Sample records for aminopropionic acid-beta

  1. A microassay for acid beta-galactosidase activity toward asialofetuin. (United States)

    Mutoh, T; Naoi, M; Sobue, I; Kiuchi, K; Nagatsu, T


    To study the enzymatic properties of beta-galactosidase from the patients with a beta-galactosidase deficiency such as GM1 gangliosidosis, determination of enzymatic activity with naturally occurring substrates, asialofetuin in addition to another natural substrate, GM1 ganglioside, is essentially required. With a previously reported, simple and sensitive fluorometric assay for GM1 ganglioside beta-galactosidase using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), optimal reaction conditions were determined for the assay of acid beta-galactosidase activity toward asialofetuin in skin fibroblast homogenates. Under these conditions, reduced enzymatic activities could be detected in cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with type 1 and 3 GM1 gangliosidoses and mucopolysaccharidosis IV-B (Morquio B syndrome). This method was applicable to study of the enzymatic properties of the mutant beta-galactosidase and provided an alternative to assays employing radioactive or artificial substrates.

  2. Dog and human acid beta-D-galactosidases are structurally similar. (United States)

    Hubert, J J; O'Brien, J S


    The purification of dog liver acid beta-galactosidase is described. The dog enzyme migrated as a single major band on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate, with a molecular weight of 60000. Antiserum raised against purified human liver acid beta-galactosidase cross-reacted with beta-galactosidase from dog liver, but not with those from cat liver or Escherichia coli. Tryptic peptide maps of the dog and human acid beta-galactosidases indicate that 21 of the 24 peptides observed were homologous; a similar result was obtained after chymotryptic peptide mapping. We conclude that dog and human acid beta-galactosidases are structurally similar, and that canine GM1 gangliosidosis (acid beta-galactosidase deficiency) is an excellent model for the same disease in man. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. PMID:6412684

  3. [Study of the inborn errors of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation deficiency]. (United States)

    Zhu, Jin-ming; Yang, Zi


    Mitochondrial fatty acids beta-oxidation is a repetitive process of four steps which provides the major source of energy for heart, liver and skeletal muscle. Several enzymes are involved in this spiral cycle. The medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD), the short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD), the long-chain 3-hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) and the carnitine-palmitoyl-CoA transferase II (CPT II) deficiency have been recognized as the most common inborn errors of metabolism and frequently reported in their association with sudden infant death (SID). The prevalent mutations in these genes need further investigation in different populations.

  4. A defect in glyoxysomal fatty acid beta-oxidation reduces jasmonic acid accumulation in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Afitlhile, M M; Fukushige, H; Nishimura, M; Hildebrand, D F


    The final steps of jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis are thought to involve peroxisomal beta-oxidation, but this has not been directly demonstrated. The last and key step in fatty acid beta-oxidation is catalyzed by 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (KAT) (EC A mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Landsberg erecta, which lacks a functional KAT protein and is defective in glyoxysomal fatty acid beta-oxidation has been reported. In this study, the mutant was found to accumulate reduced level of JA in both its wounded cotyledons and leaves, while only the cotyledons accumulate 3-oxo-2-(pent-2'-enyl)-cyclopentane-1-octanoic acid (OPC-8:0). This indicates that a defect in one of the thiolase isoenzymes impairs beta-oxidation of OPC-8:0 to JA. The mutant had sufficient thiolase activity for the synthesis of JA in the unwounded but not in the wounded tissues. Activities of the enzymes in the JA pathway that catalyze the steps, which precede beta-oxidation were not altered by the mutation in a thiolase protein. Thus, reduced levels of JA in the wounded tissues of the mutant were attributed to the defect in a thiolase protein.

  5. Morquio-B disease, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia associated with acid beta-galactosidase deficiency. Report of three cases in one family. (United States)

    van Gemund, J J; Giesberts, M A; Eerdmans, R F; Blom, W; Kleijer, W J


    Two sisters and one brother, all with normal intelligence and no evidence of neurological abnormality, present progressive spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, stunted growth, corneal opacities, and increased keratansulfaturia. Cultured skin fibroblasts from one of the children showed a remarkable deficiency of acid beta-galactosidase in association with normal activities of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase and sialidase. Acid beta-galactosidase was also deficient in leukocytes of two children. Leukocytes of the parents exhibited intermediate activities, which suggests the primary nature of beta-galactosidase deficiency. Patients with MPS IV-B may be severely affected.

  6. Intracellular transport of acid beta-glucosidase and lysosome-associated membrane proteins is affected in Gaucher's disease (G202R mutation)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmer, K. P.; le Coutre, P.; Aerts, H. M.; Harzer, K.; Fukuda, M.; O'Brien, J. S.; Naim, H. Y.


    Gaucher's disease (GD) is caused by an inherited deficiency of acid beta-glucosidase with storage of glucosylceramides in the lysosomes of macrophages. This study identifies a G202R mutation in the acid beta-glucosidase gene in an infant with severe neuronopathic (type 2) GD and only slightly

  7. Mouse models for disorders of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation. (United States)

    Schuler, A Michele; Wood, Philip A


    Mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids is vital for energy production in periods of fasting and other metabolic stress. Human patients have been identified with inherited disorders of mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids with enzyme deficiencies identified at many of the steps in this pathway. Although these patients exhibit a range of disease processes, Reye-like illness (hypoketotic-hypoglycemia, hyperammonemia and fatty liver) and cardiomyopathy are common findings. There have been several mouse models developed to aid in the study of these disease conditions. The characterized mouse models include inherited deficiencies of very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrial trifunctional protein-alpha, and medium-/short-chain hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Mouse mutants developed, but presently incompletely characterized as models, include carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1a and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiencies. In general, the mouse models of disorders of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation have shown clinical signs that include Reye-like syndrome and cardiomyopathy, and many are cold intolerant. It is expected that these mouse models will provide vital contributions in understanding the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis of fatty acid oxidation disorders and the development of appropriate treatments and supportive care.

  8. Poly (γ-glutamic acid)/beta-TCP nanocomposites via in situ copolymerization: Preparation and characterization. (United States)

    Shu, Xiu-Lin; Shi, Qing-Shan; Feng, Jin; Yang, Yun-Hua; Zhou, Gang; Li, Wen-Ru


    A series biodegradable poly (γ-glutamic acid)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (γ-PGA/TCP) nanocomposites were prepared which were composed of poly-γ-glutamic acid polymerized in situ with β-tricalcium phosphate and physiochemically characterized as bone graft substitutes. The particle size via dynamic light scattering, the direct morphological characterization via transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscope, which showed that γ-PGA and β-TCP were combined compactly at 80℃, and the γ-PGA/TCP nanocomposites had homogenous and nano-sized grains with narrow particle size distributions. The water uptake and retention abilities, in vitro degradation properties, cytotoxicity in the simulated medium, and protein release of these novel γ-PGA/TCP composites were investigated. Cell proliferation in composites was nearly twice than β-TCP when checked in vitro using MC3T3 cell line. We also envision the potential use of γ-PGA/TCP systems in bone growth factor or orthopedic drug delivery applications in future bone tissue engineering applications. These observations suggest that the γ-PGA/TCP are novel nanocomposites with great potential for application in the field of bone tissue engineering. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Purified human liver acid beta-D-galactosidases possessing activity towards G(M1)-ganglioside and lactosylceramide. (United States)

    Miller, A L; Frost, R G; O'Brien, J S


    Our studies with purified human liver acid beta-D-galactosidases (EC indicate that 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-galactosidase and G(M1)-ganglioside beta-D-galactosidase activities are identical with lactosylceramidase II activity. Evidence for this includes co-purification of all enzyme activities by affinity chromatography to yield a single band on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and coincident elution from Sepharose 6B of all three enzyme activities. Images Fig. 1. PMID:411490

  10. Characterization of purified human liver acid beta-D-galactosidases A2 and A3. (United States)

    Frost, R G; Holmes, E W; Norden, A G; O'Brien, J S


    1. Human liver acid beta-galactosidase A2 and A3 were isolated by chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B, Sepharose 6B, and Sepharose 4B-6-aminohexyl 1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase A2 and A3 were purified to final specific activities of 45.5 and 20.6 mumol/min per mg respectively with 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-galactopyranoside as substrate. 2. Form A2 had a mol.wt. of 150000 +/- 15000 (gel filtration) and appeared as a single band of protein (mol.wt 65000 +/- 1000) on electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. 3. Form A3 had a mol.wt. (gel filtration) of 660000 +/- 66000. On electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate, form A3 appeared as a major band of protein (72% of total) of mol.wt. 65000 +/- 1000 and minor protein bands of mol.wt. 44000 +/- 1000 and 26,000 +/- 1000 and 22000 +/- 1000. 4. Gel-filtration chromatography of purified beta-galactosidase A3 generated approximately equal amounts of forms A3 and A2. beta-Galactosidase A1 was not detected by gel-filtration chromatography of partially or highly purified preparations of forms A2 and A3. 5. Both forms A2 and A3 had identical isoelectric points of 4.42 +/- 0.02. The data suggest that forms A2 and A3 are dimeric and multimeric forms of beta-galactosidase A1. 6. Amino acid analysis of beta-galactosidase A2 gave a ratio of acidic to basic amino acids of 2.6:1. 7. beta-Galactosidase A2 contained 7.5% carbohydrate by weight and sialic acid, D-galactose, D-glucosamine and D-mannose were present in the molar proportions 1.1:1.0:1.7:2.7. Images Fig. 1. PMID:104712

  11. Role of fatty acid uptake and fatty acid beta-oxidation in mediating insulin resistance in heart and skeletal muscle. (United States)

    Zhang, Liyan; Keung, Wendy; Samokhvalov, Victor; Wang, Wei; Lopaschuk, Gary D


    Fatty acids are a major fuel source used to sustain contractile function in heart and oxidative skeletal muscle. To meet the energy demands of these muscles, the uptake and beta-oxidation of fatty acids must be coordinately regulated in order to ensure an adequate, but not excessive, supply for mitochondrial beta-oxidation. However, imbalance between fatty acid uptake and beta-oxidation has the potential to contribute to muscle insulin resistance. The action of insulin is initiated by binding to its receptor and activation of the intrinsic protein tyrosine kinase activity of the receptor, resulting in the initiation of an intracellular signaling cascade that eventually leads to insulin-mediated alterations in a number of cellular processes, including an increase in glucose transport. Accumulation of fatty acids and lipid metabolites (such as long chain acyl CoA, diacylglycerol, triacylglycerol, and/or ceramide) can lead to alterations in this insulin signaling pathway. An imbalance between fatty acid uptake and oxidation is believed to be responsible for this lipid accumulation, and is thought to be a major cause of insulin resistance in obesity and diabetes, due to lipid accumulation and inhibition of one or more steps in the insulin-signaling cascade. As a result, decreasing muscle fatty acid uptake can improve insulin sensitivity. However, the potential role of increasing fatty acid beta-oxidation in the heart or skeletal muscle in order to prevent cytoplasmic lipid accumulation and decrease insulin resistance is controversial. While increased fatty acid beta-oxidation may lower cytoplasmic lipid accumulation, increasing fatty acid beta-oxidation can decrease muscle glucose metabolism, and incomplete fatty acid oxidation has the potential to also contribute to insulin resistance. In this review, we discuss the proposed mechanisms by which alterations in fatty acid uptake and oxidation contribute to insulin resistance, and how targeting fatty acid uptake and

  12. Quantification of syntrophic fatty acid-beta-oxidizing bacteria in a mesophilic biogas reactor by oligonucleotide probe hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.W.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Raskin, L.


    fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria in methanogenic environments, the microbial community structure of a sample from a full-scale biogas plant was determined. Hybridization results with probes for syntrophic bacteria-and methanogens were compared to specific methanogenic activities...... and microbial numbers determined with most-probable-number estimates. Most of the methanogenic rRNA was comprised of Methanomicrobiales rRNA,suggesting that members of this order served as the main hydrogen utilizing microorganisms. Between 0.2 and 1% of the rRNA was attributed to the Syntrophomonadaceae...

  13. Genetic defects in fatty acid beta-oxidation and acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. Molecular pathogenesis and genotype-phenotype relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Bross, Peter; Andresen, Brage S


    Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation deficiencies are due to genetic defects in enzymes of fatty acid beta-oxidation and transport proteins. Genetic defects have been identified in most of the genes where nearly all types of sequence variations (mutation types) have been associated with disease. In...

  14. Characterization of gene-activated human acid-beta-glucosidase: crystal structure, glycan composition, and internalization into macrophages. (United States)

    Brumshtein, Boris; Salinas, Paul; Peterson, Brian; Chan, Victor; Silman, Israel; Sussman, Joel L; Savickas, Philip J; Robinson, Gregory S; Futerman, Anthony H


    Gaucher disease, the most common lysosomal storage disease, can be treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), in which defective acid-beta-glucosidase (GlcCerase) is supplemented by a recombinant, active enzyme. The X-ray structures of recombinant GlcCerase produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells (imiglucerase, Cerezyme) and in transgenic carrot cells (prGCD) have been previously solved. We now describe the structure and characteristics of a novel form of GlcCerase under investigation for the treatment of Gaucher disease, Gene-Activated human GlcCerase (velaglucerase alfa). In contrast to imiglucerase and prGCD, velaglucerase alfa contains the native human enzyme sequence. All three GlcCerases consist of three domains, with the active site located in domain III. The distances between the carboxylic oxygens of the catalytic residues, E340 and E235, are consistent with distances proposed for acid-base hydrolysis. Kinetic parameters (K(m) and V(max)) of velaglucerase alfa and imiglucerase, as well as their specific activities, are similar. However, analysis of glycosylation patterns shows that velaglucerase alfa displays distinctly different structures from imiglucerase and prGCD. The predominant glycan on velaglucerase alfa is a high-mannose type, with nine mannose units, while imiglucerase contains a chitobiose tri-mannosyl core glycan with fucosylation. These differences in glycosylation affect cellular internalization; the rate of velaglucerase alfa internalization into human macrophages is at least 2-fold greater than that of imiglucerase.

  15. Complete deficiency of mitochondrial trifunctional protein due to a novel mutation within the beta-subunit of the mitochondrial trifunctional protein gene leads to failure of long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation with fatal outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwab, Karl Otfried; Ensenauer, Regina; Matern, Dietrich; Uyanik, Gökhan; Schnieders, Birgit; Wanders, Ronald A.; Lehnert, Willy


    The mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) is a multienzyme complex which catalyses three of the four chain-shortening reactions in the beta-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. Clinically, failure of long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation leads to hypoketotic hypoglycaemia associated with coma,

  16. Properties of a fluorescent bezafibrate derivative (DNS-X). A new tool to study peroxisome proliferation and fatty acid beta-oxidation. (United States)

    Berlot, J P; Lutz, T; Cherkaoui Malki, M; Nicolas-Frances, V; Jannin, B; Latruffe, N


    The first peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) was cloned in 1990 by Issemann and Green. Many studies have reported the importance of this receptor in the control of gene expression of enzymes involved in lipid metabolic pathways including mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation, lipoprotein structure [apolipoprotein (apo) A2, apo CIII], and fatty acid synthase. By using radiolabeled molecules, it was shown that peroxisome proliferators bind and activate PPAR. As an alternative method, we developed a fluorescent dansyl (1-dimethylaminonaphthalene-5-sulfonyl) derivative peroxisome proliferator from bezafibrate (DNS-X), a hypolipidemic agent that exhibits an in vitro peroxisome proliferative activity on rat Fao-hepatic derived cultured cells. However, until now, the effect of this new compound on the liver of animals and subcellular localization was unknown. In addition to in vivo rat studies, we present a more efficient large-scale technique of DNS-X purification. Treating rats (DNS-X in the diet at 0.3% w/w) for 6 d leads to a hepatomegaly and a marked increase in liver peroxisomal palmitoyl-CoA oxidase activity. We also developed a method to localize and quantify DNS-X in tissues or cell compartment organelles. The primarily cytosolic distribution of DNS-X was confirmed by direct visualization using fluorescence microscopy of cultured Fao cells. Finally, transfection assay demonstrated that DNS-X enhanced the PPAR alpha activity as well as other peroxisome proliferators do.

  17. Molecular form and subcellular distribution of acid beta-galactosidase in fibroblasts from patients with GM1 gangliosidosis, Morquio B disease and galactosialidosis. (United States)

    Takiyama, N; Itoh, K; Shimmoto, M; Nishimoto, J; Inui, K; Sakuraba, H; Suzuki, Y


    The molecular form and subcellular distribution of acid beta-galactosidase in cultured fibroblasts from patients with beta-galactosidase deficiency (GM1-gangliosidosis, Morquio B disease and galactosialidosis) were studied, using antibodies against three different forms of the human enzyme: a high-molecular-weight multienzymic complex, a recombinant 84-kDa precursor, and a 64-kDa tryptic product of the precursor. The mature enzyme from normal fibroblasts was immunoprecipitated by the anti-complex and anti-64-kDa protein antibodies, but not by the anti-84-kDa precursor one. immunofluorescence staining of normal fibroblasts revealed the granular (lysosomal) distribution with anti-64-kDa protein antibody and the perinuclear reticular distribution with anti-84-kDa precursor antibody, probably representing the Golgi apparatus. Both patterns were demonstrated in Morquio B disease, but the residual enzyme activity was exclusively due to the mature enzyme. In Type 1 galactosialidosis, most of the expressed enzyme was detected as the precursor form with a perinuclear reticular distribution. In type 2 galactosialidosis, more than half of the enzyme activity was due to the mature form with a lysosomal distribution. Fibroblasts from a patient with GM1 gangliosidosis, expressing no beta-galactosidase mRNA, did not react against either anti-64-kDa protein antibody or anti-84-kDa precursor antibody. The combined use of immunoprecipitation and immunostaining was useful for analysing the pathophysiology of the intracellular processing and transport of the mutant beta-galactosidase.

  18. Correction of acid beta-galactosidase deficiency in GM1 gangliosidosis human fibroblasts by retrovirus vector-mediated gene transfer: higher efficiency of release and cross-correction by the murine enzyme. (United States)

    Sena-Esteves, M; Camp, S M; Alroy, J; Breakefield, X O; Kaye, E M


    Mutations in the lysosomal acid beta-galactosidase (EC underlie two different disorders: GM1 gangliosidosis, which involves the nervous system and visceral organs to varying extents, and Morquio's syndrome type B (Morquio B disease), which is a skeletal-connective tissue disease without any CNS symptoms. This article shows that transduction of human GM1 gangliosidosis fibroblasts with retrovirus vectors encoding the human acid beta-galactosidase cDNA leads to complete correction of the enzymatic deficiency. The newly synthesized enzyme is correctly processed and targeted to the lysosomes in transduced cells. Cross-correction experiments using retrovirus-modified cells as enzyme donors showed, however, that the human enzyme is transferred at low efficiencies. Experiments using a different retrovirus vector carrying the human cDNA confirmed this observation. Transduction of human GM1 fibroblasts and mouse NIH 3T3 cells with a retrovirus vector encoding the mouse beta-galactosidase cDNA resulted in high levels of enzymatic activity. Furthermore, the mouse enzyme was found to be transferred to human cells at high efficiency. Enzyme activity measurements in medium conditioned by genetically modified cells suggest that the human beta-galactosidase enzyme is less efficiently released to the extracellular space than its mouse counterpart. This study suggests that lysosomal enzymes, contrary to the generalized perception in the field of gene therapy, may differ significantly in their properties and provides insights for design of future gene therapy interventions in acid beta-galactosidase deficiency.

  19. GM1 gangliosidosis and Morquio B disease: expression analysis of missense mutations affecting the catalytic site of acid beta-galactosidase. (United States)

    Hofer, Doris; Paul, Karl; Fantur, Katrin; Beck, Michael; Bürger, Friederike; Caillaud, Catherine; Fumic, Ksenija; Ledvinova, Jana; Lugowska, Agnieszka; Michelakakis, Helen; Radeva, Briguita; Ramaswami, Uma; Plecko, Barbara; Paschke, Eduard


    Alterations in GLB1, the gene coding for acid beta-D-galactosidase (beta-Gal), can result in GM1 gangliosidosis (GM1), a neurodegenerative disorder, or in Morquio B disease (MBD), a phenotype with dysostosis multiplex and normal central nervous system (CNS) function. While most MBD patients carry a common allele, c.817TG>CT (p.W273L), only few of the >100 mutations known in GM1 can be related to a certain phenotype. In 25 multiethnic patients with GM1 or MBD, 11 missense mutations were found as well as one novel insertion and a transversion causing aberrant gene products. Except c.602G>A (p.R201H) and two novel alleles, c.592G>T (p.D198Y) and c.1189C>G (p.P397A), all mutants resulted in significantly reduced beta-Gal activities (C (p.Y333H) expressed 3% of normal activity, the mutant protein was localized in the lysosomal-endosomal compartment. A homozygous case presented with late infantile GM1, while a heterozygous, juvenile case carried p.Y333H together with p.R201H. This allele, recently found in homozygous MBD, gives rise to rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)-located beta-Gal precursors. Thus, unlike classical MBD, the phenotype of heterozygotes carrying p.R201H may rather be determined by poorly active, properly transported products of the counter allele than by the mislocalized p.R201H precursors.

  20. The promiscuous enzyme medium-chain 3-keto-acyl-CoA thiolase triggers a vicious cycle in fatty-acid beta-oxidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Claire M F Martines


    Full Text Available Mitochondrial fatty-acid beta-oxidation (mFAO plays a central role in mammalian energy metabolism. Multiple severe diseases are associated with defects in this pathway. Its kinetic structure is characterized by a complex wiring of which the functional implications have hardly been explored. Repetitive cycles of reversible reactions, each cycle shortening the fatty acid by two carbon atoms, evoke competition between intermediates of different chain lengths for a common set of 'promiscuous' enzymes (enzymes with activity towards multiple substrates. In our validated kinetic model of the pathway, substrate overload causes a steep and detrimental flux decline. Here, we unravel the underlying mechanism and the role of enzyme promiscuity in it. Comparison of alternative model versions elucidated the role of promiscuity of individual enzymes. Promiscuity of the last enzyme of the pathway, medium-chain ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (MCKAT, was both necessary and sufficient to elicit the flux decline. Subsequently, Metabolic Control Analysis revealed that MCKAT had insufficient capacity to cope with high substrate influx. Next, we quantified the internal metabolic regulation, revealing a vicious cycle around MCKAT. Upon substrate overload, MCKAT's ketoacyl-CoA substrates started to accumulate. The unfavourable equilibrium constant of the preceding enzyme, medium/short-chain hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, worked as an amplifier, leading to accumulation of upstream CoA esters, including acyl-CoA esters. These acyl-CoA esters are at the same time products of MCKAT and inhibited its already low activity further. Finally, the accumulation of CoA esters led to a sequestration of free CoA. CoA being a cofactor for MCKAT, its sequestration limited the MCKAT activity even further, thus completing the vicious cycle. Since CoA is also a substrate for distant enzymes, it efficiently communicated the 'traffic jam' at MCKAT to the entire pathway. This novel mechanism provides

  1. [Mechanical properties of polylactic acid/beta-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffold with double channels based on three-dimensional printing technique]. (United States)

    Lian, Qin; Zhuang, Pei; Li, Changhai; Jin, Zhongmin; Li, Dichen


    To improve the poor mechanical strength of porous ceramic scaffold, an integrated method based on three-dimensional (3-D) printing technique is developed to incorporate the controlled double-channel porous structure into the polylactic acid/beta-tricalcium phosphate (PLA/beta-TCP) reinforced composite scaffolds (double-channel composite scaffold) to improve their tissue regeneration capability and the mechanical properties. The designed double-channel structure inside the ceramic scaffold consisted of both primary and secondary micropipes, which parallel but un-connected. The set of primary channels was used for cell ingrowth, while the set of secondary channels was used for the PLA perfusion. Integration technology of 3-D printing technique and gel-casting was firstly used to fabricate the double-channel ceramic scaffolds. PLA/beta-TCP composite scaffolds were obtained by the polymer gravity perfusion process to pour PLA solution into the double-channel ceramic scaffolds through the secondary channel set. Microscope, porosity, and mechanical experiments for the standard samples were used to evaluate the composite properties. The ceramic scaffold with only the primary channel (single-channel scaffold) was also prepared as a control. Morphology observation results showed that there was no PLA inside the primary channels of the double-channel composite scaffolds but a dense interface layer between PLA and beta-TCP obviously formed on the inner wall of the secondary channels by the PLA penetration during the perfusion process. Finite element simulation found that the compressive strength of the double-channel composite scaffold was less than that of the single-channel scaffold; however, mechanical tests found that the maximum compressive strength of the double-channel composite scaffold [(21.25 +/- 1.15) MPa] was higher than that of the single-channel scaffold[ (9.76 +/- 0.64) MPa]. The double-channel composite scaffolds fabricated by 3-D printing technique have

  2. The multifunctional protein AtMFP2 is co-ordinately expressed with other genes of fatty acid beta-oxidation during seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (United States)

    Eastmond, P J; Graham, I A


    In germinating oilseeds peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation is responsible for the mobilization of storage lipids. This pathway also occurs in other tissues where it has a variety of additional physiological functions. The central enzymatic steps of peroxisomal beta-oxidation are performed by acyl-CoA oxidase (ACOX), the multifunctional protein (MFP) and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (thiolase). In order to investigate the function and regulation of beta-oxidation in plants it is first necessary to identify and characterize genes encoding the relevant enzymes in a single model species. Recently we and others have reported on the cloning and characterization of genes encoding four ACOXs and a thiolase from the oilseed Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we identify a gene encoding an Arabidopsis MFP (AtMFP2) that is induced transiently during germination. The pattern of AtMFP2 expression closely reflects changes in the activities of 2-trans-enoyl-CoA hydratase and L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Similar patterns of expression have previously been reported for ACOX and thiolase genes. We conclude that genes encoding the three main proteins responsible for beta-oxidation are co-ordinately expressed during oilseed germination and may share a common mechanism of regulation.

  3. Peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation in relation to adrenoleukodystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, R. J.; Tager, J. M.


