WorldWideScience

Sample records for ammonia emission trends

  1. Ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    The NEC (National Emission Ceiling) directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries...... technology is adopted quicker and that the farm has the right location. It is concluded that the new application process so far has not lived up to the high expectations at the outset. Despite this, the paper concludes that Denmark is likely to reduce emission by 50% from 1990 to 2020 and reach the likely...

  2. Global Seabird Ammonia Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, S. N.; Blackall, T. D.; Dragosits, U.; Daunt, F. H.; Braban, C. F.; Tang, Y. S.; Trathan, P.; Wanless, S.; Sutton, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Seabird colonies represent a major source of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) in remote coastal and marine systems in temperate, tropical and polar regions. Previous studies have shown that NH3 emissions from Scottish seabird colonies were substantial - of similar magnitude to the most intensive agricultural point source emissions. The UK data were used to model global seabird NH3 emissions and suggested that penguins are a major source of emissions on and around the Antarctic continent. The largest seabird colonies are in the order of millions of seabirds. Due to the isolation of these colonies from anthropogenic nitrogen sources, they may play a major role in the nitrogen cycle within these ecosystems. A global seabird database was constructed and used in conjunction with a species-specific seabird bioenergetics model to map the locations of NH3 emissions from seabird colonies. The accuracy of the modelled emissions was validated with field data of NH3 emissions measured at key seabird colonies in different climatic regions of the world: temperate (Isle of May, Scotland), tropical (Ascension Island) and polar (Signy Island, South Georgia). The field data indicated good agreement between modelled and measured NH3 emissions. The measured NH3 emissions also showed the variability of emission with climate. Climate dependence of seabird NH3 emissions may have further implications under a changing global climate. Seabird colonies represent NH3 emission ‘hotspots’, often far from anthropogenic sources, and are likely to be the major source of nitrogen input to these remote coastal ecosystems. The direct manuring by seabirds at colony locations may strongly influence species richness and biodiversity. The subsequent volatilisation and deposition of NH3 increases the spatial extent of seabird influence on nitrogen cycling in their local ecosystem. As many seabird populations are fluctuating due to changing food supply, climate change or anthropogenic pressures, these factors

  3. Reducing ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    The NEC directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries with the largest reductions since 1990...... to the high expectations at the outset. Despite this, the paper concludes that Denmark is likely to reduce emission by 50% from 1990 to 2020 and reach the likely 2020 NEC ceiling....

  4. Criteria Air Emissions Trends

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Emissions Trends site provides national trends of criteria pollutant and precursor emissions data based on the the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) from...

  5. Ammonia in power plant emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerich, Mads; Henningsen, J. O.; Olafsson, Ari

    1990-08-01

    Ammonia monitoring is needed in most schemes for denitrification of power plant emission. In the PALAMON system we use a 500 MHz tunable, single mode, single line, CO2 laser as light source for a low pressure, high temperature, photoacoustic cell. With this cell we can resolve the sR(5,O) line of the ammonia spectrum, and suppress the interfering C02(9R30) absorption line down to a lppm NH3 detection limit. The validity of the measured ammonia concentrations is strongly dependent on details of the sampling system and on the reliability of the calibration routines. In particular calibration with certified mixtures of NH3:N2 has proved insufficient due to the multiple and long time constants caused by adsorption of ammonia to different materials in the system. Presence of water vapor in the gas greatly reduces these time constants. Therefore a number of methods for simple production of moist calibration gases from macroscopic amounts of NH3 are applied. The calibrations are translated to response from an easily managable absorber in order to allow automated recalibration of the photoacoustic response. Data from a field test of the system, and calibration data will be presented.

  6. Study of Ammonia Emissions in a Ventilated Pig Pen

    OpenAIRE

    Rong, Li

    2011-01-01

    Pig productions cause a wide emission of odors, such as ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and methane (CH4). Ammonia is one of the most important emissions for evaluating the air quality either in animal buildings or atmospheric environment. In studies of ammonia emission from animal buildings reported in literature, little effort has been made to investigate the accuracy of current Henry’s law constant for modeling ammonia mass transfer process and study ammonia emissions in a full scal...

  7. Modelling of ammonia emissions from dairy cow houses

    OpenAIRE

    Monteny, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    Dairy cow husbandry contributes to environmental acidification through the emission of ammonia. In-depth knowledge on the processes and variable factors that play a role in the emission of ammonia from dairy cow houses benefits the production of emission data, the development of low emission housing systems, and evaluation of emission levels in a farming system approach. A mechanistic simulation model for the ammonia emission from dairy cow houses was developed to facilitate this.An ammonia p...

  8. Ammonia emissions in Europe, part II: How ammonia emission abatement strategies affect secondary aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Anna M.; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-02-01

    In central Europe, ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate make up a large fraction of fine particles which pose a threat to human health. Most studies on air pollution through particulate matter investigate the influence of emission reductions of sulphur- and nitrogen oxides on aerosol concentration. Here, we focus on the influence of ammonia (NH3) emissions. Emission scenarios have been created on the basis of the improved ammonia emission parameterization implemented in the SMOKE for Europe and CMAQ model systems described in part I of this study. This includes emissions based on future European legislation (the National Emission Ceilings) as well as a dynamic evaluation of the influence of different agricultural sectors (e.g. animal husbandry) on particle formation. The study compares the concentrations of NH3, NH4+, NO3 -, sulphur compounds and the total concentration of particles in winter and summer for a political-, technical- and behavioural scenario. It was found that a reduction of ammonia emissions by 50% lead to a 24% reduction of the total PM2.5 concentrations in northwest Europe. The observed reduction was mainly driven by reduced formation of ammonium nitrate. Moreover, emission reductions during winter had a larger impact than during the rest of the year. This leads to the conclusion that a reduction of the ammonia emissions from the agricultural sector related to animal husbandry could be more efficient than the reduction from other sectors due to its larger share in winter ammonia emissions.

  9. Ammonia emission from crop residues : quantification of ammonia volatilization based on crop residue properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, de F.J.; Huijsmans, J.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of available literature data on ammonia volatilization from crop residues. From these data, a relation is derived for the ammonia emission depending on the N-content of crop residue.

  10. Modelling of ammonia emissions from dairy cow houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteny, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    Dairy cow husbandry contributes to environmental acidification through the emission of ammonia. In-depth knowledge on the processes and variable factors that play a role in the emission of ammonia from dairy cow houses benefits the production of emission data, the development of low emission housing

  11. Options and Costs of Controlling Ammonia Emissions in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Klaassen, G.

    1994-01-01

    Ammonia emissions contribute to acidification in Europe. The major emission sources are livestock and fertilizer use. This study presents the costs of controlling ammonia emissions in 33 regions in Europe. Abatement options include low nitrogen feed, stable adaptations, covering manure storage, cleaning stable air, and low ammonia applications of manure. Cost estimates are based on country- and technology-specific data. The structure of livestock population and fertilizer use mean that th...

  12. Ammonia emissions in Europe, part I: Development of a dynamical ammonia emission inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Anna; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen input from agricultural ammonia emissions into the environment causes numerous environmental and health problems. The purpose of this study is to present and evaluate an improved ammonia emission inventory based on a dynamical temporal parameterization suitable to compare and assess ammonia abatement strategies. The setup of the dynamical time profile (DTP) consists of individual temporal profiles for ammonia emissions, calculated for each model grid cell, depending on temperature, crop type, fertilizer and manure application, as well as on local legislation. It is based on the method of Skjøth et al., 2004 and Gyldenkærne et al., 2005. The method has been modified to cover the study area and to improve the performance of the emission model. To compare the results of the dynamical approach with the results of the static time profile (STP) the ammonia emission parameterizations have been implemented in the SMOKE for Europe emission model. Furthermore, the influence on secondary aerosol formation in the North Sea region and possible changes triggered through the use of a modified temporal distribution of ammonia emissions were analysed with the CMAQ chemistry transport model. The results were evaluated with observations of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP). The correlation coefficient of NH3 improved significantly for 12 out of 16 EMEP measurement stations and an improvement in predicting the Normalized Mean Error can be seen for particulate NH4+ and NO3-. The prediction of the 95th percentile of the daily average concentrations has improved for NH3, NH4+ and NO3-. The NH3 concentration modelled with the STP is 157% higher in winter, and about 22% lower in early summer than the one modelled with the new DTP. Consequently, the influence of the DTP on the formation of secondary aerosols is particularly noticeable in winter, when the PM2.5 concentration is 25% lower in comparison to the use of STP for temporal disaggregation. Besides

  13. Ammonia emission time profiles based on manure transport data improve ammonia modelling across north western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, C.; Kranenburg, R.; Kuenen, J. J. P.; Van den Bril, B.; Verguts, V.; Schaap, M.

    2016-04-01

    Accurate modelling of mitigation measures for nitrogen deposition and secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) episodes requires a detailed representation of emission patterns from agriculture. In this study the meteorological influence on the temporal variability of ammonia emissions from livestock housing and application of manure and fertilizer are included in the chemistry transport model LOTOS-EUROS. For manure application, manure transport data from Flanders (Belgium) were used as a proxy to derive the emission variability. Using improved ammonia emission variability strongly improves model performance for ammonia, mainly by a better representation of the spring maximum. The impact on model performance for SIA was negligible as explained by the limited, ammonia rich region in which the emission variability was updated. The contribution of Flemish agriculture to modelled annual mean ammonia and SIA concentrations in Flanders were quantified at respectively 7-8 and 1-2 μg/m3. A scenario study was performed to investigate the effects of reducing ammonia emissions from manure application during PM episodes by 75%, yielding a maximum reduction in modelled SIA levels of 1-3 μg/m3 during episodes. Year-to-year emission variability and a soil module to explicitly model the emission process from manure and fertilizer application are needed to further improve the modelling of the ammonia budget.

  14. Study of Ammonia Emissions in a Ventilated Pig Pen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li

    reported in literature, little effort has been made to investigate the accuracy of current Henry’s law constant for modeling ammonia mass transfer process and study ammonia emissions in a full scale pig pen from fluid dynamics by CFD simulations. This will be the main objectives of this study. The ammonia...... the accuracy of Henry’s law constants to determine the ammonia concentration in the air through the air-liquid interface. None of the present Henry’s law constant models provide a respectable agreement between simulated and measured results. A simplified model to determine the ammonia concentration in the air...... through the air-liquid interface is suggested from vapor-liquid equilibrium properties of ammonia water. Furthermore, the effects of airflow and temperature on ammonia mass transfer coefficient are also analyzed under different concentration boundary conditions determined by various Henry’s law constant...

  15. A spatial ammonia emission inventory for pig farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolledo, Boris; Gil, Antonia; Pallarés, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric emissions of ammonia (NH3) from the agricultural sector have become a significant environmental and public concern as they have impacts on human health and ecosystems. This work proposes an improved methodology in order to identify administrative regions with high NH3 emissions from pig farming and calculates an ammonia density map (kg NH3-N ha-1), based on the number of pigs and available agricultural land, terrain slopes, groundwater bodies, soil permeability, zones sensitive to nitrate pollution and surface water buffer zones. The methodology has been used to construct a general tool for locating ammonia emissions from pig farming when detailed information of livestock farms is not available.

  16. A new inventory of ammonia emissions from Irish agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, B. P.; Carton, O. T.; O'Toole, P.; Misselbrook, T. H.

    Agriculture plays a vital role in the Irish economy, accounting for 3.5% of the gross domestic product (GDP) in 2000. Grassland farming and, in particular, cattle rearing and dairying accounts for more than 90% of farming activity. In addition, there have been significant increases in the number of sheep, pigs and poultry over the last twenty years. As a consequence, gaseous nitrogen (N) emissions have shown a clear upward trend. Following the adoption of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Gothenburg protocol (Protocol to the 1979 convention on long-range transboundary air pollution to abate acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone. United Nations Economic Commissions for Europe (UNECE), Geneva.), Ireland has to achieve a 9% reduction in national ammonia (NH 3) emissions between 1990 and 2010. The agricultural sector accounts for virtually all NH 3 emissions in Ireland. It is on this basis that a new inventory of NH 3 emissions from agriculture has been produced. This paper describes the adoption of the UK national inventory model to Irish agricultural systems, the results of model calculations and the measures available to enable compliance with national targets and areas within the inventory, which require further investigation. Estimated total emissions from Irish agriculture were 89.9 and 91.8 kt NH 3-N for 1991 and 2010, respectively. Cattle farming accounts for more than 75% of total emissions. The largest emission factors found included 46.9 g NH 3-N lu -1 d -1 for cattle housing, 29.5 g NH 3-N lu -1 d -1 for pig housing and 150 g NH 3-N lu -1 d -1 for housed broilers (lu being equivalent to 500 kg live weight). In addition, model predictions for the year 2010 showed that without any abatement strategies being implemented, NH 3 emissions would exceed the agreed national emission reduction target by 12%. It was also found that strategies for reducing emissions from the land spreading of manure offer the greatest potential to

  17. Managing Ammonia Emissions From Screwworm Larval Rearing Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagel, Agustin; Phillips, Pamela; Chaudhury, Muhammad; Skoda, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Mass production, sterilization, and release of screwworms (Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel)) that were competitive in the field significantly contributed to the successful application of the sterile insect technique for eradication of screwworms from continental North America. Metabolic byproducts resulting from protein-rich diets required for larval screwworms lead to ammonia liberation, sometimes at high levels, within the mass rearing facility. Until recently a sodium polyacrylate gel bulking agent was used for the larval media and adsorbed much of the ammonia. A need to replace the gel with an environmentally "friendly" bulking agent, while not increasing ammonia levels in the rearing facility, led to a series of experiments with the objective of developing procedures to reduce ammonia emissions from the larval media bulked with cellulose fiber. Additives of ammonia-converting bacteria, potassium permanganate, and Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Otrgies powder extract, previously reported to reduce ammonia levels in organic environments, were evaluated. Ammonia-converting bacteria did not have a positive effect. Addition of Y. schidigera powder extract (∼1% of total volume), potassium permanganate (∼250 ppm), and a combination of these two additives (at these same concentrations) kept ammonia at equivalent levels as when larval media was bulked with gel. Potassium permanganate also had sufficient antimicrobial properties that the use of formaldehyde in the diet was not necessary. Further testing is needed, at a mass rearing level, before full implementation into the screwworm eradication program.

  18. Managing Ammonia Emissions From Screwworm Larval Rearing Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagel, Agustin; Phillips, Pamela; Chaudhury, Muhammad; Skoda, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Mass production, sterilization, and release of screwworms (Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel)) that were competitive in the field significantly contributed to the successful application of the sterile insect technique for eradication of screwworms from continental North America. Metabolic byproducts resulting from protein-rich diets required for larval screwworms lead to ammonia liberation, sometimes at high levels, within the mass rearing facility. Until recently a sodium polyacrylate gel bulking agent was used for the larval media and adsorbed much of the ammonia. A need to replace the gel with an environmentally "friendly" bulking agent, while not increasing ammonia levels in the rearing facility, led to a series of experiments with the objective of developing procedures to reduce ammonia emissions from the larval media bulked with cellulose fiber. Additives of ammonia-converting bacteria, potassium permanganate, and Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Otrgies powder extract, previously reported to reduce ammonia levels in organic environments, were evaluated. Ammonia-converting bacteria did not have a positive effect. Addition of Y. schidigera powder extract (∼1% of total volume), potassium permanganate (∼250 ppm), and a combination of these two additives (at these same concentrations) kept ammonia at equivalent levels as when larval media was bulked with gel. Potassium permanganate also had sufficient antimicrobial properties that the use of formaldehyde in the diet was not necessary. Further testing is needed, at a mass rearing level, before full implementation into the screwworm eradication program. PMID:26468514

  19. Ammonia emission inventory for the state of Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Maser, Colette R.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2003-12-17

    Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) is the only significant gaseous base in the atmosphere and it has a variety of impacts as an atmospheric pollutant, including the formation of secondary aerosol particles: ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate. NH{sub 3} preferentially forms ammonium sulfate; consequently ammonium nitrate aerosol formation may be limited by the availability of NH{sub 3}. Understanding the impact of emissions of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen on visibility, therefore, requires accurately determined ammonia emission inventories for use in air quality models, upon which regulatory and policy decisions increasingly depend. This report presents an emission inventory of NH{sub 3} for the state of Wyoming. The inventory is temporally and spatially resolved at the monthly and county level, and is comprised of emissions from individual sources in ten categories: livestock, fertilizer, domestic animals, wild animals, wildfires, soil, industry, mobile sources, humans, and publicly owned treatment works. The Wyoming NH{sub 3} inventory was developed using the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Ammonia Model as framework. Current Wyoming-specific activity data and emissions factors obtained from state agencies and published literature were assessed and used as inputs to the CMU Ammonia Model. Biogenic emissions from soils comprise about three-quarters of the Wyoming NH{sub 3} inventory, though emission factors from soils are highly uncertain. Published emission factors are scarce and based on limited measurements. In Wyoming, agricultural land, rangeland, and forests comprise 96% of the land area and essentially all of the estimated emissions from soils. Future research on emission rates of NH{sub 3} for these land categories may lead to a substantial change in the magnitude of soil emissions, a different inventory composition, and reduced uncertainty in the inventory. While many NH{sub 3} inventories include annual emissions, air quality modeling studies require finer temporal

  20. Ammonia emissions from cattle urine and dung excreted on pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laubach, J; Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo; Gibbs, S J;

    2013-01-01

    Twelve cattle were kept for three days in a circular area of 16 m radius on short pasture and fed with freshly-cut pasture. Ammonia (NH3) emissions from the urine and dung excreted by the cattle were measured with a micrometeorological mass-balance method, during the cattle presence and for 10 su...

  1. Net summertime emission of ammonia from corn and triticale fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Undine; Smith, Jeremy; Brümmer, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Recent advancements in laser spectrometry offer new opportunities to investigate ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of environmentally relevant trace gases. In this study, we used a quantum cascade laser (QCL) absorption spectrometer to continuously measure high-frequency concentrations of ammonia and the net exchange between an agricultural site and the atmosphere based on the eddy-covariance approach. The footprint was split into two main sectors, one planted with corn (Zea mays) and the other one with triticale. Ammonia concentrations were highly variable between 2 and almost 100 ppb with an average value of 8.1 ppb during the observation period from April to September 2015. While both deposition and emission of ammonia was observed, the total campaign exchange resulted in a loss of 3.3 kg NH3-N ha‑1. Highest average emission fluxes of 65 ng N m‑2 s‑1 were recorded after fertilization at the beginning of the campaign in April and May. Afterwards the exchange of ammonia with the atmosphere decreased considerably, but the site remained on average a consistent source with sporadic lower peaks and an average flux of 13 ng N m‑2 s‑1. While management in the form of fertilization was the main driver for ammonia concentration and exchange at the site, biophysical controls from temperature, wind regime, and surface wetness are also presented.

  2. Ammonia emissions in tunnel-ventilated broiler houses

    OpenAIRE

    KAO Lima; DJ de Moura; TMR Carvalho; LGF Bueno; RA Vercellino

    2011-01-01

    Gas production in broiler houses and their emissions are closely related to the microclimate established inside the house according to air temperature, humidity, and velocity. Therefore, the internal house environment is influenced by building typology and ventilation system. The objective of the present study was to evaluate ammonia emission rates in broiler houses equipped with different ventilation systems (negative or positive pressure) and litter conditions (new or built-up). The environ...

  3. Gaseous ammonia in the urban area of Rome, Italy and its relationship with traffic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrino, C.; Catrambone, M.; Di Menno Di Bucchianico, A.; Allegrini, I.

    The atmospheric concentration of gaseous ammonia has been measured during selected field campaigns from the spring of 2001 to the spring of 2002 in the urban area of Rome, at many traffic sites and at an urban background site. The concentration level at the traffic sites was in all cases about five times the background level and always much higher than the concentration in a rural near-city area. The time trend of ammonia is well correlated with the trend of a primary low-reactivity pollutant such as carbon monoxide. The concentration values of both pollutants depend on the intensity of traffic emission and on the atmospheric mixing in the boundary layer. Ammonia concentration is also dependent on the air temperature. A close link between NH 3 and CO air values has been confirmed at all the measurement stations of the Air Quality Network of Rome. These results indicate that the emissions from petrol-engine vehicles equipped with catalytic converters can be an important source of ammonia in urban areas. The implications of these findings for the chemistry of the urban atmosphere need to be carefully considered.

  4. Global Ammonia Distributions and Recent Trends from AIRS 13-years Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, J. X.; Wei, Z.; Strow, L. L.; Nowak, J. B.; Dickerson, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia is an integral part of the nitrogen cycle and is projected to be the largest single contributor to each of acidification, eutrophication and secondary particulate matter in Europe by 2020 (Sutton et al., 2008). The impacts of NH3 also include: aerosol production affecting global radiative forcing, increases in emissions of the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4), and modification of the transport and deposition patterns of SO2 and NOx. Therefore, monitoring NH3 global distribution of sources is vitally important to human health with respect to both air and water quality and climate change. We have developed new daily and global ammonia (NH3) products from AIRS hyperspectral measurements. These products add value to AIRS's existing products that have made significant contributions to weather forecasts, climate studies, and air quality monitoring. With longer than 13 years of data records, these measurements have been used not only for daily monitoring purposes but also for inter-annual variability and short-term trend studies. We will discuss the global NH3 emission sources from biogenic and anthropogenic activities over many emission regions captured by AIRS. We will focus their variability in the last 13 years. Validation examples using in situ measurements for AIRS NH3 will also be presented.

  5. Effects of Different Concentrations of Ammonia Nitrogen on N_2O Emission in the Process of Partial Nitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN; Lin; KONG; Qiang; ZHANG; Jian; MIAO; Ming-sheng

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to discuss the effects of different concentrations of ammonia nitrogen on N2O emission in the process of partial nitrification. [Method] By using a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) under intermittent aeration, the influences of various concentrations of influent ammonia nitrogen on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from partial nitrification were analyzed. [Result] When the concentration of influent ammonia nitrogen varied from 200 to 400 mg/L, the changing trends of DO and ORP value were consistent during the process of partial nitrification, and the concentration ratio of NO-2-N to NH+4-N in effluent water reached 1∶1, with lower NO-3-N level. In addition, ammonia nitrogen concentration in the influent had significant effects on N2O emission in the process of partial nitrification, that is, the higher the ammonia nitrogen concentration, the more the N2O emission. When ammonia nitrogen concentration was 400 mg/L, N2O emission was up to about 37 mg. [Conclusion] N2O emission in the process of partial nitrification might be related to the concentrations of NH+4 and NO-2.

  6. Effects of Different Concentrations of Ammonia Nitrogen on N2O Emission in the Process of Partial Nitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN; Lin; KONG; Qiang; ZHANG; Jian; MIAO; Ming-sheng

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to discuss the effects of different concentrations of ammonia nitrogen on N2O emission in the process of partial nitrification. [Method] By using a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) under intermittent aeration, the influences of various concentrations of influent ammonia nitrogen on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from partial nitrification were analyzed. [Result] When the concentration of influent ammonia nitrogen varied from 200 to 400 mg/L, the changing trends of DO and ORP value were consistent during the process of partial nitrification, and the concentration ratio of NO-2-N to NH+4-N in effluent water reached 1∶1, with lower NO-3-N level. In addition, ammonia nitrogen concentration in the influent had significant effects on N2O emission in the process of partial nitrification, that is, the higher the ammonia nitrogen concentration, the more the N2O emission. When ammonia nitrogen concentration was 400 mg/L, N2O emission was up to about 37 mg. [Conclusion] N2O emission in the process of partial nitrification might be related to the concentrations of NH+4 and NO-2.

  7. Paecilomyces variotii: A Fungus Capable of Removing Ammonia Nitrogen and Inhibiting Ammonia Emission from Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyun; Liu, Guohua; Cai, Huiyi; Shi, Pengjun; Chang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Shu; Zheng, Aijuan; Xie, Qing; Ma, Jianshuang

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal manure are a significant environmental and public concern. Despite the numerous studies regarding NH3 emissions from manure, few of them have considered microbial nitrification approaches, especially fungal nitrification. In this study, a filamentous fungus was isolated from chicken manure and was used for nitrification. The species was Paecilomyces variotii by morphological characteristics and 18S rDNA gene sequencing. It played the biggest role in the removal of ammonium at pH 4.0–7.0, C/N ratio of 10–40, temperature of 25–37°C, shaking speed of 150 rpm, and with glucose as the available carbon source. Further analysis revealed that all ammonium was removed when the initial ammonium concentration was less than 100 mg/L; 40% ammonium was removed when the initial ammonium concentration was 1100 mg/L. The results showed that the concentration of ammonia from chicken manure with strain Paecilomyces variotii was significantly lower than that in the control group. We concluded that Paecilomyces variotii has good potential for future applications in in situ ammonium removal as well as ammonia emissions control from poultry manure. PMID:27348533

  8. Cost Functions for Controlling Ammonia Emissions in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Klaassen, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a submodule which computes the costs of controlling ammonia emissions in 27 European countries. The submodule will be incorporated into the RAINS (Regional Acidification INformation and Simulation) model. Abatement options included are low nitrogen feed, stable adaptations, covering manure storage, biofiltration and low nitrogen applications of manure. Cost estimates are based on country-, animal-, and technology specific data such as the stable size and fertilizer price, ...

  9. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

    2012-12-01

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California. The IFSM is a process-level farm model that simulates crop growth, feed production and use, animal growth, and the return of manure nutrients back to the land to predict the environmental impacts and economics of production systems. Ammonia emissions are determined by summing the emissions from animal housing facilities, manure storage, field applied manure, and direct deposits of manure on pasture and rangeland. All important sources and sinks of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide are predicted from primary and secondary emission sources. Primary sources include enteric fermentation, manure, cropland used in feed production, and fuel combustion. Secondary emissions occur during the production of resources used on the farm, which include fuel, electricity, machinery, fertilizer, and purchased animals. The carbon footprint is the net exchange of all GHG in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e) units per kg of HCW produced. Simulated beef production systems included cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot phases for the traditional British beef breeds and calf ranch and feedlot phases for Holstein steers. An evaluation of differing production management strategies resulted in ammonia emissions ranging from 98 ± 13 to 141 ± 27 g/kg HCW and carbon footprints of 10.7 ± 1.4 to 22.6 ± 2.0 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW. Within the British beef production cycle, the cow-calf phase was responsible for 69 to 72% of total GHG emissions with 17 to 27% from feedlot sources. Holstein steers that entered the beef production system as a by-product of dairy production had the lowest carbon footprint because the emissions

  10. MEASUREMENT OF AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM MECHANICALLY VENTILATED POULTRY HOUSES USING MULTIPATH TUNABLE DIODE LASER SPECTROSCOPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia emissions from mechanically ventilated poultry operations are an important environmental concern. Open Path Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy has emerged as a robust real-time method for gas phase measurement of ammonia concentrations in agricultural settings. ...

  11. Non-agricultural ammonia emissions in urban China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y. H.

    2014-03-01

    The non-agricultural ammonia (NH3) emissions in cities have received little attention but could rival agricultural sources in term of the efficiency in PM formation. The starting point for finding credible solutions is to comprehensively establish a city-specific Non-agricultural Ammonia Emission Inventory (NAEI) and identify the largest sources where efforts can be directed to deliver the largest impact. In this paper, I present a NAEI of 113 national key cities targeted on environmental protection in China in 2010, which for the first time covers NH3 emissions from pets, infants, smokers, green land, and household products. Results show that totally 210 478 Mg, the NH3 emissions from traffic, fuel combustion, waste disposal, pets, green land, human, and household products are 67 671 Mg, 56 275 Mg, 44 289 Mg, 23 355 Mg, 7509 Mg, 7312 Mg, and 4069 Mg, respectively. The NH3 emission intensity from the municipal districts ranges from 0.08 to 3.13 Mg km-2 yr-1, with a average of 0.84 Mg km-2 yr-1. The high NH3 emission intensities in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Yangtze River Delta region and Pearl River Delta region support the view that non-agricultural NH3 sources play a key role in city-scale NH3 emissions and thus have potentially important implications for secondary PM formation (ammonium-sulfate-nitrate system) in urban agglomeration of China. Therefore, in addition to current SO2 and NOx controls, China also needs to allocate more scientific, technical, and legal resources on controlling non-agricultural NH3 emissions in the future.

  12. Nitrogenous fertilizers: Global distribution of consumption and associated emissions of nitrous exide and ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Elaine

    1994-12-01

    The global distribution of nitrogen input via application of chemical nitrogenous fertilizers to agricultural ecosystems is presented. The suite of 1° (latitude/longitude) resolution data bases includes primary data on fertilizer consumption, as well as supporting data sets defining the distribution and intensity of agriculture associated with fertilizer use. The data were developed from a variety of sources and reflect conditions for the mid-1980s. East Asia, where fertilizer use is increasing at ˜10%/year, accounted for ˜37% of the total, while North America and western Europe, where fertilizer use is leveling off, accounted for 17% and 14% of global use, respectively. Former centrally planned economies of Europe consumed one fifth of the 1984 total, but rapid increases in the 1980s are slowing, and consumption trends are variable. The most widely used chemical nitrogenous fertilizer is urea which accounted for 40% of the world's total in the mid-1980s. While almost every country consumes urea, ˜75% of the large East Asian fertilizer use is supplied by this one fertilizer. Ammonium nitrate, used primarily in the former centrally planned economies of Europe, in West Asia, and in Africa, accounted for about one quarter of global consumption. These data were used to estimate distributions of the annual emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) and of ammonia (NH3) associated with the use of fertilizers. Applying published ranges of emission coefficients for fertilizer types in the data base yields a median emission of 0.1 Tg N2O-N, with lower and upper values of 0.03 and 2.0 Tg N2O-N in 1984. This equals fertilizers and represents fertilizers during the 1980s corresponds to a ˜4% rise in the release of N2O-N, yearly increases in emissions from fertilizer use are fertilizer-derived nitrous oxide emissions are available for agricultural environments in the tropics/subtropics, where ˜40% of fertilizer N is consumed and where consumption is increasing rapidly, relative

  13. [Study on Ammonia Emission Rules in a Dairy Feedlot Based on Laser Spectroscopy Detection Method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Zhang, Yu-jun; You, Kun; Wang, Li-ming; Gao, Yan-wei; Xu, Jin-feng; Gao, Zhi-ling; Ma, Wen-qi

    2016-03-01

    It needs on-line monitoring of ammonia concentration on dairy feedlot to disclose ammonia emissions characteristics accurately for reducing ammonia emissions and improving the ecological environment. The on-line monitoring system for ammonia concentration has been designed based on Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) technology combining with long open-path technology, then the study has been carried out with inverse dispersion technique and the system. The ammonia concentration in-situ has been detected and ammonia emission rules have been analyzed on a dairy feedlot in Baoding in autumn and winter of 2013. The monitoring indicated that the peak of ammonia concentration was 6.11 x 10(-6) in autumn, and that was 6.56 x 10(-6) in winter. The concentration results show that the variation of ammonia concentration had an obvious diurnal periodicity, and the general characteristic of diurnal variation was that the concentration was low in the daytime and was high at night. The ammonia emissions characteristic was obtained with inverse dispersion model that the peak of ammonia emissions velocity appeared at noon. The emission velocity was from 1.48 kg/head/hr to 130.6 kg/head/hr in autumn, and it was from 0.004 5 kg/head/hr to 43.32 kg/head/hr in winter which was lower than that in autumn. The results demonstrated ammonia emissions had certain seasonal differences in dairy feedlot scale. In conclusion, the ammonia concentration was detected with optical technology, and the ammonia emissions results were acquired by inverse dispersion model analysis with large range, high sensitivity, quick response without gas sampling. Thus, it's an effective method for ammonia emissions monitoring in dairy feedlot that provides technical support for scientific breeding.

  14. Managing ammonia emissions from livestock production in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, J. [ADAS Research, Woodthorne, Wergs Road, Wolverhampton WV6 8TQ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jim.webb@adas.co.uk; Menzi, H. [Swiss College of Agriculture, Laenggasse 85, CH-3052 Zollikofen (Switzerland); Pain, B.F. [Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Misselbrook, T.H. [Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Daemmgen, U. [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Institute of Agroecology, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Hendriks, H. [National Reference Centre, Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality, Ede (Netherlands); Doehler, H. [KTBL, Bartningstrasse 49, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-06-15

    Around 75% of European ammonia (NH{sub 3}) emissions come from livestock production. Emissions occur at all stages of manure management: from buildings housing livestock; during manure storage; following manure application to land; and from urine deposited by livestock on pastures during grazing. Ammoniacal nitrogen (total ammoniacal-nitrogen, TAN) in livestock excreta is the main source of NH{sub 3}. At each stage of manure management TAN may be lost, mainly as NH{sub 3}, and the remainder passed to the next stage. Hence, measures to reduce NH{sub 3} emissions at the various stages of manure management are interdependent, and the accumulative reduction achieved by combinations of measures is not simply additive. This TAN-flow concept enables rapid and easy estimation of the consequences of NH{sub 3} abatement at one stage of manure management (upstream) on NH{sub 3} emissions at later stages (downstream), and gives unbiased assessment of the most cost-effective measures. We conclude that rapid incorporation of manures into arable land is one of the most cost-effective measures to reduce NH{sub 3} emissions, while covering manure stores and applying slurry by band spreader or injection are more cost-effective than measures to reduce emissions from buildings. These measures are likely to rank highly in most European countries. - Reducing NH{sub 3} emissions following spreading of manures to land ranks highly because of the large abatement potential and relatively small cost.

  15. Managing ammonia emissions from livestock production in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Around 75% of European ammonia (NH3) emissions come from livestock production. Emissions occur at all stages of manure management: from buildings housing livestock; during manure storage; following manure application to land; and from urine deposited by livestock on pastures during grazing. Ammoniacal nitrogen (total ammoniacal-nitrogen, TAN) in livestock excreta is the main source of NH3. At each stage of manure management TAN may be lost, mainly as NH3, and the remainder passed to the next stage. Hence, measures to reduce NH3 emissions at the various stages of manure management are interdependent, and the accumulative reduction achieved by combinations of measures is not simply additive. This TAN-flow concept enables rapid and easy estimation of the consequences of NH3 abatement at one stage of manure management (upstream) on NH3 emissions at later stages (downstream), and gives unbiased assessment of the most cost-effective measures. We conclude that rapid incorporation of manures into arable land is one of the most cost-effective measures to reduce NH3 emissions, while covering manure stores and applying slurry by band spreader or injection are more cost-effective than measures to reduce emissions from buildings. These measures are likely to rank highly in most European countries. - Reducing NH3 emissions following spreading of manures to land ranks highly because of the large abatement potential and relatively small cost

  16. An Assessment of Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Facilities in Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Ferguson

    2001-01-01

    . Reduction of ammonia emissions from dairy barns can significantly reduce atmospheric pollution and improve air and water quality.

  17. An assessment of ammonia emissions from dairy facilities in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J D; Dou, Z; Ramberg, C F

    2001-10-26

    A survey of 715 Holstein dairy farms in Pennsylvania was used to construct demographics for the average Holstein dairy farm. The average Holstein dairy farm was composed of 69 lactating cows; 11 nonlactating, pregnant cows; 44 heifers; and 18 calves. Milk production averaged 27.3 kg (60.0 lb). Crop area averaged 73.6 ha. Milk production, crop area and type, average county yields, and herd animal groups were used to construct a typical feeding program for these farms. Typical rations were constructed for six feeding groups (three milk production groups, one nonlactating group, two heifer groups) to meet milk production, pregnancy, and growth requirements. Rations were constructed based on three forage qualities (excellent, average, and poor) typically observed on Pennsylvania dairy farms. Data for animal description (milk production, body weight, growth, and pregnancy status) and ration components and amounts consumed for each animal group were input into the excretion model of the Dairy Nutrient Planner computer program (DNP). Excretion of fecal N and dry matter (DM), urinary N, and total P and K were produced for each animal group and used to assess potential volatile losses of N. Work at the Marshak Dairy, New Bolton Center, indicates the majority of urinary N is rapidly lost as ammonia from dairy facilities. Based on this observation, the losses of N as ammonia were estimated to be 4.63, 4.62, and 4.28 tonne/year for the farm with excellent, average, and poor quality forages, respectively. Volatile losses of N may be reduced most by controlling levels of urea in urine. Urinary N may be reduced through dietary manipulation of protein and carbohydrate sources. Conversion of urea to ammonia may be reduced by altering the pH of barn floors and gutters. Entrapment of ammonia may be accomplished by acidification of manure slurry. Atmospheric ammonia contributes to acid rain, eutrophication of estuaries and lakes, and particulate air pollution. Reduction of ammonia

  18. Ammonia emissions from deciduous forest after leaf fall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hansen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of biochemical feedback mechanisms in the climate system is lacking knowledge in relation to bi-directional ammonia (NH3 exchange between natural ecosystems and the atmosphere. We therefore study the atmospheric NH3 fluxes during a 25-day period during autumn 2010 (21 October to 15 November for the Danish beech forest Lille Bøgeskov to address the hypothesis that NH3 emissions occur from deciduous forests in relation to leaf fall. This is accomplished by using observations of vegetation status, NH3 fluxes and model calculations. Vegetation status was observed using plant area index (PAI and leaf area index (LAI. NH3 fluxes were measured using the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA method. The REA-based NH3 concentrations were compared to NH3 denuder measurements. Model calculations of the atmospheric NH3 concentration were obtained with the Danish Ammonia MOdelling System (DAMOS. The relative contribution from the forest components to the atmospheric NH3 flux was assessed using a simple two-layer bi-directional canopy compensation point model. A total of 57.7% of the fluxes measured showed emission and 19.5% showed deposition. A clear tendency of the flux going from deposition of −0.25 ± 0.30 μg NH3-N m−2 s−1 to emission of up to 0.67 ± 0.28 μg NH3-N m−2 s−1 throughout the measurement period was found. In the leaf fall period (23 October to 8 November, an increase in the atmospheric NH3 concentrations was related to the increasing forest NH3 flux. Following leaf fall, the magnitude and temporal structure of the measured NH3 emission fluxes could be adequately reproduced with the bi-directional resistance model; it suggested the forest ground layer (soil and litter to be the main contributing component to the NH3 emissions. The modelled concentration from DAMOS fits well the measured concentrations before leaf fall, but during and after leaf fall, the modelled concentrations are too low. The results indicate that the

  19. Ammonia emissions from cattle urine and dung excreted on pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Laubach

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve cattle were kept for three days in a circular area of 16 m radius on short pasture and fed with freshly-cut pasture. Ammonia (NH3 emissions from the urine and dung excreted by the cattle were measured with a micrometeorological mass-balance method, during the cattle presence and for 10 subsequent days. Daily-integrated emission rates peaked on Day 3 of the experiment (last day of cattle presence and declined steadily for five days thereafter. Urine patches were the dominant sources for these emissions. On Day 9, a secondary emissions peak occurred, with dung pats likely to be the main sources. This interpretation is based on simultaneous observations of the pH evolution in urine patches and dung pats created next to the circular plot. Feed and dung samples were analysed to estimate the amounts of nitrogen (N ingested and excreted. Total N volatilised as NH3 was 19.8 (± 0.9% of N intake and 22.4 (± 1.3% of N excreted. The bimodal shape of the emissions time series allowed to infer separate estimates for volatilisation from urine and dung, respectively, with the result that urine accounted for 88.6 (± 2.6% of the total NH3 emissions. The emissions from urine represented 25.5 (± 2.0% of the excreted urine-N, while the emissions from dung amounted to 11.6 (± 2.7% of the deposited dung-N. Emissions from dung may have continued after Day 13 but were not resolved by the measurement technique. A simple resistance model shows that the magnitude of the emissions from dung is controlled by the resistance of the dung crust.

  20. Improved temporal resolution in process-based modelling of agricultural soil ammonia emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuning, J. D.; Pattey, E.; Edwards, G.; Van Heyst, B. J.

    An emerging environmental issue in Canada is how to quantify the contribution of agricultural soil emissions of ammonia (NH 3) to environmental pollution. Emission inventories are essential to predict these emissions and their subsequent atmospheric transportation, transformation, and deposition. Due to the high spatial and temporal variability associated with NH 3 emissions, emission inventories based on measurements become expensive and emission factors lose accuracy. Process-based models are capable of accounting for the complex soil interactions, but current models lack temporal refinement and few models consider NH 3 emissions. This paper presents the development of a one-dimensional (vertical), time-dependent model capable of predicting NH 3 emissions from a slurry applied to a bare soil. The model is based on chemical, physical and biological relationships that govern soil heat, moisture, and nitrogen movement. Processes considered include convection, diffusion, decomposition, nitrification, denitrification, and surface to atmosphere transport. The model is tested with experimental data from Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada which conducted NH 3 measurements following application of dairy cattle slurry to a bare field. An investigation into the sensitivity of emissions to pH and slurry infiltration rate is conducted and model predictions are best fit to measurements based on this investigation. Testing demonstrated the model's ability to predict the large NH 3 emissions immediately following application and subsequent emission trends associated with diurnal patterns that emission factors cannot capture. Results showed that model performance could benefit from a more in depth measurement program and empirical or process models of surface pH. Potential exists for the model to become a useful tool in predicting emissions on local, regional, or national scales.

  1. Using passive flux samplers to determine the ammonia emission from mechanically ventilated animal houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosquera Losada, J.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Scholtens, R.

    2003-01-01

    Ammonia emissions from animal houses are an important environmental issue in the Netherlands. The current technique in the Netherlands to measure ammonia emissions in mechanically ventilated animal houses is the chemiluminescence method (using a NOx monitor after conversion of NH3 to NO). During cam

  2. Ammonia Emissions from agricultural fertilizer in China: From 1978 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P.

    2015-12-01

    The quantification of ammonia (NH3) emissions is essential to the more accurate quantification of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, improved air quality and the assessment of ammonia-related agricultural policy and climate mitigation strategies. Chinese agricultural fertilizer (CAF), which is widely used in China, is the nation's largest source of NH3 emissions. The quantity, geographic distribution and historical trends of these emissions remain largely uncertain. In this paper, a new CAF NH3 (CAF_NH3) emissions inventory has been compiled that exhibits the following improvements: (1) a 1 ´1 km gridded map on the county level was developed for 2008; (2) a combined bottom-up and top-down method was used for the local correction of emission factors (EFs) and parameters; (3) time trends were derived for 1978-2008 in which the spatial and temporal patterns and the uncertainties associated with the inventory were quantified; and (4) a sensitivity test was performed in which a province-level disaggregated map was compared with CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008. The total CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008 were 8.4 TgNH3·yr-1 (a 6.6-9.8 Tg interquartile range). From 1978 to 2008, annual NH3 emissions fluctuated with three peaks (1987, 1996 and 2005), and total emissions increased from 3.2 to 8.4 Tg at an annual rate of 3.0%. During the study period, the contribution of livestock manure spreading increased from 37.0% to 45.5% because of changing fertilization practices and the rapid increase in egg, milk and meat consumption. The average contribution of synthetic fertilizer, which has a positive effect on crop yields, was approximately 38.3% (minimum: 33.4%; maximum: 42.7%). With rapid urbanization causing a decline in the rural population, the contribution of the rural excrement sector varied widely between 20.3% and 8.5%. The average contributions of cake fertilizer and straw returning were approximately 3.8% and 4.5%, respectively, thus small and stable. Collectively, the CAF NH3

  3. Emissions Trading: Trends and Prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This paper provides the latest developments of announced, proposed and existing greenhouse gas emissions trading schemes (ETS) around the world since 2006. It also examines different potential design options for ETS (e.g. coverage, allocation mode, provision for offsets), and how these options are treated in the existing, announced or proposed schemes.

  4. Understanding emissions of ammonia from buildings and application of fertilizers: an example from Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, M.; C. Ambelas Skjøth; M. Kryza; Dore, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    A Europe-wide dynamic ammonia (NH3) emissions model has been applied for one of the large agricultural countries in Europe, and its sensitivity on the distribution of emissions among different agricultural functions was analysed by comparing with observed ammonia concentrations and by implementing all scenarios in a chemical transport model (CTM). The results suggest that the dynamic emission model is most sensitive to emission from animal manure, in particular h...

  5. Ammonia emissions from non-agricultural sources in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, M. A.; Dragosits, U.; Tang, Y. S.; Fowler, D.

    A detailed literature review has been undertaken of the magnitude of non-agricultural sources of ammonia (NH 3) in the United Kingdom. Key elements of the work included estimation of nitrogen (N) excreted by different sources (birds, animals, babies, human sweat), review of miscellaneous combustion sources, as well as identification of industrial sources and use of NH 3 as a solvent. Overall the total non-agricultural emission of NH 3 from the UK in 1996 is estimated here as 54 (27-106) kt NH 3-N yr -1, although this includes 11 (6-23) kt yr -1 from agriculture related sources (sewage sludge spreading, biomass burning and agro-industry). Compared with previous estimates for 1990, component source magnitudes have changed both because of revised average emissions per source unit (emission factors) and changes in the source activity between 1990 and 1996. Sources with larger average emission factors than before include horses, wild animals and sea bird colonies, industry, sugar beet processing, household products and non-agricultural fertilizer use, with the last three sources being included for the first time. Sources with smaller emission factors than before include: land spreading of sewage sludge, direct human emissions (sweat, breath, smoking, infants), pets (cats and dogs) and fertilizer manufacture. Between 1990 and 1996 source activities increased for sewage spreading (due to reduced dumping at sea) and transport (due to increased use of catalytic converters), but decreased for coal combustion. Combined with the current UK estimates of agricultural NH 3 emissions of 229 kt N yr -1 (1996), total UK NH 3 emissions are estimated at 283 kt N yr -1. Allowing for an import of reduced nitrogen (NH x) of 30 kt N yr -1 and deposition of 230 kt N yr -1, these figures imply an export of 83 kt NH 3-N yr -1. Although export is larger than previously estimated, due to the larger contribution of non-agricultural NH 3 emissions, it is still insufficient to balance the UK

  6. High-resolution inventory of ammonia emissions from agricultural fertilizer in China from 1978 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P.; Liao, Y. J.; Lin, Y. H.; Zhao, C. X.; Yan, C. H.; Cao, M. N.; Wang, G. S.; Luan, S. J.

    2016-02-01

    The quantification of ammonia (NH3) emissions is essential to the more accurate quantification of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, improved air quality and the assessment of ammonia-related agricultural policy and climate mitigation strategies. The quantity, geographic distribution and historical trends of these emissions remain largely uncertain. In this paper, a new Chinese agricultural fertilizer NH3 (CAF_NH3) emissions inventory has been compiled that exhibits the following improvements: (1) a 1 × 1 km gridded map on the county level was developed for 2008; (2) a combined bottom-up and top-down method was used for the local correction of emission factors (EFs) and parameters; (3) the temporal patterns of historical time trends for 1978-2008 were estimated and the uncertainties were quantified for the inventories; and (4) a sensitivity test was performed in which a province-level disaggregated map was compared with CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008. The total CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008 were 8.4 TgNH3 yr-1 (a 6.6-9.8 Tg interquartile range). From 1978 to 2008, annual NH3 emissions fluctuated with three peaks (1987, 1996 and 2005), and total emissions increased from 3.2 to 8.4 Tg at an annual rate of 3.0 %. During the study period, the contribution of livestock manure spreading increased from 37.0 to 45.5 % because of changing fertilization practices and the rapid increase in egg, milk, and meat consumption. The average contribution of synthetic fertilizer, which has a positive effect on crop yields, was approximately 38.3 % (minimum: 33.4 %; maximum: 42.7 %). With rapid urbanization causing a decline in the rural population, the contribution of the rural excrement sector varied widely between 20.3 % and 8.5 %. The average contributions of cake fertilizer and straw returning were approximately 3.8 and 4.5 %, respectively, thus small and stable. Collectively, the CAF_NH3 emissions reflect the nation's agricultural policy to a certain extent. An effective approach to

  7. Ammonia emissions, transport, and deposition downwind of agricultural areas at local to regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zondlo, Mark; Pan, Da; Golston, Levi; Sun, Kang; Tao, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from agricultural areas show extreme spatiotemporal variations, yet agricultural emissions dominate the global NH3 budget and ammoniated aerosols are a dominant component of unhealthy fine particulate matter. The emissions of NH3 and their deposition near and downwind of agricultural areas is complex. As part of a multi-year field intensive along the Colorado Front Range (including the NASA DISCOVER-AQ and NSF FRAPPE field experiments), we have examined temporal emissions of NH3 from feedlots, regional transport of ammonia and ammoniated aerosols from the plains to relatively pristine regions in Rocky Mountain National Park, and dry deposition and re-emission of grassland NH3 in the park. Eddy covariance measurements at feedlots and natural grasslands in the mountains were conducted with newly-developed open-path, eddy covariance laser-based sensors for NH3 (0.7 ng NH3/m2/s detection limit at 10 Hz). These measurements were coupled with other NH3/NHx measurements from mobile laboratories, aircraft, and satellite to examine the transport of NH3 from agricultural areas to cleaner regions downwind. At the farm level, eddy covariance NH3 fluxes showed a strong diurnal component correlated with temperature regardless of the season but with higher absolute emissions in summer than winter. While farm-to-farm variability (N=62 feedlots) was high, similar diurnal trends were observed at all sites regardless of individual farm type (dairy, beef, sheep, poultry, pig). Deposition at scales of several km showed relatively small deposition (10% loss) based upon NH3/CH4 tracer correlations, though the NH3 concentrations were so elevated (up to ppmv) that these losses should not be neglected when considering near-farm deposition. Ammonia was efficiently transported at least 150 km during upslope events to the Colorado Front Range (ele. 3000-4000 m) based upon aircraft, mobile laboratory, and model measurements. The gas phase lifetime of NH3 was estimated to

  8. Ammonia emissions from deciduous forest after leaf fall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristina; Sørensen, Lise Lotte; Hertel, Ole;

    2013-01-01

    to 15 November) for the Danish beech forest Lille Bøgeskov to address the hypothesis that NH3 emissions occur from deciduous forests in relation to leaf fall. This is accomplished by using observations of vegetation status, NH3 fluxes and model calculations. Vegetation status was observed using plant...... area index (PAI) and leaf area index (LAI). NH3 fluxes were measured using the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) method. The REA-based NH3 concentrations were compared to NH3 denuder measurements. Model calculations of the atmospheric NH3 concentration were obtained with the Danish Ammonia MOdelling...... from deposition of −0.25 ± 0.30 μg NH3-N m−2 s−1 to emission of up to 0.67 ± 0.28 μg NH3-N m−2 s−1 throughout the measurement period was found. In the leaf fall period (23 October to 8 November), an increase in the atmospheric NH3 concentrations was related to the increasing forest NH3 flux. Following...

  9. Measurement of Ammonia Emission Following Surface Application of Urea Fertilizer from Irrigated Paddy Rice Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md.Toufiq Iqbal; TIAN Guang-ming; LIANG Xin-qiang; Fatima Rukshana

    2005-01-01

    Ammonia emission is one of the most important pathways of nitrogen loss from agricultural cultivated field. In this paper, we report the measurement of ammonia emission from paddy rice field obtained by surface application of urea fertilizer with water management. The main objective of the present study were to assess the amount of NH3 emission and the loss of nitrogen from paddy field as affected by various N doses, i.e., 0 (control), 90 (N1), 180 (N2), 270 (N3) and 360 (N4) kg ha-1, following field surface application of urea fertilizer with water management. Ammonia emissions were measured by continuous airflow enclosure method from plots fertilized with the application of surface urea. Increase in urea-N dosage increased NH3 emission thatwas measured from paddy rice field. Ammonia emission started immediately and was almost complete within 12 days after top dressing of urea application to the soils. Ammonia emissions were nearly constant in all treatments from 12 days after fertilizer application. Highest ammonia emission rate was 28 g/day and total amount of ammonia emission was 56.21 kg ha-1 for 360 kg N ha-1 dose. No remarkable observation was found about temperature for ammonia emission. Due to proper water management practices less emission was observed throughout the experiment period. The results also show that N loss through NH3 emission accounted for 11 to 16% during the ricegrowing season. These magnitudes of loss of N appear to be most important for environmental point of view.

  10. Effects of carbon dioxide emission, kinetically-limited reactions, and diffusive transport on ammonia emission from manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatilization of ammonia (NH3) from animal manure causes significant loss of fixed N from livestock operations. Ammonia emission from manure is the culmination of biological, chemical, and physical processes, all of which are well-understood. In this work, we present a speciation and transport mode...

  11. Reducing ammonia emission from agriculture using the BATNEEC approach in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at how the Best Available Technology Not Entailing Excessive Costs (BATNEEC) can be implemented in practice using the ammonia regulation in Denmark as an example. The reductions of ammonia emissions in Denmark have been achieved mainly through command and control measures. The ...

  12. Model-predicted ammonia emission from two broiler houses with different rearing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsa Duarte Silva Lima

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia (NH3 emissions from broiler production can affect human and animal health and may cause acidification and eutrophication of the surrounding environment. This study aimed to estimate ammonia emissions from broiler litter in two systems of forced ventilation, the tunnel ventilation (TV and the dark house (DH. The experiment was carried out on eight commercial broiler houses, and the age of the birds (day, d, pH and litter temperature were recorded. Broilers were reared on built-up wood shaving litter using an average flock density of 14 bird m–2. Temperature and relative humidity inside the broiler houses were recorded in the morning during the grow-out period. A factorial experimental design was adopted, with two types of houses, four replicates and two flocks with two replicates each. A deterministic model was used to predict ammonia emissions using the litter pH and temperature, and the day of grow-out. The highest litter temperature and pH were found at 42 d of growth in both housing systems. Mean ambient air temperature and relative humidity did not differ in either system. Mean model predicted ammonia emission was higher in the DH rearing system (5200 mg NH3 m−2h−1 at 42 d than in the TV system (2700 mg NH3m−2 h−1 at 42 d. TV presented the lowest mean litter temperature and pH at 42 d of growth. In the last week of the broilers’ grow-out cycle, estimated ammonia emissions inside DH reached 5700 mg m−2h−1 in one of the flocks. Ammonia emissions were higher inside DH, and they did not differ between flocks. Assuming a broiler market weight in Brazil of close to 2 kg, ammonia emissions were equivalent to 12 g NH3 bird-marketed−1. Model-predicted ammonia emissions provided comprehensible estimations and might be used in abatement strategies for NH3 emission.

  13. Measures to reduce ammonia emissions from livestock manures: now, soon and later

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestein, C.M.; Smits, M.C.J.; Huijsmans, J.F.M.; Oenema, O.

    2011-01-01

    Various possible options to further decrease ammonia emissions from livestock manure were explored in a desk study. Techniques and their impact on the processes leading to NH3 production and volatilization are described. Research priorities are identified.

  14. Towards a climate-dependent paradigm of ammonia emission and deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Existing descriptions of bi-directional ammonia (NH3) land–atmosphere exchange incorporate temperature and moisture controls, and are beginning to be used in regional chemical transport models. However, such models have typically applied simpler emission factors to upscale ...

  15. Ammonium Variational Trends and the Ammonia Neutralization Effect on Acid Rain over East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Chao; WANG Zi-Fa; Enagnon A. GBAGUIDI

    2010-01-01

    The distribution and variations of ammonium and the ammonia neutralization effect on acid rain were examined in East Asia during the period of 2000-05 using observed wet deposition data from the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET). Observational trends show a high proportion of NH4+ in the total cations, with a six-year mean proportion of over 20% for continental and inland regions. The concentrations and deposition of NH4+ were higher in western China and Vietnam than in other regions. The annual variations in NH4+ concentration were smooth in most of the regions, except for southern China and Vietnam, where the NH4+ concentrations increased, and western China, where the NH4+ concentrations decreased. The neutralization factors (NFs) of NH4+ indicate that ammonia has a great neutralization capability toward acid rain, including for the regions with low NH4+ concentrations, such as Japan. The NFs were high in summer, with no obvious discrepancies between the northern and southern stations. However, the correlation coefficients between NH4+ concentrations and rain pH values imply that the ammonia neutralization effects on the pH values were distinct only at southern China and southern Japan stations. The neutralization of precipitation by ammonia was estimated by comparing the discrepancies between the observed pH values and the pH values calculated without ammonia consuming the H+ in NH4+. The results demonstrate that ammonia may increase annual mean pH values by 0.4-0.7 in southern China and by 0.15-0.25 in southern Japan.

  16. Sensitivity analysis of mechanistic models for estimating ammonia emission from dairy cow urine puddles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, J.W.; Stigter, J.D.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emission can cause acidification and eutrophication of the environment, is an indirect source of nitrous oxide, and is a precursor of fine dust. The current mechanistic NH3 emission base model for explaining and predicting NH3 emissions from dairy cow houses with cubicles, a floor and

  17. Analysis of ammonia emission from emptied pigpens; Bepaling van de ammoniakemissie uit geruimde varkensstallen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otjes, R.P.; Jongejan, P.A.C.; Erisman, J.W.

    1998-03-01

    As a consequence of the outbreak of classical swine fever in the beginning of 1997 in the Netherlands, almost all pig stables were emptied in the eastern part of the province Noord-Brabant. Pigpens contributed for about 60% to the emission of ammonia in the area. Therefore it was expected, that the ammonia concentration would have substantially declined. Because this reduction was not observed at monitoring sites, dedicated research was performed at the end of 1997 to determine whether the empty pigsty still emits ammonia. In this report the results on the research on the emissions of such empty stables are described. The emissions were determined from plume measurements using a fast ammonia sensor developed in-house. The sensor was driven wind downwards along the empty stables. Almost all farms scanned showed a detectable emission. The emission of pigpens still in use was much higher than the empty ones. However, the emission of empty pigpens was significant and estimations for the summertime indicate emission rates that would be comparable to that of stables containing pigs. It is likely that the residual emission is produced by the manure which was not removed from the stables. At the time of measurement less ammonia was emitted by the empty, unheated stables. 5 refs.

  18. Atmospheric ammonia over China: emission estimates and impacts on air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Zhao, Yuanhong; Chen, Youfan; Henze, Daven

    2016-04-01

    Ammonia (NH3) in the atmosphere is an important precursor of inorganic aerosols, and its deposition through wet and dry processes can cause adverse effects on ecosystems. The ammonia emissions over China are particularly large due to intensive agricultural activities, yet our current estimates of Chinese ammonia emissions and associated consequences on air quality are subject to large errors. Here we use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint model to better quantify this issue. The TES satellite observations of ammonia concentrations and surface measurements of wet deposition fluxes are assimilated into the model to constrain the ammonia emissions over China. Optimized emissions show a strong seasonal variability with emissions in summer a factor of 3 higher than winter. We improve the bottom-up estimate of Chinese ammonia emissions from fertilizer use by using more practical feritilizer application rates for different crop types, which explains most of the discrepancies between our top-down estimates and prior emission estimates. We further use the GEOS-Chem adjoint at 0.25x0.3125 degree resolution to examine the sources contributing to the PM2.5 air pollution over North China. We show that wintertime PM2.5 over Beijing is largely contributed by residential and industrial sources, and ammonia emissions from agriculture activities. PM2.5 concentrations over North China are particularly sensitive to NH3 emissions in cold seasons due to strong nitrate formation. By converting shorted-lived nitric acid to aerosol nitrate, NH3 significantly promotes the regional transport influences of PM2.5 sources.

  19. Mapping Atmospheric Ammonia Emissions Using a Mobile Quantum Cascade Laser-based Open-path Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, K.; Tao, L.; Miller, D. J.; Khan, M. A.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is a key precursor to atmospheric fine particulate matter, with strong implications for regional air quality and global climate change. Despite the importance of atmospheric ammonia, its spatial/temporal variation is poorly characterized, and the knowledge of its sources, sinks, and transport is severely limited. Existing measurements suggest that traffic exhaust may provide significant amounts of ammonia in urban areas, which cause greater impacts on particulate matter formation and urban air quality. To capture the spatial and temporal variation of ammonia emissions, a portable, low power sensor with high time resolution is necessary. We have developed a portable open-path ammonia sensor with a detection limit of 0.5 ppbv ammonia for 1 s measurements. The sensor has a power consumption of about 60 W and is capable of running on a car battery continuously for 24 hours. An additional laser has been coupled to the sensor to yield concurrent N2O and CO measurements as tracers for determining various sources. The overall sensor prototype fits on a 60 cm × 20 cm aluminum breadboard. Roadside measurements indicated NH3/CO emission ratios of 4.1±5.4 ppbv/ppmv from a fleet of 320 vehicles, which agree with existing on-ramp measurements. Urban measurements in the Baltimore and Washington, DC metropolitan areas have shown significant ammonia mixing ratios concurrent with carbon monoxide levels from the morning and evening rush hours. On-road measurements of our open-path sensor have also been performed continuously from the Midwest to Princeton, NJ including urban areas such as Pittsburgh, tunnels, and relatively clean conditions. The emission ratios of ammonia against CO and/or CO2 help identify the sources and amounts of both urban and agricultural ammonia emissions. Preliminary data from both spatial mapping, monitoring, and vehicle exhaust measurements suggest that urban ammonia emissions from fossil fuel combustion are significant and may provide an

  20. High-resolution ammonia emissions inventories in China from 1980–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia (NH3 can interact in the atmosphere with other trace chemical species, which can lead to detrimental environmental consequences, such as the formation of fine particulates and ultimately global climate change. China is a major agricultural country, and livestock numbers and nitrogen fertilizer use have increased drastically since 1978, following the rapid economic and industrial development experienced by the country. In this study, comprehensive NH3 emissions inventories were compiled for China for 1980–2012. In a previous study, we parameterized emissions factors (EFs considering ambient temperature, soil acidity, and the method and rate of fertilizer application. In this study, we refined these EFs by adding the effects of wind speed and new data from field experiments of NH3 flux in cropland in northern China. We found that total NH3 emissions in China increased from 5.9 to 11.2 Tg from 1980 to 1996, and then decreased to 9.5 Tg in 2012. The two major contributors were livestock manure and synthetic fertilizer application, which contributed 80–90 % of the total emissions. Emissions from livestock manure rose from 2.87 Tg (1980 to 6.17 Tg (2005, and then decreased to 5.0 Tg (2012; beef cattle were the largest source followed by laying hens and pigs. The remarkable downward trend in livestock emissions that occurred in 2007 was attributed to a decrease in the numbers of various livestock animals, including beef cattle, goats, and sheep. Meanwhile, emissions from synthetic fertilizer ranged from 2.1 Tg (1980 to 4.7 Tg (1996, and then declined to 2.8 Tg (2012. Urea and ammonium bicarbonate (ABC dominated this category of emissions, and a decline in ABC application led to the decrease in emissions that took place from the mid-1990s onwards. High emissions were concentrated in eastern and southwestern China. Seasonally, peak NH3 emissions occurred in spring and summer. The inventories had a monthly temporal resolution and a spatial

  1. High-resolution ammonia emissions inventories in China from 1980-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Y.; Liu, M.; Song, Y.; Huang, X.; Yao, H.; Cai, X.; Zhang, H.; Kang, L.; Liu, X.; Yan, X.; He, H.; Shao, M.; Zhu, T.

    2015-10-01

    Ammonia (NH3) can interact in the atmosphere with other trace chemical species, which can lead to detrimental environmental consequences, such as the formation of fine particulates and ultimately global climate change. China is a major agricultural country, and livestock numbers and nitrogen fertilizer use have increased drastically since 1978, following the rapid economic and industrial development experienced by the country. In this study, comprehensive NH3 emissions inventories were compiled for China for 1980-2012. In a previous study, we parameterized emissions factors (EFs) considering ambient temperature, soil acidity, and the method and rate of fertilizer application. In this study, we refined these EFs by adding the effects of wind speed and new data from field experiments of NH3 flux in cropland in northern China. We found that total NH3 emissions in China increased from 5.9 to 11.2 Tg from 1980 to 1996, and then decreased to 9.5 Tg in 2012. The two major contributors were livestock manure and synthetic fertilizer application, which contributed 80-90 % of the total emissions. Emissions from livestock manure rose from 2.87 Tg (1980) to 6.17 Tg (2005), and then decreased to 5.0 Tg (2012); beef cattle were the largest source followed by laying hens and pigs. The remarkable downward trend in livestock emissions that occurred in 2007 was attributed to a decrease in the numbers of various livestock animals, including beef cattle, goats, and sheep. Meanwhile, emissions from synthetic fertilizer ranged from 2.1 Tg (1980) to 4.7 Tg (1996), and then declined to 2.8 Tg (2012). Urea and ammonium bicarbonate (ABC) dominated this category of emissions, and a decline in ABC application led to the decrease in emissions that took place from the mid-1990s onwards. High emissions were concentrated in eastern and southwestern China. Seasonally, peak NH3 emissions occurred in spring and summer. The inventories had a monthly temporal resolution and a spatial resolution of 1000

  2. High-resolution ammonia emissions inventories in China from 1980 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yaning; Liu, Mingxu; Song, Yu; Huang, Xin; Yao, Huan; Cai, Xuhui; Zhang, Hongsheng; Kang, Ling; Liu, Xuejun; Yan, Xiaoyuan; He, Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Shao, Min; Zhu, Tong

    2016-02-01

    Ammonia (NH3) can interact in the atmosphere with other trace chemical species, which can lead to detrimental environmental consequences, such as the formation of fine particulates and ultimately global climate change. China is a major agricultural country, and livestock numbers and nitrogen fertilizer use have increased drastically since 1978, following the rapid economic and industrial development experienced by the country. In this study, comprehensive NH3 emissions inventories were compiled for China for 1980-2012. In a previous study, we parameterized emissions factors (EFs) considering ambient temperature, soil acidity, and the method and rate of fertilizer application. In this study, we refined these EFs by adding the effects of wind speed and new data from field experiments of NH3 flux in cropland in northern China. We found that total NH3 emissions in China increased from 5.9 to 11.1 Tg from 1980 to 1996, and then decreased to 9.7 Tg in 2012. The two major contributors were livestock manure and synthetic fertilizer application, which contributed 80-90 % of the total emissions. Emissions from livestock manure rose from 2.86 Tg (1980) to 6.16 Tg (2005), and then decreased to 5.0 Tg (2012); beef cattle were the largest source followed by laying hens and pigs. The remarkable downward trend in livestock emissions that occurred in 2007 was attributed to a decrease in the numbers of various livestock animals, including beef cattle, goats, and sheep. Meanwhile, emissions from synthetic fertilizer ranged from 2.1 Tg (1980) to 4.7 Tg (1996), and then declined to 2.8 Tg (2012). Urea and ammonium bicarbonate (ABC) dominated this category of emissions, and a decline in ABC application led to the decrease in emissions that took place from the mid-1990s onwards. High emissions were concentrated in eastern and southwestern China. Seasonally, peak NH3 emissions occurred in spring and summer. The inventories had a monthly temporal resolution and a spatial resolution of 1000

  3. Acidifier application rate impacts on ammonia emissions from US roaster chicken houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sanjay B.; Grimes, Jesse L.; Oviedo-Rondón, Edgar O.; Westerman, Philip W.

