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Sample records for aminodifluorosulfinium tetrafluoroborate salts

  1. Aminodifluorosulfinium Tetrafluoroborate Salts as Stable and Crystalline Deoxofluorinating Reagents

    OpenAIRE

    Beaulieu, Francis; Beauregard, Louis-Philippe; Courchesne, Gabriel; Couturier, Michel; LaFlamme, François; L’Heureux, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    Aminodifluorosulfinium tetrafluoroborate salts were found to act as efficient deoxofluorinating reagents when promoted by an exogenous fluoride source and, in most cases, exhibited greater selectivity by providing less elimination byproduct as compared to DAST and Deoxo-Fluor. Aminodifluorosulfinium tetrafluoroborates are easy handled crystalline salts that show enhanced thermal stability over dialkylaminosulfur trifluorides, are storage-stable, and unlike DAST and Deoxo-Fluor do not react vi...

  2. Aminodifluorosulfinium Salts: Selective Fluorination Reagents with Enhanced Thermal Stability and Ease of Handling† , ‡

    OpenAIRE

    L’Heureux, Alexandre; Beaulieu, Francis; Bennett, Christopher; Bill, David R.; Clayton, Simon; LaFlamme, François; Mirmehrabi, Mahmoud; Tadayon, Sam; Tovell, David; Couturier, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Diethylaminodifluorosulfinium tetrafluoroborate (XtalFluor-E) and morpholinodifluorosulfinium tetrafluoroborate (XtalFluor-M) are crystalline fluorinating agents that are more easily handled and significantly more stable than Deoxo-Fluor, DAST, and their analogues. These reagents can be prepared in a safer and more cost-efficient manner by avoiding the laborious and hazardous distillation of dialkylaminosulfur trifluorides. Unlike DAST, Deoxo-Fluor, and Fluolead, XtalFluor reagents do not gen...

  3. Fabrication of superhydrophobic surface on zinc substrate by 3-trifluoromethylbenzene diazonium tetrafluoroborate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong, E-mail: lihong@gdut.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510090 (China); Huang, Chengya; Zhang, Long; Lou, Wanqiu [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)

    2014-09-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fabrication of stable superhydrophobic Zn surfaces by a reaction with 3-trifluoromethylbenzene diazonium tetrafluoroborate salts. • The highest water contact angle was 160°, and a low sliding angle of about 1°. • The superhydrophobicity was related with the special hierarchical porous microstructure and the low surface energy. • This procedure is facile and effective. - Abstract: In this study we report a new and efficient method of fabricating superhydrophobic surface on zinc plate modified with 3-trifluoromethylbenzene diazonium tetrafluoroborate salts (CF{sub 3}BD), which shows a water contact angle of 160° for a 4 μl water droplet and a low sliding angle of about 1°. The morphology and chemical composition of as-prepared superhydrophobic zinc surfaces are investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) and FT-IR spectrum. The results show that the organic layers formed on zinc plate surface are provided with the special hierarchical porous microstructure and the low surface energy, which lead to the superhydrophobicity surface on the modified zinc.

  4. Fabrication of superhydrophobic surface on zinc substrate by 3-trifluoromethylbenzene diazonium tetrafluoroborate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fabrication of stable superhydrophobic Zn surfaces by a reaction with 3-trifluoromethylbenzene diazonium tetrafluoroborate salts. • The highest water contact angle was 160°, and a low sliding angle of about 1°. • The superhydrophobicity was related with the special hierarchical porous microstructure and the low surface energy. • This procedure is facile and effective. - Abstract: In this study we report a new and efficient method of fabricating superhydrophobic surface on zinc plate modified with 3-trifluoromethylbenzene diazonium tetrafluoroborate salts (CF3BD), which shows a water contact angle of 160° for a 4 μl water droplet and a low sliding angle of about 1°. The morphology and chemical composition of as-prepared superhydrophobic zinc surfaces are investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) and FT-IR spectrum. The results show that the organic layers formed on zinc plate surface are provided with the special hierarchical porous microstructure and the low surface energy, which lead to the superhydrophobicity surface on the modified zinc

  5. N-Vinylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate salts as reagents for the stereoselective and regioselective synthesis of symmetrical (2E,4E)-1,6-dioxo-2,4-dienes

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Ge; Brown, Neil; Minatoya, Machiko; Buszek, Keith R.

    2008-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated the utility of N-vinylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate salts as novel electrophilic coupling partners in Pd(0)-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reactions with aryl and vinyl boronic acids. We now report that these crystalline, air-stable, and non-hygroscopic salts are also useful reagents for the synthesis of symmetrical (2E,4E)-1,6-dioxo-2,4-dienes (diene diones), which in turn are valuable starting materials for the synthesis of various five-membered heterocycles....

  6. A new lithium salt with dihydroxybenzene and lithium tetrafluoroborate for lithium battery electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhao-Ming; Sun, Bin-Bin; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Chun-Hua

    2011-10-01

    A new unsymmetrical lithium salt containing F-, C6H4O22- [dianion of 1,2-benzenediol], lithium difluoro(1,2-benzene-diolato(2-)-o,o‧)borate (LDFBDB) is synthesized and characterized. Its thermal decomposition in nitrogen begins at 170 °C. The cyclic voltammetry study shows that the LDFBDB solution in propylene carbonate (PC) is stable up to 3.7 V versus Li+/Li. It is soluble in common organic solvents. The ionic dissociation properties of LDFBDB are examined by conductivity measurements in PC, PC+ ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), PC + dimethyl ether (DME), PC + ethylene carbonate (EC) + EMC solutions. The conductivity values of the 0.564 mol dm-3 LDFBDB electrolyte in PC + DME solution is 3.90 mS cm-1. All these properties of the new lithium salt including the thermal characteristics, electrochemical stabilities, solubilities, ionic dissociation properties are studied and compared with those of its derivatives, lithium difluoro(3-fluoro-1,2-benzene-diolato(2-)-o,o‧)borate (FLDFBDB), lithium [3-fluoro-1,2-benzenediolato(2-)-o,o‧ oxalato]borate (FLBDOB), and lithium bis(oxalate)borate (LBOB).

  7. 2-[(Diisopropylthiophosphorylamino]pyridinium tetrafluoroborate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Holzhacker

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C11H20N2PS+·BF4−, is a salt of 2-(diisopropylthiophosphorylaminopyridine, a chelating bidentate ligand that furnishes an S atom as a soft donor and a pyridine N atom as a hard atom for transition-metal complexation. The title salt crystallizes with two formula units in the asymmetric unit. The two independent cations are protonated at the pyridine N atoms and have the S atoms syn-oriented to them so as to form bent intramolecular N—H...S hydrogen bonds, one of which one is bifurcated by involving also an N—H...F interaction. The phosphorylamino NH groups form near linear hydrogen bonds to proximal tetrafluoroborate anions. Five weak C—H...F and three weak C—H...S interactions link the constituents into a three-dimensional framework. As a result of the crystal packing, the two cations differ notably in conformation, as can be seen from the S—P—N—C torsion angles of −18.7 (1° in the first and −35.1 (1° in the second cation.

  8. Efficient Synthesis of 2,6-Diphenyl-4-arylpyrylium Tetrafluoroborate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Four pyrylium salts, (2,6-diphenyl-4-arylpyrylium tetrafluoroborate, aryl =C6Hs, 4-MeO C6H4, 4-Me2NC6H4, 4-NO2C6H4) were synthesized efficiently and economically from acctophenone and substituted chalcones in the presence of borontrifluoride.

  9. Thermophysical properties of 1-propylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandres, Isabel; Lopez, M. Carmen [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Castro, Miguel [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon, Universidad de Zaragoza, CSIC, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Barbera, Joaquin [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Ciencias, ICMA, Universidad de Zaragoza, CSIC, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Lafuente, Carlos, E-mail: celadi@unizar.es [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: > We present a thermophysical characterization of 1-propylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate. > This study includes thermodynamic and transport properties. > Results have been compared with those for 1-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate. - Abstract: A systematic thermophysical characterization of the ionic liquid 1-propylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate has been developed. Thus, the density, speed of sound, refractive index, surface tension, viscosity, ionic conductivity, isobaric heat capacity have been determined over the temperature range (278.15 to 338.15) K. Moreover, thermal events have been investigated over the temperature range (120 to 320) K. A comparison between experimental results for the ionic liquid and 1-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate studied has been carried out to analyze carefully how the structural modifications in the cation influence the behavior of these compounds.

  10. Efficient Synthesis of 2,6—Diphenyl—4—arylpyrylium Tetrafluoroborate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShrongShiLIN; ChengYongLI; 等

    2002-01-01

    Four pyrylium salts,(2,6-diphenyl-4-arylpyrylium tetrafluoroborate,aryl=C6H5,4-MeO C6H4,4-Me2NC6H4,4-NO2C6H4) were synthesized efficiently and economically from acetophenone and substituted chalcones in the presence of borontrifluoride.

  11. A simple, enaminone-based approach to some bicyclic pyridazinium tetrafluoroborates

    OpenAIRE

    František Josefík; Markéta Svobodová; Valerio Bertolasi; Petr Šimůnek

    2013-01-01

    Easily obtainable cyclic enaminones (piperidin-2-ylidenealkanones) can be transformed into substituted bicyclic pyridazinium tetrafluoroborates upon treatment with corresponding diazonium salts. The transformation can be performed either in a one-pot way or in a two-step process with the isolation of single azo-coupled enaminone as the intermediate. The former method is superior. Under the optimized conditions, a number of pyridazinium salts substituted with both electron-donating and electro...

  12. A simple, enaminone-based approach to some bicyclic pyridazinium tetrafluoroborates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Josefík

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Easily obtainable cyclic enaminones (piperidin-2-ylidenealkanones can be transformed into substituted bicyclic pyridazinium tetrafluoroborates upon treatment with corresponding diazonium salts. The transformation can be performed either in a one-pot way or in a two-step process with the isolation of single azo-coupled enaminone as the intermediate. The former method is superior. Under the optimized conditions, a number of pyridazinium salts substituted with both electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents was easily synthesized. A mechanism of the formation of the pyridazinium salts is suggested. A partial drawback is the possibility of the formation of a mixture of products when using a different diazonium salt in each step due to a reversibility of the azo coupling. This can be suppressed by using a more reactive diazonium salt before a less reactive one.

  13. 1-Ethyl-3-(2,4,6-trimethylphenylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Tao Guan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C14H19N2+·BF4−, was obtained by reaction of 1-ethyl-3-(2,4,6-trimethylphenylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate with sodium tetrafluoroborate. The imidazole ring makes a dihedral angle of 78.92 (13° with the benzene ring.

  14. Characterization of solid polymer electrolytes based on poly(trimethylenecarbonate) and lithium tetrafluoroborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of an investigation of a polymer electrolyte system based on the poly(trimethylene carbonate) host matrix, designated as p(TMC), with lithium tetrafluoroborate guest salt are described in this presentation. Electrolytes with lithium salt compositions with n between 3 and 80 (where n represents the number of (O=COCH2CH2CH2O) units per lithium ion) were prepared by co-dissolution of salt and polymer in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran. The homogeneous solutions obtained by this procedure were evaporated, within a preparative glovebox and under a dry argon atmosphere, to form thin films of electrolyte. The solvent-free electrolyte films produced were obtained as very flexible, transparent, completely amorphous films and were characterized by measurements of total ionic conductivity, cyclic voltammetry, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry

  15. Characterization of solid polymer electrolytes based on poly (trimethylenecarbonate) and lithium tetrafluoroborate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.M.; Barros, S.C.; Smith, M.J. [Universidad do Minho, Braga (Portugal). Centro de Quimica; MacCallum, J.R. [University of St. Andrews (United Kingdom). School of Chemistry

    2004-05-15

    The results of an investigation of a polymer electrolyte system based on the poly(trimethylene carbonate) host matrix, designated as p(TMC), with lithium tetrafluoroborate guest salt are described in this presentation. Electrolytes with lithium salt compositions with n between 3 and 80 (where n represents the number of (O=COCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O) units per lithium ion) were prepared by co-dissolution of salt and polymer in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran. The homogeneous solutions obtained by this procedure were evaporated, within a preparative glovebox and under a dry argon atmosphere, to form thin films of electrolyte. The solvent-free electrolyte films produced were obtained as very flexible, transparent, completely amorphous films and were characterized by measurements of total ionic conductivity, cyclic voltammetry, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. (Author)

  16. Characterization of solid polymer electrolytes based on poly(trimethylenecarbonate) and lithium tetrafluoroborate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maria Manuela; Barros, Sandra Cerqueira; Smith, Michael J.; MacCallum, James R

    2004-05-15

    The results of an investigation of a polymer electrolyte system based on the poly(trimethylene carbonate) host matrix, designated as p(TMC), with lithium tetrafluoroborate guest salt are described in this presentation. Electrolytes with lithium salt compositions with n between 3 and 80 (where n represents the number of (O=COCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O) units per lithium ion) were prepared by co-dissolution of salt and polymer in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran. The homogeneous solutions obtained by this procedure were evaporated, within a preparative glovebox and under a dry argon atmosphere, to form thin films of electrolyte. The solvent-free electrolyte films produced were obtained as very flexible, transparent, completely amorphous films and were characterized by measurements of total ionic conductivity, cyclic voltammetry, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry.

  17. Thermodynamic properties of 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safarov, Javid, E-mail: javid.safarov@uni-rostock.de [Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, University of Rostock, Albert-Einstein-Str. 2, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Department of Heat and Refrigeration Techniques, Azerbaijan Technical University, H. Javid Avn. 25, AZ1073 Baku (Azerbaijan); Kul, Ismail [Department of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Widener University, One University Place, Chester, PA 19013 (United States); El-Awady, Waleed A. [Department of Heat and Refrigeration Techniques, Azerbaijan Technical University, H. Javid Avn. 25, AZ1073 Baku (Azerbaijan); Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Mansoura Univeristy, Mansoura (Egypt); Shahverdiyev, Astan [Department of Heat and Refrigeration Techniques, Azerbaijan Technical University, H. Javid Avn. 25, AZ1073 Baku (Azerbaijan); Hassel, Egon [Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, University of Rostock, Albert-Einstein-Str. 2, D-18059 Rostock (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > (p, {rho}, T) data of 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate are estimated. > The measurements were carried out with a vibration-tube densimeter. > The thermomechanical coefficients were calculated. - Abstract: Pressure, density, temperature (p, {rho}, T) data of 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [C4mpyr][BF{sub 4}] at T = (283.15 to 393.15) K and pressures up to p = 100 MPa are reported with an estimated experimental relative combined standard uncertainty of {Delta}{rho}/{rho} = {+-}(0.01 to 0.08)% in density. The measurements were carried out with a newly constructed Anton-Paar DMA HPM vibration-tube densimeter. The system was calibrated using double-distilled water, methanol, toluene and aqueous NaCl solutions. An empirical equation of state for fitting of the (p, {rho}, T) data of [C4mpyr][BF{sub 4}] has been developed as a function of pressure and temperature to calculate the thermal properties of the ionic liquid (IL), such as isothermal compressibility, isobaric thermal expansibility, differences in isobaric and isochoric heat capacities, thermal pressure coefficient and internal pressure. Internal pressure and the temperature coefficient of internal pressure data were used to make conclusions on the molecular characteristics of the IL.

  18. Thermodynamic properties of 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → (p, ρ, T) data of 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate are estimated. → The measurements were carried out with a vibration-tube densimeter. → The thermomechanical coefficients were calculated. - Abstract: Pressure, density, temperature (p, ρ, T) data of 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [C4mpyr][BF4] at T = (283.15 to 393.15) K and pressures up to p = 100 MPa are reported with an estimated experimental relative combined standard uncertainty of Δρ/ρ = ±(0.01 to 0.08)% in density. The measurements were carried out with a newly constructed Anton-Paar DMA HPM vibration-tube densimeter. The system was calibrated using double-distilled water, methanol, toluene and aqueous NaCl solutions. An empirical equation of state for fitting of the (p, ρ, T) data of [C4mpyr][BF4] has been developed as a function of pressure and temperature to calculate the thermal properties of the ionic liquid (IL), such as isothermal compressibility, isobaric thermal expansibility, differences in isobaric and isochoric heat capacities, thermal pressure coefficient and internal pressure. Internal pressure and the temperature coefficient of internal pressure data were used to make conclusions on the molecular characteristics of the IL.

  19. Thermophysical properties of 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► (p, ρ, T) data of 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate are estimated. ► The measurements were carried out with a vibration-tube densimeter. ► The thermomechanical coefficients were calculated. - Abstract: Thermophysical properties, {(p, ρ, T) at T = (283.15 to 393.15) K, pressures up to p = 100 MPa, and viscosity at T = (283.15 to 373.15) K and p = 0.101 MPa}, of 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [b4mpy][BF4] are reported. The measurements were carried out with a recently constructed Anton-Paar DMA HPM vibration-tube densimeter and a fully automated SVM 3000 Anton-Paar rotational Stabinger viscometer. The vibration-tube densimeter was calibrated using double-distilled water, methanol, toluene, and aqueous NaCl solutions. An empirical equation of state for fitting of the (p, ρ, T) data of [b4mpy][BF4] has been developed as a function of pressure and temperature to calculate the thermal properties of the ionic liquid (IL), such as isothermal compressibility, isobaric thermal expansibility, differences in isobaric and isochoric heat capacities, thermal pressure coefficient, and internal pressure. Internal pressure and the temperature coefficient of internal pressure data were used to make conclusions on the molecular characteristics of the IL.

  20. Anion exchange equilibrium of uranium and several other elements in mineral acid solutions containing tetrafluoroboric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume distribution coefficients (Dv) were determined for the adsorption of U and several other elements on anion-exchange resin from mixed solutions of tetrafluoroboric acid and nitric acid or hydrochloric acid, and the effect of tetrafluoroboric acid on the adsorption of each element was studied. The addition of tetrafluoroboric acid, in general, slightly decreased the Dv values while Zr weakly adsorbed in the HBF4-HCl and HBF4-HNO3 solutions and Nb in the NBF4-HNO3 solutions. (author) 18 refs.; 4 figs

  1. Thermodynamic and transport properties of spiro-(1,1')-bipyrrolidinium tetrafluoroborate and acetonitrile mixtures: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing-Yin, Zhang; Peng, Xie; Xin, Wang; Xue-Wen, Yu; Zhi-Qiang, Shi; Shi-Huai, Zhao

    2016-06-01

    Organic salts such as spiro-(1,1')-bipyrrolidinium tetrafluoroborate ([SBP][BF4]) dissolved in liquid acetonitrile (ACN) are a new kind of organic salt solution, which is expected to be used as an electrolyte in electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). To explore the physicochemical properties of the solution, an all-atom force field is established on the basis of AMBER parameter values and quantum mechanical calculations. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out to explore the liquid structure and physicochemical properties of [SBP][BF4] electrolyte at room temperature. The computed thermodynamic and transport properties match the available experimental results very well. The microscopic structures of [SBP][BF4] salt solution are also discussed in detail. The method used in this work provides an efficient way of predicting the properties of organic salt solvent as an electrolyte in EDLCs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21476172 and 51172160), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2013AA050905), and the Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin, China (Grant Nos. 12JCZDJC28400, 14RCHZGX00859, 14JCTPJC00484, and 14JCQNJC07200).

  2. 二茂铁四氟硼酸盐用作潜热阳离子引发剂对环氧树脂的热固化引发环氧化合物阳离子热聚合%Novel Ferricenium Tetrafluoroborate Salt as Latent Thermal Cationic Initiator for Curing of Epoxy Resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 王志华; 刘金萍

    2004-01-01

    A novel latent thermal initiator, ferricenium tetrafiuoroborate salt (FcBF4), for cationic polymerization of epoxides is reported. The activities of FcBF4 for different epoxides, including bisphenol-A-type epoxy oligomer E44, cycloaliphatic epoxy ERL4221, and glycidylether epoxy GGE, were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed a moderate thermal initiation activity for E44 and GGE at 78℃ and 108℃respectively. When adding GGE to E44, the reaction was enhanced. The temperature of thermal degradation of the cured specimens for the system of E44/FcBF4, E44+10%GGE/FcBF4 and E44+10%ERL4221/FcBF4 is higher than 350℃.

  3. 'PolyMOB'-lithium salt complexes: from salt-in-polymer to polymer-in-salt electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithium polyMOB has been investigated as the polymer in a polymer-in-salt type electrolyte incorporating the salts lithium perchlorate (LiClO4), lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4). While all salts give rubbery solids at high salt contents, only LiClO4 provides high conductivity because only in the case of LiClO4 is the lithium cation motion highly decoupled from the structural relaxation. The crystallization of the salt at high salt contents prevents a favorable combination of mechanical and electrical properties, but the system provides an excellent example of the principle of the polymer-in-salt ionic rubber electrolyte and the factors determining its performance

  4. Thermodynamic study on the protonation of glycine in different (water + 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) mixed solvents and ionic strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Dependence of glycine protonation constants on ionic strength. • The ionic strength dependence has been modeled with the extended Debye–Hückel equation. • The ionic liquid behaves like a not significantly interacting salt for % IL > 20%. • Kamlet–Abboud–Taft solvatochromic regression coefficients. -- Abstract: The 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [bmim]BF4, is an ionic liquid when pure. The acid base properties of aqueous solutions of [bmim]BF4 were examined by potentiometric titration. Then, protonation constants of glycine in binary mixtures of water and [bmim]BF4 were determined, from potentiometric titration data obtained at T = 298.2 K and various ionic strengths of sodium chloride (0.25 ⩽ I ⩽ 1.00 mol · dm−3). The ionic strength dependence of the equilibrium constants of glycine was fitted to an extended Debye–Hückel equation to derive ionic strength dependence parameters. Comparison with literature data showed that, even at high concentrations, [bmim]BF4 is similar to the electrolyte [(C2H5)4NI], in that it does not interact significantly with other solutes. Solvatochromic parameters in the binary mixtures of water and [bmim]BF4 have been calculated by using Redlich–Kister equation. Kamlet–Abboud–Taft (KAT) solvatochromic equation allows us to determine the values of calculated protonation constants in different media

  5. Solvent-Dependent Reaction Pathways Operating in Copper(II) Tetrafluoroborate Promoted Oxidative Ring-Opening Reactions of Cyclopropyl Silyl Ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Eietsu; Nemoto, Kazuki; Nagumo, Ryosuke; Tayama, Eiji; Iwamoto, Hajime

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative ring-opening reactions of benzene-fused bicyclic cyclopropyl silyl ethers, promoted by copper(II) tetrafluoroborate, were investigated. The regioselectivity of cyclopropane ring-opening as well as product distributions were found to be highly dependent on the nature of the solvent. In alcohols, dimeric substances arising from external bond cleavage are major products. Radical rearrangement products are also formed in solvents such as ether and ethyl acetate. On the contrary, nucleophile addition to carbocation intermediates, generated by internal bond cleavage, occurs mainly in reactions taking place in acetonitrile. It is proposed that the observed solvent effects that govern the reaction pathways followed are a consequence of varying solvation of copper intermediates, which governs their reactivity and redox properties. In addition, the influence of counteranions of the copper salts, organonitriles, cyclic dienes, and substrate structures on the pathways followed in these reactions was also examined. PMID:26799089

  6. Copper(II tetrafluoroborate as mild and versatile catalyst for the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihillu. S. Yadav

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A variety of -acetamido ketones and ketoesters are readily prepared in high yields under extremelymild conditions via a three component coupling of aromatic aldehydes, enolizable ketones or -ketoesters andnitriles in the presence of 10 mol% of copper(II tetrafluoroborate and a stoichiometric amount of acetylchloride. A solution of 10 mol% of Cu(BF42 in acetonitrile provides a convenient reaction medium to carry out athree component reaction under mild conditions

  7. Bioactive Phytochemicals: Bioactivity, Sources, Preparations, and/or Modifications via Silver Tetrafluoroborate Mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C. Achilonu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an overview of the biological activities, natural occurrences, and the silver tetrafluoroborate- (AgBF4- mediated synthesis of proanthocyanidins, glycosides, N-heterocyclic alkaloid analogues (of pyrrole, morphine, quinoline, isoquinoline, and indole, furan analogues, and halocompounds. AgBF4 has been reviewed as an effective reaction promoter, used extensively in the synthesis of relevant biologically active compounds via carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds formation. The literatures from 1979 to April 2014 were reviewed.

  8. Crystal structure of the 1:2 molecular complex of tetrafluoroboric acid with triphenylphosphine oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystalline molecular complex of tetrafluoroboric acid with triphenylphosphine oxide of Ph3PO·0.5HBF4 (1) is prepared and studied by means of x-ray diffraction method. HBF4 molecule is situated near crystallographic axis 2 and is statistically disordered relatively this axis. All the atoms of the molecule have positions of population density equal 0.5. Boron atom has distorted tetrahedral coordination. B-F(H) bond is significantly more lengthy then other three B-F bonds and is donor-acceptor one. HBF4 molecule is bonded with Ph3PO molecule by strong asymmetrical hydrogen bond with 50 % probability

  9. Phase Equilibria and Ionic Solvation in the Lithium Tetrafluoroborate-Dimethylsulfoxide System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, M. M.; Kirillov, S. A.; Gorobets, M. I.; Rabadanov, K. Sh.; Ataev, M. B.; Tretyakov, D. O.; Aydemirov, K. M.

    2015-01-01

    The phase diagram and electrical conductivity isotherms for the lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4)-dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) system and Raman spectra of DMSO and the LiBF4-DMSO solution were studied. Spectroscopic signatures of a H-bond between DMSO and BF4 - ions were found. The bonds of Li+ ions to the solvent were stronger than the bonds in DMSO dimers because formation of the solvate destroyed dimeric DMSO molecules. The τω values for DMSO molecules in the Li+-ion solvate shell of the LiBF4-DMSO system were similar to those for associated solvent molecules.

  10. N-triazinylammonium tetrafluoroborates. A new generation of efficient coupling reagents useful for peptide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, Zbigniew J; Kolesińska, Beata; Kolesińska, Justyna; Sabatino, Giuseppina; Chelli, Mario; Rovero, Paolo; Błaszczyk, Michał; Główka, Marek L; Papini, Anna Maria

    2005-12-01

    A new generation of triazine-based coupling reagents (TBCRs), designed according to the concept of "superactive esters", was obtained by treatment of 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium (DMTMM) chloride with lithium or silver tetrafluoroborate. The structure of 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium tetrafluoroborate was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Activation of carboxylic acids by using this reagent proceeds via triazine "superactive ester". The coupling reagent was successfully used for the synthesis of Z-, Boc-, and Fmoc-protected dipeptides derived from natural and unnatural sterically hindered amino acids and for fragment condensation, in 80-100% yield and with high enantiomeric purity. The manual SPPS of the ACP(65-74) peptide fragment (H-Val-Gln-Ala-Ala-Ile-Asp-Tyr-Ile-Asn-Gly-OH) proceeded significantly faster than with TBTU or HATU, as well as the automated SPPS of the same fragment gave a purer product than by using TBTU or PyBOP. The reagent was also demonstrated to be efficient in on-resin head-to-tail cyclization of constrained cyclopeptides, in SPPS synthesis of Aib peptides, and in the synthesis of esters from appropriate acids, alcohols, and phenols. The high efficiency and versatility of this new generation of TBCRs confirm, for the first time, the usefulness of the concept of "superactive esters" in rational design of the structure of coupling reagents. PMID:16316237

  11. Surface tension and 0.1 MPa density of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborates in a homologous series perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Součková, Monika; Klomfar, Jaroslav; Pátek, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 100, - (2016), s. 79-88. ISSN 0021-9614 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00145S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : 1-Cn-3-methylimidazolium cation * tetrafluoroborate anion * density–temperature relation * surface tension–temperature relation * recommended property values Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.679, year: 2014

  12. Pyridine-promoted dediazoniation of aryldiazonium tetrafluoroborates: Application to the synthesis of SF5-substituted phenylboronic esters and iodobenzenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakobson, George; Du, Junyi; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Beier, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Pyridine promotes dediazoniation of aryldiazonium tetrafluoroborates. The formed aryl radicals were trapped with B2pin2, iodine, or tetrahydrofuran to afford boronic esters, iodobenzenes and benzenes, respectively. The application to the synthesis of (pentafluorosulfanyl)phenylboronic esters, iodo(pentafluorosulfanyl)benzenes and (pentafluorosulfanyl)benzene is shown. PMID:26425206

  13. Inhibition Effect of 1-Butyl-4-Methylpyridinium Tetrafluoroborate on the Corrosion of Copper in Phosphate Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scendo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the concentration of 1-Butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate (4MBPBF4 as ionic liquid (IL on the corrosion of copper in 0.5 M PO43− solutions of pH 2 and 4 was studied. The research involved electrochemical polarization method, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM technique. The results obtained showed that the inhibition efficiency of corrosion of copper increases with an increase in the concentration of 4MBPBF4 but decreases with increasing temperature. The thermodynamic functions of corrosion analysis and adsorptive behavior of 4MBPBF4 were carried out. During the test, the adsorption of the inhibitor on the copper surface in the phosphate solutions was found to obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and had a physical mechanism.

  14. Four salt phases of theophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Amanda R; Kennedy, Alan R; Manzie, Craig

    2014-02-01

    The structures of two anhydrous salt phases of theophylline, namely 1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-7H-purin-9-ium tetrafluoroborate, C7H9N4O2(+)·BF4(-), and 1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-7H-purin-9-ium chloride, C7H9N4O2(+)·Cl(-), are reported together with the structures of two monohydrate salt forms, namely 1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-7H-purin-9-ium chloride monohydrate, C7H9N4O2(+)·Cl(-)·H2O, and 1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-7H-purin-9-ium bromide monohydrate, C7H9N4O2(+)·Br(-)·H2O. The monohydrate structures are mutually isostructural, with the cations and anions lying on crystallographic mirror planes (Z' = ½). The main intermolecular interaction motif is a hydrogen-bonding network in the same mirror plane. The tetrafluoroborate structure is based on planar hydrogen-bonded theopylline cation dimers; the anions interact with the dimers in a pendant fashion. The anhydrous chloride structure has Z' = 2 and in contrast to the other species it does not form planar hydrogen-bonded constructs, instead one-dimensional chains of cations and anions propagate parallel to the crystallographic c direction. An earlier report claiming to describe an anhydrous structure of theophylline hydrochloride is re-examined in light of these results. It is concluded that the earlier structure has been reported in the wrong space group and that it has been chemically misidentified. PMID:24508974

  15. Investigations of 1-(4-propylamino-3-ethyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid capturing CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lijuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 1-(4-propylamino-3-ethyl imidazolium ([Paeim]+ Tetrafluoroborate([BF4]- Ionic liquid (IL, capturing CO2, was explored systematically at B3LYP/6-311++G** and mp2/6-311++G** level. The stable geometries of ILs and capture products were optimized, the energies of these geometries were obtained and corrected by Zero-point-vibration-energy and basis set superposition error correction. The results show that the interactions between [Paeim]+and [BF4]-are mainly displayed as hydrogen bonds, but the interaction energies exceeds -328 kJ/mol. Further analysis found that the interactions are reinforced by charge dispersion and charge redistribution of ion-pair, and that electrostatic attraction contributes much to the interaction energies. This IL system capturing CO2belongs to the class of physical sorption with 1:1 molar absorption ratio, the absorption energy is nearly -18kJ/moland thus this IL may have low energy consumption when regenerated from IL-CO2.

  16. Bulk growth of high quality nonlinear optical crystals of L-arginine tetrafluoroborate (L-AFB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, C.; Bhat, K.; Wang, W. S.; Tan, A.; Aggarwal, M. D.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Frazier, Donald O.

    2001-05-01

    Bulk single crystals of L-arginine tetrafluoroborate (L-AFB) a new semiorganic nonlinear optical material has been successfully grown from solution by the temperature lowering method. Solubility of L-AFB was measured in various solvents such as ethanol, methanol, acetone and water. L-AFB was found to have extremely low solubility in acetone, ethanol and methanol. Therefore, it was not feasible to grow L-AFB single crystals using these solvents. However, high quality crystals of L-AFB were successfully grown from aqueous solution by the temperature lowering method, even though the mother liqueur became viscous. Large single crystals of L-AFB were grown with dimensions 78×50×35 mm3 in eight weeks. Growth rate and effects of seed orientation on morphologies of L-AFB crystals were studied. L-AFB crystals belong to a class of organic-inorganic complexes in which the high optical nonlinearity of a pure organic compound is combined with the favorable mechanical and thermally stable properties of an inorganic compound. Bulk single crystals of L-AFB are potential materials for applications in blue-green wavelength region.

  17. Electrochemical behavior of cobalt from 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrodeposition of metallic cobalt from a 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid was investigated. The electrochemical behavior of Co(II) in the ionic liquid on a platinum working electrode at 60 deg. C was studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The results from the cyclic voltammetry showed that the electrodeposition of metallic Co in the ionic liquid was an irreversible process and controlled by the diffusion of Co(II) on a platinum working electrode. The average value of αnα was calculated to be 0.35 and the diffusion coefficient (D0) of Co(II) was calculated to be 1.76 x 10-8 cm2/s at 60 deg. C. Chronoamperometric results indicated that the electrodeposition of Co on a platinum working electrode followed the mechanism of instantaneous nucleation and three-dimensional growth with diffusion-controlled. The cobalt plating was uniform, dense, shining in appearance with good adhesion to the platinum substrate at 60 deg. C. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs were used to confirm that the cobalt plating was denser and finer at 60 deg. C. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) profile showed that the obtained plating was pure cobalt. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern indicated that there was a preferred orientation direction and the average size of cobalt grains was 40 nm.

  18. Solution Growth of a Novel Nonlinear Optical Material: L-Histidine Tetrafluoroborate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, M. D.; Choi, J.; Wang, W. S.; Bhat, K.; Lal, R. B.; Shields, Angela D.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Frazier, Donald O.

    1998-01-01

    Single crystals of L-Histidine tetrafluoroborate (L-HFB), a semiorganic nonlinear optical (NLO) material have been successfully grown by the temperature lowering and evaporation methods in our laboratory. Solubility curves of L-HFB have been determined in different solvents, such as water, ethanol and acetone. The solubility of L-HFB is very low in acetone, and ethanol, therefore, it is not feasible to grow L-HFB single crystals using these solvents. Good quality single crystals of a novel nonlinear optical material L-HFB have been grown from aqueous solution. Effects of seed orientation on morphologies of L-HFB crystals were studied. The advantages and disadvantage of both the evaporation and the temperature lowering techniques are compared. The single crystals in size 20 x 20 x 10 cubic mm were grown with deionized water as solvent in two weeks with an approximate growth rate of 1.4mm/day. The transmission range for these crystals has been found to be from 250 nm to 1500 nm.

  19. Blends of lithium bis(oxalato)borate and lithium tetrafluoroborate: Useful substitutes for lithium difluoro(oxalato)borate in electrolytes for lithium metal based secondary batteries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Stability studies at salts with the difluoro(oxalato)borate anion show that ligand exchange occurs under thermal stress at 60 °C. • NMR measurements at solutions of LiBOB/LiBF4 blend electrolytes show that ligand exchange occurs in solutions at room temperature as well. • Formation of traces of LiDFOB in LiBOB/LiBF4 blend electrolytes is responsible for the favorable SEI and excellent lithium cycling. • SEI compositions of blend electrolytes became more similar to the SEI composition of the LiDFOB-based electrolyte with increasing LiBF4 content. • LiBOB/LiBF4 blend electrolytes show a superior lithium cycling performance compared to single salts nearly reaching the performance of LiDFOB based electrolytes. -- Abstract: This work was inspired by the observation that some borates exchange their ligands that are attached to boron. Therefore, we investigated the effect of blends of two salts, lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB), lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4) on lithium cycling on copper with solutions based on ethylene carbonate (EC) and diethyl carbonate (DEC) (3:7, by wt.). Coulombic efficiencies of dissolution rate (D-rate) tests demonstrated an enhanced performance of LiBOB/LiBF4 blend electrolytes compared to the LiBOB-based and LiBF4-based electrolytes, increasing with increasing LiBF4 content. The coulombic efficiencies of the LiBOB/LiBF4 blend electrolyte with highest LiBF4 content reached almost the coulombic efficiencies of the lithium difluoro(oxalato)borate (LiDFOB) based electrolyte at high current densities in D-rate tests. Voltage drop values, conductivity measurements, and AC impedance measurements show the good performance of the LiBOB/LiBF4 blend electrolytes. The composition of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) of the LiBOB/LiBF4 blend electrolytes studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) becomes more similar to the composition of the SEI of the LiDFOB-based electrolyte with increasing LiBF4 content. Nuclear

  20. Solid polymer electrolyte 49 % poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber-lithium tetrafluoroborate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of 49 % poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted natural rubber (MG49) as a solid polymer electrolyte film for application in electrochemical device system has been investigated. The MG49 films with LiBF4 as a doping salt were prepared by solution casting technique. The ionic conductivity investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed the optimum ionic conductivity was given by 25 wt % of LiBF4 salt loading with ionic conductivity value, 1.49 x 10-9 S.cm-1 at room temperature. The observation on structural and morphology studies have been done by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that complexation and crystallization occurred in polymer electrolyte system. This gave low electrical conductivity value even though the addition of LiBF4 salt has reached the optimum level. (author)

  1. The Studies of the Reactions of 2, 4, 6-Triphenylpyrylium Tetrafluoroborate with Amino Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shrong Shi LIN; Xian Jing KONG; Jing Yuan LIU; Cheng Yong LI

    2003-01-01

    The reactions of triphenylpyrylium salt 1 with various amino acids were explored andcompared. The reactions with most α-amino acids yielded decarboxylation products 2 viadecarboxylation. The reactions with glutamic acid, lysine and ACC (1-aminocyclopropyl-carboxylic acid) gave triphenylpyridine 8, dimer 9 and acid 5a-acc, respectively. The reactionswith β and γ-amino acids yielded triphenylpyridine by intramolecular elimination.

  2. Topological investigations of binary mixtures containing ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate and pyridine or isomeric picolines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► ρ, u, and HE of {[emim][BF4] + Py or α- or β- or γ-picoline} mixtures have been measured. ► The observed ρ and u data have been employed to determine VE and κSE. ► Graph theory has been utilized to predict VE, HE, and κSE data of the studied mixtures. - Abstract: The densities, ρ, speeds of sound, u of {1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (i) + pyridine or α- or β- or γ-picoline (j)} at T/K = (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) and excess molar enthalpies, HE of the same set of mixtures at T/K = (298.15) have been measured over entire mole fraction range using DSA-5000 and 2-drop microcalorimeter. Excess molar volumes, VE and excess isentropic compressibilities, κSE values have been predicted by utilizing the measured densities and speeds of sound data. It has been observed that VE, HE, and κSE values for the studied mixtures are negative over entire composition. The connectivity parameter of third degree of a molecule, 3ξ (which in turn depends upon its topology) have been applied to predict (i) state of components of ionic liquid mixtures in their pure and mixed state; (ii) nature and extent of interactions existing in mixtures; and (iii) VE, HE, and κSE values. The analysis of VE data in terms of Graph theory (which deals with topology of a molecule) suggest that while 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate is characterised by electrostatic forces of attraction and exist as monomer; α- or β- or γ-picoline exist as associated molecular entities. Further, (i + j) mixtures are characterized by interactions between nitrogen and florine atoms of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate with nitrogen and carbon atoms of pyridine or isomeric picolines to form 1:1 molecular complex. The IR studies also support to this view point. The VE, HE, and κSE values predicted by Graph theory compare well with experimental values.

  3. Structural, optical and dielectric studies on solution-grown semi-organic L-histidine tetrafluoroborate single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, S. Gokul [Department of Physics, Presidency College, Chepauk, Chennai 600005 (India); Kumar, G. Ramesh [Department of Physics, Presidency College, Chepauk, Chennai 600005 (India); Mohan, R. [Department of Physics, Presidency College, Chepauk, Chennai 600005 (India); Pandi, S. [Department of Physics, Presidency College, Chepauk, Chennai 600005 (India); Jayavel, R. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Sardar Patel Road, Chennai 600025 (India)]. E-mail: rjvel@annauniv.edu

    2005-03-15

    L-Histidine tetrafluoroborate (L-HFB) is a highly transparent monoclinic crystal with favourable properties of efficient frequency conversion. Single crystals have been grown successfully by a slow evaporation method. The solubility of the L-HFB crystal is very high in water when compared to other solvents like acetone or methanol. In this study, L-HFB crystals were grown from aqueous solution. The grown crystals have been subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), second harmonic generation and ultraviolet-visible spectral analyses. Thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry analyses have been performed to study the thermal stability of the crystal. Capacitance and dielectric loss measurements were carried out and the dielectric constant was calculated at room temperature in the frequency range 1 kHz-40 MHz. The dielectric constant at room temperature remains constant for the entire frequency range.

  4. Vibrational and thermodynamic properties and molecular motions in the incommensurate crystal of morpholinium tetrafluoroborate studied by 1H NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The N-H...O and N-H...F hydrogen bond system determines the dynamical properties and the phase transitions sequence in [NH2(C2H4)2O][BF4]. Research highlights: → Thermodynamical characteristics of phase transitions in morpholinium tetrafluoroborate. → Dynamics of the [BF4]- groups is responsible for the phase transition mechanism. Proton dynamics of the (NH2)+ group contributes to the spin-lattice relaxation time. - Abstract: Dynamics of molecules in morpholinium tetrafluoroborate, [NH2(C2H4)2O][BF4], has been studied in a wide temperature range by means of AC calorimetry, 1H NMR and infrared spectroscopy. Simultaneously, DFT (density functional theory) calculations of the molecular structure and normal vibration frequencies have been performed by using various functionals for initial structural data of the low temperature phase. Infrared spectra of polycrystalline [NH2(C2H4)2O][BF4] have been analyzed in a frequency range 4000-400 cm-1. Substantial changes in a temperature evolution of internal modes of both morpholinium cations and [BF4]- anions are due to the freezing of these moieties motions below 117 K. A dynamic nonequivalence of protons involved in N-H...F and N-H...O hydrogen bonds has been detected. Heat capacity anomalies around structural phase transitions detected by AC calorimetry (117 and 153 K) have been evaluated and described. A molecular mechanism of the phase transitions is discussed on the basis of presented results.

  5. Vibrational and thermodynamic properties and molecular motions in the incommensurate crystal of morpholinium tetrafluoroborate studied by {sup 1}H NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owczarek, M. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, F. Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Jakubas, R., E-mail: rj@wchuwr.chem.uni.wroc.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, F. Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Bator, G. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, F. Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Pawlukojc, A. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Baran, J. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structural Research of the PAS, Okolna 2, 50-422 Wroclaw (Poland); Przeslawski, J. [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Wroclaw, Max Born Sq. 9, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland); Medycki, W. [Institute of Molecular Physics, PAS, Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznan (Poland)

    2011-03-18

    Graphical abstract: The N-H...O and N-H...F hydrogen bond system determines the dynamical properties and the phase transitions sequence in [NH{sub 2}(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}O][BF{sub 4}]. Research highlights: {yields} Thermodynamical characteristics of phase transitions in morpholinium tetrafluoroborate. {yields} Dynamics of the [BF{sub 4}]{sup -} groups is responsible for the phase transition mechanism. Proton dynamics of the (NH{sub 2}){sup +} group contributes to the spin-lattice relaxation time. - Abstract: Dynamics of molecules in morpholinium tetrafluoroborate, [NH{sub 2}(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}O][BF{sub 4}], has been studied in a wide temperature range by means of AC calorimetry, {sup 1}H NMR and infrared spectroscopy. Simultaneously, DFT (density functional theory) calculations of the molecular structure and normal vibration frequencies have been performed by using various functionals for initial structural data of the low temperature phase. Infrared spectra of polycrystalline [NH{sub 2}(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}O][BF{sub 4}] have been analyzed in a frequency range 4000-400 cm{sup -1}. Substantial changes in a temperature evolution of internal modes of both morpholinium cations and [BF{sub 4}]{sup -} anions are due to the freezing of these moieties motions below 117 K. A dynamic nonequivalence of protons involved in N-H...F and N-H...O hydrogen bonds has been detected. Heat capacity anomalies around structural phase transitions detected by AC calorimetry (117 and 153 K) have been evaluated and described. A molecular mechanism of the phase transitions is discussed on the basis of presented results.

  6. Molecular dynamics simulations of the structure of the graphene-ionic liquid/alkali salt mixtures interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Morales, Trinidad; Carrete, Jesús; Pérez-Rodríguez, Martín; Cabeza, Óscar; Gallego, Luis J; Lynden-Bell, Ruth M; Varela, Luis M

    2014-07-14

    We performed molecular dynamics simulations of mixtures of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate with lithium tetrafluoroborate and potassium tetrafluoroborate between two charged and uncharged graphene walls, in order to analyze the structure of the well-known formation of layers that takes place on liquids under confinement. For this purpose, we studied the molecular density profiles, free energy profiles for bringing lithium and potassium cations from the bulk mixture to the graphene wall and the orientational distributions of imidazolium rings within the first adsorbed layer as a function of salt concentration and electrode potential. The charge densities in the electrodes were chosen to be zero and ±1 e nm(-2), and the salt molar percentages were %salt = 0, 10 and 25. We found that the layered structure extends up to 1-2 nm, where the bulk behaviour is recovered. In addition, whereas for the neutral surface the layers are composed of both ionic species, increasing the electrode potential, the structure changes to alternating cationic and anionic layers leading to an overcompensation of the charge of the previous layer. We also calculated the distribution of angles of imidazolium rings near neutral and charged graphene walls, finding a limited influence of the added salt. In addition, the average tilt of the imidazolium ring within the first layer goes from 36° with respect to a normal vector to the uncharged graphene wall to 62° in the presence of charged walls. The free energy profiles revealed that lithium and potassium ions are adsorbed on the negative surface only for the highest amount of salt, since the free energy barriers for approaching this electrode are considerably higher than kBT. PMID:24871696

  7. Salt Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Liming; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2002-01-01

    Studying salt stress is an important means to the understanding of plant ion homeostasis and osmo-balance. Salt stress research also benefits agriculture because soil salinity significantly limits plant productivity on agricultural lands. Decades of physiological and molecular studies have generated a large body of literature regarding potential salt tolerance determinants. Recent advances in applying molecular genetic analysis and genomics tools in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are sh...

  8. Volumetric properties, viscosities and refractive indices of binary liquid mixtures of tetrafluoroborate-based ionic liquids with methanol at several temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Mixtures of [bmim][BF4] or [emim][BF4] with methanol were studied. • Density, speed of sound, viscosity and refractive index were determined. • Excess volumes, isentropic compressibilities, properties deviations were calculated. • Properties excess and deviations were correlated with temperature and composition. - Abstract: Densities, speeds of sound, viscosities and refractive indices of two binary systems 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [bmim][BF4] + methanol and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [emim][BF4] + methanol, as well as of all pure components, have been measured covering the whole range of compositions at T = (278.15 to 318.15) K and p = 101 kPa. From this data, excess molar volumes, excess isentropic compressibilities, viscosity deviations and refractive index deviations were calculated and fitted to extended versions of the Redlich–Kister equation. Estimated coefficients of these equations taking into account the dependence on composition and temperature simultaneously were also presented

  9. Structural studies of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate/TX-100/ p-xylene ionic liquid microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan'an; Zhang, Jin; Xu, Hongyan; Zhao, Xueyan; Zheng, Liqiang; Li, Xinwei; Yu, Li

    2006-07-17

    The ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmimBF4) forms nonaqueous microemulsions with p-xylene, with the aid of the nonionic surfactant TX-100. The phase behavior of the ternary system is investigated, and three microregions of the microemulsions-ionic liquid-in-oil (IL/O), bicontinuous, and oil-in-ionic liquid (O/IL)-are identified by conductivity measurements, according to percolation theory. On the basis of a phase diagram, a series of IL/O microemulsions are chosen and characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The size of aggregates increases on increasing the amount of added polar component (bmimBF(4)), which is a similar phenomenon to that observed for typical water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsions, suggesting the formation of IL/O microemulsions. The microstructural characteristics of the microemulsions are investigated by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The results indicate that the interaction between the electronegative oxygen atoms of the oxyethylene (OE) units in TX-100 and the electropositive imidazolium ring may be the driving force for the solubilization of bmimBF4 into the core of the TX-100 aggregates. In addition, the micropolarity of the microemulsions is investigated by using methyl orange (MO) as a UV/Vis spectroscopic probe. A relatively constant polarity of the microemulsion droplets is obtained in the IL microemulsion. Finally, a plausible structure for the IL/O microemulsion is presented. PMID:16789041

  10. Effect of mono-, di- and tri-ethanolammonium tetrafluoroborate protonic ionic liquids on vapour liquid equilibria of ethanol aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vapour pressures were measured using a quasi-static ebulliometer for the binary mixture of (water + ethanol) containing one of three protonic ionic liquids (PIL), namely, mono-, di- or tri-ethanolammonium tetrafluoroborate, over the temperature range of (318.24 to 356.58) K at fixed PIL content of 0.30 in mass fraction. The vapour pressure data of the PIL-containing ternary systems were correlated using the NRTL equation with an overall root mean square deviation (RMSD) of 0.0092. The regressed NRTL parameters were used to predict the isobaric vapour liquid equilibria (VLE) for ternary systems (water + ethanol + PIL) at varying mass fraction of PIL and atmospheric pressure (101.3 kPa). It is shown that the effect of PILs on the VLE of the (water + ethanol) mixture follows the order: [HTEA][BF4] > [HDEA][BF4] > [HMEA][BF4]. In addition, the relative volatilities of ethanol to water for pseudo-binary systems (water + ethanol + PIL) were calculated. The results indicate that the PILs studied can enhance the relative volatility of ethanol to water and even break the azeotropic behaviour of ethanol aqueous solution when PIL content is increased to a specified content.

  11. Effect of mono-, di- and tri-ethanolammonium tetrafluoroborate protonic ionic liquids on vapour liquid equilibria of ethanol aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Chong [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering and College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Ma Xiaoyan [College of Science, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Lu Yingzhou [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering and College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Li Chunxi, E-mail: Licx@mail.buct.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering and College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Vapour pressures were measured using a quasi-static ebulliometer for the binary mixture of (water + ethanol) containing one of three protonic ionic liquids (PIL), namely, mono-, di- or tri-ethanolammonium tetrafluoroborate, over the temperature range of (318.24 to 356.58) K at fixed PIL content of 0.30 in mass fraction. The vapour pressure data of the PIL-containing ternary systems were correlated using the NRTL equation with an overall root mean square deviation (RMSD) of 0.0092. The regressed NRTL parameters were used to predict the isobaric vapour liquid equilibria (VLE) for ternary systems (water + ethanol + PIL) at varying mass fraction of PIL and atmospheric pressure (101.3 kPa). It is shown that the effect of PILs on the VLE of the (water + ethanol) mixture follows the order: [HTEA][BF{sub 4}] > [HDEA][BF{sub 4}] > [HMEA][BF{sub 4}]. In addition, the relative volatilities of ethanol to water for pseudo-binary systems (water + ethanol + PIL) were calculated. The results indicate that the PILs studied can enhance the relative volatility of ethanol to water and even break the azeotropic behaviour of ethanol aqueous solution when PIL content is increased to a specified content.

