synchrotron X-ray measurements. The crystallization process of the amorphous sample was also investigated by high-energy X-ray diffraction and by atomic pair distribution function analysis. The perovskite layer in the crystal Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} is transformed to a pyrochlore structure in the amorphous sample. The amorphous sample first crystallized to a metastable phase by acquiring long-range ordering of the pyrochlore structure at T {sub cryst1}, and then secondary crystallized into a reverted Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} structure at T {sub cryst2}.

  7. A zero density change phase change memory material: GeTe-O structural characteristics upon crystallisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xilin; Dong, Weiling; Zhang, Hao; Simpson, Robert E

    2015-06-11

    Oxygen-doped germanium telluride phase change materials are proposed for high temperature applications. Up to 8 at.% oxygen is readily incorporated into GeTe, causing an increased crystallisation temperature and activation energy. The rhombohedral structure of the GeTe crystal is preserved in the oxygen doped films. For higher oxygen concentrations the material is found to phase separate into GeO2 and TeO2, which inhibits the technologically useful abrupt change in properties. Increasing the oxygen content in GeTe-O reduces the difference in film thickness and mass density between the amorphous and crystalline states. For oxygen concentrations between 5 and 6 at.%, the amorphous material and the crystalline material have the same density. Above 6 at.% O doping, crystallisation exhibits an anomalous density change, where the volume of the crystalline state is larger than that of the amorphous. The high thermal stability and zero-density change characteristic of Oxygen-incorporated GeTe, is recommended for efficient and low stress phase change memory devices that may operate at elevated temperatures.

  8. Large-Scale Structure and Hyperuniformity of Amorphous Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Fausto; Torquato, Salvatore; Giovambattista, Nicolas; Car, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the large-scale structure of amorphous ices and transitions between their different forms by quantifying their large-scale density fluctuations. Specifically, we simulate the isothermal compression of low-density amorphous ice (LDA) and hexagonal ice to produce high-density amorphous ice (HDA). Both HDA and LDA are nearly hyperuniform; i.e., they are characterized by an anomalous suppression of large-scale density fluctuations. By contrast, in correspondence with the nonequilibrium phase transitions to HDA, the presence of structural heterogeneities strongly suppresses the hyperuniformity and the system becomes hyposurficial (devoid of "surface-area fluctuations"). Our investigation challenges the largely accepted "frozen-liquid" picture, which views glasses as structurally arrested liquids. Beyond implications for water, our findings enrich our understanding of pressure-induced structural transformations in glasses.

  9. Effect of hydridation on structure of amorphous and amorphous-crystalline Fe40Ni40B20 and Co70Fe5Si15B10 bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'inskij, A.G.; Brovko, A.P.; Zelinskaya, G.M.; Kosenko, N.S.; Khristenko, T.M.; Kobzenko, G.F.; Shkola, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    The structure of amorphous and amorphous-crystaliline Fe 40 Ni 40 B 20 and Co 70 Fe 5 Si-1 5 B 10 alloys, exposed to hydridation at different temperatures, is studied by X-ray diffraction technique. The presence of crystalline constituent in amorphous bands was determined on DRON-3 device and by method of small-angle scattering. The experimental data obtained verify, that hydridation does not only prevent the formation of crystalline phases at annealing, but leads, as well, to disappearance of band crystalline constituent in case of its presence

  10. Crystalline and amorphous carbon nitride films produced by high-energy shock plasma deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursilll, L.A.; Peng, Julin; Gurarie, V.N.; Orlov, A.V.; Prawer, S.

    1995-01-01

    High-energy shock plasma deposition techniques are used to produce carbon-nitride films containing both crystalline and amorphous components. The structures are examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, parallel-electron-energy loss spectroscopy and electron diffraction. The crystalline phase appears to be face-centered cubic with unit cell parameter approx. a=0.63nm and it may be stabilized by calcium and oxygen at about 1-2 at % levels. The carbon atoms appear to have both trigonal and tetrahedral bonding for the crystalline phase. There is PEELS evidence that a significant fraction of the nitrogen atoms have sp 2 trigonal bonds in the crystalline phase. The amorphous carbon-nitride film component varies from essentially graphite, containing virtually no nitrogen, to amorphous carbon-nitride containing up to 10 at % N, where the fraction of sp 3 bonds is significant. 15 refs., 5 figs

  11. Thermal annealing of amorphous Ti-Si-O thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Hodroj , Abbas; Chaix-Pluchery , Odette; Audier , Marc; Gottlieb , Ulrich; Deschanvres , Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Ti-Si-O thin films were deposited using an aerosol chemical vapor deposition process at atmospheric pressure. The film structure and microstructure were analysed using several techniques before and after thermal annealing. Diffraction results indicate that the films remain X-ray amorphous after annealing whereas Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy gives evidence of a phase segregation between amorphous SiO2 and well crystallized anatase TiO2. Crystallization of ana...

  12. Negative heat capacity at phase-separation in macroscopic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, D. H. E.

    2005-01-01

    Systems with long-range as well with short-range interactions should necessarily have a convex entropy S(E) at proper phase transitions of first order, i.e. when a separation of phases occurs. Here the microcanonical heat capacity c(E)= -\\frac{(\\partial S/\\partial E)^2}{\\partial^2S/\\partial E^2} is negative. This should be observable even in macroscopic systems when energy fluctuations with the surrounding world can be sufficiently suppressed.

  13. Homogeneous nucleation in phase separation of solid 3He-4He mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, M.; Smith, A.; Maidanov, V.A.; Rudavskii, E.Ya.; Grigor'ev, V.N.; Slezov, V.V.; Saunders, J.; Cowan, B.

    2003-01-01

    NMR and pressure have been measured during phase separation in solid 3 He- 4 He mixtures. Spin echoes were used to observe bounded diffusion and to estimate the diffusion coefficient, size and nuclei concentration in the 3 He-enriched phase. The characteristic phase separation time constant of the mixture was found from pressure measurements. The results argue convincingly for homogeneous nucleation. The surface tension of the nuclei is found independently from NMR and from pressure measurements; the two determinations agree well and yield a surface tension coefficient of 4.9x10 -6 J m -2

  14. Lateral phase separation of mixed polymer brushes on planar and spherical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lehn, Reid; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    2012-02-01

    A mixed polymer brush consists of two (or more) polymer species grafted to a surface at a high density, inducing the polymers to highly stretch to maximize favorable solvent interactions while minimizing polymer overlap. The enthalpic and entropic interactions between the different polymers give rise to lateral phase behavior on the surface. Understanding this phase separation behavior is interesting for applications in nanotemplating and controlled protein adsorption. In this work, we present a novel theoretical model to quickly predict lateral phase separated morphologies of mixed polymer brushes on planar, cylindrical and spherical surfaces. The model combines a Flory-Huggins model for enthalpic interactions between the polymer components with an Alexander-de Gennes model for the entropy of the brush layers. When there is a length difference between the polymer components, these two interactions along with the conformational entropy of the system lead to a range of morphologies including stripes, dimples, mixing, and complete phase separation. The computational efficiency of this model allows for phase diagrams to be generated with great accuracy. The results of our model thus allow for the fast prediction of lateral morphologies on different geometries.

  15. Effect of heat treatment duration on phase separation of sodium borosilicate glass, containing copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shejnina, T.G.; Gutner, S.Kh.; Anan'in, N.I.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of heat treatment duration on phase separation of sodium borosilicate (SBS) glass, containing copper is studied. It is stated that phase separation close to equilibrium one is attained under 12 hours of heat treatment of SBS glass containing copper

  16. Irradiation-induced amorphization in split-dislocation cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovid'ko, I.A.; Rejzis, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    The model describing special splitting of lattice and grain-boundary dislocations as one of the micromechanisms of solid-phase amorphization in irradiated crystals is proposed. Calculation of energy characteristics of the process of dislocations special splitting is carried out [ru

  17. Direct NMR Monitoring of Phase Separation Behavior of Highly Supersaturated Nifedipine Solution Stabilized with Hypromellose Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Keisuke; Higashi, Kenjirou; Moribe, Kunikazu

    2017-07-03

    We investigated the phase separation behavior and maintenance mechanism of the supersaturated state of poorly water-soluble nifedipine (NIF) in hypromellose (HPMC) derivative solutions. Highly supersaturated NIF formed NIF-rich nanodroplets through phase separation from aqueous solution containing HPMC derivative. Dissolvable NIF concentration in the bulk water phase was limited by the phase separation of NIF from the aqueous solution. HPMC derivatives stabilized the NIF-rich nanodroplets and maintained the NIF supersaturation with phase-separated NIF for several hours. The size of the NIF-rich phase was different depending on the HPMC derivatives dissolved in aqueous solution, although the droplet size had no correlation with the time for which NIF supersaturation was maintained without NIF crystallization. HPMC acetate and HPMC acetate succinate (HPMC-AS) effectively maintained the NIF supersaturation containing phase-separated NIF compared with HPMC. Furthermore, HPMC-AS stabilized NIF supersaturation more effectively in acidic conditions. Solution 1 H NMR measurements of NIF-supersaturated solution revealed that HPMC derivatives distributed into the NIF-rich phase during the phase separation of NIF from the aqueous solution. The hydrophobicity of HPMC derivative strongly affected its distribution into the NIF-rich phase. Moreover, the distribution of HPMC-AS into the NIF-rich phase was promoted at lower pH due to the lower aqueous solubility of HPMC-AS. The distribution of a large amount of HPMC derivatives into NIF-rich phase induced the strong inhibition of NIF crystallization from the NIF-rich phase. Polymer distribution into the drug-rich phase directly monitored by solution NMR technique can be a useful index for the stabilization efficiency of drug-supersaturated solution containing a drug-rich phase.

  18. Exploring the dynamics of phase separation in colloid-polymer mixtures with long range attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Juan; Bailey, Arthur E; Frisken, Barbara J

    2016-06-28

    We have studied the kinetics of phase separation and gel formation in a low-dispersity colloid - non-adsorbing polymer system with long range attraction using small-angle light scattering. This system exhibits two-phase and three-phase coexistence of gas, liquid and crystal phases when the strength of attraction is between 2 and 4kBT and gel phases when the strength of attraction is increased. For those samples that undergo macroscopic phase separation, whether to gas-crystal, gas-liquid or gas-liquid-crystal coexistence, we observe dynamic scaling of the structure factor and growth of a characteristic length scale that behaves as expected for phase separation in fluids. In samples that gel, the power law associated with the growth of the dominant length scale is not equal to 1/3, but appears to depend mainly on the strength of attraction, decreasing from 1/3 for samples near the coexistence region to 1/27 at 8kBT, over a wide range of colloid and polymer concentrations.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Silicone Liquid Core/Polymer Shell Microcapsules via Internal Phase Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Lidia; Kostrzewska, Malgorzata; Ma, Baoguang

    2014-01-01

    Microcapsules with a silicone liquid core surrounded by a polymeric shell were synthesisedthrough the controlled phase separation. The dispersed silicone phase consisted of the shellpolymer PMMA, a good solvent for the PMMA (dichloromethane, DCM) and a poor solvent(methylhydrosiloxane dimethylsil......Microcapsules with a silicone liquid core surrounded by a polymeric shell were synthesisedthrough the controlled phase separation. The dispersed silicone phase consisted of the shellpolymer PMMA, a good solvent for the PMMA (dichloromethane, DCM) and a poor solvent...

  20. Amorphous metal composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, M.A.; Lupinski, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    This patent discloses an improved amorphous metal composite and process of making the composite. The amorphous metal composite comprises amorphous metal (e.g. iron) and a low molecular weight thermosetting polymer binder. The process comprises placing an amorphous metal in particulate form and a thermosetting polymer binder powder into a container, mixing these materials, and applying heat and pressure to convert the mixture into an amorphous metal composite

  1. Design and Development of Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone Compact Separators for Three-Phase Flow; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Ram S.; Shoham, Ovadia

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this five-year project (October, 1997-September, 2002) is to expand the current research activities of Tulsa University Separation Technology Projects (TUSTP) to multiphase oil/water/gas separation. This project will be executed in two phases. Phase I (1997-2000) will focus on the investigations of the complex multiphase hydrodynamic flow behavior in a three-phase Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone (GLCC) Separator. The activities of this phase will include the development of a mechanistic model, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulator, and detailed experimentation on the three-phase GLCC. The experimental and CFD simulation results will be suitably integrated with the mechanistic model. In Phase II (2000-2002), the developed GLCC separator will be tested under high pressure and real crudes conditions. This is crucial for validating the GLCC design for field application and facilitating easy and rapid technology deployment. Design criteria for industrial applications will be developed based on these results and will be incorporated into the mechanistic model by TUSTP

  2. The Two-Phase Flow Separator Experiment Breadboard Model: Reduced Gravity Aircraft Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rame, E; Sharp, L. M.; Chahine, G.; Kamotani, Y.; Gotti, D.; Owens, J.; Gilkey, K.; Pham, N.

    2015-01-01

    Life support systems in space depend on the ability to effectively separate gas from liquid. Passive cyclonic phase separators use the centripetal acceleration of a rotating gas-liquid mixture to carry out phase separation. The gas migrates to the center, while gas-free liquid may be withdrawn from one of the end plates. We have designed, constructed and tested a breadboard that accommodates the test sections of two independent principal investigators and satisfies their respective requirements, including flow rates, pressure and video diagnostics. The breadboard was flown in the NASA low-gravity airplane in order to test the system performance and design under reduced gravity conditions.

  3. Infrared Spectra and Optical Constants of Elusive Amorphous Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerakines, Perry A.; Hudson, Reggie L.

    2015-01-01

    New and accurate laboratory results are reported for amorphous methane (CH4) ice near 10 K for the study of the interstellar medium (ISM) and the outer Solar System. Near- and mid-infrared (IR) data, including spectra, band strengths, absorption coefficients, and optical constants, are presented for the first time for this seldom-studied amorphous solid. The apparent IR band strength near 1300 cm(exp -1) (7.69 micrometer) for amorphous CH4 is found to be about 33% higher than the value long used by IR astronomers to convert spectral observations of interstellar CH4 into CH4 abundances. Although CH4 is most likely to be found in an amorphous phase in the ISM, a comparison of results from various laboratory groups shows that the earlier CH4 band strength at 1300 cm(exp -1) (7.69 micrometer) was derived from IR spectra of ices that were either partially or entirely crystalline CH4 Applications of the new amorphous-CH4 results are discussed, and all optical constants are made available in electronic form.

  4. Effect of crystallization on corrosion behavior of Fe40Ni38B18Mo4 amorphous alloy in 3.5% sodium chloride solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Y.F.; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Wu, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    After the crystallization of F40Ni38B18Mo4 amorphous alloy by vacuum annealing, the corrosion resistance of its crystalline state shows inferior to its amorphous state due to the local cell action between Ni phase and (Fe, Ni, Mo)(23)B-6 phase in matrix.......After the crystallization of F40Ni38B18Mo4 amorphous alloy by vacuum annealing, the corrosion resistance of its crystalline state shows inferior to its amorphous state due to the local cell action between Ni phase and (Fe, Ni, Mo)(23)B-6 phase in matrix....

  5. Phase separation of bio-oil produced by co-pyrolysis of corn cobs and polypropylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supramono, D.; Julianto; Haqqyana; Setiadi, H.; Nasikin, M.

    2017-11-01

    In co-pyrolysis of biomass-plastics, bio-oil produced contains both oxygenated and non-oxygenated compounds. High oxygen composition is responsible for instability and low heating value of bio-oil and high acid content for corrosiveness. Aims of the present work are to evaluate possibilities of achieving phase separation between oxygenated and non-oxygenated compounds in bio-oil using a proposed stirred tank reactor and to achieve synergistic effects on bio-oil yield and non-oxygenated compound layer yield. Separation of bio-oil into two layers, i.e. that containing oxygenated compounds (polar phase) and non-oxygenated compounds (non-polar phase) is important to obtain pure non-polar phase ready for the next processing of hydrogenation and used directly as bio-fuel. There has been no research work on co-pyrolysis of biomass-plastic considering possibility of phase separation of bio-oil. The present work is proposing a stirred tank reactor for co-pyrolysis with nitrogen injection, which is capable of tailoring co-pyrolysis conditions leading to low viscosity and viscosity asymmetry, which induce phase separation between polar phase and non-polar phase. The proposed reactor is capable of generating synergistic effect on bio-oil and non-polar yields as the composition of PP in feed is more than 25% weight in which non-polar layers contain only alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes and cycloalkenes.

  6. Corrosion resistance of amorphous NiCrZr and NiCrMoZr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naka, M.; Miyake, M.; Okamoto, I.

    1987-01-01

    One of the authors has reported that the corrosion resistance of chromium containing amorphous alloys is extremely improved by alloying phosphorus among metalloids. Two factors operate for the improvement of corrosion resistance of the amorphous alloys. First, phosphorus serves for the rapid formation of protective passive film. Second, the compositional and structural homogeneity in amorphous state also account for the formation of protective film. The latter factor has been clearly seen in the high corrosion resistance of CoCrMoZr and CoCrWZr alloys without metalloids. In order to clarify the separately two factors in the corrosion resistance of amorphous alloys, the corrosion resistance of amorphous alloys without metalloids has to be further investigated. This paper also deals with the corrosion resistance and electrochemical behavior of NiCrZr and NiCrMoZr alloys in 1N HCl, and compare them with the corrosion behavior of the crystalline alloys containing the same composition as that of the amorphous alloys

  7. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program research and development. Research and development of amorphous solar cells (Research and development of amorphous solar cells on flexible film substrates); 1981 nendo amorphous taiyo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kadosei film wo kiban to suru amorphous taiyo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-31

    Efforts will be made to reduce the cost, increase efficiency, and enlarge cell areas and, at the same time, to establish the foundation of a roll-up type solar cell manufacturing process which is required for the implementation of mass production. In an inverted pin/ITO (indium-tin oxide) hetero-face structure cell installed on a polymer film substrate, a conversion efficiency of 5.33% is achieved in the case of a solar cell whose n-layer is of the amorphous phase, and 6.36% in the case of a cell of the microcrystallized phase. A roll-up type glow discharge CVD (chemical vapor deposition) unit is designed and experimentally built, which is for the realization of large area cells. It is now duly expected that an undoped (i-type) a-Si:H film will be deposited to a thickness of approximately 5000A. As the result of a first-step screening conducted in search of amorphous solar cell sealing materials, some applicable plastic materials are selected. The future is bright of amorphous solar cells on polymer film substrates. (NEDO)

  8. Formation and structure of V-Zr amorphous alloy thin films

    KAUST Repository

    King, Daniel J M

    2015-01-01

    Although the equilibrium phase diagram predicts that alloys in the central part of the V-Zr system should consist of V2Zr Laves phase with partial segregation of one element, it is known that under non-equilibrium conditions these materials can form amorphous structures. Here we examine the structures and stabilities of thin film V-Zr alloys deposited at room temperature by magnetron sputtering. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and computational methods. Atomic-scale modelling was used to investigate the enthalpies of formation of the various competing structures. The calculations confirmed that an amorphous solid solution would be significantly more stable than a random body-centred solid solution of the elements, in agreement with the experimental results. In addition, the modelling effort provided insight into the probable atomic configurations of the amorphous structures allowing predictions of the average distance to the first and second nearest neighbours in the system.

