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Sample records for amnion current scope

  1. Isolation of Human Amnion Epithelial Cells According to Current Good Manufacturing Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramignoli, Roberto; Srinivasan, Raghuraman C; Kannisto, Kristina; Strom, Stephen C

    2016-05-12

    Different cell types can be isolated from human placental tissues, and some have been reported to retain phenotypic plasticity and characteristics that make them a promising source of cells for regenerative medicine. Among these are human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs). Adoption of current good manufacturing practices (cGMP) and enhanced quality control is essential when isolating hAECs in order to deliver a safe and effective cellular product for clinical purposes. This unit describes a detailed protocol for selective isolation of hAECs from human term placenta with little to no contamination by other cell types. A method for characterizing the heterogeneity of the hAEC suspension is also provided. The resulting cell product will be useful for clinical as well as basic research applications. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Gamma radiation sterilized amnion: use in ophthalmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez P, M. E. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Leon T, Y. [Hospital General Regional 220, IMSS, Paseo Tollocan No. 620, Col. Vertice, Toluca 50150, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Vazquez M, L., E-mail: esther.martinez@inin.gob.m [Hospital General de Mexico, Dr. Balmis 148, Col. Doctores, 06720 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    Amnion processed at the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank at the National Institute of Nuclear Research, sterilized with {sup 60}Co gamma radiation, have been used in Mexico since 2005 either as a graft to replace the damaged ocular surface, or as a patch to prevent unwanted inflammatory reactions. Patients from the Hospital General de Mexico (HGM) and Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), suffering diverse pathologies such as keratoconjunctivitis; recurrent pterygium associated with symblepharon; corneal neuro trophic ulcers, chemical and thermal burns, and corneal thinning s, had been successfully treated with irradiated amnion. In the HGM, a clinical prospective study on lesions of the ocular surface of 17 eyes from 15 patients, affected with the above mentioned pathologies, was successful in 88.2%. The results have proven to be excellent as much for cosmetic purposes as for functional ones. Without the treatment, the patients could have suffered a healing after-effect or loss of sight. At IMSS, a controlled clinical randomized trial with 108 eyes from 100 patients, affected with primary nasal pterygium, was performed in 2009. These eyes were treated with radio sterilized amnion and intraoperative mitomycin C to prevent recurrence after excision of the primary pterygium. The preliminary results do not shown adverse reaction, inflammation and pain were significantly reduced radio sterilized amnion also offer security because they do no express antigens HLA-A, B or Dr and the sterile irradiated tissue do not provoke rejection or transmit an infective disease. (Author)

  3. Figures in clinical trial reports: current practice & scope for improvement

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    Travison Thomas G

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most clinical trial publications include figures, but there is little guidance on what results should be displayed as figures and how. Purpose To evaluate the current use of figures in Trial reports, and to make constructive suggestions for future practice. Methods We surveyed all 77 reports of randomised controlled trials in five general medical journals during November 2006 to January 2007. The numbers and types of figures were determined, and then each Figure was assessed for its style, content, clarity and suitability. As a consequence, guidelines are developed for presenting figures, both in general and for each specific common type of Figure. Results Most trial reports contained one to three figures, mean 2.3 per article. The four main types were flow diagram, Kaplan Meier plot, Forest plot (for subgroup analyses and repeated measures over time: these accounted for 92% of all figures published. For each type of figure there is a considerable diversity of practice in both style and content which we illustrate with selected examples of both good and bad practice. Some pointers on what to do, and what to avoid, are derived from our critical evaluation of these articles' use of figures. Conclusion There is considerable scope for authors to improve their use of figures in clinical trial reports, as regards which figures to choose, their style of presentation and labelling, and their specific content. Particular improvements are needed for the four main types of figures commonly used.

  4. EDIBLE VACCINES FROM GM CROPS: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE SCOPE

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    Doshi V

    2013-06-01

    take “food” rather than “drugs” when we are ill. This review attempts to discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality.

  5. Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation in Human Amnion

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    Kim, Jinsil; Pitlick, Mitchell M.; Christine, Paul J.; Schaefer, Amanda R.; Saleme, Cesar; Comas, Belén; Cosentino, Viviana; Gadow, Enrique; Murray, Jeffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    The amnion is a specialized tissue in contact with the amniotic fluid, which is in a constantly changing state. To investigate the importance of epigenetic events in this tissue in the physiology and pathophysiology of pregnancy, we performed genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of human amnion from term (with and without labor) and preterm deliveries. Using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip, we identified genes exhibiting differential methylation associated with normal labor and preterm birth. Functional analysis of the differentially methylated genes revealed biologically relevant enriched gene sets. Bisulfite sequencing analysis of the promoter region of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene detected two CpG dinucleotides showing significant methylation differences among the three groups of samples. Hypermethylation of the CpG island of the solute carrier family 30 member 3 (SLC30A3) gene in preterm amnion was confirmed by methylation-specific PCR. This work provides preliminary evidence that DNA methylation changes in the amnion may be at least partially involved in the physiological process of labor and the etiology of preterm birth and suggests that DNA methylation profiles, in combination with other biological data, may provide valuable insight into the mechanisms underlying normal and pathological pregnancies. PMID:23533356

  6. Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation in Human Amnion

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    Jinsil Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The amnion is a specialized tissue in contact with the amniotic fluid, which is in a constantly changing state. To investigate the importance of epigenetic events in this tissue in the physiology and pathophysiology of pregnancy, we performed genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of human amnion from term (with and without labor and preterm deliveries. Using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip, we identified genes exhibiting differential methylation associated with normal labor and preterm birth. Functional analysis of the differentially methylated genes revealed biologically relevant enriched gene sets. Bisulfite sequencing analysis of the promoter region of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene detected two CpG dinucleotides showing significant methylation differences among the three groups of samples. Hypermethylation of the CpG island of the solute carrier family 30 member 3 (SLC30A3 gene in preterm amnion was confirmed by methylation-specific PCR. This work provides preliminary evidence that DNA methylation changes in the amnion may be at least partially involved in the physiological process of labor and the etiology of preterm birth and suggests that DNA methylation profiles, in combination with other biological data, may provide valuable insight into the mechanisms underlying normal and pathological pregnancies.

  7. Double trouble: the importance of reporting chorionicity and amnionicity in twin pregnancy ultrasound reports.

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    Constantine, Sarah; Wilkinson, Chris

    2015-02-01

    An obstetric ultrasound report in a twin pregnancy that does not unambiguously determine chorionicity and amnionicity in the first trimester is substandard. This article will assist radiologists to understand the importance of reporting the chorionicity and amnionicity in all twin obstetric scans.

  8. Validation and substantiation of 25 kGy as sterilization dose for lyophilized human amnion membrane.

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    Djefal, A; Tahtat, D; Khodja, A Nacer; Bouzid, S Saad; Remane, N

    2007-01-01

    The validation and substantiation of sterilization dose for lyophilized human amnion membrane by gamma irradiation delivered by Co60 source were investigated. The validation experiments were conducted according to ISO 13409 method B. A total of 120 human amnion membranes were collected. Of these, 10 membranes were used for estimation of bioburden and 20 membranes were used for the individual sterility test at verification dose. The average bioburden per product unit with sample item portion (SIP = 1) for lyophilized human amnion membrane was 572 cfu. The verification dose experiments were done at dose of 8.1 kGy and the results of sterility tests showed that human amnion membrane got one positive. Consequently, the sterilization dose of 25 kGy was confirmed and substantiated.

  9. Human Amnion Membrane Serves as a Substratum for Growing Axons in vitro and in vivo

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    Davis, George E.; Blaker, Scott N.; Engvall, Eva; Varon, Silvio; Manthorpe, Marston; Gage, Fred H.

    1987-05-01

    The epithelial cell layer of human amnion membrane can be removed while the basement membrane and stromal surfaces remain morphologically intact. Such a preparation has been used as a substratum for the in vitro culture of dissociated neurons. Embryonic motor neurons from chick ciliary ganglion attached to both surfaces but grew extensive neurites only on the basement membrane. On cross sections of rolled amnion membranes, regenerating axons of cultured neurons were guided along pathways of basement membrane that were immunoreactive with an antibody to laminin. In addition, when rolled amnion membranes were implanted into a lesion cavity between the rat septum and hippocampus, cholinergic neurons extended axons through the longitudinally oriented implant into the hippocampus. Thus, this amnion preparation can serve as a bridge to promote axonal regeneration in vivo in damaged adult brain.

  10. Human Amnion Membrane: Potential Applications in Oral and Periodontal Field.

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    Mohan, Ranjana; Bajaj, Aashima; Gundappa, Mohan

    2017-01-01

    Human amniotic membrane (HAM) is derived from the fetal membranes which consist of the inner amniotic membrane made of single layer of amnion cells fixed to collagen-rich mesenchyme attached to chorion. HAM has low immunogenicity, anti-inflammatory properties and their cells can be isolated without the sacrifice of human embryos. Amniotic membrane has biological properties which are important for the experimental and clinical applications in managing patients of various medical specialties. Abundant, natural and wonderful biomembrane not only protects the foetus but also has various clinical applications in the field of dermatology, ophthalmology, ENT surgery, orthopedics and dental surgery. As it is discarded post-partum it may be useful for regenerative medicine and cell therapy to treat damaged or diseased tissues.

  11. Human Amnion Membrane: Potential Applications in Oral and Periodontal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Ranjana; Bajaj, Aashima; Gundappa, Mohan

    2017-01-01

    Human amniotic membrane (HAM) is derived from the fetal membranes which consist of the inner amniotic membrane made of single layer of amnion cells fixed to collagen-rich mesenchyme attached to chorion. HAM has low immunogenicity, anti-inflammatory properties and their cells can be isolated without the sacrifice of human embryos. Amniotic membrane has biological properties which are important for the experimental and clinical applications in managing patients of various medical specialties. Abundant, natural and wonderful biomembrane not only protects the foetus but also has various clinical applications in the field of dermatology, ophthalmology, ENT surgery, orthopedics and dental surgery. As it is discarded post-partum it may be useful for regenerative medicine and cell therapy to treat damaged or diseased tissues. PMID:28316944

  12. Intranasal Delivery of A Novel Amnion Cell Secretome Prevents Neuronal Damage and Preserves Function In A Mouse Multiple Sclerosis Model

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    Khan, Reas S.; Dine, Kimberly; Bauman, Bailey; Lorentsen, Michael; Lin, Lisa; Brown, Helayna; Hanson, Leah R.; Svitak, Aleta L.; Wessel, Howard; Brown, Larry; Shindler, Kenneth S.

    2017-01-01

    The ability of a novel intranasally delivered amnion cell derived biologic to suppress inflammation, prevent neuronal damage and preserve neurologic function in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis animal model of multiple sclerosis was assessed. Currently, there are no existing optic nerve treatment methods for disease or trauma that result in permanent vision loss. Demyelinating optic nerve inflammation, termed optic neuritis, induces permanent visual dysfunction due to retinal ganglion cell damage in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. ST266, the biological secretome of Amnion-derived Multipotent Progenitor cells, contains multiple anti-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. Intranasally administered ST266 accumulated in rodent eyes and optic nerves, attenuated visual dysfunction, and prevented retinal ganglion cell loss in experimental optic neuritis, with reduced inflammation and demyelination. Additionally, ST266 reduced retinal ganglion cell death in vitro. Neuroprotective effects involved oxidative stress reduction, SIRT1-mediated mitochondrial function promotion, and pAKT signaling. Intranasal delivery of neuroprotective ST266 is a potential novel, noninvasive therapeutic modality for the eyes, optic nerves and brain. The unique combination of biologic molecules in ST266 provides an innovative approach with broad implications for suppressing inflammation in autoimmune diseases, and for preventing neuronal damage in acute neuronal injury and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis. PMID:28139754

  13. Time-dependent mechanical behavior of human amnion: macroscopic and microscopic characterization.

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    Mauri, Arabella; Perrini, Michela; Ehret, Alexander E; De Focatiis, Davide S A; Mazza, Edoardo

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the mechanical response of the human amnion is essential to understand and to eventually prevent premature rupture of fetal membranes. In this study, a large set of macroscopic and microscopic mechanical tests have been carried out on fresh unfixed amnion to gain insight into the time-dependent material response and the underlying mechanisms. Creep and relaxation responses of amnion were characterized in macroscopic uniaxial tension, biaxial tension and inflation configurations. For the first time, these experiments were complemented by microstructural information from nonlinear laser scanning microscopy performed during in situ uniaxial relaxation tests. The amnion showed large tension reduction during relaxation and small inelastic strain accumulation in creep. The short-term relaxation response was related to a concomitant in-plane and out-of-plane contraction, and was dependent on the testing configuration. The microscopic investigation revealed a large volume reduction at the beginning, but no change of volume was measured long-term during relaxation. Tension-strain curves normalized with respect to the maximum strain were highly repeatable in all configurations and allowed the quantification of corresponding characteristic parameters. The present data indicate that dissipative behavior of human amnion is related to two mechanisms: (i) volume reduction due to water outflow (up to ∼20 s) and (ii) long-term dissipative behavior without macroscopic deformation and no systematic global reorientation of collagen fibers.

  14. Human amnion epithelial cells induced to express functional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator.

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    Sean V Murphy

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis, an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a mutation in a gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, remains a leading cause of childhood respiratory morbidity and mortality. The respiratory consequences of cystic fibrosis include the generation of thick, tenacious mucus that impairs lung clearance, predisposing the individual to repeated and persistent infections, progressive lung damage and shortened lifespan. Currently there is no cure for cystic fibrosis. With this in mind, we investigated the ability of human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs to express functional CFTR. We found that hAECs formed 3-dimensional structures and expressed the CFTR gene and protein after culture in Small Airway Growth Medium (SAGM. We also observed a polarized CFTR distribution on the membrane of hAECs cultured in SAGM, similar to that observed in polarized airway cells in vivo. Further, hAECs induced to express CFTR possessed functional iodide/chloride (I(-/Cl(- ion channels that were inhibited by the CFTR-inhibitor CFTR-172, indicating the presence of functional CFTR ion channels. These data suggest that hAECs may be a promising source for the development of a cellular therapy for cystic fibrosis.

  15. Syndecan expressions in the human amnion and chorionic plate

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    T. Lorenzi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The syndecan family consists of four distinct membrane glycoproteins in mammals. Syndecans control cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion and migration through participation in cell-cell interactions, anchorage of cells to the extracellular environment, and modulation of multiple growth factors. Therefore, syndecans may play a pivotal role in the regulation of cell behaviour depending on the cellular microenvironment. Here, we demonstrate that syndecan-1, syndecan-2 and syndecan-4 are expressed in fetal membrane tissue with different immunolocalizations. Syndecan-1 is expressed in the amniotic epithelium, localizing at basolateral cell surfaces. Syndecan-2 and syndecan-4, in contrast, are mostly localized in intracellular compartments, in the extravillous cytotrophoblastic cells and in some fibroblasts of the chorionic plate as well as in the amniotic epithelial cells. In the latter, syndecan-4 is mainly localized in the apical part of the cells. Our results strongly suggest a key role of syndecan-1, syndecan-2 and syndecan-4 in the determination of structural and functional characteristics of human amnion and chorionic plate. Since the solute exchanges between fetus and mother take place in fetal membranes, our data suggest that syndecans are important players in the placenta for the establishment of the fetal-maternal inter-communication.

  16. Syndecan expressions in the human amnion and chorionic plate.

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    Lorenzi, T; Turi, A; Crescimanno, C; Morroni, M; Castellucci, M; David, G; Tranquilli, A L; Marzioni, D

    2010-10-27

    The syndecan family consists of four distinct membrane glycoproteins in mammals. Syndecans control cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion and migration through participation in cell-cell interactions, anchorage of cells to the extracellular environment, and modulation of multiple growth factors. Therefore, syndecans may play a pivotal role in the regulation of cell behaviour depending on the cellular microenvironment. Here, we demonstrate that syndecan-1, syndecan-2 and syndecan-4 are expressed in fetal membrane tissue with different immunolocalizations. Syndecan-1 is expressed in the amniotic epithelium, localizing at basolateral cell surfaces. Syndecan-2 and syndecan-4, in contrast, are mostly localized in intracellular compartments, in the extravillous cytotrophoblastic cells and in some fibroblasts of the chorionic plate as well as in the amniotic epithelial cells. In the latter, syndecan-4 is mainly localized in the apical part of the cells. Our results strongly suggest a key role of syndecan-1, syndecan-2 and syndecan-4 in the determination of structural and functional characteristics of human amnion and chorionic plate. Since the solute exchanges between fetus and mother take place in fetal membranes, our data suggest that syndecans are important players in the placenta for the establishment of the fetal-maternal inter-communication.

  17. Penggunaan Tetes Telinga Serum Autologous dengan Amnion untuk Penutupan Perforasi Membran Timpani

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    Hidayatul Fitria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Latar Belakang: Gangguan pendengaran atau ketulian mempunyai dampak yang merugikan bagi penderita , keluarga, masyarakat maupun negara. Salah satu penyebab ketulian yang sering dijumpai adalah radang telinga tengah, terutama yang disertai perforasi membran timpani yang menetap. Penutupan perforasi membran timpani dapat dilakukan dengan operatif dan konservatif. Secara konservatif sudah banyak cara yang dilakukan. Salah satunya dengan mengkaustik tepi perforasi dengan menggunakan silver nitrat untuk membuat luka baru, kemudian digunakan amnion sebagai jembatan (bridge dan faktor regulasi yang terdapat pada tetes telinga serum autologous. Tujuan: Untuk menjelaskan gambaran penggunaan amnion sebagai jembatan dan tetes telinga serum autologous sebagai faktor regulasi. Tinjauan pustaka: Penutupan perforasi membran timpani dapat dilakukan secara konservatif salah satunya dengan menggunakan tetes telinga serum autologous sebagai faktor regulator, amnion sebagai jembatan dan penggunaan silver nitrat pada tepi perforasi untuk membuat luka baru. Serum autologous memiliki asselerator pertumbuhan yaitu epidermal growth factor (EGF , transforming growth factor β1 (TGF- β1 dan fibronektin. Asselerator pertumbuhan ini dapat kita temukan pada penyembuhan membran timpani normal. Sedangkan membran amnion adalah jaringan semi transparan tipis yang membentuk lapisan terdalam membran fetus dengan susunan membran basalis yang tebal dan jaringan stroma avaskuler. Membran amnion mempercepat pembentukan epitel normal dengan menekan pembentukan jaringan fibrosis. Sel epitel amnion memproduksi faktor pertumbuhan seperti fibroblast growth factor dan transforming growth factor beta. Faktor pertumbuhan akan membantu komunikasi antara epitel dan sel fibroblast stroma untuk menekan proliferasi dan diferensiasi jaringan fibrosis. Kesimpulan: Diperlukan tiga elemen pada penutupan perforasi membran timpani yaitu faktor regulasi, jembatan (bridge dan membuat luka baru

  18. Role of government in public health: Current scenario in India and future scope

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    Subitha Lakshminarayanan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The new agenda for Public Health in India includes the epidemiological transition, demographical transition, environmental changes and social determinants of health. Based on the principles outlined at Alma-Ata in 1978, there is an urgent call for revitalizing primary health care in order to meet these challenges. The role of the government in influencing population health is not limited within the health sector but also by various sectors outside the health systems. This article is a literature review of the existing government machinery for public health needs in India, its success, limitations and future scope. Health system strengthening, human resource development and capacity building and regulation in public health are important areas within the health sector. Contribution to health of a population also derives from social determinants of health like living conditions, nutrition, safe drinking water, sanitation, education, early child development and social security measures. Population stabilization, gender mainstreaming and empowerment, reducing the impact of climate change and disasters on health, improving community participation and governance issues are other important areas for action. Making public health a shared value across the various sectors is a politically challenging strategy, but such collective action is crucial.

  19. Current Evidence on the Association of Dietary Patterns and Bone Health: A Scoping Review.

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    Movassagh, Elham Z; Vatanparast, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition is an important modifiable factor that affects bone health. Diet is a complex mixture of nutrients and foods that correlate or interact with each other. Dietary pattern approaches take into account contributions from various aspects of diet. Findings from dietary pattern studies could complement those from single-nutrient and food studies on bone health. In this study we aimed to conduct a scoping review of the literature that assessed the impact of dietary patterns (derived with the use of both a priori and data-driven approaches) on bone outcomes, including bone mineral status, bone biomarkers, osteoporosis, and fracture risk. We retrieved 49 human studies up to June 2016 from the PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL databases. Most of these studies used a data-driven method, especially factor analysis, to derive dietary patterns. Several studies examined adherence to a variety of the a priori dietary indexes, including the Mediterranean diet score, the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), and the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI). The bone mineral density (BMD) diet score was developed to measure adherence to a dietary pattern beneficial to bone mineral density. Findings revealed a beneficial impact of higher adherence to a "healthy" dietary pattern derived using a data-driven method, the Mediterranean diet, HEI, AHEI, Dietary Diversity Score, Diet Quality Index-International, BMD Diet Score, Healthy Diet Indicator, and Korean Diet Score, on bone. In contrast, the "Western" dietary pattern and those featuring some aspects of an unhealthy diet were associated inversely with bone health. In both a priori and data-driven dietary pattern studies, a dietary pattern that emphasized the intake of fruit, vegetables, whole grains, poultry and fish, nuts and legumes, and low-fat dairy products and de-emphasized the intake of soft drinks, fried foods, meat and processed products, sweets and desserts, and refined grains showed a beneficial impact on bone health. Overall

  20. Aquaporins in ovine amnion: responses to altered amniotic fluid volumes and intramembranous absorption rates.

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    Cheung, Cecilia Y; Anderson, Debra F; Brace, Robert A

    2016-07-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are transmembrane channel proteins that facilitate rapid water movement across cell membranes. In amniotic membrane, the AQP-facilitated transfer of water across amnion cells has been proposed as a mechanism for amniotic fluid volume (AFV) regulation. To investigate whether AQPs modulate AFV by altering intramembranous absorption (IMA) rate, we tested the hypothesis that AQP gene expression in the amnion is positively correlated with IMA rate during experimental conditions when IMA rate and AFV are modified over a wide range. The relative abundances of AQP1, AQP3, AQP8, AQP9, and AQP11 mRNA and protein were determined in the amnion of 16 late-gestation ovine fetuses subjected to 2 days of control conditions, urine drainage, urine replacement, or intraamniotic fluid infusion. AQP mRNA levels were determined by RT-qPCR and proteins by western immunoblot. Under control conditions, mRNA levels among the five AQPs differed more than 20-fold. During experimental treatments, mean IMA rate in the experimental groups ranged from 100 ± 120 mL/day to 1370 ± 270 mL/day. The mRNA levels of the five AQPs did not change from control and were not correlated with IMA rates. The protein levels of AQP1 were positively correlated with IMA rates (r(2) = 38%, P = 0.01) while the remaining four AQPs were not. These findings demonstrate that five AQPs are differentially expressed in ovine amnion. Our study supports the hypothesis that AQP1 may play a positive role in regulating the rate of fluid transfer across the amnion, thereby participating in the dynamic regulation of AFV.

  1. Diabetes treatment: A rapid review of the current and future scope of stem cell research

    OpenAIRE

    Sheik Abdulazeez, Sheriff

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major health concern of the developing and developed nations across the globe. This devastating disease accounts for the 5% deaths around the world annually. The current treatment methods do not address the underlying causes of the disease and have severe limitations. Stem cells are unique cells with the potential to differentiate into any type of specialized cells. This feature of both adult and embryonic stem cells was explored in great detail by the scientists around...

  2. Life on the edge: thermal optima for aerobic scope of equatorial reef fishes are close to current day temperatures.

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    Rummer, Jodie L; Couturier, Christine S; Stecyk, Jonathan A W; Gardiner, Naomi M; Kinch, Jeff P; Nilsson, Göran E; Munday, Philip L

    2014-04-01

    Equatorial populations of marine species are predicted to be most impacted by global warming because they could be adapted to a narrow range of temperatures in their local environment. We investigated the thermal range at which aerobic metabolic performance is optimum in equatorial populations of coral reef fish in northern Papua New Guinea. Four species of damselfishes and two species of cardinal fishes were held for 14 days at 29, 31, 33, and 34 °C, which incorporated their existing thermal range (29-31 °C) as well as projected increases in ocean surface temperatures of up to 3 °C by the end of this century. Resting and maximum oxygen consumption rates were measured for each species at each temperature and used to calculate the thermal reaction norm of aerobic scope. Our results indicate that one of the six species, Chromis atripectoralis, is already living above its thermal optimum of 29 °C. The other five species appeared to be living close to their thermal optima (ca. 31 °C). Aerobic scope was significantly reduced in all species, and approached zero for two species at 3 °C above current-day temperatures. One species was unable to survive even short-term exposure to 34 °C. Our results indicate that low-latitude reef fish populations are living close to their thermal optima and may be more sensitive to ocean warming than higher-latitude populations. Even relatively small temperature increases (2-3 °C) could result in population declines and potentially redistribution of equatorial species to higher latitudes if adaptation cannot keep pace.

  3. Comparison of angiogenic, cytoprotective, and immunosuppressive properties of human amnion- and chorion-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

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    Kenichi Yamahara

    Full Text Available Although mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs can be obtained from the fetal membrane (FM, little information is available regarding biological differences in MSCs derived from different layers of the FM or their therapeutic potential. Isolated MSCs from both amnion and chorion layers of FM showed similar morphological appearance, multipotency, and cell-surface antigen expression. Conditioned media obtained from amnion- and chorion-derived MSCs inhibited cell death caused by serum starvation or hypoxia in endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. Amnion and chorion MSCs secreted significant amounts of angiogenic factors including HGF, IGF-1, VEGF, and bFGF, although differences in the cellular expression profile of these soluble factors were observed. Transplantation of human amnion or chorion MSCs significantly increased blood flow and capillary density in a murine hindlimb ischemia model. In addition, compared to human chorion MSCs, human amnion MSCs markedly reduced T-lymphocyte proliferation with the enhanced secretion of PGE2, and improved the pathological situation of a mouse model of acute graft-versus-host disease. Our results highlight that human amnion- and chorion-derived MSCs, which showed differences in their soluble factor secretion and angiogenic/immuno-suppressive function, could be ideal cell sources for regenerative medicine.

  4. Amnion and Chorion Membranes: Potential Stem Cell Reservoir with Wide Applications in Periodontics

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    Akanksha Gupta; Kedige, Suresh D.; Kanu Jain

    2015-01-01

    The periodontal therapy usually aims at elimination of disease causing bacteria and resolution of inflammation. It involves either resective or regenerative surgery to resolve the inflammation associated defects. Over the years, several methods have been used for achievement of periodontal regeneration. One of the oldest biomaterials used for scaffolds is the fetal membrane. The amniotic membranes of developing embryo, that is, amnion (innermost lining) and chorion (a layer next to it), have ...

  5. Investigating the Potential of Amnion-Based Scaffolds as a Barrier Membrane for Guided Bone Regeneration.

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    Li, Wuwei; Ma, Guowu; Brazile, Bryn; Li, Nan; Dai, Wei; Butler, J Ryan; Claude, Andrew A; Wertheim, Jason A; Liao, Jun; Wang, Bo

    2015-08-11

    Guided bone regeneration is a new concept of large bone defect therapy, which employs a barrier membrane to afford a protected room for osteogenesis and prevent the invasion of fibroblasts. In this study, we developed a novel barrier membrane made from lyophilized multilayered acellular human amnion membranes (AHAM). After decellularization, the AHAM preserved the structural and biomechanical integrity of the amnion extracellular matrix (ECM). The AHAM also showed minimal toxic effects when cocultured with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), as evidenced by high cell density, good cell viability, and efficient osteogenic differentiation after 21-day culturing. The effectiveness of the multilayered AHAM in guiding bone regeneration was evaluated using an in vivo rat tibia defect model. After 6 weeks of surgery, the multilayered AHAM showed great efficiency in acting as a shield to avoid the invasion of the fibrous tissues, stabilizing the bone grafts and inducing the massive bone growth. We hence concluded that the advantages of the lyophilized multilayered AHAM barrier membrane are as follows: preservation of the structural and mechanical properties of the amnion ECM, easiness for preparation and handling, flexibility in adjusting the thickness and mechanical properties to suit the application, and efficiency in inducing bone growth and avoiding fibrous tissues invasion.

  6. S100B protein expression in the amnion and amniotic fluid in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia.

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    Tskitishvili, E; Komoto, Y; Temma-Asano, K; Hayashi, S; Kinugasa, Y; Tsubouchi, H; Song, M; Kanagawa, T; Shimoya, K; Murata, Y

    2006-12-01

    Our aim was to investigate the expression of S100B protein in the amnion and to assess the amniotic fluid concentration in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia. Samples were obtained from women who developed pre-eclampsia (n = 7), pre-eclampsia with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) (n = 4), normotensive IUGR (n = 7) and gestational hypertension (n = 4) during pregnancy and healthy controls who delivered at term (n = 35). To determine the difference in the expression of S100B in the amnion, we performed immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis and RT-PCR. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we assessed the S100B concentration in amniotic fluid. The S100B mRNA expression in the amnion of pre-eclamptic patients and patients with pre-eclampsia with IUGR was significantly higher than that in the control. The amniotic fluid S100B protein concentration of the pre-eclampsia and normotensive IUGR cases was significantly higher than that of the control. This study shows that amnion could be a source responsible for the increased concentration of S100B in amniotic fluid. In pre-eclampsia, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by oxidative stress. Some pathological conditions that develop during pregnancy and are related to hypoxic stress can affect the elevation of S100B concentration in the amnion.

  7. Nuclear factor kappa B activation occurs in the amnion prior to labour onset and modulates the expression of numerous labour associated genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prior to the onset of human labour there is an increase in the synthesis of prostaglandins, cytokines and chemokines in the fetal membranes, particular the amnion. This is associated with activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB. In this study we characterised the level of NFκB activity in amnion epithelial cells as a measure of amnion activation in samples collected from women undergoing caesarean section at 39 weeks gestation prior to the onset of labour. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that a proportion of women exhibit low or moderate NFκB activity while other women exhibit high levels of NFκB activity (n = 12. This activation process does not appear to involve classical pathways of NFκB activation but rather is correlated with an increase in nuclear p65-Rel-B dimers. To identify the full range of genes upregulated in association with amnion activation, microarray analysis was performed on carefully characterised non-activated amnion (n = 3 samples and compared to activated samples (n = 3. A total of 919 genes were upregulated in response to amnion activation including numerous inflammatory genes such cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, 44-fold, interleukin 8 (IL-8, 6-fold, IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAP, 4.5-fold, thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1, 3-fold and, unexpectedly, oxytocin receptor (OTR, 24-fold. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis of the microarray data reveal the two main gene networks activated concurrently with amnion activation are i cell death, cancer and morphology and ii cell cycle, embryonic development and tissue development. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that assessment of amnion NFκB activation is critical for accurate sample classification and subsequent interpretation of data. Collectively, our data suggest amnion activation is largely an inflammatory event that occurs in the amnion epithelial layer as a prelude to the onset of labour.

  8. Prostaglandin E2 regulation of amnion cell vascular endothelial growth factor expression: relationship with intramembranous absorption rate in fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Cecilia Y; Beardall, Michael K; Anderson, Debra F; Brace, Robert A

    2014-08-01

    We hypothesized that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulates amniotic fluid transport across the amnion by upregulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in amnion cells and that amniotic PGE2 concentration correlates positively with intramembranous (IM) absorption rate in fetal sheep. The effects of PGE2 at a range of concentrations on VEGF 164 and caveolin-1 gene expressions were analyzed in cultured ovine amnion cells. IM absorption rate, amniotic fluid (AF) volume, and PGE2 concentration in AF were determined in late-gestation fetal sheep during control conditions, isovolumic fetal urine replacement (low IM absorption rate), or intra-amniotic fluid infusion (high IM absorption rate). In ovine amnion cells, PGE2 induced dose- and time-dependent increases in VEGF 164 mRNA levels and reduced caveolin-1 mRNA and protein levels. VEGF receptor blockade abolished the caveolin-1 response, while minimally affecting the VEGF response to PGE2. In sheep fetuses, urine replacement reduced amniotic PGE2 concentration by 58%, decreased IM absorption rate by half, and doubled AF volume (P amniotic fluid infusion increased IM absorption rate and AF volume (P amniotic PGE2 concentration was unchanged. Neither IM absorption rate nor AF volume correlated with amniotic PGE2 concentration under each experimental condition. Although PGE2 at micromolar concentrations induced dose-dependent responses in VEGF and caveolin-1 gene expression in cultured amnion cells consistent with a role of PGE2 in activating VEGF to mediate AF transport across the amnion, amniotic PGE2 at physiological nanomolar concentrations does not appear to regulate IM absorption rate or AF volume.

  9. Phosphorylation of STAT3 mediates the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by cortisol in the human amnion at parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wangsheng; Guo, Chunming; Zhu, Ping; Lu, Jiangwen; Li, Wenjiao; Liu, Chao; Xie, Huiliang; Myatt, Leslie; Chen, Zi-Jiang; Sun, Kang

    2015-10-27

    The induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and subsequent production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by cortisol in the amnion contrast with the effect of cortisol on most other tissues, but this proinflammatory effect of cortisol may be a key event in human parturition (labor). We evaluated the underlying mechanism activated by cortisol in primary human amnion fibroblasts. Exposure of the amnion fibroblasts to cortisol led to the activation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, which induced the phosphorylation of the kinase SRC and STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3). STAT3 interacted with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the transcription factor CREB-1 (cAMP response element-binding protein 1) at the promoter of the gene encoding COX-2, which promoted the production of the secreted prostaglandin PGE2. PGE2 activates the prostaglandin receptors EP2 and EP4, which stimulate cAMP-PKA signaling. Thus, cortisol reinforced the activation of cAMP-PKA signaling through an SRC-STAT3-COX-2-PGE2-mediated feedback loop. Inhibiting STAT3, SRC, or the cAMP-PKA pathway attenuated the cortisol-stimulated induction of COX-2 and PGE2 production in amnion fibroblasts. In human amnion tissue, the amount of phosphorylated STAT3 correlated positively with that of cortisol, COX-2, and PGE2, and all were more abundant in tissue obtained after active labor than in tissue obtained from cesarean surgeries in the absence of labor. These results indicated that the coordinated recruitment of STAT3, CREB-1, and GR to the promoter of the gene encoding COX-2 contributes to the feed-forward induction of COX-2 activity and prostaglandin synthesis in the amnion during parturition.