  12. Study of a shear thickening fluid: the dispersions of silica nanoparticles in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dispersions was prepared by dispersing hydrophilic silica nanoparticles with an average diameter of 50 nm in 1-butyl-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C4mim][BF4]), and investigated under the steady shear and oscillatory shear, respectively. Experimental results indicate that all of the dispersions present shear thinning, notable shear thickening, and shear thinning successively with increasing shear rate; the shear thickening behavior is derived from silica nanoparticle clusters and strongly controlled by silica nanoparticle content and temperature. The shear thickening fluid (STF) exhibits reversible property and transient response ability, and the time of transient response is no more than 100 ms. The conductivity of the STF is increased with increasing silica nanoparticle content, and the conductivity of 27 wt% dispersions is even two times as big as that of pure [C4mim][BF4]. The dispersions with high solid content dilate and present a phase transition changing from a liquid-like to a solid-like soft material in the shear thickening region. A theoretical model is developed to imitate the mechanism of shear thickening in the dispersions

  13. Intermolecular/interionic vibrations of 1-methyl-3-n-octylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid and H2O mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirota, Hideaki; Biswas, Ranjit

    2012-11-26

    We report here the low-frequency spectra, resulting from the intermolecular/interionic vibrational dynamics, of aqueous mixtures of an ionic liquid, 1-methyl-3-n-octylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, with the H(2)O mole fractions of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 and the neat ionic liquid and H(2)O within the frequency range of 0.1-700 cm(-1) by means of femtosecond Raman-induced Kerr effect spectroscopy. Addition of H(2)O induces tiny effects on the line shape of the low-frequency Kerr spectrum of the ionic liquid: ca. a 2 cm(-1) red shift in the first moment of the low-frequency spectrum has been observed for a transition from the neat ionic liquid to the binary mixture containing 0.6 mol fraction of H(2)O. Surface tension and liquid density of the mixture also accompany minimal changes upon addition of H(2)O. These results suggest that H(2)O molecules localize at the interface between the ionic and nonpolar regions, and the interionic interaction in the ionic region is weakly perturbed by the existence of H(2)O. On the other hand, successive addition of H(2)O in the mixture slows down the picosecond overdamped relaxation process measured in the 3-300 ps range even though the shear viscosity of the mixture decreases substantially. PMID:23148797

  14. Phosphate salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... levels that are too high, and for preventing kidney stones. They are also taken for treating osteomalacia (often ... But intravenous phosphate salts should not be used. Kidney stones (nephrolithiasis). Taking potassium phosphate by mouth might help ...

  15. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  16. Microscopic structures of ionic liquids 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate in water probed by the relative chemical shift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The relative chemical shifts (△δ) △δwere put forward to investigate the microscopic structure of 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EmimBF4) during the dilution process with water.The concentration-dependent △δ(C2)H-(C4)H,△δ(C2)H-(C5)H and △δ(C4)H-(C5)H were analyzed.The results reveal that the variations of the microscopic structures of three aromatic protons are inconsistent.The strength of the H-bond between water and three aromatic protons follows the order:(C2)H···O > (C4)H···O > (C5)H···O.The concentration-dependent △δ(C6)H-(C7)H and △δ(C6)H-(C8)H indicate the formation of the H-bonds of (Calkyl)H···O is impossible,and more water is located around (C6)H than around (C7)H or (C8)H.The concentration-dependent △δ(C2)H-(C4)H and △δ(C2)H-(C5)H both increase rapidly when xwater > 0.9 or so,suggesting the ionic pairs of EmimBF4 are dissociated rapidly.The turning points of concentration-dependent △δ(C2)H-(C4)H and △δ(C2)H-(C5)H indicate that some physical properties of the EmimBF4/water mixtures also change at the corresponding concentration point.The microscopic structures of EmimBF4 in water could be clearly detected by the relative chemical shifts.

  17. A volumetric and viscosity study for the binary mixtures of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate with some molecular solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Excess molar volumes and excess logarithm viscosities for the binary mixtures of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluroborate were determined. → The absolute values of VmE follow the sequence: THF > butanone > ethyl acetate > butylamine for the binary systems. → The values of (lnη)E decrease in the order: THF > butylamine > ethyl acetate > butanone. → Ion-dipole interaction, the hydrogen bond, the packing efficiency and the ion-pairs exist in the ionic liquid are believed to influence the excess properties of the related systems. → The information obtained in this work allows us to show how physical properties of molecular solvents affect their interaction with the ionic liquid. - Abstract: Information on the interactions between ionic liquids and molecular solvents are essential for the understanding of the function of ionic liquids in related procedures, and excess properties are sensitive probe for these interactions. In this work, excess molar volume (VmE) and excess logarithmic viscosity ((ln η)E) for the binary mixtures of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C6mim][BF4]) with butanone, ethyl acetate, butylamine, and tetrahydrofuran have been determined from density and viscosity measurements in the whole composition range at the temperature of 298.15 K. It is found that for the studied systems, the values of VmE are negative but those of (ln η)E are positive in the whole concentration range. The VmE values show their minimum at the ionic liquid mole fraction of 0.3, and (ln η)E values exhibit a maximum at the same composition. The absolute values of VmE follow the sequence: tetrahydrofuran > butanone > ethyl acetate > butylamine for the binary systems, whereas the values of (ln η)E decrease in the order: tetrahydrofuran > butylamine > ethyl acetate > butanone. The results have been analyzed through the ion-dipole interaction, the hydrogen bonding, the packing efficiency and the ion-pairs exist in the ionic

  18. Role of solubilized water in the reverse ionic liquid microemulsion of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate/TX-100/benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan'an; Li, Na; Zheng, Liqiang; Bai, Xiangtao; Yu, Li; Zhao, Xueyan; Zhang, Jin; Zhao, Mingwei; Li, Zhen

    2007-03-15

    The ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmimBF4) can form nonaqueous microemulsions with benzene by the aid of nonionic surfactant TX-100. The effect of water on ionic liquid-in-oil (IL/O) microemulsions was studied, and it was shown that the addition of small amount of water to the IL microemulsion contributed to the stability of microemulsion and thus increased the amount of solubilized bmimBF4 in the microemulsion. The conductivity measurements also showed that the attractive interactions between IL microdroplets were weakened, that is, the IL/O microemulsion becomes more stable in the present of some water. Fourier transform IR was carried out to analyze the states of the added water, and the result showed that these water molecules mainly behaved as bound water and trapped water, indicating that the water molecules are located in the palisade layers of the IL/O microemulsion. Furthermore, 1H NMR and 19F NMR spectra suggested that the added water molecules built the hydrogen binding network of imidazolium cations and H2O, BF4- anion and H2O, and at the same time the electronegative oxygen atoms of the oxyethylene units of TX-100 and water in the palisade layers, which made the palisade layers more firm and thus increased the stability of the microemulsion. The study can help in further understanding the formation mechanism of microemulsions. In addition, the characteristic solubilization behavior of the added water can provide an aqueous interface film for hydrolysis reactions and therefore may be used as an ideal medium to prepare porous or hollow nanomaterials. PMID:17305388

  19. The effect of water on the microstructure of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate/TX-100/benzene ionic liquid microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan'an; Li, Na; Zheng, Liqiang; Zhao, Xueyan; Zhang, Jin; Cao, Quan; Zhao, Mingwei; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Gaoyong

    2007-01-01

    The ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF4]) forms nonaqueous microemulsions with benzene with the aid of nonionic surfactant TX-100. The phase diagram of the ternary system was prepared, and the microstructures of the microemulsion were recognized. On the basis of the phase diagram, a series of ionic liquid-in-oil (IL/O) microemulsions were chosen and characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), which shows a similar swelling behavior to typical water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsions. The existence of IL pools in the IL/O microemulsion was confirmed by UV/Vis spectroscopic analysis with CoCl2 and methylene blue (MB) as the absorption probes. A constant polarity of the IL pool is observed, even if small amounts of water are added to the microemulsion, thus suggesting that the water molecules are solubilized in the polar outer shell of the microemulsion, as confirmed by FTIR spectra. 1H NMR spectroscopic analysis shows that these water molecules interact with the electronegative oxygen atoms of the oxyethylene (OE) units of TX-100 through hydrogen-bonding interactions, and the electronegative oxygen atoms of the water molecules attract the electropositive imidazolium rings of [bmim][BF4]. Hence, the water molecules are like a glue that stick the IL and OE units more tightly together and thus make the microemulsion system more stable. Considering the unique solubilization behavior of added water molecules, the IL/O microemulsion system may be used as a medium to prepare porous or hollow nanomaterials by hydrolysis reactions. PMID:17177215

  20. Thermal reaction of the ionic liquid 1,2-dimethyl-(3-aminoethyl) imidazolium tetrafluoroborate: a kinetic and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinming; Cao, Bobo; Liu, Shuangyue; Sun, Xuejun; Zhu, Xiao; Fu, Hu

    2016-06-01

    Since the thermal stabilities of ionic liquids (ILs) are of significance for their application, an amine-functionalized IL 1,2-dimethyl-(3-aminoethyl) imidazolium tetrafluoroborate [aEMMIM][BF4] was chosen to study thermal decomposition mechanisms via the methods of FT-IR, (1)H NMR, TGA, TGA-MS and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Theoretical and experimental results indicated that amine-functionalization reduces the thermal stability of [aEMMIM][BF4] compared to its non-functionalized counterpart. Moreover, we found that [aEMMIM][BF4] follows a unimolecular nucleophilic substitution (SN1) decomposition (98.8 %), whereas the bimolecular nucleophilic substitution (SN2) decomposition (1.2 %) is unfavorable. The SN1 and SN2 reactions were fully optimized at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level, and the energies of reactant (R), intermediates (IM), transition state (TS) and product (P) were obtained and analyzed by reaction mechanism. The energy of the intermediate is higher than that of the reactants by 18.92 kJ mol(-1), and the energy of the TS is higher than that of the IM by 155.23 kJ mol(-1). This result indicates that the IM are also more stable than the P2 product, thus the reaction is endothermic. The chemical nature of the covalent and hydrogen bonds was analyzed by vibrational modes analysis (VMA), nature bond orbital (NBO) and the theory of atoms in molecules (AIM). Graphical Abstract Proposed thermal decomposition of [aEMMIM][BF4] via unimolecular ( SN1) and bimolecular( SN2) nucleophilic substitution mechanisms. The electrostatic potential surface (ESP) of the transition state illustrates that hydrogen bonds are generated when [BF4](-) is close to [aEMMIM](+), and SN1 decomposition is much favorable than SN2 decomposition. PMID:27188725

  1. Synthesis, characterization and crystal structures of two polymorphs of the iodo-bridged ruthenium salt, μ-iodido-bis{η5-cyclopentadienyl-dicarbonyl-ruthenium(II)} tetrafluoroborate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyawade, Eunice A.; Friedrich, Holger B.; M'thiruaine, Cyprian M.; Omondi, Bernard

    2013-09-01

    The reaction of RpI (Rp = (η5-C5H5)Ru(CO)2) and AgBF4 in two different solvents, tetrahydrofuran and dichloromethane afforded two polymorphs of the iodo-bridged cationic complex [Rp2I]BF4. Polymorph I precipitates out of solution as yellow broad-shaped blocks while polymorph II crystallises out as thin-shaped blocks. While I crystallizes in the monoclinic P2/c space group with a = 12.0982(5) Å, b = 9.7923(4) Å, c = 15.5321(6) Å, β = 102.9880(10)°, polymorph (II) crystallizes in the monoclinic P21/c with a = 7.00560(10) Å, b = 14.1446(3) Å, c = 18.2226(3) Å, β = 96.2390(10)°. The IR spectra of the compound showed the presence of terminal carbonyl groups but the absence of bridging carbonyl groups. Thermal studies of the two polymorphs reveal very close melting points, 432.2 and 435.2 K for I and II respectively. The enthalpies associated with their melting points are +15.1 kJ mol-1 and +21.9 kJ mol-1 for polymorphs I and II, respectively. ESI-mass spectroscopy showed the presence of a number of statistically possible combinations of the cationic species. The two polymorphs have also been characterized using DSC, IR and NMR.

  2. Synthesis and biological evaluation of [18F]tetrafluoroborate: a PET imaging agent for thyroid disease and reporter gene imaging of the sodium/iodide symporter

    OpenAIRE

    Jauregui-Osoro, Maite; Sunassee, Kavitha; Weeks, Amanda J.; Berry, David J; Paul, Rowena L.; Cleij, Marcel; Banga, Jasvinder Paul; O’Doherty, Michael J.; Marsden, Paul K.; Clarke, Susan E. M.; Ballinger, James R.; Szanda, Istvan; Cheng, Sheue-yann; Blower, Philip J

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) is a well-established target in thyroid disease and reporter gene imaging using gamma emitters 123I-iodide, 131I-iodide and 99mTc-pertechnetate. However, no PET imaging agent is routinely available. The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate 18F-labelled tetrafluoroborate ([18F]TFB) for PET imaging of hNIS. Methods [18F]TFB was prepared by isotopic exchange of BF4 − with [18F]fluoride in hot hydrochloric acid and purified using an alumin...

  3. Phosphate salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for children 9-18 years of age. Phosphate salts are POSSIBLY UNSAFE if the amount of phosphate consumed (expressed as phosphorous) exceeds the tolerable upper intake level (UL). The ULs are 3 grams per day for children 1-8 years; and 4 grams per day ...

  4. 2-Cyanoanilinium tetrafluoroborate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C7H7N2+·BF4−, the non-H atoms of the cation are almost coplanar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.035 Å. The cations and anions are connected by intermolecular N—H...F and N—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (10overline{1}.

  5. Induction of thermotropic bicontinuous cubic phases in liquid-crystalline ammonium and phosphonium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Takahiro; Yoshio, Masafumi; Hamasaki, Atsushi; Taguchi, Satomi; Liu, Feng; Zeng, Xiang-bing; Ungar, Goran; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Kato, Takashi

    2012-02-01

    Two series of wedge-shaped onium salts, one ammonium and the other phosphonium, having 3,4,5-tris(alkyloxy)benzyl moieties, exhibit thermotropic bicontinuous "gyroid" cubic (Cub(bi)) and hexagonal columnar liquid-crystalline (LC) phases by nanosegregation between ionophilic and ionophobic parts. The alkyl chain lengths on the cationic moieties, anion species, and alkyl chain lengths on the benzyl moieties have crucial effects on their thermotropic phase behavior. For example, triethyl-[3,4,5-tris(dodecyloxy)benzyl]ammonium hexafluorophosphate forms the thermotropic Ia3d Cub(bi) LC phase, whereas an analogous compound with trifluoromethanesulfonate anion shows no LC properties. Synchrotron small-angle diffraction intensities from the Ia3d Cub(bi) LC materials provide electron density maps in the bulk state. The resulting maps show convincingly that the Ia3d Cub(bi) structure is composed of three-dimensionally interconnected ion nanochannel networks surrounded by aliphatic domains. A novel differential mapping technique has been applied successfully. The map of triethyl-[3,4,5-tris(decyloxy)benzyl]ammonium tetrafluoroborate has been subtracted from that of the analogous ammonium salt with hexafluorophosphate anion in the Ia3d Cub(bi) phases. The differential map shows that the counteranions are located in the core of the three-dimensionally interconnected nanochannel networks. Changing from trimethyl- via triethyl- to tripropylammonium cation changes the phase from columnar to Cub(bi) to no mesophase, respectively. This sensitivity to the widened shape for the narrow end of the molecule is explained successfully by the previously proposed semiquantitative geometric model based on the radial distribution of volume in wedge-shaped molecules. The LC onium salts dissolve lithium tetrafluoroborate without losing the Ia3d Cub(bi) LC phase. The Cub(bi) LC materials exhibit efficient ion-transporting behavior as a result of their 3D interconnected ion nanochannel networks

  6. Narrowly size-distributed cobalt salt containing poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) particles by inverse miniemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhihai; Wang, Zhuo; Herrmann, Christine; Ziener, Ulrich; Landfester, Katharina

    2010-05-18

    Cobalt-containing hybrid particles have been prepared through the encapsulation of cobalt tetrafluoroborate hexahydrate (CoTFB) via inverse miniemulsion polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). We systematically varied the amount and type of cosolvent (water, methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol), apolar continuous phase (cyclohexane, isooctane, isopar M, hexadecane), amount of cobalt salt, and molecular weight of the polymeric surfactant. The influence of those parameters on the particle size, size distribution, and particle morphology were investigated. Narrowly size-distributed hybrid particles with good colloidal stability could be obtained in a wide range of cobalt content between 5.7 and 22.6 wt % salt relative to the monomer. The addition of a cosolvent such as water not only promotes the loading of metal salt but also has a positive influence on narrowing the particle size distribution. We assume that generally narrowly size-distributed particles can be obtained for a large variety of combinations of polar/apolar phase by adjusting the balance between osmotic and Laplace pressure via the solubility of the metal salt in the continuous phase and lowering the interfacial tension by adjusting the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value of the surfactant. The results show a significant advantage of the inverse miniemulsion over the direct system with respect to the variability and total amount of metal salt without losing the narrow particle size distribution and colloidal stability. PMID:20112941

  7. Pyridine-promoted dediazoniation of aryldiazonium tetrafluoroborates: Application to the synthesis of SF5-substituted phenylboronic esters and iodobenzenes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Iakobson, George; Du, J.; Slawin, A. M. Z.; Beier, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, Aug 26 (2015), s. 1494-1502. ISSN 1860-5397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/12/0072 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : borylation * diazonium salts * iodination * pyridine * sulfur pentafluorides Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.762, year: 2014 http://www.beilstein-journals.org/bjoc/single/articleFullText.htm?publicId=1860-5397-11-162

  8. States of water located in the continuous organic phase of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate/Triton X-100/triethylamine reverse microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Cao, Quan; Gao, Yanan; Zhang, Jin; Zheng, Liqiang; Bai, Xiangtao; Dong, Bin; Li, Zhen; Zhao, Mingwei; Yu, Li

    2007-10-22

    We demonstrate a novel ionic liquid (IL) microemulsion, consisting of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmimBF4) and nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 prepared in triethylamine which is used either as an organic solvent or a Lewis base. The effects of small amounts of added water on the microstructure of the IL microemulsion are investigated by various techniques. UV/Vis spectroscopic analysis and FTIR spectra indicate that these water molecules are not solubilized into the IL pools of the microemulsions. 1H NMR spectra further show that the added water binds with triethylamine to form a surrounding OH- base environment. Some of OH- ions enter the palisade layers of the IL microemulsions and a continuous base interface is created. The unique solubilization behavior of water reveals that it is possible to use the triethylamine microemulsions as a template to prepare metal hydroxides as well as metal oxides in the microemulsions, which is not possible when using traditional microemulsions. PMID:17886245

  9. Laser flash photolysis study on 9-phenylxanthenium tetrafluoroborate: Identification of new features due to the triplet state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanghamitra Banerjee; Anunay Samanta

    2011-01-01

    Laser flash photolysis study on highly fluorescent and stable salt of 9-phenylxanthenium cation in neutral condition has been carried out for the first time. A new transient absorption band of this extensively studied system that perhaps remained buried under the fluorescence envelope and hitherto undetected has been identified and attributed to the triplet state of the system. This oxygen-insensitive triplet-triplet absorption band in the 480-600 nm range is expected to trigger new studies exploring the reactivity of the triplet state of this system, which has so far received very little attention.

  10. Electrodeposition of tin from EMI⋅BF4⋅Cl room temperature molten salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morimitsu M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemistry of Sn(II was investigated with cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry in the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate molten salt containing free chloride ions (EMI ⋅BF4 ⋅Cl originated from the mixture of EMIC and NaBF4 (60:40 mol%. The well defined redox waves for the electro deposition and dissolution of tin were observed on a platinum electrode at 303 K. The deposition of tin proceeded through a quasi-reversible step with two electron transfer, and the deposited tin was sufficiently recovered during oxidation. The experimental current-time transient coincided with the theory based on one-dimensional diffusion control.

  11. Substituted Quaternary Ammonium Salts Improve Low-Temperature Performance of Double-Layer Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Erik J.; Smart, Marshall C.; West, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Double-layer capacitors are unique energy storage devices, capable of supporting large current pulses as well as a very high number of charging and discharging cycles. The performance of doublelayer capacitors is highly dependent on the nature of the electrolyte system used. Many applications, including for electric and fuel cell vehicles, back-up diesel generators, wind generator pitch control back-up power systems, environmental and structural distributed sensors, and spacecraft avionics, can potentially benefit from the use of double-layer capacitors with lower equivalent series resistances (ESRs) over wider temperature limits. Higher ESRs result in decreased power output, which is a particular problem at lower temperatures. Commercially available cells are typically rated for operation down to only 40 C. Previous briefs [for example, Low Temperature Supercapacitors (NPO-44386), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), p. 32, and Supercapacitor Electrolyte Solvents With Liquid Range Below 80 C (NPO-44855), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 1 (January 2010), p. 44] discussed the use of electrolytes that employed low-melting-point co-solvents to depress the freezing point of traditional acetonitrile-based electrolytes. Using these modified electrolyte formulations can extend the low-temperature operational limit of double-layer capacitors beyond that of commercially available cells. This previous work has shown that although the measured capacitance is relatively insensitive to temperature, the ESR can rise rapidly at low temperatures, due to decreased electrolyte conductance within the pores of the high surface- area carbon electrodes. Most of these advanced electrolyte systems featured tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEATFB) as the salt. More recent work at JPL indicates the use of the asymmetric quaternary ammonium salt triethylmethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEMATFB) or spiro-(l,l')-bipyrrolidium tetrafluoroborate (SBPBF4) in a 1:1 by volume solvent

  12. Solubility of carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, argon, and carbon monoxide in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate between temperatures 283 K and 343 K and at pressures close to atmospheric

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemin, J.; Costa Gomes, M.F.; Husson, P.; Majer, V.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental values for the solubility of carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, argon and carbon monoxide in 1-butyl-3- methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [bmim][BF4] - a room temperature ionic liquid - are reported as a function of temperature between 283 K and 343 K and at pressures close to atmospheric. Carbon dioxide is the most soluble gas with mole fraction solubilities of the order of 10-2. Ethane and methane are one order of magnitude more soluble than the oth...

  13. Salt: a sacred substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santo, N G; Bisaccia, C; De Santo, R M; De Santo, L S; Petrelli, L; Gallo, L; Cirillo, M; Capasso, G

    1997-11-01

    Salt is the last relic of the ocean where life was born. Its presence has influenced the whole gamut of history and its name is linked to hundred of geographical locations. Its importance for nutrition is supported by the discovery of Aeneolithic salt cellars. Salt cellars and pyramids of salt have been included in paintings and other works of art. In Japan where salt was and still is obtained from the sea, a salt culture has developed that can be traced in the rituals of everyday life, including meal preparation, sports, and Shinto ceremonies. PMID:9350697

  14. Decrease of droplet size of the reverse microemulsion 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate/Triton X-100/cyclohexane by addition of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanan; Hilfert, Liane; Voigt, Andreas; Sundmacher, Kai

    2008-03-27

    In the present contribution, results concerning the role of small amounts of water in the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmimBF4)-in-cyclohexane ionic liquid (IL) reverse microemulsions are reported. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) revealed that the size of microemulsion droplets decreased remarkably with increasing water content although water is often used as a polar component to swell reverse microemulsions. It was thus deduced that the number of microemulsion droplets was increased which was confirmed by conductivity measurements. The states of dissolved water were investigated by Fourier transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis showing that water molecules mainly act as bound water. 1H NMR along with two-dimensional rotating frame nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) experiments (ROESY) further revealed that water molecules were mainly located in the periphery of the polar core of the microemulsion droplets and behave like a chock being inserted in the palisade layer of the droplet. This increased the curvature of the surfactant film at the IL/cyclohexane interface and thus led to the decrease of the microemulsion droplet size. The order of surfactant molecules arranged in the interface film was increased and thus induced a loss of entropy. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) indicated that an enthalpy increase compensates for the loss of entropy during the process of microstructural transition. PMID:18318531

  15. Synthesis and biological evaluation of [18F]tetrafluoroborate: a PET imaging agent for thyroid disease and reporter gene imaging of the sodium/iodide symporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) is a well-established target in thyroid disease and reporter gene imaging using gamma emitters 123I-iodide, 131I-iodide and 99mTc-pertechnetate. However, no PET imaging agent is routinely available. The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate 18F-labelled tetrafluoroborate ([18F]TFB) for PET imaging of hNIS. [18F]TFB was prepared by isotopic exchange of BF4- with [18F]fluoride in hot hydrochloric acid and purified using an alumina column. Its identity, purity and stability in serum were determined by HPLC, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and mass spectrometry. Its interaction with NIS was assessed in vitro using FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells, with and without stimulation by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), in the presence and absence of perchlorate. Biodistribution and PET imaging studies were performed using BALB/c mice, with and without perchlorate inhibition. [18F]TFB was readily prepared with specific activity of 10 GBq/mg. It showed rapid accumulation in FRTL-5 cells that was stimulated by TSH and inhibited by perchlorate, and rapid specific accumulation in vivo in thyroid (SUV = 72 after 1 h) and stomach that was inhibited 95% by perchlorate. [18F]TFB is an easily prepared PET imaging agent for rodent NIS and should be evaluated for hNIS PET imaging in humans. (orig.)

  16. Analysis of Reaction between α-Lipoic Acid and 2-Chloro-1-methylquinolinium Tetrafluoroborate Used as a Precolumn Derivatization Technique in Chromatographic Determination of α-Lipoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Godlewska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study offers results of analysis concerning the course of reaction between reduced α-lipoic acid (LA and 2-chloro-1-methylquinolinium tetrafluoroborate (CMQT. In water environments, the reaction between CMQT and hydrophilic thiols proceeds very rapidly and the resultant products are stable. For the described analysis, optimum reaction conditions, such as concentration of the reducing agent, environment pH, and concentration of the reagent were carefully selected. The spectrophotometric assay was carried out measuring absorbance at λ=348 nm (i.e., the spectral band of the obtained reaction product. Furthermore, the calibration curve of lipoic acid was registered. It was concluded that the Lambert-Beer law was observed within the range 1–10 μmol L−1. Later, the reaction between LA and CMQT was used as precolumn derivatization in a chromatographic determination of the lipoic acid in the range 2.5–50 μmol L−1. Practical applicability of the designed methods was evaluated by determining lipoic acid in Revitanerv pharmaceutical preparation which contains 300 mg LA in a single capsule. The error of the determination did not exceed 0.5% in relation to the declared value.

  17. Rapid and simultaneous determination of tetrafluoroborate, thiocyanate and hexafluorophosphate by high-performance liquid chromatography using a monolithic column and direct conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ling; Yu, Hong; Wang, Yaqin

    2010-01-01

    A method was developed for fast and simultaneous determination of tetrafluoroborate (BF(4)(-)), thiocyanate (SCN(-)) and hexafluorophosphate (PF(6)(-)) by high-performance liquid chromatography using a silica-based monolithic column and direct (non-suppressed) conductivity detection. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Chromolith Speed ROD RP-18e column with tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBA) + citric acid + acetonitrile as eluent. The effects of the types of eluent, TBA concentration, acetonitrile volume fraction, eluent pH, column temperature and flow rate on the retention of anions were investigated. The optimized chromatographic conditions were selected. Under the optimal conditions, the baseline separation of BF(4)(-), SCN(-) and PF(6)(-) was achieved without any interference by other anions (F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), NO(3)(-), ClO(3)(-) and SO(4)(2-)). The detection limit (S/N = 3) was 0.42, 0.46 and 1.42 mg L(-1) for BF(4)(-), SCN(-) and PF(6)(-), respectively. The present method was successfully applied to the determination of BF(4)(-), SCN(-) and PF(6)(-) in ionic liquids. PMID:20702939

  18. Mixing thermodynamic properties of 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [b4mpy][BF4] with water and with an alkan-1ol (methanol to pentanol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents a study of the behaviour in solution of 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [b4mpy][BF4] in water and in the first five alkanols of the series methanol to pentan-1-ol. The excess enthalpies, HmE and volumes, VmE were determined at the temperatures (298.15 and 318.15) K. At these temperatures, the [b4mpy][BF4] was completely miscible in water, methanol, and ethanol, but only partially miscible in the other alkanols. A solubility study was carried out and the (liquid + liquid) equilibria of the ([b4mpy][BF4] + alkanol) systems were experimentally determined, evaluating zones of complete miscibility and determining the UCST in each case. The mixtures with water gave positive values of HmE and VmE, being also positive the changes of these quantities with temperature. The mixtures with alkanols gave values of HmE>0 and VmEmE/dT)p>0 and (dVmE/dT)p4]. Excess properties were correlated with a suitable equation and the area and volume parameters were calculated for [b4mpy][BF4

  19. Self-aggregation of ionic liquid 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [C4mmim][BF4] in aqueous media: A conductometric, volumetric and spectroscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Self-aggregation behaviour of [C4mmim][BF4] has been studied using various techniques. • Thermodynamic parameters showing aggregation is an entropy-driven process. • Volumetric analysis indicates aggregation is influenced by solute–solvent interactions. • 1H NMR revealed formation of loosely bound aggregates in the system. - Abstract: Aggregation behaviour of ionic liquid (IL), 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [C4mmim][BF4] in aqueous media has been studied by electrical conductivity, density and speed of sound measurements across temperature range (288.15–308.15) K. The critical aggregation concentration (cac), the standard Gibb’s free energy of aggregation, ΔG°agg, adiabatic compressibility, βS and changes in the adiabatic compressibility upon aggregation, ΔβS,agg for the IL in aqueous solution have been derived from the experimental data. Further to get the deeper insights into the aggregation process spectroscopic study using 1H NMR measurements have been carried out. The aggregation behaviour observed from conductance and volumetric approaches has been found to be in good agreement with each other. NMR study revealed the formation of loosely bound ion associates as aggregates in the system upon aggregation

  20. High-precision quadruple isotope dilution method for simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate in seawater by GCMS after derivatization with triethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • High-precision determination of nitrite and nitrate in seawater. • Use of quadruple isotope dilution. • Aqueous Et3O+[BF4]− derivatization chemistry for GCMS analysis of nitrite and nitrate. - Abstract: Quadruple isotope dilution mass spectrometry (ID4MS) has been applied for simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate in seawater. ID4MS allows high-precision measurements and entails the use of isotopic internal standards (18O-nitrite and 15N-nitrate). We include a tutorial on ID4MS outlining optimal experimental design which generates results with low uncertainties and obviates the need for direct (separate) evaluation of the procedural blank. Nitrite and nitrate detection was achieved using a headspace GCMS procedure based on single-step aqueous derivatization with triethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate at room temperature. In this paper the sample preparation was revised and fundamental aspects of this chemistry are presented. The proposed method has detection limits in the low parts-per-billion for both analytes, is reliable, precise, and has been validated using a seawater certified reference material (MOOS-2). Simplicity of the experimental design, low detection limits, and the use of quadruple isotope dilution makes the present method superior to the state-of-the-art for determination of nitrite and nitrate, and an ideal candidate for reference measurements of these analytes in seawater

  1. High-precision quadruple isotope dilution method for simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate in seawater by GCMS after derivatization with triethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagliano, Enea, E-mail: enea.pagliano@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca; Meija, Juris; Mester, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • High-precision determination of nitrite and nitrate in seawater. • Use of quadruple isotope dilution. • Aqueous Et₃O⁺BF₄]⁻ derivatization chemistry for GCMS analysis of nitrite and nitrate. Abstract: Quadruple isotope dilution mass spectrometry (ID⁴MS) has been applied for simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate in seawater. ID⁴MS allows high-precision measurements and entails the use of isotopic internal standards (¹⁸O-nitrite and ¹⁵N-nitrate). We include a tutorial on ID⁴MS outlining optimal experimental design which generates results with low uncertainties and obviates the need for direct (separate) evaluation of the procedural blank. Nitrite and nitrate detection was achieved using a headspace GCMS procedure based on single-step aqueous derivatization with triethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate at room temperature. In this paper the sample preparation was revised and fundamental aspects of this chemistry are presented. The proposed method has detection limits in the low parts-per-billion for both analytes, is reliable, precise, and has been validated using a seawater certified reference material (MOOS-2). Simplicity of the experimental design, low detection limits, and the use of quadruple isotope dilution makes the present method superior to the state-of-the-art for determination of nitrite and nitrate, and an ideal candidate for reference measurements of these analytes in seawater.

  2. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    A molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication.

  3. Thermodynamic properties of ternary mixtures of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate with 1-methyl pyrrolidin-2-one or pyrrolidin-2-one + water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The VijkE and (κSE)ijk data have been measured over entire mole fraction at 4 temperature. • The VijkE and (κSE)ijk data have been fitted to Redlich–Kister equation. • The observed data have been analyzed in terms of Graph theory. • The VijkE and (κSE)ijk values predicted by Graph theory compare well with experimental values. - Abstract: Densities, ρijk and speeds of sound, uijk of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (i) + 1-methyl pyrrolidin-2-one or pyrrolidin-2-one (j) + water (k) ternary mixtures have been measured over the complete mole fraction range at 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, and 308.15 K using density and speed of sound analyzer (Anton Paar DSA 5000). The heat capacity, Cp of water at 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, and 308.15 K have also been measured using differential scanning calorimeter (Model – μDSC 7 Evo). The measured data have been employed to determine excess molar volumes, VijkE and excess isentropic compressibilities, (κSE)ijk. The VijkE and (κSE)ijk data have been fitted to Redlich–Kister equation to calculate ternary adjustable parameters and standard deviations. The observed thermodynamic properties of the ternary mixtures have been analyzed in terms of Graph theory. It has been observed that Graph theory successfully describes well VijkE and (κSE)ijk data of the studied ternary ionic liquid mixtures

  4. Synthesis and biological evaluation of [{sup 18}F]tetrafluoroborate: a PET imaging agent for thyroid disease and reporter gene imaging of the sodium/iodide symporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauregui-Osoro, Maite; Sunassee, Kavitha; Weeks, Amanda J.; Berry, David J.; Paul, Rowena L.; Cleij, Marcel; O' Doherty, Michael J.; Marsden, Paul K.; Szanda, Istvan; Blower, Philip J. [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences, London (United Kingdom); Banga, Jasvinder Paul [King' s College London, Division of Cell and Gene Based Therapy, London (United Kingdom); Clarke, Susan E.M.; Ballinger, James R. [Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Cheng, Sheue-Yann [National Cancer Institute, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Bethesda (United States)

    2010-11-15

    The human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) is a well-established target in thyroid disease and reporter gene imaging using gamma emitters {sup 123}I-iodide, {sup 131}I-iodide and {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate. However, no PET imaging agent is routinely available. The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate {sup 18}F-labelled tetrafluoroborate ([{sup 18}F]TFB) for PET imaging of hNIS. [{sup 18}F]TFB was prepared by isotopic exchange of BF{sub 4} {sup -} with [{sup 18}F]fluoride in hot hydrochloric acid and purified using an alumina column. Its identity, purity and stability in serum were determined by HPLC, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and mass spectrometry. Its interaction with NIS was assessed in vitro using FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells, with and without stimulation by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), in the presence and absence of perchlorate. Biodistribution and PET imaging studies were performed using BALB/c mice, with and without perchlorate inhibition. [{sup 18}F]TFB was readily prepared with specific activity of 10 GBq/mg. It showed rapid accumulation in FRTL-5 cells that was stimulated by TSH and inhibited by perchlorate, and rapid specific accumulation in vivo in thyroid (SUV = 72 after 1 h) and stomach that was inhibited 95% by perchlorate. [{sup 18}F]TFB is an easily prepared PET imaging agent for rodent NIS and should be evaluated for hNIS PET imaging in humans. (orig.)

  5. Copper(II) tetrafluoroborate complexes with the N(3),N(4)-bridging coordination of 1-(tert-butyl)-1H-tetrazole: synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtyarik, Mikhail M; Lyakhov, Alexander S; Ivashkevich, Ludmila S; Matulis, Vitaly E; Matulis, Vadim E; Gruschinski, Sina; Voitekhovich, Sergei V; Kersting, Berthold; Ivashkevich, Oleg A

    2015-11-14

    1-(tert-Butyl)-1H-tetrazole (L) reacts with copper(ii) tetrafluoroborate hexahydrate to give the complexes [Cu2L8(H2O)2](BF4)4 (1) or [Cu3L6(H2O)6](BF4)6 (2) depending on the reaction conditions. These complexes, as well as compound L, were characterized using single crystal X-ray analysis. Complex 1 was found to comprise a dinuclear complex cation [Cu2L8(H2O)2](4+) (the Ci symmetry point group), with six tetrazole ligands L showing monodentate N(4)-coordination, and two ligands L providing two tetrazole ring N(3),N(4) bridges between the copper(ii) cations; water molecules complete the distorted octahedral coordination of the metal ions. Complex 2 includes a linear trinuclear complex cation [Cu3L6(H2O)6](6+) (the S6 symmetry point group), in which neighbouring copper(ii) cations are linked by three ligands L via tetrazole ring N(3),N(4) bridges; central and terminal metal ions show octahedral CuN6 and CuN3O3 coordination cores, respectively. The temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements of complex 2 revealed that the copper(ii) ions were weakly ferromagnetically coupled showing a coupling constant J of 2.2 cm(-1) {H = -2J(S1S2 + S2S3)}. The quantum-chemical investigation of the electronic structure and basicity of ligand L was carried out. PMID:26442910

  6. Mixing thermodynamic properties of 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [b4mpy][BF{sub 4}] with water and with an alkan-1ol (methanol to pentanol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, J. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)], E-mail: jortega@dip.ulpgc.es; Vreekamp, R.; Penco, E.; Marrero, E. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    This article presents a study of the behaviour in solution of 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [b4mpy][BF{sub 4}] in water and in the first five alkanols of the series methanol to pentan-1-ol. The excess enthalpies, H{sub m}{sup E} and volumes, V{sub m}{sup E} were determined at the temperatures (298.15 and 318.15) K. At these temperatures, the [b4mpy][BF{sub 4}] was completely miscible in water, methanol, and ethanol, but only partially miscible in the other alkanols. A solubility study was carried out and the (liquid + liquid) equilibria of the ([b4mpy][BF{sub 4}] + alkanol) systems were experimentally determined, evaluating zones of complete miscibility and determining the UCST in each case. The mixtures with water gave positive values of H{sub m}{sup E} and V{sub m}{sup E}, being also positive the changes of these quantities with temperature. The mixtures with alkanols gave values of H{sub m}{sup E}>0 and V{sub m}{sup E}<0, and for these binary mixtures (dH{sub m}{sup E}/dT){sub p}>0 and (dV{sub m}{sup E}/dT){sub p}<0. For all cases, results were interpreted and compared with data obtained in mixtures with another isomer [b3mpy][BF{sub 4}]. Excess properties were correlated with a suitable equation and the area and volume parameters were calculated for [b4mpy][BF{sub 4}].

  7. SALT Science Conference 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, David; Schroeder, Anja

    The Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) has seen great changes in the last years following the beginning of full time science operations in 2011. The three first generation instruments, namely the SALTICAM imager, the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) and its multiple modes and finally in 2014, the new High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS), have commissioned it. The SALT community now eagerly anticipate the installation and commissioning of the near-infrared arm of RSS, likely to commence in 2016. The the third "Science with SALT" conference was held at the Stellenbosch Institute of Advanced Study from 1-5 June 2015. The goals of this conference were to: -Present and discuss recent results from SALT observations; -Anticipate scientific programs that will be carried out with new SALT instrumentation such as RSS-NIR; -Provide a scientific environment in which to foster inter-institutional and inter-facility collaborations between scientists at the different SALT partners; -Provide an opportunity for students and postdocs to become more engaged in SALT science and operations; -Encourage the scientific strategic planning that will be necessary to insure an important role for SALT in an era of large astronomical facilities in the southern hemisphere such as MeerKAT, the SKA, LSST, and ALMA; -Consider options for future instrumentation and technical development of SALT; and, -Present, discuss, and engage in the SALT Collateral Benefits program led by SAAO. Conference proceedings editors: David Buckley and Anja Schroeder

  8. Salt Weathering on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagoutz, E.

    2006-12-01

    Large well rounded boulders and angular rock fragments characterizes the Martian landscape as seen on the recent excellent quality photos. Analyzing the different rock-shapes indicates a time sequence of emplacement, fragmentation and transport of different rocks on Mars, which might give interesting insight into transport and weathering processes. Larger commonly well rounded boulders were emplaced onto gravel plains. After emplacement, these rocks were fragmented and disassembled. Nests of angular rock fragments are marking the locations of preexisting larger rocks. Frequently it is possible to reconstruct larger rounded rocks from smaller angular fragments. In other cases transport after fragmentation obscured the relationship of the fragments. However, a strewn field of fragments is still reminiscent of the preexisting rock. Mechanical salt weathering could be a plausible explanation for the insitu fragmentation of larger rounded blocks into angular fragments. Impact or secondary air fall induced fragmentation produces very different patterns, as observed around impact crates on Earth. Salt weathering of rocks is a common process in terrestrial environments. Salt crystallization in capillaries causes fragmentation of rocks, irrespective of the process of salt transportation and concentration. On Earth significant salt weathering can be observed in different climatic environments: in the transition zone of alluvial aprons and salt playas in desserts and in dry valleys of Antarctica. In terrestrial semi-arid areas the salt is transported by salt solution, which is progressively concentrated by evaporation. In Antarctic dry valleys freeze-thaw cycles causes salt transportation and crystallization resulting in rock fragmentation. This salt induced process can lead to complete destruction of rocks and converts rocks to fine sand. The efficient breakdown of rocks is dominating the landscape in some dry valleys of the Earth but possibly also on Mars. (Malin, 1974

  9. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... harmful to you, a salt substitute is a good way to lower the amount of sodium in your diet. Alternate Names Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction Images Low sodium diet References American Heart Association Nutrition Committee; Lichtenstein AH, Appel LJ, Brands M, Carnethon M, Daniels S, et al. Diet and ...

  10. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  11. Salt Tolerance in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsui-Hung Phang; Guihua Shao; Hon-Ming Lam

    2008-01-01

    Soybean is an Important cash crop and its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress. High salt Imposes negative impacts on growth, nodulation, agronomy traits, seed quality and quantity, and thus reduces the yield of soybean. To cope with salt stress, soybean has developed several tolerance mechanisms, including: (I) maintenance of ion homeostasis; (ii) adjustment in response to osmotic stress; (iii) restoration of osmotic balance; and (iv) other metabolic and structural adaptations. The regulatory network for abiotic stress responses in higher plants has been studied extensively in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Some homologous components involved in salt stress responses have been identified in soybean. In this review, we tried to integrate the relevant works on soybean and proposes a working model to descdbe Its salt stress responses at the molecular level.

  12. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained

  13. Physical and excess properties of a room temperature ionic liquid (1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) with n-alkoxyethanols (C1Em, m = 1 to 3) at T = (298.15 to 318.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physical properties, such as densities, ρ, and refractive indices, n, for the binary mixtures of 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [Omim][BF4] with ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGMME; C1E1), diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (DEGMME; C1E2), and triethylene glycol monomethyl ether (TEGMME; C1E3) have been measured over the whole composition range. Experimental densities were used to estimate excess molar volumes, VmE, apparent molar volumes, Vφ,i, partial molar volumes, V-barm,i, excess partial molar volumes, V-barm,iE, and their limiting values at infinite dilution, Vφ,i∞, V-barm,i∞, and V-barm,iE,∞, respectively. Volumetric results have been analyzed in the light of Prigogine-Flory-Patterson (PFP) statistical mechanical theory. Deviations in refractive indices Δφn have been calculated from experimental measurements of refractive indices, n. Excess properties are fitted to the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation to obtain the binary coefficients and the standard errors. The results are compared with those of binary mixtures of 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate containing alcohols reported in the literature or the binary mixtures of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [bmim][PF6] with an alkoxyethanol reported in an earlier communication

  14. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well

  15. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  16. Cooking without salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... salt. Herbs and spices on vegetables: Carrots -- Cinnamon, cloves, dill, ginger, marjoram, nutmeg, rosemary, sage Corn -- Cumin, ... chopped ¾ cup green peppers 2 tsp vegetable oil 1 8-oz can tomato sauce* 1 tsp ...

  17. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Team Concert festivals are all about good music, good friends, and big crowds. But for some ... school, North Carolina: Are bath salts becoming more popular? Marsha Lopez Hi, Lauren. Nope! Actually quite the ...

  18. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. Emphasize is put essentially on the fuel salt of the primary circuit inside which fission reactions occur. The reasons why the (LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4) salt was chosen for the M.S.B.R. concept are examined; the physical, physicochemical and chemical properties of this salt are discussed with its interactions with the structural materials and its evolution in time. An important part of this volume is devoted to the continuous reprocessing of the active salt, the project designers having deemed advisable to take advantage at best from the availability of a continuous purification, in a thermal breeding. The problem of tritium formation and distribution inside the reactor is also envisaged and the fundamentals of the chemistry of the secondary coolant salt are given. The solutions proposed are: the hydrogen scavenging of the primary circuit, a reduction in metal permeability by an oxyde layer deposition on the side in contact with the vapor, and tritium absorption through an isotope exchange with the hydroxifluoroborate

  19. Ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria for mixtures of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium (tetrafluoroborate or hexafluorophosphate) + benzene + an alkane at T=298.2 K and p=0.1 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data are presented for mixtures of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium (tetrafluoroborate or hexafluorophosphate) + benzene + (heptane or dodecane or hexadecane) at T=298.2 K. The tie line compositions of the conjugate solutions were obtained by means of density measurements and a standard density calibration curve. Large regions of immiscibility (increasing in the order of hexadecane > dodecane > heptane) and favourable skewing of the tie lines towards the solvent axis provide indications of the favourable use of the ionic liquids in solvent extraction. Selectivity values computed from the experimental data confirm this. Correlation of the experimental tie lines was conducted through the use of the NTRL equation, which provides good correlation of the experimental data

  20. Solubility of carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, argon, and carbon monoxide in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate between temperatures 283 K and 343 K and at pressures close to atmospheric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental values for the solubility of carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, argon and carbon monoxide in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [bmim][BF4] - a room temperature ionic liquid - are reported as a function of temperature between 283 K and 343 K and at pressures close to atmospheric. Carbon dioxide is the most soluble gas with mole fraction solubilities of the order of 10-2. Ethane and methane are one order of magnitude more soluble than the other five gases that have mole fraction solubilities of the order of 10-4. Hydrogen is the less soluble of the gaseous solutes studied. From the variation of solubility, expressed as Henry's law constants, with temperature, the partial molar thermodynamic functions of solvation such as the standard Gibbs energy, the enthalpy, and the entropy are calculated. The precision of the experimental data, considered as the average absolute deviation of the Henry's law constants from appropriate smoothing equations is of 1%

  1. Safe in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geologic history of the 'Germanic Basin', in which saline sediments were piled up in different strata over a period of nearly 100 million years, and the formation of 'salt deposits' as a consequence of tectonic movements (strata bends, dislocations of strata) in the north-west german region are described. As compact rock being 'harnessed' in the ground, mineral salt is completely impermeable to gases and liquids. Its plasticity prevents any formation of pores or crevasses resp. eliminates existing ones. This impermeable quality has been used technically for a long time in order to use solution-mined caverns for the storage of petroleum or gas without containers. Furthermore, for storing radioactive substances it is of particular importance that mineral salt has the highest thermal conductivity of all sedimentary rocks, so that a local heat up will be distributed quickly. All considerations on a safe storage stem from the fact that all actions take place within rock-mechanically homogeneous mineral salt. Bands of different rocks lead to discontinuities and may render a mechanical calculation impossible in some cases. A careful exploration of the internal structure of salt deposits is therefore one of the most important prerequisites for a safe storage of substances to be separated from the biosphere. (RB)

  2. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  3. Clean Salt integrated flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Salt Process (CSP) is a novel waste management scheme that removes sodium nitrate and aluminum nitrate nonahydrate as decontaminated (low specific activity) salts from Hanford's high-level waste (HLW). The full scale process will separate the bulk of the waste that exists as sodium salts from the small portion of the waste that is by definition radioactive and dangerous. This report presents initial conceptual CSP flowsheets and demonstrates the benefit of integrating the process into the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Reference Flowsheet. Total HLW and low-level (LLW) volumes are reported for two different CSP integration options and are compared to the TWRS Reference Flowsheet values. The results for a single glass option eliminating LLW disposal are also reported

  4. Gas releases from salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.

    1998-06-01

    The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

  5. Mechanism for salt scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  6. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  7. Salt repository design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a summary discussion of the approaches that have been and will be taken in design of repository facilities for use with disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations. Since specific sites have yet to be identified, the discussion is at a general level, supplemented with illustrative examples where appropriate. 5 references, 1 figure

  8. Composition for preventing salt depositing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhaylov, S.A.; Balakin, V.M.; Lezhenin, V.V.; Litvinets, Yu.I.; Marinin, N.S.; Talankin, V.S.; Yaryshev, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    A composition is proposed for preventing salt depositing which includes polyethylene-polyamine-N-methyl phosphonic acid or its salt and water. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the degree of prevention of the salt depositing under low temperature conditions, it additionally contains ethylene glycol with the following ratio of components (% by mass): polyethylene polyamine-N-methylphosphonic acid or its salt 5-12; ethylene glycol 30-50; water--the rest.

  9. Salt acclimation processes in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Tibor; Darko, Éva; Shehata, Sami; Kovács, Viktória; Pál, Magda; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-04-01

    Young wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Mv Béres) were exposed to 0 or 25 mM NaCl for 11 days (salt acclimation). Thereafter the plants were irrigated with 500 mM NaCl for 5 days (salt stress). Irrigating the plants with a low concentration of NaCl successfully led to a reduction in chlorotic symptoms and in the impairment of the photosynthetic processes when the plants were exposed to subsequent high-dose salt treatment. After exposure to a high concentration of NaCl there was no difference in leaf Na content between the salt-acclimated and non-acclimated plants, indicating that salt acclimation did not significantly modify Na transport to the shoots. While the polyamine level was lower in salt-treated plants than in the control, salt acclimation led to increased osmotic potential in the leaves. Similarly, the activities of certain antioxidant enzymes, namely glutathione reductase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase, were significantly higher in salt-acclimated plants. The results also suggest that while SOS1, SOS2 or NHX2 do not play a decisive role in the salt acclimation processes in young wheat plants; another stress-related gene, WALI6, may contribute to the success of the salt acclimation processes. The present study suggested that the responses of wheat plants to acclimation with low level of salt and to treatment with high doses of salt may be fundamentally different. PMID:26854409

  10. Quiz: What's the Buzz about Salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Feature: Too Much Salt Quiz: What's the buzz about salt? Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table ... Thing / Labels: For your health / Quiz: What's the buzz about salt? / Tasty Stand-Ins for Salt Spring / ...

  11. Mixed salt crystallisation fouling

    CERN Document Server

    Helalizadeh, A

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation was to study the mechanisms of mixed salt crystallisation fouling on heat transfer surfaces during convective heat transfer and sub-cooled flow boiling conditions. To-date no investigations on the effects of operating parameters on the deposition of mixtures of calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate, which are the most common constituents of scales formed on heat transfer surfaces, have been reported. As part of this research project, a substantial number of experiments were performed to determine the mechanisms controlling deposition. Fluid velocity, heat flux, surface and bulk temperatures, concentration of the solution, ionic strength, pressure and heat transfer surface material were varied systematically. After clarification of the effect of these parameters on the deposition process, the results of these experiments were used to develop a mechanistic model for prediction of fouling resistances, caused by crystallisation of mixed salts, under convective heat transfer...