    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a neurological disease characterized by progressive demyelination with destruction of the white matter, and adrenal insufficiency. Biochemically there is accumulation of very-long-chain fatty acids resulting from an impairment in the peroxisomal oxidation of these

  4. Dynamic simulations on the mitochondrial fatty acid Beta-oxidation network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinberger Klaus M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria plays an important role in energy metabolism and genetic disorders of this pathway may cause metabolic diseases. Enzyme deficiencies can block the metabolism at defined reactions in the mitochondrion and lead to accumulation of specific substrates causing severe clinical manifestations. Ten of the disorders directly affecting mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation have been well-defined, implicating episodic hypoketotic hypoglycemia provoked by catabolic stress, multiple organ failure, muscle weakness, or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Additionally, syndromes of severe maternal illness (HELLP syndrome and AFLP have been associated with pregnancies carrying a fetus affected by fatty acid oxidation deficiencies. However, little is known about fatty acids kinetics, especially during fasting or exercise when the demand for fatty acid oxidation is increased (catabolic stress. Results A computational kinetic network of 64 reactions with 91 compounds and 301 parameters was constructed to study dynamic properties of mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation. Various deficiencies of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase were simulated and verified with measured concentrations of indicative metabolites of screened newborns in Middle Europe and South Australia. The simulated accumulation of specific acyl-CoAs according to the investigated enzyme deficiencies are in agreement with experimental data and findings in literature. Investigation of the dynamic properties of the fatty acid β-oxidation reveals that the formation of acetyl-CoA – substrate for energy production – is highly impaired within the first hours of fasting corresponding to the rapid progress to coma within 1–2 hours. LCAD deficiency exhibits the highest accumulation of fatty acids along with marked increase of these substrates during catabolic stress and the lowest production rate of acetyl-CoA. These findings might confirm gestational loss to be the explanation that no human cases of LCAD deficiency have been described. Conclusion In summary, this work provides a detailed kinetic model of mitochondrial metabolism with specific focus on fatty acid β-oxidation to simulate and predict the dynamic response of that metabolic network in the context of human disease. Our findings offer insight into the disease process (e.g. rapid progress to coma and might confirm new explanations (no human cases of LCAD deficiency, which can hardly be obtained from experimental data alone.

  5. Comparison of the canine and human acid {beta}-galactosidase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahern-Rindell, A.J. [Weber State Univ., Ogden, UT (United States); Kretz, K.A. [Recombinant BioCatalysis, Inc., La Jolla, CA (United States); O`Brien, J.S. [Univ. of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)


    Several canine cDNA libraries were screened with human {beta}-galactosidase cDNA as probe. Seven positive clones were isolated and sequenced yielding a partial (2060 bp) canine {beta}-galactosidase cDNA with 86% identity to the human {beta}-galactosidase cDNA. Preliminary analysis of a canine genomic library indicated conservation of exon number and size. Analysis by Northern blotting disclosed a single mRNA of 2.4 kb in fibroblasts and liver from normal dogs and dogs affected with GM1 gangliosidosis. Although incomplete, these results indicate canine GM1 gangliosidosis is a suitable animal model of the human disease and should further efforts to devise a gene therapy strategy for its treatment. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Phylogenomic evidence for a myxococcal contribution to the mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha Schlüter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The origin of eukaryotes remains a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. Although it is clear that eukaryotic genomes are a chimeric combination of genes of eubacterial and archaebacterial ancestry, the specific ancestry of most eubacterial genes is still unknown. The growing availability of microbial genomes offers the possibility of analyzing the ancestry of eukaryotic genomes and testing previous hypotheses on their origins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we have applied a phylogenomic analysis to investigate a possible contribution of the Myxococcales to the first eukaryotes. We conducted a conservative pipeline with homologous sequence searches against a genomic sampling of 40 eukaryotic and 357 prokaryotic genomes. The phylogenetic reconstruction showed that several eukaryotic proteins traced to Myxococcales. Most of these proteins were associated with mitochondrial lipid intermediate pathways, particularly enzymes generating reducing equivalents with pivotal roles in fatty acid β-oxidation metabolism. Our data suggest that myxococcal species with the ability to oxidize fatty acids transferred several genes to eubacteria that eventually gave rise to the mitochondrial ancestor. Later, the eukaryotic nucleocytoplasmic lineage acquired those metabolic genes through endosymbiotic gene transfer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support a prokaryotic origin, different from α-proteobacteria, for several mitochondrial genes. Our data reinforce a fluid prokaryotic chromosome model in which the mitochondrion appears to be an important entry point for myxococcal genes to enter eukaryotes.

  7. Pristanic acid beta-oxidation in peroxisomal disorders: studies in cultured human fibroblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, N. M.; Schor, D. S.; Roe, C. R.; Wanders, R. J.; Jakobs, C.


    To investigate the individual steps of peroxisomal beta-oxidation, human fibroblasts from controls and patients affected by different peroxisomal disorders were incubated for 96 h with pristanic acid. Hereafter, 2,3-pristenic acid and 3-hydroxypristanic acid in the incubation medium were quantified

  8. Simultaneous analysis of plasma free fatty acids and their 3-hydroxy analogs in fatty acid beta-oxidation disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, C. G.; Dorland, L.; Holwerda, U.; de Almeida, I. T.; Poll-The, B. T.; Jakobs, C.; Duran, M.


    We present a new derivatization procedure for the simultaneous gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of free fatty acids and 3-hydroxyfatty acids in plasma. Derivatization of target compounds involved trifluoroacetylation of hydroxyl groups and tert-butyldimethylsilylation of the carboxyl

  9. Fatty acid beta-oxidation in peroxisomes and mitochondria: the first, unequivocal evidence for the involvement of carnitine in shuttling propionyl-CoA from peroxisomes to mitochondria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakobs, B. S.; Wanders, R. J.


    We have investigated how [1-14C]propionyl-CoA, which is the first product of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation of [1-14C] pristanic acid, is transported to mitochondria for further oxidation in human skin fibroblasts from patients with a defect in the mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase

  10. Importance of the Long-Chain Fatty Acid Beta-Hydroxylating Cytochrome P450 Enzyme YbdT for Lipopeptide Biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis Strain OKB105

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. McInerney


    Full Text Available Bacillus species produce extracellular, surface-active lipopeptides such as surfactin that have wide applications in industry and medicine. The steps involved in the synthesis of 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A (CoA substrates needed for surfactin biosynthesis are not understood. Cell-free extracts of Bacillus subtilis strain OKB105 synthesized lipopeptide biosurfactants in presence of L-amino acids, myristic acid, coenzyme A, ATP, and H2O2, which suggested that 3-hydroxylation occurs prior to CoA ligation of the long chain fatty acids (LCFAs. We hypothesized that YbdT, a cytochrome P450 enzyme known to beta-hydroxylate LCFAs, functions to form 3-hydroxy fatty acids for lipopeptide biosynthesis. An in-frame mutation of ybdT was constructed and the resulting mutant strain (NHY1 produced predominantly non-hydroxylated lipopeptide with diminished biosurfactant and beta-hemolytic activities. Mass spectrometry showed that 95.6% of the fatty acids in the NHY1 biosurfactant were non-hydroxylated compared to only ~61% in the OKB105 biosurfactant. Cell-free extracts of the NHY1 synthesized surfactin containing 3-hydroxymyristic acid from 3-hydroxymyristoyl-CoA at a specific activity similar to that of the wild type (17 ± 2 versus 17.4 ± 6 ng biosurfactant min−1·ng·protein−1, respectively. These results showed that the mutation did not affect any function needed to synthesize surfactin once the 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA substrate was formed and that YbdT functions to supply 3-hydroxy fatty acid for surfactin biosynthesis. The fact that YbdT is a peroxidase could explain why biosurfactant production is rarely observed in anaerobically grown Bacillus species. Manipulation of LCFA specificity of YbdT could provide a new route to produce biosurfactants with activities tailored to specific functions.

  11. Fatty acid beta-oxidation in leukocytes from control subjects and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficient patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, R. J.; IJlst, L.


    In recent years an increasing number of inherited diseases in man have been identified in which there is an impairment in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Diagnosis is usually done by gas-chromatographic analysis of urine, which may give difficulties, since urinary abnormalities may only be

  12. Identification of a peroxisomal ATP carrier required for medium-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation and normal peroxisome proliferation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roermund, C. W.; Drissen, R.; van den Berg, M.; IJlst, L.; Hettema, E. H.; Tabak, H. F.; Waterham, H. R.; Wanders, R. J.


    We have characterized the role of YPR128cp, the orthologue of human PMP34, in fatty acid metabolism and peroxisomal proliferation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. YPR128cp belongs to the mitochondrial carrier family (MCF) of solute transporters and is localized in the peroxisomal membrane. Disruption of

  13. Clinical and biological features at diagnosis in mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation defects: a French pediatric study of 187 patients. (United States)

    Baruteau, Julien; Sachs, Philippe; Broué, Pierre; Brivet, Michèle; Abdoul, Hendy; Vianey-Saban, Christine; Ogier de Baulny, Hélène


    Mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation defects (FAODs) are a group of severe inherited metabolic diseases, most of which can be treated with favorable prognosis following diagnosis. A description of the broad range of phenotypes resulting from these defects remains incomplete, and for this study, we sought to investigate the semiology at diagnosis in a country without a newborn screening program for FAODs. Using a retrospective French multicentre study, we analyzed 187 children aged cardiac features (55 %) [as either cardiomyopathy (47 %) or arrhythmias (31 %)] were frequently documented. Hemodynamic events (41 %) were represented by shock (31 %) or sudden death (35 %). Hyperammonemia (73 %) and hyperlactacidemia (57 %) were the two main biochemical features. Total, very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCADD), long-chain 3-hydroxyacylCoA dehydrogenase (LCHADD), and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCADD) deficiency mortality rates were 48 %, 60 %, 63 %, and 20 % respectively. This study presents clinical features of a large cohort of patients with FAODs in a country without neonatal screening for FAODs. Our results highlight liver as the main organ involved at diagnosis regardless of age at diagnosis, classical phenotype (i.e., cardiac, hepatic, or muscular), or enzyme deficiency. Although steatosis may be observed in various inherited metabolic defects, it is a reliable indicator of FAOD and should prompt systematic screening when the diagnosis is suspected. The poor long-term prognoses reported are a strong argument for inclusion of FAODs in newborn screening programs.

  14. β-Peptoid Foldamers at Last

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jonas S; Engel-Andreasen, Jens; Olsen, Christian A


    in this journal in the late 1990s. Oligomers of N-alkylated 3-aminopropionic acid residues have been called β-peptoids due to their structural similarity to β-peptides and peptoids (N-alkylglycines), respectively. Because bona fide foldamer behavior has been demonstrated for both parent architectures, we wondered...

  15. Mutation analyses in 17 patients with deficiency in acid beta-galactosidase: three novel point mutations and high correlation of mutation W273L with Morquio disease type B. (United States)

    Paschke, E; Milos, I; Kreimer-Erlacher, H; Hoefler, G; Beck, M; Hoeltzenbein, M; Kleijer, W; Levade, T; Michelakakis, H; Radeva, B


    An inherited deficiency in beta-galactosidase can result in GM1 gangliosidosis, with several phenotypes of generalized or chronic psychomotor deterioration, as well as in Morquio disease type B, a characteristic mucopolysaccharidosis free of neurological symptoms. We performed mutation analyses in 17 juvenile and adult patients from various European regions with a deficiency in beta-galactosidase and skeletal abnormalities. Fifteen of these had the Morquio B phenotype and have remained neurologically healthy until now while the two others exhibited psychomotor retardation of juvenile onset. A two-base substitution (851-852TG-->CT; W273L) was present in 14 of the 15 Morquio B cases. Even if one excludes alleles from patients with possible common descent, there was a much higher frequency (79%) among those with Morquio B phenotype for the W273L mutation than previously reported in the literature (37%). That the Morquio phenotype is also expressed in heterozygotes for W273L and alleles typically found in GM1 gangliosidosis makes it possible to predict the phenotype and reliably detect heterozygotes. A single French patient had a novel missense point mutation (Q408P) together with a known mutation (T500A) while the mentally retarded patients were both heterozygous for two mutations known in chronic GM1 gangliosidosis together with two novel missense point mutations (Y270D and H281Y) in the vicinity of W273L. Our results confirm the high impact of Trp 273 for the function of beta-galactosidase and the expression of the Morquio B phenotype. In addition, a second domain around the amino acids 400-500 may also be of significance.

  16. Triangular prism-shaped β-peptoid helices as unique biomimetic scaffolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jonas Striegler; Harris, Pernille; Fristrup, Peter


    β-Peptoids are peptidomimetics based on N-alkylated β-aminopropionic acid residues (or N-alkyl-β-alanines). This type of peptide mimic has previously been incorporated in biologically active ligands and has been hypothesized to be able to exhibit foldamer properties. Here we show, for the first t...... of novel biomimetics that display functional groups with high accuracy in three dimensions, which has potential for development of new functional materials....

  17. EST Table: DC548736 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available milar to Glucosylceramidase precursor (Beta-glucocerebrosidase) (Acid beta-glucosidase) (D-glucosyl-N-acylsp...ucosylceramidase precursor (Beta-glucocerebrosidase) (Acid beta-glucosidase) (D-g....1| PREDICTED: similar to Glucosylceramidase precursor (Beta-glucocerebrosidase) (Acid beta-glucosidase) (D-

  18. Food-Grade Synthesis of Maillard-Type Taste Enhancers Using Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Kranz


    Full Text Available The increasing demand for healthier food products, with reduced levels of table salt, sugar, and mono sodium glutamate, reinforce the need for novel taste enhancers prepared by means of food-grade kitchen-type chemistry. Although several taste modulating compounds have been discovered in processed foods, their Maillard-type ex food production is usually not exploited by industrial process reactions as the yields of target compounds typically do not exceed 1–2%. Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES are reported for the first time to significantly increase the yields of the taste enhancers 1-deoxy-ᴅ-fructosyl-N-β-alanyl-ʟ-histidine (49% yield, N-(1-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidin-2-ylidene aminopropionic acid (54% yield and N2-(1-carboxyethyl guanosine 5′-monophosphate (22% yield at low temperature (80–100 °C within a maximum reaction time of 2 h. Therefore, NADES open new avenues to a “next-generation culinary chemistry” overcoming the yield limitations of traditional Maillard chemistry approaches and enable a food-grade Maillard-type generation of flavor modulators.

  19. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... alkylthio/alkoxy phenylpropanoic acids, beta-keto esters and tyrosine-based compounds possess broad therapeutic potential in general and as Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors (PPARs) agonists in particular in the management of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidaemia for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D).

  20. Draft genome sequence of Pantoea agglomerans JM1, a strain isolated from soil polluted by industrial production of Beta-Lactam antibiotics that exhibits valacyclovir-like hydrolase activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zahradník, Jiří; Plačková, Martina; Palyzová, Andrea; Marešová, Helena; Kyslíková, Eva; Kyslík, Pavel


    Roč. 5, č. 38 (2017), č. článku e00921-17. ISSN 2169-8287 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : 6 nitro 3 (phenylacetamido)benzoic acid * beta lactam antibiotic * topoisomerase (ATP hydrolysing) B Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology

  1. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    acyclic analogs like alpha alkylthio/alkoxy phenylpropanoic acids, beta-keto esters and tyrosine-based com- pounds possess broad therapeutic potential in general and as Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors. (PPARs) agonists in particular in the management of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidaemia for the treatment ...

  2. Peroxisomes, lipid metabolism, and peroxisomal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, R. J. A.


    Peroxisomes catalyse a large variety of different cellular functions of which most have to do with lipid metabolism. This paper deals with the role of peroxisomes in three key pathways of lipid metabolism, including: (1) etherphospholipid biosynthesis, (2) fatty acid beta-oxidation, and (3) fatty

  3. Sequence Classification: 893466 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nd enoyl-CoA hydratase activities; Fox2p || ... ...unctional enzyme of the peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway; has 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase a

  4. Peroxisomal fatty acid uptake mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roermund, C.W.T.; Ijlst, L.; Majczak, W.; Waterham, H.R.; Folkerts, H.; Wanders, R.J.A.; Hellingwerf, K.J.


    Peroxisomes play a major role in human cellular lipid metabolism, including fatty acid beta-oxidation. The most frequent peroxisomal disorder is X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, which is caused by mutations in ABCD1. The biochemical hallmark of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is the accumulation of very

  5. Peroxisomal Fatty Acid Uptake Mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roermund, Carlo W. T.; Ijlst, Lodewijk; Majczak, Wiktor; Waterham, Hans R.; Folkerts, Hendrik; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Hellingwerf, Klaas J.


    Peroxisomes play a major role in human cellular lipid metabolism, including fatty acid beta-oxidation. The most frequent peroxisomal disorder is X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, which is caused by mutations in ABCD1. The biochemical hallmark of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is the accumulation of very

  6. Peroxisomes, lipid metabolism, and human disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, R. J.


    In the past few years, much has been learned about the metabolic functions of peroxisomes. These studies have shown that peroxisomes play a major role in lipid metabolism, including fatty acid beta-oxidation, etherphospholipid biosynthesis, and phytanic acid alpha-oxidation. This article describes

  7. Comparative and genetic analysis of the porcine glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stratil, Antonín; Wagenknecht, Daniel; Van Poucke, M.; Kubíčková, S.; Bartenschlager, H.; Musilová, P.; Rubeš, J.; Geldermann, H.; Peelman, L. J.


    Roč. 138, - (2004), s. 377-383 ISSN 1096-4959 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/00/0669 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : acid beta-glucosidase * gene mapping * fluorescence in situ hybridization Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.393, year: 2004

  8. Synthesis of a tetrasaccharide fragment of hyaluronic acid having a glucuronic acid at the reducing end

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Slaghek, T.M.; Hyppönen, T.K.; Ogawa, T.; Kamerling, J.P.


    A stereocontrolled synthesis of a tetrasaccharide fragment of hyaluronic acid, beta-p-methoxyphenyl glycoside of beta-D-GlcNAc-(1¨4)-beta-D-GlcNAc-(1¨3)-beta-D-GlcNAc-(1¨4)-D-GlcA, is presented.

  9. Cloning and characterization of human liver cytosolic beta-glycosidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Graaf, M; Van Veen, IC; Van Der Meulen-Muileman, IH; Gerritsen, WR; Pinedo, HM; Haisma, HJ


    Cytosolic beta -glucosidase (EC from mammalian liver is a member of the family 1 glycoside hydrolases and is known for its ability to hydrolyse a range of beta -D-glycosides. including beta -D-glucoside acid beta -D-galactoside. We therefore refer to this enzyme as cytosolic beta

  10. Isolated mitochondrial long-chain ketoacyl-CoA thiolase deficiency resulting from mutations in the HADHB gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Anibh M.; Illsinger, Sabine; Lücke, Thomas; Hartmann, Hans; Ruiter, Jos P. N.; Steuerwald, Ulrike; Waterham, Hans R.; Duran, Marinus; Wanders, Ronald J. A.


    BACKGROUND: The human mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) complex is composed of 4 hydroacyl-CoA dehydrogenase-alpha (HADHA) and 4 hydroacyl-CoA dehydrogenase-beta (HADHB) subunits, which catalyze the last 3 steps in the fatty acid beta-oxidation spiral of long-chain fatty acids. The HADHB

  11. A patient with lethal cardiomyopathy and a carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niezen-Koning, K E; van Spronsen, F J; Ijlst, L; Wanders, R J; Brivet, M; Duran, M; Reijngoud, D J; Heijmans, Hugo; Smit, G P


    In the last few years, increasing attention has been paid to the diagnosis of defects in mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation in man (Stanley 1987). Clinical diagnosis of these disorders is difficult, because affected patients are often free of symptoms between metabolic crises (Hale and Bennett

  12. Heterocyclyl linked anilines and benzaldehydes as precursors for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... alkylthio/alkoxy phenylpropanoic acids, beta-keto esters and tyrosine-based compounds possess broad therapeutic potential in general and as Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors (PPARs) agonists in particular in the management of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidaemia for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D).

  13. Valproate induces in vitro accumulation of long-chain fatty acylcarnitines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, M. F.; Jakobs, C.; Duran, M.; de Almeida, I. T.; Wanders, R. J.


    To elucidate the interference mechanisms of valproate (VPA) with mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation (FAO), the profile of acylcarnitine formation was studied in vitro. Human fibroblasts were incubated with 0.2 mmol/L [U-(13)C]palmitate, 0.4 mmol/L l-carnitine, +/- VPA (2 mmol/L) (96 h at 37

  14. The structure and organization of the human carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase (CACT1) gene2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iacobazzi, V.; Naglieri, M. A.; Stanley, C. A.; Wanders, R. J.; Palmieri, F.


    The carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase (CACT) transports acylcarnitines into mitochondria in exchange for free carnitine and it is, therefore, essential for the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway. We have determined the exon-intron structure of the human CACT gene, which is responsible for a genetic

  15. Structural organization of the human short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corydon, M J; Andresen, B S; Bross, P


    Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) is a homotetrameric mitochondrial flavoenzyme that catalyzes the initial reaction in short-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation. Defects in the SCAD enzyme are associated with failure to thrive, often with neuromuscular dysfunction and elevated urinary excreti...

  16. The ABC transporter proteins Pat1 and Pat2 are required for import of long-chain fatty acids into peroxisomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettema, E. H.; van Roermund, C. W.; Distel, B.; van den Berg, M.; Vilela, C.; Rodrigues-Pousada, C.; Wanders, R. J.; Tabak, H. F.


    Peroxisomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are the exclusive site of fatty acid beta-oxidation. We have found that fatty acids reach the peroxisomal matrix via two independent pathways. The subcellular site of fatty acid activation varies with chain length of the substrate and dictates the pathway of

  17. Two NAD-linked redox shuttles maintain the peroxisomal redox balance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Saryi, Nadal A.; Al-Hejjaj, Murtakab Y.; van Roermund, Carlo W. T.; Hulmes, Georgia E.; Ekal, Lakhan; Payton, Chantell; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Hettema, Ewald H.


    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, peroxisomes are the sole site of fatty acid beta-oxidation. During this process, NAD(+) is reduced to NADH. When cells are grown on oleate medium, peroxisomal NADH is reoxidised to NAD(+) by malate dehydrogenase (Mdh3p) and reduction equivalents are transferred to the

  18. EST Table: FS840242 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available l|Amel|GB10584-PA 10/09/10 47 %/128 aa gi|91087383|ref|XP_975651.1| PREDICTED: similar to Glucosylceramidase precursor (Beta-glucocer...ebrosidase) (Acid beta-glucosidase) (D-glucosyl-N-acylsphingosine glucohydrolase) [Tribolium castaneum] FS796494 fner ...

  19. Base induced chemical conversion of 3-carbamoyl-2-isoxazolines. (United States)

    Nishiwaki, Nagatoshi; Maki, Asaka; Ariga, Masahiro


    3-Carbamoyl-2-isoxazolines, prepared by cycloaddition of functionalized nitrile oxide, serve as masked 3-unsubstituted isoxazolines to afford 2-isoxazoline-3-carboxylic acid, beta-cyanoalcohol, alpha,beta-unsaturated nitrile, and alpha,beta-unsaturated amide upon heating in the alkaline solution. The present reaction is also applicable to synthesis of 3,4-difunctionalized isoxazoles and beta-hydroxy-gamma-lactone.

  20. Metabolism and disposition of [14C]brivanib alaninate after oral administration to rats, monkeys, and humans. (United States)

    Gong, Jiachang; Gan, Jinping; Caceres-Cortes, Janet; Christopher, Lisa J; Arora, Vinod; Masson, Eric; Williams, Daphne; Pursley, Janice; Allentoff, Alban; Lago, Michael; Tran, Scott B; Iyer, Ramaswamy A


    Brivanib [(R)-1-(4-(4-fluoro-2-methyl-1H-indol-5-yloxy)-5-methylpyrrolo[1,2,4]triazin-6-yloxy)propan-2-ol, BMS-540215] is a potent and selective dual inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathways. Its alanine prodrug, brivanib alaninate [(1R,2S)-2-aminopropionic acid 2-[4-(4-fluoro-2-methyl-1H-indol-5-yloxy)-5-methylpyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-6-yloxy]-1-methylethyl ester, BMS-582664], is currently under development as an oral agent for the treatment of cancer. This study describes the in vivo biotransformation of brivanib after a single oral dose of [(14)C]brivanib alaninate to intact rats, bile duct-cannulated (BDC) rats, intact monkeys, BDC monkeys, and humans. Fecal excretion was the primary route of elimination of drug-derived radioactivity in animals and humans. In BDC rats and monkeys, the majority of radioactivity was excreted in bile. Brivanib alaninate was rapidly and completely converted via hydrolysis to brivanib in vivo. The area under the curve from zero to infinity of brivanib accounted for 14.2 to 54.3% of circulating radioactivity in plasma in animals and humans, suggesting that metabolites contributed significantly to the total drug-related radioactivity. In plasma from animals and humans, brivanib was a prominent circulating component. All the metabolites that humans were exposed to were also present in toxicological species. On the basis of metabolite exposure and activity against VEGF and FGF receptors of the prominent human circulating metabolites, only brivanib is expected to contribute to the pharmacological effects in humans. Unchanged brivanib was not detected in urine or bile samples, suggesting that metabolic clearance was the primary route of elimination. The primary metabolic pathways were oxidative and conjugative metabolism of brivanib.

  1. [Effect of auxins on production of coumarin in a suspension culture of Angelica archangelica L]. (United States)

    Siatka, T; Kasparová, M


    The paper examined the effect of selected auxins (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, alpha-naphthalene-acetic acid, beta-indoleacetic acid, beta-indoleburytic acid; each in four concentrations--0.2, 2, 10, and 20 mg/l) on the production of coumarins in the suspension culture of Angelica archangelica L. cultinated in the dark and under permanent lighting(3500 lux). The effect of the light regimen is, in comparison with auxins, less marked--the content of coumarins is mostly comparable both under permanent lighting and in the dark. The highest coumarin content was achieved with the use of alpha-naphthalene-acetic acid in a concentration of 0.2 mg/l with cultivation in the dark.

  2. Nutritional composition of selected green leafy vegetables, herbs and carrots. (United States)

    Singh, G; Kawatra, A; Sehgal, S


    Six green leafy vegetables and herbs - spinach, amaranth, bengal gram, cauliflower, mint, coriander and carrots - were analyzed for moisture, protein, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, total iron, ionizable iron (as % of total iron) in vitro iron (% of total iron), copper, manganese and zinc. Moisture content of the leaves and carrots varied from 75.1 percent (bengal gram) to 95.4 percent (carrot) and protein from 9.83 percent (carrots) to 30.9 (mint) percent. Ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, total iron and ionizable iron contents were at a maximum in case of bengal gram leaves whereas level of ionizable iron and in vitro iron as a percent of total iron was highest in carrots. Copper, manganese and zinc contents were maximum in spinach.