    2014-08-01

    Due to its potential environmental and public health impacts, emissions of ammonia (NH3) as well as several other gases from US livestock farms may be regulated. Broiler houses are important sources of NH3 emissions. However, there are no emissions data from roaster (8-12 wk old broilers, ˜4 kg ea.) houses. Producers treat the litter in broiler houses with acidifiers, such as sodium bisulfate (SBS, NaHSO4) to reduce ammonia production and protect bird health. However, there is very little data on the effect of acidifiers, particularly at high application rates on ammonia emissions. The impact of different SBS application rates [High (0.95-1.46 kg m-2, whole house), Medium (0.73 kg m-2, whole house), Low (0.37-0.49 kg m-2, whole house), and Control (0.37-0.49 kg m-2, brood chamber)] on ammonia emissions was evaluated in commercial roaster houses over 22 months spanning eight flocks. Ammonia emission from each fan was measured with an acid scrubber that operated only when the fan operated. Emissions were calculated using >95% measured data with the rest being estimated using robust methods. Exhaust ammonia-N concentrations were inversely correlated with the SBS application rates. Emission rates on animal unit (AU, where 1 AU = 500 kg live-mass) basis (ER, g d-1 AU-1) were reduced by 27, 13, and 5%, respectively, in the High, Medium, and Low treatments vs. the Control treatment (mean: 100 g d-1 AU-1, range: 86-114 g d-1 AU-1). Emission rates for the Control treatment measured in this study on roasters were mostly higher than ERs in the literature. Differences in ERs are not only due to diet, environmental and management conditions, but also due to measurement methods.

  4. Towards a climate-dependent paradigm of ammonia emission and deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutton, M.A.; Reis, S.; Riddick, S.N.; Dragosits, U.; Nemitz, E.; Theobald, M.R.; Tang, Y.S.; Vries, de W.

    2013-01-01

    Existing descriptions of bi-directional ammonia (NH3) land–atmosphere exchange incorporate temperature and moisture controls, and are beginning to be used in regional chemical transport models. However, such models have typically applied simpler emission factors to upscale the main NH3 emission term

  5. Measurements of ammonia emissions from spreading of manure using gradient FTIR techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, B.; Klemedtsson, L.; Bergqvist, B.;

    2000-01-01

    Emissions of biogenic trace gases from soils and plants often show strong spatial and temporal variation. Thus, there is a need for the development of area-integrating measurement techniques with good time resolution. The present paper describes area-integrated measurements of ammonia emissions a...

  6. Modeling of ammonia emission in the USA and EU countries using an artificial neural network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenković, Lidija J; Antanasijević, Davor Z; Ristić, Mirjana Đ; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra A; Pocajt, Viktor V

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia emissions at the national level are frequently estimated by applying the emission inventory approach, which includes the use of emission factors, which are difficult and expensive to determine. Emission factors are therefore the subject of estimation, and as such they contribute to inherent uncertainties in the estimation of ammonia emissions. This paper presents an alternative approach for the prediction of ammonia emissions at the national level based on artificial neural networks and broadly available sustainability and economical/agricultural indicators as model inputs. The Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) architecture was optimized using a trial-and-error procedure, including the number of hidden neurons, activation function, and a back-propagation algorithm. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to reduce mutual correlation between the inputs. The obtained results demonstrate that the MLP model created using the PCA transformed inputs (PCA-MLP) provides a more accurate prediction than the MLP model based on the original inputs. In the validation stage, the MLP and PCA-MLP models were tested for ammonia emission predictions for up to 2 years and compared with a principal component regression model. Among the three models, the PCA-MLP demonstrated the best performance, providing predictions for the USA and the majority of EU countries with a relative error of less than 20%.

  7. Understanding emissions of ammonia from buildings and application of fertilizers: an example from Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, M.; Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Kryza, M.; Dore, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    A Europe-wide dynamic ammonia (NH3) emissions model has been applied for one of the large agricultural countries in Europe, and its sensitivity on the distribution of emissions among different agricultural functions was analysed by comparing with observed ammonia concentrations and by implementing all scenarios in a chemical transport model (CTM). The results suggest that the dynamic emission model is most sensitive to emission from animal manure, in particular how animal manure and its application on fields is connected to national regulations. In contrast, the model is most robust with respect to emission from buildings and storage. To incorporate the national regulations, we obtained activity information on agricultural operations at the sub-national level for Poland, information about infrastructure on storages, and current regulations on manure practice from Polish authorities. The information was implemented in the existing emission model and was connected directly with the NWP calculations from the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-ARW). The model was used to calculate four emission scenarios with high spatial (5 km × 5 km) and temporal resolution (3 h) for the entire year 2010. In the four scenarios, we have compared the Europe-wide default model settings against (1) a scenario that focuses on emission from agricultural buildings, (2) the existing emission method used in WRF-Chem in Poland, and (3) a scenario that takes into account Polish infrastructure and agricultural regulations. The ammonia emission was implemented into the CTM FRAME and modelled ammonia concentrations was compared with measurements. The results suggest that the default setting in the dynamic model is an improvement compared to a non-dynamical emission profile. The results also show that further improvements can be obtained on the national scale by replacing the default information on manure practice with information that is connected with local practice and national

  8. Quantification, Sources, and Control of Ammonia Emissions in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Skybova

    2001-01-01

    The exact quantification of ammonia (NH3) emissions is the basic presumption for the fulfilment of obligations set by the CLRTAP (Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution) Protocol which was signed by the Czech Republic in 1999. Most NH3 emissions in the Czech Republic are produced during the breeding of cattle, pigs, and poultry; therefore, determinating emission factors for these kinds of animals by studying their total number, type of breeding, and subsequent disposal of manure...

  9. Emissions of sulfur-containing odorants, ammonia, and methane from pig slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Adamsen, Anders Peter S.; Nørgaard, Jan Værum;

    2010-01-01

    ), methanethiol (MT), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), as well as ammonia and methane emissions from stored pig slurry. The slurry was derived from a feeding experiment with four pig diets in a factorial design with 2% (w/w) benzoic acid and 1% (w/w) methionine...... and benzoic acid treatments, which caused a significant increase in emissions of especially MT, but also of DMDS. In conclusion, addition of 2% benzoic acid to pig diets effectively reduced ammonia volatilization, but interactions with dietary S may increase odor problems....

  10. Impact of Physical-Chemical Properties on Ammonia Emissions of Dairy Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, K.

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia emission is a major concern due to its adverse effects on animal and human health. Ionic strength and suspended solids play key roles in the ammonia volatilization process. These two parameters, however, are usually lumped together in form of totalsolids. The objective of this study was to separate the contribution of suspended solids (SS) from that of ionic strength (IS) on ammonia volatilization in liquid dairy manure. A two-way factorial experiment was conducted to simultaneously test the effects of IS and SS on ammonium dissociation: a key element of the ammonia volatilization process. The fraction of ammonia (β) in total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was experimentally determined in a convective emission chamber, for each level of SS and IS, at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1, and air and liquid temperature of 25°C. The two way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of SS concentration (p = 0.04) on fraction of ammonia in the liquid dairy manure, while the effect of ionic strength was marginal (p = 0.05). The highest dissociation of ammonium was observed in manure with the lowest SS concentration (0%) and the lowest ionic strength (0.10 mol L-1). Significant increases in suspended solids concentration and ionic strength were necessary to influence the ammonium dissociation in dairy manure. Results revealed that substantially high content of suspended solids (> 3.0%) or relatively high dilution of manure with water (30%) were necessary for these two parameters to play significant rolesin the ammonia volatilization mechanism in liquid dairy manure. Results also showed that the β was more sensitive to the changes in suspended solids concentration than in the changes in ionic strength within the ranges of SS and IS examined in this study.Overall, the SS and IS effects on ammonium dissociation (and by extension on ammonia volatilization process) were thus found negligible within the normal ranges of liquid dairy manure characteristics.

  11. Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and particulate matter emissions from California high-rise layer houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, X.-J.; Cortus, E. L.; Zhang, R.; Jiang, S.; Heber, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide are hazardous substances that are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through community right-to-know legislation (EPCRA, EPA, 2011). The emissions of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide from large commercial layer facilities are of concern to legislators and nearby neighbors. Particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5) released from layer houses are two of seven criteria pollutants for which EPA has set National Ambient Air Quality Standards as required by the Clean Air Act. Therefore, it is important to quantify the baseline emissions of these pollutants. The emissions of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and PM from two California high-rise layer houses were monitored for two years from October 2007 to October 2009. Each house had 32,500 caged laying hens. The monitoring site was setup in compliance with a U.S. EPA-approved quality assurance project plan. The results showed the average daily mean emission rates of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide were 0.95 ± 0.67 (standard deviation) g d -1 bird -1, 1.27 ± 0.78 mg d -1 bird -1 and 91.4 ± 16.5 g d -1 bird -1, respectively. The average daily mean emission rates of PM 2.5, PM 10 and total suspended particulate (TSP) were 5.9 ± 12.6, 33.4 ± 27.4, and 78.0 ± 42.7 mg d -1 bird -1, respectively. It was observed that ammonia emission rates in summer were lower than in winter because the high airflow stabilized the manure by drying it. The reductions due to lower moisture content were greater than the increases due to higher temperature. However, PM 10 emission rates in summer were higher than in winter because the drier conditions coupled with higher internal air velocities increased PM 10 release from feathers, feed and manure.

  12. Understanding emissions of ammonia from buildings and application of fertilizers: an example from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Werner

    2015-01-01

    To incorporate the national regulations, we obtained activity information on agricultural operations at the sub-national level for Poland, information about infrastructure on storages, and current regulations on manure practice from Polish authorities. The information was implemented in the existing emission model and was connected directly with the NWP calculations from the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-ARW. The model was used to calculate four emission scenarios with high spatial (5 km × 5 km and temporal resolution (3 h for the entire year 2010. In the four scenarios, we have compared the Europe-wide default model settings against (1 a scenario that focuses on emission from agricultural buildings, (2 the existing emission method used in WRF-Chem in Poland, and (3 a scenario that takes into account Polish infrastructure and agricultural regulations. The ammonia emission was implemented into the CTM FRAME and modelled ammonia concentrations was compared with measurements. The results suggest that the default setting in the dynamic model is an improvement compared to a non-dynamical emission profile. The results also show that further improvements can be obtained on the national scale by replacing the default information on manure practice with information that is connected with local practice and national regulations. Implementing a dynamical approach for simulation of ammonia emission is a viable objective for all CTM models that continue to use fixed emission profiles. Such models should handle ammonia emissions in a similar way to other climate-dependent emissions (e.g. biogenic volatile organic compounds. Our results, compared with previous results from the DEHM and the GEOS-CHEM models, suggest that implementing dynamical approaches improves simulations in general, even in areas with limited information about the location of the agricultural fields, livestock and agricultural production methods such as Poland.

  13. Factorization of air pollutant emissions: projections versus observed trends in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaj, Peter; Amann, Markus; Siri, José G

    2014-10-01

    This paper revisits the emission scenarios of the European Commission's 2005 Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution (TSAP) in light of today's knowledge. We review assumptions made in the past on the main drivers of emission changes, i.e., demographic trends, economic growth, changes in the energy intensity of GDP, fuel-switching, and application of dedicated emission control measures. Our analysis shows that for most of these drivers, actual trends have not matched initial expectations. Observed ammonia and sulfur emissions in European Union in 2010 were 10% to 20% lower than projected, while emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter exceeded estimates by 8% to 15%. In general, a higher efficiency of dedicated emission controls compensated for a lower-than-expected decline in total energy consumption as well as a delay in the phase-out of coal. For 2020, updated projections anticipate lower sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions than those under the 2005 baseline, whereby the degree to which these emissions are lower depends on what assumptions are made for emission controls and new vehicle standards. Projected levels of particulates are about 10% higher, while smaller differences emerge for other pollutants. New emission projections suggest that environmental targets established by the TSAP for the protection of human health, eutrophication and forest acidification will not be met without additional measures.

  14. Emissions, sinks and gas to particle conversion of amines and ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen-containing base compounds, amines and ammonia, play important roles in formation of secondary aerosols in the atmosphere, but their sources, sinks and atmospheric transformation processes are not well understood. Also, there are very limited analytical methods that are capable of measuring pptv or sub-pptv level of amines and ammonia. We have developed a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) that can detect amines and ammonia at the pptv and sub-pptv level with a 1 min of integration time. Here, we report ambient measurements of amines and ammonia made in a moderately polluted continental site (Kent, Ohio) and in a rural Southeastern U.S. forest (Centreville, Alabama). Our finding indicate that there are much more abundant gas phase amines (C1-C6) and ammonia in the polluted site than in the rural forest, highlighting the importance of constraining anthropogenic emission sources of amines. At both locations, concentrations of these base compounds show clear temperature dependence, indicating strong gas-to-particle conversion processes. Compared to ammonia, amines can partition into aerosol phases even more effectively due to lower saturation vapor pressures. Measurements in the clean rural forest show that transported biomass burning plumes are the major source of amines. These nitrogen-containing compounds effectively undergo wet deposition in the atmosphere due to high solubilities.

  15. DETERMINATION OF AMMONIA MASS EMISSION FLUX FROM HOG WASTE EFFLUENT SPRAYING OPERATION USING OPEN PATH TUNABLE DIODE LASER SPECTROSCOPY WITH VERTICAL RADIAL PLUME MAPPING ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emission of ammonia from concentrated animal feeding operations represents an increasingly important environmental issue. Determination of total ammonia mass emission flux from extended area sources such as waste lagoons and waste effluent spraying operations can be evaluated usi...

  16. Improved passive flux samplers for measuring ammonia emissions from animal houses, part 1: Basic principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, R.; Hol, J.M.G.; Wagemans, M.J.M.; Phillips, V.R.

    2003-01-01

    At present, precise, expensive and laborious methods with a high resolution in time are needed, to determine ammonia emission rates from animal houses. The high costs for equipment, maintenance and labour limit the number of sites that can be measured. This study examines a new, simpler concept for

  17. Manure ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle fed condensed tannins

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of three levels of condensed tannins fed to 27 beef feed yard steers on ammonia and GHG emissions from manure. Condensed tannins were fed at rates of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 percent on a dry matter basis. Manure and urine were collected from two periods over 6 d...

  18. Path integrated optical remote sensing technique to estimate ammonia and methane gas emissions from CAFOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA recently demonstrated the open-path optical remote sensing technology to identify hot spots and estimate mass flux of fugitive gases from closed landfill. The objective of this research is to validate this technology for estimating ammonia and methane emission from concentrated animal f...

  19. Ammonia emissions from pig houses in The Netherlands, Denmark and France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Rom, H.B.; Dourmad, J.Y.

    1999-01-01

    In recent decades pig production has been intensified in most European countries. This has resulted in a surplus of manure and a serious concern about the effect of ammonia emissions on environmental acidification and the pollution of ground and surface water. In the Netherlands, Denmark and France

  20. Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater were measured with closed-chamber technique using a photoacoustic multigas analyzer. Theory behind the technique was discussed and the technique was demonstrated with actual field data. Nitrous ...

  1. High resolution inventory of re-estimating ammonia emissions from agricultural fertilizer in China from 1978 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P.; Lin, Y. H.; Liao, Y. J.; Zhao, C. X.; Wang, G. S.; Luan, S. J.

    2015-09-01

    The quantification of ammonia (NH3) emissions is essential to the more accurate quantification of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, improved air quality and the assessment of ammonia-related agricultural policy and climate mitigation strategies. The quantity, geographic distribution and historical trends of these emissions remain largely uncertain. In this paper, a new Chinese agricultural fertilizer NH3 (CAF_NH3) emissions inventory has been compiled that exhibits the following improvements: (1) a 1 km × 1 km gridded map on the county level was developed for 2008, (2) a combined bottom-up and top-down method was used for the local correction of emission factors (EFs) and parameters, (3) the spatial and temporal patterns of historical time trends for 1978-2008 were estimated and the uncertainties were quantified for the inventories, and (4) a sensitivity test was performed in which a province-level disaggregated map was compared with CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008. The total CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008 were 8.4 Tg NH3 yr-1 (a 6.6-9.8 Tg interquartile range). From 1978 to 2008, annual NH3 emissions fluctuated with three peaks (1987, 1996 and 2005), and total emissions increased from 3.2 to 8.4 Tg at an annual rate of 3.0 %. During the study period, the contribution of livestock manure spreading increased from 37.0 to 45.5 % because of changing fertilization practices and the rapid increase in egg, milk and meat consumption. The average contribution of synthetic fertilizer, which has a positive effect on crop yields, was approximately 38.3 % (minimum: 33.4 %; maximum: 42.7 %). With rapid urbanization causing a decline in the rural population, the contribution of the rural excrement sector varied widely between 20.3 and 8.5 %. The average contributions of cake fertilizer and straw returning were approximately 3.8 and 4.5 %, respectively, thus small and stable. Collectively, the CAF_NH3 emissions reflect the nation's agricultural policy to a certain extent. An effective

  2. Spatial and temporal variations in ammonia emissions - a freely accessible model code for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Geels, Camilla; Berge, H.;

    2011-01-01

    demonstrates how local climate and local management can be accounted for in CTMs by applying a modular approach for deriving data as input to a dynamic ammonia emission model for Europe. Default data are obtained from information in the RAINS system, and it is demonstrated how this dynamic emission model based......Deriving a parameterisation of ammonia emissions for use in chemistry-transport models (CTMs) is a complex problem as the emission varies locally as a result of local climate and local agricultural management. In current CTMs such factors are generally not taken into account. This paper...... this domain. The model code and the obtained default values for the modelling experiments are available as supplementary information to this article for use by the modelling community on similar terms as the EMEP CTM model: the GPL licencse v3....

  3. New Maser Emission from Nonmetastable Ammonia in NGC 7538. IV. Coincident Masers in Adjacent States of Para-ammonia

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    We present the first detection of para-ammonia masers in NGC 7538: multiple epochs of observation of the 14NH3 (J,K) = (10,8) and (9,8) lines. We detect both thermal absorption and nonthermal emission in the (10,8) and (9,8) transitions and the absence of a maser in the (11,8) transition. The (9,8) maser is observed to increase in intensity by 40% over six months. Using interferometric observations with a synthesized beam of 0.25", we find that the (10,8) and (9,8) masers originate at the same sky position near IRS1. With strong evidence that the (10,8) and (9,8) masers arise in the same volume, we discuss the application of pumping models for the simultaneous excitation of nonmetastable (J > K) para-ammonia states having the same value of K and consecutive values of J. We also present detections of thermal absorption in rotational states ranging in energy from E/k_B ~ 200 K to 2000 K, and several non-detections in higher-energy states. In particular, we describe the populations in eight adjacent rotational s...

  4. Are ammonia emissions from field-applied slurry substantially over-estimated in European emission inventories?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sintermann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The EMEP/EEA guidebook 2009 for agricultural emission inventories reports an average ammonia (NH3 emission factor (EF by volatilisation of 55% of the applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN content for cattle slurry, and 35% losses for pig slurry, irrespective of the type of surface or slurry characteristics such as dry matter content and pH. In this review article, we compiled over 350 measurements of EFs published between 1991 and 2011. The standard slurry application technique during the early years of this period, when a large number of measurements were made, was spreading by splash plate, and as a result reference EFs given in many European inventories are predominantly based on this technique. However, slurry application practices have evolved since then, while there has also been a shift in measurement techniques and investigated plot sizes. We therefore classified the available measurements according to the flux measurement technique or measurement plot size and year of measurement. Medium size plots (usually circles between 20 to 50 m radius generally yielded the highest EFs. The most commonly used measurement setups at this scale were based on the Integrated Horizontal Flux method (IHF or the ZINST method (a simplified IHF method. Several empirical models were published in the years 1993 to 2003 predicting NH3 EFs as a function of meteorology and slurry characteristics (Menzi et al., 1998; Søgaard et al., 2002. More recent measurements show substantially lower EFs which calls for new measurement series in order to validate the various measurement approaches against each other and to derive revised inputs for inclusion into emission inventories.

  5. Implications of ammonia emissions from post-combustion carbon capture for airborne particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jinhyok; McCoy, Sean T; Adams, Peter J

    2015-04-21

    Amine scrubbing, a mature post-combustion carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology, could increase ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) due to its ammonia emissions. To capture 2.0 Gt CO2/year, for example, it could emit 32 Gg NH3/year in the United States given current design targets or 15 times higher (480 Gg NH3/year) at rates typical of current pilot plants. Employing a chemical transport model, we found that the latter emission rate would cause an increase of 2.0 μg PM2.5/m(3) in nonattainment areas during wintertime, which would be troublesome for PM2.5-burdened areas, and much lower increases during other seasons. Wintertime PM2.5 increases in nonattainment areas were fairly linear at a rate of 3.4 μg PM2.5/m(3) per 1 Tg NH3, allowing these results to be applied to other CCS emissions scenarios. The PM2.5 impacts are modestly uncertain (±20%) depending on future emissions of SO2, NOx, and NH3. The public health costs of CCS NH3 emissions were valued at $31-68 per tonne CO2 captured, comparable to the social cost of carbon itself. Because the costs of solvent loss to CCS operators are lower than the social costs of CCS ammonia, there is a regulatory interest to limit ammonia emissions from CCS.

  6. Study of the ammonia emission in the NGC 6334 region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caproni, A.; Abraham, Z.; Vilas-Boas, J. W. S.

    2000-09-01

    The region centered in the NGC 6334 I(N) radio continuum source was surveyed in an extension of 6' in right ascension and 12' in declination, in the NH_3(J,K) = (1,1) transition, using the Itapetinga radio telescope. The spectra show non-LTE behavior, and gradients of velocity and line-width were detected along the region. A detailed analysis of the spectra showed that the surveyed region is composed of at least three overlapped sources related to regions that are in different stages of star formation: NGC 6334 I, associated with an already known molecular bipolar outflow, NGC 6334 I(N)w, the brightest ammonia source, coincidental with the continuum source NGC 6334 I(N), and NGC 6334 I(N)e, weaker, more extended and probably less evolved than the others. The physical parameters of the last two sources were calculated in non-LTE conditions, assuming that their spectra are the superposition of the narrow line spectra produced by small dense clumps. The H_2 density, NH_3 column density, kinetic temperature, diameter and mass of the clumps were found to be very similar in the two regions, but the density of clumps is lower in the probably less evolved source NGC 6334 I(N)e. Differences between the physical parameters derived assuming LTE and non-LTE conditions are also discussed in this work.

  7. Study of ammonia emission in the NGC 6334 region

    CERN Document Server

    Caproni, A; Vilas-Boas, J W S; Caproni, Anderson; Abraham, Zulema; Vilas-Boas, Jose W. S.

    2000-01-01

    The region centered in the NGC 6334 I(N) radio continuum source was surveyed in an extension of 6 arcmin in right ascension and 12 arcmin in declination, in the NH3(J,K) = (1,1) transition, using the Itapetinga radio telescope. The spectra show non-LTE behavior, and gradients of velocity and line-width were detected along the region. A detailed analysis of the spectra showed that the surveyed region is composed of at least three overlapped sources related to regions that are in different stages of star formation: NGC 6334 I, associated with an already known molecular bipolar outflow, NGC 6334 I(N)w, the brightest ammonia source, coincidental with the continuum source NGC 6334 I(N), and NGC 6334 I(N)e, weaker, more extended and probably less evolved than the others. The physical parameters of the last two sources were calculated in non-LTE conditions, assuming that their spectra are the superposition of the narrow line spectra produced by small dense clumps. The H2 density, NH3 column density, kinetic temperat...

  8. Greenhouse gases and ammonia emissions from organic mixed crop-dairy systems: a critical review of mitigation options

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Sandra; Fiorelli, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-01

    International audience Dairy production systems represent a significant source of air pollutants such as greenhouse gases (GHG), that increase global warming, and ammonia (NH3), that leads to eutrophication and acidification of natural ecosystems. Greenhouse gases and ammonia are emitted both by conventional and organic dairy systems. Several studies have already been conducted to design practices that reduce greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from dairy systems. However, those studies d...

  9. Ammonia emissions from deciduous forest after leaf fall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristina; Sørensen, Lise Lotte; Hertel, Ole;

    2013-01-01

    15 November) for the Danish beech forest Lille Bøgeskov to address the hypothesis that NH3 emissions occur from deciduous forests in relation to leaf fall. This is accomplished by using observations of vegetation status, NH3 fluxes and model calculations. Vegetation status was observed using plant...... from deposition of −0.25 ± 0.30 μg NH3-N m−2 s−1 to emission of up to 0.67 ± 0.28 μg NH3-N m−2 s−1 throughout the measurement period was found. In the leaf fall period (23 October to 8 November), an increase in the atmospheric NH3 concentrations was related to the increasing forest NH3 flux. Following...... leaf fall, the magnitude and temporal structure of the measured NH3 emission fluxes could be adequately reproduced with the bi-directional resistance model; it suggested the forest ground layer (soil and litter) to be the main contributing component to the NH3 emissions. The modelled concentration from...

  10. Quantification, Sources, and Control of Ammonia Emissions in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Skybova

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The exact quantification of ammonia (NH3 emissions is the basic presumption for the fulfilment of obligations set by the CLRTAP (Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution Protocol which was signed by the Czech Republic in 1999. Most NH3 emissions in the Czech Republic are produced during the breeding of cattle, pigs, and poultry; therefore, determinating emission factors for these kinds of animals by studying their total number, type of breeding, and subsequent disposal of manure is the solution to the problem of NH3 emissions quantification. This paper summarizes the results of 4 years of research in this area, determining the emission factors and ways of decreasing emissions from the breeding of cattle, pigs, and poultry.

  11. Potential ammonia emissions from straw, slurry pit and concrete floor in a group housing system for sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestein, C.M.; Hartog, den L.A.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    To assess the contribution of straw bedding, concrete floors, slats, and slurry in the pits to ammonia emission in a straw-bedded group-housing system for sows, the ammonia volatilisation response of urination on the potential emitting surfaces from a sow house was studied under laboratory condition

  12. Measurement of ammonia emissions from temperate and sub-polar seabird colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, S. N.; Blackall, T. D.; Dragosits, U.; Daunt, F.; Newell, M.; Braban, C. F.; Tang, Y. S.; Schmale, J.; Hill, P. W.; Wanless, S.; Trathan, P.; Sutton, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    The chemical breakdown of marine derived reactive nitrogen transported to the land as seabird guano represents a significant source of ammonia (NH3) in areas far from other NH3 sources. Measurements made at tropical and temperate seabird colonies indicate substantial NH3 emissions, with emission rates larger than many anthropogenic point sources. However, several studies indicate that thermodynamic processes limit the amount of NH3 emitted from guano, suggesting that the percentage of guano volatilizing as NH3 may be considerably lower in colder climates. This study undertook high resolution temporal ammonia measurements in the field and coupled results with modelling to estimate NH3 emissions at a temperate puffin colony and two sub-polar penguin colonies (Signy Island, South Orkney Islands and Bird Island, South Georgia) during the breeding season. These emission rates are then compared with NH3 volatilization rates from other climates. Ammonia emissions were calculated using a Lagrangian atmospheric dispersion model, resulting in mean emissions of 5 μg m-2 s-1 at the Isle of May, 12 μg m-2 s-1 at Signy Island and 9 μg m-2 s-1 at Bird Island. The estimated percentage of total guano nitrogen volatilized was 5% on the Isle of May, 3% on Signy and 2% on Bird Island. These values are much smaller than the percentage of guano nitrogen volatilized in tropical contexts (31-65%). The study confirmed temperature, wind speed and water availability have a significant influence on the magnitude of NH3 emissions, which has implications for reactive nitrogen in both modern remote regions and pre-industrial atmospheric composition and ecosystem interactions.

  13. Experimental investigation of nitrogen based emissions from an ammonia fueled SI-engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlye, Fredrik Ree; Ivarsson, Anders; Schramm, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This study concerns nitrogen based emissions from a hydrogen enriched ammonia fueled SI engine. These emissions deserve special attention as their formation may differ from conventional HC combustion due to the nitrogen content in the fuel. A range of experiments are conducted with a single...... cylinder 0.612 l CFR engine with a compression ratio varying from 7 to 15 using a fuel composition of 80 vol% NH3 and 20 vol% H2. Wet exhaust samples are analysed with an FT-IR. Emission measurements reveal that nitric oxide stem from other reaction paths than the dissociation of molecular nitrogen....... This causes the NO emissions to peak around 35% rather than 10% excess air, as is typical in HC fueled SI-engines. However the magnitude of NO emissions are comparable to that of measurements conducted with gasoline due to lower flame temperatures. Nitrogen dioxide levels are higher when comparing...

  14. Ammonia emissions from livestock industries in Canada: Feasibility of abatement strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carew, Richard, E-mail: richard.carew@agr.gc.c [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, 4200 Highway 97, P.O. Box 5000, Summerland, British Columbia, VOH1Z0 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    An updated national ammonia (NH{sub 3}) emissions inventory was employed to study the relationship between NH{sub 3} emissions and livestock industries in Canada. Emissions from animal agriculture accounted for 322 kilotonnes (kt) or 64% of Canadian NH{sub 3} emissions in 2002. Cattle and swine accounted for the bulk of livestock emissions. The provinces of Alberta, Ontario, Quebec, and Saskatchewan accounted for 28.1%, 22.0%, 18.7%, and 13.1% of total livestock emissions, respectively. Emissions from Ontario and Quebec were attributed to the intensive production of dairy, hogs and poultry. Dairy cattle emissions per hectolitre of milk were higher in Ontario and Quebec than in other provinces, while swine emissions per livestock unit were higher than either beef or dairy cattle. A review of the abatement literature indicated diet manipulation to improve N efficiency and land spreading methods are very effective techniques to lower NH{sub 3} emissions. Future research is required to evaluate the feasibility of biofilters and feces/urine separation methods. - Livestock NH{sub 3} emissions are higher in areas characterized by intensive livestock production with diet manipulation and land spreading offering the greatest potential for NH{sub 3} abatement options.

  15. A process-based model for ammonia emission from urine patches, GAG (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing): description and sensitivity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Móring, Andrea; Vieno, Massimo; M. Doherty, Ruth;

    2016-01-01

    content of the soil under a urine patch and also soil pH dynamics. The model tests suggest that ammonia volatilization from a urine patch can be affected by the possible restart of urea hydrolysis after a rain event as well as CO2 emission from the soil. The vital role of temperature in NH3 exchange...

  16. A process-based model for ammonia emission from urine patches, GAG (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing): description and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Móring, Andrea; Vieno, Massimo; Doherty, Ruth M.; Laubach, Johannes; Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo; Sutton, Mark A.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper a new process-based, weather-driven model for ammonia (NH3) emission from a urine patch has been developed and its sensitivity to various factors assessed. The GAG model (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing) is capable of simulating the TAN (total ammoniacal nitrogen) and the water content of the soil under a urine patch and also soil pH dynamics. The model tests suggest that ammonia volatilization from a urine patch can be affected by the possible restart of urea hydrolysis after a rain event as well as CO2 emission from the soil. The vital role of temperature in NH3 exchange is supported by our model results; however, the GAG model provides only a modest overall temperature dependence in total NH3 emission compared with the literature. This, according to our findings, can be explained by the higher sensitivity to temperature close to urine application than in the later stages and may depend on interactions with other nitrogen cycling processes. In addition, we found that wind speed and relative humidity are also significant influencing factors. Considering that all the input parameters can be obtained for larger scales, GAG is potentially suitable for field and regional scale application, serving as a tool for further investigation of the effects of climate change on ammonia emissions and deposition.

  17. Effect of nitrogen fertilization and residue management practices on ammonia emissions from subtropical sugarcane production

    Science.gov (United States)

    mudi, Sanku Datta; Wang, Jim J.; Dodla, Syam Kumar; Arceneaux, Allen; Viator, H. P.

    2016-08-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emission from soil is a loss of nitrogen (N) nutrient for plant production as well as an issue of air quality, due to the fact that it is an active precursor of airborne particulate matters. Ammonia also acts as a secondary source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission when present in the soil. In this study, the impacts of different sources of N fertilizers and harvest residue management schemes on NH3 emissions from sugarcane production were evaluated based on an active chamber method. The field experiment plots consisting of two sources of N fertilizer (urea and urea ammonium nitrate (UAN)) and two common residue management practices, namely residue retained (RR) and residue burned (RB), were established on a Commerce silt loam. The NH3 volatilized following N fertilizer application was collected in an impinger containing diluted citric acid and was subsequently analyzed using ion chromatography. The NH3 loss was primarily found within 3-4 weeks after N application. Average seasonal soil NH3 flux was significantly greater in urea plots with NH3-N emission factor (EF) twice or more than in UAN plots (2.4-5.6% vs. 1.2-1.7%). The RR residue management scheme had much higher NH3 volatilization than the RB treatment regardless of N fertilizer sources, corresponding to generally higher soil moisture levels in the former. Ammonia-N emissions in N fertilizer-treated sugarcane fields increased with increasing soil water-filled pore space (WFPS) up to 45-55% observed in the field. Both N fertilizer sources and residue management approaches significantly affected NH3 emissions.

  18. Trends in global CO2 emissions. 2013 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, J.G.J.; Peters, J.A.H.W. [PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Den Haag (Netherlands); Janssens-Maenhout, G. [Institute for Environment and Sustainability IES, European Commission' s Joint Research Centre JRC, Ispra (Italy); Muntean, M. [Institute for Environment and Sustainability IES, Joint Research Centre JRC, Ispra (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    This report discusses the results of a trend assessment of global CO2 emissions up to 2012 and updates last year's assessment. This assessment focuses on the changes in annual CO2 emissions from 2011 to 2012, and includes not only fossil-fuel combustion on which the BP reports are based, but also incorporates other relevant CO2 emissions sources including flaring of waste gas during gas and oil production, cement clinker production and other limestone uses, feedstock and other non-energy uses of fuels, and several other small sources. The report clarifies the CO2 emission sources covered, and describes the methodology and data sources. More details are provided in Annex 1 over the 2010-2012 period, including a discussion of the degree of uncertainty in national and global CO2 emission estimates. Chapter 2 presents a summary of recent CO2 emission trends, per main country or region, including a comparison between emissions per capita and per unit of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and of the underlying trend in fossil-fuel production and use, non-fossil energy and other CO2 sources. Specific attention is given to developments in shale gas and oil production and oil sands production and their impact on CO2 emissions. To provide a broader context of global emissions trends, international greenhouse gas mitigation targets and agreements are also presented, including different perspectives of emission accounting per country. In particular, annual trends with respect to the Kyoto Protocol target and Cancun agreements and cumulative global CO2 emissions of the last decade are compared with scientific literature that analyses global emissions in relation to the target of 2{sup 0}C maximum global warming in the 21st century, which was adopted in the UN climate negotiations. In addition, we briefly discuss the rapid development and implementation of various emission trading schemes, because of their increasing importance as a cross-cutting policy instrument for mitigating

  19. Validation of CFD simulation for ammonia emissions from an aqueous solution Submitted to Computers and Electronics in Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li; Elhadidi, B; Khalifa, H E;

    2011-01-01

    In order to model and predict ammonia emissions from animal houses, it is important to determine the concentration on the emission surface correctly. In the current literature, Henry’s law is usually used to model the mass transfer through the gas–liquid surface (e.g. manure or aqueous solution......). The objective of this study is to investigate the accuracy of three models for Henry’s law constant (HLC) as well as functions derived from experimental vapor–liquid equilibrium (VLE) properties of ammonia water to determine the concentration on the liquid ammonia solutions surface in order to be used...

  20. Mitigation of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane emissions from manure management chains: a meta-analysis and integrated assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yong, Y.; Velthof, G.L.; Oenema, O.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock manure contributes considerably to global emissions of ammonia (NH3) and greenhouse gases (GHG), especially methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Various measures have been developed to mitigate these emissions, but most of these focus on one specific gas and/or emission source. Here, we

  1. Measurement method for urine puddle depth in dairy cow houses as input variable for ammonia emission modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, J.W.; Stigter, J.D.; Ogink, Nico; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy cow houses are a major contributor to ammonia (NH3) emission in many European countries. To understand and predict NH3 emissions from cubicle dairy cow houses a mechanistic model was developed and a sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the contribution to NH3 emission of each input var

  2. Decadal trends in global CO emissions as seen by MOPITT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Negative trends of carbon monoxide (CO concentrations are observed in the recent decade by both surface measurements and satellite retrievals over many regions, but they are not well explained by current emission inventories. Here, we attribute the observed CO concentration decline with an atmospheric inversion that simultaneously optimizes the two main CO sources (surface emissions and atmospheric hydrocarbon oxidations and the main CO sink (atmospheric hydroxyl radical OH oxidation by assimilating observations of CO and other chemically related tracers. Satellite CO column retrievals from Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT, version 6, and surface in-situ measurements of methane and methyl-chloroform mole fractions are assimilated jointly for the period of 2002–2011. Compared to the prior simulation, the optimized CO concentrations show better agreement with independent surface in-situ measurements in terms of both distributions and trends. At the global scale, the atmospheric inversion primarily interprets the CO concentration decline as a decrease in the CO emissions, and finds noticeable trends neither in the chemical oxidation sources of CO, nor in the OH concentrations that regulate CO sinks. The latitudinal comparison of the model state with independent formaldehyde (CH2O columns retrieved from the Ozone Measurement Instrument (OMI confirms the absence of large-scale trends in the atmospheric source of CO. The global CO emission decreased by 17% during the decade, more than twice the negative trend estimated by emission inventories. The spatial distribution of the inferred decrease of CO emissions indicates contributions from both a decrease in fossil- and bio-fuel emissions over Europe, the USA and Asia, and from a decrease in biomass burning emissions in South America, Indonesia, Australia and Boreal regions. An emission decrease of 2% yr−1 is inferred in China, one of the main emitting regions, in contradiction

  3. Trends in global CO2 emissions. 2012 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, J.G.J.; Peters, J.A.H.W. [PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Den Haag (Netherlands); Janssens-Maenhout, G. [Institute for Environment and Sustainability IES, European Commission' s Joint Research Centre JRC, Ispra (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    This report discusses the results of a trend assessment of global CO2 emissions up to 2011 and updates last year's assessment. This assessment focusses on the changes in annual CO2 emissions from 2010 to 2011, and includes not only fossil fuel combustion on which the BP reports are based, but also incorporates all other relevant CO2 emissions sources including flaring of waste gas during oil production, cement clinker production and other limestone uses, feedstock and other non-energy uses of fuels, and several other small sources. After a short description of the methods used (Chapter 2), we first present a summary of recent CO2 emission trends, by region and by country, and of the underlying trend of fossil fuel use, non-fossil energy and of other CO2 sources (Chapter 3). To provide a broader context of the global trends we also assess the cumulative global CO2 emissions of the last decade, i.e. since 2000, and compare it with scientific literature that analyse global emissions in relation to the target of 2C maximum global warming in the 21st century, which was adopted in the UN climate negotiations (Chapter 4). Compared to last year's report, Annex 1 includes a more detailed and updated discussion of the uncertainty in national and global CO2 emission estimates.

  4. Ammonia emissions from an anaerobic digestion plant estimated using atmospheric measurements and dispersion modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michael W; Tang, Y Sim; Dragosits, Ulrike; Flechard, Chris R; Ward, Paul; Braban, Christine F

    2016-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is becoming increasingly implemented within organic waste treatment operations. The storage and processing of large volumes of organic wastes through AD has been identified as a significant source of ammonia (NH3) emissions, however the totality of ammonia emissions from an AD plant have not been previously quantified. The emissions from an AD plant processing food waste were estimated through integrating ambient NH3 concentration measurements, atmospheric dispersion modelling, and comparison with published emission factors (EFs). Two dispersion models (ADMS and a backwards Lagrangian stochastic (bLS) model) were applied to calculate emission estimates. The bLS model (WindTrax) was used to back-calculate a total (top-down) emission rate for the AD plant from a point of continuous NH3 measurement downwind from the plant. The back-calculated emission rates were then input to the ADMS forward dispersion model to make predictions of air NH3 concentrations around the site, and evaluated against weekly passive sampler NH3 measurements. As an alternative approach emission rates from individual sources within the plant were initially estimated by applying literature EFs to the available site parameters concerning the chemical composition of waste materials, room air concentrations, ventilation rates, etc. The individual emission rates were input to ADMS and later tuned by fitting the simulated ambient concentrations to the observed (passive sampler) concentration field, which gave an excellent match to measurements after an iterative process. The total emission from the AD plant thus estimated by a bottom-up approach was 16.8±1.8mgs(-1), which was significantly higher than the back-calculated top-down estimate (7.4±0.78mgs(-1)). The bottom-up approach offered a more realistic treatment of the source distribution within the plant area, while the complexity of the site was not ideally suited to the bLS method, thus the bottom-up method is believed

  5. Comparison of models used for national agricultural ammonia emission inventories in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reidy, B; Webb, J; Misselbrook, T H;

    2009-01-01

    Six N-flow models, used to calculate national ammonia (NH3) emissions from agriculture in different European countries, were compared using standard data sets. Scenarios for litter-based systems were run separately for beef cattle and for broilers, with three different levels of model...... standardisation: (a) standardized inputs to all models (FF scenario); (b) standard N excretion, but national values for emission factors (EFs) (FN scenario); (c) national values for N excretion and EFs (NN scenario). Results of the FF scenario for beef cattle produced very similar estimates of total losses......:N ratio in manure, there would be advantages to include C flows in mass-flow models. This would also provide an integrated model for the estimation of emissions of methane, non-methane VOCs and carbon dioxide. Estimation of these would also enable an estimate of mass loss, calculation of the N and TAN...

  6. Greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from composting of animal manure and other organic waste products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune

    small areas without sufficient nearby farm land for application. In addition to significant impacts on climate due to emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and ammonia (NH3) from manure management, losses of nitrogen to the environment reduce the fertiliser value of manure and have negative effects.......4-22.5% and 0.001-0.17% of initial Tot-C, respectively, while N losses as 2O and x NH3 emissions comprised 0.05-0.10% and 0.81-26.5% of initial Tot-N, respectively. There was strong evidence that high emissions of CH4-C and N2O-N gases can occur simultaneously, even during the thermophilic phase of composting...

  7. Estimating farm-gate ammonia emissions from major animal production systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiling; Ma, Wenqi; Zhu, Gaodi; Roelcke, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from livestock production in China are an important contributor to the global NH3 budget. In this study, by estimating total nitrogen (N) intake based on herd structures and excreted N, a mass balance model was used to estimate NH3 losses from animal housing and manure storage facilities of dairy cattle, beef cattle, pigs, broiler and layer productions within animal farm gate and their corresponding NH3 emission intensities on the basis of animal products, N and protein in animal products. In 2009, NH3 emissions from pigs, layers, beef and dairy cattle and broiler production systems in China were 1.23, 0.52, 0.24, 0.21 and 0.09 million tons, respectively. The NH3 emission intensities were 26.6 g NH3-N kg-1 of pork, 28.1 g NH3-N kg-1 of layer eggs, 39.4 g NH3-N kg-1 of beef meat, 6.0 g NH3-N kg-1 of dairy milk and 4.6 g NH3-N kg-1 of chicken meat, or 1260 (pigs), 1514 (layers), 1297 (beef), 1107 (dairy) and 123 g NH3-N (broilers) kg-1 N in animal products. Of the sectors of NH3 emission, manure storage facilities and farmyard manure (FYM) in animal housing were the major contributors to the total NH3 emissions except for layers; housing emissions from slurry were also major contributors for dairy and pig production.

  8. Towards a climate-dependent paradigm of ammonia emission and deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M.A.; Reis, S.; Riddick, S.N.; Dragosits, U.; Nemitz, E.; Tang, Y.S.; Braban, C.F.; Vieno, M.; Dore, A.J.; Mitchell, R.F.; Wanless, S.; Daunt, F.; Fowler, D. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Edinburgh, Bush Estate, Penicuik EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Blackall, T.D. [Department of Geography, Strand Campus, Kings College London, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Theobald, M.R. [Higher Technical School of Agricultural Engineering, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Milford, C. [Izana Atmospheric Research Center, Meteorological State Agency of Spain (AEMET), Santa Cruz de Tenerife 38071 (Spain); Flechard, C.R. [INRA, Agrocampus Ouest, UMR 1069 SAS, 65 rue de St. Brieuc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Loubet, B.; Massad, R.; Cellier, P.; Personne, E. [UMR INRA-AgroParisTech Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France); Coheur, P.F.; Clarisse, L.; Van Damme, M.; Ngadi, Y. [Spectroscopie de l' atmosphere, Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), 50 avenue F. D. Roosevelt, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Clerbaux, C. [Universite Paris 06, Universite Versailles-St. Quentin, UMR8190, CNRS/INSU, LATMOS-IPSL, Paris (France); Geels, C.; Hertel, O. [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, P.O. Box 358, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Ambelas Skjoeth, C. [National Pollen and Aerobiology Research Unit, University of Worcester, Henwick Grove, Worcester WR2 6AJ (United Kingdom); Wichink Kruit, R.J. [TNO, Climate, Air and Sustainability, P.O. Box 80015, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Pinder, R.W.; Bash, J.O.; Walker, J.T. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Research Triangle Park, 109 T.W. Alexander Drive, Durham, NC 27711 (United States); Simpson, D. [Norwegian Meteorological Institute, EMEP MSC-W, P.O. Box 43-Blindern, 0313 Oslo (Norway); Horvath, L. [Plant Ecology Research Group of Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Botany and Ecophysiology, Szent Istvan University, Pater K. utca 1, 2100 Goedoello (Hungary); Misselbrook, T.H. [Rothamsted Research, Sustainable Soils and Grassland Systems, North Wyke, Okehampton EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Bleeker, A. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Dentener, F. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, via Enrico Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra (Italy); De Vries, W. [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Droevendaalsesteeg 4, 6708 PB Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    Existing descriptions of bi-directional ammonia (NH3) land-atmosphere exchange incorporate temperature and moisture controls, and are beginning to be used in regional chemical transport models. However, such models have typically applied simpler emission factors to upscale the main NH3 emission terms. While this approach has successfully simulated the main spatial patterns on local to global scales, it fails to address the environment- and climate-dependence of emissions. To handle these issues, we outline the basis for a new modelling paradigm where both NH3 emissions and deposition are calculated online according to diurnal, seasonal and spatial differences in meteorology. We show how measurements reveal a strong, but complex pattern of climatic dependence, which is increasingly being characterized using ground-based NH3 monitoring and satellite observations, while advances in process-based modelling are illustrated for agricultural and natural sources, including a global application for seabird colonies. A future architecture for NH3 emission-deposition modelling is proposed that integrates the spatio-temporal interactions, and provides the necessary foundation to assess the consequences of climate change. Based on available measurements, a first empirical estimate suggests that 5{sup o}C warming would increase emissions by 42 per cent (28-67%). Together with increased anthropogenic activity, global NH3 emissions may increase from 65 (45-85) Tg N in 2008 to reach 132 (89-179) Tg by 2100.

  9. Primary anthropogenic aerosol emission trends for China, 1990–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lei

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of anthropogenic primary aerosol emissions in China was developed for 1990–2005 using a technology-based approach. Taking into account changes in the technology penetration within industry sectors and improvements in emission controls driven by stricter emission standards, a dynamic methodology was derived and implemented to estimate inter-annual emission factors. Emission factors of PM2.5 decreased by 7%–69% from 1990 to 2005 in different industry sectors of China, and emission factors of TSP decreased by 18%–80% as well, with the measures of controlling PM emissions implemented. As a result, emissions of PM2.5 and TSP in 2005 were 11.0 Tg and 29.7 Tg, respectively, less than what they would have been without the adoption of these measures. Emissions of PM2.5, PM10 and TSP presented similar trends: they increased in the first six years of 1990s and decreased until 2000, then increased again in the following years. Emissions of TSP peaked (35.5 Tg in 1996, while the peak of PM10 (18.8 Tg and PM2.5 (12.7 Tg emissions occurred in 2005. Although various emission trends were identified across sectors, the cement industry and biofuel combustion in the residential sector were consistently the largest sources of PM2.5 emissions, accounting for 53%–62% of emissions over the study period. The non-metallic mineral product industry, including the cement, lime and brick industries, accounted for 54%–63% of national TSP emissions. There were no significant trends of BC and OC emissions until 2000, but the increase after 2000 brought the peaks of BC (1.51 Tg and OC (3.19 Tg emissions in 2005. Although significant improvements in the estimation of primary aerosols are presented here, there still exist large uncertainties. More accurate and detailed activity information and emission factors based on local tests are essential to further improve emission estimates

  10. Overview and assessment of techniques to measure ammonia emissions from animal houses : the case of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosquera Losada, J.; Monteny, G.J.; Erisman, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    In order to comply with the ammonia (NH3) emission reduction assigned to the Netherlands development of new measures are needed, which should be supported by fast and accurate measurements to arrive at new estimates of the NH3 emission from each agricultural source. This paper gives an overview of t

  11. Urease inhibitor for reducing ammonia emissions from an open-lot beef cattle feedyard in the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reduction of ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal feeding operations is important from the perspective of environmental policy and its impact on agriculture. In laboratory studies, urease inhibitors have been effective in reducing NH3 emissions from beef cattle manure, however there has been little t...

  12. Ammonia emissions from pig and cattle slurry in the field and utilization of slurry nitrogen in crop production

    OpenAIRE

    Mattila, Pasi

    2006-01-01

    Volatilization of ammonia (NH3) from animal manure is a major pathway for nitrogen (N) losses that cause eutrophication, acidification, and other environmental hazards. In this study, the effect of alternative techniques of manure treatment (aeration, separation, addition of peat) and application (broadcast spreading, band spreading, injection, incorporation by harrowing) on ammonia emissions in the field and on nitrogen uptake by ley or cereals was studied. The effect of a mixture of slurry ...

  13. Towards a climate-dependent paradigm of ammonia emission and deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Mark A.; Reis, Stefan; Riddick, Stuart N.; Dragosits, Ulrike; Nemitz, Eiko; Theobald, Mark R.; Tang, Y. Sim; Braban, Christine F.; Vieno, Massimo; Dore, Anthony J.; Mitchell, Robert F.; Wanless, Sarah; Daunt, Francis; Fowler, David; Blackall, Trevor D.; Milford, Celia; Flechard, Chris R.; Loubet, Benjamin; Massad, Raia; Cellier, Pierre; Personne, Erwan; Coheur, Pierre F.; Clarisse, Lieven; Van Damme, Martin; Ngadi, Yasmine; Clerbaux, Cathy; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Geels, Camilla; Hertel, Ole; Wichink Kruit, Roy J.; Pinder, Robert W.; Bash, Jesse O.; Walker, John T.; Simpson, David; Horváth, László; Misselbrook, Tom H.; Bleeker, Albert; Dentener, Frank; de Vries, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Existing descriptions of bi-directional ammonia (NH3) land–atmosphere exchange incorporate temperature and moisture controls, and are beginning to be used in regional chemical transport models. However, such models have typically applied simpler emission factors to upscale the main NH3 emission terms. While this approach has successfully simulated the main spatial patterns on local to global scales, it fails to address the environment- and climate-dependence of emissions. To handle these issues, we outline the basis for a new modelling paradigm where both NH3 emissions and deposition are calculated online according to diurnal, seasonal and spatial differences in meteorology. We show how measurements reveal a strong, but complex pattern of climatic dependence, which is increasingly being characterized using ground-based NH3 monitoring and satellite observations, while advances in process-based modelling are illustrated for agricultural and natural sources, including a global application for seabird colonies. A future architecture for NH3 emission–deposition modelling is proposed that integrates the spatio-temporal interactions, and provides the necessary foundation to assess the consequences of climate change. Based on available measurements, a first empirical estimate suggests that 5°C warming would increase emissions by 42 per cent (28–67%). Together with increased anthropogenic activity, global NH3 emissions may increase from 65 (45–85) Tg N in 2008 to reach 132 (89–179) Tg by 2100. PMID:23713128

  14. The sectoral trends of multigas emissions inventory of India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garg, A.; Shukla, P.R.; Kapshe, M.;

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides the trends of greenhouse gas (GHG) and local air pollutant emissions of India for 1985-2005. The GHGs covered are six Kyoto gases, namely carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6......). The local air pollutants are sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOX), carbon monoxide (CO) and total suspended particulates (TSP). These estimates incorporate some of the most recent scientific assessments for India. The multigas emissions have varied sectoral and fuel-based dominance, as well...... as regional distribution patterns. Coal consumption in power sector dominates CO2 and SO2 emissions, while power and road transport equally contribute to NOX emissions. Rice cultivation and livestock-related emissions from the agriculture sector dominate CH4 emissions, while synthetic fertilizer use...

  15. Ammonia Emission and Deposition in Scotland and Its Potential Environmental Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Sutton

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The main source of atmospheric ammonia (NH3 in Scotland is livestock agriculture, which accounts for 85% of emissions. The local magnitude of emissions therefore depends on livestock density, type, and management, with major differences occurring in various parts of Scotland. Local differences in agricultural activities therefore result in a wide range of NH3 emissions, ranging from less than 0.2 kg N ha−1 year−1 in remote areas of the Scottish Highlands to over 100 kg N ha−1 year−1 in areas with intensive poultry farming. Scotland can be divided loosely into upland and lowland areas, with NH3 emission being less than and more than 5 kg N ha−1 year−1, respectively.Many semi-natural ecosystems in Scotland are vulnerable to nitrogen deposition, including bogs, moorlands, and the woodland ground flora. Because NH3 emissions occur in the rural environment, the local deposition to sensitive ecosystems may be large, making it essential to assess the spatial distribution of NH3 emissions and deposition. A spatial model is applied here to map NH3 emissions and these estimates are applied in atmospheric dispersion and deposition models to estimate atmospheric concentrations of NH3 and NH4+, dry deposition of NH3, and wet deposition of NHx. Although there is a high level of local variability, modelled NH3 concentrations show good agreement with the National Ammonia Monitoring Network, while wet deposition is largest at high altitude sites in the south and west of Scotland. Comparison of the modelled NHx deposition fields with estimated thresholds for environmental effects (“critical loads” shows that thresholds are exceeded across most of lowland Scotland and the Southern Uplands. Only in the cleanest parts of the north and west is nitrogen deposition not a cause for concern. Given that the most intense effects occur within a few kilometres of sources, it is suggested that local spatial abatement policies would be a useful complement to

  16. Ammonia emission and deposition in Scotland and its potential environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, M A; Dragosits, U; Hellsten, S; Place, C J; Dore, A J; Tang, Y S; van Dijk, N; Love, L; Fournier, N; Vieno, M; Weston, K J; Smith, R I; Coyle, M; Roy, D; Hall, J; Fowler, D

    2004-09-02

    The main source of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) in Scotland is livestock agriculture, which accounts for 85% of emissions. The local magnitude of emissions therefore depends on livestock density, type, and management, with major differences occurring in various parts of Scotland. Local differences in agricultural activities therefore result in a wide range of NH3 emissions, ranging from less than 0.2 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) in remote areas of the Scottish Highlands to over 100 kg N ha(-1) year-1 in areas with intensive poultry farming. Scotland can be divided loosely into upland and lowland areas, with NH3 emission being less than and more than 5 kg N ha(-1) year(-1), respectively. Many semi-natural ecosystems in Scotland are vulnerable to nitrogen deposition, including bogs, moorlands, and the woodland ground flora. Because NH3 emissions occur in the rural environment, the local deposition to sensitive ecosystems may be large, making it essential to assess the spatial distribution of NH3 emissions and deposition. A spatial model is applied here to map NH3 emissions and these estimates are applied in atmospheric dispersion and deposition models to estimate atmospheric concentrations of NH3 and NH4+, dry deposition of NH3, and wet deposition of NHx. Although there is a high level of local variability, modelled NH3 concentrations show good agreement with the National Ammonia Monitoring Network, while wet deposition is largest at high altitude sites in the south and west of Scotland. Comparison of the modelled NHx deposition fields with estimated thresholds for environmental effects ("critical loads") shows that thresholds are exceeded across most of lowland Scotland and the Southern Uplands. Only in the cleanest parts of the north and west is nitrogen deposition not a cause for concern. Given that the most intense effects occur within a few kilometres of sources, it is suggested that local spatial abatement policies would be a useful complement to traditional policies that

  17. Atmospheric Ammonia Emissions and a Nitrogen Mass Balance for a Dairy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumburg, B. P.; Mount, G. H.; Filipy, J. M.; Lamb, B.; Yonge, D.; Wetherelt, S.

    2003-12-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) emissions have many impacts on the environment and human health. Environmental NH3 impacts include terrestrial and aquatic eutrophication, soil acidification, and aerosol formation. Aerosols affect global radiative transfer and have been linked to human health effects. The global emissions of NH3 are estimated to be 45 Tg N yr-1 (Dentener and Crutzen, 1994) with most of the emissions coming from domestic animals. The largest per animal emission come from dairy cows at 33 kg N animal{-1} year{-1} versus 10 kg N animal{-1} {-1} for cattle. On a global scale the emissions uncertainty is about 25%, but local emissions are highly uncertain (Bouwman et al., 1997). Local emissions determination is required for proper treatment in air pollution models. The main sources of emission from dairies are the cow stalls where urea and manure react to form NH3, the storage lagoons where NH3 is the end product of microbial degradation and the disposal of the waste. There have been numerous studies of NH3 emissions in Europe but farming practices are quite different in Europe than in the U.S.. The impact of these differences on emissions is unknown. We have been studying the NH3 emissions from the Washington State University dairy for three years to develop a detailed emission model for use in a regional air pollution model. NH3 is measured using a short-path spectroscopic absorption near 200 nm with a sensitivity of a few ppbv and a time resolution of a few seconds. The open air short-path method is advantageous because it is self calibrating and avoids inlet wall adherence which is a major problem for most NH3 measurement techniques. A SF6 tracer technique has been used to measure fluxes from the three main emission sources: the cow stalls, anaerobic lagoon and the waste application to grass fields using a sprinkler system. Estimated yearly emissions from each source will be compared to a nitrogen mass balance model for the dairy.

  18. Emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane from cattle manure heaps: effect of compaction and covering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, D. R.

    The effect of compaction and covering during storage of beef cattle ( Bos taurus) farmyard manure (FYM) on ammonia (NH 3), nitrous oxide (N 2O) and methane (CH 4) emissions was determined. Gaseous emission measurements were made over three separate storage periods of between 90 and 109 days. The effect of the different storage treatments on manure chemical composition was also determined. Compaction was carried out as the manure was put into store and the compacted manures covered with plastic sheeting. Compaction and covering significantly reduced NH 3 emissions from manure by over 90% during the first summer storage period (PMethane emissions from cattle FYM were unaffected by treatment over the first storage period and were decreased by compaction in the second storage period yet was increased by compaction during the third storage period. It would appear that compacting and covering manure heaps does have the potential to reduce emissions of both NH 3 and N 2O when the manure contains relatively high ammonium-N contents. Additional benefits are that N and K are retained in the manure heap for agronomic benefit.

  19. Modeling ammonia emissions from dairy production systems in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jia; Li, Changsheng; Wang, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Dairy production systems are hot spots of ammonia (NH3) emission. However, there remains large uncertainty in quantifying and mitigating NH3 emissions from dairy farms due to the lack of both long-term field measurements and reliable methods for extrapolating these measurements. In this study, a process-based biogeochemical model, Manure-DNDC, was tested against measurements of NH3 fluxes from five barns and one lagoon in four dairy farms over a range of environmental conditions and management practices in the United States. Results from the validation tests indicate that the magnitudes and seasonal patterns of NH3 fluxes simulated by Manure-DNDC were in agreement with the observations across the sites. The model was then applied to assess impacts of alternative management practices on NH3 emissions at the farm scale. The alternatives included reduction of crude protein content in feed, replacement of scraping with flushing for removal of manure from barn, lagoon coverage, increase in frequency for removal of slurry from lagoon, and replacement of surface spreading with incorporation for manure land application. The simulations demonstrate that: (a) all the tested alternative management practices decreased the NH3 emissions although the efficiency of mitigation varied; (b) a change of management in an upstream facility affected the NH3 emissions from all downstream facilities; and (c) an optimized strategy by combining the alternative practices on feed, manure removal, manure storage, and land application could reduce the farm-scale NH3 emission by up to 50%. The results from this study may provide useful information for mitigating NH3 emissions from dairy production systems and emphasize the necessity of whole-farm perspectives on the assessment of potential technical options for NH3 mitigation. This study also demonstrates the potential of utilizing process-based models, such as Manure-DNDC, to quantify and mitigate NH3 emissions from dairy farms.

  20. Comparison of models used for national agricultural ammonia emission inventories in Europe: Liquid manure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, B.; Dämmgen, U.; Döhler, H.; Eurich-Menden, B.; van Evert, F. K.; Hutchings, N. J.; Luesink, H. H.; Menzi, H.; Misselbrook, T. H.; Monteny, G.-J.; Webb, J.

    Ammonia (NH 3) emissions from agriculture commonly account for >80% of the total NH 3 emissions. Accurate agricultural NH 3 emission inventories are therefore required for reporting within the framework of the Gothenburg Protocol of the UN Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. To allow a co-ordinated implementation of the Protocol, different national inventories should be comparable. A core group of emission inventory experts therefore developed a network and joint programme to achieve a detailed overview of the best inventory techniques currently available and compiled and harmonized the available knowledge on emission factors (EFs) for nitrogen (N)-flow emission calculation models and initiated a new generation of emission inventories. As a first step in summarizing the available knowledge, six N-flow models, used to calculate national NH 3 emissions from agriculture in different European countries, were compared using standard datasets. Two scenarios for slurry-based systems were run separately for dairy cattle and for pigs, with three different levels of model standardisation: (a) standardised inputs to all models (FF scenario); (b) standard N excretion, but national values for EFs (FN scenario); (c) national values for N excretion and EFs (NN scenario). Results of the FF scenario showed very good agreement among models, indicating that the underlying N flows of the different models are highly similar. As a result of the different national EFs and N excretion rates, larger differences among the results were observed for the FN and the NN scenarios. Reasons for the differences were primarily attributed to differences in the agricultural practices and climatic factors reflected in the EFs and the N excretion rates. The scientific debate necessary to understand the variation in the results generated awareness and consensus concerning available scientific data and the importance of specific processes not yet included in some models.

  1. Ammonia emissions from beech forest after leaf fall – measurements and modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hansen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of biochemical feed-back mechanisms in the climate system is lacking knowledge in relation to bi-directional ammonia (NH3 exchange between natural ecosystems and the atmosphere. We therefore study the atmospheric NH3 fluxes during a 25 days period during autumn 2010 (21 October–15 November for the Danish beech forest, Lille Bøgeskov, to address the hypothesis that NH3 emissions occur from deciduous forests in relation to leaf fall. This is accomplished by using observations of vegetation status, NH3 fluxes and model calculations. Vegetation status was observed using plant area index (PAI and leaf area index (LAI. NH3 fluxes were measured using the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA method. The REA based NH3 concentrations were compared to NH3 denuder measurements. Model calculations were obtained with the Danish Ammonia MOdelling System (DAMOS. 57.7% of the fluxes measured showed emission and 19.5% showed deposition. The mean NH3 flux was 0.087 ± 0.19 μg NH3-N m−2 s−1. A clear tendency of the flux going from negative (deposition to positive (emission fluxes of up to 0.96 ± 0.40 μg NH3-N m−2 s−1 throughout the measurement period was found. In the leaf fall period (23 October–8 November, an increase in the atmospheric NH3 concentrations was related to the increasing forest NH3 flux. The modelled concentration from DAMOS fits well the measured concentrations before leaf fall. During and after leaf fall, the modelled concentrations are too low. The results indicate that the missing contribution to atmospheric NH3 concentration from vegetative surfaces related to leaf fall are of a relatively large magnitude. We therefore conclude that emissions from deciduous forests are important to include in model calculations of atmospheric NH

  2. Dietary crude protein and tannin impact dairy manure chemistry and ammonia emissions from incubated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J M; Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A

    2011-01-01

    Excess crude protein (CP) in dairy cow diets is excreted mostly as urea nitrogen (N), which increases ammonia (NH) emissions from dairy farms and heightens human health and environmental concerns. Feeding less CP and more tannin to dairy cows may enhance feed N use and milk production, abate NH emissions, and conserve the fertilizer N value of manure. Lab-scale ventilated chambers were used to evaluate the impacts of CP and tannin feeding on slurry chemistry, NH emissions, and soil inorganic N levels after slurry application to a sandy loam soil and a silt loam soil. Slurry from lactating Holstein dairy cows (Bos taurus) fed two levels of dietary CP (low CP [LCP], 155 g kg; high CP [HCP], 168 g kg) each fed at four levels of dietary tannin extract, a mixture from red quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii) and chestnut (Castanea sativa) trees (0 tannin [0T]; low tannin [LT], 4.5 g kg; medium tannin [MT], 9.0 g kg; and high tannin [HT], 18.0 g kg) were applied to soil-containing lab-scale chambers, and NH emissions were measured 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after slurry application. Emissions from the HCP slurry were 1.53 to 2.57 times greater ( soils were greater ( soils than in LCP slurry-amended soils. Emissions from HT slurry were 28 to 49% lower ( soil inorganic N levels. Emissions from the sandy loam soil were 1.07 to 1.15 times greater ( soil, a result that decreased soil inorganic N in the sandy loam compared with the silt loam soil. Larger-scale and longer-term field trails are needed to ascertain the effectiveness of feeding tannin extracts to dairy cows in abating NH loss from land-applied slurry and the impact of tannin-containing slurry on soil N cycles.

  3. Emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases during combined pre-composting and vermicomposting of duck manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinzhi; Hu, Zhengyi; Xu, Xingkai; Jiang, Xia; Zheng, Binghui; Liu, Xiaoning; Pan, Xubin; Kardol, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting has shown potential for reclamation of solid wastes, which is a significant source of ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gases (GHG), including nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Earthworms and amendments may both affect physico-chemical characteristics that control gas-producing processes, and thus affect NH3 and GHG emissions. Here, we used two-way ANOVA to test the effects of addition of reed straw and combined addition of reed straw and zeolite on NH3 and GHG emissions during pre-composting of duck manure, either with or without a follow-up phase of vermicomposting. Results showed that cumulative N2O, CH4, and CO2 emissions during pre-composting and vermicomposting ranged from 92.8, 5.8, and 260.6 mg kg(-)(1) DM to 274.2, 30.4, and 314.0 mg kg(-1) DM, respectively. Earthworms and amendments significantly decreased N2O and CH4 emissions. Emission of CO2 was not affected by earthworms, but increased in responses to addition of reed straw. Cumulative NH3 emission ranged from 3.0 to 8.1 g kg(-1) DM, and was significantly decreased by reed straw and zeolite addition. In conclusion, combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite addition would be strongly recommended in mitigating emissions of N2O, CH4, and NH3 from duck manure. Moreover, this method also provides nutrient-rich products that can be used as a fertilizer.