  12. Frost formation with salt

    OpenAIRE

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J.; Mongruel, A. (Anne); González-Viñas, W.; Beysens, D.A. (Daniel A.)

    2015-01-01

    The formation of frost in presence of salt (NaCl) crystal is experimentally investigated on a hydrophobic surface. It presents several remarkable features due to the interplay of salty-water saturation pressure evolution, initially lower than the saturation pressure of ice and water, and the percolating propagation of ice dendrites from defects throughout the supercooled water droplet pattern. In particular, it is remarkable that nucleation of supercooled water and/or ice is prevented around ...

  13. Dynamics of salt playa polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, L.; Fourrière, A.

    2014-12-01

    In natural salt playa or in evaporation pools for the salt extraction industry, one can sometimes see surprising regular structures formed by ridges of salt. These ridges connect together to form a self-organized network of polygons one to two meters in diameter, which we call salt polygons. Here we propose a mechanism based on porous media convection of salty water in soil to explain the formation and the scaling of the salt polygons. Surface evaporation causes a steady upward flow of salty water, which can cause precipitation near the surface. A vertical salt gradient then builds up in the porous soil, with heavy salt-saturated water lying over the less salty source water. This can drive convection when a threshold is reached, given by a critical Rayleigh number of about 7. We suggest that the salt polygons are the surface expression of the porous medium convection, with salt crystallizing along the positions of the convective downwellings. To study this instability directly, we developed a 2D analogue experiment using a Hele-Shaw cell filled with a porous medium saturated with a salt solution and heated from above. We perform a linear stability analysis of this system, and find that it is unstable to convection, with a most unstable wavelength that is set by a balance between salt diffusion and water evaporation. The Rayleigh number in our experiment is controlled by the particle size of our model soil, and the evaporation rate. We obtain results that scale with the observation of natural salt polygons. Using dye, we observe the convective movement of salty water and find downwelling convective plumes underneath the spots where surface salt ridges form, as shown in the attached figure.

  14. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions, In this...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...

  15. Reactive halogen species above salt lakes and salt pans

    OpenAIRE

    Holla, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Salt lakes can be found on all continents and saline soils cover 2.5% of the land surface of the earth (FAO, 2012). This thesis investigates the presence of reactive halogen species (RHS) above salt lakes and saline soils to evaluate their relevance for tropospheric chemistry of the planetary boundary layer. Ground-based MAX-DOAS and LP-DOAS measurements were conducted at salt lakes and two other sites with high halogen content. Prior to this work, RHS were found at three salt ...

  16. Generic aspects of salt repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of geological disposal of radioactive wastes in salt is presented from 1957 when a panel of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council recommended burial in bedded salt deposits. Early work began in the Kansas, portion of the Permian Basin where simulated wastes were placed in an abandoned salt mine at Lyons, Kansas, in the late 1960's. This project was terminated when the potential effect of nearby solution mining activities could not be resolved. Evaluation of bedded salts resumed a few years later in the Permian Basin in southeastern New Mexico, and search for suitable sites in the 1970's resulted in the formation of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program in 1976. Evaluation of salt deposits in many regions of the United States has been virtually completed and has shown that deposits having the greatest potential for radioactive waste disposal are those of the largest depositional basins and salt domes of the Gulf Coast region

  17. Synthesis of the compound tetrakis (2- methoxy isobutyl isonitrile) copper (I) tetrafluoroborate -(Cu[MIBI]4BF4): substance used in the production of the radiopharmaceutical sestamibi 99m Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiopharmaceutical SESTAMIBI-99mTc presents interest and application in the clinical routine in Nuclear Medicine, especially for evaluation of the myocardium function and in the diagnosis of some tumors types, and the Center of Radiopharmacy of the IPEN has interest in the development of this radiopharmaceutical for attendance of the nuclear medicine class necessities. In this work it was demonstrated the synthesis and characterization of the active compound tetrakis (2- methoxy isobutyl isonitrile) copper (I) tetrafluoroborate - Cu[MIBI]4BF4- to be used in the preparation of lyophilized reagents for labeling with technetium-99m as well as labeling studies and biological distribution. The synthesis of the reagent Cu[MIBI]4BF4 was carried out in accordance with previously described procedures, in 5 steps and the compounds were characterized for infra-red, magnetic nuclear resonance, melting point and thin layer chromatography. The characterization of the chelate of MIBI -Cu[MIBI]4BF4 - was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography, compared with a standard sample of the product and presented similar results, as described in literature. The lyophilized reagent was prepared and labeled with technetium-99m, showing high radiochemical purity, higher than 97%, with high stability. Biological distribution in different animals showed good uptake in the heart, in time compatible with the acquisition of scintigraphy images, demonstrating the applicability of the reagent synthesized in the attainment of cardiac scintigraphy images. (author)

  18. Bacterial degradation of bile salts

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp, Bodo

    2011-01-01

    Bile salts are surface-active steroid compounds. Their main physiological function is aiding the digestion of lipophilic nutrients in intestinal tracts of vertebrates. Many bacteria are capable of transforming and degrading bile salts in the digestive tract and in the environment. Bacterial bile salt transformation and degradation is of high ecological relevance and also essential for the biotechnological production of steroid drugs. While biotechnological aspects have been reviewed many time...

  19. Salt fluoridation and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Marthaler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the cariesprotective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich, and several other cantons followed suit. Studies initiated in the early seventies showed that fluoride, when added to salt, inhibits dental caries. The addition of fluoride to salt for human consumption was officially authorized in 1980-82. In Switzerland 85% of domestic salt consumed is fluoridated and 67% in Germany. Salt fluoridation schemes are reaching more than one hundred million in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Cuba. The cost of salt fluoridation is very low, within 0.02 and 0.05 € per year and capita. Children and adults of the low socio-economic strata tend to have substantially more untreated caries than higher strata. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method for improving oral health. Conclusions. Salt fluoridation has cariostatic potential like water fluoridation (caries reductions up to 50%. In Europe, meaningful percentages of users have been attained only in Germany (67% and Switzerland (85%. In Latin America, there are more than 100 million users, and several countries have arrived at coverage of 90 to 99%. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method of caries prevention, and billions of people throughout the world could benefit from this method.

  20. Salt and the glycaemic response.

    OpenAIRE

    Thorburn, A W; Brand, J C; Truswell, A S

    1986-01-01

    The possibility that salt increases plasma glucose and insulin responses to starchy foods was investigated. Six healthy adults took four morning test meals randomly: 50 g carbohydrate as cooked lentils or white bread, with or without 4.25 g of added salt (an amount within the range of salt found in a meal). When salt was added to the lentils the incremental area under the three hour plasma glucose curve was significantly greater than that for lentils alone (43.2 mmol.min/l v 11.1 mmol.min/l (...

  1. Fused salt electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Working conditions for zirconium preparation by fused salt electrolysis were studied. For such purpose, a cell was built for operation under argon atmosphere. A graphite crucible served as anode, with steel cathodes. Proper design allowed cathode rechange under the inert atmosphere. Cathodic deposits of zirconium powder occluded salts from the bath. After washing with both water and hydrochloric acid, the metallic powder was consolidated by fusion. Optimum operating conditions were found to arise from an electrolyte of 12% potassium hexafluorzirconate -88% sodium chloride, at 820 deg C and 5 A/cm2 cathodic current density. Deposits contained 35% of metal and current efficiency reached 66%. The powder contained up to 600 ppm of chlorine and 1.700 ppm of fluorine; after fusion, those amounts decreased to 2 ppm and 3 ppm respectively, with low proportion of metallic impurities. Though oxygen proportion was 4.500 ppm, it should be lowered by improving working conditions, as well as working on an ampler scale. (Author)

  2. Theory Of Salt Effects On Protein Solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Yuba; Schmit, Jeremy

    Salt is one of the major factors that effects protein solubility. Often, at low salt concentration regime, protein solubility increases with the salt concentration(salting in) whereas at high salt concentration regime, solubility decreases with the increase in salt concentration(salting out). There are no quantitative theories to explain salting in and salting out. We have developed a model to describe the salting in and salting out. Our model accounts for the electrostatic Coulomb energy, salt entropy and non-electrostatic interaction between proteins. We analytically solve the linearized Poisson Boltzmann equation modelling the protein charge by a first order multipole expansion. In our model, protein charges are modulated by the anion binding. Consideration of only the zeroth order term in protein charge doesn't help to describe salting in phenomenon because of the repulsive interaction. To capture the salting in behaviour, it requires an attractive electrostatic interaction in low salt regime. Our work shows that at low salt concentration, dipole interaction is the cause for salting in and at high salt concentration a salt-dependent depletion interaction dominates and gives the salting out. Our theoretical result is consistent with the experimental result for Chymosin protein NIH Grant No R01GM107487.

  3. CHED Events: Salt Lake City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Donald J.

    2009-03-01

    The Division of Chemical Education (CHED) Committee meetings planned for the Spring 2009 ACS Meeting in Salt Lake City will be in the Marriott City Center Hotel. Check the location of other CHED events, the CHED Social Event, the Undergraduate Program, Sci-Mix, etc. because many will be in the Salt Palace Convention Center.

  4. The Salt II Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first strategic arms limitation talks resulted in two agreements: the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and the Interim Agreement to Limit Strategic Offensive Arms. Senator Henry M. (Scoop) Jackson (D-Wa.) was concerned about the numerical advantage granted to the USSR by the Latter agreement and proposed an amendment that would prohibit future negotiators from granting the Soviet Union similar terms. This paper discusses the second round of SALT negotiations which opened in November 1972 and continued under presidents Richard M. Nixon, Gerald Ford, and Jimmy Carter. As the negotiators met, U.S. and Soviet scientists and engineers continued their work to develop new nuclear weapons and launchers. Particularly problematic were modern, large ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, and the Soviet Backfire bomber

  5. Salt resistant crop plants

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, Stuart J.

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker- assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement.

  6. History Leaves Salts Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    These plots, or spectra, show that a rock dubbed 'McKittrick' near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site at Meridiani Planum, Mars, has higher concentrations of sulfur and bromine than a nearby patch of soil nicknamed 'Tarmac.' These data were taken by Opportunity's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, which uses curium-244 to assess the elemental composition of rocks and soil. Only portions of the targets' full spectra are shown to highlight the significant differences in elemental concentrations between 'McKittrick' and 'Tarmac.' Intensities are plotted on a logarithmic scale.A nearby rock named Guadalupe similarly has extremely high concentrations of sulfur, but very little bromine. This 'element fractionation' typically occurs when a watery brine slowly evaporates and various salt compounds are precipitated in sequence.

  7. Salt Lake in Chaidamu Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良华

    2007-01-01

    Chaidamu Basin(柴达木盆地) is in the west of China. It covers an area(地区) of 220,000 square kilometres(平方公里). The number of salt lakes(盐湖) is more than twenty in it. Chaerhan(察尔汗) Salt Lake is the largest in this area. If you get here, you will find that in the lake there is no water but a thick layer(层) of salt. You can walk in it without difficulty, and cars can come and go across it. The thickest layer of salt in this basin is about fifty metres thick. People tried their best to use the salt to build house...

  8. Gas migration through salt rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salt as a host rock for a repository for radioactive waste may appear as a layered formation as observed at the WIPP site in the USA or as domed salt, which is abundant in the northern part of central Europe. Planned or actual repository sites like Gorleben, Morsleben or Asse in Germany are located in such salt domes. They have risen up in geological time from Permian salt beds until their upward movement has come to an end. Rock salt exists under geological conditions as an extremely dry material with a residual moisture content well below 1 %. Due to its crystalline nature, its permeability and porosity are very low. In addition, because of its plastic behaviour under stress salt has a high self-healing capacity. In fact, under undisturbed conditions, rock salt is considered as impermeable (permeability less than 10-22 m2). This is demonstrated impressively by brine inclusions which have been included millions of years ago and are kept in place until today. Thus, in considering conditions for two phase flow, undisturbed salt neither offers sufficient water nor appropriate hydraulic properties for scenarios involving normal two-phase flow to occur. Therefore, there is a fundamental difference to other host rock material, in that long term safety analyses for waste repositories in salt have, in general, to assume accident scenarios or some kind of faulted conditions to produce a scenario where gas production and two-phase flow become relevant. The main focus of those safety analyses is on compacted crushed salt as backfill material, possibly on seals and plugs for emplacement rooms or borehole closures and on the engineering disturbed zone (EDZ). (author)

  9. Molten Salt Promoting Effect in Double Salt CO2 Absorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Keling; Li, Xiaohong S.; Chen, Haobo; Singh, Prabhakar; King, David L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the concept of molten salts as catalysts for CO2 absorption by MgO, and extend these observations to the MgO-containing double salt oxides. We will show that the phenomena involved with CO2 absorption by MgO and MgO-based double salts are similar and general, but with some important differences. This paper focuses on the following key concepts: i) identification of conditions that favor or disfavor participation of isolated MgO during double salt absorption, and investigation of methods to increase the absorption capacity of double salt systems by including MgO participation; ii) examination of the relationship between CO2 uptake and melting point of the promoter salt, leading to the recognition of the role of pre-melting (surface melting) in these systems; and iii) extension of the reaction pathway model developed for the MgO-NaNO3 system to the double salt systems. This information advances our understanding of MgO-based CO2 absorption systems for application with pre-combustion gas streams.

  10. Salting-out and Salting-in in Polyelectrolyte Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Wu, Jianzhong; Wang, Zhen-Gang

    The phase behavior of polyelectrolyte (PE) solutions is governed by complicated interplay involving the mixing entropy, excluded volume, chain connectivity, and electrostatic interactions. Here we study the phase behavior of PE solutions in both salt-free condition and with added salt using a liquid-state (LS) theory based thermodynamic model. The LS model accounts or the hard-core repulsion by the Canahan-Starling equation of state, correlations due to chain connectivity by the first-order thermodynamic perturbation theory, and electrostatic correlations by the mean-spherical approximation. In comparison to the prediction from the well-known Voorn-Overbeek theory, the LS model predicts loop-type binodal curves in the salt-PE concentration diagram at temperatures slightly above the critical temperature of PE solution in salt-free case, consistent with the experimental study. The phase separated region shrinks with increasing temperature. Three scenarios of salting-out and salting-in phenomenon are predicted with addition of salts based, depending on the PE concentration.

  11. Simultaneous determination of hydrazine and phenyl hydrazine using 4′-(4-carboxyphenyl)-2,2′:6′,2″ terpyridine diacetonitrile triphenylphosphine ruthenium(II) tetrafluoroborate complex functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Ida, E-mail: idatiwari_2001@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry (Center of Advanced Study), Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India); Gupta, Mandakini; Sinha, Preeti [Department of Chemistry (Center of Advanced Study), Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India); Banks, Craig E. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Science and the Environment, Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A nanocomposite of ruthenium(II) terpyridine, triphenylphosphine based complex and multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been used first time for simultaneous detection of hydrazine and phenyl hydrazine. • The detection limit reported is lower as compared to other reported works. • The paper also focuses towards effect of ligand variation attached to ruthenium(II) terpyridine based complexes complex for the hydrazine and phenyl hydrazine detection. • Nanocomposite does not involve any biological entity hence high stability. - Abstract: A nanocomposite based on the incorporation of the complex 4′-(4-carboxyphenyl)-2,2′:6′,2″ terpyridine triphenylphosphine diacetonitrile ruthenium(II) tetrafluoroborate with multiwalled carbon nanotubes and ionomer supported upon a glassy carbon electrode substrate is reported and characterized with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior and stability of the composite electrode was investigated via cyclic voltammetry. The modified electrode exhibits an electro-catalytic activity towards the oxidation of both hydrazine and phenyl hydrazine in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 7.4). The oxidation of hydrazine and phenyl hydrazine occurs at 0.81 V and 0.32 V with limit of detection found to be 3.7 × 10{sup −7} M and 1.15 × 10{sup −7} M and having a linear range from 5 × 10{sup −6} M to 6.5 × 10{sup −3} M, and 5 × 10{sup −6} M to 0.2 × 10{sup −3} M, respectively.

  12. Molten salts in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collection of references dealing with the physicochemical studies of fused salts, in particular the alkali and alkali earth halides. Numerous binary, ternary and quaternary systems of these halides with those of uranium and thorium are examined, and the physical properties, density, viscosity, vapour pressure etc... going from the halides to the mixtures are also considered. References relating to the corrosion of materials by these salts are included and the treatment of the salts with a view to recuperation after irradiation in a nuclear reactor is discussed. (author)

  13. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Capelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a promising future nuclear fission reactor technology with excellent performance in terms of safety and reliability, sustainability, proliferation resistance and economics. For the design and safety assessment of this concept, it is extremely important to have a thorough knowledge of the physico-chemical properties of molten fluorides salts, which are one of the best options for the reactor fuel. This dissertation presents the thermodynamic description of the ...

  14. Does salt increase thirst?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshem, Micah

    2015-02-01

    Our diet is believed to be overly rich in sodium, and it is commonly believed that sodium intake increases drinking. Hence the concern of a possible contribution of dietary sodium to beverage intake which in turn may contribute to obesity and ill health. Here we examine whether voluntary, acute intake of a sodium load, as occurs in routine eating and snacking, increases thirst and drinking. We find that after ingesting 3.5 or 4.4 g NaCl (men) and 1.9 or 3.7 g (women) on nuts during 15 minutes, there is no increase in thirst or drinking of freely available water in the following 2 h compared with eating similar amounts of sugared or unflavored nuts. This suggests that routine ingestion of boluses of salt (~30-40% of daily intake for men, ~ 20-40% for women) does not increase drinking. Methodological concerns such as about nuts as vehicle for sodium suggest further research to establish the generalizability of this unexpected result. PMID:25447020

  15. CONTRIBUTION FROM DEICING SALT TO CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SALT SUPPLYED TO AREA UNDER THE BRIDGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebe, Masamichi; Ohya, Makoto; Hirose, Nozomu; Ochibe, Keishi; Aso, Toshihiko

    Salt is known to accelerate the corrosion of weathering steel bridges. The origin of salt around girders is valuable information in terms of the maintenance for anti-corrosion of steel bridges. Salt around girders generally originates from sea-salt and deicing salt. Since salt of both origin increases in winter, contribution of deicing salt is hard to be estimated only from fluctuation of total abundance of salt around the bridge. In this study, abundance of Mg2+ as well as that of Cl- in salt sampled under bridges is analyzed. As a result, this study revealed that the supply of deicing salt declines Mg2+/Cl- ratio of salt on the girder. In addition, examination of Mg2+/Cl- ratio of salt sampled under the examined bridge near sea revealed that the fluctuation of quantity of air-born salt under the bridge is ascribed to the fluctuation of supply of sea salt.

  16. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  17. Salt movement in disturbed soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature review is presented of information on salt movement in disturbed soils, particularly in soils that have been disturbed by pipeline construction. The review has two main objectives: to assess climatic and soil conditions under which salts will move out of the root zone in a disturbed soil and to determine the rate at which salts will move in disturbed soils. A literature base was established using computer database and library searches, and a number of studies were reviewed. Many studies, dealing specifically with salt movement over time in disturbed soils under climatic and salt conditions similar to those found in Alberta, are summarized in tabular form. Data found in the literature tend to be sparse and incomplete, making firm conclusions about rates of salt movement difficult. In the brown soil zone, 5 years may be sufficient time for sodium absorption ratio and electrical conductivity levels, elevated during construction, to return to pre-construction conditions in coarse to moderately coarse textured soils. In medium to moderately fine textured soils, 10-26 years may be required. In the dark brown soil zone, 5 years is marginal for return to pre-construction conditions. Data in the black soil zone are limited and results inconsistent. 37 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Salting kinetics and salt diffusivities in farmed Pantanal caiman muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telis Vânia Regina Nicoletti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The legal Pantanal caiman (Caiman crocodilus yacare farming, in Brazil, has been stimulated and among meat preservation techniques the salting process is a relatively simple and low-cost method. The objective of this work was to study the sodium chloride diffusion kinetics in farmed caiman muscle during salting. Limited volumes of brine were employed, with salting essays carried at 3, 4 and 5 brine/muscle ratios, at 15%, 20% and 25% w/w brine concentrations, and brine temperatures of 10, 15 and 20ºC. The analytical solution of second Fick's law considering one-dimensional diffusion through an infinite slab in contact with a well-stirred solution of limited volume was used to calculate effective salt diffusion coefficients and to predict the sodium chloride content in the fillets. A good agreement was obtained between the considered analytical model and experimental data. Salt diffusivities in fillets were found to be in the range of 0.47x10-10 to 9.62x10-10 m²/s.

  19. The molten salt reactor adventure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A personal history of the development of molten salt reactors in the United States is presented. The initial goal was an aircraft propulsion reactor, and a molten fluoride-fueled Aircraft Reactor Experiment was operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1954. In 1956, the objective shifted to civilian nuclear power, and reactor concepts were developed using a circulating UF4-ThF4 fuel, graphite moderator, and Hastelloy N pressure boundary. The program culminated in the successful operation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment in 1965 to 1969. By then the Atomic Energy Commission's goals had shifted to breeder development; the molten salt program supported on-site reprocessing development and study of various reactor arrangements that had potential to breed. Some commercial and foreign interest contributed to the program which, however, was terminated by the government in 1976. The current status of the technology and prospects for revived interest are summarized

  20. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures.

  1. Canister compatibility with Carlsbad salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No significant reaction was found when candidate canister alloys were heated with salt from Carlsbad, New Mexico, for up to 5000 hours in sealed capsules and for up to 10,000 hours in unsealed capsules at temperatures (80 to 2250C) that bracket the maximum temperature calculated for reference Savannah River Plant (SRP) waste containers at 20-foot spacings in salt. Additional tests were made at 6000C in sealed capsules to characterize reactions that may occur between candidate canister alloys and any component of the salt that is released when decrepitation occurs. Under these extreme conditions there was no significant attack of Type 304L stainless steel. But, there was up to 20-mils attack of the low-carbon steel

  2. Field experiments in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments in salt formations started as early as 1965 with Project Salt Vault in the Lyons Mine, Kansas, U.S.A., and with the purchase of the Asse salt mine by the German Federal Government. Underground tests concentrated on the heat dissipation around buried high-level radioactive wastes and the geomechanical consequences of their disposal. Near-field investigations cover the properties of water and gas release, radiolysis and corrosion. Further objectives of field experiments are the development and underground testing of a handling system for high-level wastes. The performance of an underground test disposal for such wastes is not only considered to be necessary for technical and scientific reasons but also for improving public acceptance of the concept of radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  3. Disposal of Radioactive Wastes in Natural Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed use of cavities in salt formations as a disposal site for radioactive wastes is based upon : 1. Existence of salt for geologic time periods, 2. The impermeability of salt to the passage of water; 3. The widespread geographical distribution of salt; 4. The extremely large quantities of salt available; 5. The structural strength of salt; 6. The relatively high thermal conductivity of salt in comparison with other general geologic formations; 7. The possible recovery of valuable fission products in the wastes injected into the salt; 8. The relative ease of forming cavities in salt by mining, and the even greater ease and low cost of developing solution cavities in salt; and 9. The low seismicity in the areas of major salt deposits. Radioactive liquid wastes can be stored in cavities in natural salt formations if the structural properties of the salt are not adversely affected by chemical interaction, pressure, temperature, and radiation. Analytical studies show that it is possible to-store 2-year-old 10,000 MWD/T, 800 gal/ton waste in a sphere of 10 ft diameter without exceeding a temperature of 200° F. Laboratory tests show that the structural properties and thermal conductivity of rock salt are not greatly altered by high radiation doses, although high temperatures increase the creep rate for both irradiated and unirradiated samples. Chemical interaction of liquid wastes with salt produces chlorine and other chlorine compound gases, but the volumes are not excessive. The migration of nuclides through the salt and deformation of the cavity and chamber can only be studied in undisturbed salt in situ. One-fifth-scale models have been run in a bedded salt deposit in Hutchinson, Kansas, and full-scale field tests are in progress. (author)

  4. Oxidation properties of "Solar Salt"

    OpenAIRE

    BENAISSA, Wassila; Carson, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Solar Salt is a name sometimes given to a molten salt mixture made up of about 60% of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and 40% of potassium nitrate (KNO3). This composition is near the eutectic point and is thermally stable until 600°C. It is popular in Industrial Solar Energy Projects and is used for storing energy in the form of heat to smooth out the peaks in electricity production. However for some technologies, combustible substances, like a thermal fluid for example, may come into contact with th...

  5. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a promising future nuclear fission reactor technology with excellent performance in terms of safety and reliability, sustainability, proliferation resistance and economics. For the design and safety assessment of this concept, it is extremely important to have a thor

  6. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    OpenAIRE

    García Pérez, José Vicente; PRADOS PEDRAZA, MARTA DE; Pérez-Muelas Picón, Mª Nieves; Carcel Carrión, Juan Andrés; Benedito Fort, José Javier

    2012-01-01

    [EN] Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 ºC for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting a...

  7. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law. PMID:15927933

  8. Salt Lake 2002 mascot story

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The story of the Salt Lake 2002 Olympic Winter Games Mascots is inspired from our culture. Centuries ago, the first inhabitants etched in stone the images of animals that shared their world. These simple pictograms became the foundation for cultural legends — oral stories that inspired generations to respect and admire the natural world of Utah..

  9. Iodisation of Salt in Slovenia: Increased Availability of Non-Iodised Salt in the Food Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žmitek, Katja; Pravst, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Salt iodisation is considered a key public health measure for assuring adequate iodine intake in iodine-deficient countries. In Slovenia, the iodisation of all salt was made mandatory in 1953. A considerable regulatory change came in 2003 with the mandatory iodisation of rock and evaporated salt only. In addition, joining the European Union's free single market in 2004 enabled the import of non-iodised salt. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of salt iodising in the food supply. We examined both the availability and sale of (non-)iodised salt. Average sales-weighted iodine levels in salt were calculated using the results of a national monitoring of salt quality. Data on the availability and sales of salts were collected in major food retailers in 2014. Iodised salt represented 59.2% of the salt samples, and 95.9% of salt sales, with an average (sales-weighted) level of 24.2 mg KI/kg of salt. The average sales-weighted KI level in non-iodised salts was 3.5 mg KI/kg. We may conclude that the sales-weighted average iodine levels in iodised salt are in line with the regulatory requirements. However, the regulatory changes and the EU single market have considerably affected the availability of non-iodised salt. While sales of non-iodised salt are still low, non-iodised salt represented 33.7% of the salts in our sample. This indicates the existence of a niche market which could pose a risk of inadequate iodine intake in those who deliberately decide to consume non-iodised salt only. Policymakers need to provide efficient salt iodisation intervention to assure sufficient iodine supply in the future. The reported sales-weighting approach enables cost-efficient monitoring of the iodisation of salt in the food supply. PMID:27438852

  10. A derivatization approach using pyrylium salts for the sensitive and simple determination of sulfide in spring water by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembisz, Żaneta; Bzdurska, Dorota; Obiedzińska, Justyna; Martínez-Máńez, Ramón; Zakrzewski, Robert

    2015-08-14

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method based on pre-column derivatization with the pyrylium salts (4-[p-(N,N-dimethylamino)phenyl]-2,6-diphenylpyrylium perchlorate (LN1) and 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium tetrafluoroborate (L1)) has been developed for the determination of sulfide. After the reaction of sulfide ions with LN1 or L1 aiming at the formation of the corresponding thiopyrylium derivatives LN3 or L3, they were separated on a C18 column using phosphate buffer and acetonitrile as eluent, and afterwards detected with a UV/vis detector. By using the described method, sulfide ions can be determined in the range of 5.12-486.4 μg·L(-1) or 1.024-20.48 μg·L(-1) by means of L1 or LN1, respectively. In our experiments, the relative standard deviation was not higher than 2% and the recovery coefficient was in the range of 88-102%. The proposed method was applied to the determination of sulfide in spring water samples from Busko Zdrój and Uniejów health resorts located in Poland. PMID:26163932

  11. Association constants in solutions of lithium salts in butyrolactone and a mixture of propylene carbonate with 1,2-dimethoxyethane (1 : 1), according to conductometric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernozhuk, T. V.; Sherstyuk, Yu. S.; Novikov, D. O.; Kalugin, O. N.

    2016-02-01

    A conductometric study is performed with solutions of lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) in γ-butyrolactone (γ-BL) at 278.15-388.15 K and lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI), LiBOB, and lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4) in mixtures of propylene carbonate and 1,2-dimethoxyethane (PC + 1,2-DME) (1 : 1) at 278.15-348.15 K. Limiting molar electrical conductivities (LMECs) and association constants ( K a) in the studied solutions of electrolytes are determined using the Lee-Wheaton equation. The effect temperature, the nature of the solvent, and the properties of the anion have on the conductivity and interparticle interactions in solutions of lithium salts in γ-BL and PC + 1,2-DME (1 : 1) is established. It was concluded that the studied solutions are characterized by low values of their association constants. It was found that the BOB;- anion destroys the structure of the solvent.The thickness of the dynamic solvation shell of ions (Δ R) remains constant for both solvents over the studied range of temperatures, and Δ R is significantly greater for Li+ than for other ions.

  12. Tasty Stand-Ins for Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ginger Mint Nutmeg Oregano Paprika/smoked paprika Parsley Rosemary Salt-free seasoning mix Tarragon Thyme Use Condiments, ... Much of a Good Thing / Labels: For your health / Quiz: What's the buzz about salt? / Tasty Stand- ...

  13. Salt Diapirs in the Gulf Coast [gcdiapirg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Locations and shapes of salt diapirs were modified after the New Orleans Geological Society map, Salt tectonism of the U.S. Gulf Coast Basin (compiled by J.A....

  14. Effect of lithium salt concentrations on blended 49% poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted natural rubber and poly(methyl methacrylate) based solid polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of lithium salts (lithium tetrafluoroborate, LiBF4 and lithium perchlorate, LiClO4) as doping salts in rubber-polymer blends, 49% poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted natural rubber (MG49) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) film for electrochemical devices application was investigated. The electrolyte films were prepared via the solution casting technique using 0–25 wt.% lithium salt. The effect of the lithium salts on chemical interaction, ionic conductivity and structural and morphological studies of (70:30) MG49-PMMA films was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Infrared analysis showed that the interactions between lithium ions and oxygen atoms occur at the ether group (C–O–C) (1500–1100 cm−1) on the MMA structure in both MG49 and PMMA. The oxygen atoms in the structure of the polymer host act as electron donor atoms and form a coordinate bond with the lithium ions from the doping salt to form polymer–salt complexes. The ionic conductivity was investigated at room temperature as well as at a temperature range from 303 K to 373 K. The ionic conductivity without the addition of salt was 1.1 × 10−12 S cm−1. The highest conductivity at room temperature for (70:30) MG49-PMMA–LiBF4 was 8.6 × 10−6 S cm−1 at 25 wt.% of LiBF4. The ionic conductivity of (70:30) MG49-PMMA–LiClO4 was 1.5 × 10−8 S cm−1 at 25 wt.% of LiClO4. However, both electrolyte systems do not exhibit Arrhenius-like behavior. Systems with LiBF4 salt have higher ionic conductivity than those with LiClO4 salt because of the differences in anionic size and lattice energy of the appropriate salt. The observations from structural and morphology studies showed that complexation and re-crystallization occur in the system. The XRD studies showed a reduction of the MMA peak intensity at 29.5° after

  15. Preformulation investigation of some clopidogrel addition salts:

    OpenAIRE

    Benkič, Primož; Kristl, Albin; Plevnik, Miha; Ritlop, Gregor; Simonič, Igor; Smrkolj, Matej; Vrečer, Franc; Zupančič, Vinko

    2010-01-01

    Physico-chemical properties of active substances such as solubility, dissolution rate, chemical stability, pharmaceutical processibility, etc. can be improved by salt formation of active substances. Characterization of physical properties of such salts is important for selection of an optimal salt having required biopharmaceutical properties, stability and manufacturability. The present study deals with the preformulation study of selected clopidogrel acid addition salts, i.e. hydrogen sulfat...

  16. Evaluation of salt content in school meals

    OpenAIRE

    Viegas, C.A.C.L .; Torgal, J.; Graça, Pedro; Oliveira Martins, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals served in school canteens and consumersapos; perceptions about salt. Methods Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish) were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by...

  17. Evaluation of salt content in school meals

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia Alexandra Colaço Lourenço Viegas; Jorge Torgal; Pedro Graça; Maria do Rosário Oliveira Martins

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals served in school canteens and consumers' perceptions about salt. METHODS: Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish) were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by a...

  18. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, J. V.; De Prados, M.; Pérez-Muelas, N.; Cárcel, J. A.; Benedito, J.

    2012-12-01

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p<0.05) linear relationships were found between the ultrasonic velocity and the salt (R2 = 0.975) and moisture (R2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  19. Community solar salt production in Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Kabilan; Salgaonkar, Bhakti B; Das, Deepthi; Bragança, Judith M

    2012-01-01

    Traditional salt farming in Goa, India has been practised for the past 1,500 years by a few communities. Goa's riverine estuaries, easy access to sea water and favourable climatic conditions makes salt production attractive during summer. Salt produced through this natural evaporation process also played an important role in the economy of Goa even during the Portuguese rule as salt was the chief export commodity. In the past there were 36 villages involved in salt production, which is now reduced to 9. Low income, lack of skilled labour, competition from industrially produced salt, losses incurred on the yearly damage of embankments are the major reasons responsible for the reduction in the number of salt pans.Salt pans (Mithagar or Mithache agor) form a part of the reclaimed waterlogged khazan lands, which are also utilised for aquaculture, pisciculture and agriculture. Salt pans in Goa experience three phases namely, the ceased phase during monsoon period of June to October, preparatory phase from December to January, and salt harvesting phase, from February to June. After the monsoons, the salt pans are prepared manually for salt production. During high tide, an influx of sea water occurs, which enters the reservoir pans through sluice gates. The sea water after 1-2 days on attaining a salinity of approximately 5ºBé, is released into the evaporator pans and kept till it attains a salinity of 23 - 25ºBé. The brine is then released to crystallizer pans, where the salt crystallises out 25 - 27ºBé and is then harvested.Salt pans form a unique ecosystem where succession of different organisms with varying environmental conditions occurs. Organisms ranging from bacteria, archaea to fungi, algae, etc., are known to colonise salt pans and may influence the quality of salt produced.The aim of this review is to describe salt farming in Goa's history, importance of salt production as a community activity, traditional method of salt production and the biota

  20. Community solar salt production in Goa, India

    OpenAIRE

    Mani, Kabilan; Salgaonkar, Bhakti B; Das, Deepthi; Bragança, Judith M

    2012-01-01

    Traditional salt farming in Goa, India has been practised for the past 1,500 years by a few communities. Goa’s riverine estuaries, easy access to sea water and favourable climatic conditions makes salt production attractive during summer. Salt produced through this natural evaporation process also played an important role in the economy of Goa even during the Portuguese rule as salt was the chief export commodity. In the past there were 36 villages involved in salt production, which is now re...

  1. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth;

    2014-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical...... properties were used as model analytes. When EME was performed in a hollow fiber setup with a supported liquid membrane (SLM) comprised of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), a substantial reduction in recovery was seen for eight of the substances when 2.5% (w/v) NaCl was present. No correlation between...... this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations...

  2. Rice's Salt Tolerance Gene Cloned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In cooperation with US colleagues, CAS researchers have made significant progress in their studies into functional genes for key agronomic traits by cloning SKC1, a salt-tolerant functional gene of rice and making clear its biological functions and mechanisms. This pioneering work,which was reported in the Oct. issue of Nature Genetics (37:1141-1146), is believed to hold promise to increase the output of the crop plant in this country.

  3. Development of salt waste treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop a proper waste conditioning technology for salt wastes, alpha- contaminated organic wastes, and long-lived fission products, which are presumed to generate from the pyrochemical dry processing of spent fuel, researches on LiCl salt waste treatment (including salt fixation, ion exchange of radionuclides and salt pre-treatment technique), molten salt oxidation of organic alpha wastes and recovery of radioiodine have been performed. In a research on the waste LiCl salt treatment, the characterization on a salt-loaded zeolite sample, prepared by an immobilization of the molten LiCl salt waste with zeolite A, suggested that an optimum mixing ratio, r (=LiCl/zeolite) was 1.0. Pre-treatment of salt waste was performed via gelation reaction with additives of phosphate and sodium silicate. Characteristics of the gel product after drying and thermal treatment were tested and evaluated to establish the proper reaction conditions on the conversion of salt waste into durable waste forms. Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is selected as the most promising technology for the treatment of alpha-contaminated waste, and its lab-scale test and theoretical model study revealed its good effectiveness in the treatment of the problematic waste, such as halogenated organics including toxic and radioactive metals. The optimal conditions to effectively recover iodine from silver ion- exchanged adsorbent(AgX) was established and confirmed through experiment using radioiodine tracer. Fundamental data for conversion the recovered iodine to target material powder of NaI were obtained

  4. Salt tolerance of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Ayanna U; Talaty, Nari; Cooks, R Graham; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2007-12-01

    The salt tolerance of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) was systematically investigated by examining three different drug mixtures in the presence of 0, 0.2, 2, 5, 10, and 20% NaCl:KCl (1:1) from different surfaces. At physiological salt concentrations, the individual drugs in each mixture were observed in each experiment. Even at salt concentrations significantly above physiological levels, particular surfaces were effective in providing spectra that allowed the ready identification of the compounds of interest in low nanogram amounts. Salt adducts, which are observed even in the absence of added salt, could be eliminated by adding 0.1% 7 M ammonium acetate to the standard methanol:water (1:1) spray solvent. Comparison of the salt tolerance of DESI with that of electrospray ionization (ESI) demonstrated better signal/noise characteristics for DESI. The already high salt tolerance of DESI can be optimized further by appropriate choices of surface and spray solution. PMID:17977744

  5. Salt transport in Songkhla Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornpinatepong, S.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Salinity surveys in 1997 revealed that in the dry season salinity in Thale Sap Songkhla, Thale Sap and Thale Luang reached the maximum values of 30, 11 and 5 ppt, respectively. Among the complex system of the lake, Khlong Pak Ro showed a complicate seawater transport with a maximal salinity of 20 ppt. Incomplete mixing with a stratification at a depth of 2-3 m occured. The difference in salinity between the surface and the bottom was about 3 ppt. A vertically-averaged salt transport model was employed to simulate the salinity intrusion in the lake. The results showed quite good agreement with the observation. The model depicted a sharp drop of the water level at the entrance from the Gulf into the lake. The tidal energy then spread widely in Thale Sap Songkhla and continuously decreased to Thale Luang. The predicted salinity indicated that salt transport in the lake is governed by tide and water losses from the lake. Tidal movement generated a quasi-steady state of salinity in three months. The water losses for two months caused the salinity to rise 5.8 ppt/1 mm/day loss (~13 m3/sat Pak Ro. With a loss of 2.3 mm/day (~28 m3/s, the whole lake became brackish in three months. The salt entered the lake mainly through Khlong Luang, and only for 13 percent through Ao Thong Ben.

  6. Salt intake and hypertension therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Alberto; Mulatero, Paolo; Rabbia, Franco; Veglio, Franco

    2002-01-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular and renal organ damage. Environmental conditions affect the development of high blood pressure (BP), although genetic influences are also important. Current international guidelines recommend reducing dietary sodium to no more than 100 mmol (about 2.4 g sodium or approximately 6 g salt) per day to prevent BP rising; the current intake of sodium in industrialized countries is approximately double the recommended amount. Clinical trials (DASH and TOHP studies) have shown that dietary factors are fundamental in the prevention and control of BP. Low dietary sodium intake is particularly effective in preventing hypertension in subjects with an increased risk such as the overweight, borderline hypertensives or the elderly. A low-salt diet combined with anti-hypertensive therapies facilitates BP reduction independent of race. The hypotensive effect of calcium channel blockers is less dependent on salt intake than other drugs, such as ACE inhibitors or diuretics. Reduced sodium intake associated with other dietary changes (such as weight loss, and increasing potassium, calcium and magnesium intake) are important instruments for the prevention and therapy of hypertension. PMID:11936420

  7. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2014-06-20

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical properties were used as model analytes. When EME was performed in a hollow fiber setup with a supported liquid membrane (SLM) comprised of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), a substantial reduction in recovery was seen for eight of the substances when 2.5% (w/v) NaCl was present. No correlation between this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations to the EME system reduced this recovery loss, such as changing the SLM solvent from NPOE to 6-undecanone, or by using a different EME setup with more favorable volume ratios. This was in line with the ion pairing hypothesis and the mathematical model. This thorough investigation of how salts affect EME improves the theoretical understanding of the extraction process, and can contribute to the future development and optimization of the technique. PMID:24792700

  8. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p2 = 0.975) and moisture (R2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  9. Isopiestic determination of the osmotic coefficient and vapour pressure of N-R-4-(N,N-dimethylamino)pyridinium tetrafluoroborate (R = C4H9, C5H11, C6H13) in the ethanol solution at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The osmotic coefficients of the solutions of ionic liquid in ethanol have been measured. ► Measured osmotic coefficients were correlated using Pitzer, e-NRTL and NRF models and polynomial equation. ► Vapour pressures were evaluated from the correlated osmotic coefficients. - Abstract: Osmotic coefficients of the solutions of room temperature ionic liquid N-R-4-(N,N-dimethylamino)pyridinium tetrafluoroborate (R = C4H9, C5H11, C6H13) in ethanol have been measured at T = 298.15 K by the isopiestic method. The experimental osmotic coefficients have been correlated using the ion interaction model of Pitzer, electrolyte non-random two liquid (e-NRTL) model of Chen, non-random factor (NRF) and a fourth-order polynomial in terms of molality. The vapour pressures of the solutions studied have been evaluated from the osmotic coefficients.

  10. Physiological and Molecular Features of Puccinellia tenuiflora Tolerating Salt and Alkaline-Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Zhang; Liqin Wei; Zizhang Wang; Tai Wang

    2013-01-01

    Saline-alkali soil seriously threatens agriculture productivity; therefore,understanding the mechanism of plant tolerance to alkaline-salt stress has become a major challenge.Halophytic Puccinellia tenuiflora can tolerate salt and alkaline-salt stress,and is thus an ideal plant for studying this tolerance mechanism.In this study,we examined the salt and alkaline-salt stress tolerance of P.tenuiflora,and analyzed gene expression profiles under these stresses.Physiological experiments revealed that P.tenuiflora can grow normally with maximum stress under 600 mmol/L NaCl and 150 mmol/L Na2CO3 (pH 11.0)for 6 d.We identified 4,982 unigenes closely homologous to rice and barley.Furthermore,1,105 genes showed differentially expressed profiles under salt and alkaline-salt treatments.Differentially expressed genes were overrepresented in functions of photosynthesis,oxidation reduction,signal transduction,and transcription regulation.Almost all genes downregulated under salt and alkaline-salt stress were related to cell structure,photosynthesis,and protein synthesis.Comparing with salt stress,alkaline-salt stress triggered more differentially expressed genes and significantly upregulated genes related to H+ transport and citric acid synthesis.These data indicate common and diverse features of salt and alkalinesalt stress tolerance,and give novel insights into the molecular and physiological mechanisms of plant salt and alkaline-salt tolerance.

  11. High salt recruits aversive taste pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Yuki; Butnaru, Matthew; von Buchholtz, Lars; Ryba, Nicholas J P; Zuker, Charles S

    2013-02-28

    In the tongue, distinct classes of taste receptor cells detect the five basic tastes; sweet, sour, bitter, sodium salt and umami. Among these qualities, bitter and sour stimuli are innately aversive, whereas sweet and umami are appetitive and generally attractive to animals. By contrast, salty taste is unique in that increasing salt concentration fundamentally transforms an innately appetitive stimulus into a powerfully aversive one. This appetitive-aversive balance helps to maintain appropriate salt consumption, and represents an important part of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. We have shown previously that the appetitive responses to NaCl are mediated by taste receptor cells expressing the epithelial sodium channel, ENaC, but the cellular substrate for salt aversion was unknown. Here we examine the cellular and molecular basis for the rejection of high concentrations of salts. We show that high salt recruits the two primary aversive taste pathways by activating the sour- and bitter-taste-sensing cells. We also demonstrate that genetic silencing of these pathways abolishes behavioural aversion to concentrated salt, without impairing salt attraction. Notably, mice devoid of salt-aversion pathways show unimpeded, continuous attraction even to very high concentrations of NaCl. We propose that the 'co-opting' of sour and bitter neural pathways evolved as a means to ensure that high levels of salt reliably trigger robust behavioural rejection, thus preventing its potentially detrimental effects on health. PMID:23407495

  12. Coastal salt-marshes in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIAN SHEHU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The salt marshes of Albania comprise a narrow belt along the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. They have been the subject of a range of human activities causing habitat loss. Enclosure for agricultural use, ports and other infrastructure has reduced many salt marshes to a narrow fringe along estuary shores. Salt marshes are important for a range of interests. In particular they support a range of specialist plant communities and associated animals (especially breeding and wintering birds and often have a high nature conservation interest. They rarely exist in isolation and form an integral part of many estuaries, other tidal inlets and bays. The objectives of this study are flora and vegetation of salt marshes. In this study, on the basis of field surveys, is given a phytosociological classification of the Albanian salt marshes vegetation by the European standard methods of phytosociology (Zurich-Montpellier. The salt marsh communities of Albania are poor in endemism and generally similar to relevant vegetation types elsewhere in the Mediterranean. The flora of coastal salt marshes is differentiated into levels according to the plants' individual tolerance of salinity and water table levels. The flora of coastal salt marshes is differentiated into levels according to the plants' individual tolerance of salinity and water table levels. Coastal salt marshes of Albania are offered a number of 62 taxa, extended in 16 diverse families. The most presented families are Chenopodiaceae 24 %, followed by Poaceae and Asteraceae with 11%. Salt marshes are populated by halophytes, plants that can live under saline conditions. Plant species diversity is low, since the flora must be tolerant of salt and anoxic mud substrate [4]. The most common salt marsh plant communities in coastal area of Albania are salt meadows dominated by glasswort (Salicornia europaea, pioneer marsh communities, perennial vegetation of marine saline mud’s mainly composed of scrub such as

  13. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  14. 168 Hours Salt Fog Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report explained the test conducted in salt fog chamber to evaluate the effectiveness of mild steel, coated with rust converter, for 168 hours in artificial seawater exposure. The samples were compared with mild steel coated with commercial primer. The tests were conducted followed ASTM B117. Individual pictures were taken of each sample before the tests began, at 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168 hours to see the progression of the corrosion. Results showed that the samples coated with rust converter provide a good significant protection against corrosion phenomenon than the samples coated with commercial primer that available in the market. (author)

  15. Salt transport in Songkhla Lake

    OpenAIRE

    Pornpinatepong, S.

    2005-01-01

    Salinity surveys in 1997 revealed that in the dry season salinity in Thale Sap Songkhla, Thale Sap and Thale Luang reached the maximum values of 30, 11 and 5 ppt, respectively. Among the complex system of the lake, Khlong Pak Ro showed a complicate seawater transport with a maximal salinity of 20 ppt. Incomplete mixing with a stratification at a depth of 2-3 m occured. The difference in salinity between the surface and the bottom was about 3 ppt. A vertically-averaged salt transport model was...

  16. Molten fluoride fuel salt chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemistry of molten fluorides is traced from their development as fuels in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment with important factors in their selection being discussed. Key chemical characteristics such as solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity are explained as they relate to the behavior of molten fluoride fuel systems. Fission product behavior is described along with processing experience. Development requirements for fitting the current state of the chemistry to modern nuclear fuel system are described. It is concluded that while much is known about molten fluoride behavior, processing and recycle of the fuel components is a necessary factor if future systems are to be established

  17. Estimation of salt iodine in Pondicherry District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, B; Basu, S; Sarkar, Sonali

    2007-01-01

    A cross sectional survey was conducted in 2005 among 358 school children from 8 communities in the district of Pondicherry to assess the iodine content of salt at consumer level. School children were asked to bring salt consumed at their houses and 290 salt samples could finally be analysed. Only 26.2% of the population in the district were found to consume salt with more than 15 ppm iodine. Consumption of non-iodised salt was more in rural areas (96.4%) as compared to urban areas (71.3%). 39 salt samples from different retail shops in Pondicherry showed a mean value of 35.6+/-10.7 ppm. PMID:18232155

  18. Synthesis of Chitosan Quaternary Ammonium Salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A series of N-alkyl or N-aryl chitosan quaternary ammonium salts were prepared via Schiffs base intermediates. Quaternization of N-substituted chitosan derivatives was carried out using methyl iodide to produce water-soluble cationic chitosan quaternary ammonium salt. The products were characterized by IR, 1HNMR and elemental analysis. The degree of substitution of chitosan quaternary ammonium salt was calculated by elemental analysis.

  19. Micellar aggregates and hydrogels from phosphonobile salts

    OpenAIRE

    Babu, Ponnusamy; Chopra, D.; Row, Guru TN; Maitra, Uday

    2005-01-01

    The aggregation properties of novel bile acid analogs-phosphonobile salts (PBS)-have been studied. The critical micellar concentration of 23 and 24-phosphonobile salts were measured using fluorescence and P-31 NMR methods. All the ten synthesized phosphonobile salts formed gels at different pH ranges in water. The pH range at which individual PBSs could gelate water was narrow and influenced by the number and conformation of hydroxyl groups. A reversible thermochromic system has been develope...

  20. Salt taste inhibition by cathodal current

    OpenAIRE

    Hettinger, Thomas P.; Frank, Marion E.

    2009-01-01

    Effects of cathodal current, which draws cations away from the tongue and drives anions toward the tongue, depend on the ionic content of electrolytes through which the current is passed. To address the role of cations and anions in human salt tastes, cathodal currents of −40 to −80 µA were applied to human subjects’ tongues through supra-threshold salt solutions. The salts were sodium chloride, sodium bromide, potassium chloride, ammonium chloride, calcium chloride, sodium nitrate, sodium su...

  1. Evaluation of salt content in school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Alexandra Colaço Lourenço Viegas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals served in school canteens and consumers' perceptions about salt. METHODS: Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by a portable salt meter. For food perception we constructed a questionnaire that was administered to high school students. RESULTS: A total of 798 food samples were analysed. Bread had the highest salt content with a mean of 1.35 g/100 g (SD=0.12. Salt in soups ranged from 0.72 g/100 g to 0.80 g/100 g (p=0.05 and, in main courses, from 0.71 g/100 to 0.97 g/100g (p=0.05. The salt content of school meals is high with a mean value of 2.83 to 3.82 g of salt per meal. Moreover, a high percentage of students consider meals neither salty nor bland, which shows they are used to the intensity/amount of salt consumed. CONCLUSION: The salt content of school meals is high, ranging from 2 to 5 times more than the Recommended Dietary Allowances for children, clearly exceeding the needs for this population, which may pose a health risk. Healthy choices are only possible in environments where such choices are possible. Therefore, salt reduction strategies aimed at the food industry and catering services should be implemented, with children and young people targeted as a major priority.

  2. Coastal salt-marshes in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    JULIAN SHEHU; ALMA IMERI; RUDINA KOCI; ALFRED MULLAJ

    2014-01-01

    The salt marshes of Albania comprise a narrow belt along the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. They have been the subject of a range of human activities causing habitat loss. Enclosure for agricultural use, ports and other infrastructure has reduced many salt marshes to a narrow fringe along estuary shores. Salt marshes are important for a range of interests. In particular they support a range of specialist plant communities and associated animals (especially breeding and wintering birds) and often h...