  3. Classical bile acids in animals, beta-phocaecholic acid in ducks. (United States)

    Jirsa, M; Klinot, J; Klinotová, E; Ubik, K; Kucera, K


    1. Bile samples of different animals were analysed and the percentage content of classical bile acids was determined. 2. Herbivorous birds mostly excreted a large proportion of chenodeoxycholic acid. 3. The anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) excreted deoxycholic acid most probably as a primary bile acid. 4. In the bile of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) a large amount of (23R)3 alpha, 7 alpha, 23-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholan-24-oic acid (beta-phocaecholic acid) was found.

  4. Separation of beta-galactosidases and beta-glucosidases from human liver. (United States)

    Shapira, E; David, A; DeGregorio, R; Nadler, H L


    Various fractions obtained from normal human liver homogenates by gel chromatography and selective adsorption and elution from insolubilized concanavalin A were compared as to their beta-galactosidase and beta-glucosidase activities. The high-molecular-weight acidic beta-galactosidase form was converted into the smaller major form by sodium dodecyl sulfate treatment. Electrophoresis and electrofocusing on acrylamide slabs revealed, in addition to the two major isoenzyme forms (acid and neutral), another five minor bands with enzymatic activity.

  5. Unusual fatty acid substitution in lipids and lipopolysaccharides of Helicobacter pylori.


    Geis, G; Leying, H; Suerbaum, S; Opferkuch, W


    Cellular fatty acids, phospholipid fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharide fatty acids of four strains of Helicobacter pylori were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The presence of myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid, beta-hydroxypalmitic acid, and beta-hydroxystearic acid was confirmed. In phospholipids, myristic acid and 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid were the major fatty acids. Hydroxy fatty acids and unsaturated fatt...

  6. Polyamine derivatives of betulinic acid and beta-sitosterol: A comparative investigation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bildziukevich, Uladzimir; Vida, N.; Rárová, Lucie; Kolář, M.; Šaman, David; Havlíček, Libor; Drašar, P.; Wimmer, Zdeněk


    Roč. 100, AUG 2015 (2015), s. 27-35 ISSN 0039-128X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13057; GA TA ČR(CZ) TA03010877 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : Polyamine * Betulinic acid * beta-Sitosterol Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.513, year: 2015

  7. Morquio syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis IV B) associated with beta-galactosidase deficiency. Report of two cases.


    Groebe, H; Krins, M; Schmidberger, H; von Figura, K; Harzer, K; Kresse, H; Paschke, E; Sewell, A; Ullrich, K


    Two male patients, aged 6 and 25, both with normal intelligence and absence of neurological abnormalities, exhibited dysostosis multiplex, dwarfism, odontoid anomalies, cloudy corneas, exessive excretion of keratan sulfate, and abnormal urinary oligosaccharides. Leukocytes and fibroblasts of both patients were deficient in acid beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) and normal in N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase, the deficient enzyme in classical Morquio syndrome. The beta-gal deficiency was ...

  8. [Studies on chemical constituents from Buddleja lindleyana Fert]. (United States)

    Lu, J H; Zhao, Y Y; Qiao, L; Fang, Y O; Huang, Q A


    To study the chemical constituents of Buddleja lindleyana. Separation by chromatographic methods and identification by spectral analysis. Seven compounds vanillic acid, daidzein octacosanoic acid, beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, stigmasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha-spinasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, betulin acid were isolated. All the compounds were obtained from this plant for the first time.

  9. Jasmonate biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana requires peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes--additional proof by properties of pex6 and aim1. (United States)

    Delker, Carolin; Zolman, Bethany K; Miersch, Otto; Wasternack, Claus


    Jasmonic acid (JA) is an important regulator of plant development and stress responses. Several enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of JA from alpha-linolenic acid have been characterized. The final biosynthesis steps are the beta-oxidation of 12-oxo-phytoenoic acid. We analyzed JA biosynthesis in the Arabidopsis mutants pex6, affected in peroxisome biogenesis, and aim1, disrupted in fatty acid beta-oxidation. Upon wounding, these mutants exhibit reduced JA levels compared to wild type. pex6 accumulated the precursor OPDA. Feeding experiments with deuterated OPDA substantiate this accumulation pattern, suggesting the mutants are impaired in the beta-oxidation of JA biosynthesis at different steps. Decreased expression of JA-responsive genes, such as VSP1, VSP2, AtJRG21 and LOX2, following wounding in the mutants compared to the wild type reflects the reduced JA levels of the mutants. By use of these additional mutants in combination with feeding experiments, the necessity of functional peroxisomes for JA-biosynthesis is confirmed. Furthermore an essential function of one of the two multifunctional proteins of fatty acid beta-oxidation (AIM1) for wound-induced JA formation is demonstrated for the first time. These data confirm that JA biosynthesis occurs via peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation machinery.

  10. The separation and characterization of the methylumbelliferyl beta-galactosidases of human liver. (United States)

    Cheetham, P S; Dance, N E


    1. A previously uncharacterized form of human liver acid beta-galactosidase (EC, possibly a dimer of molecular weight 160 000, was resolved by gel filtration. It has the same ability to hydrolyse GM1 ganglioside as the two other acid beta-galactosidase forms. 2. The low-molecular-weight forms of acid beta-galactosidase undergo salt-dependent aggregation. 3. The high-molecular-weight component may consist of the low-molecular-weight forms bound to membrane fragments. It can be converted completely into a mixture of these forms. 4. The neutral beta-galactosidase activity can be resolved into two forms by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. They differ in their response to Cl-ions. 5. A new nomenclature is suggested for the six beta-galactosidases so far found in human liver. 6. The enzymic constituents of the beta-galactosidase bands resolved by electrophoresis were re-examined. The A band contains three components. A two-dimensional electrophoretic procedure for resolving the A band is described. 7. The effect of neuraminidase treatment on the behaviour of beta-galactosidases in various separation systems is examined. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PMID:962854

  11. Enzymatic methylation of band 3 anion transporter in intact human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, L.L.; Clarke, S.


    Band 3, the anion transport protein of erythrocyte membranes, is a major methyl-accepting substrate of the intracellular erythrocyte protein carboxyl methyltransferase (S-adenosyl-L-methionine: protein-D-aspartate O-methyltransferase; EC The localization of methylation sites in intact cells by analysis of proteolytic fragments indicated that sites were present in the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain as well as the membranous C-terminal portion of the polypeptide. The amino acid residues that serve as carboxyl methylation sites of the erythrocyte anion transporter were also investigated. 3 H-Methylated band 3 was purified from intact erythrocytes incubated with L-[methyl- 3 H]methionine and from trypsinized and lysed erythrocytes incubated with S-adenosyl-L-[methyl- 3 H]methionine. After proteolytic digestion with carboxypeptidase Y, D-aspartic acid beta-[ 3 H]methyl ester was isolated in low yields (9% and 1%, respectively) from each preparation. The bulk of the radioactivity was recovered as [ 3 H]methanol, and the amino acid residue(s) originally associated with these methyl groups could not be determined. No L-aspartic acid beta-[ 3 H]methyl ester or glutamyl gamma-[ 3 H]methyl ester was detected. The formation of D-aspartic acid beta-[ 3 H]methyl esters in this protein in intact cells resulted from protein carboxyl methyltransferase activity since it was inhibited by adenosine and homocysteine thiolactone, which increases the intracellular concentration of the potent product inhibitor S-adenosylhomocysteine, and cycloleucine, which prevents the formation of the substrate S-adenosyl-L-[methyl- 3 H]methionine

  12. Synthesis of (S)-leucine-13C3 and its metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, S.S.; Foos, J.


    A synthesis for (S)-2-amino-4-methyl- 13 C-pentanoic-2,5- 13 C 2 acid ((S)-leucine- 13 C 3 ) is described. The alkyl chain was constructed by condensing acetone-1,3- 13 C 2 with triethyl phosphonacetate-1- 13 C to form 3-methyl- 13 C-2-butenoic-1,4- 13 C 2 acid (beta-methylcrotonic- 13 C 3 acid) and this was reduced to 3-methyl- 13 C-butanal-1,4- 13 C 2 (isovaleryl aldehyde- 13 C 3 ). Conversion to (S)-leucine- 13 C 3 was accomplished via the Strecker synthesis followed by enzymatic resolution. (author)

  13. Identification of urine metabolites associated with 5-year changes in biomarkers of glucose homoeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, N.; Skaaby, T.; Pietzner, M.


    of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index values. Methods: Urine metabolites in 3986 participants at both baseline and 5-year follow-up of the population-based Inter99 study were analyzed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Linear regression and analyses of covariance models were used to detect associations between urine...... associated with a decrease in HbA1c over time. Analyses of 5-year changes in fasting glucose and HOMA-IR index showed similar findings, with high baseline levels of lactic acid, beta-d-glucose, creatinine, alanine and 1-methylnicotinamide associated with increases in both parameters. Conclusion: Several...

  14. Genetic basis for correction of very-long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency by bezafibrate in patient fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobin-Limballe, S; Djouadi, F; Aubey, F


    Very-long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is an inborn mitochondrial fatty-acid beta-oxidation (FAO) defect associated with a broad mutational spectrum, with phenotypes ranging from fatal cardiopathy in infancy to adolescent-onset myopathy, and for which there is no establi......Very-long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is an inborn mitochondrial fatty-acid beta-oxidation (FAO) defect associated with a broad mutational spectrum, with phenotypes ranging from fatal cardiopathy in infancy to adolescent-onset myopathy, and for which...... values, for 21 genotypes that mainly corresponded to patients with the myopathic phenotype. In contrast, bezafibrate induced no changes in FAO for 11 genotypes corresponding to severe neonatal or infantile phenotypes. This pattern of response was not due to differential inductions of VLCAD messenger RNA...... for analysis of genetic heterogeneity. Finally, this study emphasizes the potential of bezafibrate, a widely prescribed hypolipidemic drug, for the correction of VLCAD deficiency and exemplifies the integration of molecular information in a therapeutic strategy....

  15. Bioactive phytochemicals and antioxidant activity in fresh and dried lychee fractions1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela de Rezende Queiroz

    Full Text Available Fruit of the lychee cv. Bengal are approximately 50% peel and seeds, which are discarded. These by-products have antioxidant compounds which are capable of blocking the harmful effects of free radicals in the body. Bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, lycopene and phenols and antioxidant activity were evaluated in different extracts, both fresh and dried at 45 °C, of the skin, pulp and seeds of the lychee, which were subjected to principal component analysis to clarify which of the compounds are responsible for this activity. Principal component analysis explained 82.90% of the variance of the antioxidant profile of the lychee. The peel displayed higher levels of phenols, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene and antioxidant activity, while the seeds stood out due to their levels of lycopene. With drying, there was a decrease in the levels of ascorbic acid and beta-carotene and in antioxidant activity, with an increase in the levels of phenols and lycopene. The antioxidant activity found in the peel and seeds of the lychee is high, and is mainly due to ascorbic acid and beta-carotene, as demonstrated by principal component analysis, allowing the use of these fractions as sources of natural antioxidants.

  16. Structural organization of the human short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corydon, M J; Andresen, B S; Bross, P


    Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) is a homotetrameric mitochondrial flavoenzyme that catalyzes the initial reaction in short-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation. Defects in the SCAD enzyme are associated with failure to thrive, often with neuromuscular dysfunction and elevated urinary excreti....... The evolutionary relationship between SCAD and five other members of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family was investigated by two independent approaches that gave similar phylogenetic trees....... shown to be associated with ethylmalonic aciduria. From analysis of 18 unrelated Danish families, we show that the four SCAD gene polymorphisms constitute five allelic variants of the SCAD gene, and that the 625A variant together with the less frequent variant form of the three other polymorphisms (321C...

  17. Antimutagenic activity of some naturally occurring compounds towards cigarette-smoke condensate and benzo(a)pyrene in the Salmonella/microsome assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terwel, L.; van der Hoeven, J.C.


    Several compounds, occurring in food, were tested for antimutagenic activity towards cigarette-smoke condensate (CSC) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Antimutagenicity was determined in the Salmonella/microsome test, with tester strain TA98, in the presence of rat-liver homogenate. Dose-response curves did show reduction of CSC- and BaP-induced mutagenicity by ellagic acid, riboflavin and chlorophyllin. Chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, although less distinct, also inhibited CSC- and BaP-induced mutagenicity. Ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, tocopherol acetate, chlorogenic acid and butyl hydroxyanisole did not have any influence on the mutagenicity of CSC and BaP. The similarity in results for cigarette-smoke condensate and for BaP indicates that a general mechanism may be involved in the inhibition of CSC- and BaP-induced mutagenicity.

  18. Acetogenesis does not replace ketogenesis in fasting piglets infused with hexanoate. (United States)

    Adams, S H; Odle, J


    The current studies were performed to better understand the physiological relevance of acetate in the poorly ketogenic piglet and to determine if endogenous acetogenesis rises with increased mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation, analogous to ketogenesis. Plasma acetate concentration values in newborn, fasted, or suckled piglets (230-343 microM) were at least 10-fold higher than the ketone bodies, a pattern opposite to that in 24- to 48-h suckled rats (77-175 microM). Employing continuous infusion techniques with sodium [3H]acetate tracer in fasting approximately 40-h-old piglets, acetate rate of appearance (Ra) was found to be 34 +/- 4 micromol . min-1 . kg body wt-1. This basal Ra was double that observed in animals coinfused with sodium [1-14C]hexanoate (P ketogenesis in vivo.

  19. Supplements and sports. (United States)

    Jenkinson, David M; Harbert, Allison J


    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from professional athletes to junior high school students. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have serious adverse effects. Anabolic steroids and ephedrine have life-threatening adverse effects and are prohibited by the International Olympic Committee and the National Collegiate Athletic Association for use in competition. Blood transfusions, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone are also prohibited in competition. Caffeine, creatine, and sodium bicarbonate have been shown to enhance performance in certain contexts and have few adverse effects. No performance benefit has been shown with amino acids, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, chromium, human growth hormone, and iron. Carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages have no serious adverse effects and can aid performance when used for fluid replacement. Given the widespread use of performance-enhancing supplements, physicians should be prepared to counsel athletes of all ages about their effectiveness, safety, and legality.

  20. Cloning and characterization of human very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase cDNA, chromosomal assignment of the gene and identification in four patients of nine different mutations within the VLCAD gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, B S; Bross, P; Vianey-Saban, C


    Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) is one of four straight-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACD) enzymes, which are all nuclear encoded mitochondrial flavoproteins catalyzing the initial step in fatty acid beta-oxidation. We have used the very fast, Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE......) based strategy to obtain the sequence of cDNAs encoding human VLCAD from placenta and fibroblasts. Alignment of the predicted amino acid sequence of human VLCAD with those of the other human ACD enzymes revealed extensive sequence homology. Moreover, human VLCAD and human acyl-CoA oxidase showed...... extensive sequence homology corroborating the notion that these genes are evolutionarily related. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA from hybrid cell lines was used to localize the VLCAD gene to human chromosome 17p11.2-p11.13105. Using Northern and Western blot analysis to investigate the tissue...

  1. Novel lipid constituents identified in seeds of Nigella sativa (Linn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, B.K.; Verma, Manjul; Gupta, Meenal [Vikram University (India). School of Studies in Chemistry and Biochemistry]. E-mail:


    Novel lipids were isolated from the unsaponifiable matter extracted from seeds of Nigella sativa Linn by using n-hexane. The new dienoate and two monoesters were the new lipids identified by spectral (IR, {sup 1}H- and {sup 13}C-NMR spectra, mass spectrum, elemental analysis) and chemical analysis. The dienoate (1) was identified as methylnonadeca-15,17-dienoate and two monoesters were identified as pentyl hexadec-12-enoate (2) and pentyl pentadec-11-enoate (3). Linoleic acid, oleic acid, {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol were identified as part of the lipid structures. All compounds exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and poor activity against shigella spp, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. (author)

  2. Metabolic mechanisms behind the type 2 diabetes susceptible phenotype in low birth weight individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Amalie

    have 1) an increased, incomplete fatty acid beta-oxidation in mitochondria, 2) an altered amino acid metabolism to ensure an adequate supply of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and thereby enable an efficient acetyl-CoA oxidation, and 3) an increased fatty acid flux into lipogenesis......, including de novo ceramide synthesis, in non-adipose tissue. Methods: Fasting plasma levels of 45 acylcarnitines, 15 amino acids, and 27 ceramides were measured in the young, healthy, LBW (≤ 10th percentile) and NBW (50-90th percentile) men of the above mentioned study population after the isocaloric...... available for lipogenesis, including the synthesis of lipotoxic lipids such as ceramides and diacylglycerols that impair insulin signalling. In the second study, we demonstrated that LBW men had higher plasma alanine, proline, methionine, citrulline, and total amino acid levels after the HFHC diet compared...

  3. Changes in liver proteins of rats fed standard and high-fat and sucrose diets induced by fish omega-3 PUFAs and their combination with grape polyphenols according to quantitative proteomics. (United States)

    Méndez, Lucía; Ciordia, Sergio; Fernández, María Soledad; Juárez, Silvia; Ramos, Antonio; Pazos, Manuel; Gallardo, José M; Torres, Josep Lluís; Nogués, M Rosa; Medina, Isabel


    This study considered the physiological modulation of liver proteins due to the supplementation with fish oils under two dietary backgrounds: standard or high in fat and sucrose (HFHS), and their combination with grape polyphenols. By using a quantitative proteomics approach, we showed that the capacity of the supplements for regulating proteins depended on the diet; namely, 10 different proteins changed into standard diets, while 45 changed into the HFHS diets and only scarcely proteins were found altered in common. However, in both contexts, fish oils were the main regulatory force, although the addition of polyphenols was able to modulate some fish oils' effects. Moreover, we demonstrated the ability of fish oils and their combination with grape polyphenols in improving biochemical parameters and reducing lipogenesis and glycolysis enzymes, enhancing fatty acid beta-oxidation and insulin signaling and ameliorating endoplasmic reticulum stress and protein oxidation when they are included in an unhealthy diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Beta-galactosidase-deficient human fibroblasts: uptake and processing of the exogenous precursor enzyme expressed by stable transformant COS cells. (United States)

    Oshima, A; Itoh, K; Nagao, Y; Sakuraba, H; Suzuki, Y


    COS-1 cells were transfected by electroporation with a cDNA for human acid beta-galactosidase cloned in our laboratory and stable transformants expressing the enzyme activity were selected. The precursor form of the enzyme was secreted in large quantities into the culture medium. The fibroblasts from patients with GM1-gangliosidosis or Morquio B disease showed a remarkable increase of enzyme activity, up to the normal level, after culture in this medium for 2 days; the amount of uptake was essentially the same as that for the precursor form in human fibroblasts. After endocytosis, the precursor molecules were processed normally to the mature form and remained as stable as those produced by human fibroblasts. On the other hand, cells from galactosialidosis patients did not show any increase of enzyme activity in a similar experiment. It was concluded that the transformants are useful as the source of precursor proteins for the study of intracellular turnover of enzyme molecules in mutant cells.

  5. [beta-galactosidosis--GM1 gangliosidosis and Morquio B disease]. (United States)

    Yoshida, K; Yanagisawa, N


    beta-galactosidosis is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of acid beta-galactosidase, including to autosomal recessive diseases; GM1-gangliosidosis (neurovisceral form) and Morquio B disease (skeletal form). To date, 26 different mutations in the beta-galactosidase gene have been identified in patients with beta-galactosidosis from various ethnic groups. Transient expression of the mutant genes has confirmed that mutant enzymes responsible for infantile GM1-gangliosidosis have almost no detectable beta-galactosidase activity. But the other three forms (late infantile/juvenile, adult/chronic GM1-gangliosidosis and Morquio B disease) are characterized by specific mutant enzymes with significant residual enzyme activity. Heterogeneous patterns of post-translational processing and maturation in these mutant enzymes are closely related to the phenotypic variations in beta-galactosidosis.

  6. Morquio syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis IV B) associated with beta-galactosidase deficiency. Report of two cases. (United States)

    Groebe, H; Krins, M; Schmidberger, H; von Figura, K; Harzer, K; Kresse, H; Paschke, E; Sewell, A; Ullrich, K


    Two male patients, aged 6 and 25, both with normal intelligence and absence of neurological abnormalities, exhibited dysostosis multiplex, dwarfism, odontoid anomalies, cloudy corneas, exessive excretion of keratan sulfate, and abnormal urinary oligosaccharides. Leukocytes and fibroblasts of both patients were deficient in acid beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) and normal in N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase, the deficient enzyme in classical Morquio syndrome. The beta-gal deficiency was not due to an endogenous inhibitor, and the parents exhibited intermediate activities. Deficient beta-gal activity was observed toward p-nitrophenyl-beta-galactoside, 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-galactoside (4 MU-beta-gal), lactose, GM1 ganglioside, keratan sulfate, and asialofetuin (ASF). Under standard assay conditions, the residual activity was similar for all substrates tested. Toward p-nitrophenyl-beta-glactoside, the mutant enzyme behaved as a Km variant.

  7. Pentoxifylline increases gut ketogenesis following trauma and hemorrhagic shock. (United States)

    Wang, W; Wang, P; Chaudry, I H


    Although pentoxifylline produces various beneficial effects following adverse circulatory conditions, it is not known whether this agent has any effects on gut lipid metabolism after trauma-hemorrhage and resuscitation. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine whether or not administration of pentoxifylline after trauma-hemorrhagic shock has any salutary effects on gut ketogenesis. A prospective, controlled animal study. A university research laboratory. Fifty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats underwent a midline laparotomy (i.e., trauma-induced) and were bled to and maintained at a mean arterial pressure of 40 mm Hg until 40% of the shed blood volume was returned in the form of lactated Ringer's solution. The animals were then resuscitated with four times the volume of maximal bleedout with lactated Ringer's solution over 60 mins. Pentoxifylline (50 mg/kg body weight) or an equivalent volume of normal saline was infused intravenously over 100 mins during and after resuscitation. For in vivo lipid loading, one milliliter of olive oil was given intraduodenally on the completion of resuscitation. Blood samples from portal vein and carotid artery, as well as enterocytes from proximal small intestine, were obtained at 1.5 hrs after fat feeding. Mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation enzyme (i.e., palmitoyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase) activity, as well as portal and arterial plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate values, were determined. Palmitoyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase activity in villus tip cells and plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate values in portal vein and carotid artery were significantly reduced after trauma-hemorrhage and resuscitation. Pentoxifylline administration, however, significantly increased mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation enzyme activity and portal plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration without significantly affecting arterial concentrations under such conditions. Pentoxifylline promotes gut ketogenesis following trauma-hemorrhage and

  8. DLHex-DGJ, a novel derivative of 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin with pharmacological chaperone activity in human G(M1)-gangliosidosis fibroblasts. (United States)

    Fantur, Katrin; Hofer, Doris; Schitter, Georg; Steiner, Andreas J; Pabst, Bettina M; Wrodnigg, Tanja M; Stütz, Arnold E; Paschke, Eduard


    G(M1)-gangliosidosis (GM1) and Morquio B disease (MBD) are rare lysosomal storage disorders caused by mutations in the gene GLB1. Its main gene product, human acid beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) degrades two functionally important molecules, G(M1)-ganglioside and keratan sulfate in brain and connective tissues, respectively. While GM1 is a severe, phenotypically heterogenous neurodegenerative disorder, MBD is a systemic bone disease without effects on the central nervous system. A MBD-specific mutation, p.W273L, was shown to produce stable beta-Gal precursors, normally transported and processed to mature, intralysosomal beta-Gal. In accordance with the MBD phenotype, elevated residual activity against G(M1)-ganglioside, but strongly reduced affinity towards keratan sulfate was found. Most GM1 alleles, in contrast, were shown to affect precursor stability and intracellular transport. Specific alleles, p.R201C and p.R201H result in misfolded, unstable precursor proteins rapidly degraded by endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD). They may therefore be sensitive to stabilization by small molecules which bind at the active site and provide proper conformation. Thus the stabilized protein may escape from ERAD processes, and reach the lysosomes in an active state, as proposed for enzyme enhancement therapy (EET). This paper demonstrates that a novel iminosugar, DLHex-DGJ, has potent effects as competitive inhibitor of human acid beta-galactosidase in vitro, and describes its effects on activity, protein expression, maturation and intracellular transport in vivo in 13 fibroblasts lines with GLB1 mutations. Beside p.R201C and p.R201H, two further alleles, p.C230R and p.G438E, displayed significant sensitivity against DLHex-DGJ, with an increase of catalytic activity, and a normalization of transport and lysosomal processing of beta-Gal precursors. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary supplementation of tetradecylthioacetic acid increases feed intake but reduces body weight gain and adipose depot sizes in rats fed on high-fat diets. (United States)

    Wensaas, A J; Rustan, A C; Rokling-Andersen, M H; Caesar, R; Jensen, J; Kaalhus, O; Graff, B A; Gudbrandsen, O A; Berge, R K; Drevon, C A


    The pan-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ligand and fatty acid analogue tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) may reduce plasma lipids and enhance hepatic lipid metabolism, as well as reduce adipose tissue sizes in rats fed on high-fat diets. This study further explores the effects of TTA on weight gain, feed intake and adipose tissue functions in rats that are fed a high-fat diet for 7 weeks. The effects on feed intake and body weight during 7 weeks' dietary supplement with TTA ( approximately 200 mg/kg bw) were studied in male Wistar rats fed on a lard-based diet containing approximately 40% energy from fat. Adipose tissue mass, body composition and expression of relevant genes in fat depots and liver were measured at the end of the feeding. Despite higher feed intake during the final 2 weeks of the study, rats fed on TTA gained less body weight than lard-fed rats and had markedly decreased subcutaneous, epididymal, perirenal and mesenteric adipose depots. The effects of TTA feeding with reduced body weight gain and energy efficiency (weight gain/feed intake) started between day 10 and 13. Body contents of fat, protein and water were reduced after feeding lard plus TTA, with a stronger decrease in fat relative to protein. Plasma lipids, including Non-Esterified Fatty Acids (NEFA), were significantly reduced, whereas fatty acid beta-oxidation in liver and heart was enhanced in lard plus TTA-fed rats. Hepatic UCP3 was expressed ectopically both at protein and mRNA level (>1900-fold), whereas Ucp1 mRNA was increased approximately 30-fold in epididymal and approximately 90-fold in mesenteric fat after lard plus TTA feeding. Our data support the hypothesis that TTA feeding may increase hepatic fatty acid beta-oxidation, and thereby reduce the size of adipose tissues. The functional importance of ectopic hepatic UCP3 is unknown, but might be associated with enhanced energy expenditure and thus the reduced feed efficiency.