  10. Amnion and Chorion Membranes: Potential Stem Cell Reservoir with Wide Applications in Periodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The periodontal therapy usually aims at elimination of disease causing bacteria and resolution of inflammation. It involves either resective or regenerative surgery to resolve the inflammation associated defects. Over the years, several methods have been used for achievement of periodontal regeneration. One of the oldest biomaterials used for scaffolds is the fetal membrane. The amniotic membranes of developing embryo, that is, amnion (innermost lining and chorion (a layer next to it, have the properties with significant potential uses in dentistry. This paper reviews the properties, mechanism of action, and various applications of these placental membranes in general and specifically in Periodontics.

  11. Amnion and Chorion Membranes: Potential Stem Cell Reservoir with Wide Applications in Periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akanksha; Kedige, Suresh D; Jain, Kanu

    2015-01-01

    The periodontal therapy usually aims at elimination of disease causing bacteria and resolution of inflammation. It involves either resective or regenerative surgery to resolve the inflammation associated defects. Over the years, several methods have been used for achievement of periodontal regeneration. One of the oldest biomaterials used for scaffolds is the fetal membrane. The amniotic membranes of developing embryo, that is, amnion (innermost lining) and chorion (a layer next to it), have the properties with significant potential uses in dentistry. This paper reviews the properties, mechanism of action, and various applications of these placental membranes in general and specifically in Periodontics.

  12. Increased axonal regeneration through a biodegradable amnionic tube nerve conduit: effect of local delivery and incorporation of nerve growth factor/hyaluronic acid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, J A; Warnke, P H; Pan, Y C; Shenaq, S

    2000-01-01

    The authors emphasize the possible pharmacological enhancement of axonal regeneration using a specific growth factor/ extracellular media incorporated in a biodegradable nonneural nerve conduit material. They investigated the early effects on nerve regeneration of continuous local delivery of nerve growth factor (NGF) and the local incorporation of hyaluronic acid (HA) inside a newly manufactured nerve conduit material from fresh human amnionic membrane. Human amnionic membrane contains important biochemical factors that play a major neurotrophic role in the nerve regeneration process. The process of manufacturing a nerve conduit from fresh human amnionic membrane is described. This nerve conduit system was used in rabbits to bridge a 25-mm nerve gap over 3 months. NGF was released locally, over 28 days, at the distal end of the tube via a system of slow release, and HA was incorporated inside the lumen of the tube at the time of surgery. NGF/HA treatment promoted axonal regeneration across the amnionic tube nerve conduit (8,962 +/- 383 myelinated axons) 45% better than the nontreated amnionic tube group (6,180 +/- 353 myelinated axons). The authors demonstrate that NGF/HA media enhances additional axonal regeneration in the amnionic tube nerve conduit. This result is secondary to the effect of the amnion promoting biochemical factors, in combination with the NGF/HA effect on facilitating early events in the nerve regeneration process.

  13. Amnion-derived mesenchymal stromal cells show a mesenchymal-epithelial phenotype in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Julia; Lang, Ingrid; Siwetz, Monika; Fröhlich, Julia; Huppertz, Berthold

    2014-06-01

    The amnionic membrane is a rich source of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSC), which are readily available and show a potential use in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Before these cells can be applied clinically, careful characterization is necessary, especially as primary cells are known to change their phenotype in culture. We analyzed the mesenchymal phenotype of hAMSC at different stages after isolation using immunohistochemistry. Shortly after isolation (1 day), 92 % (± 7 %) of the hAMSC expressed the mesenchymal marker vimentin, 2 % (± 1 %) stained for the epithelial marker cytokeratin-7 and 5 % (± 4 %) co-expressed these markers. After 5 days, the double positive cells slightly increased to 7 % (± 3 %), while exclusive expression of cytokeratin-7 or vimentin remained unchanged (1 % ± 2 % and 92 % ± 1 %, respectively). After the first passage, all attached cells were vimentin-positive, while 54 % (± 9 %) co-expressed cytokeratin-7 and vimentin. Thus, we conclude that under culture, hAMSC adopt a hybrid mesenchymal-epithelial phenotype. It is also essential to perform microscopical examination during the first days after isolation to detect contaminations with human amnion-derived epithelial cells in cultures of hAMSC.

  14. Isolation, cryopreservation and culture of human amnion epithelial cells for clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sean V; Kidyoor, Amritha; Reid, Tanya; Atala, Anthony; Wallace, Euan M; Lim, Rebecca

    2014-12-21

    Human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) derived from term or pre-term amnion membranes have attracted attention from researchers and clinicians as a potential source of cells for regenerative medicine. The reason for this interest is evidence that these cells have highly multipotent differentiation ability, low immunogenicity, and anti-inflammatory functions. These properties have prompted researchers to investigate the potential of hAECs to be used to treat a variety of diseases and disorders in pre-clinical animal studies with much success. hAECs have found widespread application for the treatment of a range of diseases and disorders. Potential clinical applications of hAECs include the treatment of stroke, multiple sclerosis, liver disease, diabetes and chronic and acute lung diseases. Progressing from pre-clinical animal studies into clinical trials requires a higher standard of quality control and safety for cell therapy products. For safety and quality control considerations, it is preferred that cell isolation protocols use animal product-free reagents. We have developed protocols to allow researchers to isolate, cryopreserve and culture hAECs using animal product-free reagents. The advantage of this method is that these cells can be isolated, characterized, cryopreserved and cultured without the risk of delivering potentially harmful animal pathogens to humans, while maintaining suitable cell yields, viabilities and growth potential. For researchers moving from pre-clinical animal studies to clinical trials, these methodologies will greatly accelerate regulatory approval, decrease risks and improve the quality of their therapeutic cell population.

  15. Clinically silent polymicrobial amnionitis and intrauterine fetal death associated with a Cu-7 intrauterine contraceptive device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waites, K B; Bobo, R A; Davis, R O; Brookings, E S; Cassell, G H

    1984-12-15

    This article presents a case of silent polymicrobial amnionitis with subsequent intrauterine fetal death in a 34-year old woman who conceived with a Cu-7 IUD in place. There were no apparent pregnancy complications or symptoms of uterine infection during early pregnancy. At 16 weeks gestation, the patient underwent amniocentesis for cytogenetic studies. 5 different microorganisms--Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus warneri, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mitis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum--were isolated from the amniotic fluid. 2 week later, intrauterine fetal death was detected. U. urealyticum was at this point isolated from the cervix and placental and fetal tissues. This organism, which has been associated with chorioamnionitis, spontaneous abortion, and neonatal death, is suspected to have contributed to the fetal death in this case. U. urealyticum can invade the amniotic sac with fetal membranes intact and persist for 8 weeks without overt effects. This case illustrates the risks associated with nonremoval of an IUD after contraceptive failure.

  16. Nuclear microanalysis of the human amnion: A study of ionic cellular exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razafindrabe, L.; Moretto, Ph.; Llabador, Y.; Simonoff, M.; Bara, M.; Guiet-Bara, A.

    1995-09-01

    The epithelial cells of the human amniotic membrane have been extensively studied by electrophysiologists with the aim of elucidating the mechanisms of transmembrane ionic transfers. In order to provide complementary information about this model, nuclear microanalysis was performed using the CENBG ion microbeam. Quantitative mapping of the human amnion was carried out and the distributions of most mono- and divalent ions involved in cellular pathways (Na +, Mg 2+, Cl -, Ca 2+) were determined. The ionic cellular content was also compared, before and after incubation in a Hanks' physiological fluid and the resultant ions transfers were determined. The aim of this paper is to expose the advances of this experimental model, more particularly after the development of simulation programs which improved the accuracy of PIXE analysis in the measurement of low energy X-rays emitters. Statistically significant results can now be extracted and can be explained taking into account the results of previous electrophysiological experiments.

  17. Studies on the Relationship between the Embryonic Heart Development and the Amnion Folding in Chick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqing Li

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As a model animal for developmental biology, chick embryo is easy to control and observe during embryo development period and therefore it is widely used in the study of cardiac development. The application of proteomics has opened the door for large-scale studies to dissect both protein expression, regulation and function during chick heart developing stages. The proteomics study requires to quickly separate a large number of chick heart samples with the same developing stage. However, the traditional morphological standards based on Hamburger-Hamilton and Witschi stages are difficult to fulfill this requirement. Herein, we suppose a new standard for distinguishing chick heart morphology in different developing stages based on the relationship between the embryonic heart development and the amnion folding in chick. Based on this standard, we can accelerate the speed of embryonic heart sample separation and guarantee the quantity and quality of the sample more reliably.

  18. Human amnion epithelial cells can be induced to differentiate into functional insulin-producing cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanan Hou; Qin Huang; Tianjin Liu; Lihe Guo

    2008-01-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation has demonstrated that long-term insulin independence may be achieved in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus type 1. However, limited availability of islet tissue means that new sources of insulinproducing cells that are responsive to glucose are required. Here, we show that human amnion epithelial cells (HAEC) can be induced to differentiate into functional insulinproducing cells in vitro. After induction of differentiation, HAEC expressed multiple pancreatic --cell genes, including insulin, pancreas duodenum homeobox-1, paired box gene 6,NK2 transcription factor-related locus 2, Islet 1, glucokinase,and glucose transporter-2, and released C-peptide in a glucose-regulated manner in response to other extracellular stimulations. The transplantation of induced HAEC into streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57 mice reversed hyperglycemia, restored body weight, and maintained euglycemia for 30 d. These findings indicated that HAEC may be a new source for cell replacement therapy in type 1 diabetes.

  19. The dynamic expression of extraembryonic marker genes in the beetle Tribolium castaneum reveals the complexity of serosa and amnion formation in a short germ insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rahul; Beermann, Anke; Schröder, Reinhard

    2013-12-01

    Most insect embryos develop with two distinct extraembryonic membranes, the serosa and the amnion. In the insect beetle Tribolium the early origin of the serosa within the anterior blastoderm is well established but the origin of the amnion is still debated. It is not known whether this tissue develops from a blastodermal precursor or originates de novo later from embryonic tissue during embryogenesis. We undertook an in-depth analysis of the spatio-temporal expression pattern profile of important extraembryonic membrane marker genes with emphasis on early blastoderm development in Tribolium. The amnion marker iroquois (Tc-iro) was found co-expressed with the serosa marker zerknüllt1 (Tc-zen1) during early blastoderm formation in an anterior cap domain. This domain later resolved into two adjacent domains that likely represent the precursors of the serosa and the amnion. In addition, we found the hindsight ortholog in Tribolium (Tc-hnt) to be a serosa-specific marker. Surprisingly, decapentaplegic (Tc-dpp) expression was not seen as a symmetric cap domain but detected asymmetrically first along the DV- and later also along the AP-axis. Moreover, we found a previously undescribed domain of phosphorylated MAD (pMAD) protein in anterior ventral serosal cells. This is the first study showing that the anterior-lateral part of the amnion originates from the anterior blastoderm while the precursor of the dorsal amnion develops later de novo from a dorsal-posterior region within the differentiated blastoderm.

  20. Biological properties of dehydrated human amnion/chorion composite graft: implications for chronic wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, Thomas J; Rennert, Robert; Zabek, Nicole; Massee, Michelle; Lim, Jeremy J; Temenoff, Johnna S; Li, William W; Gurtner, Geoffrey

    2013-10-01

    Human amnion/chorion tissue derived from the placenta is rich in cytokines and growth factors known to promote wound healing; however, preservation of the biological activities of therapeutic allografts during processing remains a challenge. In this study, PURION® (MiMedx, Marietta, GA) processed dehydrated human amnion/chorion tissue allografts (dHACM, EpiFix®, MiMedx) were evaluated for the presence of growth factors, interleukins (ILs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were performed on samples of dHACM and showed quantifiable levels of the following growth factors: platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA), PDGF-BB, transforming growth factor α (TGFα), TGFβ1, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), placental growth factor (PLGF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF). The ELISA assays also confirmed the presence of IL-4, 6, 8 and 10, and TIMP 1, 2 and 4. Moreover, the relative elution of growth factors into saline from the allograft ranged from 4% to 62%, indicating that there are bound and unbound fractions of these compounds within the allograft. dHACM retained biological activities that cause human dermal fibroblast proliferation and migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro. An in vivo mouse model showed that dHACM when tested in a skin flap model caused mesenchymal progenitor cell recruitment to the site of implantation. The results from both the in vitro and in vivo experiments clearly established that dHACM contains one or more soluble factors capable of stimulating MSC migration and recruitment. In summary, PURION® processed dHACM retains its biological activities related to wound healing, including the potential to positively affect four distinct and pivotal physiological processes intimately involved in wound healing: cell proliferation, inflammation, metalloproteinase activity and recruitment of progenitor cells. This suggests

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells from amnion and amniotic fluid in the bovine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradetti, B; Meucci, A; Bizzaro, D; Cremonesi, F; Lange Consiglio, A

    2013-04-01

    Amnion and amniotic fluid (AF) are noncontroversial and inexhaustible sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that can be harvested noninvasively at low cost. As in humans, also in veterinary field, presumptive stem cells derived from these tissues reveal as promising candidates for disease treatment, specifically for their plasticity, their reduced immunogenicity, and high anti-inflammatory potential. The aim of this work is to obtain and characterize, for the first time in bovine species, presumptive MSCs from the epithelial portion of the amnion (AECs) and from the AF (AF-MSCs) to be used for clinical applications. AECs display a polygonal morphology, whereas AF-MSCs exhibit a fibroblastic-like morphology only starting from the second passage, being heterogeneous during the primary culture. For both lines, the proliferative ability has been found constant over the ten passages studied and AECs show a statistically lower (P<0.05) doubling time with respect to AF-MSCs. AECs express MSC-specific markers (ITGB1 (CD29), CD44, ALCAM (CD166), ENG (CD105), and NT5E (CD73)) from P1 to P3; in AF-MSCs, only ITGB1, CD44, and ALCAM mRNAs are detected; NT5E is expressed from P2 and ENG has not been found at any passage. AF-MSCs and AECs are positive for the pluripotent markers (POU5F1 (OCT4) and MYC (c-Myc)) and lack of the hematopoietic markers. When appropriately induced, both cell lines are capable of differentiating into ectodermal and mesodermal lineages. This study contributes to reinforce the emerging importance of these cells as ideal tools in veterinary medicine. A deeper evaluation of the immunological properties needs to be performed in order to better understand their role in cellular therapy.

  2. A model for the compressible, viscoelastic behavior of human amnion addressing tissue variability through a single parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Arabella; Ehret, Alexander E; De Focatiis, Davide S A; Mazza, Edoardo

    2016-08-01

    A viscoelastic, compressible model is proposed to rationalize the recently reported response of human amnion in multiaxial relaxation and creep experiments. The theory includes two viscoelastic contributions responsible for the short- and long-term time-dependent response of the material. These two contributions can be related to physical processes: water flow through the tissue and dissipative characteristics of the collagen fibers, respectively. An accurate agreement of the model with the mean tension and kinematic response of amnion in uniaxial relaxation tests was achieved. By variation of a single linear factor that accounts for the variability among tissue samples, the model provides very sound predictions not only of the uniaxial relaxation but also of the uniaxial creep and strip-biaxial relaxation behavior of individual samples. This suggests that a wide range of viscoelastic behaviors due to patient-specific variations in tissue composition can be represented by the model without the need of recalibration and parameter identification.

  3. Class I to III histone deacetylases differentially regulate inflammation-induced matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression in primary amnion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Marin; Lim, Ratana; Barker, Gillian; Lappas, Martha

    2014-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 plays an important role in the degradation of the extracellular matrix in fetal membranes, and pathological activation of MMP-9 can lead to preterm birth. In nongestational tissues, modulation of histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulates MMP-9 expression. The aim of this study was to determine whether class I to III HDACs regulate MMP-9 expression and activity in primary amnion cells. Class I and II HDAC regulation of MMP-9 was assessed using the general class I and II HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) trichostatin A (TSA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), the class I HDACi MS-275, and the class II HDACi MC1568. Class III HDAC regulation of MMP-9 was assessed using the SIRT1 activators resveratrol and SRT1720 as well as SIRT1 small interfering RNA (siRNA). Primary amnion epithelial cells were incubated with 1 ng/mL interleukin (IL) 1β in the absence or presence of 0.3 μmol/L TSA, 5 μmol/L SAHA, 2.5 μmol/L MS-275, 2.5 μmol/L MC1568, 50 μmol/L resveratrol, or 10 μmol/L SRT1720 for 20 hours. We found that the class I and II HDACi TSA and SAHA and the class II HDACi MC1568 significantly decreased IL-β-induced MMP-9 gene and pro-MMP-9 expression in primary amnion cells. There was, however, no effect of the class I HDACi MS-275 on IL-β-induced MMP-9 expression. On the other hand, inhibition of class III HDAC SIRT1 using siRNA significantly augmented IL-1β-induced MMP-9, and SIRT1 activation using resveratrol and SRT1720 inhibited IL-1β-induced MMP-9 expression. In summary, class I to III HDACs differentially regulate inflammation-induced MMP-9 expression in primary amnion cells.

  4. Current status and scope of gallium nitride-based vertical transistors for high-power electronics application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Srabanti; Swenson, Brian L.; Hoi Wong, Man; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2013-07-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is becoming the material of choice for power electronics to enable the roadmap of increasing power density by simultaneously enabling high-power conversion efficiency and reduced form factor. This is because the low switching losses of GaN enable high-frequency operation which reduces bulky passive components with negligible change in efficiency. Commercialization of GaN-on-Si materials for power electronics has led to the entry of GaN devices into the medium-power market since the performance-over-cost of even first-generation products looks very attractive compared to today's mature Si-based solutions. On the other hand, the high-power market still remains unaddressed by lateral GaN devices. The current and voltage demand for high-power conversion application makes the chip area in a lateral topology so large that it becomes difficult to manufacture. Vertical GaN devices would play a big role alongside silicon carbide (SiC) to address the high-power conversion needs. In this paper vertical GaN devices are discussed with emphasis on current aperture vertical electron transistors (CAVETs) which have shown promising performance. The fabrication-related challenges and the future possibilities enabled by the availability of good-quality, cost-competitive bulk GaN material are also evaluated for CAVETs. This work was done at Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA.

  5. Characterization of Side Cell Populations Obtained from Human Amnion Mesenchymal Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ning; PIAO Zhengfu; Mamoru Kobayashi; Koji Sasaki; DING Shu-qin; Aiko Kikuchi; Isao Kamo; Norio Sakuragawa

    2009-01-01

    Human amnion mesenchymal cells (AMCs) contain multipotent cells. To enrich such multipotent stem cells, we applied to AMCs the new method for the isolation of side population (SP) cells used for the enrichment of multipotent stem cells from many tissues. We succeeded in obtaining SP cells from AMCs (AMC-SP cells). AMC-SP cells were found in 0.2% of AMCs, irrespective of the length of pregnant period, ranging from 37 to 40 weeks. Cell cycle analyses uggested that AMC-SP cells belonged to a cell population that proliferated very slowly and/or was in a quiescent state in the amniotic membrane. Upon culturing, they proliferated with 40 to 80 cell doublings. However, they did not form colonies in a soft agarose culture, whereas HepG2 cells, representative human hepatoma cells formed many large colonies. These results suggest that AMC-SP cells that have considerable value for the use of regenerative medicine can be managed safely in vitro.

  6. Derivation and characterization of human embryonic stem cells on human amnion epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Dongmei; Wang, Yongwei; Sun, Jian; Chen, Yifei; Li, Ting; Wu, Yi; Guo, Lihe; Wei, Chunsheng

    2015-05-07

    Culture conditions that support the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have already been established using primary human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) as an alternative to traditional mitotically inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). In the present work, inner cell masses (ICM) were isolated from frozen embryos obtained as donations from couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment and four new hESC lines were derived using hAECs as feeder cells. This feeder system was able to support continuous growth of what were, according to their domed shape and markers, undifferentiated naïve-like hESCs. Their pluripotent potential were also demonstrated by embryoid bodies developing to the expected three germ layers in vitro and the productions of teratoma in vivo. The cell lines retained their karyotypic integrity for over 35 passages. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that these newly derived hESCs consisted mostly of undifferentiated cells with large nuclei and scanty cytoplasm. The new hESCs cultured on hAECs showed distinct undifferentiated characteristics in comparison to hESCs of the same passage maintained on MEFs. This type of optimized culture system may provide a useful platform for establishing clinical-grade hESCs and assessing the undifferentiated potential of hESCs.

  7. Proteome analysis of human amnion and amniotic fluid by two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Jin; Yoon, Won-Gap; Song, Jin-Su; Jung, Hyun Sook; Kim, Chong Jai; Oh, Soo Young; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Jung, Guhung; Kim, Hie-Joon; Nirasawa, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Proteome analysis by 2-DE and PMF by MALDI-TOF MS was performed on human amnion and amniotic fluid at term. Ninety-two soluble and nineteen membrane proteins were identified from amnion. Thirty-five proteins were identified from amniotic fluid. Calgranulin A and B were found in all patients infected with Ureaplasma urealyticum, but not in any of the patients without infection, indicating that they are potential markers of intrauterine infection. Identity of calgranulin A and B was confirmed by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. This study represents the first extensive analysis of the human amnion and amniotic fluid proteome at term and demonstrates that 2-DE and MALDI-TOF MS is a useful tool for identifying clinically significant biomarkers of problematic pregnancies.

  8. Identification of Extracellular Matrix Components and Biological Factors in Micronized Dehydrated Human Amnion/Chorion Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jennifer; Priddy, Lauren B.; Lim, Jeremy J.; Massee, Michelle; Koob, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The use of bioactive extracellular matrix (ECM) grafts such as amniotic membranes is an attractive treatment option for enhancing wound repair. In this study, the concentrations, activity, and distribution of matrix components, growth factors, proteases, and inhibitors were evaluated in PURION® Processed, micronized, dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane (dHACM; MiMedx Group, Inc.). Approach: ECM components in dHACM tissue were assessed by using immunohistochemical staining, and growth factors, cytokines, proteases, and inhibitors were quantified by using single and multiplex ELISAs. The activities of proteases that were native to the tissue were determined via gelatin zymography and EnzChek® activity assay. Results: dHACM tissue contained the ECM components collagens I and IV, hyaluronic acid, heparin sulfate proteoglycans, fibronectin, and laminin. In addition, numerous growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, proteases, and protease inhibitors that are known to play a role in the wound-healing process were quantified in dHACM. Though matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were present in dHACM tissues, inhibitors of MMPs overwhelmingly outnumbered the MMP enzymes by an overall molar ratio of 28:1. Protease activity assays revealed that the MMPs in the tissue existed primarily either in their latent form or complexed with inhibitors. Innovation: This is the first study to characterize components that function in wound healing, including inhibitor and protease content and activity, in micronized dHACM. Conclusion: A variety of matrix components and growth factors, as well as proteases and their inhibitors, were identified in micronized dHACM, providing a better understanding of how micronized dHACM tissue can be used to effectively promote wound repair. PMID:28224047

  9. Cases of limb-body wall complex: Early amnion rupture, vascular disruption, or abnormal splitting of the embryo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Frank; Pinar, Halit; Kostadinov, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    We report two cases of limb-body wall complex (LBWC), also known as body stalk anomaly, a rare form of body wall defect incompatible with life. The first case was identified during a level II ultrasound examination performed at 7 wk gestational age. The delivery was by breech extraction at 39 wk and 4 days. The second case was delivered by spontaneous vaginal delivery at 35 wk and 5 days. Karyotype analysis was normal in both fetuses. The phenotype of LBWC is variable, but commonly identified features include: exencephaly, limb defects, and either facial clefts or thoraco-abdominoschisis. The exact etiology remains uncertain, as the disorder has been regarded as sporadic with low recurrence. Vascular disruption during early embryogenesis, early amnion rupture, abnormal splitting of the embryo, and failure of amnion fusion have been implicated in the pathogenesis of LBWC. A role for possible gene mutation and maternal use of alcohol, tobacco, or illicit drugs has also been suggested. Detailed ultrasonography along with biochemical screening may allow for early detection.

  10. Amnion-Epithelial-Cell-Derived Exosomes Demonstrate Physiologic State of Cell under Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Sheller

    Full Text Available At term, the signals of fetal maturity and feto-placental tissue aging prompt uterine readiness for delivery by transitioning quiescent myometrium to an active stage. It is still unclear how the signals reach the distant myometrium. Exosomes are a specific type of extracellular vesicle (EVs that transport molecular signals between cells, and are released from a wide range of cells, including the maternal and fetal cells. In this study, we hypothesize that i exosomes act as carriers of signals in utero-placental compartments and ii exosomes reflect the physiologic status of the origin cells. The primary aims of this study were to determine exosomal contents in exosomes derived from primary amnion epithelial cells (AEC. We also determined the effect of oxidative stress on AEC derived exosomal cargo contents. AEC were isolated from amniotic membrane obtained from normal, term, not in labor placentae at delivery, and culture under standard conditions. Oxidative stress was induced using cigarette smoke extract for 48 hours. AEC-conditioned media were collected and exosomes isolated by differential centrifugations. Both growth conditions (normal and oxidative stress induced produced cup shaped exosomes of around 50 nm, expressed exosomes enriched markers, such as CD9, CD63, CD81 and HSC70, embryonic stem cell marker Nanog, and contained similar amounts of cell free AEC DNA. Using confocal microscopy, the colocalization of histone (H 3, heat shock protein (HSP 70 and activated form of pro-senescence and term parturition associated marker p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK (P-p38 MAPK co-localized with exosome enrich marker CD9. HSP70 and P-p38 MAPK were significantly higher in exosomes from AEC grown under oxidative stress conditions than standard conditions (p<0.05. Finally, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics analysis identified 221 different proteins involved in immunomodulatory response and cell-to-cell communication. This study determined

  11. Mesenchymal Stem or Stromal Cells from Amnion and Umbilical Cord Tissue and Their Potential for Clinical Applications

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    Heinz Redl

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSC have proven to offer great promise for cell-based therapies and tissue engineering applications, as these cells are capable of extensive self-renewal and display a multilineage differentiation potential. Furthermore, MSC were shown to exhibit immunomodulatory properties and display supportive functions through parakrine effects. Besides bone marrow (BM, still today the most common source of MSC, these cells were found to be present in a variety of postnatal and extraembryonic tissues and organs as well as in a large variety of fetal tissues. Over the last decade, the human umbilical cord and human amnion have been found to be a rich and valuable source of MSC that is bio-equivalent to BM-MSC. Since these tissues are discarded after birth, the cells are easily accessible without ethical concerns.

  12. Human amnion mesenchymal stem cells promote proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuli; Yin, Ying; Jiang, Fei; Chen, Ning

    2015-02-01

    Human amnion mesenchymal stem cells (HAMSCs) can be obtained from human amniotic membrane, a highly abundant and readily available tissue. HAMSC sources present fewer ethical issues, have low immunogenicity, anti-inflammatory properties, considerable advantageous characteristics, and are considered an attractive potential treatment material in the field of regenerative medicine. We used a co-culture system to determine whether HAMSCs could promote osteogenesis in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs). We isolated HAMSCs from discarded amnion samples and collected them using pancreatin/collagenase digestion. We cultured HAMSCs and HBMSCSs in basal medium. Activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an early osteogenesis marker, was increased in the co-culture system compared to the control single cultures, which we also confirmed by ALP staining. We used immunofluorescence testing to investigate the effects of co-culturing with HAMSCs on HBMSC proliferation, which revealed that the co-culturing enhanced EdU expression in HBMSCs. Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR indicated that co-culturing promoted osteogenesis in HBMSCs. Furthermore, Alizarin red S staining revealed that extracellular matrix calcium levels in mineralized nodule formation produced by the co-cultures were higher than that in the controls. Using the same co-culture system, we further observed the effects of HAMSCs on osteogenic differentiation in primary osteoblasts by Western blotting, which better addressed the mechanism for HAMSCs in bone regeneration. The results showed HAMSCs are osteogenic and not only play a role in promoting HBMSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation but also in osteoblasts, laying the foundation for new regenerative medicine methods.

  13. Sphingosine 1-phosphate in amniotic fluid modulates cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human amnion-derived WISH cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Im; Jo, Eun Jin; Lee, Ha-Young; Cha, Moon Seok; Min, Jung Kee; Choi, Chang Hwan; Lee, Yong Moon; Choi, Young-Ae; Baek, Suk-Hwan; Ryu, Sung Ho; Lee, Kyu Sup; Kwak, Jong-Young; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2003-08-22

    The metabolism of arachidonic acid, in particular the generation of prostaglandins (PGs), has been proposed to play a key role in the regulation of labor. Moreover, several extracellular proteins have been reported to modulate PG synthesis in amnion cells. In this study, we found that lipid components dissolved in the amniotic fluid modulate PG synthesis in WISH human amnion cells and identified one of these components as a sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). WISH cells express several S1P receptors including S1P1, S1P2, and S1P3. When WISH cells were stimulated with S1P, PGE2 synthesis increased in a concentration-dependent manner, showing maximal activity at around 100 nM. S1P treatment also caused the up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA and protein, which was apparent within 3-12 h of stimulation. In terms of the intracellular signaling pathway of S1P-induced WISH cell activation, we found that S1P stimulated two kinds of MAPK, ERK, and p38 kinase. We examined the roles of these two MAPKs in S1P-induced COX-2 expression. S1P-induced COX-2 expression was blocked completely by PD-98059 but not by SB-203580, suggesting that ERK has a critical role in the process. Transfection of S1P1 or S1P3 but not of S1P2 antisense oligonucleotide inhibited S1P-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in WISH cells, indicating the involvements of S1P1 and S1P3 in the processes. This study demonstrates the physiological role of S1P in amniotic fluid and its effect on the modulation of COX-2 expression and PGs synthesis in WISH cells.

  14. Modelling the influence of amnionicity on the severity of twin-twin transfusion syndrome in monochorionic twin pregnancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijngaard, Jeroen P H M van den [Laser Center and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Umur, Asli [Laser Center and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ross, Michael G [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Harbor University of California-Los Angeles Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502 (United States); Gemert, Martin J C van [Laser Center and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-03-21

    Clinical treatment for diamniotic-monochorionic twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) may include conversion of diamniotic pregnancies to a monoamniotic-monochorionic state by disrupting the amnion septum. We sought to test the underlying hypothesis, i.e. that a monoamniotic state reduces the severity of TTTS. With use of our previously developed mathematical model of two equal fetoplacental circulatory units connected by various sizes and types of placental anastomoses, we compared the haemodynamic and amniotic fluid dynamics of monoamniotic and diamniotic twins that develop TTTS. We used three anastomotic patterns that produce severe, moderate or mild forms of TTTS, respectively, in our diamniotic-monochorionic twin model. Monoamnionicity was modelled by adding the two amniotic fluid volumes and using the volume-averaged amniotic fluid osmolality. The results were as follows: for severe TTTS, small differences develop between diamniotic and monoamniotic donor twins in fetal urine production, swallowed volume, blood volume, blood pressures, net fetofetal transfusion, and blood and amniotic fluid osmolality. However, the circulatory imbalance between the monoamniotic twins deteriorates similar to that of diamniotic twins. The pathophysiological differences tend to disappear for milder TTTS. In conclusion, our model suggests that the uncommon finding of TTTS in monoamniotic twins is not due to the presence of a single amniotic sac. Rather, clinically significant differences in anastomotic patterns and the delayed or lack of identification of manifestations in monoamniotic twins account for the reduced rate of TTTS diagnosis. Based on these results we expect the clinical disruption of the amnion septum in diamniotic-monochorionic TTTS pregnancies to have only minimal benefits. (note)

  15. Timing of Histologic Progression from Chorio-Deciduitis to Chorio-Deciduo-Amnionitis in the Setting of Preterm Labor and Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes with Sterile Amniotic Fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Wook Park

    Full Text Available Histologic chorio-deciduitis and chorio-deciduo-amnionitis (amnionitis in extra-placental membranes are known to represent the early and advanced stages of ascending intra-uterine infection. However, there are no data in humans about the time required for chorio-deciduitis to develop and for chorio-deciduitis without amnionitis to progress to chorio-deciduitis with amnionitis, and the effect of prolongation of pregnancy on the development of chorio-deciduitis and amnionitis in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes (PTL and preterm premature rupture of membranes (preterm-PROM. We examined these issues in this study.The study population consisted of 289 women who delivered preterm (133 cases with PTL, and 156 cases with preterm-PROM and who had sterile amniotic fluid (AF defined as a negative AF culture and the absence of inflammation as evidenced by a matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8 level <23 ng/ml. We examined the association between amniocentesis-to-delivery interval and inflammatory status in the extra-placental membranes (i.e., inflammation-free extra-placental membranes, choroi-deciduitis only, and chorio-deciduitis with amnionitis in patients with PTL and preterm-PROM.Amniocentesis-to-delivery interval was longer in cases of chorio-deciduitis with amnionitis than in cases of chorio-deciduitis only in both PTL (median [interquartile-range (IQR]; 645.4 [319.5] vs. 113.9 [526.9] hours; P = 0.005 and preterm-PROM (131.3 [135.4] vs. 95.2 [140.5] hours; P<0.05. Amniocentesis-to-delivery interval was an independent predictor of the development of both chorio-deciduitis and amnionitis after correction for confounding variables such as gestational age at delivery in the setting of PTL, but not preterm-PROM.These data confirm for the first time that, in cases of both PTL and preterm-PROM with sterile AF, more time is required to develop chorio-deciduitis with amnionitis than chorio-deciduitis alone in extra-placental membranes. Moreover

  16. Induction of progesterone receptor A form attenuates the induction of cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha expression by cortisol in human amnion fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunming; Ni, Xiaotian; Zhu, Ping; Li, Wenjiao; Zhu, Xiaoou; Sun, Kang

    2010-05-01

    Cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha (cPLA(2alpha), now known as PLA2G4A) is the enzyme catalyzing the formation of the rate-limiting substrate, arachidonic acid, for prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. The increasing expression of PLA2G4A toward term gestation in human amnion fibroblasts is believed to be the crucial event in parturition. Human amnion fibroblasts produce cortisol, progesterone and express glucocorticoid receptor (GR), progesterone receptor A (PGRA) form at term. The roles of progesterone and PGRA in the induction of PLA2G4A by cortisol via GR in the amnion fibroblasts remain largely unknown. Using cultured human term amnion fibroblasts, we found that cortisol induced the expression of PGRA, which was attenuated by inhibiting PG synthesis with indomethacin. Knockdown of PGRA expression or inhibition of endogenous progesterone production with trilostane significantly enhanced the induction of PLA2G4A by cortisol, whereas overexpression of PGRA attenuated the induction of PLA2G4A by cortisol. Although exogenous progesterone did not alter PLA2G4A expression under basal conditions, it attenuated cortisol-induced PLA2G4A expression at concentrations about tenfold higher, which might be achieved by competition with cortisol for GR. In conclusion, PGRA in the presence of endogenous progesterone is a transdominant repressor of the induction of PLA2G4A by cortisol. High level of progesterone may compete with cortisol for GR, thus further inhibiting the induction of PLA2G4A by cortisol. Moreover, increased PG synthesis by cortisol may feed back on the expression of PGRA leading to attenuation of cortisol-induced PLA2G4A expression. The above findings may be pertinent to the inconsistent effects of glucocorticoids on parturition in humans.