  4. Ammonia emissions from a naturally and a mechanically ventilated broiler house in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano B. Mendes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with the aim of monitoring NH3 emissions from a mechanically and a naturally ventilated broiler house (MVB and NVB, respectively and calculate their ammonia emission factors (fNH3. Bird stocking density was 13.5 and 11.1 birds m-2 for the MVB and NVB, respectively. The marketing age was 43 days and bedding consisted of dried coffee husks in its first time of use. Ventilation rates were calculated with the metabolic carbon dioxide mass balance method. Values of fNH3 were 0.32 ± 0.10 and 0.27 ± 0.07 g bird-1 d-1 for the MVB and NVB, respectively, and are in agreement to what was presented in other studies performed under similar conditions. The fNH3 estimated on yearly basis was 58 g bird-place-1 year-1. It was concluded that the different types of ventilation system between the studied broiler barns did not significantly affect emissions in the modeling process. The results obtained help providing reliable methodology for the determination of a solid database on NH3 emission factors for tropical conditions that can be used for future inventories, when performed in a sufficient number of barns that is representative for the Brazilian scenario.

  5. Energy-Efficiency and Air-Pollutant Emissions-Reduction Opportunities for the Ammonia Industry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ding [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Wenying [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    2015-06-01

    As one of the most energy-intensive and polluting industries, ammonia production is responsible for significant carbon dioxide (CO2) and air-pollutant emissions. Although many energy-efficiency measures have been proposed by the Chinese government to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality, lack of understanding of the cost-effectiveness of such improvements has been a barrier to implementing these measures. Assessing the costs, benefits, and cost-effectiveness of different energy-efficiency measures is essential to advancing this understanding. In this study, a bottom-up energy conservation supply curve model is developed to estimate the potential for energy savings and emissions reductions from 26 energy-efficiency measures that could be applied in China’s ammonia industry. Cost-effective implementation of these measures saves a potential 271.5 petajoules/year for fuel and 5,443 gigawatt-hours/year for electricity, equal to 14% of fuel and 14% of electricity consumed in China’s ammonia industry in 2012. These reductions could mitigate 26.7 million tonnes of CO2 emissions. This study also quantifies the co-benefits of reducing air-pollutant emissions and water use that would result from saving energy in China’s ammonia industry. This quantitative analysis advances our understanding of the cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures and can be used to augment efforts to reduce energy use and environmental impacts.

  6. Trends in Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions from 1990 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Arunima; Lan, Jun; Lenzen, Manfred

    2016-05-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are known to alter hydrological cycles, disrupt marine ecosystems and species lifecycles, and cause global habitat loss. In this study, we use a comprehensive global input-output database to assess the driving forces underlying the change in global CO2 emissions from 1990 to 2010. We decompose the change in emissions for the 20 year period into six mutually exclusive causal determinants. Our assessment of trends in fuel-use reveals that a 10.8 Peta-gram (Pg) rise in emissions from 1990 to 2010 constitutes emissions from the consumption of coal (49%), petroleum (25%), natural gas (17%), and biomass (9%). We demonstrate that affluence (per-capita consumption) and population growth are outpacing any improvements in carbon efficiency in driving up emissions worldwide. Our results suggest that supply chain measures to improve technological efficiency are not sufficient to reduce emissions. To achieve significant emission savings, policy makers need to address the issue of affluence. We argue that policies to address unsustainable lifestyles and consumer behavior are largely unheard of, and governments may need to actively intervene in nonsustainable lifestyles to achieve emission reductions. The results presented in this paper are vital for informing future policy decisions for mitigating climate change. PMID:27063930

  7. Emission, transmission, deposition and environmental effects of ammonia from agricultural sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erisman, J.W. [ECN Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands); Dammgen, U. [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Institute of Agroecology, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    Air pollution in Europe has been regarded as a severe problem for several decades, the adverse effects being: the influence on the physical properties of the atmosphere itself, in particular its energy balance (global warming), and visibility; the influence on atmospheric chemistry (formation and destruction of both ground level and stratospheric ozone); the input of chemicals into terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems causing acidification and eutrophication leading to forest decline as well as changes in ecosystem structure and function; the effects on human health and welfare (the respiratory system). Since the sulfur dioxide problem seems to have been solved to a large extent in most countries in Western Europe, atmospheric nitrogen compounds are considered a major source of acidification. As most natural and near-natural ecosystems have developed with nitrogen as a limiting factor, increased inputs of reactive atmospheric nitrogen cause changes in their structure, function and nutrient dynamics. These effects are attributed to surplus nutrition (eutrophication) of the respective systems as the result of increased nitrogen inputs. At first it seemed logical to connect them with sources similar to those for sulfur (power plants, combustion engines, domestic heating); however, it soon became clear that reduced nitrogen (ammonia and ammonium in particulates) also plays a major role. This review is to collate the present state of knowledge with regard to ammonia emissions, its atmospheric transport and chemistry as well as its deposition and the resulting effects. It restricts itself to a description of the situation in Europe.

  8. Emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases during combined pre-composting and vermicomposting of duck manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jinzhi [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Zhengyi, E-mail: zhyhu@ucas.ac.cn [College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu, Xingkai [State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Jiang, Xia; Zheng, Binghui [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu, Xiaoning [College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Pan, Xubin [Institute of Plant Quarantine, Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Beijing 100029 (China); Kardol, Paul [Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, S 90183 Umeå (Sweden)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Earthworms significantly decreased emissions of N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4}, but had a marginal effect on CO{sub 2} emission. • NH{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O, and CH{sub 4} emissions were significantly reduced by reed straw and zeolite, CO{sub 2} emission was increased by reed straw. • Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite would be recommended for disposal of duck manure. - Abstract: Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting has shown potential for reclamation of solid wastes, which is a significant source of ammonia (NH{sub 3}), and greenhouse gases (GHG), including nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), methane (CH{sub 4}), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Earthworms and amendments may both affect physico-chemical characteristics that control gas-producing processes, and thus affect NH{sub 3} and GHG emissions. Here, we used two-way ANOVA to test the effects of addition of reed straw and combined addition of reed straw and zeolite on NH{sub 3} and GHG emissions during pre-composting of duck manure, either with or without a follow-up phase of vermicomposting. Results showed that cumulative N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} emissions during pre-composting and vermicomposting ranged from 92.8, 5.8, and 260.6 mg kg{sup −1} DM to 274.2, 30.4, and 314.0 mg kg{sup −1} DM, respectively. Earthworms and amendments significantly decreased N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions. Emission of CO{sub 2} was not affected by earthworms, but increased in responses to addition of reed straw. Cumulative NH{sub 3} emission ranged from 3.0 to 8.1 g kg{sup −1} DM, and was significantly decreased by reed straw and zeolite addition. In conclusion, combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite addition would be strongly recommended in mitigating emissions of N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and NH{sub 3} from duck manure. Moreover, this method also provides nutrient-rich products that can be used as a fertilizer.

  9. Emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases during combined pre-composting and vermicomposting of duck manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Earthworms significantly decreased emissions of N2O and CH4, but had a marginal effect on CO2 emission. • NH3, N2O, and CH4 emissions were significantly reduced by reed straw and zeolite, CO2 emission was increased by reed straw. • Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite would be recommended for disposal of duck manure. - Abstract: Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting has shown potential for reclamation of solid wastes, which is a significant source of ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gases (GHG), including nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Earthworms and amendments may both affect physico-chemical characteristics that control gas-producing processes, and thus affect NH3 and GHG emissions. Here, we used two-way ANOVA to test the effects of addition of reed straw and combined addition of reed straw and zeolite on NH3 and GHG emissions during pre-composting of duck manure, either with or without a follow-up phase of vermicomposting. Results showed that cumulative N2O, CH4, and CO2 emissions during pre-composting and vermicomposting ranged from 92.8, 5.8, and 260.6 mg kg−1 DM to 274.2, 30.4, and 314.0 mg kg−1 DM, respectively. Earthworms and amendments significantly decreased N2O and CH4 emissions. Emission of CO2 was not affected by earthworms, but increased in responses to addition of reed straw. Cumulative NH3 emission ranged from 3.0 to 8.1 g kg−1 DM, and was significantly decreased by reed straw and zeolite addition. In conclusion, combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite addition would be strongly recommended in mitigating emissions of N2O, CH4, and NH3 from duck manure. Moreover, this method also provides nutrient-rich products that can be used as a fertilizer

  10. [Use of open-path TDL technique and the backward Lagrangian stochastic model to monitor ammonia emission from summer maize field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Liang; Zhu, An-Ning; Zhang, Jia-Bao; Zhang, Yu-Jun; He, Ying; Wang, Li-Ming; Chen, Xiao-Min; Chen, Wen-Chao

    2012-11-01

    The backward Lagrangian stochastic dispersion model in conjunction with open-path tunable diode absorption spectroscopy was used to quantify ammonia emissions from farmland based on the high-temporal resolution data, aiming to provide innovative achievements to diagnose patterns of ammonia flux. The results indicate that the bLS dispersion technique using open-path lasers to measure atmospheric ammonia concentrations is suitable for determining ammonia emissions from farmland continuously, especially for characterizing diurnal characteristics of NH3 emissions. The ammonia emissions have a significant diurnal pattern with two emission peaks from urea applied to maize on a calcareous sandy loam fluvo-aquic soil in the North China Plain. We believe that the first peak starting at approximately 9:00 am is due to NH3 absorbed by the dew re-emission at night as the dew evaporates. The maximum of ammonia flux at 14:00 corresponds to the peak of soil temperature and solar radiation. The ammonia emission increased rapidly, but the duration of emission peaks lasted approximately 4 d. Cumulative NH3 emission was 25.3% of the applied N over the entire measurement period. The NH3 emissions measured with bLS dispersion technique and venting method had certain difference. PMID:23387189

  11. The Impact of Changing Climate on Ammonia Emissions from Agriculture and the Associated Climate Forcings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D. S.; Riddick, S. N.; Hess, P. G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Agriculture is the largest anthropogenic source of ammonia (NH3) on a global scale with major contributions from the application of synthetic fertilizer and manure from livestock. While strict controls are placed on the emissions of many industrial pollutants, NH3 concentrations are expected to increase this century. In addition to future expansion of agricultural activities that could lead to greater NH3 emissions, NH3 emissions are affected by changes in temperature and precipitation. Here we use a newly developed agricultural N pathways model running in a global terrestrial model (Community Land Model v4.0) to estimate future NH3 emissions from manure and synthetic fertilizer application, and the impact of changing climate on these emissions and other N pathways (runoff, denitrification, etc.). We include future increases in the application of manure and synthetic fertilizer that are consistent with a middle-of-the-road projection of population growth and per capita caloric intake. Combined with atmospheric forcing that follows RCP8.5, NH3 emissions increase by about 50% and 90% between years 2010 and 2100 from synthetic fertilizer and manure, respectively. Roughly 25% of this increase can be attributed to the changing climate, mainly increased global temperatures over the 21st century. We show associated changes in ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate aerosol concentrations and radiative forcings, the results of a set of additional simulations using the Community Atmosphere Model v5.0 and an offline radiative transfer scheme. This work suggests that projections of global NH3 concentrations need to take changes in climate into account.

  12. [¹³N]Ammonia positron emission tomographic/computed tomographic imaging targeting glutamine synthetase expression in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xinchong; Zhang, Xiangsong; Yi, Chang; Liu, Yubo; He, Qiao

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of glutamine synthetase (GS) in prostate cancer (PCa) and the utility of [¹³N]ammonia positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in the imaging of PCa. The uptake ratio of [¹³N]ammonia and the expression of GS in PC3 and DU145 cells was measured. Thirty-four patients with suspected PCa underwent [¹³N]ammonia PET/CT imaging, and immunohistochemistry staining of GS was performed. The uptake of [¹³N]ammonia in PC3 and DU145 cells elevated along with the decrease in glutamine in medium. The expression of GS messenger ribonucleic acid and protein also increased when glutamine was deprived. In biopsy samples, the GS expression scores were significantly higher in PCa tissue than in benign tissues (p glutamine. GS is the main reason for the uptake of [¹³N]ammonia, and [¹³N]ammonia is a useful tracer for PCa imaging.

  13. Ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions following field-application of manure: state of the art measurements in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, J.F.M.; Schils, R.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Manure application to grassland and arable land is an important source of ammonia and nitrous oxide losses. For both gasses, national and international policies have been developed with the objective of reducing the emissions. Since the early 1990s, measurements have been carried out in The Netherla

  14. Study on the Influence of Velocity, Turbulence Intensity and Temperature on Ammonia Emission Rate in a Wind Tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li; Nielsen, Peter V.; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2009-01-01

    Odor emissions from manure in livestock buildings are an important issue which concerns the human health and air quality as well as animals. Ammonia is one of the most important odors in pig houses. The objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of local velocity, turbulence intensit...

  15. Irrigation and lava meal use reduce ammonia emission and improve N utilization when solid cattle manure is applied to grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, G.M.; Shah, G.A.; Groot, J.C.J.; Oenema, O.; Lantinga, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable losses of nitrogen (N) may occur during and after surface-application of solid cattle manure to grassland. These losses are due mainly to the emission of ammonia (NH3) and represent a threat to the environment. Consequently, N fertilizer value of the manure is reduced. Therefore, adjust

  16. The effect of heat fluxes on ammonia emission from swine waste lagoon based on neural network analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding factors that affect ammonia emissions from swine waste lagoons or any animal waste receptacles is a necessary first step in deploying potential remediation options. In this study, we examined the various meteorological factors (i.e., air temperatures, solar radiation, and heat fluxes)...

  17. Ozone trends in Atlanta, Georgia - Have emission controls been effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ronald W.; Richardson, Jennifer L.; Chameldes, William L.

    1989-01-01

    Nine years of summertime ozone data from the Atlanta metropolitan area are analyzed and compared to local emissions of volatile organic carbon and nitrogen oxides. Trends from 1979 to 1987 were studied for the number of days per year ozone exceeded the NAAQS standard, the second-highest ozone level observed per year, and the first quartile summertime average ozone observed, as well as the mean difference between the ozone level observed downwind and upwind of the city. Because this last parameter is sensitive to chemical factors but relatively insensitive to the number of days each year with meteorological conditions conducive to ozone formation, its trend may be best suited for determining how effective emission controls have been in reducing O3 in the Atlanta area. In spite of the fact that sizeable reductions have been claimed for volatile organic carbon emissions over the past several years, the data give no indication that ozone levels have decreased and in fact, imply that summertime ozone production may have increased. The results imply that either emissions have not decreased as much as has been claimed or that ozone is not sensitive to anthropogenic volatile organic carbon emissions.

  18. Constraining atmospheric ammonia emissions through new observations with an open-path, laser-based sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kang

    As the third most abundant nitrogen species in the atmosphere, ammonia (NH3) is a key component of the global nitrogen cycle. Since the industrial revolution, humans have more than doubled the emissions of NH3 to the atmosphere by industrial nitrogen fixation, revolutionizing agricultural practices, and burning fossil fuels. NH3 is a major precursor to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), which has adverse impacts on air quality and human health. The direct and indirect aerosol radiative forcings currently constitute the largest uncertainties for future climate change predictions. Gas and particle phase NH3 eventually deposits back to the Earth's surface as reactive nitrogen, leading to the exceedance of ecosystem critical loads and perturbation of ecosystem productivity. Large uncertainties still remain in estimating the magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns of NH3 emissions from all sources and over a range of scales. These uncertainties in emissions also propagate to the deposition of reactive nitrogen. To improve our understanding of NH3 emissions, observational constraints are needed from local to global scales. The first part of this thesis is to provide quality-controlled, reliable NH3 measurements in the field using an open-path, quantum cascade laser-based NH3 sensor. As the second and third part of my research, NH3 emissions were quantified from a cattle feedlot using eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements, and the similarities between NH3 turbulent fluxes and those of other scalars (temperature, water vapor, and CO2) were investigated. The fourth part involves applying a mobile laboratory equipped with the open-path NH3 sensor and other important chemical/meteorological measurements to quantify fleet-integrated NH3 emissions from on-road vehicles. In the fifth part, the on-road measurements were extended to multiple major urban areas in both the US and China in the context of five observation campaigns. The results significantly improved current urban NH3

  19. Soil-atmosphere exchange of ammonia in a non-fertilized grassland: measured emission potentials and inferred fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentworth, G. R.; Murphy, J. G.; Gregoire, P. K.; Cheyne, C. A. L.; Tevlin, A. G.; Hems, R.

    2014-10-01

    A 50-day field study was carried out in a semi-natural, non-fertilized grassland in south-western Ontario, Canada during the late summer and early autumn of 2012. The purpose was to explore surface-atmosphere exchange processes of ammonia (NH3) with a focus on bi-directional fluxes between the soil and atmosphere. Measurements of soil pH and ammonium concentration ([NH4+]) yielded the first direct quantification of soil emission potential (Γsoil = [NH4+]/[H+]) for this land type, with values ranging from 35 to 1850 (an average of 290). The soil compensation point, the atmospheric NH3 mixing ratio below which net emission from the soil will occur, exhibited both a seasonal trend and diurnal trend. Higher daytime and August compensation points were attributed to higher soil temperature. Soil-atmosphere fluxes were estimated using NH3 measurements from the Ambient Ion Monitor Ion Chromatograph (AIM-IC) and a simple resistance model. Vegetative effects were ignored due to the short canopy height and significant Γsoil. Inferred fluxes were, on average, 2.6 ± 4.5 ng m-2 s-1 in August (i.e. net emission) and -5.8 ± 3.0 ng m-2 s-1 in September (i.e. net deposition). These results are in good agreement with the only other bi-directional exchange study in a semi-natural, non-fertilized grassland. A Lagrangian dispersion model (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory - HYSPLIT) was used to calculate air parcel back-trajectories throughout the campaign and revealed that NH3 mixing ratios had no directional bias throughout the campaign, unlike the other atmospheric constituents measured. This implies that soil-atmosphere exchange over a non-fertilized grassland can significantly moderate near-surface NH3 concentrations. In addition, we provide indirect evidence that dew and fog evaporation can cause a morning increase of [NH3]g. Implications of our findings on current NH3 bi-directional exchange modelling efforts are also discussed.

  20. Soil-atmosphere exchange of ammonia in a non-fertilized grassland: measured emission potentials and inferred fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Wentworth

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A 50 day field study was carried out in a semi-natural, non-fertilized grassland in south-western Ontario, Canada during the late summer and early autumn of 2012. The purpose was to explore surface–atmosphere exchange processes of ammonia (NH3 with a focus on bi-directional fluxes between the soil and atmosphere. Measurements of soil pH and ammonium concentration ([NH4+] yielded the first direct quantification of soil emission potential (Γsoil=[NH4+]/[H+] for this land type, with values ranging from 35 to 1850 (an average of 290. The soil compensation point, the atmospheric NH3 mixing ratio below which net emission from the soil will occur, exhibited both a seasonal trend and diurnal trend. Higher daytime and August compensation points were attributed to higher soil temperature. Soil-atmosphere fluxes were estimated using NH3 measurements from the Ambient Ion Monitor Ion Chromatograph (AIM-IC and a~simple resistance model. Vegetative effects were neglected due to the short canopy height and significant Γsoil. Inferred fluxes were, on average, 2.6 ± 4.5 ng m−2 s−1 in August (i.e. net emission and −5.8 ± 3.0 ng m−2 s−1 in September (i.e. net deposition. These results are in good agreement with the only other bi-directional exchange study in a semi-natural, non-fertilized grassland. A Lagrangian dispersion model (HYSPLIT was used to calculate air parcel back trajectories throughout the campaign and revealed that NH3 mixing ratios had no directional bias throughout the campaign, unlike the other atmospheric constituents measured. This implies that soil-atmosphere exchange over a non-fertilized grassland can significantly moderate near-surface NH3 concentrations. In addition, we provide indirect evidence that dew and fog evaporation can cause a morning increase of [NH3(g]. Implications of our findings on current NH3 bi-directional exchange modelling efforts are also discussed.

  1. Characterizing ammonia emissions from swine farms in eastern North Carolina: Reduction of emissions from water-holding structures at two candidate superior technologies for waste treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Viney P.; Arya, S. Pal; Rumsey, Ian C.; Kim, D.-S.; Bajwa, K. S.; Williams, C. M.

    Program OPEN (Odor, Pathogens, and Emissions of Nitrogen) was an integrated study of the emissions of ammonia (NH 3), odor and odorants, and pathogens from potential environmentally superior technologies (ESTs) for swine facilities in eastern North Carolina. This paper, as part of program OPEN, focuses on quantifying emissions of NH 3 from water-holding structures at two of the best ESTs and compares them with the projected emissions from two conventional lagoon and spray technologies (LSTs). The evaluated ESTs are: (1) Super Soils at Goshen Ridge; and (2) Environmental Technologies at Red Hill. The water-holding structures for these two ESTs contained no conventional anaerobic lagoon. A dynamic flow-through chamber was used to measure NH 3 fluxes from the water-holding structures at both the ESTs and at the conventional LST farms. In order to compare the emissions from the water-holding structures at the ESTs with those from the lagoons at the conventional sites under similar conditions, a statistical-observational model for lagoon NH 3 emissions was used. A mass-balance approach was used to quantify the emissions. All emissions were normalized by nitrogen-excretion rates. The percentage reductions relative to the conventional lagoons were calculated for the two ESTs. Results showed substantial reductions in NH 3 emissions at both ESTs. Super Soils had reductions of 94.7% for the warm season and 99.0% for the cool season. Environmental Technologies had slightly larger reductions of 99.4% and 99.98% for the cool and warm season, respectively. As a result of such large reductions in ammonia emissions, both technologies meet the criteria to be classified as ESTs for ammonia emissions.

  2. Ambient and Emission Trends of Toxic Air Contaminants in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propper, Ralph; Wong, Patrick; Bui, Son; Austin, Jeff; Vance, William; Alvarado, Álvaro; Croes, Bart; Luo, Dongmin

    2015-10-01

    After initiating a toxic air contaminant (TAC) identification and control program in 1984, the California Air Resources Board adopted regulations to reduce TAC emissions from cars, trucks, stationary sources, and consumer products. This study quantifies ambient concentration and emission trends for the period 1990-2012 for seven TACs that are responsible for most of the known cancer risk associated with airborne exposure in California. Of these seven, diesel particulate matter (DPM) is the most important; however DPM is not measured directly. Based on a novel surrogate method, DPM concentrations declined 68%, even though the state's population increased 31%, diesel vehicle-miles-traveled increased 81%, and the gross state product (GSP) increased 74%. Based on monitoring data, concentrations of benzene, 1,3-butadiene, perchloroethylene, and hexavalent chromium declined 88-94%. Also, the ambient and emissions trends for each of these four TACs were similar. Furthermore, these declines generally occurred earlier in California than elsewhere. However, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, which are formed in the air photochemically from volatile organic compounds (VOCs), declined only 20-21%. The collective cancer risk from exposure to these seven reviewed TACs declined 76%. Significant reduction in cancer risk to California residents from implementation of air toxics controls (especially for DPM) is expected to continue. PMID:26340590

  3. Sensitivity of nitrate aerosols to ammonia emissions and to nitrate chemistry: implications for present and future nitrate optical depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Paulot

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We update and evaluate the treatment of nitrate aerosols in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL atmospheric model (AM3. Accounting for the radiative effects of nitrate aerosols generally improves the simulated aerosol optical depth, although nitrate concentrations at the surface are biased high. This bias can be reduced by increasing the deposition of nitrate to account for the near-surface volatilization of ammonium nitrate or by neglecting the heterogeneous production of nitric acid to account for the inhibition of N2O5 reactive uptake at high nitrate concentrations. Globally, uncertainties in these processes can impact the simulated nitrate optical depth by up to 25 %, much more than the impact of uncertainties in the seasonality of ammonia emissions (6 % or in the uptake of nitric acid on dust (13 %. Our best estimate for present-day fine nitrate optical depth at 550 nm is 0.006 (0.005–0.008. We only find a modest increase of nitrate optical depth (2 (−40 % and ammonia (+38 % from 2010 to 2050. Nitrate burden is projected to increase in the tropics and in the free troposphere, but to decrease at the surface in the midlatitudes because of lower nitric acid concentrations. Our results suggest that better constraints on the heterogeneous chemistry of nitric acid on dust, on tropical ammonia emissions, and on the transport of ammonia to the free troposphere are needed to improve projections of aerosol optical depth.

  4. Positron emission tomography of hepatic first-pass metabolism of ammonia in pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, S; Munk, O L; Roelsgaard, K;

    2001-01-01

    scan data were analysed by a model of sinusoidal zonation of ammonia metabolism with periportal urea formation and perivenous formation of glutamine. The hepatic extraction fraction of (13)NH(3) was 0.73+/-0.16 (mean+/-SD, n=7 pigs). Values of clearance of ammonia to urea and to glutamine were obtained......, as were rate constants for washout of these two metabolites. Overall, the modelling showed half of the ammonia uptake to be converted to urea and half to glutamine. The washout rate constant for glutamine was about one-tenth of that for urea. We conclude that hepatic first-pass metabolism of ammonia...

  5. Semi-empirical process-based models for ammonia emissions from beef, swine, and poultry operations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuilling, Alyssa M.; Adams, Peter J.

    2015-11-01

    Farm-level ammonia emissions factors in the literature vary by an order of magnitude due to variations in manure management practices and meteorology, and it is essential to capture this variability in emission inventories used for atmospheric modeling. Loss of ammonia to the atmosphere is modeled here through a nitrogen mass balance with losses controlled by mass transfer resistance parameters, which vary with meteorological conditions and are tuned to match literature-reported emissions factors. Variations due to management practices are captured by having tuned parameters that are specific to each set of management practices. The resulting farm emissions models (FEMs) explain between 20% and 70% of the variability in published emissions factors and typically estimate emission factors within a factor of 2. The r2 values are: 0.53 for swine housing (0.67 for shallow-pit houses); 0.48 for swine storage; 0.29 for broiler chickens; 0.70 for layer chickens; and 0.21 for beef feedlots (0.36 for beef feedlots with more farm-specific input data). Mean fractional error was found to be 22-44% for beef feedlots, swine housing, and layer housing; fractional errors were greater for swine lagoons (90%) and broiler housing (69%). Unexplained variability and errors result from model limitations, measurement errors in reported emissions factors, and a lack of information about measurement conditions.

  6. Comparison of Techniques to Estimate Ammonia Emissions at Cattle Feedlots Using Time-Averaged and Instantaneous Concentration Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonkwiler, K. B.; Ham, J. M.; Williams, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) that volatilizes from confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) can form aerosols that travel long distances where such aerosols can deposit in sensitive regions, potentially causing harm to local ecosystems. However, quantifying the emissions of ammonia from CAFOs through direct measurement is very difficult and costly to perform. A system was therefore developed at Colorado State University for conditionally sampling NH3 concentrations based on weather parameters measured using inexpensive equipment. These systems use passive diffusive cartridges (Radiello, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) that provide time-averaged concentrations representative of a two-week deployment period. The samplers are exposed by a robotic mechanism so they are only deployed when wind is from the direction of the CAFO at 1.4 m/s or greater. These concentration data, along with other weather variables measured during each sampler deployment period, can then be used in a simple inverse model (FIDES, UMR Environnement et Grandes Cultures, Thiverval-Grignon, France) to estimate emissions. There are not yet any direct comparisons of the modeled emissions derived from time-averaged concentration data to modeled emissions from more sophisticated backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLs) techniques that utilize instantaneous measurements of NH3 concentration. In the summer and autumn of 2013, a suite of robotic passive sampler systems were deployed at a 25,000-head cattle feedlot at the same time as an open-path infrared (IR) diode laser (GasFinder2, Boreal Laser Inc., Edmonton, Alberta, Canada) which continuously measured ammonia concentrations instantaneously over a 225-m path. This particular laser is utilized in agricultural settings, and in combination with a bLs model (WindTrax, Thunder Beach Scientific, Inc., Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada), has become a common method for estimating NH3 emissions from a variety of agricultural and industrial operations. This study will first

  7. New Maser Emission from Nonmetastable Ammonia in NGC 7538. II. Green Bank Telescope Observations Including Water Masers

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, Ian M

    2011-01-01

    We present new maser emission from ^{14}NH_3 (9,6) in NGC 7538. Our observations include the known spectral features near v_LSR = -60 km/s and -57 km/s and several more features extending to -46 km/s. In three epochs of observation spanning two months we do not detect any variability in the ammonia masers, in contrast to the >10-fold variability observed in other ^{14}NH_3 (9,6) masers in the Galaxy over comparable timescales. We also present observations of water masers in all three epochs for which emission is observed over the velocity range -105 km/s < v_LSR < -4 km/s, including the highest velocity water emission yet observed from NGC 7538. Of the remarkable number of maser species in IRS 1, H_2O and, now, ^{14}NH_3 are the only masers known to exhibit emission outside of the velocity range -62 km/s < v_LSR < -51 km/s. However, we find no significant intensity or velocity correlations between the water emission and ammonia emission. We also present a non-detection in the most sensitive search...

  8. An ecoregion-specific ammonia emissions inventory of Ontario dairy farming: Mitigation potential of diet and manure management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; MacDonald, Douglas; Bittman, Shabtai; Beauchemin, Karen A.; Janzen, H. Henry; McGinn, Sean M.; Vanderzaag, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    The Canadian ammonia (NH3) emissions model and a survey of dairy farm practices were used to quantify effects of management on emissions from dairy farms in Ontario Canada. Total NH3 emissions from dairy farming were 21 Gg NH3-N yr-1 for the four ecoregions of the province. Annual emission rates ranged from 12.8 (for calves in ecoregions of Manitoulin-Lake Simcoe-Frontenac) to 50 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1 (for lactating cows in ecoregions of St. Lawrence Lowlands) (mean of 27 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1). The St. Lawrence Lowlands ecoregion had the highest emission rate because more dairy manure was managed as solid manure in that ecoregion. Total dairy cattle N intake (diet-N) was 81 Gg N yr-1, 23% of which was retained in animal products (e.g., milk, meat, and fetus), 47% was returned to the land, and 30% was emitted as gas (i.e., NH3-N, N2O-N, NO-N, and N2-N) and nitrate-N leaching/runoff. Ammonia volatilization constituted the largest loss of diet-N (26%), as well as manure-N (34%). Reducing the fraction of solid manure by 50% has the potential to mitigate NH3 emissions by 18% in Ontario ecoregions.

  9. The potential for tree planting strategies to reduce local and regional ecosystem impacts of agricultural ammonia emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bealey, W J; Dore, A J; Dragosits, U; Reis, S; Reay, D S; Sutton, M A

    2016-01-01

    Trees are very effective at capturing both gaseous and particulate pollutants from the atmosphere. But while studies have often focussed on PM and NOx in the urban environment, little research has been carried out on the tree effect of capturing gaseous emissions of ammonia in the rural landscape. To examine the removal or scavenging of ammonia by trees a long-range atmospheric model (FRAME) was used to compare two strategies that could be used in emission reduction policies anywhere in the world where nitrogen pollution from agriculture is a problem. One strategy was to reduce the emission source strength of livestock management systems by implementing two 'tree-capture' systems scenarios - tree belts downwind of housing and managing livestock under trees. This emission reduction can be described as an 'on-farm' emission reduction policy, as ammonia is 'stopped' from dispersion outside the farm boundaries. The second strategy was to apply an afforestation policy targeting areas of high ammonia emission through two planting scenarios of increasing afforestation by 25% and 50%. Both strategies use trees with the aim of intercepting NH3 emissions to protect semi-natural areas. Scenarios for on-farm emission reductions showed national reductions in nitrogen deposition to semi-natural areas of 0.14% (0.2 kt N-NHx) to 2.2% (3.15 kt N-NHx). Scenarios mitigating emissions from cattle and pig housing gave the highest reductions. The afforestation strategy showed national reductions of 6% (8.4 kt N-NHx) to 11% (15.7 kt N-NHx) for 25% and 50% afforestation scenarios respectively. Increased capture by the planted trees also showed an added benefit of reducing long range effects including a decrease in wet deposition up to 3.7 kt N-NHx (4.6%) and a decrease in export from the UK up to 8.3 kt N-NHx (6.8%).

  10. The potential for tree planting strategies to reduce local and regional ecosystem impacts of agricultural ammonia emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bealey, W J; Dore, A J; Dragosits, U; Reis, S; Reay, D S; Sutton, M A

    2016-01-01

    Trees are very effective at capturing both gaseous and particulate pollutants from the atmosphere. But while studies have often focussed on PM and NOx in the urban environment, little research has been carried out on the tree effect of capturing gaseous emissions of ammonia in the rural landscape. To examine the removal or scavenging of ammonia by trees a long-range atmospheric model (FRAME) was used to compare two strategies that could be used in emission reduction policies anywhere in the world where nitrogen pollution from agriculture is a problem. One strategy was to reduce the emission source strength of livestock management systems by implementing two 'tree-capture' systems scenarios - tree belts downwind of housing and managing livestock under trees. This emission reduction can be described as an 'on-farm' emission reduction policy, as ammonia is 'stopped' from dispersion outside the farm boundaries. The second strategy was to apply an afforestation policy targeting areas of high ammonia emission through two planting scenarios of increasing afforestation by 25% and 50%. Both strategies use trees with the aim of intercepting NH3 emissions to protect semi-natural areas. Scenarios for on-farm emission reductions showed national reductions in nitrogen deposition to semi-natural areas of 0.14% (0.2 kt N-NHx) to 2.2% (3.15 kt N-NHx). Scenarios mitigating emissions from cattle and pig housing gave the highest reductions. The afforestation strategy showed national reductions of 6% (8.4 kt N-NHx) to 11% (15.7 kt N-NHx) for 25% and 50% afforestation scenarios respectively. Increased capture by the planted trees also showed an added benefit of reducing long range effects including a decrease in wet deposition up to 3.7 kt N-NHx (4.6%) and a decrease in export from the UK up to 8.3 kt N-NHx (6.8%). PMID:26413804

  11. Trends in greenhouse gas emissions from consumption and production of animal food products - implications for long-term climate targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, C; Hedenus, F; Wirsenius, S; Sonesson, U

    2013-02-01

    To analyse trends in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from production and consumption of animal products in Sweden, life cycle emissions were calculated for the average production of pork, chicken meat, beef, dairy and eggs in 1990 and 2005. The calculated average emissions were used together with food consumption statistics and literature data on imported products to estimate trends in per capita emissions from animal food consumption. Total life cycle emissions from the Swedish livestock production were around 8.5 Mt carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) in 1990 and emissions decreased to 7.3 Mt CO2e in 2005 (14% reduction). Around two-thirds of the emission cut was explained by more efficient production (less GHG emission per product unit) and one-third was due to a reduced animal production. The average GHG emissions per product unit until the farm-gate were reduced by 20% for dairy, 15% for pork and 23% for chicken meat, unchanged for eggs and increased by 10% for beef. A larger share of the average beef was produced from suckler cows in cow-calf systems in 2005 due to the decreasing dairy cow herd, which explains the increased emissions for the average beef in 2005. The overall emission cuts from the livestock sector were a result of several measures taken in farm production, for example increased milk yield per cow, lowered use of synthetic nitrogen fertilisers in grasslands, reduced losses of ammonia from manure and a switch to biofuels for heating in chicken houses. In contrast to production, total GHG emissions from the Swedish consumption of animal products increased by around 22% between 1990 and 2005. This was explained by strong growth in meat consumption based mainly on imports, where growth in beef consumption especially was responsible for most emission increase over the 15-year period. Swedish GHG emissions caused by consumption of animal products reached around 1.1 t CO2e per capita in 2005. The emission cuts necessary for meeting a global temperature

  12. Yield-scaled mitigation of ammonia emission from N fertilization: the Spanish case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Cobena, A.; Lassaletta, L.; Estellés, F.; Del Prado, A.; Guardia, G.; Abalos, D.; Aguilera, E.; Pardo, G.; Vallejo, A.; Sutton, M. A.; Garnier, J.; Billen, G.

    2014-12-01

    Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer and field application of livestock manure are the major sources of ammonia (NH3) volatilization. This N loss may decrease crop productivity and subsequent deposition promotes environmental problems associated with soil acidification and eutrophication. Mitigation measures may have associated side effects such as decreased crop productivity (e.g. if N fertilizer application is reduced), or the release of other reactive N compounds (e.g. N2O emissions if manure is incorporated). Here, we present a novel methodology to provide an integrated assessment of the best strategies to abate NH3 from N applications to crops. Using scenario analyses, we assessed the potential of 11 mitigation measures to reduce NH3 volatilization while accounting for their side effects on crop productivity, N use efficiency (NUE) and N surplus (used as an indicator of potential N losses by denitrification/nitrification and NO3- leaching/run-off). Spain, including its 48 provinces, was selected as a case study as it is the third major producer of agricultural goods in Europe, and also the European country with the highest increase in NH3 emissions from 1990 to 2011. Mitigation scenarios comprised of individual measures and combinations of strategies were evaluated at a country- and regional level. Compared to the reference situation of standard practices for the year 2008, implementation of the most effective region-specific mitigation strategy led to 63% NH3 mitigation at the country level. Implementation of a single strategy for all regions reduced NH3 by 57% at the highest. Strategies that involved combining mitigation measures produced the largest NH3 abatement in all cases, with an 80% reduction in some regions. Among the strategies analyzed, only suppression of urea application combined with manure incorporation and incorporation of N synthetic fertilizers other than urea showed a fully beneficial situation: yield-scaled NH3 emissions were reduced by 82

  13. Preliminary assessment of the emission levels of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in different production modalities in poultry farms in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A characterization of the ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions generated by different production models in poultry farms of Costa Rica was carried out. It was found that egg production farms have the largest emissions since they mostly use management systems based on cages with pits which generates a high emission of ammonia (16 ppm. While the fattening farms had the lower emissions since they mostly use open systems, which are low ammonia emission models (6 ppm. There were no significant concentrations of hydrogen sulfide in the evaluated models, except when a mechanical removal of mounds of chicken manure, with several weeks of storage, took place. A peak of 163 ppm of hydrogen sulfide was observed during the process. The ammonia emissions were modeled for some farms using an atmospheric dispersion model, AERMOD (USEPA, to determine the impact in the surroundings. Using the results of the validated model, it was found that the ammonia concentrations around the farms met the local regulation for air quality. But in some cases is highly probable to exceed the odor threshold for ammonia, which is one of the main complaints of the population living around this kind of agricultural and livestock activities.

  14. Ammonia emission from a permanent grassland on volcanic soil after the treatment with dairy slurry and urea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, F.; Martínez-Lagos, J.; Alfaro, M.; Misselbrook, T.

    2014-10-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is an air pollutant largely emitted from agricultural activities including the application of livestock manures and fertilizers to grassland. This gas has been linked with important negative impacts on natural ecosystems. In southern Chile, the use of inorganic and organic fertilizers (e.g. slurries) has increased in cattle production systems over recent years, heightening the risk of N losses to the wider environment. The objectives of this study were to evaluate on permanent grasslands on a volcanic ash soil in southern Chile: 1) the N loss due to NH3 volatilization following surface application of dairy slurry and urea fertilizer; and 2) the effect of a urease inhibitor on NH3 emissions from urea fertilizer application. Small plot field experiments were conducted over spring, fall, winter and summer seasons, using a system of wind tunnels to measure ammonia emissions. Ammonia losses ranged from 1.8 (winter) to 26.0% (fall) and 3.1 (winter) to 20.5% (summer) of total N applied for urea and slurry, respectively. Based on the readily available N applied (ammoniacal N for dairy slurry and urea N for urea fertilizer), losses from dairy slurry were much greater, at 16.1 and 82.0%, for winter and summer, respectively. The use of a urease inhibitor proved to be an effective option to minimize the N loss due NH3 volatilization from urea fertilizer, with an average reduction of 71% across all seasons. The results of this and other recent studies regarding N losses suggest that ammonia volatilization is the main pathway of N loss from grassland systems in southern Chile on volcanic ash soils when urea and slurry are used as an N source. The use of good management practices, such as the inclusion of a urease inhibitor with urea fertilizer could have a beneficial impact on reducing N losses due NH3 volatilization and the environmental and economic impact of these emissions.

  15. Sensitivity of nitrate aerosols to ammonia emissions and to nitrate chemistry: implications for present and future nitrate optical depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulot, F.; Ginoux, P.; Cooke, W. F.; Donner, L. J.; Fan, S.; Lin, M.-Y.; Mao, J.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2016-02-01

    We update and evaluate the treatment of nitrate aerosols in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) atmospheric model (AM3). Accounting for the radiative effects of nitrate aerosols generally improves the simulated aerosol optical depth, although nitrate concentrations at the surface are biased high. This bias can be reduced by increasing the deposition of nitrate to account for the near-surface volatilization of ammonium nitrate or by neglecting the heterogeneous production of nitric acid to account for the inhibition of N2O5 reactive uptake at high nitrate concentrations. Globally, uncertainties in these processes can impact the simulated nitrate optical depth by up to 25 %, much more than the impact of uncertainties in the seasonality of ammonia emissions (6 %) or in the uptake of nitric acid on dust (13 %). Our best estimate for fine nitrate optical depth at 550 nm in 2010 is 0.006 (0.005-0.008). In wintertime, nitrate aerosols are simulated to account for over 30 % of the aerosol optical depth over western Europe and North America. Simulated nitrate optical depth increases by less than 30 % (0.0061-0.010) in response to projected changes in anthropogenic emissions from 2010 to 2050 (e.g., -40 % for SO2 and +38 % for ammonia). This increase is primarily driven by greater concentrations of nitrate in the free troposphere, while surface nitrate concentrations decrease in the midlatitudes following lower concentrations of nitric acid. With the projected increase of ammonia emissions, we show that better constraints on the vertical distribution of ammonia (e.g., convective transport and biomass burning injection) and on the sources and sinks of nitric acid (e.g., heterogeneous reaction on dust) are needed to improve estimates of future nitrate optical depth.

  16. A process-based model for ammonia emission from urine patches, GAG (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing: description, validation and sensitivity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Móring

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new process-based, weather-driven model for ammonia (NH3 emission from a urine patch has been developed and its sensitivity to various factors assessed. This model, the GAG model (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing was developed as a part of a suite of weather-driven NH3 exchange models, as a necessary basis for assessing the effects of climate change on NH3 related atmospheric processes. GAG is capable of simulating the TAN (Total Ammoniacal Nitrogen content, pH and the water content of the soil under a urine patch. To calculate the TAN budget, GAG takes into account urea hydrolysis as a TAN input and NH3 volatilization as a loss. In the water budget, in addition to the water content of urine, precipitation and evaporation are also considered. In the pH module we assumed that the main regulating processes are the dissociation and dissolution equilibria related to the two products of urea hydrolysis: ammonium and bicarbonate. Finally, in the NH3 exchange flux calculation we adapted a canopy compensation point model that accounts for exchange with soil pores and stomata as well as deposition to the leaf surface. We validated our model against measurements, and carried out a sensitivity analysis. The validation showed that the simulated parameters (NH3 exchange flux, soil pH, TAN budget and water budget are well captured by the model (r > 0.5 for every parameter at p 3 emission. In addition, our results suggested that more sophisticated simulation of CO2 emission in the model could potentially improve the modelling of pH. The sensitivity analysis highlighted the vital role of temperature in NH3 exchange; however, presumably due to the TAN limitation, the GAG model currently provides only a modest overall temperature dependence in total NH3 emission compared with the values in the literature. Since all the input parameters can be obtained for study at larger scales, GAG is potentially suitable for larger scale application, such as

  17. EVALUATION OF AEROSOL EMISSIONS DOWNSTREAM OF AN AMMONIA-BASED SO2 SCRUBBER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis L. Laudal

    2002-04-01

    Depending on the size and type of boiler, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments required specific reductions in SO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. To meet these requirements, SO{sub 2} reduction strategies have included installing scrubbing technology, switching to a more expensive low-sulfur coal, or purchasing SO{sub 2} allowances. It is expected that over the next 10 years there will be an increase in the price of low-sulfur coals, but that higher-sulfur coal costs will remain the same. Technologies must be strongly considered that allow the use of high-sulfur fuels while at the same time meeting current and future SO{sub 2} emission limits. One such technology is the ammonia based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) (NH{sub 3}-based FGD) system manufactured by Marsulex Environmental Technologies (MET). The MET scrubber is a patented NH{sub 3}-based FGD process that efficiently converts SO{sub 2} (>95%) into a fertilizer product, ammonium sulfate ([NH{sub 4}]{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). A point of concern for the MET technology, as well as other FGD systems, is the emission of sulfuric acid/SO{sub 3} aerosols that could result in increased opacity at the stack. This is a direct result of firing high-sulfur fuels that naturally generate more SO{sub 3} than do low-sulfur coals. SO{sub 3} is formed during the coal combustion process. SO{sub 3} is converted to gaseous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} by homogeneous condensation, leading to a submicron acid fume that is very difficult to capture in a dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The condensed acid can also combine with the fly ash in the duct and scale the duct wall, potentially resulting in corrosion of both metallic and nonmetallic surfaces. Therefore, SO{sub 3} in flue gas can have a significant impact on the performance of coal-fired utility boilers, air heaters, and ESPs. In addition to corrosion problems, excess SO{sub 3} emissions can result in plume opacity problems. Thus the Energy & Environmental Research

  18. The annual ammonia budget of fertilised cut grassland – Part 1: Micrometeorological flux measurements and emissions after slurry application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Spirig

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Two commercial ammonia (NH3 analysers were customised to allow continuous measurements of vertical concentration gradients. The gradients were used to derive ammonia exchange fluxes above a managed grassland site at Oensingen (Switzerland by application of the aerodynamic gradient method. The measurements from July 2006 to October 2007 covered five complete growth-cut cycles and included six applications of liquid cattle slurry. The average accuracy of the flux measurements during unstable and near-neutral conditions was 20% and the detection limit was 10 ng NH3 m−2 s−1. Hence the flux measurements are considered sufficiently accurate for studying typical NH3 deposition rates over growing vegetation. Quantifying the overall emissions after slurry applications required the application of elaborate interpolations because of difficulties capturing the initial emissions during broadspreading of liquid manure. The emissions were also calculated with a mass balance method yielding similar fluxes. NH3 losses after slurry application expressed as percentage of emitted nitrogen versus applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN varied between 4 and 19%, which is roughly a factor of three lower than the values for broadspreading of liquid manure in emission inventories. The comparatively low emission factors appear to be a consequence of the low dry matter content of the applied slurry and soil properties favouring ammonium adsorption.

  19. Emission of greenhouse gases 1990-2010. Trends and driving forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases in Norway from 1990-2010 - trends and driving forces, a report that presents emission trends in Norway with the analysis of the main drivers and trends, and a review and analysis of the effectiveness of implemented measures.(Author)

  20. Effects of reed straw, zeolite, and superphosphate amendments on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from stored duck manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J Z; Hu, Z Y; Zhou, X Q; An, Z Z; Gao, J F; Liu, X N; Jiang, L L; Lu, J; Kang, X M; Li, M; Hao, Y B; Kardol, P

    2012-01-01

    Stored poultry manure can be a significant source of ammonia (NH) and greenhouse gases (GHGs), including nitrous oxide (NO), methane (CH), and carbon dioxide (CO) emissions. Amendments can be used to modify physiochemical properties of manure, thus having the potential to reduce gas emissions. Here, we lab-tested the single and combined effects of addition of reed straw, zeolite, and superphosphate on gas emissions from stored duck manure. We showed that, over a period of 46 d, cumulative NH emissions were reduced by 61 to 70% with superphosphate additions, whereas cumulative NO emissions were increased by up to 23% compared with the control treatment. Reed straw addition reduced cumulative NH, NO, and CH emissions relative to the control by 12, 27, and 47%, respectively, and zeolite addition reduced cumulative NH and NO emissions by 36 and 20%, respectively. Total GHG emissions (as CO-equivalents) were reduced by up to 27% with the additions of reed straw and/or zeolite. Our results indicate that reed straw or zeolite can be recommended as amendments to reduce GHG emissions from duck manure; however, superphosphate is more effective in reducing NH emissions. PMID:22751065

  1. Nitrous oxide emission related to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and mitigation options from N fertilization in a tropical soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Johnny R.; Cassman, Noriko A.; Kielak, Anna M.; Pijl, Agata; Carmo, Janaína B.; Lourenço, Kesia S.; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.; Cantarella, Heitor; Kuramae, Eiko E.

    2016-07-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) from nitrogen fertilizers applied to sugarcane has high environmental impact on ethanol production. This study aimed to determine the main microbial processes responsible for the N2O emissions from soil fertilized with different N sources, to identify options to mitigate N2O emissions, and to determine the impacts of the N sources on the soil microbiome. In a field experiment, nitrogen was applied as calcium nitrate, urea, urea with dicyandiamide or 3,4 dimethylpyrazone phosphate nitrification inhibitors (NIs), and urea coated with polymer and sulfur (PSCU). Urea caused the highest N2O emissions (1.7% of N applied) and PSCU did not reduce cumulative N2O emissions compared to urea. NIs reduced N2O emissions (95%) compared to urea and had emissions comparable to those of the control (no N). Similarly, calcium nitrate resulted in very low N2O emissions. Interestingly, N2O emissions were significantly correlated only with bacterial amoA, but not with denitrification gene (nirK, nirS, nosZ) abundances, suggesting that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, via the nitrification pathway, were the main contributors to N2O emissions. Moreover, the treatments had little effect on microbial composition or diversity. We suggest nitrate-based fertilizers or the addition of NIs in NH4+-N based fertilizers as viable options for reducing N2O emissions in tropical soils and lessening the environmental impact of biofuel produced from sugarcane.

  2. Nitrous oxide emission related to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and mitigation options from N fertilization in a tropical soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Johnny R; Cassman, Noriko A; Kielak, Anna M; Pijl, Agata; Carmo, Janaína B; Lourenço, Kesia S; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J; Cantarella, Heitor; Kuramae, Eiko E

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) from nitrogen fertilizers applied to sugarcane has high environmental impact on ethanol production. This study aimed to determine the main microbial processes responsible for the N2O emissions from soil fertilized with different N sources, to identify options to mitigate N2O emissions, and to determine the impacts of the N sources on the soil microbiome. In a field experiment, nitrogen was applied as calcium nitrate, urea, urea with dicyandiamide or 3,4 dimethylpyrazone phosphate nitrification inhibitors (NIs), and urea coated with polymer and sulfur (PSCU). Urea caused the highest N2O emissions (1.7% of N applied) and PSCU did not reduce cumulative N2O emissions compared to urea. NIs reduced N2O emissions (95%) compared to urea and had emissions comparable to those of the control (no N). Similarly, calcium nitrate resulted in very low N2O emissions. Interestingly, N2O emissions were significantly correlated only with bacterial amoA, but not with denitrification gene (nirK, nirS, nosZ) abundances, suggesting that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, via the nitrification pathway, were the main contributors to N2O emissions. Moreover, the treatments had little effect on microbial composition or diversity. We suggest nitrate-based fertilizers or the addition of NIs in NH4(+)-N based fertilizers as viable options for reducing N2O emissions in tropical soils and lessening the environmental impact of biofuel produced from sugarcane. PMID:27460335

  3. N-13 ammonia for the noninvasive evaluation of myocardial blood flow by positron emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics and characteristics of nitrogen-13 labelled ammonia as an indicator of blood flow in the myocardium were evaluated in open-chest dogs. Its utility as an imaging agent was tested in animals and man

  4. Estimating Emissions of Ammonia and Methane from an Anaerobic Livestock Lagoon Using Micrometeorological Methods and Inverse Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonkwiler, K. B.; Ham, J. M.; Williams, C.

    2012-12-01

    Evaluating the impact of increased carbon and nitrogen emissions on local air quality and regional bionetworks due to animal agricultural activity is of great interest to the public, political, economic and ecological welfare of areas within the scope of these practices. Globally, livestock operations account for 64% of annual anthropogenic emissions of ammonia (NH3) [1]. Concerning methane (CH4), anaerobic lagoons from commercial dairy operations contribute the second largest share of CH4 emissions from manure in the United States[1], and additionally are a local source of NH3 as well. Anaerobic lagoons are commonly used in commercial animal agriculture and as significant local sources of greenhouse gases (GHG), there is a strong need to quantify GHG emissions from these systems. In 2012 at a commercial dairy operation in Northern Colorado, USA, measurements of CH4 were made using eddy covariance (EC), while NH3 was estimated using a combination of real-time monitoring (cavity ring-down spectroscopy as well as time-integrated passive samplers). Methane emissions have been measured at this lagoon using EC since 2011, with fluxes ranging from 0.5 mg m-2 s-1 in early summer to >2 mg m-2 s-1 in late summer and early fall. Concentration data of both CH4 and NH3 were used to estimate emissions using a 2-dimensional inverse model based on solving the advection-diffusion equation[2]. In the case of the CH4-EC data, results from the inverse model were compared with the EC-derived flux estimates for enhanced parameterization of surface geometry within the lagoon environment. The model was then applied using measured NH3 concentrations to achieve emissions estimates. While NH3 fluxes from the lagoon tend to be much lower than those of CH4 by comparison, modeling emissions of NH3 from the simple geometry of a lagoon will assist in applying the model to more complex surfaces. [1] FAO, 2006. Livestock's long shadow: Environmental issues and options. Livestock, Environment, and

  5. A process-based model for ammonia emission from urine patches, GAG (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing): description, validation and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Móring, A.; Vieno, M.; Doherty, R. M.; Laubach, J.; Taghizadeh-Toosi, A.; Sutton, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper a new process-based, weather-driven model for ammonia (NH3) emission from a urine patch has been developed and its sensitivity to various factors assessed. This model, the GAG model (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing) was developed as a part of a suite of weather-driven NH3 exchange models, as a necessary basis for assessing the effects of climate change on NH3 related atmospheric processes. GAG is capable of simulating the TAN (Total Ammoniacal Nitrogen) content, pH and the water content of the soil under a urine patch. To calculate the TAN budget, GAG takes into account urea hydrolysis as a TAN input and NH3 volatilization as a loss. In the water budget, in addition to the water content of urine, precipitation and evaporation are also considered. In the pH module we assumed that the main regulating processes are the dissociation and dissolution equilibria related to the two products of urea hydrolysis: ammonium and bicarbonate. Finally, in the NH3 exchange flux calculation we adapted a canopy compensation point model that accounts for exchange with soil pores and stomata as well as deposition to the leaf surface. We validated our model against measurements, and carried out a sensitivity analysis. The validation showed that the simulated parameters (NH3 exchange flux, soil pH, TAN budget and water budget) are well captured by the model (r > 0.5 for every parameter at p CO2 emission in the model could potentially improve the modelling of pH. The sensitivity analysis highlighted the vital role of temperature in NH3 exchange; however, presumably due to the TAN limitation, the GAG model currently provides only a modest overall temperature dependence in total NH3 emission compared with the values in the literature. Since all the input parameters can be obtained for study at larger scales, GAG is potentially suitable for larger scale application, such as in regional atmospheric and ecosystem models.

  6. Anticipated changes in the emissions of green-house gases and ammonia from pork production due to shifts from fattening of barrows towards fattening of boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dämmgen, Ulrich; Berk, Andreas; Otten, Caroline;

    2013-01-01

    and gilts) and of diet composition. The modified fattening pig module of the agricultural emission model GAS-EM was used to estimate emissions in 2020 when the fattening of barrows will no longer be common practice. The scenarios also reflect the effect of the expected increased weight gains and the related...... effect of increased numbers of animals produced. The fattening of intact boars as compared to barrows is associated with a reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases and of ammonia per animal. For ammonia, all scenarios result in reduced emissions, most markedly when this shift is combined with increased...... weight gains. To a lesser extent, this also applies to nitric and nitrous oxide emissions. Methane emissions are less affected; increased weight gains result in increased emissions. As the greenhouse gas balance is dominated by methane emissions, the overall emission of greenhouse gases (expressed as CO2...

  7. Ammonia Emissions from the Agriculture Sector of Argentina in a Context of Changing Technologies and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowski, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    Agriculture is a key sector of the Argentinean economy, accounting for 6 to 8 5% of the GDP in the last ten years. Argentina switched in the 90´s from an articulated co-evolution between extensive livestock and crop farming, with annual rotation of crops and livestock, to intensive decoupled practices. Under these new production schemes, ecosystems were supplied with more nutrients, generating increasing levels of wastes. Other changes have also occurred, associated with the shift of the agricultural frontier and the consequent reduction in the cattle stock. In addition, changes related to climate through the strong increase in rainfall in the 80s and 90s in the west Pampas, helped to boost agricultural development. The agriculture sector accounts for practically all NH3 emissions in Argentina, however no inventory has been thus far available. To bridge this gap and particularly to have accurate input information to run coupled atmospheric chemistry models for secondary inorganic aerosols, we estimated 2000-2012 NH3 emissions, both at national and spatially disaggregated levels. Of particular interest for us was also temporal disaggregation as crops growing and temperature exhibit strong seasonal variability. As no NH3 inventory was available we also estimated related N2O emissions to verify our estimates with those of national GHG emission inventory (NEI). National NH3 emissions in 2012 amounted to 309.9 Gg, use of fertilizers accounted for 43.6%, manure management 18,9%, manure in pasture 36,0% and agricultural waste burning 1.5%. Our N2O estimates are in good agreement with the GHG-NEI. NH3 estimates in the EDGAR database for 2008 are 84.0% higher than ours for this year, and exhibit more significant differences per category, namely 113,6% higher for use of fertilizers and about 500% higher for agricultural waste burning. Urea dominates national NH3 emissions, accounting for 32,8% of the total and its use for wheat and corn crops dominates the trend.

  8. The annual ammonia budget of fertilised cut grassland – Part 1: Micrometeorological flux measurements and emissions after slurry application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Spirig

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Two commercial ammonia (NH3 analysers were customised to allow continuous measurements of vertical concentration gradients. The gradients were used to derive ammonia exchange fluxes above a managed grassland site at Oensingen (Switzerland by application of the aerodynamic gradient method (AGM. The semi-continuous measurements during 1.5 years covered five complete growth-cut cycles and included six applications of liquid cattle slurry. The average accuracy of the flux measurements during conditions of well established turbulence was 20% and the detection limit 10 ng NH3 m−2 s−1, hence sufficient for studying the background exchange of NH3. Quantifying emissions after slurry applications required the application of elaborate interpolations because of difficulties capturing the initial emissions during manure spreading in some parts of the experiments. The emissions were also calculated with a mass balance method (MBM yielding similar fluxes. NH3 losses after slurry application expressed as percentage of emitted nitrogen versus applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN varied between 4 and 19%, which is lower than typical values for broadspreading of liquid manure. The comparatively low emission factors appear to be a consequence of the rather thin slurry applied here and soil properties favouring ammonium adsorption.

  9. Noninvasive quantification of regional blood flow in the human heart using N-13 ammonia and dynamic positron emission tomographic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of regional myocardial blood flow by conventional scintigraphic techniques is limited to the qualitative assessment of regional tracer distribution. Dynamic imaging with positron emission tomography allows the quantitative delineation of myocardial tracer kinetics and, hence, the measurement of physiologic processes such as myocardial blood flow. To test this hypothesis, positron emission tomographic imaging in combination with N-13 ammonia was performed at rest and after pharmacologically induced vasodilation in seven healthy volunteers. Myocardial and blood time-activity curves derived from regions of interest over the heart and ventricular chamber were fitted using a three compartment model for N-13 ammonia, yielding rate constants for tracer uptake and retention. Myocardial blood flow (K1) averaged 88 +/- 17 ml/min per 100 g at rest and increased to 417 +/- 112 ml/min per 100 g after dipyridamole infusion (0.56 mg/kg) and handgrip exercise. The coronary reserve averaged 4.8 +/- 1.3 and was not significantly different in the septal, anterior and lateral walls of the left ventricle. Blood flow values showed only a minor dependence on the correction for blood metabolites of N-13 ammonia. These data demonstrate that quantification of regional myocardial blood flow is feasible by dynamic positron emission tomographic imaging. The observed coronary flow reserve after dipyridamole is in close agreement with the results obtained by invasive techniques, indicating accurate flow estimates over a wide range. Thus, positron emission tomography may provide accurate and noninvasive definition of the functional significance of coronary artery disease and may allow the improved selection of patients for revascularization

  10. Emission factor of ammonia (NH3) from on-road vehicles in China: tunnel tests in urban Guangzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammonia (NH3) is the primary alkaline gas in the atmosphere that contributes to formation of secondary particles. Emission of NH3 from vehicles, particularly gasoline powered light duty vehicles equipped with three-way catalysts, is regarded as an important source apart from emissions from animal wastes and soils, yet measured emission factors for motor vehicles are still not available in China, where traffic-related emission has become an increasingly important source of air pollutants in urban areas. Here we present our tunnel tests for NH3 from motor vehicles under ‘real world conditions’ in an urban roadway tunnel in Guangzhou, a central city in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in south China. By attributing all NH3 emissions in the tunnel to light-duty gasoline vehicles, we obtained a fuel-based emission rate of 2.92 ± 0.18 g L−1 and a mileage-based emission factor of 229.5 ± 14.1 mg km−1. These emission factors were much higher than those measured in the United States while measured NO x emission factors (7.17 ± 0.60 g L−1 or 0.56 ± 0.05 g km−1) were contrastingly near or lower than those previously estimated by MOBILE/PART5 or COPERT IV models. Based on the NH3 emission factors from this study, on-road vehicles accounted for 8.1% of NH3 emissions in the PRD region in 2006 instead of 2.5% as estimated in a previous study using emission factors taken from the Emission Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP) in the United States. (letter)

  11. The effects of energy paths and emission controls and standards on future trends in China's emissions of primary air pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, J.; C. P. Nielsen

    2014-01-01

    To examine the efficacy of China's actions to control atmospheric pollution, three levels of growth of energy consumption and three levels of implementation of emission controls are estimated, generating a total of nine combined activity-emission control scenarios that are then used to estimate trends of national emissions of primary air pollutants through 2030. The emission control strategies are expected to have more effects than the energy paths on the future emission tre...

  12. Growth and slaughter performance, nitrogen balance and ammonia emission from slurry in pigs fed high fibre diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Matteo Crovetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to determine digestibility, nitrogen balance and ammonia emission from excreta, in the typical Italian heavy pig during the last phase of growth, when fed diets with a high fibre content. In comparison with a traditional control diet (C, two diets with 12 and 24% wheat bran (WB12 and WB24 and two other diets with 12 and 24% dried beet pulp (BP12 and BP24 were tested. Totally 76 Landrace x Large White fattening barrows, from 45 to 170 kg live weight distributed in 16 pens, were utilized in the trial. Thirty pigs were allocated to 6 metabolic cages in 5 consecutive periods in order to have 6 observations per treatment. For diets C, WB12 and WB24 daily weight gain (DWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR and slaughtering performances were also registered, on 20 pigs per dietary treatment. Growing and slaughter performances were similar for pigs fed C and WB12 diets, whilst diet WB24 determined a significant (P<0.05 decrease in performances (growth and feed conversion in the first period of fattening and a lower dressing percentage at slaughter (85.5, 84.4 and 82.5% for C, WB12 and WB24, respectively. Comparing the diets with the same level of inclusion of the fibrous feeds, WB diets had a lower OM and energy digestibility, while BP diets registered a lower protein but a higher fibre digestibility. Consistently with other experiments, BP diets determined an increase of faecal and a reduction of urinary N, as a percentage of the intake N, as well as a decrease of ammonia emission from the slurries (- 16.6 and -25.3% for BP12 and BP24, in comparison with C diet. For the WB diets the reduction of urinary N and the increase in faecal N were less marked and a reduction of ammonia emissions was not registered.

  13. Methane, nitrous oxide and ammonia emissions from pigs housed on litter and from stockpiling of spent litter

    KAUST Repository

    Phillips, F. A.

    2016-05-05

    Mitigation of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions is a target area for the Australian Government and the pork industry. The present study measured methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3) from a deep-litter piggery and litter stockpile over two trials in southern New South Wales, to compare emissions from housing pigs on deep litter with those of pigs from conventional housing with uncovered anaerobic effluent-treatment ponds. Emissions were measured using open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, in conjunction with a backward Lagrangian stochastic model. Manure excretion was determined by mass balance and emission factors (EFs) were developed to report emissions relative to volatile solids and nitrogen (N) input. Nitrous oxide emissions per animal unit (1 AU ≤ 500 kg liveweight) from deep-litter sheds were negligible in winter, and 8.4 g/AU.day in summer. Ammonia emissions were 39.1 in winter and 52.2 g/AU.day in summer, while CH4 emissions were 16.1 and 21.6 g/AU.day in winter and summer respectively. Emission factors averaged from summer and winter emissions showed a CH4 conversion factor of 3.6%, an NH3-N EF of 10% and a N2O-N EF of 0.01 kg N2O-N/kg N excreted. For the litter stockpile, the simple average of summer and winter showed an EF for NH3-N of 14%, and a N2O-N EF of 0.02 kg N2O-N/kg-N of spent litter added to the stockpile. We observed a 66% and 80% decrease in emissions from the manure excreted in litter-based housing with litter stockpiling or without litter stockpiling, compared with conventional housing with an uncovered anaerobic effluent-treatment pond. This provides a sound basis for mitigation strategies that utilise litter-based housing as an alternative to conventional housing with uncovered anaerobic effluent-treatment ponds. © CSIRO 2016.