  10. Activation of lipid catabolism by the water-soluble fraction of petroleum in the crustacean Macrobrachium borellii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavarias, S. [Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquimicas de La Plata (INIBIOLP), CONICET-Catedra de Bioquimica, UNLP, Calles 60 y 120, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Pollero, R.J. [Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquimicas de La Plata (INIBIOLP), CONICET-Catedra de Bioquimica, UNLP, Calles 60 y 120, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Heras, H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquimicas de La Plata (INIBIOLP), CONICET-Catedra de Bioquimica, UNLP, Calles 60 y 120, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)]. E-mail:


    Little is known about the effect of the water-soluble fraction of crude oil (WSF) on lipid metabolism in invertebrates. The effect of the WSF on the triacylglycerol (TAG) mobilization, fatty acid activation and degradation was evaluated in the decapod Macrobrachium borellii, exposing adult and eggs at different stages of development for 7 days to a sublethal concentration of WSF. Using radioactive tracers, mitochondrial palmitoyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), triacylglycerol lipase (TAG-lipase) and fatty acid {beta}-oxidation system activities were assayed. Before studying the effect of WSF, the kinetic parameters of ACS were determined in purified mitochondria. Its optimal temperature and pH were 32 {sup o}C and 8.0, respectively, the apparent K {sub m} 2.48 {mu}mol l{sup -1}, and its V {sub max} of 1.93 nmol min{sup -1} mg protein{sup -1}. These kinetic parameters differed significantly from this shrimp's microsomal isoform. After 7 days exposure to a sublethal concentration of WSF (0.6 mg/l), changes were observed in the enzymatic activity of all enzymes or enzymatic system assayed in adult midgut gland as well as in stage 5 eggs, a period of active organogenesis. An increase in the mobilization of energy stores was detected as early as stage 4, where TAG-lipase activity increased by 27% in exposed eggs. The increase was even more marked in exposed eggs at stage 5 where a three-fold rise (154%) was determined. Exposed adult shrimp also showed an augmented lipase activity by 38%. Fatty acid {beta}-oxidation increased by 51.0 and 35.5% in midgut gland and eggs at stage 5, respectively, but no changes were observed at less-developed stages. Mitochondrial fatty acid activation by ACS also increased in adults and stage 5 eggs by 7.4 and 52.0%, respectively. A similar response of the lipid catabolic pathways to WSF contamination in both adult and eggs, suggests that the exposure to this pollutant causes an increase in the energy needs of this shrimp. When validated by

  11. Quantitative 'Omics Analyses of Medium Chain Length Polyhydroxyalkanaote Metabolism in Pseudomonas putida LS46 Cultured with Waste Glycerol and Waste Fatty Acids. (United States)

    Fu, Jilagamazhi; Sharma, Parveen; Spicer, Vic; Krokhin, Oleg V; Zhang, Xiangli; Fristensky, Brian; Cicek, Nazim; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David B


    Transcriptomes and proteomes of Pseudomonas putida LS46 cultured with biodiesel-derived waste glycerol or waste free fatty acids, as sole carbon sources, were compared under conditions that were either permissive or non-permissive for synthesis of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA). The objectives of this study were to elucidate mechanisms that influence activation of biopolymer synthesis, intra-cellular accumulation, and monomer composition, and determine if these were physiologically specific to the carbon sources used for growth of P. putida LS46. Active mcl-PHA synthesis by P. putida LS46 was associated with high expression levels of key mcl-PHA biosynthesis genes and/or gene products including monomer-supplying proteins, PHA synthases, and granule-associated proteins. 'Omics data suggested that expression of these genes were regulated by different genetic mechanisms in P. putida LS46 cells in different physiological states, when cultured on the two waste carbon sources. Optimal polymer production by P. putida LS46 was primarily limited by less efficient glycerol metabolism during mcl-PHA synthesis on waste glycerol. Mapping the 'Omics data to the mcl-PHA biosynthetic pathway revealed significant variations in gene expression, primarily involved in: 1) glycerol transportation; 2) enzymatic reactions that recycle reducing equivalents and produce key mcl-PHA biosynthesis pathway intermediates (e.g. NADH/NADPH, acetyl-CoA). Active synthesis of mcl-PHAs was observed during exponential phase in cultures with waste free fatty acids, and was associated with the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway. A putative Thioesterase in the beta-oxidation pathway that may regulate the level of fatty acid beta-oxidation intermediates, and thus carbon flux to mcl-PHA biosynthesis, was highly up-regulated. Finally, the data suggested that differences in expression of selected fatty acid metabolism and mcl-PHA monomer-supplying enzymes may play a role in determining the

  12. Quantitative ‘Omics Analyses of Medium Chain Length Polyhydroxyalkanaote Metabolism in Pseudomonas putida LS46 Cultured with Waste Glycerol and Waste Fatty Acids (United States)

    Fu, Jilagamazhi; Sharma, Parveen; Spicer, Vic; Krokhin, Oleg V.; Zhang, Xiangli; Fristensky, Brian; Cicek, Nazim; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David. B.


    Transcriptomes and proteomes of Pseudomonas putida LS46 cultured with biodiesel-derived waste glycerol or waste free fatty acids, as sole carbon sources, were compared under conditions that were either permissive or non-permissive for synthesis of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA). The objectives of this study were to elucidate mechanisms that influence activation of biopolymer synthesis, intra-cellular accumulation, and monomer composition, and determine if these were physiologically specific to the carbon sources used for growth of P. putida LS46. Active mcl-PHA synthesis by P. putida LS46 was associated with high expression levels of key mcl-PHA biosynthesis genes and/or gene products including monomer-supplying proteins, PHA synthases, and granule-associated proteins. ‘Omics data suggested that expression of these genes were regulated by different genetic mechanisms in P. putida LS46 cells in different physiological states, when cultured on the two waste carbon sources. Optimal polymer production by P. putida LS46 was primarily limited by less efficient glycerol metabolism during mcl-PHA synthesis on waste glycerol. Mapping the ‘Omics data to the mcl-PHA biosynthetic pathway revealed significant variations in gene expression, primarily involved in: 1) glycerol transportation; 2) enzymatic reactions that recycle reducing equivalents and produce key mcl-PHA biosynthesis pathway intermediates (e.g. NADH/NADPH, acetyl-CoA). Active synthesis of mcl-PHAs was observed during exponential phase in cultures with waste free fatty acids, and was associated with the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway. A putative Thioesterase in the beta-oxidation pathway that may regulate the level of fatty acid beta-oxidation intermediates, and thus carbon flux to mcl-PHA biosynthesis, was highly up-regulated. Finally, the data suggested that differences in expression of selected fatty acid metabolism and mcl-PHA monomer-supplying enzymes may play a role in determining

  13. Quantitative 'Omics Analyses of Medium Chain Length Polyhydroxyalkanaote Metabolism in Pseudomonas putida LS46 Cultured with Waste Glycerol and Waste Fatty Acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilagamazhi Fu

    Full Text Available Transcriptomes and proteomes of Pseudomonas putida LS46 cultured with biodiesel-derived waste glycerol or waste free fatty acids, as sole carbon sources, were compared under conditions that were either permissive or non-permissive for synthesis of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA. The objectives of this study were to elucidate mechanisms that influence activation of biopolymer synthesis, intra-cellular accumulation, and monomer composition, and determine if these were physiologically specific to the carbon sources used for growth of P. putida LS46. Active mcl-PHA synthesis by P. putida LS46 was associated with high expression levels of key mcl-PHA biosynthesis genes and/or gene products including monomer-supplying proteins, PHA synthases, and granule-associated proteins. 'Omics data suggested that expression of these genes were regulated by different genetic mechanisms in P. putida LS46 cells in different physiological states, when cultured on the two waste carbon sources. Optimal polymer production by P. putida LS46 was primarily limited by less efficient glycerol metabolism during mcl-PHA synthesis on waste glycerol. Mapping the 'Omics data to the mcl-PHA biosynthetic pathway revealed significant variations in gene expression, primarily involved in: 1 glycerol transportation; 2 enzymatic reactions that recycle reducing equivalents and produce key mcl-PHA biosynthesis pathway intermediates (e.g. NADH/NADPH, acetyl-CoA. Active synthesis of mcl-PHAs was observed during exponential phase in cultures with waste free fatty acids, and was associated with the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway. A putative Thioesterase in the beta-oxidation pathway that may regulate the level of fatty acid beta-oxidation intermediates, and thus carbon flux to mcl-PHA biosynthesis, was highly up-regulated. Finally, the data suggested that differences in expression of selected fatty acid metabolism and mcl-PHA monomer-supplying enzymes may play a role in

  14. Dietary supplement usage, motivation, and education in young, Canadian athletes. (United States)

    Wiens, Kristin; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Stadnyk, Megan; Parnell, Jill A


    To evaluate dietary supplement use in young Canadian athletes, their motivation for consuming supplements, and their sources of information. A questionnaire tested for content validity and reliability was administered to 567 athletes between the ages of 11 and 25 years from the Canadian athletic community in face-to-face meetings. Demographics and sport variables were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Fisher's exact tests were used to examine dietary supplementation patterns and sources of information regarding dietary supplement use between categories of gender, age, sport type, and competition level. Ninety-eight percent of athletes were taking at least one dietary supplement. Males were more likely to consume protein powder, energy drinks, recovery drinks, branched chain amino acids, beta-alanine, and glutamine (p training athletes were more likely to consume creatine, glutamine, and protein powders (p < .02). Reasons for supplement use included to stay healthy, increase energy, immune system, recovery, and overall performance. Primary sources of information were family and friends, coaches, and athletic trainers; with 48% of athletes having met with a dietitian. Preferred means of education included individual consultations, presentations, and the internet. The majority of young athletes are using dietary supplements with the belief they will improve performance and health; however, may not always have reliable information. Educational programs using individual consultations and electronic media are recommended for this demographic.

  15. Systemic down-regulation of delta-9 desaturase promotes muscle oxidative metabolism and accelerates muscle function recovery following nerve injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Hussain

    Full Text Available The progressive deterioration of the neuromuscular axis is typically observed in degenerative conditions of the lower motor neurons, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Neurodegeneration in this disease is associated with systemic metabolic perturbations, including hypermetabolism and dyslipidemia. Our previous gene profiling studies on ALS muscle revealed down-regulation of delta-9 desaturase, or SCD1, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids. Interestingly, knocking out SCD1 gene is known to induce hypermetabolism and stimulate fatty acid beta-oxidation. Here we investigated whether SCD1 deficiency can affect muscle function and its restoration in response to injury. The genetic ablation of SCD1 was not detrimental per se to muscle function. On the contrary, muscles in SCD1 knockout mice shifted toward a more oxidative metabolism, and enhanced the expression of synaptic genes. Repressing SCD1 expression or reducing SCD-dependent enzymatic activity accelerated the recovery of muscle function after inducing sciatic nerve crush. Overall, these findings provide evidence for a new role of SCD1 in modulating the restorative potential of skeletal muscles.

  16. Network analysis of hepatic genes responded to high-fat diet in C57BL/6J mice: nutrigenomics data mining from recent research findings. (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jung; Kim, Eunjung; Kwon, Eun-Young; Jang, Hyun-Seo; Hur, Cheol-Goo; Choi, Myung-Sook


    Obesity and its associated complications, including diabetes, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and some cancers, have been a global health problem with a rapid increase of the obese population. In this study, we selected 31 obesity candidate genes in the liver of high-fat-induced obese C57BL/6J mice through investigation of literature search and analyzed functional protein-protein interaction of the genes using the STRING database. Most of the obesity candidate genes were closely connected through lipid metabolism, and in particular acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 appeared to be a core obesity gene. Overall, genes involved in fatty acid beta-oxidation, fatty acid synthesis, and gluconeogenesis were up-regulated, and genes involved in sterol biosynthesis, insulin signaling, and oxidative stress defense system were down-regulated with a high-fat diet. Future identification of core obesity genes and their functional targets is expected to provide a new way to prevent obesity by phytochemicals or functional foods on the basis of food and nutritional genomics.

  17. Characterization of five typical agave plants used to produce mezcal through their simple lipid composition analysis by gas chromatography. (United States)

    Martínez-Aguilar, Juan Fco; Peña-Alvarez, Araceli


    Five agave plants typically used in Mexico for making mezcal in places included in the Denomination of Origin (Mexican federal law that establishes the territory within which mezcal can be produced) of this spirit were analyzed: Agave salmiana ssp. crassispina, A. salmiana var. salmiana, Agave angustifolia, Agave cupreata, and Agave karwinskii. Fatty acid and total simple lipid profiles of the mature heads of each plant were determined by means of a modified Bligh-Dyer extraction and gas chromatography. Sixteen fatty acids were identified, from capric to lignoceric, ranging from 0.40 to 459 microg/g of agave. Identified lipids include free fatty acids, beta-sitosterol, and groups of mono-, di-, and triacylglycerols, their total concentration ranging from 459 to 992 microg/g of agave. Multivariate analyses performed on the fatty acid profiles showed a close similarity between A. cupreata and A. angustifolia. This fact can be ascribed to the taxa themselves or differences in growing conditions, an issue that is still to be explored. These results help to characterize the agaves chemically and can serve to relate the composition of mezcals from various states of Mexico with the corresponding raw material.

  18. Peptide assembly for nanoscale control of materials (United States)

    Pochan, Darrin


    Self-assembly of molecules is an attractive materials construction strategy due to its simplicity in application. By considering peptidic, charged synthetic molecules in the bottom-up materials self-assembly design process, one can take advantage of inherently biomolecular attributes; intramolecular folding events, secondary structure, and electrostatic interactions; in addition to more traditional self-assembling molecular attributes such as amphiphilicty, to define hierarchical material structure and consequent properties. Design strategies for materials self-assembly based on small (less than 24 amino acids) beta-hairpin peptides will be discussed. Self-assembly of the peptides is predicated on an intramolecular folding event caused by desired solution properties. Importantly, kinetics of self-assembly can be tuned in order to control gelation time. The final gel behaves as a shear thinning, but immediately rehealing, solid that is potentially useful for cell injection therapies. The morphological, and viscoelastic properties of these peptide hydrogels will be discussed. In addition, slight changes in peptide primary sequence can have drastic effects on the self-assembled morphology. Additional sequences will be discussed that do not form hydrogels but rather form nanoscale templates for inorganic material assembly.

  19. Behavioral changes in fasting emperor penguins: evidence for a "refeeding signal" linked to a metabolic shift. (United States)

    Robin, J P; Boucontet, L; Chillet, P; Groscolas, R


    This study examines the relationships between metabolic status and behavior in spontaneously fasting birds in the context of long-term regulation of body mass and feeding. Locomotor activity, escape behavior, display songs, body mass, and metabolic and endocrine status of captive male emperor penguins were recorded during a breeding fast. We also examined whether body mass at the end of the fast affected further survival. The major part of the fast (phase II) was characterized by the maintenance of a very low level of locomotor activity, with almost no attempt to escape, by an almost constant rate of body mass loss, and by steady plasma levels of uric acid, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and corticosterone. This indicates behavioral and metabolic adjustments directed toward sparing energy and body protein. Below a body mass of approximately 24 kg (phase III), spontaneous locomotor activity and attempts to escape increased by up to 8- and 15-fold, respectively, and display songs were resumed. This probably reflected an increase in the drive to refeed. Simultaneously, daily body mass loss and plasma levels of uric acid and corticosterone increased, whereas plasma levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate decreased. Some experimental birds were seen again in following years. These findings suggest that at a threshold of body mass, a metabolic and endocrine shift, possibly related to a limited availability of fat stores, acts as a "refeeding signal" that improves the survival of penguins to fasting.

  20. Bezafibrate mildly stimulates ketogenesis and fatty acid metabolism in hypertriglyceridemic subjects. (United States)

    Tremblay-Mercier, Jennifer; Tessier, Daniel; Plourde, Mélanie; Fortier, Mélanie; Lorrain, Dominique; Cunnane, Stephen C


    Our objective was to determine whether bezafibrate, a hypotriglyceridemic drug and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha agonist, is ketogenic and increases fatty acid oxidation in humans. We measured fatty acid metabolism and ketone levels in 13 mildly hypertriglycemic adults (67 +/- 11 years old) during 2 metabolic study days lasting 6 h, 1 day before and 1 day after bezafibrate (400 mg of bezafibrate per day for 12 weeks). beta-Hydroxybutyrate, triglycerides, free fatty acids, fatty acid profiles, insulin, and glucose were measured in plasma, and fatty acid beta-oxidation was measured in breath after an oral 50-mg dose of the fatty acid tracer [U-(13)C]linoleic acid. As expected, 12 weeks on bezafibrate decreased plasma triglycerides by 35%. Bezafibrate tended to raise postprandial beta-hydroxybutyrate, an effect that was significant after normalization to the fasting baseline values (p = 0.03). beta-Oxidation of [U-(13)C]linoleic acid increased by 30% (p = 0.03) after treatment. On the metabolic study day after bezafibrate treatment, postprandial insulin decreased by 26% (p = 0.01), and glucose concentrations were lower 2 to 5 h postprandially. Thus, in hypertriglyceridemic individuals, bezafibrate is mildly ketogenic and significantly changes fatty acid metabolism, effects that may be linked to PPARalpha stimulation and to moderately improved glucose metabolism.

  1. The Cyanobacteria Derived Toxin Beta-N-Methylamino-L-Alanine and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah W. Stommel


    Full Text Available There is mounting evidence to suggest that environmental factors play a major role in the development of neurodegenerative diseases like ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. The non-protein amino acid beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA was first associated with the high incidence of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/Parkinsonism Dementia Complex (ALS/PDC in Guam, and has been implicated as a potential environmental factor in ALS, Alzheimer’s disease, and other neurodegenerative diseases. BMAA has a number of toxic effects on motor neurons including direct agonist action on NMDA and AMPA receptors, induction of oxidative stress, and depletion of glutathione. As a non-protein amino acid, there is also the strong possibility that BMAA could cause intraneuronal protein misfolding, the hallmark of neurodegeneration. While an animal model for BMAA-induced ALS is lacking, there is substantial evidence to support a link between this toxin and ALS. The ramifications of discovering an environmental trigger for ALS are enormous. In this article, we discuss the history, ecology, pharmacology and clinical ramifications of this ubiquitous, cyanobacteria-derived toxin.

  2. Type I Gaucher disease with bullous pemphigoid and Parkinson disease: A case report. (United States)

    Le Peillet, Damien; Prendki, Virginie; Trombert, Véronique; Laffitte, Emmanuel; Assal, Frédéric; Reny, Jean Luc; Serratrice, Christine


    Gaucher disease (GD) is a rare genetic lysosomal storage disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. GD is due to the deficiency of a lysosomal enzyme, acid beta-glucosidase (or glucocerebrosidase). Type 1 Gaucher disease (GD1) is characterized by thrombocytopenia, anemia, an enlarged spleen, and liver as well as bone complications (Erlenmeyer flask deformity, osteoporosis, lytic lesions, pathological and vertebral fractures, bone infarcts, and avascular necrosis leading to degenerative arthropathy). The diagnosis is usually made in first decades but is sometimes delayed. Parkinson disease, neoplasia, and immune system abnormalities may be associated with GD1. A patient known for hepatosplenomegaly with hyperferritinemia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia was admitted for Lewy body dementia and bullous pemphigoid. Type 1 Gaucher disease. No specific treatment started. patient died ten months later due to pneumonia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of the association between GD1, bullous pemphigoid, and Lewy body dementia. We discuss the central role of alpha-synuclein in these pathologies.

  3. Therapeutic effects of substances occurring in higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms: a modern perspective. (United States)

    Wasser, S P; Weis, A L


    This review highlights some of the recently isolated and identified substances of higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms origin that express promising antitumor, immune modulating, cardiovascular and hypercholesterolemia, antiviral, antibacterial, and antiparasitic effects. Medicinal mushrooms have a long history of use in folk medicine. In particular, mushrooms useful against cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lungs, etc. are known in China, Russia, Japan, Korea, as well as the U.S.A. and Canada. There are about 200 species of mushrooms that have been found to markedly inhibit the growth of different kinds of tumors. Searching for new antitumor and other medicinal substances from mushrooms and to study the medicinal value of these mushrooms have become a matter of great significance. However, most of the mushroom origin antitumor substances have not been clearly defined. Several antitumor polysaccharides such as hetero-beta-glucans and their protein complexes (e.g., xyloglucans and acidic beta-glucan-containing uronic acid), as well as dietary fibers, lectins, and terpenoids have been isolated from medicinal mushrooms. In Japan, Russia, China, and the U.S.A. several different polysaccharide antitumor agents have been developed from the fruiting body, mycelia, and culture medium of various medicinal mushrooms (Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum, Schizophyllum commune, Trametes versicolor, Inonotus obliquus, and Flammulina velutipes). Both cellular components and secondary metabolites of a large number of mushrooms have been shown to effect the immune system of the host and therefore could be used to treat a variety of disease states.

  4. Role of ALDP (ABCD1) and mitochondria in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. (United States)

    McGuinness, M C; Lu, J-F; Zhang, H-P; Dong, G-X; Heinzer, A K; Watkins, P A; Powers, J; Smith, K D


    Peroxisomal disorders have been associated with malfunction of peroxisomal metabolic pathways, but the pathogenesis of these disorders is largely unknown. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is associated with elevated levels of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA; C(>22:0)) that have been attributed to reduced peroxisomal VLCFA beta-oxidation activity. Previously, our laboratory and others have reported elevated VLCFA levels and reduced peroxisomal VLCFA beta-oxidation in human and mouse X-ALD fibroblasts. In this study, we found normal levels of peroxisomal VLCFA beta-oxidation in tissues from ALD mice with elevated VLCFA levels. Treatment of ALD mice with pharmacological agents resulted in decreased VLCFA levels without a change in VLCFA beta-oxidation activity. These data indicate that ALDP does not determine the rate of VLCFA beta-oxidation and that VLCFA levels are not determined by the rate of VLCFA beta-oxidation. The rate of peroxisomal VLCFA beta-oxidation in human and mouse fibroblasts in vitro is affected by the rate of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation. We hypothesize that ALDP facilitates the interaction between peroxisomes and mitochondria, resulting, when ALDP is deficient in X-ALD, in increased VLCFA accumulation despite normal peroxisomal VLCFA beta-oxidation in ALD mouse tissues. In support of this hypothesis, mitochondrial structural abnormalities were observed in adrenal cortical cells of ALD mice.

  5. Carnosine may reduce lung injury caused by radiation therapy. (United States)

    Guney, Yildiz; Turkcu, Ummuhani Ozel; Hicsonmez, Ayse; Andrieu, Meltem Nalca; Guney, H Zafer; Bilgihan, Ayse; Kurtman, Cengiz


    Ionising radiation is known one of the most effective tools in the therapy of cancer but in many thoracic cancers, the total prescribed dose of radiation that can be safely administered to the target volume is limited by the risk of complications arising in the normal lung tissue. One of the major reasons for cellular injury after radiation is the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Radiation pneumonitis is an acute phase side-effect which generally subsides after a few weeks and is followed by a chronic phase characterized by inflammation and fibrosis, that can develop months or years after irradiation. Carnosine is a dipeptide composed by the amino acids beta-histidine and l-alanine. The exact biological role of carnosine is not totally understood, but several studies have demonstrated that it possesses strong and specific antioxidant properties, protects against radiation damage,and promotes wound healing. The antioxidant mechanism of carnosine is attributed to its chelating effect against metal ions, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity, ROS and free radicals scavenging ability . Either its antioxidant or anti-inflammatuar properties, we propose that carnosine ameliorates irradiation-induced lung injury. Thus, supplementing cancer patients to whom applied radiation therapy with carnosine, may provide an alleviation of the symptoms due to radiation-induced lung injury. This issue warrants further studies.

  6. Beta-methyl substitution of cyclohexylalanine in Dmt-Tic-Cha-Phe peptides results in highly potent delta opioid antagonists. (United States)

    Tóth, Géza; Ioja, Eniko; Tömböly, Csaba; Ballet, Steven; Tourwé, Dirk; Péter, Antal; Martinek, Tamás; Chung, Nga N; Schiller, Peter W; Benyhe, Sándor; Borsodi, Anna


    The opioid peptide TIPP (H-Tyr-Tic-Phe-Phe-OH, Tic:1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid) was substituted with Dmt (2',6'-dimethyltyrosine) and a new unnatural amino acid, beta-MeCha (beta-methyl-cyclohexylalanine). This double substitution led to a new series of opioid peptides displaying subnanomolar delta antagonist activity and mu agonist or antagonist properties depending on the configuration of the beta-MeCha residue. The most promising analog, H-Dmt-Tic-(2S,3S)-beta-MeCha-Phe-OH was a very selective delta antagonist both in the mouse vas deferens (MVD) assay (Ke = 0.241 +/- 0.05 nM) and in radioligand binding assay (K i delta = 0.48 +/- 0.05 nM, K i mu/K i delta = 2800). The epimeric peptide H-Dmt-Tic-(2S,3R)-beta-MeCha-Phe-OH and the corresponding peptide amide turned out to be mixed partial mu agonist/delta antagonists in the guinea pig ileum and MVD assays. Our results constitute further examples of the influence of Dmt and beta-methyl substitution as well as C-terminal amidation on the potency, selectivity, and signal transduction properties of TIPP related peptides. Some of these compounds represent valuable pharmacological tools for opioid research.