  3. The effect of organic salts on HPMC

    OpenAIRE

    Mongkolpiyawat, Jiraporn

    2012-01-01

    The presence of organic salts as drug counter-ions and buffers in hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) matrices is often overlooked. This study investigates their potential to influence polymer solution properties and matrix drug release kinetics. A homologous series of aliphatic organic salts influenced solution and matrix properties in rank order of hydrocarbon chain length. Monovalent salts containing 1to4 C-atoms had little effect on polymer surface activity, but lowered sol:gel transit...

  4. Monitoring Change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Carling, Gregory

    2013-08-01

    Great Salt Lake is the largest hypersaline lake in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (Figure 1). The open water and adjacent wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere [Aldrich and Paul, 2002]. In addition, the area is of important economic value: Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) residing in Great Salt Lake support an aquaculture shrimp cyst industry with annual revenues as high as $60 million.

  5. Simulated waste package test in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Salt Repository Site Characterization Project Office (SRPO), of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), in cooperation with Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), simulated a waste package test at Asse Salt Mine (Asse). The purpose of this test was to determine the effect of heat produced by the decay of High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) on: Migration of brine moisture; Thermomechanical response of the salt; Geomechanical response of the room mined in salt; Corrosion on potential HLW waste package container materials; and Generation of gases. This paper describes the these performed, results obtained, and the performance of instruments and data acquisition system deployed

  6. Properties of dynamically compacted WIPP salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic compaction of mine-run salt is being investigated for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), where compacted salt is being considered for repository sealing applications. One large-scale and two intermediate-scale dynamic compaction demonstrations were conducted. Initial fractional densities of the compacted salt range form 0.85 to 0.90, and permeabilities vary. Dynamically-compacted specimens were further consolidated in the laboratory by application of hydrostatic pressure. Permeability as a function of density was determined, and consolidation microprocesses were studied. Experimental results, in conjunction with modeling results, indicate that the compacted salt will function as a viable seal material

  7. Tetraalkylammonium Salts as Hydrogen-Bonding Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Seiji; Liu, Shiyao; Kaneko, Shiho; Kumatabara, Yusuke; Fukuda, Airi; Omagari, Yumi; Maruoka, Keiji

    2015-12-21

    Although the hydrogen-bonding ability of the α hydrogen atoms on tetraalkylammonium salts is often discussed with respect to phase-transfer catalysts, catalysis that utilizes the hydrogen-bond-donor properties of tetraalkylammonium salts remains unknown. Herein, we demonstrate hydrogen-bonding catalysis with newly designed tetraalkylammonium salt catalysts in Mannich-type reactions. The structure and the hydrogen-bonding ability of the new ammonium salts were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis and NMR titration studies. PMID:26564098

  8. Granular Salt Summary: Reconsolidation Principles and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Frank; Popp, Till; Wieczorek, Klaus; Stuehrenberg, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    The purposes of this paper are to review the vast amount of knowledge concerning crushed salt reconsolidation and its attendant hydraulic properties (i.e., its capability for fluid or gas transport) and to provide a sufficient basis to understand reconsolidation and healing rates under repository conditions. Topics covered include: deformation mechanisms and hydro-mechanical interactions during reconsolidation; the experimental data base pertaining to crushed salt reconsolidation; transport properties of consolidating granulated salt and provides quantitative substantiation of its evolution to characteristics emulating undisturbed rock salt; and extension of microscopic and laboratory observations and data to the applicable field scale.

  9. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  10. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Charles Austen; Xu, Wu

    2008-01-01

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  11. Helping crops stand up to salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeburn, P.

    1985-05-01

    A new approach to the problem of increasing soil salinity is to raise salt-tolerant plants. The search for such plants involves finding new applications for naturally occurring salt-resistant plants (halophytes), using conventional breeding techniques to identify and strengthen crop varieties known to have better-than-average salt tolerance, and applying recombinant DNA methods to introduce salt resistance into existing plants. One promising plant is salicornia, which produces oil high in polyunsaturates at a greater yield than soybeans. Two varieties of atriplex yield as much animal feed as alfalfa and can be harvested several times a year. Seed companies are supporting the research.

  12. Vacuum distillation of plutonium pyrochemical salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pyrochemical process is developed to upgrade the safety of plutonium spent salts interim storage. The feed material, consisting of alkali or alkali-earth chlorides containing various Pu and Am species, is first oxidized to convert the actinides into oxides. Then the chlorides are removed by vacuum distillation which requires temperature from 750 degrees C to 1100 degrees C. After a comprehensive R and D program, full-scale equipment was built to test the distillation of active salts. Tests with NaCl/KCl oxidized spent salt give decontamination factor of chlorides higher than 20000. The distilled salt meets the radiologic requirements to be discarded as low level waste. (authors)

  13. Anion- interactions in layered structures of salts of 5-(hydroxyimino) quinolin-8-one and related salts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prithiviraj Khakhlary; Jubaraj B Baruah

    2015-01-01

    Relevance of anion- interactions in chloride, bromide, nitrate and perchlorate salts of 5-(hydroxyimino)quinolin-8-one are discussed. Structures of nitrate salt of 5-aminoquinoline as well as nitrate salt of 4-hydroxyquinazoline are compared with the structure of nitrate salt of 5-(hydroxyimino)quinolin-8-one. From such a comparison, two different arrangements of nitrate ions with respect to the respective cations are discerned. Nitrate ions are sandwiched between aromatic planes of cations in nitrate salts of 5-(hydroxyimino)quinolin-8-one or 4-hydroxyquinazoline; whereas, nitrate ions are in oblique positions with respect to aromatic planes of counter cations in nitrate salt of 5-aminoquinoline. Binding constants of different nitrate salts in solution are determined by UV-visible spectroscopic titrations. Solution study shows formation of ion-pairs of these salts in solution.

  14. ERG review of salt constitutive law, salt stress determinations, and salt corrosion and modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Engineering Review Group (ERG) was established by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to help evaluate engineering-related issues in the US Department of Energy's nuclear waste repository program. The August 1983 meeting of the ERG reviewed a RE/SPEC technical report containing a review of eight constitutive laws that have been proposed to model the creep of salt over the ranges of stress and temperature anticipated in a nuclear repository. This report documents the ERG's comments and recommendations on this subject and the ONWI responses to the specific points raised by the ERG

  15. In vitro selection of induced mutants to salt-tolerance: Inducible gene regulation for salt tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A selection protocol to obtain salt tolerant calli, followed by regeneration and progeny-test of the regenerated plants for salt tolerance in rice was investigated. Callus cultures were initiated from salt-sensitive US elite rice lines and cv. 'Pokkali'. Salt-tolerant cell lines were selected from these by a single step selection procedure. The selected salt-tolerant lines grew well on medium with ± 0.5% or 1% NaCl, while the parent lines occasionally survived, but did not grow at these salt concentrations. Plants were regenerated from these cell lines through different passages on medium containing salt. Seed was collected from the regenerated plants and salt tolerance of R2 seedlings was compared with those regenerated without salt selection. Salt-tolerance was measured by survival and productive growth of newly germinated seedlings in Hoagland solution with 0.3% and 0.5% NaCl for 4 weeks. Heritable improvement in salt tolerance was obtained in R2 seedlings from one plant regenerated after 5 months selection. Survival and growth of these seedlings was equivalent to that from 'Pokkali' seedlings. These results show that cellular tolerance can provide salt-tolerance in rice plants. (author). 6 refs, 2 tabs

  16. Mined salt storage feasibility: Engineering study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study addresses a method of eliminating the surface storage of mined salt at the Deaf Smith repository site. It provides rough estimates of the logistics and costs of transporting 3.7 million tons of salt from the repository to the salt disposal site near Carlsbad, New Mexico and returning it to the repository for decommissioning backfill. The study assumes that a railcar/truck system will be installed and that the excavated salt will be transported from the repository to an existing potash mine located near Carlsbad, New Mexico approximately 300 miles from the repository. The 3.7 million tons of salt required for repository decommissioning backfill can be stored in the potash mines along with the excess salt, with no additional capital costs required for either a railcar or a truck transportation system. The capital cost for facilities to reclaim the 3.7 million tons of salt from the potash mine is estimated to be $4,400,000 with either a rail or truck transportation system. Segregating the 3.7 million tons of backfill salt in a surface storage area at the potash mine requires a capital cost of $13,900,000 with a rail system or $11,400,000 with a truck system. Transportation costs are estimated at $0.08/ton-mile for rail and $0.13/ton-mile for truck. 2 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Skin Sensitizing Potency of Halogenated Platinum Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between occupational exposure to halogenated platinum (Pt) salts and Pt-specific allergic sensitization is well-established. Although human case reports and clinical studies demonstrate that Pt salts are potent skin sensitizers, no studies have been published tha...

  18. Metal salt catalysts for enhancing hydrogen spillover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ralph T; Wang, Yuhe

    2013-04-23

    A composition for hydrogen storage includes a receptor, a hydrogen dissociating metal doped on the receptor, and a metal salt doped on the receptor. The hydrogen dissociating metal is configured to spill over hydrogen to the receptor, and the metal salt is configured to increase a rate of the spill over of the hydrogen to the receptor.

  19. Nitrate Salt Surrogate Blending Scoping Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-13

    Test blending equipment identified in the “Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing”. Determine if the equipment will provide adequate mixing of zeolite and surrogate salt/Swheat stream; optimize equipment type and operational sequencing; impact of baffles and inserts on mixing performance; and means of validating mixing performance

  20. Synthesis, structure, and properties of azatriangulenium salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, B.W.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2001-01-01

    amines and, by virtue of its stepwise and irreversible nature, provides a powerful tool for the preparation of a wide variety of new heterocyclic carbenium salts. Several derivatives of the three new oxygen- and/or nitrogen-bridged triangulenium salts, azadioxa- (6), diazaoxa- (7), and...

  1. Nonlinear Analysis of Cavities in Rock Salt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, N. S.; Krenk, Steen

    1979-01-01

    The paper covers some material and computational aspects of the rock mechanics of leached cavities in salt. A material model is presented in which the instantaneous stiffness of the salt is obtained by interpolation between the unloaded state and a relevant failure state. The model enables...

  2. Salt contamination assessment and remediation guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental impacts associated with excess salt in oil and surface water or groundwater (a frequent occurrence in oil and gas production) may be manifested as degradation of soil chemical or physical properties, impaired vegetable growth and degraded surface or groundwater quality. Spill prevention is by far the most effective and most efficient way of avoiding these adverse effects and the attendant remediation costs. However, when spills do occur effective response, based on a comprehensive understanding of impacts, salt movements and remediation procedures can mitigate the adverse environmental effects. This guide is designed to assist those involved in the prevention, assessment, remediation and management of salt-contaminated sites. It summarizes the regulatory requirements in Alberta, including salt remediation objectives, and provides an overview of salt spill problems and effective site assessment and remediation procedures. Background information on the sources of salt, the movement of salt in soil and groundwater, and the adverse effects of salt on soil, vegetation and groundwater is provided in an appendix attached to the Guide. A selected bibliography and a glossary of terms are also included. 42 refs., tabs., figs

  3. Dam construction in salt rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriers are a major component of the satefy concept for the Gorleben repository. The construction and performance of dams are currently tested within the framework of a project carried out in the Asse salt mine. A measuring programme has been established to give evidence of the sealing capacities of a barrier consisting of an abatement, long-term sealing material, and a hydraulic sealing system. Tests are to be made to verify the barrier's performance for shorter of long time periods (up to about 500 years). The tests are assisted by computed models established for the project. The long-term safety aspects to be studied include such conditions as permeability changes due to mechanical impacts, circulation conditions at the roadside, and the serviceable life and efficiency of the sealing components. (DG)

  4. Salt disposal effects found small

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Brine discharges into the Gulf of Mexico averaging more than 600,000 barrels per day for the past year have had ‘few significant effects‘ on the marine environment off the Texas coast, according to a preliminary analysis by scientists and engineers at the Texas A&M University. The brine, 8 times saltier than the surrounding seawater, is produced when salt from underground deposits on shore is dissolved and pumped into the Gulf as part of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program.Lead by Roy Hann, Jr., of the Texas Engineering Experiment Station, the team is analyzing discharge from Bryan Mound at Freeport, Tex., and from the West Hackberry site near Cameron, La. After a year of discharge off Freeport, the researchers found ‘no brine-caused differences in sediment temperatures and bottom-water dissolved-oxygen levels which accompany increased salinity,’ Hann said. In addition, overall compositions of fish and shrimp remained stable.

  5. Titanium for salt water service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium has potential as major material of construction in desalination plants, in condensers and heat exchangers, in view of its excellent corrosion resistance to salt water upto at least 120deg C. The advantages of titanium in such applications are brought out. The various specific problems such as pitting, crevice and galvanic corrosion and the preventive methods, for adopting titanium have been discussed. The hydriding problem can be overcome by suitably controlling the operating parameters such as temperature and surface preparation. A case has been made to prove the economic viability of titanium in comparison to Al-brass and Cu-Ni alloy. The future of titanium seems to be very promising in view of the negligible tube failures and outages. (auth.)

  6. Uninephrectomy in young age or chronic salt loading causes salt-sensitive hypertension in adult rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlström, Mattias; Sällström, Johan; Skøtt, Ole; Larsson, Erik; Persson, A Erik G

    2007-01-01

    adulthood. Rats were operated at 3 weeks of age (after completed nephrogenesis) and then subjected to either normal or high-salt diets for 6 to 8 weeks. Four different experimental groups were used: sham-operated animals raised with normal-salt diet (controls) or high-salt diet (HS) and uninephrectomized...... renin concentrations during high sodium conditions and hypertrophic kidneys and hearts with various degrees of histopathologic changes. In conclusion, at a young age after completed nephrogenesis, uninephrectomy or chronic salt loading causes renal and cardiovascular injury with salt...

  7. Model calculations to formation of salt deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is a contribution from the geophysical side and its target is to explain the formation of long stretched salt deposits - salt walls - in a better manner than has been done sofar using model calculations. A few works have already been dedicated to this subject (they are treated in chapter 5). They all have the disadvantage however in not being able to represent the time sequence of the salt deposit generations. Precisely the latter is achieved in this work by including assumed initial interference. The values for the salt wall distance and its growth rate are improved upon. The Schleswig-Holstein salt deposit is taken as example. The model calculations are supported by model experiments. (orig.)

  8. Vitrification in the presence of salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass is an advantageous material for the immobilization of nuclear wastes because of the simplicity of processing and its unique ability to accept a wide variety of waste elements into its network structure. Unfortunately, some anionic species which are present in the nuclear waste streams have only limited solubility in oxide glasses. This can result in either vitrification concerns or it can affect the integrity, of the final vitrified waste form. The presence of immiscible salts can also corrode metals and refractories in the vitrification unit as well as degrade components in the off-gas system. The presence of a molten salt layer on the melt may alter the batch melting rate and increase operational safety concerns. These safety concerns relate to the interaction of the molten salt and the melter cooling fluids. Some preliminary data from ongoing experimental efforts examining the solubility of molten salts in glasses and the interaction of salts with melter component materials is included

  9. Alternative methods of salt disposal at the seven salt sites for a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study discusses the various alternative salt management techniques for the disposal of excess mined salt at seven potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository sites: Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties, Texas; Richton and Cypress Creek Domes, Mississippi; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Davis and Lavender Canyons, Utah. Because the repository development involves the underground excavation of corridors and waste emplacement rooms, in either bedded or domed salt formations, excess salt will be mined and must be disposed of offsite. The salt disposal alternatives examined for all the sites include commercial use, ocean disposal, deep well injection, landfill disposal, and underground mine disposal. These alternatives (and other site-specific disposal methods) are reviewed, using estimated amounts of excavated, backfilled, and excess salt. Methods of transporting the excess salt are discussed, along with possible impacts of each disposal method and potential regulatory requirements. A preferred method of disposal is recommended for each potentially acceptable repository site. 14 refs., 5 tabs

  10. Origin and permeability of deep ocean salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, M.; Rueslåtten, H.

    2009-04-01

    Large, buried salt bodies occur in numerous offshore rift-related sedimentary basins, worldwide. For most practical purposes, the conventional evaporite (solar evaporation of seawater) theory is adequate for explaining these occurrences. However, a new model for their formation has now been published (Hovland et al., 2006; 2007, 2008). This model relies on the properties of supercritical water, a fluid which does not dissolve salt (within specific temperature and pressure ranges). The model predicts that some of the large volumes of salt occurring underground in the Red Sea and also in the Mediterranean Sea, formed by forced hydrothermal circulation of seawater down to depths where it became superctical (i.e., temperatures above 405°C, and pressures above 300 bars). Thus, salt precipitated under-ground and filled up cracks and crevices and also formed massive accumulations, which partly flowed upwards as dense, hot brines, precipitating more solid salts upon cooling. In addition, Holness and Lewis (1997) have shown experimentally that salt bodies subjected to high pressures and elevated temperatures, acquire a permeability comparable to sand. This is because the crystalline structure of salt (halite) attains dihedral angles between salt crystals less than 60° at higher temperatures and pressures, allowing water to form continuous strings around all salt crystals. This allows hot dense brines to migrate through the salt. Thus, the salt may act as conduits for flow of brines and salt slurries from previously accumulated salt in the subsurface. If these brines reach the sea floor, they can also form brine-pools and layered salt bodies on the sea floor. An IODP Pre-proposal (No. 741-pre) is now actively promoting drilling some targets in order of checking out this new theory against the conventional evaporite model. It is hoped that European scientists will take up this question and actively promote drilling into salt bodies, for example in the Red Sea (The

  11. Thermodynamic investigation of fluoride salts for nuclear energy production

    OpenAIRE

    Beilmann, Markus

    2013-01-01

    In this work thermodynamic properties of molten fluoride salts and salt mixtures are investigated. Fluoride salts have advantageous properties to be used in energy producing systems based on the conversion from heat to energy like i.e in Molten Salt Reactors. For this purpose it is very important to have detailed information about the heat capacity of the pure salts and salt mixtures. To get a better understanding about the heat capacity in mixtures drop calorimetry measurements of mixture...

  12. Evaluation of dried salted pork ham and neck quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Kunová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was analysed chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork ham and neck. Dry-cured meat is a traditional dry-cured product obtained after 12 - 24 months of ripening under controlled environmental conditions.  Ham and neck was salted by nitrite salt mixture during 1 week. Salted meat products were dried at 4 °C and relative humidity 85% 1 week after salting. The quality of dry-cured meat is influenced by the processing technology, for example length of drying and ripening period. The average moisture of dried salted pork ham was 63.77% and dried salted pork neck was 59.26%. The protein content was 24.87% in dried salted pork ham and significantly lower (20.51% in dried salted pork neck. The value of intramuscular fat in dried salted pork ham was 4.97% and 14.40% in dried salted pork neck. The salt content was 5.39% in dried salted pork ham and 4.83% in dried salted pork neck. The cholesterol content was 1.36 g.kg-1 in dried salted pork ham and significant lower in dried salted pork neck (0.60 g.kg-1. The value of lightness was 44.36 CIE L* in dried salted pork ham and significantly lower in dried salted pork neck (40.74 CIE L*. The pH value was 5.84 in dried salted pork ham and 5.80 in dried salted pork neck. The shear work was 9.99 kg.s-1 in dried salted pork ham and 6.34 in dried salted pork neck. The value of water activity (aw was 0.929 in dried salted pork ham and similar 0.921 in dried salted pork neck. 

  13. Different combination of drugs regarding the damage on organs targeting salt sensitivity or non-salt-sensitive hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琪

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the damage on organs from salt sensitivity hypertension or non-salt-sensitive hypertension and the selection of drug combination.Methods 120 hypertensive patients including 60 cases salt-sensitive(SS)

  14. Salt Tolerance of Desorption Electrospray Ionization (DESI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Ayanna U. [Purdue University; Talaty, Nari [Purdue University; Cooks, R G [Purdue University; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Suppression of ion intensity in the presence of high salt matrices is common in most mass spectrometry ionization techniques. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is an ionization method that exhibits salt tolerance, and this is investigated. DESI analysis was performed on three different drug mixtures in the presence of 0, 0.2, 2, 5, 10, and 20% NaCl:KCl weight by volume from seven different surfaces. At physiological concentrations individual drugs in each mixture were observed with each surface. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) was used to provide additional confirmation for select compounds. Multiple stage experiments, to MS5, were performed for select compounds. Even in the absence of added salt, the benzodiazepine containing mixture yielded sodium and potassium adducts of carbamazepine which masked the ions of interest. These adducts were eliminated by adding 0.1% 7M ammonium acetate to the standard methanol:water (1:1) spray solvent. Comparison of the salt tolerance of DESI with that of electrospray ionization (ESI) demonstrated much better signal/noise characteristics for DESI in this study. The salt tolerance of DESI was also studied by performing limit of detection and dynamic range experiments. Even at a salt concentration significantly above physiological concentrations, select surfaces were effective in providing spectra that allowed the ready identification of the compounds of interest. The already high salt tolerance of DESI can be optimized further by appropriate choices of surface and spray solution.

  15. Salt preferences of honey bee water foragers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Pierre W; Nieh, James C

    2016-03-15

    The importance of dietary salt may explain why bees are often observed collecting brackish water, a habit that may expose them to harmful xenobiotics. However, the individual salt preferences of water-collecting bees were not known. We measured the proboscis extension reflex (PER) response of Apis mellifera water foragers to 0-10% w/w solutions of Na, Mg and K, ions that provide essential nutrients. We also tested phosphate, which can deter foraging. Bees exhibited significant preferences, with the most PER responses for 1.5-3% Na and 1.5% Mg. However, K and phosphate were largely aversive and elicited PER responses only for the lowest concentrations, suggesting a way to deter bees from visiting contaminated water. We then analyzed the salt content of water sources that bees collected in urban and semi-urban environments. Bees collected water with a wide range of salt concentrations, but most collected water sources had relatively low salt concentrations, with the exception of seawater and swimming pools, which had >0.6% Na. The high levels of PER responsiveness elicited by 1.5-3% Na may explain why bees are willing to collect such salty water. Interestingly, bees exhibited high individual variation in salt preferences: individual identity accounted for 32% of variation in PER responses. Salt specialization may therefore occur in water foragers. PMID:26823100

  16. Site characterization plan: Gulf Coast salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for developing technology and providing facilities for safe, environmentally acceptable, permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation has been intensively investigating Gulf Coast Salt Dome Basin salt domes and bedded salt in Texas and Utah since 1978. In the Gulf Coast, the application of screening criteria in the region phase led to selection of eight domes for further study in the location phase. Further screening in the area phase identified four domes for more intensive study in the location phase: Oakwood Dome, Texas; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Richton Dome and Cypress Creek Dome, Mississippi. For each dome, this Site Characterization Plan identifies specific hydrologic, geologic, tectonic, geochemical, and environmental key issues that are related to the DOE/NWTS screening criteria or affect the feasibility of constructing an exploratory shaft. The Site Characterization Plan outlines studies need to: (1) resolve issues sufficiently to allow one or more salt domes to be selected and compared to bedded salt sites in order to determine a prime salt site for an exploratory shaft; (2) conduct issue-related studies to provide a higher level of confidence that the preferred salt dome site is viable for construction of an exploratory shaft; and (3) provide a vehicle for state input to issues. Extensive references, 7 figures, 20 tables

  17. Molten salt synthesis of potassium hexatitanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaremba, T.

    2012-09-01

    Potassium hexatitanate fibrous crystals have been synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction and via molten salt process. The molten salt process has been shown to be effective in preparing fine and non-agglomerated K2Ti6O13 whiskers. The type of molten salt (KCl, NaCl-KCl) has a significant effect on the chemical composition of the whiskers. By using a eutectic mixture of NaCl and KCl, the replacement of potassium ions in solid potassium hexatitanate by smaller sodium ions from the chloride flux can be achieved. The characterization of the samples was carried out by means of XRD, SEM, EDX and WDX.

  18. Modeling of Salt Solubilities in Mixed Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiavone-Filho, O.; Rasmussen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    A method to correlate and predict salt solubilities in mixed solvents using a UNIQUAC+Debye-Huckel model is developed. The UNIQUAC equation is applied in a form with temperature-dependent parameters. The Debye-Huckel model is extended to mixed solvents by properly evaluating the dielectric...... constants and the liquid densities of the solvent media. To normalize the activity coefficients, the symmetric convention is adopted. Thermochemical properties of the salt are used to estimate the solubility product. It is shown that the proposed procedure can describe with good accuracy a series of salt...

  19. The role of salt salt domes and salt caves on creation of geoparks and geoturism development in Iran

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Asadi, N.; Zare, M.; Bruthans, J.; Filippi, Michal

    Qeshm: Qeshm Free Zone Organization ; Sarzamin Tourism Studies, 2008 - (Larijani, M.; Kalantari, F.), s. 11-23 [International Conference of Geoparks and their role on geoturism /1./. Qeshm (IR), 27.01.2008-02.02.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB315040801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : salt dome * salt cave * geoturism Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  20. Liquid salt environment stress-rupture testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weiju; Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2016-03-22

    Disclosed herein are systems, devices and methods for stress-rupture testing selected materials within a high-temperature liquid salt environment. Exemplary testing systems include a load train for holding a test specimen within a heated inert gas vessel. A thermal break included in the load train can thermally insulate a load cell positioned along the load train within the inert gas vessel. The test specimen can include a cylindrical gage portion having an internal void filled with a molten salt during stress-rupture testing. The gage portion can have an inner surface area to volume ratio of greater than 20 to maximize the corrosive effect of the molten salt on the specimen material during testing. Also disclosed are methods of making a salt ingot for placement within the test specimen.

  1. Habitat--Offshore of Salt Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Salt Point map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  2. South Bay Salt Ponds : Initial stewardship plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service will operate and maintain the South Bay Salt Ponds under this Initial Stewardship...

  3. Simulated waste package test in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Salt Repository Site Characterization Project Office (SRPO), of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), in cooperation with Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), simulated waste package test at Asse Salt Mine (Asse). The purpose of this test was to determine the effect of heat produced of the decay of High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) on: (1) Migration of brine moisture; (2) Thermomechanical response of the salt; (3) Geomechanical response of the room mined in salt; (4) Corrosion on potential HLW waste package container materials; and (5) Generation of gases. This paper describes the test performed, results obtained, and the performance of instruments and data acquisition system deployed

  4. Potential for creation of a salt dome following disposal of radioactive waste in a salt layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aims at quantifying the possibility of creation of a salt dome from a salt layer in which heat-emitting radioactive waste would be buried. Volume 1 describes the results of numerical computer simulations, and of laboratory-scale models in centrifuges. Volume 2 envisages, in a geological perspective, the origin of salt domes, the mechanisms of thei formation, and the associated parameters

  5. Ranking of 11 coastal halophytes from salt marshes in northwest Turkey according their salt tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Zörb, Christian; Sümer, Ali; Sungur, Ali; Flowers, Timothy J.; ÖZCAN, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Salt-affected soils with high electrolyte contents limit the development of the majority of plants and serve as a habitat only for such species (halophytes) that can survive the conditions. To date, there is still much that is unknown about the physiological mechanisms, including ion relationships, that make plants salt-resistant. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate a method of ranking plants for their salt tolerance. A total of 11 coastal halophytes of the Kavak Delta were evaluate...

  6. ADR salt pill design and crystal growth process for hydrated magnetic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor); DiPirro, Michael J. (Inventor); Canavan, Edgar R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A process is provided for producing a salt pill for use in very low temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADRs). The method can include providing a thermal bus in a housing. The thermal bus can include an array of thermally conductive metal conductors. A hydrated salt can be grown on the array of thermally conductive metal conductors. Thermal conductance can be provided to the hydrated salt.

  7. Potential for creation of a salt dome following disposal of radioactive waste in a salt layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aims at quantifying the possibility of creation of a salt dome from a salt layer in which heat-emitting radioactive waste would be buried. Volume 1 describes the results of numerical computer simulations, and of laboratory-scale models in centrifuges. Volume 2 envisages, in a geological perspective, the origin of salt domes, the mechanisms of their formation, and the associated parameters

  8. Salt Stress Proteins Induced in Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Duché, Ophélie; Trémoulet, Frédéric; Glaser, Philippe; Labadie, Jean

    2002-01-01

    The ability of Listeria monocytogenes to tolerate salt stress is of particular importance, as this pathogen is often exposed to such environments during both food processing and food preservation. In order to understand the survival mechanisms of L. monocytogenes, an initial approach using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed to analyze the pattern of protein synthesis in response to salt stress. Of 400 to 500 visible proteins, the synthesis of 40 proteins (P < 0.0...

  9. Monitoring change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David L.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Freeman, Michael L.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Carling, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake, only limited water quality monitoring has occurred historically. To change this, new monitoring stations and networks—gauges of lake level height and rate of inflow, moored buoys, and multiple lake-bottom sensors—will provide important information that can be used to make informed decisions regarding future management of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem.

  10. Iodized salt induced thyrotoxicosis: Bangladesh perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, S; Latif, S A; Kamal, M M; Asaduzzaman, M; Akther, A; Laila, Z H

    2009-07-01

    The effects of iodized and non-iodized salt on the thyroid gland and its hormones T3, T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were studied in 200 individuals who were the residents of plain areas of greater Mymensingh district. The subjects were collected from the Center for Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound, Mymensingh. Out of 200 individuals 150 were using iodized salt and 50 were using non-iodized salt. The iodized and non-iodized salt users were marked as study and control groups respectively. Blood samples were taken from both the groups and T3 and T4 in blood serum were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) while TSH was determined by immunoradiometricassay (IRMA). The mean concentration of T3 were 2.633 nmol/L and 2.223 nmol/L and T4 concentration were 122.444 nmol/L and 110.355 nmol/L in study and control group respectively. The mean TSH concentration was 5.044 mIU/L and 9.622 mIU/L in study and control group respectively. The data indicated that continuous and long term use of iodized salt increased both T3 and T4 and decreased TSH in study group. The results were significant (piodinated salt induced thyrotoxicosis (ISIT) in peoples living in plain areas of Bangladesh. We suggest close regular monitoring of T3, T4 and TSH and urinary excretion of iodine of individuals who are using iodized salt for better management of iodinated salt program in our setting. PMID:19623141

  11. High salt recruits aversive taste pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Oka, Yuki; Butnaru, Matthew; von Buchholtz, Lars; Ryba, Nicholas J.P.; Zuker, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    In the tongue, distinct classes of taste receptor cells detect the five basic tastes, sweet, sour, bitter, sodium salt, and umami 1,2 . Among these qualities, bitter and sour stimuli are innately aversive, whereas sweet and umami are appetitive, and generally attractive to animals. In contrast, salty taste is unique in that increasing salt concentration fundamentally transforms an innately appetitive stimulus into a powerfully aversive one 3–7 . This appetitive-aversive balance helps maintain...

  12. Swiss survey on salt intake: main results

    OpenAIRE

    Chappuis Aline; Bochud Murielle; Glatz Nicolas; Vuistiner Philippe; Paccaud Fred; Burnier Michel

    2011-01-01

    [Contents] 1. Executive summary. 2. Introduction. 3. Methods. 4. Main results. 4.1. Participants. 4.2. Estimation of dietary salt intake using 24-hour urine collection. 4.3. Blood pressure and hypertension. 4.4. Anthropometric data (Body weight, height and body mass index BMI; prevalence of overweight and obesity; waist circumference;...). 4.5. Knowledge and behaviors towards salt. 5. Discussion.

  13. Swelling of phospholipids by monovalent salt

    OpenAIRE

    Petrache, Horia I.; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Harries, Daniel; Kučerka, Norbert; Nagle, John F.; Parsegian, V. Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Critical to biological processes such as membrane fusion and secretion, ion-lipid interactions at the membrane-water interface still raise many unanswered questions. Using reconstituted phosphatidylcholine membranes, we confirm here that multilamellar vesicles swell in salt solutions, a direct indication that salt modifies the interactions between neighboring membranes. By varying sample histories, and by comparing with data from ion carrier-containing bilayers, we eliminate the possibility t...

  14. Results from the Salt Phase of SNO

    CERN Document Server

    Miknaitis, K; Ahmed, S N; Anthony, A E; Beier, E W; Bellerive, A; Bergevin, M; Biller, S D; Boger, J; Boulay, M G; Bowler, M G; Bullard, T V; Chan, Y D; Chen, M; Chen, X; Cleveland, B T; Cox, G A; Currat, C A; Dai, X; Dalnoki-Veress, F; Deng, H; Doe, P J; Dosanjh, R S; Doucas, G; Duba, C A; Duncan, F A; Dunford, M; Dunmore, J A; Earle, E D; Elliott, S R; Evans, H C; Ewan, G T; Farine, J; Fergani, H; Fleurot, F; Formaggio, J A; Frame, K; Frati, W; Fulsom, B G; Gagnon, N; Graham, K; Grant, D R; Hahn, R L; Hall, J C; Hallin, A L; Hallman, E D; Handler, W B; Hargrove, C K; Harvey, P J; Hazama, R; Heeger, K M; Heelan, L; Heintzelman, W J; Heise, J; Helmer, R L; Hemingway, R J; Hime, A; Howard, C; Howe, M A; Huang, M; Jagam, P; Jelley, N A; Klein, J R; Kormos, L L; Kos, M S; Krüger, A; Kraus, C V; Krauss, C B; Krumins, A V; Kutter, T; Kyba, C C M; Labranche, H; Lange, R; Law, J; Lawson, I T; Lesko, K T; Leslie, J R; Levine, I; Loach, J C; Luoma, S; MacLellan, R; Majerus, S; Mak, H B; Maneira, J; Marino, A D; McCauley, N; McDonald, A B; McGee, S; McGregor, G; Miin, C; Moffat, B A; Nally, C W; Neubauer, M S; Nickel, B G; Noble, A J; Norman, E B; Oblath, N S; Okada, C E; Ollerhead, R W; Orrell, J L; Oser, S M; Ouellet, C V; Peeters, S J M; Poon, A W P; Rielage, K; Robertson, B C; Robertson, R G H; Rollin, E; Rosendahl, S S E; Rusu, V L; Schwendener, M H; Seibert, S R; Simard, O; Simpson, J J; Sims, C J; Sinclair, D; Skensved, P; Smith, M W E; Starinsky, N; Stokstad, R G; Stonehill, L C; Tafirout, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tesic, G; Thomson, M; Thorman, M; Tsui, T; Van Berg, R; Van de Water, R G; Virtue, C J; Wall, B L; Waller, D; Waltham, C E; Wan Chan Tseung, H; Wark, D L; Wendland, J; West, N; Wilkerson, J F; Wilson, J R; Wittich, P; Wouters, J M; Wright, A; Yeh, M; Zuber, K

    2005-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has recently completed an analysis of data from the salt phase of the experiment, in which NaCl was added to the heavy-water neutrino target to enhance sensitivity to solar neutrinos. Results from the 391-day salt data set are summarized, including the measured solar neutrino fluxes, the electron energy spectrum from charged current interactions, and the day-night neutrino flux asymmetries. Constraints on neutrino mixing parameters including the new measurements are also given.

  15. Elevated 22Na uptake in aortae of Dahl salt-sensitive rats with high salt diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the effects of high salt intake on blood pressure and vascular 22Na uptake in Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. At 6 weeks of age, one group of 6 DS rats was placed on a low (0.4%) salt diet and the second group of 6 DS rats was placed on a high (8.0%) salt diet for a period of 4 weeks. Blood pressure recordings were made weekly. At 10 weeks of age, the animals were sacrificed and aortic 22Na uptake was measured. Total and amiloride sensitive (Na(+)-H+ antiport) components of 22Na uptake were measured from which was calculated the amiloride insensitive component. Na+, K(+)-pumps were inhibited for these vascular 22Na uptake experiments with ouabain to prevent Na+ efflux. DS rats on the high salt diet demonstrated significantly (P less than 0.01) higher blood pressure when compared to DS rats on a low salt diet. Similarly, DS rats on a high salt diet demonstrated significantly (P less than 0.05) higher total, amiloride sensitive and amiloride insensitive vascular 22Na uptake as compared to DS rats on low salt diet. The parallel increase in vascular 22Na uptake and blood pressure suggests a possible, key role of Na+ influx in the mechanism of salt induced hypertension of DS rats

  16. Nitrite toxicity of Litopenaeus vannamei in water containing low concentrations of sea salt or mixed salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, A.; Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.; Browdy, C.L.; Tomasso, J.R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The uptake, depuration and toxicity of environmental nitrite was characterized in Litopenaeus vannamei exposed in water containing low concentrations of artificial sea salt or mixed salts. In 2 g/L artificial sea salts, nitrite was concentrated in the hemolymph in a dose-dependent and rapid manner (steady-state in about 2 d). When exposed to nitrite in 2 g/L artificial sea salts for 4 d and then moved to a similar environment without added nitrite, complete depuration occurred within a day. Increasing salinity up to 10 g/L decreased uptake of environmental nitrite. Nitrite uptake in environments containing 2 g/L mixed salts (combination of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium chlorides) was similar to or lower than rates in 2 g/L artificial sea salt. Toxicity was inversely related to total dissolved salt and chloride concentrations and was highest in 2 g/L artificial sea salt (96-h medial lethal concentration = 8.4 mg/L nitrite-N). Animals that molted during the experiments did not appear to be more susceptible to nitrite than animals that did not molt. The shallow slope of the curve describing the relationship between toxicity and salinity suggests that management of nitrite toxicity in low-salinity shrimp ponds by addition of more salts may not be practical. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2004.

  17. SALT-4, Temperature and Stress from Radioactive Waste Disposal in Bedded Salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: SALT4 is a two-dimensional, analytical/displacement-discontinuity code designed to evaluate temperatures, deformation, and stresses associated with underground disposal of radioactive waste in bedded salt. SALT4 takes into account viscoelastic behavior in the pillars adjacent to excavations, transversely isotropic elastic moduli such as those exhibited by bedded or stratified rock, and excavation sequence. SALT4 can be used for parameter sensitivity analyses of two-dimensional, repository-scale, thermal and thermomechanical response in bedded salt during the excavation, operational, and post-closure phases. It is especially useful in evaluating alternative patterns and sequences of excavation or waste canister placement. 2 - Method of solution: In SALT4, the temperature distribution and associated thermal stresses are approximated by analytic solutions for a line heat source in an elastic medium. The mechanical effects due to excavation of the repository openings are treated by the displacement-discontinuity method. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Although SALT4 was designed for analysis of bedded salt, it is also applicable to crystalline rock if the creep calculation is suppressed. The main disadvantage of SALT4 is that some of the assumptions made, i.e. temperature-independent material properties, render it unsuitable for canister-scale analysis or analysis of lateral deformation of the pillars

  18. Ammonia Solubility in High Concentration Salt Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEDENGREN, D.C.

    2000-02-01

    Solubility data for ammonia in water and various dilute solutions are abundant in the literature. However, there is a noticeable lack of ammonia solubility data for high salt, basic solutions of various mixtures of salts including those found in many of the Hanford Washington underground waste tanks. As a result, models based on solubility data for dilute salt solutions have been used to extrapolate to high salt solutions. These significant extrapolations need to be checked against actual laboratory data. Some indirect vapor measurements have been made. A more direct approach is to determine the ratio of solubility of ammonia in water to its solubility in high salt solutions. In various experiments, pairs of solutions, one of which is water and the other a high salt solution, are allowed to come to equilibrium with a common ammonia vapor pressure. The ratio of concentrations of ammonia in the two solutions is equal to the ratio of the respective ammonia solubilities (Henry's Law constants) at a given temperature. This information can then be used to refine the models that predict vapor space compositions of ammonia. Ammonia at Hanford is of concern because of its toxicity in the environment and its contribution to the flammability of vapor space gas mixtures in waste tanks.

  19. Thermal Characterization of Molten Salt Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson

    2011-09-01

    The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner (ER) may be adversely affected by the buildup of sodium, fission products, and transuranics in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are the following: (1) salt freezing due to an unexpected change in the liquidus temperature, (2) phase separation or non-homogeneity of the molten salt due to the precipitation of solids or formation of immiscible liquids, and (3) any mechanism that can result in the separation and concentration of fissile elements from the molten salt. Any of these situations would result in an off-normal condition outside the established safety basis for electrorefiner (ER) operations. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This report describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, which consist of chlorides of potassium, lithium, strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium chlorides as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium, used for the processing of used nuclear fuels.

  20. Ammonia Solubility in High Concentration Salt Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solubility data for ammonia in water and various dilute solutions are abundant in the literature. However, there is a noticeable lack of ammonia solubility data for high salt, basic solutions of various mixtures of salts including those found in many of the Hanford Washington underground waste tanks. As a result, models based on solubility data for dilute salt solutions have been used to extrapolate to high salt solutions. These significant extrapolations need to be checked against actual laboratory data. Some indirect vapor measurements have been made. A more direct approach is to determine the ratio of solubility of ammonia in water to its solubility in high salt solutions. In various experiments, pairs of solutions, one of which is water and the other a high salt solution, are allowed to come to equilibrium with a common ammonia vapor pressure. The ratio of concentrations of ammonia in the two solutions is equal to the ratio of the respective ammonia solubilities (Henry's Law constants) at a given temperature. This information can then be used to refine the models that predict vapor space compositions of ammonia. Ammonia at Hanford is of concern because of its toxicity in the environment and its contribution to the flammability of vapor space gas mixtures in waste tanks

  1. A universal salt model based on under-ground precipitation of solid salts due to supercritical water `out-salting'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueslåtten, H.; Hovland, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    One of the common characteristics of planets Earth and Mars is that both host water (H2O) and large accumulations of salt. Whereas Earth’s surface-environment can be regarded as ‘water-friendly’ and ‘salt hostile’, the reverse can be said for the surface of Mars. This is because liquid water is stable on Earth, and the atmosphere transports humidity around the globe, whereas on planet Mars, liquid water is unstable, rendering the atmosphere dry and, therefore, ‘salt-friendly’. The riddle as to how the salt accumulated in various locations on those two planets, is one of long-lasting and great debate. The salt accumulations on Earth are traditionally termed ‘evaporites’, meaning that they formed as a consequence of the evaporation of large masses of seawater. How the accumulations on Mars formed is much harder to explain, as an ocean only existed briefly. Although water molecules and OH-groups may exist in abundance in bound form (crystal water, adsorbed water, etc.), the only place where free water is expected to be stable on Mars is within underground faults, fractures, and crevices. Here it likely occurs as brine or in the form of ice. Based on these conditions, a key to understanding the accumulation of large deposits of salt on both planets is linked to how brines behave in the subsurface when pressurized and heated beyond their supercritical point. At depths greater than about 3 km (P>300 bars) water will no longer boil in a steam phase. Rather, it becomes supercritical and will attain the phase of supercritical water vapor (SCRIW) with a specific gravity of typically 0.3 g/cm3. An important characteristic of SCRIW is its inability to dissolve the common sea salts. The salt dissolved in the brines will therefore precipitate as solid particles when brines (seawater on the Earth) move into the supercritical P&T-domain (T>400°C, P>300 bars). Numerical modeling of a hydrothermal system in the Atlantis II Deep of the Red Sea indicates that a

  2. Detection of salt bridges to lysines in solution in barnase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Williamson, Michael P.; Hounslow, Andrea M.; Ford, Joe; Fowler, Kyle; Hebditch, Max

    2013-01-01

    We show that salt bridges involving lysines can be detected by deuterium isotope effects on NMR chemical shifts of the sidechain amine. Lys27 in the ribonuclease barnase is salt bridged, and mutation of Arg69 to Lys retains a partially buried salt bridge. The salt bridges are functionally important....

  3. Thermal Treatment of Salt-Loaded Zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Lee, Jae Hee; Kim, Eung Ho; Kim, Joon Hyung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    For disposal in a geological repository, the waste salts such as molten LiCl salt from an oxide fuel reduction process and molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt from an electro refining process must meet the acceptance criteria. For a waste form containing chloride salt, two of the more important criteria are known to be leach resistance and waste form durability. US Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) developed a ceramic waste form (CWF) fabrication technology for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt from ANL Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II). The CWF, which was made by first occluding salt in zeolite A at 730 K and then encapsulating the zeolite in a borosilicate binder glass by a hot isostatic press (HIP) method or pressureless consolidation (PC) method, has the phase composition of about 70% sodalite, 25% binder glass, and a 5% total of inclusion phases (halite, nepheline, and various oxides and silicates). US ANL showed that the chemical durability and leach resistance of the CWF were higher than those of glass waste form for high level waste from aqueous process, by a 7-day product consistency test (PCT). However, the waste form fabrication process for waste LiCl salt is somewhat different in mixing temperature from that for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt at US ANL. The former is mixed at 920 K, whereas, the later mixing is accomplished at 730 K. Such difference in mixing temperature results in the different major phase of SLZ, that is, zeolite Li-A from LiCl salt, and unchanged zeolite A from LiCl-KCl eutectic salt. This unchanged phase of zeolite A during an immobilization step is transformed to sodalite, which was known to be very high leach-resistant, in the step of encapsulating with borosilicate glass. In this work, we tried to investigate the transformation of major phase of SLZ, from zeolite Li-A to Na{sub 8}Cl{sub 2}-Sod using zeolite only sodalite, by a quantitative analysis with a software for X-ray diffractometer during the thermal treatment under 1170 K.

  4. Evidence of the Earliest Salt Production Found in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Being critical in the development of the human civilization, the ancient salt-making has been an important research issue for both historians and archaeologists. Since salt dissolves in water, it is difficult to tell whether the salt in archaeological samples was caused by human production of salt or underground water. So how to judge the existence of salt production has been a world-wide problem in archaeology and archaeometry.

  5. Heavy Metals Contamination of Table Salt Consumed in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Cheraghali, Abdol Majid; Kobarfard, Farzad; Faeizy, Noroldin

    2010-01-01

    Lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic are the most important heavy metals which may cause health risks following consumption of contaminated foods. Table salt is one the mostly used food additive with unique place in food consumption. Although purified table salt is expected to have lower level of contamination, some Iranians still prefer to use rock salt. Use of rock salt for food purposes has been banned by Iranian health authorities. In this study, heavy metal contamination of table salt cons...

  6. Effects of Salt on Wheat Flour Dough Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Toshiyuki Toyosaki; Yasuhide Sakane

    2013-01-01

    Most food chemistry characteristics in the dough fermentation of salt are not solved. Effects of salt on the acceleration process of wheat flour dough fermentation were studied, respectively. The mechanism of dough expansion influenced by salt and yeast was also investigated. The dough expansion rate with no salt reached a maximum of 18% in the 50 min dough fermentation time. In contrast, dough with 2.0% salt reached an expansion rate of 96% in 30 min of fermentation. Furthermore, the maximum...

  7. Chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Cviková

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was analysed and evaluated chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork neck and ham. Dried salted meat is one of the main meat products typically produced with a variety of flavors and textures. Neck (14 samples and ham (14 samples was salted by nitrite salt mixture during 1week. The nitrite salt mixture for salting process (dry salting was used. This salt mixture contains: salt, dextrose, maltodextrin, flavourings, stabilizer E316, taste enhancer E621, nitrite mixture. The meat samples were dried at 4 °C and relative humudity 85% after 1 week salting. The weight of each sample was approximately 1 kg. After salting were vacuum-packed and analysed after 1 week. The traditional dry-cured meat such as dry-cured ham and neck obtained after 12 - 24 months of ripening under controlled conditions. The average protein content was significantly (p <0.001 lower in dried pork neck in comparison with dried salted pork ham. The average intramuscular fat was significantly (p <0.001 lower in dried pork ham in comparison with dried salted pork neck. The average moisture was significantly lower (p ≤0.05 in dried salted ham in comparison with dried pork neck. The average pH value was 5.50 in dried salted pork ham and 5.75 in dried salted pork neck. The content of arginine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine and threonine in dried salted ham was significantly lower (p <0.001 in comparison with dried salted pork neck. The proportion of analysed amino acids from total proteins was 56.31% in pork salted dried ham and 56.50% in pork salted dried neck.  Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  8. Drying of salted fish. Comparison between different methods and species

    OpenAIRE

    Gísli Kristjánsson 1988

    2013-01-01

    Dried salted fish is a popular seafood product in Southern Europe and South America. Large quantities of the salted fish from Iceland are further processed into dried salted products in Portugal before they are sold to the consumer in Portugal or exported to Brazil. By drying the salted fish in Iceland an added value could be achieved in the country before the fish is exported. In this thesis experiments were performed to gather knowledge of drying of salted fish in Icelandic conventional tun...

  9. Functionalization of nanomaterials with aryldiazonium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ahmed A; Salmi, Zakaria; Dahoumane, Si Amar; Mekki, Ahmed; Carbonnier, Benjamin; Chehimi, Mohamed M

    2015-11-01

    This paper reviews the surface modification strategies of a wide range of nanomaterials using aryldiazonium salts. After a brief history of diazonium salts since their discovery by Peter Griess in 1858, we will tackle the surface chemistry using these compounds since the first trials in the 1950s. We will then focus on the modern surface chemistry of aryldiazonium salts for the modification of materials, particularly metallic, semiconductors, metal oxide nanoparticles, carbon-based nanostructures, diamond and clays. The successful modification of sp(2) carbon materials and metals by aryldiazonium salts paved the way to innovative strategies for the attachment of aryl layers to metal oxide nanoparticles and nanodiamonds, and intercalation of clays. Interestingly, diazotized surfaces can easily trap nanoparticles and nanotubes while diazotized nanoparticles can be (electro)chemically reduced on electrode/materials surfaces as molecular compounds. Both strategies provided organized 2D surface assembled nanoparticles. In this review, aryldiazonium salts are highlighted as efficient coupling agents for many types of molecular, macromolecular and nanoparticulate species, therefore ensuring stability to colloids on the one hand, and the construction of composite materials and hybrid systems with robust and durable interfaces/interphases, on the other hand. The last section is dedicated to a selection of patents and industrial products based on aryldiazonium-modified nanomaterials. After nearly 160 years of organic chemistry, diazonium salts have entered a new, long and thriving era for the benefit of materials, colloids, and surface scientists. This tempts us to introduce the terminology of "diazonics" we define as the science and technology of aryldiazonium salt-derived materials. PMID:26299313

  10. The effect of the salt viscosity on future evolution of the Gorleben salt diapir, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemia, Zurab; Schmeling, H.; Koyi, H.

    2009-01-01

    . Decreasing salt viscosity allows the previously “stationary” anhydrite blocks to sink. If the effective viscosity of salt in post-depositional stage of the Gorleben diapir falls below this threshold value, induced internal flow due to the present anhydrite layer might disturb any repository within the diapir....