  14. A regional mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen for estimating ammonia emissions from beef cattle in Alberta Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; Janzen, H. Henry; Beauchemin, Karen A.; McGinn, Sean M.; Bittman, Shabtai; Atia, Atta; Edeogu, Ike; MacDonald, Douglas; Dong, Ruilan

    2014-08-01

    Animal feeding operations are primary contributors of anthropogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions in North America and Europe. Mathematical modeling of NH3 volatilization from each stage of livestock manure management allows comprehensive quantitative estimates of emission sources and nutrient losses. A regionally-specific mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content in animal manure was developed for estimating NH3 emissions from beef farming operations in western Canada. Total N excretion in urine and feces was estimated from animal diet composition, feed dry matter intake and N utilization for beef cattle categories and production stages. Mineralization of organic N, immobilization of TAN, nitrification, and denitrification of N compounds in manure, were incorporated into the model to account for quantities of TAN at each stage of manure handling. Ammonia emission factors were specified for different animal housing (feedlots, barns), grazing, manure storage (including composting and stockpiling) and land spreading (tilled and untilled land), and were modified for temperature. The model computed NH3 emissions from all beef cattle sub-classes including cows, calves, breeding bulls, steers for slaughter, and heifers for slaughter and replacement. Estimated NH3 emissions were about 1.11 × 105 Mg NH3 in Alberta in 2006, with a mean of 18.5 kg animal-1 yr-1 (15.2 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1) which is 23.5% of the annual N intake of beef cattle (64.7 kg animal-1 yr-1). The percentage of N intake volatilized as NH3-N was 50% for steers and heifers for slaughter, and between 11 and 14% for all other categories. Steers and heifers for slaughter were the two largest contributors (3.5 × 104 and 3.9 × 104 Mg, respectively) at 31.5 and 32.7% of total NH3 emissions because most growing animals were finished in feedlots. Animal housing and grazing contributed roughly 63% of the total NH3 emissions (feedlots, barns and pastures contributed 54.4, 0.2 and 8.1% of

  15. Acid wash scrubbing as a countermeasure for ammonia emissions from a postcombustion CO2 Capture Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khakharia, P.M.; Huizinga, A.; Jurado Lopez, C.; Sanchez Sanchez, C.; Miguel Mercader, F. de; Vlugt, T.J.H.; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2014-01-01

    Amine-based absorption-desorption processes are considered to be the state-of-the-art technology for CO2 capture. However, the typical amines used are susceptible to oxidative and thermal degradation. Ammonia is formed as a result of oxidative solvent degradation. Because of the volatility of ammoni

  16. The effects of energy paths and emission controls and standards on future trends in China's emissions of primary air pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, J.; C. P. Nielsen

    2014-01-01

    To examine the efficacy of China's actions to control atmospheric pollution, three levels of growth of energy consumption and three levels of implementation of emission controls are estimated, generating a total of nine combined activity-emission control scenarios that are then used to estimate trends of national emissions of primary air pollutants through 2030. The emission control strategies are expected to have more effects than the energy paths on the fu...

  17. Effect of Alum Additions to Poultry Litter on In-House Ammonia and Greenhouse Gas Concentrations and Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene, Branly; Moore, Philip A; Li, Hong; Miles, Dana; Trabue, Steven; Burns, Robert; Buser, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Alum [Al(SO4) ·14HO] addition to poultry litter has been shown to reduce ammonia (NH) concentrations in poultry houses; however, its effects on greenhouse gas (GHG; NO, CH, and CO) emissions is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of alum additions on (i) in-house NH and GHG concentrations, (ii) NH and GHG emissions, and (iii) litter chemical properties. Two identical broiler houses located in northwest Arkansas were used for this study: one house was a control and the other was treated with alum between each flock of birds. Ventilation rates were coupled with in-house NH and GHG measurements to determine emission rates. Overall, alum additions significantly reduced the daily average in-house NH concentration by 42% (8.9 vs. 15.4 μL L), and the overall NH emission rate was reduced by 47% (7.2 vs. 13.4 kg d house). The average cumulative NH emission for the three flocks was 330 kg house flock for the alum-treated house and 617 kg house flock for the control. Concentrations and emissions of nitrous oxide (NO) and methane (CH) from the alum-treated house were not significantly different than the untreated house. However, carbon dioxide (CO) emissions were significantly higher from the untreated house than the alum-treated house. Alum also significantly increased litter N content and reduced the C/N ratio. These results indicate that the addition of alum to poultry litter is not only an effective management practice for reducing in-house NH concentrations and emissions but also significantly reduces CO emissions from poultry facilities.

  18. Process-based Modeling of Ammonia Emission from Beef Cattle Feedyards with the Integrated Farm Systems Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrip, Heidi M; Rotz, C Alan; Hafner, Sasha D; Todd, Richard W; Cole, N Andy

    2014-07-01

    Ammonia (NH) volatilization from manure in beef cattle feedyards results in loss of agronomically important nitrogen (N) and potentially leads to overfertilization and acidification of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In addition, NH is involved in the formation of atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM), which can affect human health. Process-based models have been developed to estimate NH emissions from various livestock production systems; however, little work has been conducted to assess their accuracy for large, open-lot beef cattle feedyards. This work describes the extension of an existing process-based model, the Integrated Farm Systems Model (IFSM), to include simulation of N dynamics in this type of system. To evaluate the model, IFSM-simulated daily per capita NH emission rates were compared with emissions data collected from two commercial feedyards in the Texas High Plains from 2007 to 2009. Model predictions were in good agreement with observations and were sensitive to variations in air temperature and dietary crude protein concentration. Predicted mean daily NH emission rates for the two feedyards had 71 to 81% agreement with observations. In addition, IFSM estimates of annual feedyard emissions were within 11 to 24% of observations, whereas a constant emission factor currently in use by the USEPA underestimated feedyard emissions by as much as 79%. The results from this study indicate that IFSM can quantify average feedyard NH emissions, assist with emissions reporting, provide accurate information for legislators and policymakers, investigate methods to mitigate NH losses, and evaluate the effects of specific management practices on farm nutrient balances. PMID:25603064

  19. Mitigation of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane emissions from manure management chains: a meta-analysis and integrated assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yong; Velthof, Gerard L; Oenema, Oene

    2015-03-01

    Livestock manure contributes considerably to global emissions of ammonia (NH3 ) and greenhouse gases (GHG), especially methane (CH4 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O). Various measures have been developed to mitigate these emissions, but most of these focus on one specific gas and/or emission source. Here, we present a meta-analysis and integrated assessment of the effects of mitigation measures on NH3 , CH4 and (direct and indirect) N2 O emissions from the whole manure management chain. We analysed the effects of mitigation technologies on NH3 , CH4 and N2 O emissions from individual sources statistically using results of 126 published studies. Whole-chain effects on NH3 and GHG emissions were assessed through scenario analysis. Significant NH3 reduction efficiencies were observed for (i) housing via lowering the dietary crude protein (CP) content (24-65%, compared to the reference situation), for (ii) external slurry storages via acidification (83%) and covers of straw (78%) or artificial films (98%), for (iii) solid manure storages via compaction and covering (61%, compared to composting), and for (iv) manure application through band spreading (55%, compared to surface application), incorporation (70%) and injection (80%). Acidification decreased CH4 emissions from stored slurry by 87%. Significant increases in N2 O emissions were found for straw-covered slurry storages (by two orders of magnitude) and manure injection (by 26-199%). These side-effects of straw covers and slurry injection on N2 O emission were relatively small when considering the total GHG emissions from the manure chain. Lowering the CP content of feed and acidifying slurry are strategies that consistently reduce NH3 and GHG emissions in the whole chain. Other strategies may reduce emissions of a specific gas or emissions source, by which there is a risk of unwanted trade-offs in the manure management chain. Proper farm-scale combinations of mitigation measures are important to minimize impacts of

  20. Yield-scaled mitigation of ammonia emission from N fertilization: the Spanish case

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz-Cobena, A.; Lassaletta, L.; Estellés, F.; Del Prado, A; Guardia, G.; Abalos, D.; Aguilera, E.; Pardo, G.; Vallejo, A.; Sutton, M. A.; Garnier, J.; Billen, G

    2014-01-01

    International audience Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer and field application of livestock manure are the major sources of ammonia (NH3) volatilization. This N loss may decrease crop productivity and subsequent deposition promotes environmental problems associated with soil acidification and eutrophication. Mitigation measures may have associated side effects such as decreased crop productivity (e. g. if N fertilizer application is reduced), or the release of other reactive N compounds (e...

  1. Assessment of global and regional left ventricular function by electrocardiographic gated N-13 ammonia positron emission tomography in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrocardiographic gated 13N-ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) enables simultaneous assessment of myocardial blood flow and left ventricular (LV) function. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of gated 13N-ammonia PET for evaluating global and regional LV function in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) in comparison with conventional left ventriculography (LVG). Fifty-four patients with CAD underwent gated 13N-ammonia PET and LVG. The LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (LVEDV, LVESV) and ejection fraction (LVEF) by gated 13N-ammonia PET were calculated using Cedars-Sinai automated quantitative gated single photon emission computed tomography (QGS) and compared with those obtained by LVG. The regional wall motion (RWM) was visually scored, and compared with that on LVG. There were good correlations between the 2 methods for LVEF, LVEDV and LVESV (R=0.828, R=0.821 and R=0.874 respectively). The RWM assessed by gated 13N-ammonia PET also agreed well with that by LVG (complete agreement was 70.4%, κ=0.58). Gated 13N-ammonia PET combined with QGS works reasonably well for the assessment of both global and regional LV function in CAD patients, although additional calibration may be necessary. (author)

  2. Emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane during the management of solid manures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, J; Sommer, Sven Gjedde; Kupper, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    significantly to global warming and N2O can also cause the breakdown of the protective ozone layer in the upper atmosphere. We established a database of emissions from solid manures. Statistical analysis provided new information, focussing on developing emission factors, emission algorithms and also new...... manures at high density also reduces air exchange which with the low temperature limits the formation and transfer of NH3 to the surface layers of the heap, reducing emissions. Most N2O emission estimates from cattle and pig manure have been between 0.001 and 0.009 of total-N. Emission of N2O from poultry...

  3. Global and regional trends in greenhouse gas emissions from livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Caro, D; Davis, SJ; Bastianoni, S.; Caldeira, K.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Following IPCC guidelines (IPCC 2006), we estimate greenhouse gas emissions related to livestock in 237 countries and 11 livestock categories during the period 1961–2010. We find that in 2010 emissions of methane and nitrous oxide related to livestock worldwide represented approximately 9 % of total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Global GHG emissions from livestock increased by 51 % during the analyzed period, mostly due to strong growth of ...

  4. Temporal changes in abundance and composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacterial and archaeal communities in a drained peat soil in relation to N{sub 2}O emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andert, Janet [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Microbiology; Max-Planck-Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam (Germany); Wessen, Ella; Hallin, Sara [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Microbiology; Boerjesson, Gunnar [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Soil and Environment

    2011-12-15

    Boreal peat soils comprise about 3% of the terrestrial environments, and when drained, they become sources of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). Ammonia oxidation can result in N{sub 2}O emissions, either directly or by fuelling denitrification, but we know little about the ecology of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) in peat soils. Our aim was to determine temporal alterations in abundance and composition of these communities in a drained and forested peat soil in relation to N{sub 2}O emissions and ammonia oxidation activity. Materials and methods The peat was sampled at three different depths in the upper 0.5 m over a period of 9 months covering two summer and two winter samplings. Community composition and abundance were determined by T-RFLP and quantitative real-time PCR of the bacterial and archaeal amoA genes. Potential ammonia oxidation rates were measured using the chlorate inhibition technique, and in situ N{sub 2}O emission was determined using chambers. Results and discussion The soil parameters displayed little spatial and temporal heterogeneity, which probably explained why there were no depth-related effects on the abundance, composition, or activity of the ammonia oxidizers. In contrast to most terrestrial environments, the AOB dominated numerically over the AOA. Both groups changed in community composition between sampling occasions, although the AOB showed more significant seasonal signatures than the AOA. Temporal changes in abundance were only observed for the AOB, with a decrease in numbers from May to March. Such differences were not reflected by the activity or N{sub 2}O emissions. Conclusions The high ammonium concentrations in the peat soil likely favored the AOB over the AOA, and we hypothesize that they were more active than the AOA and therefore responded to climatic and environmental changes. However, other processes rather than ammonia oxidation were likely responsible for N{sub 2}O emissions at the site.

  5. Ammonia emissions from a U.S. broiler house--comparison of concurrent measurements using three different technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Kenneth D; Gates, Richard S; Shores, Richard C; Thoma, Eben D; Harris, D Bruce

    2010-08-01

    There is a need for robust and accurate techniques for the measurement of ammonia (NH3) and other atmospheric pollutant emissions from poultry production facilities. Reasonable estimates of NH3 emission rate (ER) from poultry facilities are needed to guide discussions about the industry's impact on local and regional air quality. The design of these facilities features numerous emission points and results in emission characteristics of relatively low concentrations and exhaust flow rates that vary diurnally, seasonally, and with bird age over a considerable range. These factors combine to render conventional emissions monitoring approaches difficult to apply. Access to these facilities is also often restricted for biosecurity reasons. The three objectives of this study were (1) to compare three methods for measuring exhaust NH3 concentrations and thus ERs, (2) to compare ventilation rates using in situ measured fan characteristics versus using manufacturer sourced fan curves, and (3) to examine limitations of the alternative measurement technologies. In this study, two open-path monitoring systems operating outside of the buildings were compared with a portable monitoring system sampling upstream of a primary exhaust fan. The position of the open-path systems relative to the exhaust fans, measurement strategy adopted, and weather conditions significantly influenced the quality of data collected when compared with the internally located, portable monitoring system. Calculation of exhaust airflow from the facility had a large effect on calculated emissions and assuming that the installed fans performed as per published performance characteristics potentially overestimated emissions by 13.6-26.8%. The open-path measurement systems showed promise for being able to obtain ER measurements with minimal access to the house, although the availability of individual fan characteristics markedly improved the calculated ER accuracy. However, substantial operator skill and

  6. A simple model for assessing ammonia emission from ammoniacal fertilisers as affected by pH and injection into soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyord, T.; Schelde, K. M.; Søgaard, H. T.; Jensen, L. S.; Sommer, S. G.

    Ammonia (NH 3) volatilisation following the application of ammoniacal fertilisers and liquid manure to agricultural land is a significant source of atmospheric NH 3, which not only poses a risk to the environment, but may also result in a loss of plant available nitrogen (N). This study examined the potential for reducing NH 3 emission through acidifying an ammoniacal solution and by injecting the solution. The combination of the two technologies was studied and a model for predicting the most optimal treatment was developed. In the laboratory, ammonium (NH 4+) hydroxide (aqueous NH 3) was dissolved in water (pH 11) and injected into a loamy sand soil. The NH 3 emission was measured with a dynamic chamber technology. Injecting the solution to 10 mm below the soil surface reduced NH 3 emission by 10% compared to surface application, and injection to 30 mm reduced emission by 20% compared to surface application. Acidifying the ammoniacal solution by adding sulphuric acid and reducing pH to 10 reduced the emission by 60% at a 10 mm injection depth and 90% at 30 mm compared with non-acidified and surface-spread ammoniacal solution. The results show that there is an important interaction of pH and injection depth and that there is a need for models predicting a combined effect. This type of model could contribute to reduce cost and energy (traction force) by providing the optimal combination of acidifying and injection depth that gives a specific reduction in NH 3 emission, which in this study was reducing pH to 10 and inject the fertiliser to 30 mm below surface. This study showed that relatively simple models can predict the NH 3 emission from injected ammoniacal fertilisers, but that there is still a need for developing algorithms that predict the effect of pH, including the pH buffering capacity of the fertiliser and the soil.

  7. Ammonia and odour emissions from UK pig farms and nitrogen leaching from outdoor pig production. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, J; Broomfield, Mark; Jones, Stephanie; Donovan, Brian

    2014-02-01

    We reviewed specific literature for emissions of ammonia (NH3) and odours from all stages of pig production together with nitrogen (N) leaching from raising pigs outdoors. Emissions of NH3 decrease with decreases in the crude protein (CP) content of pig diets, at all stages of manure management. The CPs of pig diets have been greatly reduced by matching the CP content to the protein required at each stage of the animals' growth and by using synthetic essential amino acids to minimise total CP intake. The CP contents of the dietary ingredients needed to provide energy for the animals impose further limits to reductions in dietary CP. Housing systems have been designed and evaluated which offer potential for reducing NH3 emissions. However such designs may not be applicable at all stages of the pigs' development and the careful management needed to ensure their effective working may be costly and difficult to implement on commercial farms. The factors behind odour emissions are less well characterised. Reducing diet CP to 160 g CP kg(-1) has been shown to reduce odour emissions but further CP reductions may increase them. Some reductions in odour emissions from buildings can be achieved by careful management of the ventilation rate but the most effective measures to reduce emissions of NH3 and odours are to cover slurry stores and to inject slurry into soil. Changes in the feeding and management of outdoor pigs mean that N leaching losses may be up to 50% less than previously reported. No studies have been undertaken that compare the N leached from pigs raised outdoors, versus that arising from the application of pig manure from an equal number of housed pigs. As a precursor to any field study, current models could be used to provide a first estimate of any systematic differences. PMID:24211346

  8. Diurnal odor, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide emission profiles of confined swine grower/finisher rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gang; Guo, Huiqing; Peterson, Jonathan; Predicala, Bernardo; Laguë, Claude

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain diurnal variation profiles of odor and gas (ammonia [NH3], hydrogen sulfide [H2S], carbon dioxide [CO2]) concentrations and emission rate (OGCER) from confined swine grower/ finisher rooms under three typical weather conditions (warm, mild, and cold weather) in a year. Two grower/ finisher rooms, one with a fully slatted floor and the other with partially slatted floors, were measured for 2 consecutive days under each weather condition. The results revealed that the diurnal OGCER in the room with a fully slatted floor was 9.2-39.4% higher than that with a partially slatted floor; however, no significant differences in the diurnal OGCER were found between these two rooms, except for the NH3 concentrations in August, the NH3 and H2S concentrations and emissions in October, and odor concentrations and emissions in February (p > 0.05). The OGCER variations presented different diurnal patterns as affected by time of day, season, type of floor, ventilation rate, animal growth cycles, in-house manure storage, and weather conditions. Significant diurnal fluctuations in the OGCER (except for the odor concentrations and H2S emissions) were observed in August (p dispersion modeling to decrease the great incertitude of setback determination using randomly measured data.

  9. Seasonal odor, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide concentrations and emissions from swine grower-finisher rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gang; Guo, Huiqing; Peterson, Jonathan

    2010-04-01

    Seasonal odor and gas (ammonia [NH3], hydrogen sulfide [H2S], and carbon dioxide [CO2]) concentrations and emission rates (OGCERs) from swine facilities are vital for providing accurate source emissions and reducing the uncertainty of setback distances on the basis of emission data. In this study, a repeated measurement experimental method and a split-block statistical model were used to obtain seasonal OGCER profiles from two types of swine grower-finisher rooms in Saskatchewan, Canada, over a 12-month period. The results indicate that the OGCERs were significantly affected by the sampling month and ambient temperature (P dispersion models to reduce uncertainties in setback calculations. It was also found that the seasonal OGCERs from the rooms with fully slatted floors were 6.3-40.6% higher than those with partially slatted floors. The seasonal OGCERs (except for the NH3 concentrations in October, November, and January; the CO2 concentrations in August; and the CO2 emission rates in December) between these two rooms for each measuring month did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). The measured gas concentrations were generally below the permissible exposure limits (PELs) established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) throughout the year except for the NH3 concentrations in cold weather (December, January, and February).

  10. Bottom-up uncertainty estimates of global ammonia emissions from global agricultural production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beusen, A.H.W.; Bouwman, A.F.; Heuberger, P.S.C.; Drecht, van G.; Hoek, van der K.W.

    2008-01-01

    Here we present an uncertainty analysis of NH3 emissions from agricultural production systems based on a global NH3 emission inventory with a 5×5 min resolution. Of all results the mean is given with a range (10% and 90% percentile). The uncertainty range for the global NH3 emission from agricultura

  11. Methane emissions in India: Sub-regional and sectoral trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amit; Kankal, Bhushan; Shukla, P. R.

    2011-09-01

    This paper uses the 2006 IPCC Guidelines and latest country specific emission factors to estimate Indian methane emissions at sectoral and district level for the years 1990, 1995, 2005 and 2008. The estimates show that while methane emissions have increased steadily over past two decades, their share in India's aggregate GHG emissions has declined from 31% in 1985 to 27% in 2008 mainly due to relatively higher growth CO 2 emissions from the fossil fuels. The estimates for the year 2008 show that: i) agriculture sector, which employed two-thirds of India's population and contributed 17% of GDP, accounted for 23% of India's GHG emissions ii) 83% of country's methane emissions are contributed by enteric fermentation, manure use and rice production, and iii) methane emissions from urban solid waste are steadily rising over the past two decades; their share in aggregate methane emissions has reached 8%. Resting on the disaggregated emissions estimates, the paper argues for using geographical and sectoral flexibilities to develop a roadmap for mitigation of methane emissions for India.

  12. Search for Ammonia Radio Emission in Comet 9P/Tempel~1 after the Deep Impact Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, G. P.; Palagi, F.; Codella, C.; Poppi, S.; Crovisier, J.

    About 30 hours after the DI impact event, comet 9P/Tempel 1 has been observed with the 32 m dish of Medicina observatory (Bologna, Italy) to search for the NH_3 inversion transitions in the region around 24 GHz. The results show the presence of a line with S/N of about 6 and a FWHM equal to 1.35 km/s close to the NH_3(1,1) frequency. The cometary origin of the line seems sure, because the search for possible background sources of such a emission, performed a few days later along the same comet path, did not show any line at that frequency. Its identification is however dubious because of its too high outflow projected velocity and the too high ammonia production necessary to fit the line intensity. The frequency of the line is also close to a transition of methyl formate, a species already observed in comet Hale-Bopp and in hot cores. The outflow projected velocity would be smaller than in the case of the ammonia, but its abundance would be too high as well.

  13. NOx emissions in China: historical trends and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zhao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen oxides (NOx are key pollutants for the improvement of ambient air quality. Within this study we estimated the historical NOx emissions in China for the period 1995–2010, and calculated future NOx emissions every five years until 2030 under six emission scenarios. Driven by the fast growth of energy consumption, we estimate the NOx emissions in China increased rapidly from 11.0 Mt in 1995 to 26.1 Mt in 2010. Power plants, industry and transportation were major sources of NOx emissions, accounting for 28.4, 34.0, and 25.4% of the total NOx emissions in 2010, respectively. Two energy scenarios, a business as usual scenario (BAU and an alternative policy scenario (PC, were developed to project future energy consumption. In 2030, total energy consumption is projected to increase by 64 and 27% from 2010 level respectively. Three sets of end-of-pipe pollution control measures, including baseline, progressive, and stringent control case, were developed for each energy scenario, thereby constituting six emission scenarios. By 2030, the total NOx emissions are projected to increase (compared to 2010 by 36% in the baseline while policy cases result in reduction up to 61% in the most ambitious case with stringent control measures. More than a third of the reduction achieved by 2030 between least and most ambitious scenario comes from power sector and more than half is distributed equally between industry and transportation sectors. Selective Catalytic Reduction dominates the NOx emission reductions in power plants, while life style changes, control measures for industrial boilers and cement production are major contributors to reductions in industry. Timely enforcement of legislation on heavy duty vehicles would contribute significantly to NOx emission reductions. About 30% of the NOx emission reduction in 2020, and 40% of the NOx emission reduction in 2030 could be treated as the ancillary benefit of energy conservation. Sensitivity analysis was

  14. NOx emissions in China: historical trends and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, B.; Wang, S. X.; Liu, H.; Xu, J. Y.; Fu, K.; Klimont, Z.; Hao, J. M.; He, K. B.; Cofala, J.; Amann, M.

    2013-10-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are key pollutants for the improvement of ambient air quality. Within this study we estimated the historical NOx emissions in China for the period 1995-2010, and calculated future NOx emissions every five years until 2030 under six emission scenarios. Driven by the fast growth of energy consumption, we estimate the NOx emissions in China increased rapidly from 11.0 Mt in 1995 to 26.1 Mt in 2010. Power plants, industry and transportation were major sources of NOx emissions, accounting for 28.4%, 34.0%, and 25.4% of the total NOx emissions in 2010, respectively. Two energy scenarios, a business as usual scenario (BAU) and an alternative policy scenario (PC), were developed to project future energy consumption. In 2030, total energy consumption is projected to increase by 64% and 27% from 2010 level respectively. Three sets of end-of-pipe pollution control measures, including baseline, progressive, and stringent control case, were developed for each energy scenario, thereby constituting six emission scenarios. By 2030, the total NOx emissions are projected to increase (compared to 2010) by 36% in the baseline while policy cases result in reduction up to 61% in the most ambitious case with stringent control measures. More than a third of the reduction achieved by 2030 between least and most ambitious scenario comes from power sector, and more than half is distributed equally between industry and transportation sectors. Selective catalytic reduction dominates the NOx emission reductions in power plants, while life style changes, control measures for industrial boilers and cement production are major contributors to reductions in industry. Timely enforcement of legislation on heavy-duty vehicles would contribute significantly to NOx emission reductions. About 30% of the NOx emission reduction in 2020 and 40% of the NOx emission reduction in 2030 could be treated as the ancillary benefit of energy conservation. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to

  15. Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from a SCGT/CC by Ammonia Solution Absorption – Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Lombardi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of carbon dioxide from the flue gases of a semi-closed gas turbine combined cycle (SCGT/CC by means of absorption in ammonia aqueous solutions has been studied. The absorption system has been simulated by means of Aspen PlusTM. The main variables of the removal system have been varied in order to understand their influence on system performance. With reference to the SCGT/CC case study, the removal of CO2, considering a removal efficiency of 89%, dramatically decreases the overall cycle efficiency from 53 to 41%, with the main contribution to this decrease being due to the power consumption for flue gas compression up to the absorption unit pressure. CO2 specific emissions pass from 390 to 57 kg/MWh.

  16. Trends in global CO2 emissions: 2012 report

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVIER Jos; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Peters, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    Global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) – the main cause of global warming – increased by 3% in 2011, reaching an all-time high of 34 billion tonnes in 2011. In 2011, China’s average per capita carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions increased by 9% to 7.2 tonnes CO2¬, whereas these emissions in the European Union declined by 4 % to 7.5 tonnes CO2, bringing for the first time Europe’s and China’s CO2 emissions on similar levels. China, the world’s most populous country, is now well within the 6 to ...

  17. Analysis of Ammonia and Volatile Organic Amine Emissions in a Confined Poultry Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Dinh, Hanh Hong Thi

    2010-01-01

    The National Air Emission Monitoring Study (NAEMS) project was funded by the Agricultural Air Research Council (AARC) to evaluate agricultural emissions nationwide. Utah State University (USU) is conducting a parallel study on agricultural emissions at a Cache Valley poultry facility. As part of this parallel study, samples of animal feed, eggs and animal waste were collected weekly from three manure barns (designated: manure barn, barn 4 - manure belt and barn 5 - high rise) from May 2008 to...

  18. Effects of liquid aluminum chloride additions to poultry litter on broiler performance, ammonia emissions, soluble phosphorus, total volatile fatty acids, and nitrogen contents of litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have shown that the use of aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3.14H2O) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) additions to animal manures are more effective than other chemicals in reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions and phosphorus (P) solubility. Although the use of alum has been intensively used in the ...

  19. Modeling the effect of heat fluxes on ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from an anaerobic swine waste treatment lagoon using artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding factors that affect ammonia and nitrous emissions from anaerobic swine waste treatment lagoons or any animal waste receptacles is a necessary first step in deploying potential remediation options. In this study, we examined the various meteorological factors (i.e., air temperatures, s...

  20. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite observations of ammonia, methanol, formic acid, and carbon monoxide over the Canadian oil sands: validation and model evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, M. W.; McLinden, C. A.; Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Luo, M.; Moussa, S. G.; Leithead, A.; Liggio, J.; Staebler, R. M.; Akingunola, A.; Makar, P.; Lehr, P.; Zhang, J.; Henze, D. K.; Millet, D. B.; Bash, J. O.; Zhu, L.; Wells, K. C.; Capps, S. L.; Chaliyakunnel, S.; Gordon, M.; Hayden, K.; Brook, J. R.; Wolde, M.; Li, S.-M.

    2015-12-01

    The wealth of air quality information provided by satellite infrared observations of ammonia (NH3), carbon monoxide (CO), formic acid (HCOOH), and methanol (CH3OH) is currently being explored and used for a number of applications, especially at regional or global scales. These applications include air quality monitoring, trend analysis, emissions, and model evaluation. This study provides one of the first direct validations of Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite-retrieved profiles of NH3, CH3OH, and HCOOH through comparisons with coincident aircraft profiles. The comparisons are performed over the Canadian oil sands region during the intensive field campaign (August-September, 2013) in support of the Joint Canada-Alberta Implementation Plan for Oil Sands Monitoring (JOSM). The satellite/aircraft comparisons over this region during this period produced errors of (i) +0.08 ± 0.25 ppbv for NH3, (ii) +7.5 ± 23 ppbv for CO, (iii) +0.19 ± 0.46 ppbv for HCOOH, and (iv) -1.1 ± 0.39 ppbv for CH3OH. These values mostly agree with previously estimated retrieval errors; however, the relatively large negative bias in CH3OH and the significantly greater positive bias for larger HCOOH and CO values observed during this study warrant further investigation. Satellite and aircraft ammonia observations during the field campaign are also used in an initial effort to perform preliminary evaluations of Environment Canada's Global Environmental Multi-scale - Modelling Air quality and CHemistry (GEM-MACH) air quality modelling system at high resolution (2.5 × 2.5 km2). These initial results indicate a model underprediction of ~ 0.6 ppbv (~ 60 %) for NH3, during the field campaign period. The TES/model CO comparison differences are ~ +20 ppbv (~ +20 %), but given that under these conditions the TES/aircraft comparisons also show a small positive TES CO bias indicates that the overall model underprediction of CO is closer to ~ 10 % at 681 hPa (~ 3 km) during this period.

  1. New trends in emission control in the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    Merkisz, Jerzy; Radzimirski, Stanislaw

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses recent changes in the European legislation for exhaust emissions from motor vehicles. It starts with a comprehensive explanation of both the structure and range of applicability of new regulations, such as Euro 5 and Euro 6 for light-duty vehicles and Euro VI for heavy-duty vehicles. Then it introduces the most important issues in in-service conformity and conformity of production for vehicles, describing the latest procedures for performing exhaust emissions tests under both bench and operating conditions. Subsequently, it reports on portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) and their application for assessing the emissions of gaseous and particulate matter alike, under actual operating conditions and in all transport modes. Lastly, the book presents selected findings from exhaust emissions research on engines for a variety of transport vehicles, such as light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles, as well as non-road vehicles, which include farm tractors, groundwork and forest machinery, diese...

  2. Ammonia and Methane Dairy Emission Plumes in the San Joaquin Valley of California from Individual Feedlot to Regional Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David J.; Sun, Kang; Pan, Da; Zondlo, Mark A.; Nowak, John B.; Liu, Zhen; Diskin, Glenn; Sachse, Glen; Beyersdorf, Andreas; Ferrare, Richard; Scarino, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural ammonia (NH3) emissions are highly uncertain, with high spatiotemporal variability and a lack of widespread in situ measurements. Regional NH3 emission estimates using mass balance or emission ratio approaches are uncertain due to variable NH3 sources and sinks as well as unknown plume correlations with other dairy source tracers. We characterize the spatial distributions of NH3 and methane (CH4) dairy plumes using in situ surface and airborne measurements in the Tulare dairy feedlot region of the San Joaquin Valley, California, during the NASA Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality 2013 field campaign. Surface NH3 and CH4 mixing ratios exhibit large variability with maxima localized downwind of individual dairy feedlots. The geometric mean NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio derived from surface measurements is 0.15 +/- 0.03 ppmv ppmv-1. Individual dairy feedlots with spatially distinct NH3 and CH4 source pathways led to statistically significant correlations between NH3 and CH4 in 68% of the 69 downwind plumes sampled. At longer sampling distances, the NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio decreases 20-30%, suggesting the potential for NH3 deposition as a loss term for plumes within a few kilometers downwind of feedlots. Aircraft boundary layer transect measurements directly above surface mobile measurements in the dairy region show comparable gradients and geometric mean enhancement ratios within measurement uncertainties, even when including NH3 partitioning to submicron particles. Individual NH3 and CH4 plumes sampled at close proximity where losses are minimal are not necessarily correlated due to lack of mixing and distinct source pathways. Our analyses have important implications for constraining NH3 sink and plume variability influences on regional NH3 emission estimates and for improving NH3 emission inventory spatial allocations.

  3. Nutritional and Environmental Effects on Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Housing: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougouin, Adeline; Leytem, April; Dijkstra, Jan; Dungan, Robert S; Kebreab, Ermias

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen excreted in dairy manure can be potentially transformed and emitted as NH, which can create livestock and human respiratory problems and be an indirect source of NO. The objectives of this study were to: (i) investigate environmental factors influencing NH emissions from dairy housing; and (ii) identify key explanatory variables in the NH emissions prediction from dairy housing using a meta-analytical approach. Data from 25 studies were used for the preliminary analysis, and data from 10 studies reporting 87 treatment means were used for the meta-analysis. Season and flooring type significantly affected NH emissions. For nutritional effect analysis, the between-study variability (heterogeneity) of mean NH emission was estimated using random-effect models and had a significant effect ( housing by developing predictive models that could determine variables with strong association with NH emissions. PMID:27380059

  4. The effect of climate and climate change on ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Geels, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    to a standard Danish pig stable with 1000 animals and display how emissions from this source would vary geographically throughout central and northern Europe and from year to year. In view of future climate changes, we also evaluate the potential future changes in emission by including temperature projections...... from an ensemble of climate models. The results point towards four overall issues. (1) Emissions can easily vary by 20% for different geographical locations within a country due to overall variations in climate. The largest uncertainties are seen for large countries such as the UK, Germany and France....... (2) Annual variations in overall climate can at specific locations cause uncertainties in the range of 20 %. (3) Climate change may increase emissions by 0–40% in central to northern Europe. (4) Gradients in existing emission inventories that are seen between neighbour countries (e.g. between the UK...

  5. Trend in GHG Emissions from Northeast and West Coast Regions of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongdimenba Jamir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change due to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs has emerged as a serious global environmental issue. An attempt has been made to assess the GHG emissions in two geographical regions of India i.e. the Northeast Region (NER and the West coast Region (WCR during the period of 1980-2005. The analysis reveals an increasing trend in GHG emissions from the study regions except for CH4, which shows a decreasing trend in Goa and Kerala.  As far as state wise GHG emissions are concerned; Assam ranks first in CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from the NER. Konkan ranks first in CO2 and CH4 emissions, while Kerala ranks first in N2O emissions representing the WCR. Analysis of the compounded annual growth rate reveals higher for the WCR in CO2 and CH4 emissions except N2O where the NER remains the highest. In order to find the association between GHG emissions and climatic response, the mean air temperature for 26 stations in both regions were subjected to trend analysis. The findings show warming trends in the mean air temperature over a majority of the stations indicating a possible role by increased GHGs. Further, the analysis reveals a positive correlation of population and GHG emissions significantly at 99% for both the regions.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.63.1.2739

  6. Atmospheric verification of anthropogenic CO2 emission trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francey, Roger J.; Trudinger, Cathy M.; van der Schoot, Marcel; Law, Rachel M.; Krummel, Paul B.; Langenfelds, Ray L.; Paul Steele, L.; Allison, Colin E.; Stavert, Ann R.; Andres, Robert J.; Rödenbeck, Christian

    2013-05-01

    International efforts to limit global warming and ocean acidification aim to slow the growth of atmospheric CO2, guided primarily by national and industry estimates of production and consumption of fossil fuels. Atmospheric verification of emissions is vital but present global inversion methods are inadequate for this purpose. We demonstrate a clear response in atmospheric CO2 coinciding with a sharp 2010 increase in Asian emissions but show persisting slowing mean CO2 growth from 2002/03. Growth and inter-hemispheric concentration difference during the onset and recovery of the Global Financial Crisis support a previous speculation that the reported 2000-2008 emissions surge is an artefact, most simply explained by a cumulative underestimation (~ 9PgC) of 1994-2007 emissions; in this case, post-2000 emissions would track mid-range of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission scenarios. An alternative explanation requires changes in the northern terrestrial land sink that offset anthropogenic emission changes. We suggest atmospheric methods to help resolve this ambiguity.

  7. Future trends in worldwide river nitrogen transport and related nitrous oxide emissions : a scenario analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, C.; Seitzinger, S.P.; Domingues, R.

    2001-01-01

    We analyze possible future trends in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export by world rivers and associated emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). Our scenarios either assume that current trends continue or that nitrogen (N) inputs to aquatic systems are reduced as a result of changes in agriculture pr

  8. Ozone Trends Across the United States over a Period of Decreasing NOx and VOC Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work, we evaluate ambient ozone trends at urban, suburban, and rural monitoring sites across the United States over a period of decreasing NOx and VOC emissions (1998–2013). We find that decreasing ozone trends generally occur in the summer, in less urbanized areas,...

  9. The effects of energy paths and emission controls and standards on future trends in China's emissions of primary air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2014-09-01

    To examine the efficacy of China's actions to control atmospheric pollution, three levels of growth of energy consumption and three levels of implementation of emission controls are estimated, generating a total of nine combined activity-emission control scenarios that are then used to estimate trends of national emissions of primary air pollutants through 2030. The emission control strategies are expected to have more effects than the energy paths on the future emission trends for all the concerned pollutants. As recently promulgated national action plans of air pollution prevention and control (NAPAPPC) are implemented, China's anthropogenic pollutant emissions should decline. For example, the emissions of SO2, NOx, total suspended particles (TSP), PM10, and PM2.5 are estimated to decline 7, 20, 41, 34, and 31% from 2010 to 2030, respectively, in the "best guess" scenario that includes national commitment of energy saving policy and implementation of NAPAPPC. Should the issued/proposed emission standards be fully achieved, a less likely scenario, annual emissions would be further reduced, ranging from 17 (for primary PM2.5) to 29% (for NOx) declines in 2015, and the analogue numbers would be 12 and 24% in 2030. The uncertainties of emission projections result mainly from the uncertain operational conditions of swiftly proliferating air pollutant control devices and lack of detailed information about emission control plans by region. The predicted emission trends by sector and chemical species raise concerns about current pollution control strategies: the potential for emissions abatement in key sectors may be declining due to the near saturation of emission control devices use; risks of ecosystem acidification could rise because emissions of alkaline base cations may be declining faster than those of SO2; and radiative forcing could rise because emissions of positive-forcing carbonaceous aerosols may decline more slowly than those of SO2 emissions and thereby

  10. Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from swine production facilities in North America: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Powers, W; Murphy, J; Maghirang, R

    2014-04-01

    Literature on NH3 and H2S emissions from swine production facilities in North America was reviewed, and a meta-analysis was conducted on measured emissions data from swine houses and manure storage facilities as well as concentration data in the vicinity of swine production facilities. Results from more than 80 studies were compiled with results from the 11 swine sites in the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS). Data across studies were analyzed statistically using the MIXED procedures of SAS. The median emission rates from swine houses across various production stages and manure handling systems were 2.78 and 0.09 kg/yr per pig for NH3 and H2S, respectively. The median emission rates from swine storage facilities were 2.08 and 0.20 kg/yr per pig for NH3 and H2S, respectively. The size of swine farm that may trigger the need to report NH3 emissions under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) is 3,410 pigs on the basis of the median NH3 emission rate (4.86 kg/yr per pig), but the threshold can be as low as 992 pigs on the basis of the 90th-percentile emission rates (16.71 kg/yr per pig). Swine hoop houses had significantly higher NH3 emission rate (14.80 kg/yr per pig) than other manure-handling systems (P pig, P = 0.03). Farrowing houses had the highest H2S emission rate (2.50 kg/yr per pig), followed by gestation houses, and finishing houses had the lowest H2S emission rate (P < 0.01). Regression models for NH3 and H2S emission rates were developed for finishing houses with deep pits, recharge pits, and lagoons. The NH3 emission rates increased with increasing air temperature, but effects of air temperature on H2S emission rates were not significant. The recharge interval of manure pits significantly affected H2S but not NH3 emission rates. The H2S emission rates were also influenced by the size of the operation. Although NH3 and H2S concentrations at the edge of swine houses or lagoons were often higher than corresponding

  11. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems--Part II. Ammonia, greenhouse gas, and particulate matter emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, T A; Zhao, Y; Li, H; Stinn, J P; Hayes, M D; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    As an integral part of the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) Project, this study simultaneously monitored air emissions of 3 commercially operated egg production systems at the house level and associated manure storage over 2 single-cycle flocks (18 to 78 wk of age). The 3 housing systems were 1) a conventional cage house (CC) with a 200,000-hen capacity (6 hens in a cage at a stocking density of 516 cm2/hen), 2) an enriched colony house (EC) with a 50,000-hen capacity (60 hens per colony at a stocking density of 752 cm2/hen), and 3) an aviary house (AV) with a 50,000-hen capacity (at a stocking density of 1253 to 1257 cm2/hen). The 3 hen houses were located on the same farm and were populated with Lohmann white hens of the same age. Indoor environment and house-level gaseous (ammonia [NH3] and greenhouse gasses [GHG], including carbon dioxide [CO2], methane [CH4], and nitrous oxide [N2O]) and particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5) emissions were monitored continually. Gaseous emissions from the respective manure storage of each housing system were also monitored. Emission rates (ERs) are expressed as emission quantities per hen, per animal unit (AU, 500 kg live BW), and per kilogram of egg output. House-level NH3 ER (g/hen/d) of EC (0.054) was significantly lower than that of CC (0.082) or AV (0.112) (Phen/d) was lower for CC (68.3) than for EC and AV (74.4 and 74.0, respectively), and the CH4 ER (g/hen/d) was similar for all 3 houses (0.07 to 0.08). The house-level PM ER (mg/hen/d), essentially representing the farm-level PM ER, was significantly higher for AV (PM10 100.3 and PM2.5 8.8) than for CC (PM10 15.7 and PM2.5 0.9) or EC (PM10 15.6 and PM2.5 1.7) (Phen/d) was significantly lower for EC (0.16) than for CC (0.29) or AV (0.30) (Phen housing systems regarding air emissions and enhance the U.S. national air emissions inventory for farm animal operations. PMID:25737568

  12. Short-term experiments in using digestate products as substitutes for mineral (N) fertilizer: Agronomic performance, odours, and ammonia emission impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, C; Orzi, V; Carozzi, M; Acutis, M; Boccasile, G; Lonati, S; Tambone, F; D'Imporzano, G; Adani, F

    2016-03-15

    Anaerobic digestion produces a biologically stable and high-value fertilizer product, the digestate, which can be used as an alternative to mineral fertilizers on crops. However, misuse of digestate can lead to annoyance for the public (odours) and to environmental problems such as nitrate leaching and ammonia emissions into the air. Full field experimental data are needed to support the use of digestate in agriculture, promoting its correct management. In this work, short-term experiments were performed to substitute mineral N fertilizers (urea) with digestate and products derived from it to the crop silage maize. Digestate and the liquid fraction of digestate were applied to soil at pre-sowing and as topdressing fertilizers in comparison with urea, both by surface application and subsurface injection during the cropping seasons 2012 and 2013. After each fertilizer application, both odours and ammonia emissions were measured, giving data about digestate and derived products' impacts. The AD products could substitute for urea without reducing crop yields, apart from the surface application of AD-derived fertilizers. Digestate and derived products, because of high biological stability acquired during the AD, had greatly reduced olfactometry impact, above all when they were injected into soils (82-88% less odours than the untreated biomass, i.e. cattle slurry). Ammonia emission data indicated, as expected, that the correct use of digestate and derived products required their injection into the soil avoiding, ammonia volatilization into the air and preserving fertilizer value. Sub-surface injection allowed ammonia emissions to be reduced by 69% and 77% compared with surface application during the 2012 and 2013 campaigns.

  13. Aircraft emission inventories for scheduled air traffic for the 1976-92 time period. Historical trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baughcum, S.L.; Henderson, S.C.; Tritz, T.G. [Boeing Co., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Emission inventories of fuel burned, NO{sub x}, CO, and hydrocarbons have been calculated for scheduled air traffic in 1976, 1984, 1990 and 1992 on a 1 deg latitude x 1 deg longitude x 1 km pressure altitude grid. Using this database, the seasonal variation and historical trends in aircraft emissions have been calculated for selected geographical regions (e.g., North Atlantic, Europe, North America, North Pacific). The trend in emissions is a combination of the effects of passenger demand growth, improved aircraft efficiency, changes in combustor characteristics, and aircraft size. (author) 8 refs.

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions from Thailand’s transport sector: Trends and mitigation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid growth of population and economy during the past two decades has resulted in continuing growth of transport’s oil demand and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objectives of this study are to examine pattern and growth in energy demand as well as related GHG emissions from the transport sector and to analyze potential pathways of energy demand and GHG emissions reduction from this sector of the measures being set by the Thai Government. A set of econometric models has been developed to estimate the historical trend of energy demand and GHG emissions in the transport sector during 1989–2007 and to forecast future trends to 2030. Two mitigation option scenarios of fuel switching and energy efficiency options have been designed to analyze pathways of energy consumption and GHG emissions reduction potential in Thailand’s transport sector compared with the baseline business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, which assumed to do nothing influences the long-term trends of transport energy demand. It has been found that these two mitigation options can reduce the GHG emissions differently. The fuel-switching option could significantly reduce the amount of GHG emissions in a relatively short time frame, albeit it will be limited by its supply resources, whereas the energy efficiency option is more effective for GHG emissions mitigation in the long term. Therefore, both measures should be implemented simultaneously for both short and long term mitigation effects in order to more effectively achieve GHG emissions reduction target.

  15. CO{sub 2} Emission Calculations and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, T. A.; Marland, G.; Andres, R. J.

    1995-06-01

    Evidence that the atmospheric CO{sub 2}concentration has risen during the past several decades is irrefutable. Most of the observed increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} is believed to result from CO{sub 2} releases from fossil-fuel burning. The United Nations (UN) Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), signed in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992, reflects global concern over the increasing CO{sub 2} concentration and its potential impact on climate. One of the convention`s stated objectives was the stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Specifically, the FCCC asked all 154 signing countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions, and it set nonbinding targets for some countries to control emissions by stabilizing them at 1990 levels by the year 2000. Given the importance of CO{sub 2} as a greenhouse gas, the relationship between CO{sub 2} emissions and increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, and the potential impacts of a greenhouse gas-induced climate change; it is important that comprehensive CO{sub 2} emissions records be compiled, maintained, updated, and documented.

  16. Trends in PM2.5 emissions, concentrations and apportionments in Detroit and Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milando, Chad; Huang, Lei; Batterman, Stuart

    2016-03-01

    PM2.5 concentrations throughout much of the U.S. have decreased over the last 15 years, but emissions and concentration trends can vary by location and source type. Such trends should be understood to inform air quality management and policies. This work examines trends in emissions, concentrations and source apportionments in two large Midwest U.S. cities, Detroit, Michigan, and Chicago, Illinois. Annual and seasonal trends were investigated using National Emission Inventory (NEI) data for 2002 to 2011, speciated ambient PM2.5 data from 2001 to 2014, apportionments from positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor modeling, and quantile regression. Over the study period, county-wide data suggest emissions from point sources decreased (Detroit) or held constant (Chicago), while emissions from on-road mobile sources were constant (Detroit) or increased (Chicago), however changes in methodology limit the interpretation of inventory trends. Ambient concentration data also suggest source and apportionment trends, e.g., annual median concentrations of PM2.5 in the two cities declined by 3.2-3.6%/yr (faster than national trends), and sulfate concentrations (due to coal-fired facilities and other point source emissions) declined even faster; in contrast, organic and elemental carbon (tracers of gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust) declined more slowly or held constant. The PMF models identified nine sources in Detroit and eight in Chicago, the most important being secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate and vehicle emissions. A minor crustal dust source, metals sources, and a biomass source also were present in both cities. These apportionments showed that the median relative contributions from secondary sulfate sources decreased by 4.2-5.5% per year in Detroit and Chicago, while contributions from metals sources, biomass sources, and vehicles increased from 1.3 to 9.2% per year. This first application of quantile regression to trend analyses of speciated PM2.5 data reveals

  17. Applying an Inverse Model to Estimate Ammonia Emissions at Cattle Feedlots Using Three Different Observation-Based Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonkwiler, K. B.; Ham, J. M.; Nash, C.

    2014-12-01

    Accurately quantifying emissions of ammonia (NH3) from confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) is vital not only to the livestock industry, but essential to understanding nitrogen cycling along the Front Range of Colorado, USA, where intensive agriculture, urban sprawl, and pristine ecosystems (e.g., Rocky Mtn Nat'l Park) lie within 100-km of each other. Most observation-based techniques for estimating NH3 emissions can be expensive and highly technical. Many methods rely on concentration observations on location, which implicitly depends on weather conditions. A system for sampling NH3 using on-site weather data was developed to allow remote measurement of NH3 in a simple, cost-effective way. These systems use passive diffusive cartridges (Radiello, Sigma-Aldrich) that provide time-averaged concentrations representative of a typical two-week deployment. Cartridge exposure is robotically managed so they are only visible when winds are 1.4 m/s or greater from the direction of the CAFO. These concentration data can be coupled with stability parameters (measured on-site) in a simple inverse model to estimate emissions (FIDES, UMR Environnement et Grandes Cultures). Few studies have directly compared emissions estimates of NH3 using concentration data obtained from multiple measurement systems at different temporal and spatial scales. Therefore, in the summer and autumn of 2014, several conditional sampler systems were deployed at a 25,000-head cattle feedlot concomitant with an open-path infrared laser (GasFinder2, Boreal Laser Inc.) and a Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer (CRDS) (G1103, Picarro Inc.) which each measured instantaneous NH3 concentrations. This study will test the sampler technology by first comparing concentration data from the three different methods. In livestock research, it is common to estimate NH3 emissions by using such instantaneous data in a backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLs) model (WindTrax, Thunder Beach Sci.) Considering this, NH3 fluxes

  18. Effects of acidifying pig diets on emissions of ammonia, methane and sulfur from slurry during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard;

    2014-01-01

    that methanogenic potential, rather than inhibitory effects of the chemical environment, caused the delay. In conclusion, NH3 emissions from slurry could be reduced by addition of BA to pig diets, or by controlling the dietary electrolyte balance, but there was no additive effect of combining the two strategies...

  19. Future trends of global atmospheric antimony emissions from anthropogenic activities until 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junrui; Tian, Hezhong; Zhu, Chuanyong; Hao, Jiming; Gao, Jiajia; Wang, Yong; Xue, Yifeng; Hua, Shenbin; Wang, Kun

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the scenario forecast of global atmospheric antimony (Sb) emissions from anthropogenic activities till 2050. The projection scenarios are built based on the comprehensive global antimony emission inventory for the period 1995-2010 which is reported in our previous study. Three scenarios are set up to investigate the future changes of global antimony emissions as well as their source and region contribution characteristics. Trends of activity levels specified as 5 primary source categories are projected by combining the historical trend extrapolation with EIA International energy outlook 2013, while the source-specific dynamic emission factors are determined by applying transformed normal distribution functions. If no major changes in the efficiency of emission control are introduced and keep current air quality legislations (Current Legislation scenario), global antimony emissions will increase by a factor of 2 between 2010 and 2050. The largest increase in Sb emissions is projected from Asia due to large volume of nonferrous metals production and waste incineration. In case of enforcing the pollutant emission standards (Strengthened Control scenario), global antimony emissions in 2050 will stabilize with that of 2010. Moreover, we can anticipate further declines in Sb emissions for all continents with the best emission control performances (Maximum Feasible Technological Reduction scenario). Future antimony emissions from the top 10 largest emitting countries have also been calculated and source category contributions of increasing emissions of these countries present significant diversity. Furthermore, global emission projections in 2050 are distributed within a 1° × 1°latitude/longitude grid. East Asia, Western Europe and North America present remarkable differences in emission intensity under the three scenarios, which implies that source-and-country specific control measures are necessary to be implemented for abating Sb emissions from

  20. Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from a modern U.S. swine breeding-gestation-farrowing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinn, John P.; Xin, Hongwei; Shepherd, Timothy A.; Li, Hong; Burns, Robert T.

    2014-12-01

    Aerial emissions from livestock production continue to be an area of attention and concern for both the potential health and environmental impacts. However, information of gaseous, especially greenhouse gas (GHG), emissions for swine breeding/gestation and farrowing production systems is limited. The purpose of this study was to quantify ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) concentrations and emissions from a modern breeding-gestation-farrowing system located in central Iowa, USA. A 4300-sow farm was selected for the extensive field monitoring which employed a Mobile Air Emission Monitoring Unit equipped with state-of-the-art gas analyzers and a data acquisition system. The monitored portion of the farm facility consisted of a deep-pit breeding/early gestation (B/EG) barn (1800 head), a deep-pit late gestation (LG) barn (1800 head), and two shallow-pit (pull-plug) farrowing rooms (40 head per room). A dynamic flux chamber was used to monitor gaseous emissions from the external manure storage for the farrowing rooms. Data were collected for 29 consecutive months (January 2011 through June 2013). Daily indoor NH3, CO2, N2O, and CH4 concentrations (ppm, mean ± SD) were 12.0 (±7.6), 1594 (±797), 0.31 (±0.11), and 28.5 (±9.8), respectively, in the breeding/gestation barns; and 9.7 (±4.1), 1536 (±701), 0.30 (±0.10), and 78.3 (±37), respectively, in the farrowing rooms. Daily emissions per animal unit (AU, 500 kg live weight) were 35.1 g NH3, 7.46 kg CO2, 0.17 g N2O, and 263.4 g CH4 for sows in the B/EG barn; and 28.2 g NH3, 6.50 kg CO2, 0.12 g N2O, and 201.3 g CH4 for sows in the LG barn. The average daily emissions per AU (sow and piglets) of the farrowing rooms during the lactation period (birth to weaning) were: 59.7 g NH3, 16.4 kg CO2, 0.73 g N2O, and 107 g CH4. For the monitored period, the external manure storage had the following average daily emission per m2 surface area: 1.26 g NH3, 137 g CO2, and 94.8 g CH4, which

  1. Control of mercury emissions: policies, technologies, and future trends

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2015-01-01

    Seung-Whee Rhee Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Republic of Korea Abstract: Owing to the Minamata Convention on Mercury and the Global Mercury Partnership, policies and regulations on mercury management in advanced countries were intensified by a mercury phaseout program in the mercury control strategy. In developing countries, the legislative or regulatory frameworks on mercury emissions are not established specifically, but mercury management is designed...

  2. EMISSION AND TRENDS IN RECLAIMING WASTE HEAT IN INDUSTRIAL INSTALATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Hys

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of waste heat emission in a typical industrial installation. On the basis of the process monitoring system, periodic analyses of fumes composition, installation process manual and the conducted measurements of the heat fluxes from individual sources emitting heat on the way of natural convection from the devices’ coats and forced convection in the fumes flux were calculated. According to the authors the heat of temperature 140–155 °C and surface power density 860–970 W/m2 emitted by devices’ covers can be reclaimed in ORC techniques, Peltier’s modules and the systems realising Stirling cycle. Part of the waste heat included in fumes, which makes c.a. 76% of the total emission from the installation, should be returned to the process of fuel oxidation, what will reduce the emission by c.a. 18% and the volume of consumed fuel by c.a. 25 m3 CH4/h, according to the presented calculations.

  3. Potential application of Alcaligenes faecalis strain No. 4 in mitigating ammonia emissions from dairy wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neerackal, George M; Ndegwa, Pius M; Joo, Hung-Soo; Wang, Xiang; Frear, Craig S; Harrison, Joseph H; Beutel, Marc W

    2016-04-01

    This research examined the potential mitigation of NH3 emissions from dairy manure via an enhanced aerobic bio-treatment with bacterium Alcaligenes faecalis strain No. 4. The studies were conducted in aerated batch reactors using air and pure oxygen. Aeration with air and oxygen removed approximately 40% and 100% total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN), respectively. Intermittent oxygenation (every 2 or 4 h) reduced oxygen consumption by 95%, while attaining nearly identical TAN removal to continuous aeration. The results revealed that adequate oxygen supply and supplementing dairy wastewater with carbon are essential for this bioprocess. Based on the nitrogen mass balance, only 4% of TAN was released as NH3 gas, while the majority was retained in either the microbial biomass (58%) or converted to nitrogen gas (36%). The mass balance results reveal high potential for environmentally friendly bio-treatment of dairy wastewater using A. faecalis strain No. 4 with respect to NH3 emissions. PMID:26845217

  4. Carbon Emission Trends of Manufacturing and Influencing Factors in Jilin Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Chao; MA Yanji

    2016-01-01

    This paper constructed a carbon emission identity based on five factors:industrial activity,industrial structure,energy intensity,energy mix and carbon emission parameter,and analyzed manufacturing carbon emission trends in Jilin Province at subdivided industrial level through Log-Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method.Results showed that manufacturing carbon emissions of Jilin Province increased 1.304 × 107t by 66% between 2004 and 2010.However,2012 was a remarkable year in which carbon emissions decreased compared with 2011,the first fall since 2004.Industrial activity was the most important factor for the increase of carbon emissions,while energy intensity had the greatest impact on inhibiting carbon emission growth.Despite the impact of industrial structure on carbon emissions fluctuated,its overall trend inhibited carbon emission growth.Further,influences of industrial structure became gradually stronger and surpassed energy intensity in the period 2009-2010.These results conclude that reducing energy intensity is still the main way for carbon emission reduction in Jilin Province,but industrial structure can not be ignored and it has great potential.Based on the analyses,the way of manufacturing industrial structure adjustment for Jilin Province is put forward.

  5. A comprehensive ammonia emission inventory with high-resolution and its evaluation in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Shuiyuan Cheng; Lang, Jianlei; Chen, Dongsheng; Zhao, Beibei; Liu, Chao; Xu, Ran; Li, Tingting

    2015-04-01

    A comprehensive ammonia (NH3) emission inventory for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region was developed based on the updated source-specific emission factors (EFs) and the county-level activity data obtained from a full-coverage investigation launched in the BTH region for the first time. The NH3 emission inventory within 1 km × 1 km grid was generated using source-based spatial surrogates with geographical information system (GIS) technology. The total NH3 emission was 1573.7 Gg for the year 2010. The contributions from livestock, farmland, human, biomass burning, chemical industry, fuel combustion, waste disposal and on-road mobile source were approximately 56.6%, 28.6%, 7.2%, 3.4%, 1.1%, 1.3%, 1.0% and 0.8%, respectively. Among different cities, Shijiazhang, Handan, Xingtai, Tangshan and Cangzhou had higher NH3 emissions. Statistical analysis aiming at county-level emission of 180 counties in BTH indicated that the NH3 emission in most of the counties were less than 16 Gg. The maximum value of the county level emission was approximately 25.5 Gg. Higher NH3 emission was concentrated in the areas with more rural and agricultural activity. Monthly, higher NH3 emission occurred during the period from April to September, which could be attributed to the temperature and timing of planting practice. The validity of the estimated emissions were further evaluated from multiple perspectives covering (1) uncertainty analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation, (2) comparison with other studies, (3) quantitative analysis of improvement in spatial resolution of activity data, and (4) verification based on a comparison of the simulated and observed surface concentrations of ammonium. The detailed and validated ammonia emission inventory could provide valuable information for understanding air pollution formation mechanisms and help guide decision-making with respect to control strategies.

  6. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.; Decision and Information Sciences; Tsinghua Univ.; Univ. of Iowa; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO{sub 2} emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO{sub 2} emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO{sub 2} in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO{sub 2} emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO{sub 2} concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO{sub 2} and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO{sub 2} concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO{sub 2} is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO{sub 2} from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO{sub 2} emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO{sub 2} emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model

  7. Regional nitrogen oxides emission trends in East Asia observed from space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mijling

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to changing economic activity, emissions of air pollutants in East Asia change rapidly in space and time. Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides derived from satellite observations provide valuable insight in the evolution of anthropogenic activity on a regional scale. We present the first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emissions of short-lived atmospheric constituents on a~mesoscopic scale (~ 0.25° × 0.25°. The algorithm is used to construct a monthly NOx emission time series for 2007–2011 from tropospheric NO2 observations of GOME-2 for East Chinese provinces and surrounding countries. The new emission estimates correspond well with the bottom-up inventory of EDGAR v4.2, but are smaller than the inventories of INTEX-B and MEIC. They reveal a strong positive trend during 2007–2011 for almost all Chinese provinces, related to the country's economic development. We find a 41% increment of NOx emissions in East China during this period, which shows the need to update emission inventories in this region on a regular basis. Negative emission trends are found in Japan and South Korea, which can be attributed to a combined effect of local environmental policy and global economic crises. Analysis of seasonal variation distinguishes between regions with dominant anthropogenic or biogenic emissions. For regions with a mixed anthropogenic and biogenic signature, the opposite seasonality can be used for an estimation of the separate emission contributions. Finally, the non-local concentration/emission relationships calculated by the algorithm are used to quantify the direct effect of regional NOx emissions on tropospheric NO2 concentrations outside the region. For regions such as North Korea and Beijing province, a substantial part of the tropospheric NO2 originates from emissions elsewhere.

  8. Regional nitrogen oxides emission trends in East Asia observed from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijling, B.; van der A, R. J.; Zhang, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Due to changing economic activity, emissions of air pollutants in East Asia are changing rapidly in space and time. Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides derived from satellite observations provide valuable insight into the evolution of anthropogenic activity on a regional scale. We present the first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emissions of short-lived atmospheric constituents on a mesoscopic scale (~ 0.25° × 0.25°). The algorithm is used to construct a monthly NOx emission time series for the period 2007-2011 from tropospheric NO2 observations of GOME-2 for East Chinese provinces and surrounding countries. The new emission estimates correspond well with the bottom-up inventory of EDGAR v4.2, but are smaller than the inventories of INTEX-B and MEIC. They reveal a strong positive trend during 2007-2011 for almost all Chinese provinces, related to the country's economic development. We find a 41% increment of NOx emissions in East China during this period, which shows the need to update emission inventories in this region on a regular basis. Negative emission trends are found in Japan and South Korea, which can be attributed to a combined effect of local environmental policy and global economic crises. Analysis of seasonal variation distinguishes between regions with dominant anthropogenic or biogenic emissions. For regions with a mixed anthropogenic and biogenic signature, the opposite seasonality can be used for an estimation of the separate emission contributions. Finally, the non-local concentration/emission relationships calculated by the algorithm are used to quantify the direct effect of regional NOx emissions on tropospheric NO2 concentrations outside the region. For regions such as North Korea and the Beijing municipality, a substantial part of the tropospheric NO2 originates from emissions elsewhere.

  9. The importance of vehicle emissions as a source of atmospheric ammonia in the megacity of Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Chang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural activities are a major source contributing to NH3 emissions in Shanghai and most other regions of China; however, there is a long-standing and ongoing controversy regarding the contributions of vehicle-emitted NH3 to the urban atmosphere. From April 2014 to April 2015, we conducted measurements of a wide range of gases (including NH3 and the chemical properties of PM2.5 at hourly resolution at a Shanghai urban supersite. This large dataset shows NH3 pollution events, lasting several hours with concentrations four times the annual average of 5.3 μg m-3, caused by the burning of crop residues in spring. There are also generally higher NH3 concentrations (mean ± 1σ in summer (7.3 ± 4.9 μg m-3; n = 2181 because of intensive emissions from temperature-dependent agricultural sources. However, the NH3 concentration in summer was only an average of 2.4 μg m-3 or 41 % higher than the average NH3 concentration of other seasons. Furthermore, the NH3 concentration in winter (5.0 ± 3.7 μg m-3; n = 2113 was similar to that in spring (5.1 ± 3.8 μg m-3; n = 2204 but slightly higher, on average, than that in autumn (4.5 ± 2.3 μg m-3; n = 1949. Moreover, other meteorological parameters like planetary boundary layer height and relative humidity were not major factors affecting seasonal NH3 concentrations. These findings suggest that there may be some climate-independent NH3 sources present in the Shanghai urban area. Independent of season, the concentrations of both NH3 and CO present a marked bimodal diurnal profile, with maxima in the morning and the evening. A spatial analysis suggests that elevated concentrations of NH3 are often associated with transport from regions west-northwest and east-southeast of the city, areas with dense road systems. The spatial origin of NH3 and the diurnal concentration profile together suggest the importance of vehicle-derived NH3 associated with daily commuting in the urban environment. To further

  10. Preliminary study of ammonia emissions from naturally ventilated fattening pig houses in the south-east China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, K.; Ye, Z.; Li, H. [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou City (China). School of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on an experimental simulation in which ammonia emissions from naturally ventilated pig houses were monitored and the ventilation airflow rate was estimated. Two identical pig houses and the same number of pigs were used in the study. Natural ventilation was used in the experimental pig house while the reference pig house had mechanical ventilation. Both houses had the same air temperature and relative humidity. The ventilation airflow rate of the experimental pig house was estimated by calculating the ventilation airflow rate in the reference pig house. The ventilation airflow rate of the experimental pig house was also estimated based on heat pressure theory. The room air temperature and relative humidity were found to be related to inlet air temperature and relative humidity for both ventilation systems. After 19 days, the average air temperature in the room with mechanical ventilation was about 4.1 degrees C higher than inlet air temperature, but the relative humidity was lower by 7.1 per cent. In the room with natural ventilation, the average air temperature after 19 days was about 3.9 degrees C higher than inlet air temperature, but the relative humidity was lower by 4.3 per cent.

  11. Protocol voor meting van ammoniakemissie uit huisvestingssystemen in de veehouderij 2010 = Measurement protocol for ammonia emission from housing systems in livestock production 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Ogink, N.W.M.; Mosquera Losada, J.; Hol, J.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Dit rapport beschrijft een nieuw uitgewerkt meetprotocol voor ammoniakemissies uit huisvestingssystemen in de veehouderij. De belangrijkste wijziging ten opzichte van eerdere benaderingen betreft de voorwaarde op meerdere bedrijfslocaties te meten. Het protocol wordt toegelicht voor meerdere diercategorieën.A new measurement protocol for the determination of ammonia emissions of animal housing systems is elaborated. The main deviation from previous approaches is the requirement of multi-farms...

  12. A quality enhancement green strategy for broiler meat by application of turmeric (Curcuma longa powder as litter amendment to affect microbes, ammonia emission, pH and moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.G.S.C. Katukurunda

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In multi-cultural Sri Lankan conditions, poultry meat is paramount importance in ensuring food security and improving nutrition. Issues as contact dermatitis and ammonia emission in broiler industry which caused by diminished litter parameters cause reduction of meat quality, profits and environmental conditions. Therefore use of Turmeric (Curcuma longa (TM powder as an antiseptic litter amendment at several application levels to enhance litter parameters with microbial demolition was attempted. Three months old broiler litter (2 kg sample was taken and initial pH and moisture was determined. Turmeric was used to mix at levels of 0%, 1%, 3%, 5% and 8% (w/w. After mixing, 150 g of mixed litter was placed in container for each level of the 4 replicates, incubated for 5h and analyzed for Total Plate Count (TPC, Yeast and Mold Count (YMC, total Nematode Count (NC, ammonia emission, pH and moisture. Significant reduction (p <0.05 of total bacteria was seen (20%, 46%, 95% and 96% when 1%, 3%, 5% and 8% applications of TM. The YMC reduction was also significant (p <0.05 (34%, 41%, 55% and 65%. Total nematode reduction (p <0.05 was 22%, 45%, 62.5% and 70%. A significant (p <0.05 pH reduction with increment of TM also seen (0.1, 2, 3 and 3%. Moisture (% was increased (p <0.05 (6, 0.78, 19 and 1%. Ammonia emission was significantly decreased (p <0.05 by increased TM (64, 68, 73 and 84% against control. It was concluded that the bacterial, fungal, nematode counts, pH and Ammonia emission of broiler litter can be significantly reduced with the application of 8% (w/w of turmeric powder.