  17. Dehydrated Human Amnion/Chorion Grafts May Accelerate the Healing of Ulcers on Free Flaps in Patients With Venous Insufficiency and/or Lymphedema

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Edward P.; Friedman, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Ulceration of free flaps in patients with venous insufficiency and/or lymphedema is an uncommon but challenging problem. We hypothesized that dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane (Epifix) grafts would accelerate healing of these challenging ulcers. Methods: Retrospective analysis of prospectively acquired data identified 8 lower extremity free flaps with ulcerations in the context of venous insufficiency and/or lymphedema. The first 4 were flaps that had been treated with conse...

  18. A roentgenographic assessment of regenerative efficacy of bioactive Gengigel® in conjunction with amnion membrane in grade II furcation defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Harveen Kalra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, techniques are being developed to guide and instruct the specialized cellular components of the periodontium to participate in the regenerative process. This approach of reconstruction makes use of understanding of the development of the periodontium and the cellular processes that are involved. Hyaluronic acid is a naturally occurring non-sulfated high molecular weight glycosaminoglycan that forms a critical component of the extracellular matrix and contributes significantly to tissue hydrodynamics, cell migration, and proliferation. Hence, its administration to periodontal wound sites could achieve comparable beneficial effects in periodontal tissue regeneration. Hence, the purpose of the present case report was to assess roentgenographically, the regenerative capacity of Gengigel® in conjunction with bioactive amnion guided tissue regeneration (GTR membrane in a patient with Grade II furcation defect. Case Presentation: A patient complained of bleeding gums from the lower back tooth region, reportedly found Grade II furcation in the lower right mandibular first molar. After Phase, I therapy, Gengigel® along with bioactive amnion membrane was placed in the furcation area during the surgical phase. Roentgenographic assessment was done at 4 months and 6 months postoperatively. It resulted in complete defect-fill and loss of radiolucency at 6 months. Conclusion: Surgical placement of Gengigel® along with amnion membrane in the furcation defect can significantly improve the periodontal defect morphology.

  19. miR-144 and targets, c-fos and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), modulate synthesis of PGE2 in the amnion during pregnancy and labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanan; Zhou, Jiawei; Wei, Xiajie; Chen, Ran; Geng, Junnan; Zheng, Rong; Chai, Jin; Li, Fenge; Jiang, Siwen

    2016-06-14

    Labor is initiated as a result of hormonal changes that are induced by the activation of the inflammatory response and a series of biochemical events. The amnion, which is the primary source of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), plays an important role in the process of labor. In the present study, we uncovered a pathway in which c-fos, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and miR-144 function as hormonal modulators in the amnions of pregnant mice and humans. miR-144 down-regulated the synthesis of PGE2 during pregnancy by directly and indirectly inhibiting COX2 expression and by directly inhibiting the expression of c-fos, a transcriptional activator of COX2 and miR-144. Estrogen (E2) activated c-fos, thus promoting the expression of miR-144 and COX2 during labor. However, the increase in COX2 resulted in the partial inhibition of COX2 expression by miR-144, thereby slightly reducing the secretion of PGE2. These observations suggest that miR-144 inhibits PGE2 secretion by section to prevent the initiation of premature labor. Up-regulated expression of miR-144, c-fos and COX2 was also observed both in preterm mice and in mice undergoing normal labor. In summary, miR-144, c-fos and COX2 play important roles in regulating PGE2 secretion in the amnion during pregnancy and labor.

  20. Scope ambiguities and conditionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Over, David; Douven, Igor; Verbrugge, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Scope ambiguities in natural language have been much discussed by linguists and philosophers. There has been some psychological work on the scope ambiguities of negation, but we present the first experiments on modal scope ambiguities in conditionals, with special attention paid to the scope ambigui

  1. The correlation between histologic placentitis and amnionitis and the amnioniotic fluid's inflammatory cytokines in case of spontaneous pre-term labor with intact membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Abadi

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Pre-term labor is presumed to result from spreading of lower genital infection to upper part, subsequently to decidual and choioamniotic tissues. Host response to this injury include the expression of protein which is responsible to the inflammatory reactions. The expression of the inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α increase in case of infection.These cytokines may play an essential role in the pathophysiology of spontaneous pretem labor with intact membrane.An observational analytic cohort study was caried out on cases of spontaneous pre-tefln labor with intact membrane. The objectives of this study are to examine the relationship between l the histologic amnionitis and placentitis and the incidence of preterm delivery,2 the expression of amniotic fluid's IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α and the incidence of preterm delivery, 3 the level of amniotic fluid's IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α and the grade of histologic amnionitis and placentitis in case of pre-term labor with intact membrane. Cases of spontaneous Pre'teftn labor with intact membrane which underwent transabdominal amniocentesis at admission and managed as standard procedure for pre-term labor with intact membrane. Atl of the cases were observed until the delivery of the baby, eithir preterm or term. The membrane and the placentawere cut postnatally and then the histologic acute inflammation eyaluated based on the criteria of Salafia.The level of amniotic fluid IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α were analyzed quantitatively by Elisa method. This study showed thet the degree of histologic amnionitis and placentitis, and the level of amniotic fluid's IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α were significantly higher in pre-term compared to terrn deliveries (p<0.05 and lhere were a positive correlation between the grade of histoLogic inflammation and the level of amniotic fluid's cytokines (Spearmann Rank Conelation test; p<0,05 in cases of preterm labor with intact membrane. The

  2. Comparison of the therapeutic effects of extracts from Spirulina platensis and amnion membrane on inflammation-associated corneal neovascularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ling-Ling; Zhou, Qing-Jun; Wang, Yao; Gao, Yan; Wang, Yi-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    AIM To compare the therapeutic effects of polysaccharide extract from Spirulina platensis (PSP) and extract from amnion membrane (AME) on alkali burn-induced corneal neovascularization (CorNV). METHODS PSP and AME were extracted from dry powder of Spirulina platensis and human aminion membrane respectively. Murine CorNV was induced by applying 1N sodiumhydroxide (NaOH) solution directly on the mice corneas. PSP and AME extracts were administered topically on the corneas 4 times daily for 7 days. The therapy effects of PSP and AME extracts were evaluated daily using slit-lamp. At the end of the therapy, corneas were harvested for H&E staining, masson trichrome staining, immunohistochemical study, and semi-quantification reverse transcriptive PCR (RT-PCR) was utilized for measurement of inflammation-related molecules. RESULTS Topical application of PSP extract had significant therapeutic effects on CorNV that could be shown in various assays of the corneas. Compared with AME extract, PSP extract treatment was more effective in suppressing CorNV in terms of vessel length and levels of cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) proteins or the angiogenesis related genes like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9). PSP also inhibited inflammation more markedly by more effectively inhibiting mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells infiltration into the corneal stroma and reducing levels of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and macrophage inflammatory protein-3 (MIP3a). In additon, corneas of PSP group had a more regular and compact architecture of collagen with thinner corneal thickness than in the AME group. CONCLUSION Polysaccharide extract from Spirulina platensis inhibited alkali burn-induced inflammation and CorNV more effectively than AME extract at the studied doses, thus may be used for the therapy of corneal diseases involving neovascularization and

  3. Expanding the (kaleido)scope: exploring current literature trends for translating electroencephalography (EEG) based brain-computer interfaces for motor rehabilitation in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney-Lang, E.; Auyeung, B.; Escudero, J.

    2016-12-01

    Rehabilitation applications using brain-computer interfaces (BCI) have recently shown encouraging results for motor recovery. Effective BCI neurorehabilitation has been shown to exploit neuroplastic properties of the brain through mental imagery tasks. However, these applications and results are currently restricted to adults. A systematic search reveals there is essentially no literature describing motor rehabilitative BCI applications that use electroencephalograms (EEG) in children, despite advances in such applications with adults. Further inspection highlights limited literature pursuing research in the field, especially outside of neurofeedback paradigms. Then the question naturally arises, do current literature trends indicate that EEG based BCI motor rehabilitation applications could be translated to children? To provide further evidence beyond the available literature for this particular topic, we present an exploratory survey examining some of the indirect literature related to motor rehabilitation BCI in children. Our goal is to establish if evidence in the related literature supports research on this topic and if the related studies can help explain the dearth of current research in this area. The investigation found positive literature trends in the indirect studies which support translating these BCI applications to children and provide insight into potential pitfalls perhaps responsible for the limited literature. Careful consideration of these pitfalls in conjunction with support from the literature emphasize that fully realized motor rehabilitation BCI applications for children are feasible and would be beneficial. • BCI intervention has improved motor recovery in adult patients and offer supplementary rehabilitation options to patients. • A systematic literature search revealed that essentially no research has been conducted bringing motor rehabilitation BCI applications to children, despite advances in BCI. • Indirect studies discovered

  4. Therapeutic effects of human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation and conditioned medium enema in rats with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Shuichi; Ohnishi, Shunsuke; Onishi, Reizo; Tsuchiya, Ikuki; Hosono, Hidetaka; Katsurada, Takehiko; Yamahara, Kenichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2017-01-01

    Cell therapy with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is expected to provide a new strategy for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Large amounts of MSCs can be obtained from human amnion. Therefore, we investigated the effect of transplantation of human amnion-derived MSCs (hAMSCs) or enema of conditioned medium (CM) from hAMSCs into rats with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. In the first experiment, 10-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were intravenously injected with hAMSCs (1 × 106 cells) 3 h after rectal administration of TNBS (45 mg/kg). In the second experiment, rats with TNBS-induced colitis received CM by enema into the colon for 3 days. Colitis was investigated by endoscopy, histology, immunohistochemistry, and by measuring mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators. Administration of hAMSCs or CM enema significantly improved the endoscopic score. In addition, these two interventions resulted in significantly decreased infiltration of neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages and decreased expression levels of TNF-α, CXCL1, and CCL2. In conclusion, transplantation of hAMSCs and CM enema provided significant improvement in rats with TNBS-induced colitis. CM from hAMSCs and hAMSCs may be new strategies for the treatment of IBD.

  5. Induction of apoptosis, stimulation of cell-cycle arrest and inhibition of angiogenesis make human amnion-derived cells promising sources for cell therapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknejad, Hassan; Yazdanpanah, Ghasem; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan

    2016-03-01

    Amniotic membrane (AM), the nearest layer of fetal membranes to the fetus, contains two types of cells with unique characteristics that make them excellent candidates for clinical applications. Amniotic epithelial and mesenchymal cells have low immunogenicity, anti-inflammation, anti-fibrosis and anti-bacterial properties and no ethical issues. Although amniotic cells have stem cell properties and express transcription factors specific for pluripotent stem cells, they are not tumorigenic after transplantation. In the last decade, a new line of research has been initiated with a focus on the anti-proliferative effects of amniotic epithelial and mesenchymal cells on tumor growth. Amnion-derived epithelial and mesenchymal cells inhibit tumor growth and invasion through three pathways: the induction of apoptosis, the stimulation of cell-cycle arrest and the inhibition of angiogenesis. In this review, the various aspects of the anti-cancer properties of amnion-derived cells and the underlying mechanisms are discussed with emphasis on the translation of the cell therapy of cancer from experimental into clinical practice.

  6. Scope Processing in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Gao, Liqun

    2009-01-01

    The standard view maintains that quantifier scope interpretation results from an interaction between different modules: the syntax, the semantics as well as the pragmatics. Thus, by examining the mechanism of quantifier scope interpretation, we will certainly gain some insight into how these different modules interact with one another. To observe…

  7. Scope of practice in renal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byham-Gray, Laura D; Wiesen, Karen; Goode, Jill

    2006-04-01

    Clinical standards for practice in renal nutrition can vary dramatically from region to region, state to state, and clinic to clinic, and are greatly affected by the policies of several governing bodies. This review explores the factors that influence practice patterns among renal dietitians and examines the current American Dietetic Association's Scope of Dietetics Practice Framework for its applicability to kidney disease. Lastly, this article discusses current strategies for establishing a scope of practice in renal nutrition and evaluates licensure and credentialing issues that impact standards for practice across the various regions of the United States.

  8. RADAR PPI Scope Overlay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — RADAR PPI Scope Overlays are used to position a RADAR image over a station at the correct resolution. The archive maintains several different RADAR resolution types,...

  9. Scope and Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Discusses scope and sequence plans for curriculum coordination in elementary and secondary education related to school libraries. Highlights include library skills; levels of learning objectives; technology skills; media literacy skills; and information inquiry skills across disciplines by grade level. (LRW)

  10. 29 CFR 1450.19 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... prohibited by another statute (e.g., travel advances in 5 U.S.C. 5705 and employee training expenses in 5 U.S... STATES Salary Offset § 1450.19 Scope. (a) Coverage. This subpart applies to agencies and employees as... by offset, except where the employee consents to the recovery, from the current pay account of...

  11. Oxidizer Scoping Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chancellor, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-07

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of the acceptable knowledge (AK) review of oxidizers present in active waste streams, provide a technical analysis of the oxidizers, and report the results of the scoping study testing. This report will determine the fastest burning oxidizer to be used in the development of a Test Plan for Preparation and Testing of Sorbents Mixed with Oxidizer found in Transuranic Waste (DWT-TP-001). The companion report, DWT-RPT-002, Sorbent Scoping Studies, contains similar information for sorbents identified during the AK review of TRU waste streams. The results of the oxidizer and sorbent scoping studies will be used to inform the QL1 test plan. The QL1 test results will support the development of a basis of knowledge document that will evaluate oxidizing chemicals and sorbents in TRU waste and provide guidance for treatment.

  12. Contribution of aquaporin 9 and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 to differential sensitivity to arsenite between primary cultured chorion and amnion cells prepared from human fetal membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, Yuta [Department of Clinical Molecular Genetics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Yuan, Bo, E-mail: yuanbo@toyaku.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Molecular Genetics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 1550 4th St, RH584E Box 2911 San Francisco, CA 94158-2911 (United States); Kaise, Toshikazu [Laboratory of Environmental Chemodynamics, School of Life Sciences, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Takeichi, Makoto [Yoneyama Maternity Hospital, 2-12 Shin-machi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0065 (Japan); Tanaka, Sachiko; Hirano, Toshihiko [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Kroetz, Deanna L. [Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 1550 4th St, RH584E Box 2911 San Francisco, CA 94158-2911 (United States); Toyoda, Hiroo [Department of Clinical Molecular Genetics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Arsenic trioxide (arsenite, As{sup III}) has shown a remarkable clinical efficacy, whereas its side effects are still a serious concern. Therefore, it is critical to understand the effects of As{sup III} on human-derived normal cells for revealing the mechanisms underlying these side effects. We examined the effects of As{sup III} on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion (A) cells prepared from human fetal membranes. A significant dose-dependent As{sup III}-mediated cytotoxicity was observed in the C-cells accompanied with an increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Higher concentrations of As{sup III} were required for the A-cells to show cytotoxicity and LDH release, suggesting that the C-cells were more sensitive to As{sup III} than the A-cells. The expression levels of aquaporin 9 (AQP9) were approximately 2 times higher in the C-cells than those in the A-cells. Both intracellular arsenic accumulation and its cytotoxicity in the C-cells were significantly abrogated by sorbitol, a competitive AQP9 inhibitor, in a dose-dependent manner. The protein expression levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 were downregulated by As{sup III} in the C-cells, but not in the A-cells. No significant differences in the expression levels of MRP1 were observed between C- and A-cells. The protein expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was hardly detected in both cells, although a detectable amount of its mRNA was observed. Cyclosporine A, a broad-spectrum inhibitor for ABC transporters, and MK571, a MRP inhibitor, but not PGP-4008, a P-gp specific inhibitor, potently sensitized both cells to As{sup III}-mediated cytotoxicity. These results suggest that AQP9 and MRP2 are involved in controlling arsenic accumulation in these normal cells, which then contribute to differential sensitivity to As{sup III} cytotoxicity between these cells. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examination of effect of As{sup III} on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion

  13. Cosmetology: Scope and Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for a cosmetology vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed by teachers, parents, and the…

  14. Frozen Scope and Grammatical Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The literature on quantifier scope has repeatedly observed that some otherwise expected permutations of scope taking elements are unavailable. Various methods have been proffered explaining these facts. This thesis aims to unify three disparate areas where the scope of operators seems to be frozen: the interaction of universal quantifiers with…

  15. Human Amnion-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Osteogenic Differentiation in Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Influencing the ERK1/2 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HAMSCs are considered to be an important resource in the field of tissue engineering because of their anti-inflammatory properties and fewer ethical issues associated with their use compared with other sources of stem cells. HAMSCs can be obtained from human amniotic membranes, a readily available and abundant tissue. However, the potential of HAMSCs as seed cells for treating bone deficiency is unknown. In this study, HAMSCs were used to promote proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs in a Transwell coculture system. Proliferation levels were investigated by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence staining of 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU. Osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization were evaluated in chromogenic alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity substrate assays, Alizarin red S staining, and RT-PCR analysis of early HBMSCs osteogenic marker expression. We demonstrated that HAMSCs stimulated increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, mRNA expression of osteogenic marker genes, and mineralized matrix deposition. Moreover, the effect of HAMSCs was significantly inhibited by U0126, a highly selective inhibitor of extracellular signaling-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 signaling. We demonstrate that HAMSCs promote osteogenic differentiation in HBMSCs by influencing the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. These observations confirm the potential of HAMSCs as a seed cell for the treatment of bone deficiency.

  16. Scoping studies: advancing the methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Brien Kelly K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scoping studies are an increasingly popular approach to reviewing health research evidence. In 2005, Arksey and O'Malley published the first methodological framework for conducting scoping studies. While this framework provides an excellent foundation for scoping study methodology, further clarifying and enhancing this framework will help support the consistency with which authors undertake and report scoping studies and may encourage researchers and clinicians to engage in this process. Discussion We build upon our experiences conducting three scoping studies using the Arksey and O'Malley methodology to propose recommendations that clarify and enhance each stage of the framework. Recommendations include: clarifying and linking the purpose and research question (stage one; balancing feasibility with breadth and comprehensiveness of the scoping process (stage two; using an iterative team approach to selecting studies (stage three and extracting data (stage four; incorporating a numerical summary and qualitative thematic analysis, reporting results, and considering the implications of study findings to policy, practice, or research (stage five; and incorporating consultation with stakeholders as a required knowledge translation component of scoping study methodology (stage six. Lastly, we propose additional considerations for scoping study methodology in order to support the advancement, application and relevance of scoping studies in health research. Summary Specific recommendations to clarify and enhance this methodology are outlined for each stage of the Arksey and O'Malley framework. Continued debate and development about scoping study methodology will help to maximize the usefulness and rigor of scoping study findings within healthcare research and practice.

  17. Scoping Agriculture, Wetland Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is identified as the main cause of wetland degradation and loss. Using a drivers, pressures, state changes, impacts and responses (DPSIR) framework to analyze 90 cases drawn from all parts of the world and all wetland types, this report assesses the character of agriculture - wetlands interactions (AWIs) and their impacts in socio-economic and ecosystem services terms. The report is a technical framework that is used to scope out the relevance and nature of AWIs, identify response...

  18. Sorbent Scoping Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chancellor, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Carlsbad, NM (United States). Difficult Waste Team

    2016-11-14

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory – Carlsbad Operations (LANL-CO) office was tasked by the DOE CBFO, Office of the Manager to: • Perform a review of the acceptable knowledge (AK) to identify the oxidizers and sorbents in transuranic (TRU) waste streams. • Conduct scoping studies on the oxidizers and sorbents identified in AK review to inform the Quality Level 1 (QL1) testing. • Conduct a series of QL1 tests to provide the scientific data to support a basis of knowledge document for determining the criteria for: 1) accepting waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) without treatment, 2) determining waste that will require treatment, and 3) if treatment is required, how the treatment must be performed. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the AK review of sorbents present in active waste streams, provide a technical analysis of the sorbent list, report the results of the scoping studies for the fastest burning organic sorbent, and provide the list of organic and inorganic sorbents to be used in the development of a Test Plan for Preparation and Testing of Sorbents Mixed with Oxidizer found in Transuranic Waste (DWT-TP-001). The companion report, DWT-RPT-001, Oxidizer Scoping Studies, has similar information for oxidizers identified during the AK review of TRU waste streams. The results of the oxidizer and sorbent scoping studies will be used to inform the QL1 test plan. The QL1 test results will support the development of a basis of knowledge document that will evaluate oxidizing chemicals and sorbents in TRU waste and provide guidance for treatment.

  19. [Comparison of the effects of taurine and magnesium on electrical characteristics of artificial and natural membranes. V. Study on the human amnion of the antagonism between magnesium, taurine and polluting metals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, M; Guiet-Bara, A; Durlach, J

    1985-01-01

    The effects of metal pollutants (Pb, Cd, Hg, As) were studied on strips of human amnion isolated from the placental zone put in between two Ussing chambers with Hanks' solution at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4. The total conductance Gt through the human isolated amnion was decreased on the fetal side by Pb and As; on the maternal side by Cd, Hg and As. When Gt was decreased by metal pollutants, Mg or taurine (TA) were added in the external medium to induce an antagonism between Mg or TA and metal pollutants. The addition of Mg increased significantly the Gt reduced by Pb, Cd and Hg, but had no effect on the Gt reduced by As. The addition of taurine increased significantly the Gt reduced by Cd and Hg, but had no effect on the Gt reduced by Pb and As. Dixon's kinetics (Gt as a function of the Mg or TA concentration when the metal pollutant concentration increased) indicate that there is a competitive inhibition between Mg-Pb and Mg-Cd (the inhibition constant Ki is lower with Pb (= 2.5) than with Cd (= 11.4) and suggests a greater antagonism between Mg-Pb than between Mg-Cd). Moreover, there appears to be a noncompetitive inhibition between Mg-Hg, TA-Cd and TA-Hg. These results indicate that Mg and TA, on the fetal side, exert an action on the same sites and that, on the maternal side, their action takes place on the same sites and also on different ones. Also, TA can be considered as a partial magnesium agonist, at least in the human amnion.

  20. Type I and II Diabetic Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Respond In Vitro to Dehydrated Human Amnion/Chorion Membrane Allograft Treatment by Increasing Proliferation, Migration, and Altering Cytokine Secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Massee, Michelle; Chinn, Kathryn; Lim, Jeremy J; Godwin, Lisa; Young, Conan S.; Koob, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Human amniotic membranes have been shown to be effective for healing diabetic foot ulcers clinically and to regulate stem cell activity in vitro and in vivo; however, diabetic stem cells may be impaired as a sequela of the disease. In this study, dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane (dHACM) allografts (EpiFix®; MiMedx Group) were evaluated for their ability to regulate diabetic stem cells in vitro. Approach: Human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) from normal, type I diabetic,...

  1. On the Scope of Egalitarian Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Heath

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available It is not clear whether the social contract is supposed to merely supplement the unequal gains that individuals are able to make through the exercise of their natural endowments with a set of equal gains secured through social cooperation, or whether the social contract must also compensate individuals for the effects of these natural inequalities, so that they literally become all equal. The issue concerns, in effect, whether natural inequality falls within the scope of egalitarian justice. I think it is fair to say that the majority of egalitarians assume that the principle of equality imposes an obligation to redress natural inequality. Yet there is no consensus on this issue. David Gauthier has made the rejection of the principle of redress a central component of his project. It has often escaped notice that John Rawls also rejects the principle of redress. Thus it is not just anti-egalitarians who reject the principle of redress. There is a current of egalitarian thought– which we might call, for lack of a better term, narrow-scope egalitarianism – which also rejects this principle. In this paper, I would like to show that there is considerable wisdom in the narrow-scope egalitarian position. Many of the problems that lead theorists to reject egalitarianism in its entirety are a consequence, not of the principle of equality per se, but rather of the commitment to redress natural inequality. The narrow-scope view avoids all of these difficulties.

  2. Stem cell therapy to protect and repair the developing brain: a review of mechanisms of action of cord blood and amnion epithelial derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Melendez, Margie; Yawno, Tamara; Jenkin, Graham; Miller, Suzanne L

    2013-10-24

    In the research, clinical, and wider community there is great interest in the use of stem cells to reduce the progression, or indeed repair brain injury. Perinatal brain injury may result from acute or chronic insults sustained during fetal development, during the process of birth, or in the newborn period. The most readily identifiable outcome of perinatal brain injury is cerebral palsy, however, this is just one consequence in a spectrum of mild to severe neurological deficits. As we review, there are now clinical trials taking place worldwide targeting cerebral palsy with stem cell therapies. It will likely be many years before strong evidence-based results emerge from these trials. With such trials underway, it is both appropriate and timely to address the physiological basis for the efficacy of stem-like cells in preventing damage to, or regenerating, the newborn brain. Appropriate experimental animal models are best placed to deliver this information. Cell availability, the potential for immunological rejection, ethical, and logistical considerations, together with the propensity for native cells to form teratomas, make it unlikely that embryonic or fetal stem cells will be practical. Fortunately, these issues do not pertain to the use of human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs), or umbilical cord blood (UCB) stem cells that are readily and economically obtained from the placenta and umbilical cord discarded at birth. These cells have the potential for transplantation to the newborn where brain injury is diagnosed or even suspected. We will explore the novel characteristics of hAECs and undifferentiated UCB cells, as well as UCB-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and how immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory properties are principal mechanisms of action that are common to these cells, and which in turn may ameliorate the cerebral hypoxia and inflammation that are final pathways in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain

  3. Contribution of aquaporin 9 and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 to differential sensitivity to arsenite between primary cultured chorion and amnion cells prepared from human fetal membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Yuta; Yuan, Bo; Kaise, Toshikazu; Takeichi, Makoto; Tanaka, Sachiko; Hirano, Toshihiko; Kroetz, Deanna L; Toyoda, Hiroo

    2011-12-01

    Arsenic trioxide (arsenite, As(III)) has shown a remarkable clinical efficacy, whereas its side effects are still a serious concern. Therefore, it is critical to understand the effects of As(III) on human-derived normal cells for revealing the mechanisms underlying these side effects. We examined the effects of As(III) on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion (A) cells prepared from human fetal membranes. A significant dose-dependent As(III)-mediated cytotoxicity was observed in the C-cells accompanied with an increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Higher concentrations of As(III) were required for the A-cells to show cytotoxicity and LDH release, suggesting that the C-cells were more sensitive to As(III) than the A-cells. The expression levels of aquaporin 9 (AQP9) were approximately 2 times higher in the C-cells than those in the A-cells. Both intracellular arsenic accumulation and its cytotoxicity in the C-cells were significantly abrogated by sorbitol, a competitive AQP9 inhibitor, in a dose-dependent manner. The protein expression levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 were downregulated by As(III) in the C-cells, but not in the A-cells. No significant differences in the expression levels of MRP1 were observed between C- and A-cells. The protein expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was hardly detected in both cells, although a detectable amount of its mRNA was observed. Cyclosporine A, a broad-spectrum inhibitor for ABC transporters, and MK571, a MRP inhibitor, but not PGP-4008, a P-gp specific inhibitor, potently sensitized both cells to As(III)-mediated cytotoxicity. These results suggest that AQP9 and MRP2 are involved in controlling arsenic accumulation in these normal cells, which then contribute to differential sensitivity to As(III) cytotoxicity between these cells.

  4. A prospective, randomised comparative study of weekly versus biweekly application of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane allograft in the management of diabetic foot ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelen, Charles M; Serena, Thomas E; Snyder, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if weekly application of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane allograft reduce time to heal more effectively than biweekly application for treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. This was an institutional review board-approved, registered, prospective, randomised, comparative, non-blinded, single-centre clinical trial. Patients with non-infected ulcers of ≥ 4 weeks duration were included for the study. They were randomised to receive weekly or biweekly application of allograft in addition to a non-adherent, moist dressing with compressive wrapping. All wounds were offloaded. The primary study outcome was mean time to healing. Overall, during the 12-week study period, 92·5% (37/40) ulcers completely healed. Mean time to complete healing was 4·1 ± 2·9 versus 2·4 ± 1·8 weeks (P = 0·039) in the biweekly versus weekly groups, respectively. Complete healing occurred in 50% versus 90% by 4 weeks in the biweekly and weekly groups, respectively (P = 0·014). Number of grafts applied to healed wounds was similar at 2·4 ± 1·5 and 2·3 ± 1·8 for biweekly versus weekly groups, respectively (P = 0·841). These results validate previous studies showing that the allograft is an effective treatment for diabetic ulcers and show that wounds treated with weekly application heal more rapidly than with biweekly application. More rapid healing may decrease clinical operational costs and prevent long-term medical complications. PMID:24618401

  5. Endothelin-1 and macrophage colony-stimulating factor are co-localized in human amnion membrane cells and secreted into amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Gabriel; Sand, Anna; Ostlund, Eva; Andersson, Eva; Byström, Birgitta; Ståbi, Berit

    2003-11-01

    We have examined the cellular localization and human amniotic fluid content of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). The study material consisted of amniotic fluid from 20 patients referred for amniocentesis, and placental samples from normal deliveries. ET-1 and M-CSF were analysed by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay respectively. The cellular localization of ET-1 and M-CSF in the amnion membranes was analysed by double-labelling immunocytochemistry using fluorescein isothiocyanate- and Cy3-labelled secondary antibodies. Release of ET-1 and M-CSF was studied in cultured amniocytes. We found that the mean +/- SD concentrations of ET-1 and M-CSF in fetal amniotic fluid were 45.6 +/- 17.3 pmol/l (range 16.8-85.5) and 7323 +/- 3415 ng/l (range 2640-12 110) respectively. Double-labelling immunocytochemistry showed that both M-CSF and ET-1 were co-localized in the same cells to a high extent. Further analysis revealed that levels of M-CSF, but not ET-1, were significantly correlated with pregnancy length. Both M-CSF and ET-1 were released from cultured amniocytes in response to interleukin-1. These findings show that ET-1 and M-CSF are partly co-localized to specific cells in the human amniotic membrane. As both M-CSF and ET-1 were released from cultured amniocytes in vitro, this suggests that they both may be secreted into fetal amniotic fluid in vivo as well.

  6. Stem cell therapy to protect and repair the developing brain: a review of mechanisms of action of cord blood and amnion epithelial derived cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie eCastillo-Melendez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the research, clinical and wider community there is great interest in the use of stem cells to reduce the progression, or indeed repair brain injury. Perinatal brain injury may result from acute or chronic insults sustained during fetal development, during the process of birth, or in the newborn period. The most readily identifiable outcome of perinatal brain injury is cerebral palsy, however this is just one consequence in a spectrum of mild to severe neurological deficits. As we review, there are now clinical trials taking place worldwide targeting cerebral palsy with stem cell therapies. It will likely be many years before strong evidence-based results emerge from these trials. With such trials underway, it is both appropriate and timely to address the physiological basis for the efficacy of stem-like cells in preventing damage to, or regenerating, the newborn brain. Appropriate experimental animal models are best placed to deliver this information. Cell availability, the potential for immunological rejection, ethical and logistical considerations, together with the propensity for native cells to form terratomas, make it unlikely that embryonic or fetal stem cells will be practical. Fortunately, these issues do not pertain to the use of human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs, or umbilical cord blood (UCB stem cells that are readily and economically obtained from the placenta and umbilical cord discarded at birth. These cells have the potential for transplantation to the newborn where brain injury is diagnosed or even suspected. We will explore the novel characteristics of hAECs and undifferentiated UCB cells, as well as UCB-derived endothelial progenitor cells and mesenchymal stem cells, and how immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory properties are principal mechanisms of action that are common to these cells, and which in turn may ameliorate the cerebral hypoxia and inflammation that are final pathways in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain

  7. Current ornithology

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    The appearance of the first volume of a projected series is the occasion for comment on scope, aims, and genesis of the work. The scope of Current Ornithology is all of the biology of birds. Ornithology, as a whole-organism science, is concerned with birds at every level of bi­ ological organization, from the molecular to the community, at least from the Jurassic to the present time, and over every scholarly discipline in which bird biology is done; to say this is merely to expand a dic­ tionary definition of "ornithology. " The aim of the work, to be realized over several volumes, is to present reviews or position statements con­ cerning the active fields of ornithological research. The reviews will be relatively short, and often will be done from the viewpoint of a readily­ identified group or school. Such a work could have come into being at any time within the past fifty years, but that Current Ornithology appears now is a result of events that are only seven to eight years old. One important event wa...

  8. Neuronal-like differentiation of single versus multiple treatments with human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells induced by basic fibroblast growth factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongliang Jiao; Fangxia Guan; Xiang Hu; Jianbin Li; Hong Shan; Wei Li; Jun Li; Ying Du; Bo Yang; Yunfan Zhou

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cultures from multiple portions of umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to undergo more rapid proliferation and attachment than single portions. OBJECTIVE: To observe growth of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced cultures of human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) and differentiation into neuronal-like cells. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Comparative observation. The study was performed at the Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, Basic Medical School of Zhengzhou University from January to May 2008.METHODS: Amnia from full-term, uterine-incision delivery were donated by 12 healthy women. AMSCs were obtained by cell separation and culture techniques, and were passaged and induced by bFGF. From the third passage, a total of 1 mL AMSCs, at a density of 1.0 ×10 4/mL, was separately harvested from six samples, which served as group A. A total of 1 mL AMSCs, at a density of 1.0×10 4 /mL, was harvested separately from the remaining six samples, which served as group B. A total of 0.5 mL from the six samples of group A and 0.5 mL from the six samples of group B were combined to form group C. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Differences in cell quantity among the three groups were compared by cell quantification and 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)analysis. Expression of a glial cell marker, neuron-specific enolase, and nestin was detected in the three groups by immunocytochemistry. RESULTS: Cell quantification and MTT analysis of live cells, as well as AMSC absorbance, were significantly greater in group C compared with groups A and B at 18 days of culture (P<0.05), and no significant difference was observed between groups A and B. Glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron-specific enolase, and nestin were expressed in all groups following bFGF induction. CONCLUSION: Mixed AMSC cultures promoted proliferation, and bFGF-induced AMSCs differentiated into neuronal-like cells.

  9. Current meter - direction and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS in support of the Southern Coastal Plains Expedition (SCOPE) from 13 February 1972 to 24 April 1973 (NODC Accession 7500583)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter - direction and other data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS from 13 February 1972 to 24 April 1973. Data were collected by the National Ocean...