  11. Characterization of the molten salt reactor experiment fuel and flush salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise decisions about the handling and disposition of spent fuel from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) must be based upon an understanding of the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of the frozen fuel and flush salts. These open-quotes staticclose quotes properties can be inferred from the extensive documentation of process history maintained during reactor operation and the knowledge gained in laboratory development studies. Just as important as the description of the salt itself is an understanding of the dynamic processes which continue to transform the salt composition and govern its present and potential physicochemical behavior. A complete characterization must include a phenomenological characterization in addition to the typical summary of properties. This paper reports on the current state of characterization of the fuel and flush salts needed to support waste management decisions

  12. Novel graphite salts of high oxidizing potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarron, E.M. III

    1980-08-01

    The intercalation of graphite by the third-transition-series metal hexafluorides has yielded the graphite salts, C/sub 8//sup +/OsF/sub 6//sup -/, C/sub 8//sup +/IrF/sub 6//sup -/ and C/sub 12//sup 2 +/PtF/sub 6//sup 2 -/. The fluoroplatinate salt represents the highest electron withdrawal from the graphite network yet achieved. Analogues to the Os and Ir salts have been obtained both by fluorination of Group V pentaflouride intercalates, C/sub 8/MF/sub 5/ (M = As, Sb), and by the interaction of the dioxygenyl salts with graphite (8C + O/sub 2/MF/sub 6/ ..-->.. C/sub 8/MF/sub 6/ + O/sub 2/+). Non-intercalating binary fluorides have been observed to intercalate in the presence of a fluorine-rich environment (e.g., 8C + PF/sub 5/ + 1/2 F/sub 2/ ..-->.. C/sub 8/PF/sub 6/). GeF/sub 4/, which also does not spontaneously intercalate graphite, has been observed to interact with graphite in the presence of 2 atmospheres of fluorine overpressure to give the fluoroplatinate salt analogue, C/sub 12//sup 2 +/GeF/sub 6//sup 2 -/. This material is in equilibrium with the pentafluorogermanate at ordinary pressures and temperatures. C/sub 12//sup 2 +/GeF/sub 6//sup 2 -/ ..-->.. C/sub 12//sup +/GeF/sub 5//sup -/ + 1/2 F/sub 2/. C/sub 12/GeF/sub 6/ must have an oxidizing potential close to that of fluorine itself. The graphite fluorometallate salts are both electronic and ionic (F/sup -/) conductors. For the C/sub 8//sup +/MF/sub 6//sup -/ salts, a maximum electronic conductivity an order of magnitude greater than the parent graphite has been observed for stage two. The high oxidizing potential, coupled with the fluoride ion transport capability of the graphite salts, has been exploited in the construction of solid-state galvanic cells. These cells use the graphite fluorometallate salts as electrode materials in combination with a superionic fluoride-ion-conducting solid electrolyte.

  13. Borehole locations on seven interior salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is designed as an inventory of all wells known to have been drilled within a five-mile radius of each of seven salt domes within the Interior Salt Basin in east Texas, northern Louisiana and Mississippi. There are 72 boreholes that entered salt above an elevation of -3000 feet mean sea level. For these, details of location, drilling dates, depth of casing and cement, elevation of top of caprock and salt, etc., are given on tables in the appendix. Of the seven domes, Oakwood has the largest number of boreholes, thirty-eight (including two sidetracked wells) that enter the salt stock above -3000 feet mean sea level; another dome in northeast Texas, Keechi, has eight; in northern Louisiana, Rayburn's has four and Vacherie has five; in southern Mississippi, Cypress Creek has seven, Lampton has one, and Richton has nine. In addition, all wells known outside the supra-domal area, but within a five-mile radius of the center of the 7 domes are separately catalogued

  14. Salt-specific effects in lysozyme solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Janc

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of additions of low-molecular-mass salts on the properties of aqueous lysozyme solutions are examined by using the cloud-point temperature, T_{cloud}, measurements. Mixtures of protein, buffer, and simple salt in water are studied at pH=6.8 (phosphate buffer and pH=4.6 (acetate buffer. We show that an addition of buffer in the amount above I_{buffer} = 0.6 mol dm^{-3} does not affect the T_{cloud} values. However, by replacing a certain amount of the buffer electrolyte by another salt, keeping the total ionic strength constant, we can significantly change the cloud-point temperature. All the salts de-stabilize the solution and the magnitude of the effect depends on the nature of the salt. Experimental results are analyzed within the framework of the one-component model, which treats the protein-protein interaction as highly directional and of short-range. We use this approach to predict the second virial coefficients, and liquid-liquid phase diagrams under conditions, where T_{cloud} is determined experimentally.

  15. Molten salts and energy related materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fray, Derek

    2016-08-15

    Molten salts have been known for centuries and have been used for the extraction of aluminium for over one hundred years and as high temperature fluxes in metal processing. This and other molten salt routes have gradually become more energy efficient and less polluting, but there have been few major breakthroughs. This paper will explore some recent innovations that could lead to substantial reductions in the energy consumed in metal production and in carbon dioxide production. Another way that molten salts can contribute to an energy efficient world is by creating better high temperature fuel cells and novel high temperature batteries, or by acting as the medium that can create novel materials that can find applications in high energy batteries and other energy saving devices, such as capacitors. Carbonate melts can be used to absorb carbon dioxide, which can be converted into C, CO and carbon nanoparticles. Molten salts can also be used to create black silicon that can absorb more sunlight over a wider range of wavelengths. Overall, there are many opportunities to explore for molten salts to play in an efficient, low carbon world. PMID:27276650

  16. Solution, thermal and optical properties of bis(pyridinium salt)s as ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bis(pyridinium salt)s containing different alkyl chain lengths and various organic counterions were prepared by the ring-transmutation reaction of bis(pyrylium tosylate) with aliphatic amines in dimethyl sulfoxide at 130–135 °C for 18 h and their tosylate counterions were exchanged to other anions such as triflimide, methyl orange, and dioctyl sulfosuccinate by the metathesis reaction in a common organic solvent. Their chemical structures were established by using 1H, 19F, and 13C NMR spectra. The thermal properties of bis(pyridinium salt)s were studied by DSC and TGA measurements. Some of the dicationic salts provided low melting points below 100 °C and some of them displayed amorphous properties. Polarized optical microscopy studies revealed the crystal structures prior to melting temperatures in some cases. Their optical properties were examined by using UV–Vis and photoluminescent spectrometers; and they emitted blue light both in the solution and solid states regardless of their microstructures, counterions, and the polarity of organic solvents. However, most of these salts exhibited hypsochromic shifts in their emission peaks in the solid state when compared with those of their solution spectra. Due to unique properties of methyl orange anion as a pH indicator, two of the salts showed different color change in varying concentrations of triflic acid in common organic solvents, demonstrating their potential use as an acid sensor in methanol, acetonitrile and acetone. Highlights: ► Luminescent dicationic salts were synthesized by ring-transmutation and metathesis reactions. ► Thermal and optical properties of dicationic salts are affected by the size of anion structures. ► Due to the methyl orange counterions, some dicationic salts showed pH- sensing property

  17. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes' governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  18. Micellar aggregates and hydrogels from phosphonobile salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Ponnusamy; Chopra, D; Row, T N Guru; Maitra, Uday

    2005-10-21

    The aggregation properties of novel bile acid analogs-phosphonobile salts (PBS)-have been studied. The critical micellar concentration of 23 and 24-phosphonobile salts were measured using fluorescence and 31P NMR methods. All the ten synthesized phosphonobile salts formed gels at different pH ranges in water. The pH range at which individual PBSs could gelate water was narrow and influenced by the number and conformation of hydroxyl groups. A reversible thermochromic system has been developed (with 23-phosphonodeoxycholate at pH 3.3), which changes color upon gelation. The investigation of the first hydrogels derived from trihydroxy bile acid analogs 1 and 6 was made using fluorescence, 31P NMR, X-ray crystallography, circular dichroism and SEM. The present studies reveal that the gel network consists of a chiral, fibrous structure possessing hydrophobic interiors. PMID:16211104

  19. Transient behaviour of deep underground salt caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the transient behaviour of deep underground salt caverns. It has been shown that a cavern is a complex system, in which there are mechanical, thermal, chemical and hydraulic evolutions. The importance of the transient evolutions, particularly the role of the 'reverse' creep in the interpretation of the tightness test in a salt cavern is revealed. Creep is characterized by a formulation of the behaviour law which presents the advantage, in a practical point of view, to only have a reduced number of parameters while accounting of the essential of what it is observed. The initiation of the rupture in the effective traction in a salt cavern rapidly pressurized is discussed. A model fitted to a very long term behaviour (after abandonment) is developed too. In this case too, a lot of phenomena, more or less coupled, occur, when the existing literature took only into account some phenomena. (O.M.)

  20. Glyme-lithium salt phase behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Wesley A

    2006-07-01

    Phase diagrams are reported for glyme mixtures with simple lithium salts. The glymes studied include monoglyme (DME), diglyme, triglyme, and tetraglyme. The lithium salts include LiBETI, LiAsF6, LiI, LiClO4, LiBF4, LiCF3SO3, LiBr, LiNO3, and LiCF3CO2. The phase diagrams clearly illustrate how solvate formation and thermophysical properties are dictated by the ionic association strength of the salt (i.e., the properties of the anions) and chain length of the solvating molecules. This information provides critical predictive capabilities for solvate formation and ionic interactions common in organometallic reagents and battery electrolytes. PMID:16805630

  1. Precipitates/Salts Model Sensitivity Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective and scope of this calculation is to assist Performance Assessment Operations and the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Department in modeling the geochemical effects of evaporation on potential seepage waters within a potential repository drift. This work is developed and documented using procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', in support of ''Technical Work Plan For Engineered Barrier System Department Modeling and Testing FY 02 Work Activities'' (BSC 2001a). The specific objective of this calculation is to examine the sensitivity and uncertainties of the Precipitates/Salts model. The Precipitates/Salts model is documented in an Analysis/Model Report (AMR), ''In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Analysis'' (BSC 2001b). The calculation in the current document examines the effects of starting water composition, mineral suppressions, and the fugacity of carbon dioxide (CO2) on the chemical evolution of water in the drift

  2. The Medicinal Plants of Salt Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Ahmad

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides preserving mines of salts, minerals, fossils, archeological and cultural heritage; the mountainous terrain of the Salt Range also has immense potential for its biodiversity in the broadly overlapping � the subtropical dry evergreen and the thorny subtropical semi deciduous� types of forest ecologies. Olea ferruginea, Acacia modesta, Reptonia buxifolia and Salvadora oleoides represent the apparent arboreal landscape of the terrain. More than 92 medicinal plants are not only used for curing ailments ranging from mild infections to the chronic ulcers but are also contributing a lot to the rural economy of the area. Floral diversity in general, the species of Litsea, Neolitsea and Colchicum in particular, are exposed to severe collection and the habitat loss pressures. Commonly known medicinal plants of the Salt Range, Punjab and their therapeutic uses are presented in this paper.

  3. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2011-07-01

    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  4. Electrical conduction in transition-metal salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grado-Caffaro, M.A.; Grado-Caffaro, M. [Scientific Consultants, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-08-01

    We predict that a given transition-metal salt as, for example, a K{sub 2}CuCl{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O-type compound, can behave as an electrical conductor in the paramagnetic case. In fact, we determine the electrical conductance in a salt of this type. This conductance is found to be quantised in agreement with previous well-known results. Related mathematical expressions in the context of superexchange interaction are obtained. In addition, we determine the corresponding (macroscopically viewed) current density and the associated electron wave functions.

  5. Tendzin Phuntso's Chemistry of Salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangSheng; CaiJingfeng

    2003-01-01

    An examination of large quantities of Tibetan data for a project entitled "Alchemy and Alchemic Medicines of Tibet revealed that ancient Tibetan terminology for and classification of inorganic salts have much in common with modern chemistry. This is particularly true of research conducted by Tendzin Phuntso (born in 1672 in Gongjo Count, Chamdo, Tibet) and his representative work, "gso rig gcesb dus rin chen phreng ba bzugs so". This work summarizes Tibetan recognition of inorganic salts in chemistry over the course of 1000 years or more, and is of great significance in the world history of science and technolgy.

  6. COBALT SALTS PRODUCTION BY USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila V. Dyakova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the extracting cobalt salts by using mixtures on the basis of tertiary amine from multicomponent solutions from the process of hydrochloride leaching of cobalt concentrate. The optimal composition for the extraction mixture, the relationship between the cobalt distribution coefficients and modifier’s nature and concentration, and the saltingout agent type have been determined. A hydrochloride extraction technology of cobalt concentrate yielding a purified concentrated cobalt solution for the production of pure cobalt salts has been developed and introduced at Severonikel combine.

  7. Disposal of Savannah River Plant waste salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proposed NRC guidelines for the disposal of waste with the radionuclide content of SRP salt would permit shallow land burial. Federal and state rules require that potentially hazardous chemical wastes (mainly nitrate-nitrite salts in the saltcrete) be contained to the degree necessary to meet drinking water standards in the ground water beneath the landfill boundary. This paper describes the proposed saltcrete landfill and tests under way to ensure that the landfill meet these criteria. The work includes laboratory and field tests of the saltcrete itself, a field test of a one-tenth linear scale model of the entire landfill system, and a numerical model of the system

  8. Electrical conduction in transition-metal salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We predict that a given transition-metal salt as, for example, a K2CuCl4.2H2O-type compound, can behave as an electrical conductor in the paramagnetic case. In fact, we determine the electrical conductance in a salt of this type. This conductance is found to be quantised in agreement with previous well-known results. Related mathematical expressions in the context of superexchange interaction are obtained. In addition, we determine the corresponding (macroscopically viewed) current density and the associated electron wave functions.

  9. The enigma of cooking salt crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two Soviet experts, Vladimir Gromov and Valentin Krylov, have discovered an unexpected phenomenon on irradiating cooking salt crystals with electrons. When the crystals are subsequently ground the rate at which they are dissolved increases, but not always. The electrons cause the salt molecules to polarize thus creating an internal electric field. This acts against the double electric layer which is inevitably formed in the part of the solution touching the crystal surface. So, if the permittivity of the solution is much greater than that of the molecules of the crystal, the rate of dissolution is increased, and vice versa. (G.T.H.)

  10. Asymmetric Hydrogenation of 3-Substituted Pyridinium Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renom-Carrasco, Marc; Gajewski, Piotr; Pignataro, Luca; de Vries, Johannes G; Piarulli, Umberto; Gennari, Cesare; Lefort, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    The use of an equivalent amount of an organic base leads to high enantiomeric excess in the asymmetric hydrogenation of N-benzylated 3-substituted pyridinium salts into the corresponding piperidines. Indeed, in the presence of Et3 N, a Rh-JosiPhos catalyst reduced a range of pyridinium salts with ee values up to 90 %. The role of the base was elucidated with a mechanistic study involving the isolation of the various reaction intermediates and isotopic labeling experiments. Additionally, this study provided some evidence for an enantiodetermining step involving a dihydropyridine intermediate. PMID:27140832

  11. Extractive Distillation with Salt in Solvent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Extractive distillation with salt in solvent is a new process for producing anhydrous ethanol by combining the principle of "salt effect" and some traditional extractive distillation methods. Compared with the common extractive distillation the performance of solvent is improved, the recycling amount of solvent is reduced to 1/4-1/5, and the number of theoretical plates is reduced to 1/3. Energy consumption and cost of equipment are also reduced and continuous production is realized. High efficiency and low solvent wastage make this technique feasible.

  12. Archaeological and chemical evidence for early salt production in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flad, Rowan; Zhu, Jiping; Wang, Changsui; Chen, Pochan; von Falkenhausen, Lothar; Sun, Zhibin; Li, Shuicheng

    2005-01-01

    Salt production and trade is thought to be critical to the development of all states and emergent empires. Until now, however, scientific evidence of early salt production has rarely been presented, and no studies of early Chinese salt production have provided unequivocal proof. Here, we report x-ray fluorescence, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses that demonstrate that salt was the primary product during the first millennium before Christ (B.C.) at Zhongba in Central China. This work provides an early example of salt production discovered in China and presents a methodology for evaluating salt production sites in other regions. PMID:16116100

  13. High Temperature Fluoride Salt Test Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cunningham, Richard Burns [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holcomb, David Eugene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peretz, Fred J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Dane F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yoder, Jr, Graydon L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Effective high-temperature thermal energy exchange and delivery at temperatures over 600°C has the potential of significant impact by reducing both the capital and operating cost of energy conversion and transport systems. It is one of the key technologies necessary for efficient hydrogen production and could potentially enhance efficiencies of high-temperature solar systems. Today, there are no standard commercially available high-performance heat transfer fluids above 600°C. High pressures associated with water and gaseous coolants (such as helium) at elevated temperatures impose limiting design conditions for the materials in most energy systems. Liquid salts offer high-temperature capabilities at low vapor pressures, good heat transport properties, and reasonable costs and are therefore leading candidate fluids for next-generation energy production. Liquid-fluoride-salt-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors, referred to as Fluoride Salt Reactors (FHRs), are specifically designed to exploit the excellent heat transfer properties of liquid fluoride salts while maximizing their thermal efficiency and minimizing cost. The FHR s outstanding heat transfer properties, combined with its fully passive safety, make this reactor the most technologically desirable nuclear power reactor class for next-generation energy production. Multiple FHR designs are presently being considered. These range from the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) [1] design originally developed by UC-Berkeley to the Small Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR) and the large scale FHR both being developed at ORNL [2]. The value of high-temperature, molten-salt-cooled reactors is also recognized internationally, and Czechoslovakia, France, India, and China all have salt-cooled reactor development under way. The liquid salt experiment presently being developed uses the PB-AHTR as its focus. One core design of the PB-AHTR features multiple 20 cm diameter, 3.2 m long fuel channels

  14. [Less salt--more health. Croatian action on salt and health (CRASH)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelaković, Bojan; Kaić-Rak, Antoinette; Milicić, Davor; Premuzić, Vedran; Skupnjak, Berislav; Reiner, Zeljko

    2009-01-01

    Developed part of the world has realized that excessive salt intake is harmful for humans' health. Several countries have their own national programmes for reducing salt intake, and the most successful are Finland, Japan and Great Britain. National programme that was launched in Great Britain several decades ago (CASH) achieved most and should serve as an example and model for others. In 2005 this programme evolved into the World action on salt and health (WASH). According to the EU plan, salt intake should be also cut down, and salt content should be labelled on all food articles. In 2006, the First Croatian Congress on Hypertension announced Declaration of salt reducing programme in Croatia, and in 2007 at the 6th Croatian Congress on Atherosclerosis Croatian action on salt and health (CRASH), and national programme for reducing salt intake were launched. In 2008 we have started with mapping of sodium intake (determined from urine sodium excretion), and CRASH has organized several educational activities for general population, but also for physicians and nurses. CRASH and national programme are organized by Croatian Academy of Medical Science, Croatian Society of Hypertension, Croatian Atherosclerosis Society, Croatian Cardiac Society, and School of Medicine, University of Zagreb. Associations of nurses are involved in all activities, as well as students and patients. Negotiations with food industry have started. Croatian Food Agency and companies for public relations and collaboration with media are included in this important programme. Croatian Ministry of Health and Social Care supports these activities, and CRASH is included in the action of the World Health Organization on mapping sodium intake in European countries. CRASHjoins WASH and will organize several activities for the World Salt Awareness Week, which is in 2009 focused on salt eaten outside the home. We hope that Croatia will soon follow countries who have already achieved success in this struggle

  15. Chemistry and technology of Molten Salt Reactors - history and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molten Salt Reactors represent one of promising future nuclear reactor concept included also in the Generation IV reactors family. This reactor type is distinguished by an extraordinarily close connection between the reactor physics and chemical technology, which is given by the specific features of the chemical form of fuel, representing by molten fluoride salt and circulating through the reactor core and also by the requirements of continuous 'on-line' reprocessing of the spent fuel. The history of Molten Salt Reactors reaches the period of fifties and sixties, when the first experimental Molten Salt Reactors were constructed and tested in ORNL (US). Several molten salt techniques dedicated to fresh molten salt fuel processing and spent fuel reprocessing were studied and developed in those days. Today, after nearly thirty years of discontinuance, a renewed interest in the Molten Salt Reactor technology is observed. Current experimental R and D activities in the area of Molten Salt Reactor technology are realized by a relatively small number of research institutions mainly in the EU, Russia and USA. The main effort is directed primarily to the development of separation processes suitable for the molten salt fuel processing and reprocessing technology. The techniques under development are molten salt/liquid metal extraction processes, electrochemical separation processes from the molten salt media, fused salt volatilization techniques and gas extraction from the molten salt medium

  16. Environmentally safe salt replacement for fracturing fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of salts, such as potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl), as temporary clay stabilizers during oil well drilling completions and servicing has been in practice for many years. Their effectiveness in this practice has been well established through out the industry. However, because of the bulk and potential environmental hazards associated with the salts, many operators have begun to search out alternatives to their use. This paper discusses recent research which has developed a relationship between physical properties of various cations (K+, Na+, etc.) and their efficiency as temporary clay stabilizers. These physical properties were then utilized to synthesize an organic cation with a higher efficiency as a clay stabilizer than the typical salts now used in the oil industry. This allows much lower salt concentrations to be used to obtain the same clay stabilizing effectiveness. The liquid product has proven to be much easier to handle and transport. It has been shown to be environmentally compatible and is biodegradable in this diluted form. Its effectiveness in fracturing operations has been extensively proven in numerous treatments in various formations throughout the U.S. and Canada

  17. The Path to Nitrate Salt Disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-16

    The topic is presented in a series of slides arranged according to the following outline: LANL nitrate salt incident as thermal runaway (thermally sensitive surrogates, full-scale tests), temperature control for processing, treatment options and down selection, assessment of engineering options, anticipated control set for treatment, and summary of the overall steps for RNS.

  18. Organometallic Salts Generate Optical Second Harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Seth R.; Perry, Joseph W.

    1991-01-01

    Series of organometallic salts exhibit large second-order dielectric susceptibilities, as evidenced by generation of second harmonics when illuminated at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Investigations of these and related compounds continue with view toward development of materials for use as optical second-harmonic generators, electro-optical modulators, optical switches, piezoelectric sensors, and parametric crystals.

  19. Al/Cl2 molten salt battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, J.

    1972-01-01

    Molten salt battery has been developed with theoretical energy density of 5.2 j/kg (650 W-h/lb). Battery, which operates at 150 C, can be used in primary mode or as rechargeable battery. Battery has aluminum anode and chlorine cathode. Electrolyte is mixture of AlCl3, NaCl, and some alkali metal halide such as KCl.

  20. Electrolytes. From dilute solutions to fused salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solutions with composition extending continuously from molecular liquids such as water to fused salts are relatively unusual but of considerable interest. Conductance and thermodynamic properties are considered for several examples. New equations for the activities of the respective components represent the data more accurately than previous treatments and delineate the similarities and differences between such systems and nonelectrolyte solutions

  1. Constitutive behavior of reconsolidating crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The constitutive model used to describe deformation of crushed salt is presented in this paper. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Recently completed creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from shear consolidation tests and a combination of shear and hydrostatic tests produces two sets of material parameter values for the model. Changes in material parameter values from test group to test group indicate the empirical nature of the model but show significant improvement over earlier work. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on fitting statistics and ability of the model to predict test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well

  2. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well

  3. Ecology of Great Salt Pond, Block Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Great Salt Pond is an island of estuarine water on Block Island, which sits in the middle of the Northwest Atlantic Continental Shelf. When the last continental glaciers retreated, they left a high spot on a terminal moraine. The rising sea from melting glaciers formed two island...

  4. Fluorescent carbon dot–molecular salt hydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    Cayuela, Angelina; Kennedy, Stuart R.; Soriano, Laura; Jones, Christopher D.; Valcárcel, M.; Steed, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of functionalised carbon nanodots within a novel low molecular weight salt hydrogel derived from 5-aminosalicylic acid is reported. The carbon dots result in markedly enhanced gelation properties, while inclusion within the hydrophobic gel results in a dramatic fluorescence enhancement for the carbon nanomaterials. The resulting hybrid CD gels exhibit a useful sensor response for heavy metal ions, particularly Pb2+.

  5. Salt repository project closeout status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-06-01

    This report provides an overview of the scope and status of the US Department of Energy (DOE`s) Salt Repository Project (SRP) at the time when the project was terminated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The report reviews the 10-year program of siting a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in rock salt formations. Its purpose is to aid persons interested in the information developed during the course of this effort. Each area is briefly described and the major items of information are noted. This report, the three salt Environmental Assessments, and the Site Characterization Plan are the suggested starting points for any search of the literature and information developed by the program participants. Prior to termination, DOE was preparing to characterize three candidate sites for the first mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The sites were in Nevada, a site in volcanic tuff; Texas, a site in bedded salt (halite); and Washington, a site in basalt. These sites, identified by the screening process described in Chapter 3, were selected from the nine potentially acceptable sites shown on Figure I-1. These sites were identified in accordance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 196 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Salt repository project closeout status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides an overview of the scope and status of the US Department of Energy (DOE's) Salt Repository Project (SRP) at the time when the project was terminated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The report reviews the 10-year program of siting a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in rock salt formations. Its purpose is to aid persons interested in the information developed during the course of this effort. Each area is briefly described and the major items of information are noted. This report, the three salt Environmental Assessments, and the Site Characterization Plan are the suggested starting points for any search of the literature and information developed by the program participants. Prior to termination, DOE was preparing to characterize three candidate sites for the first mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The sites were in Nevada, a site in volcanic tuff; Texas, a site in bedded salt (halite); and Washington, a site in basalt. These sites, identified by the screening process described in Chapter 3, were selected from the nine potentially acceptable sites shown on Figure I-1. These sites were identified in accordance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 196 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs

  7. Specific Investigations Related to Salt Rock Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vons, L. H.; Zelikson, A.; Charo, L.;

    1986-01-01

    In this paper results are given of work in various countries in rather unrelated areas of research. Nevertheless, since the studies have been undertaken to better understand salt behaviour, both from mechanical and chemical points of view, some connection between the studies can be found. Studies...

  8. Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR) System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolley, Robert D [PPPL; Miller, Laurence F [PPPL

    2014-04-01

    Can the hybrid system combination of (1) a critical fission Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) having a thermal spectrum and a high Conversion Ratio (CR) with (2) an external source of high energy neutrons provide an attractive solution to the world's expanding demand for energy? The present study indicates the answer is an emphatic yes.

  9. Salt and ice crystallisation in porous sandstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedrich, Joerg; Siegesmund, Siegfried

    2007-03-01

    Salt and ice crystallisation in the pore spaces causes major physical damage to natural building stones. The damaging effect of these processes can be traced back to physically induced stress inside of the rock while crystallizing. The increasing scientific research done during the past century has shown that there are numerous parameters that have an influence on the weathering resulting from these processes. However, the working mechanisms of the stress development within the rock and its material dependency are still subject to discussion. This article gives an overview of salt and ice weathering. Additionally, laboratory results of various sandstones examined are presented. Salt crystallisation tests and freeze/thaw tests were done to obtain information about how crystallisation weathering depends on material characteristics such as pore space, water transportation, and mechanical features. Simultaneous measuring of the length alternating during the salt and ice crystallisation has revealed detailed information on the development of crystal in the pore spaces as well as the development of stress. These findings can help to understand the damaging mechanisms.

  10. Surface functionalization by molten salt electrolytic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The attention has been paid to surface functionalization by molten salt electrolytic processes. Three topics on the experimental results obtained by the authors are described: the electrochemical formation of zirconium metal film and zirconium alloy film on ceramic, surface nitriding of titanium by electrochemical process and an anodic oxide film formation on nickel. (author)

  11. Advanced heat exchanger development for molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hastelloy N and 242, shows corrosion resistance to molten salt at nominal operating temperatures. • Both diffusion welds and sheet material in Hastelloy N were corrosion tested in at 650, 700, and 850 °C for 200, 500, and 1000 h. • Thermal gradients and galvanic couples in the molten salts enhance corrosion rates. • Corrosion rates found were typically <10 mils per year. - Abstract: This study addresses present work concerned with advanced heat exchanger development for molten salt in nuclear and non-nuclear thermal systems. The molten salt systems discussed herein use alloys, such as Hastelloy N and 242, that show good corrosion resistance in molten salt at nominal operating temperatures up to 700 °C. These alloys were diffusion welded, and the corresponding information is presented. Test specimens were prepared for exposing diffusion welds to molten salt environments. Hastelloy N and 242 were found to be weldable by diffusion welding, with ultimate tensile strengths about 90% of base metal values. Both diffusion welds and sheet material in Hastelloy N were corrosion tested in 58 mol% KF and 42 mol% ZrF4 at 650, 700, and 850 °C for 200, 500, and 1000 h. Corrosion rates were similar between welded and nonwelded materials, typically <100 μm per year after 1000 h of corrosion tests. No catastrophic corrosion was observed in the diffusion welded regions. For materials of construction, nickel-based alloys and alloys with dense nickel coatings are effectively inert to corrosion in fluorides, but not so in chlorides. Hence, additional testing of selected alloys for resistance to intergranular corrosion is needed, as is a determination of corrosion rate as a function of the type of salt impurity and alloy composition, with respect to chromium and carbon, to better define the best conditions for corrosion resistance. Also presented is the division of the nuclear reactor and high-temperature components per American Society of Mechanical Engineers

  12. Heat transfer behavior of molten nitrate salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Apurba K.; Clark, Michael M.; Teigen, Bard C.; Fiveland, Woodrow A.; Anderson, Mark H.

    2016-05-01

    The usage of molten nitrate salt as heat transfer fluid and thermal storage medium decouples the generation of electricity from the variable nature of the solar resource, allowing CSP plants to avoid curtailment and match production with demand. This however brings some unique challenges for the design of the molten salt central receiver (MSCR). An aspect critical to the use of molten nitrate (60wt%/40wt% - NaNO3/KNO3) salt as heat transfer fluid in the MSCR is to understand its heat transfer behavior. Alstom collaborated with the University of Wisconsin to conduct a series of experiments and experimentally determined the heat transfer coefficients of molten nitrate salt up to high Reynolds number (Re > 2.0E5) and heat flux (q″ > 1000 kW/m2), conditions heretofore not reported in the literature. A cartridge heater instrumented with thermocouples was installed inside a stainless steel pipe to form an annular test section. The test section was installed in the molten salt flow loop at the University of Wisconsin facility, and operated over a range of test conditions to determine heat transfer data that covered the expected operating regime of a practical molten salt receiver. Heat transfer data were compared to widely accepted correlations found in heat transfer literature, including that of Gnielinski. At lower Reynolds number conditions, the results from this work concurred with the molten salt heat transfer data reported in literature and followed the aforementioned correlations. However, in the region of interest for practical receiver design, the correlations did not accurately model the experimentally determined heat transfer data. Two major effects were observed: (i) all other factors remaining constant, the Nusselt numbers gradually plateaued at higher Reynolds number; and (ii) at higher Reynolds number a positive interaction of heat flux on Nusselt number was noted. These effects are definitely not modeled by the existing correlations. In this paper a new

  13. Tank 41-H salt level fill history 1985 to 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fill rate of the evaporator drop waste tank (i.e., salt tank) at Savannah River Site contained in the Waste Management Technology (WMT) monthly data record is based upon a simple formula that apportioned 10 percent of the evaporator output concentrate to the salt fill volume. Periodically, the liquid level of the salt tank would be decanted below the salt level surface and a visual inspection of the salt profile would be accomplished. The salt volume of the drop tank would then be corrected, if necessary, based upon the visual elevation of the salt formation. This correction can erroneously indicate an excess amount of salt fill occurred in a short time period. This report established the correct fill history for Tank 41H

  14. Salt Acclimation of Cyanobacteria and Their Application in Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadin Pade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The long evolutionary history and photo-autotrophic lifestyle of cyanobacteria has allowed them to colonize almost all photic habitats on Earth, including environments with high or fluctuating salinity. Their basal salt acclimation strategy includes two principal reactions, the active export of ions and the accumulation of compatible solutes. Cyanobacterial salt acclimation has been characterized in much detail using selected model cyanobacteria, but their salt sensing and regulatory mechanisms are less well understood. Here, we briefly review recent advances in the identification of salt acclimation processes and the essential genes/proteins involved in acclimation to high salt. This knowledge is of increasing importance because the necessary mass cultivation of cyanobacteria for future use in biotechnology will be performed in sea water. In addition, cyanobacterial salt resistance genes also can be applied to improve the salt tolerance of salt sensitive organisms, such as crop plants.

  15. STUDY OF SALT WHEY TREATMENT WITH ELECTRO DIALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Permyakov A. V.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of the effect of the electro dialysis treatment on the composition and properties of salt whey are presented. The main regularities of the demineralization process of salt whey and its efficiency are determined

  16. Seafloor character--Offshore of Salt Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Salt Point, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_SaltPoint.zip," which...

  17. Salts separation and removing method from material deposited on molten salt electrolyzing cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deposition materials on a cathode obtained by processing highly radioactive drainage discharged from spent fuel reprocessing steps and electrolyzing them in molten salts are incorporated with salts such as LiCl-KCl used as an electrolysis bath. Cadmium is added to the cathode deposition materials comprising lanthanoid and/or actinoid, and melted to form a molten material. The molten material are solidified by cooling to separate a metal portion and salts from the cathode deposition materials. The metal portion is kept at a temperature at which cadmium metal is evaporated to remove cadmium. Subsequently, the metal portion is kept at a temperature at which an intermetallic compound and/or an alloy of cadmium and lanthanoid and/or actinoid is decomposed to remove cadmium. Since salts can be removed efficiently from cathode deposition materials, aimed actinoid metals can be recovered at a high purity. (I.N.)

  18. Effect of subsurface drainage on salt movement and distribution in salt-affected soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to evaluate different subsurface drainage treatments (combinations of depth and spacing) on salt movement and distribution. The soil is clay and the drainage was designed according to the steady-state condition (Hooghoudt's equation). Three spacings and two depths resulted in six drainage treatments. Soil samples represented the initial state of every treatment and after 14 months they (cotton followed by wheat) were analysed. The data show that drain depth has its effective role in salt leaching, while drain spacing has its effect on salt distribution in the soil profile. The leaching rate of each specific ion is also affected by the different drainage treatments. In general, the salt movement and distribution should be taken into consideration when evaluating the design of drainage systems. (author)

  19. An innovative spraying setup to obtain uniform salt(s) mixture deposition to investigate hot corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannava, Venkateswararao; Swaminathan, A. Vignesh; Kamaraj, M.; Kottada, Ravi Sankar

    2016-02-01

    A hot corrosion study via molten salt deposition and its interaction with creep/fatigue play a critical role in predicting the life of gas turbine engine components. To do systematic hot corrosion studies, deposition of molten salts on specimens should be uniform with good adherence. Thus, the present study describes an in-house developed spraying setup that produces uniform and reliable molten salt deposition in a repeatable fashion. The efficacy of the present method was illustrated by depositing 90 wt. % Na2SO4 + 5 wt. % NaCl + 5 wt. % NaV O3 salt mixture on hot corrosion coupons and on creep specimens, and also by comparing with other deposition methods.

  20. saltPAD: A New Analytical Tool for Monitoring Salt Iodization in Low Resource Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M. Myers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We created a paper test card that measures a common iodizing agent, iodate, in salt. To test the analytical metrics, usability, and robustness of the paper test card when it is used in low resource settings, the South African Medical Research Council and GroundWork performed independ‐ ent validation studies of the device. The accuracy and precision metrics from both studies were comparable. In the SAMRC study, more than 90% of the test results (n=1704 were correctly classified as corresponding to adequately or inadequately iodized salt. The cards are suitable for market and household surveys to determine whether salt is adequately iodized. Further development of the cards will improve their utility for monitoring salt iodization during production.

  1. Flood Insurance Study, City of South Salt Lake, Utah, Salt Lake County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1994-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of South Salt Lake, Salt Lake County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound flood plain management. Minimum flood...

  2. The Salt (Science-Arts-Language-Technology) Comenius Project: Primary School Students' Views about Salt

    OpenAIRE

    Ursula ONDRATSCHEK; BALIM, Ali Günay; Suat TURKOGUZ

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate students' views towards salt structure, properties and application areas. "The SALT Comenius Project" initiated activities in 2012. This project was conducted with 10 European countries including Turkey, Germany, Italy, Poland, Greece, Spain, Estonia, Austria, Romania, and Scotland. The aim of this project is to develop friendships between primary school students through science, art, language, technology, and culture and to increase students' attention toward...

  3. Demand characteristics for imported cod products in Portugal frozen, salted & dried and salted

    OpenAIRE

    Asche, Frank; Gordon, Daniel V.

    2015-01-01

    The demand function represents the fundamental building block in economics and provides important information for investment and policy purposes. The aim of this paper is to characterize and measure the demand structure for imported cod products to Portugal. A PCAIDS model is used to identify own- and cross-price elasticities of demand for frozen, salted & dried and salted cod products. The estimated elasticities of demand are then used in combination with a demand growth index to measure shi...

  4. Petrofabric changes in heated and irradiated salt from Project Salt Vault, Lyons, Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock salt was heated and irradiated in situ by implanted radioactive wastes during the Project Salt Vault experiment which was carried out at Lyons, Kansas, in the abandoned Carey Salt mine between 1965 and 1967. It was found that irradiation results in coloration of the salt, producing colors ranging from blue-black nearest the radiation source, to pale blue and purple farther from the source. Bleached areas are common in the radiation-colored salt, many representing trails produced by the migration of fluid inclusions towards the heat source. These visible trails are thought to have formed during the cooling down of the salt after the removal of the heaters and radiation sources. The distribution of primary structures in the salt suggests that little migration, if any, occurred during the course of the experiment. It is proposed that radiolysis of the brine within the inclusions may have led to the production of gases which impeded or prevented migration. Evidence of strain was observed in slip planes at 4 in. (10 cm) and between 5.5 and 10 in. (13.5 to 25.4 cm) from the array hole. Deformed bleached areas in the salt between the areas were slip planes are developed suggest that slight plastic deformation or flow may have occurred at 6 in. (15 cm) from the array hole. Differential thermal analysis shows that the maximum amount of stored energy also occurs at 6 in. (15 cm) from the array hole. This region may therefore represent the zone where the combined effect of stress and radiation was greatest

  5. Ditosylate Salt of Itraconazole and Dissolution Enhancement Using Cyclodextrins

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Neeraj; Shishu; Bansal, Gulshan; Kumar, Sandeep; Jana, Asim Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Salt formation has been a promising approach for improving the solubility of poorly soluble acidic and basic drugs. The aim of the present study was to prepare the salt form of itraconazole (ITZ), a hydrophobic drug to improve the solubility and hence dissolution performance. Itraconazolium ditolenesulfonate salt (ITZDITOS) was synthesized from ITZ using acid addition reaction with p-toluenesulfonic acid. Salt characterization was performed using 1H NMR, mass spectrometry, Fourier transform i...

  6. Salt Content Impacts Food Preferences and Intake among Children

    OpenAIRE

    Bouhlal, Sofia; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Decreasing dietary sodium intake, which can be achieved by reducing salt content in food, is recommended. Salt contributes to the taste of foods and makes them more enjoyable. Whether a food is liked or disliked is an important determinant of food intake, especially among children. However, the role of salt in children's food acceptance has received little attention. The impact of salt content on children's hedonic rating and intake of two foods was investigated in children. Using a within-su...

  7. IODINE SALT CONSUMPTION IN INDONESIAN HOUSEHOLDS: BASELINE HEALTH SURVEY 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Ketut Aryastami; Dwi Susilowati; Yuslely Usman

    2012-01-01

    Background: Iodine Deficiency Disorder (100) reduction program has been implemented since 1976. According to the National Economic Survey 2002, the average consumption of iodized salt was 6. 26 grams. The results of Iodine Salt Survey (SGY) 2003 showed that the consumption of iodine salt at the household level was 73.2%, meanwhile, the baseline health survey (Riskesdas) 2007 showed there was reduction of iodine salt consumption towards 60.2%. Methods: Type of study was secondary data analysis...

  8. Combined heterogeneous distribution of salt and aroma in food enhances salt perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emorine, Marion; Septier, Chantal; Andriot, Isabelle; Martin, Christophe; Salles, Christian; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry

    2015-05-01

    Aroma-taste interactions and heterogeneous spatial distribution of tastants were used as strategies for taste enhancement. This study investigated the combination of these two strategies through the effect of heterogeneous salt and aroma distribution on saltiness enhancement and consumer liking for hot snacks. Four-layered cream-based products were designed with the same total amount of sodium and ham aroma but varied in their spatial distribution. Unflavoured products containing the same amount of salt and 35% more salt were used as references. A consumer panel (n = 82) rated the intensity of salty, sweet, sour, bitter and umami tastes as well as ham and cheese aroma intensity for each product. The consumers also rated their liking for the products in a dedicated sensory session. The results showed that adding salt-associated aroma (ham) led to enhancement of salty taste perception regardless of the spatial distribution of salt and aroma. Moreover, products with a higher heterogeneity of salt distribution were perceived as saltier (p salty taste perception. Furthermore, heterogeneous products were well liked by consumers compared to the homogeneous products. PMID:25856503

  9. Production of carboxylic acid and salt co-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanchar, Robert J.; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2014-09-09

    This invention provide processes for producing carboxylic acid product, along with useful salts. The carboxylic acid product that is produced according to this invention is preferably a C.sub.2-C.sub.12 carboxylic acid. Among the salts produced in the process of the invention are ammonium salts.

  10. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 to 34 percent. Calcium hydroxide 3 percent maximum. Water 14 percent maximum. Arsenic 3 parts per... blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of a... contains ammonium or calcium salts of volatile fatty acids and shall conform to the...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9490 - Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coco alklydimethyl amine salts... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9490 Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic). (a) Chemical substances... coco alkyldimethyl amine salts (PMNs P-98-412/414/415/416/417) are subject to reporting under...

  12. Environment annual report: Salt Lake 2002 Olympic Winter Games

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Protecting and improving the environment is integral to every aspect of the Salt Lake 2002 Olympic Winter Games. Salt Lake Organizing Committee for Olympic Winter Games of 2002 is planning a variety of programs to both conserve and enhance the region’s environment, leaving the Salt Lake area a better, cleaner place than it was before the Games.

  13. SOLUTION MINING IN SALT DOMES OF THE GULF COAST EMBAYMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griswold, G. B.

    1981-02-01

    Following a description of salt resources in the salt domes of the gulf coast embayment, mining, particularly solution mining, is described. A scenario is constructed which could lead to release of radioactive waste stored in a salt dome via inadvertent solution mining and the consequences of this scenario are analyzed.

  14. Development of High-temperature Molten Salt Transport Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. H.; Park, G. I.; Park, S. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The pyrochemical process, which has been developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) since 1997, consists of processes such as pretreatment, oxide reduction, electrorefining, electrowinning, and waste salt treatment. In pyroprocessing, high-temperature molten salt transport technologies are required because the molten salt used in an electrorefiner should be transported to next process, the electrowinning process to recover U/TRU/RE after the electrorefining process is finished. However, there have been few transport studies on high temperature molten salt. Therefore, in pyrometallurgical processing, the development of high-temperature molten salt transport technology is a crucial prerequisite. In this study, three different salt transport technologies (gravity, suction pump, and centrifugal pump) were investigated. In addition, the performance test of the apparatus in the system was then carried out. After the electrorefining process, the molten salt used is transported to an electrowinning system to recover U/TRU/RE, and a high temperature molten salt transfer technology by suction is now being developed. To develop engineering-scale salt transport technology, a PRIDE salt transport system was designed and installed a Ar cell, 2{sup nd} of the PRIDE facility for engineering-scale salt transport demonstration, and its performance was confirmed from blank and performance tests for the PRIDE salt transport system.

  15. Recent Trends in Bird Abundance on Rhode Island Salt Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt marsh habitat is under pressure from development on the landward side, and sea level rise from the seaward side. The resulting loss of habitat is potentially disastrous for salt marsh dependent species. To assess the population status of three species of salt marsh dependent...

  16. On the salt-induced activation of lyophilized enzymes in organic solvents: Effect of salt kosmotropicity on enzyme activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru, M.T.; Hirokane, S.Y.; Lo, A.S.; Dordick, J.S.; Reimer, J.A.; Clark, D.S.

    2000-03-01

    The dramatic activation of enzymes in nonaqueous media upon co-lyophilization with simple inorganic salts has been investigated as a function of the Jones-Dole B coefficient, a thermodynamic parameter for characterizing the salt's affinity for water and its chaotropic (water-structure breaking) or kosmotropic (water-structure making) character. In general, the water content, active-site content, and transesterification activity of freeze-dried subtilisin Carlsberg preparations containing >96% w/w salt increased with increasing kosmotropicity of the activating salt. Degrees of activation relative to the salt-free enzyme ranged from 33-fold for chaotropic sodium iodide to 2,480-fold for kosmotropic sodium acetate. Exceptions to the general trend can be explained by the mechanical properties and freezing characteristics of the salts undergoing lyophilization. The profound activating effect can thus be attributed in part to the stabilizing (salting-out) effect of kosmotropic salts and the phenomenon of preferential hydration.

  17. Analysis of allochthonous salt and salt welds in the northern Gulf of Mexico utilizing 3D seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchett, J.A.; House, W.M. [Amoco Production Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The widespread availability of 3D seismic data sets in the northern Gulf of Mexico has resulted in the emergence of new play concepts such as subsalt exploration. Time and depth migrations of these 3D data allow interpreters to develop a detailed understanding of the geological processes that contribute to the structural and stratigraphic framework of the Gulf. These data provide excellent imaging of structural features, and result in the correct spatial positioning of those structural elements. Analysis of the geometrical relationships between allochthonous salt, salt welds and subsalt reflectors aids in the development of salt emplacement models. These models are subsequently tied to other elements of the hydrocarbon system such as fluid migration and reservoir development. Salt sheets and horizontal salt welds often separate distinct structural domains in the supra salt and subsalt section, and complex structural deformation above salt or a salt weld may not translate into the subsalt section.

  18. Analysis of allochthonous salt and salt welds in the northern Gulf of Mexico utilizing 3D seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchett, J.A.; House, W.M. (Amoco Production Co., Houston, TX (United States))

    1996-01-01

    The widespread availability of 3D seismic data sets in the northern Gulf of Mexico has resulted in the emergence of new play concepts such as subsalt exploration. Time and depth migrations of these 3D data allow interpreters to develop a detailed understanding of the geological processes that contribute to the structural and stratigraphic framework of the Gulf. These data provide excellent imaging of structural features, and result in the correct spatial positioning of those structural elements. Analysis of the geometrical relationships between allochthonous salt, salt welds and subsalt reflectors aids in the development of salt emplacement models. These models are subsequently tied to other elements of the hydrocarbon system such as fluid migration and reservoir development. Salt sheets and horizontal salt welds often separate distinct structural domains in the supra salt and subsalt section, and complex structural deformation above salt or a salt weld may not translate into the subsalt section.

  19. Molten-salt reactor program. Semiannual progress report for period ending February 29, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, L.E.

    1976-08-01

    Separate abstracts and indexing were prepared for sections dealing with MSBR design and development; chemistry of fuel-salt and coolant-salt systems and analytical methods; materials development; fuel processing for molten-salt reactors; and salt production. (DG)

  20. Salt content impacts food preferences and intake among children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Bouhlal

    Full Text Available Decreasing dietary sodium intake, which can be achieved by reducing salt content in food, is recommended. Salt contributes to the taste of foods and makes them more enjoyable. Whether a food is liked or disliked is an important determinant of food intake, especially among children. However, the role of salt in children's food acceptance has received little attention. The impact of salt content on children's hedonic rating and intake of two foods was investigated in children. Using a within-subject crossover design, we recruited 75 children (8-11 years to participate in five lunches in their school cafeteria. The target foods were green beans and pasta. The added salt content was 0, 0.6 or 1.2 g/100 g. The children's intake (g of all lunch items was measured. The children provided their hedonic rating of the food, a preference ranking and a saltiness ranking in the laboratory. Children could rank the foods according to salt content, and they preferred the two saltier options. A food-specific effect of salt content on intake was observed. Compared to the intermediate level (0.6 g salt/100 g, not adding salt decreased green bean intake (-21%; p = 0.002, and increasing the salt content increased pasta intake (+24%; p<0.0001. Structural Equation Modeling was used to model the relative weights of the determinants of intake. It showed that the primary driver of food intake was the child's hunger; the second most important factor was the child's hedonic rating of the food, regardless of its salt content, and the last factor was the child's preference for the particular salt content of the food. In conclusion, salt content has a positive and food-specific effect on intake; it impacted food preferences and intake differently in children. Taking into account children's preferences for salt instead of their intake may lead to excessive added salt.

  1. Low Retinol Levels Differentially Modulate Bile Salt-Induced Expression of Human and Mouse Hepatic Bile Salt Transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeke, Martijn O.; Plass, Jacqueline R. M.; Heegsma, Janette; Geuken, Mariska; van Rijsbergen, Duncan; Baller, Julius F. W.; Kuipers, Folkert; Moshage, Han; Jansen, Peter L. M.; Faber, Klaas Nico

    2009-01-01

    The farnesoid X receptor/retinoid X receptor-alpha (FXR/RXR alpha) complex regulates bile salt homeostasis, in part by modulating transcription of the bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11 I) and small heterodimer partner (SHP/NR0B2). FXR is activated by bile salts, RXR alpha by the vitamin A derivativ

  2. Low retinol levels differentially modulate bile salt-induced expression of human and mouse hepatic bile salt transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.O. Hoeke; J.R.M. Plass; J. Heegsma; M. Geuken; D. van Rijsbergen; J.F.W. Baller; F. Kuipers; H. Moshage; P.L.M. Jansen; K.N. Faber

    2009-01-01

    The farnesoid X receptor/retinoid X receptor-alpha (FXR/RXRalpha) complex regulates bile salt homeostasis, in part by modulating transcription of the bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11) and small heterodimer partner (SHP/NR0B2). FXR is activated by bile salts, RXRalpha by the vitamin A derivative 9-

  3. Evaluation of dried salted pork ham and neck quality

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Kunová; Juraj Čuboň; Ondřej Bučko; Miroslava Kačániová; Jana Tkáčová; Lukáš Hleba; Peter Haščík; Ľubomír Lopašovský

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was analysed chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork ham and neck. Dry-cured meat is a traditional dry-cured product obtained after 12 - 24 months of ripening under controlled environmental conditions.  Ham and neck was salted by nitrite salt mixture during 1 week. Salted meat products were dried at 4 °C and relative humidity 85% 1 week after salting. The quality of dry-cured meat is influenced by the processing technology, f...

  4. First salt making in Europe: an overview from Neolithic times

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Weller

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the origin of salt production and discusses different approaches ranging from technology, ethnoarchaeology and paleoenvironmental studies to chemical analyses. Starting from the current research on the Neolithic exploitation of salt in Europe, we examine the types and nature of the salt resources (sea water, salt springs, soil or rock), the diversity of archaeological evidence of forms of salt working. We also scrutinize the types of production for these early forms of s...

  5. Impact of Light Salt Substitution for Regular Salt on Blood Pressure of Hypertensive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Lôbo de Almeida Barros

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown sodium restriction to have a beneficial effect on blood pressure (BP of hypertensive patients. Objective: To evaluate the impact of light salt substitution for regular salt on BP of hypertensive patients. Methods: Uncontrolled hypertensive patients of both sexes, 20 to 65 years-old, on stable doses of antihypertensive drugs were randomized into Intervention Group (IG - receiving light salt and Control Group (CG - receiving regular salt. Systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP were analyzed by using casual BP measurements and Home Blood Pressure Monitoring (HBPM, and sodium and potassium excretion was assessed on 24-hour urine samples. The patients received 3 g of salt for daily consumption for 4 weeks. Results: The study evaluated 35 patients (65.7% women, 19 allocated to the IG and 16 to the CG. The mean age was 55.5 ± 7.4 years. Most participants had completed the Brazilian middle school (up to the 8th grade; n = 28; 80.0%, had a family income of up to US$ 600 (n = 17; 48.6% and practiced regular physical activity (n = 19; 54.3%. Two patients (5.7% were smokers and 40.0% consumed alcohol regularly (n = 14. The IG showed a significant reduction in both SBP and DBP on the casual measurements and HBPM (p < 0.05 and in sodium excretion (p = 0.016. The CG showed a significant reduction only in casual SBP (p = 0.032. Conclusions: The light salt substitution for regular salt significantly reduced BP of hypertensive patients.