  13. Effects of a high-fibre diet on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from gestating sows and fattening pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, François-Xavier; Laitat, Martine; Wavreille, José; Nicks, Baudouin; Cabaraux, Jean-François

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to measure under barn conditions the emissions of NH3, N2O, CH4 and CO2 associated with gestating sows (trial 1) and fattening pigs (trial 2) fed either a control diet (CTD) based on cereals or a high-fibre diet (HFD) based on sugar beet pulp (SBP). Three successive batches of 10 Belgian Landrace gestating sows were used for trial 1. Two successive batches of 24 Piétrain × Belgian Landrace fattening pigs were used for trial 2. Animals were kept on slatted floor. The gas emissions were measured by infrared photoacoustic detection and expressed per day and per livestock unit, equals to 500 kg body weight. Similar trends were observed for both animal types. With HFD, the NH3 emissions were reduced (27.2 vs. 36.5 g for the gestating sows, P 0.05), and on CO2 emissions (around 6.0 kg for gestating sows and 9.1 kg for fattening pigs, P > 0.05). Most of manure parameters did not statistically differ regarding the treatment. Reproductive performance and body condition of the sows were not affected by the diet. However, growth performance and carcass traits of the HFD-fed fattening pigs were deteriorated compared to CTD.

  14. Reliable low-cost devices for monitoring ammonia concentrations and emissions in naturally ventilated dairy barns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Ndegwa, Pius M; Joo, HungSoo; Neerackal, George M; Harrison, Joseph H; Stöckle, Claudio O; Liu, Heping

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the use of two relatively cost-effective devices for determining NH3 concentrations in naturally ventilated (NV) dairy barns including an Ogawa passive sampler (Ogawa) and a passive flux sampler (PFS). These samplers were deployed adjacent to sampling ports of a photoacoustic infrared multigas spectroscope (INNOVA), in a NV dairy barn. A 3-day deployment period was deemed suitable for both passive samplers. The correlations between concentrations determined with the passive samplers and the INNOVA were statistically significant (r = 0.93 for Ogawa and 0.88 for PFS). Compared with reference measurements, Ogawa overestimated NH3 concentrations in the barn by ∼ 14%, while PFS underestimated NH3 concentrations by ∼ 41%. Barn NH3 emission factors per animal unit (20.6-21.2 g d(-1) AU(-1)) based on the two passive samplers, after calibration, were similar to those obtained with the reference method and were within the range of values reported in literature.

  15. International comparison of CO2 emission trends in the iron and steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present an in-depth decomposition analysis of trends in CO2 emissions in the iron and steel industry using physical indicators. Physical indicators allow a detailed analysis of intra- sectoral trends, in contrast to the mostly used monetary indicators. Detailed decomposition analysis makes it possible to link developments in energy intensity to technology change and (indirectly) to policy. We present an analysis for the iron and steel industry in seven countries, i.e. Brazil, China, India (developing countries), Mexico and South Korea (newly industrialized countries) and the United States (industrialized country). We found substantial differences in energy efficiency among these countries. In most countries the increased (or decreased) production was the main contributor to changes in CO2 emissions, while energy-efficiency was the main factor reducing emission intensities of steel production in almost all countries. Changes in power generation contributed to a reduction of specific emissions in the case of South Korea only. (Author)

  16. Mobile measurements of ammonia: Sources and spatial variations in the Wallis region and Zurich (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elser, Miriam; El Haddad, Imad; Bruns, Emily; Pieber, Simone; Wolf, Robert; Krishna Kumar, Nivedita; Prévôt, André; Baltensperger, Urs

    2014-05-01

    Ammonia (NH3) has negative impacts on human health, climate, ecosystems and materials. Moreover, it is also an important precursor for the formation of secondary aerosols in the form of ammonium salts (ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and ammonium chloride). Previous studies have shown that the vast majority of the ammonia emissions come from the agricultural sector (mostly from livestock farming and fertilizing activities). Other sources such as road transport, waste deposit, energy use and supply can also contribute to the ammonia levels in the urban areas. High concentrations of ammonia are commonly measured at the National Air Pollution Monitoring Network (NABEL) stations in Switzerland. Mobile measurements of ammonia and other pollutants (including BC, CO2, NOx and NR-PM) were conducted in the Wallis region and in Zurich in 2013 to study the spatial distribution of ammonia in Switzerland and identify its major emission sources in these regions. A new heated inlet setup was developed to improve the response time of the ammonia measurements, so that even very local sources could be identified. For both, the Wallis region and Zurich, it was observed that the background values of ammonia have a regional origin, as other pollutants affected by regional changes show similar background trends. These regional background values varied between 5 to 10 ppb during the different days of measurements. Moreover, no big differences were observed in the background values between the city center, the surrounding areas, the highway and the rural areas. The major local source of ammonia observed during these measurements was road transport, producing increases on the NH3 levels up to 4 times the background values. Based on emission factors estimated from tunnel measurements, the traffic was estimated to contribute between 20 -30% of the measured ammonia levels on a daily average in Zurich. Other sources of ammonia that can also contribute significantly to the levels of ammonia

  17. Regional myocardial perfusion assessed by N-13 labeled ammonia and positron emission computerized axial tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of 13NH3 as an indicator of regional myocardial perfusion suitable for positron emission computerized axial tomography (PCT) has been suggested. However, the relationship between myocardial blood flow and uptake of 13NH3 has not been examined quantitatively. It was therefore the purpose of the current investigation to quantitate the relationship of myocardial 13NH3 tissue concentration to myocardial blood flow and to examine its suitability for PCT imaging. Twelve open chest dogs were studied. In 8 of the dogs 25 imaging procedures with 13NH3 and PCT were performed. In the remaining four dogs the relationship between flow and myocardial 13NH3 tissue concentration was assessed by in vitro techniques. The PCT technique provided high quality cross-sectional images of the distribution of 13NH3 in left ventricular myocardium. No significant redistribution of 13NH3 in myocardium occurred with time. Alterations in regional myocardial blood flow resulted in changes of the regional distribution of 13NH3 that were readily appreciated on the PCT images

  18. A study on subarcsecond scales of the ammonia and continuum emission toward the G16.59-0.05 high-mass star-forming region

    CERN Document Server

    Moscadelli, L; Sánchez-Monge, Á; Goddi, C; Furuya, R S; Sanna, A; Pestalozzi, M

    2013-01-01

    We wish to investigate the structure, velocity field, and stellar content of the G16.59-0.05 high-mass star-forming region, where previous studies have established the presence of two almost perpendicular (NE-SW and SE-NW), massive outflows, and a rotating disk traced by methanol maser emission. We performed Very Large Array observations of the radio continuum and ammonia line emission, complemented by COMICS/Subaru and Hi-GAL/Herschel images in the mid- and far-infrared (IR). Our centimeter continuum maps reveal a collimated radio jet that is oriented E-W and centered on the methanol maser disk, placed at the SE border of a compact molecular core. The spectral index of the jet is negative, indicating non-thermal emission over most of the jet, except the peak close to the maser disk, where thermal free-free emission is observed. We find that the ammonia emission presents a bipolar structure consistent (on a smaller scale) in direction and velocity with that of the NE-SW bipolar outflow detected in previous CO...

  19. Trends in aircraft emissions. Simulation of two air traffic scenarios in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, L.G.; Palsson, A. [The Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden). The Swedish Civil Aviation Administration

    1997-12-31

    The developing trends of emissions from aviation in Sweden have been studied by means of flight and emissions simulation. The objective was to investigate whether technical improvements will allow Swedish air traffic to increase, without exceeding national regulations for pollution in the future. It was found that, due to development of aircraft engines and, to some extent, improvement of aerodynamic designs, the fuel consumption and thus the emissions of carbon dioxide will decrease in the future. The decrease of nitrous oxides is predicted to be significant due to advances in engine technology. (author) 4 refs.

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions in Europe: a retrospective trend analysis for the period 1990-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgan, A.; Gugele, B.; Haider, S. (Umweltbundesamt, Vienna (Austria)) (and others)

    2011-10-15

    This report presents a retrospective overview of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends in Europe from 1990 to 2008, with a particular focus on the underpinning drivers and the influence of EU policies. The analysis is based on the combination of decomposition analyses to identify the respective influence of each identified driver and an overview of the main EU policies and their likely effects on these drivers. The period covered by the analysis stops in 2008. As a result, the analysis avoids the effects of the recent economic crisis on GHG emissions. This reinforces the conclusion on long-term emission drivers. The report covers the EU-27 and presents results for the other EEA member countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey) and Croatia (EU candidate country together with Turkey) as far as data is available. The results can be summarized as: 1) Overall GHG emission trends. EU GHG emissions were reduced between 1990 and 2008. Most of the reductions took place in the 1990s, but emissions have also been decreasing every year from 2003 until the last year considered in this report, 2008. 2) Predominant drivers. For the most part, the GHG emission trends observed in the EU between 1990 and 2008 resulted from economic factors. However, EU policies, some of which were not directly targeting GHG emissions, as well as national policies by some front runner countries, also played a role in these trends. 3) Impacts of EU policies. Between 2000 and 2008, emission trends were more directly targeted by a range of energy and climate policies, e.g. the implementation of the European Climate Change programme. However, the steady increase in energy demand during this period - particularly electricity - outweighed the considerable EU-wide savings generated by energy efficiency improvements and the development of renewable energy. 4) Co-benefits. Taking example from the positive benefits on GHG emissions that resulted from the implementation of non

  1. Quantitation of the regional blood flow in the interventricular septum using positron emission tomography and nitrogen-13 ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hove, Jens D. [The Department of Cardiology, The Heart Center, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Cardiovascular PET Research Unit, Section 9201, Medical Department B, The Heart Center, Rigshospitalet, Juliane Mariesvej 24, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Gambhir, Sanjiv S. [Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Kofoed, Klaus F.; Freiberg, Jacob; Kelbaek, Henning [The Department of Cardiology, The Heart Center, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of spillover of activity from the right ventricle (RV) on quantitation of the regional myocardial blood flow in the septum. Thirty-one healthy volunteers, 31 patients with ischemic heart disease, 7 patients with severe congestive heart failure, and 6 heart transplant patients underwent positron emission tomography (PET) with nitrogen-13 ammonia. Quantitation of the regional myocardial blood flow in the septum was performed using both a conventional two-compartment model and a previously validated two-compartment model taking RV spillover into account. Unaccounted RV spillover resulted in significant underestimation of the regional myocardial blood flow in the septum. The amount of underestimation was primarily dependent on the magnitude of spillover and the dispersion between the right and the left ventricular input functions. In healthy volunteers, the flow error was small but significant: on average 6% (range 5%-29%, P<0.00001), compared with 27% (range 0%-88%, P<0.002) in the group of patients with severe congestive heart failure, who had the most considerable amount of RV spillover. In the group of patients with ischemic heart disease and the group of heart transplant patients the flow errors were 10% (range 0%-55%, P<0.00001) and 6% (range 1%-19%, P<0.01), respectively. It is concluded that flow quantitation in the septum is significantly affected by RV spillover, resulting in a considerable underestimation of the septal blood flow unless correction is performed. (orig.)

  2. Trend of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels and cement production in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nganga, J.K. [University of Nairobi, Nairobi (Kenya). Dept. Meteorology

    2000-07-01

    The data on annual consumption of fossil fuels and cement production in Kenya was used to carry out an inventory of carbon dioxide emissions from 1966 to 1993 using emission guidelines proposed by the Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development. The results show an increasing trend of emissions from the two sources in association with increasing fossil fuel consumption and cement production in the country. Transport sector takes the largest share of fossil fuel consumption making the increasing vehicle population in the country a significant influencing factor in the observed trend. The demand for motor fuel in turn seems to be influenced by the economic performance and is indicated by periods of decline in the consumption of fossil fuels and resultant emissions. If the trend continues there will be an increase of about 46% by the next 20 years. However, Kenya's contribution of carbon dioxide emissions into the global atmosphere through these two sources is small and is consistent with treads observed in other developing parts of the world.

  3. Forecasting of CO2 emissions from fuel combustion using trend analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accelerating use of fossil fuels since the Industrial Revolution and the rapid destruction of forests causes a significant increase in greenhouse gases. The increasing threat of global warming and climate change has been the major, worldwide, ongoing concern especially in the last two decades. The impacts of global warming on the world economy have been assessed intensively by researchers since the 1990s. Worldwide organizations have been attempting to reduce the adverse impacts of global warming through intergovernmental and binding agreements. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the most foremost greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The energy sector is dominated by the direct combustion of fuels, a process leading to large emissions of CO2. CO2 from energy represents about 60% of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions of global emissions. This percentage varies greatly by country, due to diverse national energy structures. The top-25 emitting countries accounted 82.27% of the world CO2 emissions in 2007. In the same year China was the largest emitter and generated 20.96% of the world total. Trend analysis is based on the idea that what has happened in the past gives traders an idea of what will happen in the future. In this study, trend analysis approach has been employed for modelling to forecast of energy-related CO2 emissions. To this aim first, trends in CO2 emissions for the top-25 countries and the world total CO2 emissions during 1971-2007 are identified. On developing the regression analyses, the regression analyses with R2 values less than 0.94 showing insignificant influence in statistical tests have been discarded. Statistically significant trends are indicated in eleven countries namely, India, South Korea, Islamic Republic of Iran, Mexico, Australia, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, Brazil, South Africa, Taiwan, Turkey and the world total. The results obtained from the analyses showed that the models for those countries can be used for CO2 emission

  4. One decade of space-based isoprene emission estimates: Interannual variations and emission trends between 2005 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauwens, Maite; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Müller, Jean-François; De Smedt, Isabelle; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Isoprene is one of the most largely emitted hydrocarbons in the atmosphere, with global annual emissions estimated at about 500 Tg, but with large uncertainties (Arneth et al., 2011). Here we use the source inversion approach to derive top-down biogenic isoprene emission estimates for the period between 2005 and 2014 constrained by formaldehyde observations, a high-yield intermediate in the oxidation of isoprene in the atmosphere. Formaldehyde columns retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) are used to constrain the IMAGESv2 global chemistry-transport model and its adjoint code (Stavrakou et al., 2009). The MEGAN-MOHYCAN isoprene emissions (Stavrakou et al., 2014) are used as bottom-up inventory in the model. The inversions are performed separately for each year of the study period, and monthly emissions are derived for every model grid cell. The inversion results are compared to independent isoprene emissions from GUESS-ES (Arneth et al., 2007) and MEGAN-MACC (Sinderalova et al., 2014) and to top-down fluxes based on GOME-2 formaldehyde columns (Bauwens et al., 2014; Stavrakou et al., 2015). The mean global annual OMI-based isoprene flux for the period 2005-2014 is estimated to be 270 Tg, with small interannual variation. This estimate is by 20% lower with regard to the a priori inventory on average, but on the regional scale strong emission updates are inferred. The OMI-based emissions are substantially lower than the MEGAN-MACC and the GUESS-ES inventory, but agree well with the isoprene fluxes constrained by GOME-2 formaldehyde columns. Strong emission reductions are derived over tropical regions. The seasonal pattern of isoprene emissions is generally well preserved after inversion and relatively consistent with other inventories, lending confidence to the MEGAN parameterization of the a priori inventory. In boreal regions the isoprene emission trend is positive and reinforced after inversion, whereas the inversion suggests negative trends in the

  5. Trends of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC emissions in Beijing during 2002–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs play a critical role in the photochemical production of ozone (O3 and organic aerosols. Obtaining an accurate understanding on NMHC emission trends is essential for predicting air quality changes and evaluating the effectiveness of current control measures. In this study, we evaluated temporal trends in NMHC emissions in Beijing based on ambient measurements during the summer at an urban site in Beijing from 2002 to 2013. In contrast to the results of the most recent inventory (Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China, MEIC, which reported that total NMHC emissions increased at a rate of ~4% yr−1, mixing ratios of NMHCs measured at this urban site displayed an obvious decrease (~30% during the last decade. A Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF model was applied to the NMHC measurements for source apportionment, and the results showed a decrease in the concentrations contributed by transportation-related sources to total NMHC emissions by 66% during 2004–2012, which was comparable to the relative decline of 65% reported by the MEIC inventory. This finding indicates that the implementation of stricter emissions standards and control measures has been effective for reducing transportation-related NMHC emissions. In addition, the PMF results suggested that there were no significant temporal changes in NMHC concentrations from paint and solvent use during 2004–2012, in contrast with the rapid rate of increase (27.5% yr−1 reported by the MEIC inventory. To re-evaluate the NMHC emissions trends for paint and solvent use, annual variations in NMHC / NOx ratios were compared between ambient measurements and the MEIC inventory. In contrast to the significant rise in NMHC / NOx ratios from the inventory, the measured ratios declined by 14% during 2005–2012. However, the inferred NMHC / NOx ratios based on PMF results exhibited a comparable decline of 11% to measurements. These results indicate that the increase

  6. Trends in selected ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations and a comparison to mobile source emission trends in California's South Coast Air Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yanbo; Fuentes, Mark; Rieger, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Trends in ambient concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) are compared to trends in VOC emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles (LDGV) tested on chassis dynamometers and to trends observed in tunnel studies during the same period to understand the impacts of gasoline vehicle emissions on ambient VOC concentrations from 1999 to 2009. Annual median concentrations for most ambient VOCs decreased 40% from 1999 to 2009 in the SoCAB, based on data from the Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). Annual concentration decreases of most compounds, except 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, are highly correlated with the decrease of acetylene, a marker for tailpipe emissions from LDGV. This indicates that ambient VOC concentration decreases were likely due to tailpipe emission reductions from gasoline vehicles. Air Toxics Monitoring Network data also support this conclusion. Benzene concentration-normalized ratios for most compounds except ethane, propane, isoprene, and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane were stable even as these compound concentrations decreased significantly from 1999 to 2009. Such stability suggests that the main sources of ambient VOC were still the same from 1999 to 2009. The comparison of trends in dynamometer testing and tunnel studies also shows that tailpipe emissions remained the dominant source of tunnel LDGV emissions. The pronounced changes in 2,2,4-trimethylpentane ratios due to the introduction of Phase 3 gasoline also confirm the substantial impact of LDGV emissions on ambient VOCs. Diurnal ambient VOC data also suggest that LDGV tailpipe emissions remained the dominant source of ambient VOCs in the SoCAB in 2009. Our conclusion, which is that current inventory models underestimate VOC emissions from mobile sources, is consistent with that of several recent studies of ambient trends in the SoCAB. Our study showed that tailpipe emissions remained a bigger contributor to ambient VOCs than evaporative

  7. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO2 emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO2 emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO2 emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO2 in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of Flue-Gas Desulfurization (FGD devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO2 emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO2 concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO2 and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO2 concentration in Japan is found during 2000–2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO2 is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO2 from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO2 emission downwind. The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS are found to be highly correlated with the Surface Solar Radiation (SSR measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO2 emission in

  8. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO2 emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO2 emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO2 emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO2 in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO2 emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO2 concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO2 and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO2 concentration in Japan is found during 2000–2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO2 is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO2 from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO2 emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO2 emission in

  9. Trends in emissions of acidifying species in Asia, 1985-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid deposition is a serious problem throughout much of Asia. Emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) have been increasing steadily, as nations strive to increase their levels of economic development. Coal and fuel oil have been the main choices for powering industrial development; and, until recently, only a few countries (notably Japan and Taiwan) had taken significant steps to avert the atmospheric emissions that accompany fuel combustion. This paper discusses trends in emissions of SO2 and NOx that have occurred in Asian countries in the period 1985--1997, using results from the RAINS-ASIA computer model and energy-use trends from the IEA Energy Statistics and Balances database. Emissions of SO2 in Asia grew from 26.6 Tg in 1985 to 33.7 Tg in 1990 and to 39.2 Tg in 1997. Though SO2 emissions used to grow as fast as fossil-fuel use, recent limitations on the sulfur content of coal and oil have slowed the growth. The annual-average emissions growth between 1990 and 1997 was only 1.1%, considerably less than the economic growth rate. Emissions of NOx, on the other hand, continue to grow rapidly, from 14.1 Tg in 1985 to 18.7 Tg in 1990 and 28.5 Tg in 1997, with no signs of abating. Thus, though SO2 remains the major contributor to acidifying emissions in Asia, the role of NOx, will become more and more important in the future

  10. Building Trust in Emissions Reporting. Global Trends in Emissions Trading Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruijd, J.; Walrecht, A.; Laseur, J.; Schoolderman, H.; Gledhill, R.

    2007-02-15

    This report highlights the key characteristics of the world's main emission trading schemes, presents a new vision for compliance in emissions trading and calls for global action to develop this. Climate change is now at the top of the political and business agenda. Al Gore's 'An Inconvenient Truth', the Stern Review and the now almost daily press coverage of climate change science and impacts have engaged many of the global leaders in government and in business. Emissions trading is increasingly seen as a central plank in the response to climate change. But market mechanisms like this depend on trust and confidence. Any widespread or systemic failure, as a result of deficient monitoring and reporting, flawed compliance processes or fraud, could undermine confidence in markets and regulation and jeopardise the crucial policy goals that they are designed to address. Key to this trust are the three central criteria of transparency, accountability and integrity. The PricewaterhouseCoopers report looks at how the patchwork of trading schemes that are emerging around the globe stacks up against these criteria. Despite good intentions across the board, the general picture is one of new and immature markets, inconsistent and complex compliance frameworks and risk. PricewaterhouseCoopers make the case for urgent and coordinated action to develop a framework of generally accepted principles and practice that will underpin trust and efficiency in these new markets - in effect, a new Global Emissions Compliance Language.

  11. Influence of different fibre sources in diets for growing pigs on chemical composition of faeces and slurry and ammonia emission from slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Jørgen; Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2007-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate how three different fibre sources, sugar beet pulp, soya bean hulls and pectin residue, in diets for growing pigs influenced the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in faeces, pH-value in faeces and slurry, excretion of nitrogen in urine...... pulp, soya bean hulls and pectin residue in diets for growing pigs may alter the chemical composition of faeces and slurry, whereas, the effect on ammonia emission under dynamic conditions requires further investigations....

  12. Application effects of coated urea and urease and nitrification inhibitors on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from a subtropical cotton field of the Mississippi delta region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization affects both ammonia (NH3) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have implications in air quality and global warming potential. Different cropping systems practice varying N fertilizations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of applications of polymer-coated urea and urea treated with N process inhibitors: NBPT [N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide], urease inhibitor, and DCD [Dicyandiamide], nitrification inhibitor, on NH3 and GHG emissions from a cotton production system in the Mississippi delta region. A two-year field experiment consisting of five treatments including the Check (unfertilized), urea, polymer-coated urea (ESN), urea + NBPT, and urea + DCD was conducted over 2013 and 2014 in a Cancienne loam (Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, hyperthermic Fluvaquentic Epiaquepts). Ammonia and GHG samples were collected using active and passive chamber methods, respectively, and characterized. The results showed that the N loss to the atmosphere following urea-N application was dominated by a significantly higher emission of N2O-N than NH3-N and the most N2O-N and NH3-N emissions were during the first 30–50 days. Among different N treatments compared to regular urea, NBPT was the most effective in reducing NH3-N volatilization (by 58–63%), whereas DCD the most significant in mitigating N2O-N emissions (by 75%). Polymer-coated urea (ESN) and NBPT also significantly reduced N2O-N losses (both by 52%) over urea. The emission factors (EFs) for urea, ESN, urea-NBPT, urea + DCD were 1.9%, 1.0%, 0.2%, 0.8% for NH3-N, and 8.3%, 3.4%, 3.9%, 1.0% for N2O-N, respectively. There were no significant effects of different N treatments on CO2-C and CH4-C fluxes. Overall both of these N stabilizers and polymer-coated urea could be used as a mitigation strategy for reducing N2O emission while urease inhibitor NBPT for reducing NH3 emission in the subtropical cotton production system of the Mississippi delta region. - Highlights

  13. Analysis of Chinese emissions trends of major halocarbons in monitoring the impacts of the Montreal Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Park, S.; Park, M.; Kim, J.; Muhle, J.; Fang, X.; Stohl, A.; Weiss, R. F.; Kim, K.

    2013-12-01

    In this study we estimate the emission rates of anthropogenic halocarbons, which include CFC-11, CFC-12, HCFC-22, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HFC-23, HFC-134a, HFC-32, HFC-125 and HFC-152a for China during the period of 2008 and 2012 using an interspecies correlation method (Kim et al., 2010; Li et al., 2011), which is a unique 'top-down' approach using in situ high-precision measurements at Gosan, a remote station on Jeju Island, Korea. Mixing ratios of ambient halocarbons have been measured every two hours using a cryogenic pre-concentration system coupled with gas chromatograph and mass selective detector (GC-MSD) as part of the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment network. We first separated air-mass segments originating from China using a back-trajectory analysis to identify Chinese emission from the observations, and found that the mixing ratios of most of compounds presented significant correlations against those of HCFC-22. Based on the correlations, we analyzed emission strengths of individual compounds, which correspond to their slopes against HCFC-22 since the slope can be a useful proxy to demonstrate their emission trends with an assumption of relatively constant emission of HCFC-22 during the analysis period. The analysis showed about 14% increase in the emissions strengths of CFCs (mainly due to CFC-12) between 2008 and 2012 in China. Interestingly, HCFC-141b and HCFC-142b that are commonly known to be used for foam blowing agents revealed opposite trends in their emission strengths: ca. 48% increase of HCFC-141b versus ca. 22% decrease of HCFC-142b, suggesting the possibility of other major sources in case of China. The emission strengths of HFCs have been increasing due to significant emissions of HFC-32, HFC-125 and HFC-134a during the analysis period. However, HFC-23 which is a well-known byproduct of HCFC-22 production processes, showed decrease by about 22% in the emission strength. Reduction in HFC-23 emissions is most likely due to the

  14. Trends and Projected Estimates of GHG Emissions from Indian Livestock in Comparisons with GHG Emissions from World and Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Amlan Kumar

    2014-04-01

    This study presents trends and projected estimates of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock of India vis-à-vis world and developing countries over the period 1961 to 2010 estimated based on IPCC guidelines. World enteric methane emission (EME) increased by 54.3% (61.5 to 94.9 ×10(9) kg annually) from the year 1961 to 2010, and the highest annual growth rate (AGR) was noted for goat (2.0%), followed by buffalo (1.57%) and swine (1.53%). Global EME is projected to increase to 120×10(9) kg by 2050. The percentage increase in EME by Indian livestock was greater than world livestock (70.6% vs 54.3%) between the years 1961 to 2010, and AGR was highest for goat (1.91%), followed by buffalo (1.55%), swine (1.28%), sheep (1.25%) and cattle (0.70%). In India, total EME was projected to grow by 18.8×10(9) kg in 2050. Global methane emission from manure (MEM) increased from 6.81 ×10(9) kg in 1961 to 11.4×10(9) kg in 2010 (an increase of 67.6%), and is projected to grow to 15×10(9) kg by 2050. In India, the annual MEM increased from 0.52×10(9) kg to 1.1×10(9) kg (with an AGR of 1.57%) in this period, which could increase to 1.54×10(9) kg in 2050. Nitrous oxide emission from manure in India could be 21.4×10(6) kg in 2050 from 15.3×10(6) kg in 2010. The AGR of global GHG emissions changed a small extent (only 0.11%) from developed countries, but increased drastically (1.23%) for developing countries between the periods of 1961 to 2010. Major contributions to world GHG came from cattle (79.3%), swine (9.57%) and sheep (7.40%), and for developing countries from cattle (68.3%), buffalo (13.7%) and goat (5.4%). The increase of GHG emissions by Indian livestock was less (74% vs 82% over the period of 1961 to 2010) than the developing countries. With this trend, world GHG emissions could reach 3,520×10(9) kg CO2-eq by 2050 due to animal population growth driven by increased demands for meat and dairy products in the world.

  15. Trends and inter-annual variability of methane emissions derived from 1979-1993 global CTM simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dentener

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The trend and interannual variability of methane sources are derived from multi-annual simulations of tropospheric photochemistry using a 3-D global chemistry-transport model. Our semi-inverse analysis uses the fifteen years (1979--1993 re-analysis of ECMWF meteorological data and annually varying emissions including photo-chemistry, in conjunction with observed CH4 concentration distributions and trends derived from the NOAA-CMDL surface stations. Dividing the world in four zonal regions (45--90 N, 0--45 N, 0--45 S, 45--90 S we find good agreement in each region between (top-down calculated emission trends from model simulations and (bottom-up estimated anthropogenic emission trends based on the EDGAR global anthropogenic emission database, which amounts for the period 1979--1993 2.7 Tg CH4 yr-1. Also the top-down determined total global methane emission compares well with the total of the bottom-up estimates. We use the difference between the bottom-up and top-down determined emission trends to calculate residual emissions. These residual emissions represent the inter-annual variability of the methane emissions. Simulations have been performed in which the year-to-year meteorology, the emissions of ozone precursor gases, and the stratospheric ozone column distribution are either varied, or kept constant. In studies of methane trends it is most important to include the trends and variability of the oxidant fields. The analyses reveals that the variability of the emissions is of the order of 8Tg CH4 yr-1, and likely related to wetland emissions and/or biomass burning.

  16. Dependence of Simulated Tropospheric Ozone Trends on Uncertainties in U.S. Mobile Fleet Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, S. A.; Ryerson, T. B.; Emmons, L. K.; Tilmes, S.; Hassler, B.; Lamarque, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term surface observations show a rapid increase in background concentrations of ozone since the 1960s. Global chemistry-climate models have difficulties in reproducing this trend, overestimating the mid-century observed concentrations. This suggests that the impacts of ozone on climate and air quality throughout the second half of the 20th century may be misrepresented in current models. We use the MACCity emissions inventory constrained by ambient observations to examine the dependence of simulated long-term ozone trends on U.S. land transportation (mobile fleet) emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOX), carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Two sensitivity simulations are performed using the CAM-Chem chemical transport model, where the U.S. MACCity land transportation sector emissions of either NO or CO and co-emitted VOCs are constrained to the observed NO:CO ratio between 1960-2010. We present results from these sensitivity simulations to quantify the dependence of simulated background tropospheric ozone concentrations on these emissions.

  17. Transport and Environment Database System (TRENDS): Maritime Air Pollutant Emission Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakaki, Aliki; Coffey, Robert; Lock, Grahm;

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the development of the maritime module within the framework of the Transport and Environment Database System (TRENDS) project. A detailed database has been constructed for the calculation of energy consumption and air pollutant emissions. Based on an in-house database of commer......This paper reports the development of the maritime module within the framework of the Transport and Environment Database System (TRENDS) project. A detailed database has been constructed for the calculation of energy consumption and air pollutant emissions. Based on an in-house database...... changes from findings reported in Methodologies for Estimating air pollutant Emissions from Transport (MEET). The database operates on statistical data provided by Eurostat, which describe vessel and freight movements from and towards EU 15 major ports. Data are at port to Maritime Coastal Area (MCA...... with a view to this purpose, are mentioned. Examples of the results obtained by the database are presented. These include detailed air pollutant emission calculations for bulk carriers entering the port of Helsinki, as an example of the database operation, and aggregate results for different types...

  18. Transport and Environment Database System (TRENDS): Maritime Air Pollutant Emission Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakaki, Aliki; Coffey, R. A.; Lock, G.;

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the development of the maritime module within the framework of the TRENDS project. A detailed database has been constructed, which includes all stages of the energy consumption and air pollutant emission calculations. The technical assumptions and factors incorporated in the...... database are presented, including changes from MEET findings. The database operates on statistical data provided by Eurostat. Data is at port to MCA level, so a bottom-up approach is used. This was the first attempt to use Eurostat maritime statistics for emission modelling, and the problems that have been...... encountered since the statistical data collection was not undertaken with a view to this purpose are mentioned. Examples of the results obtained by the database are presented. These include detailed air pollutant emission results per port and vessel type, to aggregate results for different types of movements...

  19. Decadal trends in fossil fuel energy consumption and related air pollutant emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekar Reddy, M.; Venkataraman, C.; Boucher, O.

    2003-04-01

    The economic liberalization in the early 1990s in India fuelled the industrial production, enabled the decadal annual average rate of 5.9% in the gross domestic product (GDP) during 1990-2000. This resulted in a steady increase of fossil fuels energy consumption throughout the decade. This paper investigates the trends in the GDP growth rate, sectoral fossil fuels consumption and resultant atmospheric air pollutant emissions during the above period. The fossil fuels energy consumption in the 1990 was 6875 PJ, and increased to 10801 PJ in 2000, with a decadal annual average growth rate of 5.7%. Share of the coal and petroleum fuels are 52% and 35%, respectively during 2000. The relative share contribution of power, industrial, transport, and domestic sectors are 40%, 48%, 5% and 7%, respectively. The contribution of various sectors to fossil fuels energy consumption, and the relative distribution of the different fuels within each sector will be discussed. The annual sulfur dioxide (SO_2) and aerosols (particulate matter, black carbon, organic carbon) emissions are estimated using sector and fuel specific average emission factors (mass of pollutant per unit mass of fuel burnt). The estimates take into account the changes in the fuel characteristics and technology during the study period. The estimated SO_2 emissions are 1.7 Tg S yr-1 in 1990 and increased to 2.5 Tg S yr-1 in 2000, with an annual average increase of 5%. Majority of the SO_2 emissions are from coal consumption accounting 62%, predominantly from the power plants. Trends in fuel and sectoral contributions to SO2 emissions over the decade will be presented. In the transportation sector, diesels contribute significantly to BC. Notably, in India, two-stroke engines account for 78% of total vehicle fleet, and contribute significantly to organic carbon emissions. An analysis of available SO_2 and aerosols concentration measurements will be made to explore the possible correlations between trends in the

  20. Trends in Monthly Methane Emissions in Los Angeles Inferred by Mountaintop Remote Sensing Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C.; Sander, S. P.; Pongetti, T. J.; Yung, Y. L.; Newman, S.; Duren, R. M.; Miller, C. E.; Rao, P.; Gurney, K. R.; Oda, T.

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important greenhouse gas and a target of new emissions regulations in the United States. Despite its importance, there are large uncertainties in its emissions. In the megacity of Los Angeles, anthropogenic CH4 is emitted from a variety of sources including wastewater treatment plants, landfills, oil wells, dairy farms and the natural gas infrastructure. To quantify the methane budget in the basin, it is necessary to understand the spatial and temporal variability of the emission patterns. To address this issue, since 2011, continuous daytime mountaintop remote sensing measurements of CH4 and CO2 have been acquired by a JPL-built Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) at the California Laboratory of Atmospheric Remote Sensing (CLARS) on Mount Wilson. At an altitude of 1.67 km a.s.l., the CLARS-FTS samples the dry-air slant column abundances of CH4 and CO2 (XCH4 and XCO2) by targeting 29 reflection points in the L.A. basin, including a reference point at the observatory. Using this unique dataset and tracer-to-tracer correlation analysis, we derive the monthly trends of top-down methane emissions over a period of nearly four years from 2011 to 2015. Consistent strong emission peaks in winter and weaker peaks in summer were observed during this period. We compare our top-down emissions and bottom-up emissions database to understand the drivers of the observed CH4 monthly emission patterns in the basin. Copyright 2015. California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  1. Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2011. Tracking progress towards Kyoto and 2020 targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, J.; Scheffler, M.; Graichen, V. (Umweltbundesamt, Vienna (Austria)) (and others)

    2011-10-15

    At the end of 2010, the EU-15 was on track to achieve its Kyoto target but three EU-15 Member States (Austria, Italy and Luxembourg) were not on track to meet their burden-sharing targets. These countries must therefore seriously consider further action to ensure compliance, in particular revising their plans on using flexible mechanisms. Among the EEA member countries outside the EU, Liechtenstein and Switzerland were not on track to achieve their Kyoto target at the end of 2009. All other European countries are on track to meet their targets, either based on domestic emissions only or with the assistance of Kyoto mechanisms. The economic recession had a significant impact on the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends but a more limited effect on progress towards Kyoto targets. This is because emissions in the sectors covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), which were most affected by the crisis, do not affect Kyoto compliance once ETS caps have been set. With existing national measures, Member States do not project enough emission reductions for the EU to meet its unilateral 20 % reduction commitment in 2020. Additional measures currently planned by Member States will help further reduce emissions but will be insufficient to achieve the important emission cuts needed in the longer term. By 2020 Member States must enhance their efforts to reduce emissions in non-EU ETS sectors, such as the residential, transport or agriculture sectors, where legally binding national targets have been set under the EU's 2009 climate and energy package. (Author)

  2. Fossil Fuel Combustion-Related Emissions Dominate Atmospheric Ammonia Sources during Severe Haze Episodes: Evidence from (15)N-Stable Isotope in Size-Resolved Aerosol Ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Liu, Dongwei; Fang, Yunting; Zhu, Xiaying; Zhang, Qiang; Zheng, Bo; Michalski, Greg; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-08-01

    The reduction of ammonia (NH3) emissions is urgently needed due to its role in aerosol nucleation and growth causing haze formation during its conversion into ammonium (NH4(+)). However, the relative contributions of individual NH3 sources are unclear, and debate remains over whether agricultural emissions dominate atmospheric NH3 in urban areas. Based on the chemical and isotopic measurements of size-resolved aerosols in urban Beijing, China, we find that the natural abundance of (15)N (expressed using δ(15)N values) of NH4(+) in fine particles varies with the development of haze episodes, ranging from -37.1‰ to -21.7‰ during clean/dusty days (relative humidity: ∼ 40%), to -13.1‰ to +5.8‰ during hazy days (relative humidity: 70-90%). After accounting for the isotope exchange between NH3 gas and aerosol NH4(+), the δ(15)N value of the initial NH3 during hazy days is found to be -14.5‰ to -1.6‰, which indicates fossil fuel-based emissions. These emissions contribute 90% of the total NH3 during hazy days in urban Beijing. This work demonstrates the analysis of δ(15)N values of aerosol NH4(+) to be a promising new tool for partitioning atmospheric NH3 sources, providing policy makers with insights into NH3 emissions and secondary aerosols for regulation in urban environments. PMID:27359161

  3. Fossil Fuel Combustion-Related Emissions Dominate Atmospheric Ammonia Sources during Severe Haze Episodes: Evidence from (15)N-Stable Isotope in Size-Resolved Aerosol Ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Liu, Dongwei; Fang, Yunting; Zhu, Xiaying; Zhang, Qiang; Zheng, Bo; Michalski, Greg; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-08-01

    The reduction of ammonia (NH3) emissions is urgently needed due to its role in aerosol nucleation and growth causing haze formation during its conversion into ammonium (NH4(+)). However, the relative contributions of individual NH3 sources are unclear, and debate remains over whether agricultural emissions dominate atmospheric NH3 in urban areas. Based on the chemical and isotopic measurements of size-resolved aerosols in urban Beijing, China, we find that the natural abundance of (15)N (expressed using δ(15)N values) of NH4(+) in fine particles varies with the development of haze episodes, ranging from -37.1‰ to -21.7‰ during clean/dusty days (relative humidity: ∼ 40%), to -13.1‰ to +5.8‰ during hazy days (relative humidity: 70-90%). After accounting for the isotope exchange between NH3 gas and aerosol NH4(+), the δ(15)N value of the initial NH3 during hazy days is found to be -14.5‰ to -1.6‰, which indicates fossil fuel-based emissions. These emissions contribute 90% of the total NH3 during hazy days in urban Beijing. This work demonstrates the analysis of δ(15)N values of aerosol NH4(+) to be a promising new tool for partitioning atmospheric NH3 sources, providing policy makers with insights into NH3 emissions and secondary aerosols for regulation in urban environments.

  4. Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disaggregation of sectoral energy use and greenhouse gas emissions trends reveals striking differences between sectors and regions of the world. Understanding key driving forces in the energy end-use sectors provides insights for development of projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial, buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors, with a more detailed focus on industry and buildings. Activity and economic drivers as well as trends in energy and carbon intensity are evaluated. The authors show that macro-economic indicators, such as GDP, are insufficient for comprehending trends and driving forces at the sectoral level. These indicators need to be supplemented with sector-specific information for a more complete understanding of future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

  5. Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    1999-09-01

    Disaggregation of sectoral energy use and greenhouse gas emissions trends reveals striking differences between sectors and regions of the world. Understanding key driving forces in the energy end-use sectors provides insights for development of projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial, buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors, with a more detailed focus on industry and buildings. Activity and economic drivers as well as trends in energy and carbon intensity are evaluated. The authors show that macro-economic indicators, such as GDP, are insufficient for comprehending trends and driving forces at the sectoral level. These indicators need to be supplemented with sector-specific information for a more complete understanding of future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  6. Global Research Trends Related to C02 Emissions and Their Enlightenment to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hongguang; Liu Weidong; Fan Xiaomei; Tang Zhipeng

    2012-01-01

    Given the growing awareness of the likely catastrophic impacts of climate change and close association of climate change with global emissions of greenhouse gases (of which carbon dioxide is more prominent) , considerable research efforts have been devoted to the analysis of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and its relationship to sustainable development. Now GHG reduction programs have been coming into effect in many developed coun- tries that have more responsibility for historical CO2 emissions, and the studies have become mature. First, the GHG emissions accounting system is more all-inclusive and the methods are more rational with the effort of IPCC from 1995 and all other research- ers related. Second, the responsibility allocation is more rational and fair. Along with the clarity of "carbon transfer" and "carbon leakage", the perspective and methodology for allocating regional COz emissions responsibility is turning from production base to consumption base. Third, the decomposition method has become more mature and more complex. For example, the decomposition formulas are including KAYA expression and input-output expres- sion and the decomposition techniques are developed from index analysis to simple average divisia and then adaptive-weighting divisia. Fourth, projection models have become more integrated and long-term. The top-down model and bottom-up model are both inter-embedded and synergetic. Trends above give some advice for the research on CO2 in China, such as emissions factors database construction, deeper-going research on emissions responsibility and structure analysis, promotion of modeling technology and technology-environment database.

  7. Emissions of ammonia, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide from swine wastewater during and after acidification treatment: effect of pH, mixing and aeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Xiao-Rong; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of swine slurry acidification and acidification-aeration treatments on ammonia (NH(3)), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) emissions during slurry treatment and subsequent undisturbed storage. The study was conducted in an experimental...... setup consisting of nine dynamic flux chambers. Three pH levels (pH = 6.0, pH = 5.8 and pH = 5.5), combined with short-term aeration and venting (with an inert gas) treatments were studied. Acidification reduced average NH(3) emissions from swine slurry stored after acidification treatment compared...... to emissions during storage of non-acidified slurry. The reduction were 50%, 62% and 77% when pH was reduce to 6.0, 5.8 and 5.5, respectively. However, it had no significant effect on average CO(2) and H(2)S emissions during storage of slurry after acidification. Aeration of the slurry for 30 min had no effect...

  8. Emissions of greenhouse gases, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide from pigs fed standard diets and diets supplemented with dried distillers grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabue, Steven; Kerr, Brian

    2014-07-01

    Swine producers are supplementing animal diets with increased levels of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to offset the cost of a standard corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet. However, the environmental impact of these diets on emissions of greenhouse gases, ammonia (NH), and hydrogen sulfide (HS) is largely unknown. Twenty-four pigs (103.6 kg initial body weight) were fed a standard CSBM diet or a CSBM diet containing 35% DDGS for 42 d. Pigs were fed and their manure was collected twice daily over the 42-d trial. Pigs fed diets containing DDGS had reduced manure pH ( < 0.01), increased surface crust coverage ( < 0.01), increased manure dry matter content ( < 0.01), and increased manure C ( < 0.01), N ( < 0.01), and S ( < 0.01) contents. Animals fed DDGS diets also had significantly higher concentrations of total ammoniacal nitrogen ( < 0.01) and sulfide ( < 0.01) in their manure compared with animals fed CSBM diets. Manure emissions of NH ( < 0.01) and HS ( < 0.05) were significantly higher in animals fed the CSBM diet. There was no dietary treatment effect for methane or nitrous oxide emissions from manure. This study demonstrates that diets containing DDGS can significantly affect manure composition and potentially lower emissions of NH and HS.

  9. Energy use and CO2 emissions of consumer goods transport. Trends of Dutch imports in the period 1969-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, Jelco

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The energy use and CO2 emissions related to world-wide transportation of consumer goods have increased sharply during the last years. It is expected that this trend will continue in the future. Because the energy use and CO2 emissions related to

  10. Application effects of coated urea and urease and nitrification inhibitors on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from a subtropical cotton field of the Mississippi delta region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Zhou [College of Resources and Environment, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi (China); School of Plant, Environment & Soil Sciences, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Wang, Jim J., E-mail: jjwang@agcenter.lsu.edu [School of Plant, Environment & Soil Sciences, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Liu, Shuai [College of Resources and Environment, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi (China); School of Plant, Environment & Soil Sciences, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Zhang, Zengqiang, E-mail: zqzhang@nwsuaf.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environment, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi (China); Dodla, Syam K.; Myers, Gerald [School of Plant, Environment & Soil Sciences, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization affects both ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have implications in air quality and global warming potential. Different cropping systems practice varying N fertilizations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of applications of polymer-coated urea and urea treated with N process inhibitors: NBPT [N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide], urease inhibitor, and DCD [Dicyandiamide], nitrification inhibitor, on NH{sub 3} and GHG emissions from a cotton production system in the Mississippi delta region. A two-year field experiment consisting of five treatments including the Check (unfertilized), urea, polymer-coated urea (ESN), urea + NBPT, and urea + DCD was conducted over 2013 and 2014 in a Cancienne loam (Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, hyperthermic Fluvaquentic Epiaquepts). Ammonia and GHG samples were collected using active and passive chamber methods, respectively, and characterized. The results showed that the N loss to the atmosphere following urea-N application was dominated by a significantly higher emission of N{sub 2}O-N than NH{sub 3}-N and the most N{sub 2}O-N and NH{sub 3}-N emissions were during the first 30–50 days. Among different N treatments compared to regular urea, NBPT was the most effective in reducing NH{sub 3}-N volatilization (by 58–63%), whereas DCD the most significant in mitigating N{sub 2}O-N emissions (by 75%). Polymer-coated urea (ESN) and NBPT also significantly reduced N{sub 2}O-N losses (both by 52%) over urea. The emission factors (EFs) for urea, ESN, urea-NBPT, urea + DCD were 1.9%, 1.0%, 0.2%, 0.8% for NH{sub 3}-N, and 8.3%, 3.4%, 3.9%, 1.0% for N{sub 2}O-N, respectively. There were no significant effects of different N treatments on CO{sub 2}-C and CH{sub 4}-C fluxes. Overall both of these N stabilizers and polymer-coated urea could be used as a mitigation strategy for reducing N{sub 2}O emission while urease inhibitor NBPT for reducing NH{sub 3} emission

  11. Transport and Environment Database System (TRENDS): Maritime air pollutant emission modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakaki, Aliki; Coffey, Robert A.; Lock, Graham; Sorenson, Spencer C.

    This paper reports the development of the maritime module within the framework of the Transport and Environment Database System (TRENDS) project. A detailed database has been constructed for the calculation of energy consumption and air pollutant emissions. Based on an in-house database of commercial vessels kept at the Technical University of Denmark, relationships between the fuel consumption and size of different vessels have been developed, taking into account the fleet's age and service speed. The technical assumptions and factors incorporated in the database are presented, including changes from findings reported in Methodologies for Estimating air pollutant Emissions from Transport (MEET). The database operates on statistical data provided by Eurostat, which describe vessel and freight movements from and towards EU 15 major ports. Data are at port to Maritime Coastal Area (MCA) level, so a bottom-up approach is used. A port to MCA distance database has also been constructed for the purpose of the study. This was the first attempt to use Eurostat maritime statistics for emission modelling; and the problems encountered, since the statistical data collection was not undertaken with a view to this purpose, are mentioned. Examples of the results obtained by the database are presented. These include detailed air pollutant emission calculations for bulk carriers entering the port of Helsinki, as an example of the database operation, and aggregate results for different types of movements for France. Overall estimates of SO x and NO x emission caused by shipping traffic between the EU 15 countries are in the area of 1 and 1.5 million tonnes, respectively.

  12. Emission computed tomography of /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose and /sup 13/N-ammonia in stroke and epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.; Engel, J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The ECAT Positron Tomograph was used to scan normal control subjects, stroke patients at various times during recovery, and patients with partial epilepsy during EEG monitoring. /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose (/sup 18/FDG) and /sup 13/N-Ammonia (/sup 13/NH/sub 3/) were used as indicators of abnormalities in local cerebral glucose utilization (LCMR/sub glc/) and relative perfusion, respectively. Hypometabolism, due to deactivation or minimal damage, was demonstrated with the /sup 18/FDG scan in deep structures and broad zones of cerebral cortex which appeared normal on x-ray CT (XCT) and /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate scans. In patients with partial epilepsy, who had unilateral or focal electrical abnormalities, interictal /sup 18/FDG scan patterns clearly showed localized regions of decreased (20 to 50%) LCMR/sub glc/, which correlated anatomically with the eventual EEG localization.

  13. Historical trends in greenhouse gas emissions of the Alberta oil sands (1970–2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been increased scrutiny of the Alberta oil sands due to their high carbon intensity (CI) relative to conventional crude oil. Relying entirely on public and peer-reviewed data sources, we examine historical trends in the CI of oil sands extraction, upgrading, and refining. Monthly data were collected and interpolated from 1970 to 2010 (inclusive) for each oil sands project. Results show a reduction in oil sands CI over time, with industry-average full-fuel cycle (well-to-wheels, WTW) CI declining from 165 gCO2e MJ−1 higher heating value (HHV) of reformulated gasoline (RFG) to 105 (−12, +9) gCO2e MJ−1 HHV RFG. 2010 averages by production pathways are 102 gCO2e MJ−1 for Mining and 111 gCO2e MJ−1 for in situ. The CI of mining-based projects has declined due to upgrader efficiency improvements and a shift away from coke to natural gas as a process fuel. In situ projects have benefitted from substantial reductions in fugitive emissions from bitumen batteries. Both mining and in situ projects have benefitted from improved refining efficiencies. However, despite these improvements, the CI of oil sands production (on a pathway-average basis) ranges from 12 to 24% higher than CI values from conventional oil production. Due to growing output, total emissions from the oil sands continue to increase despite improved efficiency: total upstream emissions were roughly 65 MtCO2e in 2010, or 9% of Canada’s emissions. (letter)

  14. Evaluation of the inverse dispersion modelling method for estimating ammonia multi-source emissions using low-cost long time averaging sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubet, Benjamin; Carozzi, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Tropospheric ammonia (NH3) is a key player in atmospheric chemistry and its deposition is a threat for the environment (ecosystem eutrophication, soil acidification and reduction in species biodiversity). Most of the NH3 global emissions derive from agriculture, mainly from livestock manure (storage and field application) but also from nitrogen-based fertilisers. Inverse dispersion modelling has been widely used to infer emission sources from a homogeneous source of known geometry. When the emission derives from different sources inside of the measured footprint, the emission should be treated as multi-source problem. This work aims at estimating whether multi-source inverse dispersion modelling can be used to infer NH3 emissions from different agronomic treatment, composed of small fields (typically squares of 25 m side) located near to each other, using low-cost NH3 measurements (diffusion samplers). To do that, a numerical experiment was designed with a combination of 3 x 3 square field sources (625 m2), and a set of sensors placed at the centre of each field at several heights as well as at 200 m away from the sources in each cardinal directions. The concentration at each sensor location was simulated with a forward Lagrangian Stochastic (WindTrax) and a Gaussian-like (FIDES) dispersion model. The concentrations were averaged over various integration times (3 hours to 28 days), to mimic the diffusion sampler behaviour with several sampling strategy. The sources were then inferred by inverse modelling using the averaged concentration and the same models in backward mode. The sources patterns were evaluated using a soil-vegetation-atmosphere model (SurfAtm-NH3) that incorporates the response of the NH3 emissions to surface temperature. A combination emission patterns (constant, linear decreasing, exponential decreasing and Gaussian type) and strengths were used to evaluate the uncertainty of the inversion method. Each numerical experiment covered a period of 28

  15. Transboundary air pollution in Europe. Part 1: Emissions, dispersions and trends of acidifying and eutrophying agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, Erik [ed.

    1997-12-31

    This report was prepared for the twenty first session of the Steering body of EMEP (Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long Range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe). It gives an overview of the major aims of Norwegian Meteorological Institute, the basic modelling and meteorological tools, the status of the emission data, the trends in transboundary transport and deposition of sulphur and nitrogen since 1980, and the latest transboundary flows of sulphur and nitrogen, in both the 150 km and the 50 km grid. Complete source receptor matrices are now available in the 50 km grid derived from the multi-layer eulerian model. The new 50 km data constitutes a basis for further assessments of acidifying air pollution in the 50 km grid by subsidiary bodies under the Convention of Long Range Transport of Air Pollution. 63 refs., 42 figs., 18 tabs.

  16. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Satellite Validations of Ammonia, Methanol, Formic Acid, and Carbon Monoxide over the Canadian Oil Sands

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The URLs link to the data archive of the Troposphere Emission Spectrometer (TES) retrievals. These include the transects included in the Canadian Tar Sands study. A...

  17. Evaluation of metrics and baselines for tracking greenhouse gas emissions trends: Recommendations for the California climate action registry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Murtishaw, Scott; Worrell, Ernst

    2003-06-01

    Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) was asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (Energy Commission) related to the Registry in three areas: (1) assessing the availability and usefulness of industry-specific metrics, (2) evaluating various methods for establishing baselines for calculating GHG emissions reductions related to specific actions taken by Registry participants, and (3) establishing methods for calculating electricity CO2 emission factors. The third area of research was completed in 2002 and is documented in Estimating Carbon Dioxide Emissions Factors for the California Electric Power Sector (Marnay et al., 2002). This report documents our findings related to the first areas of research. For the first area of research, the overall objective was to evaluate the metrics, such as emissions per economic unit or emissions per unit of production that can be used to report GHG emissions trends for potential Registry participants. This research began with an effort to identify methodologies, benchmarking programs, inventories, protocols, and registries that u se industry-specific metrics to track trends in energy use or GHG emissions in order to determine what types of metrics have already been developed. The next step in developing industry-specific metrics was to assess the availability of data needed to determine metric development priorities. Berkeley Lab also determined the relative importance of different potential Registry participant categories in order to asses s the availability of sectoral or industry-specific metrics and then identified industry-specific metrics in use around the world. While a plethora of metrics was identified, no one metric that adequately tracks trends in GHG emissions while maintaining confidentiality of data was identified. As a result of this review, Berkeley Lab recommends the development of a GHG intensity index as a new metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends.Such an index could provide an

  18. Multi-annual changes of NOx emissions in megacity regions: nonlinear trend analysis of satellite measurement based estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Burrows

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous impact of air pollutant emissions from megacities on atmospheric composition on regional and global scales is currently an important issue in atmospheric research. However, the quantification of emissions and related effects is frequently a difficult task, especially in the case of developing countries, due to the lack of reliable data and information. This study examines possibilities to retrieve multi-annual NOx emissions changes in megacity regions from satellite measurements of nitrogen dioxide and to quantify them in terms of linear and nonlinear trends. By combining the retrievals of the GOME and SCIAMACHY satellite instrument data with simulations performed by the CHIMERE chemistry transport model, we obtain the time series of NOx emission estimates for the 12 largest urban agglomerations in Europe and the Middle East in the period from 1996 to 2008. We employ then a novel method allowing estimation of a nonlinear trend in a noisy time series of an observed variable. The method is based on the probabilistic approach and the use of artificial neural networks; it does not involve any quantitative a priori assumptions. As a result, statistically significant nonlinearities in the estimated NOx emission trends are detected in 5 megacities (Bagdad, Madrid, Milan, Moscow and Paris. Statistically significant upward linear trends are detected in Istanbul and Tehran, while downward linear trends are revealed in Berlin, London and the Ruhr agglomeration. The presence of nonlinearities in NOx emission changes in Milan, Paris and Madrid is confirmed by comparison of simulated NOx concentrations with independent air quality monitoring data. A good quantitative agreement between the linear trends in the simulated and measured near surface NOx concentrations is found in London.

  19. Multi-annual changes of NOx emissions in megacity regions: nonlinear trend analysis of satellite measurement based estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Burrows

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous impact of air pollutant emissions from megacities on atmospheric composition on regional and global scales is currently an important issue in atmospheric research. However, the quantification of emissions and related effects is frequently a difficult task, especially in the case of developing countries, due to the lack of reliable data and information. This study examines possibilities to retrieve multi-annual NOx emissions changes in megacity regions from satellite measurements of nitrogen dioxide and to quantify them in terms of linear and nonlinear trends. By combining the retrievals of the GOME and SCIAMACHY satellite instrument data with simulations performed by the CHIMERE chemistry transport model, we obtain the time series of NOx emission estimates for the 12 largest urban agglomerations in Europe and the Middle East in the period from 1996 to 2008. We employ then a novel method allowing estimation of a nonlinear trend in a noisy time series of an observed variable. The method is based on the probabilistic approach and the use of artificial neural networks; it does not involve any quantitative a priori assumptions. As a result, statistically significant nonlinearities in the estimated NOx emission trends are detected in 5 megacities (Bagdad, Madrid, Milan, Moscow and Paris. Statistically significant upward linear trends are detected in Istanbul and Tehran, while downward linear trends are revealed in Berlin, London and the Ruhr agglomeration. The presence of nonlinearities in NOx emission changes in Milan, Paris and Madrid is confirmed by comparison of simulated NOx concentrations with independent air quality monitoring data. A good quantitative agreement between the linear trends in the simulated and measured near surface NOx concentrations is found in London.

  20. Effect of C/N ratio, aeration rate and moisture content on ammonia and greenhouse gas emission during the composting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Jiang; Frank Schuchardt; Guoxue Li; Rui Guo; Yuanqiu Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Gaseous emission (N2O,CH4 and NH3) from composting can be an important source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas and air pollution.A laboratory scale orthogonal experiment was conducted to estimate the effects of C/N ratio,aeration rate and initial moisture content on gaseous emission during the composting of pig faeces from Chinese Ganqinfen system.The resnits showed that about 23.9%to 45.6% of total organic carbon (TOC) was lost in the form of CO2 and 0.8% to 7.5% of TOC emitted as CH4.Most of the nitrogen was lost in the form of NH3,which account for 9.6% to 32.4% of initial nitrogen.N2O was also an important way of nitrogen losses and 1.5% to 7.3% of initial total nitrogen was lost as it.Statistic analysis showed that the aeration rate is the most important factor which could affect the NH3 (p =0.0189),CH4 (p =0.0113) and N2O (p =0.0493) emissions significantly.Higher aeration rates reduce the CH4 emission but increase the NH3 and N2O losses.C/N ratio could affect the NH3 (p =0.0442) and CH4 (p =0.0246) emissions significantly,but not the N2O.Lower C/N ratio caused higher NH3 and CH4 emissions.The initial moisture content can not influence the gaseous emission significantly.Most treatments were matured after 37 days,except a trial with high moisture content and a low C/N ratio.

  1. Potential of aeration flow rate and bio-char addition to reduce greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions during manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-02-01

    Aeration is an important factor influencing CO2, CH4, N2O and NH3 emissions from the composting process. Both CH4 and N2O are potent greenhouse gases (GHG) of high importance. Here, we examined the effects of high and low aeration rates together with addition of barley straw with and without bio-char on GHG and NH3 emissions from composting cattle slurry and hen manure in small-scale laboratory composters. Depending on treatment, cumulative C losses via CO2 and CH4 emissions accounted for 11.4-22.5% and 0.004-0.2% of initial total carbon, while N losses as N2O and NH3 emissions comprised 0.05-0.1% and 0.8-26.5% of initial total nitrogen, respectively. Decreasing the flow rate reduced cumulative NH3 losses non-significantly (by 88%) but significantly increased CH4 losses (by 51%) from composting of cattle slurry with barley straw. Among the hen manure treatments evaluated, bio-char addition to composting hen manure and barley straw at low flow rates proved most effective in reducing cumulative NH3 and CH4 losses. Addition of bio-char in combination with barley straw to hen manure at both high and low flow rates reduced total GHG emissions (as CO2-equivalents) by 27-32% compared with barley straw addition alone. Comparisons of flow rates showed that low flow could be an alternative strategy for reducing NH3 losses without any significant change in N2O emissions, pointing to the need for well-controlled composting conditions if gaseous emissions are to be minimised.

  2. Spatial variations, temporal trends, and emission sources of air pollutants in seven cities of northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, WEI; TAO, SHU; WANG, CHEN

    2014-05-01

    Particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the derivatives of PAHs (nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs) were measured each month between April, 2010 and March, 2011 in seven large cities (18 sites) in the ambient air of northern China. Similarities in the concentrations of PM, PAHs and oxy-PAHs between rural village and urban area are found, indicating the severe air pollution in the rural villages and strong contribution of solid fuels combustion. Higher nitro-PAHs concentrations in the cities than those in the rural area suggests the influence of motor vehicles, both on primary emission and secondary formation. Without local emission sources, pollutants levels in the rural field area are the lowest. Air pollution in the less developed west China is as severe as that in the east with more population and urbanization, both heavier than that in the coastal area. Such spatial patterns are caused by differences in the sources of contaminants and the removal process. A strong seasonality of all pollutants with higher concentrations in winter and lower in summer is observed due to large heating demand for solid fuel combustion in winter and rich precipitation in summer. Natural sources such as sandstorms also take effects on the spatial distribution and temporal trend of PM.

  3. Process model for ammonia volatilization from anaerobic swine lagoons incorporating varying wind speeds and biogas bubbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia volatilization from treatment lagoons varies widely with the total ammonia concentration, pH, temperature, suspended solids, atmospheric ammonia concentration above the water surface, and wind speed. Ammonia emissions were estimated with a process-based mechanistic model integrating ammonia ...

  4. The contribution of anthropogenic bromine emissions to past stratospheric ozone trends: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.-M. Sinnhuber

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bromine compounds play an important role in the depletion of stratospheric ozone. We have calculated the changes in stratospheric ozone in response to changes in the halogen loading over the past decades, using a two-dimensional (latitude/height model constrained by source gas mixing ratios at the surface. Model calculations of the decrease of total column ozone since 1980 agree reasonably well with observed ozone trends, in particular when the contribution from very short-lived bromine compounds is included. Model calculations with bromine source gas mixing ratios fixed at 1959 levels, corresponding approximately to a situation with no anthropogenic bromine emissions, show an ozone column reduction between 1980 and 2005 at Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes of only ≈55% compared to a model run including all halogen source gases. In this sense anthropogenic bromine emissions are responsible for ≈45% of the model estimated column ozone loss at Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes. However, since a large fraction of the bromine induced ozone loss is due to the combined BrO/ClO catalytic cycle, the effect of bromine would have been smaller in the absence of anthropogenic chlorine emissions. The chemical efficiency of bromine relative to chlorine for global total ozone depletion from our model calculations, expressed by the so called α-factor, is 64 on an annual average. This value is much higher than previously published results. Updates in reaction rate constants can explain only part of the differences in α. The inclusion of bromine from very short-lived source gases has only a minor effect on the global mean α-factor.

  5. International Assistance for Low-Emission Development Planning: Coordinated Low Emissions Assistance Network (CLEAN) Inventory of Activities and Tools--Preliminary Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, S.; Benioff, R.

    2011-05-01

    The Coordinated Low Emissions Assistance Network (CLEAN) is a voluntary network of international practitioners supporting low-emission planning in developing countries. The network seeks to improve quality of support through sharing project information, tools, best practices and lessons, and by fostering harmonized assistance. CLEAN has developed an inventory to track and analyze international technical support and tools for low-carbon planning activities in developing countries. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the inventory to help identify trends in assistance activities and tools available to support developing countries with low-emission planning.

  6. Potential of aeration flow rate and bio-char addition to reduce greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions during manure composting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-01-01

    Aeration is an important factor influencing CO2, CH4, N2O and NH3 emissions from the composting process. Both CH4 and N2O are potent greenhouse gases (GHG) of high importance. Here, we examined the effects of high and low aeration rates together with addition of barley straw with and without bio...

  7. Ammonia for hydrogen storage: challenges and opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klerke, Asbjørn; Christensen, Claus H.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet;

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of using ammonia as a hydrogen carrier is discussed. Compared to other hydrogen storage materials, ammonia has the advantages of a high hydrogen density, a well-developed technology for synthesis and distribution, and easy catalytic decomposition. Compared to hydrocarbons...... and alcohols, it has the advantage that there is no CO2 emission at the end user. The drawbacks are mainly the toxicity of liquid ammonia and the problems related to trace amounts of ammonia in the hydrogen after decomposition. Storage of ammonia in metal ammine salts is discussed, and it is shown...... that this maintains the high volumetric hydrogen density while alleviating the problems of handling the ammonia. Some of the remaining challenges for research in ammonia as a hydrogen carrier are outlined....