  7. Genomic organization of the adrenoleukodystrophy gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarde, C.O.; Mosser, J.; Kretz, C. [Institut de Chimie Biologique, Strasbourg (France)] [and others


    Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), the most frequent peroxisomal disorder, is a severe neurodegenerative disease associated with an impairment of very long chain fatty acids {beta}-oxidation. The authors have recently identified by positional cloning the gene responsible for ALD, located in Xq28. It encodes a new member of the {open_quotes}ABC{close_quotes} superfamily of membrane-associated transporters that shows, in particular, significant homology to the 70-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP70). They report here a detailed characterization of the ALD gene structure. It extends over 21 kb and consists of 10 exons. To facilitate the detection of mutations in ALD patients, they have determined the intronic sequences flanking the exons as well as the sequence of the 3{prime} untranslated region and of the immediate 5{prime} promoter region. Sequences present in distal exons cross-hybridize strongly to additional sequences in the human genome. The ALD gene has been positioned on a pulsed-field map between DXS15 and the L1CAM gene, about 650 kb upstream from the color pigment genes. The frequent occurrence of color vision anomalies observed in patients with adrenomyeloneuropathy (the adult onset form of ALD) thus does not represent a contiguous gene syndrome but a secondary manifestation of ALD. 37 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Pathogenesis and Therapeutics from a Mitochondria-Centric Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M. Gusdon


    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD describes a spectrum of disorders characterized by the accumulation of triglycerides within the liver. The global prevalence of NAFLD has been increasing as the obesity epidemic shows no sign of relenting. Mitochondria play a central role in hepatic lipid metabolism and also are affected by upstream signaling pathways involved in hepatic metabolism. This review will focus on the role of mitochondria in the pathophysiology of NAFLD and touch on some of the therapeutic approaches targeting mitochondria as well as metabolically important signaling pathways. Mitochondria are able to adapt to lipid accumulation in hepatocytes by increasing rates of beta-oxidation; however increased substrate delivery to the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC leads to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production and eventually ETC dysfunction. Decreased ETC function combined with increased rates of fatty acid beta-oxidation leads to the accumulation of incomplete products of beta-oxidation, which combined with increased levels of ROS contribute to insulin resistance. Several related signaling pathways, nuclear receptors, and transcription factors also regulate hepatic lipid metabolism, many of which are redox sensitive and regulated by ROS.

  9. n-3 LCPUFA in the reversal of hepatic steatosis: the role of ACOX and CAT-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapia, G.S.; Gonzalez Mañan, D.; D' Espessailles, A.; Dossi, D.G.


    The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of the Acyl co-enzyme A oxidase (ACOX), carnitine acyl transferase I (CAT-1) and activating protein 1 (AP-1) in the reversal of hepatic steatosis with dietary change and n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) supplementation. Male C57BL/6J mice were given either a control diet (CD) or a high fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks, and then continued with the CD or CD plus n-3 LCPUFA for eight weeks. After this period, body and adipose visceral tissue weight were analyzed and liver samples were taken to measure ACOX, CAT-1 and c-jun levels. The dietary change from HFD to a norm caloric diet plus n-3 LCPUFA supplementation significantly reduced liver steatosis and adipose tissue: body weight ratio, along with an increase in the hepatic ACOX and CAT-1 levels and normalization of AP-1 expression that could favor the fatty acid beta-oxidation over lipogenesis and regulate inflammation. (Author)

  10. The minor C-allele of rs2014355 in ACADS is associated with reduced insulin release following an oral glucose load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbak, Malene; Banasik, Karina; Justesen, Johanne Marie


    -coenzyme A dehydrogenase (ACADM) impair fatty acid beta-oxidation. Chronic exposure to fatty acids due to an impaired beta-oxidation may down-regulate the glucose-stimulated insulin release and result in an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We aimed to investigate whether the two variants associate with altered...... an oral glucose load (per allele effect (beta)=-3.8% (-6.3%;-1.3%), P=0.003), reduced incremental area under the insulin curve (beta=-3.6% (-6.3%;-0.9%), P=0.009), reduced acute insulin response (beta=-2.2% (-4.2%;0.2%), P=0.03), and with increased insulin sensitivity ISIMatsuda (beta= 2.9% (0.5%;5.2%), P......=0.02). The C-allele did not associate with two other measures of insulin sensitivity or with a derived disposition index. The C-allele was not associated with T2D in the case-control analysis (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.96-1.18, P=0.21). rs11161510 of ACADM did not associate with any indices of glucose...

  11. Nutritional impact on the plasma metabolome of rats. (United States)

    Mellert, W; Kapp, M; Strauss, V; Wiemer, J; Kamp, H; Walk, T; Looser, R; Prokoudine, A; Fabian, E; Krennrich, G; Herold, M; van Ravenzwaay, B


    Metabolite profiling (metabolomics) elucidates changes in biochemical pathways under various conditions, e.g., different nutrition scenarios or compound administration. BASF and metanomics have obtained plasma metabolic profiles of approximately 500 compounds (agrochemicals, chemicals and pharmaceuticals) from 28-day rat studies. With these profiles the establishment of a database (MetaMap(®)Tox) containing specific metabolic patterns associated with many toxicological modes of action was achieved. To evaluate confounding factors influencing metabolome patterns, the effect of fasting vs. non-fasting prior to blood sampling, the influence of high caloric diet and caloric restriction as well as the administration of corn oil and olive oil was studied for its influence on the metabolome. All mentioned treatments had distinct effects: triacylglycerol, phospholipids and their degradation product levels (fatty acids, glycerol, lysophosphatidylcholine) were often altered depending on the nutritional status. Also some amino acid and related compounds were changed. Some metabolites derived from food (e.g. alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, beta-sitosterol, campesterol) were biomarkers related to food consumption, whereas others indicated a changed energy metabolism (e.g. hydroxybutyrate, pyruvate). Strikingly, there was a profound difference in the metabolite responses to diet restriction in male and female rats. Consequently, when evaluating the metabolic profile of a compound, the effect of nutritional status should be taken into account. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Energy intake in late gestation affects blood metabolites in early lactation independently of milk production in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nicolaj Ingemann; Hameleers, A; Young, F J


    calving; the H TMR was fed ad libitum whereas the L TMR was restricted to 10 kg dry matter/day during late lactation, and to approximately 75% of energy requirements from drying off until calving. Both diets were offered ad libitum post-calving. Feeding diet H compared to L pre-calving led to higher BCS...... at calving (2.68 v. 2.34, P intake post-calving were not affected by pre-calving diets. Changes in BCS and blood concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate and glucose in early lactation showed that cows offered diet H pre-calving...... allocated to one of four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, where the factors were H- or L-energy density in a total mixed ration (TMR) both pre- and post-calving. Consequently, there were four treatment groups: HH, HL, LL and LH. The pre-calving treatment was initiated 100 days prior to expected...

  13. Insertion of a T next to the donor splice site of intron 1 causes aberrantly spliced mRNA in a case of infantile GM1-gangliosidosis. (United States)

    Morrone, A; Morreau, H; Zhou, X Y; Zammarchi, E; Kleijer, W J; Galjaard, H; d'Azzo, A


    The lysosomal storage disorders GM1-gangliosidosis and Morquio B syndrome are caused by a complete or partial deficiency of acid beta-galactosidase. Here, we have characterized the mutation segregating in a family with two siblings affected by the severe infantile form of GM1-gangliosidosis. In total mRNA preparations derived from the patients' fibroblasts at least two aberrantly spliced beta-galactosidase transcripts (1 and 2) have been identified. Both transcripts contain a 20 nucleotide (nt) insertion derived from the 5' end of intron 1 of the beta-galactosidase gene. Furthermore, in transcript 2 sequences encoded by exon II are deleted during the splicing process. Comparison of the 20-nt insertion with wild-type intronic sequences indicated that in the genomic DNA of the patients an extra T nucleotide is present immediately downstream of the conserved GT splice donor dinucleotide of intron 1. Both patients are homozygous for the T nucleotide insertion. We propose that this single base insertion is the mutation responsible for aberrant splicing of beta-galactosidase pre-mRNA, giving rise to transcripts that cannot encode a normal protein.

  14. l-Carnitine Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Nitric Oxide Production of SIM-A9 Microglia Cells. (United States)

    Gill, Emily L; Raman, Shreya; Yost, Richard A; Garrett, Timothy J; Vedam-Mai, Vinata


    Microglia are the resident immune effector cells of the central nervous system. They account for approximately 10-15% of all cells found in the brain and spinal cord, acting as macrophages, sensing and engaging in phagocytosis to eliminate toxic proteins. Microglia are dynamic and can change their morphology in response to cues from their milieu. Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease, associated with reactive gliosis, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress. It is thought that Parkinson's disease is caused by the accumulation of abnormally folded alpha-synuclein protein, accompanied by persistent neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and subsequent neuronal injury/death. There is evidence in the literature for mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease as well as fatty acid beta-oxidation, involving l-carnitine. Here we investigate l-carnitine in the context of microglial activation, suggesting a potential new strategy of supplementation for PD patients. Preliminary results from our studies suggest that the treatment of activated microglia with the endogenous antioxidant l-carnitine can reverse the effects of detrimental neuroinflammation in vitro.

  15. Partial characterization of a malonyl-CoA-sensitive carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase I from Macrobrachium borellii (Crustacea: Palaemonidae). (United States)

    Lavarías, Sabrina; Pasquevich, María Y; Dreon, Marcos S; Heras, Horacio


    The shuttle system that mediates the transport of fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane in invertebrates has received little attention. Carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase I (EC; CPT I) is a key component of this system that in vertebrates controls long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation. To gain knowledge on the acyltransferases in aquatic arthropods, physical, kinetic, regulatory and immunological properties of CPT of the midgut gland mitochondria of Macrobrachium borellii were assayed. CPT I optimum conditions were 34 degrees C and pH=8.0. Kinetic analysis revealed a Km for carnitine of 2180+/-281 microM and a Km for palmitoyl-CoA of 98.9+/-8.9 microM, while V(max) were 56.5+/-6.6 and 36.7+/-4.8 nmol min(-1) mg protein(-1), respectively. A Hill coefficient, n~1, indicate a Michaelis-Menten behavior. The CPT I activity was sensitive to regulation by malonyl-CoA, with an IC(50) of 25.2 microM. Electrophoretic and immunological analyses showed that a 66 kDa protein with an isoelectric point of 5.1 cross-reacted with both rat liver and muscle-liver anti CPT I polyclonal antibodies, suggesting antigenic similarity with the rat enzymes. Although CPT I displayed kinetic differences with insect and vertebrates, prawn showed a high capacity for energy generation through beta-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids.

  16. Antimalarial activity of phenazines from lapachol, beta-lapachone and its derivatives against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and Plasmodium berghei in vivo. (United States)

    de Andrade-Neto, Valter F; Goulart, Marília O F; da Silva Filho, Jorge F; da Silva, Matuzalém J; Pinto, Maria do Carmo F R; Pinto, Antônio V; Zalis, Mariano G; Carvalho, Luzia H; Krettli, Antoniana U


    The antimalarial activity of benzo[a]phenazines synthesized from 1,2-naphthoquinone, lapachol, beta-lapachone and several derivatives have been tested against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro using isolates of parasites with various susceptibilities to chloroquine and/or mefloquine. Parasite growth in the presence of the test drugs was measured by incorporation of [(3)H]-hipoxanthine in comparison to controls with no drugs, always testing in parallel chloroquine, a standard antimalarial. Among seven benzophenazines tested, four had significant in vitro activities; important, the parasites resistant to chloroquine were more susceptible to the active phenazines in vitro. The doses of phenazines causing 50% inhibition of parasite growth varied from 1.67 to 9.44 microM. The two most active ones were also tested in vivo against Plasmodium berghei in mice, in parallel with lapachol and beta-lapachone. The 3-sulfonic acid-beta-lapachone-derived phenazine was the most active causing up to 98% inhibition of parasitaemia in long term treatment (7 doses) subcutaneously, whereas the phenazine from 3-bromo-beta-lapachone was inactive. Thus, these simple phenazines, containing polar (-Br,-I) and ionizable (-SO(3)H, -OH) groups, easily synthesized from cheap, natural or synthetic precursors (lapachol and beta-lapachone), at rather low cost, provide prototypes for development of new antimalarials aiming the chloroquine resistant parasites.

  17. Nematicidal natural products from the aerial parts of Buddleja crispa. (United States)

    Sultana, Nighat; Akhter, Musarrat; Khan, Rashid Ali; Afza, Nighat; Tareen, Rasool Bakh; Malik, Abdul


    Studies on the aerial parts of Buddleja crispa yielded 13 known compounds, nonyl benzoate, hexyl p-hydroxy-cinnamate, ginipin, gardiol, 1-heptacosanol, steroidal galactoside (22 R)-stigmasta-7,9 (11)-dien-22 beta-ol-3beta-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside, 3-methoxy benzoic acid, beta-sitosterol and ursolic acid. Besides this two iridoid galactosides buddlejosides A, buddlejosides B and a benzofuran-type sesquiterpene buddlejone have been isolated from the ETOAC fraction of B. crispa. Together with the above compounds, methyl benzoate (1) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy benzoic acid (2) were also isolated. Compound 2 (C(8)H(8)O(4)) was identified by comparison of its data with those reported earlier, which was originally isolated from Onosma hispidum, and this is the first report of its isolation from this species. For compounds 1 and 2, the total alcoholic soluble extract, methanol soluble, chloroform soluble, ethyl acetate soluble and petroleum ether soluble extract of the aerial parts of B. crispa were screened for nematicidal activity against nematodes of freshly hatched second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode), exhibiting 92%, 40%, 88%, 83%, 82% and 50% mortality, respectively, of eloids M. incognita at 0.5% concentration. Compound 1 was more potent than the nematicide Azadirachta indica at the same concentration. Negative results were obtained for the nematicidal activity of petroleum ether extract of B. crispa leaves.

  18. The Effect of Aqueous Extract of Cinnamon on the Metabolome of Plasmodium falciparum Using 1HNMR Spectroscopy

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    Shirin Parvazi


    Full Text Available Malaria is responsible for estimated 584,000 deaths in 2013. Researchers are working on new drugs and medicinal herbs due to drug resistance that is a major problem facing them; the search is on for new medicinal herbs. Cinnamon is the bark of a tree with reported antiparasitic effects. Metabonomics is the simultaneous study of all the metabolites in biological fluids, cells, and tissues detected by high throughput technology. It was decided to determine the mechanism of the effect of aqueous extract of cinnamon on the metabolome of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro using 1HNMR spectroscopy. Prepared aqueous extract of cinnamon was added to a culture of Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 and its 50% inhibitory concentration determined, and, after collection, their metabolites were extracted and 1HNMR spectroscopy by NOESY method was done. The spectra were analyzed by chemometric methods. The differentiating metabolites were identified using Human Metabolome Database and the metabolic cycles identified by Metaboanalyst. 50% inhibitory concentration of cinnamon on Plasmodium falciparum was 1.25 mg/mL with p<0.001. The metabolites were identified as succinic acid, glutathione, L-aspartic acid, beta-alanine, and 2-methylbutyryl glycine. The main metabolic cycles detected were alanine and aspartame and glutamate pathway and pantothenate and coenzyme A biosynthesis and lysine biosynthesis and glutathione metabolism, which are all important as drug targets.

  19. [Simultaneous determination of twenty-one organic acids in food by ion chromatography with eluent autogeneration]. (United States)

    Lin, Huaying; Lin, Fenghua; Sheng, Lina; Li, Yidan; Zhang, Qiong


    A novel ion chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of organic acids in food samples including quinic acid, acetic acid, pyruvic acid, ketosuccinic acid, mannitic acid, lactic acid, succinic acid, malic acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid, fumaric acid, ascorbic acid, alpha-ketoglutaric acid, cinnamic acid, salicylic acid, citric acid, isocitric acid, ferulic acid, cis-aconitic acid, trans-aconitic acid, beta-coumaric acid. 5 - 34 mmol/L KOH produced by an EG40 eluent autogenerator could achieve a flat baseline and lower background conductance when performing gradient elution. The flow rate was 0.6 - 2.5 mL/min and the injection volume was 25 microL. The separation was performed on an IonPac AS11 column and detected by suppressed conductivity with self-regenerating suppressor mode. The samples were prepared through extraction, decoloration and filtration before analysis. Twenty-one organic acids showed good linear relationship between the mass concentration and the peak area in the measurement ranges. The correlation coefficients were above 0.999 and the detection limits were 0.011 - 0.188 mg/L, and the average recoveries were 91.5% - 101.8%. The method is simple and rapid with good accuracy and reproducibility, and has been applied to determine twenty-one organic acids in diversiform samples with satisfactory results.

  20. [Ecological function and application of toxin beta-ODAP in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus)]. (United States)

    Xiong, Jun-Lan; Bai, Xue; Batool, Asfa; Kong, Hai-Yan; Tan, Rui-Yue; Wang, Ya-Fu; Li, Zhi-Xiao; Xiong, You-Cai


    Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) is a legume with various adverse adaptability and rich nutrition. However, it can lead to the human and animal neurotoxicity after long-term consumption due to its neurotoxin, beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha, beta-diaminopropionic acid (beta-ODAP), limiting its utilization. This paper summarized the influences of beta-ODAP on osmotic adjustment and growth regulation in grass pea under drought stress, the research progress in analysis methods, toxicological mechanisms and practical utility of beta-ODAP, and the breeding strategies for low- and zero-beta-ODAP. Beta-ODAP synthesis was found to be abundant in grass pea under drought stress and its content was enhanced gradually with the increasing extent of drought stress. beta-ODAP could supply nitrogen for plant growth and seed development, scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), involve in osmotic adjustment as a soluble amino acid, transport zinc-ions as a carrier molecule, and impact nodule development. However, increasing the content of sulfur-containing amino acids (methionine and cysteine) could decrease the level of toxicity of grass pea. There were a lot of investigations on collecting genetic resources, cross breeding, tissue culture, and gene manipulation for low- and zero-toxin in grass pea in recent years. Although beta-ODAP could induce excitotoxicity by damaging intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and as glutamate analogues, it has medicinal value on hemostasis and anti-tumor.

  1. Bovine dairy complex lipids improve in vitro measures of small intestinal epithelial barrier integrity. (United States)

    Anderson, Rachel C; MacGibbon, Alastair K H; Haggarty, Neill; Armstrong, Kelly M; Roy, Nicole C


    Appropriate intestinal barrier maturation is essential for absorbing nutrients and preventing pathogens and toxins from entering the body. Compared to breast-fed infants, formula-fed infants are more susceptible to barrier dysfunction-associated illnesses. In infant formula dairy lipids are usually replaced with plant lipids. We hypothesised that dairy complex lipids improve in vitro intestinal epithelial barrier integrity. We tested milkfat high in conjugated linoleic acid, beta serum (SureStart™Lipid100), beta serum concentrate (BSC) and a ganglioside-rich fraction (G600). Using Caco-2 cells as a model of the human small intestinal epithelium, we analysed the effects of the ingredients on trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), mannitol flux, and tight junction protein co-localisation. BSC induced a dose-dependent improvement in TEER across unchallenged cell layers, maintained the co-localisation of tight junction proteins in TNFα-challenged cells with increased permeability, and mitigated the TEER-reducing effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). G600 also increased TEER across healthy and LPS-challenged cells, but it did not alter the co-location of tight junction proteins in TNFα-challenged cells. SureStart™Lipid100 had similar TEER-increasing effects to BSC when added at twice the concentration (similar lipid concentration). Ultimately, this research aims to contribute to the development of infant formulas supplemented with dairy complex lipids that support infant intestinal barrier maturation.

  2. Drug-induced hyperkalemia. (United States)

    Ben Salem, Chaker; Badreddine, Atef; Fathallah, Neila; Slim, Raoudha; Hmouda, Houssem


    Hyperkalemia is a common clinical condition that can be defined as a serum potassium concentration exceeding 5.0 mmol/L. Drug-induced hyperkalemia is the most important cause of increased potassium levels in everyday clinical practice. Drug-induced hyperkalemia may be asymptomatic. However, it may be dramatic and life threatening, posing diagnostic and management problems. A wide range of drugs can cause hyperkalemia by a variety of mechanisms. Drugs can interfere with potassium homoeostasis either by promoting transcellular potassium shift or by impairing renal potassium excretion. Drugs may also increase potassium supply. The reduction in renal potassium excretion due to inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system represents the most important mechanism by which drugs are known to cause hyperkalemia. Medications that alter transmembrane potassium movement include amino acids, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, suxamethonium, and mannitol. Drugs that impair renal potassium excretion are mainly represented by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-II receptor blockers, direct renin inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, calcineurin inhibitors, heparin and derivatives, aldosterone antagonists, potassium-sparing diuretics, trimethoprim, and pentamidine. Potassium-containing agents represent another group of medications causing hyperkalemia. Increased awareness of drugs that can induce hyperkalemia, and monitoring and prevention are key elements for reducing the number of hospital admissions, morbidity, and mortality related to drug-induced hyperkalemia.

  3. Nucleotide sequence of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase mRNA and its expression in enzyme-deficient human tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, D.P.; Kim, J.J.; Billadello, J.J.; Hainline, B.E.; Chu, T.W.; Strauss, A.W.


    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase is one of three similar enzymes that catalyze the initial step of fatty acid ..beta..-oxidation. Definition of the primary structure of MCAD and the tissue distribution of its mRNA is of biochemical and clinical importance because of the recent recognition of inherited MCAD deficiency in humans. The MCAD mRNA nucleotide sequence was determined from two overlapping cDNA clones isolated from human liver and placental cDNA libraries, respectively. The MCAD mRNA includes a 1263-base-pair coding region and a 738-base-pair 3'-nontranslated region. A partial amino acid sequence (137 residues) determined on peptides derived from MCAD purified from porcine liver confirmed the identity of the cDNA clone. Comparison of the amino acid sequence predicted from the human MCAD cDNA with the partial protein sequence of the porcine MCAD revealed a high degree (88%) of interspecies sequence identity. RNA blot analysis shows that MCAD mRNA is expressed in a variety of rat (2.2 kilobases) and human (2.4 kilobases) tissues. Blot hybridization of RNA prepared from cultured skin fibroblasts from a patient with MCAD deficiency disclosed that mRNA was present and of similar size of MCAD mRNA derived from control fibroblasts. The isolation and characterization of MCAD cDNA is an important step in the definition of the defect underlying its metabolic consequences.

  4. Exterior and interior physical quality of egg of laying hens fed diets containing different dietary purslane levels (United States)

    Kartikasari, L. R.; Hertanto, B. S.; Pranoto, D.; Salim, W. N.; Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P.


    Purslane is considered a rich vegetable source of alpha-linolenic acid, beta-carotene and various antioxidants. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of different dietary levels of purslane meal (Portulaca oleracea) in the diets of laying hens on physical quality of eggs. A total of 125 Hy-Line Brown hens (54 weeks old) were placed at individual cages and assigned to five dietary treatments. The diets were supplemented with 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8% purslane meal. Laying hens were fed for 5 weeks after a typical period of adaptation (7 days). Water and feed were provided ad libitum. A total of 25 egg samples of day 28 and day 35 (n = 5 egg yolks for each treatment) were collected to analyse exterior and interior physical quality of eggs. The data were analysed using ANOVA. Differences between treatment means were further analysed using Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. Results showed that feeding different purslane meal levels in the diets improved egg weight, yolk weight, albumen weight and yolk colour. The highest intensity of yolk colour was obtained with the diet containing 8% purslane meal. However, dietary treatments did not affect egg index, albumen index, yolk index, shell weight, shell thickness and Haugh Unit. It is concluded that including purslane meal to laying hen diets increases the physical qualities of the eggs.

  5. Glycerophosphoglycerol, Beta-Alanine, and Pantothenic Acid as Metabolic Companions of Glycolytic Activity and Cell Migration in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Hutschenreuther


    Full Text Available In cancer research, cell lines are used to explore the molecular basis of the disease as a substitute to tissue biopsies. Breast cancer in particular is a very heterogeneous type of cancer, and different subgroups of cell lines have been established according to their genomic profiles and tumor characteristics. We applied GCMS metabolite profiling to five selected breast cancer cell lines and found this heterogeneity reflected on the metabolite level as well. Metabolite profiles of MCF-7 cells belonging to the luminal gene cluster proved to be more different from those of the basal A cell line JIMT-1 and the basal B cell lines MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435, and MDA-MB-436 with only slight differences in the intracellular metabolite pattern. Lactate release into the cultivation medium as an indicator of glycolytic activity was correlated to the metabolite profiles and physiological characteristics of each cell line. In conclusion, pantothenic acid, beta-alanine and glycerophosphoglycerol appeared to be related to the glycolytic activity designated through high lactate release. Other physiological parameters coinciding with glycolytic activity were high glyoxalase 1 (Glo1 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH enzyme activity as well as cell migration as an additional important characteristic contributing to the aggressiveness of tumor cells. Metabolite profiles of the cell lines are comparatively discussed with respect to known biomarkers of cancer progression.

  6. CH4/NH3/H2O spark tholin: chemical analysis and interaction with Jovian aqueous clouds. (United States)

    McDonald, G D; Khare, B N; Thompson, W R; Sagan, C


    The organic solid (tholin) produced by spark discharge in a CH4 + NH3 + H2O atmosphere is investigated, along with the separable components of its water-soluble fraction. The chemistry of this material serves as a provisional model for the interaction of Jovian organic heteropolymers with the deep aqueous clouds of Jupiter. Intact (unhydrolyzed) tholin is resolved into four chemically distinct fractions by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Gel filtration chromatography reveals abundant components at molecular weights approximately or equal to 600-700 and 200-300 Da. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of derivatized hydrolysis products of unfractionated tholin shows about 10% by mass protein and nonprotein amino acids, chiefly glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, beta-alanine, and beta-aminobutyric acid, and 12% by mass other organic acids and hydroxy acids. The stereospecificity of alanine is investigated and shown to be racemic. The four principal HPLC fractions yield distinctly different proportions of amino acids. Chemical tests show that small peptides or organic molecules containing multiple amino acid precursors are a possibility in the intact tholins, but substantial quantities of large peptides are not indicated. Candidate 700-Da molecules have a central unsaturated, hydrocarbon- and nitrile-rich core, linked by acid-labile (ester or amide) bonds to amino acid and carboxylic acid side groups. The core is probably not HCN "polymer." The concentration of amino acids from tholin hydrolysis in the lower aqueous clouds of Jupiter, about 0.1 micromole, is enough to maintain small populations of terrestrial microorganisms even if the amino acids must serve as the sole carbon source.