  10. Biomechanics of fencing sport: A scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tony Lin-Wei; Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Wang, Yan; Ren, Sicong; Yan, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of our scoping review was to identify and summarize current evidence on the biomechanics of fencing to inform athlete development and injury prevention. Design Scoping review. Method Peer-reviewed research was identified from electronic databases using a structured keyword search. Details regarding experimental design, study group characteristics and measured outcomes were extracted from retrieved studies, summarized and information regrouped under themes for analysis. The methodological quality of the evidence was evaluated. Results Thirty-seven peer-reviewed studies were retrieved, the majority being observational studies conducted with experienced and elite athletes. The methodological quality of the evidence was “fair” due to the limited scope of research. Male fencers were the prevalent group studied, with the lunge and use of a foil weapon being the principal movement evaluated. Motion capture and pedabarography were the most frequently used data collection techniques. Conclusions Elite fencers exhibited sequential coordination of upper and lower limb movements with coherent patterns of muscle activation, compared to novice fencers. These elite features of neuromuscular coordination resulted in higher magnitudes of forward linear velocity of the body center of mass and weapon. Training should focus on explosive power. Sex- and equipment-specific effects could not be evaluated based on available research. PMID:28187164

  11. Networked Microgrids Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dobriansky, Larisa [General MicroGrids, San Diego, CA (United States); Glover, Steve [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Liu, Chen-Ching [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Looney, Patrick [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mashayekh, Salman [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pratt, Annabelle [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schneider, Kevin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stadler, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Starke, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Jianhui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yue, Meng [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-12-05

    Much like individual microgrids, the range of opportunities and potential architectures of networked microgrids is very diverse. The goals of this scoping study are to provide an early assessment of research and development needs by examining the benefits of, risks created by, and risks to networked microgrids. At this time there are very few, if any, examples of deployed microgrid networks. In addition, there are very few tools to simulate or otherwise analyze the behavior of networked microgrids. In this setting, it is very difficult to evaluate networked microgrids systematically or quantitatively. At this early stage, this study is relying on inputs, estimations, and literature reviews by subject matter experts who are engaged in individual microgrid research and development projects, i.e., the authors of this study The initial step of the study gathered input about the potential opportunities provided by networked microgrids from these subject matter experts. These opportunities were divided between the subject matter experts for further review. Part 2 of this study is comprised of these reviews. Part 1 of this study is a summary of the benefits and risks identified in the reviews in Part 2 and synthesis of the research needs required to enable networked microgrids.

  12. Sustained metabolic scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C C; Nagy, K A; Diamond, J

    1990-03-01

    Sustained metabolic rates (SusMR) are time-averaged metabolic rates that are measured in free-ranging animals maintaining constant body mass over periods long enough that metabolism is fueled by food intake rather than by transient depletion of energy reserves. Many authors have suggested that SusMR of various wild animal species are only a few times resting (basal or standard) metabolic rates (RMR). We test this conclusion by analyzing all 37 species (humans, 31 other endothermic vertebrates, and 5 ectothermic vertebrates) for which SusMR and RMR had both been measured. For all species, the ratio of SusMR to RMR, which we term sustained metabolic scope, is less than 7; most values fall between 1.5 and 5. Some of these values, such as those for Tour de France cyclists and breeding birds, are surely close to sustainable metabolic ceilings for the species studied. That is, metabolic rates higher than 7 times RMR apparently cannot be sustained indefinitely. These observations pose several questions: whether the proximate physiological causes of metabolic ceilings reside in the digestive tract's ability to process food or in each tissue's metabolic capacity; whether ceiling values are independent of the mode of energy expenditure; whether ceilings are set by single limiting physiological capacities or by coadjusted clusters of capacities (symmorphosis); what the ultimate evolutionary causes of metabolic ceilings are; and how metabolic ceilings may limit animals' reproductive effort, foraging behavior, and geographic distribution.

  13. The Scope of Design Studying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yin; Ren Wenying

    2007-01-01

    This article trys to discuss the scope of design studying in two fields.Firstly, design has three meanings: wide design, art design and industrial design.Secondly, design studying has five contents: cultural, philosophical, methodological, produced and marketable trends.

  14. 40 CFR 1508.25 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 1508.25 Section 1508.25 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.25 Scope. Scope... statement. The scope of an individual statement may depend on its relationships to other statements (§§...

  15. Probiotics in 2015: Their Scope and Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The field of probiotics continues to evolve and progress. This paper reviews several situations within the probiotic field that are of current interest, including review of the scope of the proper use of the term "probiotic," use of systematic reviews and meta-analyses for probiotics, regulatory challenges to doing human research on probiotics in the United States, medical recommendations for probiotic use, and safety assurance for probiotics used for vulnerable populations. The greatest need in the probiotic field remains well-conducted and well-reported human trials, to better define the functionality of probiotics for different indications and populations.

  16. 采用生物羊膜移植治疗复发翼状胬肉临床观察%CIinicaI observation of amnion transpIantation to treat recurrent pterygium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于丹; 赵刚平; 朱敏; 李国培

    2015-01-01

      结果:术后随访17(5.17±1.22)mo,角膜创面上皮愈合时间为4.61±1.23d,羊膜移植手术均一次成功,无1例出现植片排斥,无角巩膜溃汤,无睑球粘连和眼球运动受限。结论:生物羊膜阻断新生血管形成,可快速促进创面上皮愈合,术后无复发和眼部感染,是安全有效的手术方法。%· AlM: To observe the curative effects of amnion transplantation to treat recurrent pterygium. · METHODS:Excision of recurrent pterygium and amnion transplantation to 56 cases (68 eyes) were adopted.The response of the graft and the recurrent pterygium after surgery were observed. · RESULTS: The epithelium corneas in 68 eyes in 56 patients were smooth and the healing time were 4.61 ± 1.23d in 17 ( 5.17 ±1.22 ) mo. Amniotic membrane transplantation were successful and there were no graft rejection, scleral ulcer, fornixes and limited eye movement. · CONCLUSlON: Amninon transplantation can block angiogenesis, quickly promote epithelial healing wounds, there is no recurrence and eye infections after surgery.lt is a safe and effective surgical method.

  17. Amnion s and radio-sterilized porcine skin use as potential matrices for the development of human skin substitutes; Uso de amnios y piel porcina radioesterilizados como matrices potenciales para el desarrollo de sustitutos de piel humana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez P, M. E.; Reyes F, M. L.; Reboyo B, D. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Velasquillo M, M. C.; Sanchez S, R.; Brena M, A. M.; Ibarra P, J. C., E-mail: esther.martinez@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion, Calz. Mexico-Xochimilco No. 289, Col. Arenal de Guadalupe, 14389 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The injuries by burns constitute a primordial problem of public health; they cause a high mortality index, severe physical and psychological disability, etc. The autologous skin transplant is the replacement therapy recommended for its treatment, but in patients that present a high percentage of burnt skin; this is not possible to carry out. Another strategy is the transplant of donated skin; however, due to the little donation that exists in our country is not very feasible to apply this treatment. A challenge of the tissues engineering is to develop biological skin substitutes, based on cells and amnion s, favoring the cutaneous regeneration and quick repair of injuries, diminishing this way the hospitalization expenses. At present skin substitutes that can equal to the same skin do not exist. On the other hand, the mesenchymal stromal cells (Msc) represent an alternative to achieve this objective; since has been demonstrated that the Msc participate in the tissue repair by means of inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and differentiation to dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes. To apply the Msc in cutaneous injuries a support material is required that to allow transplanting these cells to a lesion or burn. The radio-sterilized human amnion and the radio-sterilized porcine skin, processed by the Radio-Sterilized Tissues Bank of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), are biomaterials that are used as temporary cutaneous coverings. We suppose that these two matrices will be appropriate for the growth and maintenance in cultivation of the Msc, to generate two biological skin substitutes, in collaboration with the Biotechnology Laboratory of the Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion. (Author)

  18. Residential ventilation standards scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  19. 76 FR 17577 - Increased Scope of Coverage for Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... Part 431 RIN 1904-AC28 Increased Scope of Coverage for Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy... rulemaking to set energy conservation standards for electric motors. Specifically, DOE seeks information to... motors that are currently unregulated by any standards. Should DOE receive sufficient...

  20. 22 CFR 1007.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION SALARY OFFSET § 1007.1 Purpose and scope. (a) This regulation provides... employees who owe debts to the Inter-American Foundation (IAF) and to current employees of the Inter...) The Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. 301 et seq.; (3) The tariff laws of the United States; or (4)...

  1. 生物羊膜移植联合丝裂霉素C在治疗复发性翼状胬肉中疗效观察%The clinical observation of biological amnion transplantation with Mitomycin C for recurrent pteygium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小松

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨生物羊膜移植联合丝裂霉素C在治疗复发性翼状胬肉中的疗效观察.方法 对36例(36眼)复发性翼状胬肉实施了生物羊膜移植联合丝裂霉素C,术后随访6~12个月.结果 生物羊膜植片无排斥反应发生,术后2周左右溶解吸收,角巩膜创面修复好、光滑.结论 生物羊膜移植联合丝裂霉素C治疗复发性翼状胬肉是一种简单、安全、有效的手术方式.%Objective To discuss the effects of biological amnion transplantation with Mitomycin C for recurrent pterygium. Methods Thirty-six cases (36 eyes) of complicated pteygium were performed transplantation of biological amnion with Mitomycin C.The follow-up was from 6 to 12 months. Results No immunological rejection and complications occurred.All the grafts absorbed about two weeks after operation.No recurrences occurred. Conclusions Transplantation of biological amnion with Mitomycin C for recurrent pterygium is an effective,safe and simple operative method for recurrent pteryhium.

  2. CMS Phase II Upgrade Scope Document

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, J; Klute, M; Mans, J; Silvestris, L; on behalf of the CMS, Collaboration; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2015-01-01

    The High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) has been identified as the highest priority program in High Energy Physics by both the European Strategy Group and the US Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel. To fulfil the full potential of this program, which includes the study of the nature of the Higgs boson, the investigation of the properties of any newly discovered particles in the upcoming LHC runs, and the extension of the mass reach for further discoveries, an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1 will have to be accumulated by the end of the program. In preparation for operation at the HL-LHC , CMS has documented the necessary upgrades and their expected costs in a Technical Proposal submitted to the CERN LHC Committee (LHCC) in mid-2015. The material presented in the currentScope Document” provides additional information to assist the LHCC and the CERN Resource Review Board (RRB) in their review of the CMS upgrade. The document commences with a summary of the process followed to develop the scope of t...

  3. Scope: The Environmental Voice of World Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, R. E.; Cain, Melinda

    1977-01-01

    SCOPE is an international group that studies the effects of human activities on the environment and serves as a source of advice on environmental problems. Presently, SCOPE is involved with seven major projects that include biogeochemical cycles, ecotoxicology, and environmental monitoring. The structure and components of SCOPE are also discussed.…

  4. 36 CFR 223.130 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 223.130 Section 223... NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Suspension and Debarment of Timber Purchasers § 223.130 Scope. (a) This... causes and procedures for debarment and suspension and for determining the scope, duration, and...

  5. 25 CFR 501.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 501.2 Section 501.2 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF THIS CHAPTER § 501.2 Scope. (a) Tribes and other operators of class II and class III gaming operations on Indian lands shall...

  6. 36 CFR 251.50 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 251.50 Section 251.50... § 251.50 Scope. (a) All uses of National Forest System lands, improvements, and resources, except those... routine operation or maintenance activity within the scope of a statutory right-of-way for a...

  7. 7 CFR 1794.52 - Scoping meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scoping meetings. 1794.52 Section 1794.52 Agriculture....52 Scoping meetings. (a) Both RUS and the applicant shall have a notice published which announces a public scoping meeting is to be conducted, either in conjunction with the notice of intent or as...

  8. Making Patent Scopes Exceed the Technological Scopes of Scientific Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested....... The findings recast the relationship between science and patents as a process in which the way the transformation of the scientific invention is handled has an effect on the breadth of the patent scope. Unleashing patent scope surplus is dependent on processes related to abstraction and cognitive variety......, which can be mobilized by patent experts with both an in-depth understanding of the scientific discovery, due to their educational background in the life sciences, and capabilities within the legal framework for patenting. More specifically, the findings reveal previously unreported aspects...

  9. Injection of autogenous blood into the sealed space between cornea and amnion graft in treatment of epibulbar diseases%封闭式缝合羊膜空间自血留置在眼表疾病的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王作先; 宗酉明; 吴雅颖; 王毓琴; 张云忠; 万灵龙

    2003-01-01

    Aim To treat epibulbar diseases by injecting antogenous blood into the space produced by suturing an amnion graft overcornea. Methods The lesion tissue of the oeular surface was clewed under the microscope. Then, cornea and ocular conjunctiva werecovered with amnion which was running sutured with ocular conjunctiva. Autogenous blood was injected into the space resulted betweenthe amnion and the cornea and the blood was left to clot. Resultas Ninety-two patients were treated by this way, including 17 herpessimplex conjunctivitis, 9 bulbous keratitis, 2 corneal fistula, 3 comeal bums, 17 non-septic corneal ulcers, and 4 incision ulcers aftercornea grating. The irritation signs in all patients improved significantly and al1 gave pains disappeared after the operations. After theamnion was removed, comeal epithelial staining was negative. Seventy-nine patients acquired stable ocular surface. No case worsenedaggressively after treatment. Conclusion Autogenous blood injected into the space resulted by suturing the annion over the cornea iseffective to eliminate irritation signs and pain caused by epibulbar diseases and to heal the ocular surface in various epibulbar diseases.So, it can be widely used in clinic.%目的利用封闭式缝合的羊膜与角膜之间的空隙注入自血,留置形成血膜治疗眼表疾病.方法在手术显微镜下机械清除眼表病变组织后,羊膜遮盖角膜、球结膜,环型连续封闭式缝合在球结膜上,取自血注入羊膜与角膜之间,使之形成血膜.结果治疗单疱角膜炎1 7例、大疱性角膜炎9例、角膜瘘2例、重度电光性眼炎3例、酸性伤16例、碱性伤11例、热烧伤13例、非化脓性角膜溃疡17例、角膜移植创口溃疡4例,共计92例.术后明显刺激症状改善,术前难以忍受的疼痛全部消失.羊膜拆除后角膜上皮染色阴性,眼表面稳定达到79例占86%(79/92).因本法应用导致病情加重者为零.结论本法应用羊膜不是移植而是作为

  10. Direct Laser Cladding , Current Status and Future Scope of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisheit, A.; Gasser, A.; Backes, G.; Jambor, T.; Pirch, N.; Wissenbach, K.

    During the last decades Direct Laser Cladding has become an established technique in many industrial fields for applying wear and corrosion protection layers on metallic surfaces as well as for the repair of high value-added components. The most important application fields are die and tool making, turbine components for aero engines and power generation, machine components such as axes and gears, and oil drilling components. Continuous wave (CW) lasers with a power up to 18 kW are used on automated machines with three or more axes, enabling 3D cladding . The outstanding feature of DLC is the high precision which leads to a minimum heat input into the work piece and a very low distortion. Due to the high cooling rates a fine grained microstructure is achieved during solidification. A new development in laser cladding is micro cladding in a size range below 50 \\upmum especially for electronic and medical applications. Furthermore, additive manufacturing is coming again into focus as a clean and resource-efficient method to manufacture and modify functional prototypes as well as unique and small lot parts.

  11. EDIBLE VACCINES FROM GM CROPS: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE SCOPE

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The idea of an edible vaccine is coming closer to reality as scientists have found a way to incorporate the protein gene with some antigen in some plants. The major hurdles in the path of an emerging vaccine technology are being overcome. In this context, genetically modified (GM) plants are being investigated for the production of vaccines, antibodies and therapeutic proteins. The development of GM crops to produce drugs and vaccines has received considerable investment and is relatively wel...

  12. Cornesocleral limbus autotransplantation combined with amnion covering and mitomycin C for treatment of recurrent pterygium%游离带结膜角膜缘上皮移植联合羊膜覆盖及丝裂霉素C治疗复发性翼状胬肉疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑锋; 王爱莲; 李娟; 代应辉; 岳晓丽; 杨洪霞

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨游离带结膜角膜缘上皮移植联合羊膜覆盖及丝裂霉素C治疗复发性翼状胬肉的临床效果.方法:在21例复发性翼状胬肉患者切除胬肉组织后,于巩膜创面放置含0.02%丝裂霉素C的棉片2 min;0.9%氯化钠注射液充分冲洗创面后,用羊膜覆盖全部角膜结膜创面,带角膜缘上皮的结膜在羊膜表面移植于角膜缘.术后随访3年.结果:21例患者术后刺激症状均较轻,1周后症状基本消失,2~4周羊膜溶解吸收.随访3年,复发2例.结论:游离带结膜角膜缘上皮移植联合羊膜覆盖及丝裂霉素C治疗复发性翼状胬肉,术后刺激症状轻,复发率低,是一种安全、有效的治疗方法.%Objective: To evaluate the effect of cornesocleral limbus autotransplantation combined with amnion covering and mitomycin C in treatment of recurrent pterygium. Methods:The ulcer polyp in 21 cases(21 eyes) of recurrent pterygium were removed,and then a piece of absorbent cotton containing 0. 02% mitomycin C was put on the exposed area of the sclera for two minutes; after fully washed with 0. 9% normal saline, the whole surface of the cornea and sclera was covered with a large piece of preserved amnion; the conjunctiva with corneal limbus epithelium was sutured on the limbus above the amnion. All the patients were followed up for three years. Results: The postoperative symptoms in the 21 cases were slight, which disappeared after one week. Two to four weeks later, the amnion was absorbed. The pterygium recurred in two cases during the follow-up period. Conclusions: Cornesocleral limbus autotransplantation combined with amnion covering and mitomycin C is safe and effective for treatment of recurrent pterygium with low recurrences and slight postoperative symptoms.

  13. Ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem- and progenitor cells from cord blood in coculture with mesenchymal stroma cells from amnion, chorion, Wharton's jelly, amniotic fluid, cord blood, and bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Caroline; Strobel, Julian; Zingsem, Jürgen; Richter, Richard H; Goecke, Tamme W; Beckmann, Matthias W; Eckstein, Reinhold; Weisbach, Volker

    2013-12-01

    In most cases, the amount of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in a single cord blood (CB) unit is not sufficient for allogenic transplantation of adults. Therefore, two CB units are usually required. The ex vivo expansion of HSPCs from CB in coculture with mesenchymal stroma cells (MSCs) might be an alternative. It was investigated, whether bone marrow-derived MSCs, which have to be obtained in an invasive procedure, introduce a further donor and increases the risk of transmissible infectious diseases for the patient can be replaced by MSCs from amnion, chorion, Wharton's jelly, amniotic fluid, and CB, which can be isolated from placental tissue which is readily available when CB is sampled. In a two-step ex vivo coculture mononuclear cells from cryopreserved CB were cultured with different MSC-feederlayers in a medium supplemented with cytokines (stem cell factor, thrombopoietin [TPO], and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor). Expansion rates were analyzed as well, by long-term culture-initiating cell (LTC-IC) and colony-forming unit (CFU) assays, as by measuring CD34(+)- and CD45(+)-cells. Due to the comparably low number of 5×10(2) to 1×10(4) CD34(+)-cells per cm(2) MSC-monolayer, we observed comparably high expansion rates from 80 to 391,000 for CFU, 70 to 313,000 for CD34(+)-, and 200 to 352,000 for CD45(+)-cells. Expansion of LTC-IC was partly observed. Compared to the literature, we found a better expansion rate of CD34(+)-cells with MSCs from all different sources. This is probably due to the comparably low number of 5×10(2) to 1×10 CD34(+)-cells per cm(2) MSC-monolayer we used. Comparably, high expansion rates were observed from 80 to 391,000 for CFUs, 70 to 313,000 for CD34(+)-, and 200 to 352,000 for CD45(+)-cells. However, the expansion of CD34(+)-cells was significantly more effective with MSCs from bone marrow compared to MSCs from amnion, chorion, and Wharton's jelly. The comparison of MSCs from bone marrow with MSCs from CB and

  14. Observational therapeutics: Scope, challenges, and organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Vaidya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Observational Therapeutics in the progress of medicine has been neglected in the current era of the hierarchal position imparted to Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs for new drug discovery and practice of evidence-based medicine. There is a need to reflect on the reason for many new drugs being withdrawn during post marketing surveillance. There are several examples in literature where drug-discovery has originated initially from keen clinical and / or laboratory observations. The roots of these discoveries have often been from observations made by practitioners of traditional medicine including Ayurveda. The present article draws attention to the scope and challenges for observational therapeutics. There is an urgent need for the meticulous planning for a systematic organization of developing observational therapeutics, with a full understanding of its strengths and limitations.

  15. Scope of algae as third generation biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvashish eBehera

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An initiative has been taken to develop different solid, liquid and gaseous biofuels as the alternative energy resources. The current research and technology based on the third generation biofuels derived from algal biomass have been considered as the best alternative bioresource that avoids the disadvantages of first and second generation biofuels. Algal biomass have been investigated for the implementation of economic conversion processes producing different biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol, biogas, biohydrogen and other valuable co-products. In the present review, the recent findings and advance developments in algal biomass for improved biofuel production. This review discusses about the importance of the algal cell contents, various strategies for product formation through various conversion technologies, and its future scope as an energy security.

  16. Scoping Review of the Zika Virus Literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Waddell

    Full Text Available The global primary literature on Zika virus (ZIKV (n = 233 studies and reports, up to March 1, 2016 has been compiled using a scoping review methodology to systematically identify and characterise the literature underpinning this broad topic using methods that are documented, updateable and reproducible. Our results indicate that more than half the primary literature on ZIKV has been published since 2011. The articles mainly covered three topic categories: epidemiology of ZIKV (surveillance and outbreak investigations 56.6% (132/233, pathogenesis of ZIKV (case symptoms/ outcomes and diagnosis 38.2% (89/233 and ZIKV studies (molecular characterisation and in vitro evaluation of the virus 18.5% (43/233. There has been little reported in the primary literature on ZIKV vectors (12/233, surveillance for ZIKV (13/233, diagnostic tests (12/233 and transmission (10/233. Three papers reported on ZIKV prevention/control strategies, one investigated knowledge and attitudes of health professionals and two vector mapping studies were reported. The majority of studies used observational study designs, 89.7% (209/233, of which 62/233 were case studies or case series, while fewer (24/233 used experimental study designs. Several knowledge gaps were identified by this review with respect to ZIKV epidemiology, the importance of potential non-human primates and other hosts in the transmission cycle, the burden of disease in humans, and complications related to human infection with ZIKV. Historically there has been little research on ZIKV; however, given its current spread through Australasia and the Americas, research resources are now being allocated to close many of the knowledge gaps identified in this scoping review. Future updates of this project will probably demonstrate enhanced evidence and understanding of ZIKV and its impact on public health.

  17. Scoping Review of the Zika Virus Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Lisa A; Greig, Judy D

    2016-01-01

    The global primary literature on Zika virus (ZIKV) (n = 233 studies and reports, up to March 1, 2016) has been compiled using a scoping review methodology to systematically identify and characterise the literature underpinning this broad topic using methods that are documented, updateable and reproducible. Our results indicate that more than half the primary literature on ZIKV has been published since 2011. The articles mainly covered three topic categories: epidemiology of ZIKV (surveillance and outbreak investigations) 56.6% (132/233), pathogenesis of ZIKV (case symptoms/ outcomes and diagnosis) 38.2% (89/233) and ZIKV studies (molecular characterisation and in vitro evaluation of the virus) 18.5% (43/233). There has been little reported in the primary literature on ZIKV vectors (12/233), surveillance for ZIKV (13/233), diagnostic tests (12/233) and transmission (10/233). Three papers reported on ZIKV prevention/control strategies, one investigated knowledge and attitudes of health professionals and two vector mapping studies were reported. The majority of studies used observational study designs, 89.7% (209/233), of which 62/233 were case studies or case series, while fewer (24/233) used experimental study designs. Several knowledge gaps were identified by this review with respect to ZIKV epidemiology, the importance of potential non-human primates and other hosts in the transmission cycle, the burden of disease in humans, and complications related to human infection with ZIKV. Historically there has been little research on ZIKV; however, given its current spread through Australasia and the Americas, research resources are now being allocated to close many of the knowledge gaps identified in this scoping review. Future updates of this project will probably demonstrate enhanced evidence and understanding of ZIKV and its impact on public health.

  18. Scoping Review of the Zika Virus Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The global primary literature on Zika virus (ZIKV) (n = 233 studies and reports, up to March 1, 2016) has been compiled using a scoping review methodology to systematically identify and characterise the literature underpinning this broad topic using methods that are documented, updateable and reproducible. Our results indicate that more than half the primary literature on ZIKV has been published since 2011. The articles mainly covered three topic categories: epidemiology of ZIKV (surveillance and outbreak investigations) 56.6% (132/233), pathogenesis of ZIKV (case symptoms/ outcomes and diagnosis) 38.2% (89/233) and ZIKV studies (molecular characterisation and in vitro evaluation of the virus) 18.5% (43/233). There has been little reported in the primary literature on ZIKV vectors (12/233), surveillance for ZIKV (13/233), diagnostic tests (12/233) and transmission (10/233). Three papers reported on ZIKV prevention/control strategies, one investigated knowledge and attitudes of health professionals and two vector mapping studies were reported. The majority of studies used observational study designs, 89.7% (209/233), of which 62/233 were case studies or case series, while fewer (24/233) used experimental study designs. Several knowledge gaps were identified by this review with respect to ZIKV epidemiology, the importance of potential non-human primates and other hosts in the transmission cycle, the burden of disease in humans, and complications related to human infection with ZIKV. Historically there has been little research on ZIKV; however, given its current spread through Australasia and the Americas, research resources are now being allocated to close many of the knowledge gaps identified in this scoping review. Future updates of this project will probably demonstrate enhanced evidence and understanding of ZIKV and its impact on public health. PMID:27244249

  19. IDC Reengineering Phase 2 Project Scope.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, James M.

    2015-02-01

    This report provides a brief description of the scope of the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. It describes the goals and objectives of reengineering, the system definition, and the technical scope of the system. REVISIONS Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by 1.0 9/25/2014 SNL IDC Reengineering Team Unlimited Release for I2 M. Harris 1.1 28/01/2015 IDC Reengineering Team Align with previous IDC scope document E. Tomuta

  20. 77 FR 63309 - Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting and Extension of Scoping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting and Extension of Scoping Period for the Planned Constitution Pipeline Project On October 24, 2012, the Federal... Constitution Pipeline Company's (Constitution) Constitution Pipeline Project. This notice also extends...

  1. Scoping of flood hazard mapping needs for Somerset County, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.

    2006-01-01

    s. However, in the ensuing 20-30 years, development has occurred in many of the watersheds, and the characteristics of the watersheds have changed with time. Therefore, many of the older studies may not depict current conditions nor accurately estimate risk in terms of flood heights. The following is the scope of work as defined in the FEMA/USGS Statement of Work: Task 1: Collect data from a variety of sources including community surveys, other Federal and State Agencies, National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) State Coordinators, Community Assistance Visits (CAVs) and FEMA archives. Lists of mapping needs will be obtained from the MNUSS database, community surveys, and CAVs, if available. FEMA archives will be inventoried for effective FIRM panels, FIS reports, and other flood-hazard data or existing study data. Best available base map information, topographic data, flood-hazard data, and hydrologic and hydraulic data will be identified. Data from the Maine Floodplain Management Program database also will be utilized. Task 2: Contact communities in Somerset County to notify them that FEMA and the State have selected them for a map update, and that a project scope will be developed with their input. Topics to be reviewed with the communities include (1) Purpose of the Flood Map Project (for example, the update needs that have prompted the map update); (2) The community's mapping needs; (3) The community's available mapping, hydrologic, hydraulic, and flooding information; (4) target schedule for completing the project; and (5) The community's engineering, planning, and geographic information system (GIS) capabilities. On the basis of the collected information from Task 1 and community contacts/meetings in Task 2, the USGS will develop a Draft Project Scope for the identified mapping needs of the communities in Somerset County. The following items will be addressed in the Draft Project Scope: review of available information, determine if and ho

  2. Synergies between renewable energy and fresh water production. Scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geurts, F.; Noothout, P.; Schaap, A. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    The IEA Implementing Agreement for Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (IEA-RETD) investigated the opportunities for coupling renewable energy systems with fresh water supply systems. The four main conclusions of the scoping study, carried out by Ecofys, are: (1) Fresh water production based on desalination technologies provide most options for synergies with renewable energy production; (2) Linking desalination to renewable sources is currently not economically viable; (3) There is a large potential for small scale (decentralised) desalination plants; (4) Current commercially-sized desalination technologies are in need of a constant operation point. Reverse osmosis and thermal membrane technologies might give future synergies as deferrable load.

  3. 77 FR 52313 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... rulings, the Department indicated it had completed the scope review of magnesia carbon bricks from Mexico...-910/C-570-911: Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe from the People's Republic of China Requestor... ruling, finding Fedmet's magnesia alumina carbon bricks within the scope of the antidumping...

  4. 24 CFR 58.56 - Scoping process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Process: Procedures for Draft, Final and Supplemental Environmental Impact Statements § 58.56 Scoping... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scoping process. 58.56 Section 58.56 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  5. 19 CFR 134.0 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 134.0 Section 134.0 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING § 134.0 Scope. This part sets forth regulations implementing the country of origin...

  6. 21 CFR 860.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 860.1 Section 860.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General § 860.1 Scope. (a) This part implements sections 513, 514(b), 515(b), and 520(l) of the act with respect to the classification and reclassification of devices intended for human...

  7. 49 CFR 536.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSFER AND TRADING OF FUEL ECONOMY CREDITS § 536.1 Scope. This part establishes... manufacturers wishing to transfer fuel economy credits between their fleets and for manufacturers and other... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 536.1 Section 536.1 Transportation...

  8. 5 CFR 831.1101 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 831.1101 Section 831.1101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Prohibition on Payments of Annuities § 831.1101 Scope. This subpart prescribes the procedures to be followed in determining whether...

  9. 16 CFR 1101.2. - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 1101.2. Section 1101.2. Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INFORMATION DISCLOSURE UNDER SECTION 6(b) OF THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT Background § 1101.2. Scope. Section 6(b) and these rules apply to information...

  10. 49 CFR 192.501 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.501 Section 192.501 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Test Requirements § 192.501 Scope. This...

  11. 40 CFR 142.3 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 142.3 Section 142.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION General Provisions § 142.3 Scope. (a) Except...

  12. 42 CFR 423.150 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 423.150 Section 423.150 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE... § 423.150 Scope. This subpart sets forth the requirements relating to the following: (a)...

  13. 28 CFR 90.60 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 90.60 Section 90.60 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Arrest Policies in Domestic Violence Cases § 90.60 Scope. This subpart sets forth the statutory framework of the Violence Against Women...

  14. 40 CFR 81.11 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 81.11 Section 81.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.11 Scope....

  15. 32 CFR 726.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 726.2 Section 726.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL PAYMENTS OF AMOUNTS DUE MENTALLY INCOMPETENT MEMBERS OF THE NAVAL SERVICE § 726.2 Scope. (a) The Secretary of the Navy has authority...

  16. 28 CFR 92.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 92.1 Section 92.1 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria § 92.1 Scope. This subpart sets forth guidance on...

  17. 49 CFR 191.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., operation, and maintenance under 49 CFR 190.9. (3) Pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf upstream of the... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 191.1 Section 191.1 Transportation Other...; ANNUAL REPORTS, INCIDENT REPORTS, AND SAFETY-RELATED CONDITION REPORTS § 191.1 Scope. (a) This...

  18. 40 CFR 79.30 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 79.30 Section 79.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.30 Scope. Fuels and...

  19. 49 CFR 190.301 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 190.301 Section 190.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PROCEDURES Procedures for Adoption of Rules § 190.301 Scope. This subpart prescribes general...

  20. 42 CFR 424.60 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 424.60 Section 424.60 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM CONDITIONS FOR MEDICARE PAYMENT To Whom Payment is Made in Special Situations § 424.60 Scope. (a)...

  1. 48 CFR 939.7000 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 939.7000 Section 939.7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Implementing DOE Policies and Procedures 939.7000 Scope. This part...

  2. 32 CFR 761.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 761.1 Section 761.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY ISLANDS UNDER NAVY JURISDICTION NAVAL DEFENSIVE SEA... PACIFIC ISLANDS Introduction § 761.1 Scope. (a) This part provides regulations governing the entry...

  3. 42 CFR 423.1968 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 423.1968 Section 423.1968 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE... Review § 423.1968 Scope. This subpart sets forth the requirements relating to the following: (a) Part...

  4. 36 CFR 261.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 261.1 Section 261.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.1 Scope. (a) The prohibitions in this part apply, except as otherwise provided, when: (1)...

  5. 42 CFR 424.100 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 424.100 Section 424.100 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE... Nonparticipating Hospital § 424.100 Scope. This subpart sets forth procedures and criteria that are followed...

  6. 49 CFR 192.51 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.51 Section 192.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.51 Scope. This subpart prescribes minimum...

  7. 49 CFR 193.2051 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 193.2051 Section 193.2051 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Siting Requirements § 193.2051 Scope. Each LNG facility designed,...

  8. 49 CFR 192.101 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.101 Section 192.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.101 Scope. This subpart...

  9. 49 CFR 195.48 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 195.48 Section 195.48 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.48 Scope. This subpart...

  10. 40 CFR 80.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 80.1 Section 80.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.1 Scope. (a) This part prescribes regulations for the control...

  11. 42 CFR 415.100 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 415.100 Section 415.100 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE... § 415.100 Scope. This subpart implements section 1887(a)(1)(A) of the Act by providing...

  12. 42 CFR 424.120 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 424.120 Section 424.120 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE....120 Scope. This subpart sets forth the conditions for payment for services furnished in a...

  13. 49 CFR 195.100 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 195.100 Section 195.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.100 Scope. This subpart prescribes minimum design requirements for...

  14. 42 CFR 415.150 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 415.150 Section 415.150 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE... RESIDENTS IN CERTAIN SETTINGS Physician Services in Teaching Settings § 415.150 Scope. This subpart...

  15. 49 CFR 195.300 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 195.300 Section 195.300 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Pressure Testing § 195.300 Scope. This subpart prescribes minimum requirements for the...

  16. 49 CFR 192.271 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.271 Section 192.271 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Scope. (a) This subpart prescribes minimum requirements for joining materials in pipelines, other...

  17. 49 CFR 193.2701 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 193.2701 Section 193.2701 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Personnel Qualifications and Training § 193.2701 Scope. This subpart...

  18. 32 CFR 756.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 756.1 Section 756.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS PROCEDURES FOR PROCESSING CLAIMS INVOLVING NON-APPROPRIATED FUND ACTIVITIES AND THEIR EMPLOYEES § 756.1 Scope. This part explains how to...

  19. 49 CFR 195.200 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 195.200 Section 195.200 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.200 Scope. This subpart prescribes minimum requirements for constructing...

  20. 42 CFR 423.251 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 423.251 Section 423.251 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE...; Plan Approval § 423.251 Scope. This section sets forth the requirements and limitations on...