  9. Sub/supercritical carbon dioxide induced phase switching for the reaction and separation in ILs/methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayu Xin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Separation of products from ionic liquid (IL solvents is one of the main challenges that hinder their utilizations. In this study, the production of γ-valerolactone (GVL by selective hydrogenation of α-angelica lactone (AL and separation of the products from the IL solvent were carried out by using subcritical CO2 as a “switch” at room temperature. After the mixture was separated into two phases by subcritical CO2, AL and nano Pd/C catalyst were only found in the lower IL-rich phase, GVL was produced with quantitative yield and enriched in the upper methanol-rich phase. Pure GVL can be obtained by depressurizing to release CO2 and evaporation to remove methanol of the upper phase, the lower phase containing IL, catalyst and methanol can be recycled for the next reaction. The strategy may provide a new approach to produce and separate products from IL solvents at mild conditions. Keywords: Separation, Ionic liquids, Selective hydrogenation, Mild condition, Subcritical CO2

  10. Enantiomeric separation of type I and type II pyrethroid insecticides with different chiral stationary phases by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Yu, Qian; He, Xiulong; Qian, Kun; Xiao, Wei; Xu, Zhifeng; Li, Tian; He, Lin

    2018-04-01

    The enantiomeric separation of type I (bifenthrin, BF) and type II (lambda-cyhalothrin, LCT) pyrethroid insecticides on Lux Cellulose-1, Lux Cellulose-3, and Chiralpak IC chiral columns was investigated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Methanol/water or acetonitrile/water was used as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The effects of chiral stationary phase, mobile phase composition, column temperature, and thermodynamic parameters on enantiomer separation were carefully studied. Bifenthrin got a partial separation on Lux Cellulose-1 column and baseline separation on Lux Cellulose-3 column, while LCT enantiomers could be completely separated on both Lux Cellulose-1 and Lux Cellulose-3 columns. Chiralpak IC provided no separation ability for both BF and LCT. Retention factor (k) and selectivity factor (α) decreased with the column temperature increasing from 10°C to 40°C for both BF and LCT enantiomers. Thermodynamic parameters including ∆H and ∆S were also calculated, and the maximum R s were not always obtained at lowest temperature. Furthermore, the quantitative analysis methods for BF and LCT enantiomers in soil and water were also established. Such results provide a new approach for pyrethroid separation under reversed-phase condition and contribute to environmental risk assessment of pyrethroids at enantiomer level. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Recent progress of chiral stationary phases for separation of enantiomers in gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Sheng-Ming; Yuan, Li-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Chromatography techniques based on chiral stationary phases are widely used for the separation of enantiomers. In particular, gas chromatography has developed rapidly in recent years due to its merits such as fast analysis speed, lower consumption of stationary phases and analytes, higher column efficiency, making it a better choice for chiral separation in diverse industries. This article summarizes recent progress of novel chiral stationary phases based on cyclofructan derivatives and chiral porous materials including chiral metal-organic frameworks, chiral porous organic frameworks, chiral inorganic mesoporous materials, and chiral porous organic cages in gas chromatography, covering original research papers published since 2010. The chiral recognition properties and mechanisms of separation toward enantiomers are also introduced. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A Comparison of Photo-Induced Hysteresis Between Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon and Amorphous IGZO Thin-Film Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Tae-Jun; Cho, Won-Ju; Chung, Hong-Bay; Koo, Sang-Mo

    2015-09-01

    We investigate photo-induced instability in thin-film transistors (TFTs) consisting of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) as active semiconducting layers by comparing with hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). An a-IGZO TFT exhibits a large hysteresis window in the illuminated measuring condition but no hysteresis window in the dark condition. On the contrary, a large hysteresis window measured in the dark condition in a-Si:H was not observed in the illuminated condition. Even though such materials possess the structure of amorphous phase, optical responses or photo instability in TFTs looks different from each other. Photo-induced hysteresis results from initially trapped charges at the interface between semiconductor and dielectric films or in the gate dielectric which possess absorption energy to interact with deep trap-states and affect the movement of Fermi energy level. In order to support our claim, we also perform CV characteristics in photo-induced hysteresis and demonstrate thermal-activated hysteresis. We believe that this work can provide important information to understand different material systems for optical engineering which includes charge transport and band transition.

  13. Amorphous to crystalline phase transition in carbon induced by intense femtosecond x-ray free-electron laser pulses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gaudin, J.; Peyrusse, O.; Chalupský, Jaromír; Toufarová, Martina; Vyšín, Luděk; Hájková, Věra; Sobierajski, R.; Burian, Tomáš; Dastjani-Farahani, S.; Graf, A.; Amati, M.; Gregoratti, L.; Hau-Riege, S.P.; Hoffmann, G.; Juha, Libor; Krzywinski, J.; London, R.A.; Moeller, S.; Sinn, H.; Schorb, S.; Störmer, M.; Tschentscher, T.; Vorlíček, Vladimír; Vu, H.; Bozek, J.; Bostedt, C.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 2 (2012), "024103-1"-"024103-7" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1312; GA ČR GAP205/11/0571; GA ČR GAP208/10/2302; GA AV ČR IAAX00100903; GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0087 Grant - others:OP VK 2 LaserGen(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0087 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : amorphous carbon * phase transition * graphitization * x-ray laser * free-electron laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.767, year: 2012

  14. Reversible Resistance Switching Effect in Amorphous Ge1Sb4Te7 Thin Films without Phase Transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua-Jun, Sun; Li-Song, Hou; Yi-Qun, Wu; Xiao-Dong, Tang

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a reversible resistance switching effect that does not rely on amorphous-crystalline phase transformation in a nanoscale capacitor-like cell using Ge 1 Sb 4 Te 7 films as the working material. The polarity and amplitude of the applied electric voltage switches the cell resistance between low- and high-resistance states, as revealed in the current-voltage characteristics of the film by conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM). This reversible SET/RESET switching effect is induced by voltage pulses and their polarity. The change of electrical resistance due to the switching effect is approximately two orders of magnitude

  15. ZnTe Amorphous Semiconductor Nanowires Array Electrodeposited into Polycarbonate Membrane Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohgai, T; Ikeda, T; Ohta, J

    2013-01-01

    ZnTe amorphous semiconductor nanowires array was electrodeposited into the nanochannels of ion-track etched polycarbonate membrane thin films from acidic aqueous solution at 313 K. ZnTe electrodeposits with Zn-rich composition was obtained over the wide range of cathode potential from −0.8 V to −1.1 V and the growth rate of ZnTe amorphous nanowires was around 3 nm.sec −1 at the cathode potential of −0.8 V. Cylindrical shape of the nanowires was precisely transferred from the nanochannels and the aspect ratio reached up to ca. 40. ZnTe amorphous phase electrodeposited at 313 K was crystallized by annealing at 683 K and the band gap energy of ZnTe crystalline phase reached up to ca. 2.13 eV.

  16. Short-range order in InSb amorphized under ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, P.V.; Tetel'baum, D.I.; Gerasimov, A.I.

    1979-01-01

    The investigation of short-range order is carried out in polycrystal InSb films, irradiated with Ne + ions with E=150 keV and with the 2x10 15 ion/cm 2 dose. The data are obtained testifying to the film amorphization, the cause of which is the defect storage but not the local melting. Stability of the obtained amorphous phase at the room temperature is noted

  17. Phase behavior and oral bioavailability of amorphous Curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Yogesh B; Shete, Ganesh; Popat, Dharmesh; Bansal, Arvind K

    2012-08-30

    Amorphous form has been used as a means to improve aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs. The objective of present study was to characterize thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of amorphous form of Curcumin (CRM-A). CRM-A was found to be a good glass former with glass transition temperature (T(g)) of 342.64K and critical cooling rate below 1K/min. CRM-A had a moderate tendency of crystallization and exhibited Kauzmann temperature (T(KS)) of 294.23 K. CRM-A was found to be fragile in nature as determined by T(m)/T(g) (1.32), C(p)(1 iq):C(p)(glass) (1.22), strength parameter (D75), T(K)/T(g) (0.85), and T(g)-T(K) (48.41). Theoretically predicted aqueous solubility advantage of 43.15-folds, was reduced to 17-folds under practical conditions. This reduction in solubility was attributed to water induced devitrification, as evident through PXRD and SEM analysis. Further, oral bioavailability study of CRM-A was undertaken to investigate bioavailability benefits, if any. C(max) was improved by 1.97-folds (statistically significant difference over control). However, oral bioavailability (AUC(0-)(∞)) was improved by 1.45-folds (statistically non significant difference over control). These observations pointed towards role of rapid devitrification of CRM-A in GIT milieu, thus limiting its oral bioavailability advantage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. High-resolution electron microscopy study of electron-irradiation-induced crystalline-to-amorphous transition in α-SiC single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inui, H.; Mori, H.; Sakata, T.

    1992-01-01

    An electron-irradiation-induced crystalline-to-amorphous (CA) transition in α-SiC has been studied by high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM). The irradiation-produced damage structure was examined as a function of dose of electrons by taking high-resolution maps extending from the unirradiated crystalline region to the completely amorphized region. In the intermediate region between those two regions, that is in the CA transition region, the damage structure was essentially a mixture of crystalline and amorphous phases. The volume fraction of the amorphous phase was found to increase with increasing dose of electrons and no discrete crystalline-amorphous interface was observed in the CA transition region. These facts indicate the heterogeneous and gradual nature of the CA transition. In the transition region close to the unirradiated crystalline region, a sort of fragmentation of the crystal lattice was observed to occur, crystallites with slightly different orientations with respect to the parent crystal were formed owing to the strain around the dispersed local amorphous regions. In the transition region close to the amorphized region, these crystallites were reduced in size and were embedded in an amorphous matrix. This damage structure is the result of the increased volume fraction of the amorphous phase. In the completely amorphized region, no lattice fringes were recognized in the HREM images. The atomistic process of the CA transition is discussed on the basis of the present results and those from previous studies. (Author)

  19. Rapid separation of lanthanides and actinides on small particle based reverse phase supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, A.; Sivaraman, N.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R. [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the results on the use of short columns (3-5 cm long) with small particle size (1.8 {mu}m) for high performance liquid chromatographic separation of individual lanthanides and uranium from plutonium as well as uranium from thorium to achieve rapid separations i.e. separation time as short as 3.6 min for individual lanthanides, 1 min for thorium-uranium and 4.2 min for uranium from plutonium. These advantages can be exploited to significantly reduce analysis time, liquid waste generation as well as dose to operator when radioactive samples are analysed e.g. burn-up determination. In the present work, a dynamic ion-exchange chromatographic separation technique was employed using camphor-10-sulfonic acid (CSA) as the ion-pairing reagent and {alpha}-hydroxy isobutyric acid ({alpha}-HIBA) as the complexing reagent for the isolation of individual lanthanides as well as the separation of uranium from thorium. Uranium was separated from Pu(III) as well as Pu(IV) by reverse phase HPLC technique. The reverse phase HPLC was also investigated for the isolation and quantitative determination of uranium from thorium as well as lanthanide group from uranium. The dynamic ion-exchange technique using small particle support was demonstrated for measuring the concentrations of lanthanide fission products such as La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in the dissolver solution of fast reactor fuel. Similarly, the assay of uranium in the dissolver solution of fast reactor was carried out using reverse phase HPLC technique. The rapid separation technique using reverse phase HPLC was also demonstrated for separation of lanthanides as a group from uranium matrix; samples of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt containing chlorides of lanthanides in uranium matrix (typically 1: 2000) were analysed. (orig.)

  20. Copolymer-grafted silica phase from a cation-anion monomer pair for enhanced separation in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Abul K; Qiu, Hongdeng; Takafuji, Makoto; Ihara, Hirotaka

    2014-05-01

    This work reports a new imidazolium and L-alanine derived copolymer-grafted silica stationary phase for ready separation of complex isomers using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). For this purpose, 1-allyl-3-octadecylimidazolium bromide ([AyImC18]Br) and N-acryloyl-L-alanine sodium salt ([AAL]Na) ionic liquids (IL) monomers were synthesized. Subsequently, the bromide counteranion was exchanged with the 2-(acrylamido)propanoate organic counteranion by reacting the [AyImC18]Br with excess [AAL]Na in water. The obtained IL cation-anion monomer pair was then copolymerized on mercaptopropyl-modified silica (Sil-MPS) via a surface-initiated radical chain-transfer reaction. The selective retention behaviors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including some positional isomers, steroids, and nucleobases were investigated using the newly obtained Sil-poly(ImC18-AAL), and octadecyl silylated silica (ODS) was used as the reference column. Interesting results were obtained for the separation of PAHs, steroids, and nucleobases with the new organic phase. The results showed that the Sil-poly(ImC18-AAL) presented multiple noncovalent interactions, including hydrophobic, π-π, carbonyl-π, and ion-dipole interactions for the separation of PAHs and dipolar compounds. Only pure water was sufficient as the mobile phase for the separation of the nucleobases. Ten nucleosides and bases were separated, using only water as the mobile phase, within a very short time using the Sil-poly(ImC18-AAL), which is otherwise difficult to achieve using conventional hydrophobic columns such as ODS. The combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions are important for the effective separation of such basic compounds without the use of any organic additive as the eluent on the Sil-poly(ImC18-AAL) column.

  1. Oxidation influence on crystallisation in iron-based amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloriant, T.; Surinach, S.; Munoz, J.S.; Baro, M.D. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Inoue, A. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research

    2001-07-01

    The partially crystalline iron-based nanophase composites elaborated by rapid solidification techniques are very attractive for their excellent soft magnetic properties and their potential for industrial applications. In these nanocomposite materials a control of both the structure (size, shape and distribution of the nanoparticles in the amorphous matrix) and the kinetic behaviour (nucleation and growth mechanism) is essential in order to obtain the best properties and to be able to produce them at the industrial scale. Our group has been working in this research area for a long time and the investigation presented here is the result of an international collaboration. This study deals with the effect of cobalt addition in Fe-Nb-B melt-spun amorphous alloys on the devitrification/crystallisation processes induced by thermal treatments and characterised by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), thermomagnetic analysis (TMG) and transmission electron microscopy observations (TEM). The transformation sequences, from the initial amorphous phase to the fully crystallised final state, were carried out using different annealing experiments (under vacuum and in air) and have revealed a strong influence of the environmental atmosphere during devitrification. It is shown that oxidation can greatly affect the crystallisation behaviour as a result of the high metastable state of the initial amorphous phase. The results and observations of this phenomenon will be presented. (orig.)

  2. Achievement report on Sunshine Program research and development for fiscal 1981. Research and development of amorphous solar cells (Research and development of integrated type amorphous solar cells); 1981 nendo amorphous taiyo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shusekigata amorphous taiyo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    An a-SiC (amorphous SiC) material with a wider band gap adds to the conventional hydrogen- and fluorine-based a-Si materials in the study for device efficiency enhancement, and the a-SiC is found suitable as a wide-gap window material. The separated formation technique is found to work effectively for improvement on cell characteristics because it prevents the mixing of impurities of different types. A p-i-n (positive-intrinsic-negative) type amorphous solar cell is subjected to analysis, and a theoretical efficiency of 12.5% is obtained in photoelectric conversion. A conversion efficiency not less than 7% is obtained from an ITO (indium-tin oxide)/p(SiC)-i-n/Al cell on a glass substrate. Design is optimized for area enlargement for an integrated type device, which results in an experimental 10cm-square integrated type solar cell with a conversion efficiency of not less than 5%. As for modularization, a glass substrate for integrated type device is used, as is, as a light-receiving surface protecting board, and studies are conducted thereon. It is then found that the amorphous solar cell experiences some degradation in reliability at the beginning of an irradiation test but that no extensive degradation in reliability is observed even after the passage of 1,000 hours from the beginning of the test. The separated formation technique is found suitable for use in mass production. (NEDO)

  3. Amorphous-crystalline transition studied in hydrated MoO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho-Lopez, M.A.; Haro-Poniatowski, E.; Lartundo-Rojas, L.; Livage, J.; Julien, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this work we study the thermal behavior of hydrated MoO 3 synthesized via acidification of sodium molybdate. MoO 3 .nH 2 O (n = 1.4) amorphous compound was heated in air at increasing temperatures in order to obtain the crystalline MoO 3 phase. We have studied the structural changes as a function of annealing temperature by Raman spectroscopy. A statistical study to determine the average size of the crystallites at each annealing step has been realized by scanning electron microscopy. Results show that the hydrated MoO 3 .1.4H 2 O glass transforms in an amorphous MoO 3 .0.7H 2 O phase prior to its crystallization, while the sample heated at 500 deg. C crystallizes into the orthorhombic α-MoO 3 phase with micro-crystallites having an average size of 6.8 μm

  4. Magnetic filtration of phase separating ferrofluids: From basic concepts to microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhir, P.; Magnet, C.; Ezzaier, H.; Zubarev, A.; Bossis, G.

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we briefly review magnetic separation of ferrofluids composed of large magnetic particles (60 nm of the average size) possessing an induced dipole moment. Such ferrofluids exhibit field-induced phase separation at relatively low particle concentrations (∼0.8 vol%) and magnetic fields (∼10 kA/m). Particle aggregates appearing during the phase separation are extracted from the suspending fluid by magnetic field gradients much easier than individual nanoparticles in the absence of phase separation. Nanoparticle capture by a single magnetized microbead and by multi-collector systems (packed bed of spheres and micro-pillar array) has been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Under flow and magnetic fields, the particle capture efficiency Λ decreases with an increasing Mason number for all considered geometries. This decrease may become stronger for aggregated magnetic particles (Λ ∝Ma-1.7) than for individual ones (Λ ∝Ma-1) if the shear fields are strong enough to provoke aggregate rupture. These results can be useful for development of new magneto-microfluidic immunoassays based on magnetic nanoparticles offering a much better sensitivity as compared to presently used magnetic microbeads.

  5. Amorphous clusters in Co implanted ZnO induced by boron pre-implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potzger, K.; Shalimov, A.; Zhou, S.; Schmidt, H.; Mucklich, A.; Helm, M.; Fassbender, J.; Liberati, M.; Arenholz, E.

    2009-02-09

    We demonstrate the formation of superparamagnetic/ferromagnetic regions within ZnO(0001) single crystals sequently implanted with B and Co. While the pre-implantation with B plays a minor role for the electrical transport properties, its presence leads to the formation of amorphous phases. Moreover, B acts strongly reducing on the implanted Co. Thus, the origin of the ferromagnetic ordering in local clusters with large Co concentration is itinerant d-electrons as in the case of metallic Co. The metallic amorphous phases are non-detectable by common X-ray diffraction.

  6. Coercivities of hot-deformed magnets processed from amorphous and nanocrystalline precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xin; Sepehri-Amin, H.; Ohkubo, T.; Hioki, K.; Hattori, A.; Hono, K.

    2017-01-01

    Hot-deformed magnets have been processed from amorphous and nanocrystalline precursors and their hard magnetic properties and microstructures have been investigated in order to explore the optimum process route. The hot-deformed magnets processed from an amorphous precursor exhibited the coercivity of 1.40 T that is higher than that processed from nanocrystalline powder, ∼1.28 T. The average grain size was larger in the magnets processed from amorphous precursor. Detailed microstructure analyses by aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy revealed that the Nd + Pr concentrations in the intergranular phases were higher in the hot-deformed magnet processed from the amorphous precursor, which is considered to lead to the enhanced coercivity due to a stronger pinning force against magnetic domain wall motion.

  7. Nano-phase separation and structural ordering in silica-rich mixed network former glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Youngman, Randall E; Kapoor, Saurabh; Jensen, Lars R; Smedskjaer, Morten M; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2018-06-13

    We investigate the structure, phase separation, glass transition, and crystallization in a mixed network former glass series, i.e., B2O3-Al2O3-SiO2-P2O5 glasses with varying SiO2/B2O3 molar ratio. All the studied glasses exhibit two separate glassy phases: droplet phase (G1) with the size of 50-100 nm and matrix phase (G2), corresponding to a lower calorimetric glass transition temperature (Tg1) and a higher one (Tg2), respectively. Both Tg values decrease linearly with the substitution of B2O3 for SiO2, but the magnitude of the decrease is larger for Tg1. Based on nuclear magnetic resonance and Raman spectroscopy results, we infer that the G1 phase is rich in boroxol rings, while the G2 phase mainly involves the B-O-Si network. Both phases contain BPO4- and AlPO4-like units. Ordered domains occur in G2 upon isothermal and dynamic heating, driven by the structural heterogeneity in the as-prepared glasses. The structural ordering lowers the activation energy of crystal growth, thus promoting partial crystallization of G2. These findings are useful for understanding glass formation and phase separation in mixed network former oxide systems, and for tailoring their properties.

  8. Development of the Two Phase Flow Separator Experiment for a Reduced Gravity Aircraft Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golliher, Eric; Gotti, Daniel; Owens, Jay; Gilkey, Kelly; Pham, Nang; Stehno, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The recent hardware development and testing of a reduced gravity aircraft flight experiment has provided valuable insights for the future design of the Two Phase Flow Separator Experiment (TPFSE). The TPFSE is scheduled to fly within the Fluids Integration Rack (FIR) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in 2020. The TPFSE studies the operational limits of gas and liquid separation of passive cyclonic separators. A passive cyclonic separator utilizes only the inertia of the incoming flow to accomplish the liquid-gas separation. Efficient phase separation is critical for environmental control and life support systems, such as recovery of clean water from bioreactors, for long duration human spaceflight missions. The final low gravity aircraft flight took place in December 2015 aboard NASA's C9 airplane.