  6. Screening specifications for Gulf Coast salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reconnaissance survey of the salt domes of Mississippi, Louisiana, and east Texas is being planned to identify study areas for potential sites for radioactive waste disposal. Preliminary screening specifications were derived for each of the geological evaluation criteria by application of the significant factors that will have an impact on the reconnaissance survey. The procedure for the derivation of each screening specification is discussed. The screening specifications are the official OWI values to be used for the first-cut acceptance for salt dome study areas along the Gulf Coast. The derivation of the screening specifications is illustrated by (1) a statement of the geological evaluation criterion, (2) a discussion of the pertinent factors affecting the criterion, and (3) the evaluation of the value of the specification

  7. Salt stress-induced protein phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protein phosphorylation induced by salt stress in tomato germinating seeds were investigated by two-dimensional polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled in vivo with (32P)-Phosphate. NaCl induced the phosphorylation of a 14 Kd polypeptide. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that the phosphorylated molecules of this polypeptide are only stable while the stress is present. Phosphorylated 14 Kd polypeptides could be detected in radicles of salt-shocked seedlings after 6 hours stress period. 14 Kd polypeptide phosphorylation was also observed in seeds germinating in the presence of abscisic acid (ABA). The amount of phosphorylated 14 Kd polypeptide was significantly increased in seeds treated simultaneously with NaCl and ABA

  8. Salt-induced aggregation of stiff polyelectrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular dynamics simulation techniques are used to study the process of aggregation of highly charged stiff polyelectrolytes due to the presence of multivalent salt. The dominant kinetic mode of aggregation is found to be the case of one end of one polyelectrolyte meeting others at right angles, and the kinetic pathway to bundle formation is found to be similar to that of flocculation dynamics of colloids as described by Smoluchowski. The aggregation process is found to favor the formation of finite bundles of 10-11 filaments at long times. Comparing the distribution of the cluster sizes with the Smoluchowski formula suggests that the energy barrier for the aggregation process is negligible. Also, the formation of long-lived metastable structures with similarities to the raft-like structures of actin filaments is observed within a range of salt concentration.

  9. Molten salts database for energy applications

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano-López, Roberto; Cuesta-López, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    The growing interest in energy applications of molten salts is justified by several of their properties. Their possibilities of usage as a coolant, heat transfer fluid or heat storage substrate, require thermo-hydrodynamic refined calculations. Many researchers are using simulation techniques, such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for their projects or conceptual designs. The aim of this work is providing a review of basic properties (density, viscosity, thermal conductivity and heat capacity) of the most common and referred salt mixtures. After checking data, tabulated and graphical outputs are given in order to offer the most suitable available values to be used as input parameters for other calculations or simulations. The reviewed values show a general scattering in characterization, mainly in thermal properties. This disagreement suggests that, in several cases, new studies must be started (and even new measurement techniques should be developed) to obtain accurate values.

  10. Electrokinetic removal of salt from brick masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2006-01-01

    A method to effectively remove salts from masonry is lacking. The present study aims at determining the removal efficiency of salts from bricks in an applied low current electric DC field. At first an investigation on removal of NaCl and Na(NO3)2 from spiked bricks in laboratory scale was conducted...... electrodes, a cathode and an anode, that were placed on a masonry wall of an old stable. The masonry had a high concentration of nitrates and problems with hygroscopic moisture. The electrodes consisted of reinforcement steel in carbonate-rich clay. The clay was chosen mainly to improve electric contact...... between metal and masonry and to hinder the acid produced at the anode in reaching the masonry. In the first set of electrodes the clay was too dry, and electric current was only applied for 7 days. Still the highest concentrations of nitrates and chlorides in the clay measured after these 7 days was...

  11. Biodegradation of leather tanned with inorganic salts

    OpenAIRE

    Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Jorba, Montse; Font Vallès, Joaquim; Shendrik, Alexander; Ollé Otero, Lluís

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the physical, chemical and biological processes associated with the deterioration of leather tanned with inorganic salts. The samples of leather were exposed during eight months to outdoor weathering, and then their properties were evaluated. The results indicate that biodegration starts with dehydration, a partial scission of the protein chain of the collagen, detanning and a loss of oils due to volatilization and/or decomposition.

  12. Niche modelling of salt marsh plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study sought to extend the niche model of Spartina anglica to other salt marsh species, and to include tidal submergence in the models. The method used and preliminary data analysis are described. Tidal level and submergence niche models are examined, and niche width, niche overlap and species interaction are considered. Tidal level models and submergence niche models are compared for the 5 most common species. (UK)

  13. Treatment of Sewer Water Using Alum Salt

    OpenAIRE

    Qaid M. Saleem; Yousif Mohamed Algamal; Majed H. Shtaiwi; Mohammad S. Aldahmashi

    2014-01-01

    This investigation was carried out to study the effect of addition of different concentrations of alum salt used in the treatment of sewer water of the pond and also to study the physico-chemical parameters such as pH ,electrical conductivity ,salinity and total sediments besides that the bacteriological analysis such as total viable count (TVC) or standard plate count (SPC) and total coliform count (MPN) content were analysed in the water sample collected from the pond estimation of viable...

  14. Hydrogeological investigations at the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of recordings of water gauge indicators for the hydrological years 1982-1987, annual hydrograph curves for the water table in borings, groundwater table hydrograph curves, natural vertical flow, as well as the times and proportionate height of ground water recharge at the Asse salt mine are established. On the basis of the hydrograph curves for tritium content in ground water, the age of the tritium model was determined. (DG)

  15. Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Bao-Guo; Dong, Pei; Gu, Ji-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The supercritical, reactor core melting and nuclear fuel leaking accidents have troubled fission reactors for decades, and greatly limit their extensive applications. Now these troubles are still open. Here we first show a possible perfect reactor, Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor which is no above accident trouble. We found this reactor could be realized in practical applications in terms of all of the scientific principle, principle of operation, technology, and engineering. Our results...

  16. Salt-resistant short antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanram, Harini; Bhattacharjya, Surajit

    2016-05-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising leads for the development of antibiotics against drug resistant bacterial pathogens. However, in vivo applications of AMPs remain obscure due to salt and serum mediated inactivation. The high cost of chemical synthesis of AMPs also impedes potential clinical application. Consequently, short AMPs resistant toward salt and serum inactivation are desirable for the development of peptide antibiotics. In this work, we designed a 12-residue amphipathic helical peptide RR12 (R-R-L-I-R-L-I-L-R-L-L-R-amide) and two Trp containing analogs of RR12 namely RR12Wpolar (R-R-L-I-W-L-I-L-R-L-L-R-amide), and RR12Whydro (R-R-L-I-R-L-W-L-R-L-L-R-amide). Designed peptides demonstrated potent antibacterial activity; MIC ranging from 2 to 8 μM, in the presence of sodium chloride (150 mM and 300 mM). Antibacterial activity of these peptides was also detected in the presence of human serum. Designed peptides, in particular RR12 and RR12Whydro, were only poorly hemolytic. As a mode of action; these peptides demonstrated efficient permeabilization of bacterial cell membrane and lysis of cell structure. We further investigated interactions of the designed peptides with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of the outer membrane permeability barrier of Gram-negative bacteria. Designed peptides adopted helical conformations in complex with LPS. Binding of peptides with LPS has yielded dissociation the aggregated structures of LPS. Collectively, these designed peptides hold ability to be developed for salt-resistant antimicrobial compounds. Most importantly, current work provides insights for designing salt-resistant antimicrobial peptides. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 345-356, 2016. PMID:26849911

  17. Electromagnetic process to purify nuclear molten salts

    OpenAIRE

    Mestre Molist, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The separation between actinides and fission products could be realized by a pyrometallurgical liquid/liquid extraction process. Thanks to an oxide-reductive reaction, a mass exchange occurs at the interface between a polluted molten salt layer and a containment loquid metal layer. The aims of this project is to develop the diffusion process which occurs and the thermodynamics process associated to this phenomena. This work consist in two parts: -An experimental prototype industrial type inst...

  18. Titanium metal obtention by fused salts electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potassium fluorotitanate dissolved in fused sodium chloride or potassium chloride may be electrolyzed under an inert gas atmosphere. Solid electrolysis products are formed on the cathode which contains titanium metal, sodium chloride, lower fluorotitanates and small quantities of alkali metal fluorotitanate. The extraction of titanium from the electrolysis products may be carried out by aqueous leaching (removal of chloride salts of alkali metals and a certain amount of fluorotitanates). Titanium metal obtained is relatively pure. (Author)

  19. Supplemental Cooling for Nitrate Salt Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Mitchell S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-19

    In July 2015, Los Alamos National Laboratory completed installation of a supplemental cooling system in the structure where remediated nitrate salt waste drums are stored. Although the waste currently is in a safe configuration and is monitored daily,controlling the temperature inside the structure adds another layer of protection for workers, the public,and the environment.This effort is among several layers of precautions designed to secure the waste.

  20. Molten salt battery having inorganic paper separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jr., Robert D.

    1977-01-01

    A high temperature secondary battery comprises an anode containing lithium, a cathode containing a chalcogen or chalcogenide, a molten salt electrolyte containing lithium ions, and a separator comprising a porous sheet comprising a homogenous mixture of 2-20 wt.% chrysotile asbestos fibers and the remainder inorganic material non-reactive with the battery components. The non-reactive material is present as fibers, powder, or a fiber-powder mixture.

  1. Tagging Salt Tolerant Gene Using PCR Markers in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Bei; QIU Li-juan; SHAO Gui-hua; CHANG Ru-zhen; LIU Li-hong; XU Zhan-you; LI Xiang-hua; SUN Jian-ying

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to screen and identify PCR markers associated with salt tolerant gene in soybean( Glycine soja L. ) so that salt tolerance can be identified efficiently and accurately. Between these tolerant and sensitivity to salt and three crosses were tested in this experiment. By BSA method, two codominant PCR markers were identified through the salt tolerant (sensitive) cuitivars bulks and the salt tolerant (sensitive) individual bulks of a F2 population. There was a 600bp band in the sensitive individuals and a 700bp band or two 700bp/600bp bands in the tolerant individuals. The markers were closely linked with salt tolerant/sensitive alleles. Moreover the markers were tested in the other two F2 populations from "salt tolerant cultivar × sensitive cuitivar" and confirmed by 12 salt tolerance cultivars and 13 salt sensitive cultivars with different genetic background. It indicated that the markers (700bp and 600bp) could be applied in salt tolerant identification of the soybean germplasm resources, and markers-assisted selection in salt tolerant breeding of soybean. The markers, its obtained method and application were patented for invention in 1998.

  2. Structure, phase transitions, dielectric and spectroscopic studies of the 2-aminopyrimidinium salts: [(2-NH 2C 4N 2H 3) 2H][ClO 4] and [2-NH 2C 4N 2H 4][BF 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czupiński, O.; Wojtaś, M.; Ciunik, Z.; Jakubas, R.

    2006-01-01

    Crystal structure of the 2-aminopyrimidinium derivatives: [(2-NH 2C 4N 2H 3) 2H][ClO 4] (I) and [2-NH 2C 4N 2H 4][BF 4] (II) has been determined at 100 K (I) and 293 K (II) by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction as monoclinic space group, P2/c and P2/n, respectively. The asymmetric part of the unit cell of (I) contains two symmetry independent 2-aminopyrimidine forming one dimeric cation and one disordered perchlorate anion. The structure of (II) consists of 2-aminopyrimidinium cation, [2-NH 2C 4N 2H 4] +, protonated at a pyrimidine ring-N atom and [BF 4] - anion. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) on perchlorate derivative ( 1:1), [2-NH 2C 4N 2H 3][ClO 4] (III)—being isomorphic to tetrafluoroborate one (I) at room temperature, reveals two phase transitions of first order: at 250/275 K and 390/410 K (cooling-heating, respectively), whereas the analog (II) only one transition at high temperatures—343/385 K. The dielectric studies in the frequency range 75 kHz - 10 MHz disclose relaxation process at high temperatures in salt (I). Infrared spectra of polycrystalline [2-NH 2C 4N 2H 4][BF 4] have been studied in the temperature range 300-420 K. Substantial changes in the temperature evolution of frequencies of internal modes of the 2-aminopyrimidinium cations and [BF 4] - anions near 390 K are due to the variations in the motion of both moieties and hydrogen bond configuration. The experimental studies indicate that all phase transitions taking place in studied 2-aminopyrimidinium derivatives are classified as an order-disorder.

  3. Liquid Fluoride Salt Experimentation Using a Small Natural Circulation Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL; Heatherly, Dennis Wayne [ORNL; Williams, David F [ORNL; Elkassabgi, Yousri M. [Texas A& M University, Kingsville; Caja, Joseph [Electrochemical Systems, Inc.; Caja, Mario [ORNL; Jordan, John [Texas A& M University, Kingsville; Salinas, Roberto [Texas A& M University, Kingsville

    2014-04-01

    A small molten fluoride salt experiment has been constructed and tested to develop experimental techniques for application in liquid fluoride salt systems. There were five major objectives in developing this test apparatus: Allow visual observation of the salt during testing (how can lighting be introduced, how can pictures be taken, what can be seen) Determine if IR photography can be used to examine components submerged in the salt Determine if the experimental configuration provides salt velocity sufficient for collection of corrosion data for future experimentation Determine if a laser Doppler velocimeter can be used to quantify salt velocities. Acquire natural circulation heat transfer data in fluoride salt at temperatures up to 700oC All of these objectives were successfully achieved during testing with the exception of the fourth: acquiring velocity data using the laser Doppler velocimeter. This paper describes the experiment and experimental techniques used, and presents data taken during natural circulation testing.

  4. Synthesis and Self-Assembly of Triangulenium Salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Dong

    -processed self-assembling method was developed to make aggregates with uniform morphologies and excellent stabilities in an equilibrium state either with pure ATOTA+ salts or with mixed systems of ATOTA+ salts and lipid molecules in aqueous media. Special emphasis was given to effects of the counterions in......-assembly and triangulenium salts. Chapters 3 to 6 are mainly focused on the synthesis and self-assembly of trioxatriangulenium salts in aqueous media. In particular, chapter 3 reports a direct selfassembly of a synthetic triangulenium salt mixed with DMPC lipid (5/95 by molar ratio) to make mono disperse......This thesis describes the design and synthesis of asymmetrically substituted amphiphilic tis(dialkylamino)trioxiatriangulenium (ATOTA+) salts with different counter ions. Attention was focused on exploring the assembling properties of the ATOTA+ salts in aqueous media. A direct vortexing...

  5. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood

  6. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-10-08

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

  7. Early Holocene Great Salt Lake, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Madsen, David B.; Miller, David M.; Thompson, Robert S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2015-07-01

    Shorelines and surficial deposits (including buried forest-floor mats and organic-rich wetland sediments) show that Great Salt Lake did not rise higher than modern lake levels during the earliest Holocene (11.5-10.2 cal ka BP; 10-9 14C ka BP). During that period, finely laminated, organic-rich muds (sapropel) containing brine-shrimp cysts and pellets and interbedded sodium-sulfate salts were deposited on the lake floor. Sapropel deposition was probably caused by stratification of the water column - a freshwater cap possibly was formed by groundwater, which had been stored in upland aquifers during the immediately preceding late-Pleistocene deep-lake cycle (Lake Bonneville), and was actively discharging on the basin floor. A climate characterized by low precipitation and runoff, combined with local areas of groundwater discharge in piedmont settings, could explain the apparent conflict between evidence for a shallow lake (a dry climate) and previously published interpretations for a moist climate in the Great Salt Lake basin of the eastern Great Basin.

  8. Coupled triaxial testing of rock salt specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an apparatus that permits simultaneous measurement of several coupled geomechanical and geophysical parameters on intact specimens of rock salt saturated with brine and subjected to triaxial test conditions. Representative experimental results are presented for hydraulic permeability, electrical resistivity, and p-wave velocity which were determined while the test specimen equilibrated at a confining pressure of 6.2 MPa (900 psi) and a pore pressure of 2.75 MPa (400 psi), during axial loading and deformation. The results are cross-correlated with the applied (differential) axial stress. The electrical resistivity measurements involved phase-sensitive detection with a 4-terminal electrode configuration, thus permitting determination of absolute values as well as relative changes in electrical resistivity of the salt. The extremely low permeability of rock salt and corrosive nature of saturated brine required development of special sample preparation and jacketing techniques, as well as wetted apparatus parts made from Hastelloy, and the use of the transient pulse technique for permeability determinations

  9. Salt Repository Project transportation program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Salt Repository Project (SRP) has the responsibility to develop a comprehensive transportation program plan (TrPP) that treats the transportation of workers, supplies, and high-level radioactive waste to the site and the transportation of salt, low-level, and transuranic wastes from the site. The TrPP has developed a systematic approach to transportation which is directed towards satisfying statutes, regulations, and directives and is guided by a hierarchy of specific functional requirements, strategies, plans, and reports. The TrPP identifies and develops the planning process for transportation-related studies and provides guidance to staff in performing and documenting these activities. The TrPP also includes an explanation of the responsibilities of the organizational elements involved in these transportation studies. Several of the report chapters relate to identifying routes for transporting nuclear waste to the site. These include a chapter on identifying an access corridor for a new rail route leading to the site, identifying and evaluating emergency-response preparedness capabilities along candidate routes in the state, and identifying alternative routes from the state border, ports, or in-state reactors to the site. The TrPP also includes plans for identifying salt disposal routes and a discussion of repository/transportation interface requirements. 89 refs., 6 figs

  10. Thorium molten-salt nuclear energy synergetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most practical and rational approaches for establishing the idealistic Thorium resource utilization program has been presented, which might be effective to solve the principal energy problems, concerning safety, proliferation and terrorism, resource, power size and fuel cycle economy, for the next century. The first step will be the development of Small Molten-Salt Reactors as a flexible power station, which is suitable for early commercialization of Th reactors not necessarily competing with proven Large Solid-Fuel Reactors. Therefore, the more detailed design works and practical R and D planning should be performed under the international cooperations soon, soundly depending on the basic technology established by ORNL already. R and D cost would be surprisingly low. This reactor(MSR) seems to be idealistic not only in power-size, siting, safety, safeguard and economy, but also as an effective partner of Molten-Salt Fissile Breeders(MSB) in order to establish the simplest and economical Thorium molten-salt breeding fuel cycle named THORIMS-NES in all over the world including the developing countries and isolated areas. This would be one of the most practical replies to the Lilienthal's appeal of 'A NEW START' in Nuclear Energy. (author)

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer; Stephen Reese

    2014-09-01

    On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. At the request of WIPP’s operations contractor, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) personnel developed several methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using surrogate contaminants and also americium (241Am). The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent possible, quantitatively. One of the requirements of this effort was delivering initial results and recommendations within a few weeks. That requirement, in combination with the limited scope of the project, made in-depth analysis impractical in some instances. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, strippable coatings, and mechanical grinding), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and it is very easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from the strippable coating and water washing coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System (PBS) proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

  12. Americium separations from high salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Americium (III) exhibits an unexpectedly high affinity for anion-exchange material from the high-salt evaporator bottoms solutions--an effect which has not been duplicated using simple salt solutions. Similar behavior is observed for its lanthanide homologue, Nd(III), in complex evaporator bottoms surrogate solutions. There appears to be no single controlling factor--acid concentration, total nitrate concentration or solution ionic strength--which accounts for the approximately 2-fold increase in retention of the trivalent ions from complex solutions relative to simple solutions. Calculation of species activities (i.e., water, proton and nitrate) in such concentrated mixed salt solutions is difficult and of questionable accuracy, but it is likely that the answer to forcing formation of anionic nitrate complexes of americium lies in the relative activities of water and nitrate. From a practical viewpoint, the modest americium removal needs (ca. 50--75%) from nitric acid evaporator bottoms allow sufficient latitude for the use of non-optimized conditions such as running existing columns filled with older, well-used Reillex HPQ. Newer materials, such as HPQ-100 and the experimental bifunctional resins, which exhibit higher distribution coefficients, would allow for either increased Am removal or the use of smaller columns. It is also of interest that one of the experimental neutral-donor solid-support extractants, DHDECMP, exhibits a similarly high level of americium (total alpha) removal from EV bottoms and is much less sensitive to total acid content than commercially-available material

  13. Replacement of salt by a novel potassium- and magnesium-enriched salt alternative improves the cardiovascular effects of ramipril.

    OpenAIRE

    Mervaala, E. M.; Paakkari, I.; Laakso, J; Nevala, R.; Teräväinen, T. M.; Fyhrquist, F; Vapaatalo, H.; Karppanen, H.

    1994-01-01

    1. The influence of salt (sodium chloride; NaCl) (an additional 6% in the diet) and that of a novel sodium-reduced, potassium-, magnesium-, and L-lysine-enriched salt alternative on the cardiovascular effects of ramipril was studied in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats in a 6-week study. The intake of sodium chloride was adjusted to the same level by adding the salt alternative at a 1.75 times higher amount than regular salt. 2. Salt produced a marked rise in blood pressure and ind...

  14. Comparative study of wild and transformed salt tolerant bacterial strains on Triticum aestivum growth under salt stress

    OpenAIRE

    Shazia Afrasayab; Muhammad Faisal; Shahida Hasnain

    2010-01-01

    Eleven salt tolerant bacteria isolated from different sources (soil, plants) and their transformed strains were used to study their influence on Triticum aestivum var. Inqlab-91 growth under salt (100 mM NaCl) stress. Salt stress caused reduction in germination (19.4%), seedling growth (46%) and fresh weight (39%) in non-inoculated plants. In general, both wild and transformed strains stimulated germination, seedling growth and fresh weight in salt free and salt stressed conditions. At 100 mM...

  15. IODINE SALT CONSUMPTION IN INDONESIAN HOUSEHOLDS: BASELINE HEALTH SURVEY 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Aryastami

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine Deficiency Disorder (100 reduction program has been implemented since 1976. According to the National Economic Survey 2002, the average consumption of iodized salt was 6. 26 grams. The results of Iodine Salt Survey (SGY 2003 showed that the consumption of iodine salt at the household level was 73.2%, meanwhile, the baseline health survey (Riskesdas 2007 showed there was reduction of iodine salt consumption towards 60.2%. Methods: Type of study was secondary data analysis with cross-sectional design utilizing the Riskesdas 2007's data. Sample was selected purposively according to the previous SGY's survey based on the endemically criteria namely highly endemic, mediocre and non endemic. Results: The results of the analysis were there was discrepancy of iodine salt consumption among urban and rural areas as well as mother's education level. The iodine salt consumption was higher in the urban area (65.5% compare to the rural area (52.9%. The higher the education of mothers the better the iodine salt consumed. The usage of iodine salt in the households based on salt quick test was 60.2%, meanwhile, according to the salt titration it was only 23.4%. The results of Excretion Iodine Urine showed that the iodine intake among the school children (age of 6-12 years old was 12.8% and was still below the cut-off point prevalence, which is greater than 50%. The conclusion of this analysisis that there was evidence of iodine salt reduction consumed at the household level. Conversely, there was inclination of the percentage of iodine urine level among the school children in Indonesia in the year 2007. It is recommended that policy analysis need to be conducted due to the achievement of the Universal Salt iodization target, especially in the endemic areas to asses the existence of the IDO prevalence. Key words: Iodine salt at the households, Iodine salt consumption, urine iodine excretion

  16. Pressure-driven brine migration in a salt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The traditional view is that salt is the ideal rock for isolation of nuclear waste because it is ''dry'' and probably ''impermeable.'' The existence of salt through geologic time is prima facie evidence of such properties. Experiments and experience at potential salt sites for geologic repositories have indicated that while porosity and permeability of salt are low, the salt may be saturated with brine. If this hypothesis is correct, then it is possible to have brine flow due to pressure differences within the salt. If there is pressure-driven brine migration in salt repositories then it is paramount to know the magnitude of such flow because inward brine flow would affect the corrosion rate of nuclear waste containers and outward brine flow might affect radionuclide transport rates. Brine exists in natural salt as inclusions in salt crystals and in grain boundaries. Brine inclusions in crystals move to nearby grain boundaries when subjected to a temperature gradient, because of temperature-dependent solubility of salt. Brine in grain boundaries moves under the influence of a pressure gradient. When salt is mined to create a waste repository, brine from grain boundaries will migrate into the rooms, tunnels and boreholes because these cavities are at atmospheric pressure. After a heat-emitting waste package is emplaced and backfilled, the heat will impose a temperature gradient in the surrounding salt that will cause inclusions in the nearby salt to migrate to grain boundaries within a few years, adding to the brine that was already present in the grain boundaries. The formulation of brine movement with salt as a thermoelastic porous medium, in the context of the continuum theory of mixtures, has been described. In this report we show the mathematical details and discuss the results predicted by this analysis

  17. Salting the landscapes in Transbaikalia: natural and technogenic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peryazeva, E. G.; Plyusnin, A. M.; Chinavlev, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    Salting the soils, surface and subsurface waters is widespread in Transbaikalia. Hearths of salting occur within intermountain depressions of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic age both in the steppe arid and forest humid landscapes. Total water mineralization reaches 80 g/dm3 in lakes and 4-5 g/dm3 in subsurface waters. The waters belong to hydrocarbonate sodium and sulfate sodium types by chemical composition. The soda type of waters is widely spread through the whole area. Sulfate waters are found in several hearths of salting. Deposition of salts takes place in some lakes. Mirabilite and soda depositions are most commonly observed in muds of salt lakes. Deposition of salts occurs both as a result of evaporative concentrating and during freezing out the solvent. In the winter period, efflorescences of salts, where decawater soda is main mineral, are observed on ice surface. Solonchaks are spread in areas of shallow ground waters (1-2m). Soil salting is most intense in the lower parts of depressions, where surface of ground waters is at depth 0.5-1.0m. In soil cover of solonchaks, salt horizon is of various thicknesses, and it has various morphological forms of occurrence, i.e. as thick deposits of salts on soil surface and salting the surficial horizons. The soil has low alkaline reaction of medium and is characterized by high content of exchangeable bases with significant content of exchangeable sodium in the absorbing complex. Total amount of salts varies from 0.7 to 1.3%. Their maximal quantity (3.1%) is confined to the surficial layer. Sulfate-sodium type of salting is noted in the solonchak upper horizons and sulfate-magnesium-calcium one in the lower ones (Ubugunov et al, 2009). Formation of salting hearths is associated with natural and technogenic conditions. The Mesozoic depressions of Transbaikalia are characterized by intense volcanism. Covers of alkaline and moderately alkaline basalts that are enriched in potassium, sodium, carbon dioxide, fluorine, chlorine

  18. Overexpression of SOS (Salt Overly Sensitive)Genes Increases Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Yang; Zhi-Zhong Chen; Xiao-Feng Zhoua; Hai-Bo Yin; Xia Li; Xiu-Fang Xin; Xu-Hui Hong; Jian-Kang Zhu; Zhizhong Gong

    2009-01-01

    Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress that decreases plant growth and productivity. Recently, it was reported that plants overexpressing AtNHX1 or SOS1 have significantly increased salt tolerance. To test whether overexpression of multiple genes can improve plant salt tolerance even more, we produced six different transgenic Arabidopsis plants that overexpress AtNHX1, SOS3, AtNHXl + SOS3, SOS1, SOS2 + SOS3, or SOS1 + SOS2 + SOS3. Northern blot analyses confirmed the presence of high levels of the relevant gene transcripts in transgenic plants. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing AtNHX1 alone did not present any significant increase in salt tolerance, contrary to earlier reports. We found that transgenic plants overexpressing SOS3 exhibit increased salt tolerance similar to plants overexpressing SOS1. Moreover, salt tolerance of transgenic plants overexpressing AtNHXl + SOS3, 50S2 + SOS3, or SOS1 + SOS2 +SOS3, respectively, appeared similar to the tolerance of transgenic plants overexpressing either SOS1 or SOS3 alone.

  19. Extended storage-in-place or MSRE fuel salt and flush salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solidified fuel salt and flush salt from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) have been stored at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since the reactor was shut down in 1969. The fluoride salt eutectic, containing 37 kg of uranium plus plutonium and fission products, is safely contained in three heavy-walled Hastelloy tanks, which are located inside a reinforced concrete cell. Removal of these salts to a remote location is not feasible until an appropriate repository has been identified, built, and placed in operation. Since this may take many years, extended storage-in-place was critically evaluated. The evaluation, which involved a preliminary assessment of several options for enhancing the integrity of in-place storage, including containment improvements, the addition of chemical getters and neutron poisons, and entombment in concrete, showed that this approach was a rational and safe solution to the problem for the short term. Entombment is essentially nonreversible, but the other options are open-ended; they do not limit the future selection of a final disposal option. Specific actions and improvements that would enhance safe containment during extended storage and would also be of future benefit, regardless of which disposal option is finally selected, were identified. 20 refs., 5 figs., 22 tabs

  20. Salt stripping: a pyrochemical approach to the recovery of plutonium electrorefining salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pyrochemical process has been developed to take the salt residue from the plutonium electrorefining process and strip the plutonium from it. The process, called salt stripping, uses calcium as a reducing/coalescing agent. In a one-day operation, greater than 95% of the plutonium can be recovered as a metallic button. As much as 88% of the residue is either reused as metal or discarded as a clean salt. A thin layer of black salts, which makes up the bulk of the unrecovered Pu, is a by-product of the initial reductions. A number of black salts can be collected together and re-reduced in a second step. Greater than 88% of this plutonium can be successfully recovered in this second stage with the resulting residues being discardable. The processing time, number of processor hours, and the volume of secondary residues are greatly reduced over the classical aqueous recovery methods. In addition, the product metal is of sufficient quality to be fed directly to the electrorefining process for purification. 8 figures, 7 tables

  1. Salt-specific stability and denaturation of a short salt-bridge forming alpha-helix

    CERN Document Server

    Dzubiella, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    The structure of a single alanine-based Ace-AEAAAKEAAAKA-Nme peptide in explicit aqueous electrolyte solutions (NaCl, KCl, NaI, and KF) at large salt concentrations (3-4 M) is investigated using 1 microsecond molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations. The peptide displays 71 alpha-helical structure without salt and destabilizes with the addition of NaCl in agreement with experiments of a somewhat longer version. It is mainly stabilized by direct and indirect (i+4)EK salt bridges between the Lys and Glu side chains and a concomitant backbone shielding mechanism. NaI is found to be a stronger denaturant than NaCl, while the potassium salts hardly show influence. Investigation of the molecular structures reveals that consistent with recent experiments Na+ has a much stronger affinity to side chain carboxylates and backbone carbonyls than K+, thereby weakening salt bridges and secondary structure hydrogen bonds. At the same time the large I- has a considerable affinity to the nonpolar alanine in line with rece...

  2. Energy Efficient Buildings, Salt Lake County, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Kimberly

    2012-04-30

    Executive Summary Salt Lake County's Solar Photovoltaic Project - an unprecedented public/private partnership Salt Lake County is pleased to announce the completion of its unprecedented solar photovoltaic (PV) installation on the Calvin R. Rampton Salt Palace Convention Center. This 1.65 MW installation will be one the largest solar roof top installations in the country and will more than double the current installed solar capacity in the state of Utah. Construction is complete and the system will be operational in May 2012. The County has accomplished this project using a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) financing model. In a PPA model a third-party solar developer will finance, develop, own, operate, and maintain the solar array. Salt Lake County will lease its roof, and purchase the power from this third-party under a long-term Power Purchase Agreement contract. In fact, this will be one of the first projects in the state of Utah to take advantage of the recent (March 2010) legislation which makes PPA models possible for projects of this type. In addition to utilizing a PPA, this solar project will employ public and private capital, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants (EECBG), and public/private subsidized bonds that are able to work together efficiently because of the recent stimulus bill. The project also makes use of recent changes to federal tax rules, and the recent re-awakening of private capital markets that make a significant public-private partnership possible. This is an extremely innovative project, and will mark the first time that all of these incentives (EECBG grants, Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds, New Markets tax credits, investment tax credits, public and private funds) have been packaged into one project. All of Salt Lake County's research documents and studies, agreements, and technical information is available to the public. In addition, the County has already shared a variety of information with the public through

  3. High Salt Intake Increases Copeptin but Salt Sensitivity Is Associated with Fluid Induced Reduction of Copeptin in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Tasevska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated if copeptin is affected by high salt intake and whether any salt-induced changes in copeptin are related to the degree of salt sensitivity. The study was performed on 20 men and 19 women. In addition to meals containing 50 mmol NaCl daily, capsules containing 100 mmol NaCl and corresponding placebo capsules were administered during 4 weeks each, in random order. Measurements of 24 h blood pressure, body weight, 24 h urinary volume, and fasting plasma copeptin were performed at high and low salt consumption. Copeptin increased after a high compared to low dietary salt consumption in all subjects 3,59 ± 2,28 versus 3,12 ± 1,95 (P = 0,02. Copeptin correlated inversely with urinary volume, at both low (r = −0,42; P = 0,001 and high (r = −0,60; P < 0,001 salt consumption, as well as with the change in body weight (r = −0,53; P < 0,001. Systolic salt sensitivity was inversely correlated with salt-induced changes of copeptin, only in females (r = −0,58; P = 0,017. As suppression of copeptin on high versus low salt intake was associated with systolic salt sensitivity in women, our data suggest that high fluid intake and fluid retention may contribute to salt sensitivity.

  4. The simplified convergence rate calculation for salt grit backfilled caverns in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the research and development project 3609R03210 of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, different methods were investigated, which are used for the simplified calculation of convergence rates for mining cavities in salt rock that have been backfilled with crushed salt. The work concentrates on the approach of Stelte and on further developments based on this approach. The work focuses on the physical background of the approaches. Model specific limitations are discussed and possibilities for further development are pointed out. Further on, an alternative approach is presented, which implements independent material laws for the convergence of the mining cavity and the compaction of the crushed salt backfill.

  5. Microbial successions and metabolite changes during fermentation of salted shrimp (saeu-jeot with different salt concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Hee Lee

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of salt concentration on saeu-jeot (salted shrimp fermentation, four sets of saeu-jeot samples with 20%, 24%, 28%, and 32% salt concentrations were prepared, and the pH, bacterial and archaeal abundances, bacterial communities, and metabolites were monitored during the entire fermentation period. Quantitative PCR showed that Bacteria were much more abundant than Archaea in all saeu-jeot samples, suggesting that bacterial populations play more important roles than archaeal populations even in highly salted samples. Community analysis indicated that Vibrio, Photobacterium, Psychrobacter, Pseudoalteromonas, and Enterovibrio were identified as the initially dominant genera, and the bacterial successions were significantly different depending on the salt concentration. During the early fermentation period, Salinivibrio predominated in the 20% salted samples, whereas Staphylococcus, Halomonas, and Salimicrobium predominated in the 24% salted samples; eventually, Halanaerobium predominated in the 20% and 24% salted samples. The initially dominant genera gradually decreased as the fermentation progressed in the 28% and 32% salted samples, and eventually Salimicrobium became predominant in the 28% salted samples. However, the initially dominant genera still remained until the end of fermentation in the 32% salted samples. Metabolite analysis showed that the amino acid profile and the initial glycerol increase were similar in all saeu-jeot samples regardless of the salt concentration. After 30-80 days of fermentation, the levels of acetate, butyrate, and methylamines in the 20% and 24% salted samples increased with the growth of Halanaerobium, even though the amino acid concentrations steadily increased until approximately 80-107 days of fermentation. This study suggests that a range of 24-28% salt concentration in saeu-jeot fermentation is appropriate for the production of safe and tasty saeu-jeot.

  6. Microbial successions and metabolite changes during fermentation of salted shrimp (saeu-jeot) with different salt concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se Hee; Jung, Ji Young; Jeon, Che Ok

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of salt concentration on saeu-jeot (salted shrimp) fermentation, four sets of saeu-jeot samples with 20%, 24%, 28%, and 32% salt concentrations were prepared, and the pH, bacterial and archaeal abundances, bacterial communities, and metabolites were monitored during the entire fermentation period. Quantitative PCR showed that Bacteria were much more abundant than Archaea in all saeu-jeot samples, suggesting that bacterial populations play more important roles than archaeal populations even in highly salted samples. Community analysis indicated that Vibrio, Photobacterium, Psychrobacter, Pseudoalteromonas, and Enterovibrio were identified as the initially dominant genera, and the bacterial successions were significantly different depending on the salt concentration. During the early fermentation period, Salinivibrio predominated in the 20% salted samples, whereas Staphylococcus, Halomonas, and Salimicrobium predominated in the 24% salted samples; eventually, Halanaerobium predominated in the 20% and 24% salted samples. The initially dominant genera gradually decreased as the fermentation progressed in the 28% and 32% salted samples, and eventually Salimicrobium became predominant in the 28% salted samples. However, the initially dominant genera still remained until the end of fermentation in the 32% salted samples. Metabolite analysis showed that the amino acid profile and the initial glycerol increase were similar in all saeu-jeot samples regardless of the salt concentration. After 30-80 days of fermentation, the levels of acetate, butyrate, and methylamines in the 20% and 24% salted samples increased with the growth of Halanaerobium, even though the amino acid concentrations steadily increased until approximately 80-107 days of fermentation. This study suggests that a range of 24-28% salt concentration in saeu-jeot fermentation is appropriate for the production of safe and tasty saeu-jeot. PMID:24587230

  7. Bedded salt in Ontario : geology, solution mining and cavern storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, T. [Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, London, ON (Canada). Petroleum Resources Centre

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed bedded salt geology in Ontario in relation to cavern storage and solution mining. Ontario's salt basin forms part of the Michigan basin. The salt formed as reefs surrounding the shallow basin restricted the flow of water. Salt then formed as the water evaporated. The bedded salt occurs in several layers underlying up to 16,000 km{sup 2} in the province. Subsurface resources used in the area include salt cavern hydrocarbon storage; oil and gas reservoirs; and natural gas reservoir storage. The Salina Group stratigraphy is comprised of several separate salt beds with a maximum combined thickness of 90 m. The Salina salt beds exhibit evidence of dissolution after deposition. There are currently 20 active solution mining wells in operation in the Windsor and Goderich regions. There are currently 112 wells and 70 caverns used for cavern storage in Ontario that are used to store approximately 27 million bbl of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and oil. Non-salt layers in the salt beds can interfere with both solution mining and cavern storage operations. tabs., figs.

  8. Physical chemistry and evolution of salt tolerance in halobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyi, J. K.

    1980-01-01

    The cellular constituents of extremely halophilic bacteria not only tolerate high salt concentration, but in many cases require it for optical functioning. The characteristics affected by salt include enzyme activity, stability, allosteric regulation, conformation and subunit association. The salt effects are of two major kinds: electrostatic shielding of negative charges by cations at low salt concentration, and hydrophobic stabilization by salting-out type salts at high salt concentration. The composition of halobacterial proteins shows an excess of acidic amino acids and a deficiency of nonpolar amino acids, which accounts for these effects. Since the cohesive forces are weaker and the repulsing forces are stronger in these proteins, preventing aggregation in salt, these structures are no longer suited for functioning in the absence of high salt concentrations. Unlike these nonspecific effects, ribosomes in halobacteria show marked preference for potassium over sodium ions. To ensure the proper intracellular ionic composition, powerful ion transport systems have evolved in the halobacteria, resulting in the extrusion of sodium ions and their replacement by potassium. It is likely that such membrane transport system for ionic movements is a necessary requisite for salt tolerance.

  9. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, Christi D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from

  10. Effects of Salt on Wheat Flour Dough Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Toyosaki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most food chemistry characteristics in the dough fermentation of salt are not solved. Effects of salt on the acceleration process of wheat flour dough fermentation were studied, respectively. The mechanism of dough expansion influenced by salt and yeast was also investigated. The dough expansion rate with no salt reached a maximum of 18% in the 50 min dough fermentation time. In contrast, dough with 2.0% salt reached an expansion rate of 96% in 30 min of fermentation. Furthermore, the maximum dough expansion rate with 8.0% salt was 58% in 20 min. Lipid peroxidation catalyzed by baker’s yeast was observed in the dough fermentation process following the addition of salt. Although the baker’s yeast catalyzed lipid peroxidation salt triggered the reaction. The hydroperoxide produced in the induced lipid peroxidation reaction was found to play an unspecified role in the expansion phenomenon of dough. Based on these findings, we examined how salt is associated with the dough fermentation phenomenon. We hypothesized that the presence of salt would induce the following two chemical phenomena: 1 Salt enhances cross-linkages between gliadin and glutelin, which in turn leads to increased gluten content. 2 While baker’s yeast catalyzes lipid peroxidation, salt potentiates this reaction. We speculated that hydroperoxide, produced in lipid peroxidation, would accelerate the dough fermentation process, thereby resulting in a higher dough expansion rate. These results revealed some new findings in the biochemical effects of salt in bread making, which could break new ground in the bread-making industry.

  11. Tank 37H Salt Removal Batch Process and Salt Dissolution Mixing Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, K.C.

    2001-09-18

    Tank 30H is the receipt tank for concentrate from the 3H Evaporator. Tank 30H has had problems, such as cooling coil failure, which limit its ability to receive concentrate from the 3H Evaporator. SRS High Level Waste wishes to use Tank 37H as the receipt tank for the 3H Evaporator concentrate. Prior to using Tank 37H as the 3H Evaporator concentrate receipt tank, HLW must remove 50 inches of salt cake from the tank. They requested SRTC to evaluate various salt removal methods for Tank 37H. These methods include slurry pumps, Flygt mixers, the modified density gradient method, and molecular diffusion.

  12. The effect of hydrocarbons on the microstructural evolution in rock salt: a case study on hydrocarbon bearing Ara salt from the South Oman Salt Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmatz, Joyce; Urai, Janos L.; Wübbeler, Franziska M. M.; Sadler, Marc

    2014-05-01

    It has been shown that dilatant deformation promotes the incorporation of hydrocarbons into typically low permeable rock salt (Schoenherr et al., 2007). However, there is not much knowledge on subsequent mechanisms related to recrystallization processes, which cause morphological and chemical changes of the carbonic inclusions. This work aims to contribute to an increased understanding of fluid inclusion dynamics related to grain boundary migration recrystallization and hence to facilitate the interpretation of complex microstructures in recrystallized, multiphase salt rocks. In this case study we investigate hydrocarbon-impregnated salt from the Cambrian Ara Group in the South Oman Salt Basin. The samples were cored from cm-m thick anhydrite-salt sequences overlying hydrocarbon bearing carbonate stringers in 3300 m depth. The anhydrite layers consist mainly of fine-grained anhydrite, which contains calcite, dolomite, and olivine inclusions. Solid bitumen and lighter hydrocarbon phases are observed in between the anhydrite grains and along cracks. Anhydrite layers host salt veins, which contain fragments of anhydrite. These fragments do not differ in composition or structure from the host material and the related vein microstructures indicate crack-seal mechanisms. Halite in the salt layers is almost entirely recrystallized with solid inclusions consisting of anhydrite, calcite, dolomite and olivine with hydrocarbon-coatings present inside grains and along grain boundaries. Solid inclusions cause pinning indicated by a decreased recrystallized grain size and by the presence of grains with preserved substructures representing earlier deformation phases. We observe two types of carbonic inclusions: I) solid bitumen coatings along grain boundaries and microcracks, interpreted to be incorporated into the salt in an overpressure state that allowed dilatancy of the salt, and II) less degraded, liquid hydrocarbons along grain boundaries in the vicinity of the anhydrite

  13. Fluctuation spectroscopy in organic charge transfer salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasi-twodimensional organic charge-transfer salts show certain analogies to the High-Temperature Cuprate Superconductors (HTSC), e.g., the layered structure where conducting and insulating sheets do alternate as well as the direct proximity of the antiferromagnetic insulating ground state to the superconducting phase. At higher temperatures the formation of a pseudo-gap in the density of states is discussed also. In contrast to the HTSC the electronic properties of the organic charge-transfer salts can be easily influenced by external parameters such as hydrostatic or chemical pressure - in a generalized phase diagram the usage of different anions X can be mapped on the axis W/U as well, see Sec. 4.2 - or moderate temperatures. In the quasi-twodimensional K-(BEDT-TTF)2X salts, e.g., a moderate pressure of p ∝ 250 bar is sufficient to shift the antiferromagnetic-insulating system (X=Cu[N(CN)2]Cl) to the metallic side of the phase diagram showing even superconductivity below a critical temperature of Tc ∝ 12.8 K. Doping as in the HTSC and the undesirable disorder accompanied with it is not necessary to induce a metal-to-insulator transition. Therefore the experimental requirements are more easily met in this class of materials compared to other strongly correlated electron systems. All this makes the organic charge-transfer salts ideal model systems to study fundamental concepts of theoretical solid state physics some of which have been of academical interest only so far. In this work fluctuation spectroscopy has been used for the first time to investigate the low-frequency dynamics of the TT-electron system in the quasi-twodimensional organic charge-transfer salts K-(BEDT-TTF)2X with the aim to gain information about the temperature, pressure and magnetic field dependence of the power spectral density of the resistance noise and therefore about the dynamics of the charge carrier fluctuations. Especially in the vicinity of correlation driven ordering phenomena

  14. Feasibility and antihypertensive effect of replacing regular salt with mineral salt -rich in magnesium and potassium- in subjects with mildly elevated blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkkinen Essi S; Kastarinen Mika J; Niskanen Tarja H; Karjalainen Pia H; Venäläinen Taisa M; Udani Jay K; Niskanen Leo K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background High salt intake is linked to hypertension whereas a restriction of dietary salt lowers blood pressure (BP). Substituting potassium and/or magnesium salts for sodium chloride (NaCl) may enhance the feasibility of salt restriction and lower blood pressure beyond the sodium reduction alone. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and effect on blood pressure of replacing NaCl (Regular salt) with a novel mineral salt [50% sodium chloride and rich in potassium c...

  15. A system for separation, salt encapsulation and disposal of lava-like fuel-containing mass from the 4-th block Chernobyl nuclear power station in salt mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The offered here system of separations, salt capsulation and disposal LFCM in salt mines completely corresponds to these principles. Basic elements of the system are: the technological scheme of separation LFCM on activity and isotope structure with selection of valuable components by means of enrichment of mineral ore dressing; the technological scheme of conditioning LFCM with use artificial salt structures - salt capsules; disposal LFCM in spent space of salt mines; storehouse of high-active LFCM in salt formations

  16. Supai salt karst features: Holbrook Basin, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, J.T.

    1994-12-31

    More than 300 sinkholes, fissures, depressions, and other collapse features occur along a 70 km (45 mi) dissolution front of the Permian Supai Formation, dipping northward into the Holbrook Basin, also called the Supai Salt Basin. The dissolution front is essentially coincident with the so-called Holbrook Anticline showing local dip reversal; rather than being of tectonic origin, this feature is likely a subsidence-induced monoclinal flexure caused by the northward migrating dissolution front. Three major areas are identified with distinctive attributes: (1) The Sinks, 10 km WNW of Snowflake, containing some 200 sinkholes up to 200 m diameter and 50 m depth, and joint controlled fissures and fissure-sinks; (2) Dry Lake Valley and contiguous areas containing large collapse fissures and sinkholes in jointed Coconino sandstone, some of which drained more than 50 acre-feet ({approximately}6 {times} 10{sup 4} m{sup 3}) of water overnight; and (3) the McCauley Sinks, a localized group of about 40 sinkholes 15 km SE of Winslow along Chevelon Creek, some showing essentially rectangular jointing in the surficial Coconino Formation. Similar salt karst features also occur between these three major areas. The range of features in Supai salt are distinctive, yet similar to those in other evaporate basins. The wide variety of dissolution/collapse features range in development from incipient surface expression to mature and old age. The features began forming at least by Pliocene time and continue to the present, with recent changes reportedly observed and verified on airphotos with 20 year repetition. The evaporate sequence along interstate transportation routes creates a strategic location for underground LPG storage in leached caverns. The existing 11 cavern field at Adamana is safely located about 25 miles away from the dissolution front, but further expansion initiatives will require thorough engineering evaluation.

  17. Mass transfer in a salt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To meet regulatory requirements for radioactive waste in a salt repository it is necessary to predict the rates of corrosion of the waste container, the release rates of radionuclides from the waste package, and the cumulative release of radionuclides into the accessible environment. The mechanisms that may control these rates and an approach to predicting these rates from mass-transfer theory are described. This new mechanistic approach is suggested by three premises: (a) a brine inclusion originally in a salt crystal moves along grain boundaries after thermal-induced migration out of the crystal, (b) brine moves along a grain boundary under the influence of a pressure gradient, and (c) salt surrounding a heat-generating waste package will soon creep and consolidate as a monolithic medium surrounding and in contact with the waste package. After consolidation there may be very little migration of intergranular and intragranular brine to the waste package. The corrosion rate of the waste container may then be limited by the rate at which brine reaches the container and may be calculable from mass-transfer theory, and the rate at which dissolved radionuclides leave the waste package may be limited by molecular diffusion in intragranular brine and may be calculable from mass-transfer theory. If porous nonsalt interbeds intersect the waste-package borehole, the release rate of dissolved radionuclides to interbed brine may also be calculable from mass-transfer theory. The logic of these conclusions is described, as an aid in formulating the calculations that are to be made

  18. Consolidation and permeability of salt in brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shor, A.J.; Baes, C.F. Jr.; Canonico, C.M.

    1981-07-01

    The consolidation and loss of permeability of salt crystal aggregates, important in assessing the effects of water in salt repositories, has been studied as a function of several variables. The kinetic behavior was similar to that often observed in sintering and suggested the following expression for the time dependence of the void fraction: phi(t) = phi(0) - (A/B)ln(1 + Bt/z(0)/sup 3/), where A and B are rate constants and z(0) is initial average particle size. With brine present, A and phi(0) varied linearly with stress. The initial void fraction was also dependent to some extent on the particle size distribution. The rate of consolidation was most rapid in brine and least rapid in the presence of only air as the fluid. A brine containing 5 m MgCl/sub 2/ showed an intermediate rate, presumably because of the greatly reduced solubility of NaCl. A substantial wall effect was indicated by an observed increase in the void fraction of consolidated columns with distance from the top where the stress was applied and by a dependence of consolidation rate on the column height and radius. The distance through which the stress fell by a factor of phi was estimated to change inversely as the fourth power of the column diameter. With increasing temperature (to 85/sup 0/C), consolidation proceeded somewhat more rapidly and the wall effect was reduced. The permeability of the columns dropped rapidly with consolidation, decreasing with about the sixth power of the void fraction. In general, extrapolation of the results to repository conditions confirms the self-sealing properties of bedded salt as a storage medium for radioactive waste.

  19. Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reavis, J.G.