  7. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation in obese cats alters carnitine metabolism and decreases ketosis during fasting and induced hepatic lipidosis. (United States)

    Blanchard, Géraldine; Paragon, Bernard M; Milliat, Fabien; Lutton, Claude


    This study was designed to determine whether dietary carnitine supplement could protect cats from ketosis and improve carnitine and lipid metabolism in experimental feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL). Lean spayed queens received a diet containing 40 (CL group, n = 7) or 1000 (CH group, n = 4) mg/kg of L-carnitine during obesity development. Plasma fatty acid, beta-hydroxybutyrate and carnitine, and liver and muscle carnitine concentrations were measured during experimental induction of FHL and after treatment. In control cats (CL group), fasting and FHL increased the plasma concentrations of fatty acids two- to threefold (P 10-fold (from a basal 0.22 +/- 0.03 to 1.70 +/- 0.73 after 3 wk fasting and 3.13 +/- 0.49 mmol/L during FHL). In carnitine-supplemented cats, these variables increased significantly (P < 0.0001) only during FHL (beta-hydroxybutyrate, 1.42 +/- 0.17 mmol/L). L-Carnitine supplementation significantly increased plasma, muscle and liver carnitine concentrations. Liver carnitine concentration increased dramatically from the obese state to FHL in nonsupplemented cats, but not in supplemented cats, which suggests de novo synthesis of carnitine from endogenous amino acids in control cats and reversible storage in supplemented cats. These results demonstrate the protective effect of a dietary L-carnitine supplement against fasting ketosis during obesity induction. Increasing the L-carnitine level of diets in cats with low energy requirements, such as after neutering, and a high risk of obesity could therefore be recommended.

  8. Identification of a chloroplast coenzyme A-binding protein related to the peroxisomal thiolases. (United States)

    Yang, L M; Lamppa, G


    A 30-kD coenzyme A (CoA)-binding protein was isolated from spinach (Spinacea oleracea) chloroplast soluble extracts using affinity chromatography under conditions in which 95% of the total protein was excluded. The 30-kD protein contains an eight-amino-acid sequence, DVRLYYGA, that is identical to a region in a 36-kD protein of unknown function that is encoded by a kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) cDNA. Southern blotting also detected a spinach gene that is related to the kiwifruit cDNA. The kiwifruit 36-kD protein that was synthesized in Escherichia coli was imported into chloroplasts and cleaved to a 30-kD form; it was processed to the same size in an organelle-free assay. Furthermore, the kiwifruit protein specifically bound to CoA. The kiwifruit protein contains a single cysteine within a domain that is related to the peroxisomal beta-ketoacyl-CoA thiolases, which catalyze the CoA-dependent degradative step of fatty acid beta-oxidation. Within 50 amino acids surrounding the cysteine, considered to be part of the thiolase active site, the kiwifruit protein shows approximately 26% sequence identity with the mango, cucumber, and rat peroxisomal thiolases. N-terminal alignment with these enzymes, relative to the cysteine, indicates that the 36-kD protein is cleaved after serine-58 during import, agreeing with the estimated size (approximately 6 kD) of a transit peptide. The 30-kD protein is also related to the E. coli and mitochondrial thiolases, as well as to the acetoacetyl-CoA thiolases of prokaryotes. Features distinguish it from members of the thiolase family, suggesting that it carries out a related but novel function. The protein is more distantly related to chloroplast beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III, the initial condensing enzyme of fatty acid synthetase that utilizes acetyl-CoA.

  9. Effects of Cysteamine on Sheep Embryo Cleavage Rates

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    Sinem Ö. ENGİNLER


    Full Text Available Oxidative stress during in vitro culture leads to defects in development of gametes and embryos. Several antioxidants such as cysteamine, L-ascorbic acid, beta mercaptoethanol, cysteine, glutathione, proteins, vitamins have been used to supplement culture media to counter the oxidative stress. This study was conducted to detect the effect of adding cysteamine to the maturation medium to subsequent cleavage rates of sheep embryos. Totally 604 ovaries were obtained by ten replica and 2060 oocytes were collected. The cumulus oocyte complexes were recovered by the slicing method. A total of 1818 selected oocytes were divided into two groups and used for maturation (88.25%. The first group was created as supplemented with cysteamine (Group A and second group (Group B, control without cysteamine in TCM-199. The two groups were incubated for 24 h at 38.8 °C in an atmosphere of 5% CO2 in humidified air for in vitro maturation (IVM. After IVM, oocytes were fertilized with 50 x 107 / mL fresh ram semen in BSOF medium for 18 h. After fertilization, maturation groups were divided into two subgroups with different culture media: Group AI-SOF (Synthetic Oviduct Fluid medium, Group AII-CR1aa (Charles Rosencrans medium, Group BI-SOF and Group BII-CR1aa were achieved. Cleavage rates were evaluated at day 2. post insemination. The rates of cleavage were detected as 59.54% (184/309, 55.44% (173/312, 65.34% (215/329, 59.34% (200/337 respectively, with showing no statistically significant difference between the groups at the level of P>0.05. In conclusion, supplementing cysteamine to maturation media in TCM-199 did not affect the cleavage rates of sheep embryos in SOF and CR1aa culture media.

  10. Soluble FGFR4 extracellular domain inhibits FGF19-induced activation of FGFR4 signaling and prevents nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

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    Chen, Qiang [State Key Laboratory of Stress Cell Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Jiang, Yuan; An, Yuan; Zhao, Na; Zhao, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Stress Cell Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Yu, Chundong, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Stress Cell Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China)


    Highlights: {yields} Soluble FGFR4 extracellular domain (FGFR4-ECD) was effectively expressed. {yields} FGFR4-ECD inhibited FGF19-induced activation of FGFR4 signaling. {yields} FGFR4-ECD reduced palmitic acid-induced steatosis of HepG2 cells. {yields} FGFR4-ECD reduced tetracycline-induced fatty liver in mice. {yields} FGFR4-ECD partially restored tetracycline-repressed PPAR{alpha} expression. -- Abstract: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor that plays a crucial role in the regulation of hepatic bile acid and lipid metabolism. FGFR4 underlies high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis, suggesting that inhibition of FGFR4 activation may be an effective way to prevent or treat nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To determine whether neutralization of FGFR4 ligands by soluble FGFR4 extracellular domain (FGFR4-ECD) can inhibit the activation of FGFR4, we constructed FGFR4-ECD expression vector and showed that FGFR4-ECD was effectively expressed in cells and secreted into culture medium. FGFR4-ECD inhibited FGF19-induced activation of FGFR4 signaling and reduced steatosis of HepG2 induced by palmitic acid in vitro. Furthermore, in a tetracycline-induced fatty liver model, expression of FGFR4-ECD in mouse liver reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids and partially restored the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}), which promotes the mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation but is repressed by tetracycline. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FGFR4-ECD can block FGFR4 signaling and prevent hepatic steatosis, highlighting the potential value of inhibition of FGFR4 signaling as a method for therapeutic intervention against NAFLD.

  11. Swell Gels to Dumbbell Micelles: Construction of Materials and Nanostructure with Self-assembly (United States)

    Pochan, Darrin


    Bionanotechnology, the emerging field of using biomolecular and biotechnological tools for nanostructure or nanotecnology development, provides exceptional opportunity in the design of new materials. Self-assembly of molecules is an attractive materials construction strategy due to its simplicity in application. By considering peptidic or charged synthetic polymer molecules in the bottom-up materials self-assembly design process, one can take advantage of inherently biomolecular attributes; intramolecular folding events, secondary structure, and electrostatic interactions; in addition to more traditional self-assembling molecular attributes such as amphiphilicty, to define hierarchical material structure and consequent properties. Several molecular systems will be discussed. Synthetic block copolymers with charged corona blocks can be assembled in dilute solution containing multivalent organic counterions to produce micelle structures such as toroids. These ring-like micelles are similar to the toroidal bundling of charged semiflexible biopolymers like DNA in the presence of multivalent counterions. Micelle structure can be tuned between toroids, cylinders, and disks simply by using different concentrations or molecular volumes of organic counterion. In addition, these charged blocks can consist of amino acids as monomers producing block copolypeptides. In addition to the above attributes, block copolypeptides provide the control of block secondary structure to further control self-assembly. Design strategies based on small (less than 24 amino acids) beta-hairpin peptides will be discussed. Self-assembly of the peptides is predicated on an intramolecular folding event caused by desired solution properties. Importantly, the intramolecular folding event impart a molecular-level mechanism for environmental responsiveness at the material level (e.g. infinite change in viscosity of a solution to a gel with changes in pH, ionic strength, temperature).

  12. Diet, Gut Microbiome and Epigenetics: Emerging Links with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Prospects for Management and Prevention

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    Krasimira Aleksandrova


    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD represent a growing public health concern due to increasing incidence worldwide. The current notion on the pathogenesis of IBD is that genetically susceptible individuals develop intolerance to dysregulated gut microflora (dysbiosis and chronic inflammation develops as a result of environmental triggers. Among the environmental factors associated with IBD, diet plays an important role in modulating the gut microbiome, influencing epigenetic changes, and, therefore, could be applied as a therapeutic tool to improve the disease course. Nevertheless, the current dietary recommendations for disease prevention and management are scarce and have weak evidence. This review summarises the current knowledge on the complex interactions between diet, microbiome and epigenetics in IBD. Whereas an overabundance of calories and some macronutrients increase gut inflammation, several micronutrients have the potential to modulate it. Immunonutrition has emerged as a new concept putting forward the importance of vitamins such as vitamins A, C, E, and D, folic acid, beta carotene and trace elements such as zinc, selenium, manganese and iron. However, when assessed in clinical trials, specific micronutrients exerted a limited benefit. Beyond nutrients, an anti-inflammatory dietary pattern as a complex intervention approach has become popular in recent years. Hence, exclusive enteral nutrition in paediatric Crohn’s disease is the only nutritional intervention currently recommended as a first-line therapy. Other nutritional interventions or specific diets including the Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD, the low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyol (FODMAP diet and, most recently, the Mediterranean diet have shown strong anti-inflammatory properties and show promise for improving disease symptoms. More work is required to evaluate the role of individual food compounds and complex nutritional

  13. Eight novel ABCD1 gene mutations and three polymorphisms in patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: The first polymorphism causing an amino acid exchange. (United States)

    Dvoráková, L; Storkánová, G; Unterrainer, G; Hujová, J; Kmoch, S; Zeman, J; Hrebícek, M; Berger, J


    X-ALD is a neurological disorder associated with inherited defects in the ABCD1 (ALD) gene located on Xq28 and with impaired peroxisomal very long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation. We examined the ABCD1 gene in probands from 11 unrelated X-ALD Czech and Slovak families by the direct sequencing of cDNA or genomic PCR products. In 10 families there were 10 different mutations, eight of which were novel. The spectrum of mutations consists of six point mutations, three microdeletions (1bp, 2bp, 4 bp), and one large deletion (229bp). In the 11th family we detected two novel single-base pair substitutions in exon 1 (c.38 A>C and c.649 A>G), both causing amino acid exchanges (N13T and K217E). Expression studies revealed that only K217E is a deleterious mutation, because a plasmid encoding ALDP with K217E was ineffective in the restoration of defective beta-oxidation in X-ALD fibroblasts. The N13T amino acid exchange, on the other hand, did not affect ALDP function. Thus, N13T represents the first polymorphism causing an amino acid exchange in the ABCD1 gene. As this polymorphism was observed neither in 100 control alleles nor in 300 X-ALD patients who have been sequenced so far world-wide, it seems to be very rare or unique. Two additional novel polymorphisms were found by the sequencing of the ABCD1 gene from our patients: c.-59 C/T in the 5'untranslated region and c.2019 C/T (F673F) in exon 10. The frequencies of these two polymorphisms, were 11/150 and 2/150 control alleles, respectively. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Hepatic Proteomic Responses in Marine Medaka ( Oryzias melastigma ) Chronically Exposed to Antifouling Compound Butenolide [5-octylfuran-2(5H)-one] or 4,5-Dichloro-2- N -Octyl-4-Isothiazolin-3-One (DCOIT)

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Lianguo


    The pollution of antifoulant SeaNine 211, with 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) as active ingredient, in coastal environment raises concerns on its adverse effects, including endocrine disruption and impairment of reproductive function in marine organisms. In the present study, we investigated the hepatic protein expression profiles of both male and female marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) exposed to low concentrations of DCOIT at 2.55 mu g/L (0.009 mu M) or butenolide, a promising antifouling agent, at 2.31 mu g/L (0.012 mu M) for 28 days. The results showed that proteins involved in phase I (CYP450 enzyme) metabolism, phase II (UDPGT and GST) conjugation as well as mobilization of retinoid storage, an effective nonenzymatic antioxidant, were consistently up-regulated, possibly facilitating the accelerated detoxification of butenolide. Increased synthesis of bile acid would promote the immediate excretion of butenolide metabolites. Activation of fatty acid beta-oxidation and ATP synthesis were consistent with elevated energy consumption for butenolide degradation and excretion. However, DCOIT did not significantly affect the detoxification system of male medaka, but induced a marked increase of vitellogenin (VTG) by 2.3-fold in the liver of male medaka, suggesting that there is estrogenic activity of DCOIT in endocrine disruption. Overall, this study identified the molecular mechanisms and provided sensitive biomarkers characteristic of butenolide and DCOIT in the liver of marine medaka. The low concentrations of butenolide and DCOIT used in the exposure regimes highlight the needs for systematic evaluation of their environmental risk. In addition, the potent estrogenic activity of DCOIT should be considered in the continued applications of SeaNine 211.

  15. Lectin histochemistry of salivary glands in the giant ant-eater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla). (United States)

    Meyer, W; Beyer, C; Wissdorf, H


    The submandibular and buccal glands of the Giant Ant-eater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) have been studied by means of a series of carbohydrate histochemical methods, including a broad spectrum of PO-lectin procedures. The seromucous cells (Gl. submandibularis) and mucous cells (Gl. buccalis) of the glandular acini, as well as the secretion in the excretory duct system exhibited very strong to strong reactions for neutral and acidic glycoconjugates. The serous cells of the buccal glands and the excretory duct cells reacted rather weakly. The different controls applied particularly emphasized that sialoglycoconjugates are the predominant ingredients of the saliva secreted. Lectin histochemical differentiation demonstrated a varying pattern of saccharide residues in these substances. In the submandibular glands the glycoconjugates (mostly proteoglycans) of the seromucous cells and the luminal secretion normally contained terminal beta-galactose and minor contents of terminal alpha-N-acetylglucosamine. After sialidase digestion this cell type exhibited distinct amounts of sialic acid-beta-galactose and sialic acid-alpha-N-acetylgalactosamine. Sialic acid was also clearly present in the tough interlobular connective tissue. The buccal glands showed a similar distribution of saccharide residues in the mucous cells. In the serous cells, however, acidic glycoproteins with sialyl residues were observed, also containing terminal alpha-D-mannosyl, alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminyl, and beta-D-galactosyl residues. The cells of the excretory duct system of both gland types reacted weakly to moderately for terminal sugar residues (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, beta-D-galactose). The results obtained are discussed in view of the specific feeding mode of the Giant Ant-eater, whereby high contents of sialoglycoconjugates (proteoglycans, glycoproteins) produced by the salivary glands warrant for the main function of the non-sticky saliva; i.e., to act as an effective

  16. [Retention behavior of solutes on liquid chromatographic column packed with dynamically modified zirconia]. (United States)

    Zhang, Q; Feng, Y; Yan, L; Da, S


    Zirconia was dynamically modified with stearic acid, beta-cyclodextrin and sodium dodecylsulfonate, separately, to form liquid chromatographic packings. The chromatographic behaviors of aromatic hydrocarbons, acidic compounds (phenol, nitrophenols and benzoic acids) and basic compounds (aniline, nitroanilines and toluidines) were investigated on these modified zirconia packings with a mixture of methanol/water as the mobile phase. On stearic acid modified zirconia, aromatic hydrocarbons and the basic compounds exhibit symmetrical peaks. The retention time of these solutes decreases with increasing the concentration of methanol in the mobile phase. When the mobile phases with stearic acid were used, the retention time of these solutes has a maximum with variation of stearic acid concentration (0-1.0 mmol/L) in the mobile phase. However, the acidic compounds such as nitrophenols and benzoic acids are strongly adsorbed and can not be eluted from the column with the mobile phases. No leaking of stearic acid on the modified zirconia was found after 3000 column volumes of the methanol/water mobile phase were used. The results showed that the stearic acid modified zirconia can be used as a stationary phase for reversed-phase liquid chromatography. On beta-cyclodextrin modified zirconia, aromatic hydrocarbons and basic compounds exhibit shorter retention time than those on the stearic acid modified zirconia under the same mobile phase composition, however, nitrophenols can be eluted but give unsymmetrical peaks. On sodium dodecylsulfonate modified zirconia packings, the basic compounds can not be retarded; Aromatic hydrocarbons and acidic compounds exhibit short retention time. The results can be ascribed to the weak adsorption of sodium dodecylsulfonate on the zirconia.

  17. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK mediates nutrient regulation of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP in pancreatic beta-cells.

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    Maayan Shaked

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP regulates critical biological processes including inflammation, stress and apoptosis. TXNIP is upregulated by glucose and is a critical mediator of hyperglycemia-induced beta-cell apoptosis in diabetes. In contrast, the saturated long-chain fatty acid palmitate, although toxic to the beta-cell, inhibits TXNIP expression. The mechanisms involved in the opposing effects of glucose and fatty acids on TXNIP expression are unknown. We found that both palmitate and oleate inhibited TXNIP in a rat beta-cell line and islets. Palmitate inhibition of TXNIP was independent of fatty acid beta-oxidation or esterification. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK has an important role in cellular energy sensing and control of metabolic homeostasis; therefore we investigated its involvement in nutrient regulation of TXNIP. As expected, glucose inhibited whereas palmitate stimulated AMPK. Pharmacologic activators of AMPK mimicked fatty acids by inhibiting TXNIP. AMPK knockdown increased TXNIP expression in presence of high glucose with and without palmitate, indicating that nutrient (glucose and fatty acids effects on TXNIP are mediated in part via modulation of AMPK activity. TXNIP is transcriptionally regulated by carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP. Palmitate inhibited glucose-stimulated ChREBP nuclear entry and recruitment to the Txnip promoter, thereby inhibiting Txnip transcription. We conclude that AMPK is an important regulator of Txnip transcription via modulation of ChREBP activity. The divergent effects of glucose and fatty acids on TXNIP expression result in part from their opposing effects on AMPK activity. In light of the important role of TXNIP in beta-cell apoptosis, its inhibition by fatty acids can be regarded as an adaptive/protective response to glucolipotoxicity. The finding that AMPK mediates nutrient regulation of TXNIP may have important implications for the pathophysiology and treatment

  18. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in the Almahata Sitta Meteorite (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Parker, Eric T.; Bada, Jeffrey L.


    Amino acid analysis of a meteorite fragment of asteroid 2008 TC3 called Almahata Sitta was carried out using reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS) as part of a sample analysis consortium. LC-FD/ToF-MS analyses of hot-water extracts from the meteorite revealed a complex distribution of two- to seven-carbon aliphatic amino acids and one- to three-carbon amines with abundances ranging from 0.5 to 149 parts-per-billion (ppb). The enantiomeric ratios of the amino acids alanine, R-amino-n-butyric acid (beta-ABA), 2-amino-2-methylbutanoic acid (isovaline), and 2-aminopentanoic acid (norvaline) in the meteorite were racemic (D/L approximately 1), indicating that these amino acids are indigenous to the meteorite and not terrestrial contaminants. Several other non-protein amino acids were also identified in the meteorite above background levels including alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), 4-amino-2- methylbutanoic acid, 4-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid, and 3-, 4-, and 5-aminopentanoic acid. The total abundances of isovaline and alpha-AIB in Almahata Sitta are 1000 times lower than the abundances of these amino acids found in the CM carbonaceous chondrite Murchison. The extremely low abundances and unusual distribution of five carbon amino acids in Almahata Sitta compared to Cl, CM, and CR carbonaceous chondrites may reflect extensive thermal alteration of amino acids on the parent asteroid by partial melting during formation or subsequent impact shock heating. It is also possible that amino acids were synthesized by catalytic reactions on the parent body after asteroid 2008 TC3 cooled to lower temperatures.

  19. Acquired multiple Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in 10 horses with atypical myopathy. (United States)

    Westermann, C M; Dorland, L; Votion, D M; de Sain-van der Velden, M G M; Wijnberg, I D; Wanders, R J A; Spliet, W G M; Testerink, N; Berger, R; Ruiter, J P N; van der Kolk, J H


    The aim of the current study was to assess lipid metabolism in horses with atypical myopathy. Urine samples from 10 cases were subjected to analysis of organic acids, glycine conjugates, and acylcarnitines revealing increased mean excretion of lactic acid, ethylmalonic acid, 2-methylsuccinic acid, butyrylglycine, (iso)valerylglycine, hexanoylglycine, free carnitine, C2-, C3-, C4-, C5-, C6-, C8-, C8:1-, C10:1-, and C10:2-carnitine as compared with 15 control horses (12 healthy and three with acute myopathy due to other causes). Analysis of plasma revealed similar results for these predominantly short-chain acylcarnitines. Furthermore, measurement of dehydrogenase activities in lateral vastus muscle from one horse with atypical myopathy indeed showed deficiencies of short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (0.66 as compared with 2.27 and 2.48 in two controls), medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (0.36 as compared with 4.31 and 4.82 in two controls) and isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (0.74 as compared with 1.43 and 1.61 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) in two controls). A deficiency of several mitochondrial dehydrogenases that utilize flavin adenine dinucleotide as cofactor including the acyl-CoA dehydrogenases of fatty acid beta-oxidation, and enzymes that degrade the CoA-esters of glutaric acid, isovaleric acid, 2-methylbutyric acid, isobutyric acid, and sarcosine was suspected in 10 out of 10 cases as the possible etiology for a highly fatal and prevalent toxic equine muscle disease similar to the combined metabolic derangements seen in human multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency also known as glutaric acidemia type II.

  20. Comparative therapeutic effects of velaglucerase alfa and imiglucerase in a Gaucher disease mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Hai Xu


    Full Text Available Gaucher disease type 1 is caused by the defective activity of the lysosomal enzyme, acid beta-glucosidase (GCase. Regular infusions of purified recombinant GCase are the standard of care for reversing hematologic, hepatic, splenic, and bony manifestations. Here, similar in vitro enzymatic properties, and in vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PK/PD and therapeutic efficacy of GCase were found with two human GCases, recombinant GCase (CHO cell, imiglucerase, Imig and gene-activated GCase (human fibrosarcoma cells, velaglucerase alfa, Vela, in a Gaucher mouse, D409V/null. About 80+% of either enzyme localized to the liver interstitial cells and <5% was recovered in spleens and lungs after bolus i.v. injections. Glucosylceramide (GC levels and storage cell numbers were reduced in a dose (5, 15 or 60 U/kg/wk dependent manner in livers (60-95% and in spleens ( approximately 10-30%. Compared to Vela, Imig (60 U/kg/wk had lesser effects at reducing hepatic GC (p = 0.0199 by 4 wks; this difference disappeared by 8 wks when nearly WT levels were achieved by Imig. Anti-GCase IgG was detected in GCase treated mice at 60 U/kg/wk, and IgE mediated acute hypersensitivity and death occurred after several injections of 60 U/kg/wk (21% with Vela and 34% with Imig. The responses of GC levels and storage cell numbers in Vela- and Imig-treated Gaucher mice at various doses provide a backdrop for clinical applications and decisions.

  1. Phenotype determining alleles in GM1 gangliosidosis patients bearing novel GLB1 mutations. (United States)

    Hofer, D; Paul, K; Fantur, K; Beck, M; Roubergue, A; Vellodi, A; Poorthuis, B J; Michelakakis, H; Plecko, B; Paschke, E


    GM1 gangliosidosis manifests with progressive psychomotor deterioration and dysostosis of infantile, juvenile, or adult onset, caused by alterations in the structural gene coding for lysosomal acid beta-galactosidase (GLB1). In addition, allelic variants of this gene can result in Morquio B disease (MBD), a phenotype with dysostosis multiplex and entire lack of neurologic involvement. More than 100 sequence alterations in the GLB1 gene have been identified so far, but only few could be proven to be predictive for one of the GM1 gangliosidosis subtypes or MBD. We performed genotype analyses in 16 GM1 gangliosidosis patients of all phenotypes and detected 28 different genetic lesions. Among these, p.I55FfsX16, p.W65X, p.F107L, p.H112P, p.C127Y, p.W161X, p.I181K, p.C230R, p.W273X, p.R299VfsX5, p.A301V, p.F357L, p.K359KfsX23, p.L389P, p.D448V, p.D448GfsX8, and the intronic mutation IVS6-8A>G have not been published so far. Due to their occurrence in homozygous patients, four mutations could be correlated to a distinct GM1 gangliosidosis phenotype. Furthermore, the missense mutations from heteroallelic patients and three artificial nonsense mutations were characterized by overexpression in COS-1 cells, and the subcellular localization of the mutant proteins in fibroblasts was assessed. The phenotype specificity of 10 alleles can be proposed on the basis of our results and previous data.