  9. Facile fabrication of multilayer separators for lithium-ion battery via multilayer coextrusion and thermal induced phase separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajie; Pu, Hongting

    2018-04-01

    Polypropylene (PP)/polyethylene (PE) multilayer separators with cellular-like submicron pore structure for lithium-ion battery are efficiently fabricated by the combination of multilayer coextrusion (MC) and thermal induced phase separation (TIPS). The as-prepared separators, referred to as MC-TIPS PP/PE, not only show efficacious thermal shutdown function and wider shutdown temperature window, but also exhibit higher thermal stability than the commercial separator with trilayer construction of PP and PE (Celgard® 2325). The dimensional shrinkage of MC-TIPS PP/PE can be negligible until 160 °C. In addition, compared to the commercial separator, MC-TIPS PP/PE exhibits higher porosity and electrolyte uptake, leading to higher ionic conductivity and better battery performances. The above-mentioned fascinating characteristics with the convenient preparation process make MC-TIPS PP/PE a promising candidate for the application as high performance lithium-ion battery separators.

  10. Toward electron exit wave tomography of amorphous materials at atomic resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisenko, Konstantin B., E-mail: konstantin.borisenko@materials.ox.ac.uk [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Moldovan, Grigore [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Kirkland, Angus I., E-mail: angus.kirkland@materials.ox.ac.uk [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Van Dyck, Dirk [Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Tang, Hsin-Yu; Chen, Fu-Rong [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Kuang-Fu Road, 300 Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We suggest a novel electron exit wave tomography approach to obtain three dimensional atomic structures of amorphous materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Theoretical tests using a model of amorphous Si doped with Au show that it is feasible to reconstruct both Si and Au atoms positions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reconstructions of the strongly scattering Au atoms positions appear to be insensitive to typical experimental errors. - Abstract: We suggest to use electron exit wave phase for tomographic reconstruction of structure of Au-doped amorphous Si with atomic resolution. In the present theoretical investigation into the approach it is found that the number of projections and the accuracy of defocus in the focal series restoration are the main factors that contribute to the final resolution. Although resolution is ultimately limited by these factors, phase shifts in the exit wave are sufficient to identify the position of Au atoms in an amorphous Si needle model, even when only 19 projections with defocus error of 4 nm are used. Electron beam damage will probably further limit the resolution of such tomographic reconstructions, however beam damage can be mitigated using lower accelerating voltages.

  11. The transformation of amorphous calcium carbonate, ACC, to crystalline phases as function of time and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Hermann; Happel, Marian; Niedermayr, Andrea; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    We present results from a structural study of the transformation of freeze dried amorphous calcium carbonate, ACC, in crystalline material using pair distribution function analysis, PDF analysis, of X-ray powder diffraction data, XPD data. PDF analysis allows for the analysis of local order of structural subunit in the range between molecular unit (1. and 2. coordination sphere) and long range periodicity as in crystalline materials. ACC was precipitated from aqueous solutions at 298 K and 278 K using different amounts of Mg cations as stabilizer. The samples were immediately separated from the solution and freeze dried. For the transformation study, the samples were heated and analysed using XPD until they were crystallized. The radial distribution obtained from the XPD data were compared to simulated radial distributions of the calcium carbonate polymorphs and their hydrated phases. An ACC precipitated from a solution with Ca:Mg:CO3 = 1:5:4 at 298 K (ration in mmol, pH = 8.2) and freeze dried right after isolation from the solution revealed a close resemblance with ikaite in its local order. Another ACC with Ca:Mg:CO3 = 1:10:1.4 (T = 298, pH = 8.7) showed distinctly different local order resembling monohydrocalcite. Both ACC, however, still had considerable amounts of water dominating the Ca-coordination sphere. During the transformation to calcite, the structural changes in the sample concerned the hydrate water coordinating Ca which was removed and replaced by the carbonate oxygens. The study shows that ACC obtained from different starting solutions show specific local order. Freeze drying leads to solid ACC powder which still contain considerable amounts of hydrate water. Structural subunits are distinct in ACC and different from the crystalline phase. The study supplements recent reports presented by Konrad et al., Purgstaller et al., and Tobler et al.. F. Konrad et al., Cryst. Growth Des. 16, 6310-6317(2016) B. Purgstaller et al., Geochimica et Cosmochimica

  12. Carrier effect on separation efficiency of the column in reversed-phase partition chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pszonicka, M.; Siekierski, S.

    1972-01-01

    Chromatographic columns were filled with carriers of diatomaceous earth type (Hyflo Super Cell, and Celite 545) of large pores, and two microporous silica gels respectively. These columns were used for the separation of europium and gadolinium by reversed-phase partition chromatography in the system: stationary phase-diethylhexylphosphoric acid (HDEHP) mobile phase-0.4 N nitric acid. In each case the separation of the above mentioned elements was achieved. The plate height that characterizes separation efficiency of the column, decreases with the decrease of particle diameter of the carrier. Best columns were obtained from carriers of large pores (Hyflo Super Cell and Celite 545) for which plate hights below 0.1 mm could be achieved. Columns filled with microporous silica gels showed plate heights of 0.2-0.3 mm. (author)

  13. Ge L{sub 3}-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure study of structural changes accompanying conductivity drift in the amorphous phase of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrofanov, K. V. [Nanoelectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8562 (Japan); Kolobov, A. V., E-mail: a.kolobov@aist.go.jp; Fons, P. [Nanoelectronics Research Institute and Green Nanoelectronics Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8562, Japan and Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), SPring-8, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Wang, X.; Tominaga, J. [Nanoelectronics Research Institute and Green Nanoelectronics Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8562 (Japan); Tamenori, Y.; Uruga, T. [Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), SPring-8, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Ciocchini, N.; Ielmini, D. [DEIB - Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-05-07

    A gradual uncontrollable increase in the resistivity of the amorphous phase of phase-change alloys, such as Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}, known as drift, is a serious technological issue for application of phase-change memory. While it has been proposed that drift is related to structural relaxation, no direct structural results have been reported so far. Here, we report the results of Ge L{sub 3}-edge x-ray absorption measurements that suggest that the drift in electrical conductivity is associated with the gradual conversion of tetrahedrally coordinated Ge sites into pyramidal sites, while the system still remains in the amorphous phase. Based on electronic configuration arguments, we propose that during this process, which is governed by the existence of lone-pair electrons, the concentration of free carriers in the system decreases resulting in an increase in resistance despite the structural relaxation towards the crystalline phase.

  14. Pharmaceutical Perspective on Opalescence and Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation in Protein Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Ashlesha S; Kalonia, Devendra S

    2016-05-02

    Opalescence in protein solutions reduces aesthetic appeal of a formulation and can be an indicator of the presence of aggregates or precursor to phase separation in solution signifying reduced product stability. Liquid-liquid phase separation of a protein solution into a protein-rich and a protein-poor phase has been well-documented for globular proteins and recently observed for monoclonal antibody solutions, resulting in physical instability of the formulation. The present review discusses opalescence and liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) for therapeutic protein formulations. A brief discussion on theoretical concepts based on thermodynamics, kinetics, and light scattering is presented. This review also discusses theoretical concepts behind intense light scattering in the vicinity of the critical point termed as "critical opalescence". Both opalescence and LLPS are affected by the formulation factors including pH, ionic strength, protein concentration, temperature, and excipients. Literature reports for the effect of these formulation factors on attractive protein-protein interactions in solution as assessed by the second virial coefficient (B2) and the cloud-point temperature (Tcloud) measurements are also presented. The review also highlights pharmaceutical implications of LLPS in protein solutions.

  15. On the Phase Separation in n-Type Thermoelectric Half-Heusler Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schwall

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Half-Heusler compounds have been in focus as potential materials for thermoelectric energy conversion in the mid-temperature range, e.g., as in automotive or industrial waste heat recovery, for more than ten years now. Because of their mechanical and thermal stability, these compounds are advantageous for common thermoelectric materials such as Bi 2 Te 3 , SiGe, clathrates or filled skutterudites. A further advantage lies in the tunability of Heusler compounds, allowing one to avoid expensive and toxic elements. Half-Heusler compounds usually exhibit a high electrical conductivity σ , resulting in high power factors. The main drawback of half-Heusler compounds is their high lattice thermal conductivity. Here, we present a detailed study of the phase separation in an n-type Heusler materials system, showing that the Ti x Zr y Hf z NiSn system is not a solid solution. We also show that this phase separation is key to the thermoelectric high efficiency of n-type Heusler materials. These results strongly underline the importance of phase separation as a powerful tool for designing highly efficient materials for thermoelectric applications that fulfill the industrial demands of a thermoelectric converter.

  16. Doping Induced Transition from an Antiferro-Type Order to Phase Separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemanski, R.; Gajek, Z.

    2003-01-01

    A sequence of transitions from an antiferro-type order to a phase separate state under doping away from half filling is studied within the 1D Falicov-Kimball model. Using the method of restricted phase diagrams the system is analyzed exactly in the thermodynamic limit. Various kinds of ordering, including periodic n-molecular phases and their mixtures are found for a set of values of the interaction constant U. (author)

  17. Effects of Particles Collision on Separating Gas–Particle Two-Phase Turbulent Flows

    KAUST Repository

    Sihao, L. V.; Yang, Weihua; Li, Xiangli; Li, Guohui

    2013-01-01

    A second-order moment two-phase turbulence model incorporating a particle temperature model based on the kinetic theory of granular flow is applied to investigate the effects of particles collision on separating gas–particle two-phase turbulent

  18. Dual Phase Membrane for High Temperature CO2 Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry Lin

    2007-06-30

    This project aimed at synthesis of a new inorganic dual-phase carbonate membrane for high temperature CO{sub 2} separation. Metal-carbonate dual-phase membranes were prepared by the direct infiltration method and the synthesis conditions were optimized. Permeation tests for CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} from 450-750 C showed very low permeances of those two gases through the dual-phase membrane, which was expected due to the lack of ionization of those two particular gases. Permeance of the CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} mixture was much higher, indicating that the gases do form an ionic species, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, enhancing transport through the membrane. However, at temperatures in excess of 650 C, the permeance of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} decreased rapidly, while predictions showed that permeance should have continued to increase with temperature. XRD data obtained from used membrane indicated that lithium iron oxides formed on the support surface. This lithium iron oxide layer has a very low conductivity, which drastically reduces the flow of electrons to the CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} gas mixture; thus limiting the formation of the ionic species required for transport through the membrane. These results indicated that the use of stainless steel supports in a high temperature oxidative environment can lead to decreased performance of the membranes. This revelation created the need for an oxidation resistant support, which could be gained by the use of a ceramic-type membrane. Work was extended to synthesize a new inorganic dual-phase carbonate membrane for high temperature CO{sub 2} separation. Helium permeance of the support before and after infiltration of molten carbonate are on the order of 10{sup -6} and 10{sup -10} moles/m{sup 2} {center_dot} Pa {center_dot} s respectively, indicating that the molten carbonate is able to sufficiently infiltrate the membrane. It was found that La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCF) was a suitable candidate for the support

  19. Study of oxidation behaviour of Zr-based bulk amorphous alloy Zr 65 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The oxidation behaviour of Zr-based bulk amorphous alloy Zr65Cu17.5Ni10Al7.5 has been studied in air environment at various temperatures in the temperature range 591–684 K using a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The oxidation kinetics of the alloy in the amorphous phase obeys the parabolic rate law for oxidation ...

  20. Correlated lateral phase separations in stacks of lipid membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Takuma, E-mail: hoshino-takuma@ed.tmu.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); Komura, Shigeyuki, E-mail: komura@tmu.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); Andelman, David, E-mail: andelman@post.tau.ac.il [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-12-28

    Motivated by the experimental study of Tayebi et al. [Nat. Mater. 11, 1074 (2012)] on phase separation of stacked multi-component lipid bilayers, we propose a model composed of stacked two-dimensional Ising spins. We study both its static and dynamical features using Monte Carlo simulations with Kawasaki spin exchange dynamics that conserves the order parameter. We show that at thermodynamical equilibrium, due to strong inter-layer correlations, the system forms a continuous columnar structure for any finite interaction across adjacent layers. Furthermore, the phase separation shows a faster dynamics as the inter-layer interaction is increased. This temporal behavior is mainly due to an effective deeper temperature quench because of the larger value of the critical temperature, T{sub c}, for larger inter-layer interaction. When the temperature ratio, T/T{sub c}, is kept fixed, the temporal growth exponent does not increase and even slightly decreases as a function of the increased inter-layer interaction.

  1. Chemical-Reaction-Controlled Phase Separated Drops: Formation, Size Selection, and Coarsening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, Jean David; Lee, Chiu Fan

    2018-02-01

    Phase separation under nonequilibrium conditions is exploited by biological cells to organize their cytoplasm but remains poorly understood as a physical phenomenon. Here, we study a ternary fluid model in which phase-separating molecules can be converted into soluble molecules, and vice versa, via chemical reactions. We elucidate using analytical and simulation methods how drop size, formation, and coarsening can be controlled by the chemical reaction rates, and categorize the qualitative behavior of the system into distinct regimes. Ostwald ripening arrest occurs above critical reaction rates, demonstrating that this transition belongs entirely to the nonequilibrium regime. Our model is a minimal representation of the cell cytoplasm.

  2. Effect of stimulated phase separation on properties of blue, green and monolithic white LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsatsulnikov, A.F.; Lundin, W.V.; Sakharov, A.V.; Zavarin, E.E.; Nikolaev, A.E.; Sizov, V.S. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Politekhnicheskaya Str. 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Usov, S.O.; Zakgeim, A.L.; Mizerov, M.N. [Submicron Heterostructures for Microelectronics Research and Engineering Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Politekhnicheskaya Str. 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Cherkashin, N.A.; Hytch, M. [CEMES-CNRS, Universite de Toulouse, Toulouse (France)

    2012-03-15

    Different methods of stimulation of phase separation in an InGaN QWs by technological methods and by design of structure were investigated. Effect of admixing of hydrogen during growth interruptions (GIs) after deposition of the InGaN QWs on their structural and optical properties and properties of InGaN-based LEDs was investigated. Effect of growth pressure on the phase separation was investigated and formation of separate InGaN islands at increase in growth pressure was revealed. It was shown that the phase separation is stimulated in composite InAlN/GaN/InGaN heterostructures and formation of well isolated InGaN islands was observed. Effect of the phase separation on the properties of the blue and deep green LEDs was investigated and strong changes in the spectral position and current dependence of the quantum efficiency were revealed. It was shown that formation of the island due to the phase separation allows control position and width of the emission line and maximum in current dependence of the quantum efficiency. Monolithic white LEDs are containing in active region blue and green InGaN QWs grown with applying of the GIs and emitting in spectral range from 440 nm to 560 nm were studied. Monolithic white LEDs having optimal design of active region demonstrate CCT in the range of 9000-12000 K and maximal external quantum efficiency up to 14 lm/W. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Using containerless methods to develop amorphous pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J K R; Benmore, C J; Suthar, K J; Tamalonis, A J; Alderman, O L G; Sendelbach, S; Kondev, V; Yarger, J; Rey, C A; Byrn, S R

    2017-01-01

    Many pipeline drugs have low solubility in their crystalline state and require compounding in special dosage forms to increase bioavailability for oral administration. The use of amorphous formulations increases solubility and uptake of active pharmaceutical ingredients. These forms are rapidly gaining commercial importance for both pre-clinical and clinical use. Synthesis of amorphous drugs was performed using an acoustic levitation containerless processing method and spray drying. The structure of the products was investigated using in-situ high energy X-ray diffraction. Selected solvents for processing drugs were investigated using acoustic levitation. The stability of amorphous samples was measured using X-ray diffraction. Samples processed using both spray drying and containerless synthesis were compared. We review methods for making amorphous pharmaceuticals and present data on materials made by containerless processing and spray drying. It was shown that containerless processing using acoustic levitation can be used to make phase-pure forms of drugs that are known to be difficult to amorphize. The stability and structure of the materials was investigated in the context of developing and making clinically useful formulations. Amorphous compounds are emerging as an important component of drug development and for the oral delivery of drugs with low solubility. Containerless techniques can be used to efficiently synthesize small quantities of pure amorphous forms that are potentially useful in pre-clinical trials and for use in the optimization of clinical products. Developing new pharmaceutical products is an essential enterprise to improve patient outcomes. The development and application of amorphous pharmaceuticals to increase absorption is rapidly gaining importance and it provides opportunities for breakthrough research on new drugs. There is an urgent need to solve problems associated with making formulations that are both stable and that provide high

  4. Improvement of the physicochemical properties of Co-amorphous naproxen-indomethacin by naproxen-sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Andreas; Grohganz, Holger; Löbmann, Korbinian

    2017-01-01

    Improvement of the physicochemical properties of amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) applying the concept of co-amorphisation is a promising alternative to the use of polymer glass solutions. In co-amorphous systems, the physical stability and the dissolution rate of the involved c...... or full exchange of naproxen by its sodium salt was performed, which may present a general optimization method to improve co-amorphous systems....... In the present study, it was thus tested if the physicochemical properties of co-amorphous naproxen-indomethacin could be optimized by incorporation of the naproxen sodium into the system. Three different co-amorphous systems in nine different molar ratios were prepared by quench-cooling: naproxen...... components may be improved in comparison to the respective single amorphous phases. However, for the co-amorphous naproxen-indomethacin model system it has been reported that recrystallization could not be prevented for more than 112days regardless of the applied preparation method and blend ratio...

  5. Evaluation of phase separator number in hydrodesulfurization (HDS) unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanti, A. D.; Indarto, A.

    2016-11-01

    The removal process of acid gases such as H2S in natural gas processing industry is required in order to meet sales gas specification. Hydrodesulfurization (HDS)is one of the processes in the refinery that is dedicated to reduce sulphur.InHDS unit, phase separator plays important role to remove H2S from hydrocarbons, operated at a certain pressure and temperature. Optimization of the number of separator performed on the system is then evaluated to understand the performance and economics. From the evaluation, it shows that all systems were able to meet the specifications of H2S in the desired product. However, one separator system resulted the highest capital and operational costs. The process of H2S removal with two separator systems showed the best performance in terms of both energy efficiency with the lowest capital and operating cost. The two separator system is then recommended as a reference in the HDS unit to process the removal of H2S from natural gas.

  6. Synthesis and densification of Cu-coated Ni-based amorphous composite powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-Jin; Kim, Byoung-Kee; Kim, Jin-Chun

    2007-01-01

    Spherical Ni 57 Zr 20 Ti 16 Si 2 Sn 3 (numbers indicate at.%) amorphous powders were produced by the gas atomization process, and ductile Cu phase was coated on the Ni-based amorphous powders by the spray drying process in order to increase the ductility of the consolidated amorphous alloy. The characteristics of the as-prepared powders and the consolidation behaviors of Cu-coated Ni-based amorphous composite powders were investigated. The atomization was conducted at 1450 deg. C under the vacuum of 10 -2 mbar. The Ni-based amorphous powders and Cu nitrate solution were mixed and sprayed at temperature of 130 deg. C. After spray drying and reduction treatment, the sub-micron size Cu powders were coated successfully on the surface of the atomized Ni amorphous powders. The spark plasma sintering process was applied to study the densification behavior of the Cu-coated composite powders. Thickness of the Cu layer was less than 1 μm. The compacts obtained by SPS showed high relative density of over 98% and its hardness was over 800 Hv

  7. Investigation of phase separated polyimide blend films containing boron nitride using FTIR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Boknam; Hong, Deok Gi; Jung, Young Mee; Won, Jong Chan; Lee, Seung Woo

    2018-04-01

    Immiscible aromatic polyimide (PI) blend films and a PI blend film incorporated with thermally conductive boron nitride (BN) were prepared, and their phase separation behaviors were examined by optical microscopy and FTIR imaging. The 2,2‧-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzidine (TFMB)-containing and 4,4‧-thiodianiline (TDA)-containing aromatic PI blend films and a PI blend/BN composite film show two clearly separated regions; one region is the TFMB-rich phase, and the other region is the TDA-rich phase. The introduction of BN induces morphological changes in the immiscible aromatic PI blend film without altering the composition of either domain. In particular, the BN is selectively incorporated into the TDA-rich phase in this study.