  1. 42 CFR 423.301 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 423.301 Section 423.301 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE... Prescription Drug Coverage § 423.301 Scope. This subpart sets forth rules for the calculation and payment...

  2. 36 CFR 228.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 228.2 Section 228.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Locatable Minerals § 228.2 Scope. These regulations apply to operations hereafter conducted under the United...

  3. 42 CFR 424.500 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 424.500 Section 424.500 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE... Privileges § 424.500 Scope. The provisions of this subpart contain the requirements for enrollment,...

  4. 32 CFR 734.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 734.2 Section 734.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL GARNISHMENT OF PAY OF NAVAL MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PERSONNEL FOR COLLECTION OF CHILD SUPPORT AND ALIMONY § 734.2 Scope. The provisions of this...

  5. 40 CFR 172.20 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 172.20 Section 172.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXPERIMENTAL USE PERMITS State Issuance of Experimental Use Permits § 172.20 Scope. This subpart sets forth...

  6. 32 CFR 755.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 755.2 Section 755.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS CLAIMS FOR INJURIES TO PROPERTY UNDER ARTICLE 139 OF THE UNIFORM CODE OF MILITARY JUSTICE § 755.2 Scope. This chapter provides for...

  7. 32 CFR 752.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 752.1 Section 752.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS ADMIRALTY CLAIMS § 752.1 Scope. This part applies to admiralty-tort claims. These include claims against the United States for damage caused by...

  8. 49 CFR 193.2101 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 193.2101 Section 193.2101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design § 193.2101 Scope. (a) Each LNG facility designed after March 31, 2000...

  9. 40 CFR 152.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 152.1 Section 152.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.1 Scope. (a) Part 152 sets forth...

  10. 49 CFR 199.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 199.1 Section 199.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING General § 199.1 Scope....

  11. 49 CFR 193.2901 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 193.2901 Section 193.2901 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2901 Scope. This subpart prescribes requirements for security...

  12. 49 CFR 192.551 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.551 Section 192.551 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Uprating § 192.551 Scope. This subpart...

  13. 49 CFR 193.2301 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 193.2301 Section 193.2301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2301 Scope. Each LNG facility constructed after March 31,...

  14. 40 CFR 165.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 165.1 Section 165.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL General § 165.1 Scope. The part 165 regulations establish standards and requirements...

  15. 40 CFR 152.100 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 152.100 Section 152.100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Agency Review of Applications § 152.100 Scope. (a) The Agency...

  16. 40 CFR 88.201-94 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 88.201-94 Section 88.201-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES California Pilot Test Program § 88.201-94 Scope. Applicability. The requirements of this...

  17. 40 CFR 180.2000 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 180.2000 Section 180.2000 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND... Exemption From a Tolerance § 180.2000 Scope. This subpart sets forth the pesticide chemicals for use...

  18. 31 CFR 1.8 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 1.8 Section 1.8 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS Other Disclosure Provisions § 1.8 Scope. The regulations in this subpart concern access to information and records other...

  19. 49 CFR 1151.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 1151.1 Section 1151.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE FEEDER RAILROAD DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 1151.1 Scope. This part governs...

  20. 42 CFR 424.50 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 424.50 Section 424.50 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM CONDITIONS FOR MEDICARE PAYMENT To Whom Payment Is Ordinarily Made § 424.50 Scope. (a) This subpart...

  1. 40 CFR 152.160 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 152.160 Section 152.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.160 Scope. (a) Types...

  2. 42 CFR 423.500 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 423.500 Section 423.500 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE... sponsors § 423.500 Scope. This subpart sets forth application procedures and contracts with Part D...

  3. 49 CFR 377.201 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 377.201 Section 377.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... Forwarders § 377.201 Scope. (a) General. These regulations apply to the extension of credit in...

  4. 49 CFR 195.501 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 195.501 Section 195.501 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Qualification of Pipeline Personnel § 195.501 Scope. (a) This subpart prescribes the...

  5. 49 CFR 192.351 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.351 Section 192.351 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.351 Scope. This subpart prescribes minimum requirements for installing customer meters,...

  6. 31 CFR 8.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 8.1 Section 8.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PRACTICE BEFORE THE BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND FIREARMS General Requirements § 8.1 Scope. This part contains rules governing the recognition...

  7. 49 CFR 192.221 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.221 Section 192.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Welding of Steel in Pipelines § 192.221 Scope. (a)...

  8. 49 CFR 1118.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 1118.1 Section 1118.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES IN INFORMAL PROCEEDINGS BEFORE EMPLOYEE BOARDS § 1118.1 Scope. The rules...

  9. 49 CFR 198.31 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 198.31 Section 198.31 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... PROGRAMS Adoption of One-Call Damage Prevention Program § 198.31 Scope. This subpart implements parts...

  10. 40 CFR 81.400 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 81.400 Section 81.400 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.400 Scope. Subpart D, §§ 81.401 through 81.437, lists those...

  11. 49 CFR 195.400 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 195.400 Section 195.400 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.400 Scope. This subpart prescribes minimum requirements...

  12. 49 CFR 192.301 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.301 Section 192.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Lines and Mains § 192.301 Scope. This subpart prescribes minimum requirements for...

  13. 49 CFR 192.451 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.451 Section 192.451 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.451 Scope....

  14. 42 CFR 423.851 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 423.851 Section 423.851 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE... Prescription Drug Plans) § 423.851 Scope. This subpart sets forth—the rights of beneficiaries to a choice of...

  15. 49 CFR 198.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 198.1 Section 198.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... PROGRAMS General § 198.1 Scope. This part prescribes regulations governing grants-in-aid for State...

  16. 49 CFR 1121.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 1121.1 Section 1121.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE RAIL EXEMPTION PROCEDURES § 1121.1 Scope. These procedures generally govern...

  17. 25 CFR 571.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 571.1 Section 571.1 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT PROVISIONS MONITORING AND INVESTIGATIONS General § 571.1 Scope. This part sets forth general procedures governing Commission monitoring...

  18. 32 CFR 751.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 751.1 Section 751.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS PERSONNEL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Claims Against the United States § 751.1 Scope. This part prescribes procedures and substantive bases...

  19. 49 CFR 192.801 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.801 Section 192.801 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Qualification of Pipeline Personnel § 192.801 Scope....

  20. 31 CFR 15.737-1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 15.737-1 Section 15.737-1 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury POST EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST General Provisions § 15.737-1 Scope. This part contains rules governing discipline of a former officer...

  1. 42 CFR 424.30 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 424.30 Section 424.30 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM CONDITIONS FOR MEDICARE PAYMENT Claims for Payment § 424.30 Scope. This subpart sets forth the...

  2. 49 CFR 195.0 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 195.0 Section 195.0 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... General § 195.0 Scope. This part prescribes safety standards and reporting requirements for...

  3. 49 CFR 192.601 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.601 Section 192.601 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 192.601 Scope. This subpart...

  4. 42 CFR 423.558 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 423.558 Section 423.558 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE..., and Reconsiderations § 423.558 Scope. (a) This subpart sets forth the requirements relating to...

  5. 49 CFR 193.2401 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 193.2401 Section 193.2401 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Equipment § 193.2401 Scope. After March 31, 2000, each new, replaced,...

  6. 49 CFR 193.2501 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 193.2501 Section 193.2501 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 193.2501 Scope. This subpart prescribes requirements for...

  7. 49 CFR 396.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 396.1 Section 396.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS INSPECTION, REPAIR, AND MAINTENANCE § 396.1 Scope....

  8. 42 CFR 423.452 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 423.452 Section 423.452 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE... Drug Coverage § 423.452 Scope. This section sets forth the application of Part D rules to Part C...

  9. 28 CFR 92.7 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 92.7 Section 92.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.7 Scope. (a) The Police Recruitment program offers funds to...

  10. 49 CFR 192.141 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.141 Section 192.141 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.141 Scope....

  11. 49 CFR 192.701 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.701 Section 192.701 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.701 Scope. This subpart...

  12. 49 CFR 1120.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accounting instruction number 27 of the Board's Uniform System of Accounts (49 CFR Part 1207). ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 1120.1 Section 1120.1 Transportation Other... RULES OF PRACTICE USE OF 1977-1978 STUDY OF MOTOR CARRIER PLATFORM HANDLING FACTORS § 1120.1 Scope....

  13. 48 CFR 970.1707-1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 970.1707-1 Section 970.1707-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Special Contracting Methods 970.1707-1 Scope. Pursuant...

  14. 42 CFR 417.140 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 417.140 Section 417.140 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE... Application for Federal Qualification § 417.140 Scope. This subpart sets forth— (a) The requirements for—...

  15. 49 CFR 193.2601 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 193.2601 Section 193.2601 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2601 Scope. This subpart prescribes requirements...

  16. 31 CFR 103.80 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 103.80 Section 103.80 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Administrative Rulings § 103.80 Scope. This subpart...

  17. 20 CFR 902.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 902.1 Section 902.1 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES RULES REGARDING AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 902.1 Scope. This part is issued by the Joint Board for the Enrollment of Actuaries (the “Joint...

  18. 30 CFR 828.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 828.1 Section 828.1 Mineral Resources... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS SPECIAL PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-IN SITU PROCESSING § 828.1 Scope. This... situ processing activities....

  19. 12 CFR 19.241 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 19.241 Section 19.241 Banks and Banking..., and Debarment of Accountants From Performing Audit Services § 19.241 Scope. This subpart, which... their accounting firms from performing independent audit and attestation services required by section...

  20. Special Education in Indonesia (Scope and Development).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiawan, Conny

    The paper covers characteristics of Indonesia's special education program. Considered are the scope of special education, some viewpoints on the impact of culture on the perspective of special education in Indonesia (including programs, services, teacher training, and financial resources). The scope of special education is considered; and some…

  1. 41 CFR 60-3.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Scope. 60-3.2 Section 60-3.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts OFFICE OF... GUIDELINES ON EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 60-3.2 Scope. A. Application...

  2. 14 CFR 1203b.101 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 1203b.101 Section 1203b.101 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SECURITY PROGRAMS; ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.101 Scope. This part applies to only those...

  3. 10 CFR 76.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 76.2 Section 76.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.2 Scope. The regulations in this part apply only to those portions of the Portsmouth and Paducah Gaseous Diffusion...

  4. Anger perceptually and conceptually narrows cognitive scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Philip A; Poole, Bryan D; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2015-07-01

    For the last 50 years, research investigating the effect of emotions on scope of cognitive processing was based on models proposing that affective valence determined cognitive scope. More recently, our motivational intensity model suggests that this past work had confounded valence with motivational intensity. Research derived from this model supports the idea that motivational intensity, rather than affective valence, explains much of the variance emotions have on cognitive scope. However, the motivational intensity model is limited in that the empirical work has examined only positive affects high in approach and negative affects high in avoidance motivation. Thus, perhaps only approach-positive and avoidance-negative states narrow cognitive scope. The present research was designed to clarify these conceptual issues by examining the effect of anger, a negatively valenced approach-motivated state, on cognitive scope. Results revealed that anger narrowed attentional scope relative to a neutral state and that attentional narrowing to anger was similar to the attentional narrowing caused by high approach-motivated positive affects (Study 1). This narrowing of attention was related to trait approach motivation (Studies 2 and Study 3). Anger also narrowed conceptual cognitive categorization (Study 4). Narrowing of categorization related to participants' approach motivation toward anger stimuli. Together, these results suggest that anger, an approach-motivated negative affect, narrows perceptual and conceptual cognitive scope. More broadly, these results support the conceptual model that motivational intensity per se, rather than approach-positive and avoidance-negative states, causes a narrowing of cognitive scope.

  5. 21 CFR 1010.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 1010.1 Section 1010.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS: GENERAL General Provisions § 1010.1 Scope. The standards...

  6. Common Cause Abduction : Its Scope and Limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dziurosz-Serafinowicz, Patryk

    2012-01-01

    Patryk Dziurosz-Serafmowicz, Common Cause Abduction: Its Scope and Limits This article aims to analyze the scope and limits of common cause abduction which is a version of explanatory abduction based on Hans Reichenbach's Principle of the Common Cause. First, it is argued that common cause abduction

  7. 44 CFR 351.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 351.2 Section 351.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS General § 351.2 Scope. The emergency planning...

  8. 45 CFR 12.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 12.2 Section 12.2 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION OF SURPLUS REAL PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PURPOSES § 12.2 Scope. This part is applicable to surplus real property located within any State which is appropriate...

  9. 12 CFR 700.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 700.1 Section 700.1 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS DEFINITIONS § 700.1 Scope. The definitions in § 700.2 apply to terms used in this chapter. Many additional definitions appear in the...

  10. 12 CFR 725.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 725.1 Section 725.1 Banks and Banking... ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.1 Scope. This part contains the regulations implementing the National Credit Union Central Liquidity Facility Act, subchapter III of the Federal Credit Union Act....

  11. 10 CFR 850.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 850.1 Section 850.1 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM General Provisions § 850.1 Scope. This part provides for establishment of a chronic beryllium disease prevention program (CBDPP) that supplements and is deemed...

  12. 21 CFR 866.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 866.1 Section 866.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 866.1 Scope. (a) This part sets forth the classification of immunology and microbiology devices intended for human use that are in commercial distribution. (b)...

  13. 18 CFR 1b.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.2 Scope. This part applies to...

  14. Immigration and its impact on daily occupations: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kayla Marie; Scornaiencki, Jennifer Marie; Brzozowski, Jennifer; Denis, Suzanne; Magalhaes, Lilian

    2012-12-01

    Immigrants often adopt new and unfamiliar occupations in an attempt to adapt to their new culture. Occupations provide a means for participation in the host country and play a significant role in formulating a person's identity. This scoping review sought to identify the current knowledge on immigration and its impact on occupations. A scoping review for peer-reviewed articles published between 2000 and 2010 in English or French was completed. Thirty-six articles met the inclusion criteria. Four themes were identified: 1) role change; 2) work; 3) identity; and 4) health and well-being. Limitations include the lack of a consistent definition of occupation, research primarily being conducted in the North American context and the limited number of occupational therapy based articles. Future research should focus on a systematic review of the lived experiences of immigrants and their occupational contexts, and how this can inform policy development.

  15. Type I and II Diabetic Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Respond In Vitro to Dehydrated Human Amnion/Chorion Membrane Allograft Treatment by Increasing Proliferation, Migration, and Altering Cytokine Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massee, Michelle; Chinn, Kathryn; Lim, Jeremy J; Godwin, Lisa; Young, Conan S; Koob, Thomas J

    2016-02-01

    Objective: Human amniotic membranes have been shown to be effective for healing diabetic foot ulcers clinically and to regulate stem cell activity in vitro and in vivo; however, diabetic stem cells may be impaired as a sequela of the disease. In this study, dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane (dHACM) allografts (EpiFix(®); MiMedx Group) were evaluated for their ability to regulate diabetic stem cells in vitro. Approach: Human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) from normal, type I diabetic, and type II diabetic donors were treated with soluble extracts of dHACM and evaluated for proliferation after 3 days by DNA assay, chemotactic migration after 1 day by transwell assay, cytokine secretion after 3 days by multiplex ELISA, and gene expression after 5 days by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results: Although diabetic ADSCs demonstrated decreased responses compared to normal ADSCs, dHACM treatment stimulated diabetic ADSCs to proliferate after 3 days and enhanced migration over 24 h, similar to normal ADSCs. dHACM-treated diabetic ADSCs modulated secretion of soluble signals, including regulators of inflammation, angiogenesis, and healing. All ADSCs evaluated also responded to dHACM treatment with altered expression of immunomodulatory genes, including interleukins (IL)-1α, IL-1β, and IL-1RA. Innovation: This is the first reported case demonstrating that diabetic ADSCs respond to novel amniotic membrane therapies, specifically treatment with dHACM. Conclusion: dHACM stimulated diabetic ADSCs to migrate, proliferate, and alter cytokine expression suggesting that, despite their diabetic origin, ADSCs may respond to dHACM to accelerate diabetic wound healing.

  16. Isolation, proliferation, cytogenetic, and molecular characterization and in vitro differentiation potency of canine stem cells from foetal adnexa: a comparative study of amniotic fluid, amnion, and umbilical cord matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filioli Uranio, M; Valentini, L; Lange-Consiglio, A; Caira, M; Guaricci, A C; L'Abbate, A; Catacchio, C R; Ventura, M; Cremonesi, F; Dell'Aquila, M E

    2011-05-01

    The possibility to isolate canine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from foetal adnexa is interesting since several canine genetic disorders are reported to resemble similar dysfunctions in humans. In this study, we successfully isolated, cytogenetically and molecularly characterized, and followed the differentiation potency of canine MSCs from foetal adnexa, such as amniotic fluid (AF), amniotic membrane (AM), and umbilical cord matrix (UCM). In the three types of cell lines, the morphology of proliferating cells typically appeared fibroblast-like, and the population doubling time (DT) significantly increased with passage number. For AF- and AM-MSCs, cell viability did not change with passages. In UCM-MSCs, cell viability remained at approximately constant levels up to P6 and significantly decreased from P7 (P < 0.05). Amnion and UCM-MSCs expressed embryonic and MSC markers, such as Oct-4 CD44, CD184, and CD29, whereas AF-MSCs expressed Oct-4, CD44. Expression of the hematopoietic markers CD34 and CD45 was not found. Dog leucocyte antigens (DLA-DRA1 and DLA-79) were expressed only in AF-MSCs at P1. Isolated cells of the three cell lines at P3 showed multipotent capacity, and differentiated in vitro into neurocyte, adipocyte, osteocyte, and chondrocyte, as demonstrated by specific stains and expression of molecular markers. Cells at P4 showed normal chromosomal number, structure, and telomerase activity. These results demonstrate that, in dog, MSCs can be successfully isolated from foetal adnexa and grown in vitro. Their proven stemness and chromosomal stability indicated that MSCs could be used as a model to study stem cell biology and have an application in therapeutic programs.

  17. Radiometer effect in the μSCOPE space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobili, A. M.; Bramanti, D.; Comandi, G. L.; Toncelli, R.; Polacco, E.

    2002-12-01

    Space experiments to test the Equivalence Principle (EP) are affected by a systematic radiometer effect having the same signature as the target signal. In [PhRvD 63 (2001) 101101(R)] we have investigated this effect for the three proposed experiments currently under study by space agencies: μSCOPE, STEP and GG, setting the requirements to be met—on temperature gradients at the level of the test masses—for each experiment to reach its goal. We have now re-examined the radiometer effect in the case of μSCOPE and carried out a quantitative comparative analysis, on this issue, with the proposed heliocentric LISA mission for the detection of gravity waves. We find that, even assuming that the μSCOPE spacecraft and payload be built to meet all the challenging requirements of LISA, temperature gradients along its test masses would still make the radiometer effect larger than the target signal of an EP violation because of flying in the low geocentric orbit required for EP testing. We find no way to separate with certainty the radiometer systematic disturbance from the signal. μSCOPE is designed to fly a second accelerometer whose test masses have the same composition, in order to separate out systematic effects which—not being composition dependent like the signal—must be detected by both accelerometers. We point out that this accelerometer is in fact insensitive to the radiometer effect, just as it is to an EP violation signal, and therefore even having it onboard will not allow this disturbance to be separated out. μSCOPE is under construction and it is scheduled to fly in 2004. If it will detect a signal to the expected level, it will be impossible to establish with certainty whether it is due to the well known classical radiometer effect or else to a violation of the equivalence principle—which would invalidate General Relativity. The option to increase the rotation speed of the spacecraft (now set at about 10 -3 Hz) so as to average out the temperature

  18. Scope of nanotechnology in modern textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review article demonstrates the scope and applications of nanotechnology towards modification and development of advanced textile fibers, yarns and fabrics and their processing techniques. Basically, it summarizes the recent advances made in nanotechnology and its applications to cotton textil...

  19. 49 CFR 215.101 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components § 215.101 Scope. This subpart contains safety requirements prohibiting a railroad from placing or continuing in service a freight car that has certain defective components. Suspension System...

  20. 48 CFR 219.7100 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Pilot Mentor-Protege Program 219.7100 Scope. This... protege firms in enhancing their capabilities and to increase participation of such firms in...

  1. 12 CFR 303.220 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the FDI Act (Consent to Service of Persons Convicted of Certain Criminal Offenses) § 303.220 Scope. This subpart covers applications under section 19 of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1829). Pursuant to...

  2. 45 CFR 1000.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT ACCOUNT RESERVE FUNDS ESTABLISHED PURSUANT TO GRANTS FOR ASSETS FOR INDEPENDENCE § 1000.1 Scope. This part applies to the Office of Community Services' Assets for Independence Program....

  3. 48 CFR 23.1000 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... WORKPLACE Federal Compliance With Right-To-Know Laws and Pollution Prevention Requirements 23.1000 Scope...) Compliance with right-to-know laws and pollution prevention requirements; (b) Implementation of...

  4. 45 CFR 673.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the Antarctic Treaty. ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 673.2 Section 673.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ANTARCTIC...

  5. 21 CFR 358.301 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS EXTERNAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Ingrown Toenail Relief Drug Products § 358.301 Scope. (a) An over-the-counter ingrown toenail relief drug product in a form suitable for...

  6. 23 CFR 1350.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION INCENTIVE GRANT CRITERIA FOR MOTORCYCLIST SAFETY PROGRAM § 1350.1 Scope. This part establishes criteria, in accordance with section 2010 of the... single- and multi-vehicle crashes involving motorcyclists....

  7. 75 FR 38081 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Fold-Away Truck, Relius Tray-Shelf Utility Cart, Economical Steel Cart, Solid Platform Dolly and Flush Platform Dolly are all outside the scope of the antidumping duty order; December 3, 2009. A-570-901:...

  8. 75 FR 14138 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... Truck, Relius Tray-Shelf Utility Cart, Economical Steel Cart, Solid Platform Dolly and Flush Platform Dolly are all outside the scope of the antidumping duty order; December 3, 2009. A-570-899:...

  9. 7 CFR 610.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE Conservation Operations § 610.2 Scope. (a) Conservation operations, including technical assistance, is the basic soil and water conservation program...

  10. 14 CFR 171.101 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Simplified Directional Facility (SDF) § 171.101 Scope. This... Directional Facilities (SDF) that are to be involved in the approval of instrument flight rules and...

  11. 14 CFR 1221.100 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and the Agency's Unified Visual Communications System § 1221.100 Scope. This subpart sets forth the... Unified Visual Communications System and prescribes the policy and guidelines for implementation of...

  12. 46 CFR 61.30-1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Inspections of Fired Thermal Fluid Heaters § 61.30-1 Scope. The term thermal fluid heater as used in this part... °F) and 225 psig, respectively. Thermal fluid heaters having operating temperatures and...

  13. Scope of practice review: providers for triage and assessment of spine-related disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye, Omenaa; Birney, Arden; Suter, Esther; Phillips, Leah Adeline; Suen, Victoria YM

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study explored which health care providers could be involved in centralized intake for patients with nonspecific low back pain to enhance access, continuity, and appropriateness of care. Methods We reviewed the scope of practice regulations for a range of health care providers. We also conducted telephone interviews with 17 individuals representing ten provincial colleges and regulatory bodies to further understand providers’ legislated scopes of practice. Activities relevant to triaging and assessing patients with low back pain were mapped against professionals’ scope of practice. Results Family physicians and nurse practitioners have the most comprehensive scopes and can complete all restricted activities for spine assessment and triage, while the scope of registered nurses and licensed practical nurses are progressively narrower. Chiropractors, occupational therapists, physiotherapists, and athletic therapists are considered experts in musculoskeletal assessments and appear best suited for musculoskeletal specific assessment and triage. Other providers may play a complementary role depending on the individual patient needs. Conclusion These findings indicate that an interprofessional assessment and triage team that includes allied health professionals would be a feasible option to create a centralized intake model. Implementation of such teams would require removing barriers that currently prevent providers from delivering on their full scope of practice. PMID:27274267

  14. The capabilities and scope-of-practice requirements of advanced life support practitioners undertaking critical care transfers: A Delphi study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Venter

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Critical care transfers (CCT refer to the high level of care given during transport (via ambulance, helicopter or fixed-wing aircraft of patients who are of high acuity. In South Africa (SA, advanced life support (ALS paramedics undertake CCTs. The scope of ALS in SA has no extended protocol regarding procedures or medications in terms of dealing with these CCTs. Aim. The aim of this study was to obtain the opinions of several experts in fields pertaining to critical care and transport and to gain consensus on the skills and scope-of-practice requirements of paramedics undertaking CCTs in the SA setting. Methods. A modified Delphi study consisting of three rounds was undertaken using an online survey platform. A heterogeneous sample (n=7, consisting of specialists in the fields of anaesthesiology, emergency medicine, internal medicine, critical care, critical care transport and paediatrics, was asked to indicate whether, in their opinion, selected procedures and medications were needed within the scope of practice of paramedics undertaking CCTs. Results. After three rounds, consensus was obtained in 70% (57/81 of procedures and medications. Many of these items are not currently within the scope of paramedics’ training. The panel felt that paramedics undertaking these transfers should have additional postgraduate training that is specific to critical care. Conclusion. Major discrepancies exist between the current scope of paramedic practice and the suggested required scope of practice for CCTs. An extended scope of practice and additional training should be considered for these practitioners.

  15. Harry Potter and the sorcerer's scope: latent scope biases in explanatory reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemlani, Sangeet S; Sussman, Abigail B; Oppenheimer, Daniel M

    2011-04-01

    What makes a good explanation? We examine the function of latent scope, i.e., the number of unobserved phenomena that an explanation can account for. We show that individuals prefer narrow latent scope explanations-those that account for fewer unobserved effects-to broader explanations. In Experiments 1a-d, participants found narrow latent scope explanations to be both more satisfying and more likely. In Experiment 2 we directly manipulated base rate information and again found a preference for narrow latent scope explanations. Participants in Experiment 3 evaluated more natural explanations of unexpected observations, and again displayed a bias for narrow latent scope explanations. We conclude by considering what this novel bias tells us about how humans evaluate explanations and engage in causal reasoning.

  16. The ParaScope parallel programming environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Keith D.; Hall, Mary W.; Hood, Robert T.; Kennedy, Ken; Mckinley, Kathryn S.; Mellor-Crummey, John M.; Torczon, Linda; Warren, Scott K.

    1993-01-01

    The ParaScope parallel programming environment, developed to support scientific programming of shared-memory multiprocessors, includes a collection of tools that use global program analysis to help users develop and debug parallel programs. This paper focuses on ParaScope's compilation system, its parallel program editor, and its parallel debugging system. The compilation system extends the traditional single-procedure compiler by providing a mechanism for managing the compilation of complete programs. Thus, ParaScope can support both traditional single-procedure optimization and optimization across procedure boundaries. The ParaScope editor brings both compiler analysis and user expertise to bear on program parallelization. It assists the knowledgeable user by displaying and managing analysis and by providing a variety of interactive program transformations that are effective in exposing parallelism. The debugging system detects and reports timing-dependent errors, called data races, in execution of parallel programs. The system combines static analysis, program instrumentation, and run-time reporting to provide a mechanical system for isolating errors in parallel program executions. Finally, we describe a new project to extend ParaScope to support programming in FORTRAN D, a machine-independent parallel programming language intended for use with both distributed-memory and shared-memory parallel computers.

  17. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: A revised scope for Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering A revised scope for Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Ian

    2010-05-01

    Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering is well known for publishing excellent work in highly competitive timescales. The journal's coverage has consistently evolved to reflect the current state of the field, and from May 2010 it will revisit its scope once again. The aims of the journal remain unchanged, however: to be the first choice of authors and readers in MEMS and micro-scale research. The new scope continues to focus on highlighting the link between fabrication technologies and their capacity to create novel devices. This link will be considered paramount in the journal, and both prospective authors and readers should let it serve as an inspiration to them. The burgeoning fields of NEMS and nano-scale engineering are more explicitly supported in the new scope. Research which ten years ago would have been considered science fiction has, through the tireless efforts of the community, become reality. The Editorial Board feel it is important to reflect the growing significance of this work in the scope. The new scope, drafted by Editor-in-Chief Professor Mark Allen, and approved by the Editorial Board, is as follows: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering covers all aspects of microelectromechanical structures, devices, and systems, as well as micromechanics and micromechatronics. The journal focuses on original work in fabrication and integration technologies, on the micro- and nano-scale. The journal aims to highlight the link between new fabrication technologies and their capacity to create novel devices. Original work in microengineering and nanoengineering is also reported. Such work is defined as applications of these fabrication and integration technologies to structures in which key attributes of the devices or systems depend on specific micro- or nano-scale features. Such applications span the physical, chemical, electrical and biological realms. New fabrication and integration techniques for both silicon and non-silicon materials are

  18. Psycholinguistic Evidence for Inverse Scope in Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunyoung; O'Grady, William

    2016-08-01

    We use experimental data to shed light on the ongoing question of whether Korean allows inverse scope interpretation in sentences containing an indefinite subject and a universally quantified direct object (e.g., 'Someone bought each loaf of bread at the bakery'). The results of an off-line acceptability judgment task (n = 38) and an online self-paced reading task (n [Formula: see text] 22) indicate that inverse scope interpretations are in fact permitted in Korean as a secondary option, as is also the case in English. We argue that the dispreference for the inverse scope reading reflects processing considerations related to burden on working memory.

  19. 宜丽客 Scope Node

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    老未

    2011-01-01

    话说美编卡卡入手了宜丽客(ELECOM)的握笔型镭射鼠Scope Node之后(见2010年最后一期的Gadget),对那玩意可谓是爱不释手,老朱屡次欲把她的爱鼠借来给各位童鞋做个试用报告,均遭到了卡卡无情的拒绝。终于有一天,老朱趁着卡卡吃饱了盖浇饭、趴在桌子上午睡的时候,才偷偷地把Scope Node“借”过来折腾了一番,至此Scope Node之谜才大白于天下。

  20. Scope of practice review: providers for triage and assessment of spine-related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boakye O

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Omenaa Boakye,1 Arden Birney,1 Esther Suter,1 Leah Adeline Phillips,2 Victoria YM Suen3 1Workforce Research and Evaluation, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, 2College of Licensed Practical Nurses of Alberta, Edmonton, 3Addiction and Mental Health SCN, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, AB, Canada Purpose: This study explored which health care providers could be involved in centralized intake for patients with nonspecific low back pain to enhance access, continuity, and appropriateness of care. Methods: We reviewed the scope of practice regulations for a range of health care providers. We also conducted telephone interviews with 17 individuals representing ten provincial colleges and regulatory bodies to further understand providers' legislated scopes of practice. Activities relevant to triaging and assessing patients with low back pain were mapped against professionals' scope of practice. Results: Family physicians and nurse practitioners have the most comprehensive scopes and can complete all restricted activities for spine assessment and triage, while the scope of registered nurses and licensed practical nurses are progressively narrower. Chiropractors, occupational therapists, physiotherapists, and athletic therapists are considered experts in musculoskeletal assessments and appear best suited for musculoskeletal specific assessment and triage. Other providers may play a complementary role depending on the individual patient needs. Conclusion: These findings indicate that an interprofessional assessment and triage team that includes allied health professionals would be a feasible option to create a centralized intake model. Implementation of such teams would require removing barriers that currently prevent providers from delivering on their full scope of practice. Keywords: scope of practice review, low back pain, integrated service model, centralized intake, interprofessional team

  1. 7 CFR 622.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... proper utilization of land, flood prevention, agricultural water management including irrigation and... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 622.2 Section 622.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  2. 7 CFR 701.3 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... participants on eligible land for certain practices, to rehabilitate farmland damaged by floods, hurricanes... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 701.3 Section 701.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  3. 21 CFR 868.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 868.1 Scope. (a) This part sets forth the classification of anesthesiology... equivalent to other devices, as required by § 807.87. (c) To avoid duplicative listings, an...

  4. 32 CFR 775.8 - Scoping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scoping. 775.8 Section 775.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE... to be addressed and to identify the significant issues to be analyzed in depth related to...

  5. 78 FR 42934 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... curtain walls with non-Chinese extrusions are not within the scope of the antidumping duty and...-917: Laminated Woven Sacks from the People's Republic of China Requestor: Laminated Woven Sacks Committee and its individual members; laminated woven sacks produced with two ink colors printed in...

  6. 40 CFR 263.10 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Scope. (d) A transporter of hazardous waste subject to the Federal manifesting requirements of 40 CFR... hazardous waste within the United States if the transportation requires a manifest under 40 CFR part 262... water, a transporter who meets all applicable requirements of 49 CFR parts 171 through 179 and...

  7. 48 CFR 970.4400 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 970.4400 Section 970.4400 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Management and Operating Contractor Purchasing 970.4400...

  8. 48 CFR 970.0808-00 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 970.0808-00 Section 970.0808-00 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Required sources of supplies and services 970.0808-00...

  9. 10 CFR 434.101 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... BUILDINGS Administration and Enforcement-General § 434.101 Scope. 101.1 This part provides design requirements for the building envelope, electrical distribution systems and equipment for electric power... (3) A substantial renovation of a building for which design for construction began before January...

  10. 75 FR 79339 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ...: Academy Sports & Outdoors; whether its bistro sets, consisting of two chairs and a table, are outside the...: Blackstone OTR LLC and OTR Wheel Engineering, Inc.; whether its wheel hub assemblies are within the scope of... People's Republic of China Requestor: New Trend Engineering Ltd.; whether certain of its wheel...

  11. 41 CFR 105-70.000 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 105-70.000 Section 105-70.000 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services Administration...

  12. 19 CFR 111.0 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 111.0 Section 111.0 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BROKERS... to, persons desiring to transact customs business as customs brokers, including the...

  13. 77 FR 9893 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Bearings from the People's Republic of China. Requestor: New Trend Engineering Limited; its wheel hub units... Ltd.; its wheel hub units are within the scope of the antidumping duty order; June 14, 2011. A-570-803...-570-868: Folding Metal Tables and Chairs from the People's Republic of China. Requestor:...

  14. 76 FR 73596 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Bearings from the People's Republic of China Requestor: Blackstone OTR LLC and OTR Wheel Engineering, Inc.; its wheel hub units/assemblies with tapered roller bearings are within the scope of the antidumping duty order; February 7, 2011. A-570-868: Folding Metal Tables and Chairs from the People's Republic...

  15. 32 CFR 516.27 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... proceeding. Examples of civil actions alleging individual liability include the following: a medical... Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Individual Liability § 516.27 Scope. This subpart guidance when DA personnel, as a result of...

  16. 16 CFR 1501.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 1501.2 Section 1501.2 Commercial... IDENTIFYING TOYS AND OTHER ARTICLES INTENDED FOR USE BY CHILDREN UNDER 3 YEARS OF AGE WHICH PRESENT CHOKING... by children under 3 years (36 months) of age that are introduced into interstate commerce after...