  2. Anomalous regioselective four-member multicomponent Biginelli reaction II: one-pot parallel synthesis of spiro heterobicyclic aliphatic rings. (United States)

    Byk, Gerardo; Kabha, Eihab


    In a previous preliminary study, we found that a cyclic five-member ring beta-keto ester (lactone) reacts with one molecule of urea and two of aldehyde to give a new family of spiro heterobicyclic aliphatic rings in good yields with no traces of the expected dihydropyrimidine (Biginelli) products. The reaction is driven by a regiospecific condensation of two molecules of aldehyde with urea and beta-keto-gamma-lactone to afford only products harboring substitutions exclusively in a syn configuration (Byk, G.; Gottlieb, H. E.; Herscovici, J.; Mirkin, F. J. Comb. Chem. 2000, 2, 732-735). In the present work ((a) Presented in part at ISCT Combitech, October 15, 2002, Israel, and Eurocombi-2, Copenhagen 2003 (oral and poster presentation). (b) Also in American Peptide Society Symposium, Boston, 2003 (poster presentation). (c) Abstract in Biopolymers 2003, 71 (3), 354-355), we report a large and exciting extension of this new reaction utilizing parallel organic synthesis arrays, as demonstrated by the use of chiral beta-keto-gamma-lactams, derived from natural amino acids, instead of tetronic acid (beta-keto-gamma-lactone) and the potential of the spirobicyclic products for generating "libraries from libraries". Interestingly, we note an unusual and important anisotropy effect induced by perpendicular interactions between rigid pi systems and different groups placed at the alpha position of the obtained spirobicyclic system. Stereo/regioselectivity of the aldehyde condensation is driven by the nature of the substitutions on the starting beta-keto-gamma-lactam. Aromatic aldehydes can be used as starting reagents with good yields; however, when aliphatic aldehydes are used, the desired products are obtained in poor yields, as observed in the classical Biginelli reaction. The possible reasons for these poor yields are addressed and clarify, to some extent, the complexity of the Biginelli multicomponent reaction mechanism and, in particular, the mechanism of the present

  3. Comparative analysis between 2 periods of acute myocardial infarction after a decade in Mallorca. IBERIA Study (996-1998) and Infarction-Code (2008-2010). (United States)

    Socias, L; Frontera, G; Rubert, C; Carrillo, A; Peral, V; Rodriguez, A; Royo, C; Ferreruela, M; Torres, J; Elosua, R; Bethencourt, A; Fiol, M


    To investigate the differences in mortality at 28 days and other prognostic variables in 2 periods: IBERICA-Mallorca (1996-1998) and Infarction Code of the Balearic Islands (IC-IB) (2008-2010). Two observational prospective cohorts. Hospital Universitario Son Dureta, 1996-1998 and 2008-2010. Acute coronary syndrome with ST elevation of≤24h of anterior and inferior site. Age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, site of AMI, time delays, reperfusion therapy with fibrinolysis and primary angioplasty, administration of acetylsalicylic acid, beta blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Killip class, malignant arrhythmias, mechanical complications and death at 28 days were included. Four hundred and forty-two of the 889 patients included in the IBERICA-Mallorca and 498 of 847 in the IC-IB were analyzed. The site and Killip class on admission were similar in both cohorts. The main significant difference between IBERICA and IC-IB group were age (64 vs. 58 years), prior myocardial infarction (17.9 vs. 8.1%), the median symtoms to first ECG time (120 vs. 90min), median first ECG to fibrinolysis time (60 vs. 35min), fibrinolytic therapy (54.8 vs. 18.7%), patients without revascularization treatment (45.9 vs. 9.2%), primary angioplasty (1.0% vs. 92.0%). The mortality at 28 days was lower in the IC-IB (12.2 vs. 7.2%; hazard ratio 0.560; 95% CI 0.360-0.872; P=.010). The 28-day mortality in acute coronary syndrome with ST elevation in Mallorca has declined in the last decade, basically due to increased reperfusion therapy with primary angioplasty and reducing delays time to reperfusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibitory effects of ursolic acid on hepatic polyol pathway and glucose production in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. (United States)

    Jang, Sun-Mi; Kim, Myung-Joo; Choi, Myung-Sook; Kwon, Eun-Young; Lee, Mi-Kyung


    The effects of ursolic acid on the polyol pathway and glucose homeostasis-related metabolism were examined in the livers of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice fed a high-fat (37% calories from fat) diet for 4 weeks. Male mice were divided into nondiabetic, diabetic control, and diabetic-ursolic acid (0.05% wt/wt) groups. Diabetes was induced by the injection of STZ (200 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally). Although an ursolic acid supplement lowered the blood glucose level, it did not affect the plasma leptin and adiponectin levels. The present study shows that the blood glucose levels have a positive correlation with the hepatic sorbitol dehydrogenase activities (r = 0.39, P Ursolic acid significantly inhibited sorbitol dehydrogenase activity as well as aldose reductase activity in the liver. The supplementation of ursolic acid significantly increased glucokinase activity, while decreasing glucose-6-phosphatase activity in the livers of STZ-induced diabetic mice. Ursolic acid significantly elevated the hepatic glycogen content compared with the diabetic control group. Supplementation with ursolic acid significantly lowered the plasma total cholesterol, free fatty acid, and triglyceride concentrations compared with the diabetic control group, whereas it normalized hepatic triglyceride concentration. A negative correlation was found between the hepatic triglyceride concentration and blood glucose levels (r = -0.50, P acid synthase activity was significantly lower in the ursolic acid group than in the diabetic control group, whereas hepatic fatty acid beta-oxidation and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activities were significantly higher. These results indicate that ursolic acid may be beneficial in preventing diabetic complications by improving the polyol pathway as well as the lipid metabolism and that it can function as a potential modulator of hepatic glucose production, which is partly mediated by up-regulating glucose utilization and glycogen storage

  5. Enhancement of L-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity and circulating ketone body levels by pantethine. Relevance to dopaminergic injury

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    de Reggi Max


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The administration of the ketone bodies hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate is known to exert a protective effect against metabolic disorders associated with cerebral pathologies. This suggests that the enhancement of their endogenous production might be a rational therapeutic approach. Ketone bodies are generated by fatty acid beta-oxidation, a process involving a mitochondrial oxido-reductase superfamily, with fatty acid-CoA thioesters as substrates. In this report, emphasis is on the penultimate step of the process, i.e. L-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity. We determined changes in enzyme activity and in circulating ketone body levels in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Since the active moiety of CoA is pantetheine, mice were treated with pantethine, its naturally-occurring form. Pantethine has the advantage of being known as an anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic agent with very few side effects. Results We found that dehydrogenase activity and circulating ketone body levels were drastically reduced by the neurotoxin MPTP, whereas treatment with pantethine overcame these adverse effects. Pantethine prevented dopaminergic neuron loss and motility disorders. In vivo and in vitro experiments showed that the protection was associated with enhancement of glutathione (GSH production as well as restoration of respiratory chain complex I activity and mitochondrial ATP levels. Remarkably, pantethine treatment boosted the circulating ketone body levels in MPTP-intoxicated mice, but not in normal animals. Conclusions These finding demonstrate the feasibility of the enhancement of endogenous ketone body production and provide a promising therapeutic approach to Parkinson's disease as well as, conceivably, to other neurodegenerative disorders.

  6. Determination of alternative and conventional chelating agents as copper(II) complexes by capillary zone electrophoresis--the first use of didecyldimethylammonium bromide as a flow reversal reagent. (United States)

    Laamanen, Pirkko-Leena; Matilainen, Rose


    A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method for analyzing 11 chelating agents [beta-alaninediacetic acid (beta-ADA), trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (CDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-N,N',N'-triacetic acid (HEDTA), N-(2-hydroxyethyl)iminodiacetic acid (HEIDA), iminodiacetic acid (IDA), methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), 1,3-diaminopropane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (PDTA) and triethylenetetraaminehexaacetic acid (TTHA)] as negatively charged copper(II) complexes has been established. Both conventional and alternative chelating agents were included in this study, because they are used side by side in industrial applications. In this study, didecyldimethylammonium bromide (DMDDAB) was successfully used as a flow reversal reagent for the first time in an aqueous CZE method based on phosphate BGE with UV spectrophotometric detection. In addition this new flow modifier was compared to common TTAB. Method development was done using a fused silica capillary (61 cm x 50 microm i.d.). The optimized BGE was a 105 mmol L(-1) phosphate buffer with TTAB or DMDDAB in the concentration 0.5 mmol L(-1) at pH 7.1. The measurements were done with -20 kV voltage using direct UV detection at 254 nm. In both CZE methods all 11 analyte zones were properly separated (resolutions > or =2.4), and the calibrations gave excellent correlation coefficients (> or =0.998; linear range tested 0.5-2.0 mmol L(-1)). The limits of detection were < or =34 and < or =49 micromol L(-1) with the method of DMDDAB and TTAB, respectively. A clear benefit of both methods was the short analysis time; all 11 complexes were detected in less than 6 and 5.5 min with the methods of TTAB and DMDDAB, respectively. The two methods were tested with dishwashing detergents and paper mill wastewater samples and proved to be suitable for practical use.

  7. Saturated or unsaturated fat supplemented maternal diets influence omental adipose tissue proteome of suckling goat-kids. (United States)

    Restelli, Laura; Marques, Andreia T; Savoini, Giovanni; Invernizzi, Guido; Carisetti, Michela; Lecchi, Cristina; Bendixen, Emoke; Ceciliani, Fabrizio


    The aim of the present study was to investigate how maternal diet can influence the adipose tissue of goat kids. Omental adipose tissue proteomes of goat-kids from mothers fed with diet enriched with stearic acid (ST-kids), fish oil (FO-kids) and standard diets (CTRL) were determined by quantitative iTRAQ 2D-LC-MS/MS analysis. Twenty proteins were found to be differentially expressed in suckling kids' omental adipose tissue. Stearic acid induces changes in a higher number of proteins when compared to fish oil. Eleven proteins, namely AARS, ECl1, PMSC2, CP, HSPA8, GPD1, RPL7, OGDH, RPL24, FGA and RPL5 were decreased in ST-kids only. Four proteins, namely DLST, EEF1G, BCAP31 and RALA were decreased in FO-kids only, and one, NUCKS1, was increased. Four proteins, namely PMSC1, PPIB, TUB5×2 and EIF5A1, were be less abundant in both ST- and FO- kids. Most of the protein whose abundance was decreased in ST kids (10 out of 15) are involved in protein metabolism and catabolism pathways. Qualitative gene expression analysis confirmed that all the proteins identified by mass spectrometry, with the exception of FGA, were produced by adipose tissue. Quantitative gene expression analysis demonstrated that two proteins, namely CP, a minor acute phase protein, and ECl1, involved in fatty acid beta oxidation, were downregulated at mRNA level as well. ECl1 gene expression was downregulated in ST-kids AT as compared to Ctrl-kids and CP was downregulated in both ST- and FO-kids. The present results demonstrate that it is possible to influence adipose goat-kid proteome by modifying the maternal diet. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Serum metabolomic profiling in acute alcoholic hepatitis identifies multiple dysregulated pathways. (United States)

    Rachakonda, Vikrant; Gabbert, Charles; Raina, Amit; Bell, Lauren N; Cooper, Sara; Malik, Shahid; Behari, Jaideep


    While animal studies have implicated derangements of global energy homeostasis in the pathogenesis of acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH), the relevance of these findings to the development of human AAH remains unclear. Using global, unbiased serum metabolomics analysis, we sought to characterize alterations in metabolic pathways associated with severe AAH and identify potential biomarkers for disease prognosis. This prospective, case-control study design included 25 patients with severe AAH and 25 ambulatory patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Serum samples were collected within 24 hours of the index clinical encounter. Global, unbiased metabolomics profiling was performed. Patients were followed for 180 days after enrollment to determine survival. Levels of 234 biochemicals were altered in subjects with severe AAH. Random-forest analysis, principal component analysis, and integrated hierarchical clustering methods demonstrated that metabolomics profiles separated the two cohorts with 100% accuracy. Severe AAH was associated with enhanced triglyceride lipolysis, impaired mitochondrial fatty acid beta oxidation, and upregulated omega oxidation. Low levels of multiple lysolipids and related metabolites suggested decreased plasma membrane remodeling in severe AAH. While most measured bile acids were increased in severe AAH, low deoxycholate and glycodeoxycholate levels indicated intestinal dysbiosis. Several changes in substrate utilization for energy homeostasis were identified in severe AAH, including increased glucose consumption by the pentose phosphate pathway, altered tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity, and enhanced peptide catabolism. Finally, altered levels of small molecules related to glutathione metabolism and antioxidant vitamin depletion were observed in patients with severe AAH. Univariable logistic regression revealed 15 metabolites associated with 180-day survival in severe AAH. Severe AAH is characterized by a distinct metabolic phenotype spanning

  9. Catalposide is a natural agonistic ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha}

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    Lee, Ji Hae; Jun, Hee-jin; Hoang, Minh-Hien; Jia, Yaoyao [Division of Food Bioscience and Technology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Xiang Hua [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong-Ho [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hak-Ju [Division of Green Business Management, Department of Forest Resources Utilization, Korean Forest Research Institute, Seoul 130-712 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Bang Yeon, E-mail: [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung-Joon, E-mail: [Division of Food Bioscience and Technology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalposide is a novel ligand for PPAR{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell stimulated with catalposide improved fatty acid uptake, regulated target genes in fatty acid {beta}-oxidation and synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalposdie reduces hepatic triacylglycerides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Theses demonstrate catalposide could ameliorate hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR{alpha}) is a nuclear receptor that regulates the expression of genes related to cellular lipid uptake and oxidation. Thus, PPAR{alpha} agonists may be important in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis. In this study, we demonstrated that catalposide is a novel natural PPAR{alpha} agonist, identified from reporter gene assay-based activity screening with approximately 900 natural plant and seaweed extracts. Results of time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer analyses suggested that the compound interacted directly with the ligand-binding domain of PPAR{alpha}. Cultured hepatocytes stimulated with catalposide exhibited significantly reduced cellular triglyceride concentrations, by 21%, while cellular uptake of fatty acids was increased, by 70% (P < 0.05). Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the increase in cellular fatty acid uptake was due to upregulation of fatty acid transporter protein-4 (+19% vs. the control) in cells stimulated with catalposide. Additionally, expression of genes related to fatty acid oxidation and high-density lipoprotein metabolism were upregulated, while that of genes related to fatty acid synthesis were suppressed. In conclusion, catalposide is hypolipidemic by activation of PPAR{alpha} via a ligand-mediated mechanism that modulates the expression of in lipid metabolism genes in hepatocytes.

  10. Effects of different supplemental soya bean oil levels on the performance of prepubertal Saanen goats: Oestrogen and progesterone release. (United States)

    Bomfim, G F; Merighe, G K F; de Oliveira, S A; Rodrigues, A D; Augusto, L; Teixeira, I A M A; de Resende, K T; Negrao, J A


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of soya bean oil in the total diet on the growth rate, metabolic changes, and oestrogen and progesterone release in Saanen goats. After dietary adaptation, 21 prepubertal goats (weight of 29.12 ± 0.91 kg, 230 days old) were randomly distributed among three diets of D2: inclusion of 2% soya bean oil in the total diet; D3: basal diet - inclusion of 3% soya bean oil in the total diet; and D4: inclusion of 4% soya bean oil in the total diet. The basal diet (D3) was formulated to promote a daily gain of 0.140 kg. The goats were weighed, and their blood samples were collected weekly. Glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, oestrogen and progesterone in the plasma were measured. Prepubertal goats that were fed D4 exhibited a significantly lower dry matter intake, urea and cholesterol levels compared with the goats that were fed D2 and D3. Indeed, goats that were fed D4 displayed a significantly lower final weight than goats that were fed D2 and D3. In contrast, the inclusion of soya bean oil in the diet increased the progesterone and oestrogen concentrations, and goats that were fed D4 released a significantly higher concentration of progesterone than those that were fed D2 and D3. Furthermore, the percentage of goats with a progesterone level greater than 1 ng/ml (functional Corpus luteum) was significantly higher among the goats that were fed D3 and D4 than among those that were fed D2. In this study, although the inclusion of 4% soya bean oil in the diet decreased dry matter intake and growth rate, it increased progesterone concentration and the percentage of goats with a functional Corpus luteum, suggesting that the inclusion of soya bean oil accelerated puberty in prepubertal goats. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Nutrition, immune function and health of dairy cattle. (United States)

    Ingvartsen, K L; Moyes, K


    The large increase in milk yield and the structural changes in the dairy industry have caused major changes in the housing, feeding and management of the dairy cow. However, while large improvements have occurred in production and efficiency, the disease incidence, based on veterinary records, does not seem to be improved. Earlier reviews have covered critical periods such as the transition period in the cow and its influence on health and immune function, the interplay between the endocrine system and the immune system and nutrition and immune function. Knowledge on these topics is crucial for our understanding of disease risk and our effort to develop health and welfare improving strategies, including proactive management for preventing diseases and reducing the severity of diseases. To build onto this the main purpose of this review will therefore be on the effect of physiological imbalance (PI) on immune function, and to give perspectives for prevention of diseases in the dairy cow through nutrition. To a large extent, the health problems during the periparturient period relate to cows having difficulty in adapting to the nutrient needs for lactation. This may result in PI, a situation where the regulatory mechanisms are insufficient for the animals to function optimally leading to a high risk of a complex of digestive, metabolic and infectious problems. The risk of infectious diseases will be increased if the immune competence is reduced. Nutrition plays a pivotal role in the immune response and the effect of nutrition may be directly through nutrients or indirectly by metabolites, for example, in situations with PI. This review discusses the complex relationships between metabolic status and immune function and how these complex interactions increase the risk of disease during early lactation. A special focus will be placed on the major energetic fuels currently known to be used by immune cells (i.e. glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, beta

  12. Sucrose rescues seedling establishment but not germination of Arabidopsis mutants disrupted in peroxisomal fatty acid catabolism. (United States)

    Pinfield-Wells, Helen; Rylott, Elizabeth L; Gilday, Alison D; Graham, Stuart; Job, Kathleen; Larson, Tony R; Graham, Ian A


    The Arabidopsis acyl-CoA oxidase (ACX) family comprises isozymes with distinct fatty acid chain-length specificities that together catalyse the first step of peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation. We have isolated and characterized T-DNA insertion mutants in the medium to long-chain (ACX1) and long-chain (ACX2) acyl-CoA oxidases, and show that the corresponding endogenous activities are decreased in the mutants. Lipid catabolism during germination and early post-germinative growth was unaltered in the acx1-1 mutant, but slightly delayed in the acx2-1 mutant, with 3-day-old acx2-1 seedlings accumulating long-chain acyl-CoAs. In acx1-1 and acx2-1, seedling growth and establishment in the absence of an exogenous supply of sucrose was unaffected. Seedlings of the double mutant acx1-1 acx2-1 were unable to catabolize seed storage lipid, and accumulated long-chain acyl-CoAs. The acx1-1 acx2-1 seedlings were also unable to establish photosynthetic competency in the absence of an exogenous carbon supply, a phenotype that is shared with a number of other Arabidopsis mutants disrupted in storage lipid breakdown. Germination frequency of the double mutant was significantly reduced compared with wild-type seeds. This was unaffected by the addition of exogenous sucrose, but was improved by dormancy-breaking treatments such as cold stratification and after-ripening. We show that the acx1-1, acx2-1 and acx1-2 acx2-1 double mutants and the ketoacyl-CoA thiolase-2 (kat2) mutant exhibit a sucrose-independent germination phenotype comparable with that reported for comatose (cts-2), a mutant in a peroxisomal ABC transporter which exhibits enhanced dormancy. This demonstrates an additional role beyond that of carbon provision for the beta-oxidation pathway during germination or in dormant seeds.

  13. Specific combination of compound heterozygous mutations in 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 4 (HSD17B4 defines a new subtype of D-bifunctional protein deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMillan Hugh J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background D-bifunctional protein (DBP deficiency is typically apparent within the first month of life with most infants demonstrating hypotonia, psychomotor delay and seizures. Few children survive beyond two years of age. Among patients with prolonged survival all demonstrate severe gross motor delay, absent language development, and severe hearing and visual impairment. DBP contains three catalytically active domains; an N-terminal dehydrogenase, a central hydratase and a C-terminal sterol carrier protein-2-like domain. Three subtypes of the disease are identified based upon the domain affected; DBP type I results from a combined deficiency of dehydrogenase and hydratase activity; DBP type II from isolated hydratase deficiency and DBP type III from isolated dehydrogenase deficiency. Here we report two brothers (16½ and 14 years old with DBP deficiency characterized by normal early childhood followed by sensorineural hearing loss, progressive cerebellar and sensory ataxia and subclinical retinitis pigmentosa. Methods and results Biochemical analysis revealed normal levels of plasma VLCFA, phytanic acid and pristanic acid, and normal bile acids in urine; based on these results no diagnosis was made. Exome analysis was performed using the Agilent SureSelect 50Mb All Exon Kit and the Illumina HiSeq 2000 next-generation-sequencing (NGS platform. Compound heterozygous mutations were identified by exome sequencing and confirmed by Sanger sequencing within the dehydrogenase domain (c.101C>T; p.Ala34Val and hydratase domain (c.1547T>C; p.Ile516Thr of the 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 4 gene (HSD17B4. These mutations have been previously reported in patients with severe-forms of DBP deficiency, however each mutation was reported in combination with another mutation affecting the same domain. Subsequent studies in fibroblasts revealed normal VLCFA levels, normal C26:0 but reduced pristanic acid beta-oxidation activity. Both DBP

  14. Differential cytotoxicity induced by the Titanium(IV)Salan complex Tc52 in G2-phase independent of DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesch, Theresa; Schuhwerk, Harald; Wyrsch, Philippe; Immel, Timo; Dirks, Wilhelm; Bürkle, Alexander; Huhn, Thomas; Beneke, Sascha


    Chemotherapy is one of the major treatment modalities for cancer. Metal-based compounds such as derivatives of cisplatin are in the front line of therapy against a subset of cancers, but their use is restricted by severe side-effects and the induction of resistance in treated tumors. Subsequent research focused on development of cytotoxic metal-complexes without cross-resistance to cisplatin and reduced side-effects. This led to the discovery of first-generation titanium(IV)salan complexes, which reached clinical trials but lacked efficacy. New-generation titanium (IV)salan-complexes show promising anti-tumor activity in mice, but their molecular mechanism of cytotoxicity is completely unknown. Four different human cell lines were analyzed in their responses to a toxic (Tc52) and a structurally highly related but non-toxic (Tc53) titanium(IV)salan complex. Viability assays were used to reveal a suitable treatment range, flow-cytometry analysis was performed to monitor the impact of dosage and treatment time on cell-cycle distribution and cell death. Potential DNA strand break induction and crosslinking was investigated by immunostaining of damage markers as well as automated fluorometric analysis of DNA unwinding. Changes in nuclear morphology were analyzed by DAPI staining. Acidic beta-galactosidase activity together with morphological changes was monitored to detect cellular senescence. Western blotting was used to analyze induction of pro-apoptotic markers such as activated caspase7 and cleavage of PARP1, and general stress kinase p38. Here we show that the titanium(IV)salan Tc52 is effective in inducing cell death in the lower micromolar range. Surprisingly, Tc52 does not target DNA contrary to expectations deduced from the reported activity of other titanium complexes. Instead, Tc52 application interferes with progression from G2-phase into mitosis and induces apoptotic cell death in tested tumor cells. Contrarily, human fibroblasts undergo senescence in a

  15. Adrenoleukodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nišić Tatjana


    Full Text Available Introduction: Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD is a disease characterized by the accumulation of very long chain fatty acids in tissues throughout the body. The most severely affected tissues are the myelin in the central nervous system, the adrenal cortex and the Leydig cells in the testes. Clinically, ALD is a heterogeneous disorder, presenting with several distinct phenotypes, and no clear pattern of genotype-phenotype correlation. Case report: Patients S.A. 50 years old, in the third year of life was diagnosed with primary adrenal insufficiency. From the age of 45 he feels, headache, dizziness, bends to the right when walking, night incontinence of urine. Talking to himself, the last year goes to the cemetery every day, occasionally crying without control and remembrance. Condition with spinocerebellar ataxia and a left pyramidal defect with incontinence of urine and psychiatric problems required re-examination. In consultation with neurologist at the Department of Neurology, investigations have shown that patient is suffering from X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy with affected central and peripheral nervous system. Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD is caused by mutations in ABCD1, a gene located on the X chromosome that codes for ALD, a peroxisomal membrane transporter protein. The exact mechanism of the pathogenesis of the various forms of ALD is not known. it is a disorder of peroxisomal fatty acid beta oxidation which results in the accumulation of very long chain fatty acids in tissues throughout the body. The most severely affected tissues are the myelin in the central nervous system, the adrenal cortex and the Leydig cells in the testes. Clinically, ALD is a heterogeneous disorder, presenting with several distinct phenotypes, and no clear pattern of genotype-phenotype correlation. As an X-linked disorder, ALD presents most commonly in males, however approximately 50% of heterozygote females show some symptoms later in life. Approximately two-thirds of

  16. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in women: a cross-sectional cohort study. (United States)

    Engelen, Marc; Barbier, Mathieu; Dijkstra, Inge M E; Schür, Remmelt; de Bie, Rob M A; Verhamme, Camiel; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Aubourg, Patrick A; Wanders, Ronald J A; van Geel, Bjorn M; de Visser, Marianne; Poll-The, Bwee T; Kemp, Stephan


    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is the most common peroxisomal disorder. The disease is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene that encodes the peroxisomal transporter of very long-chain fatty acids. A defect in the ABCD1 protein results in elevated levels of very long-chain fatty acids in plasma and tissues. The clinical spectrum in males with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy has been well described and ranges from isolated adrenocortical insufficiency and slowly progressive myelopathy to devastating cerebral demyelination. As in many X-linked diseases, it was assumed that female carriers remain asymptomatic and only a few studies addressed the phenotype of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy carriers. These studies, however, provided no information on the prevalence of neurological symptoms in the entire population of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy carriers, since data were acquired in small groups and may be biased towards women with symptoms. Our primary goal was to investigate the symptoms and their frequency in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy carriers. The secondary goal was to determine if the X-inactivation pattern of the ABCD1 gene was associated with symptomatic status. We included 46 X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy carriers in a prospective cross-sectional cohort study. Our data show that X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy carriers develop signs and symptoms of myelopathy (29/46, 63%) and/or peripheral neuropathy (26/46, 57%). Especially striking was the occurrence of faecal incontinence (13/46, 28%). The frequency of symptomatic women increased sharply with age (from 18% in women 60 years of age). Virtually all (44/45, 98%) X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy carriers had increased very long-chain fatty acids in plasma and/or fibroblasts, and/or decreased very long-chain fatty acids beta-oxidation in fibroblasts. We did not find an association between the X-inactivation pattern and symptomatic status. We conclude that X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy carriers develop an

  17. Exposure to atrazine affects the expression of key genes in metabolic pathways integral to energy homeostasis in Xenopus laevis tadpoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaya, Renee M., E-mail: [Great Lakes Environmental and Molecular Sciences Center, Department of Biological Sciences, 3425 Wood Hall, Western Michigan University, 1903 West Michigan Avenue, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Amini, Zakariya, E-mail: [Great Lakes Environmental and Molecular Sciences Center, Department of Biological Sciences, 3425 Wood Hall, Western Michigan University, 1903 West Michigan Avenue, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Whitaker, Ashley S., E-mail: [Great Lakes Environmental and Molecular Sciences Center, Department of Biological Sciences, 3425 Wood Hall, Western Michigan University, 1903 West Michigan Avenue, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Ide, Charles F., E-mail: [Great Lakes Environmental and Molecular Sciences Center, Department of Biological Sciences, 3425 Wood Hall, Western Michigan University, 1903 West Michigan Avenue, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States)


    In our laboratory, Xenopus laevis tadpoles exposed throughout development to 200 or 400 {mu}g/L atrazine, concentrations reported to periodically occur in puddles, vernal ponds and runoff soon after application, were smaller and had smaller fat bodies (the tadpole's lipid storage organ) than controls. It was hypothesized that these changes were due to atrazine-related perturbations of energy homeostasis. To investigate this hypothesis, selected metabolic responses to exposure at the transcriptional and biochemical levels in atrazine-exposed tadpoles were measured. DNA microarray technology was used to determine which metabolic pathways were affected after developmental exposure to 400 {mu}g/L atrazine. From these data, genes representative of the affected pathways were selected for assay using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to measure changes in expression during a 2-week exposure to 400 {mu}g/L. Finally, ATP levels were measured from tadpoles both early in and at termination of exposure to 200 and 400 {mu}g/L. Microarray analysis revealed significant differential gene expression in metabolic pathways involved with energy homeostasis. Pathways with increased transcription were associated with the conversion of lipids and proteins into energy. Pathways with decreased transcription were associated with carbohydrate metabolism, fat storage, and protein synthesis. Using qRT-PCR, changes in gene expression indicative of an early stress response to atrazine were noted. Exposed tadpoles had significant decreases in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (AD) and glucocorticoid receptor protein (GR) mRNA after 24 h of exposure, and near-significant (p = 0.07) increases in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {beta} (PPAR-{beta}) mRNA by 72 h. Decreases in AD suggested decreases in fatty acid {beta}-oxidation while decreases in GR may have been a receptor desensitization response to a glucocorticoid surge. Involvement of PPAR-{beta}, an energy

  18. Characteristics and anti-proliferative activity of azelaic acid and its derivatives entrapped in bilayer vesicles in cancer cell lines. (United States)

    Manosroi, Aranya; Panyosak, Atchara; Rojanasakul, Yon; Manosroi, Jiradej


    The hydrophilicity and lipophilicity of azelaic acid (AA) were modified to diethyl azelate (DA) which was synthesized by Fisher esterification reaction and identified by IR, MS and (1)H NMR and to azelaic acid-beta-cyclodextrin complex (AACD) which was prepared by inclusion complexation and identified by IR, DSC and XRD respectively. AA, DA and AACD were entrapped in liposomes and niosomes comprising of L-alpha-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/cholesterol at 7:3 molar ratio and Tween61/cholesterol at 1:1 molar ratio, respectively, using a thin-film hydration method with sonication. The size and morphology of these bilayer vesicles were determined by optical and transmission electron microscopy. The particle size was found to be in the range of 90-190 nm. The entrapment efficiency of AA, DA and AACD in all vesicular formulations was more than 80%, as analyzed by HPLC for AA and AACD, and GC for DA. Anti-proliferative activity of AA and its derivatives (DA and AACD) both entrapped and not entrapped in bilayer vesicles, using MTT assay in three cancer cell lines (HeLa, KB and B(16)F(10)) comparing with vincristine, were investigated. AACD showed the highest potency comparing to AA in HeLa, KB and B(16)F(10) of 1.48, 1.6 and 1.5 times, respectively. AA entrapped in liposomes was about 90 times more potent than the free AA, and about 1.5 times less potent than vincristine. When entrapped in bilayer vesicles, DA and AACD were more effective than AA in killing cancer cells. AACD entrapped in liposomes gave the highest anti-proliferation activity in HeLa cell lines with the IC(50) of 2.3 and 327 times more potent than vincristine and AA, respectively. DA in liposomes demonstrated the IC(50) of 0.03 times less potent than vincristine in KB cell lines, while in B(16)F(10) AACD in niosomes showed the IC(50) of 0.05 times less potent than vincristine. This study has suggested that the modification of AA by derivatization and complexation as well as the entrapment in

  19. Induction of time-dependent oxidative stress and related transcriptional effects of perfluorododecanoic acid in zebrafish liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yang [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Wang Jianshe; Wei Yanhong; Zhang Hongxia; Xu Muqi [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Dai Jiayin [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China)], E-mail:


    (ATPo6). These results demonstrate that turbulence of fatty acid {beta}-oxidation and oxidative stress responses were involved in the PFDoA-induced hepatotoxicity.