  8. Synergistic extraction of transition metal cations from aqueous media by two separated organic phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, I.

    1991-12-01

    We have therefore initiated novel approaches to the study of the mechanism of the synergistic extraction of metal ions by means of two separated organic phases, which are brought in contact with the same aqueous phase. The present work is concerned with the extraction of transition metals and actinides ions from nitric acid by chelating agents e.g., HTTA thenoyltrifluoroacetone in a diluent - the first organic phase, and by natural donor, e.g., TBP, tri-butyl phosphate in a diluent the second organic phase. The adduct formation was studied by means of spectrochemical and radiochemical methods. In the first approach the aqueous phase was attacked with both organic phases simultanously (the static or parallel extraction). In this method organic phase are separated one from the other. It was shown that even in the absence of mixing, synergism is observed under this experimental conditions. The results indicate, that adduct formation occurs in both organic phases. Nevertheless the enhanchment of extraction in the TBP phase is by far greater than that in the HTTA containing phase. This approach has one disadvatage, viz., the experiments are very time consuming, a typical experiment requiring over 10 days. In order to overcome this difficulty, the following experiments were carried out: the aqueous phase were first shaken with diluent containing an anionic ligand and the phases were allowed to separate. Then the aqueous solution were shaken with diluent containing a netural donor and the phase again were allowed to separate. The concentration of the metal ions in all the phases were determined. The experiments were repeated with an other diluent replacing the first diluent in one or both organic phases. In this way eight sequences of experiments were carried out for each concentration set chosen. The results thus point out that this experimental approach open new possibilities to investigate the mechanism and the kinetics of synergistic extraction processes. (author) the

  9. Achievement report for fiscal 1984 on Sunshine Program-entrusted research and development. Research and development of amorphous solar cells (Research on amorphous silicon interface); 1984 nendo amorphous taiyo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Amorphous silicon no kaimen no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    As for the formation of amorphous semiconductors by photo-CVD (chemical vapor deposition) processes, details are examined of a-Si formed by the excimer laser-excited photo-CVD process, a-SiC formed by the directly excited photo-CVD process, a-SiGe formed by the mercury sensitized reaction photo-CVD process, and {mu}c-Si formed by the mercury-sensitized reaction photo-CVD process. It is then found that all of the said materials are superior to a product of the plasma CVD process in terms of film quality. As for the fabrication of amorphous Si solar cells by a photo-CVD process, a 3-separate-chamber unit is built, in which all the p-, I-, and n-layer are formed by photo-CVD. It is then found that the introduction of a buffer layer into the p/I interface is a powerful tool to enhance efficiency and that the use of the buffer zone brings about an increase of 9% or more in conversion efficiency. In the case of an amorphous solar cell using monosilane, buffer layer introduction results in a conversion efficiency of 9.05%. (NEDO)

  10. Phase transitions of ferromagnetic Ising films with amorphous surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, M.; Ainane, A.; Dujardin, F.; Stebe, B.

    1997-08-01

    The critical behavior of a ferromagnetic Ising film with amorphous surfaces is studied within the framework of the effective field theory. The dependence of the critical temperature on exchange interaction strength ratio, film thickness, and structural fluctuation parameter is presented. It is found that an order-disorder magnetic transition occurs by varying the thickness of the film. Such a result is in agreement with experiments performed recently on Fe-films. (author). 39 refs, 4 figs

  11. Properties of Amorphous Carbon Microspheres Synthesised by Palm Oil-CVD Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zobir, S. A. M.; Zainal, Z.; Sarijo, S. H.; Rusop, M.

    2011-01-01

    Amorphous carbon microspheres were synthesized using a dual-furnace chemical vapour deposition method at 800-1000 deg. C. Palm oil-based cooking oil (PO) and zinc nitrate solution was used as a carbon source and catalyst precursor, respectively with PO to zinc nitrate ratio of 30:20 (v/v) and a silicon wafer as the sample target. Regular microsphere shape of the amorphous carbons was obtained and a uniform microsphere structure improved as the carbonization temperature increased from 800 to 1000 deg. C. At 800 deg. C, no regular microspheres were formed but more uniform structure is observed at 900 deg. C. Generally the microspheres size is uniform when the heating temperature was increased to 1000 deg. C, but the presence of mixed sizes can still be observed. X-ray diffraction patterns show the presence of oxide of carbon, ZnO phase together with Zn oxalate phase. Raman spectra show two broad peaks characteristic to amorphous carbon at 1344 and 1582 cm -1 for the D and G bands, respectively. These bands become more prominent as the preparation temperature increased from 800 to 1000 deg. C. This is in agreement with the formation of amorphous carbon microspheres as shown by the FESEM study and other Zn-based phases as a result of the oxidation process of the palm oil as the carbon source and the zinc nitrate as the catalyst precursor, respectively.

  12. The second workshop on phase separation with ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osamura, K.; Furusaka, M.

    1993-04-01

    The second workshop on phase separation with ordering was held at the seminar room of Booster, National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, KEK, Tsukuba, in March 16-17, 1992. 31 participants attended this meeting. The structure and its dynamical change were discussed mainly in the experimental viewpoint, and the theories have been developed and the results of simulation were reported. (J.P.N.) 115 refs

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Membranes Formed by Nonsolvent Induced Phase Separation: A Review

    KAUST Repository

    Guillen, Gregory R.

    2011-04-06

    The methods and mechanisms of nonsolvent induced phase separation have been studied for more than fifty years. Today, phase inversion membranes are widely used in numerous chemical industries, biotechnology, and environmental separation processes. The body of knowledge has grown exponentially in the past fifty years, which suggests the need for a critical review of the literature. Here we present a review of nonsolvent induced phase separation membrane preparation and characterization for many commonly used membrane polymers. The key factors in membrane preparation discussed include the solvent type, polymer type and concentration, nonsolvent system type and composition, additives to the polymer solution, and film casting conditions. A brief introduction to membrane characterization is also given, which includes membrane porosity and pore size distribution characterization, membrane physical and chemical properties characterization, and thermodynamic and kinetic evaluation of the phase inversion process. One aim of this review is to lay out the basics for selecting polymer solvent nonsolvent systems with appropriate film casting conditions to produce membranes with the desired performance, morphology, and stability, and to choose the proper way to characterize these properties of nonsolvent induced phase inversion membranes. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. Phase separation and d-wave superconductivity induced by extended electron-exciton interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Ming [Department of Physics and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Road, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)], E-mail: cheng896@hotmail.com; Su Wupei [Department of Physics and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Road, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Using an auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo (AFQMC) method, we have studied a two-dimensional tight-binding model in which the conduction electrons can polarize an adjacent layer of molecules through electron-electron repulsion. Calculated average conduction electron density as a function of chemical potential exhibits a clear break characteristic of phase separation. Compared to the noninteracting system, the d-wave pair-field correlation function shows significant enhancement. The simultaneous presence of phase separation and d-wave superconductivity suggests that an effective extended pairing force is induced by the electron-exciton coupling.

  15. Phase separation and d-wave superconductivity induced by extended electron-exciton interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Ming; Su Wupei

    2008-01-01

    Using an auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo (AFQMC) method, we have studied a two-dimensional tight-binding model in which the conduction electrons can polarize an adjacent layer of molecules through electron-electron repulsion. Calculated average conduction electron density as a function of chemical potential exhibits a clear break characteristic of phase separation. Compared to the noninteracting system, the d-wave pair-field correlation function shows significant enhancement. The simultaneous presence of phase separation and d-wave superconductivity suggests that an effective extended pairing force is induced by the electron-exciton coupling

  16. Separable pairing force for relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yuan; Ma Zhongyu; Ring, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We have introduced a separable pairing force, which was adjusted to reproduce the pairing properties of the Gogny force in nuclear matter. This separable pairing force is able to describe in relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) calculations the pairing properties in the ground state of finite nuclei on almost the same footing as the original Gogny interaction. In this work we investigate excited states using the Relativistic Quasiparticle Random-Phase Approximation (RQRPA) with the same separable pairing force. For consistency the Goldstone modes and the convergence with various cutoff parameters in this version of RQRPA are studied. The first excited 2 + states for the chain of Sn isotopes with Z=50 and the chain of isotones with N=82 isotones are calculated in RQRPA together with the 3 - states of Sn isotopes. By comparing our results with experimental data and with the results of the original Gogny force we find that this simple separable pairing interaction is very successful in depicting the pairing properties of vibrational excitations.

  17. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of amorphous Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nóbrega, E.P., E-mail: pilad@cbpf.br; Costa, S.S.; Alvarenga, T.S.T.; Alho, B.P.; Caldas, A.; Ribeiro, P.O.; Sousa, V.S.R de; Oliveira, N.A. de; Ranke, P.J. von

    2017-01-15

    We report a theoretical model formed by two coupled magnetic sublattices of localized spins in the presence of an applied magnetic field to investigate the magnetic characteristics and magnetocaloric properties of amorphous yttrium iron garnet. The magnetic state equation is based on Handrich–Kobe´s theory, where the amorphization is taken into account by introducing fluctuations in the exchange parameters. Experimental results report that Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} presents a structural phase transition from crystalline to amorphous caused by a variation of external pressure. This phase transition on Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} leads to interesting results in the magnetic properties and magnetocaloric quantities. - Highlights: • Study of magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of amorphous Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} compound. • Theoretical model formed by two coupled magnetic sublattices of localized spins in the presence of an applied magnetic field. • The influence of crystalline/amorphous transition on the magnetocaloric effect.

  18. Stabilization of iron and molybdenum amorphous state with interstitials under high rates of cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barmin, Yu.V.; Vavilova, V.V.; Verevkin, A.G.; Gertsen, A.T.; Kovneristyj, Yu.K.; Kotyurgin, E.A.; Mirkin, B.V.; Palij, N.A.

    1993-01-01

    Amorphous solidification of iron and molybdenum is investigated in thin films and on surface laser irradiated on air at 10 12 and 10 8 /Ks cooling rates correspondingly. Amorphous solidification occurs during ion plasma spraying in thin films of 50 nm at saturation of carbon and oxygen atoms in the ratio of C:0=2.3, but amorphous state is absent at room temperature. Metastable fcc phase, among bcc, is formed by crystallization

  19. High density amorphous ice and its phase transition to ice XII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohl, I.

    2001-07-01

    1998 Lobban et al. reported the neutron diffraction data of a new phase of ice, called ice XII, which formed at 260 K on compression of water within the domain of ice V at a pressure of 0.5 GPa. Surprisingly ice XII forms as an incidental product in the preparation of high-density amorphous ice (HDA) on compression of hexagonale ice (ice Ih) at 77 K up to pressures = 1.3 GPa. A decisive experimental detail is the use of an indium container: when compressing ice Ih in a pressure vessel with indium linings, then reproducibly HDA (high density amorphous ice) forms, but without indium randomly scattered relative amounts of ice XII and HDA form. Ice XII forms on compression of ice Ih at 77 K only via HDA, and not directly from ice Ih. Its formation requires a sudden pronounced apparent pressure drop of ca 0.18 GPa at pressures ca 1.1 GPa. These apparent pressure drops can be caused by buildup friction between the piston and the pressure vessel and its sudden release on further compression. I propose that shock-waves generated by apparent pressure drops cause transient local heating and that this induces nucleation and crystal growth. A specific reproducible method to prepare ice XII is heating HDA in a pressure vessel with indium linings at constant pressures (or constant volume). The ice XII (meta-)stability domain extends between ca 158 and 212 K from ca 0.7 to ca 1.5 GPa. DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) and x-ray powder diffraction revealed, that on heating at atmospheric pressure ice XII transforms directly into cubic ice (ice Ic) at 154 K (heating rate 10 K min - 1) and not into an amorphous form before transition to ice Ic. The enthalpy of the ice XII - ice Ic transition is -1.21 ± 0.07 kJ mol -1 . An estimation of the Gibbs free energy at atmospheric pressure and about 140 K results that ice XII is thermodynamically more stable than ice VI. In the heating curve of ice XII a reversible endothermic step can be found at the onset temperature (heating rate

  20. Effect of γ-(Fe,Ni) crystal-size stabilization in Fe-Ni-B amorphous ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshenkov, M. V.; Glezer, A. M.; Korchuganova, O. A.; Aleev, A. A.; Shurygina, N. A.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of stabilizing crystal size in a melt-quenched amorphous Fe50Ni33B17 ribbon is described upon crystallization in a temperature range of 360-400°C. The shape, size, volume fraction, and volume density have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. The formation of an amorphous layer of the Fe50Ni29B21 compound was found by means of atomic-probe tomography at the boundary of the crystallite-amorphous phase. The stabilization of crystal sizes during annealing is due to the formation of a barrier amorphous layer that has a crystallization temperature that exceeds the crystallization temperature of the matrix amorphous alloy.

  1. Amorphous and nanocrystalline phase formation in highly-driven Al-based binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalay, Yunus Eren

    2008-01-01

    Remarkable advances have been made since rapid solidification was first introduced to the field of materials science and technology. New types of materials such as amorphous alloys and nanostructure materials have been developed as a result of rapid solidification techniques. While these advances are, in many respects, ground breaking, much remains to be discerned concerning the fundamental relationships that exist between a liquid and a rapidly solidified solid. The scope of the current dissertation involves an extensive set of experimental, analytical, and computational studies designed to increase the overall understanding of morphological selection, phase competition, and structural hierarchy that occurs under far-from equilibrium conditions. High pressure gas atomization and Cu-block melt-spinning are the two different rapid solidification techniques applied in this study. The research is mainly focused on Al-Si and Al-Sm alloy systems. Silicon and samarium produce different, yet favorable, systems for exploration when alloyed with aluminum under far-from equilibrium conditions. One of the main differences comes from the positions of their respective T 0 curves, which makes Al-Si a good candidate for solubility extension while the plunging T 0 line in Al-Sm promotes glass formation. The rapidly solidified gas-atomized Al-Si powders within a composition range of 15 to 50 wt% Si are examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The non-equilibrium partitioning and morphological selection observed by examining powders at different size classes are described via a microstructure map. The interface velocities and the amount of undercooling present in the powders are estimated from measured eutectic spacings based on Jackson-Hunt (JH) and Trivedi-Magnin-Kurz (TMK) models, which permit a direct comparison of theoretical predictions. For an average particle size of 10 (micro)m with a Peclet number of ∼0.2, JH and TMK deviate from each other. This

  2. Structural studies of amorphous Mo-Ge alloys using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortright, J.B.

    1984-06-01

    Structural changes in sputtered amorphous Mo-Ge alloy films with composition varying from a-Ge to about 70 at. % Mo have been studied with several x-ray techniques. Results of individual techniques are presented and discussed in separate chapters. The complementary nature of information obtained from EXAFS and scattering for these materials is discussed in a separate chapter. A concluding chapter summarizes the results and structural changes with composition

  3. Stability of (Fe-Tm-B) amorphous alloys: relaxation and crystallization phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemcik, T.

    1994-01-01

    Fe-Tm-B base (TM = transition metal) amorphous alloys (metallic glasses) are thermodynamically metastable. This limits their use as otherwise favourable materials, e.g. magnetically soft, corrosion resistant and mechanically firm. By analogy of the mechanical strain-stress dependence, at a certain degree of thermal activation the amorphous structure reaches its limiting state where it changes its character and physical properties. Relaxation and early crystallization processes in amorphous alloys, starting already around 100 C, are reviewed involving subsequently stress relief, free volume shrinking, topological and chemical ordering, pre-crystallization phenomena up to partial (primary) crystallization. Two diametrically different examples are demonstrated from among the soft magnetic materials: relaxation and early crystallization processes in the Fe-Co-B metallic glasses and controlled crystallization of amorphous ribbons yielding rather modern nanocrystalline ''Finemet'' alloys where late relaxation and pre-crystallization phenomena overlap when forming extremely dispersive and fine-grained nanocrystals-in-amorphous-sauce structure. Moessbauer spectroscopy seems to be unique for magnetic and phase analysis of such complicated systems. (orig.)

  4. Precipitation phase separation schemes in the Naqu River basin, eastern Tibetan plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaohua; Yan, Denghua; Qin, Tianling; Weng, Baisha; Lu, Yajing; Dong, Guoqiang; Gong, Boya

    2018-01-01

    Precipitation phase has a profound influence on the hydrological processes in the Naqu River basin, eastern Tibetan plateau. However, there are only six meteorological stations with precipitation phase (rainfall/snowfall/sleet) before 1979 within and around the basin. In order to separate snowfall from precipitation, a new separation scheme with S-shaped curve of snowfall proportion as an exponential function of daily mean temperature was developed. The determinations of critical temperatures in the single/two temperature threshold (STT/TTT2) methods were explored accordingly, and the temperature corresponding to the 50 % snowfall proportion (SP50 temperature) is an efficiently critical temperature for the STT, and two critical temperatures in TTT2 can be determined based on the exponential function and SP50 temperature. Then, different separation schemes were evaluated in separating snowfall from precipitation in the Naqu River basin. The results show that the S-shaped curve methods outperform other separation schemes. Although the STT and TTT2 slightly underestimate and overestimate the snowfall when the temperature is higher and colder than SP50 temperature respectively, the monthly and annual separation snowfalls are generally consistent with the observed snowfalls. On the whole, S-shaped curve methods, STT, and TTT2 perform well in separating snowfall from precipitation with the Pearson correlation coefficient of annual separation snowfall above 0.8 and provide possible approaches to separate the snowfall from precipitation for hydrological modelling.

  5. Fabrication of PVDF-based blend membrane with a thin hydrophilic deposition layer and a network structure supporting layer via the thermally induced phase separation followed by non-solvent induced phase separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiguo; Cui, Zhenyu; Li, Tianyu; Qin, Shuhao; He, Benqiao; Han, Na; Li, Jianxin

    2017-10-01

    A simple strategy of thermally induced phase separation followed by non-solvent induced phase separation (TIPS-NIPS) is reported to fabricate poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based blend membrane. The dissolved poly (styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (SMA) in diluent prevents the crystallization of PVDF during the cooling process and deposites on the established PVDF matrix in the later extraction. Compared with traditional coating technique, this one-step TIPS-NIPS method can not only fabricate a supporting layer with an interconnected network structure even via solid-liquid phase separation of TIPS, but also form a uniform SMA skin layer approximately as thin as 200 nm via surface deposition of NIPS. Besides the better hydrophilicity, what's interesting is that the BSA rejection ratio increases from 48% to 94% with the increase of SMA, which indicates that the separation performance has improved. This strategy can be conveniently extended to the creation of firmly thin layer, surface functionalization and structure controllability of the membrane.

  6. Radiation amorphization of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neklyudov, I.M.; Chernyaeva, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    The results of experimental and theoretical research on radiation amorphization are presented in this analytical review. Mechanism and driving forces of radiation amorphization are described, kinetic and thermodynamic conditions of amorphization are formulated. Compositional criteria of radiation amorphization are presented, that allow to predict irradiation behaviour of materials, their tendency to radiation amorphization. Mechanism of transition from crystalline state to amorphous state are considered depending on dose, temperature, structure of primary radiation damage and flux level. (author). 134 refs., 4 tab., 25 fig

  7. Methods of amorphization and investigation of the amorphous state

    OpenAIRE

    EINFALT, TOMAŽ; PLANINŠEK, ODON; HROVAT, KLEMEN

    2013-01-01

    The amorphous form of pharmaceutical materials represents the most energetic solid state of a material. It provides advantages in terms of dissolution rate and bioavailability. This review presents the methods of solid-state amorphization described in literature (supercooling of liquids, milling, lyophilization, spray drying, dehydration of crystalline hydrates), with the emphasis on milling. Furthermore, we describe how amorphous state of pharmaceuticals differ depending on method of prepara...

  8. Polyamorphism in Water: Amorphous Ices and their Glassy States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann-Winkel, K.; Boehmer, R.; Fujara, F.; Gainaru, C.; Geil, B.; Loerting, T.