  8. Airborne pollutant characteristics in an urban, industrial and agricultural complex metroplex with high emission loading and ammonia concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chang, Li-Peng; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2014-10-01

    The size distribution of particulate mass and water-soluble ionic constituents and their gaseous precursors was investigated in a subtropical area, southern Taiwan. Field sampling and chemical analysis of particulate matter (PM) were conducted using a Micro Orifice Uniform Deposition Impactor (MOUDI) and a Nano-MOUDI, and gaseous pollutants were determined by a denuder-filter pack system. PM size mass distribution, mass concentration and ionic species concentration were measured during the day and at night in the winter and summer. Average PM concentrations in the winter were as high as 132 ± 42 μg/m(3), and PM mass concentrations in the summer were as low as 38 ± 19 μg/m(3). Generally, PM concentration was 111 ± 60 μg/m(3) at night, which was 20% higher than that in the daytime. The size-segregated mass distribution of PM mass concentration was over 85% in the 0.1-3.2 μm range. Ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate were the dominant water-soluble ionic species in PM, contributing 34%-48% of PM mass. High ammonia (12.9-49 μg/m(3)) and SO2 (2.6-27 μg/m(3)) were observed in the gas precursors. The molar ratio [Formula: see text] was 3.18 ± 1.20 at PM1.0, which indicated that the PM was rich in ammonium. Therefore, the excess ammonium could neutralize nitrate to form ammonium nitrate, after the more stable ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate formation. PMID:25037046

  9. Evaluating the effects of China's pollution control on inter-annual trends and uncertainties of atmospheric mercury emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhong, H.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2014-10-01

    China's atmospheric mercury (Hg) emissions of anthropogenic origin have been effectively restrained through the national policy of air pollution control. Improved methods based on available field measurements are developed to quantify the benefits of Hg abatement through various emission control measures. Those measures include increased use of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems for power sector, precalciners with fabric filter (FF) for cement production, machinery coking with electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for iron and steel production, and advanced manufacturing technologies for nonferrous metal smelting. Declining trends in emissions factors for those sources are revealed, leading to a much slower growth of national total Hg emissions than that of energy and economy, from 679 in 2005 to 750 metric tons (t) in 2012. In particular, nearly half of emissions from the above-mentioned four types of sources are expected to be reduced in 2012, attributed to expansion of technologies with high energy efficiencies and air pollutant removal rates after 2005. The speciation of Hg emissions keeps stable for recent years, with the mass fractions of around 55, 39 and 6% for Hg0, Hg2+ and Hgp, respectively. The lower estimate of Hg emissions than previous inventories is supported by limited chemistry simulation work, but middle-to-long term observation on ambient Hg levels is further needed to justify the inter-annual trends of estimated Hg emissions. With improved implementation of emission controls and energy saving, 23% reduction in annual Hg emissions for the most optimistic case in 2030 is expected compared to 2012, with total emissions below 600 t. While Hg emissions are evaluated to be gradually constrained, increased uncertainties are quantified with Monte-Carlo simulation for recent years, particularly for power and certain industrial sources. The uncertainty of Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants, as an example

  10. Evaluating the effects of China's pollution control on inter-annual trends and uncertainties of atmospheric mercury emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available China's atmospheric mercury (Hg emissions of anthropogenic origin have been effectively restrained through the national policy of air pollution control. Improved methods based on available field measurements are developed to quantify the benefits of Hg abatement through various emission control measures. Those measures include increased use of flue gas desulfurization (FGD and selective catalyst reduction (SCR systems for power sector, precalciners with fabric filter (FF for cement production, machinery coking with electrostatic precipitator (ESP for iron and steel production, and advanced manufacturing technologies for nonferrous metal smelting. Declining trends in emissions factors for those sources are revealed, leading to a much slower growth of national total Hg emissions than that of energy and economy, from 679 in 2005 to 750 metric tons (t in 2012. In particular, nearly half of emissions from the above-mentioned four types of sources are expected to be reduced in 2012, attributed to expansion of technologies with high energy efficiencies and air pollutant removal rates after 2005. The speciation of Hg emissions keeps stable for recent years, with the mass fractions of around 55, 39 and 6% for Hg0, Hg2+ and Hgp, respectively. The lower estimate of Hg emissions than previous inventories is supported by limited chemistry simulation work, but middle-to-long term observation on ambient Hg levels is further needed to justify the inter-annual trends of estimated Hg emissions. With improved implementation of emission controls and energy saving, 23% reduction in annual Hg emissions for the most optimistic case in 2030 is expected compared to 2012, with total emissions below 600 t. While Hg emissions are evaluated to be gradually constrained, increased uncertainties are quantified with Monte-Carlo simulation for recent years, particularly for power and certain industrial sources. The uncertainty of Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants, as an

  11. Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of primary air pollutants emissions from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yifeng; Tian, Hezhong; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhen; Wang, Junling; Nie, Lei; Pan, Tao; Zhou, Junrui; Hua, Shenbing; Wang, Yong; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2016-06-01

    Coal-fired combustion is recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of atmospheric compounds in Beijing, causing heavy air pollution events and associated deterioration in visibility. Obtaining an accurate understanding of the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of emissions from coal-fired industrial combustion is essential for predicting air quality changes and evaluating the effectiveness of current control measures. In this study, an integrated emission inventory of primary air pollutants emitted from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing is developed for the period of 2007-2013 using a technology-based approach. Future emission trends are projected through 2030 based on current energy-related and emission control policies. Our analysis shows that there is a general downward trend in primary air pollutants emissions because of the implementation of stricter local emission standards and the promotion by the Beijing municipal government of converting from coal-fired industrial boilers to gas-fired boilers. However, the ratio of coal consumed by industrial boilers to total coal consumption has been increasing, raising concerns about the further improvement of air quality in Beijing. Our estimates indicate that the total emissions of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx, CO and VOCs from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing in 2013 are approximately 19,242 t, 13,345 t, 26,615 t, 22,965 t, 63,779 t and 1406 t, respectively. Under the current environmental policies and relevant energy savings and emission control plans, it may be possible to reduce NOx and other air pollutant emissions by 94% and 90% by 2030, respectively, if advanced flue gas purification technologies are implemented and coal is replaced with natural gas in the majority of existing boilers. PMID:27023281

  12. Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of primary air pollutants emissions from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yifeng; Tian, Hezhong; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhen; Wang, Junling; Nie, Lei; Pan, Tao; Zhou, Junrui; Hua, Shenbing; Wang, Yong; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2016-06-01

    Coal-fired combustion is recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of atmospheric compounds in Beijing, causing heavy air pollution events and associated deterioration in visibility. Obtaining an accurate understanding of the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of emissions from coal-fired industrial combustion is essential for predicting air quality changes and evaluating the effectiveness of current control measures. In this study, an integrated emission inventory of primary air pollutants emitted from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing is developed for the period of 2007-2013 using a technology-based approach. Future emission trends are projected through 2030 based on current energy-related and emission control policies. Our analysis shows that there is a general downward trend in primary air pollutants emissions because of the implementation of stricter local emission standards and the promotion by the Beijing municipal government of converting from coal-fired industrial boilers to gas-fired boilers. However, the ratio of coal consumed by industrial boilers to total coal consumption has been increasing, raising concerns about the further improvement of air quality in Beijing. Our estimates indicate that the total emissions of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx, CO and VOCs from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing in 2013 are approximately 19,242 t, 13,345 t, 26,615 t, 22,965 t, 63,779 t and 1406 t, respectively. Under the current environmental policies and relevant energy savings and emission control plans, it may be possible to reduce NOx and other air pollutant emissions by 94% and 90% by 2030, respectively, if advanced flue gas purification technologies are implemented and coal is replaced with natural gas in the majority of existing boilers.

  13. The effects of recent control policies on trends in emissions of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants and CO2 in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Nielsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of China's national policies of energy conservation and emission control during 2005–2010, inter-annual emission trends of gaseous pollutants, primary aerosols, and CO2 are estimated with a bottom-up framework. The control measures led to improved energy efficiency and/or increased penetration of emission control devices at power plants and other important industrial sources, yielding reduced emission factors for all evaluated species except NOx. The national emissions of anthropogenic SO2, CO, and total primary PM (particulate matter in 2010 are estimated to have been 89%, 108%, and 87% of those in 2005, respectively, suggesting successful emission control of those species despite fast growth of the economy and energy consumption during the period. The emissions of NOx and CO2, however, are estimated to have increased by 47% and 43%, respectively, indicating that they remain largely determined by the growth of energy use, industrial production, and vehicle populations. Based on application of a Monte-Carlo framework, estimated uncertainties of SO2 and PM emissions increased from 2005 to 2010, resulting mainly from poorly understood average SO2 removal efficiency in flue gas desulfurization (FGD systems in the power sector, and unclear changes in the penetration levels of dust collectors at industrial sources, respectively. While emission trends determined by bottom-up methods can be generally verified by observations from both ground stations and satellites, clear discrepancies exist for given regions and seasons, indicating a need for more accurate spatial and time distributions of emissions. Limitations of current emission control polices are analyzed based on the estimated emission trends. Compared with control of total PM, there are fewer gains in control of fine particles and carbonaceous aerosols, the PM components most responsible for damages to public health and effects on radiative forcing. A much faster

  14. The effects of recent control policies on trends in emissions of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants and CO2 in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Nielsen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of China's national policies of energy conservation and emission control during 2005–2010, inter-annual emission trends of gaseous pollutants, primary aerosols, and CO2 are estimated with a bottom-up framework. The control measures led to improved energy efficiency and/or increased penetration of emission control devices at power plants and other important industrial sources, yielding reduced emission factors for all evaluated species except NOx. The national emissions of anthropogenic SO2, CO, and total primary PM (particulate matter in 2010 are estimated to have been 89%, 108%, and 86% of those in 2005, respectively, suggesting successful emission control of those species despite fast growth of the economy and energy consumption during the period. The emissions of NOx and CO2, however, are estimated to have increased by 48% and 43%, respectively, indicating that they remain largely determined by the growth of energy use, industrial production, and vehicle populations. Based on application of a Monte-Carlo framework, estimated uncertainties of SO2 and PM emissions increased from 2005 to 2010, resulting mainly from weakly understood average SO2 removal efficiency in flue gas desulfurization (FGD systems in the power sector, and unclear changes in the penetration levels of dust collectors at industrial sources, respectively. While emission trends determined by bottom-up methods can be generally verified by observations from both ground stations and satellites, clear discrepancies exist for given regions and seasons, indicating a need for more accurate spatial and time distributions of emissions. Limitations of current emission control polices are analyzed based on the estimated emission trends. Compared with control of total PM, there are fewer gains in control of fine particles and carbonaceous aerosols, the PM forms most responsible for damages to public health and effects on radiative forcing. A decrease of alkaline

  15. The effects of recent control policies on trends in emissions of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants and CO2 in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effects of China's national policies of energy conservation and emission control during 2005-2010, inter-annual emission trends of gaseous pollutants, primary aerosols, and CO2 are estimated with a bottom-up framework. The control measures led to improved energy efficiency and/or increased penetration of emission control devices at power plants and other important industrial sources, yielding reduced emission factors for all evaluated species except NOx. The national emissions of anthropogenic SO2, CO, and total primary PM (particulate matter) in 2010 are estimated to have been 89%, 108%, and 87% of those in 2005, respectively, suggesting successful emission control of those species despite fast growth of the economy and energy consumption during the period. The emissions of NOx and CO2, however, are estimated to have increased by 47% and 43%, respectively, indicating that they remain largely determined by the growth of energy use, industrial production, and vehicle populations. Based on application of a Monte-Carlo framework, estimated uncertainties of SO2 and PM emissions increased from 2005 to 2010, resulting mainly from poorly understood average SO2 removal efficiency in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems in the power sector, and unclear changes in the penetration levels of dust collectors at industrial sources, respectively. While emission trends determined by bottom-up methods can be generally verified by observations from both ground stations and satellites, clear discrepancies exist for given regions and seasons, indicating a need for more accurate spatial and time distributions of emissions. Limitations of current emission control polices are analyzed based on the estimated emission trends. Compared with control of total PM, there are fewer gains in control of fine particles and carbonaceous aerosols, the PM components most responsible for damages to public health and effects on radiative forcing. A much faster decrease of alkaline base

  16. An Observational Method for Verifying Trends in Urban CO2 Emissions Using Continuous Measurements and High Resolution Meteorology (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofsy, S. C.; McKain, K.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Nehrkorn, T.; Pataki, D. E.; Ehleringer, J.

    2010-12-01

    Nations of the world are attempting to reach international and domestic agreements to limit greenhouse gas emissions. Participants will demonstrate their compliance to such commitments with self-reported emissions estimates based largely on measurements of behavior and generalized conversion factors. Atmospheric observations are the only source of information that will allow reported emissions to be independently and directly verified. Testing of observation-based verification methods is required to establish current capabilities, identify and prioritize areas for improvement, and ensure that policy goals are verifiable. In particular, observations made in major source regions, such as cities, could provide a great deal of information about trends and patterns in anthropogenic emissions with relatively modest investment. This study presents an inaugural effort to estimate carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from a city using atmospheric measurements. We have developed an observation-modeling framework to track changes in urban emissions, which, in addition to the observations, utilizes an atmospheric transport model and a prior emissions estimates. We have conducted a pilot study of the method using an existing longterm dataset of CO2 observations from Salt Lake City, Utah. Model-simulated CO2 concentrations track diurnal and synoptic patterns in observations reasonably well, although areas for improvement are evident. The modeling framework tends to underestimate observed CO2 enhancements, especially at night, which could be due to underestimated emissions and/or to excessive ventilation in the modeled meteorology. Despite some deficiencies, modeled and observed CO2 values are quantitatively and systematically related and application of a scaling factor to previously estimated emissions improves the match between modeled and observed values. This pilot-study presents a generalized, albeit provisional, method for using urban atmospheric greenhouse gas observations to

  17. Effects of covering materials and sawdust covering depths on ammonia and greenhouse gase emissions from cattle manure during storage%覆盖材料和厚度对堆存牛粪氨气和温室气体排放的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海生; 左福元; 董红敏; 栾冬梅

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is the important source of gaseous emissions (NH3 and greenhouse gases) from agriculture. Storage of animal manure is reported to be an important agricultural source of the environmentally harmful gases. Generally, ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from stored animal manure can be affected by environmental factors (temperature and wind speed) and storage stacking configuration. Most studies have focused on the emission of ammonia and greenhouse gases from slurry during storage. However, information of gaseous emissions from solid manure stored is limited. Material covering is expected to be an effective method to reduce gaseous emissions from the stored manure. Thus, two experiments were set up to study gaseous emissions during storage of the solid cattle manure, and the effect of covering depth (1, 3 and 5 cm) and two different covering materials (sawdust and straw) on emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases. Polyvinylchloride cylindrical (30 cm in diameter and 90 cm in height) static vessels were designed and built to measure ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions in the laboratory experiment. Fresh cattle manure was collected from practicing farm of Rongchang Campus of Southwest University in Chongqing. After fully mixed, manure was filled into 12 barrels (24.2 cm in diameter and 15 cm in height). Barrels were enveloped by static vessels while measuring gaseous emissions. The stacking process commenced on May 29, 2014, and was measured for 49 days. In Experiment 1, the emissions of NH3, CH4, N2O and CO2 from an uncovered and three sawdust-covering heaps of solid cattle manure were compared. Considering that the stacking of solid manure was only 10 cm height (about 4 kg), sawdust covering depths of 1, 3 and 5 cm were selected. In Experiment 2, the emissions of NH3, CH4, N2O and CO2 were quantified using solid cattle manure (about 10 kg, 25cm stacking height) covered with sawdust (2 cm depth, 250 g) and straw (6 cm depth, 250 g) by using

  18. Have primary emission reduction measures reduced ozone across Europe? An analysis of European rural background ozone trends 1996–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Wilson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available National and European legislation over the past 20 years, and the modernisation or removal of industrial sources, have significantly reduced European ozone precursor emissions. This study quantifies observed and modelled European ozone annual and seasonal linear trends from 158 harmonised rural background monitoring stations over a constant time period of a decade (1996–2005. Mean ozone concentrations are investigated, in addition to the ozone 5th percentiles as a measure of the baseline or background conditions, and the 95th percentiles that are representative of the peak concentration levels. This study aims to characterise and quantify surface European ozone concentrations and trends and assess the impact of the changing anthropogenic emission tracers on the observed and modelled trends.

    Significant (p < 0.1 positive annual trends in ozone mean, 5th and 95th percentiles are observed at 54 %, 52 % and 45 % of sites respectively (85 sites, 82 sites and 71 sites. Spatially, sites in Central and Northwestern Europe tend to display positive annual ozone trends in mean, 5th and 95th percentiles. Significant negative annual trends in ozone mean 5th and 95th percentiles are observed at 11 %, 12 % and 12 % of sites respectively (18 sites, 19 sites and 19 sites which tend to be located in the eastern and south-western extremities of Europe. European-averaged annual trends have been calculated from the 158 sites in this study. Overall there is a net positive annual trend in observed ozone mean (0.16 ± 0.02 ppbv yr−1 2σ error, 5th (0.13 ± 0.02 ppbv yr−1 and 95th (0.16 ± 0.03 ppbv yr−1 percentiles, representative of positive trends in mean, baseline and peak ozone. Assessing the sensitivity of the derived overall trends to the constituent years shows that the European heatwave year of 2003 has significant positive influence and 1998 the converse effect; demonstrating the masking effect of inter

  19. Use of Open-Path TDL Technique and the Backward Lagrangian Stochastic Model to Monitor Ammonia Emission from Summer Maize Field%基于TDLAS-bLS方法的夏玉米农田氨挥发研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文亮; 朱安宁; 张佳宝; 张玉钧; 何莹; 王立明; 陈效民; 陈文超

    2012-01-01

    采用开放光程可调谐二极管激光吸收光谱技术和反向拉格朗日随机扩散模型,通过田间试验,开展基于高时间分辨率数据的农田氨挥发研究,旨在为揭示农田氨挥发的动态变化规律提供新技术新方法.结果表明,TDLAS-bLS法能有效监测农田氨挥发动态,尤其是日内变化规律.豫北平原潮土农田夏玉米追肥后日内氨挥发有两个挥发峰值,分别在9:00和14:00左右,第一个高峰是由于夜晚溶解在露水中的氨气随露水蒸发而再次挥发,第二个高峰受地温和光照影响所致.追肥后氨挥发速率迅速升高,但挥发高峰期持续时间较短,集中于前四天,整个监测期内氨挥发损失约25.3%.TDLAS-bLS法与通气法相比,测定结果有一定差异.%The backward Lagrangian stochastic dispersion model in conjunction with open-path tunable diode absorption spectros-copy was used to quantify ammonia emissions from farmland based on the high-temporal resolution data, aiming to provide innovative achievements to diagnose patterns of ammonia flux. The results indicate that the bLS dispersion technique using open-path lasers to measure atmospheric ammonia concentrations is suitable for determining ammonia emissions from farmland continuously, especially for characterizing diurnal characteristics of NH3 emissions. The ammonia emissions have a significant diurnal pattern with two emission peaks from urea applied to maize on a calcareous sandy loam fluvcraquic soil in the North China Plain. We believe that the first peak starting at approximately 9:00 am is due to NH3 absorbed by the dew re-emission at night as the dew evaporates. The maximum of ammonia flux at 14:00 corresponds to the peak of soil temperature and solar radiation. The ammo-nia emission increased rapidly, but the duration of emission peaks lasted approximately 4 d. Cumulative NH3 emission was 25. 3% of the applied N over the entire measurement period. The NH3 emissions measured with b

  20. The effect of urease and nitrification inhibitors on ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from simulated urine patches in pastoral system: a two-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, M; Zaman, S; Nguyen, M L; Smith, T J; Nawaz, S

    2013-11-01

    This field study evaluated the effects of applying a combination of urease (UI) and nitrification inhibitors (NI) on ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from urine patches, using zeolite, single superphosphate (SSP) and urea fertilizer as a carrier. The trial was conducted on a Typic Haplustepts silt loam soil, near Lincoln, Canterbury, New Zealand during 2009-11. The treatments in 2009 included: a control (no urine or inhibitor), urine alone at 600 kg N ha(-1), and urine with either double inhibitor (DI) a mixture (1:7 ratio w/w) of UI (N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (nBTPT - trade name Agrotain®) and NI, dicyandiamide (DCD) or DCD alone at 10 kg ha(-1) using zeolite and SSP as carriers. In 2010 trials, both zeolite and urea were used as carriers for DI and DCD. DI-zeolite and DI-urea were equally effective and reduced the average NH3 losses from applied urine over two years by 34.6% in autumn and 40% in spring respectively. The nBTPT in DI-SSP was decomposed by the free acid produced during its dissolution and therefore increased NH3 emission as does DCD alone. DCD consistently increased NH3 emissions by 39% and 15.6% in autumn and spring respectively. Spring application resulted in NH3-N losses of 16.9% as a percentage of the total N applied compared to 8.4% in autumn. Over the two years, the DI reduced N2O emissions by 53% in autumn and 46% in spring over urine alone treatment; the equivalent reductions for DCD were 42% and 39% for autumn and spring, respectively. These results suggest that applying DI in autumn and spring using zeolite or urea carrier five days prior to grazing has the most potential to reduce NH3 and N2O losses from specific urination event than using DCD alone; and therefore warrants further research to improve its longevity. PMID:23375867

  1. Clinical evaluation of iterative reconstruction (ordered-subset expectation maximization) in dynamic positron emission tomography: quantitative effects on kinetic modeling with N-13 ammonia in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, Jens D; Rasmussen, Rune; Freiberg, Jacob;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the quantitative properties of ordered-subset expectation maximization (OSEM) on kinetic modeling with nitrogen 13 ammonia compared with filtered backprojection (FBP) in healthy subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cardiac N-13 ammonia positron e...

  2. Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide removal using biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from livestock facilities is an important issue for many communities and livestock producers. Ammonia has been regarded as odorous, precursor for particulate matter (PM), and contributed to livestock mortality. Hydrogen sulfide is highly toxic at elev...

  3. Distinguishing the drivers of trends in land carbon fluxes and plant volatile emissions over the past three decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Yue

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial biosphere has experienced dramatic changes in recent decades. Estimates of historical trends in land carbon fluxes remain uncertain because long-term observations are limited on the global scale. Here, we use the Yale Interactive terrestrial Biosphere (YIBs model to estimate decadal trends in land carbon fluxes and emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs and to identify the key drivers for these changes during 1982–2011. Driven with hourly meteorology from WFDEI (WATCH Forcing Data methodology applied to ERA-Interim data, the model simulates an increasing trend of 297 Tg C a−2 in gross primary productivity (GPP and 185 Tg C a−2 in the net primary productivity (NPP. CO2 fertilization is the main driver for the flux changes in forest ecosystems, while meteorology dominates the changes in grasslands and shrublands. Warming boosts summer GPP and NPP at high latitudes, while drought dampens carbon uptake in tropical regions. North of 30° N, increasing temperatures induce a substantial extension of 0.22 day a−1 for the growing season; however, this phenological change alone does not promote regional carbon uptake and BVOC emissions. Nevertheless, increases of LAI at peak season accounts for ~ 25 % of the trends in GPP and isoprene emissions at the northern lands. The net land sink shows statistically insignificant increases of only 3 Tg C a−2 globally because of simultaneous increases in soil respiration. In contrast, driven with alternative meteorology from MERRA (Modern Era-Retrospective Analysis, the model predicts significant increases of 59 Tg C a−2 in the land sink due to strengthened uptake in the Amazon. Global BVOC emissions are calculated using two schemes. With the photosynthesis-dependent scheme, the model predicts increases of 0.4 Tg C a−2 in isoprene emissions, which are mainly attributed to warming trends because CO2 fertilization and inhibition effects offset each other. Using the MEGAN

  4. Evaluating the effects of China's pollution controls on inter-annual trends and uncertainties of atmospheric mercury emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhong, H.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2015-04-01

    China's anthropogenic emissions of atmospheric mercury (Hg) are effectively constrained by national air pollution control and energy efficiency policies. In this study, improved methods, based on available data from domestic field measurements, are developed to quantify the benefits of Hg abatement by various emission control measures. Those measures include increased use of (1) flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems in power generation; (2) precalciner kilns with fabric filters (FF) in cement production; (3) mechanized coking ovens with electrostatic precipitators (ESP) in iron and steel production; and (4) advanced production technologies in nonferrous metal smelting. Investigation reveals declining trends in emission factors for each of these sources, which together drive a much slower growth of total Hg emissions than the growth of China's energy consumption and economy, from 679 metric tons (t) in 2005 to 750 t in 2012. In particular, estimated emissions from the above-mentioned four source types declined 3% from 2005 to 2012, which can be attributed to expanded deployment of technologies with higher energy efficiencies and air pollutant removal rates. Emissions from other anthropogenic sources are estimated to increase by 22% during the period. The species shares of total Hg emissions have been stable in recent years, with mass fractions of around 55, 39, and 6% for gaseous elemental Hg (Hg0), reactive gaseous mercury (Hg2+), and particle-bound mercury (Hgp), respectively. The higher estimate of total Hg emissions than previous inventories is supported by limited simulation of atmospheric chemistry and transport. With improved implementation of emission controls and energy saving, a 23% reduction in annual Hg emissions from 2012 to 2030, to below 600 t, is expected at the most. While growth in Hg emissions has been gradually constrained, uncertainties quantified by Monte Carlo simulation for recent years have increased

  5. Trend analysis from 1970 to 2008 and model evaluation of EDGARv4 global gridded anthropogenic mercury emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    reproduce both spatial variations and long-term trends in total gaseous mercury concentrations and wet deposition fluxes. - Highlights: • A global mercury emission inventory over the past four decades was established. • The inventory was at the lower range of the UNEP Minamata estimates. • The inventory was evaluated using a global 3-D mercury model GEOS-Chem. • The model reproduced spatial variations and long-term trends

  6. The Effect of Chemical Amendments Used for Phosphorus Abatement on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Slurry: Synergies and Pollution Swapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Raymond B; Healy, Mark G; Fenton, Owen; Lanigan, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    Land application of cattle slurry can result in incidental and chronic phosphorus (P) loss to waterbodies, leading to eutrophication. Chemical amendment of slurry has been proposed as a management practice, allowing slurry nutrients to remain available to plants whilst mitigating P losses in runoff. The effectiveness of amendments is well understood but their impacts on other loss pathways (so-called 'pollution swapping' potential) and therefore the feasibility of using such amendments has not been examined to date. The aim of this laboratory scale study was to determine how the chemical amendment of slurry affects losses of NH3, CH4, N2O, and CO2. Alum, FeCl2, Polyaluminium chloride (PAC)- and biochar reduced NH3 emissions by 92, 54, 65 and 77% compared to the slurry control, while lime increased emissions by 114%. Cumulative N2O emissions of cattle slurry increased when amended with alum and FeCl2 by 202% and 154% compared to the slurry only treatment. Lime, PAC and biochar resulted in a reduction of 44, 29 and 63% in cumulative N2O loss compared to the slurry only treatment. Addition of amendments to slurry did not significantly affect soil CO2 release during the study while CH4 emissions followed a similar trend for all of the amended slurries applied, with an initial increase in losses followed by a rapid decrease for the duration of the study. All of the amendments examined reduced the initial peak in CH4 emissions compared to the slurry only treatment. There was no significant effect of slurry amendments on global warming potential (GWP) caused by slurry land application, with the exception of biochar. After considering pollution swapping in conjunction with amendment effectiveness, the amendments recommended for further field study are PAC, alum and lime. This study has also shown that biochar has potential to reduce GHG losses arising from slurry application.

  7. The Effect of Chemical Amendments Used for Phosphorus Abatement on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Slurry: Synergies and Pollution Swapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Raymond B; Healy, Mark G; Fenton, Owen; Lanigan, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    Land application of cattle slurry can result in incidental and chronic phosphorus (P) loss to waterbodies, leading to eutrophication. Chemical amendment of slurry has been proposed as a management practice, allowing slurry nutrients to remain available to plants whilst mitigating P losses in runoff. The effectiveness of amendments is well understood but their impacts on other loss pathways (so-called 'pollution swapping' potential) and therefore the feasibility of using such amendments has not been examined to date. The aim of this laboratory scale study was to determine how the chemical amendment of slurry affects losses of NH3, CH4, N2O, and CO2. Alum, FeCl2, Polyaluminium chloride (PAC)- and biochar reduced NH3 emissions by 92, 54, 65 and 77% compared to the slurry control, while lime increased emissions by 114%. Cumulative N2O emissions of cattle slurry increased when amended with alum and FeCl2 by 202% and 154% compared to the slurry only treatment. Lime, PAC and biochar resulted in a reduction of 44, 29 and 63% in cumulative N2O loss compared to the slurry only treatment. Addition of amendments to slurry did not significantly affect soil CO2 release during the study while CH4 emissions followed a similar trend for all of the amended slurries applied, with an initial increase in losses followed by a rapid decrease for the duration of the study. All of the amendments examined reduced the initial peak in CH4 emissions compared to the slurry only treatment. There was no significant effect of slurry amendments on global warming potential (GWP) caused by slurry land application, with the exception of biochar. After considering pollution swapping in conjunction with amendment effectiveness, the amendments recommended for further field study are PAC, alum and lime. This study has also shown that biochar has potential to reduce GHG losses arising from slurry application. PMID:26053923

  8. The Effect of Chemical Amendments Used for Phosphorus Abatement on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Slurry: Synergies and Pollution Swapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond B Brennan

    Full Text Available Land application of cattle slurry can result in incidental and chronic phosphorus (P loss to waterbodies, leading to eutrophication. Chemical amendment of slurry has been proposed as a management practice, allowing slurry nutrients to remain available to plants whilst mitigating P losses in runoff. The effectiveness of amendments is well understood but their impacts on other loss pathways (so-called 'pollution swapping' potential and therefore the feasibility of using such amendments has not been examined to date. The aim of this laboratory scale study was to determine how the chemical amendment of slurry affects losses of NH3, CH4, N2O, and CO2. Alum, FeCl2, Polyaluminium chloride (PAC- and biochar reduced NH3 emissions by 92, 54, 65 and 77% compared to the slurry control, while lime increased emissions by 114%. Cumulative N2O emissions of cattle slurry increased when amended with alum and FeCl2 by 202% and 154% compared to the slurry only treatment. Lime, PAC and biochar resulted in a reduction of 44, 29 and 63% in cumulative N2O loss compared to the slurry only treatment. Addition of amendments to slurry did not significantly affect soil CO2 release during the study while CH4 emissions followed a similar trend for all of the amended slurries applied, with an initial increase in losses followed by a rapid decrease for the duration of the study. All of the amendments examined reduced the initial peak in CH4 emissions compared to the slurry only treatment. There was no significant effect of slurry amendments on global warming potential (GWP caused by slurry land application, with the exception of biochar. After considering pollution swapping in conjunction with amendment effectiveness, the amendments recommended for further field study are PAC, alum and lime. This study has also shown that biochar has potential to reduce GHG losses arising from slurry application.

  9. Evaluation of metrics and baselines for tracking greenhouse gas emissions trends: Recommendations for the California climate action registry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Murtishaw, Scott; Worrell, Ernst

    2003-06-01

    Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) was asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (Energy Commission) related to the Registry in three areas: (1) assessing the availability and usefulness of industry-specific metrics, (2) evaluating various methods for establishing baselines for calculating GHG emissions reductions related to specific actions taken by Registry participants, and (3) establishing methods for calculating electricity CO2 emission factors. The third area of research was completed in 2002 and is documented in Estimating Carbon Dioxide Emissions Factors for the California Electric Power Sector (Marnay et al., 2002). This report documents our findings related to the first areas of research. For the first area of research, the overall objective was to evaluate the metrics, such as emissions per economic unit or emissions per unit of production that can be used to report GHG emissions trends for potential Registry participants. This research began with an effort to identify methodologies, benchmarking programs, inventories, protocols, and registries that u se industry-specific metrics to track trends in energy use or GHG emissions in order to determine what types of metrics have already been developed. The next step in developing industry-specific metrics was to assess the availability of data needed to determine metric development priorities. Berkeley Lab also determined the relative importance of different potential Registry participant categories in order to asses s the availability of sectoral or industry-specific metrics and then identified industry-specific metrics in use around the world. While a plethora of metrics was identified, no one metric that adequately tracks trends in GHG emissions while maintaining confidentiality of data was identified. As a result of this review, Berkeley Lab recommends the development of a GHG intensity index as a new metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends.Such an index could provide an

  10. Ammonia abatement by slurry acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Hutchings, Nicholas John; Hafner, Sasha;

    2016-01-01

    Livestock production systems can be major sources of trace gases including ammonia (NH3), the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and odorous compounds such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Short-term campaigns have indicated that acidification of livestock slurry during in...... generally high. It was concluded that the contribution from floors to NH3 emissions was effect on N2O emissions was observed. The effect...

  11. Quantification of reductions in ammonia emissions from fertiliser urea and animal urine in grazed pastures with urease inhibitors for agriculture inventory: New Zealand as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggar, Surinder; Singh, J; Giltrap, D L; Zaman, M; Luo, J; Rollo, M; Kim, D-G; Rys, G; van der Weerden, T J

    2013-11-01

    Urea is the key nitrogen (N) fertiliser for grazed pastures, and is also present in excreted animal urine. In soil, urea hydrolyses rapidly to ammonium (NH4(+)) and may be lost as ammonia (NH3) gas. Unlike nitrous oxide (N2O), however, NH3 is not a greenhouse gas although it can act as a secondary source of N2O, and hence contribute indirectly to global warming and stratospheric ozone depletion. Various urease inhibitors (UIs) have been used over the last 30 years to reduce NH3 losses. Among these, N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (nBTPT), sold under the trade name Agrotain®, is currently the most promising and effective when applied with urea or urine. Here we conduct a critical analysis of the published and non-published data on the effectiveness of nBTPT in reducing NH3 emission, from which adjusted values for FracGASF (fraction of total N fertiliser emitted as NH3) and FracGASM (fraction of total N from, animal manure and urine emitted as NH3) for the national agriculture greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory are recommended in order to provide accurate data for the inventory. We use New Zealand as a case study to assess and quantify the overall reduction in NH3 emission from urea and animal urine with the application of UI nBTPT. The available literature indicates that an application rate of 0.025% w/w (nBTPT per unit of N) is optimum for reducing NH3 emissions from temperate grasslands. UI-treated urine studies gave highly variable reductions (11-93%) with an average of 53% and a 95% confidence interval of 33-73%. New Zealand studies, using UI-treated urea, suggest that nBTPT (0.025% w/w) reduces NH3 emissions by 44.7%, on average, with a confidence interval of 39-50%. On this basis, a New Zealand specific value of 0.055 for FracGASF FNUI (fraction of urease inhibitor treated total fertiliser N emitted as NH3) is recommended for adoption where urea containing UI are applied as nBTPT at a rate of 0.025% w/w. Only a limited number of published data sets are

  12. High-Resolution Mapping and Long-Term Trends for Motor Vehicle Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Motor vehicles are a major source of greenhouse gas and other pollutant emissions that contribute to global climate change and urban and regional air pollution problems. Past efforts to develop motor vehicle emission inventories, needed for air quality planning, have been subject to significant uncertainties related to emission factors and spatial and temporal distributions of vehicle activity. The goal of this dissertation is to develop new inventories for vehicle emissions of greenhouse gas...

  13. Estimate of changes in agricultural terrestrial nitrogen pathways and ammonia emissions from 1850 to present in the Community Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, Stuart; Ward, Daniel; Hess, Peter; Mahowald, Natalie; Massad, Raia; Holland, Elisabeth

    2016-06-01

    Nitrogen applied to the surface of the land for agricultural purposes represents a significant source of reactive nitrogen (Nr) that can be emitted as a gaseous Nr species, be denitrified to atmospheric nitrogen (N2), run off during rain events or form plant-useable nitrogen in the soil. To investigate the magnitude, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity of nitrogen pathways on a global scale from sources of animal manure and synthetic fertilizer, we developed a mechanistic parameterization of these pathways within a global terrestrial land model, the Community Land Model (CLM). In this first model version the parameterization emphasizes an explicit climate-dependent approach while using highly simplified representations of agricultural practices, including manure management and fertilizer application. The climate-dependent approach explicitly simulates the relationship between meteorological variables and biogeochemical processes to calculate the volatilization of ammonia (NH3), nitrification and runoff of Nr following manure or synthetic fertilizer application. For the year 2000, approximately 125 Tg N yr-1 is applied as manure and 62 Tg N yr-1 is applied as synthetic fertilizer. We estimate the resulting global NH3 emissions are 21 Tg N yr-1 from manure (17 % of manure production) and 12 Tg N yr-1 from fertilizer (19 % of fertilizer application); reactive nitrogen runoff during rain events is calculated as 11 Tg N yr-1 from manure and 5 Tg N yr-1 from fertilizer. The remaining nitrogen from manure (93 Tg N yr-1) and synthetic fertilizer (45 Tg N yr-1) is captured by the canopy or transferred to the soil nitrogen pools. The parameterization was implemented in the CLM from 1850 to 2000 using a transient simulation which predicted that, even though absolute values of all nitrogen pathways are increasing with increased manure and synthetic fertilizer application, partitioning of nitrogen to NH3 emissions from manure is increasing on a percentage basis, from

  14. Ammonia measurement with a pH electrode in the ammonia/urea-SCR process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröcher, Oliver; Elsener, Martin

    2007-03-01

    The selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides with ammonia (ammonia SCR) and urea (urea SCR), respectively, is a widespread process to clean flue and diesel exhaust gases due to its simplicity and efficiency. The main challenge of the process is to minimize the ammonia emissions downstream of the SCR catalyst. We found that ammonia emissions of >10 ppm can reliably be detected with a simple pH electrode in the presence of CO2, SOx, NOx, and moderately weak organic acids. 10-20 ppm of ammonia in the exhaust gas are sufficient to neutralize the acids and to increase the pH value from 3 to 6. On this basis a continuous measuring method for ammonia was developed, which was used to control the dosage of urea in the SCR process. While keeping the ammonia emissions after the SCR catalyst at 5-30 ppm an average NOx removal efficiency (DeNOx) of >95% were achieved at a diesel test rig. The method can also be applied for exhaust gases with higher acid contents, if a basic pre-filter is added adsorbing the acidic exhaust components. Compared to water as absorption solution, more precise ammonia measurements are possible, if a 0.1 M NH4Cl absorption solution is applied, whose pH value is changing as a Nernst function of the ammonia concentration.

  15. Assessment for Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions of China’s Vehicles: Future Trends and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, China’s auto industry develops rapidly, thus bringing a series of burdens to society and environment. This paper uses Logistic model to simulate the future trend of China’s vehicle population and finds that China’s auto industry would come into high speed development time during 2020–2050. Moreover, this paper predicts vehicles’ fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (CO, HC, NOx, and PM and quantificationally evaluates related industry policies. It can be concluded that (1 by 2020, China should develop at least 47 million medium/heavy hybrid cars to prevent the growth of vehicle fuel consumption; (2 China should take the more stringent vehicle emission standard V over 2017–2021 to hold back the growth of exhaust emissions; (3 developing new energy vehicles is the most effective measure to ease the pressure brought by auto industry.

  16. Particulate sulfate ion concentration and SO2 emission trends in the United States from the early 1990s through 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. C. Malm

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined particulate sulfate ion concentrations across the United States from the early 1990s through 2010 using remote/rural data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE network and from early 2000 through 2010 using data from the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA urban Chemical Speciation Network (CSN. We also examined measured sulfur dioxide (SO2 emissions from power plants from 1995 through 2010 from the EPA's Acid Rain Program. The 1992–2010 annual mean sulfate concentrations at long-term rural sites in the United States have decreased significantly and fairly consistently across the United States at a rate of −2.7% yr−1 (p −1 (p −1 (p 2 emissions from power plants across the United States have decreased at a similar rate as sulfate concentrations from 2001 to 2010 (−6.2% yr−1, p 2 emissions and average sulfate concentrations. This linearity was strongest in the eastern United States and weakest in the West where power plant SO2 emissions were lowest and sulfate concentrations were more influenced by non-power-plant and perhaps international SO2 emissions. In addition, annual mean, short-term sulfate concentrations decreased more rapidly in the East relative to the West due to differences in seasonal trends at certain regions in the West. Specifically, increased wintertime concentrations in the central and northern Great Plains and increased springtime concentrations in the western United States were observed. These seasonal and regional positive trends could not be explained by changes in known local and regional SO2 emissions, suggesting other contributing influences. This work implies that on an annual mean basis across the United States, air quality mitigation strategies have been successful in reducing the particulate loading of sulfate in the atmosphere; however, for certain seasons and regions, especially in the West, current mitigation strategies appear insufficient.

  17. Trend analysis from 1970 to 2008 and model evaluation of EDGARv4 global gridded anthropogenic mercury emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Marilena; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Song, Shaojie; Selin, Noelle E; Olivier, Jos G J; Guizzardi, Diego; Maas, Rob; Dentener, Frank

    2014-10-01

    The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) provides a time-series of man-made emissions of greenhouse gases and short-lived atmospheric pollutants from 1970 to 2008. Mercury is included in EDGARv4.tox1, thereby enriching the spectrum of multi-pollutant sources in the database. With an average annual growth rate of 1.3% since 1970, EDGARv4 estimates that the global mercury emissions reached 1,287 tonnes in 2008. Specifically, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) (Hg(0)) accounted for 72% of the global total emissions, while gaseous oxidised mercury (GOM) (Hg(2+)) and particle bound mercury (PBM) (Hg-P) accounted for only 22% and 6%, respectively. The less reactive form, i.e., Hg(0), has a long atmospheric residence time and can be transported long distances from the emission sources. The artisanal and small-scale gold production, accounted for approximately half of the global Hg(0) emissions in 2008 followed by combustion (29%), cement production (12%) and other metal industry (10%). Given the local-scale impacts of mercury, special attention was given to the spatial distribution showing the emission hot-spots on gridded 0.1°×0.1° resolution maps using detailed proxy data. The comprehensive ex-post analysis of the mitigation of mercury emissions by end-of-pipe abatement measures in the power generation sector and technology changes in the chlor-alkali industry over four decades indicates reductions of 46% and 93%, respectively. Combined, the improved technologies and mitigation measures in these sectors accounted for 401.7 tonnes of avoided mercury emissions in 2008. A comparison shows that EDGARv4 anthropogenic emissions are nearly equivalent to the lower estimates of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)'s mercury emissions inventory for 2005 for most sectors. An evaluation of the EDGARv4 global mercury emission inventory, including mercury speciation, was performed using the GEOS-Chem global 3-D mercury model. The model can generally

  18. Trends in anthropogenic mercury emissions estimated for South Africa during 2000-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masekoameng, K. Elizabeth; Leaner, Joy; Dabrowski, J.

    2010-08-01

    Recent studies suggest an increase in mercury (Hg) emissions to the global environment, particularly as a result of anthropogenic activities. This has prompted many countries to complete Hg emission inventories, based on country-specific Hg sources. In this study, information on annual coal consumption and Hg-containing commodities produced in South Africa, was used to estimate Hg emissions during 2000-2006. Based on the information, the UNEP toolkit was used to estimate the amount of Hg released to air and general waste from each activity; using South Africa specific and toolkit based emission factors. In both atmospheric and solid waste releases, coal-fired power plants were estimated to be the largest contributors of Hg emissions, viz. 27.1 to 38.9 tonnes y -1 in air, and 5.8 to 7.4 tonnes y -1 in waste. Cement production was estimated to be the second largest atmospheric Hg emission contributor (2.2-3.9 tonnes y -1), while coal gasification was estimated to be the second largest Hg contributor in terms of general waste releases (2.9-4.2 tonnes y -1). Overall, there was an increase in total atmospheric Hg emissions from all activities, estimated at ca. 34 tonnes in 2000, to 50 tonnes in 2006, with some fluctuations between the years. Similarly, the total Hg emissions released to general waste was estimated to be 9 tonnes in 2000, with an increase to 12 tonnes in 2006.

  19. Century-scale patterns and trends of global pyrogenic carbon emissions and fire influences on terrestrial carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jia; Tian, Hanqin; Tao, Bo; Ren, Wei; Lu, Chaoqun; Pan, Shufen; Wang, Yuhang; Liu, Yongqiang

    2015-09-01

    Fires have consumed a large amount of terrestrial organic carbon and significantly influenced terrestrial ecosystems and the physical climate system over the past century. Although biomass burning has been widely investigated at a global level in recent decades via satellite observations, less work has been conducted to examine the century-scale changes in global fire regimes and fire influences on the terrestrial carbon balance. In this study, we investigated global pyrogenic carbon emissions and fire influences on the terrestrial carbon fluxes from 1901 to 2010 by using a process-based land ecosystem model. Our results show a significant declining trend in global pyrogenic carbon emissions between the early 20th century and the mid-1980s but a significant upward trend between the mid-1980s and the 2000s as a result of more frequent fires in ecosystems with high carbon storage, such as peatlands and tropical forests. Over the past 110 years, average pyrogenic carbon emissions were estimated to be 2.43 Pg C yr-1 (1 Pg = 1015 g), and global average combustion rate (defined as carbon emissions per unit area burned) was 537.85 g C m-2 burned area. Due to the impacts of fires, the net primary productivity and carbon sink of global terrestrial ecosystems were reduced by 4.14 Pg C yr-1 and 0.57 Pg C yr-1, respectively. Our study suggests that special attention should be paid to fire activities in the peatlands and tropical forests in the future. Practical management strategies, such as minimizing forest logging and reducing the rate of cropland expansion in the humid regions, are in need to reduce fire risk and mitigate fire-induced greenhouse gases emissions.

  20. European CO2 emission trends: A decomposition analysis for water and aviation transport sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A decomposition analysis is used to investigate the main factors influencing the CO2 emissions of European transport activities for the period 2001–2008. The decomposition method developed by Sun has been used to investigate the carbon dioxide emissions intensity, the energy intensity, the structural changes and the economy activity growth effects for the water and the aviation transport sectors. The analysis is based on Eurostat data and results are presented for 14 Member States, Norway and EU27. Results indicate that economic growth has been the main factor behind the carbon dioxide emissions increase in EU27 both for water and aviation transport activities. -- Highlights: ► Decomposition analysis is used to investigate factors that influenced the energy-related CO2 emissions of European transport. ► Economic growth has been the main factor affecting the energy-related CO2 emissions increases. ► Investigating the CO2 emissions drivers is the first step to define energy efficiency policies and emission reduction strategies.

  1. Trends in OMI NO2 observations over the US: effects of emission control technology and the economic recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Cohen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Observations of tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities over the United States (US for 2005–2011 are evaluated using the OMI Berkeley High Resolution (BEHR retrieval algorithm. We assess changes in NO2 on day-of-week and interannual timescales to assess the impact of changes in emissions from mobile and non-mobile sources on the observed trends. We observe consistent decreases in cities across the US, with an average total reduction of 32 ± 7%. Changes for large power plants have been more variable (−26 ± 12% due to regionally-specific regulation policies. An increasing trend of 10–20% in background NO2 columns in the Northwestern US is observed. We examine the impact of the economic recession on emissions and find that decreases in NO2 column densities over cities were moderate prior to the recession (−6 ± 5 % yr−1, larger during the recession (−8 ± 5 % yr−1, and then smaller after the recession (−3 ± 4 % yr−1. Differences in the trends observed on weekdays and weekends indicate that prior to the economic recession, NO2 reductions were dominated by technological improvements to the light-duty vehicle fleet but that a decrease in diesel truck activity has dominated emission reductions since the recession. We use the satellite observations to estimate a 34% decrease in NO2 from mobile sources in cities for 2005–2011 and use that value to infer changes in non-mobile sources. We find that reductions in NO2 from non-mobile sources in cities have been more variable than NO2 reductions from mobile sources (−10 ± 13%.

  2. Global Ammonia Concentrations Seen by the 13-years AIRS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Juying; Wei, Zigang; Larrabee Strow, L.; Dickerson, Russell; Nowak, John; Wang, Yuxuan

    2016-04-01

    Ammonia is an integral part of the nitrogen cycle and is projected to be the largest single contributor to each of acidification, eutrophication and secondary particulate matter in Europe by 2020 (Sutton et al., 2008). The impacts of NH3 also include: aerosol production affecting global radiative forcing, increases in emissions of the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4), and modification of the transport and deposition patterns of SO2 and NOx. Therefore, monitoring NH3 global distribution of sources is vitally important to human health with respect to both air and water quality and climate change. We have developed new daily and global ammonia (NH3) products from AIRS hyperspectral measurements. These products add value to AIRS's existing products that have made significant contributions to weather forecasts, climate studies, and air quality monitoring. With longer than 13 years of data records, these measurements have been used not only for daily monitoring purposes but also for inter-annual variability and short-term trend studies. We will discuss the global NH3 emission sources from biogenic and anthropogenic activities over many emission regions captured by AIRS. We will focus their variability in the last 13 years.

  3. Emissions from the utility power industry in Poland - limitations and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the modified legislation in 1998 the detailed limitations concern three categories power generation enterprises by site and type using solid organic fuels mainly: electric energy generation based in 99 % and heat generation - in 75 % on coal. For the first category consists of about 100 utility electric power enterprises combined heat and power and heating stations of about 10000 MW total capacity the modernization programme was realized to reduce the basic pollutant emissions like nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide during the period 1989-1997. Tendency of burning low-sulfur and low-ash coals with much calorific value is shown in a table. The average calorific value of the hard coals burned increased from 18280 kJ/kg in 1989 to 21423 in 1997 and sulfur content decreased from 1.148 % to 0.851 % due also to building of desulfurization installations. Decreasing of the nitrogen oxides emission took part in the last years. The new limitations on emission and concentration of harmful substances in the atmosphere related to standard oxygen contents in the flue gases. Table data for comparison of the permissible emissions for high capacity plants (500 MW and above) on solid fuels in Austria, France, Netherlands, Germany,Poland, Turkey, USA, UK and Italy. Table data for Polish pollutant concentration standards, compared to the values in the E U and USA, in μg/m3. Table data about the charges for air pollutant emissions in Poland in 1999. Despite of significant improvement of new legislation treating harmful substances emissions to the atmosphere, there are still some practical shortcomings: decisions without technological considerations; changes without a transition period; the emissions from engines and gas turbines are out of the regulating decree or there is no uniform regulations and lack of uniform method for emission measurement at power installations. The programme for regulation of the Polish environment protection is estimated to about 35 billion Euro

  4. Computed tomography calcium score scan for attenuation correction of N-13 ammonia cardiac positron emission tomography : effect of respiratory phase and registration method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaidi, Habib; Nkoulou, Rene; Bond, Sarah; Baskin, Aylin; Schindler, Thomas; Ratib, Osman; Declerck, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    The use of coronary calcium scoring (CaScCT) for attenuation correction (AC) of N-13-ammonia PET/CT studies (NH3) is still being debated. We compare standard ACCT to CaScCT using various respiratory phases and co-registration methods for AC. Forty-one patients underwent a stress/rest NH3. Standard A

  5. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite observations of ammonia, methanol, formic acid, and carbon monoxide over the Canadian oil sands: validation and model evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wealth of air quality information provided by satellite infrared observations of ammonia (NH3), carbon monoxide (CO), formic acid (HCOOH), and methanol (CH3OH) is currently being explored and used for a number of applications, especially at regional or global scales. These ap...

  6. HAZE AND SULFUR EMISSION TRENDS OVER THE EASTERN U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents the regional and seasonal trends of haziness in the Eastern U.S. from 1948 to 1982. aze or haziness, measured quantitatively at the extinction coefficient, is derived via the Koschmeider relationship from human observer visibility observations made at airport ...

  7. Nitrogen-Use Efficiency, Nitrous Oxide Emissions, and Cereal Production in Brazil: Current Trends and Forecasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Viana Pires

    Full Text Available The agriculture sector has historically been a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions into the atmosphere. Although the use of synthetic fertilizers is one of the most common widespread agricultural practices, over-fertilization can lead to negative economic and environmental consequences, such as high production costs, depletion of energy resources, and increased GHG emissions. Here, we provide an analysis to understand the evolution of cereal production and consumption of nitrogen (N fertilizers in Brazil and to correlate N use efficiency (NUE with economic and environmental losses as N2O emissions. Our results show that the increased consumption of N fertilizers is associated with a large decrease in NUE in recent years. The CO2 eq. of N2O emissions originating from N fertilization for cereal production were approximately 12 times higher in 2011 than in 1970, indicating that the inefficient use of N fertilizers is directly related to environmental losses. The projected N fertilizer forecasts are 2.09 and 2.37 million ton for 2015 and 2023, respectively. An increase of 0.02% per year in the projected NUE was predicted for the same time period. However, decreases in the projected CO2 eq. emissions for future years were not predicted. In a hypothetical scenario, a 2.39% increase in cereal NUE would lead to $ 21 million savings in N fertilizer costs. Thus, increases in NUE rates would lead not only to agronomic and environmental benefits but also to economic improvement.

  8. Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2012. Tracking progress towards Kyoto and 2020 targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gores, S.; Scheffler, M.; Graichen, V. [Oeko-Institut (Oeko), Freiburg (Germany)] [and others

    2012-10-15

    At the end of 2011, almost all European countries were on track towards their Kyoto targets for 2008-2012. The EU-15 also remained on track to achieve its Kyoto target. Italy, however, was not on track. Spain plans to acquire a large quantity of Kyoto units through the KP's flexible mechanisms to achieve its target. With emission caps already set for the economic sectors under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), emissions reductions during 2012 in the sectors outside the EU ETS together with reductions by carbon sinks will set the frame for how many Kyoto units Member States need to acquire to reach their individual targets. Hence, both the development and delivery of adequate plans to acquire enough Kyoto credits is becoming increasingly important. ETS emissions from 2008 to 2011 were on average 5 % below these caps, which results in an oversupply of allowances. The EU ETS is undergoing important changes in view of the third trading phase from 2013 to 2020. Most EU Member States project that in 2020, their emissions outside the EU ETS will be lower than their national targets set under the Climate and Energy Package. However, further efforts will be necessary to achieve longer term reductions. (Author)

  9. Nitrogen-Use Efficiency, Nitrous Oxide Emissions, and Cereal Production in Brazil: Current Trends and Forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Marcel Viana; da Cunha, Dênis Antônio; de Matos Carlos, Sabrina; Costa, Marcos Heil

    2015-01-01

    The agriculture sector has historically been a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into the atmosphere. Although the use of synthetic fertilizers is one of the most common widespread agricultural practices, over-fertilization can lead to negative economic and environmental consequences, such as high production costs, depletion of energy resources, and increased GHG emissions. Here, we provide an analysis to understand the evolution of cereal production and consumption of nitrogen (N) fertilizers in Brazil and to correlate N use efficiency (NUE) with economic and environmental losses as N2O emissions. Our results show that the increased consumption of N fertilizers is associated with a large decrease in NUE in recent years. The CO2 eq. of N2O emissions originating from N fertilization for cereal production were approximately 12 times higher in 2011 than in 1970, indicating that the inefficient use of N fertilizers is directly related to environmental losses. The projected N fertilizer forecasts are 2.09 and 2.37 million ton for 2015 and 2023, respectively. An increase of 0.02% per year in the projected NUE was predicted for the same time period. However, decreases in the projected CO2 eq. emissions for future years were not predicted. In a hypothetical scenario, a 2.39% increase in cereal NUE would lead to $ 21 million savings in N fertilizer costs. Thus, increases in NUE rates would lead not only to agronomic and environmental benefits but also to economic improvement. PMID:26252377

  10. USDA-EPA Collaborative Ammonia Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014, a work group was formed between USDA and EPA to facilitate information exchange on ammonia emissions from agriculture, air quality impacts and emission mitigation options and to identify opportunities for collaboration. This document provides background on the work grou...

  11. CIV Emission Line Properties and Systematic Trends in Quasar Black Hole Mass Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Coatman, Liam; Hewett, Paul C.; Banerji, Manda; Richards, Gordon T.

    2016-01-01

    Black-hole masses are crucial to understanding the physics of the connection between quasars and their host galaxies and measuring cosmic black hole-growth. At high redshift, z > 2.1, black hole masses are normally derived using the velocity-width of the CIV broad emission line, based on the assumption that the observed velocity-widths arise from virial-induced motions. In many quasars, the CIV-emission line exhibits significant blue asymmetries (`blueshifts') with the line centroid displaced...

  12. Evaluation of reported NOx emission trends between 2005 and 2013 by assimilation of OMI-NO2 data into LOTOS-EUROS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Martijn; Segers, Arjo; Curier, Lyana; Timmermans, Renske

    2016-04-01

    Consistent and long time series of remotely sensed trace gas levels may provide a useful tool to estimate surface emissions and emission trends. We use the OMI-NO2 product in conjunction with the LOTOS-EUROS CTM to estimate European emission trends through correction of the OMI-time series for meteorological variability as well as through assimilation using an ensemble kalman filter system (EnKF). The chemistry transport model captures a large fraction of the variability in NO2 columns at a synoptic timescale, although a seasonal signal in the bias between the modeled and retrieved column data remains. Prior to the assimilation, the OMI-NO2 data have been analyzed to establish the spatially variable temporal and spatial correlation lengths, required for the settings in the EnKF system. The assimilation run for 2005-2013 was performed using constant 2005 emissions to be able to quantify the emission change. The assimilation reduces the model-observation differences considerably. Significant negative trends of 2-3 % per year (as compared to 2005) were found in highly industrialized areas across Western Europe. The assimilation system also identifies the areas with major emission reductions in e.g. northern Spain as identified in earlier studies. Comparison of the trends derived from the assimilation and the data itself shows a high level of agreement, both the trends found in this way are smaller than those reported.

  13. CIV Emission Line Properties and Systematic Trends in Quasar Black Hole Mass Estimates

    CERN Document Server

    Coatman, Liam; Banerji, Manda; Richards, Gordon T

    2016-01-01

    Black-hole masses are crucial to understanding the physics of the connection between quasars and their host galaxies and measuring cosmic black hole-growth. At high redshift, z > 2.1, black hole masses are normally derived using the velocity-width of the CIV broad emission line, based on the assumption that the observed velocity-widths arise from virial-induced motions. In many quasars, the CIV-emission line exhibits significant blue asymmetries (`blueshifts') with the line centroid displaced by up to thousands of km/s to the blue. These blueshifts almost certainly signal the presence of strong outflows, most likely originating in a disc wind. We have obtained near-infrared spectra, including the H$\\alpha$ emission line, for 19 luminous ($L_{Bol}$ = 46.5-47.5 erg/s) Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars, at redshifts 2 2000 km/s, the velocity-widths appear to be dominated by non-virial motions. Black-hole masses, based on the full width at half maximum of the CIV-emission line, can be overestimated by a factor of...

  14. C IV emission-line properties and systematic trends in quasar black hole mass estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coatman, Liam; Hewett, Paul C.; Banerji, Manda; Richards, Gordon T.

    2016-09-01

    Black hole masses are crucial to understanding the physics of the connection between quasars and their host galaxies and measuring cosmic black hole-growth. At high redshift, z ≳ 2.1, black hole masses are normally derived using the velocity width of the C IV λ λ1548, 1550 broad emission line, based on the assumption that the observed velocity widths arise from virial-induced motions. In many quasars, the C IV emission line exhibits significant blue asymmetries (`blueshifts') with the line centroid displaced by up to thousands of km s-1 to the blue. These blueshifts almost certainly signal the presence of strong outflows, most likely originating in a disc wind. We have obtained near-infrared spectra, including the Hα λ6565 emission line, for 19 luminous (LBol = 46.5-47.5 erg s-1) Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars, at redshifts 2 2000 km s-1, the velocity widths appear to be dominated by non-virial motions. Black hole masses, based on the full width at half-maximum of the C IV emission line, can be overestimated by a factor of 5 at large blueshifts. A larger sample of quasar spectra with both C IV and H β, or Hα, emission lines will allow quantitative corrections to C IV-based black hole masses as a function of blueshift to be derived. We find that quasars with large C IV blueshifts possess high Eddington luminosity ratios and that the fraction of high-blueshift quasars in a flux-limited sample is enhanced by a factor of approximately 4 relative to a sample limited by black hole mass.

  15. Amines and Ammonia Measured in the Southeastern U.S. Forest during the 2013 SOAS Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; You, Y.; Sierra-Hernández, M.; Baumann, K.; Fry, J.; Allen, H.; Draper, D. C.; Edgerton, E.

    2013-12-01

    Amines and ammonia play critical roles in new particle formation, via acid-base reactions at the initial stage of aerosol nucleation. Nitrogen base compounds are important for SOA formation, via formation of salts and condensation of amine photo-oxidation products; they also contribute to the formation of brown organic aerosols. Amines and ammonia can change the acidity and physical state of aerosols to further affect SOA yields. During the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) campaign in Centerville, Alabama from June 1 to July 15, 2013, amines and ammonia were simultaneously measured with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) by Kent State University [Yu and Lee, 2012: Environ. Chem. 9, 190-201]. The sensitivity of the CIMS was in the range of 5-10 Hz ion signals for 1 pptv of a base compound, which ultimately allows for the fast-time response detection (less than 1 minute) of ammonia and amines at the pptv level. Additionally, ammonia was also detected with another two independent methods, MARGA (Measuring AeRosols and Gases) by Reed College, and chemiluminescence by ARA. Ammonia concentrations measured by CIMS, MARGA and chemiluminescence were at the ppbv and sub-ppbv level. Over the 6 weeks of the SOAS field study, these three ammonia instruments consistently showed very similar time variations and agreed reasonably well. The CIMS also detected various C1 through C6 amines at the pptv and tens pptv level. Trimethylamine (C3 amine) and ammonia showed similar diurnal trends, temperature and wind direction dependences for most days, implying common natural emission sources of these two base compounds at this forest site. On the other hand, methylamine (C1) and dimethylamine (C2) were much lower than trimethylamine and they did not show clear diurnal variations and temperature dependences. During the brief episode of local biomass burning, concentrations of C3 through C6 amines and ammonia increased rapidly, while methylamine and dimethylamine were

  16. Effect of beta-glucans contained in barley- and oat-based diets and exogenous enzyme supplementation on gastrointestinal fermentation of finisher pigs and subsequent manure odor and ammonia emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, C J; Sweeney, T; Lynch, M B; Gahan, D A; Callan, J J; O'Doherty, J V

    2010-04-01

    The objective of the current experiment was to evaluate the influence of dietary cereal sources of beta(1,3)(1,4)-d-glucan (beta-glucan) and enzyme supplementation on indices of environmental pollution from finisher pigs. An experiment with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was initiated to investigate the effect of dietary source of beta-glucan (barley vs. oats) and enzyme supplementation (no vs. yes) on nutrient digestibility, N utilization, intestinal fermentation, and manure odor and ammonia emissions from finisher boars (n = 4; BW = 73.9 kg; SD = 4.7). Sixteen boars were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (n = 4/treatment): 1) barley-based diet, 2) barley-based diet + exogenous enzyme, 3) oat-based diet, and 4) oat-based diet + enzyme. The enzyme supplement used contained endo-1,3(4)-beta-glucanase and endo-1,4-beta-xylanase. Experimental diets were formulated to contain similar concentrations of DE (13.5 MJ/kg) and digestible lysine (8.8 g/kg). Pigs offered oat-based diets had reduced digestibility of DM (0.795 vs. 0.849; SEM 0.007; P = 0.001), OM (0.808 vs. 0.865; SEM 0.007; P = 0.001), GE (0.806 vs. 0.845; SEM 0.006; P = 0.002), and NDF (0.233 vs. 0.423; SEM 0.033; P effect of enzyme inclusion on oat-based diets. In conclusion, pigs offered oat-based diets harbored increased Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. populations in the proximal colon and had decreased manure odor emissions compared with those offered barley-based diets. Enzyme inclusion had no effect on manure ammonia emissions from pigs offered oat-based diets. PMID:20023128

  17. New Trends in Energy Harvesting from Earth Long-Wave Infrared Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Mescia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review, even if not exhaustive, on the current technologies able to harvest energy from Earth’s thermal infrared emission is reported. In particular, we discuss the role of the rectenna system on transforming the thermal energy, provided by the Sun and reemitted from the Earth, in electricity. The operating principles, efficiency limits, system design considerations, and possible technological implementations are illustrated. Peculiar features of THz and IR antennas, such as physical properties and antenna parameters, are provided. Moreover, some design guidelines for isolated antenna, rectifying diode, and antenna coupled to rectifying diode are exploited.

  18. Low-cost anodes for ammonia electrooxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selverston, Steven M.

    This research focused on the development of low-cost electrodes for the electrochemical oxidation of ammonia to nitrogen, a reaction that has possible applications in hydrogen generation, direct ammonia fuel cells, water treatment, and sensors. Statistical design of experiments was used to help develop an efficient and scalable process for electrodeposition of platinum with a specific electrochemical surface area of over 25 m2 /g. Catalyst surface area and activity were evaluated using cyclic voltammetry, and the material microstructure and morphology were investigated using x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized electrodes were found to be active toward the ammonia electrooxidation reaction, particularly when supporting electrolyte was added. However, supporting electrolyte was not required in order to oxidize the ammonia. As proof of concept, a homemade direct ammonia fuel cell employing a commercial anion exchange membrane was tested at room temperature with gravity-fed fuel and without supporting electrolyte. At room temperature, with passive reactant supply and using dissolved oxygen at the cathode, the cell produced about one quarter the power of a direct methanol fuel cell that used active transport of humidified oxygen and preheated (50 °C) methanol. With continued development of the membrane, cathode and membrane electrode assembly, the passive direct ammonia fuel cell using anion exchange membrane could have performance similar to the equivalent direct methanol fuel cell, and it could benefit from many advantages of ammonia over methanol such as lower cost, higher energy density, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. Surface/atmosphere exchange of ammonia over grazed pasture.

    OpenAIRE

    Plantaz, M.A.H.G.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis deals with the exchange of ammonia between the atmosphere and grazed pasture in an area of intensive livestock breeding. The term exchange is used because gaseous ammonia can be taken up (dry deposition) as well as released (emission) by this type of surface.Ammonia exchange fluxes over the grass pasture of a research farm for dairy cattle breeding at Zegveld (the Netherlands) were measured continuously from July 1992 until July 1994. The main objective was to investigate the long...

  20. A comprehensive emission inventory of multiple air pollutants from iron and steel industry in China: Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Tian, Hezhong; Hua, Shenbing; Zhu, Chuanyong; Gao, Jiajia; Xue, Yifeng; Hao, Jiming; Wang, Yong; Zhou, Junrui

    2016-07-15

    China has become the largest producer of iron and steel throughout the world since 1996. However, as an energy-and-pollution intensive manufacturing sector, a detailed comprehensive emission inventory of air pollutants for iron and steel industry of China is still not available. To obtain and better understand the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of typical hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emissions from iron and steel production in China, a comprehensive emission inventory of multiple air pollutants, including size segregated particulate matter (TSP/PM10/PM2.5), gaseous pollutants (SO2, NOx, CO), heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Ni etc.), as well as the more dangerous PCDD/Fs, is established with the unit-based annual activity, specific dynamic emission factors for the historical period of 1978-2011, and the future potential trends till to 2050 are forecasted by using scenario analysis. Our results show that emissions of gaseous pollutants and particulate matter have experienced a gradual increase tendency since 2000, while emissions of priority-controlled heavy metals (Hg, Pb, As, Cd, Cr, and Ni) have exhibited a short-term fluctuation during the period of 1990 to 2005. With regard to the spatial distribution of HAPs emissions in base year 2011, Bohai economic circle is identified as the top emission intensity region where iron and steel smelting plants are densely built; within iron and steel industry, blast furnaces contribute the majority of PM emissions, sinter plants account for most of gaseous pollutants and the majority of PCDD/Fs, whereas steel making processes are responsible for the majority of heavy metal emissions. Moreover, comparisons of future emission trends under three scenarios indicate that advanced technologies and integrated whole process management strategies are in great need to further diminish various hazardous air pollutants from iron and steel industry in the future. PMID:27054489

  1. Combining physical and economic output data to analyse energy and CO2 emissions trends in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Index decomposition analysis based on economic output is frequently employed to provide an indication of energy intensity trends in industry. Additionally, composite energy efficiency indicators, calculated using physical output, are used to give a more accurate view of energy efficiency progress. Both approaches are commonly presented in one study but often with a different mathematical basis for each. This may lead to inconsistent results. We demonstrate using practical case studies that when all physical and economic output data are available for industry sub-sectors, these can be combined in a single decomposition analysis that provides an energy efficiency indicator based on physical production and an indicator of the influence of structural change based on value added. Using the same methodology for both results ensures that the results are consistent and provides insights into the effects of changing prices of goods on aggregate energy intensity. In the case studies examined, falling unit values of industrial goods produced over time tend to increase the energy intensity of industry. - Highlight: ► It is shown how physical and economic values are combined in decomposition analysis. ► The advantages of isolating a materialisation effect are highlighted. ► A materialisation effect shows the influence of price on aggregate energy intensity. ► An efficiency effect provides a better indication of energy efficiency progress. ► Case studies are provided for industry in Ireland and Germany.