    1985-06-01

    This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Salt Kinematics and InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftabi, Pedarm; Talbot, hristopher; Fielding, Eric

    2005-01-01

    As part of a long-term attempt to learn how the climatic and tectonic signal interact to shape a steady state mountain monitored displacement of a markers in SE termination and also near the summit of a small viscous salt fountain extruding onto the Central plateau of Iran. The marker displacements relate to the first InSAR interferograms of salt extrusion (980913 to 990620) calculated Earth tides, winds, air pressures and temperatures. In the first documented staking exercise, hammered wooden stakes vertically through the surgical marl (c. 1 Ocm deep) onto the top of crystalline salt. These stakes installed in an irregular array elongate E-W along the c.50 m high cliff marking the effective SE terminus of the glacier at Qum Kuh(Centra1 Iran) ,just to the E of a NE trending river cliff about 40 m high. We merely measured the distances between pairs of stakes with known azimuth about 2 m apart to calculate sub horizontal strain in a small part of Qum Kuh. Stakes moved and micro strains for up to 46 pairs of stakes (p strain= ((lengthl-length2)/1engthl) x 10-1) was calculated for each seven stake epochs and plotted against their azimuth on simplified array maps. The data fit well the sine curves cxpected of the maximum and minimum strain ellipses. The first documented stakes located on the SE where the InSAR image show -1 1 to 0 mm pink to purple, 0 to lOmm purple to blue, and show high activity of salt in low activity area of the InSAR image (980913 to 990620).Short term micro strains of stake tie lines record anisotropic expansions due to heating and contraction due to cooling. All epochs changed between 7 to 1 17 days (990928 to000 1 16), showed 200 to 400 micro strain lengthening and shortening. The contraction and extension existed in each epoch, but the final strain was extension in E-W in Epoch land 6, contraction in E-W direction during epochs 2-3-4-5 and 7. The second pair of stakes hammered about 20 cm deep into the deep soils(more than 1 m) , near summit

  1. Earth subsidences in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earth subsidences in the Asse salt mine occur in the carstifiable Mesozoic flank rocks (containing Ruddle, Middle Shell-lime and Gypsum Keuper), more seldom in Zechstein gypsum. Of the 278 earth subsidences which have been mapped up to now, 184 originated in the Ruddle, 59 in the Middle Shell-lime and 35 in the Zechstein. Earth subsidences in the Keuper have not been recorded. As recent occurrences have shown earth subsidences are still developing in the flank rocks. For the purpose of dating the remaining ones, their fillings were examined by means of groove probing and lithostratigraphical dating. Samples taken were also analyzed palynologically. (orig.)

  2. The uranium determination in commercial iodinated salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This method extends a classical determination of uranium and thorium in natural waters to a new series of solid inorganic and / or organic samples. A technique based on chemical separations using cation / anion exchange columns was used. The UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy was employed for the determination of cations. The limit of detection using characteristic band absorptions of colored complexes of Arsenazo III with these cations is in the 0.25 - 0.50 ppb range. These values are usually expected for natural samples. Finally, an improved correlation on absorption spectra of uranium, iron and thorium concentrations has been done. An iodinated sodium salt was taken into account as example. (authors)

  3. Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Deformation-assisted fluid percolation in rock salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarzadeh, Soheil; Hesse, Marc A.; Prodanović, Maša; Gardner, James E.

    2015-11-01

    Deep geological storage sites for nuclear waste are commonly located in rock salt to ensure hydrological isolation from groundwater. The low permeability of static rock salt is due to a percolation threshold. However, deformation may be able to overcome this threshold and allow fluid flow. We confirm the percolation threshold in static experiments on synthetic salt samples with x-ray microtomography. We then analyze wells penetrating salt deposits in the Gulf of Mexico. The observed hydrocarbon distributions in rock salt require that percolation occurred at porosities considerably below the static threshold due to deformation-assisted percolation. Therefore, the design of nuclear waste repositories in salt should guard against deformation-driven fluid percolation. In general, static percolation thresholds may not always limit fluid flow in deforming environments.

  5. Large-scale dynamic compaction of natural salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large-scale dynamic compaction demonstration of natural salt was successfully completed. About 40 m3 of salt were compacted in three, 2-m lifts by dropping a 9,000-kg weight from a height of 15 m in a systematic pattern to achieve desired compaction energy. To enhance compaction, 1 wt% water was added to the relatively dry mine-run salt. The average compacted mass fractional density was 0.90 of natural intact salt, and in situ nitrogen permeabilities averaged 9X10-14m2. This established viability of dynamic compacting for placing salt shaft seal components. The demonstration also provided compacted salt parameters needed for shaft seal system design and performance assessments of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

  6. Centuries of Human-Driven Change in Salt Marsh Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedan, K. Bromberg; Silliman, B. R.; Bertness, M. D.

    2009-01-01

    Salt marshes are among the most abundant, fertile, and accessible coastal habitats on earth, and they provide more ecosystem services to coastal populations than any other environment. Since the Middle Ages, humans have manipulated salt marshes at a grand scale, altering species composition, distribution, and ecosystem function. Here, we review historic and contemporary human activities in marsh ecosystems—exploitation of plant products; conversion to farmland, salt works, and urban land; introduction of non-native species; alteration of coastal hydrology; and metal and nutrient pollution. Unexpectedly, diverse types of impacts can have a similar consequence, turning salt marsh food webs upside down, dramatically increasing top down control. Of the various impacts, invasive species, runaway consumer effects, and sea level rise represent the greatest threats to salt marsh ecosystems. We conclude that the best way to protect salt marshes and the services they provide is through the integrated approach of ecosystem-based management.

  7. Emulsifying salt increase stability of cheese emulsions during holding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anni Bygvrå; Sijbrandij, Anna G.; Varming, Camilla;

    2015-01-01

    In cheese powder production, cheese is mixed and melted with water and emulsifying salt to form an emulsion (cheese feed) which is required to remain stable at 60°C for 1h and during further processing until spray drying. Addition of emulsifying salts ensures this, but recent demands for reduction...... of sodium and phosphate in foods makes production of cheese powder without or with minimal amounts of emulsifying salts desirable. The present work uses a centrifugation method to characterize stability of model cheese feeds. Stability of cheese feed with emulsifying salt increased with holding time at 60°C......, especially when no stirring was applied. No change in stability during holding was observed in cheese feeds without emulsifying salt. This effect is suggested to be due to continued exerted functionality of the emulsifying salt, possibly through reorganizations of the mineral balance....

  8. [Structure and Activity of Fungal Lipases in Bile Salt Solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanova, L R; Bakirova, D R; Valiullina, Yu A; Idiyatullin, B Z; Faizullin, D A; Zueva, O S; Zuev, Yu F

    2016-01-01

    The changes in structure and catalytic properties of fungal lipases (Candida rugosa, Rhizomucor miehei, Mucor javanicus) were investigated in micellar solutions of bile salts that differ in hydrophilic-lypophilic balance and reaction medium properties. The methods of circular dichroism and tryptophan fluorescence were applied to estimate the changes in peptide structure within complexes with bile salt micelles. Bile salts do not exert a significant influence on the structure of the enzymes under study: in Rh. miehei and M. javanicus lipases the alpha helix content slightly decreased, the influence of bile salts on the C. rugosa structure was not revealed. Despite negligible structural modifications in the enzymes, in bile salt solutions a considerable change in their catalytic properties was observed: an abrupt decrease in catalytic effectiveness. Substrate-bile salts micelles complex formation was demonstrated by the NMR self-diffusion method. The model of a regulation of fungal lipase activity was proposed. PMID:27192825

  9. The low-temperature phase of morpholinium tetrafluoroborate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Lis

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the low-temperature form of the title compound, C4H10NO+·BF4−, was determined at 80 K. Two reversible phase transitions, at 158/158 and 124/126 K (heating/cooling, were detected by differential scanning calorimetry for this compound, and the sequence of phase transitions was subsequently confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments. The asymmetric unit at 80 K consists of three BF4− tetrahedral anions and three morpholinium cations (Z′ = 3. Hydrogen-bonded morpholinium cations form chains along the [100] direction. The BF4− anions are connected to these chains by N—H...F hydrogen bonds. In the crystal structure, two different layers perpendicular to the [001] direction can be distinguished, which differ in the geometry of the hydrogen bonds between cationic and anionic species.

  10. Bis[N-(2-hydroxybenzyladamantan-1-aminium] fluoride tetrafluoroborate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chun Wang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, 2C17H24NO+·BF4−·F−·H2O, the asymmetric unit contains two N-(2-hydroxybenzyladamantan-1-aminium cations, one BF4− anion, one F− anion and one water molecule. Both amine N atoms are protonated. The hydroxy O atoms, amino N atoms and water O atom are involved in intermolecular O—H...O, O—H...F, N—H...O and N—H...F hydrogen bonding.

  11. Evidence of a salt refuge: chytrid infection loads are suppressed in hosts exposed to salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, M P; Clulow, J; Mahony, M J

    2015-03-01

    With the incidence of emerging infectious diseases on the rise, it is becoming increasingly important to identify refuge areas that protect hosts from pathogens and therefore prevent population declines. For the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, temperature and humidity refuge areas for amphibian hosts exist but are difficult to manipulate. Other environmental features that may affect the outcome of infection include water quality, drying regimes, abundance of alternate hosts and isolation from other hosts. We identified relationships between water bodies with these features and infection levels in the free-living hosts inhabiting them. Where significant relationships were identified, we used a series of controlled experiments to test for causation. Infection loads were negatively correlated with the salt concentration of the aquatic habitat and the degree of water level fluctuation and positively correlated with fish abundance. However, only the relationship with salt was confirmed experimentally. Free-living hosts inhabiting water bodies with mean salinities of up to 3.5 ppt had lower infection loads than those exposed to less salt. The experiment confirmed that exposure to sodium chloride concentrations >2 ppt significantly reduced host infection loads compared to no exposure (0 ppt). These results suggest that the exposure of amphibians to salt concentrations found naturally in lentic habitats may be responsible for the persistence of some susceptible species in the presence of B. dendrobatidis. By manipulating the salinity of water bodies, it may be possible to create refuges for declining amphibians, thus allowing them to be reintroduced to their former ranges. PMID:25416999

  12. Mechanical analyses of WIPP disposal rooms backfilled with either crushed salt or crushed salt-bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper numerical calculations of disposal room configurations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM are presented. Specifically, the behavior of either crushed salt or a crushed salt- bentonite mixture, when used as a backfill material in disposal rooms, is modeled in conjunction with the creep behavior of the surrounding intact salt. The backfill consolidation model developed at Sandia National Laboratories was implemented into the SPECTROM-32 finite element program. This model includes nonlinear elastic as well as deviatoric and volumetric creep components. Parameters for the models were determined from laboratory tests with deviatoric and hydrostatic loadings. The performance of the intact salt creep model previously implemented into SPECTROM-32 is well documented. Results from the SPECTROM-32 analyses were compared to a similar study conducted by Sandia National Laboratories using the SANCHO finite element program. The calculated deformations and stresses from the SPECTROM-32 and SANCHO analyses agree reasonably well despite differences in constitutive models and modeling methodology. These results provide estimates of the backfill consolidation through time. The trends in the backfill consolidation can then be used to estimate the permeability of the backfill and subsequent radionuclide transport

  13. Brazilian pre-salt geology at the AAPG meeting in Rio; Brazil pre-salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrantes, Dayse

    2010-07-01

    New discoveries in the Brazilian areas Tupi, Jupiter Guard and Iara suggest that the Brazilian reserves are large, close to 50 billion barrels. Petrobas has announced that it has finalized the drilling of another well in the Tupi area, which confirms the potential of the pre-salt reservoirs in that area. (AG)

  14. Integrated demonstration of molten salt oxidation with salt recycle for mixed waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal, nonflame process that has the inherent capability of completely destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has prepared a facility and constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO processor with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. This integrated system was designed and engineered based on laboratory experience with a smaller engineering-scale reactor unit and extensive laboratory development on salt recycle and final forms preparation. In this paper we present design and engineering details of the system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is identification of the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment

  15. Metal speciation in salt marsh sediments: Influence of halophyte vegetation in salt marshes with different morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Sílvia; Duarte, Bernardo; Raposo de Almeida, Pedro; Caçador, Isabel

    2015-12-01

    Salt marshes provide environmental conditions that are known to affect metal speciation in sediments. The elevational gradient along the marsh and consequent differential flooding are some of the major factors influencing halophytic species distribution and coverage due to their differential tolerance to salinity and submersion. Different species, in turn, also have distinct influences on the sediment's metal speciation, and its metal accumulation abilities. The present work aimed to evaluate how different halophyte species in two different salt marshes could influence metal partitioning in the sediment at root depth and how that could differ from bare sediments. Metal speciation in sediments around the roots (rhizosediments) of Halimione portulacoides, Sarcocornia fruticosa and Spartina maritima was determined by sequentially extracting operationally defined fractions with solutions of increasing strength and acidity. Rosário salt marsh generally showed higher concentrations of all metals in the rhizosediments. Metal partitioning was primarily related to the type of metal, with the elements' chemistry overriding the environment's influence on fractionation schemes. The most mobile elements were Cd and Zn, with greater availability being found in non-vegetated sediments. Immobilization in rhizosediments was predominantly influenced by the presence of Fe and Mn oxides, as well as organic complexes. In the more mature of both salt marshes, the differences between vegetated and non-vegetated sediments were more evident regarding S. fruticosa, while in the younger system all halophytes presented significantly different metal partitioning when compared to that of mudflats.

  16. Salt bridge as a gatekeeper against partial unfolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzman, Mark W; Essex, Morgan E; Park, Chiwook

    2016-05-01

    Salt bridges are frequently observed in protein structures. Because the energetic contribution of salt bridges is strongly dependent on the environmental context, salt bridges are believed to contribute to the structural specificity rather than the stability. To test the role of salt bridges in enhancing structural specificity, we investigated the contribution of a salt bridge to the energetics of native-state partial unfolding in a cysteine-free version of Escherichia coli ribonuclease H (RNase H*). Thermolysin cleaves a protruding loop of RNase H(*) through transient partial unfolding under native conditions. Lys86 and Asp108 in RNase H(*) form a partially buried salt bridge that tethers the protruding loop. Investigation of the global stability of K86Q/D108N RNase H(*) showed that the salt bridge does not significantly contribute to the global stability. However, K86Q/D108N RNase H(*) is greatly more susceptible to proteolysis by thermolysin than wild-type RNase H(*) is. The free energy for partial unfolding determined by native-state proteolysis indicates that the salt bridge significantly increases the energy for partial unfolding by destabilizing the partially unfolded form. Double mutant cycles with single and double mutations of the salt bridge suggest that the partially unfolded form is destabilized due to a significant decrease in the interaction energy between Lys86 and Asp108 upon partial unfolding. This study demonstrates that, even in the case that a salt bridge does not contribute to the global stability, the salt bridge may function as a gatekeeper against partial unfolding that disturbs the optimal geometry of the salt bridge. PMID:26916981

  17. Optimization of salt concentration in PEG-based crystallization solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Yamanaka, Mari; Inaka, Koji; Furubayashi, Naoki; Matsushima, Masaaki; Takahashi, Sachiko; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Sano, Satoshi; Sato, Masaru; Kobayashi, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Tetsuo

    2010-01-01

    Although polyethylene glycol (PEG) is the most widely used precipitant in protein crystallization, the concentration of co-existing salt in the solution has not been well discussed. To determine the optimum salt concentration range, several kinds of protein were crystallized in a 30% PEG 4000 solution at various NaCl concentrations with various pH levels. It was found that, if crystallization occurred, the lowest effective salt concentration depended on the pH of the protein solution and the ...

  18. BLOOD PRESSURE CHANGE WITH AGE IN SALT-SENSITIVE TEENAGERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Ye; Zhi-quan Liu; Jian-jun Mu; Xi-han Fu; Jun Yang; Bao-lin Gao; Xiao-hong Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Objective To observe blood pressure change with age in salt-sensitive teenagers whose salt sensitivity were determined by repeated testing.Methods Salt sensitivity was determined through intravenous infusion of normal saline combined with volume-depletion by oral diuretic furosemide in 55 teenagers. After five years, salt sensitivity was re-examined and subject blood pressure was followed up. Blood pressure changes in salt-sensitive teenagers were compared to that of non-salt sensitive teenagers over five years.Results After 5 years, the repetition rate of salt sensitivity determined by intravenous saline loading is 92.7%. In teenagers with salt sensitivity on the baseline, both the systolic blood pressure increments and increment rates were much higher than non-salt sensitive teenagers (12.7±12.1 mmHg vs. 2.8±5.2 mmHg, P< 0.01; 12.2%± 12.0% vs. 2.5% ±4.4%, P< 0.001,respectively). There was a similar trend for diastolic blood pressure (8.4 ± 6.4 mmHg vs. 3.7 ± 6.4 mmHg, P = 0.052; 13.2% ±10.6 % vs. 6.8%± 10.1%, P = 0.053, respectively).Conclusions Salt sensitivity determined by intravenous saline loading showed good reproducibility. Blood pressure increments with age were much higher in salt-sensitive teenagers than non-salt sensitive teenagers, especially in terms of systolic blood pressure.

  19. Evaluation of Zero Velocity Deicer Spreader and Salt Spreader

    OpenAIRE

    Nantung, Tommy E.

    2001-01-01

    Increasing traffic volumes and declining resources have led to a need for innovative winter maintenance strategies, techniques, equipment and materials while not sacrificing the safety of the traveling public. Any reduction of salt usage will ease fund for other maintenance operations while minimizing salt runoff on surface and ground waters and effect of road salt on roadside vegetation. In the past, conventional spreaders have been designed for sand and are generally incapable of metering t...

  20. Salt-Induced Counterion-Mobility Anomaly in Polyelectrolyte Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Sebastian; Naji, Ali; Netz, Roland R.

    2009-01-01

    We study the electrokinetics of a single polyelectrolyte chain in salt solution using hydrodynamic simulations. The salt-dependent chain mobility compares well with experimental DNA data. The mobility of condensed counterions exhibits a salt-dependent change of sign, an anomaly that is also reflected in the counterion excess conductivity. Using Green's function techniques this anomaly is explained by electrostatic screening of the hydrodynamic interactions between chain and counterions.

  1. Development of foundry cores based on inorganic salts

    OpenAIRE

    Jelínek, Petr; Mikšovský, František; Beňo, Jaroslav; Adámková, Eliška

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the possibilities of using salt cores for gravity, low-pressure or high-pressure die-casting technology. Determinations of the primary, secondary and final residual strengths were carried out in order to evaluate the possibilities of the salt-core utilization. Furthermore, this contribution is focused on developing composite salts with better mechanical properties. The solubility of these cores and a possibility of their reclamation in a closed cy...

  2. Evaluation of salt split technique of immunofluorescence in bullous pemphigoid

    OpenAIRE

    Satyapal Seema; Amladi Sangeeta; Jerajani H

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that salt split skin is a more sensitive substrate than intact skin for immunofluorescence diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid. We undertook this study to define the role of salt split technique of immunofluorescence findings in 32 clinical and histopothology confirmed cases of bullous pemphigoid. Both direct and indirect immunofluorescences were performed using normal and split skin. Direct immunofluorescence positivity of 100% was noted with both routine and salt s...

  3. Salt minerals and waters from soils in Konya and Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Vergouwen, L.

    1981-01-01

    This study deals with the relation between the mineralogical composition of salt assemblages and the composition of groundwaters from which these salts precipitated. A comparison was made between salts and waters sampled in the Konya Basin in Turkey and waters sampled in three different regions in Kenya.The chemical composition of waters from rivers entering the Konya Basin is different from the composition of those from rivers in Kenya. The initial composition of these rivers determines the ...

  4. Molten salt converter reactors: from DMSR to SmAHTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molten salt reactors were developed extensively from the 1950s to 1970s as a thermal breeder alternative on the Thorium-233U cycle. Simplified designs running as fluid fuel converters without salt processing as well as TRISO fueled, salt cooled reactors both hold much promise as potential small modular reactors and as larger base load producers. A background will be presented along with the most likely routes forward for a Canadian development program. (author)

  5. The synthesis of cementitious compounds in molten salts

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikh, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes an investigation into the synthesis of cementitious compounds in molten salts. These compounds are produced in energy-intensive industries (EIIs), such as the cement process, and are responsible for emitting significant quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Molten salt synthesis (MSS) involves dissolving compounds in a molten salt and reacting in solution. If the MSS of cementitious compounds can occur at lower temperatures than EIIs, this could lead to fewer qua...

  6. Salt Effect on Osmotic Pressure of Polyelectrolyte Solutions: Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Michael Y. Carrillo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We present results of the hybrid Monte Carlo/molecular dynamics simulations of the osmotic pressure of salt solutions of polyelectrolytes. In our simulations, we used a coarse-grained representation of polyelectrolyte chains, counterions and salt ions. During simulation runs, we alternate Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulation steps. Monte Carlo steps were used to perform small ion exchange between simulation box containing salt ions (salt reservoir and simulation box with polyelectrolyte chains, counterions and salt ions (polyelectrolyte solution. This allowed us to model Donnan equilibrium and partitioning of salt and counterions across membrane impermeable to polyelectrolyte chains. Our simulations have shown that the main contribution to the system osmotic pressure is due to salt ions and osmotically active counterions. The fraction of the condensed (osmotically inactive counterions first increases with decreases in the solution ionic strength then it saturates. The reduced value of the system osmotic coefficient is a universal function of the ratio of the concentration of osmotically active counterions and salt concentration in salt reservoir. Simulation results are in a very good agreement with osmotic pressure measurements in sodium polystyrene sulfonate, DNA, polyacrylic acid, sodium polyanetholesulfonic acid, polyvinylbenzoic acid, and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride solutions.

  7. Numerical modeling of deformation in salt basins: Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the dominant physical mechanisms and the material properties influence in the formation of natural salt deformation features within a salt basin. Numerical analysis techniques include one-dimensional, closed-form analytical solutions; one-dimensional analytical solutions employing a numerical propagator matrix technique; and a two-dimensional, finite-element, viscoplastic numerical code (MANTLE). The published works of earlier investigators were reviewed, along with conventional applications of the one-dimensional, closed-form solutions. Earlier work was extended to more complex multilayered, thin interbed systems, using a numerical propagator matrix. Nonlinear salt properties and two-dimensional mechanisms were modeled, including horizontal tectonic strain, predeposition-of-salt basement faulting, and postdeposition-of-salt basement faulting, with vertical shear stress produced in the overlying salt. The study concludes that the conventional analyses using assumed effective viscosities for salt and density-inversion mechanics are incorrect, first-order or major perturbations in a bedded salt formation require the application of shear stress to initiate the appropriate growth rate, a condition of postdeposition basement faulting is the probable mechanism to initiate such shear stress, and interbed and internal salt fabric (second-order and higher) deformation characteristics can be strongly asymmetric to the major deformation surfaces in the region of basement faulting/shear stress location. 28 refs., 70 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Phosphate-dependent root system architecture responses to salt stress

    KAUST Repository

    Kawa, Dorota

    2016-05-20

    Nutrient availability and salinity of the soil affect growth and development of plant roots. Here, we describe how phosphate availability affects root system architecture (RSA) of Arabidopsis and how phosphate levels modulate responses of the root to salt stress. Phosphate (Pi) starvation reduced main root length and increased the number of lateral roots of Arabidopsis Col-0 seedlings. In combination with salt, low Pi dampened the inhibiting effect of mild salt stress (75mM) on all measured RSA components. At higher NaCl concentrations, the Pi deprivation response prevailed over the salt stress only for lateral root elongation. The Pi deprivation response of lateral roots appeared to be oppositely affected by abscisic acid (ABA) signaling compared to the salt stress response. Natural variation in the response to the combination treatment of salt and Pi starvation within 330 Arabidopsis accessions could be grouped into four response patterns. When exposed to double stress, in general lateral roots prioritized responses to salt, while the effect on main root traits was additive. Interestingly, these patterns were not identical for all accessions studied and multiple strategies to integrate the signals from Pi deprivation and salinity were identified. By Genome Wide Association Mapping (GWAS) 13 genomic loci were identified as putative factors integrating responses to salt stress and Pi starvation. From our experiments, we conclude that Pi starvation interferes with salt responses mainly at the level of lateral roots and that large natural variation exists in the available genetic repertoire of accessions to handle the combination of stresses.

  9. Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Hansen, Kirsten;

    2010-01-01

    Background: A high salt (NaCl) intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective: To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design: For...... the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with in- house catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly selected employees at each canteen on two non-consecutive days. For the second part of the study, a total...

  10. Accelerator molten-salt breeding and thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent efforts at the development of fission energy utilization have not been successful in establishing fully rational technology. A new philosophy should be established on the basis of the following three principles: (1) thorium utilization, (2) molten-salt fuel concept, and (3) separation of fissile-breeding and power-generating functions. Such philosophy is called 'Thorium Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetics [THORIMS-NES]'. The present report first addresses the establishment of 233U breeding fuel cycle, focusing on major features of the Breeding and Chemical Processing Centers and a small molten-salt power station (called FUJI-II). The development of fissile producing breeders is discussed in relation to accelerator molten-salt breeder (AMSB), impact fusion molten-salt breeder, and inertial-confined fusion hybrid molten-salt breeder. Features of the accelerator molten-salt breeder are described, focusing on technical problems with accelerator breeders (or spallators), design principle of the accelerator molten-salt breeder, selection of molten salt compositions, and nuclear- and reactor-chemical aspects of AMSB. Discussion is also made of further research and development efforts required in the future for AMSB. (N.K.)

  11. Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Hansen, Kirsten; Knuthsen, Pia; Saxholt, Erling; Fagt, Sisse

    2010-01-01

    Background: A high salt (NaCl) intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective: To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design: For the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with inhouse catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly sele...

  12. Study on the Functional Peptides in Low Salt Sufu Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaofeng; Li Lite; Wang Jiahuai; Masayoshi Saito; Eizo Tatsumi

    2002-01-01

    Sufu in this project was preparedwith Actinomucor elegans (CICC-3118) as thestarter and with soybean as the material.Different with the sufu with 10% salt producedby traditional process, a sufu product with 6%salt was produced in this project by reducingthe salt content in salting process. To determinepeptides, the water-soluble extracts obtainedsaparetly from frozen dried powders of soybean,tofu, pehtze, salted pehtze and sufu ripening for50 days were analyzed by high-pressure lipidchromatography (HPLC). Antioxidative activityand antihypertensive activity of the extract dueto the peptides contained were evaluatedrespectively by radical scavenging ability andangiotensin converting enzyme (ACS) inhibitoryactivity.According to the HPLC patterns, thepeptides content was nearly zero in soybeanand tofu, but increased gradually duringmaturing in the further process of makingpehtze, salted pehtze and final product sufu.Correspondingly, the antioxidative andantihypertensive activities of the extractsstrengthened with maturing. For our product,sufu with 6% salt, the antioxidative andantihypertensive activities reached peak valuesat about 30 d maturing, and still remainedmedium values in final product sufu. Incomarison, the antioxidative and antihypertensiveactivities for the sufu with 10% salt reachedpeack values at 40 d maturing, but remainedmedium values inferior to those for the sufu with6% salt.

  13. Cyanoplatinate (II) salts as luminescent materials for scintillation counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergsøe, P.; Hansen, P.Gregers; Jacobsen, C.F.

    1962-01-01

    Eleven cyanoplatinate (II) salts have been studied under excitation with fast, charged particles. The salts were prepared via the barium compound, and crystals were grown from aqueous solutions. The formulae were determined by standard analytical procedures. Four of the salts were not previously...... scintillation efficiencies for α-particle excitation are smaller; in terms of the ratio α/β of relative efficiencies (light output per MeV dissipated) one obtains 0.17. Possible applications of these materials are discussed, and because the abundance of high Z material makes the salts especially attractive for...

  14. Effect of Irradiation on Anisakis Larvae in Salted Herring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe experiments to test the practicability of using irradiation to kill Anisakis marina larvae in lightly salted herring (Clupea harengus), The lower salt concentration used since the second world war for the preservation of gibbed herring is insufficient to kill the parasites that may be harmful to the consumer. The nematodes were subjected to irradiation, either in water or saline suspension, or pressed between salted herring fillets or in situ in salted gibbed herring. The results were disappointing. In aqueous suspensions, a salt concentration of 6% and a dose of 1.0 Mrad resulted in 100% kill, but appreciable numbers survived (although many of these were inactive) at lower irradiation dosages and at lower salt concentrations. It was noted that for doses of either 0 or 0.3 Mrad the highest proportion of survivals occurred in 3% salt solutions. In testing the effect of irradiation on parasites in the fish or placed between fillets the dosages were limited, because of flavour and colour changes, to 0.3 Mrad for salted ripened herring, and 0.6 Mrad for 5-day-old lightly salted herring. Substantial numbers of nematodes survived these doses. (author)

  15. Candidate molten salt investigation for an accelerator driven subcritical core

    OpenAIRE

    SOOBY Elizabeth; Baty, Austin; BENES ONDREJ; McIntyre, Peter; Pogue, Nathaniel; Salanne, Mathieu; Sattarov, Akhdiyor

    2013-01-01

    We report a design for accelerator-driven subcritical fission in a molten salt core (ADSMS) that utilizes a fuel salt composed of NaCl and transuranic (TRU) chlorides. The ADSMS core is designed for fast neutronics (28% of neutrons >1 MeV) to optimize TRU destruction. The choice of a NaCl-based salt offers benefits for corrosion, operating temperature, and actinide solubility as compared with LiF-based fuel salts. Molecular dynamics (MD) codes have been used to estimate properties of the molt...

  16. An Overview of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transport Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    Heat transport is central to all thermal-based forms of electricity generation. The ever increasing demand for higher thermal efficiency necessitates power generation cycles transitioning to progressively higher temperatures. Similarly, the desire to provide direct thermal coupling between heat sources and higher temperature chemical processes provides the underlying incentive to move toward higher temperature heat transfer loops. As the system temperature rises, the available materials and technology choices become progressively more limited. Superficially, fluoride salts at {approx}700 C resemble water at room temperature being optically transparent and having similar heat capacity, roughly three times the viscosity, and about twice the density. Fluoride salts are a leading candidate heat-transport material at high temperatures. Fluoride salts have been extensively used in specialized industrial processes for decades, yet they have not entered widespread deployment for general heat transport purposes. This report does not provide an exhaustive screening of potential heat transfer media and other high temperature liquids such as alkali metal carbonate eutectics or chloride salts may have economic or technological advantages. A particular advantage of fluoride salts is that the technology for their use is relatively mature as they were extensively studied during the 1940s-1970s as part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's program to develop molten salt reactors (MSRs). However, the instrumentation, components, and practices for use of fluoride salts are not yet developed sufficiently for commercial implementation. This report provides an overview of the current understanding of the technologies involved in liquid salt heat transport (LSHT) along with providing references to the more detailed primary information resources. Much of the information presented here derives from the earlier MSR program. However, technology has evolved over the intervening years

  17. Nickel based alloys compatibility with fuel salts for molten salt reactor with thorium and uranium support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R and D on molten salt reactors (MSR) in Europe are concentrated now on fast/intermediate spectrum concepts which were recognised as long-term alternative to solid fuelled fast reactors due to their attractive features: strong negative feedback coefficients, easy in-service inspection, and simplified fuel cycle. For high-temperature MSR corrosion of the metallic container alloy in primary circuit is the primary concern. Key problem receiving current attention include surface fissures in Ni-based alloys probably arising from fission product tellurium attack. This paper summarises results of corrosion tests conducted recently to study effect of oxidation state in selected fuel salts on tellurium attack and to develop means of controlling tellurium cracking in the special Ni - based alloys recently developed for large power units: molten salt actinide recycler and transmuter (MOSART) and molten salt fast reactor (MSFR). Tellurium corrosion of Ni-based alloys was tested in the temperature range from 730 deg. C up to 800 deg. C in stressed and unloaded conditions with fuel LiF-BeF2-UF4 and LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4 salt mixtures at different [U(IV)]/[U(III)] ratios from 0.7 up to 500. Following Russian and French Ni-based alloys (in mass%): HN80M-VI (Mo-12, Cr-7.6, Nb-1.5), HN80MTY (Mo-13, Cr-6.8, Al-1.1, Ti-0.9), HN80MTW (Mo-9.4, Cr-7.0, Ti-1.7, W-5.5) and EM-721 (W-25.2, Cr-5.7, Ti-0.17) were used for the study in the corrosion facility. The HN80MTY alloy has shown the best resistance against Te cracking and after test mechanical properties. (authors)

  18. Trifolium isthmocarpum Brot, a salt-tolerant wild leguminous forage crop in salt-affected soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawtar Bennani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant scientists are investigating the potential of previously unexploited legume species where environmental and biological stresses constrain the use of more conventional forage crops or where these species are better suited to the needs of sustainable agriculture. Trifolium isthmocarpum Brot., Moroccan clover, occurs as a weed in different habitats in Morocco. It grows in moderately saline areas, where traditional forage legumes cannot be cultivated; however, it has not been widely studied despite its good palatability. The salt tolerance was studied between natural field conditions and glasshouse. The extensive field studies have recorded the species in many different habitats ranging from healthy agricultural lands to abandoned saline areas. The plants maintained high nodulation capacity (ranging between 60% and 97% and nitrogenase activities (average 2.04 µmol C2H4 plant-1 h-1 in different habitats. Shoot systems of plants collected from salt-affected soils exhibited higher concentrations of Na+ and Cl- than those collected from healthy soils. Greenhouse experiments showed that germination percentage and vigor value of the studied species was not significantly (P > 0.05 affected at 160 mM NaCl, and that 25% of the germination ability was maintained when growing on substrats containing 240 mM NaCl. The growth rate of seedlings was not signicantly affected by 160 mM NaCl but was reduced by 38% under 240 mM NaCl. Leaf succulence and indices of leaf water status did not differ among the salt treatments, whereas relative water content was reduced by only 8% and water content at saturation increased by about 12% at high salt concentrations in the growing medium. This study suggest recommending the cultivation of T. isthmocarpum in salt-affected soils, which are widespread and pose a problem for the farmers of Morocco and other countries in the world’s arid belt.

  19. Molten salt reactor related research in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Switzerland represented by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is a member of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). In the past, the research at PSI focused mainly on HTR, SFR, and GFR. Currently, a research program was established also for Molten Salt Reactors (MSR). Safety is the key point and main interest of the MSR research at the Nuclear Energy and Safety (NES) department of PSI. However, it cannot be evaluated without knowing the system design, fuel chemistry, salt thermal-hydraulics features, safety and fuel cycle approach, and the relevant material and chemical limits. Accordingly, sufficient knowledge should be acquired in the other individual fields before the safety can be evaluated. The MSR research at NES may be divided into four working packages (WP): WP1: MSR core design and fuel cycle, WP2: MSR fuel behavior at nominal and accidental conditions, WP3: MSR thermal-hydraulics and decay heat removal system, WP4: MSR safety, fuel stream, and relevant limits. The WPs are proposed so that there are research topics which can be independently studied within each of them. The work plan of the four WPs is based on several ongoing or past national and international projects relevant to MSR, where NES/PSI participates. At the current stage, the program focuses on several specific and design independent studies. The safety is the key point and main long-term interest of the MSR research at NES. (author)

  20. Transient simulation of molten salt central receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doupis, Dimitri; Wang, Chuan; Carcorze-Soto, Jorge; Chen, Yen-Ming; Maggi, Andrea; Losito, Matteo; Clark, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Alstom is developing concentrated solar power (CSP) utilizing 60/40wt% NaNO3-KNO3 molten salt as the working fluid in a tower receiver for the global renewable energy market. In the CSP power generation cycle, receivers undergo a daily cyclic operation due to the transient nature of solar energy. Development of robust and efficient start-up and shut-down procedures is critical to avoiding component failures due to mechanical fatigue resulting from thermal transients, thus maintaining the performance and availability of the CSP plant. The Molten Salt Central Receiver (MSCR) is subject to thermal transients during normal daily operation, a cycle that includes warmup, filling, operation, draining, and shutdown. This paper describes a study to leverage dynamic simulation and finite element analysis (FEA) in development of start-up, shutdown, and transient operation concepts for the MSCR. The results of the FEA also verify the robustness of the MSCR design to the thermal transients anticipated during the operation of the plant.

  1. Highlights of the Salt Extraction Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasalizadeh, Aida; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Teng, Lidong; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Grinder, Olle; Izumi, Yukari; Barati, Mansoor

    2013-11-01

    This article presents the salient features of a new process for the recovery of metal values from secondary sources and waste materials such as slag and flue dusts. It is also feasible in extracting metals such as nickel and cobalt from ores that normally are difficult to enrich and process metallurgically. The salt extraction process is based on extraction of the metals from the raw materials by a molten salt bath consisting of NaCl, LiCl, and KCl corresponding to the eutectic composition with AlCl3 as the chlorinating agent. The process is operated in the temperature range 973 K (700°C) to 1173 K (900°C). The process was shown to be successful in extracting Cr and Fe from electric arc furnace (EAF) slag. Electrolytic copper could be produced from copper concentrate based on chalcopyrite in a single step. Conducting the process in oxygen-free atmosphere, sulfur could be captured in the elemental form. The method proved to be successful in extracting lead from spent cathode ray tubes. In order to prevent the loss of AlCl3 in the vapor form and also chlorine gas emission at the cathode during the electrolysis, liquid aluminum was used. The process was shown to be successful in extracting Nd and Dy from magnetic scrap. The method is a highly promising process route for the recovery of strategic metals. It also has the added advantage of being environmentally friendly.

  2. Salt-induced contraction of polyelectrolyte brushes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an experimental study dedicated to understanding the behaviour of polyelectrolyte chains when salt goes into a polyelectrolyte brush. We use the ability of asymmetric neutral-charged diblock copolymers to anchor to a selective interface or to self-assemble in water, to examine polyelectrolyte brushes both in planar and in spherical geometries. Using neutron reflectivity, the monomer profile of planar brushes has been found to switch from a Gaussian profile to a parabolic profile, showing that at large spatial scale a salted planar brush behaves like a neutral one in good solvent. Using small angle neutron scattering, it is found that spherical brushes exhibit the same behaviour at a large spatial scale although polyelectrolyte chains remain rod-like at a small spatial scale whatever the salinity is. The charged chains inside a polyelectrolyte brush could be viewed as 'surveyor's chains', which fold their rod-like segments of persistence length lp. In the last part, spherical polyelectrolyte brushes in contact have been examined. Their behaviour is discussed in terms of interdigitation or contraction of the brushes

  3. Excavation Damaged Zones In Rock Salt Formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salt formations have long been proposed as potential host rocks for nuclear waste disposal. After the operational phase of a repository the openings, e.g., boreholes, galleries, and chambers, have to be sealed in order to avoid the release of radionuclides into the biosphere. For optimising the sealing techniques knowledge about the excavation damaged zones (EDZ) around these openings is essential. In the frame of a project performed between 2004 and 2007, investigations of the EDZ evolution were performed in the Stassfurt halite of the Asse salt mine in northern Germany. Three test locations were prepared in the floor of an almost 20 year old gallery on the 800-m level of the Asse mine: (1) the drift floor as existing, (2) the new drift floor shortly after removing of a layer of about 1 m thickness of the floor with a continuous miner, (3) the new drift floor 2 years after cutting off the 1-m layer. Subject of investigation were the diffusive and advective gas transport and the advective brine transport very close to the opening. Spreading of the brine was tracked by geo-electric monitoring in order to gain information about permeability anisotropy. Results obtained showed that EDZ cut-off is a useful method to improve sealing effectiveness when constructing technical barriers. (authors)

  4. Cation-Exchange Equilibria with Fused Salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solute distributions of alkali metal, alkaline- earth, transition metal, and actinide ions have been studied in fused salt-cation exchanger systems. The fused salts employed were alkali halides and nitrates. The cation exchangers used were natural zeolites, synthetic zeolites, high-porosity glasses, and molten oxide mixtures. The molten exchangers were composed of Na2O and B2O3 in various proportions. The relative quantities not only determined the exchanger capacity and electrolyte penetration but also produced distribution coefficients for a given solute which varied over several orders of magnitude. Moreover, they produced marked reversals in the selectivity series. Additional studies on the anion distributions, miscibility diagrams, vapour pressures and diffusion rates in these systems have elucidated the mechanisms involved and the relation of selectivity to solute properties, system thermodynamics, exchanger structure and available functional groups. In the region of high Na2O composition, the distribution coefficients for mono-, di- and trivalent cations in NaCl have not only the same order of selectivity found in Dowex 50-HCl systems but also similar values for the distribution coefficients. The results are summarized qualitatively and compared to behaviour in aqueous systems (Table VII). (author)

  5. Geochemical simulation of the formation of brine and salt minerals based on Pitzer model in Caka Salt Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xingqi; CAI Keqin; YU Shengsong

    2004-01-01

    The geochemical simulation of the formation of brine and salt minerals based on Pitzer model was made in Caka Salt Lake. The evolution of the mixed surface-water and the mineral sequences were calculated and compared with the hydrochemical compositions of the brine and the salt minerals of the deposit in Caka Salt Lake. The results show that the formation temperature of the lake is between 0℃ and 5℃, which is well identical with other studies. The mixing of salt-karst water with the surface waters, neglected by the former researchers, is very important to the formation of the lake, indicating that the initial waters resulting in the formation of the lake are multi-source. It is the first time to use Pitzer model in China for making geochemical simulation of the formation and evolution of inland salt lake and satisfactory results have been achieved.

  6. Salt movements and faulting of the overburden - can numerical modeling predict the fault patterns above salt structures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Egholm, D.L.; Wesenberg, Rasmus; Damsgaard, Anders

    Salt deformation has been the topic of numerous studies through the 20th century and up until present because of the close relation between commercial hydrocarbons and salt structure provinces of the world (Hudec & Jackson, 2007). The fault distribution in sediments above salt structures influences...... radiating fault patterns. Here we use a modified version of the numerical spring-slider model introduced by Malthe-Sørenssen et al.(1998a) for simulating the emergence of small scale faults and fractures above a rising salt structure. The three-dimensional spring-slider model enables us to control the....... The modeling shows that purely vertical movement of the salt introduces a mesh of concentric normal faults in the overburden, and that the frequency of radiating faults increases with the amount of lateral movements across the salt-overburden interface. The two end-member fault patterns (concentric vs...

  7. Stereo Pair, Salt Lake City, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This image pair provides a stereoscopic map view of north central Utah that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling and the nearby Snowbasin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City ski resort hosts the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR

  8. The dynamic network model (DNET): a model for determining salt dissolution rates and incorporating feedback effects in salt dissolution processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For nuclear waste isolation in deep, geologic formations, transport in groundwater appears to be one of the more likely means for radioactive waste to migrate from the repository to the biosphere. With respect to a repository in bedded salt, transport in groundwater would, for most breachment scenarios, have to be preceded by dissolution of all or portions of the salt layers surrounding the repository. The Dynamic Network (DNET) model provides a capability for investigating the rate of salt dissolution with a variety of disruptive events and processes and also provides a capability for investigating the effects of feedback mechanisms such as thermal expansion, subsidence, fracture formation and salt creep

  9. Cross-sectional survey of salt content in cheese: a major contributor to salt intake in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Hashem, Kawther M; He, Feng J.; Jenner, Katharine H; MacGregor, Graham A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the salt (sodium chloride) content in cheese sold in UK supermarkets. Study design We carried out a cross-sectional survey in 2012, including 612 cheeses available in UK supermarkets. Methods The salt content (g/100 g) was collected from product packaging and nutrient information panels of cheeses available in the top seven retailers. Results Salt content in cheese was high with a mean (±SD) of 1.7±0.58 g/100 g. There was a large variation in salt content between diff...

  10. Salt Repository Project: Data report on corrosion results obtained from excess-salt corrosion test Matrix 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The test discussed in this data report was directed at determining the response of the reference A216 grade WCA steel when it is exposed to anoxic excess-salt conditions at 1500C. The environment used in the test was intended to duplicate the intrusion brine scenario (i.e., the formation of brine by the intrusion of water from an outside source into the repository, with the formation of brine through dissolution of salt from the repository horizon). The salt-brine environment used in the test therefore reflected the expected gross salt composition of the repository horizon

  11. An approach to better understanding of salt weathering on stone monuments - the "petraSalt" research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, K.; Azzam, R.

    2012-04-01

    Salt weathering is known as a major cause of damage on stone monuments. However, processes and mechanisms of salt weathering still can not be explained satisfactorily. From the expertś point of view, better understanding of salt weathering deserves further comprehensive in-situ investigation jointly addressing active salt weathering processes and controlling factors. The 'petraSalt' research project takes this approach. The rock-cut monuments of Petra / Jordan were selected for studies, since stone type and spectra of monument exposure regimes, environmental influences, salt loading and weathering damage are representative for many stone monuments worldwide. The project aims at real-time / real-scale weathering models that depict characteristic interdependencies between stone properties, monument exposure regimes, environmental influences, salt loading and salt weathering damage. These models are expected to allow reliable rating and interpretation of aggressiveness and damage potential of the salt weathering regimes considering their variability under range of lithology, monument exposure scenarios, environmental conditions and time. The methodological approach systematically combines assessment of weathering damage (type, extent, spatial distribution and progression of damage), assessment of monument exposure characteristics and environmental influences acting on the monuments (monument orientation / geometry, lithology, rain impact, water run-off, rising humidity, wind impact, insolation, heating-cooling and drying-wetting behaviour, etc.), engineering geological studies (structural discontinuities and related failure processes) and investigation of salt loading (type, concentration, spatial distribution and origin of salt, salt crystallization / dissolution, phase transitions, etc.). Besides established methods, very innovative technologies are applied in the course of investigation such as high-resolution 3D terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and wireless

  12. Characterization of the effects of continuous salt processing on the performance of molten salt fusion breeder blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several continuous salt processing options are available for use in molten salt fusion breeder blanket designs. The effects of processing on blanket performance have been assessed for three levels of processing and various equilibrium uranium concentrations in the salt. A one-dimensional model of the blanket was used in the neutronics analysis which incorporated transport calculations with time-dependent isotope generation and depletion calculations. The level of salt processing was found to have little effect on the behavior of the blanket during reactor operation; however, significant effects were observed during the decay period after reactor shutdown

  13. Salt-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in Dahl salt-sensitive rats is dependent on elevated blood pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Mu, J.J.; Liu, F.Q.; Ren, K.Y.; Xiao, H.Y. [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Medical College, First Affiliated Hospital, Cardiovascular Department, Xi' an, China, Cardiovascular Department, First Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Xi' an, China, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Ministry of Education, Xi' an (China); Yang, Z. [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Medical College, First Affiliated Hospital, Department of Pathology, Xi' an, China, Department of Pathology, First Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Yuan, Z.Y. [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Medical College, First Affiliated Hospital, Cardiovascular Department, Xi' an, China, Cardiovascular Department, First Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Xi' an, China, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Ministry of Education, Xi' an (China)

    2014-03-03

    Dietary salt intake has been linked to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence has indicated that salt-sensitive individuals on high salt intake are more likely to develop renal fibrosis. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) participates in the development and progression of renal fibrosis in humans and animals. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of a high-salt diet on EMT in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. Twenty-four male SS and consomic SS-13{sup BN} rats were randomized to a normal diet or a high-salt diet. After 4 weeks, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and albuminuria were analyzed, and renal fibrosis was histopathologically evaluated. Tubular EMT was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR with E-cadherin and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). After 4 weeks, SBP and albuminuria were significantly increased in the SS high-salt group compared with the normal diet group. Dietary salt intake induced renal fibrosis and tubular EMT as identified by reduced expression of E-cadherin and enhanced expression of α-SMA in SS rats. Both blood pressure and renal interstitial fibrosis were negatively correlated with E-cadherin but positively correlated with α-SMA. Salt intake induced tubular EMT and renal injury in SS rats, and this relationship might depend on the increase in blood pressure.

  14. Comparative study of wild and transformed salt tolerant bacterial strains on Triticum aestivum growth under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Afrasayab

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eleven salt tolerant bacteria isolated from different sources (soil, plants and their transformed strains were used to study their influence on Triticum aestivum var. Inqlab-91 growth under salt (100 mM NaCl stress. Salt stress caused reduction in germination (19.4%, seedling growth (46% and fresh weight (39% in non-inoculated plants. In general, both wild and transformed strains stimulated germination, seedling growth and fresh weight in salt free and salt stressed conditions. At 100 mM NaCl, Staphylococcus xylosus ST-1 caused 25% increments in seedling length over respective control. Soluble protein content significantly enhanced (49% under salt stress as compared to salt free control. At 100 mM NaCl parental strain PT-5 resulted about 32% enhancement in protein content over respective control treatment. Salt stress induced the promotion of auxin content in seedlings. Overall, Bacillus subtilis HAa2 and transformed E. coli-SP-7-T, caused 33% and 30% increases in auxin content, respectively, were recorded under salt stress in comparison to control.

  15. Salt-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in Dahl salt-sensitive rats is dependent on elevated blood pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietary salt intake has been linked to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence has indicated that salt-sensitive individuals on high salt intake are more likely to develop renal fibrosis. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) participates in the development and progression of renal fibrosis in humans and animals. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of a high-salt diet on EMT in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. Twenty-four male SS and consomic SS-13BN rats were randomized to a normal diet or a high-salt diet. After 4 weeks, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and albuminuria were analyzed, and renal fibrosis was histopathologically evaluated. Tubular EMT was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR with E-cadherin and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). After 4 weeks, SBP and albuminuria were significantly increased in the SS high-salt group compared with the normal diet group. Dietary salt intake induced renal fibrosis and tubular EMT as identified by reduced expression of E-cadherin and enhanced expression of α-SMA in SS rats. Both blood pressure and renal interstitial fibrosis were negatively correlated with E-cadherin but positively correlated with α-SMA. Salt intake induced tubular EMT and renal injury in SS rats, and this relationship might depend on the increase in blood pressure

  16. Laboratory investigation of crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory test program was conducted to investigate the consolidation behavior of crushed salt and fracture healing in natural and artificial salt. Crushed salt is proposed for use as backfill in a nuclear waste repository in salt. Artificial block salt is proposed for use in sealing a repository. Four consolidation tests were conducted in a hydrostatic pressure vessel at a maximum pressure of 2500 psi (17.2 MPa) and at room temperature. Three 1-month tests were conducted on salt obtained from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and one 2-month test was conducted on salt from Avery Island. Permeability was obtained using argon and either a steady-state or transient method. Initial porosities ranged from 0.26 to 0.36 and initial permeabilities from 2000 to 50,000 md. Final porosities and permeabilities ranged from 0.05 to 0.19 and from -5 md to 110 md, respectively. The lowest final porosity (0.05) and permeability (-5 md) were obtained in a 1-month test in which 2.3% moisture was added to the salt at the beginning of the test. The consolidation rate was much more rapid than in any of the dry salt tests. The fracture healing program included 20 permeability tests conducted on fractured and unfractured samples. The tests were conducted in a Hoek cell at hydrostatic pressures up to 3000 psi (20.6 MPa) with durations up to 8 days. For the natural rock salt tested, permeability was strongly dependent on confining pressure and time. The effect of confining pressure was much weaker in the artificial salt. In most cases the combined effects of time and pressure were to reduce the permeability of fractured samples to the same order of magnitude (or less) as the permeability measured prior to fracturing

  17. Laboratory investigation of crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    A laboratory test program was conducted to investigate the consolidation behavior of crushed salt and fracture healing in natural and artificial salt. Crushed salt is proposed for use as backfill in a nuclear waste repository in salt. Artificial block salt is proposed for use in sealing a repository. Four consolidation tests were conducted in a hydrostatic pressure vessel at a maximum pressure of 2500 psi (17.2 MPa) and at room temperature. Three 1-month tests were conducted on salt obtained from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and one 2-month test was conducted on salt from Avery Island. Permeability was obtained using argon and either a steady-state or transient method. Initial porosities ranged from 0.26 to 0.36 and initial permeabilities from 2000 to 50,000 md. Final porosities and permeabilities ranged from 0.05 to 0.19 and from <10/sup -5/ md to 110 md, respectively. The lowest final porosity (0.05) and permeability (<10/sup -5/ md) were obtained in a 1-month test in which 2.3% moisture was added to the salt at the beginning of the test. The consolidation rate was much more rapid than in any of the dry salt tests. The fracture healing program included 20 permeability tests conducted on fractured and unfractured samples. The tests were conducted in a Hoek cell at hydrostatic pressures up to 3000 psi (20.6 MPa) with durations up to 8 days. For the natural rock salt tested, permeability was strongly dependent on confining pressure and time. The effect of confining pressure was much weaker in the artificial salt. In most cases the combined effects of time and pressure were to reduce the permeability of fractured samples to the same order of magnitude (or less) as the permeability measured prior to fracturing.