    2015-12-01

    Water is ubiquitous and of general importance for our environment. But it is also known as the most anomalous liquid. The fundamental origin of the numerous anomalies of water is still under debate. An understanding of these anomalous properties of water is closely linked to an understanding of the phase diagram of the metastable non-crystalline states of ice. The process of pressure induced amorphization of ice was first observed by Mishima et al. [1]. The authors pressurized hexagonal ice at 77 K up to a pressure of 1.6 GPa to form high density amorphous ice (HDA). So far three distinct structural states of amorphous water are known [2], they are called low- (LDA), high- (HDA) and very high density amorphous ice (VHDA). Since the discovery of multiple distinct amorphous states it is controversy discussed whether this phenomenon of polyamorphism at high pressures is connected to the occurrence of more than one supercooled liquid phase [3]. Alternatively, amorphous ices have been suggested to be of nanocrystalline nature, unrelated to liquids. Indeed inelastic X-ray scattering measurements indicate sharp crystal-like phonons in the amorphous ices [4]. In case of LDA the connection to the low-density liquid (LDL) was inferred from several experiments including the observation of a calorimetric glass-to-liquid transition at 136 K and ambient pressure [5]. Recently also the glass transition in HDA was observed at 116 K at ambient pressure [6] and at 140 K at elevated pressure of 1 GPa [7], using calorimetric measurements as well as dielectric spectroscopy. We discuss here the general importance of amorphous ices and their liquid counterparts and present calorimetric and dielectric measurements on LDA and HDA. The good agreement between dielectric and calorimetric results convey for a clearer picture of water's vitrification phenomenon. [1] O. Mishima, L. D. Calvert, and E. Whalley, Nature 314, 76, 1985 [2] D.T. Bowron, J. L. Finney, A. Hallbrucker, et al., J. Chem

  9. Tungsten oxide nanowires grown on amorphous-like tungsten films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellasega, D; Pezzoli, A; Russo, V; Passoni, M; Pietralunga, S M; Nasi, L; Conti, C; Vahid, M J; Tagliaferri, A

    2015-01-01

    Tungsten oxide nanowires have been synthesized by vacuum annealing in the range 500–710 °C from amorphous-like tungsten films, deposited on a Si(100) substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in the presence of a He background pressure. The oxygen required for the nanowires formation is already adsorbed in the W matrix before annealing, its amount depending on deposition parameters. Nanowire crystalline phase and stoichiometry depend on annealing temperature, ranging from W_1_8O_4_9-Magneli phase to monoclinic WO_3. Sufficiently long annealing induces the formation of micrometer-long nanowires, up to 3.6 μm with an aspect ratio up to 90. Oxide nanowire growth appears to be triggered by the crystallization of the underlying amorphous W film, promoting their synthesis at low temperatures. (paper)

  10. Amorphous germanium as an electron or hole blocking contact on high-purity germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.

    1976-10-01

    Experiments were performed in an attempt to make thin n + contacts on high-purity germanium by the solid phase/sup 1)/ epitaxial regrowth of arsenic doped amorphous germanium. After cleaning the crystal surface with argon sputtering and trying many combinations of layers, it was not found possible to induce recrystallization below 400 0 C. However, it was found that simple thermally evaporated amorphous Ge made fairly good electron or hole blocking contacts. Excellent spectrometers have been made with amorphous Ge replacing the n + contact. As presently produced, the amorphous Ge contact diodes show a large variation in high-voltage leakage current

  11. The enhancement of the interdiffusion in Si/Ge amorphous artificial multilayers by additions of B and Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, B.; Spaepen, F.; Poate, J.M.; Jacobson, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    Amorphous Si/amorphous Ge artificial multilayers were prepared by ion beam sputtering. Boron or gold impurities were introduced into the Si/Ge multilayers by ion implantation or during the sputtering deposition. Diffusion coefficients were determined by measuring the decrease in the intensity of the first order X-ray diffraction peak resulting from the composition modulation. It was found that the interdiffusion of Si and Ge in their amorphous phase can be enhanced by doping. The enhancement factor is independent of the degree of structural relaxation, as observed by the decrease of diffusivity with annealing time, of the amorphous phase. A model is proposed that describes this behavior in terms of electronic effects, introduced by the dopants, on the pre-existing structural defects governing diffusion

  12. Effect of the Hartmann number on phase separation controlled by magnetic field for binary mixture system with large component ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heping, Wang; Xiaoguang, Li; Duyang, Zang; Rui, Hu; Xingguo, Geng

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents an exploration for phase separation in a magnetic field using a coupled lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The left vertical wall was kept at a constant magnetic field. Simulations were conducted by the strong magnetic field to enhance phase separation and increase the size of separated phases. The focus was on the effect of magnetic intensity by defining the Hartmann number (Ha) on the phase separation properties. The numerical investigation was carried out for different governing parameters, namely Ha and the component ratio of the mixed liquid. The effective morphological evolutions of phase separation in different magnetic fields were demonstrated. The patterns showed that the slant elliptical phases were created by increasing Ha, due to the formation and increase of magnetic torque and force. The dataset was rearranged for growth kinetics of magnetic phase separation in a plot by spherically averaged structure factor and the ratio of separated phases and total system. The results indicate that the increase in Ha can increase the average size of separated phases and accelerate the spinodal decomposition and domain growth stages. Specially for the larger component ratio of mixed phases, the separation degree was also significantly improved by increasing magnetic intensity. These numerical results provide guidance for setting the optimum condition for the phase separation induced by magnetic field.

  13. Chemical states and optical properties of thermally evaporated Ge-Te and Ge-Sb-Te amorphous thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.; Singh, D.; Shandhu, S. [Semiconductor Laboratory, Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University Amritsar (India); Thangaraj, R., E-mail: rthangaraj@rediffmail.com [Semiconductor Laboratory, Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University Amritsar (India)

    2012-07-15

    Thin amorphous films of Ge{sub 22}Sb{sub 22}Te{sub 56} and Ge{sub 50}Te{sub 50} have been prepared from their respective polycrystalline bulk on glass substrates by thermal evaporation technique. The amorphous nature of the films was checked with X-ray diffraction studies. Amorphous-to-crystalline transition of the films has been induced by thermal annealing and the structural phases have been identified by X-ray diffraction. The phase transformation temperature of the films was evaluated by temperature dependent sheet resistance measurement. The chemical structure of the amorphous films has been investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the role of Sb in phase change Ge{sub 22}Sb{sub 22}Te{sub 56} film is discussed. Survey and core level (Ge 3d, Te 3d, Te 4d, Sb 3p, Sb 3d, O 1s, C 1s) band spectra has been recorded and analyzed. For optical studies, the transmittance and the reflectance spectra were measured over the wavelength ranges 400-2500 nm using UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. The optical band gap, refractive index and extinction coefficient are also presented for thermally evaporated amorphous thin films.

  14. Phase development of the ZrO 2-ZnO system during the thermal treatments of amorphous precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štefanić, Goran; Musić, Svetozar; Ivanda, Mile

    2009-04-01

    Thermal behavior of the amorphous precursors of the ZrO 2-ZnO system on the ZrO 2-rich side of the concentration range, co-precipitated from aqueous solutions of the corresponding salts, was monitored using X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The crystallization temperature of the amorphous precursors increased with an increase in the ZnO content, from 457 °C (0 mol% ZnO) to 548 °C (25 mol% ZnO). Maximum solubility of Zn 2+ ions in the ZrO 2 lattice (˜25 mol%) occurred in the metastable products obtained upon crystallization of the amorphous precursors. Raman spectroscopy indicates that the incorporation of Zn 2+ ions can partially stabilize only the tetragonal ZrO 2. A precise determination of unit-cell parameters of the t-ZrO 2-type solid solutions, using both Rietveld and Le Bail refinements of the powder diffraction patterns, shows that the increase in the Zn 2+ content causes a decrease in c-ax, which in a solid solution with a Zn 2+ content above 20 mol% approaches very closely a-ax. The thermal treatment of the crystallization products (up to 1000 °C) leads to a rapid decrease in the terminal solid solubility limit of Zn 2+ ions in the ZrO 2 lattice that is followed by the partial evaporation of zinc, the formation of and increase in phases structurally closely related to zincite and monoclinic ZrO 2. The results of micro-structural analysis indicate that the presence of ZnO promotes the sintering of the ZrO 2 crystallization products.

  15. The crystallization of amorphous Fe2MnGe powder prepared by ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.; Brueck, E.; Tegus, O.; Buschow, K.H.J.; Boer, F.R. de

    2003-01-01

    We synthesized for the first time the intermetallic compound Fe 2 MnGe. To avoid preferential evaporation of volatile components we exploited mechanical alloying. Amorphous Fe 2 MnGe alloy powder was prepared by planetary ball milling elemental starting materials. The amorphous-to-crystalline transition was studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A cubic D0 3 phase is formed at low temperature and transforms to a high-temperature hexagonal D0 19 phase. The apparent activation energy was determined by means of the Kissinger method

  16. Lower critical solution temperature (LCST) phase separation of glycol ethers for forward osmotic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Daichi; Mok, Yeongbong; Noh, Minwoo; Park, Jeongseon; Kang, Sunyoung; Lee, Yan

    2014-03-21

    Lower critical solution temperature (LCST) phase transition of glycol ether (GE)-water mixtures induces an abrupt change in osmotic pressure driven by a mild temperature change. The temperature-controlled osmotic change was applied for the forward osmosis (FO) desalination. Among three GEs evaluated, di(ethylene glycol) n-hexyl ether (DEH) was selected as a potential FO draw solute. A DEH-water mixture with a high osmotic pressure could draw fresh water from a high-salt feed solution such as seawater through a semipermeable membrane at around 10 °C. The water-drawn DEH-water mixture was phase-separated into a water-rich phase and a DEH-rich phase at around 30 °C. The water-rich phase with a much reduced osmotic pressure released water into a low-salt solution, and the DEH-rich phase was recovered into the initial DEH-water mixture. The phase separation behaviour, the residual GE concentration in the water-rich phase, the osmotic pressure of the DEH-water mixture, and the osmotic flux between the DEH-water mixture and salt solutions were carefully analysed for FO desalination. The liquid-liquid phase separation of the GE-water mixture driven by the mild temperature change between 10 °C and 30 °C is very attractive for the development of an ideal draw solute for future practical FO desalination.

  17. Polymeric microsieves via phase separation microfabrication: Process and design optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikel, M.; Culfaz, P.Z.; Bolhuis-Versteeg, Lydia A.M.; Perez, J. Garduno; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Wessling, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Phase separation microfabrication (PSμF) is a fabrication method that allows the preparation of membranes having micropattern surface topologies. PSμF has been successfully used for manufacturing polymeric microsieves. The technique benefits from the vertical shrinkage of polymer solutions to ensure

  18. Amorphous Ti-Zr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinkin, A.; Liebermann, H.; Pounds, S.; Taylor, T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is the first report on processing, properties and potential application of amorphous titanium/zirconium-base alloys produced in the form of a good quality continuous and ductile ribbon having up to 12.5 mm width. To date, the majority of titanium brazing is accomplished using cooper and aluminum-base brazing filler metals. The brazements produced with these filler metals have rather low (∼300 degrees C) service temperature, thus impeding progress in aircraft and other technologies and industries. The attempt to develop a generation of high temperature brazing filler metals was made in the late sixties-early seventies studies in detail were a large number of Ti-, Zr-Ti-Zr, Ti-V and Zr-V-Ti based alloys. The majority of these alloys has copper and nickel as melting temperature depressants. The presence of nickel and copper converts them into eutectic alloys having [Ti(Zr)] [Cu(Ni)], intermetallic phases as major structural constituents. This, in turn, results in high alloy brittleness and poor, if any, processability by means of conventional, i.e. melting-ingot casting-deformation technology. In spite of good wettability and high joint strength achieved in dozens of promising alloys, only Ti-15Cu-15Ni is now widely used as a brazing filler metal for high service temperature. Up until now this material could not be produced as a homogeneous foil and is instead applied as a clad strip consisting of three separate metallic layers

  19. Controlled Topological Transitions in Thin-Film Phase Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Hennessy, Matthew G.; Burlakov, Victor M.; Goriely, Alain; Wagner, Barbara; Mü nch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. In this paper the evolution of a binary mixture in a thin-film geometry with a wall at the top and bottom is considered. By bringing the mixture into its miscibility gap so that no spinodal decomposition occurs in the bulk, a slight energetic bias of the walls toward each one of the constituents ensures the nucleation of thin boundary layers that grow until the constituents have moved into one of the two layers. These layers are separated by an interfacial region where the composition changes rapidly. Conditions that ensure the separation into two layers with a thin interfacial region are investigated based on a phase-field model. Using matched asymptotic expansions a corresponding sharp-interface problem for the location of the interface is established. It is then argued that this newly created two-layer system is not at its energetic minimum but destabilizes into a controlled self-replicating pattern of trapezoidal vertical stripes by minimizing the interfacial energy between the phases while conserving their area. A quantitative analysis of this mechanism is carried out via a thin-film model for the free interfaces, which is derived asymptotically from the sharp-interface model.

  20. Structural, optical and mechanical properties of amorphous and crystalline alumina thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayar, Priyanka [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Khanna, Atul, E-mail: akphysics@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Kabiraj, D.; Abhilash, S.R. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Beake, Ben D.; Losset, Yannick [Micro Materials Limited, Unit 3, Wrexham Technology Park, Wrexham LL13 7YP (United Kingdom); Chen, Banghao [Chemistry and Biochemistry Department, Florida State University, Tallahassee 32306 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Thin films of amorphous alumina of thickness 350 nm were deposited on fused silica substrates by electron beam evaporation. Amorphous films were annealed at several temperatures in the range: 400–1130 °C and changes in film crystallinity, short-range structure, optical and mechanical properties were studied. X-ray diffraction studies found that crystallization starts at 800 °C and produces γ and δ-alumina, the latter phase grows with heat treatment and the sample was mostly δ and θ-alumina after annealing at 1130 °C. The as-deposited amorphous alumina films have low hardness of 5 to 8 GPa, which increases to 11 to 12 GPa in crystalline sample. {sup 27}Al Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance was used to study the short-range order of amorphous and crystalline alumina films and it was found that amorphous alumina film contains AlO{sub 5} and AlO{sub 4} structural units in the ratio of 1:2. The concentration of AlO{sub 5} was significantly suppressed in crystalline film, which contains 48% of Al{sup 3+} ions in AlO{sub 6}, 7% in AlO{sub 5} and 45% in AlO{sub 4} units. - Highlights: • Structure–property correlations in alumina films grown by electron-beam evaporation • Amorphous films crystallize into γ and δ-alumina on annealing in air at 800 °C. • δ and θ-alumina films are stable up to 1130 °C and do not transform to α-phase. • Amorphous alumina films contain {sup [5]}Al and {sup [4]}Al structural units in the ratio of 1:2. • {sup [5]}Al decreases whereas {sup [6]}Al concentration increases on crystallization.

  1. Local order origin of thermal stability enhancement in amorphous Ag doping GeTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, L.; Li, Y.; Yu, N. N.; Zhong, Y. P.; Miao, X. S., E-mail: miaoxs@mail.hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2015-01-19

    We demonstrate the impacts of Ag doping on the local atomic structure of amorphous GeTe phase-change material. The variations of phonon vibrational modes, boding nature, and atomic structure are shown by Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ab initio calculation. Combining the experiments and simulations, we observe that the number of Ge atoms in octahedral site decreases and that in tetrahedral site increases. This modification in local order of GeTe originating from the low valence element will affect the crystallization behavior of amorphous GeTe, which is verified by differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscope results. This work not only gives the analysis on the structural change of GeTe with Ag dopants but also provides a method to enhance the thermal stability of amorphous phase-change materials for memory and brain-inspired computing applications.

  2. Silicon Monoxide at 1 atm and Elevated Pressures: Crystalline or Amorphous?

    KAUST Repository

    AlKaabi, Khalid

    2014-03-05

    The absence of a crystalline SiO phase under ordinary conditions is an anomaly in the sequence of group 14 monoxides. We explore theoretically ordered ground-state and amorphous structures for SiO at P = 1 atm, and crystalline phases also at pressures up to 200 GPa. Several competitive ground-state P = 1 atm structures are found, perforce with Si-Si bonds, and possessing Si-O-Si bridges similar to those in silica (SiO2) polymorphs. The most stable of these static structures is enthalpically just a little more stable than a calculated random bond model of amorphous SiO. In that model we find no segregation into regions of amorphous Si and amorphous SiO2. The P = 1 atm structures are all semiconducting. As the pressure is increased, intriguing new crystalline structures evolve, incorporating Si triangular nets or strips and stishovite-like regions. A heat of formation of crystalline SiO is computed; it is found to be the most negative of all the group 14 monoxides. Yet, given the stability of SiO2, the disproportionation 2SiO (s) → Si(s)+SiO2(s) is exothermic, falling right into the series of group 14 monoxides, and ranging from a highly negative ΔH of disproportionation for CO to highly positive for PbO. There is no major change in the heat of disproportionation with pressure, i.e., no range of stability of SiO with respect to SiO2. The high-pressure SiO phases are metallic. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  3. Are separate-phase thermal-hydraulic models better than mixture-fluid approaches? It depends. Rather not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeld, A.

    2004-01-01

    The thermal-hydraulic theory of single- and especially two-phase flow systems used for plant transient analysis is dominated by separate-phase models. The corresponding mostly very comprehensive codes (TRAC, RELAP, CATHARE, ATHLET etc.) are looked as to be by far more efficient than a 3 eq. mixture-fluid approach and code also if they show deficiencies in describing flow situations within inner loops as for example the distribution into parallel channels (and thus the simulation of 3D thermal-hydraulic phenomena). This may be justified if comparing them to the very simple 'homogeneous equilibrium models (HEM)', but not if looking to the more refined non-homogeneous 'separate-region' mixture-fluid approaches based on appropriate drift-flux correlation packages which can have, on the contrary, enormous advantages with respect to such separate-phase models. Especially if comparing the basic (and starting) eqs. of such theoretical models of both types the differences are remarkable. Single-phase and mixture-fluid models start from genuine conservation eqs. for mass, energy and momentum, demanding (in case of two-phase flow) additionally an adequate drift flux package (in order to get a relation for a fourth independent variable), a heat transfer coefficients package (over the whole range of the possible fields of application) and correlations for single- and two-phase friction. The other types of models are looking at each phase separately with corresponding 'field' eqs. for each phase, connected by exchange (=closure) terms which substitute the classical constitutive packages for drift, heat transfer and friction. That the drift-flux, heat transfer into a coolant channel and friction along a wall and between the phases is described better by a separate-phase approach is at least doubtful. The corresponding mixture-fluid correlations are based over a wide range on a treasure of experience and measurements, their pseudo-stationary treatment can (due to their small time

  4. [Separation and determination of eight plant hormones by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, N; Hou, S; Shao, X; He, Y; Zhao, G

    1998-09-01

    In this paper, reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic technique was used for the separation and determination of eight plant hormones. Methanol-water-acetic acid system was chosen as the mobile phase. The effects of different separation conditions, such as the methanol and acetic acid concentrations in mobile phase, on the retention behaviours of eight plant hormones in this system were studied. The general trends in retention behaviours could be correlated to the methanol concentration in mobile phase. The experimental results showed that the optimum separation was achieved with following gradient elution condition: 0-3 minutes, 70% (water percentage in mobile phase), 3-13 minutes, 70%-20%, 13-48 minutes, 20%. Benzene was added to be as the internal standard. Under this experimental condition, the eight plant hormones could be separated completely and detected quantitatively at 260 nm within 16 minutes. The calibration curves for the eight compounds gave linearity over a wide range. The correlation coefficients of each components were r(ZT) = 0.9971, r(GAs) = 0.9999, r(K) = 0.9997, r(BA) = 0.9995, r(IAA) = 0.9998, r(IPA) = 0.9982, r(IBA) = 0.9995 and r(NAA) = 0.9995. The method is rapid, simple and efficient. It is a suitable method for the accurate determination of gibberellic acid (GA) and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (alpha-NAA) in products for agricultural use.