  20. Integrated metabolomic analysis of the nano-sized copper particle-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in rats: a rapid in vivo screening method for nanotoxicity. (United States)

    Lei, Ronghui; Wu, Chunqi; Yang, Baohua; Ma, Huazhai; Shi, Chang; Wang, Quanjun; Wang, Qingxiu; Yuan, Ye; Liao, Mingyang


    Despite an increasing application of copper nanoparticles, there is a serious lack of information concerning their impact on human health and the environment. In this study, the biochemical compositions of urine, serum, and extracts of liver and kidney tissues of rats treated with nano-copper at the different doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/d for 5 d) were investigated using (1)H NMR techniques with the pattern recognition methods. Serum biochemical analysis and histopathological examinations of the liver and kidney of all the rats were simultaneously performed. All the results indicated that the effects produced by nano-copper at a dose of 100 or 50 mg/kg/d were less than those induced at a higher dose of 200 mg/kg/d. Nano-copper induced overt hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity at 200 mg/kg/d for 5 d, which mainly involved scattered dot hepatocytic necrosis and widespread renal proximal tubule necrosis. Increased citrate, succinate, trimethylamine-N-oxide, glucose, and amino acids, accompanied by decreased creatinine levels were observed in the urine; furthermore, elevated levels of lactate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, acetate, creatine, triglycerides, and phosphatide and reduced glucose levels were observed in the serum. The predominant changes identified in the liver tissue aqueous extracts included increased lactate and creatine levels together with reduced glutamine and taurine levels, and the metabolic profile of the kidney tissue aqueous extracts showed an increase in lactate and a drop in glucose. In the chloroform/methanol extracts of the liver and kidney tissues, elevated triglyceride species were identified. These changes suggested that mitochondrial failure, enhanced ketogenesis, fatty acid beta-oxidation, and glycolysis contributed to the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by nano-copper at 200 mg/kg/d for 5 d. An increase in triglycerides in the serum, liver and kidney tissues could serve as a potential sensitive biomarker reflecting the lipidosis induced

  1. Effects of pH and Iminosugar Pharmacological Chaperones on Lysosomal Glycosidase Structure and Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieberman, Raquel L.; D’aquino, J. Alejandro; Ringe, Dagmar; Petsko, Gregory A.; (Harvard-Med); (Brandeis)


    Human lysosomal enzymes acid-{beta}-glucosidase (GCase) and acid-{alpha}-galactosidase ({alpha}-Gal A) hydrolyze the sphingolipids glucosyl- and globotriaosylceramide, respectively, and mutations in these enzymes lead to the lipid metabolism disorders Gaucher and Fabry disease, respectively. We have investigated the structure and stability of GCase and {alpha}-Gal A in a neutral-pH environment reflective of the endoplasmic reticulum and an acidic-pH environment reflective of the lysosome. These details are important for the development of pharmacological chaperone therapy for Gaucher and Fabry disease, in which small molecules bind mutant enzymes in the ER to enable the mutant enzyme to meet quality control requirements for lysosomal trafficking. We report crystal structures of apo GCase at pH 4.5, at pH 5.5, and in complex with the pharmacological chaperone isofagomine (IFG) at pH 7.5. We also present thermostability analysis of GCase at pH 7.4 and 5.2 using differential scanning calorimetry. We compare our results with analogous experiments using {alpha}-Gal A and the chaperone 1-deoxygalactonijirimycin (DGJ), including the first structure of {alpha}-Gal A with DGJ. Both GCase and {alpha}-Gal A are more stable at lysosomal pH with and without their respective iminosugars bound, and notably, the stability of the GCase-IFG complex is pH sensitive. We show that the conformations of the active site loops in GCase are sensitive to ligand binding but not pH, whereas analogous galactose- or DGJ-dependent conformational changes in {alpha}-Gal A are not seen. Thermodynamic parameters obtained from {alpha}-Gal A unfolding indicate two-state, van't Hoff unfolding in the absence of the iminosugar at neutral and lysosomal pH, and non-two-state unfolding in the presence of DGJ. Taken together, these results provide insight into how GCase and {alpha}-Gal A are thermodynamically stabilized by iminosugars and suggest strategies for the development of new pharmacological

  2. Imbalanced substrate specificity of mutant beta-galactosidase in patients with Morquio B disease. (United States)

    Okumiya, Toshika; Sakuraba, Hitoshi; Kase, Ryoichi; Sugiura, Tetsuro


    G(M1)-gangliosidosis and Morquio B disease are distinct in clinical and biochemical features, but both disorders are caused by genetic defects of the same enzyme, acid beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal). We analyzed the kinetic properties of mutant beta-Gals from patients with G(M1)-gangliosidosis and Morquio B disease to examine the clinical and biochemical differences between both disorders. Five skin fibroblast lines from patients with G(M1)-gangliosidosis (2 cases; R201C/R201C and I51T/I51T), Morquio B disease (2 cases; W273L/W273L and Y83H/R482C), and galactosialidosis (1 case; Y395C/S90L) were used as enzyme sources. Residual enzyme activity in the cells was subjected to kinetic analysis. Substrate analogs including Galbeta1-3GalNAc, as an analog for G(M1)-ganglioside, and Galbeta1-4GlcNAc, as an analog for keratan sulfate, were used to determine IC(50) and K(i) for beta-Gals with an artificial substrate (4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-galactopyranoside). Enzymatic assay method was established to examine the hydrolytic activity with the mutant beta-Gal for the substrate analogs. The mutant beta-Gal activities were inhibited by Galbeta1-3GalNAc and Galbeta1-4GlcNAc in a concentration-dependent manner. Remarkable increase in IC(50) ratio and K(i) ratio (Galbeta1-4GlcNAc/Galbeta1-3GalNAc) was observed in Morquio B disease. Relative hydrolytic activity (Galbeta1-4GlcNAc/Galbeta1-3GalNAc) was markedly decreased in Morquio B disease as compared with other subjects; controls (means+/-SD, n=4), 1.00+/-0.02; galactosialidosis, 1.03; G(M1)-gangliosidosis, 1.15 and 1.00; and Morquio B disease, 0.27 and 0.32. The mutant beta-Gals from the patients with Morquio B disease exhibited lower affinity and lower hydrolytic activity toward Galbeta1-4GlcNAc rather than Galbeta1-3GalNAc. These findings suggest that imbalanced substrate specificity of the mutant beta-Gals induces predominant accumulation of keratan sulfate and a rationale for performing differential diagnostic analysis for

  3. Gene expression profile and genomic alterations in colonic tumours induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Femia, Angelo Pietro; Luceri, Cristina; Toti, Simona; Giannini, Augusto; Dolara, Piero; Caderni, Giovanna


    Azoxymethane (AOM) or 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats shares many phenotypical similarities with human sporadic colon cancer and is a reliable model for identifying chemopreventive agents. Genetic mutations relevant to human colon cancer have been described in this model, but comprehensive gene expression and genomic analysis have not been reported so far. Therefore, we applied genome-wide technologies to study variations in gene expression and genomic alterations in DMH-induced colon cancer in F344 rats. For gene expression analysis, 9 tumours (TUM) and their paired normal mucosa (NM) were hybridized on 4 × 44K Whole rat arrays (Agilent) and selected genes were validated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Functional analysis on microarray data was performed by GenMAPP/MappFinder analysis. Array-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) was performed on 10 paired TUM-NM samples hybridized on Rat genome arrays 2 × 105K (Agilent) and the results were analyzed by CGH Analytics (Agilent). Microarray gene expression analysis showed that Defcr4, Igfbp5, Mmp7, Nos2, S100A8 and S100A9 were among the most up-regulated genes in tumours (Fold Change (FC) compared with NM: 183, 48, 39, 38, 36 and 32, respectively), while Slc26a3, Mptx, Retlna and Muc2 were strongly down-regulated (FC: -500; -376, -167, -79, respectively). Functional analysis showed that pathways controlling cell cycle, protein synthesis, matrix metalloproteinases, TNFα/NFkB, and inflammatory responses were up-regulated in tumours, while Krebs cycle, the electron transport chain, and fatty acid beta oxidation were down-regulated. a-CGH analysis showed that four TUM out of ten had one or two chromosomal aberrations. Importantly, one sample showed a deletion on chromosome 18 including Apc. The results showed complex gene expression alterations in adenocarcinomas encompassing many altered pathways. While a-CGH analysis showed a low degree of genomic imbalance, it is interesting to

  4. Mercury-induced hepatotoxicity in zebrafish: in vivo mechanistic insights from transcriptome analysis, phenotype anchoring and targeted gene expression validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathavan Sinnakaruppan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mercury is a prominent environmental contaminant that causes detrimental effects to human health. Although the liver has been known to be a main target organ, there is limited information on in vivo molecular mechanism of mercury-induced toxicity in the liver. By using transcriptome analysis, phenotypic anchoring and validation of targeted gene expression in zebrafish, mercury-induced hepatotoxicity was investigated and a number of perturbed cellular processes were identified and compared with those captured in the in vitro human cell line studies. Results Hepato-transcriptome analysis of mercury-exposed zebrafish revealed that the earliest deregulated genes were associated with electron transport chain, mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation, nuclear receptor signaling and apoptotic pathway, followed by complement system and proteasome pathway, and thereafter DNA damage, hypoxia, Wnt signaling, fatty acid synthesis, gluconeogenesis, cell cycle and motility. Comparative meta-analysis of microarray data between zebrafish liver and human HepG2 cells exposed to mercury identified some common toxicological effects of mercury-induced hepatotoxicity in both models. Histological analyses of liver from mercury-exposed fish revealed morphological changes of liver parenchyma, decreased nucleated cell count, increased lipid vesicles, glycogen and apoptotic bodies, thus providing phenotypic evidence for anchoring of the transcriptome analysis. Validation of targeted gene expression confirmed deregulated gene-pathways from enrichment analysis. Some of these genes responding to low concentrations of mercury may serve as toxicogenomic-based markers for detection and health risk assessment of environmental mercury contaminations. Conclusion Mercury-induced hepatotoxicity was triggered by oxidative stresses, intrinsic apoptotic pathway, deregulation of nuclear receptor and kinase activities including Gsk3 that deregulates Wnt signaling

  5. Phylogenomic analysis and predicted physiological role of the proton-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (complex I) across bacteria. (United States)

    Spero, Melanie A; Aylward, Frank O; Currie, Cameron R; Donohue, Timothy J


    The proton-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is a multisubunit integral membrane enzyme found in the respiratory chains of both bacteria and eukaryotic organelles. Although much research has focused on the enzyme's central role in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, comparatively little is known about its role in the diverse energetic lifestyles of different bacteria. Here, we used a phylogenomic approach to better understand the distribution of complex I across bacteria, the evolution of this enzyme, and its potential roles in shaping the physiology of different bacterial groups. By surveying 970 representative bacterial genomes, we predict complex I to be present in ~50% of bacteria. While this includes bacteria with a wide range of energetic schemes, the presence of complex I is associated with specific lifestyles, including aerobic respiration and specific types of phototrophy (bacteria with only a type II reaction center). A phylogeny of bacterial complex I revealed five main clades of enzymes whose evolution is largely congruent with the evolution of the bacterial groups that encode complex I. A notable exception includes the gammaproteobacteria, whose members encode one of two distantly related complex I enzymes predicted to participate in different types of respiratory chains (aerobic versus anaerobic). Comparative genomic analyses suggest a broad role for complex I in reoxidizing NADH produced from various catabolic reactions, including the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and fatty acid beta-oxidation. Together, these findings suggest diverse roles for complex I across bacteria and highlight the importance of this enzyme in shaping diverse physiologies across the bacterial domain. Living systems use conserved energy currencies, including a proton motive force (PMF), NADH, and ATP. The respiratory chain enzyme, complex I, connects these energy currencies by using NADH produced during nutrient breakdown to generate a PMF, which is

  6. Glucose and lipid homeostasis in the absence of human growth hormone. (United States)

    Merimee, T J; Felig, P; Marliss, E; Fineberg, S E; Cahill, G G


    To clarify the role of insulin and growth hormone (HGH) in regulating substrate production for body fuel during prolonged starvation, 6 normal subjects and 10 HGH-deficient dwarfs were fasted for 6 days. Four of these dwarfs received HGH during the fast. Blood glucose concentration decreased a mean 15 mg/100 ml in both controls and HGH-treated dwarfs, but decreased 50 mg/100 ml in untreated dwarfs. The final level at which the blood glucose stabilized was significantly higher in the former two groups (65 +/-1.0 mg/100 ml and 88 +/-19 mg/100 ml, respectively, versus 39.0 +/-4.0 mg/100 ml in the untreated dwarfs). The decline in plasma insulin concentration showed a comparable pattern, decreasing from a similar basal level to 7.7 +/-0.4 muU/ml in controls, 8.8 +/-1.1 muU/ml in dwarfs treated with HGH, and to a significantly lower level of 3.8 +/-1.1 muU/ml in untreated dwarfs. When glucose concentrations were plotted against paired insulin values, the correlation in both dwarfs and normals was significant. In normals, no correlation existed at any time between plasma HGH levels and plasma concentration of either glucose or free fatty acid. Free fatty acid, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate increased respectively in normals to peak concentrations in plasma of 1.55 +/-0.11, 2.87 +/-0.23, and 0.77 +/-0.09 mmoles/liter. Untreated dwarfs had significantly greater values of all three (mean maximal concentration: FFA = 2.16 +/-0.17 mmoles/liter, beta-hydroxybutyrate = 4.11 +/-0.34 mmoles/liter, and acetoacetate = 1.16 +/-0.10 mmoles/liter). Values returned toward normal in HGH-treated dwarfs. The cahnges in plasma concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate were not due to changes in renal excretion. In starvation, the relation between insulin on the one hand and glucose and free fatty acid on the other hand is maintained in the absence of HGH. However, the setting of blood glucose concentration at which this relation takes place is decreased in the absence

  7. The structures of six urinary oligosaccharides that are characteristic for a patient with Morquio syndrome type B. (United States)

    Michalski, J C; Strecker, G; van Halbeek, H; Dorland, L; Vliegenthart, J F


    Morquio syndrome type B is an inherited, lysosomal storage disease characterised by a marked deficiency in acid beta-D-galactosidase, while the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-galactose 6-sulphate sulphatase activity is normal. Urinary oligosaccharides were studied in order to evaluate the effect of the diminished beta-D-galactosidase activity on the catabolism of glycoconjugates and to compare their structure with those excreted by patients with GM1-gangliosidosis. The following oligosaccharides were isolated: beta-D-Galp-(1 leads to 4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1 leads to 2)-alpha-D-Manp-(1 leads to 6)-beta-D-Manp-(1 leads to 4)-D-GlcpNac(1), beta-D-Galp-(1 leads to 4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1 leads to 2)-alpha-D-Manp-(1 leads to 6)-[alpha-D-Manp-(1 leads to 3)]-beta-D-Manp-(1 leads to 4)-D-GlcpNAc (2a), beta-D-Galp-(1 leads to 4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1 leads to 2)-alpha-D-Manp-(1 leads to 3)-[alpha-D-Manp-(1 leads to 6)]-beta-D-Manp-(1 leads to 4)-D-GlcpNAc (2b), beta-D-Galp-(1 leads to 4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1 leads to 2)-alpha-D-Manp-(1 leads to 3)-[beta-D-Galp-(1 leads to 4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1 leads to 2)-alpha-D-Manp-(1 leads to 6)]-beta-D-Manp-(1 leads to 4)-D-GlcpNAc (3), beta-D-Galp-(1 leads to 4)-beta-D-Glcp-NAc-(1 leads to 2)-alpha-D-Manp-(1 leads to 3)-(beta-D-Galp-(1 leads to 4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1 leads to 2)-[beta-D-Galp-(1 leads to 4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1 leads to 6)]-alpha-D-Manp-(1 leads to 6))-beta-D-Manp-(1 leads to 4)-D-GlcpNAc (4), beta-D-Galp-(1 leads to 4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1 leads to 2)-alpha-D-Manp-(1 leads to 3)-[beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1 leads to 4)]-[beta-D-Glap-(1 leads to 4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1 leads to 2)-alpha-D-Manp-(1 leads to 6)]-beta-D-Manp-(1 leads to 4)-D-Glcp-NAc (5). Significant differences between Morquio syndrome type B and GM1- gangliosidosis have been observed, with regard to the excretion rate and the specific structures of urinary oligosaccharides. Compounds 2a, 2b, and 5 are novel members of the series of oligosaccharides isolated from the urine of patients with

  8. n-3 LCPUFA in the reversal of hepatic steatosis: the role of ACOX and CAT-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapia, G. S.


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of the Acyl co-enzyme A oxidase (ACOX, carnitine acyl transferase I (CAT-1 and activating protein 1 (AP-1 in the reversal of hepatic steatosis with dietary change and n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA supplementation. Male C57BL/6J mice were given either a control diet (CD or a high fat diet (HFD for 12 weeks, and then continued with the CD or CD plus n-3 LCPUFA for eight weeks. After this period, body and adipose visceral tissue weight were analyzed and liver samples were taken to measure ACOX, CAT-1 and c-jun levels. The dietary change from HFD to a norm caloric diet plus n-3 LCPUFA supplementation significantly reduced liver steatosis and adipose tissue: body weight ratio, along with an increase in the hepatic ACOX and CAT-1 levels and normalization of AP-1 expression that could favor the fatty acid beta-oxidation over lipogenesis and regulate inflammation. These results provide new data on the enzymatic metabolism underlying dietary change to a norm caloric diet plus n-3 LCPUFA supplementation.El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar el rol de las enzimas Acil coenzima A oxidasa (ACOX y Acil carnitina transferasa 1 (CAT-1, además del factor de transcripción, Proteína activadora 1 (AP-1 en la reversión de la esteatosis hepática mediante cambio de dieta más suplementación con Ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga omega tres (AGPICL n-3. Ratones macho de la cepa C57BL/6J fueron alimentados con dieta control (DC o alta en grasas (DAG durante 12 semanas, luego continuaron con DC con o sin suplementación de AGPICL n-3 durante 8 semanas. Después de este período, se analizó el peso corporal y del tejido adiposo visceral; en las muestras hepáticas se evaluaron los niveles de ACOX, CAT-1 y AP-1. El cambio a dieta control más suplementación con AGPICL n-3 reduce significativamente la esteatosis hepática y la relación tejido adiposo/peso corporal, acompa

  9. Risk of cardiovascular events after initiation of long-acting bronchodilators in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease: A population-based study

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    Almotasembellah Aljaafareh


    Full Text Available Objectives: Long-acting bronchodilators are mainstay treatment for moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A growing body of evidence indicates an increased risk of cardiovascular events upon initiation of these medications. We hypothesize that this risk is higher in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who had a preexisting cardiovascular disease regardless of receipt of any cardiovascular medication. Methods: A retrospective cohort of patients with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease based on two outpatient visits or one inpatient visit for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition, Clinical Modification codes 491.x, 492.x, 496 in any year between 2001 and 2012 from a commercial insurance database. We then selected those initiating long-acting bronchodilator treatments between April 2001 and September 2012. Each patient had a 1 year look back period to determine history of cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular disease treatment from the time of first prescription of long-acting beta agonist, long-acting muscarinic antagonist, or long-acting beta agonist combined with inhaled corticosteroids. Patients were followed for 90 days for hospitalizations or emergency department visits for cardiovascular event. The cohort was divided into four groups based on the presence of cardiovascular disease (including ischemic heart disease, hypertension, ischemic stroke, heart failure, tachyarrhythmias and artery disease based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition, Clinical Modification codes and cardiovascular disease treatment defined as acetylsalicylic acid, beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, antiplatelet, anticoagulants, calcium channel blockers, nitrate, digoxin, diuretics, antiarrhythmics or statins. Odds of emergency department visit or hospitalization in the 90 days after

  10. Uso de suplementos alimentares por adolescentes Dietary supplement use by adolescents

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    Crésio Alves


    : Consumption of dietary supplements is widely spread among adolescents. This habit has often been detected in pediatric and adolescent medicine clinics. Most of the time, the use of supplements is motivated by the search of the "ideal body." Other reasons for this practice are: attempt to compensate for an inadequate diet, increase immunity, prevent diseases, improve athletic performance and overcome their own athletic limits. The dietary supplements most frequently used and for which there is little evidence of beneficial effects in healthy adolescents are: proteins, amino acids, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, microelements, carnitine, creatine, vitamins, caffeine, and bicarbonate. This dietary supplementation may be beneficial for competitive athletes who do not have a balanced diet after a specific dietary deficiency has been detected. CONCLUSION: The unrestrained consumption of dietary supplements should be avoided, since, besides the lack of evidence that such practice will lead to improvement of performance, it exposes adolescents to several adverse effects. Balanced nutrition, with intake of essential energy and nutrients is usually enough to achieve good athletic performance. The use of dietary supplements must be allowed only for selected cases in which specific nutritional deficiencies are identified.

  11. Analysis of the molecular response of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 to the next-generation biofuel n-butanol. (United States)

    Simon, Oliver; Klebensberger, Janosch; Mükschel, Björn; Klaiber, Iris; Graf, Nadja; Altenbuchner, Josef; Huber, Armin; Hauer, Bernhard; Pfannstiel, Jens


    To increase the efficiency of biocatalysts a thorough understanding of the molecular response of the biocatalyst to precursors, products and environmental conditions applied in bioconversions is essential. Here we performed a comprehensive proteome and phospholipid analysis to characterize the molecular response of the potential biocatalyst Pseudomonas putida KT2440 to the next-generation biofuel n-butanol. Using complementary quantitative proteomics approaches we were able to identify and quantify 1467 proteins, corresponding to 28% of the total KT2440 proteome. 256 proteins were altered in abundance in response to n-butanol. The proteome response entailed an increased abundance of enzymes involved in n-butanol degradation including quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenases, aldehyde dehydrogenases and enzymes of fatty acid beta oxidation. From these results we were able to construct a pathway for the metabolism of n-butanol in P. putida. The initial oxidation of n-butanol is catalyzed by at least two quinoprotein ethanol dehydrogenases (PedE and PedH). Growth of mutants lacking PedE and PedH on n-butanol was significantly impaired, but not completely inhibited, suggesting that additional alcohol dehydrogenases can at least partially complement their function in KT2440. Furthermore, phospholipid profiling revealed a significantly increased abundance of lyso-phospholipids in response to n-butanol, indicating a rearrangement of the lipid bilayer. n-butanol is an important bulk chemical and a promising alternative to gasoline as a transportation fuel. Due to environmental concerns as well as increasing energy prices there is a growing interest in sustainable and cost-effective biotechnological production processes for the production of bulk chemicals and transportation fuels from renewable resources. n-butanol fermentation is well established in Clostridiae, but the efficiency of n-butanol production is mainly limited by its toxicity. Therefore bacterial strains with