  17. Consumer Behavior: Its Scope and Boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirgy, M. Joseph

    Consumer behavior can be conceptualized by introducing a theoretical framework which defines its scope and boundary and identifies six developmental levels. The infancy stage, Level I, is the study of consumer behavior referred to as the scientific study of psychological structure and process dynamics of individuals consuming an economic good…

  18. 12 CFR 308.600 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 308.600 Section 308.600 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Removal, Suspension, and Debarment of Accountants From Performing Audit Services § 308.600...

  19. 12 CFR 263.400 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 263.400 Section 263.400 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RULES OF PRACTICE FOR HEARINGS Removal, Suspension, and Debarment of Accountants From Performing Audit...

  20. 21 CFR 26.3 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN... Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.3 Scope. (a) The provisions of this subpart... inspections and the good manufacturing practices (GMP's) requirements. (c) Appendix B of this subpart...

  1. Every document has a geographical scope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andogah, G.; Bouma, G.; Nerbonne, J.

    2012-01-01

    It is a useful premise to assume that every document in a collection and every query issued to an information retrieval (IR) system are geography-dependent. If one can determine what area an article is about (i.e., its geographical scope), this information can be used to improve the accuracy with wh

  2. 40 CFR 305.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND... (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND General § 305.1 Scope. (a)(1) This part governs all administrative proceedings for the total or partial denial of response...

  3. 12 CFR 13.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GOVERNMENT SECURITIES SALES PRACTICES § 13.1 Scope..., government securities brokers or dealers pursuant to section 15C of the Securities Exchange Act (15 U.S.C. 78o-5) and Department of the Treasury rules under section 15C (17 CFR 400.1(d) and part 401)....

  4. 49 CFR 563.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION EVENT DATA RECORDERS § 563.1 Scope. This part specifies uniform, national requirements for vehicles equipped with event data recorders (EDRs) concerning the collection, storage, and retrievability of onboard motor vehicle crash event data. It also specifies requirements for...

  5. 47 CFR 90.31 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Industrial/Business Radio Pool § 90.31 Scope. The Industrial/Business Radio Pool covers the licensing of the radio communications of entities engaged in commercial activities, engaged in...

  6. 49 CFR 232.601 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER NON-PASSENGER TRAINS AND EQUIPMENT; END-OF-TRAIN DEVICES Electronically Controlled Pneumatic (ECP) Braking Systems § 232.601 Scope. This subpart contains specific requirements applicable to freight trains and freight cars equipped with ECP...

  7. 78 FR 32372 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    .... Requestor: Clenergy (Xiamen) Technology Co. Ltd. (``Clenergy''); Clenergy's solar panel mounting systems are... Requestor: Medline Industries, Inc.; Medline's Hospital Bed End Panels are within the scope of the... countervailing duty orders; October 17, 2012. Requestor: Innovative Controls Inc.; side mount valve controls...

  8. 45 CFR 95.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE AND STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS) Time Limits for States To File Claims § 95.1 Scope. (a) This subpart establishes a two year time limit (15 months in some cases) for a... Children (except for Section 402(a)(19)(G) of the Act). Title IV-B—Child Welfare Services. Title...

  9. 31 CFR 800.101 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 800.101 Section 800.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT... when provisions of law other than section 721 and the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50...

  10. Relevance Measures Using Geographic Scopes and Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andogah, Geoffrey; Bouma, Gosse; Peters, C; Jikoun,; Mandl, T; Muller, H; Oard, DW; Penas, A; Petras,; Santos, D

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes two kinds of relevance measures to rank documents by geographic restriction: scope-based and type-based. The non-geographic and geographic relevance scores are combined using a weighted harmonic mean. The proposed relevance measures and weighting schemes are evaluated on GeoCLEF

  11. Scope management in web application projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Coelho de Abreu Pinna

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Software projects are subjected to certain risks and uncertainties, especially those that include Web applications, due to the fact that market competition aims to have electronic and virtual services available in a shorter and shorter period of time (also known as “Internet timing”. Another critical factor relates to the focus to be adopted into the management of Web application projects – should technology or business process be emphasized? This fact produces some difficulties in the acceptance of the software by the customer. This problem could be minimized by appropriate management of the project scope from its earliest phases (conception and planning. The article will present an approach that can be utilized on the management of Web applications projects for the minimization of uncertainties and risks when defining scope. A comparative and critical analysis will be carried out among several instruments and techniques that can be utilized on the definition of scope and priorities such as: QFD, Business Process Modeling and Partitioning. Key-words: Project Management, Scope Management, Web applications, QFD.

  12. Scope Management of Non-Functional Requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassab, M.; Daneva, M.; Ormandjieva, O.; Mueller, P.; Lyggesmeyer, P.; Maehle, E.

    2007-01-01

    In order to meet commitments in software projects, a realistic assessment must be made of project scope. Such an assessment relies on the availability of knowledge on the user-defined project requirements and their effort estimates and priorities, as well as their risk. This knowledge enables analys

  13. 34 CFR 668.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 1087aa et seq.; 34 CFR parts 673 and 674); (11) The National Science and Mathematics Access to Retain... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 668.1 Section 668.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT...

  14. 34 CFR 691.71 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 691.71 Section 691.71 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACADEMIC COMPETITIVENESS GRANT (ACG) AND NATIONAL SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS ACCESS...

  15. 45 CFR 5.3 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 5.3 Scope. These rules apply to all components of the Department. Some units may establish additional rules because of unique program requirements, but such rules must be consistent with these rules and must have the concurrence of the Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs. Existing...

  16. 40 CFR 300.3 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Introduction § 300.3 Scope. (a) The NCP applies to and is in effect for: (1) Discharges of oil into or on the... and is in effect when the Federal Response Plan and some or all its Emergency Support Functions...

  17. 32 CFR 552.212 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Installation of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland § 552.212 Scope. (a) The provisions of this subpart apply to all elements of U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground (USAGAPG), and the supported organizations and activities on the Aberdeen and Edgewood Areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground. (b) The provisions...

  18. 12 CFR 370.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 370.1 Section 370.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY..., requirements, and other provisions related to participation in the FDIC's temporary liquidity guarantee program....

  19. 14 CFR 171.21 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Nondirectional Radio Beacon Facilities § 171.21 Scope. (a) This... radio beacon facilities that are to be involved in the approval of instrument flight rules and air traffic control procedures related to those facilities. (b) A nondirectional radio beacon (“H”...

  20. 47 CFR 15.601 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Access Broadband Over Power Line (Access BPL) § 15.601 Scope. This subpart sets out the regulations for Access Broadband over Power Line (Access BPL) devices operating in the 1.705-80 MHz band over medium or low voltage lines....

  1. 47 CFR 73.401 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Audio Broadcasting § 73.401 Scope. This subpart contains those rules which apply exclusively to the digital audio broadcasting (DAB) service, and are in addition to those rules in Subparts A, B, C, G and...

  2. 47 CFR 68.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK General § 68.2 Scope. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of... public switched telephone network for use in conjunction with all services other than party line services... telephone company provided communications network without compliance with this part, provided that...

  3. 12 CFR 334.40 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Furnishers of Information § 334.40 Scope. This subpart applies to a financial institution or... subsidiary of such entities (except dealers, persons providing insurance, investment companies,...

  4. 22 CFR 8.3 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... personnel); (4) Has an organizational structure (e.g., officers) and a staff. (c) Where a group provides... DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT § 8.3 Scope. (a) The Federal Advisory Committee Act... Office of Management and Budget, may establish a group which shall be known as an advisory committee...

  5. Drought-induced forest decline: causes, scope and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Lloret, Francisco; Breshears, David D

    2012-10-23

    A large number of episodes of forest mortality associated with drought and heat stress have been detected worldwide in recent decades, suggesting that some of the world's forested ecosystems may be already responding to climate change. Here, we summarize a special session titled 'Drought-induced forest decline: causes, scope and implications' within the 12th European Ecological Federation Congress, held in Ávila (Spain) from 25 to 29 September 2011. The session focused on the interacting causes and impacts of die-off episodes at the community and ecosystem levels, and highlighted recent events of drought- and heat-related tree decline, advances in understanding mechanisms and in predicting mortality events, and diverse consequences of forest decline. Talks and subsequent discussion noted a potentially important role of carbon that may be interrelated with plant hydraulics in the multi-faceted process leading to drought-induced mortality; a substantial and yet understudied capacity of many forests to cope with extreme climatic events; and the difficulty of separating climate effects from other anthropogenic changes currently shaping forest dynamics in many regions of the Earth. The need for standard protocols and multi-level monitoring programmes to track the spatio-temporal scope of forest decline globally was emphasized as critical for addressing this emerging environmental issue.

  6. Antibacterial Effect of Human Amnion Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashani, L. (MD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Along with antibiotics, the use of biological methods to combat bacteria is notably considered. A natural barrier such as amniotic membrane is one of the ways of dealing with bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial effect of human amniotic membrane. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was performed in Dezyani teaching Hospital of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. To evaluate the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli bacteria, 20 amniotic membranes were obtained from postpartum mothers and examined by repeated dilution, diffusion and extraction techniques. Data were collected by observation method and described by mean and standard deviation. Results: The antibacterial activity was found in 15% of the samples against Staphylococcus Aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while no antibacterial activity was found against E. coli. Given the 15% positive responses, "Diffusion" and "repeated dilution" techniques were more effective in investigating the antibacterial effect of amniotic membrane. Conclusion: The results show the probability of antimicrobial effect of amniotic membrane tissue and it seems that this property can be affected by many factors.

  7. SCOPE : an intelligent maintenance system for supporting crew operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Breebaart, L.; Neerincx, M.A.; Wolff, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an intelligent maintenance system for Supporting Crew OPErations (SCOPE). SCOPE supports the astronauts onboard the ISS and helps them to maximize the availability of complex payload systems. SCOPE detects system failures, guides the isolation of the root causes of failure, and

  8. 29 CFR 2.10 - Scope and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Scope and purpose. 2.10 Section 2.10 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GENERAL REGULATIONS Audiovisual Coverage of Administrative Hearings § 2.10 Scope and purpose. This subpart defines the scope of audiovisual coverage of departmental administrative...

  9. 45 CFR 703.3 - Scope of subject matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of subject matter. 703.3 Section 703.3... AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.3 Scope of subject matter. The scope of the subject matter to be dealt with by Advisory Committees shall be those subjects of inquiry or study with which...

  10. Examining Young Students' Problem Scoping in Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Jessica; Spencer, Kathleen; Hammer, David

    2014-01-01

    Problem scoping--determining the nature and boundaries of a problem--is an essential aspect of the engineering design process. Some studies from engineering education suggest that beginning students tend to skip problem scoping or oversimplify a problem. However, the ways these studies often characterize students' problem scoping often do not…

  11. Innovations in making EarthScope science and data accessible (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt-Sitaula, B. A.; Butler, R. F.; Whitman, J. M.; Granshaw, F. D.; Lillie, R. J.; Hunter, N.; Cronin, V. S.; Resor, P. G.; Olds, S. E.; Miller, M. S.; Walker, R.; Douglas, B. B.

    2013-12-01

    EarthScope is a highly complex technical and scientific endeavor. Making results from EarthScope accessible to the general public, educators, all levels of students, and even geoscience professionals from other disciplines is a very real challenge that must be overcome to realize EarthScope's intended broader impacts of contributing 'to the mitigation of risks from geological hazards ... and the public's understanding of the dynamic Earth.' Here we provided several case examples of how EarthScope science can be effectively communicated and then scaled to reach different or larger audiences. One approach features providing professional development regarding EarthScope and geohazard science to non-university educators who then scale up the impact by communicating to hundreds or even thousands of students and general public members each. EarthScope-funded Teachers on the Leading Edge (TOTLE) ran workshops 2008-2010 for 120 Pacific Northwest teachers and community college educators who subsequently communicated EarthScope and geohazards science to >30,000 students and >1500 other adults. Simultaneously EarthScope's National Office at Oregon State University was running workshops for park interpreters who have since reached >>100,000 park visitors. These earlier projects have served as the foundation for the new Cascadia EarthScope Earthquake and Tsunami Education Program (CEETEP), which is currently running joint workshops for coastal Oregon and Washington teachers, interpreters, and emergency management educators. The other approach featured here is UNAVCO's scaled efforts to make Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and other geodetic data more accessible to introductory and majors-level geoscience students and faculty. Initial projects included development of a Teaching Geodesy website on the Science Education Research Center (SERC) and development of teaching modules and activities that use PBO data. Infinitesimal strain analysis using GPS data is a 1-2 week module for

  12. 76 FR 43678 - Notice of Public Scoping Meetings and Extension of Scoping Period for the U.S. Department of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ..., development, and extraction of uranium and vanadium ores. The ULP includes tracts of land located in Mesa... of Public Scoping Meetings and Extension of Scoping Period for the U.S. Department of Energy Uranium... meetings in western Colorado to receive comments on the scope of the DOE Uranium Leasing Program...

  13. Latin American forensic pathology: scope and needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M. Fonseca

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathology pertains to the study of a disease; from ancient times it has sought to explain the cause of death through postmortem examination. The advancement of science and technology has led to a greater definition of roles and has favored its development through different subspecialties among which we stands out forensic pathology. This discipline has its own characteristics, scope, case series, procedures and terminology. Likewise, although forensic pathology does not differ substantially from clinical pathology, significant differences can be found between the Anglo American approach and the Latin American approach. Beyond semantics of these alleged differences, the article reviews the concepts involved and discusses the scope and requirements needed to qualify experts, in the understanding that globalizing criteria should establish new paradigms and define the specific roles of the specialty.

  14. Nature and scope of public administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchem, R.O.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The success and survival of any organizations be they government or not is contingent upon group efforts and cooperation to achieve set goals. This paper discusses the nature and scope of public administration to say that in modern day societies, any administration in the public interest transcends beyond government circles and finds expression in other spheres of human endeavors including the church, mosques, postal services as well as international relations and diplomacy, respectively. The paper discusses the concepts of administration and public administration thereby creating a distinction between the two concepts. Furthermore, the understanding of the scope of administration through the various schools of thought have also been captured, the essence of which is to generate a clearer understanding of the discourse under review. The paper ends with conclusions.

  15. Reduced attentional scope in cocaine polydrug users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza S Colzato

    Full Text Available Cocaine is Europe's second preferred recreational drug after cannabis but very little is known about possible cognitive impairments in the upcoming type of recreational cocaine user (monthly consumption. We asked whether recreational use of cocaine impacts early attentional selection processes. Cocaine-free polydrug controls (n = 18 and cocaine polydrug users (n = 18 were matched on sex, age, alcohol consumption, and IQ (using the Raven's progressive matrices, and were tested by using the Global-Local task to measure the scope of attention. Cocaine polydrug users attended significantly more to local aspects of attended events, which fits with the idea that a reduced scope of attention may be associated with the perpetuation of the use of the drug.

  16. Cluster policy and regional development: scale, scope and renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Njøs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Consistent with Marshallian/Porterian theories, the Norwegian cluster policy has been linked to the development of specialized regional industry environments. Cluster projects are relatively sector-specific entities often supporting (already strong regional industries and sectors. Following a review of the current literature on clusters and innovation, and informed by evolutionary thought, we argue that such constellations of specialized clusters may hamper the long-term innovation ability of regions. In a conceptual discussion of cluster evolution and its links to innovation and regional path renewal, we argue that special emphasis – both theoretical and political – has been placed on the geographical scale of clusters, but there has been less emphasis on scope. Accordingly, we present three theory-based strategies for cluster evolution and link these to regional development and innovation by assessing their impact on regional path renewal. We illustrate our argument empirically using examples from the Norwegian Centre of Expertise (NCE cluster programme.

  17. E-textiles in Clinical Rehabilitation: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Fleury

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Electronic textiles have potential for many practical uses in clinical rehabilitation. This scoping review appraises recent and emerging developments of textile-based sensors with applications to rehabilitation. Contributions published from 2009 to 2013 are appraised with a specific focus on the measured physiological or biomechanical phenomenon, current measurement practices, textile innovations, and their merits and limitations. While fabric-based signal quality and sensor integration have advanced considerably, overall system integration (including circuitry and power has not been fully realized. Validation against clinical gold standards is inconsistent at best, and feasibility with clinical populations remains to be demonstrated. The overwhelming focus of research and development has been on remote sensing but the opportunity for textile-mediated feedback to the wearer remains unexplored. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  18. How the Cloud Stretches the SOA Scope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmanan G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will describe how the enterprise serviceoriented-architecture (SOA scope is stretched with the advent of cloud computing. With the help of the case study of a fictitious global retailer, we will demonstrate the process for identifying cloud scenarios. Also, we will come across an emerging breed of distributed applications—both on-premise and in the Cloud—and discuss the integration considerations for building them.

  19. 40 CFR 81.300 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 51.100 and § 81.1 (i) Early Action Compact. The term “early action compact” (“compact”) means an... Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) codified at 40 CFR 50.10. (2) What Are Early Action Compact Areas... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 81.300 Section...

  20. Revising the Complex Economics of Patent Scope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    Merges and Nelson claim to have provided an empirically grounded argument that pioneer patents of 'broad' scope are used to block technological development. It is widely understood in both law and economics that they have, as they claim, faulted Kitch's 'prospect theory' of patents, a theory that...... of development. This interpretation restores the credibility of Kitch's prospect theory of patent function and emphasises that the administration of the patent institution should be designed to support the prospect function of patents.......Merges and Nelson claim to have provided an empirically grounded argument that pioneer patents of 'broad' scope are used to block technological development. It is widely understood in both law and economics that they have, as they claim, faulted Kitch's 'prospect theory' of patents, a theory...... that a function of patents is to enable the coordinated development of novel technical ideas. This article is a critical review of Merges and Nelson's historical empirical evidence. I find that, first, 'broad' scope is only implicated in one of the examples cited by Merges and Nelson as supportive evidence...

  1. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  2. The scope of oral and maxillofacial surgery in Australia and New Zealand. A postal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, A N; Gerke, D C

    1991-02-01

    The current scope of oral and maxillofacial surgery in Australia and New Zealand was explored with a survey of full members of the Australian and New Zealand Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons resident in the region. There was an 83 per cent usable response rate and the objectivity of the data was confirmed by check questions and material from other sources. The study showed that oral and maxillofacial surgery is the surgical specialty of dentistry with the core of referral and surgical services being dento-alveolar. However, the essential knowledge of the anatomy, pathology, and surgery of the orofacial region forms the basis for the wider scope of modern oral and maxillofacial surgery. Current surgery includes management of trauma, pathology, dentofacial deformity, and a wide range of reconstructive surgery including grafts and implants.

  3. Massage therapy: understanding the mechanisms of action on blood pressure. A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nicole L

    2015-10-01

    Massage therapy (MT) has shown potential in reducing blood pressure (BP); however, the psychophysiological pathways and structures involved in this outcome are unclear. The aims of this scoping review were twofold. (1) To summarize the current knowledge of the mechanisms of action of MT on BP. (2) To highlight the research gaps and challenges that researchers must overcome to further elucidate how MT attenuates BP. A scoping review was conducted to examine the evidence regarding the mechanisms of action of MT on BP. This review included the thematic analysis of 27 publications that considered the influence of MT on BP. Based on this analysis, six potential BP mediating pathways were identified Current theories suggest that MT exerts sympatholytic effects through physiologic and psychological mechanisms, improves hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical axis function, and increases in blood flow, which, in turn, may improve endothelial function. Future study is needed, using more scientifically rigorous methodology, to fully elucidate the mechanism of action of MT.

  4. EXAMINATION OF THE SCOPE OF ACADEMIC USE ON SMART DEVICE IN THE ISRAELI ACADEMIC ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Yom-Tov Alona*, Bouhnik Dan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years the phenomenon of using smart devices for studying anytime, anywhere, has grown rapidly. The objective of this study is to examine the scope of the academic use of smart devices in the Israeli academic environment. A Smart device refers to a portable device that is capable of connecting to the internet such as: Smartphones, Tablets, E-Readers and PDA. The current study addressed two research questions: RQ1: How do students use smart devices for academic purposes? R...

  5. M-scope Endoscope is Superior to Traditional Endoscope for NOTES Procedures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen; SUN Gang; WANG Xiang-dong; XIAO Jian-guo; SUN Guo-hui; HUANG Xue-fei; Kantsevoy,Sergey V.

    2008-01-01

    @@ Background:Currently used regular dual channel endoscope was designed only for intralumenal Use inside the GI tract.Recently developed M-scope endoscope(GIF一2TQ260M,Olympus Optical LTD,Tokyo,Japan)has advantage of multibending option of its distal tip,which may be very useful for Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) procedures inside the peritoneal cavity.

  6. The decision - identification tree: A new EIS scoping tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eccleston, C.H.

    1997-04-02

    No single methodology has been developed or universally accepted for determining the scope of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Most typically, the scope is determined by first identifying actions and facilities to be analyzed. Yet, agencies sometimes complete an EIS, only to discover that the scope does not adequately address decisions that need to be made. Such discrepancies can often be traced to disconnects between the scoping process and the actual decision making that follows. A new tool, for use in a value engineering setting, provides an effective methodology for improving the EIS scoping process. Application of this tool is not limited to National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) scoping efforts. This tool, could in fact, be used to map potential decision points for a range of diverse planning applications and exercises.

  7. Tokamak Engineering Technology Facility scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.; Abdou, M.A.; Bolta, C.C.

    1976-03-01

    A scoping study for a Tokamak Engineering Technology Facility (TETF) is presented. The TETF is a tokamak with R = 3 m and I/sub p/ = 1.4 MA based on the counterstreaming-ion torus mode of operation. The primary purpose of TETF is to demonstrate fusion technologies for the Experimental Power Reactor (EPR), but it will also serve as an engineering and radiation test facility. TETF has several technological systems (e.g., superconducting toroidal-field coil, tritium fuel cycle, impurity control, first wall) that are prototypical of EPR.

  8. Hardware Support for Safety-critical Java Scope Checks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rios Rivas, Juan Ricardo; Schoeberl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Memory management in Safety-Critical Java (SCJ) is based on time bounded, non garbage collected scoped memory regions used to store temporary objects. Scoped memory regions may have different life times during the execution of a program and hence, to avoid leaving dangling pointers, it is necessary...... in terms of execution time for applications where cross-scope references are frequent. Our proposal was implemented and tested on the Java Optimized Processor (JOP)....

  9. What We Mean by Scope and Methods: A Survey of Undergraduate Scope and Methods Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Charles C.; Thies, Cameron G.

    2009-01-01

    Self-reflective political scientists have extensively reviewed the history of the discipline and argued over its future, but to date there has been little effort to systematically survey undergraduate scope and methods courses (for an exception see Thies and Hogan 2005). This lack of data leaves the discipline unable to assess how much we are…

  10. EarthScope Education and Outreach: Accomplishments and Emerging Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, S.; Ellins, K. K.; Semken, S. C.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2014-12-01

    EarthScope's Education and Outreach (E&O) program aims to increase public awareness of Earth science and enhance geoscience education at the K-12 and college level. The program is distinctive among major geoscience programs in two ways. First, planning for education and public engagement occurred in tandem with planning for the science mission. Second, the NSF EarthScope program includes funding support for education and outreach. In this presentation, we highlight key examples of the program's accomplishments and identify emerging E&O opportunities. E&O efforts have been collaboratively led by the EarthScope National Office (ESNO), IRIS, UNAVCO, the EarthScope Education and Outreach Subcommittee (EEOSC) and PI-driven EarthScope projects. Efforts by the EEOSC, guided by an EarthScope Education and Outreach Implementation Plan that is periodically updated, focus EarthScope E&O. EarthScope demonstrated early success in engaging undergraduate students (and teachers) in its mission through their involvement in siting USArray across the contiguous U.S. Funded E&O programs such as TOTLE, Illinois EarthScope, CEETEP (for K-12), InTeGrate and GETSI (for undergraduates) foster use of freely available EarthScope data and research findings. The Next Generation Science Standards, which stress science and engineering practices, offer an opportunity for alignment with existing EarthScope K-12 educational resources, and the EEOSC recommends focusing efforts on this task. The EEOSC recognizes the rapidly growing use of mobile smart devices by the public and in formal classrooms, which bring new opportunities to connect with the public and students. This will capitalize on EarthScope's already prominent social media presence, an effort that developed to accomplish one of the primary goals of the EarthScope E&O Implementation Plan to "Create a high-profile public identity for EarthScope" and to "Promote science literacy and understanding of EarthScope among all audiences through

  11. 48 CFR 225.7500 - Scope of subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Balance of Payments Program 225.7500 Scope of subpart. This subpart provides policies and procedures implementing the Balance of Payments Program....

  12. Prioritising Project Scope Definition Elements in Public Building Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed K Fageha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A complete definition of the scope of a project upfront during early stages ensures smooth and successful implementation during the project execution. This research identifies and prioritises project scope definition elements for public buildings in Saudi Arabia. Elements that could significantly contribute to complete project scope definition package at pre-project planning stage are identified and their interrelationship determined and prioritised. Using the Project Definition Rating Index (PDRI as a basis, the study uses analytical network process (ANP technique based on data obtained from project managers who have been involved in public sector projects in Saudi Arabia. Data collection and analysis was conducted in three steps. The first step involved identification of scope definition elements while the second involved an investigation into interrelationships among the elements. In the third step, ANP was used to determine the weight of the elements’ importance in terms of contribution to project scope definition completeness. Finally, Pareto analysis was used to prioritise and assess the distribution pattern of the elements. The outcome from this research is the prioritisation of project scope definition elements for public building projects in Saudi Arabia. The prioritised list developed indicates the importance of project scope definition elements. It should help project management teams identify elements to consider when evaluating project scope definition for completeness at the pre-project planning stage. Keywords: Project scope definition, pre-project planning, prioritising, public building projects, Saudi Arabia, Analytical Network Process (ANP

  13. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  14. Scope for solar hydrogen power plants along Indian coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajra, Debdyut; Mukhopadhyay, Swarnav

    2016-09-01

    Energy is at the core of economic growth and development in the present day world. But relentless and unchecked use of harmful energy resources like fossil fuels (coil and oil), nuclear energy has taken a toll on mother nature. The energy coffers are being rapidly depleted and within a few years all of them will become empty, leaving nothing for the future generations to build on. Their constant usage has degraded the air quality and given way to land and water pollution. Scientists and world leaders have initiated a call for action to shift our dependence from currently popular energy sources to cleaner and renewable energy sources. Search for such energy sources have been going on for many years. Solar energy, wind energy, ocean energy, tidal energy, biofuel, etc. have caught the attention of people. Another such important which has become popular is 'Solar Hydrogen'. Many visionary scientists have called hydrogen the energy of the future. It is produced from water by direct or indirect use of sunlight in a sustainable manner. This paper discusses the current energy scenario, the importance of solar-hydrogen as a fuel and most importantly the scope for solar hydrogen power plants along Indian coastline.

  15. 40 CFR 710.4 - Scope of the inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of the inventory. 710.4 Section... ACT TSCA CHEMICAL INVENTORY REGULATIONS General Provisions § 710.4 Scope of the inventory. (a... is extracted from air by any means, will automatically be included in the inventory under...

  16. 27 CFR 479.81 - Scope of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope of tax. 479.81... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Transfer Tax § 479.81 Scope of tax. Except as otherwise provided in this part,...

  17. 31 CFR 203.9 - Scope of the subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of the subpart. 203.9 Section 203.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... LOAN PROGRAM Electronic Federal Tax Payments § 203.9 Scope of the subpart. This subpart prescribes...

  18. 12 CFR 1101.1 - Scope and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope and purpose. 1101.1 Section 1101.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL DESCRIPTION OF OFFICE, PROCEDURES, PUBLIC INFORMATION § 1101.1 Scope and purpose. This part implements the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), 5 U.S.C. 552, with respect to the...

  19. 10 CFR 2.1200 - Scope of subpart L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope of subpart L. 2.1200 Section 2.1200 Energy NUCLEAR... Hearing Procedures for NRC Adjudications § 2.1200 Scope of subpart L. The provisions of this subpart... and request the application of Subpart L procedures, and proceedings for the direct or...

  20. 10 CFR 63.201 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose and scope. 63.201 Section 63.201 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Preclosure Public Health and Environmental Standards § 63.201 Purpose and scope....

  1. 10 CFR 63.301 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose and scope. 63.301 Section 63.301 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public Health and Environmental Standards § 63.301 Purpose and scope....

  2. 42 CFR 403.800 - Basis and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and scope. 403.800 Section 403.800 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... Program § 403.800 Basis and scope. (a) Basis. This subpart is based on section 1860D-31 of the...

  3. 45 CFR 150.403 - Scope of ALJ's authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of ALJ's authority. 150.403 Section 150.403 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS Administrative Hearings § 150.403 Scope of...

  4. Scope insensitivity in contingent valuation of complex environmental amenities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veisten, Knut; Fredrik Hoen, Hans; Navrud, Ståle; Strand, Jon

    2004-12-01

    It has been argued that respondents in contingent valuation (CV) surveys, asked to value complex environmental amenities, will state willingness to pay (WTP) independently of the scope of the project. Such insensitivity to scope would be at odds with rational choice, and could therefore imply that CV is not a theoretically valid method for biodiversity valuation. The scope test in the present CV study was applied to endangered species preservation. Respondents were split in four sub-samples facing different scopes of endangered species preservation. The design allowed for both external and internal scope tests. Furthermore, the tests were split according to elicitation format. Of four external tests of insensitivity to scope, one was rejected, two gave mixed results, depending on either the type of test or elicitation format, and for the last one the null hypothesis could not be rejected. Of five internal tests, insensitivity to scope was rejected in three cases, one test gave mixed results, and one could not be rejected. Survey design features of the CV study, especially an unfamiliar sub-group of endangered species, could explain the apparent insensitivity to scope observed.

  5. 10 CFR 2.1300 - Scope of subpart M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope of subpart M. 2.1300 Section 2.1300 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Procedures for Hearings on License Transfer Applications § 2.1300 Scope of subpart M. The provisions of...

  6. Literacy Teaching Aids from High/Scope Educational Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2005

    2005-01-01

    High/Scope's approach to education is a blend of Jean Piaget's constructivist theory of child development and the best of traditional teacher experience. The High/Scope approach is about helping students gain knowledge and skills in important content areas, such as language and literacy, initiative and social relations, movement, music, and…

  7. 41 CFR 101-28.000 - Scope of part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Scope of part. This part prescribes policy and procedures for the economical and efficient management of... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Scope of part. 101-28.000 Section 101-28.000 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations...

  8. 10 CFR 2.1000 - Scope of subpart J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope of subpart J. 2.1000 Section 2.1000 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Procedures... Geologic Repository § 2.1000 Scope of subpart J. The rules in this subpart, together with the rules...

  9. 7 CFR 1773.38 - Scope of engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope of engagement. 1773.38 Section 1773.38 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 1773.38 Scope of engagement. (a) RUS requires that the audit procedures set forth in §§ 1773.39...

  10. 14 CFR 437.7 - Scope of an experimental permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope of an experimental permit. 437.7..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS General Information § 437.7 Scope of an experimental permit. An experimental permit authorizes launch or reentry of a reusable suborbital rocket....

  11. 10 CFR 2.1103 - Scope of subpart K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope of subpart K. 2.1103 Section 2.1103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Hybrid... § 2.1103 Scope of subpart K. The provisions of this subpart, together with subpart C and...

  12. 48 CFR 29.000 - Scope of part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of part. 29.000 Section 29.000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES 29.000 Scope of part. This part prescribes policies and procedures for (a) using tax...

  13. 12 CFR 715.1 - Scope of this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope of this part. 715.1 Section 715.1 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE AUDITS AND VERIFICATIONS § 715.1 Scope of this part. This part implements section 202(a)(6)(D)...

  14. 12 CFR 343.10 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose and scope. 343.10 Section 343.10 Banks... CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE § 343.10 Purpose and scope. This part establishes consumer protections in connection with retail sales practices, solicitations, advertising, or offers of any...

  15. 42 CFR 410.1 - Basis and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS General Provisions § 410.1 Basis and scope. (a) Statutory basis...—Scope of benefits furnished under the Medicare Part B supplementary medical insurance (SMI) program. (2) Section 1833 through 1835 and 1862—Amounts of payment for SMI services, the conditions for payment,...

  16. 11 CFR 9008.50 - Scope and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... encouragement of commerce in the convention city, as well as the projection of a favorable image of the city to... Representing a Convention City § 9008.50 Scope and definitions. (a) Scope. This subpart B governs registration and reporting by host committees and municipal funds representing convention cities....

  17. Internationalization of the Counseling Profession: Meaning, Scope and Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kok-Mun; Noonan, Brigid M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study sought to clarify the meaning and delineate the scope of internationalization of the counseling profession. Using a qualitative approach, the study recruited a panel of eight experts to help generate a consensus statement on the meaning of internationalization to the counseling profession and to delineate a five-theme scope of…

  18. 48 CFR 4.800 - Scope of subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of subpart. 4.800 Section 4.800 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Government Contract Files 4.800 Scope of subpart. This subpart prescribes requirements...

  19. 32 CFR 536.119 - Scope for maritime claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Scope for maritime claims. 536.119 Section 536.119 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.119 Scope for maritime claims. The AMCSA applies worldwide and includes claims that arise on...

  20. 48 CFR 927.200 - Scope of subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of subpart. 927.200 Section 927.200 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents 927.200 Scope of subpart. When consulting 48 CFR part...

  1. 28 CFR 512.10 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose and scope. 512.10 Section 512.10 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION RESEARCH Research § 512.10 Purpose and scope. General provisions for the protection of human...

  2. 42 CFR 403.200 - Basis and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and scope. 403.200 Section 403.200 Public... PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Medicare Supplemental Policies § 403.200 Basis and scope. (a... intent of that section is to enable Medicare beneficiaries to identify Medicare supplemental...

  3. Radiological Scoping Survey of the Scotia Depot Scotia, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. N. Bailey

    2005-02-05

    At the request of the Defense Logistics Agency, the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education conducted radiological scoping surveys of the Scotia Depot during the period of September 24 through 27, 2007. The scoping survey included visual inspections and limited radiological surveys performed in accordance with area classification that included surface scans, total and removable activity measurements, and soil sampling.

  4. 39 CFR 262.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose and scope. 262.1 Section 262.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION RECORDS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT DEFINITIONS § 262.1 Purpose and scope. This part contains the official definition of those basic records...

  5. 12 CFR 41.20 - Scope and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Affiliate Marketing § 41.20 Scope and definitions. (a) Scope. This subpart applies to national banks...-existing business relationship. (i) In general. The term “pre-existing business relationship” means a relationship between a person, or a person's licensed agent, and a consumer based on— (A) A financial...

  6. 18 CFR 1b.3 - Scope of investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope of investigations. 1b.3 Section 1b.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.3 Scope of investigations....