  18. Steam gasification of plant biomass using molten carbonate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the use of molten alkali-carbonate salts as a reaction and heat transfer medium for steam gasification of plant biomass with the objectives of enhanced heat transfer, faster kinetics, and increased thermal capacitance compared to gasification in an inert gas. The intended application is a solar process in which concentrated solar radiation is the sole source of heat to drive the endothermic production of synthesis gas. The benefits of gasification in a molten ternary blend of lithium, potassium, and sodium carbonate salts is demonstrated for cellulose, switchgrass, a blend of perennial plants, and corn stover through measurements of reaction rate and product composition in an electrically heated reactor. The feedstocks are gasified with steam at 1200 K in argon and in the molten salt. The use of molten salt increases the total useful syngas production by up to 25%, and increases the reactivity index by as much as 490%. Secondary products, in the form of condensable tar, are reduced by 77%. -- Highlights: ► The presence of molten salt increases the rate of gasification by up to 600%. ► Reaction rates across various feedstocks are more uniform with salt present. ► Useful syngas yield is increased by up to 30% when salt is present. ► Secondary production of liquid tars are reduced by 77% when salt is present.

  19. Alternative Waste Forms for Electro-Chemical Salt Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Riley, Brian J.; Matyas, Josef; Arreguin, Shelly A.; Vienna, John D.

    2009-10-28

    This study was undertaken to examine alternate crystalline (ceramic/mineral) and glass waste forms for immobilizing spent salt from the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) electrochemical separations process. The AFCI is a program sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and demonstrate a process for recycling spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The electrochemical process is a molten salt process for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel in an electrorefiner and generates spent salt that is contaminated with alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanide fission products (FP) that must either be cleaned of fission products or eventually replaced with new salt to maintain separations efficiency. Currently, these spent salts are mixed with zeolite to form sodalite in a glass-bonded waste form. The focus of this study was to investigate alternate waste forms to immobilize spent salt. On a mole basis, the spent salt is dominated by alkali and Cl with minor amounts of alkaline earth and lanthanides. In the study reported here, we made an effort to explore glass systems that are more compatible with Cl and have not been previously considered for use as waste forms. In addition, alternate methods were explored with the hope of finding a way to produce a sodalite that is more accepting of as many FP present in the spent salt as possible. This study was done to investigate two different options: (1) alternate glass families that incorporate increased concentrations of Cl; and (2) alternate methods to produce a mineral waste form.

  20. SALT DAMAGE CRITERION PROOF-OF-CONCEPT RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerry L. DeVries; Kirby D. Mellegard; Gary D. Callahan

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a field-scale application demonstrating the use of continuum damage mechanics to determine the minimum allowable operating pressure of compressed natural gas storage caverns in salt formations. A geomechanical study was performed of two natural gas storage caverns (one existing and one planned) utilizing state-of-the-art salt mechanics to assess the potential for cavern instability and collapse. The geomechanical study consisted primarily of laboratory testing, theoretical development, and analytical/numerical tasks. A total of 50 laboratory tests was performed on salt specimens to aid in the development and definition of the material model used to predict the behavior of rock salt. Material model refinement was performed that improved the predictive capability of modeling salt during damage healing, recovery of work-hardened salt, and the behavior of salt at stress states other than triaxial compression. Results of this study showed that the working gas capacity of the existing cavern could be increased by 18 percent and the planned cavern could be increased by 8 percent using the proposed method compared to a conventional stress-based method. Further refinement of the continuum damage model is recommended to account for known behavior of salt at stress conditions other than triaxial compression that is not characterized accurately by the existing model.

  1. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Heslop, M. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (United States). Indian Head Div.; Wernly, K. [Molten Salt Oxidation Corp. (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible {sup 238}Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and NaAsO{sub 2} or Na{sub 3}AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the {sup 238}Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox.

  2. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible 238Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na2SO4, Na3PO4 and NaAsO2 or Na3AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the 238Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox

  3. Salt sensitivity correlates positively with insulin sensitivity in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maaten, JC; Voordouw, JJ; Bakker, SJL; Gans, ROB

    1999-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between insulin sensitivity and salt sensitivity in healthy subjects who display a wide range of insulin sensitivity. As a secondary objective, we assessed the relationship between salt sensitivity and the other characteristics of the in

  4. Lithium conducting ionic liquids based on lithium borate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygadlo-Monikowska, E.; Florjanczyk, Z.; Sluzewska, K.; Ostrowska, J.; Langwald, N.; Tomaszewska, A. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, ul. Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-09-15

    The simple reaction of trialkoxyborates with butyllithium resulted in the obtaining of new lithium borate salts: Li{l_brace}[CH{sub 3}(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub n}O]{sub 3}BC{sub 4}H{sub 9}{r_brace}, containing oxyethylene substituents (EO) of n=1, 2, 3 and 7. Salts of n {>=} 2 show properties of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) of low glass transition temperature, T{sub g} of the order from -70 to -80 C. The ionic conductivity of the salts depends on the number of EO units, the highest conductivity is shown by the salt with n = 3; in bulk its ambient temperature conductivity is 2 x 10{sup -5} S cm{sup -1} and in solution in cyclic propylene sulfite or EC/PC mixture, conductivity increases by an order of magnitude. Solid polymer electrolytes with borate salts over a wide concentration range, from 10 to 90 mol.% were obtained and characterized. Three types of polymeric matrices: poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) and two copolymers of acrylonitrile and butyl acrylate p(AN-BuA) were used in them as polymer matrices. It has been found that for systems of low salt concentration (10 mol.%) the best conducting properties were shown by solid polymer electrolytes with PEO, whereas for systems of high salt concentration, of the polymer-in-salt type, good results were achieved for PTMC as polymer matrix. (author)

  5. NOVEL SALTS OF FUMARIC ACID MONOALKYLESTERS AND THEIR PHARMACEUTICAL USE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention relates to novel strontium salts of fumaric acid monoalkylesters. The salts are suitable for use as active subtances in the treatment of e.g. psoriasis or other hyperproliferative, inflammatory or autoimmune disorders either alone or in combination with another fumaric acid...

  6. Gadolinium DOTA lysine salt and its diagnostic uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this invention is the lysine salt of the complex of gadolinium III of DOTA 1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-N, N', N'', N'''-tetraacetic acid. This salt having a low toxicity can be used as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging and for X-ray radiography

  7. Release rates from waste packages in a salt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report we present estimates of radionuclide release rates from waste packages into salt. This conservative and bounding analysis shows that release rates from waste packages in salt are well below the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's performance objectives for the engineered barrier system. 2 refs., 2 figs

  8. Heterogeneous structure effect on molten salt blanket neutronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebyonkin, K.F.; Kandiev, Ya.Z.; Malyshkin, G.N.; Orlov, A.I. [Inst. of Technical Pysics, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation). Dept. of Physics

    1997-09-01

    The report presents the results of the molten salt blanket neutronics calculations performed for researchers of a facility for accelerator-driven transmutation of long-lived radioactive wastes and plutonium conversion. Heterogeneous structure effect on molten salt blanket neutronics was studied through computation. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. 3N Cave: Longest salt cave in the world

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruthans, J.; Filippi, Michal; Zare, M.; Asadi, N.; Vilhelm, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 9 (2006), s. 10-18. ISSN 0027-7010 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB301110501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : salt cave * salt karst * Iran * expedition Namak Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  10. 21 CFR 172.626 - Salts of carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of carrageenan. 172.626 Section 172.626 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.626 Salts of carrageenan. The food additive...

  11. 21 CFR 172.660 - Salts of furcelleran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of furcelleran. 172.660 Section 172.660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.660 Salts of furcelleran. The food additive...

  12. Study on the Funcitonal Peptides in Low Salt Sufu Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangXiaofeng; LiLite; WangJiahuai; MasayoshiSaito; EizoTatsumi

    2002-01-01

    Sufu in this project was prepared with Actinomucor elegans (CICC-3318)as the starter and with soybean as the material.Different with the sufu with 10% salt produced by traditional process,a sufu product with 6% salt was produced in this project by reducing the salt content in salting process.To determine peptides,the water-soluble extracts obtained saparetly from frozen dried powders of soybean,tofu,pehtze pehtze and sufu ripening for 50 days were analyzed by high-pressure lipid chromatography (HPLC).Antioxidative activity and antihypertensive activity of the extract due to the peptides contained were evaluated respectively by radical scavenging ability and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACS) inhibitory activity.According to the HPLC patterns,the peptides content was nearly zero in soybean and tofu,but increassed gradually during maturing in the further process of making pehtze,salted pehtze and final product sufu,Correspondingly,the antioxidative and antihypertensive activities of the extracts strengthened with maturing.For our product,sufu with 6% salt,the antioxidative and antihypertensive activities reached peak values at about 30 d maturing,and still remained medium values in final product sufu.In comarison,the antioxidative and antihypertensive activities for the sufu with 10% salt reached peack values at 40 d maturing,but remained medium values inferior to those for the sufu with 6% salt.

  13. Mutagenicity of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → A series of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties, with configuration D-galacto, D-gluco and D-manno, was synthesized and characterized. → The quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties revealed potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. → The N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. → We suggest that quaternary ammonium salts may be more hazardous than previously supposed. - Abstract: Quaternary ammonium salts are widely used in industrial, agricultural, healthcare and domestic applications. They are believed to be safe compounds, with little or no health hazard to humans. However, in this report, we demonstrate that a series of newly synthesized quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties reveal potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. D-Gluco- and D-galacto-derivatives were found to have a higher mutagenic potential than D-manno-derivatives. Among the former groups of compounds, the N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. These results suggest that the safety of quaternary ammonium salts may be lower than previously supposed, indicating a need for testing such compounds for their mutagenicity.

  14. Frozen herring as raw material for spice-salting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefansson, G.; Nielsen, H.H.; Skara, T.; Schubring, R.; Oehlenschlager, J.; Luten, J.

    2000-01-01

    One batch of herring (Clupea harengus) was spice-salted fresh and as thawed after 32 days of frozen storage at -24 °C. After salting, samples of both groups were sent to participating laboratories in Iceland, Denmark, Norway, Germany and England. The herring was kept at 5 ± 1 °C and sampled three ti

  15. Mutagenicity of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmochowska, Barbara [Department of Carbohydrate Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Piosik, Jacek; Woziwodzka, Anna [Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Gdansk and Medical University of Gdansk, Kladki 24, 80-822 Gdansk (Poland); Sikora, Karol; Wisniewski, Andrzej [Department of Carbohydrate Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Wegrzyn, Grzegorz, E-mail: wegrzyn@biotech.univ.gda.pl [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Gdansk, Kladki 24, 80-822 Gdansk (Poland)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} A series of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties, with configuration D-galacto, D-gluco and D-manno, was synthesized and characterized. {yields} The quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties revealed potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. {yields} The N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. {yields} We suggest that quaternary ammonium salts may be more hazardous than previously supposed. - Abstract: Quaternary ammonium salts are widely used in industrial, agricultural, healthcare and domestic applications. They are believed to be safe compounds, with little or no health hazard to humans. However, in this report, we demonstrate that a series of newly synthesized quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties reveal potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. D-Gluco- and D-galacto-derivatives were found to have a higher mutagenic potential than D-manno-derivatives. Among the former groups of compounds, the N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. These results suggest that the safety of quaternary ammonium salts may be lower than previously supposed, indicating a need for testing such compounds for their mutagenicity.

  16. Hybrid materials from organic polymers and inorganic salts

    OpenAIRE

    Köberle, Peter; Laschewsky, André

    2008-01-01

    The prepaparation of amorphous, homogeneous blends of zwitterionic polymers and transition metal salts was investigated. Homogeneous miscibility was achieved in many cases up to equimolar amounts of salt, depending on the anion and cation chosen. Various analytical techniques point to a solid state solution of the inorganic ions in the polymer matrix.

  17. Salt Reduction in Foods Using Naturally Brewed Soy Sauce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.; Mojet, J.; Shimojo, R.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, health concerns related to salt/sodium chloride consumption have caused an increased demand for salt-reduced foods. Consequently, sodium chloride (NaCl) reduction in foods has become an important challenge. The more so, since a decrease in NaCl content is often reported to be associ

  18. Analysis of the temperature field around salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Klint

    1990-01-01

    heat flux should be higher over 3D structures. On the other hand the areal extent of the temperature anomaly around the salt structures is less in the 3D case. Calculation examples indicate that low temperature geothermal energy exploitation of the formations around the top of a salt diapir can...

  19. Internally Pressurized Spherical and Cylindrical Cavities in Rock Salt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    1978-01-01

    -linear zone and the volume reduction. Results are given for cavities in rock salt, and a comparison with measured stress concentrations is used to support the assumption of a hydrostatic stress state in undisturbed salt formations. Finally a method to estimate convergence due to creep is outlined....

  20. Isotopic study of water origin in salt mines in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important results of isotopic analyses carried out so far in salt mines in Wieliczka, Bochnia, Klodawa, Wapno and Inowroclaw are presented. Discussion of these results for individual leakages proofs that isotopic methods are fully useful in determining of the origin of water appearing in salt mines. (author)

  1. Secondary Aluminum Processing Waste: Salt Cake Characterization and Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty-nine salt cake samples were collected from 10 SAP facilities across the U.S. The facilities were identified by the Aluminum Association to cover a wide range of processes. Results suggest that while the percent metal leached from the salt cake was relatively low, the leac...

  2. Intake of household salt in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt;

    2009-01-01

    from the mean urinary excretion of sodium in four 24-h collections. Household salt, added to the food by the volunteers, was assessed using a lithium-marker technique. Results: Total salt intake was 10.6 +/- 3.3 g day(-1) (mean +/- s.d.) in men and 7.1 +/- 2.3 g day(-1) in women. Median intake of......Objective: To quantify the intake of household salt and its contribution to the total salt intake in a Danish population. Methods: Eighty-seven healthy individuals (37 men and 50 women), aged 20-55 years, recruited from the area of Copenhagen, completed the study. Total salt intake was estimated...... household salt was 1.0 g day(-1) in men and 0.5 g day(-1) in women, corresponding to 10.2 and 8.7% of total salt intake in men and women, respectively. A significant difference between sexes was found regarding total salt intake (P...

  3. The Receptacle Model of Salting-In by Tetramethylammonium Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hribar–Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A.; Vlachy, Vojko

    2010-01-01

    Water is a poor solvent for nonpolar solutes. Water containing ions is an even poorer solvent. According to standard terminology, the tendency of salts to precipitate oils from water is called salting-out. However, interestingly, some salt ions, such as tetramethylammonium (TMA), cause instead the salting-in of hydrophobic solutes. Even more puzzling, there is a systematic dependence on solute size. TMA causes the salting-out of small hydrophobes and the salting-in of larger nonpolar solutes. We study these effects using NPT Monte Carlo simulations of the MB + dipole model of water, which was previously shown to account for hydrophobic effects and ion solubilities in water. The present model gives a structural interpretation for the thermodynamics of salting-in. The TMA structure allows deep penetration by a first shell of waters, the dipoles of which interact electrostatically with the ion. This first water shell sets up a second water shell that is shaped to act as a receptacle that binds the nonpolar solute. In this way, a nonpolar solute can actually bind more tightly to the TMA ion than to another hydrophobe, leading to the increased solubility and salting-in. Such structuring may also explain why molecular ions do not follow the same charge density series’ as atomic ions do. PMID:21028768

  4. Receptacle model of salting-in by tetramethylammonium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A; Vlachy, Vojko

    2010-11-25

    Water is a poor solvent for nonpolar solutes. Water containing ions is an even poorer solvent. According to standard terminology, the tendency of salts to precipitate oils from water is called salting-out. However, interestingly, some salt ions, such as tetramethylammonium (TMA), cause instead the salting-in of hydrophobic solutes. Even more puzzling, there is a systematic dependence on solute size. TMA causes the salting-out of small hydrophobes and the salting-in of larger nonpolar solutes. We study these effects using NPT Monte Carlo simulations of the Mercedes-Benz (MB) + dipole model of water, which was previously shown to account for hydrophobic effects and ion solubilities in water. The present model gives a structural interpretation for the thermodynamics of salting-in. The TMA structure allows deep penetration by a first shell of waters, the dipoles of which interact electrostatically with the ion. This first water shell sets up a second water shell that is shaped to act as a receptacle that binds the nonpolar solute. In this way, a nonpolar solute can actually bind more tightly to the TMA ion than to another hydrophobe, leading to the increased solubility and salting-in. Such structuring may also explain why molecular ions do not follow the same charge density series as atomic ions do. PMID:21028768

  5. Excess Molar Volume, Refractive Index and Viscosity of N-Butylpyridinium Tetrafluoroborate Ionic Liquid + Methanol Binary System%离子液体[BPy]BF4和甲醇二元混合体系的超额摩尔体积、折射率和黏度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许映杰; 黄钗英; 李浩然

    2011-01-01

    合成了室温离子液体N-丁基吡啶四氟硼酸盐([BPy]BF4),通过核磁共振1H-NMR和红外光谱IR对其结构进行了表征.在298.15 K和常压下,采用U形振荡管密度计测定[BPy]BF4-甲醇体系的密度;用阿贝尔折射仪测定了该二元混合体系在相同温度和压力下的折射率;用乌氏黏度计测定了该二元混合体系在相同温度和压力下的黏度,并由密度数据计算出超额摩尔体积(VE)、由折射率数据计算出了折射率改变值(△nD)、由黏度数据计算出了体系的黏度B系数.结果表明:[BPy]BF4-甲醇体系的VE在全浓度范围内为负值,而△nD在全浓度范围内为正值,两者均在摩尔分数x1≈0.4处出现极值;采用Redlich-Kister方程对VE、△nD与组成的关系进行了关联,最大标准偏差小于3%,说明此方程可适用于回归该二元体系上述的物性数据.由Jones-Dole方程计算出体系的黏度B系数为0.35608,这表明甲醇有效地降低了离子液体的黏度.%Room temperature ionic liquid N-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate ([BPy]BF4) was synthesized, and its structure was characterized and confirmed by 1H-NMR and IR. The densities and refractive indices of binary mixtures ([BPy]BF4+methanol) with different compositions were determined at T= 298.15 K and under atmospheric pressure by using a vibrating U-shaped sample tube densimeter and semi-automatic refractometer,respectively. The viscosities of the mixtures were also determined at T= 298.15 K and under atmospheric pressure by using Ubbelohde Suspended-level viscometer. Density values were used in the calculation of the excess molar volumes (V E), and the refractive indices were used to calculate the changes of refractive index (△nD). The achieved viscosities were used to calculate the viscosity B coefficient of the mixtures. The results show that the values of VE are negative over the entire composition range, while the △nD are positive. When the mole fraction of [BPy]BF4

  6. Selective determination of ascorbic acid with a novel hybrid material based 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid and the Dawson type ion [P{sub 2}Mo{sub 18}O{sub 62}]{sup 6-} immobilized on glassy carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammam, Malika, E-mail: Malika.Ammam@uoit.c [Faculty of Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, L1H 7K4 (Canada); Easton, E. Bradley [Faculty of Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, L1H 7K4 (Canada)

    2011-02-28

    In this study, we synthesized a new hybrid material using well-Dawson K{sub 6}[P{sub 2}Mo{sub 18}O{sub 62}].nH{sub 2}O and a room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF{sub 4}]). CHN elemental analysis showed that one mole of [P{sub 2}Mo{sub 18}O{sub 62}]{sup 6-} reacts with 6 moles of [BMIM]{sup +} to form [BMIM]{sub 6}P{sub 2}Mo{sub 18}O{sub 62}. FT-IR spectra showed the presence of both 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation and the Dawson anion. TG analysis displayed a relative thermal stability of the hybrid material compared to the parent Dawson POM. The new hybrid material [BMIM]{sub 6}P{sub 2}Mo{sub 18}O{sub 62} was immobilized on glassy carbon (GC) electrode and the modified electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and amperometry. Compared to the electrochemical behavior of dissolved [P{sub 2}Mo{sub 18}O{sub 62}]{sup 6-}, a slight shift in the redox peaks towards negative potentials is observed for the immobilized [BMIM]{sub 6}P{sub 2}Mo{sub 18}O{sub 62}. The relationship between the peak currents of the deposited [BMIM]{sub 6}P{sub 2}Mo{sub 18}O{sub 62} film and scan rate is shown to be linear, which demonstrates a surface-confined electron transfer processes. [BMIM]{sub 6}P{sub 2}Mo{sub 18}O{sub 62} modified electrode showed high sensitivities towards pH and shown to be active even at neutral pH. [BMIM]{sub 6}P{sub 2}Mo{sub 18}O{sub 62} modified GC electrode was subjected to cyclic voltammetry and amperometry in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) and found to exhibit a remarkable catalytic activity towards the oxidation of AA. The catalytic oxidation peak of AA at [BMIM]{sub 6}P{sub 2}Mo{sub 18}O{sub 62} modified GC electrode occurs at low potential of {approx}0 V vs Ag/AgCl at neutral pH and shifts to more positive potentials when pH decreases. Comparison between [BMIM]{sub 6}P{sub 2}Mo{sub 18}O{sub 62} and [P{sub 2}Mo{sub 18}O{sub 62}]{sup 6-} modified GC films towards the oxidation of AA suggests that

  7. Study on Cultural Technologies and Salt-resistance of Nitraria sibirica in Coastal Areas with Serious Salt-affected Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGJianfeng; XINGShangjun; SUNQixiang; XIJinbiao; SONGYumin

    2004-01-01

    In this research, five Nitraria sibirica provenances such as Dayilu were selected to do experiment of salt-resistance, combining fixed plots test with typical plot investigation, measuring survival rate and growth as main indicators. The experiments of main cultural technology were done on Nitraria sibirica in 4 types of site preparation, 3 types of planting, 3 designs for planting density. The Nitraria sibirica experiments for the effects of curbing salt and improving soil were done by testing soil nutrients, salt content, soil physical properties as focal points in typical site of 3-4 years woods. The experiment results showed that the Nitraria sibirica could survive well with soil salt content of 0.6%, and that survival rate declined distinctively as soil salt content exceeded 0.8%. However, high soil salt content did not influence growth in the year of planting. There were obvious differences in salt-tolerance among Nitraria sibirica provenances; Dayilu was the best on salt-tolerance, the other 4 provenances had no differences, and obviously inferior to Dayilu. The different types of site preparation clearly influenced planting survival rate, conserving rate and growth. The method of two-ploughing-two-harrowing was the best among all 4 types of site preparation. Seed forestation was largely limited, bared-rooted seedling forestation may be popularised when soil salt content was less than 1% and soil moisture content was better in spring. Forestation with container seedling was suited to coastal saline soil in rainy season. The optimum planting density of Nitraria sibirica was 2 505/ha in the Yellow River Delta area in view of coverage rate, yield of fruits and cost of planting. Generally speaking,Nitraria sibirica could effectively refrain soil from accumulation of salt in the surface soil, decrease salt content and increase soil nutrient, and heighten soil capillary pore rate.

  8. Laboratory experiments of salt water intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestani, Elena; Camporese, Matteo; Salandin, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The problem of saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers is dealt with by the proper setup of a sand-box device to develop laboratory experiments in a controlled environment. Saline intrusion is a problem of fundamental importance and affects the quality of both surface water and groundwater in coastal areas. In both cases the phenomenon may be linked to anthropogenic (construction of reservoirs, withdrawals, etc.) and/or natural (sea-level excursions, variability of river flows, etc.) changes. In recent years, the escalation of this problem has led to the development of specific projects and studies to identify possible countermeasures, typically consisting of underground barriers. Physical models are fundamental to study the saltwater intrusion problem, since they provide benchmarks for numerical model calibrations and for the evaluation of the effectiveness of solutions to contain the salt wedge. In order to study and describe the evolution of the salt wedge, the effectiveness of underground barriers, and the distance from the coast of a withdrawal that guarantees a continuous supply of fresh water, a physical model has been realized at the University of Padova to represent the terminal part of a coastal aquifer. It consists of a laboratory flume 500 cm long, 30 cm wide and 60 cm high, filled for an height of 45 cm with glass beads with a d50 of 0.6 mm and a uniformity coefficient d60/d10~= 1.5. The material is homogeneous and characterized by a porosity of about 0.37 and by an hydraulic conductivity of about 1.8×10-3 m/s. Upstream from the sand-box, a tank, continuously supplied by a pump, provides fresh water to recharge the aquifer, while the downstream tank, filled with salt water, simulates the sea. The volume of the downstream tank (~= 2 m3) is about five times the upstream one, so that density variations due to the incoming fresh water flow are negligible. The water level in the two tanks is continuously monitored by means of two level probes and is

  9. The Integral Molten Salt Reactor (IMSR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblanc, D. [Terrestrial Energy, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-12-15

    The Integral Molten Salt Reactor is a simple burner or converter design that seeks to maximize passive and inherent safety features in order to minimize development time and achieve true cost innovation. Its integration of all primary systems into a unit sealed for the design life of the reactor will be reviewed with focus on the unique design aspects that make this a pragmatic approach. The IMSR is being developed by Terrestrial Energy in a range of power outputs with initial focus on an 80 MWth (32.5 MWe) unit primarily for remote energy needs. Similar units of modestly larger dimension and up to 600 MWth (291 MWe) are planned that remain truck transportable and able to compete in base load electricity markets worldwide. (author)

  10. Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Bao-Guo; Gu, Ji-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The supercritical, reactor core melting and nuclear fuel leaking accidents have troubled fission reactors for decades, and greatly limit their extensive applications. Now these troubles are still open. Here we first show a possible perfect reactor, Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor which is no above accident trouble. We found this reactor could be realized in practical applications in terms of all of the scientific principle, principle of operation, technology, and engineering. Our results demonstrate how these reactors can possess and realize extraordinary excellent characteristics, no prompt critical, long-term safe and stable operation with negative feedback, closed uranium-plutonium cycle chain within the vessel, normal operation only with depleted-uranium, and depleted-uranium high burnup in reality, to realize with fission nuclear energy sufficiently satisfying humanity long-term energy resource needs, as well as thoroughly solve the challenges of nuclear criticality safety, uranium resource insuffic...

  11. Bedded-salt repository analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiffre, M.S.; Kaplan, M.F.; Ensminger, D.A.; Oston, S.G.; Nalbandian, J.Y.

    1980-03-31

    This report contains a description of an analysis of generic nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. This analysis was performed by TASC for inclusion in a major Lawrence Livermore Laboratory report to NRC; this report therefore should be viewed as providing more complete and detailed information about this analysis than was possible to include in the LLL report. The analysis is performed with the NUTRAN computer codes which are described in the report. The model to be analyzed is defined, and the results of a series of possible waste migration scenarios are presented. Several of these scenarios are used as the basis for a sensitivity analysis, and an uncertainty analysis utilizing Monte Carlo techniques is also performed. A new method for defining the consequences to users of a well drilled near the repository is also described, and results are presented based on two of the waste migration scenarios.

  12. Rochelle salt: a prototype of particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochelle salt has a remarkable characteristic of becoming more ordered for a range of high temperatures before melting. In the particle physics language this means more symmetry breaking for high T. In many realistic field theories this is a perfectly consistent scenario which has profound consequences in the early universe. In particular, it implies that there may be no domain wall and monopole problems, and it may also play an important role in baryogenesis if CP and P are broken spontaneously. In the case of the monopole problem this may require a large background charge of the universe. The natural candidates for this background charge are a possible lepton number in the neutrino sea or global continuous R-charges in supersymmetric theories. (author)

  13. Waste isolation facility description: bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The waste isolation facility is designed to receive and store three basic types of solidified wastes: high-level wastes, intermediate level high-gamma transuranic waste, and low-gamma transuranic wastes. The facility under consideration in this report is designed for bedded salt at a depth of approximately 1800 ft. The present design for the facility includes an area which would be used initially as a pilot facility to test the viability of the concept, and a larger facility which would constitute the final storage area. The total storage area in the pilot facility is planned to be 77 acres and in the fuel facility 1601 acres. Other areas for shaft operations and access would raise the overall size of the total facility to slightly less than 2,000 acres. The following subjects are discussed in detail: surface facilities, shaft design and characteristics, design and construction of the underground waste isolation facility, ventilation systems, and design requirements and criteria

  14. Separation of actinides with alkylpyridinium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various f-elements are separated as anionic complexes from both acidic and alkaline solutions by precipitation with alkylpyridinium salts. The precipitates are also cationic surfactants where the simple counter-ion (e.g. nitrate or chloride) is replaced by the negatively charged complex anion of an actinide or lanthanide. The low solubility of these precipitates is explained by a strong affinity of divalent complex counter-ions of f-elements to the quaternary nitrogen. Precipitations in solutions of nitric acid allow to separate tetravalent f-elements from other metals, in alkaline carbonate solutions tetravalent and hexavalent actinides are precipitated simultaneously. The last procedure yields precipitates, which are very intimate mixtures of hexavalent and tetravalent actinides. This allows to prepare mixed oxides in a simple way. (author) 6 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  15. SRP [Salt Repository Project] configuration management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This configuration management plan describes the organization, policies, and procedures that will be used on the Salt Repository Project (SRP) to implement the configuration management disciplines and controls. Configuration management is a part of baseline management. Baseline management is defined in the SRP Baseline Procedures Notebook and also includes cost and schedule baselines. Configuration management is a discipline applying technical and administrative direction and surveillance to identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of an item, to control changes to those characteristics, to record and report change processing and implementation status, and to audit the results. Configuration management is designed as a project management tool to determine and control baselines, and ensure and document all components of a project interface both physically and functionally. The purpose is to ensure that the product acquired satisfies the project's technical and operational requirements, and that the technical requirements are clearly defined and controlled throughout the development and acquisition process. 5 figs

  16. Development of viscometers for molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viscometers specially designed for molten salts were made. One is a oscillating cup type and the other is a capillary type. In the case of the oscillating cup viscometer, the viscosity is determined absolutely through the period and the logarithmic decrement of oscillation with other physical parameters. The period and the logarithmic decrement are calculated from the time intervals between two photo-detectors' intercepts of the reflected laser beam. The capillary viscometer used is made of quartz and the sample is sealed under vacuum, which is placed in a transparent furnace. Efflux time is measured by direct visual observation. Cell constants are determined with distilled water as a calibrating liquid. Viscosities of molten KCl are measured with each viscometer. The differences between measured and standard values of molten KCl at several temperatures are within 5% for the oscillating cup viscometer and within 3% for the capillary viscometer. (author)

  17. Technical review of Molten Salt Oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process was reviewed for destruction of mixed low-level radioactive waste. Results: extensive development work and scaleup has been documented on coal gasification and hazardous waste which forms a strong experience base for this MSO process; it is clearly applicable to DOE wastes such as organic liquids and low-ash wastes. It also has potential for processing difficult-to-treat wastes such as nuclear grade graphite and TBP, and it may be suitable for other problem waste streams such as sodium metal. MSO operating systems may be constructed in relatively small units for small quantity generators. Public perceptions could be favorable if acceptable performance data are presented fairly; MSO will likely require compliance with regulations for incineration. Use of MSO for offgas treatment may be complicated by salt carryover. Figs, tabs, refs

  18. Bedded-salt repository analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a description of an analysis of generic nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. This analysis was performed by TASC for inclusion in a major Lawrence Livermore Laboratory report to NRC; this report therefore should be viewed as providing more complete and detailed information about this analysis than was possible to include in the LLL report. The analysis is performed with the NUTRAN computer codes which are described in the report. The model to be analyzed is defined, and the results of a series of possible waste migration scenarios are presented. Several of these scenarios are used as the basis for a sensitivity analysis, and an uncertainty analysis utilizing Monte Carlo techniques is also performed. A new method for defining the consequences to users of a well drilled near the repository is also described, and results are presented based on two of the waste migration scenarios

  19. The Integral Molten Salt Reactor (IMSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integral Molten Salt Reactor is a simple burner or converter design that seeks to maximize passive and inherent safety features in order to minimize development time and achieve true cost innovation. Its integration of all primary systems into a unit sealed for the design life of the reactor will be reviewed with focus on the unique design aspects that make this a pragmatic approach. The IMSR is being developed by Terrestrial Energy in a range of power outputs with initial focus on an 80 MWth (32.5 MWe) unit primarily for remote energy needs. Similar units of modestly larger dimension and up to 600 MWth (291 MWe) are planned that remain truck transportable and able to compete in base load electricity markets worldwide. (author)

  20. THE SALT PROBLEM IN SOIL: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Aringhieri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious problems for the agriculture in many countries of the world is represented by the presence of excessive amounts of soluble salts in the soil.  Soil salinisation has been identified as a major process of land degradation, and the main cause of land desertification, particularly in arid or semi-arid areas. This phenomenon is mainly due to artificial irrigation with waters of inadapted quality in the absence of adequate drainage systems, especially in arid or semi-arid regions. It was estimated from various available data that the world is losing at least three hectares of productive land every minute because of increasing soil salinity (Abrol et al., 1988. The social and economic repercussions of soil salinisation impact severely impact the populations of arid and semi-arid regions. It is in fact the population of developing countries that is hardest hit by the consequences of this phenomenon.

  1. Status of Gulf Coast salt dome characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screening and characterization for a potential nuclear waste repository have progressed through the area phase in these Gulf Coast Salt Basins. The domes studied during the area phase are described briefly. The area characterization studies are outlined, and the resulting reports are listed. Geologic and environmental studies resulted in elimination of four domes from further consideration. The remaining domes were judged acceptable and were classified as to their favorability to license. Site characterization planning for location phase activities deals primarily with technical, environmental, and socioeconomic issues of concern to the states and/or to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), Department of Energy (DOE). These issues are listed and discussed. 16 references, 9 figures

  2. Synthesis, properties, and structure of iodosulfinate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of iodosulfinate salts, [X](ISO2) where X is a large organo cation, has been synthesized and characterized by vapor pressure tensimetric and spectroscopic methods. The compounds have SO2 dissociation pressures of 0.5 to 17 Torr at ambient temperature and dissociation enthalpies of 5 to 19 kcal/mol. An x-ray diffraction study of [PPH3Bz](ISO2) reveals a pyramidal ISO2 anion with an I-S distance of 3.251 (3) A and I-S-O angles of 102.1 (5) and 105.7 (4)0. Crystallographic data: space group P21/c, Z = 4, a = 10.92 (1) A, b = 17.643 (9) A, c = 15.49 (2) A, β = 125.88 (7)0, R = 0.054 for 2079 diffractometric reflections with I > or = 2 sigma (I). 5 tables

  3. Electrochemical studies on plutonium in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourges, G. [CEA-Centre d' etudes de Valduc, 21 120 Is sur Tille (France)], E-mail: gilles.bourges@cea.fr; Lambertin, D.; Rochefort, S. [CEA-Centre d' etudes de Valduc, 21 120 Is sur Tille (France); Delpech, S.; Picard, G. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Chimie Analytique (UMR7575, CNRS), ENSCP, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris (France)

    2007-10-11

    Electrochemical studies on plutonium have been supporting the development of pyrochemical processes involving plutonium at CEA. The electrochemical properties of plutonium have been studied in molten salts - ternary eutectic mixture NaCl-KCl-BaCl{sub 2}, equimolar mixture NaCl-KCl and pure CaCl{sub 2} - and in liquid gallium at 1073 K. The formal, or apparent, standard potential of Pu(III)/Pu redox couple in eutectic mixture of NaCl-KCl-BaCl{sub 2} at 1073 K determined by potentiometry is equal to -2.56 V (versus Cl{sub 2}, 1 atm/Cl{sup -} reference electrode). In NaCl-KCl eutectic mixture and in pure CaCl{sub 2} the formal standard potentials deduced from cyclic voltammetry are respectively -2.54 V and -2.51 V. These potentials led to the calculation of the activity coefficients of Pu(III) in the molten salts. Chronoamperometry on plutonium in liquid gallium using molten chlorides - CaCl{sub 2} and equimolar NaCl/KCl - led to the determination of the activity coefficient of Pu in liquid Ga, log {gamma} = -7.3. This new data is a key parameter to assess the thermodynamic feasibility of a process using gallium as solvent metal. By comparing gallium with other solvent metals - cadmium, bismuth, aluminum - gallium appears to be, with aluminum, more favorable for the selectivity of the separation at 1073 K of plutonium from cerium. In fact, compared with a solid tungsten electrode, none of these solvent liquid metals is a real asset for the selectivity of the separation. The role of a solvent liquid metal is mainly to trap the elements.

  4. Salt stress change chlorophyll fluorescence in mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicero Cartaxo de Lucena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the tolerance of mango cultivars 'Haden', 'Palmer', 'Tommy Atkins' and 'Uba' grafted on rootstock 'Imbú' to salt stress using chlorophyll fluorescence. Plants were grown in modified Hoagland solution containing 0, 15, 30, and 45 mmol L-1 NaCl. At 97 days the parameters of the chlorophyll fluorescence (F0, Fm, Fv, F0/Fm, Fv/Fm, Fv'/Fm', ΦPSII = [(Fm'-Fs/(Fm'], D = (1- Fv'/Fm' and ETR = (ΦPSII×PPF×0,84×0,5 were determined. At 100 days, the leaf emission and leaf area, toxicity and leaf abscission indexes were determined. In all cultivars evaluated, in different degree, there were decreases in photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, enhanced concentrations from 15 mmol L-1 NaCl. The decreases in the potential quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm were 27.9, 18.7, 20.5, and 27.4%, for cultivars 'Haden', 'Palmer', 'Tommy Atkins', and 'Uba', respectively, when grown in 45 mmol L-1 NaCl. It was found decreases in leaf emission and mean leaf area in all cultivars from 15 mmol L-1 NaCl. There were increases in leaf toxicity of 33.0, 67.5, 41.6 and 80.8% and in leaf abscission of 71.8, 29.2, 32.5, and 67.9% for the cultivars 'Haden', 'Palmer', 'Tommy Atkins', and 'Uba' respectively, when grown in 45 mmol L-1 NaCl. Leaf toxicity and leaf abscission were not observed in 15 mmol L-1 NaCl. The decrease in Fv/Fm ratio were accompanied by decreasing in leaf emission and increased leaf toxicity index, showing, therefore, the potential of chlorophyll fluorescence in the early detection of salt stress in mango tree.

  5. Electrochemical studies on plutonium in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical studies on plutonium have been supporting the development of pyrochemical processes involving plutonium at CEA. The electrochemical properties of plutonium have been studied in molten salts - ternary eutectic mixture NaCl-KCl-BaCl2, equimolar mixture NaCl-KCl and pure CaCl2 - and in liquid gallium at 1073 K. The formal, or apparent, standard potential of Pu(III)/Pu redox couple in eutectic mixture of NaCl-KCl-BaCl2 at 1073 K determined by potentiometry is equal to -2.56 V (versus Cl2, 1 atm/Cl- reference electrode). In NaCl-KCl eutectic mixture and in pure CaCl2 the formal standard potentials deduced from cyclic voltammetry are respectively -2.54 V and -2.51 V. These potentials led to the calculation of the activity coefficients of Pu(III) in the molten salts. Chronoamperometry on plutonium in liquid gallium using molten chlorides - CaCl2 and equimolar NaCl/KCl - led to the determination of the activity coefficient of Pu in liquid Ga, log γ = -7.3. This new data is a key parameter to assess the thermodynamic feasibility of a process using gallium as solvent metal. By comparing gallium with other solvent metals - cadmium, bismuth, aluminum - gallium appears to be, with aluminum, more favorable for the selectivity of the separation at 1073 K of plutonium from cerium. In fact, compared with a solid tungsten electrode, none of these solvent liquid metals is a real asset for the selectivity of the separation. The role of a solvent liquid metal is mainly to trap the elements

  6. Substitution of lead salts for aluminium salts in the determination of sucrose content in molasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyura Julianna F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the sugar industry analytical practice it is necessary to remove nonsucrose compounds from samples in order to determine sucrose content by polarimetric procedure. These mentioned compounds are removed by sedimentation after adding lead salts. Lead is considered as one of outstandingly strong pollutant of human environment and the living world as a whole. Ways of its environment presence are various. Some industrial branches are very close to this top including on this level even the sugar factories. Toxic effects of lead salts and the intensified concern for protecting the environment imposed the need for finding new sedimentation agents. In this work the influence of molasses quality on nonsucrose compounds sedimentation by aluminium-sulphate was examined. Optimum values of the parameters influencing the sedimentation process were determined. Best results were obtained with aluminium-sulphate at concentration of 0.1227 mol Al/dm3 and pH 6.0.

  7. Geotechnical investigations on backfill materials in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The compression behaviour of rock salt grit is being investigated by compression tests at the Asse salt mine. The various test parameters are introduced and their results are discussed. The permeability of rock salt grit with saturated NaCl-brine in dependency upon the grain size and compactness, resp. the porosity, is being determined at the Asse salt mine. The test equipment and the results determined here are shown. In addition to laboratory tests, geotechnical investigations are taking place in a carnallitic chamber of the Asse salt mine which had been backfilled in earlier years. They chiefly concern measurements of the deformation rates in drifts - which were mined between the chambers in remaining pillars - as well as horizontal deformation measurements in the backfilling. (orig./DG)

  8. Large methyl halide emissions from south Texas salt marshes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Rhew

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Coastal salt marshes are natural sources of methyl chloride (CH3Cl and methyl bromide (CH3Br to the atmosphere, but measured emission rates vary widely by geography. Here we report large methyl halide fluxes from subtropical salt marshes of south Texas. Sites with the halophytic plant, Batis maritima, emitted methyl halides at rates that are orders of magnitude greater than sites containing other vascular plants or macroalgae. B. maritima emissions were generally highest at midday; however, diurnal variability was more pronounced for CH3Br than CH3Cl, and surprisingly high nighttime CH3Cl fluxes were observed in July. Seasonal and intra-site variability were large, even taking into account biomass differences. Overall, these subtropical salt marsh sites show much higher emission rates than temperate salt marshes at similar times of the year, supporting the contention that low-latitude salt marshes are significant sources of CH3Cl and CH3Br.

  9. Fission product removal from molten salt using zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) can be treated in a molten salt electrorefiner for conversion into metal and mineral waste forms for geologic disposal. The fuel is dissolved in molten chloride salt. Non-transuranic fission products in the molten salt are ion-exchanged into zeolite A, which is subsequently mixed with glass and consolidated. Zeolite was found to be effective in removing fission product cations from the molten salt. Breakthrough of cesium and the alkaline earths occurred more rapidly than was observed for the rare earths. The effluent composition as a function of time is presented, as well as results for the distribution of fission products along the length of the column. Effects of temperature and salt flow rate are also discussed

  10. A molecular simulation study on salt response of polyelectrolyte complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antila, Hanne; van Tassel, Paul; Sammalkorpi, Maria

    2015-03-01

    In aqueous solutions, oppositely charged polymers, polyelectrolytes (PEs) form complexes which are known to be sensitive to added salt with responses ranging from shrinking to full destabilization of the complex. As a specific application of PE complexes, the complex formation of DNA with polycations has been demonstrated to be an effective means of transfecting genetic material in gene therapy. We use all-atom molecular dynamics and coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the effect of excess salt on DNA-polycation complex stability. The detailed all-atom simulations demonstrate the mechanism of polycation and ion species specific salt-driven dissociation involving charge reversal. More generally, other possible mechanisms of salt driven dissociation exist as well. The coarse grained approach, which describes the PE complex as oppositely charged, rigid rods and ions as hard spheres, provides a more complete understanding of PE interactions in salt, and suggests possible mechanisms leading to repulsion between the oppositely charged polyelectrolytes.

  11. Geohydrolic studies of Gulf Coast interior salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in Gulf Coast salt domes requires that the cavities be free from groundwater dissolution for 250,000 years. Salinity variations of groundwater near selected domes were investigated. Saline groundwater anomalies (saline plumes) in aquifers pierced or uplifted by the dome may be the result of salt solution by groundwater. In the Northeast Texas salt dome basin electric logs of oil and gas wells have been used to estimate groundwater salinities in aquifers near selected domes. Thus far, the analyses have revealed saline groundwater anomalies around 4 of the 9 domes studied. Estimates of the rate of salt dissolution from domes associated with saline groundwater plumes indicate that less than 30 meters of salt will be removed from the upper surfaces of the dome in 250,000 years. Thus, these preliminary studies show that even apparently unstable domes may be sufficiently stable to serve as waste disposal sites. 6 figures

  12. Constitutive representation of damage development and healing in WIPP salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been considerable interest in characterizing and modeling the constitutive behavior of rock salt with particular reference to long-term creep and creep failure. The interest is motivated by the projected use of excavated rooms in salt rock formations as repositories for nuclear waste. It is presumed that closure of those rooms by creep ultimately would encapsulate the waste material, resulting in its effective isolation. A continuum mechanics approach for treating damage healing is formulated as part of a constitutive model for describing coupled creep, fracture, and healing in rock salt. Formulation of the healing term is, described and the constitutive model is evaluated against experimental data of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. The results indicate that healing anistropy in WIPP salt can be modeled with an appropriate power-conjugate equivalent stress, kinetic equation, and evolution equation for damage healing

  13. Evaluation of salt split technique of immunofluorescence in bullous pemphigoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyapal Seema

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that salt split skin is a more sensitive substrate than intact skin for immunofluorescence diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid. We undertook this study to define the role of salt split technique of immunofluorescence findings in 32 clinical and histopothology confirmed cases of bullous pemphigoid. Both direct and indirect immunofluorescences were performed using normal and split skin. Direct immunofluorescence positivity of 100% was noted with both routine and salt split method. Additional immunoreadont deposition was noted with direct method on split skin in 5 cases. Patterns of fluorescence in the latter were roof (40.60%, floor (9.4% and combined roof and floor (50%. On indirect immunofluorescence, positivity was almost doubled with salt split technique ( 68% as compared to routine method (36%. Thus, salt split technique was equivalent to routine on direct method in positivity with additional immunoreactant deposits noted in some and had double the sensitivity of the indirect method in detecting immunofluorescence in bullous pemphigoid.

  14. Molecular Mechanism of Rice in Response to Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E Zhi-guo; ZHANG Li-jing; WANG Lei

    2011-01-01

    Rice is moderately sensitive to salinity,and the response to salt stress is a complex process,including the perception and transduction of salt stress signal,the activation of specific transcriptional factors and the expression of downstream stress-responsive genes.The functions of Na+ transporters which are involved in the maintenance and reconstruction of the ion homeostasis,transcriptional regulators and osmotic regulation genes were reviewed.Salt tolerance of plants are enhanced by Na+ vacuolar compartmentation or efflux or high levels of osmoprotectants accumulation in cytoplasm.%Rice is moderately sensitive to salinity,and the response to salt stress is a complex process,including the perception and transduction of salt stress signal,the activation of specific transcriptional factors and the expression of downstream stress-respon

  15. Guanidinium-Induced Denaturation by Breaking of Salt Bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuzelaar, Heleen; Panman, Matthijs R; Woutersen, Sander

    2015-12-01

    Despite its wide use as a denaturant, the mechanism by which guanidinium (Gdm(+) ) induces protein unfolding remains largely unclear. Herein, we show evidence that Gdm(+) can induce denaturation by disrupting salt bridges that stabilize the folded conformation. We study the Gdm(+) -induced denaturation of a series of peptides containing Arg/Glu and Lys/Glu salt bridges that either stabilize or destabilize the folded conformation. The peptides containing stabilizing salt bridges are found to be denatured much more efficiently by Gdm(+) than the peptides containing destabilizing salt bridges. Complementary 2D-infrared measurements suggest a denaturation mechanism in which Gdm(+) binds to side-chain carboxylate groups involved in salt bridges. PMID:26490361

  16. Characterization of potassium salts of 12-tungstophosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potassium salts of 12-tungstophosphoric acid with varying amounts of cation, KxH3-xPW12O40 (x = 1, 2, 3) have been prepared and their characteristics investigated by thermal analyses, FT-IR and micro-Raman spectroscopy and SEM-EDS analysis. It was found that the number of replaced protons by potassium ions in the 12-tungstophosphoric acid structure has influence on the presence of different protonic species, their dynamic equilibrium and on the conductivity of salts. The results reported in this study have been applied to improve the structural model of insoluble acidic salts. It is shown that an acidic potassium salt presents a mixture of neutral salt and unreacted acid. The nature of this mixture depends on the number of replaced protons-oxonium ions by cations. Preliminary measurements with synthesized compounds as solid electrolytes in fuel cells have been done, too.

  17. Implications of dietary salt intake for multiple sclerosis pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucke, Stephanie; Wiendl, Heinz; Klotz, Luisa

    2016-02-01

    In recent years it has become increasingly clear that, alongside genetic risk factors, environmental factors strongly influence the incidence and severity of multiple sclerosis (MS). Based on observations from epidemiological studies, the potential contribution of dietary habits has lately been a matter of debate. Recently it was shown that high salt conditions promote pathogenic T-cell responses and aggravate autoimmunity in an animal model of MS, suggesting that high dietary salt intake might promote central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity. However, so far, not much is known about the influence of dietary salt intake on MS disease pathology. Here, we discuss the association of dietary salt levels and MS with a special focus on the mechanisms of salt-mediated modulation of the different cell types critically involved in the pathophysiology of MS. PMID:26447064

  18. Using of Hydrogel to Increase Maize Salt Tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of two cultivars (Giza 122 and 129) of Zea mays L. were sown in pots. Pots were divided into two sets; soils of one mixed with hydrogel and the other set considered as control. After germination, pots were irrigated by tap water or by 4500 ppm NaCI solution. The results indicated that salt stress reduced growth characters significantly. Addition of hydrogel to the soil improved growth character especially in cultivar 129, hydrogel ameliorates the harmful effect of salt on plant. In the two cultivars, proline contents increased under salt stress but the presence of hydrogel reduced these contents significantly. Also, the presence of hydrogel appeared to reduce phenol content significantly under salt stress in cultivar (129) or insignificantly in cultivar (122).The appearance or disappearance of protein bands and the alterations in peroxidase and esterase pattern could be used as molecular marker for salt stress and hydrogel

  19. Effect Of Salt Water On Compressive Strength Of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Tiwari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, the effect of salt water on the compressive strength of concrete was investigated. This paper therefore presents the result and findings of an experimental research on the effect of salt water on compressive strength of concrete. For this concrete cubes were cast using fresh wi and salt water for a design mix of M-30 1:1.8:3.31 by weight of concrete, and 0.45 water- cement ratio. Half of concrete cubes were cast and cured with fresh water and remaining half cubes were cast and cured with salt water. The concrete cubes were cured for 7,14 and 28 days respectively. The result of the average compressive strength of concrete obtained using fresh water ranges from 27.12 - 39.12N/mm2 and using salt water ranges from 28.45 – 41.34N/mm2

  20. Boric Ester-Type Molten Salt via Dehydrocoupling Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyoshi Matsumi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Novel boric ester-type molten salt was prepared using 1-(2-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride as a key starting material. After an ion exchange reaction of 1-(2-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride with lithium (bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl imide (LiNTf2, the resulting 1-(2-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium NTf2 was reacted with 9-borabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane (9-BBN to give the desired boric ester-type molten salt in a moderate yield. The structure of the boric ester-type molten salt was supported by 1H-, 13C-, 11B- and 19F-NMR spectra. In the presence of two different kinds of lithium salts, the matrices showed an ionic conductivity in the range of 1.1 × 10−4–1.6 × 10−5 S cm−1 at 51 °C. This was higher than other organoboron molten salts ever reported.