  5. Silk fibroin gelation via non-solvent induced phase separation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasoju, Naresh; Hawkins, N.; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Kubies, Dana; Vollrath, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 3 (2016), s. 460-473 ISSN 2047-4830 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0029; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : silk fibroin * non-solvent induced phase separation * desolvation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.210, year: 2016

  6. Ion-induced damage and amorphization in Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, O.W.; White, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    Ion-induced damage growth in high-energy, self-ion irradiated Si was studied using electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. The results show that there is a marked variation in the rate of damage growth, as well as the damage morphology, along the path of the ion. Near the ion end-of-range (eor), damage increases monotonically with ion fluence until a buried amorphous layer is formed, while damage growth saturates at a low level in the region ahead. The morphology of the damage in the saturated region is shown to consist predominantly of simple defect clusters such as the divacancy. Damage growth remains saturated ahead of the eor until expansion of the buried amorphous layer encroaches into the region. A homogeneous growth model is presented which accounts for damage saturation, and accurately predicts the dose-rate dependence of the saturation level. Modifications of the model are discussed which are needed to account for the rapid growth in the eor region and near the interface of the buried amorphous layer. Two important factors contributing to rapid damage growth are identified. Spatial separation of the Frenkel defect pairs (i.e. interstitials and vacancies) due to the momentum of the interstitials is shown to greatly impact damage growth near the eor, while uniaxial strain in the interfacial region of the amorphous layer is identified as an important factor contributing to growth at that location. 20 refs., 10 figs

  7. Phase separation temperatures of a liquid mixture: Dynamic light scattering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dangudom, K.; Wongtawatnugool, C.; Lacharojana, S.

    2010-01-01

    Light scattering intensity measurements and photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) techniques were employed in an investigation of liquid-liquid phase separation behaviour of a mixture of cyclohexane and methanol at seven different compositions. It was found that, except for one composition (29% methanol), the temperature at which the scattering intensity was a maximum did not coincide with the one where the diffusion coefficient was a minimum, as would be for the case of a vapour-liquid system. The difference may be explained in terms of the local density fluctuation and the random walk problem responsible for the peak intensity and the minimum in the diffusion coefficient, respectively. The definition of phase separation temperature, as determined from diffusion process, was also proposed in this work.

  8. Amorphous-to-crystalline phase transformation by neutron irradiation of the alloy Fe83B17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, J.; Gabris, F.; Cerven, I.; Sitek, J.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to investigate the structural changes of amorphous Fe 83 B 17 alloy after irradiation with fast neutrons ( > 1 MeV) and to compare with the crystallization behaviour of the amorphous Fe 83 B 17 alloy after annealing. The structural changes were studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction with the usual Fourier analysis. (author)

  9. The nucleation and growth of intermetallic Al-Pt phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, A.; Barna, P.B.; Labar, J. l.

    2002-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of intermetallic Al-Pt phases on amorphous carbon was investigated by half shadow technique in co-deposited thin films. In such experimental condition, the composition of the deposited films varied in the range of Al x Pt 1-x (0≤x≤0.6). The coexistence of Al 5 Pt, Al 2 Pt, Al 3 Pt 2 intermetallic phases have been found in the whole range with varying ratio. Vapour depositions were performed in an UHV system. The Al and Pt components were evaporated simultaneously onto amorphous carbon layer supported by TEM micro-grids. Deposition rates were controlled separately by quartz crystal monitors. Substrate temperature during deposition was 350 grad C. A special evaporation arrangement made possible to create a half shadow area on the substrate in which the quantity one of the components increased from zero to the wanted composition of the sample. The composition of the zones was determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) in TEM. The intermetallic phases developed in the sample were investigated by analytical TEM (Philips CM20) and high resolution TEM (JEOL 3010 UHR). The electron diffraction patterns have been evaluated by ProcessDiffraction program. (Authors)

  10. Crystallization characteristics of amorphous alloys of FeZr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhan, M. Idrus; Grundy, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The crystallization characteristics of sputter-deposited amorphous alloys of Fe 100-x Zr x prepared at zirconium concentrations between 9 and 89 at.% was investigated. The transformation of the alloys from the amorphous to the crystalline state has been examined by thermal analysis, electrical resistance and X-ray diffraction. The crystallization temperatures were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electrical resistance as a function of temperature. The final phases were determined by X-ray diffraction. The activation energies were calculated from the Kissinger plots and the heats of crystallization were calculated and correlations between the thermal analysis and the resistance results are presented

  11. Temperature dependence of the Moessbauer spectra of amorphous and nanocrystallized Fe86Zr7Cu1B6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orue, I.; Gorria, P.; Plazaola, F.; Fernandez-Gubieda, M.L.; Barandiaran, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Moessbauer measurements have been performed on amorphous and nanocrystalline alloy ribbons of nominal composition Fe 86 Zr 7 Cu 1 B 6 . The nanocrystalline samples were obtained by annealing the as-quenched alloy at different temperatures in the range between 650 and 870 K. Moessbauer spectra of the as-quenched amorphous sample have been recorded at 77 K, room temperature and above the Curie temperature (∼ 330 K) at 360 K. We have also performed Moessbauer measurements at room temperature in the nanocrystalline alloys to characterize the phases that appear after the annealing and their relative concentration. The as-quenched sample spectra reveal the existence of two inequivalent sites for Fe. Such a feature is also observed in the remaining amorphous phase of the annealed samples. In the first steps of crystallization, α-Fe precipitates and its concentration increases with the annealing temperature. The experimental results suggest that the composition of the whole amorphous phase does not suffer large changes during crystallization. (orig.)

  12. Atomic pairwise distribution function analysis of the amorphous phase prepared by different manufacturing routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boetker, Johan P.; Koradia, Vishal; Rades, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    was subjected to quench cooling thereby creating an amorphous form of the drug from both starting materials. The milled and quench cooled samples were, together with the crystalline starting materials, analyzed with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Raman spectroscopy and atomic pair-wise distribution function...... (PDF) analysis of the XRPD pattern. When compared to XRPD and Raman spectroscopy, the PDF analysis was superior in displaying the difference between the amorphous samples prepared by milling and quench cooling approaches of the two starting materials....

  13. Amorphization and crystallization of Zr{sub 66.7-x}Cu{sub 33.3}Nb{sub x} (x = 0, 2, 4) alloys during mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yan [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Shandong University, 73 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250061 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, 106 Jiwei Road, Jinan 250022 (China); Chen Xiuxiu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, 106 Jiwei Road, Jinan 250022 (China); Geng Haoran [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, 106 Jiwei Road, Jinan 250022 (China)], E-mail: mse_wangy@ujn.edu.cn; Yang Zhongxi [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Shandong University, 73 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250061 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, 106 Jiwei Road, Jinan 250022 (China)

    2009-04-17

    In the present paper, the effect of Nb and different rotation speeds on the amorphization and crystallization of Zr{sub 66.7-x}Cu{sub 33.3}Nb{sub x} (x = 0, 2, 4) alloys during mechanical alloying has been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results show that the minor addition of Nb can shorten the start time of the amorphization reaction, improve the glass forming ability of Zr-Cu alloys, but cannot promote the formation of a single amorphous phase at a lower rotation speed of 200 rpm. The glass forming ability of the Zr{sub 66.7-x}Cu{sub 33.3}Nb{sub x} (x = 0, 2, 4) alloys increases with increasing Nb additions. At a higher rotation speed of 350 rpm, a single amorphous phase of Zr{sub 66.7-x}Cu{sub 33.3}Nb{sub x} (x = 0, 2, 4) can be successfully fabricated. Moreover, the Nb addition into Zr-Cu alloys can accelerate the amorphization process and improve the stability of the amorphous phase against the mechanically induced crystallization. Furthermore, the amorphous Zr{sub 66.7}Cu{sub 33.3} phase gradually transforms into a metastable fcc-Zr{sub 2}Cu phase with increasing milling time.

  14. Liquid-liquid phase separation in aerosol particles: Imaging at the Nanometer Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Rachel; Wang, Bingbing; Kelly, Stephen T.; Lundt, Nils; You, Yuan; Bertram, Allan K.; Leone, Stephen R.; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.

    2015-04-21

    Atmospheric aerosols can undergo phase transitions including liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) while responding to changes in the ambient relative humidity (RH). Here, we report results of chemical imaging experiments using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to investigate the LLPS of micron sized particles undergoing a full hydration-dehydration cycle. Internally mixed particles composed of ammonium sulfate (AS) and either: limonene secondary organic carbon (LSOC), a, 4-dihydroxy-3-methoxybenzeneaceticacid (HMMA), or polyethylene glycol (PEG-400) were studied. Events of LLPS with apparent core-shell particle morphology were observed for all samples with both techniques. Chemical imaging with STXM showed that both LSOC/AS and HMMA/AS particles were never homogeneously mixed for all measured RH’s above the deliquescence point and that the majority of the organic component was located in the shell. The shell composition was estimated as 65:35 organic: inorganic in LSOC/AS and as 50:50 organic: inorganic for HMMA/AS. PEG-400/AS particles showed fully homogeneous mixtures at high RH and phase separated below 89-92% RH with an estimated 50:50% organic to inorganic mix in the shell. These two chemical imaging techniques are well suited for in-situ analysis of the hygroscopic behavior, phase separation, and surface composition of collected ambient aerosol particles.

  15. Energy-separated sequential irradiation for ripple pattern tailoring on silicon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Tanuj [Department of Physics, Central University of Haryana, Jant-Pali, Mahendergarh 1123029 (India); Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Kumar, Manish, E-mail: manishbharadwaj@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Central University of Rajasthan, Kishangarh 305801 (India); Panchal, Vandana [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra 136119 (India); Sahoo, P.K. [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • A new process for controlling the near-surface amorphization of ripples on Si surfaces. • Ripples generation by 100 KeV Ar{sup +} and amorphization control by 60 KeV Ar{sup +} irradiation. • Advantage of energy-separated irradiation demonstrated by detailed RBS and AFM studies. • Relevant mechanism is presented on the basis of DAMAGE and SIMNRA simulations. • Key role of solid flow towards the amorphous/crystalline interface is demonstrated. - Abstract: Nanoscale ripples on semiconductor surfaces have potential application in biosensing and optoelectronics, but suffer from uncontrolled surface-amorphization when prepared by conventional ion-irradiation methods. A two-step, energy-separated sequential-irradiation enables simultaneous control of surface-amorphization and ripple-dimensions on Si(1 0 0). The evolution of ripples using 100 keV Ar{sup +} bombardment and further tuning of the patterns using a sequential-irradiation by 60 keV Ar{sup +} at different fluences are demonstrated. The advantage of this approach as opposed to increased fluence at the same energy is clarified by atomic force microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy investigations. The explanation of our findings is presented through DAMAGE simulation.

  16. Vacancy-mediated fcc/bcc phase separation in Fe1 -xNix ultrathin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menteş, T. O.; Stojić, N.; Vescovo, E.; Ablett, J. M.; Niño, M. A.; Locatelli, A.

    2016-08-01

    The phase separation occurring in Fe-Ni thin films near the Invar composition is studied by using high-resolution spectromicroscopy techniques and density functional theory calculations. Annealed at temperatures around 300 ∘C ,Fe0.70Ni0.30 films on W(110) break into micron-sized bcc and fcc domains with compositions in agreement with the bulk Fe-Ni phase diagram. Ni is found to be the diffusing species in forming the chemical heterogeneity. The experimentally determined energy barrier of 1.59 ±0.09 eV is identified as the vacancy formation energy via density functional theory calculations. Thus, the principal role of the surface in the phase separation process is attributed to vacancy creation without interstitials.

  17. Nanosized amorphous calcium carbonate stabilized by poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(acrylic acid) block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemet, Baptiste; Faatz, Michael; Gröhn, Franziska; Wegner, Gerhard; Gnanou, Yves

    2006-02-14

    Particles of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC), formed in situ from calcium chloride by the slow release of carbon dioxide by alkaline hydrolysis of dimethyl carbonate in water, are stabilized against coalescence in the presence of very small amounts of double hydrophilic block copolymers (DHBCs) composed of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) blocks. Under optimized conditions, spherical particles of ACC with diameters less than 100 nm and narrow size distribution are obtained at a concentration of only 3 ppm of PEO-b-PAA as additive. Equivalent triblock or star DHBCs are compared to diblock copolymers. The results are interpreted assuming an interaction of the PAA blocks with the surface of the liquid droplets of the concentrated CaCO3 phase, formed by phase separation from the initially homogeneous reaction mixture. The adsorption layer of the block copolymer protects the liquid precursor of ACC from coalescence and/or coagulation.

  18. Dimple coalescence and liquid droplets distributions during phase separation in a pure fluid under microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprisan, Ana; Oprisan, Sorinel A; Hegseth, John J; Garrabos, Yves; Lecoutre-Chabot, Carole; Beysens, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Phase separation has important implications for the mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of materials. Weightless conditions prevent buoyancy and sedimentation from affecting the dynamics of phase separation and the morphology of the domains. In our experiments, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was initially heated about 1K above its critical temperature under microgravity conditions and then repeatedly quenched using temperature steps, the last one being of 3.6 mK, until it crossed its critical temperature and phase-separated into gas and liquid domains. Both full view (macroscopic) and microscopic view images of the sample cell unit were analyzed to determine the changes in the distribution of liquid droplet diameters during phase separation. Previously, dimple coalescences were only observed in density-matched binary liquid mixture near its critical point of miscibility. Here we present experimental evidences in support of dimple coalescence between phase-separated liquid droplets in pure, supercritical, fluids under microgravity conditions. Although both liquid mixtures and pure fluids belong to the same universality class, both the mass transport mechanisms and their thermophysical properties are significantly different. In supercritical pure fluids the transport of heat and mass are strongly coupled by the enthalpy of condensation, whereas in liquid mixtures mass transport processes are purely diffusive. The viscosity is also much smaller in pure fluids than in liquid mixtures. For these reasons, there are large differences in the fluctuation relaxation time and hydrodynamics flows that prompted this experimental investigation. We found that the number of droplets increases rapidly during the intermediate stage of phase separation. We also found that above a cutoff diameter of about 100 microns the size distribution of droplets follows a power law with an exponent close to -2, as predicted from phenomenological considerations.

  19. Atomic-scale study of the amorphous-to-crystalline phase transition mechanism in GeTe thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Mantovan, R.; Mokhles Gerami, A.; Mølholt, T. E.; Wiemer, C.; Longo, M.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Johnston, K.; Masenda, H.; Naidoo, D.; Ncube, M.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Fanciulli, M.; Gislason, H. P.; Langouche, G.; Ólafsson, S.; Weyer, G.

    The underlying mechanism driving the structural amorphous-to-crystalline transition in Group VI chalcogenides is still a matter of debate even in the simplest GeTe system. We exploit the extreme sensitivity of 57Fe emission Mössbauer spectroscopy, following dilute implantation of 57Mn (T½ = 1.5 min) at ISOLDE/CERN, to study the electronic charge distribution in the immediate vicinity  of the 57Fe probe substituting Ge (FeGe), and to interrogate the local environment of FeGe over the amorphous-crystalline phase transition in GeTe thin films. Our results show that the local structure  of as-sputtered amorphous GeTe is a combination of tetrahedral and defect-octahedral sites. The main effect of the crystallization is the conversion from tetrahedral to defect-free octahedral sites.  We discover that only the tetrahedral fraction in amorphous GeTe participates to the change of the FeGe-Te chemical bond...

  20. Amorphous-crystalline transition studied in hydrated MoO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho-Lopez, M.A. [Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Paseo Colon y Tollocan, Toluca Edo. de Mexico 50110 (Mexico); Haro-Poniatowski, E. [Departamento de Fisica, Laboratorio de Optica Cuantica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apdo. Postal 55-534, Mexico, D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Lartundo-Rojas, L. [Laboratorio de Microscopia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apdo. Postal 55-534, Mexico, D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Livage, J. [Chimie de la Matiere Condensee, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Julien, C.M. [Institut des Nano-Sciences de Paris, UMR 7588, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Campus Boucicaut, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France)]. E-mail: Christian.Julien@insp.jussieu.fr

    2006-11-25

    In this work we study the thermal behavior of hydrated MoO{sub 3} synthesized via acidification of sodium molybdate. MoO{sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O (n = 1.4) amorphous compound was heated in air at increasing temperatures in order to obtain the crystalline MoO{sub 3} phase. We have studied the structural changes as a function of annealing temperature by Raman spectroscopy. A statistical study to determine the average size of the crystallites at each annealing step has been realized by scanning electron microscopy. Results show that the hydrated MoO{sub 3}.1.4H{sub 2}O glass transforms in an amorphous MoO{sub 3}.0.7H{sub 2}O phase prior to its crystallization, while the sample heated at 500 deg. C crystallizes into the orthorhombic {alpha}-MoO{sub 3} phase with micro-crystallites having an average size of 6.8 {mu}m.

  1. Colossal magnetoresistance and phase separation in manganite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, M. K.; Agarwal, V.; Kaur, A.; Singh, H. K.

    2017-05-01

    In the present work, polycrystalline Sm0.55Sr0.45MnO3 thin films were prepared on LSAT (001) single crystal substrates by ultrasonic nebulized spray pyrolysis technique. The X-ray diffraction θ-2θ scan reveals that these films (i) have very good crystallinity, (ii) are oriented along out-of-plane c-direction, and (iii) are under small tensile strain. The impact of oxygen vacancy results into (i) higher value of paramagnetic insulator (PMI) to ferromagnetic metal (FMM) transition temperature, i.e., TC/TIM, (ii) sharper PMI-FMM transition, (iii) higher value of magnetization and magnetic saturation moment, and (iv) higher value of magnetoresistance (˜99%). We suggest here that oxygen vacancy favors FMM phase while oxygen vacancy annihilation leads to antiferromagnetic-charge ordered insulator (AFM-COI) phase. The observed results have been explained in context of phase separation (PS) caused by different fractions of the competing FMM and AFM-COI phases.

  2. Resistivity changes of some amorphous alloys undergoing nanocrystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barandiarán, J. M.; Fernández Barquín, L.; Sal, J. C. Gómez; Gorría, P.; Hernando, A.

    1993-10-01

    The electrical resistivity of amorphous alloys with compositions: Fe 73.5Nb 3Cu 1Si 13.5B 9, Fe 86Zr 7Cu 1B 6 and Co 80Nb 8B 12 has been studied in the temperature range from 300 to 1100 K, where crystallization occurs. The products of crystallization and the grain size have been studied by X-ray diffraction. In a first step, all the alloys crystallize with small grains of a few nanometers in diameter (nanocrystalline state), and the resistivity behavior at this process accounts for the difference between the amorphous and nanocrystalline phases. The nanocrystalline phases are: α-Fe-Si, α-Fe and fcc Co for the three compounds studied respectively. A second process, at which grain growth and precipitation of intermetallic compounds and borides takes place, has been found for all the alloys. The resistivity is sensitive, not only to the total transformed sample amount, but to the topological distribution of the crystalline phases, and therefore shows a more complex behavior than other well established techniques, as differential scanning calorimetry. This supplementary information given by the resistivity is also discussed.

  3. Characteristics of phase transition and separation in a In-Ge-Sb-Te system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Jin [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Moon Hyung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Park, Seung-Jong [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Mann-Ho, E-mail: mh.cho@yonsei.ac.kr [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Dae-Hong [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer InGeSbTe films were fabricated via co-deposition stoichiometric GST and IST targets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As the amount of IST was increased in InGeSbTe, the value for V{sub th} and the phase transition temperature were increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phase separation in InGeSbTe is caused by differences in the enthalpy change for formation and different atomic concentrations. - Abstract: In-doped GeSbTe films were deposited by ion beam sputtering deposition (IBSD) using Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GST) and In{sub 3}Sb{sub 1}Te{sub 2} (IST) as targets. The phase change characteristics of the resulting films were then investigated by electrical measurements, including static testing, in situ 4-point R{sub s} measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The threshold voltage of the films increased, with increasing levels of IST. This phenomenon is consistent with the increased crystallization temperature in X-ray data and in situ 4-point R{sub s} data. In addition, in In{sub 28}Ge{sub 12}Sb{sub 26}Te{sub 34}, multiple V{sub th} values with a stepwise change are observed. The minimum time for the crystallization of InGeSbTe films was shorter than that for GST. X-ray data and Raman data for the crystalline structure show that phase separation to In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} occurred in all of the InGeSbTe samples after annealing at 350 Degree-Sign C. Moreover, in the case of InGeSbTe films with high concentrations of In (28 at.%), Sb phase separation was also observed. The observed phases indicate that the origin of the phase separation of InGeSbTe films is from the enthalpy change of formation and differences in Ge-Te, In-Te, Sb-Te, In-Sb and In-In bond energies.