  7. 5 CFR 179.301 - Scope of regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope of regulations. 179.301 Section 179.301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Administrative Offset § 179.301 Scope of regulations. These regulations apply to...

  8. Conceptualization and Reporting of Context in the North American Continuing Medical Education Literature: A Scoping Review Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Rachel E; Sajdlowska, Joanna; Van Hoof, Thomas J; Kitto, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Within continuing medication education (CME), it has been argued that an "authentic" clinical context should be built into CME activities for knowledge to be effectively translated into clinical practice. However, although context is considered significant in the success (or lack thereof) of an intervention, there is a lack of consensus on what exactly context is. This scoping review arises from concerns surrounding the opaque, complex, and potentially problematic relationship between context and the effective design and implementation of CME interventions. In this article, we present a protocol for examining how context is discussed within the CME literature. The specific purpose of this scoping review is to summarize the breadth of existing evidence on context within the North American CME literature. The scoping review methodology will also highlight gaps in the current literature, which can inform future research endeavors.

  9. Using SCOPE to identify potential regulatory motifs in coregulated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyanov, Viktor; Gross, Robert H

    2011-05-31

    SCOPE is an ensemble motif finder that uses three component algorithms in parallel to identify potential regulatory motifs by over-representation and motif position preference. Each component algorithm is optimized to find a different kind of motif. By taking the best of these three approaches, SCOPE performs better than any single algorithm, even in the presence of noisy data. In this article, we utilize a web version of SCOPE to examine genes that are involved in telomere maintenance. SCOPE has been incorporated into at least two other motif finding programs and has been used in other studies. The three algorithms that comprise SCOPE are BEAM, which finds non-degenerate motifs (ACCGGT), PRISM, which finds degenerate motifs (ASCGWT), and SPACER, which finds longer bipartite motifs (ACCnnnnnnnnGGT). These three algorithms have been optimized to find their corresponding type of motif. Together, they allow SCOPE to perform extremely well. Once a gene set has been analyzed and candidate motifs identified, SCOPE can look for other genes that contain the motif which, when added to the original set, will improve the motif score. This can occur through over-representation or motif position preference. Working with partial gene sets that have biologically verified transcription factor binding sites, SCOPE was able to identify most of the rest of the genes also regulated by the given transcription factor. Output from SCOPE shows candidate motifs, their significance, and other information both as a table and as a graphical motif map. FAQs and video tutorials are available at the SCOPE web site which also includes a "Sample Search" button that allows the user to perform a trial run. Scope has a very friendly user interface that enables novice users to access the algorithm's full power without having to become an expert in the bioinformatics of motif finding. As input, SCOPE can take a list of genes, or FASTA sequences. These can be entered in browser text fields, or read from

  10. Global Carriers’ Governance and Business Scope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Tae Hwee Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent structural changes to the shipping industry triggered severe liquidity risks for not only small and medium-sized shipping lines but also global lines. Despite a severe downturn in the industry, a few lines have shown stable performance their finances. This study thus raises two research questions. Why do a few shipping lines maintain stable financial performance (FP? How much does the governance feature (GVF and the business scope (BSC influence FP? To answer these questions, this research uses regression analysis (RA to verify the relationships among the variables, GVF, BSC, and FP. The result of the RA showed a positive relationship between BSC and FP, but slight relationship between BSC and GVF and between knowledge and FP.

  11. Insensitivity to Scope in Contingent Valuation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    insensitivity and to assess the relevance of potential explanations that may help to shed light on how to appropriately handle this problem in contingent valuation studies. Methods: We surveyed a sample of 2004 men invited for cardiovascular disease screening. Each respondent had three contingent valuation...... tasks from which their sensitivity to larger risk reductions (test 1) and to change in travel costs associated with participation (test 2) could be assessed. Participants were surveyed while waiting for their screening session. Non-participants were surveyed by postal questionnaire. Results: The sample...... was overall found to be sensitive to scope, testing at the conventional sample-mean level. At the individual respondent level, however, more than half of the respondents failed the tests. Potential determinants for failing the tests were examined in alternative regression models but few consistent...

  12. The AuScope Geodetic VLBI Array

    CERN Document Server

    Lovell, J E J; Reid, P B; McCulloch, P M; Baynes, B E; Dickey, J M; Shabala, S S; Watson, C S; Titov, O; Ruddick, R; Twilley, R; Reynolds, C; Tingay, S J; Shield, P; Adada, R; Ellingsen, S P; Morgan, J S; Bignall, H E; 10.1007/s00190-013-0626-3

    2013-01-01

    The AuScope geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry array consists of three new 12 m radio telescopes and a correlation facility in Australia. The telescopes at Hobart (Tasmania), Katherine (Northern Territory) and Yarragadee (Western Australia) are co-located with other space geodetic techniques including Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and gravity infrastructure, and in the case of Yarragadee, Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) facilities. The correlation facility is based in Perth (Western Australia). This new facility will make significant contributions to improving the densification of the International Celestial Reference Frame in the Southern Hemisphere, and subsequently enhance the International Terrestrial Reference Frame through the ability to detect and mitigate systematic error. This, combined with the simultaneous densification of the GNSS network across Australia will enable the improved measurement of intrapl...

  13. REBUILD AMERICA PROGRAM SCOPE OF WORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Brown; Bruce Exstrum

    2004-12-01

    This report summarizes the activities carried out by Aspen Systems Corporation in support of the Department of Energy's Rebuild America program during the period from October 9, 1999 to October 31, 2004. These activities were in accordance with the Scope of Work contained in a GSA MOBIS schedule task order issued by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report includes descriptions of activities and results in the following areas: deployment/delivery model; program and project results; program representative support activities; technical assistance; web site development and operation; business/strategic partners; and training/workshop activities. The report includes conclusions and recommendations. Five source documents are also provided as appendices.

  14. EarthScope's Transportable Array in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, R. W.; Woodward, R.; Hafner, K.

    2013-12-01

    Since 2003, EarthScope has been installing a network of seismometers, known as the Transportable Array-across the continental United States and southern Canada. The station deployments will be completed in the Conterminous US in the fall of 2013. Beginning in October, 2013, and continuing for 5 years, EarthScope's Transportable Array plans to create a grid of seismic sensors in approximately 300 locations In Alaska and Western Canada. The proposed station grid is 85 km, and target locations will supplement or enhance existing seismic stations operating in Alaska. When possible, they will also be co-located with existing GPS stations constructed by the Plate Boundary Observatory. We review the siting plans for stations, the progress towards reconnaissance and permitting, and detail the engineering concept of the stations. In order to be able to determine the required site conditions and descriptions of installation methods to the permitting agencies, the National Science Foundation (NSF) has been supporting exploratory work on seismic station design, sensor emplacement and communication concepts appropriate for the challenging high-latitude environment that is proposed for deployment. IRIS has installed several experimental stations to evaluate different sensor emplacement schemes both in Alaska and the lower-48 U.S. The goal of these tests is to maintain or enhance a station's noise performance while minimizing its footprint and the equipment, materials, and overall expense required for its construction. Motivating this approach are recent developments in posthole broadband seismometer design and the unique conditions for operating in Alaska, where most areas are only accessible by small plane or helicopter, and permafrost underlies much of the region. IRIS has experimented with different portable drills and drilling techniques to create shallow holes (1-5M) in permafrost and rock outcrops. Seasonal changes can affect the performance of seismometers in different

  15. Current Titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2006-06-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Jane Cavlina, Administrator, at 510/486-6036.

  16. A test of reactive scope: Reducing reactive scope causes delayed wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRant, S E; Arciniega, M L; Bauer, C M; Romero, L M

    2016-09-15

    Reactive scope predicts that all animals have an adaptive ability to respond to stressors in their environment, termed reactive homeostasis, and that only when an animal's response to stressful stimuli exceeds a certain threshold (homeostatic overload) will stress have pathological effects. While this framework has successfully helped interpret effects of stressors on wildlife, no study has designed an experiment to directly test this framework. This study was designed to expose house sparrows (Passer domesticus) to treatments that would result in varying ranges of reactive homeostasis during chronic stress, which based on the reactive scope model should cause birds with the lowest reactive homeostasis range to exhibit signs of pathology during a subsequent challenge. To modulate the reactive homeostasis range, we altered allostatic load of birds by exposing them to chronic stress while either elevating, blocking, or not manipulating corticosterone. After concluding chronic stress treatments, birds were exposed to the subsequent challenge of a superficial wound. Individuals treated with corticosterone during chronic stress (high allostatic load) experienced the most pathology, including both weight loss and slower wound healing. Unmanipulated birds (medium allostatic load) also experienced weight loss but had normal healing rates, while birds with blocked corticosterone (low allostatic load) had minimal weight loss and normal healing rates. Our results indicate that increased allostatic load reduces the reactive homeostasis range, thereby causing individuals to cross the homeostatic overload threshold sooner, and thus support the reactive scope framework.

  17. Clinical reasoning in undergraduate nursing education: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sáskia Sampaio Cipriano de Menezes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE This study aimed at analyzing the current state of knowledge on clinical reasoning in undergraduate nursing education. METHODS A systematic scoping review through a search strategy applied to the MEDLINE database, and an analysis of the material recovered by extracting data done by two independent reviewers. The extracted data were analyzed and synthesized in a narrative manner. RESULTS From the 1380 citations retrieved in the search, 23 were kept for review and their contents were summarized into five categories: 1 the experience of developing critical thinking/clinical reasoning/decision-making process; 2 teaching strategies related to the development of critical thinking/clinical reasoning/decision-making process; 3 measurement of variables related to the critical thinking/clinical reasoning/decision-making process; 4 relationship of variables involved in the critical thinking/clinical reasoning/decision-making process; and 5 theoretical development models of critical thinking/clinical reasoning/decision-making process for students. CONCLUSION The biggest challenge for developing knowledge on teaching clinical reasoning seems to be finding consistency between theoretical perspectives on the development of clinical reasoning and methodologies, methods, and procedures in research initiatives in this field.

  18. Critical thinking in nursing: Scoping review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuriguel Pérez, Esperanza; Lluch Canut, Maria Teresa; Falcó Pegueroles, Anna; Puig Llobet, Montserrat; Moreno Arroyo, Carmen; Roldán Merino, Juan

    2015-12-01

    This article seeks to analyse the current state of scientific knowledge concerning critical thinking in nursing. The methodology used consisted of a scoping review of the main scientific databases using an applied search strategy. A total of 1518 studies published from January 1999 to June 2013 were identified, of which 90 met the inclusion criteria. The main conclusion drawn is that critical thinking in nursing is experiencing a growing interest in the study of both its concepts and its dimensions, as well as in the development of training strategies to further its development among both students and professionals. Furthermore, the analysis reveals that critical thinking has been investigated principally in the university setting, independent of conceptual models, with a variety of instruments used for its measurement. We recommend (i) the investigation of critical thinking among working professionals, (ii) the designing of evaluative instruments linked to conceptual models and (iii) the identification of strategies to promote critical thinking in the context of providing nursing care.

  19. Social Support and Social Networks in COPD: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Christopher; Effing, Tanya W; Cafarella, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A scoping review was conducted to determine the size and nature of the evidence describing associations between social support and networks on health, management and clinical outcomes amongst patients with COPD. Searches of PubMed, PsychInfo and CINAHL were undertaken for the period 1966-December 2013. A descriptive synthesis of the main findings was undertaken to demonstrate where there is current evidence for associations between social support, networks and health outcomes, and where further research is needed. The search yielded 318 papers of which 287 were excluded after applying selection criteria. Two areas emerged in which there was consistent evidence of benefit of social support; namely mental health and self-efficacy. There was inconsistent evidence for a relationship between perceived social support and quality of life, physical functioning and self-rated health. Hospital readmission was not associated with level of perceived social support. Only a small number of studies (3 articles) have reported on the social network of individuals with COPD. There remains a need to identify the factors that promote and enable social support. In particular, there is a need to further understand the characteristics of social networks within the broader social structural conditions in which COPD patients live and manage their illness.

  20. A global attentional scope setting prioritizes faces for conscious detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sol Z; Cant, Jonathan S; Ferber, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The scope of visual attention is known to affect conscious object perception, with recent studies showing that a global attentional scope boosts holistic face processing, relative to a local scope. Here we show that attentional scope settings can also modulate the availability of information for conscious visual awareness. In an initial experiment, we show that adopting a global attentional scope accelerates conscious detection of initially invisible faces, presented under continuous flash suppression (CFS). Furthermore, face detection time was not modulated by attentional scope in a nonrivalrous control condition, which emulated the experience of CFS without inducing binocular rivalry. In a follow-up experiment, we report an exact replication of the original effect, as well as data suggesting that this effect is specific to upright faces, and is abolished when using both inverted faces and images of houses in an otherwise identical task. Thus, attentional scope settings can modulate the availability of information to conscious awareness, fundamentally altering the contents of our subjective visual experience.

  1. A scoping review of Indigenous suicide prevention in circumpolar regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Redvers

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicide is a serious public health challenge in circumpolar regions, especially among Indigenous youth. Indigenous communities, government agencies and health care providers are making concerted efforts to reduce the burden of suicide and strengthen protective factors for individuals, families and communities. The persistence of suicide has made it clear that more needs to be done. Objective: Our aim was to undertake a scoping review of the peer-reviewed literature on suicide prevention and interventions in Indigenous communities across the circumpolar north. Our objective was to determine the extent and types of interventions that have been reported during past decade. We want to use this knowledge to support community initiative and inform intervention development and evaluation. Design: We conducted a scoping review of online databases to identify studies published between 2004 and 2014. We included articles that described interventions in differentiated circumpolar Indigenous populations and provided evaluation data. We retained grey literature publications for comparative reference. Results: Our search identified 95 articles that focused on suicide in distinct circumpolar Indigenous populations; 19 articles discussed specific suicide-related interventions and 7 of these described program evaluation methods and results in detail. The majority of publications on specific interventions were found in North American countries. The majority of prevention or intervention documentation was found in supporting grey literature sources. Conclusion: Despite widespread concern about suicide in the circumpolar world and active community efforts to promote resilience and mental well-being, we found few recorded programs or initiatives documented in the peer-reviewed literature, and even fewer focusing specifically on youth intervention. The interventions described in the studies we found had diverse program designs and content, and used varied

  2. Using EarthScope Data to Engage Teachers in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, E.; McGuire, J. J.; Rubio, E.; Newton, M. H.; Hardwig, M. D.; Kraft, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    An overarching goal of the Master of Education in Earth Sciences program at Penn State University is to expose excellent and enthusiastic teachers to primary scientific research in Earth and space science so they can master educational objectives and translate their own discoveries directly back to their classrooms. Since 2010, teachers in the program have collaborated with research scientists at Penn State and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in research efforts focused on EarthScope data. We have investigated the connection between seismic strain transients and earthquake swarms in the western United States using a combination of Plate Boundary Observatory Global Positioning System data and earthquake catalog data. The Next Generation Science Standards emphasize a learning process that is much more closely aligned with the way scientists actually conduct research, but secondary teachers are often not given the opportunity for the professional development necessary to implement this style of teaching. We observe that one of the best ways to achieve this goal is for teachers to do research. The teachers who participated in this project have asserted that their experience not only enhanced their content knowledge but also gave them a true appreciation about "the way science really works." Previous studies confirm our anecdotal observation that teacher participation in fundamental research translates to student success, although few longitudinal studies exist. We are in the process of creating an Open Educational Resources database that features downloadable lesson plans sorted by subject, grade level, and learning standard based on the EarthScope-data-driven current research our project has produced. It is a testament to the skills and depth of content mastery of these teachers that they have engaged in cutting edge research and have also distilled it, and repurposed it so that it can be taught to and shared with their own middle and high school students

  3. Current titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Gretchen Hermes at (510) 486-5006 or address below for a User`s Guide. Copies of available papers can be ordered from: Theda Crawford National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd., MS72, Berkeley, California, USA 94720.

  4. Digital DNA of economy of scale and scope

    OpenAIRE

    Ledenyov, Dimitri O.; Ledenyov, Viktor O.

    2016-01-01

    The research article aims to create a general fundamental theory on the Digital DNA of the modern digital creative economy of the scale and scope. In the frames of our theory, we define the Digital DNA of the modern digital creative economy of the scale and scope, making the following theoretical assumptions: 1) Digital DNA exists in the modern digital creative economy of the scale and scope; 2) Digital DNA consists of a chain of the knowledge with all the information on the modern digital cr...

  5. The optical characteristics of aiming scopes in archery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, W F; Haywood, K M

    1990-10-01

    Technical advancements in target archery have been extended to widespread use of "scopes" which magnify the target. In fact, these optical devices are simple converging lenses used at an arm's length from the eye. They produce a magnified image, but it is an image that suffers from significant dioptric blur, diminished somewhat by use of a peep sight in the bowstring which functions as an aperture stop. Visual acuities were taken with these scopes and, as might be expected, it was found that subjects saw no better with them. With the highest power scopes, acuity actually decreased. Experienced archers did slightly better with these aids than those with no archery experience.

  6. AuScope VLBI Project and Hobart 26-m Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Jim; Dickey, John; Reid, Brett; McCallum, Jamie; Shabala, Stas; Watson, Christopher; Ellingsen, Simon; Memin, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on the activities carried out at the three AuScope VLBI observatories and the Hobart 26-m antenna. In 2012 the three AuScope 12-m antennas at Hobart (Hb), Katherine (Ke), and Yarragadee (Yg) completed their first full year of operations as an array. The Hobart 26-m antenna (Ho) continued to make a contribution to IVS, providing overlap with the Hb time series. In total the AuScope antennas and the Hobart 26 m observed for 146 antenna days in 2012. In this report we also briefly highlight our research activities during 2012 and our plans for 2013.

  7. Interpartner Differences and Governance Mode Dilemma: The Role of Alliance Scope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Hui Tseng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is generally recognized that the governance structure of an alliance, equity versus nonequity, is an important strategic choice. Since an alliance teams up companies that are inevitably divergent in upstream resource endowment and/or downstream market coverage, it is necessary to select an appropriate governance form to manage the interpartner differences and thus facilitate cooperation. Nevertheless, prior studies have suggested conflicting governance modes despite their adherence to the rationale of transaction cost economics. To address this gap in extant literature, the current study takes into account the moderation of alliance scope in the interfirm difference-governance choice linkage. In sum, this paper argues that, to determine a suitable governance structure, there is a need to concurrently examine how different the partnering firms are from each other and what range the collective activities cover. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis was used to test hypotheses in a sample of 125 bilateral alliances. The empirical findings indicate that nonequity modes will be preferred for the alliances that have less interfirm resource disparity and narrower alliance scopes, while equity-based forms will be chosen for the alliances that have less interfirm market divergence and narrower alliance scopes.

  8. Probiotics: definition, scope and mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Gregor

    2016-02-01

    For a subject area of science, medicine and commerce to be so recently defined and investigated, few can compare to probiotics for the controversy they have incited. Barely a paper is published without the use of a different definition, or challenging the most used one, or proposing a different nuance of it. The situation has become even more surreal with the European Food and Safety Authority banning the word probiotic for use on labels. The reiteration of the FAO/WHO definition by the world's leading group of probiotic experts, should provide relative consistency in the near future, but what are the causes of these aberrations? This review will discuss the rationale for the definition, and the scope of the subject area and why alternatives emerge. While mechanisms of action are not widely proven, in vitro and some in vivo experiments support several. Ultimately, the goal of any field or product is to be understood by lay people and experts alike. Probiotics have come a long way in 100 years since Metchnikoff and 10 years since their globalization, but their evolution is far from over.

  9. Cementitious waste option scoping study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.E.; Taylor, D.D.

    1998-02-01

    A Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Idaho mandates that all high-level radioactive waste (HLW) now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a target date of 2035. This study investigates the nonseparations Cementitious Waste Option (CWO) as a means to achieve this goal. Under this option all liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) and existing HLW calcine would be recalcined with sucrose, grouted, canisterized, and interim stored as a mixed-HLW for eventual preparation and shipment off-Site for disposal. The CWO waste would be transported to a Greater Confinement Disposal Facility (GCDF) located in the southwestern desert of the US on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). All transport preparation, shipment, and disposal facility activities are beyond the scope of this study. CWO waste processing, packaging, and interim storage would occur over a 5-year period between 2013 and 2017. Waste transport and disposal would occur during the same time period.

  10. The Scope of Numeracy after Five Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Vacher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this editorial is to provide an efficient way for readers and potential authors to see (a what type of papers are published in this journal and (b what subjects are appropriate. The editorial consists mainly of about a dozen pages of tables including live links to the papers’ access/abstract pages to facilitate easy browsing. In the first table, the 85 papers that have been published in the journal’s first five years are classified into: review papers; research papers; case studies; essays; book reviews; columns; and editorials about the journal. In the second table, the papers are inventoried into overlapping sets on: assessment; QL and writing; the construct of QL; focused QL courses and curricula; QL across the curriculum; QL centers; algebra and calculus education; statistics education; intersections with science and engineering; intersections with social sciences; financial numeracy; health numeracy; math anxiety; and cognition. Browsing these links confirms what we said in the first editorial: the scope of Numeracy is huge.

  11. Magnetotactic bacteria and magnetosomes - Scope and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jobin John; Suthindhiran, K

    2016-11-01

    Geomagnetism aided navigation has been demonstrated by certain organisms which allows them to identify a particular location using magnetic field. This attractive technique to recognize the course was earlier exhibited in numerous animals, for example, birds, insects, reptiles, fishes and mammals. Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are one of the best examples for magnetoreception among microorganisms as the magnetic mineral functions as an internal magnet and aid the microbe to move towards the water columns in an oxic-anoxic interface (OAI). The ability of MTB to biomineralize the magnetic particles (magnetosomes) into uniform nano-sized, highly crystalline structure with uniform magnetic properties has made the bacteria an important topic of research. The superior properties of magnetosomes over chemically synthesized magnetic nanoparticles made it an attractive candidate for potential applications in microbiology, biophysics, biochemistry, nanotechnology and biomedicine. In this review article, the scope of MTB, magnetosomes and its challenges in research and industrial application have been discussed in brief. This article mainly focuses on the application based on the magnetotactic behaviour of MTB and magnetosomes in different areas of modern science.

  12. Outcomes associated with prescribed medications in older adults with multimorbidity: protocol for a scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricco, Andrea C; Vyas, Manav; Kohli, Kapil; Soin, Sarthak; Abaeian, Mitra; Watt, Stephanie; Straus, Sharon E

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Multimorbidity becomes increasingly prevalent with ageing. Polypharmacy is often associated with multimorbidity because patients accrue medications to treat each individual disease; however, there is uncertainty around the generalisability of disease-specific guidelines. Namely, the extrapolation of results from studies conducted in younger patients to older adults with multimorbidity. The main objective of this scoping review is to explore our current knowledge of the outcomes that older adults with multimorbidity experience from taking prescribed medications. Methods and analysis A scoping review will be conducted to explore what is known about the outcomes experienced by older adults with multimorbidity who are taking guideline-recommended medications and to identify areas for future research. In addition to searching the grey literature, the following databases will be searched from 1990 onward: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library. Experimental, quasi-experimental and non-experimental studies consisting of patients ≥65 years old who have two or more comorbid conditions (explicitly grouped together for the purpose of analysis) and who are being prescribed a guideline-recommended prescription medication for a chronic condition will be considered for inclusion in our scoping review. We will describe patient (eg, mortality, morbidity, quality of life) and health system (eg, number of emergency department visits or hospitalisations, cost to third-party payer) outcomes associated with the prescription of medications for older adults who have two or more chronic comorbid conditions. Two reviewers will complete all screening and data abstraction independently. Data will be synthesised with descriptive statistics. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval is not required because this is a scoping review of published literature. Results will be disseminated through conference presentations and publication in a peer-reviewed journal. PMID

  13. Protocol for a scoping review study to identify and classify patient-centred quality indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Rachel J; Lorenzetti, Diane L; Manalili, Kimberly; Lu, Mingshan; Santana, Maria J

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The concept of patient-centred care (PCC) is changing the way healthcare is understood, accepted and delivered. The Institute of Medicine has defined PCC as 1 of its 6 aims to improve healthcare quality. However, in Canada, there are currently no nationwide standards in place for measuring and evaluating healthcare from a patient-centred approach. In this paper, we outline our scoping review protocol to systematically review published and unpublished literature specific to patient-centred quality indicators that have been implemented and evaluated across various care settings. Methods and analysis Arksey and O'Malley's scoping review methodology framework will guide the conduct of this scoping review. We will search electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, Social Work Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts), grey literature sources and the reference lists of key studies to identify studies appropriate for inclusion. 2 reviewers will independently screen all abstracts and full-text studies for inclusion. We will include any study which focuses on quality indicators in the context of PCC. All bibliographic data, study characteristics and indicators will be collected and analysed using a tool developed through an iterative process by the research team. Indicators will be classified according to a predefined conceptual framework and categorised and described using qualitative content analysis. Ethics and dissemination The scoping review will synthesise patient-centred quality indicators and their characteristics as described in the literature. This review will be the first step to formally identify what quality indicators have been used to evaluate PCC across the healthcare continuum, and will be used to inform a stakeholder consensus process exploring the development of a generic set of patient-centred quality indicators applicable to multiple care settings. The

  14. Patient safety culture measurement in general practice. Clinimetric properties of 'SCOPE'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwart Dorien LM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A supportive patient safety culture is considered to be an essential condition for improving patient safety. Assessing the current safety culture in general practice may be a first step to target improvements. To that end, we studied internal consistency and construct validity of a safety culture questionnaire for general practice (SCOPE which was derived from a comparable questionnaire for hospitals (Dutch-HSOPS. Methods The survey was conducted among caregivers of Dutch general practice as part of an ongoing quality accreditation process using a 46 item questionnaire. We conducted factor analyses and studied validity by calculating correlations between the subscales and testing the hypothesis that respondents' patient safety grade of their practices correlated with their scores on the questionnaire. Results Of 72 practices 294 respondents completed the questionnaire. Eight factors were identified concerning handover and teamwork, support and fellowship, communication openness, feedback and learning from error, intention to report events, adequate procedures and staffing, overall perceptions of patient safety and expectations and actions of managers. Cronbach's alpha of the factors rated between 0.64 and 0.85. The subscales intercorrelated moderately, except for the factor about intention to report events. Respondents who graded patient safety highly scored significantly higher on the questionnaire than those who did not. Conclusions The SCOPE questionnaire seems an appropriate instrument to assess patient safety culture in general practice. The clinimetric properties of the SCOPE are promising, but future research should confirm the factor structure and construct of the SCOPE and delineate its responsiveness to changes in safety culture over time.

  15. 48 CFR 36.300 - Scope of subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Two-Phase Design-Build Selection Procedures 36.300 Scope of subpart. This subpart prescribes policies and procedures for the use of the two-phase...

  16. 48 CFR 4.500 - Scope of subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MATTERS Electronic Commerce in Contracting 4.500 Scope of subpart. This subpart provides policy and procedures for the establishment and use of electronic commerce in Federal acquisition as required by...

  17. 48 CFR 919.7001 - Scope of subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BUSINESS PROGRAMS The Department of Energy Mentor-Protege Program 919.7001 Scope of subpart. The Department of Energy (DOE) Mentor-Protege Program is designed to encourage DOE prime contractors to assist...

  18. 50 CFR 654.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO General Measures § 654.1 Purpose and scope... of the Gulf of Mexico, prepared by the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council under the...

  19. 48 CFR 2110.7000 - Scope of subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING SPECIFICATIONS, STANDARDS, AND OTHER PURCHASE DESCRIPTIONS Contract Specifications 2110.7000 Scope of subpart. This subpart prescribes mandatory specifications for performance under FEGLI Program contracts....

  20. 16 CFR 1031.16 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION PARTICIPATION AND COMMISSION EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT IN VOLUNTARY STANDARDS ACTIVITIES Public Participation and Comment § 1031.16 Purpose and scope. (a) This subpart sets forth the Consumer Product Safety Commission's criteria...

  1. 16 CFR 1031.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION PARTICIPATION AND COMMISSION EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT IN VOLUNTARY STANDARDS ACTIVITIES General Policies § 1031.1 Purpose and scope. (a) This part 1031 sets forth the Consumer Product Safety Commission's guidelines and requirements...

  2. 16 CFR 1031.9 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION PARTICIPATION AND COMMISSION EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT IN VOLUNTARY STANDARDS ACTIVITIES Employee Involvement § 1031.9 Purpose and scope. (a) This subpart sets forth the Consumer Product Safety Commission's criteria and requirements...

  3. 28 CFR 551.20 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.20 Purpose and scope. The Bureau of Prisons provides an inmate with medical and social services related to birth control, pregnancy,...

  4. 42 CFR 410.3 - Scope of benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS General Provisions § 410.3 Scope of benefits. (a) Covered services. The SMI program helps pay for the following: (1) Medical and other health services such...

  5. 49 CFR 1180.0 - Scope and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE RAILROAD ACQUISITION, CONTROL, MERGER, CONSOLIDATION PROJECT, TRACKAGE RIGHTS, AND LEASE PROCEDURES General Acquisition Procedures § 1180.0 Scope and purpose. (a... followed in control, merger, acquisition, lease, trackage rights, and any other consolidation...

  6. 14 CFR 1204.400 - Scope of subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Business Policy § 1204.400 Scope of subpart. This subpart establishes NASA's small business policy and outlines the delegation of authority in implementing this policy as required by Federal law....

  7. Meta-Research: Broadening the Scope of PLOS Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousta, Stavroula; Ferguson, Christine; Ganley, Emma

    2016-01-01

    In growing recognition of the importance of how scientific research is designed, performed, communicated, and evaluated, PLOS Biology announces a broadening of its scope to cover meta-research articles.

  8. Use of YouScope to implement systematic microscopy protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Moritz; Rudolf, Fabian; Stelling, Jörg

    2012-04-01

    Complex microscopy protocols, e.g., to dynamically track multiple signals in living cells under different conditions, are becoming more common. However, the implementation of complex protocols on modern, motorized microscopes often requires their reformulation into low-level machine language. This recoding is a time-consuming and error-prone task that often requires advanced programming skills. This unit describes how to use the high level, open-source microscope control platform YouScope to implement complex measurement protocols. Three protocols detail how to install and configure YouScope on a motorized microscope, how to use YouScope to quickly assess the quality of a sample, and how to set up imaging protocols for cells in a microplate. In addition to these protocols, descriptions are given for the use of various other tools YouScope provides to successfully accomplish various microscopy tasks.

  9. 28 CFR 549.60 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.60 Purpose and scope. The Bureau of Prisons provides guidelines for the medical and administrative management of inmates who engage in hunger strikes. It is the responsibility...

  10. Scope of Collections Statement Ohio River Islands National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Scope of Collections Statement serves to define the holdings, present and future, of museum property that contributes directly to the mission of Ohio River...

  11. Economies of scope in Danish primary care practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels; Rose Olsen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Aim: We analyze total operating costs and activities in Danish General Practice units to assess whether there are unexploited economies of scope in the production of primary care services. Methods: We apply stochastic frontier analysis to derive cost functions and associated cost complementarities...... between GP services and overall economies of scope. Data: Cross-section data for a sample of 331 primary care practices with 1-8 GPs from the year 2006. This is a unique combined dataset consisting of survey and register data. Results: We find a trend towards cost complementarities between the production...... economies of scope in the production of GP services. Conclusions: Our preliminary results show that there were overall economies of scope associated with the joint production of a) standard consultations, b) email/phone consultations and c) home visits. Cost complementarities between standard consultations...

  12. 45 CFR 63.16 - Scope of subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION Financial Provisions § 63.16 Scope of subpart. This subpart sets forth supplemental financial provisions which apply to all grants awarded...

  13. 21 CFR 211.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... good manufacturing practice regulations in this chapter as they pertain to drug products; in parts 600... foods are manufactured, processed, packed, or held under current good manufacturing practice. Effective.... (a) The regulations in this part contain the minimum current good manufacturing practice...

  14. Spread Too Thin: Uncertainty Shocks and Diseconomies of Scope

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Natividad; Olav Sorenson

    2011-01-01

    Although many streams of literature have recognized that firms with broader scope often underperform those with greater focus, relatively little research has examined the mechanisms that might account for these diseconomies of scope. One potential mechanism is that uncertainty shocks -- events or short-term periods that upset the normal course of business -- place unusual demands on the limited attention of managers. When managers of larger, more diverse firms allocate their time and organiza...

  15. 32 CFR 537.16 - Scope for maritime claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Scope for maritime claims. 537.16 Section 537.16 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.16 Scope for maritime claims. The Army Maritime Claims Settlement Act (10 U.S.C. 4803-4804) applies...

  16. Muscle dysmorphia: current insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tod, David; Edwards, Christian; Cranswick, Ieuan

    2016-01-01

    Since 1997, there has been increasing research focusing on muscle dysmorphia, a condition underpinned by people's beliefs that they have insufficient muscularity, in both the Western and non-Western medical and scientific communities. Much of this empirical interest has surveyed nonclinical samples, and there is limited understanding of people with the condition beyond knowledge about their characteristics. Much of the existing knowledge about people with the condition is unsurprising and inherent in the definition of the disorder, such as dissatisfaction with muscularity and adherence to muscle-building activities. Only recently have investigators started to explore questions beyond these limited tautological findings that may give rise to substantial knowledge advances, such as the examination of masculine and feminine norms. There is limited understanding of additional topics such as etiology, prevalence, nosology, prognosis, and treatment. Further, the evidence is largely based on a small number of unstandardized case reports and descriptive studies (involving small samples), which are largely confined to Western (North American, British, and Australian) males. Although much research has been undertaken since the term "muscle dysmorphia" entered the psychiatric lexicon in 1997, there remains tremendous scope for knowledge advancement. A primary task in the short term is for investigators to examine the extent to which the condition exists among well-defined populations to help determine the justification for research funding relative to other public health issues. A greater variety of research questions and designs may contribute to a broader and more robust knowledge base than currently exists. Future work will help clinicians assist a group of people whose quality of life and health are placed at risk by their muscular preoccupation.

  17. Design of an interdisciplinary engineering elective scoped around collaboration with Small Medium Sized enterprises (SME)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Nynne Budtz; Ulrich, Mai-Mai; Pontoppidan, Maja Lund

    2014-01-01

    To acquire the right competences as an engineer in the 21st century1 ((King, 2007), you need to be able to work inter-disciplinary and learn the necessary innovation methods and tools2. This paper will strive to answer some of questions identified in the progress of developing and implementing...... cooperation and proceed with an introductory explanation of the current course, how the course has been scoped including the theory behind and how the company cooperation has been developed. Finally it will bring a discussion about preliminary results (as the course is ongoing) and recommendations...