  2. N Cycle, N Flow Trends in Japan, and Strategies for Reducing N2O Emission and NO-3 Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.MINAMI

    2005-01-01

    To feed an increasing population, large amounts of chemical nitrogen fertilizer have been used to produce much of our food, feed and fiber thereby increasing nitrogen levels in soils, natural waters, crop residues, livestock wastes,and municipal and agricultural wastes, with national and international concern about its potential adverse effects on environmental quality and public health. To understand these phenomena and problems, first the nitrogen cycle and the environment are described. Then recent trends for nitrogen cycling through the food and feed system, N2O emissions from fertilized upland and paddy soils, and NO-3 pollution in ground water in Japan are reported. Finally, mitigation strategies in Japan for reducing N2O emission and NO-3 pollution are proposed, including nitrification inhibitors, controlled release fertilizers, utilization of plant species that could suppress nitrification, utilizing the toposequence, government policy, and appropriate agricultural practices. Of all the technologies presented, use of nitrification inhibitors and controlled release fertilizers are deemed the most important with further development of these aspects of technologies being expected. These practices, if employed worldwide, could help reduce the load, or environmental deterioration, on the Earth's biosphere.

  3. Emissions Trends, Labour Productivity Dynamics and Time-Related Events - Sector Heterogeneous Analyses of Decoupling/Recoupling on a 1990-2006 NAMEA

    OpenAIRE

    Marin, Giovanni; Mazzanti, Massimiliano

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides new empirical evidence on Environmental Kuznets Curves (EKC) for CO2 and air pollutants at sector level. A panel dataset based on the Italian NAMEA (National Accounting Matrix including Environmental Accounts) over 1990-2006 is analysed, focusing on both emissions efficiency (EKC model) and total emissions (IPAT model). Results show that, looking at sector evidence, both decoupling and also eventually re-coupling trends could emerge along the path of economic development. ...

  4. Dissociation and Mass Transfer Coefficients for Ammonia Volatilization Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Process-based models are being used to predict ammonia emissions from manure sources, but their accuracy has not been fully evaluated for cattle manure. Laboratory trials were conducted to measure the dissociation and mass transfer coefficients for ammonia volatilization from media of buffered ammon...

  5. New technology for ammonia recovery from poultry litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abatement of gaseous ammonia in poultry houses is beneficial to both improve health/productivity of the birds and to reduce emissions into the environment surrounding the production facility. Current ammonia abatement technologies from poultry houses can be classified into four broad categories: 1) ...

  6. Sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosols over China: response to 2000–2015 emission changes of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We use a chemical transport model to examine the change of sulfate-nitrate-ammonium (SNA aerosols over China due to anthropogenic emission changes of their precursors (SO2, NOx and NH3 from 2000 to 2015. From 2000 to 2006, annual mean SNA concentrations increased by about 60% over China as a result of the 60% and 80% increases in SO2 and NOx emissions. During this period, sulfate is the dominant component of SNA over South China (SC and Sichuan Basin (SCB, while nitrate and sulfate contribute equally over North China (NC. Based on emission reduction targets in the 12th (2011–2015 Five-Year Plan (FYP, China's total SO2 and NOx emissions are projected to change by −16% and +16% from 2006 to 2015, respectively. The amount of NH3 emissions in 2015 is uncertain, given the lack of sufficient information on the past and present levels of NH3 emissions in China. With no change in NH3 emissions, SNA mass concentrations in 2015 will decrease over SCB and SC compared to their 2006 levels, but increase over NC where the magnitude of nitrate increase exceeds that of sulfate reduction. This suggests that the SO2 emission reduction target set by the 12th FYP, although effective in reducing SNA over SC and SCB, will not be successful over NC, for which NOx emission control needs to be strengthened. If NH3 emissions are allowed to keep their recent growth rate and increase by +16% from 2006 to 2015, the benefit of SO2 reduction will be completely offset over all of China due to the significant increase of nitrate, demonstrating the critical role of NH3 in regulating nitrate. The effective strategy to control SNA and hence PM2.5 pollution over China should thus be based on improving understanding of current NH3 emissions and putting more emphasis on controlling NH3 emissions in the future.

  7. Long-term trends of black carbon and sulphate aerosol in the Arctic: changes in atmospheric transport and source region emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hirdman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the IPY project POLARCAT (Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, of Climate, Chemistry, Aerosols and Transport and building on previous work (Hirdman et al., 2010, this paper studies the long-term trends of both atmospheric transport as well as equivalent black carbon (EBC and sulphate for the three Arctic stations Alert, Barrow and Zeppelin. We find a general downward trend in the measured EBC concentrations at all three stations, with a decrease of −2.1±0.4 ng m−3 yr−1 (for the years 1989–2008 and −1.4±0.8 ng m−3 yr−1 (2002–2009 at Alert and Zeppelin respectively. The decrease at Barrow is, however, not statistically significant. The measured sulphate concentrations show a decreasing trend at Alert and Zeppelin of −15±3 ng m−3 yr−1 (1985–2006 and −1.3±1.2 ng m−3 yr−1 (1990–2008 respectively, while there is no trend detectable at Barrow.

    To reveal the contribution of different source regions on these trends, we used a cluster analysis of the output of the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART run backward in time from the measurement stations. We have investigated to what extent variations in the atmospheric circulation, expressed as variations in the frequencies of the transport from four source regions with different emission rates, can explain the long-term trends in EBC and sulphate measured at these stations. We find that the long-term trend in the atmospheric circulation can only explain a minor fraction of the overall downward trend seen in the measurements of EBC (0.3–7.2% and sulphate (0.3–5.3% at the Arctic stations. The changes in emissions are dominant in explaining the trends. We find that the highest EBC and sulphate concentrations are associated with transport from Northern Eurasia and decreasing emissions in this region drive the

  8. Long-term trends of black carbon and sulphate aerosol in the Arctic: changes in atmospheric transport and source region emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hirdman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the IPY project POLARCAT (Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, of Climate, Chemistry, Aerosols and Transport and building on previous work (Hirdman et al., 2010, this paper studies the long-term trends of both atmospheric transport as well as equivalent black carbon (EBC and sulphate for the three Arctic stations Alert, Barrow and Zeppelin. We find a general downward trend in the measured EBC concentrations at all three stations, with a decrease of −2.1±0.4 ng m−3 yr−1 (for the years 1989–2008 and −1.4±0.8 ng m−3 yr−1 (2002–2009 at Alert and Zeppelin respectively. The decrease at Barrow is, however, not statistically significant. The measured sulphate concentrations show a decreasing trend at Alert and Zeppelin of −15±3 ng m−3 yr−1 (1985–2006 and −1.3±1.2 ng m−3 yr−1 (1990–2008 respectively, while the trend at Barrow is unclear.

    To reveal the influence of different source regions on these trends, we used a cluster analysis of the output of the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART run backward in time from the measurement stations. We have investigated to what extent variations in the atmospheric circulation, expressed as variations in the frequencies of the transport from four source regions with different emission rates, can explain the long-term trends in EBC and sulphate measured at these stations. We find that the long-term trend in the atmospheric circulation can only explain a minor fraction of the overall downward trend seen in the measurements of EBC (0.3–7.2% and sulphate (0.3–5.3% at the Arctic stations. The changes in emissions are dominant in explaining the trends. We find that the highest EBC and sulphate concentrations are associated with transport from Northern Eurasia and decreasing emissions in this region drive the downward trends

  9. Distributions, long term trends and emissions of four perfluorocarbons in remote parts of the atmosphere and firn air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Laube

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the first data set of atmospheric abundances for the following four perfluoroalkanes: n-decafluorobutane (n-C4F10, n-dodecafluoropentane (n-C5F12, n-tetradecafluorohexane (n-C6F14 and n-hexadecafluoroheptane (n-C7F16. All four compounds could be detected and quantified in air samples from remote locations in the Southern Hemisphere (at Cape Grim, Tasmania, archived samples dating back to 1978 and the upper troposphere (a passenger aircraft flying from Germany to South Africa. Further observations originate from air samples extracted from deep firn in Greenland and allow trends of atmospheric abundances in the earlier 20th century to be inferred. All four compounds were not present in the atmosphere prior to the 1960s. n-C4F10 and n-C5F12 were also measured in samples collected in the stratosphere with the data indicating that they have no significant sinks in this region. Emissions were inferred from these observations and found to be comparable with emissions from the EDGAR database for n-C6F14. However, emissions of n-C4F10, n-C5F12 and n-C7F16 were found to differ by up to five orders of magnitude between our approach and the database. Although the abundances of the four perfluorocarbons reported here are currently small (less than 0.3 parts per trillion they have strong Global Warming Potentials several thousand times higher than carbon dioxide (on a 100-yr time horizon and continue to increase in the atmosphere. We estimate that the sum of their cumulative emissions reached 325 million metric tonnes CO2 equivalent at the end of 2009.

  10. Distributions, long term trends and emissions of four perfluorocarbons in remote parts of the atmosphere and firn air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Laube

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the first data set of atmospheric abundances for the following four perfluoroalkanes: n-decafluorobutane (n-C4F10, n-dodecafluoropentane (n-C5F12, n-tetradecafluorohexane (n-C6F14 and n-hexadecafluoroheptane (n-C7F16. All four compounds could be detected and quantified in air samples from remote locations in the Southern Hemisphere (at Cape Grim, Tasmania, archived samples dating back to 1978 and the upper troposphere (a passenger aircraft flying from Germany to South Africa. Further observations originate from air samples extracted from deep firn in Greenland and allow trends of atmospheric abundances in the earlier 20th century to be inferred. All four compounds were not present in the atmosphere prior to the 1960s. n-C4F10 and n-C5F12 were also measured in samples collected in the stratosphere confirming their very long atmospheric lifetimes. Emissions were inferred from these observations and found to be comparable with emissions from the EDGAR database for n-C6F14. However, emissions of n-C4F10, n-C5F12 and n-C7F16 were found to differ by up to five orders of magnitude. Although the abundances of the four perfluorocarbons reported here are currently small (less than 0.3 ppt, parts per trillion they have strong Global Warming Potentials several thousand times higher than carbon dioxide and continue to increase in the atmosphere. The sum of their cumulative emissions reached 325 mt (million metric tonnes CO2 equivalent at the end of 2009.

  11. Effects of gaseous ammonia direct injection on performance characteristics of a spark-ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This is the very first study in utilizing direct injection of gaseous ammonia in an SI engine. • Engine combustion using direct injection of gaseous ammonia is proven feasible. • Energy efficiency using ammonia is comparable to that using gasoline. • CO emissions are decreased but emissions of NOx and HC are increased when ammonia is used. - Abstract: The effects of direct injection of gaseous ammonia on the combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions of a spark-ignition engine were investigated. Port-injection gasoline was used to enhance the burning of ammonia that was directly injected into the engine cylinder. Appropriate direct injection strategies were developed to allow ammonia to be used in spark-ignition engines without sacrifice of volumetric efficiency. Experimental results show that with gasoline providing the baseline power of 0.6 kW, total engine power could increase to 2.7 kW when the injection timing of ammonia was advanced to 370 BTDC with injection duration of 22 ms. Engine performance with use of gasoline–ammonia was compared to that with gasoline alone. For operations using gasoline–ammonia, with baseline power from gasoline at 0.6 kW the appropriate ammonia injection timing was found to range from 320 to 370 BTDC for producing 1.5–2.7 kW. The peak pressures were slightly lower than those using gasoline alone because of the lower flame of ammonia, resulting in reduction of cylinder pressure. The brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) with gasoline–ammonia was very similar to that with gasoline alone. Ammonia direct injection caused slight reductions of BSCO for all the loads studied but significantly increased BSHC because of the reduced combustion temperature of ammonia combustion. The use of ammonia resulted in increased NOx emissions because of formation of fuel NOx. Ammonia slip was also detected in the engine exhaust because of incomplete combustion

  12. 覆盖材料和厚度对堆存牛粪氨气和温室气体排放的影响%Effects of covering materials and sawdust covering depths on ammonia and greenhouse gase emissions from cattle manure during storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海生; 左福元; 董红敏; 栾冬梅

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is the important source of gaseous emissions (NH3 and greenhouse gases) from agriculture. Storage of animal manure is reported to be an important agricultural source of the environmentally harmful gases. Generally, ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from stored animal manure can be affected by environmental factors (temperature and wind speed) and storage stacking configuration. Most studies have focused on the emission of ammonia and greenhouse gases from slurry during storage. However, information of gaseous emissions from solid manure stored is limited. Material covering is expected to be an effective method to reduce gaseous emissions from the stored manure. Thus, two experiments were set up to study gaseous emissions during storage of the solid cattle manure, and the effect of covering depth (1, 3 and 5 cm) and two different covering materials (sawdust and straw) on emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases. Polyvinylchloride cylindrical (30 cm in diameter and 90 cm in height) static vessels were designed and built to measure ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions in the laboratory experiment. Fresh cattle manure was collected from practicing farm of Rongchang Campus of Southwest University in Chongqing. After fully mixed, manure was filled into 12 barrels (24.2 cm in diameter and 15 cm in height). Barrels were enveloped by static vessels while measuring gaseous emissions. The stacking process commenced on May 29, 2014, and was measured for 49 days. In Experiment 1, the emissions of NH3, CH4, N2O and CO2 from an uncovered and three sawdust-covering heaps of solid cattle manure were compared. Considering that the stacking of solid manure was only 10 cm height (about 4 kg), sawdust covering depths of 1, 3 and 5 cm were selected. In Experiment 2, the emissions of NH3, CH4, N2O and CO2 were quantified using solid cattle manure (about 10 kg, 25cm stacking height) covered with sawdust (2 cm depth, 250 g) and straw (6 cm depth, 250 g) by using

  13. Ammonia in the environment: From ancient times to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M.A.; Erisman, J.W.; Dentener, F.; Moller, D. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Penicuik (United Kingdom). Edinburgh Research Station

    2008-12-15

    Recent research on atmospheric ammonia has made good progress in quantifying sources/sinks and environmental impacts. This paper reviews the achievements and places them in their historical context. It considers the role of ammonia in the development of agricultural science and air chemistry, showing how these arose out of foundations in 18th century chemistry and medieval alchemy, and then identifies the original environmental sources from which the ancients obtained ammonia. Ammonia is revealed as a compound of key human interest through the centuries, with a central role played by sal ammoniac in alchemy and the emergence of modern science. The review highlights how recent environmental research has emphasized volatilization sources of ammonia. Conversely, the historical records emphasize the role of high-temperature sources, including dung burning, coal burning, naturally burning coal seams and volcanoes. Present estimates of ammonia emissions from these sources are based on few measurements, which should be a future priority.

  14. Footprints on Ammonia Concentrations from Environmental Regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Ellermann, Thomas; Hertel, Ole;

    2008-01-01

    Releases of ammonia (NH3) to the atmosphere contribute significantly to the desposition of nitrogen to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This is the background for the national NH3 emission ceilings in Europe. However, in some countries the national legislation aims not only to meet theese...

  15. Catalyst for Ammonia Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a bimetallic catalyst for ammonia oxidation, a method for producing a bimetallic catalyst for ammonia oxidation and a method for tuning the catalytic activity of a transition metal. By depositing an overlayer of less catalytic active metal onto a more catalytic...

  16. Assessing Ammonia Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the second of three articles to help water system operators understand ammonia and how to monitor and control its effects at the plant and in the distribution system. The first article (Opflow, April 2012) provided an overview of ammonia's chemistry, origins, and water sy...

  17. Method for forming ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Zuck, Larry D.

    2008-08-19

    A method for forming ammonia is disclosed and which includes the steps of forming a plasma; providing a source of metal particles, and supplying the metal particles to the plasma to form metal nitride particles; and providing a substance, and reacting the metal nitride particles with the substance to produce ammonia, and an oxide byproduct.

  18. Trends in multi-pollutant emissions from a technology-linked inventory for India: II. Residential, agricultural and informal industry sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Apoorva; Sadavarte, Pankaj; Rao, Anand B.; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Dispersed traditional combustion technologies, characterized by inefficient combustion and significant emissions, are widely used in residential cooking and "informal industries" including brick production, food and agricultural product processing operations like drying and cooking operations related to sugarcane juice, milk, food-grain, jute, silk, tea and coffee. In addition, seasonal agricultural residue burning in field is a discontinuous source of significant emissions. Here we estimate fuel consumption in these sectors and agricultural residue burned using detailed technology divisions and survey-based primary data for 2010 and projected between 1996 and 2015. In the residential sector, a decline in the fraction of solid biomass users for cooking from 79% in 1996 to 65% in 2010 was offset by a growing population, leading to a nearly constant population of solid biomass users, with a corresponding increase in the population of LPG users. Emissions from agriculture followed the growth in agricultural production and diesel use by tractors and pumps. Trends in emissions from the informal industries sector followed those in coal combustion in brick kilns. Residential biomass cooking stoves were the largest contributors to emissions of PM2.5, OC, CO, NMVOC and CH4. Highest emitting technologies of BC were residential kerosene wick lamps. Emissions of SO2 were largely from coal combustion in Bull's trench kilns and other brick manufacturing technologies. Diesel use in tractors was the major source of NOx emissions. Uncertainties in emission estimates were principally from highly uncertain emission factors, particularly for technologies in the informal industries.

  19. Detection of Widespread Hot Ammonia in the Galactic Center

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Elisabeth A. C.; Morris, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    We present the detection of metastable inversion lines of ammonia from energy levels high above the ground state. We detect these lines in both emission and absorption toward fifteen of seventeen positions in the central 300 parsecs of the Galaxy. In total, we observe seven metastable transitions of ammonia: (8,8), (9,9), (10,10), (11,11), (12,12), (13,13) and (15,15), with energies (in Kelvins) ranging from 680 to 2200 K. We also map emission from ammonia (8,8) and (9,9) in two clouds in the...

  20. Ammonia and nitrous oxide interactions - importance of organic matter management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Sommer, Sven G.

    ), or negative (e.g., direct N2O emissions from soil will potentially increase if losses of NH3 are prevented during storage or field application). Emissions of NH3 and N2O negatively affect N use efficiency and the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of livestock production. Ammonia and N2O emissions and GHG balances...

  1. 2020年我国水泥行业CO2排放趋势与减排路径分析%Analysis on CO2 Emission Trend and Emission Reduction Path of China's Cement Industry in 2020

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋小谦; 康艳兵; 刘强; 赵盟

    2012-01-01

    我国水泥行业的CO2排放仅次于电力行业,约占全国排放总量的15%.分析水泥行业的CO2排放趋势和减排路径对实现我国温室气体排放控制目标有着重要的现实意义.本文从影响水泥行业排放的主要影响因素着手,分析了水泥产量和单耗的现状及未来发展趋势,计算了水泥行业的历史排放、发展趋势以及减排潜力,指出了实现减排潜力面临的挑战和障碍,以及相应的措施建议.%CO2 emission from China's cement industry is only second to power industry, accounted for 15% of total national emissions. Analysis on CO2 emission trend and emission reduction path of cement industry is significant to the realization of GHG emissions control target in China. From the perspective of major influencing factors, this paper analyzes the status and future trend of cement production and energy consumption per unit of product, calculates history and future emissions as well as emission reduction potentials, also analyzes challenges and obstacles, and proposes appropriate measures recommendations.

  2. Trends and variations in CO, C2H6, and HCN in the Southern Hemisphere point to the declining anthropogenic emissions of CO and C2H6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Jones

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the carbon monoxide (CO, ethane (C2H6 and hydrogen cyanide (HCN partial columns (from the ground to 12 km derived from measurements by ground-based solar Fourier Transform Spectroscopy at Lauder, New Zealand (45° S, 170° E, and at Arrival Heights, Antarctica (78° S, 167° E, from 1997 to 2009. Significant negative trends are calculated for all species at both locations, based on the daily-mean observed time series, namely CO (−0.94 ± 0.47% yr−1, C2H6 (−2.37 ± 1.18% yr−1 and HCN (−0.93 ± 0.47% yr−1 at Lauder and CO (−0.92 ± 0.46% yr−1, C2H6 (−2.82 ± 1.37% yr−1 and HCN (−1.41 ± 0.71% yr−1 at Arrival Heights. The uncertainties reflect the 95% confidence limits. However, the magnitudes of the trends are influenced by the anomaly associated with the 1997–1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation event at the beginning of the time series reported. We calculate trends for each month from 1997 to 2009 and find negative trends for all months. The largest monthly trends of CO and C2H6 at Lauder, and to a lesser degree at Arrival Heights, occur during austral spring during the Southern Hemisphere tropical and subtropical biomass burning period. For HCN, the largest monthly trends occur in July and August at Lauder and around November at Arrival Heights. The correlations between CO and C2H6 and between CO and HCN at Lauder in September to November, when the biomass burning maximizes, are significantly larger that those in other seasons. A tropospheric chemistry-climate model is used to simulate CO, C2H6, and HCN partial columns for the period of 1997–2009, using interannually varying biomass burning emissions from GFED3 and annually periodic but seasonally varying emissions from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources. The model-simulated partial columns of these species compare well with the measured partial columns and the model accurately reproduces seasonal cycles of all three species at both locations. However

  3. Trend analysis air pollution. The effects of the working programme 'Clean and Efficient' on the emission of air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report explores the effects of the Dutch Climate Programme 'Clean and Efficient - Opportunities for Tomorrow' on the emissions of air pollutants, as included in the National Emissions Ceilings. The starting point for the analysis is the ex ante evaluation of Clean and Efficient as published in September 2007. On the national level, the relative effects on air pollutant emissions are invariably much smaller than those on domestic greenhouse gas emissions. With a 1% decrease in domestic greenhouse emissions, SO2 emission decrease between 0.3 and 0.5%, NOx emissions between 0.1 and 0.2%, NMVOC emissions decrease about 0.02 % and PM10 emissions decrease about 0.1%. Some general causes explain the differences between the effects on GHG emissions and NEC-emissions. Only part of both the NEC-emissions and the GHG-emissions is linked to energy use. Further, replacement of fossil fuels by biomass results in lower fossil CO2 emissions, but NEC-emissions remain roughly the same. Finally, emission factors of NEC-emissions vary strongly with energy carriers and processes, and reduction of energy use is unevenly divided among energy carriers and processes. Specifically for the Netherlands, the role of electricity exports is important. Strong climate policies and high CO2 prices are likely to result in lower electricity demand, more renewable electricity generation and more cogeneration. However, they are likely to improve the international competitiveness of the Dutch electricity generation as well. As a result, electricity exports rise and part of the emission reductions materialize outside the Netherlands, rather than within its borders. In the case of GHG-emissions, burden sharing mechanisms and trade in emission right make sure that this is not a real problem. As comparable mechanisms for NEC-emissions do not exist, the GHG burden sharing and emission trading pose a risk for the attainment of Dutch NEC-targets

  4. Transformation of ammonia i biological airfilters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Peter; Sørensen, Karen; Andersen, Mathias;

    2007-01-01

    Ammonia is a major compound in ventilation air from animal houses. In biological filters it is with varying efficiency transformed by physical, biological, and chemical processes and ends up as ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite dissolved in water and as dinitrogen, nitrous oxide and nitric oxide emi...... removal without too much energy consumption, waste water production, green house gas emission, or suppression of the filters odor removal efficiency.......Ammonia is a major compound in ventilation air from animal houses. In biological filters it is with varying efficiency transformed by physical, biological, and chemical processes and ends up as ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite dissolved in water and as dinitrogen, nitrous oxide and nitric oxide...

  5. A joint modelling exercise designed to assess the respective impact of emission changes and meteorological variability on the observed air quality trends in major urban hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colette, Augustin; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Dangiola, Ariela; D'Isidoro, Massimo; Gauss, Michael; Granier, Claire; Hodnebrog, Øivind; Jakobs, Hermann; Kanakidou, Maria; Khokhar, Fahim; Law, Kathy; Maurizi, Alberto; Meleux, Frederik; Memmesheimer, Michael; Nyiri, Agnes; Rouil, Laurence; Stordal, Frode; Tampieri, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    With the growth of urban agglomerations, assessing the drivers of variability of air quality in and around the main anthropogenic emission hotspots has become a major societal concern as well as a scientific challenge. These drivers include emission changes and meteorological variability; both of them can be investigated by means of numerical modelling of trends over the past few years. A collaborative effort has been developed in the framework of the CityZen European project to address this question. Several chemistry and transport models (CTMs) are deployed in this activity: four regional models (BOLCHEM, CHIMERE, EMEP and EURAD) and three global models (CTM2, MOZART, and TM4). The period from 1998 to 2007 has been selected for the historic reconstruction. The focus for the present preliminary presentation is Europe. A consistent set of emissions is used by all partners (EMEP for the European domain and IPCC-AR5 beyond) while a variety of meteorological forcing is used to gain robustness in the ensemble spread amongst models. The results of this experiment will be investigated to address the following questions: - Is the envelope of models able to reproduce the observed trends of the key chemical constituents? - How the variability amongst models changes in time and space and what does it tell us about the processes driving the observed trends? - Did chemical regimes and aerosol formation processes changed in selected hotspots? Answering the above questions will contribute to fulfil the ultimate goal of the present study: distinguishing the respective contribution of meteorological variability and emissions changes on air quality trends in major anthropogenic emissions hotspots.

  6. Changing regional emissions of airborne pollutants reflected in the chemistry of snowpacks and wetfall in the Rocky Mountain region, USA, 1993–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, George P.; Miller, Debra C.; Morris, Kristi H.; McMurray, Jill A.; Port, Garrett M.; Caruso, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Wintertime precipitation sample data from 55 Snowpack sites and 17 National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP)/National Trends Network Wetfall sites in the Rocky Mountain region were examined to identify long-term trends in chemical concentration, deposition, and precipitation using Regional and Seasonal Kendall tests. The Natural Resources Conservation Service snow-telemetry (SNOTEL) network provided snow-water-equivalent data from 33 sites located near Snowpack- and NADP Wetfall-sampling sites for further comparisons. Concentration and deposition of ammonium, calcium, nitrate, and sulfate were tested for trends for the period 1993–2012. Precipitation trends were compared between the three monitoring networks for the winter seasons and downward trends were observed for both Snowpack and SNOTEL networks, but not for the NADP Wetfall network. The dry-deposition fraction of total atmospheric deposition, relative to wet deposition, was shown to be considerable in the region. Potential sources of regional airborne pollutant emissions were identified from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2011 National Emissions Inventory, and from long-term emissions data for the period 1996–2013. Changes in the emissions of ammonia, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide were reflected in significant trends in snowpack and wetfall chemistry. In general, ammonia emissions in the western USA showed a gradual increase over the past decade, while ammonium concentrations and deposition in snowpacks and wetfall showed upward trends. Emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide declined while regional trends in snowpack and wetfall concentrations and deposition of nitrate and sulfate were downward.

  7. A Reversal of Long-term Global Trends in Atmospheric Ethane and Propane from North American Oil and Natural Gas Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Helmig, D.; Rossabi, S.; J. Hueber; P. P. Tans; Montzka, S. A.; Mazarie, K.; Thoning, K.; C. Plass-Duelmer; Claude, A; Lewis, A. C.; L. J. Carpenter; Punjabi, S.; S. Reimann; M. K. Vollmer; R. Steinbrecher

    2016-01-01

    Ethane, the longest-lived and most abundant non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) peaked in the background atmosphere around 1970. This was followed by a ~20% reduction of the atmospheric burden and a resulting atmospheric downward trend for the next four decades, mostly due to reduced emissions from oil and gas industries and stricter air quality controls. Here, we show that the near 40-year trend of declining global ethane halted between 2005-2010 in most of the Northern Hemisphere (NH), and that ...

  8. Combination of borax and quebracho condensed tannins treatment to reduce hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from stored swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock producers are acutely aware for the need to reduce gaseous emissions from stored livestock waste and have been trying to identify new technologies to address the chronic problem. Besides the malodor issue, toxic gases emitted from stored livestock manure, especially hydrogen sulfide (H2S)...

  9. Trend of CO{sub 2} emissions of the 30 largest power plants in Germany; Trendentwicklung der CO{sub 2}-Emissionen der 30 groessten Kraftwerke in Deutschland. Kurzanalyse basierend auf aktuellen Emissionshandelsdaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Hauke

    2014-04-02

    The brochure on the trend of CO{sub 2} emissions of the 30 largest power plants in Germany includes tables of the emissions of these power plants. The CO{sub 2} emissions of these power plants in 2013 (25% of the total German greenhouse gas emissions) have increased by 5% compared to 2012. The total CO{sub 2} emission sin Germany increased by 1.5%. The differences between brown coal and black coal fired power plants are discussed.

  10. Up/Down trend in the MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth and its relationship to the Sulfur Dioxide Emission Changes in China during 2000 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itahashi, S.; Uno, I.; Yumimoto, K.; Irie, H.; Osada, K.; Ogata, K.; Fukushima, H.; Wang, Z.; Ohara, T.

    2011-08-01

    Anthropogenic SO2 emissions increased alongside economic development in China at a rate of 12.7 % yr-1 from 2000 to 2005. However, under new Chinese government policy, SO2 emissions declined by 3.9 % yr-1 between 2005 and 2009. Between 2000 and 2010, we found that the variability in the fine-mode (submicron) aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the oceans adjacent to East Asia increased by 4-8 % yr-1 to a peak around 2005-2006 and subsequently decreased by 4-7 % yr-1, based on observations by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board NASA's Terra satellite and simulations by a chemical transport model. This trend is consistent with ground-based observations of the number-size distribution of aerosol particles at a mountainous background observation site in central Japan. These fluctuations in SO2 emission intensity and AOD are thought to reflect the widespread installation of fuel-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in China because aerosol sulfate is a major determinant of the AOD in East Asia. Using a chemical transport model, we confirmed that the above-mentioned fluctuation in AOD is mainly caused by changes in SO2 emission rather than by varying meteorological conditions in East Asia. High correlation was also found between satellite-retrieved SO2 vertical column density and bottom-up SO2 emissions, both of which were also consistent with observed AOD trends. We proposed a simplified approach for evaluating changes in SO2 emissions in China, combining the use of modeled sensitivity coefficients that describe the variation of AOD with changes in SO2 emissions and satellite retrieval. Satellite measurements of the AOD above Sea of Japan marked the 4.1 % yr-1 declining between 2007 and 2010, and this correspond to the SO2 emissions from China decreased by ~9 % yr-1 between the same period.

  11. Ammonia downstream from HH 80 North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girart, Jose M.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Anglada, Guillem; Estalella, Robert; Torrelles, Jose, M.; Marti, Josep; Pena, Miriam; Ayala, Sandra; Curiel, Salvador; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto

    1994-01-01

    HH 80-81 are two optically visible Herbig-Haro (HH) objects located about 5 minutes south of their exciting source IRAS 18162-2048. Displaced symmetrically to the north of this luminous IRAS source, a possible HH counterpart was recently detected as a radio continuum source with the very large array (VLA). This radio source, HH 80 North, has been proposed to be a member of the Herbig-Haro class since its centimeter flux density, angular size, spectral index, and morphology are all similar to those of HH 80. However, no object has been detected at optical wavelengths at the position of HH 80 North, possibly because of high extinction, and the confirmation of the radio continuum source as an HH object has not been possible. In the prototypical Herbig-Haro objects HH 1 and 2, ammonia emission has been detected downstream of the flow in both objects. This detection has been intepreted as a result of an enhancement in the ammonia emission produced by the radiation field of the shock associated with the HH object. In this Letter we report the detection of the (1,1) and (2,2) inversion transitions of ammonia downstream HH 80 North. This detection gives strong suppport to the interpretation of HH 80 North as a heavily obscured HH object. In addition, we suggest that ammonia emission may be a tracer of embedded Herbig-Haro objects in other regions of star formation. A 60 micrometer IRAS source could be associated with HH 80 North and with the ammonia condensation. A tentative explanation for the far-infrared emission as arising in dust heated by their optical and UV radiation of the HH object is presented.

  12. Research on Ammonia Emissions Reduction Technology Assessment for Livestock and Poultry Industry%畜禽养殖业氨氮总量控制减排技术评估研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振兴; 许振成; 谌建宇; 庞志华; 骆其金; 叶万生

    2014-01-01

    畜禽养殖业是“十二五”期间氨氮总量减排的重点,其清洁生产与末端治理技术种类繁多,不同技术在不同应用条件下减排效果差别显著。深入分析了国内外畜禽养殖业发展与污染现状,系统归纳了国内畜禽养殖业氨氮总量减排技术区域特征,综合使用层次-灰色综合评判法、费用-效益法、表单法等对氨氮总量减排技术进行了综合性的评价研究,构建了基于面向服务架构( SOA)的氨氮减排技术评估咨询平台。结果表明,氨氮总量减排技术评估方法与平台可大幅度提高技术评价的效率和精确度,可广泛应用于企业和管理部门氨氮减排的工程技术与环境管理工作。%As a key industry of total ammonia emissions control in China s'“Twelfth Five -Year” period, clean production and pollution treatment technologies of livestock and poultry industry are related with region ,size, production process, etc.Con-sidering that the application scope of water treatment technologies was different and the wastewater had obvious industrial charac -teristics, the hierarchy-gray comprehensive evaluation method, cost-effectiveness method, form method were used for a com -prehensive evaluation.Assessment software for technologies assessment was developed .The results showed that the application of this software could significantly improve the assessment efficiency and accuracy .The software can be widely used in business and management departments for ammonia emission control and environmental engineering management .

  13. The relationship between ammonia emissions from a poultry farm and soil NO and N2O fluxes from a downwind source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tang

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Intensive livestock farms emit large concentrations of NH3, most of which is deposited very close to the source. The presence of trees enhances the deposition. Rates to down wind forests can exceed 40 kg N ha-1. The steep gradient in large NH3 concentration and deposition at the edge of a downwind forest to background concentrations within a few hundred meters provides an ideal site to study the effect of different rates of N deposition on biological and chemical processes under similar environmental conditions. We have investigated the effect of different rates of NH3 deposition (62, 45, 24 and 5 kg NH3-N ha-1 y-1 on the flux of NO and N2O from soil in a mixed woodland downwind of a large poultry farm (160000 birds in Scotland, which has been operating for about 40 years. Measurements were carried out for a 6 month period, with hourly NO flux measurements, daily N2O fluxes close to the farm and monthly at all sites and monthly cumulative wet and dry N deposition. The increased NH3 and NH4+ deposition to the woodland increased emissions of NO and N2O and soil available NH4+ and NO3- concentrations. Average NO and N2O fluxes measured 15, 25 and 45 m downwind of the farm were 111.2±41.1, 123.3±40.7, 38.3±28.8 µg NO-N m-2 h-1 and 9.9±7.5, 34.3±33.3 and 21.2±6.1 µg NO-N m-2 h-1, respectively. At the background site 270 m downwind the N2O flux was reduced to 1.75±2.1 µg N2O-N m-2 h-1. NO emissions were significantly influenced by seasonal and daily changes in soil temperature and followed a diurnal pattern with maximum emissions approximately 3h after noon. For N2O no consistent diurnal pattern was observed. Changes in soil moisture content had a less clear effect on the NO and N2O flux. On average the NO emissions expressed as a fraction of the elevated N deposited were 7.1% (at 15 m, 6% (at 25 m and 2.3% (at 45 m downwind of the farm, whereas for N2O the emissions were only 2.8% (at 15 m, 3% (at 25 m and 3% (at 45 m downwind. These

  14. Reactor for removing ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Weifang; Stewart, Kenneth D.

    2009-11-17

    Disclosed is a device for removing trace amounts of ammonia from a stream of gas, particularly hydrogen gas, prepared by a reformation apparatus. The apparatus is used to prevent PEM "poisoning" in a fuel cell receiving the incoming hydrogen stream.

  15. Cereal β-glucan alters nutrient digestibility and microbial activity in the intestinal tract of pigs, and lower manure ammonia emission: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Zebeli, Q

    2013-07-01

    Cereal β-glucan may be detrimental in pig production because of negative effects on nutrient digestibility, but they may act as functional ingredients by stimulating the intestinal microbiota. This study primarily aimed to investigate relations between dietary β-glucan and nutrient digestibility, intestinal fermentation, and manure NH3 emission in weaned, growing, and finishing pigs. Effects of dietary xylose, NDF, and CP, and pig BW on animal responses were also evaluated. A meta-analytical approach, accounting for inter- and intraexperiment variations, was used to compute prediction models. Data from 26 studies including 107 different dietary treatments with appropriate dietary and physiological measurements were used to parameterize these models. Dietary β-glucan inclusion ranged from 0 to 6.7%. Increasing dietary β-glucan reduced apparent ileal (AID) and total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CP and energy (R(2) = 0.12 to 0.29; P pigs counteracted (P Pig BW also enhanced effects of β-glucan on cecal total VFA, colonic iso-butyrate, ileal butyrate, and NH3 emission (P < 0.05). Dietary CP potentiated (P < 0.01) the β-glucan effects on cecal total VFA, cecal butyrate, and colonic iso-butyrate. In conclusion, this study indicates that β-glucan can stimulate cecal butyrate and ameliorate manure NH3 emission, thereby decreasing nutrient digestibility. Because greater BW ameliorates β-glucan effects, finishing diets may be formulated to contain more β-glucan than weaner diets.

  16. Ammonia Clouds on Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Ammonia Ice Clouds on Jupiter In this movie, put together from false-color images taken by the New Horizons Ralph instrument as the spacecraft flew past Jupiter in early 2007, show ammonia clouds (appearing as bright blue areas) as they form and disperse over five successive Jupiter 'days.' Scientists noted how the larger cloud travels along with a small, local deep hole.

  17. Ammonia regeneration for a combined lime/ammonia spray dryer for SO[sub 2] control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xinjian, Yang (Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering)

    1992-12-23

    A research project designed to study the feasibility of ammonia regeneration for a combined lime/ammonia FGD process was conducted at the University of Cincinnati. The major objective for this project was to regenerate ammonia from a combined ammonia/calcium hydroxide spray dryer FGD byproduct for reuse which would reduce the operating cost of this FGD process. This final report covers the six phases of the project: (1) generation of original feedstock, (2) batch regeneration studies, (3) continuous regeneration studies, (4) waste characteristic analysis, (5) pilot scale demonstration and (6) economic analysis. This research has shown that regeneration of ammonia is feasible at a reasonable cost. The effects on Ohio coal use from the results of this research could be substantial, depending on the Phase II application of FGD systems for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions. In conclusion, experiments in this study have shown that ammonia recovery efficiencies greater than 90% are technically and economically feasible. In addition, the sludge produced from the regeneration process is stable and will meet existing Federal standards.

  18. Simultaneous cardiac output and regional myocardial perfusion determination with PET and nitrogen 13 ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, Jens D; Kofoed, Klaus F; Wu, Hsiao M;

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of measuring cardiac output during positron emission tomography (PET) examination of myocardial perfusion with nitrogen 13 ammonia.......The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of measuring cardiac output during positron emission tomography (PET) examination of myocardial perfusion with nitrogen 13 ammonia....

  19. Alkaline Ammonia Electrolysis on Electrodeposited Platinum for Controllable Hydrogen Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Jieun; Choun, Myounghoon; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2016-02-19

    Ammonia is beginning to attract a great deal of attention as an alternative energy source carrier, because clean hydrogen can be produced through electrolytic processes without the emission of COx . In this study, we deposited various shapes of Pt catalysts under potentiostatic mode; the electrocatalytic oxidation behavior of ammonia using these catalysts was studied in alkaline media. The electrodeposited Pt was characterized by both qualitative and quantitative analysis. To discover the optimal structure and the effect of ammonia concentration, the bulk pH value, reaction temperature, and applied current of ammonia oxidation were investigated using potential sweep and galvanostatic methods. Finally, ammonia electrolysis was conducted using a zero-gap cell, producing highly pure hydrogen with an energy efficiency over 80 %. PMID:26530809

  20. Alkaline Ammonia Electrolysis on Electrodeposited Platinum for Controllable Hydrogen Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Jieun; Choun, Myounghoon; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2016-02-19

    Ammonia is beginning to attract a great deal of attention as an alternative energy source carrier, because clean hydrogen can be produced through electrolytic processes without the emission of COx . In this study, we deposited various shapes of Pt catalysts under potentiostatic mode; the electrocatalytic oxidation behavior of ammonia using these catalysts was studied in alkaline media. The electrodeposited Pt was characterized by both qualitative and quantitative analysis. To discover the optimal structure and the effect of ammonia concentration, the bulk pH value, reaction temperature, and applied current of ammonia oxidation were investigated using potential sweep and galvanostatic methods. Finally, ammonia electrolysis was conducted using a zero-gap cell, producing highly pure hydrogen with an energy efficiency over 80 %.

  1. Greenhouse gases during storage and after application of digested and non-digested dairy cattle slurry including ammonia emissions and barley yield; Vaexthusgaser fraan roetad och oroetad noetflytgoedsel vid lagring och efter spridning, samt bestaemning av ammoniakavgaang och skoerd i vaarkorn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodhe, Lena; Ascue, Johnny; Tersmeden, Marianne; Willen, Agnes; Nordberg, Aake; Salomon, Eva; Sundberg, Martin

    2013-07-01

    Given that the manure-based biogas production is likely to increase in the coming years , it's important to find a proper handling of digested manure that have low emissions of both climate gases methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O ) as ammonia (NH{sub 3}) , which indirectly contributes to emissions of N{sub 2}O. The project have; Quantified GHG emissions, from undigested and digested manure during storage in winter and summer, and during land application in autumn and spring. Examined the effect on GHG emissions of covering digested manure during storage in winter and summer, and quantified NH{sub 3} emissions, yield and apparent nitrogen (N) recovery in spring barley.

  2. Carbon dioxide emission trends in cars and light trucks: A comparative analysis of emissions and methodologies for Florida's counties (2000 and 2008)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates methodologies to quantify CO2 emissions from cars and light trucks in Florida. The most widely used methodology to calculate greenhouse gas emissions in the transportation sector at the local level uses a harmonic average (HA) methodology based on nationally averaged fuel economies that assume 55% city and 45% highway VMTs. This paper presents a local condition (LC) methodology that accounts for county-level variations in city and highway VMTs, as opposed to assumed uniform driving conditions. Both HA and LC methodologies were used to estimate and compare absolute and per capita CO2 emissions both statewide and counties for 2000 and 2008. From 2000 to 2008, statewide absolute and per capita CO2 emissions increased similarly using HA and LC methodologies; however, the percent change varied considerably among counties. Statewide CO2 emissions calculated from HA and LC methodologies differed by only -0.2% (2000) and 1.7% (2008); however, the differences in the county-level emissions ranged from -8.0% to 14.9% (2000) and from -5.6% to 17.0% (2008). While either the HA or the LC methodology yields a similar result statewide, significant variation exists at the county level, warranting the need to consider local driving conditions when estimating county-level emissions. - Highlights: → The paper evaluates GHG emission methods for on-road passenger vehicles in Florida. → The paper compares methods that assume the harmonic average with actual VMTs driven. → The paper analyzes statewide GHG emissions aggregated by county for 2000 and 2008. → The paper improves on methods that balance bottom-up with top-down GHG emissions.

  3. Evaluation of metrics and baselines for tracking greenhouse gas emissions trends: Recommendations for the California climate action registry

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Lynn; Murtishaw, Scott; Worrell, Ernst

    2003-01-01

    Executive Summary: The California Climate Action Registry, which was initially established in 2000 and began operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for recording annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of the Registry is to assist California businesses and organizations in their efforts to inventory and document emissions in order to establish a baseline and to document early actions to increase energy efficiency and decrease GHG emissions. The State of California has...

  4. Ammonia emissions in the United States, European Union, and China derived by high-resolution inversion of ammonium wet deposition data: Interpretation with a new agricultural emissions inventory (MASAGE_NH3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We use the adjoint of a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to optimizeammonia (NH3China by inversion of 2005–2008 network data for NH+4 wet deposition fluxes. Optimized emissions are derive...

  5. A Fuel-Based Assessment of On-Road and Off-Road Mobile Source Emission Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmann, T. R.; Harley, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    Mobile sources contribute significantly to emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the United States. These emissions lead to a variety of environmental concerns including adverse human health effects and climate change. In the electric power sector, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and NOx emissions from power plants are measured directly using continuous emission monitoring systems. In contrast for mobile sources, statistical models are used to estimate average emissions from a very large and diverse population of engines. Despite much effort aimed at improving them, mobile source emission inventories continue to have large associated uncertainties. Alternate methods are needed to help evaluate estimates of mobile source emissions and quantify and reduce the associated uncertainties. In this study, a fuel-based approach is used to estimate emissions from mobile sources, including on-road and off-road gasoline and diesel engines. In this approach, engine activity is measured by fuel consumed (in contrast EPA mobile source emission models are based on vehicle km of travel and total amount of engine work output for on-road and off-road engines, respectively). Fuel consumption is defined in this study based on highway fuel tax reports for on-road engines, and from surveys of fuel wholesalers who sell tax-exempt diesel fuel for use in various off-road sectors such as agriculture, construction, and mining. Over the decade-long time period (1996-2006) that is the focus of the present study, national sales of taxable gasoline and diesel fuel intended for on-road use increased by 15 and 43%, respectively. Diesel fuel use by off-road equipment increased by about 20% over the same time period. Growth in fuel consumption offset some of the reductions in pollutant emission factors that occurred during this period. This study relies on in-use measurements of mobile source emission factors, for example from roadside and tunnel studies, remote sensing, and

  6. Decomposition of factors determining the trend of CO{sub 2} emissions from car travel in Great Britain (1970-2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Tae-Hyeong [The Korea Transport Institute (KOTI), 2311 Daehwa-dong, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-Shi, Gyeonggi-do, 411-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-04-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is the most important of the greenhouse gases that are causing global warming. The transport sector currently accounts for more than one-quarter of CO{sub 2} emissions and more importantly its share in total emissions is increasing in most countries. This paper investigates the key factors in the change in CO{sub 2} emissions from car travel in Great Britain over the last 30 years. It attempts to disentangle determinants of growth in CO{sub 2} emissions from car travel, which has the largest share of emissions in road transport. The study is based on various decomposition analyses, starting from the IPAT identity. As summarised in the IPAT identity, the degree of the Impact of human activity on the environment is determined by changes in Population, Affluence (per-capita consumption) and Technology (environmental impact per quantity of consumption). In the case of CO{sub 2} emissions from car travel in Great Britain, the affluence (A) factor (car driving distance per person) was a dominant force for the growth of emissions over the last 30 years. Not only do people travel longer distances by cars than 30 years ago, but car occupancy rates have also decreased, contributing to the growth of car driving distance per person. Although technology (T) factors such as fuel efficiency and fuel substitution to diesel fuel partly cancelled out these growth effects of affluence factors, this contribution was relatively small. However, in the 1990s there emerged a different pattern in the trend. Of the affluence (A) factors, the growth rate of car trip distance per person weakened considerably. As for the technology (T) effect, the carbon intensity of car driving kept decreasing over this period. Therefore, although CO{sub 2} emissions from car travel (I) continued to increase, the growth rate became substantially lower than in the earlier periods. More detailed investigation into the determinants of both affluence (A) factors and technology (T

  7. Ammonia volatilization from crop residues and frozen green manure crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruijter, F. J.; Huijsmans, J. F. M.; Rutgers, B.

    2010-09-01

    Agricultural systems can lose substantial amounts of nitrogen (N). To protect the environment, the European Union (EU) has adopted several directives that set goals to limit N losses. National Emission Ceilings (NEC) are prescribed in the NEC directive for nitrogen oxides and ammonia. Crop residues may contribute to ammonia volatilization, but sufficient information on their contribution to the national ammonia volatilization is lacking. Experiments were carried out with the aim to assess the ammonia volatilization of crop residues left on the soil surface or incorporated into the soil under the conditions met in practice in the Netherlands during late autumn and winter. Ammonia emission from residues of broccoli, leek, sugar beet, cut grass, fodder radish (fresh and frozen) and yellow mustard (frozen) was studied during two winter seasons using volatilization chambers. Residues were either placed on top of soil or mixed with soil. Mixing residues with soil gave insignificant ammonia volatilization, whereas volatilization was 5-16 percent of the N content of residues when placed on top of soil. Ammonia volatilization started after at least 4 days. Total ammonia volatilization was related to C/N-ratio and N concentration of the plant material. After 37 days, cumulative ammonia volatilization was negligible from plant material with N concentration below 2 percent, and was 10 percent of the N content of plant material with 4 percent N. These observations can be explained by decomposition of plant material by micro-organisms. After an initial built up of the microbial population, NH 4+ that is not needed for their own growth is released and can easily emit as NH 3 at the soil surface. The results of the experiments were used to estimate the contribution of crop residues to ammonia volatilization in the Netherlands. Crop residues of arable crops and residues of pasture topping may contribute more than 3 million kg NH 3-N to the national ammonia volatilization of the

  8. Interannual variability of ammonia concentrations over the United States: sources and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiferl, Luke D.; Heald, Colette L.; Van Damme, Martin; Clarisse, Lieven; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-François; Nowak, John B.; Neuman, J. Andrew; Herndon, Scott C.; Roscioli, Joseph R.; Eilerman, Scott J.

    2016-09-01

    The variability of atmospheric ammonia (NH3), emitted largely from agricultural sources, is an important factor when considering how inorganic fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and nitrogen cycling are changing over the United States. This study combines new observations of ammonia concentration from the surface, aboard aircraft, and retrieved by satellite to both evaluate the simulation of ammonia in a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and identify which processes control the variability of these concentrations over a 5-year period (2008-2012). We find that the model generally underrepresents the ammonia concentration near large source regions (by 26 % at surface sites) and fails to reproduce the extent of interannual variability observed at the surface during the summer (JJA). Variability in the base simulation surface ammonia concentration is dominated by meteorology (64 %) as compared to reductions in SO2 and NOx emissions imposed by regulation (32 %) over this period. Introduction of year-to-year varying ammonia emissions based on animal population, fertilizer application, and meteorologically driven volatilization does not substantially improve the model comparison with observed ammonia concentrations, and these ammonia emissions changes have little effect on the simulated ammonia concentration variability compared to those caused by the variability of meteorology and acid-precursor emissions. There is also little effect on the PM2.5 concentration due to ammonia emissions variability in the summer when gas-phase changes are favored, but variability in wintertime emissions, as well as in early spring and late fall, will have a larger impact on PM2.5 formation. This work highlights the need for continued improvement in both satellite-based and in situ ammonia measurements to better constrain the magnitude and impacts of spatial and temporal variability in ammonia concentrations.

  9. Accelerated DFT-Based Design of Materials for Ammonia Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Bjerre; Bialy, Agata; Blanchard, Didier;

    2015-01-01

    Future energy carriers are needed in order to lower the CO2 emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. One possible energy carrier is ammonia, which can be stored safely and reversibly in metal halide ammines; however, the release often occurs in multiple steps at too high temperatures...... materials is the first known high-capacity ternary metal halide ammine, which we have subsequently synthesized and confirmed the ammonia storage properties using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD)....

  10. Trends in multi-pollutant emissions from a technology-linked inventory for India: I. Industry and transport sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadavarte, Pankaj; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Emissions estimation, for research and regulatory applications including reporting to international conventions, needs treatment of detailed technology divisions and high-emitting technologies. Here we estimate Indian emissions, for 1996-2015, of aerosol constituents (PM2.5, BC and OC) and precursor gas SO2, ozone precursors (CO, NOx, NMVOC and CH4) and greenhouse gases (CO2 and N2O), using a common fuel consumption database and consistent assumptions. Six source categories and 45 technologies/activities in the industry and transport sectors were used for estimating emissions for 2010. Mean emission factors, developed at the source-category level, were used with corresponding fuel consumption data, available for 1996-2011, projected to 2015. New activities were included to account for fugitive emissions of NMVOC from chemical and petrochemical industries. Dynamic emission factors, reflecting changes in technology-mix and emission regulations, were developed for thermal power plants and on-road transport vehicles. Modeled emission factors were used for gaseous pollutants for on-road vehicles. Emissions of 2.4 (0.6-7.5) Tg y-1 PM2.5, 0.23 (0.1-0.7) Tg y-1 BC, 0.15 (0.04-0.5) Tg y-1 OC, 7.3 (6-10) Tg y-1 SO2, 19 (7.5-33) Tg y-1 CO, 1.5 (0.1-9) Tg y-1 CH4, 4.3 (2-9) Tg y-1 NMVOC, 5.6 (1.7-15.9) Tg y-1 NOx, 1750 (1397-2231) Tg y-1 CO2 and 0.13 (0.05-0.3) Tg y-1 N2O were estimated for 2015. Significant emissions of aerosols and their precursors were from coal use in thermal power and industry (PM2.5 and SO2), and on-road diesel vehicles (BC), especially superemitters. Emissions of ozone precursors were largely from thermal power plants (NOx), on-road gasoline vehicles (CO and NMVOC) and fugitive emissions from mining (CH4). Highly uncertain default emission factors were the principal contributors to uncertainties in emission estimates, indicating the need for region specific measurements.

  11. Respiratory ammonia output and blood ammonia concentration during incremental exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, W; Huizenga, [No Value; Kort, E; van der Mark, TW; Grevink, RG; Verkerke, GJ

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the increase of ammonia concentration and lactate concentration in blood was accompanied by an increased expiration of ammonia during graded exercise. Eleven healthy subjects performed an incremental cycle ergometer test. Blood ammonia, blood lactate

  12. Reconciling Long-Term Trends in Air Quality with Bottom-up Emission Inventories for Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, B. C.; Kim, S. W.; Frost, G. J.; Harley, R.; Trainer, M.

    2014-12-01

    Significant long-term changes in air quality have been observed in the United States over several decades. However, reconciling ambient observations with bottom-up emission inventories has proved challenging. In this study, we perform WRF-Chem modeling in the Los Angeles basin for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and ozone (O3) over a long time period (1987-2010). To improve reconciliation of emission inventories with atmospheric observations, we incorporate new high-resolution emissions maps of a major to dominant source of urban air pollution, motor vehicles. A fuel-based approach is used to estimate motor vehicle emissions utilizing annual fuel sales reports, traffic count data that capture spatial and temporal patterns of vehicle activity, and pollutant emission factors measured from roadway studies performed over the last twenty years. We also update emissions from stationary sources using Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS) data when available, and use emission inventories developed by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and California Air Resources Board (ARB) for other important emission source categories. WRF-Chem modeling is performed in three years where field-intensive measurements were made: 1987 (SCAQS: Southern California Air Quality Study), 2002 (ITCT: Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation Study), and 2010 (CALNEX). We assess the ability of the improved bottom-up emissions inventory to predict long-term changes in ambient levels of CO, NOx, and O3, which are known to have occurred over this time period. We also assess changing spatial and temporal patterns of primary (CO and NOx) and secondary (O3) pollutant concentrations across the Los Angeles basin, which has important implications on human health.

  13. Liberation of ammonia by cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoheterotrophic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria release ammonia when treated with methionine sulfoximine (MSX) to inhibit nitrogen incorporation into protein. This released ammonia can be derived from recently fixed nitrogen (nitrogen atmosphere) or endogenous reserves (argon atmosphere). Anaerobic ammonia release requires light and is stimulated by the photosystem II herbicides DCMU and Atrazine, regardless of the source of ammonia. As much as one quarter of the total cellular nitrogen can be released as ammonia by cyanbacteria treated with MSX and DCMU under argon in light. Chromatography of cell extracts indicates that virtually all cellular proteins are degraded. DCMU and Atrazine, at very low concentration, inhibit sustained uptake of the ammonia analog 14C methylamine. These data indicate that the herbicides interrupt ammonia uptake and retention by the cells, and support a role for photosystem II in ammonia metabolism

  14. Efficient determination of vehicle emission factors by fuel use category using on-road measurements: downward trends on Los Angeles freight corridor I-710

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hudda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the success of vehicle emissions regulations, trends in both fleet-wide average emissions as well as high-emitter emissions are needed, but it is challenging to capture the full spread of vehicle emission factors (EFs with chassis dynamometer or tunnel studies, and remote sensing studies cannot evaluate particulate compounds. We developed an alternative method that links real-time on-road pollutant measurements from a mobile platform with real-time traffic data, and allows efficient calculation of both the average and the spread of EFs for light-duty gasoline-powered vehicles (LDG and heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles (HDD. This is the first study in California to report EFs under a full range of real-world driving conditions on multiple freeways. Fleet average LDG EFs were in agreement with most recent studies and an order of magnitude lower than observed HDD EFs. HDD EFs reflected the relatively rapid decreases in diesel emissions that have recently occurred in Los Angeles/California, and on I-710, a primary route used for goods movement and a focus of additional truck fleet turnover incentives, HDD EFs were often lower than on other freeways. When freeway emission rates (ER were quantified as the product of EF and vehicle miles traveled (VMT per time per mile of freeway, despite a two- to three-fold difference in HDD fractions between freeways, ERs were found to be generally similar in magnitude. Higher LDG VMT on low HDD fraction freeways largely offset the difference. Therefore, the conventional assumption that freeways with the highest HDD fractions are significantly worse sources of total emissions in Los Angeles may no longer be~true.

  15. Control of ammonia air pollution through the management of thermal processes in cowsheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleizgys, Rolandas; Bagdoniene, Indre

    2016-10-15

    Experimental researches performed in manufacturing cowsheds have demonstrated a variation of ammonia concentration and the factors influencing this most during different periods of the year. The process of ammonia evaporation from manure is influenced by many varying and interrelated factors with temperature and the intensity of air ventilation being the most critical ones. The influence of these factors on the process of ammonia evaporation was established by laboratory researches. An increase in temperature results in an exponential increase in ammonia emission, whereas the dependence of the emission on the air velocity is best expressed by a second degree polynomial. The results obtained may be used as a forecast of the ammonia emissions from cowsheds during different periods of the year. Intensive ventilation is required for the removal of excess moisture from the housing, and this limits the possibilities to reduce ammonia emissions by controlling the intensity of ventilation. A reduction in the amount of ventilation is only recommended if the air quality indices meet the requirements applied to the housing. Better opportunities to reduce ammonia emissions are provided through management of the thermal processes in a cowshed. If the average annual air temperature (11.3°C) is reduced by one degree in a cubicle housing cowshed, the ammonia emissions will decrease by 10%. PMID:27350091

  16. Trend analysis from 1970 to 2008 and model evaluation of EDGARv4 global gridded anthropogenic mercury emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Muntean, Marilena; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Song, Shaojie; Selin, Noelle Eckley; OLIVIER Jos; GUIZZARDI DIEGO; MAAS Rob; DENTENER Franciscus

    2013-01-01

    The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) provides a time-series of man-made emissions of greenhouse gases and short-lived atmospheric pollutants from 1970 to 2008. Mercury is included in EDGARv4.tox1, thereby enriching the spectrum of multi-pollutant sources in the database. With an average annual growth rate of 1.3% since 1970, EDGARv4 estimates that the global mercury emissions reached 1287 tonnes in 2008. Specifically, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) (Hg[superscript 0]...

  17. Systematic trends in beta-delayed particle emitting nuclei: The case of βpα emission from 21Mg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Lund

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We have observed β+-delayed α and pα emission from the proton-rich nucleus 21Mg produced at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. The assignments were cross-checked with a time distribution analysis. This is the third identified case of βpα emission. We discuss the systematic of beta-delayed particle emission decays, show that our observed decays fit naturally into the existing pattern, and argue that the patterns are to a large extent caused by odd–even effects.

  18. Measurements of ammonia concentrations, fluxes and dry deposition velocities to a spruce forest 1991-1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.V.; Hovmand, M.F.; Hummelshøj, P.;

    1999-01-01

    The dry deposition velocities and fluxes of ammonia have been estimated from measurements of the vertical gradient of ammonia and micrometeorology above a spruce forest in western Jutland, Denmark. Measurements have been made in seven periods, each lasting about one week and covering all seasons...... measuring period characterized by easterly winds with dry conditions and high ammonia concentrations, and the emissions might relate to evaporation from ammonia saturated surfaces or emission from mineralization in the forest soil. In general, relatively high net deposition velocities were observed during...... at conditions with easterly winds, the air have passed central Jutland with large emission areas. Some of the relatively low deposition velocities or emissions were observed during conditions with low ammonia concentration and westerly winds. These observations might relate to a compensation point of the forest...

  19. Chronological trends of emission, environmental level and human exposure of POPs over the last 10 years (1999-2010) in Korea: implication to science and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Kyu; Yoon, Junheon

    2014-02-01

    Despite the first comprehensive reviewing on POPs status in Korea, a previous review chapter (Departments in Environmental Science, Volume 7, Chapter 2) could not discuss and evaluate the temporal trends and the effect of the efforts and policies invested in POPs control and management, since most data were based on individual research results of academic groups in which POPs could not be systematically monitored in terms of time and space. Recently, we have collected monitoring data long enough in time (over 10 years) and wide enough in space (covering various land-use patterns and the Korean peninsula), which were produced at national monitoring stations under the governmental programs. This study aimed to elucidate the temporal trends of POPs emissions, concentrations in multiple compartments (air, water, soil, sediment, organisms, and marine products), and human exposure. The chronological data available for all the subjects investigated were present only for PCDDs/DFs and coPCBs. Their emission reduction with half-lives of ~2 years was followed by contemporaneous decrease of contamination levels in inland compartments, while a considerably slow or slight reduction occurred in human exposure and its related compartments (fishes and shellfishes as foodstuffs consumed, and marine compartments). The findings prove that a lag-time is present for the efforts of emission reduction to be so much effective as to be reflected directly in human exposure, and such a lag-time can be related with the fates connecting inland and marine environments. PCBs showed faster reduction in human exposure than dioxin-like compounds. As for other POPs, chronological trends and half-lives could not be determined owing to low detection frequencies of PCBs and OCPs in environmental compartments, the absence of monitoring data for OCPs in human exposure, and data limitation for emerging POPs present in recent a few years. Monitoring strategies are also recommended based on this meta-analysis.

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from solid waste in Beijing: The rising trend and the mitigation effects by management improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Wen

    2016-04-01

    Disposal of solid waste poses great challenges to city managements. Changes in solid waste composition and disposal methods, along with urbanisation, can certainly affect greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste. In this study, we analysed the changes in the generation, composition and management of municipal solid waste in Beijing. The changes of greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste management were thereafter calculated. The impacts of municipal solid waste management improvements on greenhouse gas emissions and the mitigation effects of treatment techniques of greenhouse gas were also analysed. Municipal solid waste generation in Beijing has increased, and food waste has constituted the most substantial component of municipal solid waste over the past decade. Since the first half of 1950s, greenhouse gas emission has increased from 6 CO2-eq Gg y(-1)to approximately 200 CO2-eq Gg y(-1)in the early 1990s and 2145 CO2-eq Gg y(-1)in 2013. Landfill gas flaring, landfill gas utilisation and energy recovery in incineration are three techniques of the after-emission treatments in municipal solid waste management. The scenario analysis showed that three techniques might reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 22.7%, 4.5% and 9.8%, respectively. In the future, if waste disposal can achieve a ratio of 4:3:3 by landfill, composting and incineration with the proposed after-emission treatments, as stipulated by the Beijing Municipal Waste Management Act, greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste will decrease by 41%.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from solid waste in Beijing: The rising trend and the mitigation effects by management improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Wen

    2016-04-01

    Disposal of solid waste poses great challenges to city managements. Changes in solid waste composition and disposal methods, along with urbanisation, can certainly affect greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste. In this study, we analysed the changes in the generation, composition and management of municipal solid waste in Beijing. The changes of greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste management were thereafter calculated. The impacts of municipal solid waste management improvements on greenhouse gas emissions and the mitigation effects of treatment techniques of greenhouse gas were also analysed. Municipal solid waste generation in Beijing has increased, and food waste has constituted the most substantial component of municipal solid waste over the past decade. Since the first half of 1950s, greenhouse gas emission has increased from 6 CO2-eq Gg y(-1)to approximately 200 CO2-eq Gg y(-1)in the early 1990s and 2145 CO2-eq Gg y(-1)in 2013. Landfill gas flaring, landfill gas utilisation and energy recovery in incineration are three techniques of the after-emission treatments in municipal solid waste management. The scenario analysis showed that three techniques might reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 22.7%, 4.5% and 9.8%, respectively. In the future, if waste disposal can achieve a ratio of 4:3:3 by landfill, composting and incineration with the proposed after-emission treatments, as stipulated by the Beijing Municipal Waste Management Act, greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste will decrease by 41%. PMID:26873911

  2. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment

  3. Post-2012 climate regime. How industrial and developing nations can help to reduce emissions - assessing emission trends, reduction potentials, incentive systems and negotiation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duscha, Vicki; Graichen, Jakob; Healy, Sean; Schleich, Joachim; Schumacher, Katja [Oeko-Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    This report analyses the emissions reduction targets submitted under the Copenhagen Accord by developed and developing countries in matters of four key questions: - Do the pledges add up to the emission reductions required necessary by science? - What are the costs associated with meeting the given targets? - Are the proposed emission reduction efforts of Annex I parties comparable? - What would comparable efforts look like taking country-specific socio-economic indicators into account? Secondary to these questions this report explores the economic and environmental implications of the submitted pledges and NAMAs. Furthermore, we analyze and assess the comparability of efforts of Annex I mitigation pledges compared to a range of socio-economic indicators that may provide a basis for a ''fair'' effort sharing agreement to achieve a given target. (orig.)