  4. Tubing modifications for countercurrent chromatography (CCC): Stationary phase retention and separation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Michael; Vetter, Walter

    2015-07-16

    Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is a separation technique in which two immiscible liquid phases are used for the preparative purification of synthetic and natural products. In CCC the number of repetitive mixing and de-mixing processes, the retention of the stationary phase and the mass transfer between the liquid phases are significant parameters that influence the resolution and separation efficiency. Limited mass transfer is the main reason for peak broadening and a low number of theoretical plates along with impaired peak resolution in CCC. Hence, technical improvements with regard to column design and tubing modifications is an important aspect to enhance mixing and mass transfer. In this study we constructed a crimping tool which allowed us to make reproducible, semi-automated modifications of conventional round-shaped tubing. Six crimped tubing modifications were prepared, mounted onto multilayer coils which were subsequently installed in the CCC system. The stationary phase retention of the tubing modifications were compared to the conventional system with unmodified tubing in a hydrophobic, an intermediate and a hydrophilic two-phase solvent system. Generally, the tubing modifications provided higher capabilities to retain the stationary phase depending on the solvent system and flow rates. In the intermediate solvent system the separation efficiency was evaluated with a mixture of six alkyl p-hydroxybenzoates. The peak resolution could be increased up to 50% with one of the tubing modifications compared to the unmodified tubing. Using the most convincing tubing modification at fixed values for the stationary phase retention, a reasonable comparison to the unmodified tubing was achieved. The peak width could be reduced up to 49% and a strong positive impact at increased flow rates regarding peak resolution and theoretical plate number was observed compared to unmodified tubing. It could be concluded that the tubing modification enhanced the interphase

  5. High strength nanostructured Al-based alloys through optimized processing of rapidly quenched amorphous precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Song-Yi; Lee, Gwang-Yeob; Park, Gyu-Hyeon; Kim, Hyeon-Ah; Lee, A-Young; Scudino, Sergio; Prashanth, Konda Gokuldoss; Kim, Do-Hyang; Eckert, Jürgen; Lee, Min-Ha

    2018-01-18

    We report the methods increasing both strength and ductility of aluminum alloys transformed from amorphous precursor. The mechanical properties of bulk samples produced by spark-plasma sintering (SPS) of amorphous Al-Ni-Co-Dy powders at temperatures above 673 K are significantly enhanced by in-situ crystallization of nano-scale intermetallic compounds during the SPS process. The spark plasma sintered Al 84 Ni 7 Co 3 Dy 6 bulk specimens exhibit 1433 MPa compressive yield strength and 1773 MPa maximum strength together with 5.6% plastic strain, respectively. The addition of Dy enhances the thermal stability of primary fcc Al in the amorphous Al-TM -RE alloy. The precipitation of intermetallic phases by crystallization of the remaining amorphous matrix plays important role to restrict the growth of the fcc Al phase and contributes to the improvement of the mechanical properties. Such fully crystalline nano- or ultrafine-scale Al-Ni-Co-Dy systems are considered promising for industrial application because their superior mechanical properties in terms of a combination of very high room temperature strength combined with good ductility.

  6. Preparing poly (caprolactone) micro-particles through solvent-induced phase separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaoqiang; Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmed; Stephansen, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Poly (caprolactone) (PCL) particles with the size distribution from 1 to 100 μm were prepared through solvent-induced phase separation, in which polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA) was used as the matrix-forming polymer to stabilize PCL particles. The cloud point data of PCL-acetone-water was determined...

  7. High-pressure Raman spectroscopy of phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin, E-mail: wphsieh@stanford.edu; Mao, Wendy L. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Zalden, Peter [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Wuttig, Matthias [I. Physikalisches Institut (IA), RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); JARA – Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Lindenberg, Aaron M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, PULSE Institute, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2013-11-04

    We used high-pressure Raman spectroscopy to study the evolution of vibrational frequencies of the phase change materials (PCMs) Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}, GeSb{sub 2}Te{sub 4}, and SnSb{sub 2}Te{sub 4}. We found that the critical pressure for triggering amorphization in the PCMs decreases with increasing vacancy concentration, demonstrating that the presence of vacancies, rather than differences in the atomic covalent radii, is crucial for pressure-induced amorphization in PCMs. Compared to the as-deposited amorphous phase, the pressure-induced amorphous phase has a similar vibrational spectrum but requires much lower laser power to transform into the crystalline phase, suggesting different kinetics of crystallization, which may have implications for applications of PCMs in non-volatile data storage.

  8. Amorphous bimetallic alloys prepared by steam condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drago, V.

    1988-01-01

    Amorphous alloys of MnSn are prepared by steam condensation, in a substratum with a temperature near of the liquid helium. The magnetic and paramagnetic hyperfine spectrum and the ordination temperature by Moessbauer effect 119Sn are measured. A diagram of magnetic phase is proposed, basing on the measures of Moessbauer effect. (C.G.C.) [pt

  9. Crystallization Behavior of A Bulk Amorphous Mg62Cu26Y12 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shyue-Sheng; Chin, Tsung-Shune; Su, Kuo-Chang

    1994-07-01

    The crystallization temperature, the associated activation energy and the crystallized structure of a bulk amorphous Mg62Cu26Y12 alloy with a diameter of 2.5 mm were studied. It possesses a one-step crystallization behavior. The crystallization reaction was found to be represented by: AM(MG62Cu26Y12)→Mg2Cu+MgY+CuY+Mg, ( Tx=188°C, Eac=134 kJ/mol) where AM represents the amorphous state, T x the crystallization temperature at an infinitesimal heating rate, and E ac the associated activation energy. The amount of crystalline phases were found to be Mg2Cu:MgY:CuY=76:17:7. The Mg phase is identifiable only by high resolution electron microscopy, not by X-ray diffraction. The crystallization leads to a sharp rise in electrical resistivity which is reversed to those of iron-based amorphous alloys.

  10. Iron-based amorphous alloys and methods of synthesizing iron-based amorphous alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Cheng Kiong; Bauer, William A.; Choi, Jor-Shan; Day, Dan; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2016-05-03

    A method according to one embodiment includes combining an amorphous iron-based alloy and at least one metal selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, chromium, tungsten, boron, gadolinium, nickel phosphorous, yttrium, and alloys thereof to form a mixture, wherein the at least one metal is present in the mixture from about 5 atomic percent (at %) to about 55 at %; and ball milling the mixture at least until an amorphous alloy of the iron-based alloy and the at least one metal is formed. Several amorphous iron-based metal alloys are also presented, including corrosion-resistant amorphous iron-based metal alloys and radiation-shielding amorphous iron-based metal alloys.

  11. Structural change upon annealing of amorphous GeSbTe grown on Si(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragaglia, V., E-mail: bragaglia@pdi-berlin.de; Jenichen, B.; Giussani, A.; Perumal, K.; Riechert, H.; Calarco, R. [Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-08-07

    The structural change upon annealing of an amorphous GeSbTe (GST) film deposited by molecular beam epitaxy on a Si(111) substrate is studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). XRD profiles reveal that both metastable cubic and stable hexagonal phases are obtained with a single out-of-plane orientation. XRR study shows a density increase and consequent thickness decrease upon annealing, in accordance with literature. From both, the XRD and the AFM study, it emerges that the crystalline substrate acts as a template for the film, favoring the crystallization of the amorphous GST into the [111] oriented metastable cubic phase, and the latter turns into the [0001] stable hexagonal phase for higher annealing temperature.

  12. Structure and thermal stability of biodegradable Mg-Zn-Ca based amorphous alloys synthesized by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Moni Kanchan; Chou, Da-Tren; Hong, Daeho; Saha, Partha [Department of Bioengineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Chung, Sung Jae [Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Lee, Bouen [Department of Bioengineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Sirinterlikci, Arif [Department of Engineering, Robert Morris University, Moon Township, Pittsburgh, PA 15108 (United States); Ramanathan, Madhumati; Roy, Abhijit [Department of Bioengineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Kumta, Prashant N., E-mail: matscib@gmail.com [Department of Bioengineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); School of Dental Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Center for Complex Engineered Multifunctional Materials, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Room temperature solid state diffusion reaction induced by mechanical alloying (MA) of elemental blends of Mg, Zn and Ca of nominal composition 60 at.% Mg-35 at.% Zn-5 at.% Ca has been studied. Formation of fully amorphous structure has been identified after 5 h of MA performed in a SPEX 8000M shaker mill, with milling continued up to 8 h to confirm the formation of homogeneous amorphous phase. Thermal stability of the amorphous phase has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and isothermal heat treatment at different temperatures. The amorphous powder consolidated using cold isostatic pressing (CIP) showed an envelope density {approx}80% of absolute density, which increased to an envelope density {approx}84% of absolute density after sintering at an optimized temperature of {approx}523 K for 9 h. Electrochemical bio-corrosion testing of the CIP compacted amorphous pellet as well as the sintered pellet performed in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium, showed improved corrosion resistance in comparison to the as-cast pure Mg. Cytotoxicity testing of the CIP compacted amorphous pellet, performed using the MTT assay with MC3T3 osteoblastic cells, showed low cytotoxicity in comparison to the as-cast pure Mg.

  13. Hydrogen in amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peercy, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    The structural aspects of amorphous silicon and the role of hydrogen in this structure are reviewed with emphasis on ion implantation studies. In amorphous silicon produced by Si ion implantation of crystalline silicon, the material reconstructs into a metastable amorphous structure which has optical and electrical properties qualitatively similar to the corresponding properties in high-purity evaporated amorphous silicon. Hydrogen studies further indicate that these structures will accomodate less than or equal to 5 at.% hydrogen and this hydrogen is bonded predominantly in a monohydride (SiH 1 ) site. Larger hydrogen concentrations than this can be achieved under certain conditions, but the excess hydrogen may be attributed to defects and voids in the material. Similarly, glow discharge or sputter deposited amorphous silicon has more desirable electrical and optical properties when the material is prepared with low hydrogen concentration and monohydride bonding. Results of structural studies and hydrogen incorporation in amorphous silicon were discussed relative to the different models proposed for amorphous silicon

  14. Enhancement of biomembrane functions under phase-separated conditions: A self-organized criticality phenomenon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eze, M.O.; Chela Flores, J.

    1993-12-01

    Self-organized criticality (SOC) is hereby proposed as a possible physical basis for explaining observations in the temperature-dependence of the rates of biological membrane-associated events. The biomembrane undergoes a reversible, cooperative, thermotropic gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition which is broad, and involves lateral phase separation. The lateral phase separated (rather than the totally gel-, or the totally liquid crystalline-) membrane state has been observed to be the state in which vital membrane functions are facilitated. The membrane in this unique state is viewed, for our purposes here, as a dynamical, extended dissipative system with spatial and temporal degrees of freedom, exhibiting power law behaviour, typical of the self-organized critical state. Experiments are suggested for verifying this hypothesis. (author). 30 refs

  15. Amorphous nanophotonics

    CERN Document Server

    Scharf, Toralf

    2013-01-01

    This book represents the first comprehensive overview over amorphous nano-optical and nano-photonic systems. Nanophotonics is a burgeoning branch of optics that enables many applications by steering the mould of light on length scales smaller than the wavelength with devoted nanostructures. Amorphous nanophotonics exploits self-organization mechanisms based on bottom-up approaches to fabricate nanooptical systems. The resulting structures presented in the book are characterized by a deterministic unit cell with tailored geometries; but their spatial arrangement is not controlled. Instead of periodic, the structures appear either amorphous or random. The aim of this book is to discuss all aspects related to observable effects in amorphous nanophotonic material and aspects related to their design, fabrication, characterization and integration into applications. The book has an interdisciplinary nature with contributions from scientists in physics, chemistry and materials sciences and sheds light on the topic fr...

  16. Predictions of Phase Separation in Three-Component Lipid Membranes by the MARTINI Force Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Ryan S.; Sunil Kumar, P. B.; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena

    2013-01-01

    The phase behavior of the coarse-grained MARTINI model for three-component lipid bilayers composed of dipalmytoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), cholesterol (Chol), and an unsaturated phosphatidylcholine (PC) was systematically investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The aim of this study...... is to understand which types of unsaturated PC induce the formation of thermodynamically stable coexisting phases when added to mixtures of DPPC and Chol and to unravel the mechanisms that drive phase separation in such three-component mixtures. Our simulations indicate that the currently used MARTINI force field...... PCs, such as dilinoleyl-phosphatidylcholine (DUPC) and diarachidonoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DAPC). Through systematic tweaking of the interactions between the hydrophobic groups of the PC molecules, we show that the appearance of phase separation in three-component lipid bilayers, as modeled through...

  17. Studies of pulsed laser melting and rapid solidification using amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowndes, D.H.; Wood, R.F.

    1984-06-01

    Pulsed-laser melting of ion implantation-amorphized silicon layers, and subsequent solidification were studied. Measurements of the onset of melting of amorphous silicon layers and of the duration of melting, and modified melting model calculations demonstrated that the thermal conductivity, K/sub a/, of amorphous silicon is very low (K/sub a/ approx. = 0.02 W/cm-K). K/sub a/ is also the dominant parameter determining the dynamical response of amorphous silicon to pulsed laser radiation. TEM indicates that bulk (volume) nucleation occurs directly from the highly undercooled liquid silicon that can be prepared by pulsed laser melting of amorphous silicon layers at low laser energy densities. A modified thermal melting model is presented. The model calculations demonstrate that the release of latent heat by bulk nucleation occurring during the melt-in process is essential to obtaining agreement with observed depths of melting. These calculations also show that this release of latent heat accompanying bulk nucleation can result in the existence of buried molten layers of silicon in the interior of the sample after the surface has solidified. The bulk nucleation implies that the liquid-to-amorphous phase transition (produced using picosecond or uv nanosecond laser pulses) cannot be explained using purely thermodynamic considerations

  18. A new tevchnique for production of amorphous silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, A.M. de; Pereyra, I.; Sanematsu, M.S.; Corgnier, S.L.L.; Fonseca, F.J.

    1984-01-01

    It is presented a new technique for the production of amorphous silicon solar cells based on the development of thin films of a-Si in a reactor in which the decomposition of the sylane, induced by capacitively coupled RF, and the film deposition occur in separate chambers. (M.W.O.) [pt

  19. Critical behavior in a random field classical Heisenberg model for amorphous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Douglas F. de; Alves, Sandro Roberto L.; Arruda, Alberto S. de

    2005-01-01

    By using the differential operator technique and the effective field theory scheme, the critical behavior of amorphous classical Heisenberg ferromagnet of spin-1/2 in a random field is studied. The phase diagram in the T-H and T-α planes on a simple cubic lattice for a cluster with two spins is obtained. Tricritical points, reentrant phenomena and influence of the random field and amorphization on the transition temperature are discussed

  20. The Effect of SiC Polytypes on the Heat Distribution Efficiency of a Phase Change Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, M. S.; Mohammed, Z.; Alip, R. I.

    2018-03-01

    The amorphous to crystalline transition of germanium-antimony-tellurium (GST) using three types of silicon carbide’s structure as a heating element was investigated. Simulation was done using COMSOL Multiphysic 5.0 software with separate heater structure. Silicon carbide (SiC) has three types of structure; 3C-SiC, 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC. These structures have a different thermal conductivity. The temperature of GST and phase transition of GST can be obtained from the simulation. The temperature of GST when using 3C-SiC, 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC are 467K, 466K and 460K, respectively. The phase transition of GST from amorphous to crystalline state for three type of SiC’s structure can be determined in this simulation. Based on the result, the thermal conductivity of SiC can affecting the temperature of GST and changed of phase change memory (PCM).

  1. Chemical vapor deposition of amorphous ruthenium-phosphorus alloy films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin Jinhong; Waheed, Abdul; Winkenwerder, Wyatt A.; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Agapiou, Kyriacos; Jones, Richard A.; Hwang, Gyeong S.; Ekerdt, John G.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition growth of amorphous ruthenium-phosphorus films on SiO 2 containing ∼ 15% phosphorus is reported. cis-Ruthenium(II)dihydridotetrakis-(trimethylphosphine), cis-RuH 2 (PMe 3 ) 4 (Me = CH 3 ) was used at growth temperatures ranging from 525 to 575 K. Both Ru and P are zero-valent. The films are metastable, becoming increasingly more polycrystalline upon annealing to 775 and 975 K. Surface studies illustrate that demethylation is quite efficient near 560 K. Precursor adsorption at 135 K or 210 K and heating reveal the precursor undergoes a complex decomposition process in which the hydride and trimethylphosphine ligands are lost at temperatures as low at 280 K. Phosphorus and its manner of incorporation appear responsible for the amorphous-like character. Molecular dynamics simulations are presented to suggest the local structure in the films and the causes for phosphorus stabilizing the amorphous phase

  2. Solvent annealing induced phase separation and dewetting in PMMA∕SAN blend film: film thickness and solvent dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jichun; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Huang, Gang; Shi, Tongfei; Li, Yongjin

    2013-06-28

    The competition between "dewetting" and "phase separation" behaviors in polymer blend films attracts significant attention in the last decade. The simultaneous phase separation and dewetting in PMMA∕SAN [poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(styrene-ran-acrylonitrile)] blend ultrathin films upon solvent annealing have been observed for the first time in our previous work. In this work, film thickness and annealing solvent dependence of phase behaviors in this system has been investigated using atomic force microscopy and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). On one hand, both vertical phase separation and dewetting take place upon selective solvent vapor annealing, leading to the formation of droplet∕mimic-film structures with various sizes (depending on original film thickness). On the other hand, the whole blend film dewets the substrate and produces dispersed droplets on the silicon oxide upon common solvent annealing. GISAXS results demonstrate the phase separation in the big dewetted droplets resulted from the thicker film (39.8 nm). In contrast, no period structure is detected in small droplets from the thinner film (5.1 nm and 9.7 nm). This investigation indicates that dewetting and phase separation in PMMA∕SAN blend film upon solvent annealing depend crucially on the film thickness and the atmosphere during annealing.

  3. Amorphous and nanocrystalline phase formation in highly-driven Al-based binary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalay, Yunus Eren [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Remarkable advances have been made since rapid solidification was first introduced to the field of materials science and technology. New types of materials such as amorphous alloys and nanostructure materials have been developed as a result of rapid solidification techniques. While these advances are, in many respects, ground breaking, much remains to be discerned concerning the fundamental relationships that exist between a liquid and a rapidly solidified solid. The scope of the current dissertation involves an extensive set of experimental, analytical, and computational studies designed to increase the overall understanding of morphological selection, phase competition, and structural hierarchy that occurs under far-from equilibrium conditions. High pressure gas atomization and Cu-block melt-spinning are the two different rapid solidification techniques applied in this study. The research is mainly focused on Al-Si and Al-Sm alloy systems. Silicon and samarium produce different, yet favorable, systems for exploration when alloyed with aluminum under far-from equilibrium conditions. One of the main differences comes from the positions of their respective T0 curves, which makes Al-Si a good candidate for solubility extension while the plunging T0 line in Al-Sm promotes glass formation. The rapidly solidified gas-atomized Al-Si powders within a composition range of 15 to 50 wt% Si are examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The non-equilibrium partitioning and morphological selection observed by examining powders at different size classes are described via a microstructure map. The interface velocities and the amount of undercooling present in the powders are estimated from measured eutectic spacings based on Jackson-Hunt (JH) and Trivedi-Magnin-Kurz (TMK) models, which permit a direct comparison of theoretical predictions. For an average particle size of 10 {micro}m with a Peclet number of ~0.2, JH and TMK deviate from

  4. Crystalline and amorphous solid phases in the classical hard sphere system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera-Navarro, V.C.; Souza, R.F.T.; Llano, M. de; Mini, S.