  18. First-line managers: scope of responsibility in a time of fiscal restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acorn, S; Crawford, M

    1996-01-01

    Fiscal restraint and government cost control have contributed to the downsizing and restructuring of Canadian health care organizations. As key players in the hospital sector, the role and responsibilities of first-line nurse managers have been significantly affected by these changes. This paper presents data from a survey of 200 first-line nurse managers in British Columbia which investigated the current scope of the first-line manager's role, the number of hierarchical levels within nursing departments, and views on managerial union membership.

  19. The Current Scope of Health Disparities in the U.S.: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Michele L.; Nienhaus, Alyson R.

    2010-01-01

    This review of literature examines leading contributors and mediators of health disparities in the United States. Specifically, poverty, education, and health are addressed. Special emphasis is placed on implications of health risk behaviors and health education for select populations and settings. Existing and suggested strategies for addressing…

  20. Proposed scope of work : Water rights analysis historic vs. current practices

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains an agenda for the July 18, 1995 initial meeting on Arapaho NWR. It also contains a document related to one topic on the agenda, an outline for...

  1. Current Situation of Prevention of Intrauterine Adhesion After Intrauterine Operation%宫腔手术后预防宫腔粘连的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琴

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine adhesion is a common complication after intrauterine operation and is one of the main causes leading to uteral infertility. The most important programme for IUA is prevention,oral contraceptives and the insertion of an intrauterine device are widely used clinically and have contraceptive effect at the same time. The placement of balloon catheter needs hospitalization and broad-spectrum antibiotic administered postoperation to prevent ascending infection from the vagina. In the applying of adhesion prevention products,the patients' economy condition should be taken into consideration. The effective of Amnion graft need further research to confirm. Early second-look with a flexible hystero-scope in the office setting is the tendency.%宫腔粘连(intrauterine adhesion,IUA)是宫腔手术后常见并发症,是导致子宫性不孕的主要原因.对于IUA最重要的是进行预防,术后口服避孕药及宫内节育器的置入在临床上应用广泛,同时具有避孕的作用.使用球囊导尿管需住院治疗,且术后应用广谱抗生素预防上行感染.防粘连产品的应用需考虑患者经济因素.羊膜移植的有效性有待进一步研究证实.早期门诊宫腔镜检查是预防IUA的发展趋势.

  2. Approaches to Understanding and Addressing Treatment-Resistant Depression: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Jenkins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment-resistant depression is associated with significant disability and, due to its high prevalence, results in substantive economic and societal burden at a population level. The objective of this study is to synthesize extant literature on approaches currently being applied to understand and address this condition. It is hoped that the findings can be used to inform practitioners and guide future research. A scoping review of the scientific literature was conducted with findings categorized and charted by underlying research paradigm. Currently, the vast majority of research stems from a biological paradigm (81%. Research on treatment-resistant depression would benefit from a broadened field of study. Given that multiple etiological mechanisms likely contribute to treatment-resistant depression and current efforts at prevention and treatment have substantial room for improvement, an expanded research agenda could more effectively address this significant public health issue.

  3. Community participation in rural health: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Amanda

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major health inequities between urban and rural populations have resulted in rural health as a reform priority across a number of countries. However, while there is some commonality between rural areas, there is increasing recognition that a one size fits all approach to rural health is ineffective as it fails to align healthcare with local population need. Community participation is proposed as a strategy to engage communities in developing locally responsive healthcare. Current policy in several countries reflects a desire for meaningful, high level community participation, similar to Arnstein’s definition of citizen power. There is a significant gap in understanding how higher level community participation is best enacted in the rural context. The aim of our study was to identify examples, in the international literature, of higher level community participation in rural healthcare. Methods A scoping review was designed to map the existing evidence base on higher level community participation in rural healthcare planning, design, management and evaluation. Key search terms were developed and mapped. Selected databases and internet search engines were used that identified 99 relevant studies. Results We identified six articles that most closely demonstrated higher level community participation; Arnstein’s notion of citizen power. While the identified studies reflected key elements for effective higher level participation, little detail was provided about how groups were established and how the community was represented. The need for strong partnerships was reiterated, with some studies identifying the impact of relational interactions and social ties. In all studies, outcomes from community participation were not rigorously measured. Conclusions In an environment characterised by increasing interest in community participation in healthcare, greater understanding of the purpose, process and outcomes is a priority for

  4. Gender, smoking and tobacco reduction and cessation: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L; Haines-Saah, Rebecca; Kelly, Mary T; Oliffe, John L; Torchalla, Iris; Poole, Nancy; Greaves, Lorraine; Robinson, Carole A; Ensom, Mary H H; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Phillips, J Craig

    2014-12-12

    Considerations of how gender-related factors influence smoking first appeared over 20 years ago in the work of critical and feminist scholars. This scholarship highlighted the need to consider the social and cultural context of women's tobacco use and the relationships between smoking and gender inequity. Parallel research on men's smoking and masculinities has only recently emerged with some attention being given to gender influences on men's tobacco use. Since that time, a multidisciplinary literature addressing women and men's tobacco use has spanned the social, psychological and medical sciences. To incorporate these gender-related factors into tobacco reduction and cessation interventions, our research team identified the need to clarify the current theoretical and methodological interpretations of gender within the context of tobacco research. To address this need a scoping review of the published literature was conducted focussing on tobacco reduction and cessation from the perspective of three aspects of gender: gender roles, gender identities, and gender relations. Findings of the review indicate that there is a need for greater clarity on how researchers define and conceptualize gender and its significance for tobacco control. Patterns and anomalies in the literature are described to guide the future development of interventions that are gender-sensitive and gender-specific. Three principles for including gender-related factors in tobacco reduction and cessation interventions were identified: a) the need to build upon solid conceptualizations of gender, b) the importance of including components that comprehensively address gender-related influences, and c) the importance of promoting gender equity and healthy gender norms, roles and relations.

  5. Automated scoping methodology for liquid metal natural circulation small reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Hyung M.; Suh, Kune Y., E-mail: kysuh@snu.ac.kr

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Automated scoping methodology for natural circulation small modular reactor is developed. • In-house code is developed to carry out system analysis and core geometry generation during scoping. • Adjustment relations are obtained to correct the critical core geometry out of diffusion theory. • Optimized design specification is found using objective function value. • Convex hull volume is utilized to quantify the impact of different constraints on the scope range. - Abstract: A novel scoping method is proposed that can automatically generate design variable range of the natural circulation driven liquid metal cooled small reactor. From performance requirements based upon Generation IV system roadmap, appropriate structure materials are selected and engineering constraints are compiled based upon literature. Utilizing ASME codes and standards, appropriate geometric sizing criteria on constituting components are developed to ensure integrity of the system during its lifetime. In-house one dimensional thermo-hydraulic system analysis code is developed based upon momentum integral model and finite element methods to deal with non-uniform descritization of temperature nodes for convection and thermal diffusion equation of liquid metal coolant. In order to quickly generate critical core dimensions out of given unit cell information, an adjustment relation that relates the critical geometry estimated from one-group diffusion and that from MCNP code is constructed and utilized throughout the process. For the selected unit cell dimension ranges, burnup calculations are carried out to check the cores can generate energy over the reactor lifetime. Utilizing random method, sizing criteria, and in-house analysis codes, an automated scoping methodology is developed. The methodology is applied to nitride fueled integral type lead cooled natural circulation reactor concept to generate design scopes which satisfies given constraints. Three dimensional convex

  6. USArray Siting Outreach: Telling the EarthScope Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorr, P. M.; Taber, J. J.; McQuillan, P.; Busby, R. W.; Woodward, R.

    2013-12-01

    USArray has engaged in a variety of activities that involve students in and inform the general public about EarthScope. Examples include the highly successful Transportable Array Student Siting Program that employed students and faculty from colleges and universities in the identification of sites for future Transportable Array stations in their region, and a range of informal education and media opportunities where information about EarthScope and its discoveries are shared with educators and the public. During the course of eight summers, more than 135 students from about 55 institutions conducted site reconnaissance for nearly 1375 sites from the West Coast to the East Coast, and from the Gulf of Mexico to the Great Lakes and southern Canada. While telling the EarthScope story, students who participated in the program increased their professional skills and deepened their personal growth. Other students had opportunities to engage in EarthScope-related research as part of the Research Experiences for Undergraduates program. Several EarthScope-focused outreach products for the public and educational audiences have been developed including Ground Motion Visualizations, EarthScope-centric and regional content sets for the IRIS Active Earth Monitor (AEM), and animations of earth processes. A kiosk loan program has helped to broadly disseminate the AEM displays. There have also been articles published in university, local and regional newspapers; stories appearing in national and international print and broadcast media; and documentaries produced by some of the world's most respected scientific and educational production companies that have included a segment about EarthScope and the Transportable Array. Over the next five years, USArray will be deploying and operating Transportable Array stations in Alaska and western Canada. This challenging environment will offer new opportunities to connect with communities throughout the region including native populations.

  7. Developing Authentic Research Experiences Using EarthScope Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Wallace, M. K.

    2003-12-01

    EarthScope, a decade-long experiment to understand the formation, structure, and evolution of the North American continent, will carry-out active investigations in nearly every county in the US. The excitement of a huge science experiment in one's own backyard piques interest, but teachers need resources and professional development experiences to capitalize upon this excitement and create opportunities for their students' learning. The EarthScope Education and Outreach Network will provide the interface to make EarthScope science, and the advanced technology and modern approaches used to understand Earth, relevant and beneficial to K-16 educators vested in advancing Earth science education. Three obstacles must be overcome for success in carrying out authentic EarthScope research in the classroom. First, scientists and teachers must work together to identify relevant and developmentally appropriate research questions for the target audience. Second, teachers will need professional development experiences that engage them in authentic research and that provide support for introducing a similar research experience in their own classroom. Third, the outcome of the research experience must have value to the scientist, teacher and student to motivate sustained participation by all. The dense array of seismometers being deployed in the USArray component of EarthScope will permit students and the public to see first-hand Earth's dynamic response to both human and natural events in their hometown and around the country. Targeted local experiments will make EarthScope's scientific investigations and discoveries relevant for educational efforts on a region-by-region basis. Combining the real-time seismic data streams from USArray with data and instrumentation from the growing US Educational Seismic Network (USESN) opens up endless possibilities for student-centered research. In this paper, I will discuss the lessons learned from eight years of leading a high school

  8. Scope Complexity Options Risks Excursions (SCORE) Factor Mathematical Description.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gearhart, Jared Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Samberson, Jonell Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shettigar, Subhasini [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jungels, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Welch, Kimberly M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Dean A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the Scope, Complexity, Options, Risks, Excursions (SCORE) model is to estimate the relative complexity of design variants of future warhead options, resulting in scores. SCORE factors extend this capability by providing estimates of complexity relative to a base system (i.e., all design options are normalized to one weapon system). First, a clearly defined set of scope elements for a warhead option is established. The complexity of each scope element is estimated by Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), including a level of uncertainty, relative to a specific reference system. When determining factors, complexity estimates for a scope element can be directly tied to the base system or chained together via comparable scope elements in a string of reference systems that ends with the base system. The SCORE analysis process is a growing multi-organizational Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) effort, under the management of the NA-12 led Enterprise Modeling and Analysis Consortium (EMAC). Historically, it has provided the data elicitation, integration, and computation needed to support the out-year Life Extension Program (LEP) cost estimates included in the Stockpile Stewardship Management Plan (SSMP).

  9. 7 CFR 3.70 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... prohibited by another statute (e.g. travel advances in 5 U.S.C. 5705 or employee training expense in 5 U.S.C... subpart set forth USDA procedures for the collection of a Federal employee's pay by salary offset to... USDA employees and employees of other agencies who owe debts to USDA; and (2) Current USDA...

  10. Structural and functional models in molybdenum and tungsten bioinorganic chemistry: description of selected model complexes, present scenario and possible future scopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Amit

    2014-06-28

    A brief description about some selected model complexes in molybdenum and tungsten bioinorganic chemistry is provided. The synthetic strategies involved and their limitations are discussed. Current status of molybdenum and tungsten bioinorganic modeling chemistry is presented briefly and synthetic problems associated therein are analyzed. Possible future directions which may expand the scope of modeling chemistry are suggested.

  11. Visualizing Data from EarthScope's USArray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, R.; Frassetto, A.; Adinolfi, A.

    2012-12-01

    The EarthScope USArray program has generated a large volume of data from across the North American continent. The Transportable Array (TA) component of USArray has deployed over 400 seismic stations in a grid with 70 km spacing between stations. The TA has rolled the array across the contiguous US states over a ten-year period, and will have occupied over 1600 distinct sites from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean by the end of 2013. All stations transmit multiple channels of 40 samples per second data continuously, in near real time. Each station records and transmits seismic, barometric pressure, and infrasound data, as well as various state-of-health data streams. All data are immediately open and unrestricted. The TA provides a unique tool for visualizing large-scale seismic wave phenomena. The power of this tool is particularly apparent when displaying simultaneous signals from all stations as a function of time, as well as rendering multiple channels of data from each station. In this situation it is challenging to convey the 3D motion at each station as well as the aggregate 3D motion across the entire set of 400 stations. Creating movies of the data becomes essential to illustrate the time dependence of the observations. Typically the rendering of such movies requires the use of programming language that is suitable for both data analysis and graphics, as it is essential to explore different data pre-processing strategies (often filtering, but also including other pre-processing steps). Different visualization strategies provide a means for dealing with the very large volume of data generated by the TA. Typical data review strategies include a survey mode to scan large volumes of data for signals of interest, or zooming in on fine features using combinations of specialized data processing and frame-by-frame time-steps, or going back and forth between the two modes. The data visualizations are continuously evolving to explore new ideas. The movie

  12. Creating the Individual Scope of Practice (I-SOP) scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Thomas; Peabody, Michael R; Blackburn, Brenna E; Peterson, Lars E

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that the scope of practice for primary care physicians has been shrinking (Tong, Makaroff, Xierali, Parhat, Puffer, Newton, et al., 2012; Xierali, Puffer, Tong, Bazemore, and Green, 2012; and Bazemore, Makaroff, Puffer, Parhat, Phillips, Xierali, et al., 2012) despite research showing that areas with robust primary care services have better population health outcomes at lower costs (Starfield, Shi, and Macinko, 2005). Examining issues related to the scope of practice for primary care physicians has wide-ranging implications for both patient health outcomes and related healthcare costs. This article describes the development and use of a scale intended to measure the breath of the individual physician's scope of practice using 22 self-reported, dichotomous indicators obtained from a physician survey.

  13. Metabolic scope and interspecific competition in sculpins of Greenland are influenced by increased temperatures due to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Henrik; Gräns, Albin; Sandblom, Erik; Olsson, Catharina; Wiklander, Kerstin; Johnsson, Jörgen I; Axelsson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing climate change has led to an increase in sea surface temperatures of 2-4°C on the west coast of Greenland. Since fish are ectothermic, metabolic rate increases with ambient temperature. This makes these animals particularly sensitive to changes in temperature; subsequently any change may influence their metabolic scope, i.e. the physiological capacity to undertake aerobically challenging activities. Any temperature increase may thus disrupt species-specific temperature adaptations, at both the molecular level as well as in behavior, and concomitant species differences in the temperature sensitivity may shift the competitive balance among coexisting species. We investigated the influence of temperature on metabolic scope and competitive ability in three species of marine sculpin that coexist in Greenland coastal waters. Since these species have different distribution ranges, we hypothesized that there should be a difference in their physiological response to temperature; hence we compared their metabolic scope at three temperatures (4, 9 and 14°C). Their competitive ability at the ambient temperature of 9°C was also tested in an attempt to link physiological capacity with behaviour. The Arctic staghorn sculpin, the species with the northernmost distribution range, had a lower metabolic scope in the higher temperature range compared to the other two species, which had similar metabolic scope at the three temperatures. The Arctic staghorn sculpin also had reduced competitive ability at 9°C and may thus already be negatively affected by the current ocean warming. Our results suggest that climate change can have effects on fish physiology and interspecific competition, which may alter the species composition of the Arctic fish fauna.

  14. The Scope of Gene Patent Protection and the TRIPS Agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Tine

    2007-01-01

    The Scope of Gene Patent Protection and the TRIPS Agreement - An Exclusively Nondiscriminatory Approach?   Gene patenting in Europe has provoked much debate both before and since the adoption of Directive 98/44/EC on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions. Some of the major points...... of discussion have been focused on the scope of protection (e.g. purpose-bound protection) and gene patents being subject to a specific DNA regime on patent rights. The Directive can be interpreted as favouring such a solution, but so far the European Commission has decided neither to support nor reject...

  15. Practical Limits to the Scope of Digital Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Kastellec

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines factors that limit the ability of institutions to digitally preserve the cultural heritage of the modern era. The author takes a wide-ranging approach to shed light on limitations to the scope of digital preservation.  The author finds that technological limitations to digital preservation have been addressed but still exist, and that non-technical aspects—access, selection, law, and finances—move into the foreground as technological limitations recede.  The author proposes a nested model of constraints to the scope of digital preservation and concludes that costs are digital preservation’s most pervasive limitation.

  16. Scale and scope economies among health maintenance organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wholey, D; Feldman, R; Christianson, J B; Engberg, J

    1996-12-01

    We examine scale and scope economics among Group and IPA Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) over the period 1988 to 1991 using a national sample of HMOs. We allow for the multiproduct nature of HMO production by estimating the cost of producing a member month of non-Medicare and Medicare coverage, and we examine the effect of HMO market structure on costs. We find that HMOs benefit from scale economies. There are scope diseconomies associated with providing both non-Medicare and Medicare products. Group HMOs in more competitive markets have lower costs but IPA costs are not affected by competition.

  17. The Impact of Consumer Knowledge Bias on Narrow-Scope Trust, Broad-Scope Trust, and Relationship Satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Grønholdt, Lars; Josiassen, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how consumer knowledge bias - defined as knowledge over/underconfidence (O/U) - influences two types of trust (broad-scope trust and narrow-scope trust) and consumer relationship satisfaction. Based on a survey comprising 756 mutual fund investors, the contribution...... is low compared to high. Notably, the study findings strongly suggest that marketing managers should carry out their relationship satisfaction and trust improvement efforts relative to the combination of customers‟ subjective and objective knowledge....... of this study to the marketing literature is twofold. First, taking a marketing relationship approach this study suggests and demonstrates that knowledge O/U positively influences relationship satisfaction and narrow-scope trust such that the more knowledge O/U a customer becomes, the higher/lower the level...

  18. Double-Scope Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy (POEM) for Esophageal Achalasia: The First Trial of a New Double-Scope POEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hee Jin; Song, Ga Won; Ko, Weon Jin; Kim, Won Hee; Hahm, Ki Baik; Hong, Sung Pyo; Cho, Joo Young

    2016-07-01

    With the accumulation of clinical trials demonstrating its efficacy and safety, peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has emerged as a less invasive treatment option for esophageal achalasia compared with laparoscopic Heller myotomy. However, the difficulty in determining the exact extent of myotomy, a critical factor associated with the success and safety of the procedure, remains a limitation. Although the various endoscopic landmarks and ancillary techniques have been applied, none of these has been proven sufficient. As a solution for this limitation, the double-scope POEM technique with a second endoscope to assure the exact length of the submucosal tunnel has been applied since 2014. Before double-scope POEM was introduced, the second endoscope was applied only to confirm the accuracy of the procedure. In the present study, we performed double-scope POEM in the treatment of esophageal achalasia through a novel procedure of simultaneous application of the second endoscope to assist in the conventional POEM procedure.

  19. Adoption of e-health technology by physicians: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Grood C

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chloe de Grood,1 Aida Raissi,2 Yoojin Kwon,3 Maria Jose Santana1 1Department of Community Health Sciences, W21C Research and Innovation Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, 2University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, 3Toronto Public Library, Toronto, ON, Canada Objective: The goal of this scoping review was to summarize the current literature identifying barriers and opportunities that facilitate adoption of e-health technology by physicians.Design: Scoping review.Setting: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases as provided by Ovid were searched from their inception to July 2015. Studies captured by the search strategy were screened by two reviewers and included if the focus was on barriers and facilitators of e-health technology adoption by physicians.Results: Full-text screening yielded 74 studies to be included in the scoping review. Within those studies, eleven themes were identified, including cost and liability issues, unwillingness to use e-health technology, and training and support.Conclusion: Cost and liability issues, unwillingness to use e-health technology, and training and support were the most frequently mentioned barriers and facilitators to the adoption of e-health technology. Government-level payment incentives and privacy laws to protect health information may be the key to overcome cost and liability issues. The adoption of e-health technology may be facilitated by tailoring to the individual physician’s knowledge of the e-health technology and the use of follow-up sessions for physicians and on-site experts to support their use of the e-health technology. To ensure the effective uptake of e-health technologies, physician perspectives need to be considered in creating an environment that enables the adoption of e-health strategies. Keywords: medical informatics, electronic medical records, diffusion of innovation, attitude of health personnel, information seeking behavior

  20. The widening scope of indications for perversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulish, Nancy; Holtzman, Deanna

    2014-04-01

    Much has changed in clinical practice and theory that bears on the diagnosis and treatment of perversion since Freud's Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905). Definitions of perversion have been freed from assumptions of a heterosexual normality and from moralistic interpretations. The authors endorse the current emphasis on aggression and early narcissistic problems and include the notion of splitting and sexualized scenarios in their definition of perversion. They present several vignettes of male and female patients to demonstrate the debts owed to Freud's theories and the way in which their thinking differs. They emphasize the understanding of the transference-countertransference picture and the patient's management and control of excitement.

  1. 50 CFR 17.2 - Scope of regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. The importation, exportation... PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Introduction and General Provisions § 17.2 Scope of regulations. (a) The regulations of this part apply only to endangered and...

  2. 12 CFR 1102.300 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and functions. Section 1102.303 describes the ASC's organization and methods of operation. Section... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose and scope. 1102.300 Section 1102.300... does not apply to the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. Section 1102.301 sets...

  3. 12 CFR 208.50 - Authority, purpose, and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MEMBERSHIP OF STATE BANKING INSTITUTIONS IN THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Real Estate Lending and Appraisal Standards § 208.50 Authority, purpose, and scope. (a) Authority. Subpart E of Regulation H (12 CFR... in adopting internal real estate lending policies. The standards applicable to appraisals rendered...

  4. 10 CFR 490.200 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose and scope. 490.200 Section 490.200 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Mandatory State Fleet... duty motor vehicles acquired for State fleets be alternative fueled vehicles....

  5. 10 CFR 490.500 - Purpose and Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose and Scope. 490.500 Section 490.500 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... 508 of the Act, which provides for the allocation of credits to fleets or covered persons who...

  6. 41 CFR 128-1.5001 - Scope of subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Justice as they pertain to personal property management functions. ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of subpart. 128-1.5001 Section 128-1.5001 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  7. 25 CFR 211.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... territorial jurisdiction. (e) The regulations in this part do not apply to leasing and development governed by... DEVELOPMENT General § 211.1 Purpose and scope. (a) The regulations in this part govern leases and permits for the development of Indian tribal oil and gas, geothermal, and solid mineral resources except...

  8. 34 CFR 668.111 - Scope and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope and purpose. 668.111 Section 668.111 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Appeal Procedures for Audit Determinations...

  9. 5 CFR 838.1101 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose and scope. 838.1101 Section 838.1101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Under the Child Abuse Accountability Act Regulatory Structure § 838.1101 Purpose...

  10. 32 CFR 64.2 - Applicability and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN MANAGEMENT AND MOBILIZATION OF REGULAR AND RESERVE RETIRED MILITARY MEMBERS § 64.2 Applicability and scope. This part: (a) Applies to the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Military Departments...

  11. 18 CFR 385.402 - Scope of discovery (Rule 402).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope of discovery (Rule 402). 385.402 Section 385.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... legal theories of an attorney. (c) Expert testimony. Unless otherwise restricted by the...

  12. 42 CFR 403.500 - Basis, scope, and definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis, scope, and definition. 403.500 Section 403.500 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Beneficiary Counseling and Assistance Grants §...

  13. 42 CFR 410.68 - Antigens: Scope and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antigens: Scope and conditions. 410.68 Section 410.68 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services §...

  14. 14 CFR 1207.201 - Scope of subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... who are subject to the restrictions of Title V of the Ethics of Government Act of 1978, as amended... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope of subpart. 1207.201 Section 1207.201 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT...

  15. 30 CFR 206.150 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 206.150 Purpose and scope. (a) This subpart is applicable to all gas production from Federal oil and gas leases. The purpose of this subpart is to establish the value of production for royalty purposes consistent with the mineral leasing laws, other applicable laws and...

  16. 40 CFR 264.1 - Purpose, scope and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... General § 264.1 Purpose, scope and applicability. (a) The purpose of this part is to establish minimum national standards which define the acceptable management of hazardous waste. (b) The standards in this... facility permitted, licensed, or registered by a State to manage municipal or industrial solid waste,...

  17. 31 CFR 29.301 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... retirement benefits under the Police and Firefighters Plan or the Teachers Plan. (2) This subpart provides... problems. (b)(1) This subpart applies only to benefits under the Police and Firefighters Plan or the... determination and review of eligibility and payments, and financial management, are beyond the scope of...

  18. 5 CFR 1201.72 - Explanation and scope of discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... location of persons with knowledge of relevant facts. Discovery requests that are directed to nonparties... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Explanation and scope of discovery. 1201... PROCEDURES PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES Procedures for Appellate Cases Discovery § 1201.72 Explanation and...

  19. Geographic scope of proximity effects among small life sciences firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolympiris, C.; Kalaitzandonakes, N.

    2013-01-01

    A large number of studies have demonstrated that proximity effects from knowledge spillovers, network externalities and other forms of knowledge transfers among like firms are geographically bounded. However, only a few studies have measured the strength and geographic scope of such externalities an

  20. 41 CFR 101-27.201 - Scope of subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Scope of subpart. 101-27.201 Section 101-27.201 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT...

  1. 41 CFR 101-27.000 - Scope of part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Scope of part. 101-27.000 Section 101-27.000 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT § 101-27.000...

  2. 49 CFR 365.501 - Scope of rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... APPLICATIONS FOR OPERATING AUTHORITY Special Rules for Certain Mexico-domiciled Carriers § 365.501 Scope of rules. (a) The rules in this subpart govern the application by a Mexico-domiciled motor carrier to provide transportation of property or passengers in interstate commerce between Mexico and points in...

  3. Building "Applied Linguistic Historiography": Rationale, Scope, and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article I argue for the establishment of "Applied Linguistic Historiography" (ALH), that is, a new domain of enquiry within applied linguistics involving a rigorous, scholarly, and self-reflexive approach to historical research. Considering issues of rationale, scope, and methods in turn, I provide reasons why ALH is needed and…

  4. 12 CFR 227.11 - Authority, purpose, and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... credit to consumers. (c) Scope. This subpart applies to all banks and their subsidiaries, except savings... Comptroller of the Currency, in the case of national banks, banks operating under the code of laws for the... in section 1(b) of the International Banking Act of 1978 (12 U.S.C. 3101). Effective Date Note: At...

  5. 7 CFR 3431.8 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program § 3431.8 Purpose and scope. (a) Purpose. The regulations of this subpart apply to the award of veterinary medicine loan repayments under the Veterinary Medicine...

  6. 20 CFR 903.1 - Purpose and scope of regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose and scope of regulations. 903.1 Section 903.1 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES ACCESS TO RECORDS Records... all records maintained by the Joint Board for the Enrollment of Actuaries (Joint Board) which...

  7. 24 CFR 100.144 - Scope of privilege.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISCRIMINATORY CONDUCT UNDER THE FAIR HOUSING ACT Discrimination in Residential Real Estate-Related Transactions... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope of privilege. 100.144 Section 100.144 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE...

  8. 20 CFR 410.401 - Scope of subpart D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.401 Scope of subpart... of his death, or whether his death was due to pneumoconiosis. (b) Pneumoconiosis defined... basis for application of the statutory presumption of disability or death due to pneumoconiosis...

  9. 7 CFR 610.31 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE Conservation of Private Grazing Land § 610.31 Purpose and scope. (a) This subpart sets forth the policies for the Conservation of Private Grazing Land...

  10. 42 CFR 489.2 - Scope of part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). (3) Home health agencies (HHAs). (4) Clinics, rehabilitation agencies...) Hospices. (7) Critical access hospital (CAHs). (8) Community mental health centers (CMHCs). (9) Religious... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of part. 489.2 Section 489.2 Public...

  11. 49 CFR 227.101 - Scope and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE Occupational Noise Exposure for Railroad Operating Employees. § 227.101 Scope and applicability. (a) This subpart shall apply to the noise-related working... service laws governing “train employees” (see 49 U.S.C. 21101(5) and 21103), but, subject to a...

  12. 42 CFR 422.350 - Basis, scope, and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... organization. Health care delivery assets (HCDAs) means any tangible assets that are part of a PSO's operation... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis, scope, and definitions. 422.350 Section 422.350 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  13. 34 CFR 682.700 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... basis of handicap), which is governed by 34 CFR part 104; or (iv) Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (relating to sex discrimination), which is governed by 34 CFR part 106. (c) This subpart does... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose and scope. 682.700 Section 682.700...

  14. 45 CFR 674.2 - Scope and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the Antarctic Treaty where one of the purposes of the expedition is to collect meteorites in... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope and applicability. 674.2 Section 674.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION...

  15. 45 CFR 1705.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose and scope. 1705.1 Section 1705.1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND... Libraries and Information Science (hereafter, the Commission)....

  16. 28 CFR 544.40 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.40 Purpose and scope. Pursuant to the Crime Control Act of 1990 (18 U.S.C. 3624(f)), limited English proficient inmates confined in Federal Bureau of Prisons institutions are required to attend an English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) program until...

  17. 10 CFR 436.40 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Agency Procurement of Energy Efficient Products § 436.40 Purpose and scope. This subpart provides guidance to promote the procurement of energy efficient products by Federal agencies and promote procurement practices...

  18. 40 CFR 725.400 - Scope and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope and purpose. 725.400 Section 725.400 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... review under this part are listed in § 725.420. (c) Criteria for the introduced genetic...

  19. 42 CFR 485.601 - Basis and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and scope. 485.601 Section 485.601 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS OF PARTICIPATION: SPECIALIZED PROVIDERS Conditions of...

  20. 42 CFR 485.50 - Basis and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and scope. 485.50 Section 485.50 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS OF PARTICIPATION: SPECIALIZED PROVIDERS Conditions of...

  1. Understanding, scoping and defining user experience: A survey approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, E.L.C.; Roto, V.; Hassenzahl, M.; Vermeeren, A.P.O.S.; Kort, J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in user experience (UX), it has been hard to gain a common agreement on the nature and scope of UX. In this paper, we report a survey that gathered the views on UX of 275 researchers and practitioners from academia and industry. Most respondents agree that UX is dynamic,

  2. 42 CFR 416.164 - Scope of ASC services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... surgical procedure under § 416.166 include, but are not limited to— (1) Nursing, technician, and related... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM AMBULATORY SURGICAL SERVICES Coverage, Scope of ASC Services, and...

  3. 42 CFR 416.61 - Scope of facility services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM AMBULATORY SURGICAL SERVICES Scope of Benefits for Services Furnished Before... are not limited to— (1) Nursing, technician, and related services; (2) Use of the facilities where...

  4. 12 CFR 201.1 - Authority, purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applies to United States branches and agencies of foreign banks that are subject to reserve requirements....1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM EXTENSIONS OF CREDIT BY FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS (REGULATION A) § 201.1 Authority, purpose and scope....

  5. 12 CFR 204.1 - Authority, purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) § 204.1 Authority, purpose and scope. (a) Authority... the Federal Reserve Act and of section 7 of the International Banking Act of 1978 (12 U.S.C. 3105)....

  6. 41 CFR 101-26.300 - Scope of subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Scope of subpart. 101-26.300 Section 101-26.300 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES...

  7. 12 CFR 210.25 - Authority, purpose, and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... incorporated herein, shall not apply. (c) Operating Circulars. Each Federal Reserve Bank shall issue an... organization; (3) A foreign central bank; and (4) A department, agency, instrumentality, independent... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority, purpose, and scope. 210.25...

  8. 5 CFR 293.101 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RECORDS Basic Policies on Maintenance of Personnel Records § 293.101 Purpose and scope. (a) This subpart..., dissemination, and safeguarding of personnel records which the Office of Personnel Management requires agencies to maintain in the personnel management or personnel policy setting process. (b) Agencies in...

  9. 44 CFR 6.1 - Purpose and scope of part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... records maintained by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) which are subject to the provision of...). These policies and procedures govern only those records as defined in § 6.2. Policies and procedures... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose and scope of part....

  10. 10 CFR 455.72 - Scope of the grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope of the grant. 455.72 Section 455.72 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY... installation of energy conservation measures to reduce energy consumption or measures to allow the use...

  11. 49 CFR 193.2001 - Scope of part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES... LNG facilities used in the transportation of gas by pipeline that is subject to the pipeline safety... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of part. 193.2001 Section...

  12. 42 CFR 407.1 - Basis and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) ENROLLMENT AND ENTITLEMENT General Provisions § 407.1 Basis and scope. (a) Statutory basis. The supplementary medical insurance (SMI) program is authorized by Part B of title XVIII of... pay the SMI premiums for, eligible individuals who are also eligible for cash assistance or...

  13. 40 CFR 725.300 - Scope and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope and purpose. 725.300 Section 725.300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Exemptions for Test Marketing § 725.300...

  14. 40 CFR 160.1 - Scope and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope and applicability. 160.1 Section 160.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS GOOD... for research or marketing permits for pesticide products regulated by the EPA. This part is...

  15. 46 CFR 53.01-5 - Scope (modifies HG-100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS General Requirements § 53.01-5 Scope (modifies HG-100). (a) The regulations in this part apply to steam heating boilers, hot water boilers (which include hot water heating boilers and hot water supply...

  16. 31 CFR 29.201 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose and scope. 29.201 Section 29.201 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury FEDERAL BENEFIT PAYMENTS UNDER CERTAIN DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA RETIREMENT PROGRAMS Coordination With the District Government §...

  17. 43 CFR 12.42 - Scope of subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of subpart. 12.42 Section 12.42 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and...

  18. 43 CFR 12.1 - Scope of part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Administrative and Audit Requirements and Cost Principles for Assistance Programs § 12.1 Scope of part. This part prescribes administrative requirements and cost principles...

  19. 48 CFR 1819.7301 - Scope of subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Programs 1819.7301 Scope of subpart. The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR... of the Small Business Act codified at 15 U.S.C. 631, as amended, and the Small Business...

  20. 28 CFR 505.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose and scope. 505.1 Section 505.1 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION COST... and collection of a fee to cover the cost of incarceration. The Director of the Bureau of Prisons...