  4. HFC-23 (CHF3 emission trend response to HCFC-22 (CHClF2 production and recent HFC-23 emission abatement measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Prinn

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available HFC-23 (also known as CHF3, fluoroform or trifluoromethane is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG, with a global warming potential (GWP of 14 800 for a 100-year time horizon. It is an unavoidable by-product of HCFC-22 (CHClF2, chlorodifluoromethane production. HCFC-22, an ozone depleting substance (ODS, is used extensively in commercial refrigeration and air conditioning, in the extruded polystyrene (XPS foam industries (dispersive applications and also as a feedstock in fluoropolymer manufacture (a non-dispersive use. Aside from small markets in specialty uses, HFC-23 has historically been considered a waste gas that was, and often still is, simply vented to the atmosphere. Efforts have been made in the past two decades to reduce HFC-23 emissions, including destruction (incineration in facilities in developing countries under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change's (UNFCCC Clean Development Mechanism (CDM, and by process optimization and/or voluntary incineration by most producers in developed countries. We present observations of lower-tropospheric mole fractions of HFC-23 measured by "Medusa" GC/MSD instruments from ambient air sampled in situ at the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE network of five remote sites (2007–2009 and in Cape Grim air archive (CGAA samples (1978–2009 from Tasmania, Australia. These observations are used with the AGAGE 2-D atmospheric 12-box model and an inverse method to produce model mole fractions and a "top-down" HFC-23 emission history. The model 2009 annual mean global lower-tropospheric background abundance is 22.6 (±0.2 pmol mol−1. The derived HFC-23 emissions show a "plateau" during 1997–2003, followed by a rapid ~50% increase to a peak of 15.0 (+1.3/−1.2 Gg/yr in 2006. Following this peak, emissions of HFC-23 declined rapidly to 8.6 (+0.9/−1.0 Gg/yr in 2009, the lowest annual emission of the past 15 years. We derive a 1990–2008 "bottom-up" HFC-23 emission history

  5. HFC-23 (CHF3 emission trend response to HCFC-22 (CHClF2 production and recent HFC-23 emission abatement measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Prinn

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available HFC-23 (also known as CHF3, fluoroform or trifluoromethane is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG, with a global warming potential (GWP of 14 800 for a 100-year time horizon. It is an unavoidable by-product of HCFC-22 (CHClF2, chlorodifluoromethane production. HCFC-22, an ozone depleting substance (ODS, is used extensively in commercial refrigeration and air conditioning, in the extruded polystyrene (XPS foam industries (dispersive applications and also as a feedstock in fluoropolymer manufacture (a non-dispersive use. Aside from small markets in specialty uses, HFC-23 has historically been considered a waste gas that was, and often still is, simply vented to the atmosphere. Efforts have been made in the past two decades to reduce HFC-23 emissions, including destruction (incineration in facilities in developing countries under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change's (UNFCCC Clean Development Mechanism (CDM, and by process optimization and/or voluntary incineration by most producers in developed countries. We present observations of lower-tropospheric mole fractions of HFC-23 measured by "Medusa" GC/MSD instruments from ambient air sampled in situ at the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE network of five remote sites and in Cape Grim air archive (CGAA samples (1978–2009 from Tasmania, Australia. These observations are used with the AGAGE 2-D atmospheric 12-box model and an inverse method to produce model mole fractions and a "top-down" HFC-23 emission history. The model 2009 annual mean global lower-tropospheric background abundance is 22.8 (±0.2 pmol mol−1. The derived HFC-23 emissions show a "plateau" during 1997–2003, followed by a rapid ~50% increase to a peak of 15.0 (+1.3/−1.2 Gg/yr in 2006. Following this peak, emissions of HFC-23 declined rapidly to 8.6 (+0.9/−1.0 Gg/yr in 2009, the lowest annual emission of the past 15 years. We derive a 1990–2008 "bottom-up" HFC-23 emission history using data

  6. Assessment of global atmospheric ammonia using IASI infrared satellite observations

    OpenAIRE

    M. Van Damme

    2015-01-01

    ENGLISH:The natural nitrogen cycle has been and is significantly perturbed by anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen (Nr) compounds into the atmosphere, resulting from our production of energy and food. In the last century global ammonia (NH3) emissions have doubled and represent nowadays more than half of total the Nr emissions. NH3 is also the principal atmospheric base in the atmosphere and rapidly forms aerosols by reaction with acids. It is therefore a species of high relevance for...

  7. Warm weather brings about significant drop in CO2 emissions in Germany in 2014. Sign of a new trend?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2014 total CO2 emissions in Germany showed their first ever significant drop. In absolute terms they were as much as 5% lower than in the previous year, while corrected for temperature the decrease was still around 2%. Total greenhouse gas emissions are estimated to have decreased by 4.6% in absolute terms and by 1.7% when corrected for temperature. Judged on the basis of the temperature corrected values the results for 2014 do not yet signify a return to the target course running up to the year 2020 however. To this end greenhouse gas emissions would have had to decrease by at least around 3% in 2014. The need for political action to the protect our climate thus remains urgent.

  8. Trend and characteristics of atmospheric emissions of Hg, As, and Se from coal combustion in China, 1980-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H. Z.; Wang, Y.; Xue, Z. G.; Cheng, K.; Qu, Y. P.; Chai, F. H.; Hao, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Emissions of hazardous trace elements in China are of great concern because of their negative impacts on local air quality as well as on regional environmental health and ecosystem risks. In this paper, the atmospheric emissions of mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), and selenium (Se) from coal combustion in China for the period 1980-2007 are estimated on the basis of coal consumption data and emission factors, which are specified by different categories of combustion facilities, coal types, and the equipped air pollution control devices configuration (Dust collectors, FGD, etc.). Specifically, multi-year emission inventories of Hg, As, and Se from 30 provinces and 4 economic sectors (thermal power, industry, residential use, and others) are evaluated and analyzed in detail. Furthermore, the gridded distribution of provincial-based Hg, As, and Se emissions in 2005 at a resolution of 1° × 1° is also plotted. It shows that the calculated national total atmospheric emissions of Hg, As, and Se from coal combustion have rapidly increased from 73.59 t, 635.57 t, and 639.69 t in 1980 to 305.95 t, 2205.50 t, and 2352.97 t in 2007, at an annually averaged growth rate of 5.4%, 4.7%, and 4.9%, respectively. The industrial sector is the largest source for Hg, As, and Se, accounting for about 50.8%, 61.2%, and 56.2% of the national totals, respectively. The share of power plants is 43.3% for mercury, 24.9% for arsenic, and 33.4% for selenium, respectively. Also, it shows remarkably different regional contribution characteristics of these 3 types of trace elements, the top 5 provinces with the heaviest mercury emissions in 2007 are Shandong (34.40 t), Henan (33.63 t), Shanxi (21.14 t), Guizhou (19.48 t), and Hebei (19.35 t); the top 5 provinces with the heaviest arsenic emissions in 2007 are Shandong (219.24 t), Hunan (213.20 t), Jilin (141.21 t), Hebei (138.54 t), and Inner Mongolia (127.49 t); while the top 5 provinces with the heaviest selenium emissions in 2007 are Shandong (289

  9. Trend and characteristics of atmospheric emissions of Hg, As, and Se from coal combustion in China, 1980–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Z. Tian

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of hazardous trace elements in China are of great concern because of their negative impacts on local air quality as well as on regional environmental health and ecosystem risks. In this paper, the atmospheric emissions of mercury (Hg, arsenic (As, and selenium (Se from coal combustion in China for the period 1980–2007 are estimated on the basis of coal consumption data and emission factors, which are specified by different categories of combustion facilities, coal types, and the equipped air pollution control devices configuration (Dust collectors, FGD, etc.. Specifically, multi-year emission inventories of Hg, As, and Se from 30 provinces and 4 economic sectors (thermal power, industry, residential use, and others are evaluated and analyzed in detail. Furthermore, the gridded distribution of provincial-based Hg, As, and Se emissions in 2005 at a resolution of 1°×1° is also plotted. It shows that the calculated national total atmospheric emissions of Hg, As, and Se from coal combustion have rapidly increased from 73.59 t, 635.57 t, and 639.69 t in 1980 to 305.95 t, 2205.50 t, and 2352.97 t in 2007, at an annually averaged growth rate of 5.4%, 4.7%, and 4.9%, respectively. The industrial sector is the largest source for Hg, As, and Se, accounting for about 50.8%, 61.2%, and 56.2% of the national totals, respectively. The share of power plants is 43.3% for mercury, 24.9% for arsenic, and 33.4% for selenium, respectively. Also, it shows remarkably different regional contribution characteristics of these 3 types of trace elements, the top 5 provinces with the heaviest mercury emissions in 2007 are Shandong (34.40 t, Henan (33.63 t, Shanxi (21.14 t, Guizhou (19.48 t, and Hebei (19.35 t; the top 5 provinces with the heaviest arsenic emissions in 2007 are Shandong (219.24 t, Hunan (213.20 t, Jilin (141.21 t, Hebei (138.54 t, and Inner Mongolia (127.49 t; while the top 5 provinces with the heaviest selenium emissions in 2007 are Shandong

  10. Ammonia in the environment: From ancient times to the present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research on atmospheric ammonia has made good progress in quantifying sources/sinks and environmental impacts. This paper reviews the achievements and places them in their historical context. It considers the role of ammonia in the development of agricultural science and air chemistry, showing how these arose out of foundations in 18th century chemistry and medieval alchemy, and then identifies the original environmental sources from which the ancients obtained ammonia. Ammonia is revealed as a compound of key human interest through the centuries, with a central role played by sal ammoniac in alchemy and the emergence of modern science. The review highlights how recent environmental research has emphasized volatilization sources of ammonia. Conversely, the historical records emphasize the role of high-temperature sources, including dung burning, coal burning, naturally burning coal seams and volcanoes. Present estimates of ammonia emissions from these sources are based on few measurements, which should be a future priority. - Past ammonia applications reveal new emphases in biospheric transformations

  11. Case studies of the impact of orbital sampling on stratospheric trend detection and derivation of tropical vertical velocities: solar occultation vs. limb emission sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Luis F.; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Santee, Michelle L.; Neu, Jessica L.; Manney, Gloria L.; Fuller, Ryan A.

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the representativeness of two types of orbital sampling applied to stratospheric temperature and trace gas fields. Model fields are sampled using real sampling patterns from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), the HALogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). The MLS sampling acts as a proxy for a dense uniform sampling pattern typical of limb emission sounders, while HALOE and ACE-FTS represent coarse nonuniform sampling patterns characteristic of solar occultation instruments. First, this study revisits the impact of sampling patterns in terms of the sampling bias, as previous studies have done. Then, it quantifies the impact of different sampling patterns on the estimation of trends and their associated detectability. In general, we find that coarse nonuniform sampling patterns may introduce non-negligible errors in the inferred magnitude of temperature and trace gas trends and necessitate considerably longer records for their definitive detection. Lastly, we explore the impact of these sampling patterns on tropical vertical velocities derived from stratospheric water vapor measurements. We find that coarse nonuniform sampling may lead to a biased depiction of the tropical vertical velocities and, hence, to a biased estimation of the impact of the mechanisms that modulate these velocities. These case studies suggest that dense uniform sampling such as that available from limb emission sounders provides much greater fidelity in detecting signals of stratospheric change (for example, fingerprints of greenhouse gas warming and stratospheric ozone recovery) than coarse nonuniform sampling such as that of solar occultation instruments.

  12. Comparing the environmental impact of a nitrifiying biotrickling filter with or without denitrification for ammonia abatement at animal houses

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, de, H.J.C.; Melse, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to assess the environmental impact of a biotrickling filter with nitrification only and with subsequent denitrification. Life cycle assessment was applied to assess greenhouse gases, nitrate, ammonia and fossil fuel depletion. The biotrickling filter with nitrification and denitrification had higher greenhouse gas emission, whereas nitrification only had higher nitrate leaching and ammonia emission from field application of discharge water

  13. Improved recovery of ammonia from swine manure using gas-permeable membrane technology and aeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant efforts are required to abate ammonia emissions from livestock operations. In addition, the costs of fertilizers have rapidly increased in recent years, especially nitrogen fertilizer such as anhydrous ammonia which is made from natural gas. Thus, new technologies for abatement of ammoni...

  14. Ammonia monitor based on intermodulated CO2 laser photoacoustic Stark spectroscopy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauren, H.

    1992-01-01

    One of the causes of the acidification of the environment are high ammonia (NH 3 ) emission rates. In environmental research it is an impetus to measure the ammonia concentration sufficiently accurate and fast. This thesis describes the development, construction and testing of a 12

  15. Removal and recovery of ammonia from livestock wastewater using hydrophobic gas-permeable membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The costs of fertilizers have rapidly increased in recent years, especially nitrogen fertilizer such as anhydrous ammonia which is made from natural gas. Thus, new treatment technologies for abatement of ammonia emissions in livestock operations are being focused on nitrogern (N) recovery in additio...

  16. Can surface-applied zeolite reduce ammonia losses from feedyard manure? A laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia emission from beef cattle feedyard manure results in losses of nitrogen (N), which may negatively affect air, soil, and water quality. The magnitude and rate of ammonia volatilization from feedyards partially depends on the amount of urinary urea excreted and dissociation of ionic ammonium ...

  17. Atmospheric Fate and Transport of Agricultural Dust and Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiranuma, N.; Brooks, S. D.; Thornton, D. C.; Auvermann, B. W.; Fitz, D. R.

    2008-12-01

    Agricultural fugitive dust and odor are significant sources of localized air pollution in the semi-arid southern Great Plains. Daily episodes of ground-level fugitive dust emissions from the cattle feedlots associated with increased cattle activity in the early evenings are routinely observed, while consistently high ammonia is observed throughout the day. Here we present measurements of aerosol size distributions and concentrations of gas and particulate phase ammonia species collected at a feedlot in Texas during summers of 2006, 2007 and 2008. A GRIMM sequential mobility particle sizer and GRIMM 1.108 aerosol spectrometer were used to determine aerosol size distributions in the range of 10 nm to 20 µm aerodynamic diameter at the downwind and upwind edges of the facility. Using aqueous scrubbers, simultaneous measurements of both gas phase and total ammonia species present in the gas and particle phases were also collected. In addition to the continuous measurements at the edges of the facility, coincident aerosol and ammonia measurements were obtain at an additional site further downwind (~3.5 km). Taken together our measurements will be used to quantify aerosol and ammonia dispersion and transport. Relationships between the fate and transport of the aerosols and ammonia will be discussed.

  18. Measurements of the horizontal gradient of ammonia over a conifer forest in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmand, M.F.; Andersen, H.V.; Løfstrøm, P.;

    1998-01-01

    Horizontal gradients of ammonia have been measured in order to determine the spatial variation of the concentration above a forest as a function of distance from ammonia emitting areas. Measurements were carried out in June 1994 during conditions with winds from north and west. Concentration levels...... of ammonia were generally low, ranging from 0.04 to 0.7 mu g NH3-N m(-3). At northerly winds the concentration levels were about four times higher than at westerly winds, which relates well to more intensive and larger areas of ammonia emission towards north of the forest. The ammonia concentration decreases...... in the forest; in general the percentage decreases were lower during northerly winds (16%) than those obtained during westerly winds (67%). This is probably due to the larger extension of emitting areas towards north than towards the west. Model calculations are comparable with the measured ammonia...

  19. Assimilating Remote Ammonia Observations with a Refined Aerosol Thermodynamics Adjoint"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia emissions parameters in North America can be refined in order to improve the evaluation of modeled concentrations against observations. Here, we seek to do so by developing and applying the GEOS-Chem adjoint nested over North America to conductassimilation of observations...

  20. Ammonia recovery from livestock waste using gas permeable membrane technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation shows new methods and systems being developed for reducing ammonia emissions from livestock waste and recovering concentrated liquid nitrogen that could be sold as fertilizer. These systems use gas-permeable membranes as components of new processes to capture and recover the ammoni...

  1. Fuel efficiency of the Austrian passenger vehicle fleet-Analysis of trends in the technological profile and related impacts on CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes trends in the technological profile of the Austrian personnel vehicle fleet from 1990 to 2007. This includes the parameters of power, engine size and weight, which beyond the technological efficiency of the motor engine itself, are considered to be the main determinants of the fuel efficiency of the average car stock. Investigating the drivers of ever rising transport related greenhouse gas emissions is crucial in order to derive policies that strive towards more energy-efficient on-road passenger mobility. We focus on the efficacy of technological efficiency improvements in mitigating climate-relevant emissions from car use in light of shifting demand patterns towards bigger, heavier and more powerful cars. The analysis is descriptive in nature and based on a bottom-up database that was originally collated for the purpose of the present study. Technological data on car models, which includes tested fuel consumption, engine size, power and weight, is related to registered car stock and, in parts, to newly registered cars. From this, we obtain an original database of the Austrian passenger car fleet, i.e. information on consumer choice of specific car models, segregated by gasoline and diesel fuelled engines. Conclusions are derived for policies aimed at reducing the fossil fuel consumption of the moving vehicle fleet in order to contribute to a low carbon society.

  2. Ammonia regeneration for a combined lime/ammonia spray dryer for SO{sub 2} control. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xinjian, Yang [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1992-12-23

    A research project designed to study the feasibility of ammonia regeneration for a combined lime/ammonia FGD process was conducted at the University of Cincinnati. The major objective for this project was to regenerate ammonia from a combined ammonia/calcium hydroxide spray dryer FGD byproduct for reuse which would reduce the operating cost of this FGD process. This final report covers the six phases of the project: (1) generation of original feedstock, (2) batch regeneration studies, (3) continuous regeneration studies, (4) waste characteristic analysis, (5) pilot scale demonstration and (6) economic analysis. This research has shown that regeneration of ammonia is feasible at a reasonable cost. The effects on Ohio coal use from the results of this research could be substantial, depending on the Phase II application of FGD systems for controlling SO{sub 2} emissions. In conclusion, experiments in this study have shown that ammonia recovery efficiencies greater than 90% are technically and economically feasible. In addition, the sludge produced from the regeneration process is stable and will meet existing Federal standards.

  3. [Spectroscopic study on the high voltage fast pulsed discharge of nitrogen, ammonia or their mixture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z P; Wang, P N; Yang, W D; Zheng, J B; Li, F M

    2001-10-01

    The emission spectra from the pulsed discharge plasma of nitrogen, ammonia or their mixture were measured. In the discharge of pure nitrogen gas, as the pressure increased, the discharge volume decreased and more dissociation of nitrogen molecules occurred due to the higher energy density. In the discharge of ammonia, N,N+ and NH+ were observed, but no NH2 and NH3 were detected, indicating that ammonia, which has the lower dissociation and ionization energies as compared to nitrogen, was highly dissociated. The discharge of the mixture of N2 and NH3 was also studied. The dependence of the dissociation of nitrogen on the ratio of nitrogen to ammonia was investigated by emission spectra. The optimal ratio for nitrogen dissociation was obtained. The advantage of using the mixture of nitrogen and ammonia in the synthesis of nitrides was discussed. PMID:12945317

  4. Sources, trends and regional impacts of fine particulate matter in southern Mississippi valley: significance of emissions from sources in the Gulf of Mexico coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-C. Chalbot

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The sources of fine particles over a 10 yr period at Little Rock, Arkansas, an urban area in the southern Mississippi Valley, were identified by positive matrix factorization. The annual trends of PM2.5 and its sources, and their associations with the pathways of air mass backward trajectories were examined. Seven sources were apportioned, namely, primary traffic particles, secondary nitrate and sulphate, biomass burning, diesel particles, aged/contaminated sea salt and mineral/road dust, accounting for more than 90% of measured PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm mass. The declining trend of PM2.5 mass (0.4 μg m−3 per year was related to lower levels of SO42− (0.2 μg m−3 per year due to SO2 reductions from point and mobile sources. The slower decline for NO3− particles (0.1 μg m−3 per year was attributed to the increasing NH3 emissions in the Midwest. The annual variation of biomass burning particles was associated with fires in the southeast and northwest US. Of the four regions within 500 km from the receptor site, the Gulf Coast and the southeast US accounted cumulatively for more than 65% of PM2.5 mass, nitrate, sulphate and biomass burning aerosol. Overall, more than 50% of PM2.5 and its components originated from sources outside the state. Sources within the Gulf Coast and western Gulf of Mexico include 65% of the busiest ports in the US, intense marine traffic within 400 km of the coast burning rich in S diesel, and a large number of offshore oil and natural gas platforms and many refineries. This approach allowed for the quantitative assessment of the impacts of transport from regions representing diverse mixtures of sources and weather conditions for different types of particles. The findings of this effort demonstrated the influences of emission controls on SO2 and NOx on PM2.5 mass, the potential effect of events (i.e. fires sensitive to climate change phenomena on air pollution and the potential

  5. Sources, trends and regional impacts of fine particulate matter in southern Mississippi valley: significance of emissions from sources in the Gulf of Mexico coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalbot, M.-C.; McElroy, B.; Kavouras, I. G.

    2013-04-01

    The sources of fine particles over a 10 yr period at Little Rock, Arkansas, an urban area in the southern Mississippi Valley, were identified by positive matrix factorization. The annual trends of PM2.5 and its sources, and their associations with the pathways of air mass backward trajectories were examined. Seven sources were apportioned, namely, primary traffic particles, secondary nitrate and sulphate, biomass burning, diesel particles, aged/contaminated sea salt and mineral/road dust, accounting for more than 90% of measured PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) mass. The declining trend of PM2.5 mass (0.4 μg m-3 per year) was related to lower levels of SO42- (0.2 μg m-3 per year) due to SO2 reductions from point and mobile sources. The slower decline for NO3- particles (0.1 μg m-3 per year) was attributed to the increasing NH3 emissions in the Midwest. The annual variation of biomass burning particles was associated with fires in the southeast and northwest US. Of the four regions within 500 km from the receptor site, the Gulf Coast and the southeast US accounted cumulatively for more than 65% of PM2.5 mass, nitrate, sulphate and biomass burning aerosol. Overall, more than 50% of PM2.5 and its components originated from sources outside the state. Sources within the Gulf Coast and western Gulf of Mexico include 65% of the busiest ports in the US, intense marine traffic within 400 km of the coast burning rich in S diesel, and a large number of offshore oil and natural gas platforms and many refineries. This approach allowed for the quantitative assessment of the impacts of transport from regions representing diverse mixtures of sources and weather conditions for different types of particles. The findings of this effort demonstrated the influences of emission controls on SO2 and NOx on PM2.5 mass, the potential effect of events (i.e. fires) sensitive to climate change phenomena on air pollution and the potential of offshore activities

  6. Electricity dependency and CO2 emissions from heating in the Swedish building sector-Current trends in conflict with governmental policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal-condensing power is marginal production in the deregulated Nordic power market and an increase in electricity consumption will therefore result in increased CO2 emissions. One goal of the Swedish energy policy is to reduce the amount of electricity used for heating in the building sector. This paper investigates the potential for reduction in electricity dependency and CO2 emissions from heating, taking the energy infrastructure into account, here defined as the capital stock of the buildings and heating systems together with geographical variations in heat intensity. In order to include the energy infrastructure in the analysis the study is made on a regional level (Southern Sweden) applying a comprehensive database describing the energy infrastructure of the region. The paper compares two scenarios for converting the heating systems of the region: one employing energy savings and with the aim to phase out the oil and most of the electricity used for heating purposes and a second which illustrates the effect if the current trend in the heating market continues. Both scenarios apply commercially available technologies only. From the second scenario it is seen that the current trend-contrary to the aim of the Swedish Governmental policy-shows an increase in electricity dependency for heating, mainly due to a large diffusion of heat pumps, but also due to installations of electrical floor heating and electricity heating systems installed in newly constructed one- and two-dwelling buildings. However, the options proposed in first scenario show that it is possible to reach significant reductions in the electricity dependency due to heating and in corresponding CO2 emissions. An analysis of the age structure of the heating systems shows that the transformation of the heating system is not completed until the year 2025, if new investments for replacement of heating systems are made only provided they have reached their economical life time, and only applying heating

  7. Spitzer Secondary Eclipse Observations of Five Cool Gas Giant Planets and Empirical Trends in Cool Planet Emission Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Kammer, Joshua A; Line, Michael R; Fortney, Jonathan J; Deming, Drake; Burrows, Adam; Cowan, Nicolas B; Triaud, Amaury H M J; Agol, Eric; Desert, Jean-Michel; Fulton, Benjamin J; Howard, Andrew W; Laughlin, Gregory P; Lewis, Nikole K; Morley, Caroline V; Moses, Julianne I; Showman, Adam P; Todorov, Kamen O

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 micron secondary eclipse observations of five new cool (<1200 K) transiting gas giant planets: HAT-P-19b, WASP-6b, WASP-10b, WASP-39b, and WASP-67b. We compare our measured eclipse depths to the predictions of a suite of atmosphere models and to eclipse depths for planets with previously published observations in order to constrain the temperature- and mass-dependent properties of gas giant planet atmospheres. We find that the dayside emission spectra of planets less massive than Jupiter require models with efficient circulation of energy to the night side and/or increased albedos, while those with masses greater than that of Jupiter are consistently best-matched by models with inefficient circulation and low albedos. At these relatively low temperatures we expect the atmospheric methane to CO ratio to vary as a function of metallicity, and we therefore use our observations of these planets to constrain their atmospheric metallicities. We find that the most massi...

  8. Air Emissions from Agriculture in Austria and Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDERL M.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A comparative picture of the trends in GHG emissions during 1990 – 2007 in Austria and Romania, within EU –27 tendencies context, with accent on agriculture sources is presented. The green house gases (GHG emissions fromagriculture in EU – 27 during 1990 and 2007 are mainly represented by methane (CH4 nitrous oxide (N2O andammonia (NH3. In Austria, all sectors have a decreasing tendency during the analyzed interval. In Romania, duringanalyzed interval, the GHG emissions from Romanian sector agriculture had the same decreasing tendency. The maindriving force in methane and nitrous oxide decrease, in both studied situations (Austrian and Romanian agriculturalsectors, respectively, is the declining number of animals. Concerning the ammonia emissions, the decrease was theresult of improvement in different sectors: housing, storage, spreading, and animal diets.

  9. First detection of ammonia (NH3) in the upper troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höpfner, Michael; Volkamer, Rainer; Grabowski, Udo; Grutter de la Mora, Michel; Orphal, Johannes; Stiller, Gabriele; von Clarmann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is the major alkaline trace gas in the troposphere. Neutralization of atmospheric acids, like HNO3 and H2SO4, leads to formation of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate aerosols. Further, there are indications that NH3 may enhance nucleation of sulfuric acid aerosols by stabilization of sulfuric acid clusters. By far the largest source of ammonia is agricultural food production. Major global emissions are located in S-E Asia as e.g. shown by satellite nadir observations. Besides its importance with respect to air quality issues, an increase of ammonia emissions in the 21st century might lead to a significant climate radiative impact through aerosol formation. In spite of its significance, there is a lack of observational information on the global distribution of NH3 in the mid- and upper troposphere. Observational evidence, however, would be important for testing e.g. model results on the fate of ammonia from its source regions on ground to altitudes up to the tropopause. In this contribution we will show, to our knowledge, the first unequivocal detection of ammonia in the upper troposphere. This result has been achieved through analysis of infrared limb-emission observations performed with the MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding) instrument on board the Envisat satellite from 2002-2012. On a global scale, enhanced values of ammonia have been measured in the upper tropospheric region influenced by the Asian monsoon. We will present a quantitative analysis of the retrieved concentrations of NH3 including an error assessment and further retrieval diagnostics. The results will be discussed with respect to the variability of NH3 locally within the Asian monsoon region's upper troposphere and at different years. Further, we will show comparisons between global distributions of NH3 from published model simulations and our observational dataset from MIPAS.

  10. Ammonia and nitrous oxide interactions: Roles of manure organic matter management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Sommer, Sven G

    2011-01-01

    ), or negative (e.g., direct N2O emissions from soil will potentially increase if losses of NH3 are prevented during storage or field application). Emissions of NH3 and N2O negatively affect N use efficiency and the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of livestock production. Ammonia and N2O emissions and GHG balances...

  11. Lattice dynamics of ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequencies of selected intermolecular modes of vibration and libration in a single crystal of deuterated ammonia (ND3) have been measured by the technique of coherent inelastic neutron scattering, at temperatures of 20 and 95K. The results are compared with the previous optical measurements at the Γ point, and with calculations based on two different models for the intermolecular potential function. A detailed assessment of these data leads to a set of mode frequencies for the Γ, R, and M points. The elastic constants are calculated from the measured acoustic mode dispersion curves propagating along the three major symmetry directions. The existing intermolecular force models are in good qualitative agreement with experiment, but significant discrepancies remain to be resolved by future theoretical refinements. (author)

  12. Ammonia Ice Clouds on Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The top cloud layer on Jupiter is thought to consist of ammonia ice, but most of that ammonia 'hides' from spectrometers. It does not absorb light in the same way ammonia does. To many scientists, this implies that ammonia churned up from lower layers of the atmosphere 'ages' in some way after it condenses, possibly by being covered with a photochemically generated hydrocarbon mixture. The New Horizons Linear Etalon Imaging Spectral Array (LEISA), the half of the Ralph instrument that is able to 'see' in infrared wavelengths that are absorbed by ammonia ice, spotted these clouds and watched them evolve over five Jupiter days (about 40 Earth hours). In these images, spectroscopically identified fresh ammonia clouds are shown in bright blue. The largest cloud appeared as a localized source on day 1, intensified and broadened on day 2, became more diffuse on days 3 and 4, and disappeared on day 5. The diffusion seemed to follow the movement of a dark spot along the boundary of the oval region. Because the source of this ammonia lies deeper than the cloud, images like these can tell scientists much about the dynamics and heat conduction in Jupiter's lower atmosphere.

  13. Detection of Widespread Hot Ammonia in the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, Elisabeth A C

    2013-01-01

    We present the detection of metastable inversion lines of ammonia from energy levels high above the ground state. We detect these lines in both emission and absorption toward fifteen of seventeen positions in the central 300 parsecs of the Galaxy. In total, we observe seven metastable transitions of ammonia: (8,8), (9,9), (10,10), (11,11), (12,12), (13,13) and (15,15), with energies (in Kelvins) ranging from 680 to 2200 K. We also map emission from ammonia (8,8) and (9,9) in two clouds in the Sgr A complex (M-0.02-0.07 and M-0.13-0.08), and we find that the line emission is concentrated toward the the dense centers of these molecular clouds. The rotational temperatures derived from the metastable lines toward M-0.02-0.07 and M-0.13-0.08 and an additional cloud (M0.25+0.01) range from 350 to 450 K. Similarly highly-excited lines of ammonia have previously been observed toward Sgr B2, where gas with kinetic temperatures of ~600 K has been inferred. Our observations show that the existence of a hot molecular gas...

  14. Do time-averaged, whole-building, effective volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions depend on the air exchange rate? A statistical analysis of trends for 46 VOCs in U.S. offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackes, A; Waring, M S

    2016-08-01

    We used existing data to develop distributions of time-averaged air exchange rates (AER), whole-building 'effective' emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOC), and other variables for use in Monte Carlo analyses of U.S. offices. With these, we explored whether long-term VOC emission rates were related to the AER over the sector, as has been observed in the short term for some VOCs in single buildings. We fit and compared two statistical models to the data. In the independent emissions model (IEM), emissions were unaffected by other variables, while in the dependent emissions model (DEM), emissions responded to the AER via coupling through a conceptual boundary layer between the air and a lumped emission source. For 20 of 46 VOCs, the DEM was preferable to the IEM and emission rates, though variable, were higher in buildings with higher AERs. Most oxygenated VOCs and some alkanes were well fit by the DEM, while nearly all aromatics and halocarbons were independent. Trends by vapor pressure suggested multiple mechanisms could be involved. The factors of temperature, relative humidity, and building age were almost never associated with effective emission rates. Our findings suggest that effective emissions in real commercial buildings will be difficult to predict from deterministic experiments or models. PMID:26010216

  15. Sources, trends and regional impacts of fine particulate matter in southern Mississippi Valley: significance of emissions from sources in the Gulf of Mexico coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-C. Chalbot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The sources of fine particles over a 10 yr period at Little Rock, Arkansas, an urban area in southern Mississippi Valley, were identified by positive matrix factorization. The annual trends of PM2.5 and its sources and their associations with the pathways of air mass backward trajectories were examined. Seven sources were apportioned, namely, primary traffic particles, secondary nitrate and sulphate, biomass burning, diesel particles, aged/contaminated sea salt and mineral/road dust, accounting for more than 90% of measured PM2.5 mass. The declining trend of PM2.5 mass (0.4 μg m−3 yr−1 was related to lower levels of SO42− (0.2 μg m−3 yr−1 due to SO2 reductions from point and mobile sources. The slower decline for NO3 particles (0.1 μg m−3 yr−1 was attributed to the spatial variability of NH3 in Midwest. The annual variation of biomass burning particles was associated with wildland fires in southeast and northwest US that are sensitive to climate changes. The four regions within 500 km from the receptor site, the Gulf Coast and southeast US accounted cumulatively for more than 65% of PM2.5 mass, nitrate, sulphate and biomass burning aerosol. Overall, more than 50% of PM2.5 and its sources originated from sources outside the state. Sources within the Gulf Coast and western Gulf of Mexico include 65% of the busiest ports in the US, intense marine traffic within 400 km of the coast burning rich in S diesel, and a large number of offshore oil and natural gas platforms and many refineries along the coast. This approach allowed for quantitatively assessing the impacts of transport from regions representing diverse mixtures of sources and weather conditions for different types of particles. The findings of this effort demonstrated the influences of

  16. Impact of selective catalytic reduction on exhaust particle formation over excess ammonia events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanatidis, Stavros; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Giechaskiel, Barouch; Bergmann, Alexander; Samaras, Zissis

    2014-10-01

    The introduction of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment to meet stringent diesel NOx emission standards around the world increases exhaust ammonia. Further to the direct air quality and health implications of ammonia, this may also lead to particle formation in the exhaust. In this study, an ammonia SCR system was examined with respect to its impact on both solid and total exhaust particle number and size distribution, downstream of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Fuel post-injection was conducted in some tests to investigate the effect of ammonia during active DPF regeneration. On average, the post-DPF solid >23 nm and total <23 nm particle number emissions were increased by 129% (range 80-193%) and by 67% (range 26-136%), respectively, when 100 ppm ammonia level was induced downstream of the SCR catalyst. This is a typical level during ammonia overdosing, often practiced for efficient NOx control. Ammonia did not have a significant additional effect on the high particle concentrations measured during DPF regeneration. Based on species availability and formation conditions, sulfate, nitrate, and chloride salts with ammonium are possible sources of the new particles formed. Ammonia-induced particle formation corresponds to an environmental problem which is not adequately addressed by current regulations.

  17. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea have more important role than ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in ammonia oxidation of strongly acidic soils

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Li-Mei; Hu, Hang-Wei; Shen, Ju-Pei; He, Ji-Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrated the involvement of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in the global nitrogen cycle, but the relative contributions of AOA and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) to ammonia oxidation are still in debate. Previous studies suggest that AOA would be more adapted to ammonia-limited oligotrophic conditions, which seems to be favored by protonation of ammonia, turning into ammonium in low-pH environments. Here, we investigated the autotrophic nitrification activity of AOA...

  18. 21 CFR 573.180 - Anhydrous ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anhydrous ammonia. 573.180 Section 573.180 Food... Additive Listing § 573.180 Anhydrous ammonia. (a) The food additive anhydrous ammonia is applied directly...: (1)(i) The food additive anhydrous ammonia is applied as a component of an aqueous premix...

  19. Potential for Ammonia Recapture by Farm Woodlands: Design and Application of a New Experimental Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Theobald

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing pressure on farmers in Europe to reduce the emissions of ammonia from their land. Due to the current financial climate in which farmers have to operate, it is important to identify ammonia control measures that can be adopted with minimum cost. The planting of trees around farmland and buildings has been identified as a potentially effective and low-cost measure to enhance ammonia recapture at a farm level and reduce long-range atmospheric transport. This work assesses experimentally what fraction of ammonia farm woodlands could potentially remove from the atmosphere. We constructed an experimental facility in southern Scotland to simulate a woodland shelterbelt planted in proximity to a small poultry unit. By measuring horizontal and vertical ammonia concentration profiles within the woodland, and comparing this to the concentration of an inert tracer (SF6 we estimate the depletion of ammonia due to dry deposition to the woodland canopy. Together with measurements of mean ammonia concentrations and throughfall fluxes of nitrogen, this information is used to provide a first estimate of the fraction of emitted ammonia that is recaptured by the woodland canopy. Analysis of these data give a lower limit of recapture of emitted ammonia, at the experimental facility, of 3%. By careful design of shelterbelt woodlands this figure could be significantly higher.

  20. Ammonia synthesis and decomposition on a Ru-based catalyst modeled by first-principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellman, A.; Honkala, Johanna Karoliina; Remediakis, Ioannis;

    2009-01-01

    ) that small changes in the relative adsorption potential energies are sufficient to get a quantitative agreement between theory and experiment (Appendix A) and (ii) that it is possible to reproduce results from the first-principles model by a simple micro-kinetic model (Appendix B).......A recently published first-principles model for the ammonia synthesis on an unpromoted Ru-based catalyst is extended to also describe ammonia decomposition. In addition, further analysis concerning trends in ammonia productivity, surface conditions during the reaction, and macro......-properties, such as apparent activation energies and reaction orders are provided. All observed trends in activity are captured by the model and the absolute value of ammonia synthesis/decomposition productivity is predicted to within a factor of 1-100 depending on the experimental conditions. Moreover it is shown: (i...

  1. Solubility of ammonia in rainwater

    OpenAIRE

    G. P. Ayers; Gras, J. L.; Adriaansen, A.; Gillett, R. W.

    2011-01-01

    Partitioning of ammonia between the gaseous and rainwater phases has been investigated at theAustralian Baseline Air Pollution Station during in-situ experiments in which rainwater andammonia gas were sampled concurrently. The relationship between ammonia concentrations inthe gaseous and aqueous phases did not follow either traditional solubility theory based onHenry’s Law, or a recent modified theory that includes secondary equilibria between dissolvedammonia and carbon dioxide.DOI: 10.1111/...

  2. Evaluation Method of Best Available Cleaner Production Technology Based on Emission Reduction of Ammonia in Nitrogen Fertilizer Industry%基于氨氮减排的氮肥行业清洁生产技术评估方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆其金; 谌建宇; 王振兴; 庞志华; 叶万生

    2014-01-01

    The current environmental technologies evaluation methods are mainly based on experts 'qualitative estimation and lack of comprehensive evaluation methods .Aiming at this problem and combined with the total ammonia discharge control requested by National Economic and Social Development Plan in 2011-2015 and the ammonia discharge reduction demand of nitrogen fertilizer industry , the index system and an integrated evaluation method for cleaner production technology evaluation based on ammonia discharge reduction was built .The weight of each index was obtained with analytic hierarchy process ( AHP ) , and the discharge reduction technologies evaluated using grey correlation analysis method .The modeling process of the mathematical model of the integrated evaluation method was provided with an application example analyzed .%针对国内环境技术评估以定性判断为主,缺乏综合评估方法的问题,结合国家“十二五”规划纲要对氨氮排放总量控制和氮肥工业氨氮减排的需求,构建了基于氨氮减排的氮肥行业清洁生产技术评估指标体系和综合评估方法。利用层次分析法确定各指标的权重,利用灰色关联度法对氨氮减排技术进行评估,同时给出了该评估方法数学模型的建模过程,并进行了实例应用分析。

  3. The synthetic ammonia industry in our country present situation and the energy saving technology%我国合成氨工业现状及节能技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪宏杰; 刘启龙; 路朝阳

    2015-01-01

    the synthetic ammonia industry to ensure food security plays a very important role in our country,the rapid economic development and new technology constantly in our country,on the basis of the synthetic ammonia industry technology is also obtained the unprecedented development of our country,however,the energy conservation and environmental protection concept and embrace life environment,low consumption,zero emissions wil also become the inevitable trend of synthetic ammonia industry development.This paper wil be based on the synthetic ammonia industry in our country the status quo,in-depth analysis of synthetic ammonia industry tremendous potential in saving energy and reducing consumption,and puts forward some beneficial to ammonia industry to realize saving energy and reducing consumption of effective Suggestions.%合成氨工业对于确保我国粮食安全起着非常重要的作用,在我国经济快速发展和技术不断推陈出新的基础上,我国合成氨工业技术也得到了前所未有的发展,然而在将节能环保理念不断融入生活的大环境下,低消耗、零排放也将成为合成氨工业发展的必然趋势。本文将基于我国合成氨工业现状,深入分析合成氨工业在节能降耗方面存在的巨大潜力,同时提出一些有利于合成氨工业实现节能降耗的有效建议。

  4. Oriënterende emissiemetingen aan de Comfort Slat Mats voor melkvee = Explorative emission measurements on Comfort Slat Mats for dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooren, van H.J.C.; Blanken, K.; Gunnink, H.

    2009-01-01

    Emissions of ammonia and methane from the comfort slat mats (a new floor type for dairy cattle) were measured with a dynamic box method. Emissions were reduced up to 50% for ammonia and for 75% for methane.

  5. Inventory of Ammonia Emissions from Livestock Production in Los Lagos and Los Ríos Regions, Chile Inventario de Emisiones de Amoníaco de la Producción Pecuaria de las Regiones de Los Lagos y de Los Ríos, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Martínez-Lagos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first inventory of ammonia emissions from livestock production in Los Lagos and Los Ríos Regions of Chile. The inventory was focused in this area because is where cattle production is concentrated. This study aimed to quantify the amount of N losses due to ammonia volatilization from livestock production in these regions of the country, and to provide its spatial representation identifying their main sources. Calculations have been carried out for 1997 and 2007, and also projections to 2017 and 2027 were obtained. Calculated emissions were 6097 and 6206 t NH3-N for 1997 and 2007, respectively. Major sources of NH3-N emissions were cattle accounting for more than 85%, followed by horses and pigs. Farm management practices as grazing, housing, manure storage and land spreading of manure accounted for 87%, 9%, 3%, and 2%, respectively, of total annual emissions. Projections suggest that emissions could increase up to 6344 and 6516 t NH3-N for 2017 and 2027, respectively. Emissions are much lower than those reported for developed European countries. However, intensification of cattle production systems may lead to an increase of ammonia emissions which could impact the temperate forest of Southern Chile characterized by low nutrient fluxes.Este artículo presenta el primer inventario de emisiones de amoníaco de la producción pecuaria de las Regiones de Los Lagos y Los Ríos de Chile, porque esta área concentra la producción chilena de ganado bovino. Este estudio tuvo como objetivos cuantificar las pérdidas de N por volatilización de amoníaco emitidas desde la producción animal en estas regiones del país, y proveer su representación espacial identificando las principales fuentes de emisión. Los cálculos fueron realizados para 1997 y 2007; y desde el año base se proyectaron emisiones para los años 2017 y 2027. Las emisiones calculadas fueron 6097 y 6206 t NH3-N para 1997 y 2007, respectivamente. Las principales

  6. MetNH3: Metrology for ammonia in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braban, Christine; Twigg, Marsailidh; Tang, Sim; Leuenberger, Daiana; Ferracci, Valerio; Martin, Nick; Pascale, Celine; Hieta, Tuomas; Pogany, Andrea; Persijn, Stefan; van Wijk, Janneke; Gerwig, Holger; Wirtze, Klaus; Tiebe, Carlo; Balslev-Harder, David; Niederhausen, Bernhardt

    2015-04-01

    Measuring ammonia in ambient air is a sensitive and priority issue due to its harmful effects on human health and ecosystems. The European Directive 2001/81/EC on 'National Emission Ceilings for Certain Atmospheric Pollutants (NEC)' regulates ammonia emissions in the member states. However, there is a lack of regulation to ensure reliable ammonia measurements namely in applicable analytical technology, maximum allowed uncertainty, quality assurance and quality control (QC/QA) procedures as well as in the infrastructure to attain metrological traceability. Validated ammonia measurement data of high quality from air monitoring networks are vitally important for identifying changes due to implementations of environment policies, for understanding where the uncertainties in current emission inventories are derived from and for providing independent verification of atmospheric model predictions. The new EURAMET project MetNH3 aims to develop improved reference gas mixtures by static and dynamic gravimetric generation methods, develop and characterise laser based optical spectrometric standards and establish the transfer from high-accuracy standards to field applicable methods. MetNH3started in June 2014 and in this presentation the first results from the metrological characterisation of a commercially available cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) will be discussed. Also first tests and results from a new design, Controlled Atmosphere Test Facility (CATFAC), which is to be characterised and used to validate the performance of diffusive samplers, denuders and on-line instruments, will be reported. CAFTEC can be used to control test parameters such as ammonia concentration, relative humidity and wind speed. Outline plans for international laboratory and field intercomparisons in 2016 will be presented.

  7. Coumarin meets fluorescein: a Förster resonance energy transfer enhanced optical ammonia gas sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Susanne; Dorrestijn, Marko; Camerlo, Agathe; Urek, Špela Korent; Lobnik, Aleksandra; Housecroft, Catherine E; Constable, Edwin C; Scherer, Lukas J

    2014-09-01

    This study focuses on the development of an optical ammonia gas sensor, the sensing mechanism of which is based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between coumarin and fluorescein. The dyes were immobilized into an organically modified silicate matrix during polymerizing methyltriethoxysilane with trifluoropropyltrimethoxysilane on a poly(methyl methacrylate) substrate. The resulting dye-doped xerogel films were exposed to different gaseous ammonia concentrations. A logarithmic decrease of the coumarin fluorescence emission band at 442 nm was observed with increasing gaseous ammonia concentrations, which was due to enhanced FRET between coumarin and fluorescein. The coumarin/fluorescein composition was optimized in order to obtain the best ammonia sensitivity. First experiments in a flow cell gas sensor setup demonstrated a sensitive and reversible response to gaseous ammonia. PMID:25004956

  8. Ammonia-a refrigerant in the past and present, more and more in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The harmful influence on the global climate of CFCs (R11, R12, R502) and HCFCs (R22) refrigerants causes the depletion of the stratospheric ozone and the greenhouse effect. The international activity for the phase-out of the ozone depletion substances (ODSS) is the Montreal Protocol. The alternative refrigerants on the market are natural working fluids: ammonia, hydrocarbons (HCs), carbon dioxide, water and air. HFCs are for some applications the alternatives for CFC/HCFCs and have no ozone depletion (ODP=O), but the HFCs are greenhouse gases and have GWP and are regulated in the Kyoto Protocol. Ammonia has been in use for more than 125 years. The advantages of ammonia are excellent thermodynamic and heat transport properties, but ammonia is regarded as toxic and flammable. The ammonia refrigerating systems are liable under codes and standards, which shall be followed. With better knowledge and understanding, good practice and right comprehension of people involved in ammonia refrigeration, this refrigerant is a winner. There are many research projects and activities in order to widen the use of ammonia in the applications where CFC/HCFCs were used in the past. Regarding to this trend, it is a paradoxical situation in Macedonia and other developing countries where ammonia systems of cold stores, diaries, breweries and food processing go out of use. (Author)

  9. Liquid and atmospheric ammonia concentrations from a dairy lagoon during an aeration experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumburg, Brian; Neger, Manjit; Mount, George H.; Yonge, David; Filipy, Jenny; Swain, John; Kincaid, Ron; Johnson, Kristen

    Ammonia emissions from agriculture are an environmental and human health concern, and there is increasing pressure to reduce emissions. Animal agriculture is the largest global source of ammonia emissions and on a per cow basis dairy operations are the largest emitters. The storage and disposal of the dairy waste is one area where emissions can be reduced, aerobic biological treatment of wastewater being a common and effective way of reducing ammonia emissions. An aeration experiment in a dairy lagoon with two commercial aerators was performed for 1 month. Liquid concentrations of ammonia, total nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate were monitored before, during and after the experiment and atmospheric ammonia was measured downwind of the lagoon using a short-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument with 1 ppbv sensitivity. No changes in either liquid or atmospheric ammonia concentrations were detected throughout the experiment, and neither dissolved oxygen, nitrite nor nitrate could be detected in the lagoon at any time. The average ammonia concentration at 10 sampling sites in the lagoon at a depth of 0.15 m was 650 mg l -1 and at 0.90 m it was 700 mg l -1 NH 3-N. The average atmospheric ammonia concentration 50 m downwind was about 300 ppbv. The 0.90 m depth total nitrogen concentrations and total and volatile solids concentrations decreased during the experiment due to some mixing of the lagoon but the 0.15 m depth concentrations did not decrease indicating that the aerators were not strong enough to mix the sludge off the bottom into the whole water column.

  10. ISS Ammonia Leak Detection Through X-Ray Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jordan; Barthelmy, Scott; Skinner, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia leaks are a significant concern for the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS has external transport lines that direct liquid ammonia to radiator panels where the ammonia is cooled and then brought back to thermal control units. These transport lines and radiator panels are subject to stress from micrometeorites and temperature variations, and have developed small leaks. The ISS can accommodate these leaks at their present rate, but if the rate increased by a factor of ten, it could potentially deplete the ammonia supply and impact the proper functioning of the ISS thermal control system, causing a serious safety risk. A proposed ISS astrophysics instrument, the Lobster X-Ray Monitor, can be used to detect and localize ISS ammonia leaks. Based on the optical design of the eye of its namesake crustacean, the Lobster detector gives simultaneously large field of view and good position resolution. The leak detection principle is that the nitrogen in the leaking ammonia will be ionized by X-rays from the Sun, and then emit its own characteristic Xray signal. The Lobster instrument, nominally facing zenith for its astrophysics observations, can be periodically pointed towards the ISS radiator panels and some sections of the transport lines to detect and localize the characteristic X-rays from the ammonia leaks. Another possibility is to use the ISS robot arm to grab the Lobster instrument and scan it across the transport lines and radiator panels. In this case the leak detection can be made more sensitive by including a focused 100-microampere electron beam to stimulate X-ray emission from the leaking nitrogen. Laboratory studies have shown that either approach can be used to locate ammonia leaks at the level of 0.1 kg/day, a threshold rate of concern for the ISS. The Lobster instrument uses two main components: (1) a microchannel plate optic (also known as a Lobster optic) that focuses the X-rays and directs them to the focal plane, and (2) a CCD (charge

  11. Toward consistency between trends in bottom-up CO2 emissions and top-down atmospheric measurements in the Los Angeles megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Sally; Xu, Xiaomei; Gurney, Kevin R.; Kuang Hsu, Ying; Li, King Fai; Jiang, Xun; Keeling, Ralph; Feng, Sha; O'Keefe, Darragh; Patarasuk, Risa; Weng Wong, Kam; Rao, Preeti; Fischer, Marc L.; Yung, Yuk L.

    2016-03-01

    Large urban emissions of greenhouse gases result in large atmospheric enhancements relative to background that are easily measured. Using CO2 mole fractions and Δ14C and δ13C values of CO2 in the Los Angeles megacity observed in inland Pasadena (2006-2013) and coastal Palos Verdes peninsula (autumn 2009-2013), we have determined time series for CO2 contributions from fossil fuel combustion (Cff) for both sites and broken those down into contributions from petroleum and/or gasoline and natural gas burning for Pasadena. We find a 10 % reduction in Pasadena Cff during the Great Recession of 2008-2010, which is consistent with the bottom-up inventory determined by the California Air Resources Board. The isotopic variations and total atmospheric CO2 from our observations are used to infer seasonality of natural gas and petroleum combustion. The trend of CO2 contributions to the atmosphere from natural gas combustion is out of phase with the seasonal cycle of total natural gas combustion seasonal patterns in bottom-up inventories but is consistent with the seasonality of natural gas usage by the area's electricity generating power plants. For petroleum, the inferred seasonality of CO2 contributions from burning petroleum is delayed by several months relative to usage indicated by statewide gasoline taxes. Using the high-resolution Hestia-LA data product to compare Cff from parts of the basin sampled by winds at different times of year, we find that variations in observed fossil fuel CO2 reflect seasonal variations in wind direction. The seasonality of the local CO2 excess from fossil fuel combustion along the coast, on Palos Verdes peninsula, is higher in autumn and winter than spring and summer, almost completely out of phase with that from Pasadena, also because of the annual variations of winds in the region. Variations in fossil fuel CO2 signals are consistent with sampling the bottom-up Hestia-LA fossil CO2 emissions product for sub-city source regions in the LA

  12. Ammonia-Free NOx Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Wu

    2003-12-31

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DEFC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia. This report describes the work performed during the October 1 to December 31, 2003 time period.

  13. Ammonia-Free NOx Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Wu; Zhen Fan; Andrew H. Seltzer; Richard G. Herman

    2004-09-30

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DEFC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia. This report describes the work performed during the July 1 to September 30, 2004 time period.

  14. Ammonia Thermometry of Star Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mangum, Jeffrey G; Henkel, Christian; Menten, Karl M; MacGregor, Meredith; Svoboda, Brian E; Schinnerer, Eva

    2013-01-01

    With a goal toward deriving the physical conditions in external galaxies, we present a study of the ammonia (NH$_3$) emission and absorption in a sample of star forming systems. Using the unique sensitivities to kinetic temperature afforded by the excitation characteristics of several inversion transitions of NH$_3$, we have continued our characterization of the dense gas in star forming galaxies by measuring the kinetic temperature in a sample of 23 galaxies and one galaxy offset position selected for their high infrared luminosity. We derive kinetic temperatures toward 13 galaxies, 9 of which possess multiple kinetic temperature and/or velocity components. Eight of these galaxies exhibit kinetic temperatures $>100$ K, which are in many cases at least a factor of two larger than kinetic temperatures derived previously. Furthermore, the derived kinetic temperatures in our galaxy sample, which are in many cases at least a factor of two larger than derived dust temperatures, point to a problem with the common a...

  15. Ammonia-Free NOx Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Wu; Z. Fan; R. Herman

    2004-03-31

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DEFC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia. This report describes the work performed during the January 1 to March 31, 2004 time period.

  16. 氮肥与DCD配施对棚室黄瓜土壤NH_3挥发损失及N_2O排放的影响%Effects of nitrogen fertilizer and DCD application on ammonia volatilization and nitrous oxide emission from soil with cucumber growing in Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂文静; 李博文; 郭艳杰; 王小敏; 韩晓莉

    2012-01-01

    Effects of applying different levels of nitrogen fertilizer,water and DCD on ammonia volatilization and N2O emission from soil were studied in greenhouse.The results illustrated that,in comparison with the conventional water and nitrogen management,cucumber yield of the optimized water and nitrogen management with less N and water applied did not increase or decrease significantly.The ammonia emissions of all treatments peaked on day 3 after N fertilizer and water was applied.Compared with the conventional water and nitrogen management,the accumulative N loss by NH3 volatilization from the three treatments of the optimized water and nitrogen management decreased by 55.97%,43.68% and 66.47%,respectively.The peaks and cumulative fluxes of ammonia volatilization in W2N2+DCD,W2N3+DCD and W2N4+DCD did not change markedly after N top application for four times.The N2O flux in different treatments of water and nitrogen management peaked after four days of fertilization and irrigation.The peak emission and accumulative emissions of N2O from three treatments of DCD(W2N2+DCD,W2N3+DCD and W2N4+DCD) were all significantly less than that in W1N1 in four top dressing stages.There was no significant difference among the three treatments.It indicated that DCD in the optimized water and nitrogen management was effective in reducing N loss as N2O emissions.%以传统水氮管理为对照,进行了优化水氮管理条件下氮肥与DCD配施对大棚黄瓜土壤氨挥发损失及氧化亚氮排放的影响研究.试验结果表明,与传统水氮管理相比,优化水氮管理减少了氮肥用量及灌水量,但黄瓜产量并没有降低.各水氮处理的NH3挥发速率峰值出现在施肥灌水后的第3d,添加DCD的各优化水氮处理与传统水氮处理相比,土壤氨挥发累积量分别减少55.97%、43.68%、66.47%,4次追肥后W2N2+DCD、W2N3+DCD和W2N4+DCD的氨挥发速率峰值与累积量变化范围较小.不同水氮处理的N2O排放通量的峰值均

  17. DETERMINATION OF AMMONIA IN EAR-LOBE CAPILLARY BLOOD IS AN ALTERNATIVE TO ARTERIAL BLOOD AMMONIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HUIZENGA, [No Value; GIPS, CH; CONN, HO; JANSEN, PLM

    1995-01-01

    Blood ammonia determination is a laboratory test to diagnose hepatic encephalopathy. Arterial blood is superior to peripheral venous blood ammonia because of ammonia metabolism in muscle. We have compared capillary with arterial whole blood ammonia as capillary sampling is an attractive alternative.

  18. Niche specialization of terrestrial archaeal ammonia oxidizers

    OpenAIRE

    Gubry-Rangin, Cécile; Hai, Brigitte; Quince, Christopher; Engel, Marion; Thomson, Bruce C.; James, Phillip; Schloter, Michael; Robert I. Griffiths; Prosser, James I.; Nicol, Graeme W.

    2011-01-01

    Soil pH is a major determinant of microbial ecosystem processes and potentially a major driver of evolution, adaptation, and diversity of ammonia oxidizers, which control soil nitrification. Archaea are major components of soil microbial communities and contribute significantly to ammonia oxidation in some soils. To determine whether pH drives evolutionary adaptation and community structure of soil archaeal ammonia oxidizers, sequences of amoA, a key functional gene of ammonia oxidation, were...

  19. Simple model for the prediction of ammonia volatilization from water basin: effect of water temperature and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intamanee, J.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia is a primary chemical used for preserving rubber latex. Consequently, the wastewater from concentrated rubber latex processing contains high ammonia concentration. The volatilization of ammonia from such wastewater may cause an air pollution problem such as the formation of an acid rain or an aerosol of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate, which can seriously affect environment and human being. To assess the air pollution problem regarding atmospheric ammonia volatized from wastewater, the model for the prediction of ammonia volatilization rate and flux is therefore desirable. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of water temperature and pH on ammonia volatilization process and to develop a model to describe ammonia volatilization rate and flux including such effects.Ammonia volatilization from water was studied by using a volatilization tank (surface area = 780 cm2, volume = 7 L placed in a water bath in order to control the water temperature. The temperature and pH in the range of 25 to 50ºC and 5 to 11 were respectively investigated. The overall mass transfer coefficients of ammonia were measured as a function of temperature and pH. The quadratic multiple regression technique was used to obtain the model for mass transfer coefficient from experimental data. The model suggests that the overall mass transfer coefficient of ammonia increases with increasing water temperature and pH while the temperature-pH interaction retards the increasing characteristic of mass transfer coefficient. Thus the increasing in mass transfer coefficient at higher temperature and pH was slower than that at the lower one. The simple model for the prediction of ammonia volatilization rate and flux was developed based on mass transfer theory and mass transfer coefficient model obtained from this study. This simple ammonia emission model can be used to predict ammonia volatilization rate and flux at any pH, water temperature and

  20. 46 CFR 154.1760 - Liquid ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid ammonia. 154.1760 Section 154.1760 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR....1760 Liquid ammonia. The master shall ensure that no person sprays liquid ammonia into a cargo...

  1. 27 CFR 21.96 - Ammonia, aqueous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonia, aqueous. 21.96 Section 21.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Ammonia, aqueous. (a) Alkalinity. Strongly alkaline to litmus. (b) Ammonia content. 27 to 30 percent...

  2. Parameter Optimization on Experimental Study to Reduce Ammonia Escape in CO2 Absorption by Ammonia Scrubbing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Leng; Jianmin Gao; Mingyue He; Min Xie; Qian Du; Rui Sun; Shaohua Wu

    2016-01-01

    In order to research ammonia escape in CO2 absorption by ammonia scrubbing, ammonia escape was studied in CO2 absorption process using the bubbling reactor in different conditions as gas flow rate, CO2 ratio, absorbent temperature and ammonia concentration and quantity of escaped ammonia was measured by chemical titration. The results indicated that, the amount of ammonia escape can be around 20% of original amount in 90 min and the escaped amount will increase with the rise of gas flow rate, absorbent temperature, concentration of ammonia while decrease as CO2 ratio goes up. Through the analysis of the law of ammonia escape, at the same time, combined with ammonia escape and the influence of the relationship between the CO2 absorption efficiency, reducing ammonia escape working condition parameter optimization is given.

  3. Inhibiting Wet Oxidation of Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onisko, D. B. L.

    1985-01-01

    Simple modification of wet-oxidation process for treating organicwaste reduces loss of fixed nitrogen, potentially valuable byproduct of process. Addition of sufficient sulfuric acid to maintain reaction pH below 3 greatly reduces oxidation of ammonia to free nitrogen. No equipment modification required.

  4. Forthcoming Oversupply for Synthetic Ammonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhantong

    2007-01-01

    @@ Stable output increase The total capacity of synthetic ammonia in China is 52.0 million t/a today.There are around 540 producers mainly located in Shandong, Shanxi, Hebei,Henan, Jiangsu and Sichuan provinces.The cumulative capacity in Shandong province ranks the highest, accounting for 14.6% of the national total.

  5. Hydrogen production using ammonia borane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Charles W; Baker, R. Thomas; Semelsberger, Troy A; Shrestha, Roshan P

    2013-12-24

    Hydrogen ("H.sub.2") is produced when ammonia borane reacts with a catalyst complex of the formula L.sub.nM-X wherein M is a base metal such as iron, X is an anionic nitrogen- or phosphorus-based ligand or hydride, and L is a neutral ancillary ligand that is a neutral monodentate or polydentate ligand.

  6. RAMPS: The Radio Ammonia Mid-Plane Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James M.; Hogge, Taylor; Stephens, Ian; Whitaker, John Scott

    2016-01-01

    The Radio Ammonia Mid-Plane Survey (RAMPS) is a new 1.3 cm survey of the Galactic plane that will simultaneously image several 23 GHz ammonia lines [NH3 (1,1), (2,2), (3,3), (4,4), and (5,5)] and the 22.2 GHz water maser line from l = 10o to 40o and b = -0.5o to 0.5o. RAMPS employs the K-band Focal Plane Array receiver on the NRAO Green Bank Telescope. The main goal of RAMPS is to characterize the Galactic population of dense star-forming molecular clumps by measuring the gas temperatures, column densities, radial velocities, and kinematic distances using the ammonia line ratios. I report results from the survey's first 6.4 square degrees and present large-scale NH3 (1,1), (2,2), and (3,3) integrated intensity maps, gas temperature maps, and column density maps. To date over 500 clumps have been identified and characterized. In addition, RAMPS has now detected 619 water maser sites, most of which are detected for the first time. Only 60% of the water masers are associated with detected ammonia emission. We have also discovered a remarkable star forming region with unusually broad NH3 lines (ΔV ~ 25 km/s) and a very rare NH3 (3,3) shock-excited maser. Altough located in the Galactic disk, this clump has characteristics usually found in Galactic Center clouds.

  7. Effects of ammonia from livestock farming on lichen photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paoli, Luca [Department of Environmental Science ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, via Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Department of Biology, University of Crete, 71409 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Pirintsos, Stergios Arg.; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos [Department of Biology, University of Crete, 71409 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Pisani, Tommaso [Department of Environmental Science ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, via Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Navakoudis, Eleni [Department of Biology, University of Crete, 71409 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Loppi, Stefano, E-mail: loppi@unisi.i [Department of Environmental Science ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, via Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    This study investigated if atmospheric ammonia (NH{sub 3}) pollution around a sheep farm influences the photosynthetic performance of the lichens Evernia prunastri and Pseudevernia furfuracea. Thalli of both species were transplanted for up to 30 days in a semi-arid region (Crete, Greece), at sites with concentrations of atmospheric ammonia of ca. 60 mug/m{sup 3} (at a sheep farm), ca. 15 mug/m{sup 3} (60 m from the sheep farm) and ca. 2 mug/m{sup 3} (a remote area 5 km away). Lichen photosynthesis was analysed by the chlorophyll a fluorescence emission to identify targets of ammonia pollution. The results indicated that the photosystem II of the two lichens exposed to NH{sub 3} is susceptible to this pollutant in the gas-phase. The parameter PI{sub ABS}, a global index of photosynthetic performance that combines in a single expression the three functional steps of the photosynthetic activity (light absorption, excitation energy trapping, and conversion of excitation energy to electron transport) was much more sensitive to NH{sub 3} than the F{sub V}/F{sub M} ratio, one of the most commonly used stress indicators. - Ammonia from livestock farming affects lichen photosynthesis.

  8. UN ECE-Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution. Task Force on Reactive Nitrogen. Systematic cost-benefit analysis of mitigation measures for agricultural ammonia emissions, supporting national costing analysis; UN ECE-Luftreinhaltekonvention. Task Force on Reactive Nitrogen. Systematische Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse von Minderungsmassnahmen fuer Ammoniakemissionen in der Landwirtschaft fuer nationale Kostenabschaetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doehler, Helmut; Eurich-Menden, Brigitte; Roessler, Regina; Vandre, Robert; Wulf, Sebastian [Kuratorium fuer Technik und Bauwesen in der Landwirtschaft e.V. (KTBL), Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In this project, the methods for the determination of the expenses for the reduction of agricultural ammonia emissions were updated, and the costs of selected, representative mitigation measures suitable for Germany's agriculture were newly calculated. The reduction costs are determined based on the ratio of the extra costs for the reduction measure and the emission reduction in comparison with a reference system. Protein-adapted feeding in pig fattening generally leads to lower expenses for feedstuff, which provides negative reduction costs (- Euro 3.5 to - Euro 13.5 per kg of NH{sub 3} depending on the reference system). Pig fattening in naturally ventilated housing causes reduction costs of Euro 9.2 per kg of NH{sub 3} as compared with forced-ventilated animal houses. However, this amount cannot always be exclusively attributed to ammonia emission reduction (allocation) because naturally ventilated houses are generally built for the improvement of animal welfare and animal health. Single and multiple-stage air purification techniques in forced-ventilated pig fattening houses are a technically efficient, though costintensive reduction measure (Euro 4,6 - Euro 8,6 per kg of NH{sub 3}). Solid covers for pig slurry stores (concrete ceiling, tent) are characterized by high investment expenses and a long service life causes moderate reduction costs (Euro 1.1 - Euro 2.5 per kg of NH{sub 3}). Floating covers (plastic sheet, granules) are almost cost-neutral given reduction costs of Euro 0.3 to Euro 0.9 per kg of NH{sub 3} (pig slurry) if the fertilizer value of the conserved nitrogen is included in the calculation. Cattle slurry requires significantly higher extra costs for the covering of slurry stores because the natural floating cover itself reduces emissions (Euro 1.3 to Euro 12 per kg of NH{sub 3}). If annual spreading performances are low (1,000 to 3,000 m{sup 3}/a), only promptly incorporation of cattle and pig slurry is cost-effective. If spreading

  9. Transcriptional Response of the Archaeal Ammonia Oxidizer Nitrosopumilus maritimus to Low and Environmentally Relevant Ammonia Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Stahl, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of chemoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizing archaea to compete for ammonia among marine microorganisms at low ambient concentrations has been in part attributed to their extremely high affinity for ammonia, but as yet there is no mechanistic understanding of supporting metabolism. We examined transcription of selected genes for anabolic functions (CO2 fixation, ammonia transport, and cell wall synthesis) and a central catabolic function (ammonia oxidation) in the thaumarchaeon Nitrosopu...

  10. Ammonia as efficient fuel for SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerte, A.; Valenzuela, R.X.; Escudero, M.J. [CIEMAT, Departamento de Energia, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Daza, L. [CIEMAT, Departamento de Energia, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC), C/Marie Curie 2, Campus Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Ammonia is a possible candidate as the fuel for SOFCs. In this work, the influence on the performance of a tubular SOFC running on ammonia is studied. Analysis of open circuit voltages (OCVs) on the cell indicated the oxidation of ammonia within a SOFC is a two-stage process: decomposition of the inlet ammonia into nitrogen and hydrogen, followed by oxidation of hydrogen to water. For comparison, cell was also tested with hydrogen as the fuel and air as oxidant at different temperatures showing a similar behaviour. The performance of the cell tested under various conditions shows the high potential of ammonia as fuel for SOFCs. (author)

  11. On the accretion process in a high-mass star forming region - A multitransitional THz Herschel-HIFI study of ammonia toward G34.26+0