    1984-01-01

    A qualitative crystalline, as well as amorphous, solid behavior is simultaneously extracted for a classical hard sphere system from its known virial power series expansion in the density augmented by only one further virial coefficient, taken from an extrapolated estimate of the Cauchy-Hadamard radius of convergence criterion. Results are compared with computer simulation data. (Author) [pt

  5. Amorphous TiO2 doped with carbon for visible light photodegradation of rhodamine B and 4-chlorophenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Penghui; Tian, Jiayu; Zhao, Zhiwei; Shi, Wenxin; Gao, Shanshan; Cui, Fuyi

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Amorphous TiO 2 doped with carbon is prepared as a visible photocatalyst. • RhB and 4-chlorophenol are decomposed effectively by carbon-doped amorphous TiO 2 . • The mechanism for visible light photocatalysis is discussed detailedly. - Abstract: Visible light photocatalytic activity of amorphous TiO 2 doped with carbon is prepared by a facile sol-gel route for the first time. The most active sample with mesostructure of amorphous phase, high surface area (273 m 2 g −1 ) and large pore volume (0.33 cm 3 g −1 ) is identified by X-ray diffractometer, Raman spectrometer, transmission electron microscope and N 2 adsorption–desorption isotherms. In addition, the most active sample is characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectrometer, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrometer and luminescence spectrometer. The results show that the most active sample with oxygenic groups has a narrower bandgap and lower recombination of electron–hole, due to the carbon doping and phase of amorphous. Effective photodegradation capability and stability of rhodamine B and colorless 4-chlorophenol are verified by photocatalytic tests under visible light irradiation. A possible mechanism of amorphous TiO 2 doped with carbon for visible light photocatalysis is proposed. The findings of this paper will provide new insights to design visible light-induced photocatalyst based on amorphous TiO 2 for organic removal

  6. Amorphous GaP produced by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, T.; Kato, Y.; Shiraki, Y.; Komatsubara, K.F.

    1976-01-01

    Two types of non-crystalline states ('disordered' and 'amorphous') of GaP were produced by using ion implantation and post annealing. A structural-phase-transition-like annealing behaviour from the 'disordered' state to the 'amorphous' state was observed. The ion dose dependence and the annealing behaviour of the atomic structure of GaP implanted with 200 keV -N + ions were studied by using electron diffraction, backscattering and volume change measurements. The electronic structure was also investigated by measuring optical absorption and electrical conductivity. The implanted layer gradually loses the crystalline order with the increase of the nitrogen dose. The optical absorption coefficient α and electric conductivity sigma of GaP crystals implanted with 200 keV -N + ions of 1 x 10 16 cm -2 were expressed as αhν = C(hν - E 0 )sup(n) and log sigma = A -BTsup(-1/4), respectively. Moreover, the volume of the implanted layer increased about three percent and the electron diffraction pattern was diffused halo whose intensity monotonically decreases along the radial direction. These results indicate that the as-implanted layer has neither a long range order or short range order ('disordered state'). In the sample implanted at 1 x 10 16 cm -2 , a structural phase-transition-like annealing stage was observed at around 400 0 C. That is, the optical absorption coefficient abruptly fell off from 6 x 10 4 to 7 x 10 3 cm -1 and the volume of the implanted layer decreased about 2% within an increase of less than 10 degrees in the anneal temperature. Moreover, the short range order of the lattice structure appeared in the electron diffraction pattern. According to the backscattering experiment, the heavily implanted GaP was still in the non-crystalline state even after annealing. These facts suggest that heavily implanted GaP, followed by annealing at around 400 0 C, is in the 'amorphous' state, although as-implanted GaP is not in the 'amorphous' state but in the

  7. How to separate ionic liquids: Use of Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography and mixed mode phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamouroux, C.

    2011-01-01

    This chromatographic study deals with the development of a convenient and versatile method to separate Room Temperature Ionic Liquids. Different modes of chromatography were studied. The study attempts to answer the following question: 'what were the most important interactions for the separation of ionic liquids?'. The results show that the essential interactions to assure a good retention of RTILs are the ionic ones and that hydrophobic interactions play a role in the selectivity of the separation. The separation of five imidazolium salt with a traditional dial columns in Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography (HILIC) was demonstrated. It shows that neutral diol grafted column allows an important retention that we assume is due to the capability of diol to develop a thick layer of water. Furthermore, stationary phase based on mixed interaction associating ion exchange and hydrophobic properties were studied. Firstly, it will be argued that it is possible to separate RTILs with a convenient retention and resolution according to a reverse phase elution with the Primesep columns made of a brush type long alkyl chain with an embedded negatively charged functional group. Secondly, a successful separation of RTILs in HILIC mode with a mixed phase column containing a cationic exchanger and a hydrophobic octyl chain length will be demonstrated. (author)

  8. Comparison of liquid and supercritical fluid chromatography mobile phases for enantioselective separations on polysaccharide stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Syame; Lozac'h, Marie-Anne; Adam, Isabelle; Francotte, Eric; West, Caroline

    2016-10-07

    Analysis and production of enantiomerically pure compounds is a major topic of interest when active pharmaceutical ingredients are concerned. Enantioselective chromatography has become a favourite both at the analytical and preparative scales. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) are dominating the scene and are often seen as complementary techniques. Nowadays, for economic and ecologic reasons, SFC may be preferred over normal-phase HPLC (NPLC) as it allows significant reductions in solvent consumption. However, the transfer of NPLC methods to SFC is not always straightforward. In this study, we compare the retention of achiral molecules and separation of enantiomers under supercritical fluid (carbon dioxide with ethanol or isopropanol) and liquid normal-phase (heptane with ethanol or isopropanol) elution modes with polysaccharide stationary phases in order to explore the differences between the retention and enantioseparation properties between the two modes. Chemometric methods (namely quantitative structure-retention relationships and discriminant analysis) are employed to compare the results obtained on a large set of analytes (171 achiral probes and 97 racemates) and gain some understanding on the retention and separation mechanisms. The results indicate that, contrary to popular belief, carbon dioxide - solvent SFC mobile phases are often weaker eluents than liquid mobile phases. It appears that SFC and NPLC elution modes provide different retention mechanisms. While some enantioseparations are unaffected, facilitating the transfer between the two elution modes, other enantioseparations may be drastically different due to different types and strength of interactions contributing to enantioselectivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Transmission X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Patterns Relevant to the MSL Chemin Amorphous Component: Sulfates And Silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. V.; Rampe, E. B.; Graff, T. G.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Le, L.; Ming, D. W.; Sutter, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) CheMin instrument on the Curiosity rover is a transmission X-ray diffractometer (Co-Kalpha radiation source and a approx.5deg to approx.52deg 2theta range) where the analyzed powder samples are constrained to have discrete particle diameters XRD amorphous component. Estimates of amorphous component abundance, based on the XRD data itself and on mass-balance calculations using APXS data crystalline component chemistry derived from XRD data, martian meteorites, and/or stoichiometry [e.g., 6-9], range from approx.20 wt.% to approx.50 wt.% of bulk sample. The APXSbased calculations show that the amorphous component is rich in volatile elements (esp. SO3) and is not simply primary basaltic glass, which was used as a surrogate to model the broad band in the RN CheMin pattern. For RN, the entire volatile inventory (except minor anhydrite) is assigned to the amorphous component because no volatile-bearing crystalline phases were reported within detection limits [2]. For JK and CB, Fesaponite, basanite, and akaganeite are volatile-bearing crystalline components. Here we report transmission XRD patterns for sulfate and silicate phases relevant to interpretation of MSL-CheMin XRD amorphous components.

  10. Short range ordering and microstructure property relationship in amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shariq, A.

    2006-07-01

    A novel algorithm, ''Next Neighbourhood Evaluation (NNE)'', is enunciated during the course of this work, to elucidate the next neighbourhood atomic vicinity from the data, analysed using tomographic atom probe (TAP) that allows specifying atom positions and chemical identities of the next neighbouring atoms for multicomponent amorphous materials in real space. The NNE of the Pd{sub 55}Cu{sub 23}P{sub 22} bulk amorphous alloy reveals that the Pd atoms have the highest probability to be the next neighbours to each other. Moreover, P-P correlation corroborates earlier investigations with scattering techniques that P is not a direct next neighbour to another P atom. Analogous investigations on the Fe{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}B{sub 20} metallic glass ribbons, in the as quenched state and for a state heat treated at 350 C for 1 hour insinuate a pronounced elemental inhomogeneity for the annealed state, though, it also depicts glimpse of a slight inhomogeneity for B distribution even for the as quenched sample. Moreover, a comprehensive microstructural investigation has been carried out on the Zr{sub 53}Co{sub 23.5}Al{sub 23.5} glassy system. TEM and TAP investigations evince that the as cast bulk samples constitutes a composite structure of an amorphous phase and crystalline phase(s). The crystallization is essentially triggered at the mould walls due to heterogeneous nucleation. The three dimensional atomic reconstruction maps of the volume analysed by TAP reveal a complex stereological interconnected network of two phases. The phase that is rich in Zr and Al concentration is depleted in Co concentration while the phase that is rich in Co concentration is depleted both in Zr and Al. Zr{sub 53}Co{sub 23.5}Al{sub 23.5} glassy splat samples exhibit a single exothermic crystallization peak contrary to the as cast bulk sample with a different T{sub g} temperature. A single homogeneous amorphous phase revealed by TEM investigations depicts that the faster cooling

  11. Current-induced transition from particle-by-particle to concurrent intercalation in phase-separating battery electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yiyang; El Gabaly, Farid; Ferguson, Todd R.; Smith, Raymond B.; Bartelt, Norman C.; Sugar, Joshua D.; Fenton, Kyle R.; Cogswell, Daniel A.; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Bazant, Martin Z.; Chueh, William C.

    2014-01-01

    ©2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Many battery electrodes contain ensembles of nanoparticles that phase-separate on (de)intercalation. In such electrodes, the fraction of actively intercalating particles directly impacts cycle life: a vanishing population concentrates the current in a small number of particles, leading to current hotspots. Reports of the active particle population in the phase-separating electrode lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4; LFP) vary widely, ranging from near 0% (particle-by-particle) to 100% (concurrent intercalation). Using synchrotron-based X-ray microscopy, we probed the individual state-of-charge for over 3,000 LFP particles. We observed that the active population depends strongly on the cycling current, exhibiting particle-by-particle-like behaviour at low rates and increasingly concurrent behaviour at high rates, consistent with our phase-field porous electrode simulations. Contrary to intuition, the current density, or current per active internal surface area, is nearly invariant with the global electrode cycling rate. Rather, the electrode accommodates higher current by increasing the active particle population. This behaviour results from thermodynamic transformation barriers in LFP, and such a phenomenon probably extends to other phase-separating battery materials. We propose that modifying the transformation barrier and exchange current density can increase the active population and thus the current homogeneity. This could introduce new paradigms to enhance the cycle life of phase-separating battery electrodes.

  12. Current-induced transition from particle-by-particle to concurrent intercalation in phase-separating battery electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiyang; El Gabaly, Farid; Ferguson, Todd R; Smith, Raymond B; Bartelt, Norman C; Sugar, Joshua D; Fenton, Kyle R; Cogswell, Daniel A; Kilcoyne, A L David; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Bazant, Martin Z; Chueh, William C

    2014-12-01

    Many battery electrodes contain ensembles of nanoparticles that phase-separate on (de)intercalation. In such electrodes, the fraction of actively intercalating particles directly impacts cycle life: a vanishing population concentrates the current in a small number of particles, leading to current hotspots. Reports of the active particle population in the phase-separating electrode lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4; LFP) vary widely, ranging from near 0% (particle-by-particle) to 100% (concurrent intercalation). Using synchrotron-based X-ray microscopy, we probed the individual state-of-charge for over 3,000 LFP particles. We observed that the active population depends strongly on the cycling current, exhibiting particle-by-particle-like behaviour at low rates and increasingly concurrent behaviour at high rates, consistent with our phase-field porous electrode simulations. Contrary to intuition, the current density, or current per active internal surface area, is nearly invariant with the global electrode cycling rate. Rather, the electrode accommodates higher current by increasing the active particle population. This behaviour results from thermodynamic transformation barriers in LFP, and such a phenomenon probably extends to other phase-separating battery materials. We propose that modifying the transformation barrier and exchange current density can increase the active population and thus the current homogeneity. This could introduce new paradigms to enhance the cycle life of phase-separating battery electrodes.

  13. Current-induced transition from particle-by-particle to concurrent intercalation in phase-separating battery electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yiyang

    2014-09-14

    ©2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Many battery electrodes contain ensembles of nanoparticles that phase-separate on (de)intercalation. In such electrodes, the fraction of actively intercalating particles directly impacts cycle life: a vanishing population concentrates the current in a small number of particles, leading to current hotspots. Reports of the active particle population in the phase-separating electrode lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4; LFP) vary widely, ranging from near 0% (particle-by-particle) to 100% (concurrent intercalation). Using synchrotron-based X-ray microscopy, we probed the individual state-of-charge for over 3,000 LFP particles. We observed that the active population depends strongly on the cycling current, exhibiting particle-by-particle-like behaviour at low rates and increasingly concurrent behaviour at high rates, consistent with our phase-field porous electrode simulations. Contrary to intuition, the current density, or current per active internal surface area, is nearly invariant with the global electrode cycling rate. Rather, the electrode accommodates higher current by increasing the active particle population. This behaviour results from thermodynamic transformation barriers in LFP, and such a phenomenon probably extends to other phase-separating battery materials. We propose that modifying the transformation barrier and exchange current density can increase the active population and thus the current homogeneity. This could introduce new paradigms to enhance the cycle life of phase-separating battery electrodes.

  14. Effect of boron addition to the hard magnetic bulk Nd60Fe30Al10 amorphous alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, H.Z.; Li, Y.; Ding, J.

    2000-01-01

    A detailed study of the effect of boron addition to crystallinity, magnetic properties and thermal properties was carried out for alloys Nd 60-x Fe 30 Al 10 B x with x=0, 1, 3 and 5 produced by copper mold chill casting and melt-spinning. The cast rods of alloys Nd 60-x Fe 30 Al 10 B x were largely amorphous. Remanence up to 0.154 T and coercivity up to 355 kA/m were observed, which were higher than those of the bulk amorphous Nd 60 Fe 30 Al 10 rod of the same diameter. A step in hysteresis loop was observed for the hard magnetic cast rod and ribbon melt-spun at a low speed of 5 m/s of the alloys with boron addition. Consistent increase in the amplitude of the step and magnetic field (H) at which the step was observed as the boron content increased. A single magnetic phase with low coercivity was observed for fully amorphous ribbon melt-spun at high speed of 30 m/s. Full crystallization due to heat treatment resulted in transition of hard magnetic amorphous phase of Nd 55 Fe 30 Al 10 B 5 cast rod to paramagnetic crystalline phases. TEM results of the as-cast rods illustrated the existence of numerous minute Nd-crystallites in amorphous matrix

  15. Amorphous salts formed from rapid dehydration of multicomponent chloride and ferric sulfate brines: Implications for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklute, Elizabeth C.; Rogers, A. Deanne; Gregerson, Jason C.; Jensen, Heidi B.; Reeder, Richard J.; Dyar, M. Darby

    2018-03-01

    Salts with high hydration states have the potential to maintain high levels of relative humidity (RH) in the near subsurface of Mars, even at moderate temperatures. These conditions could promote deliquescence of lower hydrates of ferric sulfate, chlorides, and other salts. Previous work on deliquesced ferric sulfates has shown that when these materials undergo rapid dehydration, such as that which would occur upon exposure to present day Martian surface conditions, an amorphous phase forms. However, the fate of deliquesced halides or mixed ferric sulfate-bearing brines are presently unknown. Here we present results of rapid dehydration experiments on Ca-, Na-, Mg- and Fe-chloride brines and multicomponent (Fe2(SO4)3 ± Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3) brines at ∼21 °C, and characterize the dehydration products using visible/near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectroscopy, mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We find that rapid dehydration of many multicomponent brines can form amorphous solids or solids with an amorphous component, and that the presence of other elements affects the persistence of the amorphous phase under RH fluctuations. Of the pure chloride brines, only Fe-chloride formed an amorphous solid. XRD patterns of the multicomponent amorphous salts show changes in position, shape, and magnitude of the characteristic diffuse scattering observed in all amorphous materials that could be used to help constrain the composition of the amorphous salt. Amorphous salts deliquesce at lower RH values compared to their crystalline counterparts, opening up the possibility of their role in potential deliquescence-related geologic phenomena such as recurring slope lineae (RSLs) or soil induration. This work suggests that a wide range of aqueous mixed salt solutions can lead to the formation of amorphous salts and are possible for Mars; detailed studies of the formation mechanisms, stability and transformation

  16. Amorphous salts formed from rapid dehydration of multicomponent chloride and ferric sulfate brines: Implications for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklute, Elizabeth C.; Rogers, A. Deanne; Gregerson, Jason C.; Jensen, Heidi B.; Reeder, Richard J.; Dyar, M. Darby

    2018-01-01

    Salts with high hydration states have the potential to maintain high levels of relative humidity (RH) in the near subsurface of Mars, even at moderate temperatures. These conditions could promote deliquescence of lower hydrates of ferric sulfate, chlorides, and other salts. Previous work on deliquesced ferric sulfates has shown that when these materials undergo rapid dehydration, such as that which would occur upon exposure to present day Martian surface conditions, an amorphous phase forms. However, the fate of deliquesced halides or mixed ferric sulfate-bearing brines are presently unknown. Here we present results of rapid dehydration experiments on Ca–, Na–, Mg– and Fe–chloride brines and multi-component (Fe2 (SO4)3 ± Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3) brines at ∼21°C, and characterize the dehydration products using visible/near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectroscopy, mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We find that rapid dehydration of many multicomponent brines can form amorphous solids or solids with an amorphous component, and that the presence of other elements affects the persistence of the amorphous phase under RH fluctuations. Of the pure chloride brines, only Fe–chloride formed an amorphous solid. XRD patterns of the multicomponent amorphous salts show changes in position, shape, and magnitude of the characteristic diffuse scattering observed in all amorphous materials that could be used to help constrain the composition of the amorphous salt. Amorphous salts deliquesce at lower RH values compared to their crystalline counterparts, opening up the possibility of their role in potential deliquescence-related geologic phenomena such as recurring slope lineae (RSLs) or soil induration. This work suggests that a wide range of aqueous mixed salt solutions can lead to the formation of amorphous salts and are possible for Mars; detailed studies of the formation mechanisms, stability and

  17. Amorphous salts formed from rapid dehydration of multicomponent chloride and ferric sulfate brines: Implications for Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklute, Elizabeth C; Rogers, A Deanne; Gregerson, Jason C; Jensen, Heidi B; Reeder, Richard J; Dyar, M Darby

    2018-03-01

    Salts with high hydration states have the potential to maintain high levels of relative humidity (RH) in the near subsurface of Mars, even at moderate temperatures. These conditions could promote deliquescence of lower hydrates of ferric sulfate, chlorides, and other salts. Previous work on deliquesced ferric sulfates has shown that when these materials undergo rapid dehydration, such as that which would occur upon exposure to present day Martian surface conditions, an amorphous phase forms. However, the fate of deliquesced halides or mixed ferric sulfate-bearing brines are presently unknown. Here we present results of rapid dehydration experiments on Ca-, Na-, Mg- and Fe-chloride brines and multi-component (Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ± Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO 3 ) brines at ∼21°C, and characterize the dehydration products using visible/near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectroscopy, mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We find that rapid dehydration of many multicomponent brines can form amorphous solids or solids with an amorphous component, and that the presence of other elements affects the persistence of the amorphous phase under RH fluctuations. Of the pure chloride brines, only Fe-chloride formed an amorphous solid. XRD patterns of the multicomponent amorphous salts show changes in position, shape, and magnitude of the characteristic diffuse scattering observed in all amorphous materials that could be used to help constrain the composition of the amorphous salt. Amorphous salts deliquesce at lower RH values compared to their crystalline counterparts, opening up the possibility of their role in potential deliquescence-related geologic phenomena such as recurring slope lineae (RSLs) or soil induration. This work suggests that a wide range of aqueous mixed salt solutions can lead to the formation of amorphous salts and are possible for Mars; detailed studies of the formation mechanisms, stability and transformation

  18. Nanocrystallization in Co67Cr7Fe4Si8B14 Amorphous Alloy Ribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jamili-Shirvan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The nanocrystallization of Co67Fe4Cr7Si8B14 amorphous ribbons which prepared by planar flow melt spinning process (PFMS was investigated. Crystallization of the ribbons was studied by differential thermal analysis (DTA, X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The DTA result of amorphous ribbon at heating rate of 10˚C/min showedoccurrence o